Sessional Papers - 1887

PAPERS LADI BEFORE THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL OF HONGKONG AUGUST, 1886 TO SEPTEMBER, 1887.

Table of Contents

1. Birth & Deaths

Returns for 1886

2. Blue Book

Report on Blue Book

3. Botanical and afforestation Department

Report for 1886

4. Causeway Bay

Reclamation of

5. Child adoption and Domestic Service

Correspondence Respecting

6. Conference

Correspondence Respecting the Nomination of a Representative to Take Part in a Conference to Be Held in London for the Purpose of Discussing Certain Questions of Common interest to all Parts of the Empire

7. Convents, Italian and French

Deaths in

8. Criminal Statistics

Returns for 1886

9. Ecclesiastical Grants

Withdrawal of

10. Education

Reports for 1886

11. Estimates

Governor's Minute on Estimates for 1887

12. Finance Committee

Correspondence for Making Public the Proceedings of

13. Finance Committee

Report of Proceedings

14. Fire Brigade

Report for 1886

15. Flogging

Correspondence in Connection With the Whipping Ordinance

16. Gaol

Report for 1886

17. Gaol

Report of Commission

18. German Mail Steamers

Correspondence Respecting

19. Governor

Sir G W Des Voeux appointed

20. Harbour Department

Report for 1886

21. Jubilee

As to Celebration of

22. Kennedy town

Eviction of Squatters at

23. Land Commission

Report of

24. Leave

Extension of Governor's

25. Legislative Counciil

Governor's Speech at Closing of Session

26. Legislative Council

Governor's Speech at Opening of Session

27. Legislative Council

Proceedings

28. Legislative Council

Address in Reply to Governor's Speech

29. Lighthouse

Proposed on Gap Rock

30. Loan

Correspondence Respecting Proposed

31. Medical Department

Report for 1886

32. Observatory

Reports

33. Police

Report for 1886

34. Post office

Report for 1886

35. Praya Extension

Memorandum By Governor on the Question of

36. Public Health Bill

Dr. Ho Kai's Protest, and Rejoinder of Sanitary Board

37. Public Works

Estimate of Contemplated

38. Revenue and Expenditure

Statement of

39. Sir George Bowen

Departure of

40. Trade

Diplomatic and Consular assistance to

41. Unstamped Correspondence

Return of

42. Water Famine

Despatch Respecting

 

HONGKONG.

RETURNS OF BIRTHS AND DEATHS FOR THE YEAR 1886.

No. 18

Presented to the Legislative Council, by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government, on the 18th February, 1887.

RETURNS OF BIRTHS AND DEATHS FOR THE YEAR 1886, ENDING 31ST DECEMBER.

87.

DISTRICTS.

BRITISH AND FOREIGN COMMUNITY.

CHINESE.

DEATHS. BRITISH AND FOREIGN COMMUNITY.

DEATHS IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS.

BIRTHS.

DEATHS.

BIRTHS.

DEATHS.

British and Foreigu,...... 63

Males. Females. Total.

Boys.

Girls.

Males. Females. Boys. Girls.

Portuguese, Indians, &c.,....... Males. Females. Non-Residents,

54

24

52

Of the Deaths in Victoria,

Total,..

193

there were in the-

Victoria,

81

93

149

43

624

541

2,268

1,830

Kaulung,

Shaukiwán,

Aberdeen,

1

1

38

14

212

120

:

Sex Unknown,-Chinese.

Italian Convent,

152

421

573

58

47

155

90

Victoria,

6

Kaulung,

3

Asile de la Ste. Enfance,.

257

565

822

17

24

86

83

Total,..

9

Tung Wa Hospital,

881

214

· 1,095

Stanley,

6.

10

29

25

TOTAL,

84

94

149

44

743

636

2,750

2,148

Total Deaths of Chinese,.

4,907

Total,-

1,290

1,200 2,490

GRAND TOTAL.

POPULATION. CENSUS, 1881.

ANNUAL DEATH-RATE PER 1,000.

Estimated Popula-

tion 1886; based on the increases

1882.

1883.

1884.

1885.

1886.

shown in the Census of 1876 and 1881.

Annual

Birth-Rate

Annual

Death-Rate

per 1,000.

per 1,000.

Births, ......1,557

Deaths, .5,100

British and Foreign Community,

Chinese,

9,712

15.75

17.60

16.37

20.90

19.87

10,412

17.09

18.54

150,690

26.78

30.84

27.59

33.10

32.56

171,290

8.05

28.65

Whole Population,

.160,402

26.11

30.04

26.91

32.36

31.79

181,702

8.57

28.07

Registrar General's Office, Hongkong, 31st January, 1887.

J. H. STEWART LOCKART, Acting Registrar General.

273

274

DEATH-RATES in different Groups of Ages for the Year 1886.

BRITISH AND

FOREIGN.

CHINESE..

AGES.

Deaths.

Per cent. of whole.

Deaths.

Per cent. of whole.

Under one year,

22

11.40

1,513

30.84

One year to five,.

26

13.47

705

14.37

Total under five years,.

48

24.87

2,218

45.21

!

From

5 to 10 years,

2

1.04

140

2.85

10 20

11

5.70

225

4.59

12

*2

""

22

29

20 25 25 35

39

35 45

39

45 55

55 65

""

65 75

""

75 85

22

25

"

22

22

11.40

217

4.42

39

20.20*

534

10.88

39

29

15.03

577

11.76

وو

20

10.36

385

7.84

33

91

7

3.63

299

6.09

9

4.66

187

3.81

2.59

86

1.75

85

95

1

0.52

14

29

19

Unknown,

95 and upwards,

1

2

24

49

Total.....

193 ·

100.00

4,907

100.00

Registrar General's Office, Hongkong, 31st January, 1887.

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, Acting Registrar General.

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE BLUE BOOK FOR 1886.

313

No. 22

87.

Presented to the Legislative Council, by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government,

on the 22nd April, 1887.

1.-TAXATION.

The following changes were made in 1886 in the taxes of the Colony:-

Piers and Wharves.

(a.) By an Order of the Governor in Council, conveyed in Colonial Secretary's Office Document No. 495 of 1886, a fee of $7 is levied for every Permit to erect a Pier or Wharf in the Villages, other than a Pier or Wharf authorised by Ordinance.

Spirit Licences.

(b.) By Ordinance 21 of 1886, the fees for Spirit Licences were re-adjusted. A scale of the same will be found at page A 2 of the Blue Book.

Coffee Houses and Restaurants.

(c.) By the same Ordinance a fee was also fixed for Coffee Houses and Restaurants.

Stamp Duties.

(d.) The Stamp duties were re-adjusted by Ordinance 16 of 1886. A scale of the same is published at page A 3 of the Blue Book.

Bills of Sale.

C

(e.) By Ordinance 12 of 1886 a scale of fees was fixed for the Registration of Bills of Sale. A schedule of the same is published at page A 13 of the Blue Book.

Vehicles and Chairs.

(f.) By an Order of the Governor in Council of the 22nd October, 1886, made under. Ordinance 5 of 1883, the half-yearly fee for a wheeled Vehicle was raised from $3 to $6 per annum.

Fees.

There were no changes in the personal fees received by the several Officers in the several Depart-

ments.

2.-REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.

The Revenue, omitting Premia from Land Sales, amounted to $1,367,977.74; and the Expendi- ture, including Extraordinary Works, amounted to $2,020,861.65. Premia from Land Sales realized in 1886, the sum of $34,731.59.

The Revenue and Expenditure for the past five years have been:-

Year.

Revenue.

Premia from Land.

Ordinary Expenditure.

Extraordinary Expenditure.

1882..

.$1,209,517.08

$ 18,330.77

$1,094,804.92

1883,

1,289,448.29

25,718.65

1,162,247.14

$180,052.10

1884,

1,173,071.48

19,695.00

1,254,634.77.

340,763.62

1885,

1,251,889.70

66,658.50

1,146,103.15

475,147.24

1856,

....... 1,367,977.74

34,731.59

1,195,236.81

825,624.84

314

3.-LOCAL REVENUES.

The Chinese inhabitants contributed in 1886, by voluntary assessment among them- selves, to the pay of the District Watchmen,

and received from the Government a grant-in-aid of .......

4.-ASSETS AND LIABILITIES.

$2,863.32 2,000.00

On the 31st December, 1886, the liabilities of the Colony exceeded its assets by $191,512.29. The surplus assets of the preceding four years have been as follows:-

1882, 1883,

1884, 1885,

.$1,148,664.39

.$1,067,200.52

$729,562.02

$427,692.42

5.-PUBLIC DEBT.

There was no Public Debt in 1886.

6.-MILITARY EXPENDITURE.

The Military Expenditure defrayed by the Colony during the last five years has been as follows:-

1882,

3.0

1883,

1884,

1885, 1886,.

7.-GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS.

New Market.

.$109,372.52

$111,962.09

$114,498.78

$117,337.00

$124,561.68

(a.) Houses Nos. 30 to 36 inclusive, Praya Central, were resumed by the Government for build- ing the new Central Market.

Tide-gauge.

(b.) The house for keeping the automatic Tide-gauge which was erected and ready for use in July, 1885, was occupied in October, 1886, upon the arrival of the Tide-gauge and apparatus from England.

Government House.

(c.) Government House was maintained in repair, and the Sanitary arrangements were satisfactory.

8.-PUBLIC WORKS.

Several Public Works were completed during the year, among

(a.) Sanitary works to the extent of over $99,000.

(b.) General repairs to Mountain Lodge.

(c.) A temporary Matshed Police Station at the Peak. (d.) Extension of the Cattle Depôt.

(e.) The Lazaretto on Stone Cutters' Island.

9.-LEGISLATION.

The following Ordinances were passed during the year:--

No.

No.

No.

which may

be mentioned:-

1 of 1886.-An Ordinance to empower the Colonial Treasurer to pay otherwise than to Executors or Administrators small Sums due on account of Pay or Allowances to Persons deceased.

2 of 1886.-An Ordinance for the better Apportionment of Rents and other

Periodical Payments.

3 of 1886.—An Ordinance to amend the Law relating to Larceny and Embezzlement. No. 4 of 1886.-An Ordinance to amend the Law relating to the Custody of Infants. No. 5 of 1886.-An Ordinance to amend the Law relating to Sales of Reversions. No. 6 of 1886.-An Ordinance to regulate the printing of Newspapers and Books and

the keeping of Printing Presses within the Colony.

No.

No.

No.

7 of 1886.-An Ordinance to repeal the Usury Laws and to fix a legal rate of

intérest.

8 of 1886.-An Ordinance to amend the Law relating to Trade Marks.

9 of 1886.-An Ordinance to regulate Religious Ceremonies and Festivals. No. 10 of 1886.-An Ordinance for the relief of Widows and Children of Intestates

where the personal estate is of small value.

}

315

No. 11 of 1886.-An Ordinance to authorise the raising of a Loan not exceeding £200,000. No. 12 of 1886.-An Ordinance to consolidate and amend the Law for preventing Frauds

upon Creditors by Secret Bills of Sale.

No. 13 of 1886.-An Ordnance to amend the Law as to Sales of Land by Public Auction. No. 14 of 1886.-An Ordinance for the Incorporation of the Procurator, in Hongkong,

for the Dominican Missions in the Far East.

No. 15 of 1886.-An Ordinance for the Preservation of the Peace in the Colony. No. 16 of 1886.-An Ordinance for regulating the Stamp Revenue.

No. 17 of 1886. -An Ordinance for amending the Opium Ordinances.

No. 18 of 1886.-An Ordinance to prevent the sale or conveyance on board Ship of any Spirituous or Fermented Liquor, and to prohibit the hovering near

or about Ships of any persons in boats for the purpose of selling or taking on board Ship of such liquor.

No. 19 of 1886.--An Ordinance for the establishment of Reformatory Schools. No. 20 of 1886.-An Ordinance for providing Harbour Regulations.

No. 21 of 1886.-An Ordinance for consolidating the Law respecting the Sale of Liquors. No. 22 of 1886.-An Ordinance for continuing the status of the French Mail Steamers. No. 23 of 1886.-An Ordinance for securing the status of the German Mail Steamers. No. 24 of 1886.-An Ordinance to authorise the Appropriation of $123,798.11 to defray

the Charges of the Year 1885.

No. 25 of 1886.-An Ordinance to apply a sum of $1,094,914 to the Public Service of

the Year 1887.

No. 26 of 1886.-An Ordinance for enabling the Legislative Council and any Committee thereof, to compel the attendance of and to administer Oaths to Witnesses.

No. 27 of 1886.-An Ordinance to enable the Governor to appoint Commissions and to confer certain powers on Commissioners so appointed necessary for conducting Inquiries.

No. 28 of 1886.-An Ordinance to amend the Law relating to Wills.

No. 29 of 1886.-An Ordinance relating to Bills of Lading.

No. 30 of 1886.-An Ordinance to amend the Companies Ordinance 1865 to 1886. No. 31 of 1886.-An Ordinance for preserving an authentic record of the Ordinances

of the Colony and for other purposes.

10.-COUNCILS AND ASSEMBLIES.

Executive Council.-The Honourable E. L. O'MALLEY, Attorney General, having departed in March, on leave of absence, his locum tenens The Honourable E. J. ACKROYD succeeded to his seat in the Executive Council.

Legislative Council.-The following appointments were made during the year :-

The Honourable H. G. THOMSETT, R.N. vice The Honourable F. STEWART, the Registrar

General, acting as Colonial Secretary.

The Honourable A. P. MACEWEN, vice the Honourable T. JACKSON, on leave. The Honourable J. BELL-IRVING, vice the Honourable W. KESWICK, on leave. The Honourable C. P. CHATER, vice the Honourable F. D. SASSOON, on leave. Sanitary Board-Mr. STEWART, the Registrar General, having acted as Colonial Secretary during year, his place on the Board was continued to be filled by Mr. LOCKHART, the Acting Registrar

the General.

The following new appointments were made during the year :--

The Honourable A. P. MACEWEN, M.L.C.

PATRICK MANSON Esquire, M.D., LL.D.

N. J. EDE, Esquire, J.P.

Dr. Ho KAI, Barrister at Law.

Board of Examiners.-There was no change in the constitution of the Board during the year. Medical Board.-The Honourable J. BELL-IRVING and Dr. P. MANSON succeeded the Honourable W. KESWICK and the Honourable T. JACKSON, respectively, as Members of the Board.

ment.

11.-CIVIL Establishments.

The Honourable W. H. MARSH, C.M.G., Colonial Secretary, continued to administer the Govern-

The following Officers also continued in their respective acting appointments:—

The Honourable FREDERICK STEWART, Registrar General, as Acting Colonial Secretary. J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, Esq., Assistant Colonial Secretary, as Acting Registrar General. Several changes occurred in various Departments consequent upon Officers going on leave of absence.

:

316

12.-OFFICERS WHO HAVE GIVEN SECURITY FOR THE DISCHARGE OF THEIR DUTIES.

The validity of the sureties of the various Officers was duly enquired into at the end of quarter, and found to be satisfactory.

13. PENSIONS.

The following Officers retired on pension during the year :-

A. DE SOUZA, Apothecary, Lock Hospital.

GEORGE ORLEY, Inspector of Police.

5 Chinese Police Constables.

1 Indian Police Constable.

every

14.-EXPENDITURE OF THE ESTABLISHMENTS.

The amounts paid during the year on account of the Establishments were:-

Payments in Great Britain in Sterling money, Payments in the Colony in Local Currency,.

15.-FOREIGN CONSULS.

.£ 23,444.15.5 $ 656,988.05

No new Consulates were established in the Colony during 1886. Mr. J. J. DE SOUZA, reported that he had ceased to be Consul for Venezuela. No fresh appointment has been made.

16.-POPULATION.

The estimated population on the 31st December, 1886, was as follows:

Males, Females,

which is 10,396 more than the estimated population at the end of 1885.

144,550 56,440

The last census was taken in 1881, the population being then returned as 160,402, of which 115,369 were males, and 45,033 females.

The following is the mean estimated population for the last 5 years:-

Years.

Males.

Females.

Total.

1882,

119,704

46,729

166,433

1883,

.124,768

48,707

173,475

1884,

130,560

50,969

181,529

1885,

.137,079

53,515

190,594

1886,

.144,550

56,440

200,990

The births and deaths for the last 5 years were as follows:--

Per 1,000 of mean Population.

Years.

Births.

Deaths.

Births.

Deaths.

1882,

1,545

4,189

9.28

25.17

1883,

.1,509

4,712

8.70

27.16

1884,

+

1,551

4,311

8.54

23 74

1885,

....

1,555

5,192

8.16

27.24

1886,

....1,557

5,100

7.74

25.37

17.-ECCLESIASTICAL ESTABLISHMENTS.

There were no changes in these Establishments, as compared with previous years.

18.-EDUCATION.

The total number of Schools subject to supervision by the Government amounted in 1886, to 90, being the same number as in 1885 and 1884.

The total number of Scholars subject to Government supervision during the last 5 years was as follows:-

Years.

Govt. Schools.

Grant-in-aid.

Total.

1882,

2.114

3,068

5.182

1883,

2,080

3,517

5,597

1884,

1,978

3,907

5,885

1885,

1,803

4,041

5,844

1886,

1,893

3,951

5,844

4717

The total expenditure for the last 5 years was as follows:-

1882,

1883,

1884,

1885,

[

1886,

.$33,743.29 35,412.26

36,758.14

36,085.27

43,085.50

317

19.-EXCHANGES, MONEYS, WEIGHTS AND MEasures.

Exchange.

The rate of Exchange on 4 months' Bills on London fell from 3s. 4d. per dollar on the 4th January, 1886 to 3s. 01d. on the 4th August. In the month of December following the rate had risen to 3s. 44d.

Currency.

The law affecting currency has remained unchanged.

Bank Notes.

The Bank Notes in circulation in Hongkong during the last 5 years, as furnished by the Managers of the respective Banks, were as follows:--

Years.

1882,

1883,

1884,

1885,... 1886,.

Average Amount. .$ 4,253,367

5,099,661

4,214,787

4,080,071

4,368,705

Money Circulation.

Specie in Reserve. $ 1,536,666

1,779,166

1,810,833

2,000,833

2,138,333

The approximate amount of Coin put into circulation up to 31st December, 1886, was as follows:-

Hongkong Dollars and half Dollars struck at the Hongkong Mint,......$1,421,487 Hongkong Silver and Copper Subsidiary Coins (20, 10, and 5 cent

pieces; and 1 Cent and Mil pieces),

The importation of Copper Coin has been discontinued.

Weights and Measures.

.$1,983,881

The Weights and Measures in use in the Colony are regulated by Ordinance 8 of 1885.

20.-IMPORTS AND EXPORTS.

There being no Custom House, it is not possible to furnish an account of the Imports and Exports.

21.-SHIPPIng.

Arrivals exclusive of Junks.

The total arrivals, exclusive of Junks, during the year 1886, amounted to 4,251 vessels and 4,571,296 tons, being an excess of 823 vessels and 704,587 tons over the arrivals in 1885.

Junks.

22,971 Junks measuring 1,752,868 tons arrived in the Colony in 1886, as against 23,674 Junks and 1,797,222 tons in 1885, showing a decrease of 703 Junks and 44,354 tons.

Arrivals exclusive of Junks.

The total arrivals exclusive of Junks, for the last 5 years were:-

Years.

1882,.

1883,

1884,.

1885,....

1886,

Number of Vessels.

Tons.

3,437

3.170,843

3,399

3,450,428

3,290

3,479,637

3,428

3,866,709

4,251

4,571,296

יו

318

Junks arrived.

The total arrivals of Junks for the last 5 years were:-

Years.

1882,

1883,

1884,

1885,

1886,

Number of Vessels.

Tons.

25,231

1,805,390

24,258

1,851,239

23,473

1,687,594

23,674

1,797,222

22,971

1,752,868

Immigration and Emigration.

The following will show the number of Chinese who arrived in, and the number who departed from the Colony during the last 5 years:-

Years.

1882,

1883,

1884,

1885,

1886,

Arrived.

Departed.

61,905

78,864

74,722

57,438

73,767

51,247

80,773

57,517

88,704

64,522

22.-AGRICULTURE.

The lands of the Colony being limited and not favourable for agricultural purposes, there is no inducement for this industry here: The produce is quite nominal.

23. MANUFACTURES, &c.

Manufactories.

During the

year

the Glass Works and the Steam Laundry stopped working.

Steam-Launches.

The total number of Steam-Launches built in the Colony in 1886, was 26 with a total tonnage of 1,659 as against 87 with a total of 4,106 in 1885.

24.-GRANTS OF LAND.

The sales of land on lease during the last 5 years were :-

Years.

Total No. of Sales.

Total No. of Acres sold.

A.

R.

P.

1882,

34

41. 3.

51

1883,

30

60. 1.

261

1884,

76

25. 3. 81

1885,

1886,

145.

88

28. 0. 142

82. 2. 31

312

25.-GAOLS AND PRISONERS.

On the 1st January, 1886, there were 573 prisoners in Victoria Gaol; 4,600 were admitted during the year, and 4,541 discharged; the total number of prisoners on the 31st of December, 1886 was 632, of whom 49 were Europeans.

The daily average of prisoners was 674, as against 530 in the previous year.

The number of prisoners admitted into Gaol during the last five years was as follows:-

YEARS.

Men.

No. OF PRISONERS.

TOTAL.

Women.

Juveniles.

DAILY AVERAGE NUMBER IN PRISON.

1882,

3,264

103

131

3,498

622.00

1883,

3,200

137

149

3,486

542.50

1884,

3,670

168

185

4,023

552.00

1885,

3,327

147

136

3,610

530.00

1886,

4,278

173

149

4,600

674,00

.

1882,

1883,

1884,

1885,

1886,

26.-CRIMINAL STATISTICS.

Supreme Court.

The following is a Return of cases tried at the Supreme Court during the last five years:-

319

CHARGES ABANDONED.

POSTPONED.

Number Number

YEARS.

of

of Convicted. Acquitted. Cases. Persons.

Number of Number of

Cases.

Persons.

No. of Cases.

No. of Persons.

124

187

124

38

15

21

91

126

70

26

14

68

101

65

20

8

91

147

103

22

16

2822

1

3

28 (a)

2

2

16

75

107

59

20

16

27 (6)

Total,.................

449

668

421

126

69

114

4

6

१०

Average of 5 years,

89.

133.4

84.

25.1

13.秀

22.

$

Cap

11

Do.

ending 1881,

125.

182.

132.

42.1

6.

7.1

(a) 1 Committed suicide.

(b) 1 Recognisance estreated.

Police Magistrates' Court.

The Cases before the Police Magistrates during the last 5 years, were as follows:--

CASES HOW DISPOSED OF.

Total No. Total No.

YEARS.

of

Cases.

of Prisoners.

Convicted and Punished.

Dis- charged.

Committed Committed

for pending Trial. Orders.

Ordered Punished

to Find Security.

for False

Tes- timony.

Un-

decided.

1882,

7,567

9,402

6,443 2,177

276

1883,

10,653

12,104

8,797 2,747

129

1884,

14,065

15,935

12,836 2,562

103

888888

39

363

17

38

216

6

171

38

281

8

107

1885,

10,281

11,901

8,800 2,446

161

14

456

6

1886,

14,611

16,647

12,923

2,388

159

5

969

35

168

Total,...

57,177

65,989

49,799 12,320

828

134

2,285

72

551

Average of 5 years,

11,435.4

13,197.8

9,959.8 2,464.0 165.6

26.8

457.0

14.4 110.2

Do. ending 1881,

8,138.6

9,728.0

7,069.4 2,121.8 207.4

13.0

255.4

28.6

32.4

Marine Magistrate's Court.

The Cases before the Marine Magistrate's Court during the last 5 years, were as follows:-

DEFENDANTS HOW DISPOSED OF.

YEARS.

Number of Cases.

Number of

Forfei-

ants.

Defend- Impri- soned.

Fined.

ture of

Repri- manded.

Sent back to Duty.

Pay.

To be dis- charged from Ship..

Com-

Dis- missed.

mitted

for Trial.

1882,

1883,

1884,

1885,

1886,

111

སྨཌཟ

76

189

56

28

9

7

39

1

47

2

37

58

13

11

5

1

15

1

12

78

169

85

32

11

1

9

3

28

221

136

47

14

2

21

58

87

43

24

2

1

11

Total,.......

360

724

333

142

45

13

65

5

119

2

Average of last 5 years,

72.0

144.8

66.6

28.4

9.0

2.6

13.0

1.0

23.8

Do. ending 1881,... 141.8

250.0

95.0

58.4

28.6

9.2

14.2

2.0

27.4

:

320

Police.

The Cases brought under the notice of the Police during the last 5 years, were as follows:-

SERIOUS OFFENCES.

MINOR OFFENCES.

YEARS.

Number of

Convicted.

Cases.

Discharged.

Number of Cases.

Convicted.

Discharged.

1882,

2,596

1,405

561

3,728

3,602

846

1883,

2,423

1,178

485

5,265

4,014

1,024

1884, 1885,

2,652

1,297

560

7,551

4,743

1,102

2,466

1,298

561

4,309

3,707

757

1886,

2,500

1,389

472

6,336

6,457

672

Total,..

12,637

6,567

2,639

27,189

22,523

4,401

Average of 5 years,

2,527.4

1,313.4

527.8

5,437.8

4,504.6

880.2

Do. ending 1881,

2,270.8

1,345.8

446.6

4,421.8

3,797.4

790.4

27.-HOSPITALS, &C.

Civil Hospital.

The admissions to the Government Civil Hospital during the year were as follows, as compared with, 1885.

1885.

1886.

Police,

495

602

Board of Trade,

100

132

Private paying Patients,

283

381

Government Servants,....

124

144

Police Cases,

238

142

Destitutes,

270

222

1,510

1,623

The total admissions to the Hospital and Deaths during the last five years were as follows:-

Years.

1882,

1883,

....

1884,

1885,

1886,..

Admissions.

1,414

1,436

1,308

1,510.

1,623

Deaths.

68

70

50

76

79

The admissions from the Police Force and the number of Deaths for the past five years were as follows:-

Years.

1882,

1883,

1884,

1885,

1886,

Admissions.

Deaths.

549

8

599

10

486

7

495

9 (a.)

· 602

11 (b.)

The admissions of Europeans were, in 1885, 124, as compared with 138 in 1886; the Chinese were 163, in 1885, as compared with 221 in 1886; and the Indians were 208 in 1885 as compared with 243 in 1886.

(a.) Only 5 of these died in Hospital, 1 died at his own residence, and 3 died whilst on leave. (b.) In Hospital,

}

¿

}

Military Hospital.

The admissions from among the troops during the past 5 years were as follows:-

Years.

1882,...

1883,...

1884,....

1885,...

1886,....

Admissions.

Deaths.

1,019

9

1,105

10

1,097

12

1,090

24 (a.)

1,607

9

Small-Pox Hospital.

The admissions during the past five years were as follows:-

Years.

Admissions.

1882.....

1883,.

1884,

1885,..

1886,.

Inquests.

The Inquests held during the past five years were as follows:-

1882,

1883,.

1884,

1885,.

1886,

nil.

12

7

14

11

113

101

... 82

....100

.120

28.-CHARITABLE AND LITERARY INSTITUTIONS.

The Alice Memorial Hospital was formed during the past year.

29.-RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS.

321

No fresh institution was formed.

An Ordinance (14 of 1886,) was passed during the year for the Incorporation of the Procurator in Hongkong, for the Dominican Missions in the Far East, and properties belonging to the Dominican Missions were transferred to and vested in the said Corporation.

HONGKONG, 22nd April, 1886.

(a.) 12 died of Cholera.

A

ARATHOON SETH. Chief Clerk.

323

No. 23

87.

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT FOR 1886.

Presented to the Legislative Council, by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government,

on the 29th April, 1887.

BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT,

HONGKONG, 12th February, 1887.

SIR,I have the honour to submit the Annual Report on the Botanical and Afforestation Depart- ment for the year 1886.

2. The Superintendent was absent on leave during seven months of 1885, and from the 1st of January to the 2nd of June of the year under report. Mr. WESTLAND deserves credit for the efforts which he made to maintain the efficiency of the Department while Acting Superintendent.

3. ESTABLISHMENT.-I have much pleasure in recording the good conduct of the Head and Second Foresters during a period of trouble and trial when their characters were put to a test. The Head Forester, Mr. Lo AQWAI, was the first apprentice taken when I instituted the system of Garden Apprentices about twelve years ago. He is now the most valuable Chinese in the department.

4. A Temporary Clerk was employed for six months to assist the Acting Superintendent and the

Permanent Clerk.

5. In consequence of the Dismissal of the Permanent Clerk an examination was held by the Government for the vacant post, Mr. S. MOOTIAN, being the successful candidate, received the appoint-

He has applied himself assiduously to his duties, and has given satisfaction in every way.

ment.

6. As usual there have been a great many Changes in the Staff of gardeners and labourers. These frequent and unavoidable changes are very detrimental to the state of efficiency which I am anxious to see attained. It is impossible to get trained gardeners to fill vacancies as they occur, the men who are engaged are, as a rule, ordinary coolies chosen on account of moderate intelligence, good character and activity, the ordinary and special duties required of them have to be learnt after the men 'come to us. All the operations of the gardens have to be daily and constantly supervised which absorbs nearly the whole time of the Head Gardener. Such fairly good Chinese gardeners as there are can obtain $7 or $8 a month, and the men, of course, are unwilling to come to us for $6 a month, or even for $7 (which are the highest wages paid by this department for gardeners) as they know that here the men have to work harder than in private service where they have very much more of their own way. There is, however, a prospect of some improvement, as provision has been made for an increase in 1887 of a dollar a month each for a few posts in the department, and this cannot but have a good effect.

7. Provision has also been made for the appointment of a Carpenter who will be fully employed. By this arrangement the profits hitherto made by the contractor will be saved, besides securing much greater convenience in always having a carpenter at hand to attend promptly to repairs, and other

work.

t

8. An additional Forest Guard will be employed in 1887. This increase was much needed, as the patrol of the whole island, with the great increase in number and size of trees since forest guards were appointed six years ago, needs correspondingly increased vigilance from the protective staff.

BOTANIC GARDENS.

9. FOUNTAIN TERRACE.-The improvements long projected, and referred to in my Report for 1884, were commenced in the beginning of 1885, by removing from the western end of the terrace trees which were neither very ornamental nor useful, or which were represented adequately by speci- mens of the same species in other parts of the Gardens. They were not in keeping with their position

:

324

and surroundings and the formal arrangement of this popular and beautiful portion of the Gardens. After the removal of the trees, the space they occupied was laid out in beds, the poor soil from which was replaced with better material. These beds were partially planted with roses at the time, and the planting was completed during the past few months. The work of converting the remaining, and larger portion of the ground on the eastern side of the Fountain has been resumed lately, and it will be completed very soon. The arrangement adopted for the improvement of the terrace is designed for two purposes. One is to replace the large trees with plants of a more suitable nature for the character of the place. The other object is to provide a suitable place for concentrating the collection of roses. The roses have hitherto been cultivated in various scattered parts of the Gardens, a method resulting in inconvenience and loss of time in management, as well as exposing the flowers to the cupidity of visitors and professional thieves. For some years flowers in general and roses in particular have received careful and regular attention from flower stealers, who have learnt their business so well that they manage to elude the vigilance both of the watchman, and detectives who have been specially detached for this service. These thieves find a good market in the town for cut flowers, and the very numerous entrances (there are nine) to the gardens, and the low walls which surround the grounds greatly facilitate the ingress and egress without detection of thieves. It is very desirable that some- thing should be done to check flower stealing, but at present there does not seem to be much prospect of the possibility of going much further than the concentration of the roses in one place where they can be more readily seen.

10. On the top of the bank at the north side of the terrace a Collection of Creepers has been planted, and an Iron and Wire Trellies 300 feet long and four feet high has been placed for their support.

11. GREVILLEA AVENUE.-The western end of this walk was a cul de sac which visitors, instead of retracing their steps to escape from when they reached its end, got out of by climbing up the grass bank between it and the small walk above; by this the grass was continually worn off. For the con- venience of visitors, and the improvement of the end of the avenue, a flight of steps has been made up the bank, and some rock work on each side has been constructed and planted with ornamental foliage plants, which will grow in the shady situation.

12. Epiphytal Orchids (Phalaenopsis spp.) have been placed on the trunks of the Grevillea (Silky- Oak) trees which compose the avenue. The suitability of the climate for the cultivation of Phalaenopsis has yet to be proved. So far the orchids, although they were only indifferent specimens of vigour when placed on the trees, seem to afford a promise of success, but the cold of winter, which is not yet over, is the severest trial they have to contend with.

13. THINNING AND REMOVAL OF TREES.-Trees and plants of value and beauty which were in danger of having their symetrical development dangerously interfered with by neighbours which had already fulfilled the purposes for which they were originally planted, and which were afterwards occupying the places of interlopers, have been going through a course of ejection for several months. A couple of foresters have been employed to do this carefully. There are still of some kinds of trees far more individuals than there should be in the Gardens, which must gradually be withdrawn. Until this is done it will be impossible to provide suitably for and to introduce trees of new, beautiful, and interesting forms.

14. PALMS.-A very considerable augmentation of these has taken place. New species have been introduced from various parts of the world, which have raised the number of those in cultivation to one hundred and four. Most of them are planted in permanent positions, but there are others growing in pots and waiting for fit positions to be prepared for them. The limited ground available will not permit the collection to be very much extended, but when the roses are established in the new rosary, the plot at present occupied by the plants in the New Garden will be available for them.

15. This climate has been found suitable for all palms yet introduced with the exception of Maximiliana Martiana and Stevensonia grandifolia, both of which have repeatedly succumbed to cold in the dry season. The former is a native of North Brazil and Guiana, and the latter of the Seychelle Islands. The inability of these two plants to bear with impunity the cold of this climate is interesting when we consider that other plants, including palms, from the same and from equally as hot regions exhibit no ill-effects from the cold.

16. CONIFERS. Not many additions have been made to these. Dacrydium elatum, a very beautiful and graceful conifer has been introduced from Penang, and promises to flourish in Hongkong. Before much is done in the increase of the collection, the ground for their reception must be extended, this, however, is possible when means are available. The Conifers being side by side with the Palms make a very pleasing and interesting assemblage, which arrests the attention of intelligent visitors and illustrates in a comprehensive space the interjunction of the regions in which these two most interesting, beautiful, and useful families of the vegetable kingdom luxuriate.

17. GLENEALY RAVINE. This remains in a slovenly condition, but year after year leaves us in want of means to improve it. The shrubberies require re-arranging and re-planting. The grass lawns are also in very bad order, but it is useless doing anything with these until the string of people who daily walk across them to scoop up water from the nullah can be diverted. This, I trust, will be possible as soon as the necessity for the coolies to come in search of water is removed.

A

325

18. PLANT HOUSES.-The fern collection continues to improve and it shows the great advantage which the house constructed for its accommodation three years ago has been to it, not only in pro- viding the more suitable conditions which were indispensable for successful cultivation, but also in exhibiting the beauties of the plants to greater advantage.

19. The plant house which was built two years ago for other classes of plants, especially foliage plants and orchids, has also been successful in the purpose for which it was designed. A number of orchids which had previously not been successfully cultivated have made better growth, and been preserved in a healthy and vigorous state in consequence of our being able to meet their requirements more completely by the facilities to regulate the shade, shelter, and moisture which the house affords. There is, however, room for great improvement in orchid cultivation, which can only be achieved by the closest and most constant study of the wants of the plants, and unceasing supervision and direction of the workmen in the application of all that plants require.

20. The old structure with a glass roof, the first one of any kind which the Gardens possessed, and which I had built 14 years ago, contains ornamental foliage plants, some orchids, and a few ferns which cannot be grown in this climate without protection from the cold and dry climate of the cool season. These plants it would be utterly impossible to grow without such protection. The house, however, in both size and design meets in a very imperfect manner the needs of the plants; it is in a rotten, tumble-down condition, but I am loth to appropriate much money for repairs to it.

21. This house has fulfilled a good purpose in proving that with such aid very interesting and lovely plants may be grown here, which otherwise it would be impossible to keep alive. Instead of repairing it I hope the Government will be able to grant a sum of money for the Erection of a Glass- house which will be more commodious, and which will be worthy of our justly famed Gardens and Colony. The house could be filled at once with plants, and it would be a source of the greatest. pleasure and benefit to the public.

22. AVIARIES AND ANIMALS' PENS.-In the aviaries several birds have been missing, and others found dead. The assumption is that the mischief has been done by some animal, probably by cats wild or tame. I have not attempted to procure other birds to take the places of the missing ones, because, I hope during the year to be able to put up some new cages which will exclude cats from the larger birds, and rats from the smaller ones. When these cages are up, a few more birds will be obtained.

23. The posts and wire netting which enclose the deer and large birds are much decayed, as well as the little houses inside. All of this I hope likewise, during the year to put in better order, and to improve the general appearance of the pens.

24. ST. IGNATIUS' BEANS (Strychnos Ignatii, Berg.)-I am indebted for specimens of dried leaves and wood of this to Mr. Crow, the Government Analyst, who has exerted himself in obtaining them from the Philippine Islands in order to endeavour to clear up the botanical origin of this important drug. Mr. VIDAL, Inspector-General of Forests at Manila, however, has succeeded in procuring complete specimens necessary for the conclusive determination of the plant. A description and two plates have been inserted as an appendix in the "Revision de Plantas Vasculares Filipinas" which Mr. VIDAL published last year. "Descriptions of the plant were given by LOUREIRO as far back as 1793, and by BLANCO in 1845, but no complete herbarium specimens seem to have been accessible until last year.

25. CHINESE STAR ANISE-In my report for 1883 I mentioned that through the enterprise and kindness of Mr. H. KOPSCH, who was then Commissioner of Customs at Pakhoi, some very small seedlings of what was reputed to be the Chinese Star Anise plant had been obtained. These were very carefully nursed, and they had been watched and well cared for since that time. One of them has

grown into a small tree 10 feet high, and in September last it rewarded us for the care bestowed on it by producing a few flowers, which were sufficient to enable the species to be ascertained. On reference to the works in the Gardens library I found that it was neither Illicium religiosum Sieb. et Zuc. nor I. anis-atum, Linn. The former is the Japanese Star Anise and the latter is the plant which had been supposed to yield Chinese Star Anise. I submitted specimens to Kew Gardens for comparison with the dried plants stored in its magnificent herbarium, and with descriptions of species in the library there. Mr. THISELTON DYER, the Director of the Gardens, in reply informs me that the speci- men sent is referred to Illicium cambodiense of which Kew has specimens from Dr. PIERE besides the latter's figure in "Flore Forestrie de Cochin-Chine," and that it is nearly allied to I. Griffithii. H. f. and T., and I. majus, H. f. and T., two Indian species. This is an important additional step in this very interesting question, but the seedlings having been obtained through natives, the question of the source of Chinese Star Anise cannot be considered quite settled, as we have yet to prove that the plants which we have of Illicium cambodiense are identical with those which really furnish the Anise of commerce. This cannot be satisfactorily decided until the Anise plants are seen in the districts where they grow by a reliable European, or until our plants produce seeds, when the capsules and seeds can be compared with those in trade; if the two then prove to be identical we may feel pretty sure that the origin of Chinese Star Anise has been discovered. The few flowers which were produced last year were all

!

+

..

..

326

wanted for dried specimens, but if the tree blossoms again this year, which there is every reason to expect it will do, the flowers will be left on the tree and fertilized for the production of fruit which will no doubt succeed the flowers.

26. BAMBOO. In my annual report for 1882 I stated that I had brought together in one collec- tion twenty-five kinds of bamboos. These have continued to do well, and some further additions have been made. I hope whenever there is an opportunity to still further increase the collection. The bamboos of China are of great interest and utility and many of them are probably unknown to science. It is impossible to assign them to their true places in systematic botany until flowers are obtained from which a complete and satisfactory study of them can be made. The bamboo flowers at such long intervals that if we trust to travellers being able to furnish the desired flowering specimens the day will be very far distant when the study will have made much progress. One reason why, the different kinds should be cultivated in these Gardens, is that when flowers are produced they can be immediately secured for investigation.

27. A year or two ago Dr. MACGOWAN kindly sent me specimens of the very interesting square stemmed bamboo, but unfortunately they did not survive the passage. When he was passing through the Colony recently Dr. MACGOWAN was good enough to promise to send me a further consignment, I hope, therefore, to have the plant in cultivation shortly.

28. While writing this note on bamboos I have received a letter froin Mr. DYER, the Director of Kew Gardens, in which he says in reference to this very subject:-" The Chinese species of this group are very badly known. There is a kind with large leaves which is used for lining tea chests, but about which nothing else is known. It would be a most important thing to take up vigorously the study of bamboos and procure specimens whenever they are to be met with in flower."

29. TREE TOMATO.—(Cyphomandra betacea).-Vigorous plants which grew from seeds sent me by Mr. MORRIS, the late Director of the Jamaica Botanical Department, produced a crop of fruit during the summer, but heavy rains which occurred at the time so seriously damaged the plants that the fruit did not mature properly. I fear that the saturated condition of the soil during the rainy season will prevent this useful plant being successfully grown in the Colony. In the drier, and more sandy soil of Kowloon, however, it is possible that it may succeed.

30. DILLENIA SPECIOSA.-An Indian tree which was introduced about ten years ago bore a heavy crop of fruit. In India the fruit is used for tarts. That which the tree bore was found to be a fairly good substitute for apples, which it somewhat resembled.

31. VITIS MARTINII (?)-The Cochin-China vine again yielded a very heavy crop of fruit. This has received a good deal of attention in America where it is being experimented with as a new wine producer. For this purpose it has been spoken of favourably. It is possible that in some climates which are unsuitable for the cultivation of the grape-vine this one might be of considerable service, I tried the fruit in tarts, and the flavour was found to be good and palatable, but the large seeds are objectionable; however, it is possible that this drawback might be diminished in time by cultivation. The large leaves of the plant give it a distinguished and ornamental appearance which is an additional recommendation for its finding a place in tropical gardens, if not even in hot-houses of temperate. climates.

32. GOVERNMENT House GroundS.-When these were laid out many years ago they were planted with such things as could be most readily secured, but unfortunately the selection and variety of trees chosen was in consequence not so good as desirable. From time to time a good many objectionable trees have been removed and replaced with others of a more ornamental character, amongst them being a large number of palms and some conifers. These have all done well and greatly improved the appearance of the garden. There is still a large number of trees, notably the very common banians and clumps of bamboos, which mar the effect and effectually stand in the way of further improvements which ought to be made without delay.

33. Plant Sales.-The demand for plants continues to steadily increase. During the year 1918 plants were sold, and they realised $409.35, which is an excess of $137.50 over the sales for 1885. The sales would have been greater if the supply had been equal to the demand. Means are not adequate for the cultivation of certain kinds of plants, but I hope that a re-arrangement of nursery appliances, and an extension of the ground which will be effected this year will place us in a better position to meet public requirements, and a growing taste for plants. A Glass-house fifty feet long is in course of construction, when finished it will be used for propagation and growth of delicate plants which in the early stages of growth require its protection. A new Catalogue of Plants for sale in 1887 has been printed.

ANGE

DISTRIBUTION AND EXCHANGE OF PLANTS AND SEEDS.

34. The total number of plants and trees distributed was 6,771, and of packets and bags of seeds 180 weighing about 40 lbs. Of the trees and plants 1,918 were sold, 2,800 supplied free to the Royal Engineers for planting at the new forts, 800 given to various Police Stations and planted at the Govern- ment Hospital new grounds, and the balance, 1,253, were distributed in exchange.

327

35. Of plants received in exchange the number was 1,326, and of bags, boxes and packets of seeds 186, weighing about 70 lbs.

36. The following is a list of Recipients of plants and seeds :---

Acclimatisation Society, Brisbane." Acting Governor of Fiji.

Armstrong, A. G.

Assistant Superintendent of Forests, Penang.

Awan.

Bamsey, W. S.

Botanic Gardens, Cambridge, England.

2)

""

**

""

،

A

""

""

">

Ceylon. Melbourne.

Mauritius. Natal.

Saharunpur. Sydney. Townsville.

Edge, Rev. J. C.

Faber, Rev. E., Shanghai. Hambling, H. W.

Henry, Rev. B. C., Canton. Humphreys, J. D. Lane, Crawford & Co. Liot, E., Peking. Livesey, J.

H. E. the Governor of Macao. 8 Police Stations.

Metta, S. M.

Patrait, Rev. C. E.

Ribeiro, F. V.

Royal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta.

""

"

>>

>>

Trinidad.

Kew.

>>

23

and Plantations, Adelaide.

Silva, J. M. A. Woodin, E. L. Wotton, W.

Botanical Department, Jamaica.

Coxon, Mrs.

Cundall, C. H., Manila.

37. The following is a list of the names of persons and institutions to whom I am indebted for plants, seeds, and animals:--

Armstrong, J. M.

Armstrong, A. G.

Botanic Gardens, Hobart Town, Tasmania.

=>

>>

""

""

;"

Chee Bee.

>>

Jamaica. Mauritius. Natal. Saharunpur. Townsville.

Trinidad.

Cooper, Wm. M., Ningpo.

Coxon, Mrs.

Cundall, C. H. Manila.

Faber, Rev. E. Shanghai.

Henry, Rev. B. C., Canton. Holmes, A. M.

Italian Convent.

Lammert, Mrs.

Mitchell, Captain.

Royal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta.

"}

Shepherd, Mrs.

Sunda Sing.

Vidal, S., Manila.

2)

Ceylon. Kew.

Walker, H., Borneo.

Woodin, E. L.

38. To the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, I am indebted for two Wardian cases of useful and ornamental plants which I selected at Kew and brought with me when I returned from England in June.

39. A valuable collection of orchids was kindly contributed by Dr. KING, Superintendent of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta.

40. Senor Don SEBASTION VIDAL Y SOLER, Inspector-General of Forests, Manila, also kindly sent a very valuable collection of Manila orchids.

41. Kew also sent out a number of succulent plants which should have special mention.

42. LOAN PLANTS.-The collection grown specially for loan for decorative purposes at public balls and other entertainments has not been in such good condition as I hoped they would be by this time, but before the next season of festivities I hope that, with more special care devoted to them, they will be more worthy of the purposes for which they are intended. These plants are always lent free, the only charge made being that for their conveyance.

43. GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL.--Application was made to this Department to plant with shade and ornamental trees the new Grounds adjacent to the Hospital which had been designed for the recreation of the patients.. A considerable amount of planting was done accordingly, but the prospect is not anticipated of the successful results being achieved which might have been had this Department being placed in a position to deal with the grounds at a much earlier stage in the progress of their formation.

44. REGIMENTAL BAND PERFORMANCES.-Throughout the summer months the Band of the 2nd Northamptonshire Regiment, through the kindness of the Colonel and Officers, entertained the public every Sunday, commencing at 9 o'clock P.M. when the weather permitted, and during the cold weather commencing at 3.30 P.M. It has been the custom to illuminate the Gardens for these performances with Japanese paper lanterns. These illuminations necessitated the erection on Saturdays of material

328

on which to hang the lanterns, and which, in consequence of Sunday being a dies non remained until Monday. These fixtures were thus unsightly for the whole of one day and parts of two others. The lanterns also necessitated the attendance of a number of men. To dispense with the unsightliness of the lantern fixings, the attendance of men on Sundays, the expense of the lantern illuminations, and the circumstance of the lanterns being subject to extinction of their lights by a sudden shower I had the honour to propose the introduction of gas for the purpose of illuminating the two terraces and entrances. The proposition was approved and the necessary vote for carrying out the work was placed at my disposal, when gas was at once laid on and the requisite fixings were made.

45. At the request of the Colonel of the Regiment a Wooden Platform two feet high and 28 feet in diameter was constructed for the use of the Band when it performs in the Gardens. At present there is only one situation where this platform can be placed. It has to be carried and put in position on Saturday, where it remains until Monday. When it is not in use the appearance of the platform to say the least, does not add to the beauty of the terrace. It would be desirable to find another place for it, if this can be done without interfering seriously with the effect of the music, where the platform might be planted off from view.

46. AL FRESCO FÊTE.-In November a large Fête in aid of the Alice Memorial Hospital was held in the Gardens on two nights. Very extensive preparations in the way of mat structures for theatre, fancy work stalls, refreshments, bar, and other things had to be made. I believe there were about 6,000 people admitted to the Gardens on each night. Considerable damage was done to the grass turf, and most of the flower beds which had just been filled for the winter season were so much trampled on that they had to be replanted after the fète was over, some shrubs and plants in pots were also destroyed. The staff for some time after the fête had to be withdrawn from their usual occupations in order to get the Gardens into respectable order again.

47. HORTICULTURAL SHOW.-The Annual (15th) Flower Show was again held in the Gardens. The space required for the exhibits was greater than it previously had been. These shows have been productive of the greatest good in the cultivation of vegetables, in which, as is most desirable; the Chinese take more and more interest, which is a proof that to them the industry is a paying one.

48. It would greatly enhance the value and interest of the shows if exhibitors would have each plant carefully and conspicuously named.

49. A new interest was attached to the exhibition last year by the award of Silver and Bronze medals-called Belilios Medals-and Money Prizes provided for by a handsome Endowment Fund which was generously placed at the disposal of the Committee by Mr. E. R. BELILIOS. It is hoped and expected that these prizes, which will be offered every year, will still further stimulate horticultural enterprize in the Colony.

50. OFFICE. Since my return from leave I have devoted much time to the institution of an improved system of office work and arrangements, which were urgently needed, and of the working up of arrears in both ordinary routine, and correspondence. Improved furniture and conveniences were pressingly necessary, and they have been obtained. By these improvements work is greatly facilitated, and much time is saved.

51. In consequence of the absence of the Superintendent for half the year correspondence, espe- cially foreign, has not been so great. The average number of letters despatched from the office for the year was about 1,500, of which one-third was foreign correspondence.

52. In addition to the general Administration of the Department the Superintendent either writes or drafts all of the Correspondence, directs and supervises the Forest work, and attends to the keeping and progress of the Herbarium with the aid of native assistance only. In both office and herbarium there is room and necessity for more skilful assistance than that which is available, as it is impossible to entirely keep up with the increasing demands of important subjects which are continually pressing

for attention.

53. The time of the Head Gardener is entirely taken up with the management of the native staff within the Botanic and Government House Gardens and the execution of the manifold operations therein, and with the sale of plants.

54. HERBARIUM.-More and more interest is being directed to the Botany of China, and it is a pity that this institution which in many respects is so conveniently situated for research in important and interesting subjects has not the means for extending and more completely fulfilling the work which still remains to be done in bringing to light the botanical treasures of the Chinese Empire. However, I acknowledge with pleasure the aid which the Government has so generously placed at my disposal so far for botanical research. Valuable results have been obtained for some years past, results which have met with the hearty acknowledgment of eminent scientific men in England, and the last year has, although there was so little time for scientific work, had a large share of good results.

55. In this work I have to thank the Rev. B. C. HENRY, of Canton, for a large package of plants which he collected and dried during a journey across the island of Hainan. I named such plants of the collection as were known to me, and submitted the remainder, to Kew Gardens. The result of the investigation there proved the collection to be of unusual interest, and of richness in new species.

329

Careful and intelligent travellers like Mr. HENRY are able to render great and valuable services to botany while on journeys undertaken for other purposes. I should always be glad to receive collec- tions from travellers and also to give such advice and assistance as might be needed in indicating the best methods of collecting and preserving the specimens.

56. To the Rev. E. FABER I am also indebted for a fine collection made in the neighbourhood of Ningpo and Shanghai. These plants are of much interest, but they have not, for want of time, been yet fully examined.

57. Mr. WM. M. COOPER, Her Majesty's Consul at Ningpo, is also entitled to best acknowledg- ments for botanical specimens and information of much interest which has been communicated from time to time, as well as for consignments of seeds of useful plants.

58. Mr. WESTLAND has been successful in the discovery and collection of several new plants on the mainland and islands close to Hongkong, on a few occasions when he was able to get away from his duties in the Gardens.

72

59. The year has seen the commencement of the publication by the Linnean Society of the "Index Flora Sinensis or an Ennumeration of all the known Plants of China. This establishment has been of much service in contributing to Kew Gardens material and information for use in the pro- duction of this very important work.

+

60. By the death at Amoy in June, of the late lamented Dr. HENRY FLETCHER HANCE, China lost not only its most learned and courteous botanist, but also the rich collection of dried plants, and an extensive botanical library. I at one time hoped that part of the herbarium might have been secured for Hongkong, but instead of this being so, the whole Herbarium has been purchased by the Trustees of the British Museum.

61. There is immense work to be yet done in China, not only in the discovery of a vast number of plants which it is certain are yet unknown to science, but also in the introduction and collection of information on plants used in medicine and domestic economy. In the advancement of such work, this Department, with increased facilities, could render still more important services.

62. LIBRARY.-My visit to England afforded a good opportunity to procure a number of books which were required to augment the library of the Department. With the aid which the Government was good enough to place at my disposal this opportunity was not lost.

63. Following is a list of the titles of works, including the periodicals which are taken, that were added during the year:-

A new Species of Cycas, Dyer.

Balanophores, Griffith.

Botanical Magazine for 1885.

Botany of the Voyage of the Herald, Seemann.

Commelynaceæ et Cyrtandrace, C. B. Clarke.

Cryptogamic Plants, Berkeley.

Descriptive aud Analytical Botany, Le Maout and Decaisne.

Dr. Cantors' Plants, Griffith.

Early European Researches into the Flora of China,

Enumeratio Plantarum, China; Bunge. Ferns of British India, Beddome.

Florula Adenensis, Anderson.

Flora British India, Parts XII. and XIII.

""

""

Capensis, Harvey and Sonder.

Cochinchinensis, Loureira.

Japonica, Siebold.

Thunberg.

Java Blume.

of India, Roxburgh.

}}

"3

""

of New Zealand, Hooker.

}}

Vitiensis, Seemann.

Flowers, Fruits and Leaves, Lubbock.

Forest Flora of British Burma, Kurz.

Forests and Moisture, Brown.

Gardeners' Chronicle for 1886.

Gardens of the Sun, Burbidge.

Geographical Distribution of Ferns, Baker.

Geography of Plants, Daubeney.

Hydrology of South Africa, Brown.

[Bretschneider.

Icones Plantarum Sponte, China.

Icones Selectæ Plantarum, Japan; Kaempfer. Illustrations of Natural Orders of Plants, Oliver. Journal of Botany, Vols. IX and XXIII. Latin Dictionary, Smith.

Ling Nam, Henry.

Les Palmiers, de Kerchove. Manual of Botany, Balfour.

"1

of

Bentley.

of Timber Trees, Gamble.

Memoire sur la Famile Melastomacées.

Modern Forest Economy, Brown.

Nomenclature of Japanese Plants, Matsumura.

On Nepenthes, Hooker.

On the Movements of Climbing Plants, Darwin,

Pen Ts'ao Kang Mu.

Peruvian Bark, Markham.

Plantæ Davidiane, Franchet.

Preparation and Use of Rheea Fibre, J. Forbes Waston.

Reboisement in France, Brown.

Remarks on Gnetum, Griffith.

Reports on Insects Injurious to Plants, Whitehead.

Residence Among Chinese, Fortune.

Sea Weeds, Grey.

Select Extra, Tropical Plants, Mueller.

Social Life of Chinese, Doolittle.

Tea Districts. of China, Fortune.

Ternstroemiaceous Plants, Champion.

Text Book of Botany, Sachs.

Wanderings in China, Fortune.

>>

64. The parts which have been published during the year of the "Flora of British India," the "Index Flora Sinensis" (several copies), and some parts of "Icones Plantarum

have been gener- ously presented by Mr. DYER, of Kew Gardens, for which donations I have to sincerely thank him.

65. I have also to acknowledge with thanks, the various Reports of the Indian Forest Depart- ment, which have been generously contributed as they were published.

66. In addition to these I am also indebted for various Annual Reports and Papers of the numerous Indian and Colonial Botanic Gardens with which we are in correspondence.

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67. The Annual Reports of this Department are regularly sent in exchange to all our corres- pondents.

68. The library contains, besides the various reports and papers, 270 volumes.

.

69. In Appendix No. 1 I record a few notes made during a visit to San Ui in the delta of the Canton river on the Palm which is cultivated extensively by the Chinese for the production of leaves for making fans, rain coats for coolies, and for use as thatch, for which it is so extensively employed in South China.

FORESTRY.

70. The area of ground operated on in artificial reproduction was smaller than in some previous years. It was necessary to reduce the operations of 1886 for two reasons, one of which was in conse- quence of the weakening of the controlling staff, and the other was to meet the circumstances of the reduced vote for 1887 which was contemplated in 1885. By providing a small balance from the vote for 1886 I was enabled to devote it to the operations which could be carried out in that year as part of the following season's planting, thus enabling us to accomplish more work during the present year when the staff is again complete and competent to resume the full complement of work.

71. The number of trees planted was nearly up to the average. It was in the rearing of trees in situ that the diminution of area operated on was effected. This operation was entirely suspended. With the exception of a few thousands of trees planted in the neighbourhood of Deep-water Bay the planting was successfully accomplished. The few which were not successful suffered for want of water in a spell of dry weather which succeeded the planting of them.

72. The total number of trees planted was 299,911, of these 293,000 were China Pines, 4,500 Camphor trees, and 1,000 Pride of India trees. The remainder consisted of miscellaneous trees to the number of about 1,200.

73. CAMPHOR TREE.-A large number of trees of this species were planted in 1885, and they appear in fairly good condition. It is probable that this tree will be successful in Hongkong, but it is too early to yet pronounce positively one way or another on the subject. If the conditions do prove suitable for the tree, it will be a valuable acquisition, for besides affording pleasant variety to the sylvan effects of the landscapes, the timber may in time be of value.

74. The early made plantations of China Pines at high altitudes, and in wind-swept patches do not, as I anticipated, succeed very well. However to put the theory to the test a sufficient number of trees were planted in exposed places and at high elevations for experiment. Now the selection of lands for planting is made at comparatively low altitudes.

75. PINUS MASSONIANA. In 1882 I obtained from Japan seeds of this tree which is indigenous to that country, and of a sturdy habit, with which to experiment for cultivation above the height at which the China Pine did well. The seeds were sown in situ at an altitude of from 1,000 to 1,400 feet. The growth of the tree is slower than that of the China Pine, but the trees are very healthy and of robust habit, and they seem well adapted for bearing the adverse conditions for general tree growth which prevail towards the tops of the hills.

76. QUERCUS FISSA.--At the same altitude as the Japanese Pine, young trees of this Hongkong Oak were planted. Some of them, where a little sheltered, have grown very well, and they now measure as much as 9 feet in height and the same in diameter.

77. TRISTANEA CONFERTA. A member of the myrtle family, and native of North Australia, Queensland, and New South Wales. It grows into a large tree and the timber is well spoken of in Australia. The rapid growth of a solitary tree of this which had been introduced from one of the Botanic Gardens of Australia, and planted in our Botanic Garden led me to send to Australia for a supply of seeds. From these 800 trees were raised in 1883 and planted out three years ago. The majority were planted on the north side of the island at about 300 feet altitude, and a number of them at a similar height on the south side of the dividing ridge. All have made remarkable progress, the height of the trees now being as much in many instances as 20 feet. The growth and vigour is greater than that of any tree yet tried, if we except the Gum trees, and of these only a few kinds equal the Tristanea.

78. GUM TREES.-The Eucalyptus trees continue to do well. Of those planted near the Military Sanitarium two years ago a few species have become splendid vigorous trees. These are on the top of a ridge where the soil is naturally loose and deep. At the same time as these trees were planted, a quantity of the same species were planted at not more than 100 to 200 feet above sea-level, those near the Sanitarium are at about 800 feet. Of twelve kinds three succeeded better at the low level than corresponding plants of the same species at the higher level, five succeeded better at the higher level, while four succeeded equally at both places. The result of the experiment is therefore slightly in favour of the higher altitude for Eucalyptus cultivation.

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79. ALEURITES VERNICIA. (Chinese Varnish and Wood-oil-tree.) A plantation of this on Mt. Parker is flourishing and has entirely met my anticipations. The young trees are of an average height of about 2 feet. The situation of the plantation is well sheltered and the soil is good and deep. Seeds, however, which were sown at the same time near Pokfulam in an equally sheltered position, but where the soil was shallow, and in which there was a large mixture of stones, have pro- duced trees very inferior to those on Mt. Parker.

80. SOWING BROADCAST in Situ.-In 1883 and 1885 experiments were made of sowing seeds broadcast amongst grass in various places without any preparation of the soil. In two places the results have been very good, and the young trees are so promising that I intend to adopt the method on a larger scale on lands similar to those where the experiments succeeded. The cost has not yet been accurately ascertained, but it appears so small that I believe double the area of that accomplished by transplanting from nurseries can be operated on in an equally successful manner by the new method. The selection and demarcation of the lands suitable for the system will, however, require to be done carefully by European agency, and this, under the present organization of the staff, seems hardly possible with the great amount of other work which demands all available time.

81. BAMBOOS.-In 1885 an operation, which has not yet been reported, was commenced in the Bowrington Plantation of dividing large clumps of bamboos and transplanting them in one of the divisions with a view to the replacement with the bamboos of the pine trees which now exist there, and of the production of a supply of bamboo canes for the use of the department, and probably for sale. The soil and situation is well adapted for the bamboo, and if the whole of the enclosure be planted with bamboo there should in the course of a few years be an annual revenue from that source.

82. I hope to be able to introduce from the bamboo growing districts to the north-west of Canton, and from other places, many of the valuable kinds of bamboo which are of such inestimable use to the Chinese. These will be planted in the Bowrington Plantation, besides placing one specimen of each kind in the collection within the Botanic Gardens.

83. PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA.-This is a small shrub, a member of the large order of Euphorbiacea, which bears an edible fruit, often an inch in diameter, of a very acid taste, somewhat resembling a hard smooth, round, green gooseberry, and which is apparently palatable to the natives. It is found growing wild scattered about various places in the Colony, not very high above sea-level.

84. The bark is a valuable tanning material, and is in much request by fishermen, so much so that we have great trouble in conserving the shrubs which exist. I am informed that the fishermen place a higher value on it as a tanning material than even on Mangrove bark.

85. I have procured a large quantity of seeds of this plant, and they will be sown in the nurseries with a view to rearing plants for making plantations with. It may be possible that plantations of it will in time be valuable.

86. CLEARING OFF BRUSHWOOD.--The brushwood in some plantations having become ranker than desirable near roads where it impeded free passage of currents of wind, and where it afforded too much cover, I arranged to have the most advanced plantations cleared of the undergrowth. The plantations through which the Peak road passes have been done.

87. Those near Kennedy Road are begun and the work there and in other plantations will be continued when more important works free men to enable them to do it.

88. The clearance of undergrowth will not only be done free of expense to the Government, but a revenue will be collected from it.

89. SPECIMENS FOR INDIAN AND COLONIAL EXHIBITION.-A collection of specimens of wood of different kinds of Hongkong trees was made and taken with me to England, where they were cut and polished, and afterwards named and set up in the Exhibition.

90. Specimens of a large number of articles made from bamboo and used in domestic economy were afterwards collected by the Acting Superintendent and forwarded to the Exhibition.

91. PLANTING OPERATIONS BY CONTRACTS.-These are done under five different contracts. They are:- 1. Supplying Seeds, 2. Rearing Trees in Nurseries, 3. Making Tree Pits, 4. Planting Trees, and 5 Rearing Trees in Situ.

92. Prices paid vary somewhat one year with another. For instance the price paid for Seeds in 1885 was higher, with one exception, than at any other time. The contract just made is next to the lowest on record. The contract for 1885 for making Tree Pits was higher, than it was in the two previous years, while that just made is fixed at the same price as the previous one. The 1885 contract for Planting Trees while lower than in some previous ones was about fifty per cent. higher than the last contract for the same kind of work. The 1885 contract for Rearing Trees was lower than it was in the two previous years, but not so low as it was three years before, while it was a good deal higher than the one recently made.

93. Last year's tenders threw out the experienced men who had for several years given satisfac- tion in Rearing Trees. A new man entirely

A new man entirely without experience in this work received a contract for all the trees which were wanted. Although the contract price is low, we are paying dearly for the contractor's inexperience as the trees are the most inferior which I remember.

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94. FERN ROCKERIES OUTSIDE THE GARDENS.-These are maintained by the vote for Afforestation. The heaviest costs are caused by artificial waterings throughout the dry months. The dense shade in Gleanealy was the cause of a number of ferns and some other plants continually dying out.

To reinedy this disadvantage of shade I have had some trees and large shrubs removed in order to admit more light. The large trees in the neighbourhood also do much evil by their roots growing up amongst the soil in which the ferns are planted, and thereby very much impoverishing it.

95. Arrangements have been made for extending the rockeries on the eastern side of the road down to St. Paul's College. The construction of the rockery will be gradually carried out, but the planting cannot be completed until plants suitable for the work can be prepared, which will take a little time. For work of this kind the preparation of the plants should be the first consideration to attend to, and the construction of the rockeries should go on and be completed to suit the time when the plants would be ready to put in their places. However, circumstances over which I had no control, but which it was advisable not to allow to slip by without using, rendered the reverse of this method necessary.

96. PROTECTIVE SERVICE.-The Forest Guards made 38 arrests for infringements of what I might call forest laws. Of this number of offenders 26 were sentenced to imprisonment, 5 were fined, 4 were required to find securities, and 3 were dismissed by the Magistrates before whom they appeared. 97. The villagers of Little Hongkong maintain their bad reputation for cutting down and damaging trees, and I fear that the mischief cannot be stopped entirely until some such measures as I recently proposed shall be put into force.

98. Five months ago I reported some extensive destruction of trees which had been going on on Mount Davis systematically for apparently about twelve months. I had information which placed my suspicions on squatters near Belcher's Bay, particularly on rice-husk burners near the telegraph house, as the perpetrators of the mischief. I personally visited these people and remonstrated with them— there was not sufficient evidence for prosecution to be instituted. This was shortly before the squatters about Belcher's Bay were ejected. Since that time the mischief which had been going on has entirely ceased.

99. Although cases of tree and shrub cutting are continually going on the individual cases are, as a rule, of a comparatively trivial nature, yet if the plantations and trees of the island are to be effectively protected it is necessary to apply sharp punishments when offenders are caught, as the difficulty of bringing home punishments to the offenders is very great.

100. Altogether there is an improvement in the results of the efforts of the protective staff, as, with the exception of the cases at Little Hongkong and Mt. Davis, general tree cutting does not occur now as it did formerly.

101. GRASS FIRES.-The advent of the dry season is always accompanied with much anxiety about the plantations. The past year has witnessed fires of unusual number and extent, which have burnt a rather large number of planted as well as naturally produced trees in addition to a very large area of grass only. The fires appear to originate in Chinese Cemeteries from burning incense sticks used in worship at the graves, and from the carelessness and thoughtlessness of pedestrians in throwing down lighted matches as they pass along the roads.

102. I would here take the opportunity of requesting those of the public who have occasion to use matches as they pass along roads or over the hills, to be good enough to extinguish the fire before matches are thrown down, as by so doing they may prevent most serious damages to trees.

103. The subject of presenting barriers to the spread of fire from roads and cemeteries, or of removing inflammable material from adjacent ground, should be taken in hand very socn.

The only practicable method of accomplishing this will entail great care and skilful management of resources, which I trust will be organised in time to meet the next season's dangers.

104. QUARTERS FOR FORESTERS.-We have long suffered the want of inadequate quarters in which to accommodate the majority of the Foresters. It is most important, especially in cases of grass fires occurring, to have a large body of men on the spot, who will be available at once when they are suddenly required to extinguish fires which happen at times out of work hours, or for other purposes.

105. Arrangements are, however, now being made for the accommodation of some more men, for which I have to thank the Surveyor General in kindly meeting the requirements by converting a building, which was not wanted for other purposes, into quarters for a portion of the staff.

106. STORE AND TOOL ROOMS.-The greatest inconvenience is experienced by the very poor accommodation for the safe custody of tools and working material. However, some relief is, I believe, shortly to be experienced by the erection of sheds which are so much needed, and for which, also, Í have to thank the Surveyor General.

107. ASSISTANCE TO ROYAL ENGINEERS.-Very frequent applications have been made by the Royal Engineers' Department for assistance and advice on subjects connected with planting at the Forts and in other places. Aid, as far as possible, has been freely given.

333

108. An application, which received the approval of the Government, was made for this Depart- ment to rear a large quantity,-fifteen to twenty thousand, of Gum trees for planting on lands of the War Department. I procured seeds from Australia, and the young seedlings are all doing well. They will be ready to hand over to the Royal Engineers in about a month or two hence. It was arranged that the Royal Engineers should pay for the costs of material and labour used in rearing the

trees.

109. Appendix No. 2 shows the numbers and kinds of trees planted in the year.

110. In Appendix No. 3 I reproduce a most interesting paper by Dr. Max VON PETTENKOFER on the influence of plants and plantations. This paper will, I think, be perused with much interest at the present time when the sanitation of the Colony is receiving so much attention, Dr. Max Von PETTENKOFER Shows very clearly the great influence which trees exert in sanitary matters, and their general good effects on the well being of mankind. Some doubt is entertained as to the influence of trees on rainfall, but whether trees attract rain or not, no one can doubt but that they regulate the distribution of water, which is a most important effect. Experiments and experience also prove that trees exert a considerable influence on temperature.

111. From my own experience in Hongkong, which has extended over nearly sixteen years, I have found a reduction of several degrees, more particularly at night, of temperature at the Gardens since trees within the Gardens and in plantations around them have been planted and cast a shade over the surface of the ground. The southwest winds of the summer pass over plantations of trees extending from Victoria Gap to the Gardens before they reach the thermometers from which my observations have been made, and I have little doubt but that in travelling over this distance of tree covered land the temperature is either reduced slightly, or that there is not the augmentation of radiated heat from rocks and soil which there was when the hills were destitute of trees.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

CHARLES FORD, Superintendent,

Botanical & Afforestation Department.

Appendix No. 1.

ON THE CHINESE FAN PALM, GINGER, &c.

At the end of last October I availed myself of an opportunity at San Ui in the delta of the Canton river, and situated about 50 miles south-south-west of Canton, of seeing the cultivation of the Fan Palm, and the manufacture of fans from its leaves, as well as seeing something of the plants of the Ginger family which are cultivated by the Chinese.

FAN PALM.

Although foreigners have frequently visited the San Ui district I believe the fan palm had not been botanically examined, and some uncertainty prevailed as to the species of palm to which it belonged. Flowers and fruits, which are important organs needed in botanical determinations, were absent at the time of my visit, but I carefully examined the plants which I saw in cultivation and the examina- tion led me to the undoubted conclusion that the palm is Livistona sinensis, Mart.

The Rev. B. C. HENRY, who has travelled much in the Kwangtung province, says in his very interesting book "Ling-Nam" that the palm district extends about twenty miles from east to west, and ten miles from north to south.

It appears that fan palm cultivation is confined to the San Ui district. In reference to this Mr. HENRY says:-"That the limitation of this industry is a matter of necessity and not of choice is 'proved by attempts made at various times to cultivate the palm in other places, attempts that have "always resulted in failure."

Judging from the appearance of the country in travelling through the delta the reputed failure of the palm when its cultivation has been attempted in other places than the San Ui district could scarcely be attributed to soil, as everywhere this had much the same appearance of richness and constituency. Knowing the immense influence which winds have on the growth and success of not only delicate plants, but also on the hardiest of trees, it is possible that the uninterrupted sweep of certain winds over the flat lands of the delta, combined with some other minor uncongenial circums- tances, may be the cause of failure of the palm for commercial purposes. The San Ui district is protected by lofty hills to the north and westward, which possibly afford the conditions of shelter that the palm requires for the development of perfect leaves suitable for the manufacture of fans.

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7

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The palm plantations are situated on flat alluvial lands about six to ten feet above the water of the rivers and creeks which run through the delta, and they are intersected with numerous open canals or ditches, four feet wide and more, for carrying off the surplus water in the rainy season, and for retaining it, by means of wooden sluices fixed in the banks which surround the plantations or fields. for purposes of irrigation.

The land is not wholly given up. to palm cultivation, but other crops, as Bananas, Plantains, Papayas, Oranges, Peaches, Ginger, Betel-pepper plant, and various vegetables occupy shares of the ground.

The cultivation of the palm and the manufacture of fans from its leaves is a most important industry. According to Mr. HENRY the manufacture of the fans after the leaves have been cut gives employment to about one hundred firms and from ten to twenty thousand people.

When the plantations are made the young seedlings are placed at various distances apart in order that the different kinds of leaves which are produced from plants growing at close and wider distances asunder may be obtained for the manufacture of fans for which thick or thin, or large or small, leaves are required.

{

The most perfect plantation which I saw was about half a mile in length, and a quarter of a mile in width. It was drained by means of open canals as above described.

The main body of plants were in perfectly straight rows, and they were exactly four feet four inches apart. The stems were from two to four feet high, and they bore about six fully developed and perfect leaves, the petioles (stems) of which were five feet long, and the blade or leaf itself three feet long..

Next to and surrounding the main body of palms was a belt about a hundred feet wide of smaller palms which were growing at only two feet from each other. The stems were but one foot high, they bore the same number of leaves (six) as the larger plants, but unlike them, half the number of leaves were bad. The leaves and their stems were each one foot shorter than those on the larger plants, and the petioles were much more slender.

Outside of this belt and on the extreme margin of the plantation there was a second belt, which however was very narrow.

It consisted of only three rows of palms, the plants being very close tagether, only one foot four inches apart. None of the leaves on this belt appeared good enough for fan manufacture.

The inner belt of plants was intended by reason of thicker planting to serve as a screen to protect the main plantation from the damaging effects of winds, while at the same time it affords finer leaves for smaller fans. The marginal and closely planted belt was placed on the river bank to serve as a fence to keep intruders out of the plantation. For this purpose the palm, while in a young state, and when planted close together, is well adapted, the spines on the ptioles presenting a barrier sufficiently offensive to the bare stockingless and shoeless legs and feet of the Chinese coolie.

The long straight vistas, the regularity of the planting, and the canopy of the verdant leaves overhead produce on the visitor a delightful impression which is worth travelling some distance to experience.

Other plantations contained palms of all ages. Some had trees upwards of a hundred

years old, according to the assertions of natives, but these plantations always contained trees of mixed ages, young plants having been constantly added to take the place of older ones as they died out, or were blown down by winds. The old trees were always of a very stunted appearance, a conditon which would naturally ensue from the continued lopping of their leaves. The stems of these old trees I noticed were not more than half as thick as trees of the same height seen growing in Hongkong where the natural growth of the tree is not restricted by the loss of its leaves. A parasitical fungus or lichen covered these old trunks and gave them the appearance of having been white-washed. The tallest trees seen were only about twelve feet high, but they were said to be upwards of a hundred years old. The leaves on these old trees are larger and stouter than those on young plants, and the stems of the leaves are only about a foot long.

The palm begins to yield leaves suitable for fans when it is about six years old.

The first cutting of leaves takes place early in the year, and the leaves which are somewhat damaged by the winterly winds, and consequently of inferior quality, are used for thatch in the construction of the "matsheds" which are so extensively used for temporary purposes in China.

Leaves for fan making are obtained in April, one, two, or three leaves being taken from each plant, and the process is continued each month until November, when, I was informed, cutting is discontinued for a few months. The leaves are taken from the plantations to a clear space covered with short grass turf. Here each leaf has a thin piece of bamboo placed across the blade where it is joined on the stem. Each end of the bamboo is secured in its place by the loose end of a segment of the leaf being dexterously bound round it. The bamboo prevents the leaf curling up while it is drying. The leaves are then laid out singly on the turf to dry in the sun, and collected and stacked at night. The process is continued daily until the leaves are quite dry, when they are either sent off direct to the town to be made into fans, or they are stacked for a time until the manufacturers are ready to

receive them.

335

The manufactory of the fans is carried on chiefly in the town of San Ui, but there are also some establishments in the country where this is done.

The dried leaves are subjected to a process of blanching by means of sulphur. They are then straightened and rendered shapely by being held and manipulated over a charcoal fire. The operator as he finishes the fans places them one by one on each other making a heap on the floor; the heap is firmly pressed down by the weight of the operator who stands on a board placed on the top of the heap while he is working at succeeding fans. When a heap of twenty or thirty fans have been thus treated they are removed and another series is begun.

The next process is sewing on the bindings at the edge of the fans, this is done by women and children, chiefly at their own homes, and the fans returned when finished to the manufacturer. The more expensive fitting on of horn and bamboo handles is done at Canton.

The portion of the leaf stalk which is not required as a handle for the fan is not wasted. It is composed of a fibrous material that is utilized in making short lengths of rope used as slings to suspend baskets from carrying poles.

Around the stem and bases of the leaf stalks there is a quantity of fibrous substance somewhat resembling coir fibre. This is carefully collected and also used for making ropes.

GINGER.

Some doubt has existed as to whether the Chinese have not one or more kinds of plants in use as ginger that are unknown elsewhere. I have taken steps for collecting together and cultivating all the kinds of plants generally included by the Chinese as ginger with the hope that when in cùltivation they can be studied and observed in such a manner as to secure all possible information in connection with this subject.

While at San Ui I was fortunate in being able to obtain from cultivated plants good flowering specimens. These I dried, and together with specimens of the roots (properly rhizomes) forwarded to the Director of Kew Gardens for a study of them to be made there, where they can be compared with other kinds, or with specimens of the same kind from other places.

The specimens which I procured were, without doubt, Zingiber officinale, the species commonly in cultivation in other parts of the world.

It is, however, possible that some other plant, which is not a true ginger, may be used in making the celebrated Canton preserved ginger, but all the information which I have yet obtained points to the species Zingiber officinale as the only kind which the Chinese use for this

purpose.

The ginger cultivated on the Lo-Fau mountains has a wide reputation amongst the Chinese as being of unusual efficacy in medicine, this superior quality may however be derived merely from pecu- liarity of soil or climate which communicate to the plant exceptional properties.

GLYCOSMIS CITRIFOLIA.

Near the town Kom Chuk I observed growing rather abundantly amongst the mulberry planta- tions as shrub which had been cut down (coppiced) a good deal. On approaching nearer I found it to be Glycosmis citrifolia, a shrub indigenous in Hongkong. An inquiry as to the purpose for which it was used elicited the information that the leaves are pounded, made into cakes, and then used for making a strong kind of wine known as Chow-peng-sze. I regretted not being able to successfully pursue inquiries, and gather further information on a subject of some interest. Possibly some traveller will be able to supplement the knowledge with further particulars.

The shrub is a species of the natural order Aurantiacia to which the orange belongs. It bears a small, sweet, jelly-like, edible fruit about the size of a large pea.

ORANGES.

I inspected plantations of the orange which Mr. HENRY mentions in "Ling-Nam." It is known by the name Tim Kom. No orange which I have tasted in China equals it for sweetness, it is also very juicy and of a fine flavour Amongst the Foreign community I believe this orange is not so well known as it deserves to be. It has a high market value, the price in Hongkong being thirteen cents per pound.

While alluding to oranges I may mention that I was recently favoured with an opportunity of tasting an orange from the North, known as the Quinine Orange. This has a distinct bitter taste resembling quinine.

Mr. WM. COOPER, Her Majesty's Consul at Ningpo also kindly forwarded me a Chinese lemon of large size, but of shape nearly round, quite unlike the European lemon.

CHARLES FORD, ' Superintendent, Botanical & Afforestation Department.

i

336

Appendix No. 2.

TABLE OF KINDS AND QUANTITIES OF TREES PLANTED.

Bischoffia javanica,

Bermuda Juniper (Juniperus bermudiana),................ Bamboos,...

Candle-berry-nut Trees (Aleurites triloba); Cryptomeria japonica,...

Cork-oak (Quercus),

282

28

40

80

40

22

Camphor Trees (Cinnamomom camphora), Divi Divi (Cæsalpinia coriarea),

4,580

52

.....

Pride of India (Melia Azederach),

Pine Trees (Pinus sinensis),

Litsæa sp.,

Moreton Bay Pine (Araucaria Cunninghamii),

Privet (Ligustrum sinensis),.....

Rose-apple Trees (Jambosa vulgaris),

86

30

1,070

300

293,039

262

299,911

Appendix No. 3.

CHARLES FORD, Superintendent,

Botanical & Afforestation Department.

EXTRACT FROM THE INFLUENCE OF PLANTS" BY DR. MAX

VON PETTENKOFER.

F

"I consider the impression which plants and plantations make upon our minds and senses to be of hygienic value; further, their influence upon the conformation of the soil with which health is in many respects connected; and finally, their influence upon other qualities of the air, than carbonic acid, oxygen, and ozone: among these may be mentioned in passing, shade in summer, and decrease of wind and dust.”

"It is an old observation, needing no demonstration, that the cheerful and happy man lives not only an easier, but on the average, a more healthy life than the depressed and morose man. Medical men, and especially 'mad doctors' could tell us much of the great value of a certain relative proportion of pleasureable and painful impressions upon health, and how frequently some unfortunate position, an absence of pleasure, or too much of painful impression" is the cause of serious illness..

"I consider flowers in a room for all to whom they give pleasure, to be one of the enjoyments of life, like condiments in food. It is certainly one of the most harmless and refined. We cannot livė on pleasure alone: but, to those who have something to put up with in life, their beloved flowers per- form good service."

The same may be said of private gardens and public grounds, and of the artistic perfecting of them. The more tastefully laid out, the better the effect. Though tastes differ there is a general standard of taste which lasts for several generations though it varies from time to time, and is subject to fashion. As their object is to give pleasure, public grounds should accord with the taste of the age, or aim at cultivating it. This is a justification for going to some expense for aesthetic ends."

Modern hygiene has observed that certain variations in the moisture of the soil have a great influence on the origin and spread of certain epidemic diseases, as for instance cholera and typhoid fever-that these diseases do not become epidemic when the moisture in the soil is not above or below a certain level, and has remained so for a time. These variations can be measured with greater accuracy by the ground-water of the soil than by the rain-fall, because in the latter case we have to determine how much water penetrates the ground, how much runs off the surface, and how much evaporates at The amount of moisture in the soil of a forest is subject to considerably less variation than that outside. EBERMAYER has deduced the following result from his meteorological observations on forestry: 'If from the soil of an open space 100 parts of water evaporate, then from the soil of a forest free from underwood 38 parts would evaporate, and from a soil covered with underwood only 15 parts would evaporate. This simple fact explains clearly why the cutting down of wood over tracts of country is always followed by the drying up of wells and springs."

once.

>

"In India, the home of cholera, much importance has been attached in recent times to plantations as preventitives of it, it has been always observed that the villages in wooded districts suffer less than those in treeless plains. Many instances of this are given in the reports of Dr. BRYDEN, President of the Statistical Office in Calcutta, and Dr. MURRAY, Inspector of Hospitals. For instance BRYDEN compares the district of the Mahanadda, one of the Northern tributaries of the Ganges, the almost tree- less district of Rajpoor, with the forest district of Sambalpoor. It is stated that in the villages, in the

337

plain of Rajpoor, sixty or seventy per cent of the inhabitants are sometimes swept away by cholera in three or four days, while the wooded district of Sambalpoor is often free from it, or it is much less severe. The district commissioner, who had to make a tour in the district on account of the occurrence of cholera, reports among other things as follows:-

"The road to Sambalpoor runs for sixty or seventy miles through the forest, which round Petorah and Jenkfluss is very dense. Now it is a remarkable fact, but it is a fact, nevertheless, that on this route, traversed daily by hundreds of travellers, vehicles, and baggage-trains, the cholera rarely appears in this extent of sixty miles, and when it does appear it is in mild form; but when we come to the road from Arang, westward to Chicholee Bunglalou, which runs for about ninety miles through a barren, treeless plain, we find the cholera every year in its more severe form, the dead and dying lying by the wayside, and trains of vehicles half of whose conductors are dead.'”

"In the same report Dr. BRYDEN continues:-

"I will mention one other fact as a result of observations, namely, that places surrounded by those vast and splendid groves which are occasionally seen lying in low and probably marshy situations surrounded by hills, and which, from the mass of decaying vegetation, are very subject to fever in September, October, and November, are seldom visited by Cholera, and if it occurs there are but few deaths, while places on high ground, or in what are called fine, airy situations, free from trees and without hills near, so that they are thoroughly ventilated suffer very much from cholera.'”

MURRAY gives a number of instances showing the influence of trees on the spread of cholera, one of these may find a place here."

"The fact is generally believed and not long ago the medical officer of Jatisgar in central India, offered a striking proof of it. During the wide-spread epidemic of cholera in Allahabad, in 1859, those parts of the garrison whose barracks had the advantage of having trees near them enjoyed an indisputable exemption, and precisely in proportion to the thickness and nearness of the shelter. Thus the European Cavalry in the Wellington Barracks, which stand betwen four rows of mango trees, but are yet to a certain extent open, suffered much less than the Fourth European Regiment, whose quarters were on a hill exposed to the full force of the wind; while the Bengal Horse Artillery, who were in a thicket of mango trees, had not a single case of sickness; and the exemption cannot be regarded as accidental, as the next year the comparative immunity was precisely the same."

"We need not however go to India to observe similar instances of the influence of a certain degree of moisture in the soil favoured by woods or other conditions; we can find them much nearer home. In the cholera epidemic of 1854, in Bavaria, it was generally observed that the places in the moors were saved, in spite of the otherwise bad condition of the inhabitants. The great plain of the Danube from Newburg to Injolstadt was surrounded by places where it was epidemic, while in the plain itself there were but a few scattered cases. The same thing has been demonstrated by Reinhard, President of the Saxon Medical College. Cholera has visited Saxony eight times since 1836, and it spared the northerly district between Plusse and Spree, where ague is endemic.”

every time

"Even if these deductions must be accepted with caution from an etliological point of view, still, on the whole, they indisputably tell in favour of trees and of woods."

"Surface vegetation has also other advantages, besides its use in regulating the moisture in the soil; it purifies it from the drainage of human habitatious whereby it is contaminated and impregnated. If this refuse matter remains in soil destitute of growing vegetation, further decomposition sets in, and other processes are induced, not always of a salubrious nature, but often deleterious the products of which reach us by means of air and water and may penetrate into our houses. A great deal of heat is neutralized by evaporation from the leaves, another portion by the decomposition of carbonic acid, just so much as is set free when we burn the wood and other organic combinations into the composition of which it enters. The heat produced by burning wood in a stove is derived from the sun; it is but the captured rays of the sun again set free by combustion. We learn from EBEMAYER'S work that the temperature of the trees in a forest, and even in the tops of them, is always lower than the air in

the forest.

"}

"Besides this, shade in the open air always causes a certain draught which acts as a kind of fan. All must have noticed when walking in an oppressive heat, when the air seems still as death, that a refreshing breeze arises as soon as a cloud casts a shade."

"The shade of a single tree, therefore, cools not only by intercepting the sun's rays, but also by the effect of gentle fanning. The shelter of a thick wood, however, is much more agreeable than that of a single tree. The air in a wood is cooler than that of an open space exposed to the sun. The air from outside is drawn into the wood, is cooled by it, and cools us again. And it is not only the air that cools us, but the trees themselves. Observation has shown that the trunks of trees in a wood breast-high, even at the hottest time of day, are 5° Centigrade cooler than the air. We therefore lose considerable heat by radiation to these cooler objects, and can cool ourselves more easily at a tempe- rature of 25° Centigrade in a wood than at a much lower temperature in an open space.

CHARLES FORD,

Superintendent,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

}

395

No. 27

87.

HONGKONG.

RECLAMATION OF, AND BUILDING AT CAUSEWAY BAY.

Presented to the Legislative Council, by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government,

on the 13th May, 1887.

"

7

P

.

No. 81.

SIR,

PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT,

HONGKONG, 25th April, 1887.

The congestion of the population especially in the central portions of the city is now attaining proportions that cannot but cause anxiety to those responsible for the maintenance of the Public Health.

2. The evil becomes aggravated from year to year with the increase of fresli settlers from the mainland who are said to arrive here at the rate of 600 every month or over 7,000 every year.

3. Aware of the dangers of overcrowding, the Government has included in the Public Health Bill certain provisions against this evil.

4. But it will be of little avail legislating against overcrowding unless in anticipation of such legislation, opportunity is afforded to builders of acquiring sites for the erection of new houses for the reception of the overflow of people to be turned out of the central districts under the provisions of the new Act.

5. Quite recently, the Sanitary Board urged attention to the necessity of making opportune provision for the erection of more houses in view of the expressed intention of the Executive Government to reduce the present dangerously over- crowded condition of native tenements.

6. No time should therefore be lost in dealing with this question, and in this conception, I beg to submit in the accompanying plan a project for reclamation and house building in the Causeway Bay District by which 27 acres of ground will be rendered available for the erection of 1,200 Chinese tenements.

The pro- ject also provides for the connection of that district with the city by means of a tramway from Whitfield Station to a terminus at the Blue Buildings, Wántsai.

7. I should state at the outset that this scheme does not contemplate throwing all this land on the market at the same time, but in sections, a fresh section being sent to the hammer as soon as the portions previously sold are in process of being covered with new houses.

8. The cost of these works and reclamations may be defrayed not from the ordinary Public Revenue of the Colony, but from the premiums realized by the periodical sale of vacant Crown lands. For the purpose of creating a Fund from this source I would not however force or stimulate the sale of Crown lands but merely meet-as it arises--the normal demand for building sites in any portion of the island or Kowloon.

*

9. The accompanying plan of the Causeway Bay District shows, tinted red, the area already reclaimed from the sea, and tinted green a further area which it is now recommended should be reclaimed in order to secure the salubrity of the district.

The Honourable F. STEWART, LL.D.,

Acting Colonial Secretary,

&c.,

* Not printed.

&c.,

&c.

396

10. The portion tinted green is at present during the hours of low water, an objectionable foreshore extending out over 300 feet. The original reclamation project of 1883, had comprised this foreshore in the area to be filled in, but the great cost involved ultimately led to the curtailment of the project and only the land shewn, tinted red, has been filled in.

11. It is also recommended that the area already reclaimed (coloured red) be raised in the form of a slope to an additional height averaging three feet through- out, with a view to keeping the proposed new sewers and house drains well above sea-level and in order to give them a gradient or fall towards the sea, sufficient to impart due velocity to the flow of sewage along the main drainage arteries shewn in blue lines on the plan.

12. The sewerage of the new district could not be emptied into Causeway Bay for in this circumscribed corner of the harbour there are no tidal currents capable of carrying the noxious effluents out to sea. The contents of all main drains must therefore be gathered into one intercepting sewer and taken along the Shaukiwán Road in the direction of North Point and there emptied into the tidal current.

13. In order to reduce the size and cost of these main sewers and of the general intercepting sewer, it is not intended to lead any storm waters into them. Rain drainage may be allowed to escape into Causeway Bay.

14. It is doubtful whether Causeway Bay lots would be taken up, in any great number, unless this distant suburb is brought into cheap and speedy com- munication with the City. To meet the contingency a tramway is proposed as essential to the success of the scheme. I would have advocated the laying of a tramway from Whitfield Station to Kennedy town had the junction of the Praya along the water frontage of the Military Cantonments and Naval Yard been an accomplished fact, but in view of the uncertainty of this work being carried out, at once, I limit myself for the present to the recommendation of a line from Whitfield Station along the Praya to a terminal point at the corner of the Blue Buildings. When the Praya junction is completed the tramway can be extended to Kennedy

town.

15. The proposed new township will be intersected by streets sixty feet wide and the Chinese system of back to back houses will be rendered impossible by the interposition of ten feet lanes between each row of houses. The allotments will be 15 feet wide by 60 feet deep, these being the favourite dimensions of the native house builder. Each allotment will hold therefore only one house. Assessed for premium at the prices obtained at the recent auction sale of similar lots adjoining Whitfield Station, the 1,200 lots may realize an average of 20 cents a square foot or $180 per lot, and the total to be derived from premiums, will therefore be $216,000.

16. Based on the Crown rents of the Whitfield Station lots, i.e. $125 per quarter acre, the 1,200 allotments representing as before stated an area of 27 acres will bring in to the Colonial Treasury an annual revenue of $13,750.

17. It is estimated that the rates and taxes on the 1,200 new houses will come to about $20,625 bringing the total annual receipts up to $34,375. The purchase money i.e. $216,000 together with the first year's annual rents and taxes would therefore amount in all to $250,375.

18. The cost of filling in that portion of the ground which is shewn, tinted green, on the plan will be $70,000. The cost of a sea-wall along the sea-frontage is estimated at $35,000 while the cost of raising by another three feet the present reclamation shown tinted red will be $20,000. The main sewers and intercepting sewer are estimated at $90,000 and the formation of the new streets at $20,000. The total outlay on reclamation and sewerage works will thus amount to $235,000. In general terms and allowing a wide margin for unforeseen contingencies it may be assumed that the amount to be received in premiums when all the lots are sold, plus the first year's annual Crown rents and the house rates leviable will balance the prime cost of the works.

19. With regard to the tramway from Whitfield Station to the Blue Buildings I hope shortly to submit estimates of cost of construction, maintenance and working. It is open to doubt however whether the cost of the tramway could equitably be debited to the reclamation project inasmuch as the line would be a municipal improvement of benefit to the entire general public and not of benefit solely to Causeway Bay.

397

20. But even if the tramway is not chargeable to the Causeway Bay project, I am none the less of opinion that its construction might legitimately be defrayed from the Fund to be derived from land sales, since its realization would tend more than anything to improve the value of all private leasehold estate and of all Crown lands from Shaukiwán to Wántsai. If well and substantially built and managed by competent hands, the tramway should not only pay for itself but should yield a moderate profit to Government while to the working classes, provided the fares are kept at the lowest standard, it will prove an inestimable boon.

21. It is not impossible His Excellency the Acting Governor may be told that nobody will build at Causeway Bay, and that if landlords do build in that locality, no tenants will be found to occupy the new houses, notwithstanding the advantages of a tramway. There might be some ground for these fears if it were the intention of Government to take no steps to abate overcrowding, but as the Government will not continue an unmoved spectator of the dangerous massing of the people in the houses of the Central districts of Victoria and as a large number of crowded tenements in these districts will each in its turn be compelled by law to disgorge a large proportion of its inmates, there will be no alternative left for the people but to build more habitations. There are no sites for houses in the centre of the town, and it follows therefore that the inhabitants must gravitate towards the suburbs.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

J. M. PRICE,

Surveyor General.

1.

No.

187

HONGKONG.

CORRESPONDENCE RESPECTING CHILD ADOPTION AND DOMESTIC SERVICE AMONG CHINESE.

Presented to the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government,

on the 7th January, 1887.

(1)

Governor Sir G. F. Bowen, G.C.M.G., to Secretary of State for the Colonies.

(Copy.) No. 79.

MY LORD,

GOVERNMENT HOUSE,

HONGKONG, 22nd May, 1883.

I find that no reply has hitherto been sent to the despatch from your predecessor, Lord KIMBERLEY, No. 40,* of the 18th March, 1882, respecting alleged slavery among the Chinese at Hongkong.

2. It appears that this despatch was referred by the Administrator to Mr. RUSSELL, then Registrar General, but since created a Judge of the Supreme Court.

3. I have written to Mr. RUSSELL that I shall consider as of great value the opinion on this difficult, delicate and much controverted question of a gentleman of his ability and great experience, though he has ceased to be Registrar General. I have asked him moreover, to place himself in communication with the present Registrar General, Mr. STEWART.

4. So soon as I shall receive the reports of the above-mentioned gentlemen, I shall address Your Lordship again on this question.

The Right Honourable

THE EARL OF DERBY,

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

(C. S. O. 1814)

883

(2)

I have, &c.,

(Signed)

G. F. BOWEN.

REPORT ON CHILD ADOPTION AND DOMESTIC SERVICE AMONG

HONGKONG CHINESE.

HONGKONG, 18th July, 1886.

In the correspondence respecting the alleged "Existence of Chinese Slavery in Hongkong," presented to both Houses of Parliament, by command of Her Majesty, in March, 1882, Lord KIMBERLEY, after referring to certain safeguards for the protection of children in Hongkong, in a despatch to the Governor, states:- "But I am checked in the consideration of these and other propositions by my "uncertainty as to the facts of the system of child adoption and domestic service as it prevails in Hongkong, which are represented with the greatest diversity by "those who approve and disapprove of the system. I desire therefore that you will

<<

* See Parliamentary Blue Book [C. 3185] of 1882.

188

2

"institute a full and trustworthy inquiry into the facts, forwarding to me, as soon "as it can be completed, a report thereon, and I request that in connexion with "such report the question may be considered whether any and if so what measures "should be taken to remove any of the evils that may be brought to light by the "inquiry." (Command paper 3185 of 1882, page 123).

""

In illustration of the diversity of opinion which prevails as to the facts, Lord KIMBERLEY points out that "Sir JOHN SMALE never heard of a case of purchase for adoption in the Colony," whilst Dr. EITEL spoke of the demand for young children under the system of adoption and domestic service as being large at an average price of $40, and that Mr. FRANCIS stated "that boys are bought and sold in Hongkong for adoption."

In reporting upon the facts of child adoption and domestic service it may be convenient to group what observation I have to make under four heads, as follow :-

Where the parents or guardians volun- tarily part with their children.

i. Child adoption as existing among Chinese at Hongkong, male

and female; abuses connected therewith.

ii. Domestic service amongst Chinese living in Hongkong, con-

fined to females only; abuses connected therewith.

iii. Kidnapping; as partly chargeable to the Chinese system of

adoption or service.

iv. Suggestions for the prevention of abuses growing out of child

adoption and domestic service.

I.

77

Adoption of male children in China is founded on the necessity of having a male representative to perform sacrificial ancestral rites. So much is it so that if a men dies without male representatives as sons, natural or adopted, a son may be adopted for him by his people. The origin and reason of the requirement will be found fully described in a Chinese petition addressed to the Governor and in Dr. EITEL'S learned paper on "Domestic Servitude in relation to Slavery.' These documents are published at pages 44-57 of the Blue-book already referred to. The rule among the Cantonese when adoption is decided upon is to seek a nearly related male agnate of a generation younger, generally a nephew. The father as a rule will give any of his boys but the eldest. The second son is the one usually selected. The principal members of the clan are notified of the fact of adoption. Among near relatives no money appears to pass and no "deed of sale" or "deed of gift is made. If, however, the relations are very poor, a small sum of money may be given to the parents, called "compensation money for the expense of rearing the child," and in that case, a "presentation card" or paper reciting the transaction is given to the adopting parents, but there is no "deed of sale," properly so-called, as in the case of strangers, as will presently appear.

If the head of the family desires to adopt a male child as a son and is unable to obtain a relation, he is apparently at liberty to adopt a stranger-in-blood, for whom, however, he almost invariably pays a price. The stranger may be of the same surname, although of a different clan-if so all the better. A "deed of sale" is almost invariably executed and given to the new parents. The surname and name are changed and the clan is notified of the fact. A stranger thus adopted be- comes entitled to the same rights and privileges as one adopted from among

relatives.

Adopted sons, whether relatives or strangers, have equal rights with natural- born sons, and if after adoption a son is born to the adopting parents the adopted son loses none of his rights, but shares equally in the patrimony with the natural- born son. Sons take equal shares, whether by the lawful wife or by a concubine.

The Fokienese, Hakka and Chin Chew people in the Colony are apparently not so tied down to seeking male relations for adoption as are the Cantonese.

:

189

3

Adoption of female children as daughters.

The system is conducted in the same manner as the adoption of males; but comparatively few female children are adopted. They have equal rights with natural born daughters. They are provided with a dowry when married, but, like natural-born daughters, they have no other claim on the inheritance. The daughter takes nothing by an intestacy. Every woman is supposed to get married; on doing so she "leaves the family" and is absolutely in manu of the husband, even to a power of sale.

""

It is to be feared, however, that a very considerable number of female children are adopted from amongst strangers, (and therefore with a money payment,) with the intent that they should ultimately become prostitutes. These children are called "pocket-daughters." Their so-called mothers are called "pocket-mothers." They are taught Chinese music, and are regularly trained for the profession of courtezans. At an early age they are the victims of debauchees, who "deflower them in sly brothels," paying the "pocket-mother" a large price, and the girl is thus launched on a brothel career. These young girls are said to be brought from Canton or Macao at the age of 13 or 14 years, "and are deflowered according to bargain and as a regular matter of business for large sums of money, which go to "their owners, frequently it would appear their own parents. The regular earnings "of the girls go to the same quarter, and the unfortunate creatures obviously form "subjects of speculation to regular traders in this kind of business who reside "beyond our jurisdiction." (See Hongkong Contagious Diseases' Commission, 1879, page 45).

66

CC

II.

Domestic Service amongst Chinese.

"}

The most careful inquiry shews that no male children are bought and sold here as slaves or servants, and confirms the statements in the Blue-book that Boys are sold to be sons not slaves" and "that no such thing as a slave boy exists in Hongkong." It might too with truth have been added "nor in Canton." By Chinese custom and usage, for the purpose of domestic service Chinese female children are often pledged with a power of redemption, but more frequently purchased out and out from poor parents. The price varies considerably. I have known of a young child being bought at Macao for a dollar. A "deed of sale," or a "deed of gift" as it is more frequently called, is given to the purchaser. This "deed of gift of course is a mere euphemism. It is a bill of sale, and purports to sell and convey a title with a warranty. Money is given as the consideration for the control of the services of the child, iu most cases for ever without redemption." The purchaser has a power of re-sale, although some dispute it. It is certainly exercised amongst the Chinese in the mainland, and occasionally in Hongkong. Their books have a common form of re-sale. (See appendix for a number of forms).

...

It is not within the scope of this Memorandum to discuss the question how far children of poor chinese benefit by the existence of their custom of sale, or how far infanticide is checked thereby. That has been done elsewhere, and was the subject of debate in the House of Lords. (Hansard, vol. 253, page 398, of 21st June, 1880). But it is certain that the parents give for money and by deed or other written instrument a complete power over their child, and purport to divest them- selves of all control over its future. They make certain stipulations such as that when the girl grows up she shall be married. The Chinese Officials recognise these bargains of pledge and sale as binding, even, it appears, where the child has been previously stolen provided the purchaser has complied with the custom in getting a deed with the go-between as witness and agent. They would restore a runaway purchased servant to the vendee, as will be seen from the correspondence enclosed in a despatch to the Secretary of State in the time of Sir RICHARD MACDONNELL. (See 337 of 29th July, 1867). In that case, a girl was the purchased servant of a Mandarin. She was nearly 19 years. She came to Hongkong because she had been beaten, and the British Consul at the request of the Mandarins asked that she might be sent back, as the master had a property" in her. The Governor very emphatically refused to recognise any such subject of property in this Colony, and said that as the girl was guilty of no crime, and wished to stay in Hongkong, he would not give her up.

CC

i

L

:

190

The Canton authorities also demanded in 1869 the rendition of a girl 21 years of age and her father on the ground that the girl's father and grand-mother had betrothed her in infancy. The girl was born in Hongkong. The father-a Chinese domiciled here and the daughter refused to carry out the engagement, because the intended husband was reputed to be a leper. The Canton authorities claimed her as "belonging" to the intended husband and his family. It is needless to say that the girl was allowed to exercise her own free will (see Governor MACDONNELL'S despatches to Secretary of State 790 of 1869 and 855 of 1870). The Governor very clearly laid down the principles which Englishmen maintain as to "holding property in persons " and what would be the conduct of the Government of Hongkong vis-à-vis China in such cases; and no chance has ever since been lost of bringing out the difference between our law and theirs, and of pointing out the uncompromising requirements of the English race on questions of personal liberty. The obligations cast by Chinese custom upon the purchasers of servants are only enforced by social sanction. They do not seem to be enforced by any positive law. It is said that good masters and good mistresses never sell their purchased servants as prostitutes nor sell them at all unless when compelled to do so by poverty, and then they sell them to good people. This would seem to admit the power to sell as prostitutes. By Ordinance No. 2 of 1875 any person who purchases or sells in the Colony for prostitution any woman or female child or brings into the Colony any woman or female child purchased or sold out of the Colony for the purposes of prostitution, or harbours or receives them knowing them to have been purchased or sold for such purpose, is liable to two years' hard labour, and on a second conviction the offender, if a male, may be flogged. Indeed, the provisions of this Ordinance for the protection of women and children are of the strictest nature. was introduced in 1873 and amended in its present form (see Appendix L).

It

In Hongkong, transactions of pawning and sale of girls as domestic servants have taken place both before and since British Government was established here, and no doubt will take place to some extent in spite of all our efforts; for the system is a recognised institution among some 250 millions of people, and as long as the Colony, part of which is on the mainland of China, is peopled by Chinese, cases of buying and selling girls for purposes of domestic service, with some of the abuses inherent in the system, must necessarily occur. It is obviously impossible to get the Chinese public mind to see any great wrong in an institution which their books shew to have existed almost from time immemorial. But it will be seen from the Blue- book already cited that the respectable Chinese here are most anxious to put down sales for prostitution. They think, however, that the advantages of their system of adoption and child service much outweigh the evils attendant on it, and I take it from Lord KIMBERLEY'S speech in the House of Lords, 21st June, 1880, and his published despatches, that Her Majesty's Government is satisfied that if there were proper guarantees against the abuses connected with the Chinese methods of adoption and of domestic service, the mere fact of a money payment would not be sufficient reason for proceeding otherwise than gradually against these systems, which are the natural concomitants of Chinese patriarchalism. There are signs, however, amonst the Chinese of what Sir HENRY MAINE calls "the movement from Status to Contract" and "the ideas of which the race is capable" shew themselves to be different from what they were when the eminent author of "Ancient law" published that work. But, as already observed, no opportunity is lost by the Officials of the Colony in proclaiming the rights of the Chinese here, the freedom of the subject, man, woman and child. It is emphatically impressed upon the inhabitants, that the payment of money for a child confers no title which English Officers will recognise. Again and again has it been pointed out by the Judges of the Supreme Court, by the Magistrates, and Police Officers, that no valid claim can be set up to the custody of any person because of a money payment, and the grown up permanent residents of the Colony and its frequenters thoroughly know our laws on this point. Frequently, at the Police Courts and the Police Stations and at the Registrar General's office claims of right by purchase have been set aside accompanied by a strong admonition. If there was a breach of criminal law there has always been punishment; and although in the course of time, not far distant it is hoped, the knowledge of English laws and customs will permeate the neighbouring province and no claim by right of purchase will be thought of here, nevertheless, as Lord KIMBERLEY remarks, "the position of the children now under consideration "is one of peril, which may require safeguards," (par. 18, page 123 printed papers). For undoubtedly there are children bought as servants, who are brought up by abandoned women with the ultimate object of prostitution either here or at the

+

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:

5

or

Straits Settlements. The American market is now no longer open. Young girls, brought up with the idea that they are the property of their "pocket-mothers mistresses (and that they are so the "pocket-mothers" and mistresses inculcate with much assiduity), cannot be expected to make much fight for liberty or virtue even if they all knew their rights. As a matter of fact the loyalty of these girls to their "pocket-mothers" or mistresses is such that often when they seek to be registered as prostitutes and are closely catechised as to their freedom, they will break into tears and protest that not only are they willing to become prostitutes but that it is their wish in order to provide for their mother or father or some near relations. The notion of duty of a Chinese daughter, natural-born or adopted, is that she must postitute herself if the person in loco parentis indicates that it is expected of her. Frequent reports have shewn how difficult it is to get these girls to help themselves; and that although they know they can claim their freedom, as a rule they feel that to do so would be dishonest to the women who had bought them at Canton and placed them in brothels. In recent years, however, an improvement has been apparent. The trouble that the Government has taken to explain the position of these unfortunate women has not been in vain. In every room in every Chinese registered brothel in the Colony a printed notice is exhibited explaining that the girls are free, and that if they have been deceived, pledged, or sold they can always get their liberty at once. Every registered woman gets one of these papers. Their visitors see and read these papers to them, and some man who perhaps fancies one of these girls for a concubine tells her that she has only to go with him. He easily persuades her to leave; often abandons her afterwards, or perhaps he may induce her to go to the Straits Settlements ostensibly as his wife and sell her into a brothel there. But that many more of these women now leave the brothels than formerly without paying up their mistresses what they owe, or letting the pocket-mother know their intentions is unquestionable. The consequence is that the brothel keepers find that to advance money on a girl on a promise of brothel service is an unsafe security, and before long I believe no such advances will be made in Hongkong, a result greatly to be desired.

III.

Kidnapping partly chargeable to the Chinese systems of

Adoption and Domestic Service.

I have shewn in the foregoing paragraphs how by a fraud upon the parents the Chinese system of purchasing female children for adoption and domestic service is abused. My remarks have been directed to the training up of girls for prostitu- tion and selling them into "brothel slavery" when the parents had voluntarily parted with their offspring in order to be daughters and servants, " to be provided with husbands when they came to womanhood"; but there is yet another evil which the Chinese themselves admit their custom encourages. I refer to kidnapping. In China that crime is a capital offence. A kidnapper loses his head very promptly if caught and convicted on the other side of our boundary. In Hongkong the crime was found to be so common that in 1868 a law was passed which enabled the Supreme Court to flog in addition to other punishments. That law had a very wonderful effect. It did not apply of course to women, and hence female child- stealers were more common than males.

Children are stolon (1°) to be ransomed.

(2o.) to be sold.

When a child is missing the parents advertise in the public thoroughfares and offer rewards, and the person who has stolen the child or a confederate pretends to find the child and obtains the reward, or, what is more frequent when the children (whether males or females) are stolen from Canton or the country, the children are sold to be adopted sons or domestic servants. There are generally four or five persons engaged in this transaction. The child-stealer manages to get three or four old women to find out somebody who wants to buy a son or daughter or servant. The child has been carefully taught to call its kidnapper "mother or "aunt"; or "father" or "uncle," if a man. The intending purchaser sees the child and inquires how it comes to be sold. The go-between and other women vouch that it is owing to the poverty of the parents, and the child when questioned will

""

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repeat perhaps that its father is dead, and that the person offering it for sale is the mother. Grief at parting with the child is easily assumed to keep up appearances. A bill of sale is made out, the money is paid, and the kidnapper goes away with the proceeds. The old women who are invariably called in to help in the transac- tion get a dollar or two, and the purchaser, who may have bought the child according to Chinese custom in all good faith, finds himself in the hands of the Chinese Mandarins or, if in Hongkong, at the Police Court. There is this difference, however, in the action taken before the different authorities. In China the child's parents cannot get back the child until the purchaser has been refunded what he has paid (I assume that the formal documents have passed); whereas in the English Court the purchaser is very lucky if he can prove that he believed he got the child from its legal custodians. A case occurred in the beginning of this year, Wong a Hoi's case, in reference to a kidnapped or decoyed girl who was taken to Canton from here and sold for $65. A man who recommended the seller was also security as go-between. This Government applied to the British Consul to get the girl back. I gave a letter addressed to the Consul to a witness and the mother of the girl. An official from the Nam Hoi Magistrate's Yamen went to the people who had the girl. The guarantor had to pay up the money and the girl was sent down here through the Consul. The Chinese authorities, I was informed, through the Po Leung Kuk, made the guarantor pay up before taking away the child. The fact therefore that the Chinese systems of adoption and service thus recognise money payments would seem to render Hongkong a desirable market, seeing moreover that the punishment here for kidnapping compared with that of China is of the mildest nature; and hence that crime would appear, at least to some extent, to be fostered and encouraged by such systems being permitted here. There are checks and considerations, however, which counteract the evil, as will presently appear.

IV.

Suggestions for the better prevention of abuses arising from the Chinese systems of Child Adoption and Domestic Service; checks already existing.

The abuses arising from the Chinese system of child adoption and purchased service are therefore :--

1o Fraud in causing females to be reared and pawned or sold as pros- titutes when the parents parted voluntarily with their children for adoption or service.

2o. Kidnapping of male and female children because they can be sold for

considerable sums of money.

I have tried to find out what is the number of children, male and female, in the Colony who are adopted sons and daughters and also the number of pur- chased servants, but although I have applied to many well-informed Chinese to give an approximate number I cannot get them even to form a conjecture, and the Registrar General has been unable to get any approximation either. In the absence of a census it would be impossible to form a notion of their number and the Chi- nese say that even a census would not be reliable, for the respectable Chinese do not like to speak of their adopted children. They prefer that the adopted children should think that they are natural-born, and obviously the disreputable people would strive to keep from the knowledge of the authorities the nature of the rela- tion existing between themselves and female children who are being reared for an improper life. Therefore any estimates of the number which have been put for- ward by the various writers on this subject must be regarded as purely conjectural.

Although I have pointed out that Hongkong might be reckoned a suitable place for the operations of the kidnapping fraternity, nevertheless the checks now in force have made it an undesirable resort for them. The Government has been

fully alive to the abuses connected with the system. The Imperial Act 24 and 25 Vict. C. 100 is in force here. In 1873, an Ordinance was passed for protection of women and children, and in 1875 it was found necessary to amend it-see Appendix. In addition to these stringent laws the following existing safeguards are to be noted:---

.

193

1o. Increased knowledge on the part of the people of late years. The permanent residents know that they have no claim on a child which has been stolen and which they have purchased either for adoption or service under the belief that it was sold by its parents, and they also know the difficulty in escaping from the penalties provided by the law against harbouring or receiving or buying or selling knowing the child to have been kidnapped. They also know that by English law the fact of money having been paid to a parent of itself gives no claim to the possession of the child even as against the parent who had received the money.

2o. Rewards are given by the Government for the detection of kidnappers, and by the "Chinese Society for the protection of women and children."

3o. The system of photographing for purposes of identification in order to prevent personation of registered prostitutes and women and children who pass the Emigration office, and the promulgation of the fact that such a system exists.

4°. Every registered prostitutes gets a paper in Chinese telling her of her freedom and every room in every brothel has a notice affixed like the one annexed. (See Appendix).

*

The frequency with which steamers leave the Colony for Singapore and Penang led to much kidnapping of both young girls and women and children. Children were easily passed as those of Chinese returning to Singapore. Girls too and women were said to be personated before the Emigration Officer. Others who had been decoyed were said to be put on board the steamer when the vessel was about to start. Other frauds of substitution were frequently reported. Having found the system of photographs very successful in preventing personation in the registered brothels the Government, on my recommendation last year adopted the same system with reference to women and children about to emigrate. The system with intending emigrants is as follows: A woman or child takes each two photo- graphs to the Emigration Officer. He enquires as to their freedom. If they are passed one photograph is stamped, the name inscribed on it, and it is numbered. It is given to the emigrant. Duplicates are filed at the office and are preserved for three months. Any one who loses a child, wife, or sister can go to the Emigration Office and inspect the Albums. If the missing one is on board a telegram is gene- rally sent to the Singapore Government asking that inquiries should be made. By an arrangement with this. Government the Straits Government requires every woman and child to produce the stamped photograph, and the officer there would immediately detect the person presenting a wrong one. The Po Leung Kuk write on the 13th September, 1882, (see Registrar General's letter of the 19th submitting a translation):-"We are of opinion that since its adoption(i. e., photo- "graphing brothel inmates) the number of young people who are inveigled into the Colony or brought for the purposes of prostitution has gradually decreased." The Society highly approved of the extension to emigrants of the photographing system and made some suggestions which are adopted. I also append returns of the number of cases of kidnapping, including illegal detention of women and children, and sales of women for prostitution and emigration for the last 10 years. From these returns it appear that fewer persons have been convicted in 1882 than in any year since 1874 although the population has increased 25 per cent. since then, and compared with 1880 the number of persons convicted of those crimes is. as 29 is to 68; a very marked change. The number of

persons convicted up to June 30th this year is only 4, and one extradition case to Singapore, and no case has been grave enough to send to the Supreme Court. This result must be consi- dered satisfactory.

""

In paragraph 18 page 123 of the Blue-book cited above Lord KIMBERLEY partially discusses three different suggested remedies. His first suggestion is to make it a misdemeanour to purport to pass a child for money in the Colony. The objections to that change in the Criminal law His Lordship himself pointed out. I think they are almost fatal and that our present Criminal law goes as far as a general regard for liberty will permit. His Lordship's third scheme, namely, registration of adopted children, had been thought of and already suggested; but there are in my opinion insuperable objections to that plan. The best informed

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Chinese think so too; for it will be remembered that money always passes when strangers-in-blood are adopted, as well as in cases of domestic service. The regis- tration of such a transaction at a Government office would be at once construed as giving a good title in virtue of the money payment and it would be used against a child seeking its freedom. Frequently Chinese will come to the Registrar General's office and ask to have a transaction of sale into adoption witnessed with the view of having the fact recorded that a certain amount of money was advanced or paid. This is to preserve evidence in case a claim is made for the child. The danger therefore is that the Government would be compromised by countenancing in any way a transaction where money was paid for a child. I think a modification of Lord KIMBERLEY'S second suggestion would be practicable, as it is based on the universal custom of giving security which prevails in China. It would work smoothly and probably accomplish much good. At all events it might be tried as an experiment.

The scheme which I suggested is that power should be given to the Registrar Ge- neral to summon before him suspicious persons who had "pocket-daughters" or female domestic servants, and in his discretion to call upon them to find reasonable security for their bona fides towards such children. The Registrar General should associate with himself say three or four members of the Po Leung Kuk-the Chinese society for the protection of women and children-who would advise him as a Consulting Committee. He should also have power to summon before him all women of disreputable character who kept girls between the ages of 8 and 16 inclusive by virtue of adoption or of purchase for domestic service. He should have power to require the attendance of the girls at his office before himself and the consulting Chinese Committee. He should be able also to summon persons as witnesses who could give information about either the children or their so-called owners. The girl could be instructed in her rights in cases of suspicion and shewn how she could be protected; and the woman put under a rule of bail to produce the girl when required. There should also be a power of appeal in a summary way to a Judge in chambers against any order of the Registrar General, and the Registrar General should be empowered to apply to a Judge for a writ of Habeas · Corpus, with the view of taking away any child from the custody of persons who had no right to keep it, and whose retention of it militated against the child's interests. The Judge of course would be governed by the principles of English law and make such order as the best interests of the child demanded. The knowledge of the existence of such a power and its occasional exercise would, in my opinion, be most useful, and the leading Chinese whom I have consulted think it is the only practical method yet suggested which whilst not interfering with the respectable and settled population would be a very powerful aid towards sup- pressing the "Tsó Chû fa" nurseries. for rearing up young girls for immoral purposes. The names of the. consulting Chinese Committee should be approved by the Governor. The Committee would have no executive power. Their function would be purely consultative. By way of further precaution, and for the better promulgation of our law of liberty, I think there might also be erected in some of the public thoroughfares on the borders of our territory on the mainland and near some of the Chinese wharves stone tablets with inscriptions to the effect that in British territory no such thing as slavery existed, and that all transactions of purchase and sale of children were null and void. Similar tablets might be placed at the Temples and Theatres and other places of public resort. The Chinese promulgate edicts by proclamations and have engraved on stone what they want to be permanent. I would suggest also that notice boards should be put up per- manently in the River steamers pointing out that every woman and child had a right to personal freedom and that no money bargain could be valid on English soil. On the steamers plying between Canton and here, and Macao and this port, and in the passenger steamers to the Straits Settlements such notices are posted up by the Emigration Officer warning people who go before him that they are free to refuse to go on board if they wish, and that they can complain to the officers on the ships or at Singapore. A more general statement of the rights of all persons might be prepared and painted on white boards. With these precautions in addition to those now in force; and a continued vigilant care on the part of all Judicial and Executive officers to promptly attend to all cases where there is any suspicion against the liberty of the subject, the abuses arising from the system of domestic service and adoption will be all but put a stop to, whilst the views of the Chinese-who are the bulk of the population-will be met, and their customs and

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usages maintained, (so far as is consistent with perfect freedom of the subject) as was promised them when Hongkong was erected into a Colony and they were invited to settle here.

TO RECAPITULATE.

1o. It is shewn that child adoption in China and among the Chinese in Hong- kong is always accompanied by the payment of money and a "deed of gift" or bill of sale when the adopted are strangers-in-blood; and that even money passes in the case of relatives if the parents of the adopted child are poor or not nearly related to the adopting parents.

2o. It is shewn that male children are not bought and sold as servants in Hongkong nor in the Canton province, but that female children are disposed of for money by their parents according to Chinese usage and custom, and that the Chinese authorities recognise such sales as binding if executed with due formalities, whilst Hongkong treats all such transactions as null and void, giving no rights and conferring no title.

3o. It is shewn that the abuses arising from the Chinese system of money passing in the case of adoption and domestic service are :—

1o. Kidnapping to some extent.

2o. Brothel bondage; and that female children who are voluntarily parted with by their parents for daughters and servants may be sold as prostitutes by disreputable persons.

4o. It is shewn that claims set up by Chinese to ownership on the ground of purchase have been promptly set aside in Hongkong and the claimants punished for any assault or offence committed against the person claimed-and that no oppor- tunity has been lost of proclaiming the freedom of the subject.

5o. It has been shewn that the laws have been amended from time to time to the utmost limit to protect women and girls and children against forced or fraudu- lent emigration or sales for purposes of prostitution, (see Ordinance 2 of 1875, annexed).

6o. It has been shewn that the supervision of brothels, the instructing the registered women as to their rights, and the system of photographing registered prostitutes and women and children who intend to emigrate, have done much good and that there has been an enormous reduction in the kidnapping cases and sel- ling women for prostitution since the introduction of those measures, convictions being 29 persons in 1882 as against 68 in a former year, and only 4 up to the present date.

7°. It has been shewn that there are fatal objections to the registration of children purchased for adoption or domestic service, and it is suggested that the Registrar General and a Chinese Committee should investigate cases of a suspicious nature with power to call upon "pocket-mothers" to give security for their bonâ fides towards "pocket-daughters"; also that the Registrar General should be able to apply to a Judge in Chambers for a writ of Habeas Corpus with the view of taking away from improper custodians a purchased child. It is also suggested that stone tablets stating the law of freedom on English soil should be erected in places of public resort.

J. RUSSELL.

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APPENDIX TO REPORT ON CHILD ADOPTION AND DOMESTIC SERVICE AMONGST THE HONGKONG CHINESE.

A.-Form of transfer of a son for adoption, taken from "Book of Domestic Rites." B.-Letter of Instructions to an adopted son, stating how he was adopted. C.-Deed of Sale, in the case of the adoption of a Stranger-in-blood. D.-Bill of Scale where a boy was decoyed from Canton and sold in Kaulung.

The Hawker's case,

see page 33 of Blue-book C 3185 of 1882, (two women sentenced to 18 months each). E.-Deed of Sale of a daughter as a Servant, from "Book of Domestic Rites." F.-Endorsement of Re-sale of a Servant, from "Book of Domestic Rites."

C.-Deed mortgaging a Daughter as a Servant.

H.-Deed of Sale of a Daughter as Servant, where same girl is transferred to another, endorsement

on the same paper.

I.-"Presentation Card" of a Daughter to be a Servant (Money passes, and the term present is of

course only a fiction). ·

J.-Bill of Sale put forward by a Claimant for a Child.

K.-

-Sale of a grown-up daughter as a concubine from Sir T. WADE's Documentary Series. L.-Ordinance 6 of 1873, with statement of odjects and reasons.

M.-Ordinance 2 of 1875, with statement amended.

N.-Notices to Registered Prostitutes, of their freedom on British soil however they may have got

there.

O.-Emigration Officer's Notices of photographs required to prevent personation of Women and

Children, who have duly passed for Emigration.

P.-Return of Kidnapping cases in Hongkong from 1872 to June 30th, 1883, including sales of

women for prostitutes.

-Return of Kidnapping cases in Hongkong from January, 1883, to July, 1883, including sales

of women for prostitutes.

R.-Notices on Steamers with view to prevent kidnapping into or from Hongkong.

A.

Form from the Vol. 12 of « Ka-lai-tai-tsün” or “Complete Set of Domestic Rites.”

TRANSFER OF A SON FOR ADOPTION.

This agreement is drawn up by

who has a second son

aged

clan, being in want of posterity, selects (this son) to be his son. I and my wife

a junior member of the clan years. A senior member of the

do hereby give our consent to our second son going over to his family to be brought up by his wife in order to continue his family line. I have, this day, in conjunction with my wife, received

dollars for nursing my son, who

will this day enter the family, and will obey the directions of the senior member and his wife. When he has attained to manhood, he will be married, and his offspring will for ever be considered the descendants of the senior member. The family inheritance is not to be squandered nor wasted in profligacy by him, and no others are to usurp the same under any pretext whatsoever. This is agreed to by both parties. In future, I will neither go back on my word, nor instigate (the son) to rebel, nor to leave (the family of the senior member) with abundance after he came to it empty handed, nor will I depart from what has been agreed on. But my desire is that he may have a continuous line of descendants. In proof whereof, this agreement is drawn up.

Dated

Signed

Transferor of the son.

Signed

Nearest relatives.

Signed

Go-between.

Signed

Witness to the adoption.

Signed

Wife of the Transferor.

Signed.

Elder brother of the son.

11-

B.

197

Form from Vol. 12 of "Ka-lai-tai-tsün" or " Complete Set of Domestic Rites."

LETTER OF INSTRUCTIONS REFERRING TO AN ADOPTED SON.

makes this document with a view to giving instructions to an adopted son who is to continue the family line. Being waning in good deeds and virtuous acts, I, the said have had no children born to me. In consideration of what an important thing it is to have an heir, I have this

day of

moon convened a meeting of my nearest relatives to discuss the question of adopting a son, and the said nearest relatives having declined to give any of their sons, although they have several, to be adopted, it is resolved to select a son of a clansman of the same degree of seniority (as myself.) introduces and recommends the second son of and aged

nearest relatives

ms

are all agreeable to as my son and successor. and wife

family named years. He belongs to. the same clan, and is of a suitable descent. Moreover

and his wife

have several sons, and they and their being adopted by I have, this day, paid

dollars to to be taken home by them as compensation This letter of instructions is this day executed, has come over to my house, and when he will rest the power of marrying him, so that he may beget offspring by which I may have prosperous descendants. This will be no concern of

In proof thereof, this deed is executed.

for their trouble of nursing and rearing the boy. and signed by all (present). After arrives at manhood, with me

Dated.

Signed

The

person making this letter of instructions:

Signed.

Nearest relatives.

Signed

Go-between.

Signed

Witness to the adoption.

Signed

Father giving his son in adoption.

Signed

Mother.

Signed

First son of parenis giving son in adoption.

C.

Furnished by the Chairman of Directors of the Tung-wa Hospital, Hongkong-- Mr. Li Tak-cheong-July, 1883.

FORM OF DEED OF SALE OF A SON INTO ADOPTION.

day of the

Village in

A and Mrs. A of

District, the parties executing this deed of permanent sale of a son, being unable to support themselves on account of poverty, and having many children, consulted together, and willingly invited people to purchase their (4th) son as an adopted son. The boy is

years of age, having been born in

on the moon, and is named

(or is not yet named), and they demanded the sum of

dollars as nursing money (or ginger and cake money). He (the boy) was, through the agency of the go-between B, introduced to the family of Mr. C, who expressed his willingness to buy him as an adopted son, and consented to pay the full demand of dollars as nursing-money (or ginger and cake money). The bargain, which was settled in the presence of the three parties (A, B, & C), and agreed to by both parties, was satis- factorily made on this date in the presence of all. This is a clear case of purchase and sale, and is not a case of giving the boy as a set-off against debts. After the boy is once sold, Mr. C is permitted to bring him up to manhood, and give him a name. He must remain as Mr. C's adopted son for ever, and when he is grown-up, Mr. C is likewise at liberty to engage a teacher to teach him. If in future, he attains to fame or becomes illustrious, takes a wife or concubine, and has children and grandchildren, all these concern Mr. C's family. May he follow his (adopted) father's trade, and have a never ending line of descendants! May he henceforth have a numerous progeny and everlastingly enjoy prosperity! Hereafter, the vendors cannot go back on their word, or redeem the boy, who is for ever prevented from taking back his own father's surname. The purchaser, however, is not allowed to make the boy a slave, or to re-sell him to another person, or to do other

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things of the like in respect of the boy. If anything unforeseen happens to the boy, it will be held to be the will of heaven, and no one can gainsay these words. Further, if there should be anything doubtful about the boy's antecedents, this must be cleared up satisfactorily by the vendors and go- between: it is no concern of the buyer. Lest there is no proof of this bargain, this deed of nent sale of the boy is executed, and handed to Mr. C in evidence thereof.

Received from Mr. C the sum of

perma-

dollars as nursing money.

(Signed)

B

go-between.

Mrs. B

"

وو

Witness.

"

A

""

"

Mrs. A (Finger mark).

Dated

day

moon

year.

D.

Copy of the Bill of Sale where the Kaulung Druggist bought a boy who was decoyed from Canton-See page 33 of Blue-book C. 3185 of 1882,

TRANSLATION.

An absolute deed of gift of a male child aged 13 years is executed by Li-piu, a native of Ko Iu. In consequence of want of maintenance, I at first offered (the child) to my nearest relatives to bring (him) up, which offer, however, was not accepted. Through the introduction of a go-be- tween (I was introduced) to one Lau-pak-cheung, who agreed to rear (the child) and to adopt (him) as (his) nephew. This day $28 at 7.1 as ginger money (compensation) is paid over to Li-piu, who has received it with his own hand for his family expenses, and Lau-pak-cheung will bring him up and use him (as a nephew). On (the child) being handed over there can for ever be no claim whatever.

There is no compulsion or extortion between both parties. For fear of oral words not being sufficient evidence, (this) deed is therefore executed, and is to be retained (by him or her) as proof hereof.

Witnesses to payment,

WONG SHI

CHAN SHI Finger marks. KWAN SHI

The boy's age is 13 years, born at 10 A.M. on the 16th day of the 8th month. Dated 24th day of the 2nd moon in the Ki Mo 5th year of Kwong Sü (i.e. 16th March, 1879).

E.

Form from Vol. 12 of the" Ka-lai-tai-tsün” or “ Complete Set of Domestic Rites.”

DEED OF SALE OF A SERVANT.

and wife

hour of

of a daughter, have a daughter named

been born at

day of

, the parties executing this deed of sale who is at present years of age, having moon. She has not yet been betrothed

to any one. Being poor, and finding it hard to earn our livelihood, and wishing to sell our daughter we have been introduced, through the agency of the go-between who undertakes to purchase her. The price, which is

to dollars, has been paid to us this

day, and will be taken to our home to meet our wants. On the same day, the daughter will go over to the house (of the purchaser), who will be at liberty to change her name, use her as a servant, and to betroth her when she is grown-up. If she should abscond, we the said

·

will co-operate (with the purchaser) in making search for her, and deliver her back (to the purchaser if found). If anything unforeseen should happen to her, such will be held to be the will of Heaven. This is agreed to by both parties. The sum given above is the exact amount paid. This is not a case of giving her up as a set-off against a debt. In future, we cannot avail of any pretext to go back on our words, or redeem her. As a proof (of the transaction), this deed of sale is executed, and handed over (to the purchaser).

Dated

Signed

The party executing this deed of sale of a daughter.

Signed

Witness to payment and go-between.

Signed

Wife who has taken part in the sale and received the money.

"

199

I

13-

F.

Form from Vol. 12 of the “Ka-la-tai-tsün

"

or

Complete Set of Domestic Rites.”

DEED OF RE-SALE OF A SERVANT GIRL.

have this

through the instrumentality of the go-between

to

day of

moon of

year,

re-sold this servant girl named taels, standard weight,

as a servant, for the sum of as agreed upon in the presence of the three parties. I have, this day, in the presence of the go- between, personally received the money, and the servant girl is to go forthwith to the house (of the purchaser). The family of

will be at liberty to change her name, and use her as.

as a servant. An additional proof.

This should be endorsed on back of the first deed of sale.

G.

Form from the "Ka-lai-tai-tsün," Vol. 12.

DEED PLEDGING A SERVANT.

a daughter named

and his wife

aged

to

>

the parties executing this deed pledging years, born at

hour of

>

day of

moon, who has not yet been betrothed. Being poor and not having enough for our daily wants, and being desirous of pledging our daughter, we have been introduced, through the agency of the go-between'

who undertakes to take her on

taels in

dollars, and On the same date, (the daughter) going to take her on pledge), and If the principal and interest due considered as sold, and cannot be over (to the person taking the

pledge. The principal advanced on this day for the pledge is interest is fixed at

candareens per tael per mensem. will enter the house (of the person who is mace will be paid for her maintenance every month. are not repaid in the course of a year, (the daughter) will be redeemed. In proof hereof, this deed is executed, and handed daughter on pledge).

Dated.

Signed.

Mortgagor.

Signed

Witness to payment and go-between.

Signed.

Wife who is a party to the pledging.

H.

Deed of Sale of a Female Servant with power of redemption-endorsement of re-sale.

This deed of permanent sale of a daughter is executed by

Being poor, and in need of money to meet my wants, and having consulted my wife, I wish to offer for sale this daughter of mine named

and aged

years, that I

may meet my wants with the money paid for her. At first, my nearest relatives and neighbours were invited to purchase her, but they would not undertake to do so. She is afterwards, through the agency of the go-between,

introduced to

who undertakes to purchase her, and the price On this day, the deed is executed, the purchase who will take it home with his is at liberty to bring her up, and use her will her to a proper person. If

marry

is fixed in the presence of three parties at 35 dollars. completed, and the money paid to me the said· wife to meet his wants. After the sale,

as a servant.

When she is grown up,

anything unforeseen should happen to her, this will be held as the will of Heaven. But if there should be anything doubtful about her antecedents, this will be settled satisfactorily by in conjunction with the go-between, it is no concern of

If I, the said become rich, I shall be at liberty to redeem her, on payment of a small sum for her subsistence per month (in addition to the amount paid for her). This is agreed upon in the presence of three parties, and I shall not go back on my word. Lest a verbal agreement be held as insufficient evidence, this deed of sale of the daughter is expressly executed, and given to

as proof.

1. Sold a daughter named

hour of

2. Received from

of

aged

moon.

the sum of

years and born at

dollars weighing 7 mace 2 canda-

reens each as price of a servant girl. Dated 24th day of 3rd moon of the 11th year of Tung-chi, (1872).

(Signed)

the party executing this deed of selling a daughter. 's Finger mark (the wife of the above named person). 's Finger mark (go-between and witness to payment).

She

NOTE.-The above translation is that of a document produced by a leading Chinese gentleman. The names are left out, but otherwise it is the copy of a deed held by him of a purchased girl. was first sold under this deed at Macao, and then transferred to his family as per endorsement annexed in 1876. She is to be married next month to his valet, and will have a place of her own. The girl is absolutely free.

J. R.

---

200

14

Endorsement of re-sale of Servant on deed of 24th day of 3rd moon of the 4th year of Tung Chi

(1872.)

This servant together with the (original) deed has this 20th day of the 1st moon of the 2nd year of Kwong Sü (1876) been re-sold to

for the sum of 125 dollars in full weight and under the same conditions as specified in the said deed. This instrument, which is expressly made at the bottom of the deed, is given to

Signed

as a proof.

The party making an instrument at the

bottom of the original deed.

Finger mark, go-between.

1.

Presenting a Girl for money to be reared and employed as a Servant, with power of redemption.

This card of presentation is executed by

Village in District, and wife

who have a daughter born to them. She (the daughter) was born at

hour of

year, and is named

Being poor, and finding it hard to earn our livelihood, and having consulted together, we wish to present this daughter of ours

of

day of

moon of

.to

as a servant, who is good enough to pay us the sum of 40 dollars as a compensation for our trouble connected with her birth and rearing. When this girl arrives at womanhood,

will be

at liberty to give her in marriage. If any accident should befall her, this will be held to be the will of Heaven, and, we shall have no right to avail ourselves of the opportunity to extort money. 'If we should go back on our word, we must refund the money ($40), and besides pay to

us.

one dollar and fifty cents for her subsistence per month, before the daughter can be taken back by We will not gainsay our word. This girl is really the daughter of the husband and wife who give her as a present, and has nothing to do with outsiders. This card of presentation is executed and given as proof.

:

Dated the 8th day of the 8th moon of the 7th year of Kwong Sü (30th September, 1881).

Signed

The party executing this card of presentation.

Signed

Finger mark, wife.

Witness.

's

NOTE.-The above translation is that of a document brought by the person who has the child. Of course

"this card of presentation" is mere cover for sale. The child is well cared for and is perfectly free.

J.

`J. R.

Translation of a bill of sale put forward by a Claimant at the Registrar General's Office, Hongkong, 1882. The names are left out.

I,

native of the Pi Sha of the Tung Kun District do clearly draw up this bond regarding the sale of my daughter. I, being in need of money and having consulted my wife, am willing to sell my second daughter to another family to act as a servant girl, and I have fixed the price at thirty-two dollars exactly. Her name is and she is six years old. She was born on the 2nd day of 2nd moon at Shan, time (6 A.M. to 8 A.M.). She was taken by the go-between. to the Shiu family for inspection, who were pleased with her, and at once offered a current price of thirty-two dollars exactly for her for her services as a servant girl. The said family and myself, having thoroughly understood and mutually agreed to the conditions of the bargain, have appointed a day for its completion. My wife and myself have personally received thirty-two dollars exactly for the sale of the daughter. None of the dollars are broken and they are all of full weight. This bargain was publicly made. The girl was not given up in order to sett le a claim nor was she abducted. In case of there being any uncertainty about the origin of the girl, the matter must be settled by the said father

and the go-between

The purchasers have nothing to do with this. I déclare that I must take back the girl and return the money re- ceived for her if she is found to have been already betrothed or is suffering from leprosy. As regards other accidents which may befall her in future, we must all submit to the will of Heaven. We cannot avail of this opportunity to extort money. When she grows to maturity and is married to another family, her father and mother should be notified of it so that they might communicate with her. The masters are at liberty to re-sell her to another family for disobedience. There can be no impe- diment to this. After the sale, the father and mother cannot have frequent intercourse with her without reason.. The masters can give her any other name they please. Both parties have understood and agreed to this in the presence of the go-between. A bond, regarding the sale of the daughter, is drawn up on the same day and handed to the purchasers as a proof.

(Signed)

go-between

(Signed) (

"

10th day of 9th moon of the 13th Year of Tung Chi.

(Herewith Finger-mark).

The party making

this Bond.

201

15

к.

From Sir Thomas Wade's Documentary Series of the "Tsz-urh-chi.”

SALE OF A DAUGHTER TO BE A CONCUBINE.

"Ng Fung-ming, the party signing this deed of sale being in great poverty, has, through the "agency of To I, sold his own daughter, Ng Üt-chan, aged seventeen, to Ü-lo-ye, for a concubine. It having been agreed in the presence of the agent that the price to be paid for her should be Six "hundred taels, (about £200) and this sum having been paid in full in the presence of the agent, "the purchaser is free, from the time of the sale, to take away the seller's daughter, namely Ng Üt-chan: nor will the seller or the seller's wife gainsay his right. These parties also agree once for "all that they will never more hold intercourse with her, or visit her. If she infringe the regula- "tions of Ü lo-ye's household, he will be free as head of the family to correct her; it will not be in "her father's power to interfere. If she fall sick or die young, (it will be held to be) the will of "Heaven. For any intrigue or fraud (on the part of her parents), the agent To I will be responsible. "This deed of sale is expressly executed lest hereafter there should be no evidence of the sale. Signed with the finger mark of Ng Fung-ming and Ting his wife, being the parties executing the "deed and by the agent To I.”

66

NOTE. This woman would be called among foreigners the 2nd, 3rd, or 4th wife of Mr. U. The so-called 2nd, 3rd, and 4th wives are concubines and nothing else. A Chinaman has only one wife properly so-called. She often procures the concubine for her husband; but the children are regarded as having equal rights with those of the "number one wife."

J. R.

1

L.

No. 6 of 1873.

An Ordinance enacted by the Governor of Hongkong, with the Advice of the Legislative Council thereof, for the better Protection of Chinese Women and Female Children, and for the Repression of certain Abuses in relation to Chinese Emigration.

WE

[8th May, 1873.]

HEREAS it is expedient to make better Provision for the Punishment of Persons guilty of selling, purchasing, or decoying into the Colony, or unlawfully detain- ing therein Chinese Women and female Children for the Purpose of Prostitution, and of decoying Chinese into or away from this Colony for the Purpose of Emigration, or for any other Purpose whatsoever: Be it enacted by the Governor of Hongkong, with the Advice of the Legislative Council thereof, as follows:-

I. Whosoever shall bring, lead, take, decoy, or entice into the Colony any Woman or female Child with Intent to sell her for the Purpose of Prostitution, or who shall sell or purchase any Woman or female Child for the purpose aforesaid, or who shall know- ingly derive any Profit from the Sale or Purchase of any Woman or female Child so sold or purchased as aforesaid, shall be guilty of a Misdemeanour, and on Conviction thereof, shall be liable to the Punishments hereinafter provided.

II. Whosoever shall unlawfully detain any Woman or female Child in any Place against her Will with the Intent that she may become a Prostitute, or for any other Purpose whatsoever, or who shall by any false Pretences, false Representations, or other fraudulent Means procure any Woman or female Child to have illicit carnal Connexion with any Man, shall be guilty of a Misdemeanour, and on Conviction thereof, shall be liable to the Punishments hereinafter provided.

III. Whosoever shall unlawfully receive, or harbor any Woman or female Child with Intent that such Woman or female Child should be sold or purchased for the Purpose of Prostitution, shall be guilty of a Misdemeanour, and on Conviction thereof, shall be liable to the Punishments hereinafter provided.

IV. Whosoever shall unlawfully by Force or Fraud imprison or detain any Person within the Colony, for the Purpose of Emigration, or for any other Purpose whatsoever, shall be guilty of a Misdemeanour, and on Conviction thereof, shall be liable to the Punish- ments hereinafter provided.

V. Whosoever shall unlawfully, by Force, Intimidation, or any fraudulent Means bring, lead, take, decoy, or entice any Person into or away from the Colony, for the Purpose of Emigration, or for any other Purpose whatsoever, shall be guilty of a Misde- meanour, and on Conviction thereof; shall be liable to the Punishments hereinafter provided. VI. Every Person who shall be convicted of any Offence against the Provisions of this Ordinance shall be liable to be imprisoned for any Term not exceeding Two Years with or without Hard Labour.

VII. All Offences against this Ordinance may be heard and determined summarily by two Magistrates sitting together, who shall constitute a Court for this Purpose: Provided that if at the Close of the Investigation, the Accused shall apply for a Trial by Jury, or the Magistrates shall be of opinion that the Case ought to be so tried, they may commit the Accused for Trial at the Supreme Court.

VIII. The Provisions of Section LXVI of Ordinance No. 4 of 1865 shall apply to every Summary Conviction under this Ordinance.

Title.

Preamble.

Abduction of

& Woman or female Child with Intent,

&c.

Selling or purchasing.

Detaining a Woman or female Child for Purpose of Prostitution.

Beceiving or Harbouring with Intent,

Sze.

Unlawful Imprisonment or Detention.

Decoying Persons into ro away from the Colony.

Punishment for Offences.

Trial of

Offences.

Summary Convictions.

:

1.

202

Punishment of Whipping. on second and

subsequent Convictions,

Form of Information and Proceed- ings.

16

IX. Whenever any Person shall be convicted before the Supreme Court of any Offence against the Provisions of this Ordinance, if it shall be proved that the Offender has been previously convicted either before the Supreme Court, or before two Magistrates sitting together, of an Offence under the same or any other Section of this Ordinance, it shall be lawful for the Court, in its Discretion, to direct that, in addition to the Punish- ment hereinafter prescribed, the Offender, if a Male, be once, twice, or thrice publicly or privately whipped subject to the Provisions contained in Section I of Ordinance No. 3 of 1868; and all the Provisions of Section XCIV of Ordinance No. 7 of 1865 relating to the Form of Information for a subsequent Offence and Proceedings thereon, shall apply to Offences punishable under this Ordinance.

Statement of Objects and Reasons.

The Provisions of this Ordinance are intended to repress certain offences and abuses which there is reason to believe are of frequent occurrence among the lower classes of the Chinese Population of this Colony, viz., the buying and selling of women and girls and their forcible or fraudulent abduction or detention for the purposes of prostitution. Also the decoying away under false pretences, or the abduction by force or intimidation, of persons for the purposes of Chinese Emigration. All the offences defined by this Ordinance are in a great measure ejusdem generis, and are made punishable alike by imprisonment with or without hard labour for a period not exceeding two years; and power is given to the Supreme Court, whenever previous convictions are proved, to direct the offender, if a male, to be whipped under the provisions of Ordinance No. 3 of 1868. It is proposed that this Ordinance should not come into force until Her Majesty's confirmation of it has been received, and therefore the usual Suspending Clause to that effect has been inserted.

JULIAN PAUNCEFOTE, Attorney General.

NOTE.--The above statement was appended to the Bill when introduced early in 1873.

J. R.

M.

No. 2 of 1875.

Title.

Preamble.

Repeal

Abduction of

a woman or

female child with intent, &c.

Selling or purchasing.

Bringing into

the Colony women or children

knowing them to have been sold for

prostitution

Detaining a

woman or female child for purpose of

prostitution.

Receiving or harbouring with intent,

&c.

An Ordinance enacted by the Governor of Hongkong, with the Advice of the Legislative Council thereof, for the better Protection of Chinese Women and Female Children, and for the Repression of certain Abuses in relation to Chinese Emigration.

[March 18th, 1875.]

WHEREAS it is expedient to make better provision for the punishment of persons

guilty of selling, purchasing, or decoying into the Colony, or unlawfully detaining therein Chinese women and female children for the purpose of prostitution, and of decoy- ing Chinese into or away from this Colony for the purpose of emigration, or for any other purpose whatsoever: Be it enacted by the Governor of Hongkong, with the advice of the Legislative Council thereof, as follows:-

I. The Ordinance No. 6 of 1873 is hereby repealed, but such repeal shall not affect:-

1. Any punishment incurred or to be incurred for any offence committed before

this Ordinance comes into operation.

2. Any proceedings for enforcing such punishment or prosecuting the offender; and all such proceedings may be had and taken as if the said Ordinance were still in force.

II. Whosoever shall bring, lead, take, decoy, or entice into the Colony any woman or female child with intent to sell her for the purpose of prostitution, or shall sell or purchase any woman or female child for the purpose aforesaid, or shall knowingly derive any profit from the sale o purchase of any woman or female child so sold or purchased as aforesaid, shall be guilty of a misdemeanour, and on conviction thereof, shall be liable to the punishments hereinafter provided.

III. Whosoever shall bring, lead, take, decoy, or entice into the Colony any woman or female child knowing that such woman or female child has been sold or purchased for the

purpose of prostitution, shall be guilty of a misdemeanour, and on conviction thereof shall be liable to the punishments hereinafter provided.

IV. Whosoever shall detain any woman or female child in any place against her will with the intent that she may become a prostitute, or for any other purpose whatsoever, or shall by any false pretences, false representations, or other fraudulent means procure any woman or female child to have illicit carnal connexion with any man, shall be guilty of a misdemeanour, and on conviction thereof, shall be liable to the punishments herein- after provided.

V. Whosoever shall receive, or harbour any woman or female child with intent that such woman or female child should be sold or purchased for the purpose of prostitution, shall be guilty of a misdemeanour, and on conviction thereof, shall be liable to the punish- ments hereinafter provided.

203

17

VI. Whosoever shall receive or harbour any woman or female child knowing that such woman or female child has been sold or purchased whether within the Colony or elsewhere for the purpose of prostitution shall be guilty of a misdemeanour, and on con- viction thereof, shall be liable to the punishments hereinafter provided.

VII. Whosoever shall by force or fraud imprison or detain any person within the Colony, for the purpose of emigration, or for any other purpose whatsoever, shall be guilty of a misdemeanour, and on conviction thereof, shall be liable to the punishments hereinafter provided.

VIII. Whosoever shall by force, intimidation, or any fraudulent means bring, lead, take, decoy, or entice any person into or away from the Colony, for the purpose of emi- gration, or for any other purpose whatsoever, shall be guilty of a misdemeanour, and on conviction thereof, shall be liable to the punishments hereinafter provided.

IX. Every person who shall be convicted of any offence against the provisions of this Ordinance shall be liable to be imprisoned for any term not exceeding two years with or without hard labour.

X. All offences against this Ordinance may be heard and determined summarily by two Magistrates sitting together, who shall constitute a Court for this purpose: Provided that if, at the close of the investigation, the accused shall apply for a trial by Jury, or the Magistrates shall be of opinion that the case ought to be so tried, they may commit the accused for trial at the Supreme Court.

XI. The provisions of Section LXVI of Ordinance No. 4 of 1865 shall apply to every summary conviction under this Ordinance.

XII. Whenever any person shall be convicted before the Supreme Court of any offence against the provisions of this Ordinance, if it shall be proved that the offender has been previously convicted either before the Supreme Court, or before two Magistrates sitting together, of an offence under the same or any other section of this Ordinance, it shall be lawful for the Court, in its discretion, to direct that, in addition to the punishment hereinbefore prescribed, the offender, if a male, be once, twice, or thrice publicly or privately whipped, subject to the provisions contained in section I of Ordinance No. 3 of 1868;

and all the provisions of section XCIV of Ordinance No. 7 of 1865 relating to the form of information for a subsequent offence and proceedings thereon, shall apply to offences punishable under this Ordinance.

Statement of Objects and Reasons.

Receiving or harbouring

women or children knowing them to have been sold for prostitution. Unlawful imprisonment or detention.

Decoying persons into or away from the Colony.

Punishment for offences.

Trial of offences.

Summary

convictions,

Punishment or whipping on second and subsequent convictions.

Form of information and proceed- ings.

The Ordinance No. 6 of 1873 was passed in order to check, by Penal Legislation, the practice of buying and selling women and girls for prostitution and their detention or abduction for the like purposes. There is reason to believe that the Ordinance has done good service in the matter, and has diminished these abuses: but its language seems not to meet the case of women or girls purchased out of the Colony for the purpose of prostitution and brought here to be shipped to California, or elsewhere; unless the women or girls complain of being detained in this Colony against their will. Such complaints have been exceedingly rare, and proof of forcible detention difficult to obtain although there is no moral doubt that females are purchased out of the Colony, and after a few days' residence here are shipped to various places to become prostitutes. This Ordinance in the third and sixth sections aims at meeting these cases, and makes it a misdemeanour for any person to bring into the Colony any woman or girl knowing her to have been purchased for prostitution, or with the like knowledge to receive or harbour any such woman or girl.

;

The rest of the Ordinance is almost a reprint of the Ordinance No. 6 of 1873, which for the sake of convenience is repealed and re-enacted with the two additional sections.

JOHN BRAMSTON,

Attorney General.

Hongkong, 23rd February, 1875.

NOTE. The above Statement was appended to the Draft Amended Bill as laid before the Council. The text as given above is now the law except that public flogging is no longer allowable.

J. R.

N.

壬毋

衙情

情期賣不凡

便

館是

HFFF

被或

泊將

發爾

誓身

然按

寮兩

行隨

申時

當或

理親

不受他人拘制爾婦女等如有被人拐

凡英國屬土無論何國居民皆得自主

娼會被得

倘赴並取人自

中官非上拐主

立意從不欲爲裝

毋爲寮主所惑 國家必聽其自便不准强留各宜猛省 衙或各差館禀報自必自行申理中

壬午年五月

日華民政務司署給

Without reference to nationality, all persons residing on British Territory are free agents.

They cannot be under the restraint of others. Women; if any of you have been kidnapped, purchased, seduced, deceived, or pledged for money, or have been compelled to swear before entering the brothels that you will act as pros- titutes, which you now object to do, under- stand clearly that such compulsion is illegal, and, that you are at liberty to come personally to this office, or to go to any police station and report the matter at any time you please. Your grievance will be at once attended to. want to leave the brothel, and make up your mind to go to a protector, abandoning prostitu- tion, the Government will certainly let you

do what you please, and will not allow you to be detained against your will. Be all of you then very watchful! Be not deceived by brothel- keepers! Observe this notice.

If you

Registrar General's Office, June, 1882.

204

18.

O.

The Emigration Officer gives notice that for the better protection of Emigrants, it is hereby notified that on and after the 1st proximo, women and children who are taken before him for the purpose of emigrating should be provided with one (subsequently altered to "two") photograph each. If the woman or child is passed, the one (subsequently altered to "two") photograph will be stamped and given back to the Emigrant. The Emigrant will show this photograph to the proper Officer on board the vessel before departure, and again to the Protector of Chinese or proper Officer on the Emigrant's arrival at Port of destination.

(Signed) H. G. THOMSETT, R.N.,

Emigration Officer, &c.

Hongkong, 21st August, 1882.

P.

Return of Kidnapping Cases in Hongkong, from January 1872, till June 30th, 1883.

Year.

Cases Reported.

No. of Persons Convicted.

No. of Persons Discharged.

Total Number Arrested.

1872,

....

1873,

1874,

1875,

1876,

1877,

1878,

1879,

1880,

1881,

1882,

1883 to 30th June,

30

15

27

42

103

66

44

110

51

29

17

46

63

36

35

71

55

31

32

63

73

35

36

71

53

31

69

100

51

38

40

78

65

68

43

111

50

35

63

98

55

29

59

88

16

5*

22

27

* One sent to Singapore on an Extradition Warrant. See Police Court Return. See Magistracy Return following for details of last period.

!

(Signed)

Q.

T. C. DEMPSTER, Captain, Acting Captain Superintendent of Police.

MAGISTRACY RETURN

1st January to 11th July, 1883.

KIDNAPPING.

Total Number of

Total Total Number Number

of

of

Total Number

Total Number

of

Cases

Total Number of

of Persons Persons

Persons Committed

Cases. Persons.

to Gaol pending

:

Convicted. Punished. Discharged.] Orders of

M.

F.

M. F. M.

A

H.E. the Governor.

M.

F.

...

5

9

1.

1

00

8

17th July, 1883.

KIDNAPPING.

(Where Females were stolen.)

| ... |

591

...

CHILD STEALING.

(Where Boys were stolen.)

1 │

CHILD STEALING.

REMARKS.

One case in July, one female discharged.

3

(Where Girls were stolen.)

31- 4 | 21(a)

(Signed)

(a) Given up to Singa- pore Government.

W. M. B. ARTHUR,

Acting 1st Clerk,

*

.

-

.

-19-

R.

205.

(Copy.)

No. 189.

Enclosure 1.

See (2).

Notiee posted on Canton and Macao Steamers, and Chinese Passenger Ships leaving Hongkong.

The Harbour Master and Emigration Officer hereby issues a proclamation.

WHEREAS evils have arisen in connection with Emigration, notice is hereby given to you passengers, male and female, that you are, one and all, free agents, you cannot be forced away against your will. If you are unwilling and do not wish to emigrate, you are at liberty to complain now or after starting, to the officers of the ship, when steps will be taken for proteeting you, and returning you safely to your home after the ship reaches its destination. These offers will save you from being deprived of your liberty, and the officials of Singapore and other ports will always be ready to help you to obtain your freedom. Do not disregard these instructions and do not be afraid to state your grievances and wrongs. A special notification.

(3)

Governor Sir G. F. Bowen, G.C.M.G., to Secretary of State for the Colonies.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 15th August, 1883.

MY LORD,

In my despatch, No. 79, of the 22nd May ultimo, I stated that I had found that, before my arrival in this Colony, the Officer lately administering the Govern- ment (Mr. MARSH) had entrusted Mr. Justice RUSSELL (then Registrar General and Protector of the Chinese), with the duty of preparing the report on "the system of Child adoption and Domestic Service as it exists at Hongkong," for. which Lord KIMBERLEY had called in his despatch, No. 40, of the 18th March, 1882. 2. Mr. RUSSELL's subsequent promotion to the Bench of the Supreme Court and the pressure of his official duties necessarily delayed the completion of the Report. But he has now placed it in my hands, and I have great pleasure in transmitting herewith printed copies of it.

3. The delay that has occurred has had this advantage, that it has enabled me to give as close a study as my other manifold duties would permit, to the subject in question, and thereby has placed me in a position to appreciate the great practical value of Mr. RUSSELL'S labours.

4. His Report is a very able, full and yet concise summary of the important difficult, and hitherto little understood subject of which it treats. It should be carefully studied in connexion with the remarkable petition presented to the late Governor in 1879 by an influential section of the Chinese Community in Hongkong, and with the learned essay of Dr. EITEL, which are both printed at pages 44-57 of the "Correspondence respecting the alleged existence of Chinese Slavery in Hongkong," presented to Parliament in March, 1882.

5. Moreover, if it is desired to obtain a thorough grasp of this subject in its true bearings, the Official Student should further make himself acquainted not only with the tenets of Confucius and Mencius, those ancient Legislators and Philoso- phers, whose laws and ethics are still the living guides of the Chinese, but also with the principles of the old Roman institution of the Patria Potestas, with which the immemorial "Patriarchalism" (as it has been termed), or Family Organization of Chinese Society, so closely corresponds. The adoption of the old Romans, and of the Chinese of the present day who still adhere to the laws and customs followed. by their ancestors more than two thousand years ago, have been confounded by persons who look to superficial and apparent rather than to intrinsic and real resemblances and analogies, with Slavery, in the modern and technical sense of that word. But all who have mastered this question know that the adoption and Domestic Service of the Chinese, are derived from the primitive and patriarchal institution of the Patria Potestas; whereas the modern slavery of the Negroes and of other coloured peoples, is founded on the theory of the old Greek Philosophers, who, in view of the real or supposed intellectual inferiority of certain races of man- kind, laid down the doctrine that it was "fit and seemly that Greeks should rule over Barbarians, for by nature Barbarian and Slave are the same thing."

6. As I have already said, the report of Mr. Justice RUSSELL is so full and yet so concise, that I will not attempt to analyse it at any length; and will rather recommend a steady perusal of it as a whole. I will confine myself on the present occasion to pointing out and illustrating some of its more salient features, and to stating the action which I propose to take with regard to carrying out its suggestions.

7. I will now briefly consider separately:-

(a.) Child Adoption. (b.) Domestic Service.

206

20

8. (a.) It will be recollected that a main element of the religion of the Chinese is the worship of ancestors. Consequently, the adoption of male children is founded on the religious necessity of securing representations to perform the Sacred Rites of the Family or clan (gens), the Sacra gentilicia of the Romans. "These Sacra" (to quote the words of Sir HENRY MAINE)" were the Roman form of an Institution which shows itself wherever society has not wholly shaken itself free from its primitive clothing. They are the sacrifices and ceremonies by which the brother- hood of the family is commemorated, the pledge and the witness of its perpetuity. Whatever be their nature,-whether it be true or not that in all cases they are the worship of some mythical ancestor, they are everywhere employed to attest the sacredness of the family relation; and therefore, they acquire prominent significance and importance, whenever the continuous existence of the Family is endangered by a change in the persons of its chief. Accordingly, we hear most about them in connexion with demises of domestic sovereignty. Again: "The Family is the type of an archaic society in all the modifications which it was capable of assuming; but the Family here spoken of is not exactly the family as understood by a modern. In order to reach the ancient conception, we must give to our modern ideas an important extension, and an important limitation. We must look on the family as constantly enlarged by the absorption of strangers within its circle, and we must try to regard the fiction of adoption as so closely simulating the reality of kinship that neither law nor opinion makes the slightest difference between a real and an adoptive connexion. On the other hand, the persons theoretically amalgamated into a family by their common descent, are practically held together by common obedience to their highest living ascendant, the father, grandfather, or great-grand- father. The patriarchal authority of the chieftain is as necessary an ingredient in the notion of the family group, as the fact, (or assumed fact) of its having sprungs from his loins. And hence we must understand that if there be any persons who, however truly included in the brotherhood by virtue of their blood-relationship, have nevertheless, de facto withdrawn themselves from the Empire of its ruler, they are always in the beginnings of law, considered as lost to the family. It is this patriarchal aggregate, the modern Family, this cut down on one side, and extended on the other, which meet us on the threshold of primitive jurisprudence.'

"}

9. It will be recollected that the archaic laws and customs thus described by the high authority of HENRY MAINE, are still as much the rule of social life and feeling in China, as they were, twenty-five centuries ago, both in China and at Rome.

10. The adoption of female children as daughters stands on a different footing from the adoption of male children as sons. But on this point, I would refer to the full explanations given by Mr. Justice RUSSELL, especially with respect to the grave abuses often arising from female adoption; and which the Government and Legislature of Hongkong have already done much,-and will endeavour to do more, to detect, to prevent, and to punish.

dang

11. (b.) With regard to Domestic Service among the Chinese at Hongkong, I will again refer to Mr. RUSSELL's statements of facts and arguments which can hardly be abbreviated without impairing at once their force, their perspecuity, and their practical usefulness.

12. It will be seen that Mr. RUSSELL recapitulates his statements and conclu- sions in the following terms :-

"

1o. It is shewn that child adoption in China and among the Chinese in Hongkong is always accompanied by the payment of money and a “deed of gift or bill of sale when the adopted are strangers-in-blood; and that even money passes in the case of relatives if the parents of the adopted child are poor or not nearly related to the adopting parents.

2o. It is shewn that male children are not bought and sold as servants in Hongkong, nor in the Canton province, but that female children are disposed of for money by their parents according to Chinese usage and custom, and that the Chinese authorities recognise such sales as binding if executed with due formalities, whilst Hongkong treats all such transactions as null and void, giving no rights and conferring no title.

30. It is shewn that the abuses arising from the Chinese system of money passing in the case of adoption and domestic service are :--

1° Kidnapping to some extent.

2o. Brothel bondage; and that female children who are voluntarily parted with by their parents for daughters and servants may be sold as prostitutes by disreputable persons.

}

207*

Enclosure 2.

21

4o. It is shewn that claims set up by Chinese to ownership on the ground of purchase have been promptly set aside in Hongkong and the claimants punished for any assault or offence committed against the person claimed- and that no opportunity has been lost of proclaiming the freedom of the subject.

5o. It has been,shewn that the laws have been amended from time to time to the utmost limit to protect women and girls and children against forced or fraudulent emigration or sales for purposes of prostitution, (see Ordinance 2 of 1875, annexed).

6. It has been shewn that the supervision of brothels, the instructing the registered women as to their rights, and the system of photographing re- gistered prostitutes and women and children who intend to emigrate, have done much good and that there has been an enormous reduction in the kid- napping cases and selling women for prostitution since the introduction of those measures, convictions being 29 persons in 1882 as against 68 in a former year, and only 4 up to the present date.

7. It has been shewn that there are fatal objections to the registration of children purchased for adoption or domestic service, and it is suggested that the Registrar General and a Chinese Committee should investigate cases of a suspicious nature with power to call upon "pocket-mothers" to give security for their bona fides towards "pocket-daughters "; also that the Registrar General should be able to apply to a Judge in Chambers for a writ of Habeas Corpus with the view of taking away from improper custodians a purchased child. It is also suggested that stone tablets stating the law of freedom on English soil should be erected in places of public resort.

13. It will be perceived that any infringements by contract or sale of the personal liberty secured by English jurisprudence and custom however in harmony with Chinese jurisprudence and custom, such infringements may be, are null and void in the eye of the law in the English Colony of Hongkong, while any attempts to enforce such contracts or sales would be liable to severe and deterrent punish- ment by the English Courts. Then persistent efforts of the Colonial Government and Legislature during a series of years to protect the personal liberty of every sex and class of the Chinese denizes of this island, cannot be regarded as otherwise than praiseworthy, and, to a large extent, successful. From my personal know- ledge I can bear witness that the Executive Government and the Judicial Bench are now of one mind on this subject.

14. With regard to Mr. RUSSELL'S practical suggestions for further exertions in the same direction, they meet with the hearty concurrence of the present Registrar General and Protector of the Chinese, (Mr. STEWART). They have also been approved by myself and by the Executive Council; and I propose to take the necessary measures for carrying them into execution, subject to Your Lordship's

sanction.

15. In conclusion, I would repeat the remarks made in a previous despatch to the effect that the English in Hongkong are in an utterly different position from that held by the English in India. In the latter country, we succeeded to the rule of great nations and countries which had already long before our arrival, attained to a high degree of civilized organization, and whose laws and institutions we were. bound to respect and maintain, so far as they were not repugnant to humanity and to the imperial policy of England. But the island of Hongkong on the contrary, when annexed to the British Empire in 1843, was merely a barren rock, unin- habited save by a handful of fishermen and pirates. The Chinese Merchants and others who have since voluntarily sought the protection of the English flag are not, with few exceptions, native born, or naturalized British subjects, nor permanent residents in this dependency. The Chinese like the English and other Europeans, come here for a time, to make money, hoping to return ultimately to their native homes. They must be taught as I recently, with all courtesy, informed an in- fluential deputation of the Chinese community, that if they deliberately choose for their own purposes, to dwell on British territory, they must, while entitled to the protection of the English laws, learn to obey those laws.

I have, &c.,

(Signed)

The Right Honourable

THE EARL OF DERBY,

&c.,

&c., &c.

G. F. BOWEN.

1

208

22

Enclosure.

Minute by the Registrar General on Mr. Justice Russell's Report on Child Adoption and Domestic Service among Hongkong Chinese.

Having made independent enquiries into the subject of this Report, and having, in the course of its preparation, discussed its contents with Mr. RUSSELL, I am in a position to say that His Honour's statement of the facts connected with Adoption and Service is correct, and that the method he proposes of dealing in future with this difficult question is the one least free from objection that I think it possible to devise.

When I laid the proposal before the representatives of the Chinese Communi- ty, they accepted it at once, as the best possible method of dealing with suspicious persons who have young girls in their houses either as adopted daughters or as domestic servants; and they further intimated their perfect willingness to assist the Registrar General in his investigation of such cases.

I need hardly say that, personally, I shall be glad to do my best to give effect to the scheme, in the event of its receiving, as I trust it may, the sanction of the Secretary of State.

(Signed)

Hongkong, 14th August, 1883.

FREDERICK STEWART,

Registrar General.

(4)

(C.S.O. 153)

1883

Registrar General to Colonial Secretary.

REGISTRAR GENERAL'S OFFICE,

HONGKONG, 31st August, 1883.

No. 73.

SIR,

I have the honour to inform you that it was reported to me, last week, that WONG A-HO, keeper of Registered Brothel No. 80, had a number of young girls in her private house, No. 233, Hollywood Road, right opposite the brothel. I accordingly sent one of the Inspectors under the "Contagious Diseases Ordinances to the house to ask that the children might be brought to see me. He returned with 17, of whom 14 were girls and 3 were boys.

,,

2. Following the course.recommended by Mr. Justice RUSSELL in his recent report on Child Adoption and Domestic Service, I requested Mr. LEUNG A-ON and Mr. C'HAN KWAN-I, of the Society for the Protection of Women and Children, to sit with me in investigating the case. They were good enough to attend at once, and the result was that we were unanimously of opinion that 11 of the girls, ranging in age from 16 to 7, whom WANG A-HO claimed, had come into her posses- sion by purchase. The other three girls were claimed by servants in the brothel as their own children, and we had no proof that this was not the case.

3. At the close of the investigation I ordered WANG A-HO to find security in $500 for each of the eleven girls that she claimed; and the claimants of the other three security in $200 each. I also directed that the photographs of all the 14 should be brought to me in the course of this week, and I am able to report that that has now been done. I have also directed that the girls shall be brought to this office once a quarter, in order that I may see how they are being treated, and have an opportunity of repeating to them that in this Colony no one can under any circumstances arising out of Adoption or Service deprive them of their personal liberty.

4. I have acted in this matter in my capacity as Protector of Chinese, and probably the urgency of the case sufficiently justifies the course I have taken. I think, however, that it would be well to have legislative authority for such pro- ceedings, and I am at present sketching out a draft of an Ordinance to invest the Registrar General with all necessary powers, and to give persons who may consider themselves aggrieved the right of appeal from his decisions.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

The Honourable W. H., MARSH, C.M.G.,

Colonial Secretary,

FREDERICK STEWART, Registrar General.

See (2.)

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

209

257

(C.S.O. 1233)

No. 83.

SIR,

See (2,)

Enclosure.

23

(5)

Registrar General to Colonial Secretary.

REGISTRAR GENERAL'S OFFICE,

HONGKONG, 13th September, 1883.

With reference to Mr. Justice RUSSELL'S Report of the 18th July last, on Child Adoption and Domestic Service among Hongkong Chinese, (page 8), and to my letter, No. 73, of the 31st ultimo, (C.S.O. No. 2152) regarding the 14 young girls found in No. 233, Hollywood Road. I have the honour to enclose, for the consideration of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government, a draft Ordinance conferring on the Registrar General the powers with which I think he should be invested in order to carry out effectually the scheme suggested by Mr. RUSSELL.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

FREDERICK STEWART,

Registrar General.

The Honourable

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY.

Enclosure in Registrar General's Letter No. 83 of 1883.

(In C.S.O. 2293.)

1883

An Ordinance enacted by the Governor of Hong- kong, with the advice of the Legislative Council thereof, for the prevention of abuses connected with Child Adoption and Domestic Service.

WE

HEREAS it is expedient to make further provision for the prevention of adopted female children and female servants from being brought up in the Colony for the purpose of prostitution: Be it enacted by the Governor of Hongkong, with the advice of the Legislative Council thereof, as follows:-

1. It shall be lawful for the Registrar General, as Pro tector of Chinese, to summon before him any person whom he reasonably suspects of having in his custody any adopted daughter, or female servant, between the age of six and sixteen inclusive, with the view of disposing of her as a prostitute; and it shall also be lawful for the Registrar General, in his discretion and after due enquiry, to call on any such person who has the custody of any such female child to give reasonable security that such child shall not be sold, pawned, or otherwise disposed of for any immoral purpose, and that the absence of such child from the Colony shall be duly accounted for.

2. For the better carrying out of the preceding section, it shall be lawful for the Registrar General to require the production before him of any female child under adoption or domestic service; and also to summon any person who can give information as to the treatment of such child by her adopted parents or master, under a penalty not exceed- ing two hundred dollars.

3. It shall be lawful for the Registrar General, in the interests of any female child, to make a written application to a Judge in Chambers for a writ of Habeas Corpus, with the view of taking away such female child from any person who has no legal claim to her custody, and whose retention of her is prejudicial to the child's interest and liberty.'

4. It shall be lawful for any person considering himself aggrieved or affected by any action of the Registrar General under this Ordinance to appeal in a summary way to a Judge in Chambers against any decision which the Regis- trar General may give under this Ordinance; and the Judge may confirm the decision of the Registrar General, or may order in writing the same to be annulled.

5. This Ordinance shall come into opération on a day to be hereafter proclaimed by the Governor.

·

.

210

24

(6)

(Copy.) Hongkong. No. 284. SIR,

Secretary of State to Governor, Sir G. F. Bowen, G.C.M.G.

DOWNING STREET,

29th December, 1883.

I have received and have read with attention and interest your despatch, No. 189, of the 15th August, forwarding a Report by Mr. Justice RUSSELL on the system of Child Adoption and domestic service as it exists in Hongkong.

2. I approve of the course which you propose to take, and I concur with you in your appreciation of the value of Mr. RUSSELL'S labours in preparing this clear and able review of this question, and I have to request you to express to him my sense of the care and attention which he has devoted to the subject.

3. I observe with satisfaction the good which has resulted from the measures already taken to check the evils incidentally connected with this system, and the further safeguards which Mr. RUSSELL suggests may, I think, be wisely adopted.

I have, &c., (Signed)

Governor Sir G. F. BOWEN, G.C.M.G.,

DERBY.

No. 161.

&c.,

fc..

&c.

(7)

Colonial Secretary to Mr. Justice Russell.

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE,

SIR,

HONGKONG, 16th February, 1884.

I am directed by His Excellency the Governor to transmit to you, for your information, the annexed copy of a despatch received by the last mail from the Right Honourable the Secretary of State for the Colonies relative to your report on the system of Child adoption and Domestic Service in this Colony.

I have, &c.,

(Signed)

His Honour Mr. Justice RUSSELL,

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, Pro. Colonial Secretary.

(C.O.Desp. 284).

(8)

Same as No. 7 to the Registrar General.

(9)

Extract from Minutes of the Executive Council.

19th March, 1884.

The Council advise that these papers should be referred to the Registrar General, and that he should place himself in communication with the Attorney General with a view to drawing up a Bill embodying the recommendations contained in Mr. RUSSELL'S Report.

(Signed)

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, Acting Clerk of Councils.

""

}

No. 334.

211

SIR,

25

(10).

Colonial Secretary to Registrar General.

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE,

HONGKONG, 9th April, 1885.

I have the honour by direction of the Governor to remind you that no answer has been received from you with regard to despatch No. 284 of the 29th December, 1883, from the Secretary of State which was referred to you so far back as March of last year to place yourself in communication with the Attorney General with a view to drawing up a Bill embodying the recommendations of Mr. RUSSELL con- tained in his report on Child adoption and Domestic Service in Hongkong.

His Excellency desires to be furnished with an early report on this subject.

I have, &c.,

The Honourable F. STEWART, LL.D.,

Registrar General.

(Signed)

W. H. MARSH,

Colonial Secretary.

(C.S.O. 8285).

No. 38.

SIR,

(11)

Registrar General to Colonial Secretary.

REGISTRAR GENERAL'S OFFICE,

HONGKONG, April 10th, 1885.

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter No. 334 of the 9th instant reminding me that no answer has been received from me with regard to Despatch No. 284 of the 29th December, 1883, from the Secretary of State, which was referred to me so far back as March of last year to place myself in com- munication with the Attorney General, with a view to drawing up a Bill embodying the recommendations of Mr. RUSSELL, contained in his report on Child Adoption and Domestic Service in Hongkong.

In reply I have to state that on the 13th September, 1883, I had the honour to forward to you a Draft Bill on the subject in question, and that the same was announced as one of the legislative measures, which would be considered by the Council during last Session.

The Bill was not then proceeded with; and, at the commencement of the See Enclosure 1 in No. 14. present Session, I had it put in type, in order to facilitate its introduction into the

Council.

I enclose a printed copy of the Draft Bill; and am now requested by the Attorney General to state that the Bill is one of which he does not approve.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

FREDERICK STEWART, Registrar General.

The Hon. W. H. MARSH, C.M.G.,

Colonial Secretary.

་་

...

"

212

(Copy.)

No. 243.

MY LORD,

26-

(12)

Governor Sir G. F. Bowen, G.C.M.G., to Secretary of State.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 26th May, 1885. ·

With reference to much previous correspondence on the same subject, and especially to my despatch No. 189 of 1883, (transmitting a Report by Mr. Justice RUSSELL,) and to Your Lordship's reply No. 284 of 1883, I have the honour to submit, for your consideration, the enclosed Bill, "for the prevention of abuses connected with Child Adoption and Domestic Service.'

""

2. This Bill was prepared by the Registrar General, and Proctor of the Chinese (Mr. STEWART) whose letter of explanation is appended. It has been read a first time in the Legislative Council. But, as the Attorney General objects to it for the reasons assigned in the annexed Report, and is inclined to believe that the existing laws on the subject afford sufficient protection, I have thought it right, before proceeding further with this Bill, to submit it for Your Lordship's consider- .ation and instructions.

3. My opinion on this entire question is fully stated in my despatch No. 189 of 1883, to which I beg to refer.

4. I would now add that all men who like myself have had long practical experience in the administration of public affairs will agree with me that, in addi- tion to the obvious general objections to all laws which confer autocratic and inquisitorial powers on individuals, a Ruler or Statesman should consider whether he is always sure of being able to lay his hand on officers to whom such extra- ordinary powers can be safely entrusted. Now no man could be properly entrusted with the powers which the proposed Bill would confer, who does not possess a thorough knowledge of the language, laws, customs, and feelings of the Chinese, and also very peculiar moral qualifications of patience and temper.

77

5. It was a pregnant remark of the late Lord DERBY, when Secretary of State for the Colonies in addressing the first Governor of this Colony, that to the Chinese in Hongkong, the laws and customs of England "would be a rule of action and a measure of right equally unintelligible and vexatious.' The Chinese resident in this island appear to be well satisfied with the present administration of affairs. Looking to this fact and to the exciting events which have of late stirred pro- foundly the entire Chinese nation, I am inclined to the opinion that it would be better (at all events, for the present,) to rest content with the strict execution of the existing laws, rather than to risk the disturbances which might follow from any

mistake or accidental or otherwise, in the exercise of such novel and inquisi- torial powers as those which would be conferred by the proposed Bill. However, I shall await Your Lordship's instructions on this point.

Enclosure 1,

Enclosure 2.

Enclosure 3.

The Right Honourable

THE EARL OF DERBY, K.G.,

&C.,

I have, &c.,

(Signed)

G. F. BOWEN.

&C.,

&c.

י

No. 45.

SIR,

27

Enclosure 1.

A BILL

ENTITLED

An Ordinance for the prevention of abuses connected with Child Adoption and Domestic Service.

WE

HEREAS it is expedient to make further provision for the prevention of adopted female children and female servants from being brought up in the Colony for the purpose of prostitution: Be it enacted by the Governor of Hongkong, with the advice of the Legislative Council thereof, as follows:-

1. It shall be lawful for the Registrar General, as Pro- tector of Chinese, to summon before him any person whom he reasonably suspects of having in his custody any adopted daughter, or female servant, between the age of six and sixteen inclusive, with the view of disposing of her as a prostitute; and it shall also be lawful for the Registrar General, in his discretion and after due inquiry, to call on any such

person who has the custody of any such female child to give reasonable security that such child shall not be sold, pawned, or otherwise disposed of for any immoral purpose, and that the absence of such child from the Colony shall be duly accounted for.

2. For the better carrying out of the preceding section, it shall be lawful for the Registrar General to require the production before him of any female child under adoption or domestic service; and also to summon any person who can give information as to the treatment of such child by her adopted parents or master, under a penalty not exceed- ing two hundred dollars.

3. It shall be lawful for the Registrar General, in the interests of any female child, to make a written application to a Judge in Chambers for a writ of Habeas Corpus, with the view of taking away such female child from any person who has no legal claim to her custody, and whose retention of her is prejudicial to the child's interest and liberty.

4. It shall be lawful for any person considering himself aggrieved or affected by any action of the Registrar General under this Ordinance to appeal in a summary way to a Judge in Chambers against any decision which the Regis- trar General may give under this Ordinance; and the Judge may confirm the decision of the Registrar General, or may order in writing the same to be annulled.

5. This Ordinance shall come into operation on a day to be hereafter proclaimed by the Governor.

213

Enclosure 2.

Letter from the Registrar General.

REGISTRAR GENERAL'S OFFICE,

HONGKONG, May 6th, 1885.

Referring to previous correspondence. in connexion with Child Adoption and Domestic Service, I have the honour to enclose the draft Bill on the subject, that it may be forwarded for the consideration of the Secretary of State for the Colonies.

2. Lord KIMBERLEY on the 18th of March, 1882, in a despatch to Governor Sir J. POPE HENNESSY (See Command Paper 3185 of 1882) called attention, in paragraphs 17, 18, and 19, to the perilous position of adopted children and of children employed in domestic service, and desired that he should be furnished with a report thereon, after a full and trustworthy enquiry into the facts.

3. This work was entrusted to Mr. Justice RUSSELL, then Registrar General and his Report is dated the 18th of July, 1883.

214

28

4. At page 8 of that Report, beginning with the words "The Scheme which T suggest," Mr. RUSSELL indicated the safeguards which in his opinion the position of the children in question required, and the powers which should be given by law to the Registrar General to enable him to give the children the protection which their position demanded.

5. The draft of the Bill now enclosed was carefully revised by Mr. RUSSELL, and I think I may safely assume that, in his opinion, it will, if passed, attain the object for which it is intended. As, however, it may be thought that it gives un- constitutional powers to the Registrar General, His Excellency the Governor will probably desire to consult the Secretary of State, before the measure is further proceeded with. No doubt the powers which the Bill proposes to confer are ex- ceptional, but the circumstances with which it deals are exceptional also.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

The Hon. W. H. MARSH, C.M.G.,

Colonial Secretary.

FREDERICK STEWART, Registrar General.

Enclosure 3.

Report by the Attorney General.

The proposed measure provides that the Registrar General may summon before him any person whom he reasonably suspects of having in his custody any adopted daughter or female servant between the age of 6 and 16 with a view of disposing of her as a prostitute. There is no definition of what should constitute reasonable grounds of suspicion, and I.think the provision confers too much arbi- trary power to be exercised without the safeguard of publicity by the Registrar General.

The measure provides for the summoning of the kind of persons above men- tioned and for calling upon them to give reasonable security against the pawning or selling of the child, but it does not say what shall be done with the person or the child if the security is not forthcoming, and indeed it is difficult to see what could be done in such case.

Section 3 appears to give a very extraordinary power to the Registrar General to interfere with the domestic affairs of the Chinese population and a kind of power which could not possibly be efficiently exercised by a Government department especially as nothing is provided touching what is to be done with a child who has been set free under the provisions of the section.

Section 4 is objectionable as giving the judges duties and powers which are in no proper sense of the word judicial.

May 18th, 1885.

(13)

EDWARD O'MALLEY. Y

Secretary of State to Governor Sir G. F. Bowen, G.C.M.G., Hongkong.

(Copy.) Hongkong. No. 51.

SIR,

DOWNING STREET,

12th September, 1885.

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch, No. 243, of the 26th of May last, submitting for my consideration a Bill "for the prevention of abuses connected with Child Adoption and Domestic Service," together with a Report by the Attorney General, objecting to the proposed measure on various grounds and suggesting that the existing laws on the subject afford sufficient protection.

215

29

2. In the absence of further and more convincing arguments than those at present before me, I am not prepared to sanction the abandonment of the proposed Ordinance; and I should be glad, if possible, to ascertain the views of some of the leading Chinese in the Colony and of the PO LEUNG KUK in regard to the Bill.

3. The draft Ordinance embodies the suggestions made by Mr. RUSSELL in his Report of 18th July, 1883, (pp. 8 and 9), which were apparently not opposed by the leading Chinese, and were supported by yourself and your Executive Council (as reported in your despatch, No. 189, of 13th August, 1883), and were approved by my predecessor. I am not in possession of any information, which would lead me to suppose that circumstances have altered since 1883, so as to render an Ordi- nance of this kind less necessary or less desirable.

4. The general objection that the Ordinance will put arbitrary powers in the hands of the Registrar General is a serious one; but it may probably be met by making some amendments in the draft.

5. Taking the specific objections which the Attorney General raises in order:— (1.) "There is no definition of what should constitute reasonable grounds

of suspicion."

It would not be impossible to formulate some sort of definition, and before proceeding with the Bill perhaps you will call upon the Attorney General to draw up such a definition, to be embodied

in Section 1.

(2.) "I think the provision confers too much arbitrary power to be.

exercised without the safeguard of publicity by the Registrar General." I would suggest for your consideration that the re- quired safeguard might perhaps be obtained by providing in the Ordinance some means for adopting the proposal made by Mr. RUSSELL in the Report, above referred to, that certain members of the Chinese Society for the Protection of Women and Children should be associated with the Registrar General as a Consulting Committee.

(3.) "It does not say what shall be done with the person or the child if the security is not forthcoming, and indeed it is difficult to see what could be done in such case.'

11

But it appears to me that in that case the child could be taken away from the person, with whom she is living, under the provi- sions of Section 3.

1

(4.) In regard to the objection that this section 3 involves too great interference "with the domestic affairs of the Chinese population," I am of opinion that this might be met by the association with the Registrar General of some members of the Chinese Society for the Protection of Women and Children, as above suggested. . Such Association would at the same time solve the difficulty as to "what is to be done with a child who has been set free under the provisions of this section," for the rules of the Society expressly provide for the care and disposition of such children.

6. With regard to the Attorney General's objection to the provisions of Section 4, I am not of opinion that it is of sufficient weight to prevent this section being enacted as part of the Bill.

7. Evils of the kind dealt with in this draft Ordinance should, in my opinion, be opposed by giving strong powers to the Executive; and the abuse of such powers may be prevented by giving the greatest possible publicity to what is done. The desired publicity would to some extent be obtained by associating the Chinese Committee with the Registrar General; and the latter might also be required to make periodical reports to the Governor of all action taken under the Ordinance, which reports might, if thought desirable, be published.

I have, &c.,

(Signed)

FRED. STANLEY.

Governor Sir G. F. BOWEN, G.C.M.G.,

&c,,

&c.,

&c.

216

30

(14)

(Copy.) No. 406.

SIR,

Governor Sir Geo. Bowen, G.C.M.G. to Secretary of State.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 27th October, 1885.

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch, No. 51, of the 12th September ultimo on the subject of a "Bill for the prevention of abuses con- nected with Child Adoption and Domestic Service," among the Chinese resident in Hongkong.

2. I referred this despatch to the Attorney-General (Mr. O'MALLEY), and now transmit his observations upon it.

3. You state that you would "be glad, if possible, to ascertain the views of some of the leading Chinese in the Colony and of the PO LEUNG KUK in regard to the Bill." I have given directions accordingly to the proper officers, and I will forward their report when I receive it. But, as its preparation will require, pro- bably, some considerable time. I have thought it right not to delay the transmis- sion of the observations of the Attorney General.

4. I would repeat what I said in my daspatch on this subject, No. 243, of the 26th May ultimo, viz., that my opinion on the entire question is fully stated in my despatch No. 189 of 1883, to which I beg to refer.

Enclosure.

I have, &c.,

(Signed)

G. F. BOWEN.

Colonel, The Right Hon. F. STANLEY, M.P.

Enclosure.

Observations by the Attorney-General on the despatch from the Secretary of State,..

No. 51, of September 12th, 1885.

Taking in order the points raised in several clauses of paragraph 5 of the Secretary of State's Despatch No. 51 :—

As to Clause 1, I confess I cannot devise any definition of what should constitute "reasonable suspicion"; but possibly the Registrar General, who is acquainted with the subject, may be able to do so.

As to Clause 2, I do not think that a Consulting Committee of Chinese would furnish any real guarantee of publicity, or any sufficient substitute for it.

As to Clause 3, I do not think my objection on this point has been understood. The child could be taken away; but the question is what is to be done with it; where is it to be kept, or put; who is to have the care of it; and who is to be responsible for its maintenance, &c.

As to Clause 4. This paragraph contains a suggestion by way of answer to the last question which would seem to imply that the Chinese Society for the Pro- tection of Women and Children should be placed by law in loco parentis in respect of such children as are taken under section 3.

There is no clause numbered 5 in the despatch No. 51.

As to Clause 6 I have nothing to add.

As to Clause 7 I beg respectfully entirely to dissent from the notion that either the Association of a Chinese Committee with the Registrar General or a system of periodical reports by the Registrar General would secure the greatest possible publicity or indeed any effectual publicity at all in the working of such provisions as are contained in the draft.

October 26th, 1885.

-

EDWARD O'MALLEY.

No. 1495.

SIR,

217

31

(15)

Colonial Secretary to Registrar General.

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE,

HONGKONG, 29th October, 1885.

I am directed by His Excellency the Governor to transmit to you, for your consideration and report, the documents specified in the annexed Schedule.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant, (Signed)

FREDERICK STEWART,

Acting Colonial Secretary.

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, Esq.,

Acting Registrar General,

&o.,

&e.,

&c.

Enclosure.

Enclosure 1.

Extracts from Secretary of State Despatch, No. 51, of September 12th, 1885, respecting a Bill for the prevention of abuses connected with Child adoption and Domestic Service.

2. In the absence of further and more convincing arguments than those at present before me, I am not prepared to sanction the abandonment of the proposed Ordinance; and I should be glad, if possible, to ascertain the views of some of the leading Chinese in the Colony and of the PO LEUNG KUK in regard to the Bill.

3. The draft Ordinance embodies the suggestions made by Mr. RUSSELL in his Report of 18th July, 1883, (pp. 8 and 9), which were apparently not opposed by the leading Chinese, and were supported by yourself and your Executive Council (as reported in your despatch, No. 189, of 13th August, 1883), and were approved by my predecessor. I am not in possession of any information, which would lead me to suppose that circumstances have altered since 1883, so as to render an Ordi- nance of this kind less necessary or less desirable.

SIR,

(16)

Registrar General to Colonial Secretary.

Registrar General's OFFICE,

HONGKONG, April 17th, 1886.

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 29th October last forwarding for my consideration and report an extract from a despatch from the Secretary of State on the subject of the Draft Bill for the prevention of abuses connected with Child Adoption and Domestic Service.

2. In accordance with the instructions of the Secretary of State, I have con- sulted the leading Chinese in the Colony and the Chairman of the Po LEUNG KUK. in regard to the Bill. They are all of opinion that the Bill, with the slight verbal alterations, noted in the copy enclosed herewith, should be introduced at once, as it seems well calculated to help to remedy the evils with which it specially deals and which have in no way so decreased as to render the introduction of such a

measure unnecessary.

3. That the present Bill is much needed and highly desirable the working of this department during the last two years and a half clearly shows. During that period no less than 201 females, varying in age from 1 year to 18 have come under the protection of this office. Most of them have in some way or other been con- nected with brothels, and it is almost certain that, unless they had been rescued they would ultimately have been made to lead a life of shame. At present they are secured in amounts rising from $50 to $500 by a bond, the conditions of which are that the female secured has to present herself at this office once every quarter, that she will be properly brought up, and, when she arrives at the proper age, married. Every effort is also made, and in many instances successfully, to urge the parents or guardians to have the children under their care properly educated.

218

32

4. It may be argued that, in view of the number of girls already under the protection of this, office, the present system is sufficient and that no further legis- lation is necessary.

This argument is fallacious, for not only is there some doubt as to whether the bonds now given could be legally estreated in case of any of their conditions not being fulfilled, but it has also to be borne in mind that these girls, whose proper up-bringing may be said to be guaranteed, have been brought to this office only by the merest accident, the majority of them having been found in houses proceeded against for being unlicensed brothels. There is still a very large class of female children beyond the reach of the law, who it is well known are being reared for purposes of prostitution. To save these poor children from a life of infamy, legislation is absolutely necessary, and I therefore sincerely trust that the Draft Bill will become law. Peculiar evils require

Peculiar evils require special legislation, and the most competent judges, both British and Chinese, are unanimous in their opinion that the Bill as drafted by Dr. STEWART and approved by Mr. Justice RUSSELL will go far to meet the abuses arising from child adoption and domestic service, which at present are free from the control of the law.

5. In conclusion I may mention that I have learned from the Protector of Chinese at Singapore that an Ordinance based on Dr. STEWART's Draft Bill, but more stringent in its terms, has been forwarded by the Singapore Authorities for the consideration of the Secretary of State.

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, Acting Registrar General.

Enclosure 2.

The Hon. THE ACTING COLONIAL SECRETARY.

Enclosure 1.

A BILL

ENTITLED

An Ordinance for the prevention of abuses connected with Child Adoption and Domestic Service.

"HEREAS it is expedient to make further provision for the prevention of adopted female children and female servants from being brought up in the Colony for the purpose of prostitution: Be it enacted by the Governor of Hongkong, with the advice of the Legislative Council thereof, as follows :-

1. It shall be lawful for the Registrar General, as Pro- tector of Chinese, to summon before him any person whom he reasonably suspects of having in his custody any adopted daughter, or female servant, between the age of six and sixteen inclusive, with the view of disposing of her as a prostitute; and it shall also be lawful for the Registrar General, in his discretion and after due inquiry, to call on any such person who has the custody of any such female child to give reasonable security that such child shall not be sold, pawned, or otherwise disposed of for any immoral purpose, and that the absence of such child from the Colony shall be duly accounted for.

}

2. For the better carrying out of the preceding section, it shall be lawful for the Registrar General to require the production before him of any A female child under Aadoption such or domestic service; and also to summon any person who can give information as to the treatment of such child by her adopted parents or master, under a penalty not exceed ing two hundred dollars.

3. It shall be lawful for the Registrar General, in the interests of any A female child, to make a written application to a Judge in Chambers for a writ of Habeas Corpus, with the view of taking away such female child from any person who has no legal claim to her custody, and whose retention of her is prejudicial to the child's interest and liberty.

4. It shall be lawful for any person considering himself aggrieved or affected by any action of the Registrar General under this Ordinance to appeal in a summary way to a Judge in Chambers against any decision which the Regis- trar General may give under this. Ordinance; and the Judge may confirm the decision of the Registrar General, or may order in writing the same to be annulled.

5. This Ordinance shall come into operation on a day to be hereafter proclaimed by the Governor.

/such

/such

}

28..

Enclosure 2.

STRAITS SETTLEMENTS.

A BILL

INTITULED

An Ordinance to make further provision for the Protection of Women and Girls.

W

HEREAS it is expedient to make further provision

for the protection of women and girls:

It is hereby enacted by the Governor of the Straits Set- tlements with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council thereof as follows:-

1. This Ordinance may be cited as "The Women and Girls' Protection Ordinance 1886.”

2. (1). The Protector or Assistant Protector of Chinese Immigrants at any Settlement (which said Protector .and Assistant Protector are hereinafter included in the term "The Protector") may if he reasonably suspects that any woman has been brought into the Colony for immoral purposes by fraud or misrepresentation or under any false pretence and that from fear ignorance or for any other cause she is unable or unwilling to disclose the true circumstances of the case require any person in whose custody or under whose controul she appears to be to furnish security in a reasonable amount to the satisfaction of the Protector that such woman shall not leave the Settlement in which she then is without the previous consent in writing of the Protector.

(2.). In default of such security being furnished the Pro- tector may by warrant under his hand and seal order that such woman be removed to a place of safety and there de- tained until she can be returned to the place whence she was brought or otherwise proper provision can be made for the protection of her interests and liberty.

3. (1)—The Protector if after due enquiry he is satisfied that any girl is being used far immoral purposes or is being trained for such purposes and that such girl is under the age.

of sixteen years may by warrant under his hand and seal order such girl to be removed to a place of safety and there detained until she attains the age of sixteen years.

(2) A girl found living in a brothel shall be deemed to be a girl who is being trained for immoral purposes.

4. (1)-The Protector shall have full power to sommon any person whom he may have reason to believe can give any information respecting any woman suspected of having been brought into the Colony for immoral purposes by fraud or misrepresentation or under any false pretence or respect- ing any girl suspected of being used or trained for immoral purposes and the person so summoned shall be legally bound to attend at the hour and place in the summons specified and to produce all documents in his custody possession or power relating to such woman or girl and to answer truthfully all questions which the Protector may put to him respecting any such woman or girl or in any way relating to the matter being enquired into.

(2) The Protector shall be deemed to be a public ser- vant within the meaning of the Penal Code and may ad- minister oaths and affirmations to and examine on oath or affirmation any person summoned before him for the pur- poses of this Ordinance.

5. Every warrant purporting to be issued in pursuance of this Ordinance and to be under the hand and seal of the Protector shall be received in evidence in every Court of the Colony without further proof and shall be evidence of the facts therein stated and in all acts done in pursuance of such warrant shall be deemed to have been authorised by law.

6. No order made by the Protector in pursuance of this Ordinance shall be questioned or set aside by any Court but any person who may be aggrieved by any such order may appeal to the Governor in Council whose decision shall be final.

Short title.

Women brought for immoral

purposes by fraud, &c.

Children under sixteen used or trained for immoral purposes.

Protector to have power to summon and examine witnesses.

Warrant to be sufficient authority for detention.

Appeal to Governor in Council.

219

220

Security bond.

Power to make provision for maintaining women and children,

Power of search.

Women and children escaping from

detention may be arrested and persons abetting

escape punished

Rules.

34

7. The security to be given under section one hereof shall be in the form specified in the schedule hereto or in such other form as may for the time being be prescribed by the Governor in Council.

8. It shall be lawful for the Governor in Council out of moneys to be provided by the Legislative Council for that purpose to provide a suitable building or buildings for the purposes of this Ordinance and thereout also to defray the cost of the care maintenance and education of all persons detained under the provisions of this Ordinance..

9. The Protector and any officer of the Chinese Protec- torate generally authorised for that purpose in writing by the Protector shall have power to search any ship house .building or other place where he has reasonable cause to suspect that there is any woman or girl who is or may be liable to be dealt with under the provisions of this Ordi- nance and may remove any such woman or girl to a place of safety to be there detained until her case can be enquired into.

10. (1)-Every person detained under the provisions of this Ordinance shall be subject to such rules and regula- tions as may be made by the Governor in Council and every such person who contrary to such rules and regula- tions leaves any place in which she is detained may be arrested by any Police Officer or by any officer of the Chinese Protectorate and taken back to such place.

(2)-Any person who induces or assists any person de- tained under this Ordinance to leave contrary to such rules and regulations as aforesaid the place in which such person is detained or knowingly harbours any such person shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars or to im- prisonment of either description not exceeding one calendar month or to both fine and imprisonment.

11. (1) The Governor in Council may make and when made revoke add to and alter rules for all or any of the following purposes:-

(i) The manner in which appeals to the Governor in

Council shall be made and conducted.

(ii) The care maintenance and education of women and

girls detained under this Ordinance.

(iii) The manner and conditions in and under which the powers conferred by this Ordinance shall be exercised by the persons on whom such powers are conferred,

(iv) Generally in relation to any matters whether similar or not to those above-mentioned as to which it may be expedient to make rules for carry- ing into effect the objects of this Ordinance.

(2)—Such rules when made shall be published in the Government Gazette and shall thereupon have the force of law and any person disobeying or infringing any such rule shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty dollars or to imprisonment of either description not exceeding one month or to both fine and imprisonment.

SCHEDULE.

Know all men by these presents that we

and

are held and firmly bound unto the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty Her Heirs and Successors in the sum of $

to be paid to the Colonial Treasurer for the time being of the Straits Settlements to which payment we bind ourselves and each of us our and each of our heirs executors and administrators firmly by these presents. Sealed with our Seals. Dated this

day of

188

+

Now the condition of this obligation is that if one who is now residing at

shall not quit or be taken without the

or removed from the Settlement of previous permission in writing of the Protector of Chinese Immi- grants [or Assistant Protector of Chinese Immigrants] for the time being then this obligation to be void otherwise to remain in full force and virtue.

Signed sealed and delivered by the above-bounden and

in the presence of

221

SIR,

35-

(17)

Attorney General to Colonial Secretary.

ATTORNEY GENERAL'S CHAMBERS,

25th October, 1886.

1. With reference to the letter of the Acting Registrar General dated the 17th April last on the subject of Child Adoption and Domestic Services which was referred to me for consideration, I have the honour to forward herewith for sub- mission to His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government a Draft Bill for the better protection of

young girls.

2. His Excellency when administering the Government in 1882 had called for a report on this subject from Mr. RUSSELL who was then Registrar General and Protector of Chinese.

3. The further history of this question will be found in the Despatch of His Excellency the Governor dated the 15th August, 1883, transmitting Mr. RUSSELL'S report, and in another Despatch of His Excellency dated the 26th May, 1885, forwarding a Bill which had been prepared by Mr. STEWART then Registrar General, and which had been read a first time in the Legislative Council.

This Bill consisted practically of four Sections, and is annexed to the papers forwarded herewith, the first section of this Bill authorised the Registrar General to summon before him any person whom he reasonably suspected of having in his possession any adopted daughter or female servant between the age of six and sixteen, and it authorised the Registrar General on due enquiry to require from the custodian of the said child security that it should not be sold, pawned or disposed of for any immoral purpose.

For the better carrying out of this Section, Section 2 anthorised the Registrar General to require the production before him of any female child under adoption or domestic service.

And also to summon before him any person who give information touching the treatment of any such child.

By Section 3 the Registrar General could apply to a Judge in Chambers for a writ of Habeas Corpus with a view of taking away any female child from the custody of any one who had no legal right thereto..

Section 4 provided an appeal to the Judge in Chambers from any decision of the Registrar General.

The Attorney General made the following objections to the said Bill :- "The proposed measure provides that the Registrar General may summon before him any person whom he reasonably suspects of having in his custody any adopted daughter or female servant between the age of 6 and 16 with a view of disposing of her as a prostitute. There is no definition of what should constitute reasonable grounds of suspicion, and I think the provision confers too much arbitrary power to be exercised without the safeguard of publicity by the Registrar General.

"The measure provides for the summoning of the kind of persons above men- tioned and for calling upon them to give reasonable security against the pawning or selling of the child, but it does not say what shall be done with the the child if the security is not forthcoming, and indeed it is difficult to see what could be done in such case.

person or

"Section 3 appears to give a very extraordinary power to the Registrar General to interfere with the domestic affairs of the Chinese population, and a kind of power which could not possibly be sufficiently exercised by a Government department especially as nothing is provided touching what is to be done with a child who has been set free under the provisions of the section.

"Section 4 is objectionable as giving the Judges duties and powers which are in no proper sense of the word judicial.'

And the Governor in his despatch of the 26th May, 1885, seems to have admitted the force of some of them. The Secretary of State in his despatch dated the 12th September, 1885, acknowledged the receipt of the Bill and report of the Attorney General.

67

222

36

In paragraph 2 of that despatch he states:

"In the absence of further and more convincing arguments than those at present before me, I am not prepared to sanction the abandonment of the proposed Ordinance; and I should be glad, if possible to ascertain the views of some of the. leading Chinese in the Colony and of the Po LEUNG KUK in regard to the Bill."

He then deals with Mr. O'MALLEY'S objections.

And concludes his despatch with the following paragraph

"Evils of the kind dealt with in this Draft Ordinance should, in my opinion, be opposed by giving strong powers to the executive; and the abuse of such powers may be prevented by giving the greatest possible publicity to what is done. The desired publicity would to some extent be obtained by associating the Chinese Committee with the Registrar General; and the latter might also be required to make periodical reports to the Governor of all action taken under the Ordinance, which reports might, if thought desirable, be published."

This despatch was communicated to Mr. O'MALLEY who submitted the follow- ing observations :-

"Taking in order the points raised in several clauses of paragraph 5 of the Secretary of States Despatch No. 51. As to clause 1 confess I cannot devise any definition of what should constitute reasonable suspicion; but possibly the Registrar General, who is acquainted with the subject, may be able to do.

"As to clause 2 I do not think that a Consulting Committee of Chinese would furnish any real guarantee of publicity, or any sufficient substitute for it.

As to clause 3, I do not think my objection on this point has been under- stood. The child could be taken away; but the question is what is to be done with it; where is it to be kept, or put; who is to have the care of it; and who is to be responsible for its maintenance, &c.

"As to clause 4. This paragraph contains a suggestion by way of answer to the last question who would seem to imply that the Chinese Society for the pro- tection of women and children should be placed by law in loco parentis in respect of such children as are taken under Section 3.

"There is no clause numbered 5 in the despatch No. 51.

"As to clause 6 I have nothing to add.

"As to clause 7 I beg respectfully entirely to dissent from the notion that either the association of a Chinese Committee with the Registrar General or a system of periodical reports by the Registrar General would secure the greatest possible publicity or indeed any effectual publicity at all in the working of such provisions as are contained in the draft.'

These observations appear to have been transmitted to the Secretary of State, but as far as I can learn no answer has been received thereto.

In accordance with the instructions of the Secretary of State the leading Chinese and the Chairman of the PO LEUNG KUK were consulted. The Registrar General in his letter of the 17th April before mentioned reports that they were all of opinion that the Bill with some slight alterations should be introduced at once.

Owing to the late period of the Session at which that letter was received it was not possible to proceed then with this subject.

Mr. O'MALLEY's objections were :---

1. That there was no definition of what should constitute reasonable

grounds of suspicion.

2. That the measure conferred too much arbitrary power to be exercised

by the Registrar General without publicity.

3. That the Bill did not say what should be done with the child.

4. That Section 3 involved too great an interference with the domestic

affair of the Chinese population.

5. That Section 4 was objectionable as giving the Judges duties and

powers which are in no proper sense of the word judicial.

The Secretary of State has dealt with these objections in his despatch, and I have endeavoured as far as possible to meet the view of all concerned.

H

223

37

With respect to the first, after consultation with Mr. LOCKHART I had drafted Section 1 as follows:--

1. Whenever the Registrar General shall have good cause to believe that any female child between the age of six and sixteen years inclusive who

(a.) has been purchased by or is in the custody or under the control of

any registered brothel keeper, or

(b.) is in the service or custody or has been purchased by any woman whose character, calling, or occupation the said Registrar General shall have good cause to believe is immoral, or

(c.) is in the custody or service or has been purchased by any one who

has been convicted of keeping an unregistered brothel, or

(d.) is found in any brothel,

is being trained as, or is intended to be a prostitute,

and whenever any parent shall complain that the other parent who has the custody of their female child between the ages aforesaid wishes to dispose of it for the purposes of prostitution,

and whenever any female child between the ages aforesaid being a servant, shall complain of being maltreated by her master or mistress, it shall be lawful for the said Registrar General by notice in writing to call upon the purchaser, custodian, employer, or parent above mentioned to appear before him on a day to be fixed by the said notice, and to produce before him the said child,

but on further consideration I have in the proposed Bill given the Registrar General power or complaint made that any female child is being trained as a prostitute to summon the custodian of the child before him. It will be altogether in the discretion of the Registrar General to receive or to act on the complaint, and there is no ground to believe that he would take any steps unless reasonably satisfied that his intervention was necessary in the interest of the child.

With respect to the second objection I propose that the Registrar General have all power to associate with himself two members of the PO LEUNG KUK or two Chinese Justices of the Peace and that the Governor should have power to make regulations respecting admission of the public to these inquiries.

The third objection is that the Ordinance did not state what was to be done

with the child.

Section 2 of the proposed Ordinance enacts that the Registrar General shall have power to make an order for the proper custody of the child, or he may leave it with the custodian on security being given for the fulfilment of certain conditions. I am informed that no difficulty will arise on this point as in almost all the cases the child will be left with the custodian on due security being given for the proper care and maintenance of the child.

It is true that this Ordinance does permit a great interference with certain domestic affairs of the Chinese, but the evils attendant on this custom or facility of purchasing female children are great, it is admitted that they should not be tole- rated and in order to put them down stringent measures are required.

The Secretary of State has taken into consideration Mr. O'MALLEY'S fourth and fifth objections.

The Bill which I now submit meets these objections as far as it is possible or advisable so to do, and it carries out the wishes and directions of the Secretary of State as conveyed by the above mentioned despatch.

It is very doubtful whether any of the Bonds which have been given to the Registrar General for the custody of the children are valid I have endeavoured by Section 9 as far as it is possible to cure any defect in them.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

The Honourable F. STEWART, LL.D.,

Acitng Colonial Secretary.

EDW. J. ACKROYD, Acting Attorney General.

224

38

A BILL

ENTITLED

An Ordinance for the better protection of

WHEREAS is

young

Girls.

HEREAS it is expedient to prevent adopted children and female servants being brought up in the Colony for the purpose of prostitution: Be it enacted by the Governor of Hongkong, with the advice of the Legislative Council thereof, as follows:

-

1. On any complaint being made to the Registrar Ge- neral that any female child between the ages of six and sixteen years is in the custody or under the control of any person in the Colony with the view of being trained or disposed of as a prostitute, it shall be lawful for the Regis- trar General to summon before him such custodian requir- ing at the same time the production of the said child, and to make full inquiry into the said complaint.

2. The Registrar General may associate with him in the said inquiry or two or more Chinese Justices of the Peace or such other Chinese persons as may from time to time be designated by the Governor, and if after due inquiry he is satisfied that the child is being trained as a prostitute, or that it is the intention of the custodian thereof to dispose of the said child as a prostitute, it shall be lawful for the said Registrar General to make an order for the proper custody of the said child, or if the said Registrar General should think fit to leave the said child with the said custodian, and he may require the latter to furnish such security in such an amount, with such sureties as he shall deem fit for the proper care and bringing up of the said child.

The Registrar General may also call upon the said party to furnish him with a photograph of the said child.

3. If any person who has received such notice shall not appear, and produce the said child, and shall not satis- factorily account for such default the Registrar General may sentence the party so making default to a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars, and in default of payment may order that the said partybe imprisoned with or without hard labour for any period not exceeding six months.

4. Whenever the Registrar General shall have reason to believe that any female child under the age of sixteen years has been purchased and brought into the Colony for the purpose of emigration, it shall be lawful for the Registrar General to summon before him the custodian of the said child as provided for by section 1 of this Ordi- nance, and to deal with the case and make such order for the proper custody of the child as the circumstances of the case may require, and in case the said party shall refuse or neglect to obey the said summons, he shall be liable to the penalties mentioned in section 3.

5. It shall be lawful for the Registrar General by notice in writing under his hand, to summon before him any person who he believes can give information respecting any such female child, or its treatment by its adopted parents, custodian or employer, and any person disobeying such notice, and not giving satisfactory reason for such default shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding two hundred dollars or in default thereof to imprisonment with or with- out hard labour for any period not exceeding three months.

6. Whenever the Registrar General shall have reason to believe that any female child between the ages of six and sixteen years is in the custody, power or possession of any person who has no legal right to such custody, and that it is prejudicial to the interests, and liberty of such child that she should continue in the custody of such person, it shall be lawful for the Registrar General to make appli- cation to a Judge in chambers for a writ of Habeas Corpus. On the return of the said writ the said Judge shall make such order respecting the custody, education, and bringing up of the said child, and on such conditions as he shall deem best in the interest of the said child.

7. Any person aggrieved, or affected by any order or certificate of the Registrar General under this Ordinance may within one week from the date of such order, or certificate, appeal in a summary way to a Judge in cham- bers against any such order or certificate.

:

-.39

The said appellant shall give notice in writing to the Registrar General of his intention to appeal, and the said Registrar General shall forthwith transmit to the said Judge the notes of any evidence taken by him, and the reasons for his decision.

The said Judge may upon the receipt of the notes and reasons confirm the said order or certificate, amend or annul the same, or may refer the matter back to the said Registrar General for further evidence, or may order the attendance of the parties before him, and may thereupon make such order as the justice of the case may require.

8. In any case where it shall be made to appear to the Registrar General that any person having furnished security under this Ordinance is not faithfully carrying out or performing the same, it shall be lawful for the Registrar General to call upon the said person and the sureties to shew cause why the said recognizance should not be estreated, and if on hearing the said parties or in their absence if they do not appear, the Registrar General be of opinion that the said bond has not been duly and faithfully performed, or that any of its conditions have not been fulfilled, he shall certify the same to one of the Judges of the Supreme Court, and on written application made to that effect the said Judge may order the said bond to be estreated, or may make such other order as to him shall appear just, and if the said bond be estreated the said Judge shall order that execution do issue forth- with thereon, provided always that it shall be competent for the said Judge before making any order on the said application to require the appearance before him of the parties to the said bond.

9. In any action which may hereafter be entered for the recovery of any sum due on any bond or recognizance which before the coming into operation of this Ordinance has been entered into before the Registrar General with respect to the custody, maintenance or giving in marriage of any female child, it shall not be necessary for the plaintiff in such action to allege or to prove that any consideration was given for the said bond or recognizance, and it shall not be competent for the said defendant to allege in defence that the Registrar General had no authority or power to require such bond from him, or that no consideration was given for the same.

10. It shall be lawful for the Governor in Council to make and when made to alter, amend, or revoke all Rules and Regulations necessary for the efficient working of this Ordinance.

11. The said Rules may provide for the presence at all enquiries to be held by the Registrar General under this Ordinance, of any two or more Chinese Justices of the Peace, they shall also regulate the mode of holding such inquiries and whether the same shall be held in public, or in presence only of the parties interested.

12. The forms contained in the Schedule to this Ordinance shall be the forms to be used when required under this Ordinance.

SCHEDULES.

A.

Notice under Section 1 of Ordinance No.

To A.B. residing at

of 1886.

Whereas complaint has been made to me C.D. Registrar General of this Colony that you the said A.B. have in your custody or under your control a female child between the ages of six and sixteen years which child is being trained as a prostitute.

Now these are to require you the said A.B. to appear before me at my office situate in Queen's Road on

and to produce then and there the said child.

Dated this

Eight hundred and

day of

in the year One thousand

C.D., Registrar General.

Take Notice that if you do not obey this summons you are liable to a penalty not exceeding five hundred Dollars, and in default of paying the said sum to imprisonment not exceeding six months.

225

226

HONGKONG

TO WIT.

and

40

B.

Know all men by these presents that we

A.B.

C.D. E.F.

of

of of

are hereby

jointly and severally bound to Her Majesty, Her Heirs and Successors in the sum of

dollars, for which payment well and truly to be made we do hereby bind ourselves our Executors, Administrators and Assigns firmly by these presents.

day of

in the year

Dated this Whereas E.F. the Registrar General of this Colony has under the provision of Section 3 of Ordinance No. of 1886, this day entrusted to the care of the said A.B. one G.H. a female child.

Now the conditions of the above recognizance are such that if the said A.B. do well and truly (here state conditions) then the above recognizance to be null and void otherwise to remain in full force and effect.

Signature of A.B.

C.D.

E.F.

Taken and subscribed by the said A.B., C.D. and E.F. on the day month and year aforesaid

Before me

Registrar General.

C.

In the matter of Ordinance No.

and

In the complaint of against

of 1886.

To

Whereas complaint has been made to me A.B. Registrar General, for this Colony that one C.D. residing at

had in her

custody (or under her control) a female child between the ages of six and sixteen years with a view of training or disposing of the said child as a prostitute. And whereas the said C.D. having been sum- moned to appear before me and to produce the said child not having appeared or given any satisfactory reason for not doing so, has been sentenced by me to a fine of

and whereas the said C.D. has

not paid the said fine:

These are to require and authorize you the said forthwith to arrest the said C.D. and to convey the said

to the Superintendent of Victoria Gaól, and these are to authorize you the said H.A. Superintendent of the said Gaol to receive the said C.D., and there safely to keep and imprison him (with or with- out hard labour) for the space of

or until the said fine be paid.

Given under my hand this day of thousand Eight hundred and Eighty

in the year One

Registrar General.

To A.B.

D.

IN THE COLONY OF HONGKONG.

In the matter of Ordinance of 1886, and in the matter of a complaint against one

These are to require you the said A.B. to be and appear before me at my office situate in Queen's Road on

to give informa- tion in the matter of the above complaint respecting the treatment of one C.D. a female child.

And take notice that if you do not attend you are liable to a fine not exceeding two hundred dollars, and in default of payment of the same to be imprisoned for any period not exceeding three months.

Dated this

Registrar General.

233

No.

3

87.

HONGKONG.

CORRESPONDENCE RESPECTING THE NOMINATION OF A REPRESENTATIVE TO TAKE PART IN A CONFERENCE TO BE HELD IN LONDON FOR THE PURPOSE OF DISCUSSING CERTAIN QUESTIONS OF COMMON INTEREST TO ALL PARTS OF THE EMPIRE.

Presented to the Legislative Council, by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government, on the 7th January, 1887.

(1.)

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Officer Administering

the Government of Hongkong.

DOWNING STREET,

HONGKONG

SEPARATE.

SIR,

25th November, 1886.

I have the honour to enclose a copy of a despatch which I have addressed to the Governors of the Colonies under Responsible Government, inviting the Governments of those Colonies to nominate a representative, or representatives, to take part in a Conference which it is proposed to hold next year for the purpose. of discussing certain questions of common interest to all parts of the Empire

It is the wish of Her Majesty's Government that, in the consideration of these questions, the interests of all the Colonies should be duly considered at the Conference; and in the case of any Crown Colony which may not send a special representative, I shall take care that proper provision is made for securing such consideration.

If, however, you are in a position to furnish me with the name of any high officer or leading public man connected with your Colony who is likely to be in London during the spring of next year, I shall be able, should circumstances render it desirable, to arrange for his presence at the Conference on any occasion on which matters specially affecting your Colony are likely to come under discussion.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient humble Servant,

The Officer Administering the Government of

HONGKONG.

(2.)

EDWARD STANHOPE.

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to Governors of Colonies under

1

Responsible Government.

DOWNING STREET,

25th November, 1886.

SIR,

You will no doubt have remarked that in the Queen's Speech on the proro- gation of Parliament, Her Majesty was pleased to refer to Her Colonial and Indian Possessions in the following terms:-"I have observed with much satisfaction the "interest which, in an increasing degree, is evinced by the people of this country "in the welfare of their Colonial and Indian fellow subjects; and I am led to the "conviction that there is on all sides a growing desire to draw closer in every practicable way the bonds which unite the various portions of the Empire. I "have authorised communications to be entered into with the principal Colonial "Governments with a view to the fuller consideration of matters of common "interest."

(4

I

234

2. The communications thus promised with the Colonies have engaged the careful consideration of Her Majesty's Government, and they have come to the conclusion that the Queen should be advised to summon a Conference, to meet in London in the early part of next year, at which representatives of the principal Colonial Governments will be invited to attend for the discussion of those questions which appear more particularly to demand attention at the present time. I request you to inform your Ministers of this proposal, which I am confident will be very satisfactory to them, and to express the hope which I entertain of their cordial co-operation.

3. In the opinion of Her Majesty's Government, the question which is at once urgent and capable of useful consideration at the present time is that of organisation for military defence. The patriotic action of the Colonies in offering contingents of troops to take part in the Egyptian campaign made a deep and lasting impression on the public mind, and was the first practical result of much careful work during recent years. It is a necessity of the case that the measures which have been taken in each Colony, as well for the organisation of the local forces as for the construc- tion of local defensive works, are, to a great extent, not yet fully understood and appreciated in other parts of the Empire. The close and thorough examination of the whole subject of Imperial Defence, which was completed by the Royal Com- mission presided over by the Earl of Carnarvon, has led to the execution of extensive and important defensive works in various parts of the Empire; and the cordial co-operation offered to Her Majesty's Government by the Colonies in carrying out this policy indicates their desire to arrive, so far as may at present be practicable, at a common basis of action. This work is still being actively pressed on with the assistance of a Standing Committee, which is continuously occupied with matters relating to Colonial Defence.

4. Much yet remains to be done; and it is of course unavoidable that secrecy should continue to be observed with regard to many of the defensive measures in progress or in contemplation. The time has, however, now arrived when an attempt may fairly be made to attain to a better understanding as to the system of defence which may be established throughout the Empire. For this purpose an interchange of knowledge as to the state of preparation or as to the capabilities of organisation in each Colony, would lead to a more thorough understanding of their wants and wishes; but whilst Her Majesty's Government would thus be prepared to recommend for the consideration of the Conference certain principles calculated to promote the general defence of the Empire, it is not our intention in calling the Conference to commit either the Imperial Government or any Colony to new projects entailing heavy expenditure, but rather to secure that the sums which may be devoted to this purpose may be utilized to the fullest extent, with complete knowledge of all the conditions of the problem.

5. Second only in importance to this great question is one concerning in a special degree the interests of the Empire in time of peace. The promotion of commercial and social relations by the development of our postal and telegraphic communications could be considered with much advantage by the proposed Con- ference. It is a subject the conditions of which are constantly changing. New requirements come into existence, and new projects are forinulated, every year. It is obviously desirable that the question of Imperial intercommunication should be considered as a whole, in order that the needs of every part of the Empire may, as far as practicable, be provided for, and that suggestions may be obtained from all quarters as to the best means of establishing a complete system of communica- tions without that increased expenditure which. necessarily results from isolated action.

6. Two leading subjects for consideration have been referred to, but it is not impossible that there may be some other important question which in the general opinion of the Colonial Governments might properly and usefully be brought under consideration. But I should deprecate the discussion at the present time of any of the subjects falling within the range of what is known as Political Federation. There has been no expression of Colonial opinion in favour of any steps in that direction; and Her Majesty's Government are of opinion that there would be no advantage in the informal discussion of a very difficult problem before any basis has been accepted by the Government concerned. It might, indeed, be detrimental to the ultimate attainment of a more developed system of united action if a question not yet ripe for practical decision were now to be brought to the test of a formal examination.

?

235

7. The Conference will necessarily be purely consultative, and it will therefore. not be material that the Colonies should have equal or proportional representation upon it. The desire of Her Majesty's Government would rather be that its con- stitution should be sufficiently comprehensive to include, in addition to the Agent- General or other specially deputed representative of each Government, any leading public man who may be at liberty to come to England next year, and may be specially qualified to take a useful part in the deliberations. It will, I think, be convenient that I should preside at the Conference, and I need not say that I "anticipate much advantage to myself and to Her Majesty's Government from the

opportunities of acquiring information which will thus be afforded to me.

8. I will only add, in conclusion, that I am confident that your Government will, as I do, feel deep interest in this first attempt to bring all parts of Her Majesty's Empire into joint deliberation. However modest the commencement may be, results may grow out of it affecting, in a degree which it is at present difficult to appreciate, the interests of the Empire and of the civilised world.

To the Governors of Colonies

I have, &c.,

(Signed)

EDWARD STANHOPE.

under Responsible Government.

P.S.-My own opinion is that the best time for meeting would be the month of April or May, but I should be glad in this matter to be guided by the general opinion of the Colonial Governments.

(3.)

The Officer Administering the Government of Hongkong to the Secretary of State for the Colonies.

SIR,

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 31st December, 1886.

I have the honour to acknowledge your Separate Despatch of 25th November last, on the subject of the Conference which it is proposed to hold next year in London, for the purpose of discussing certain questions of common interest to all parts of the Empire. I am asked to furnish you with the name of any High Officer, or leading public man connected with this Colony, who is likely to be in London, during the spring of next year, and who might represent Hongkong, should circumstances render it desirable. I beg to propose the name of Mr. O'MALLEY, the Attorney General, now at home on leave, but as his leave will perhaps have expired before the Conference meets I would submit also the names of Mr. WILLIAM KESWICK, the late senior partner in the firm of Jardine, MATHESON & Co., and Mr. THOMAS JACKSON, the Chief Manager of the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank. Both these gentlemen, who are Members of the Legislative Council, are now at home. They have been long connected with Hongkong as well as the various Coast Ports of China and Japan, and either of them would be able to afford valuable information in all matters relating to the interests of the Colony."

The Right Honourable

E. STANHOPE, M.P.,

&c.,

&c.

&C.,

I have, &c.,

(Signed)

W. H. MARSH.

183

No. 48

1886.

HONGKONG.

CORRESPONDENCE RESPECTING DEATHS IN ITALIAN

AND FRENCH CONVENTS.

Presented to the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government,

on the 10th December, 1886.

Dr. Hartigan to Secretary, Sanitary Board.

HONGKONG, November 24th, 1886.

SIR,

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, No. 223, and inclosures therein referred to.

The latter I have submitted to the authorities of the Italian Convent, and now forward for your perusal, the Very Revd. G. BURGHIGNOLI'S Memorandum thereon.

As to the means of reducing the infant mortality in the Italian Convent, I am of opinion, from observation, that very little, if anything, can be effected in this direction so long as the present system of indiscriminate admission prevails.

By far the greater number of infants are moribund prior to their reception, this condition being the result of previous insanitary surroundings, insufficient or improper food, and general neglect.

I think, that were it possible to divide the infants on admission into two classes, viz.: "healthy and unhealthy," it would be found that as large a proportion of the healthy class survive as is usually found in similar well-managed Institu- tions in Europe.

The report is slightly inaccurate in stating that medical aid "is only requisi- tioned when any of the Sisters or Boarders are sick." I visit all serious cases whether occurring amongst the Community, Boarders, European or Chinese Orphans.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

H. MCCALLUM, Esq.,

Secretary Sanitary Board.

WILLIAM HARTIGAN.

Memorandum by the Very Revd. G. Burghignoli.

HONGKONG, 30th November, 1886.

The large infant mortality in the two Convents is more apparent than real. Such mortality is only confined to infants: the mortality among the inmates of the Convents is very low.

To give the large number of deaths, without giving the larger number of admissions, I think is not fair.

.

From these statistics, one can see that the percentage of saved children is more than 10 per cent. just as in similar Institutions in Europe.

It is not correct to say that "a certain number of the children are received suffering more or less from disease." Almost all are brought in in a hopeless dying state in most of them the marks on their bodies show that they were under some medical treatment, and that they were taken to the Convents, only when they had no more hope to save them. Many die the same day, others in two or three days.

184

It is evident then that they contract the sickness before coming to the Convents.*

Medical assistance would be (in my opinion) of very little or rather of no use, because those children are brought in in a hopeless state, and because Dr. O'BRIEN gave all his attention to those children, and satisfied himself that nothing could

be done.

I looked over the Register of the Italian Convent for the month of October last, I found the number of 50 deaths, as Mr. MACEWEN says, I saw that they are all infants, that 48 were brought in in a hopeless state, that only 2 could be given out to a wet-nurse, but soon were brought back with fever, and they died of the fever contracted out of the Convent.

27

Mr. MCCALLUM says: "the person delivering the child frequently receives a small sum of money for doing so.' Now to prevent all misunderstanding, I wish to say that the small sum of money never exceeds three cents.

G. BURGHIGNOLI,

Pro. Vicar-Apostolic.

RETURNS OF DEATHS AND ADMISSIONS INTO THE ITALIAN CONVENT,

FROM 1880 TO SEPTEMBER, 1886.

Year.

DEATHS IN THE ITALIAN CONVENT.

Total.

PERSONS ADMITTED INTO THE CONVENT.

Total.

1880,

534

1881,

484

1882,

471

1883,

506

10 10 10 5

55

-

CO

596

625

-J

7

21

56

7 548 518 10

85

10 567 675 20

97

1

1

5

610 663

23

1884,

431 66

2*

3

8

510 750

+

17.

2002 N

23

18

NO CO NO &

38

691

28

579

33

746

28

734

27

17

811

1885,

433 85

2*

20

540

603 19

888

28

28

678

1886,

355 78

4

12

449 475 25

20

29

549.

?

Till the end of

September.

5 3,214 522†

10

11

68

3,820 || 4,309 | 121

157

201

4,788

* 1 Sister of Charity and 1 European Orphan.

†These are infants almost all under 5 years, and all brought in in a dying state.

CHILDREN ADMITTED INTO THE FRENCH CONVENT.

In 1880,......

33

1881,.

1882,..

1883,..

926

870

...910

....1107

39

1884,.

1885,

"

""

1886,.

..1025

.....

.... 924

932

Total,.......

....6694

1880.

RETURN OF THE NUMBER OF DEATHS REGISTERED AS OCCURRING IN THE ITALIAN CONVENT, FROM 1ST JANUARY, 1880, TO 30TH NOVEMBER, 1886.

1881.

1882.

1883.

1884.

1885.

1886.

TOTAL OF 6 YEARS

11 MONTHS.

AND 11 MONTHS.

CAUSE

OF

DEATH.

No. under 1 Year.

No. under 10 Years.

No, over 10 Years.

Total.

No. under 1 Year.

No. under 10 Years.

No, over 10 Years.

Total.

No. under 1 Year.

No. under 10 Years.

No. over 10 Years.

Total.

No. under 1 Year.

No. under 10 Years.

No. over 10 Years.

Total.

No. under 1 Year.

No. under 10 Years.

No. over 10 Years.

Total.

No. under 1 Year.

Convulsion,

334

Fever,

72

55

Consumption,.

37

13

Worms,

6

10 10 2 2

339 274 10

...

1

128

66

38

56

54 27

5

8

15

13

88888

284 266

105

269

273

40

86

28

NON C

36

79

73

21

30

10

84

81 39

20

58

32

26

2288

275 243

244

241

273

85

37

122

65

24

3

122

69

21

98

63 49

971

92

47

25

·119

40

69

6

1

7

34

35

No. under 10 Years.

No. over 10 Years.

គដ្ឋមន Total.

:

241

No. under 1 Year.

No. under 10 Years.

No. over 10 Years.

Total.

No. under 1 Year.

No. under 10 Years.

No. over 10 Years.

Grand

Total.

2731,904

20

1 1,925

1

73

448

236

9

693

.115

388

248

44

680

35

166

62

-228

Cold,..

1

2

2

Sores,

16

10

21

12

2

14

;ལ

12

49

19

3

22

5

5

2

1

3

3

1

$94

24

118

Gout,

1

Diarrhoea,

14

11

26 20

5

25

13

6

19

:

28

6

35

20

CA

23

32

32

26

3

31

153

33

191

Weakness,

2

:

3

Dropsy,

1

2

1

.2

2

1

3

1

2

'1

3

1

1

1

1

2

4

1

7

16

Paralysis,.

...

:

Cancer,

1

5

6

1

1

2

3

5

1

2

2

5

7

1

4

19

26

Asthma,

1

1

1

...

1

...

Scrofula,

2

2

1

1

2

2

6

...

Starvation,

7

7

...

...

7

Inflammation of

1

I

the Lungs,

...

...

...

1

***

Dysentery,

...

:

...

Measles,

Cholera,

Inflammation of}

the Kidneys,.)

1

...

...

***

...

...

::

...

...

Old Age,

Small Pox,

Heart Disease,

Debility,

Marasmus,

Bronchial Catarrh,|

Total,..

487

'100

9

596

441

98

39

1

1

1

1

1

.1

3

1

1

:

1

...

1

3

...

1

...

::

...

020307

1231

:.

:

1

1

...

...

1

1

1

1

1

1

...

1

1

...

...

...

...

:::

1

4

4

...

1

1

1

:

1

1

4

9

548

442

109

16 567 507

97

6

610

431

69

13

513

438

80 17

535

429

108

85

3,921

Registrar General's Office, Hongkong, 26th November, 1886.

15 552 3,175 661

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, Acting Registrar General.

185

CAUSE

OF

DEATH.

1880.

RETURN OF THE NUMBER OF DEATHS REGISTERED AS OCCURRING IN THE FRENCH CONVENT, FROM 1ST JANUARY, 1880, TO 30TH NOVEMBER, 1886.

1881.

No. under 1

Year.

No. under 10

Years.

No. over 10

Years.

Total.

No. under 1

Year.

No. under 10

Years.

No. over 10

Years.

1882.

1883.

1884.

1885.

1886.

11 MONTHS.

TOTAL OF 6 YEARS.

AND 11 MONTHS,

No. under 1

Year.

No. under 10

Years.

No. over 10

Years.

Total.

No. under 1

Year.

No. under 10

Years.

No. over 10

Years.

Total.

No. under 1

Year.

No. under 10

Years.

No. over 10

Years.

Grand

Total.

Diarrhoea,

124

39

:

163

124

16

:

139

113 17

130 210

13

223

72

· 4

76

Quinsy,

557

557

548

548

613

3

616 658

2

660

745

70

745 669

Co

76

47

11

58

760

105

:

865

669

494

:

Consumption,

21

1

22

2

7 3 12 2

14 3

19

1

12

2

15

5

1

6

6

:

2.:

:

494 4,284

5

4,289

8

...

:.

7

5

12

5

72 17

94

Fever,

37

58

:

95 42

56

2

100

29

73

102

59

104

163

52

60

112

63

55 2

120

110

99

209

392

505

4

901

Languor,

9

10

3

2

10

5

...

.:

...

:..

:

~

2

Ulcer,

1

1

Inflammation,

1

1

:

:

...

...

Dentition,

2

2

Convulsion,

1

1

Dysentery,

...

...

***

...

:

:..

...

...

...

:

...

:

:

...

...

:

Measles,

...

...

:

104

Heart Disease,

Exposure,

Sores,

Tetanus,....

Worms,.

Total,.

:

:

:

:..

:

...

...

:

:

:

:

:

:

...

:

::

...

1

1

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

.

:

1

...

***

...

...

...

:

...

:

...

:

...

...

...

:

:

:.

:..

:..

2

1

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

1

:.

:.

:..

:

:

...

:

:

...

...

2

1

:

:

:

:

...

...

:

:

:.

:

: - ⠀

:

:

...

...

***

...

:

:

:

:

:

...

:

4

11

17

1

1

:

:

-

1

...

1

5

...

5

...

10

...

:

:

1

...

:

...

...

...

...

:

:

:

...

:

...

...

:

:..

:

....

...

...

:

4:

:

:

:

:

:..

:

:

:..

:.

***

2

1

.5

1

...

1

2

2

:

:

...

1

1

1

..

6

6

...

6

...

1

1

1

1

3

1

2

1

:

720 131

1

852 719 .81

10

805 757 107 3

867

928

135

4

1,067

869

69

1 939 802 72

879

660

117

782 5,455 712 24

6,191

Registrar General's Office, Hongkong, 26th November, 1886,

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, Acting Registrar General.

186

241

No.

87.

HONGKONG.

FURTHER CORRESPONDENCE RESPECTING DEATHS IN THE

ITALIAN AND FRENCH CONVENTS.

(In Continuation of No. 43 of 1886.)

Presented to the Legislative Council, by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government, on the 7th January, 1887.

(1.)

Memo. on Report of the Secretary of the Sanitary Board on the French and Italian Convents.

1. The Report seems a very moderate and reasonable report, and there is only one sentence in it, I am inclined to find fault with, and that, I think, ought to be noticed. In the second last paragraph Mr. McCALLUM, says :-

"It is quite evident that the nursing of the sisters is an utter failure as far as "saving the lives of the infants committed to their care is concerned."

To assert that there has been an "utter failure" is to assert very positively that success to a great or to some extent was possible and ought to have been attained, and that the sisters were so wanting in skill or care as not to be able to accomplish what ought to have been accomplished with skill and care.

Can Mr. MCCALLUM assert as a fact that this success was attainable, that more lives might have been saved than were saved? I do not think he can.

The Sisters who see the children say that they are brought in in such a state that it is a wonder that so many are saved as there are. The same assertion has been made before that the Sisters did not save all they could, and Dr. O'BRIEN gave special attention for some time to all cases received. He satisfied himself that all was done that could be done, that all were saved that could be saved. Most of the children he found suffering from some fatal knotting or twisting of the intestines, the result, apparently, of mismanagement at the moment of birth, or detachment from the mother.

This is a matter that ought to be inquired into, on its own merits, by some sanitary authority, but is outside the present question, the treatment of the children after they get within the Convent walls.

The percentage of children saved in the two Convents, out of the total number brought in, is about the same as the percentage of saved in similar institutions in Europe.

The Sanitary Board might be informed that, if they will appoint a medical man to be in attendance day and night at the Convent for a week or a month to take note of the cases brought in, every facility will be given him, and his directions most carefully attended to in every instance.

گاه

About the defective state of the drainage, dressing, &c., I have nothing to say, only that the Sisters are too poor to go into such expenses.

(Signed)

(2.)

J. BURGHIGNOLI, Pro. Vic.

Report by the Colonial Surgeon.

I have inspected these babies often. The great majority of them are brought in in a moribund condition, or so ill nurtured that they are all but hopeless cases. The great majority are also female children, and all, if not received into the Convents, would be found on the hill sides (as many are already) dead. The greatest possible care and attention are given to them, and I know of nothing better that can be done for them by the Sisters than is done in the Convents.

(Signed) PH. B. C. AYRES,

Colonial Surgeon.

30th November, 1886.

242

(3.)

Further report by the Colonial Surgeon.

The great mortality is not among the children generally, but principally amongst infants received in both Convents. These in most cases are suffering from Trismus when received; a disease caused by exposure to rapid changes of temperature, insufficient clothing and diet, and defective ventilation, such as are to be found in the crowded houses of the lower classes of the Chinese and amongst the boat population. The case of a child when once the attack has well set in is hopeless. This is common in all tropical climates. These infants are received at all hours of the day and night and mostly naked or being wrapped only in a piece of old rag or paper.

I saw one case in the French Convent moribund; it had been received an hour previously. In another case the patient had just died, and had been received only three quarters of an hour. No medical attendance would have been of any service in either case. These were the only cases there at the time of my inspection.

In the Italian Convent were two more cases, both in a hopeless condition for which medical assistance would have been of no avail. If these cases are to have medical attendance, a resident. Medical Officer would be required in both Convents. In St. Kilda, one of the British Islands, this disease carries off 64 per cent. of the children born there. It would be impossible for any medical man to do any good among the Chinese, for nothing would be heard of a case until it was hopeless or dead; and it is not to be wondered at that, considering the condition of the lower classes of Chinese in their houses and boats, so many children die, but that so many live.

30th December, 1886.

(Signed)

PH. B. C. AYRES. Colonial Surgeon.

E

1

HONGKONG.

RETURNS OF SUPERIOR AND SUBORDINATE COURTS FOR 1886.

357

No. 25

87.

Presented to the Legislative Council, by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government,

on the 29th April, 1887.

No. 30.

REGISTRY SUPREME COURT,

HONGKONG, 11th February, 1887.

SIR, I have the honour to forward herewith the following Returns :-

With

1. Return of the Establishment for the Blue Book for 1886.

2. Return of Criminal Cases, &c.

3. Return of Civil Cases commenced and tried in 1886:---

In Original Jurisdiction.

In Summary Jurisdiction.

Appeals. Bankruptcy. Admiralty.

4. Return of all Probates and Administrations granted in 1886.

5. Revenue Return.

6. Return of Intestate Estates paid into the Treasury in 1886.

7. Land Office Return.

respect to the Criminal Returns it will be noted that there is a considerable decrease both in the number of cases and in the number of Prisoners tried.

There is a marked increase in the number of adjudication in Bankruptcy in 1886, the figures being 6 in 1885, and 22 in 1886. A large number of the Bankrupts were small Traders or Clerks who took refuge in Bankruptcy for the purpose of avoiding arrest, and obtain a discharge from their liabilities.

In the Revenue Returns the increase is chiefly accounted for by the receipts from Bankruptcy proceedings, Registration of Companies and Fines and Forfeitures.

The other Returns call for no remarks.

The Honourable

THE ACTING COLONIAL SECRETARY.

St.,

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

ALFRED G. WISE,

Acting Registrar.

&c.,

&c.

358

RETURN of CRIMINAL CASES that have been brought under the COGNIZANCE of the SUPREME COURT, during the last Ten Years.

Charges Abandoned.

Postponed.

Number Number

YEAR.

of Cases.

of Persons.

Convicted. Acquitted.

No. of Cases.

No. of Persons.

No. of Cases.

No. of

Persous.

(a.) 1877,

1878,.

(b.) 1879,....

1880,.

127

179

135

39

5

157

216

163

45

148

202

135

91

160:

120

油雞雞

6

8

54

11

13

34

6

6

1881,.

105

154

111

39

4

Total,...................

628

911

664

211

31

36

(c.) 1882,.

124

187

124

38

15

21

1

(d.) 1883,.

91

126

70

26

14

28d

2

1000

3

1884,.

68

101

65.

20

8

16

1885,

91

147

103

22

16

22

(c.) 1886,.

75

107

59

20

16

27€

Ι

Total,........

149

668

421

126

69

114

4.

6

CO

Average of 1st (

1324

423

6/11/

71

125

Period, ...... s

1823

Average of 2nd

Period,.

841

25

13#

22층

894

1333

:

(a.) In this year the Charges abandoned and Postponed are not included in the Grand Total in the published Returns; but they are

added here to make the figure tally.

(b.) 1. Under offence of Breaking into a Dwelling House out of 9 prisoners, 6 only are accounted for, the remaining 3 must have been

acquitted, and have been posted accordingly.

2. Under Murder out of 3 prisoners, 2 only have been accounted for, the 3rd was probably acquitted.

3. Under Unlawfully giving false statement to Registrar General the prisoner although convicted does not appear under the beading,

but the facts appear in a foot note on the Return.

(c.) In one case the recognizance was estreated, this case is included in the total, but not in any other of the above headings. (d.) In one case the recognizance estreated, and one Prisoner committed suicide in the Gaol.

(e.) In one case the recognizance estreated.

INDICTMENTS and INFORMATIONS in the SUPREME COURT of HONGKONG, for the Year 1886.

Including Attempts and Conspiracies to commit the several offences.

Showing how the cases tried in the

Superior Courts ended.

(Each prisoner tried, counted as a separate case ; where a large number of Prisoners have been convicted together, the fact is mentioned in a note.)

Total.

Murder, other than wife or child murder.

Manslaughter.

Attempt at murder.

Murder of wife, Reputed wife,

or Concubine.

Judgment for the Crown,

Judgment for the Prisoner,..

Prisoner found Insane,.

Cases which fell through for want of prosecution or absence of accused, and cases thrown out by the Grand Jury (Attorney General),

Cases postponed,.......

59

(a)

1

2

28

20

(b.)

27

1

Child murder.

Concealment of Birth.

Abortion.

Rape.

Unnatural Crimes.

Other offences against the Person.

Malicious Injuries to Property. Robbery with violence.

Other offences against Property. Miscellaneous offences.

Prædial Larceny.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

F:

:

107

1 1

(a) The Acting Attorney General accepted the plea of guilty of Manslaughter. (7) Including one who did not appear and whose recognizance was estreated.

:

:

CO

8

1

11

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

42

1

4

4

s

3

:

19

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

24

4

:

65

1883. 1884. 1885. 1886.

COMPARATIVE TABLE showing the NUMBER of OFFENCES, APPREHENSIONS, CONVICTIONS and ACQUITTALS for the last Four Years.

359

The Number of Convictions in the Superior Courts :-

1. For offences against the Person,

2. Prædial Larceny,..

3. For offences against property other than Prædial Larceny,

4. For other offences,

The Number of Persons acquitted :—

SENTENCE.

27

28

56

36

61

~

26

20

22

272 2

16

42

20

1

20

RETURN OF CRIMINAL CASES tried in the SUPREME COURT of HONGKONG, during the

2. In the Superior Courts,

Number of Cases.

Number of Persous.

CRIMES.

1

B

1

1

1

B

Abduction from the Colony for the purpose of steal-

ing money.

Administering stupefying drug,..

Assault and Roblery from the person,...

Assault and wounding with intent to rob,

Assault with intent to commit Buggery. Assault with intent to commit Rape,

Attempting to shoot with intent to resist lawful

apprehension.

1 Bringing into the Colony a woman with intent to sell

her for the purpose of prostitution,

Breaking and entering a dwelling house with intent

to commit a felony,

1

7

13

Burglary and receiving stolen goods,

1

1

Child stealing,

a3

4

2

1

1

Ι

Demanding money with menaces,

Embezzlement.

Embezzlement by a servant,

Forging a certain cheque or order with intent to

defraud,

Larceny.

7 Larceny in a dwelling house with menaces,

3

1

1

Larceny of Post Letter,

1

Larceny from the person,

2 Larceny by a servant,

1

Larceny and previous conviction, Libel,

Manslaughter,

3 Murder,

2

Obtaining goods under false pretences,

4 Obtaining money under false pretences,

Perjury,

Piracy,

3 Receiving stolen property,

2 Robbery and Larceny from the person,

:4。

2

:

wi mi

19

Hi wwwwi -*x

3

2

2

1 11

Robbery and Larceny in a dwelling house,.

3

4

Robbery from the person with violence,

Shooting with intent to prevent apprehension,

T

1

1

Shooting with intent to do grievous bodily harm,.

:

yeur 1886.

CHARGES ABAN-

DONED.

CASES POST-

PONED.

19122-

:

Unlawfully imprisonment and detention for the pur-

pose of emigration,...

Unlawful possession of counterfeit coin and forged

Bank notes,

Unlawfully and feloniously receiving certain Bank

Notes,

Unlawfully and maliciously wounding,

1 | Wounding with intent to murder.....................

58

90

00

121

59

3

1

:

:

20

20

:

:

:

2

3

3

:

:

:

45

8

79 were tried.

Convicted,. Acquitted,

.10

1

Charges abandoned, Recognizance estreated. Case postponed,

90 Persons.

Of 90 Persons only

10 were not indicted, which are included under the

heading of charges abandoned,

and

1 Recognizance estreated,

:

:

:

1

~

1

-

:

G 16 26

1

1

.59

.20

79 Persons..

26

..

1

::

1

Total......

a. In one case the Prisoner did not appear his recognizance estreated.

b. In one case the Acting Attorney General accepted the plea of guilty of manslaughter.

Registry Supreme Court, Hongkong, 28th January, 1887.

107 Persons.

ALFRED G. WISE,

Acting Registrar.

360

CASES COMMENCED.

JUDGMENT.

Settled or

No.

Jurisdiction. of

Debt and Damages.

withdrawn

Struck out,

before

Cases.

Defend-

Trial. Plaintiff.

ant.

Non- Suit.

Dismissed

and Lapsed Writs.

In Dependency.

TOTAL CASES TRIED.

Cases.

Debt and Damages recovered.

1886.

Original,

64 $308,326.69

6

13

2

41

15

Summary,

1,331

$153,879.04

523

517

41

159

$5

564

CASES TRIED.

JUDGMENT.

Jurisdiction.

No. of Cases.

Debt and Damages.

Plaintiff. Defendant. Non-Suit.

Struck out, Dismissed & Lapsed Writs.

$152,836.54

$ 67,445.61

Debt and Damages.

1886.

Original,

Summary,

25a

7476

$193,848.86

20

2

I'

2

85,035.71

535

43

162

$170,723.16

71,771.08

a. 10 of these cases were pending on 31st December, 1885.

Registry Supreme Court, Hongkong, 28th January, 1887.

b 21 of these cases were pending on 31st December, 1885.

ALFRED G. WISE,

APPEALS COMMENCED.

Acting Registrar.

JUDGMENT.

No. of Cases.

Pending.

Appellant.

Respondent.

1886.

ча

1

No. of Cases.

1886.

5

1

a. 5 of these cases from Police Magistrates.

Appellant.

APPEALS TRIED.

JUDGMENT.

Pending.

Respondent.

1 6

Registry Supreme Court, Hongkong, 28th January, 1887.

RETURN of ADMIRALTY CASES for 1886.

ALFRED G. WISE, Acting Registrar.

Year.

Entered.

Amount claimed.

Tried.

Judgment for

Amount recovered.

Plaintiff.

Judgment for Defendant.

Pending

Settled out

discontinued. of Court.

1886,

13

$391,094.71 9

Not yet settled.

}

1

Registry Supreme Court, Hongkong, 28th January, 1887,

ALFRED G. WISE,

Acting Registrar.

RETURN of all BANKRUPTCIES filed in the Supreme Court of Hongkong during the year 1886.

361

Official or

Name.

Date of Adjudication.

Petitioner.

Creditor

Debts in Schedule.

Assets.

Amount received by

Official

Total amount of

debts

Assignee.

Assignee.

proved.

J. Manolesen,

Yune Chim,

Secondino Jesus dos Santos,

Leung Fan Ting, †....

Yam Ching,

Ching Kai Hi alias Ching Kau

Foo,

Wong A-mow, ‡.

Shiu Yiu Un alias Shin Kam,

Carlos Jorge da Rocha,

Leong Hoi,

John Wall Jameson and John {

William Croker,

Yiu Shuk Ming alias Yiu Keng

Tong,..

Francisco Luiz Pereira,

....

Yau Lam Chuen, Yim Tseung,

Kwong Yik and Ng Ho, Pang Heung alias Pan Shai

Leung,..

Frederick Hunerfauth,

Chu Kam Tong,

O Kwan Shu,

Ng Ki Kat alias Ng King Shan,

Tam Tak Lim alias Tam

Sheung Kwan,

Lam Kam Chi,

Lai Nin,

15 Jan., 1886

39

8 Mar., 1886

>>

1 April, 1886

7 June, 1886

""

17 June, 1887

1 July, 1886

16 Sept., 1886

Creditors

Bankrupt

* Not including $5,688 net proceeds of Steel Launch in dispute.

Bankrupt

Official 7,869.23

3,598.37

Creditors

(Not proceeded with)

Bankrupt.

Official 31,589.98

15,190.00

7,471.52

22,391.97

12,018.75

3,771.55

97.25

2,587.26

多多

وو

5,860.88

1,235.00

1,342.96

4,033.68

734.21

4,742.17

2,330.21

482.97

173.00

1,563.40

7,452.34

4,772.72

700.50

386.30

122.66

147.58

"

>>

39

""

*10,903.27 | 47,102.81

28 June, 1886

7,243.59

27

29

6,980.13

26.14

201.75

5 July, 1886

901.50

147.50

100.00

505.32

"

5 Aug., 1886 Creditors

Creditors

1,943.36

4,086.73

27 July, 1886 Bankrupt 17 Aug., 1886

Official

5,460.64

1,771.40

3.00

""

510.53 1,153.50

166.00

20.00

37.00

"

7 Sept., 1886

Creditors Bankrupt

(Not proceeded with) Official 6,509.03

6,189.03

2,009.35.

}

22 Nov., 1886

17 Nov., 1886

19,398.05 34,326.18

240.26

372.92

"

16 Dec., 1886

""

31 Dec., 1886

3,356.50 1,323.00

428.88 2,031.13 2,030.24

575.34

15.00

...

+ Bankrupt discharged 30th April, 1886.

Bankrupt discharged 21st October, 1886.

ALFRED G. WISE, Acting Registrar.

RETURN of INTESTATE and BANKRUPT ESTATES and of all JUDICIAL DEPOSITS, paid into the Treasury by the Acting Registrar of the Supreme Court during the year ending 31st December, 1886.

DATE.

ESTATE, CAUSE OR ACCOUNT.

JUDICIAL DEPOSITS.

INTESTATE ESTATES.

BANKRUPT ESTATES.

TOTALS.

April

>

وو

1886.

22

22

Dunnan (Malay),

George Kirby,

Lee Yau,..

Ah Foo,

59.18

59.18

44.70

44.70

13.35

13.35

5.00

5.00

">

Tong Quen,....................

11.54

11.54

"?

""

Amos P. Holt,

4.60

4.60

""

"

John Baptist Spinen,..

1.25

1.25

""

29

Ho A Gow,...............

8.28

8.28

""

Ting Mow,

19.00

19.00

December 11

Frederick Elphick,

2,050.35

2,050.35

14

Henry Reeves,

17.60

17.60

J

وو

"

""

"

"

25

""

Lindoro Rozario,

Sun A Tow, Chey Wali Sam,. H. L. M. Lorentz, Ah Kow,...

Tong Pun,

0.32

0.32

14.65

14.65

11.57

11.57

4.90

4.90

7.31

7.31

15.85

15.85

وو

Leung A Pat,...

Total,.....

0.90

0.90

2,290.35

I hereby certify that the above is a true and correct account, to the best of my knowledge and belief.

2,290.35

ALFRED G. WISE,

Registry Supreme Court, Hongkong, 28th January, 1887.

Aeting Registrar.

362

CALENDAR of PROBATES and ADMINISTRATIONS granted by the Supreme Court of Hongkong, during the year 1886.

Value of the Effects as sworn to, er

Date of Grant.

Name of Testator or Intestate.

Place and Time of Death.

Probate. Administration with Will annexed, or Administration.

Name and Description of the Executor or Administrator.

set forth in the Commis-

sion of Ap- praisement.

1886.

Jan. 11 Alexander Paterson,

England, 10th Mar., 1885, | Adm. with Will Henry Arthur Herbert. Attorney of Ro- |

annexed,

derick Paterson, Peter Rennie, and James Macalister...

2,000.00

11

Thomas Neave.

"

Singapore, 4th Mar., 1882,

Do..

11

Yuen Sing Chun alias Yuen Cheung alias Yuen King Hung.

Thomas Henderson Whitehead, Attor-

ney of Grace Neave.

900.00

Canton, 8th Oct., 1885,

Probate,

""

11

"

""

""

11

Wong Sim,

13

19

William Dolan,

"

14 Albert Edward Salter,

11 Leung Ming Yow alias Leung

Fau Kam,

11|Ng SZ,

Lui Kum Chuen....

11 Cheang Chew Lee,

On board S.S. City of Peking;

H'kong, 13th Nov., 1885, H'kong. H'kong,

H'kong.

3rd Dec., 1885.

H'kong,

10th Dec., 1885,

Do.. Probate.

H'kong,

20th Dec., 1885,

Administration,

Do.,

Do.. 21st Sept.. 1885. | Administration, 22nd Jan., 1879.

Do..

Yuen Li Shi and Yuen Chau Shi, the

executrixes. Ng Shi, the widow and executrix, ac-

cording to the tenor of the Will... Ng Mui, the daughter and executrix, Lui Chau She, the widow. Cheang Chau She, the first lawful wife,. Wong Li Shi, the first lawful wife.. William Henry Ray, sole executor............ Edw. James Ackroyd, Official Adminis- į

trator,

7,000.00

70,000.00

5,000.00

1,000.00

100.00

.300.00

20,000.00

500.00

14 Leung Kong Chi alias Leung

Hin Wa,..

H'kong.

Feb.

1

Fok Cho,

Adolf Frederick Gadd.

1 Cheuk Kiu Pau alias Cheuk Luk, H'kong, 1 George Bunker Glover.

H'kong,

H'kong,

Shanghai,

22nd Sept.. 1868,

19th Jan., 1886,

.Do..

Probate,

Edw. James Ackroyd, Official Adminis-}

trator,

5.000.00

Fok Wa and Au Shi, the executor and

executrix,

1,000.00

1

11

Mak A-po.

H'kong, 24th Jan., 1886,

10tli Jan., 1886, | Administration. 10th Sept., 1885, Probate,

4th Oct., 1885, Adm. with Will

annexed. Administration,

|

Ida Carolina Gadd, the widow, Cheuk Sing, the executor,

200.00

3,500.00.

""

2 Hurdit Singh,

Do.,

2 Robert Strachan......

19

19

8 To Shap Ng....

H'kong.

22nd Jan., 1886,

S George Doo Pitman,

"

9| Frederick John Angier,

10 Adam Hunter,

Do., Probate.

Calcutta, 7th Jan., 1886,

Jamaica, 5th April, 1883, Adm. with Will

annexed.

Probate,

Alfred Parker Stokes, Attorney of Lucy

Happer Glover, Effects and money handed over to Ng A-chun. the first lawful wife on the approval of the Chief Justice, Edw. James Ackroyd, Official Adminis-

trator.

Henry William Davis, Attorney of Isabel Braide Strachan, widow of the de- ceased.

Wai Ping and Lau Wa Yau, the execu- tor and executrix, according to the tenor of the Will.

S.S. Namoa, 16th July. 1885, Administration, Edw. James Ackroyd, Official Adminis-

At Sea, 20th Dec., 1881, Yokohama. 20th Aug., 1885,

5,000.00

10.00

146.00

5,600.00

2,000.00

400.00

trator,

Arthur Gorton Angier, son of the deceased, Agnes Hunter, the widow and sole exe-

600,00

100.00

cutrix,

10 Ho Kit,

10 Lo Hiu,.

Lak Sau, 19th Jan., 1886, Amoy. 19th July, 1885,

""

Do.. Adm. with Will annexed,

Chau Sz, sole executrix.

50.00

Godfrey Cornewall Chester Master, At-

torney of Wu Tsu and Leen Mun,... }

41,000.00

10 Chun Hang alias Chun Lok alias Chun Sung Lai alias Chun Shui Shang,

Lim

Macao,

26th Dec.. 1885,

Probate,

Chun Kit Sun, the executor, according

21,000.00

Mar. | João Jacques Floriano Alvares,

Macao,

20th May, 1885, | Adm. with Will

to the tenor of the Will. Anna Maria Gomes Alvares, the widow,...

35,000.00

8 Leung Yu Sha alias Leong Yee

Sha,

H'kong.

8 Cheong Sam,

H'kong,

8 Vicencia Maria d'Almeida,

Macao,

10th Feb., 1886, 26th Dec., 1885, 22nd Jan., 1886,

annexed, Probate,

Ching Fun, the executor.

10,000.00

Do..

Cho Sing Tong, the executor,

2,500.00

Administration,

Euzebio Florentino de Souza, the admi-

500.00

11

nistrator,

8 Lee Sik. Chuen,

Chow Chi Village.

9 Robert Anderson,

"

12

23

Tsang I,

16th July, 1884,

H'kong. 16th Feb., 1886,

H'kong,

24th Jan., 1886,

Probate,

Administration,

Probate,

Wei Shee, the executrix, according to

the tenor of the Will. Edw. James Ackroyd, Official Adminis-

2,600,00

2,000.00

trator,.

Tsang Siu and Tsang Tin Po, the exe- cutors, according to the tenor of the Will...

10,000,00

26 Antonio Sanches,

H'kong,

22nd Feb., 1886, Administration, Effects handed over to Revd. G. Bur-

10.00

"

ghignoli,

Apr. 1 Elcoterio Villanueva,

H'kong.

1 Li Shui,

??

2:

1 Wong Sau,

1 Leung Ngan,

H'kong.

7th Oct., 1885,

H'kong. 16th Feb., 1886, Wangkong, 16th Jan., 1886,

8th Mar., 1886,

Do..

Do.. Probate.

Alfred Gascoyne Wise, Official Admi-

nistrator,

80.00

Li Chung Shi, the widow,....

206.00

Wong Hing, the executor, according to

the tenor of the Will,

3,300.00

Do..

Ismael Pullay Madar, one of the exe- cutors. Power being reserved to Wong Ham Pong, the other executor,

1,500.00

::

1 Ching Tai, .......

6 John Gerrard,

་་

28 Anthony Field Sampson,

22 Chan Tak alias Sui Fong.

May 4 Choy Pun alias Choy Tun Po,

H'kong,

Canton,

10 Tsui Kwong,

H'kong.

"

10 Wong Lok Chi,

14 Ching Yuk Shing,

,"

19 Albert Edmeades Pirkis,

At Sea, H'kong. London,

H'kong. 25th Feb., 1886, Turriff, Scotland.

25th Dec., 1884,

Tung Kun, 26th Nov., 1885, 13th Mar., 1886, 21st April, 1886,

20th April, 1886, 27th Nov.. 1885, 26th April, 1886, 17th July, 1885,

Administration, | Lo A-kiu, the daughter...

Adm. with Will

1,000.00

annexed, Do., Probate,

Herbert Maurice Bevis, Attorney of

William Whyte, .

70,800.00

Ching A-tsat, the widow,

300.00

·Do.,

John Stewart Nazer. the executor, Choy Tam Shi and Choy Wong Shi, the

executrixes,.

900.00

15,000.00

31 Wong A-sheong,

26 Arthur Wellington Grosvenor,...

26 Low Kum Choong,

June 1 Tuska Moto Odai,

8 Yeung Ah Lo,

England, 13th Oct., 1865,

Sei Heung, 15th Feb., 1886, At Sea, 7th May, 1886, H'kong, 17th May, 1886,

H'kong, 28th May, 1886,

Administration,

Do., Do..

Adm. with Will annexed,

Do..

Chun A-tsat, first lawful wife, Wong Yiu Ting, uncle of the deceased, Leung A-oi, the first lawful wife, Hon. Alfred Lister, Attorney of Stephen Wotton Bushell and Colin Macken- zie Ford,

50.00

50.00

200.00

10,500.00

Victor Hobart Deacon, Attorney of

Administration,

Do., Do..

Eliza Maria Grosvenor, Keung Lai Mooi, the lawful widow, Wong A-sai, uncle of the deceased,. Alfred Gascoyne Wise. Official Admi-Į

nistrator.

179,500.00

2,300.00

400.00

150.00

Do.,

Leung Fuk Tsai, mother of the deceased..

2,500.00

Calendar of PROBATES and ADMINISTRATIONS,—Continued.

363

Date of

Name of Testator or Intestate.

Place and Time of Death.

Grant.

Probate, Administration with Will annexed, or Administration.

Name and Description of the Executor or Administrator.

Value of the Effects as sworn to, cr set forth in the Commis- sion of Ap- praisement.

1886.

June 15 Henry O'Neill.................

At Sea, in the Bay of Ben- gal, 28th Jan., 1886,

Probate,

17 Chau Kum.

H'kong,

2

19 Henry Everall,

17th Feb., 1886, Administration, Shanghai, 20th April, 1886, | Adm. with Will | Alfred Forker Stokes, Attorney of Eliza-

John Yardly Vernon Vernon, the exe- cutor. Power being reserved to Ellen O'Neil, the executrix, Chau Lai Po, the administrator,

13,300.00

3,400.00

annexed,

beth Everall and William Weston Clifford,

1,700,00

23 Wong Tao Leong.

H'kong,

July 9 Joseph Joseph Mooney,

H'kong,

30th Mar., 1886, 30th April, 1886,

9 Roda Singh.

H'kong,

13th June, 1886,

**

12 Wong Tsung,

H'kong,

404

13 Edward Jackson,

Manila,

21 Norman Curtis Stevens

At Sea,

3rd July, 1886,

3rd July, 1886,

22nd Jan., 1884,

Probate, Do.,

Administration,

Probate,

Administration,

Wong Yuk Che, the executor, David Gillies and Robert Lang, the exe-

cutors.

23,000,00

4,000.00

| Alfred Gascoyne Wise, Official Admi-

nistrator,

100.00

Wong Ying, the executor, according to

the tenor of the Will,

4,000.00

Alfred Gascoyne Wise, Official Admi-

nistrator,

450.00

Do.,

**

Alfred Parker Stokes, Attorney of Ellen

Maria Stevens,

29,900.00

23

26 Leung Kwan Shan alias alias Kwong Fo,

Ki

26 Andrew Thomas Carmichael,

::

26 Phillip Robert Doral,

Aug.

4 Reuben Solómon,

5 Francis Bulkeley Johnson,

6 James Twinem,

At Sca,

26 William Whitfield,

London.

Sept. 3 Jamasjec Pestonjee Vakil,

H'kong,

3 | Leang William Afah,.

H'kong,

26th June, 1886,

7th Mar., 1885,

27th April, 1885;

5th Aug., 1886,

Administration,

Adm. with Will annexed, Do..

H'kong, 19th Jan., 1881, Probate,

England. 20th Oct., 1884, | Adm. with Will

annexed, H'koug. 17th July, 1886, | Administration,

H'kong, 7th Dec., 1885, | Adm. with Will

annexed, France,

15th Feb., 1886," Do.,

John Walter, Attorney of Donald Peter

McDonald and John Forrest,...... Alfred Gascoyne Wise. Official Admi-`

nistrator,

Simah Solomon, Attorney of Abraham

Ezra,

John Bell-Irving, Attorney of Sir Robert Jardine, Richard Dawes, Jr., and Jane Sophia Bulkeley Johnson...... Alfred Gascoyne Wise, Official Admi-

nistrator,

Alfred Bulmer Johnson, Attorney ofĮ

George Whitfield.......

Leong Hoi,

1,500.00

8,400.00

600.00

700.00

410,000.00

100.00

22,700.00

Nowrojee Pestonjee Dhalla, Attorney of

7,000.00

Hirabai,

Do.,

Catharina Afah, the widow. Power

being reserved to William Thomas Adnams,

2,100.00

8 Carl G. E. Straublad,

13 George Frederick Pinker,

**

13 William Henry Doyle,

13 Au Yun.

27 Johur Mitchell,.

11

Oct.

1 Chau Mi Loi,

#kong,

At Sea.

H'kong,

H'kong, H'kong,

H'kong, 18th Aug., 1886,

|

Do..

15th Aug., 1886, | Administration,

24th Feb.. 1886, (Adm. de bonis non,

21st July, 1886, | Adm. with Will

annexed, 5th Aug., 1886. | Administration. 2nd July, 1886,

Alfred Gascoyne Wise, Official Admi- |

Alfred Gascoyne Wise, Official Admi- \

nistrator,

Andrew John Leach. Attorney of Anne

Cecilia Doyle,

600.00

nistrator,

5,100.00

600.00

Au Him Kwong and Au Kum Sze, Alfred Gascoyne Wise. Official Admi-

nistrator,

2,900.00

260.00

Probate,

12 James Neilson,

12 John McGourlay.

H'kong, 25th July, 1886, | Administration,

H'kong. 28th July, 1886,

Choa Chee Bee. one of the executors. Power being reserved to Wong A- moong, the other executor. Alfred Gascoyne Wise, Official Admi-

nistrator,

4,500.00

300.00

Do.,

Alfred Gascoyne Wise, Official Admi-

500.00

nistrator,

*

12 Ng Mui,

21

13 | Lau Kwong Ü...............................

15 Rev. John Charles Edge,

"2

25 Chau Nam Hing,

25 Hippolyte Alexander Nicaise,

H'kong, 12th Aug., 1886,·

H'kong, 13th Sept., 1886,

H'kong, 17th Sept., 1886, H'kong, 19th July. 1886, Brussels, 22nd Mar., 1885,

Do.,

Alfred Gascoyne Wise, Official Admi-)

2,300.00

nistrator,

Do.,

Lau Kam Shing, the eldest son of the

deceased,

600.00

27 Vicente Caetano da Rocha,

27 Tse Yee alias Kang Po,

H'kong,

Canton.

33

Nov. 5 Henry Fletcher Hance,

11 Elias David Joseph Ezra,

12 Ho Hing Fai,

15 Wong Kam Mui,

16 François Vincenot,'

"

26 Lo Kwei Kum,

6th Sept., 1880,

1st Oct., 1886,

Amoy, 22nd June, 1886,

Calcutta, 3rd Feb., 1886,

H'kong. 15th Sept., 1886. H'kong, 26th Sept., 1886,

H'kong, 11th Oct., 1886, H'kong, 25th Oct., 1886,

Do., Do.. Adm. with Will annexed,

Probate,

Sarah Ann Edge, widow of the deceased,. Sham Shi, the lawful wife of the deceased, Thomas Henderson Whitehead. Attor- ney of Lucie Marie Caroline Nicaise, sole executrix.

500.00 3,500.00

210,000.00

Do.,

Adm. with Will annexed, Do.,

Administration, Probate,

Levinia Margarida Smith da Rocha, the lawful widow and sole executrix, Tse Ching Kai. the executor, according

to the tenor of the Will. Charlotte Page Hance, the widow andļ

sole executrix,

10,000:00

3,500.00

3,000.00

Do..

Do..

""

Jacob Benjamin Elias, Attorney of Jo-i

seph Elias David Joseph Ezra, He Kwan, otherwise Ho Shun To, Lam Kiu Fung, Ip Lai Kam, and Lai {

Sai Kau, the executrixes, Auguste Raphael Marty, sole executor, Edmund McLeod and George Bayne,

the executors,

125,000.00

200.00

8,000.00

60,000.00

Dec. 3 Joseph Theophilus Chater,

H'kong,

"

15 Manoel José Maria Gonsalves da

Silva,

Macao,

"J

15 Lai Shang Tong alias Lai Tung, | Macao, 20 | Ng A-mui,

H'kong,

21st. Oct., 1886,

21st Oct., 1885, | Administration, 11th Oct., 1885, 12th Aug., 1886,

Do..

Catchick Paul Chater, sole executor,

4,000.00 214,600.00

Do.,

Do..

"

Maria Francisca Marques da Silva,. Yeung A-lai, the administratrix, Property handed to Mr. Ewens, the So- licitor for Chan Choy, the mother

400.00

1,000.00

2,300.00

of deceased,

Registry Supreme Court, Hongkong, 28th January, 1887.

ALFRED G. WISE,

Acting Registrar.

RETURN OF LANDS GRANTED AND SOLD DURING THE YEAR 1886.

364

Number of Grants

Total

under 100 Acres.

Number

County or District.

Number of Number of Grants.

of

Grants,

1886.

Total

Number

of Acres

Wliether

by

Grant

Where Sold, state the Average Price per Acre.

granted,

1886.

or

Purchase.

Acres.

Premium

Acre. per

Rental

per Acre.

of Acres

granted in the Colony.

State the Total Number

State the Total Number

of

Acres sold.

State the

Total Number

of Acres

that remain

uugranted.

A. R. P.

A. R. P.

A. R. P.

Victoria,

Marine 6

3. 1.16

Granted on

$385 to $769

Lease for

999 Years,

Do.,

Do.

3

0. 3. 9

Sold on Lease

$20,299

$698

for

999 Years.

Do.,

Do.

1 27. 0.16

Do.,

Iuland 1920. 3.24

999 Years.

Do.

Granted on

$5 to $884

Lease for

Nominal for

Chinese

Cemetery.

Do.,

Do.,

Do.,

Kanlung,

Do.,

Do.,

Do. 13 18. 3. 03

Marine 2

Do. 4 1. 3.14

Sold on Lease

for

999 Years.

$5,837

Rural

Building I

3. 3.31

88

82.2.31

Granted on

Lease

for 75 Years.

Sold on Lease

for

$523

$192 to $583

$10

1,117, 2. 61

$52 to $119

Do.,

Hunghom,.......

TOTAL,.

1. 1.20

Inland 4

3. 1.14

75 Years.

Granted on

Lense

for 999 Years.

Granted on

Lease

$581

$192

Do. 14

0. 3.341

Do.

21

0. 1. 84

for 75 Years. Sold on Lease

for

75 Years.

Do.

$7,275

$581

$9,932

$525 to $581

88 82. 2,312

88

82.2.312

1,117. 2. 61

All Lands in the Colony are granted on Lease.

at Will. Land for building purposes is made available as circum- The small quantity of Arable Land in the Colony-is hired by Tenants

stances require.

ALFRED G. WISE, Land Officer.

REMARKS.—82 A. 2 R. 314 r. were granted, and 35 A. 1 R. 154 P. were resumed, leaving 47 A. 1 R. 164 r. additional Land granted during the year. Persons having possession of Land or Houses previously to the Treaty, were allowed to retain them on payment of certain assessed rentals, now collected by the Registrar General; and in cases where such Lands or Houses are not leased, the occupiers are considered as Tenants at Will.

A

RETURN of all sums received as REVENUE in the Registry of the Supreme Court during the Year 1886.

Original Jurisdiction,

365

$ 3,704.29

Summary Jurisdiction,

3.197.09

Bankruptcy Jurisdiction,

Probate Jurisdiction....

Official Administrator's Commission,

664.65

748.86

938.68

Official Assignee's Commission,

2,517.88

Official Trustee's Commission,..

247.35

Appraiser's Fees,

531.01

Sheriff's Fees,

173.50

Bailiff's Fees,...

1,078.00

Interest on Deposit of surplus cash,

4,013.29

Fees on Destraints,

1,184.75

Registrar of Companies,

1,982.40

Fine and Forfeitures,

2,000.00

$22,981.75

¡

Land Office Fees,

3,985.00

Registry Supreme Court, Hongkong, 28th January, 1887.

$26,966.75

ALFRED G. WISE, Acting Registrar.

RETURN of all sums collected in the Registry of the Supreme Court for the Year 1886, and paid into the Treasury.

1885.

1886.

REGISTRAR. Court Fees paid by Stamps,

.....$ 9,829.24

$ 9,499.64

OFFICIAL ASSIGNEE.-5 per cent. on amounts encashed paid into the

Treasury,

1,135.43

OFFICIAL ADMINISTRATOR,

847.88

2,517.88

938.68

OFFICIAL TRUSTEE-2 per cent. on amount of Trust on taking over up to $10,000; above $10,000 commission, 1 per cent. on further amount, 1 per cent. commission on income,

935.11

247.35

APPRAISERS OF INTESTATE ESTATES.-2 per cent. on Houses, Land, Goods, Furniture, &c., 1 per cent. on cash, Banking Account or Shares,

181.61

531.01

BAILIFF,

1,157.00

1,078.00

SHERIFF,

184.50

173.50

REGISTRAR OF COMPANIES,

1,037.72

1,982.40

INTEREST on Registrar's balance at the Bank,

4,583.15

4,013.29

FINE AND FORFEITURES,

100.00

2,000.00

$19,991.64

LAND OFFICE FEES,

3,059.00

$22,981.75 3,985.00

TOTAL,........

$23,050.64

$26,966.75

DEPOSITS UNAVAILABLE.—Intestate Estates not claimed,

.$ 374.67

Registry Supreme Court, Hongkong, 28th January, 1887.

$ 2,290.35

ALFRED G. WISE, Acting Registrar.

2

14,611

ΤΟΤΑΙ,

TOTAL NUMBER NUMBER

OF

OF PRISON-

CASES.

ERS.

Convicted

and

Punished.

Discharged.

Committed

for Trial at

the Supreme

Court.

Committed to Prison, or

Detained pending Orders

of I. E. the

Governor.

To keep

the

Peace.

J.

F.

M.

F.

M.

F. M. F.

M. F.

ᎪᏗ .

=

F.

M.

F.

M. F.

M.

F.

M. 1.

16,64712,081 842 2,198 190 157

2

5

84

12

785

88

32

3

168

15,510 1,187|: 5,637 216

82

105

12

903

162

TOTAL MALES AND FEMALES,.

.16,647

Consisting of Offenders not sentenced to Imprisonment.

Abstract of Cases under CoGNIZANCE of the POLICE MAGISTRATES' COURT, during the Year 1886.

CASES, HOW DISPOSED OF, AND THE NUMBER OF MALE AND FEMALE PRISONERS UNDER EACH HEAD.

Ordered to find Security.*

:

WRITS ISSUED BY THE POLICE MAGISTRATES DURING THE YEAR 1886.

Warrants.

Undecided.

Arrest.

Distress.

Search.

For entering Gambling Houses.

Magis- trates'

Orders.

7,117

TOTAL.

366

OFFENCE.

THE CASES CONSISTED OF :-

NO. OF CASES.

No. of

PRI- SONERS.

OFFENCE.

Brought forward,..

367

No. of CASES.

No. of PRI- SONERS.

4,917 6,518

rying:

Animals-Cruelty to..........

Arms-Chinese not Holders of Night Passes found car-

Arson.

Assault-Causing grievous bodily harm,.

80 80

N

83

44

*

2

-Common...

628

ᏚᎼᏎ

**

Larceny-from the Person,

-in a Dwelling House,

-of Beasts or Birds, not the subject of Larceny

at Common Law,

---of Vegetables and Fruits from Gardens and

enclosed places,

122 137

14 43

13

14

3

4

-Inciting a person to commit,

-of post letters,

1

1

-Indecent.

4

4

"

Malicious damage to electric or magnetic telegraph,

1

1

-On Police in the Execution of their Duty, and

**

135

158

1

Injury to Property.

42

obstructing and resisting Police,

Manslaughter,

2

With intent to commit rape,..

Ι

1

Markets Ordinance-Breach of,..

372

372

25

With intent to rob...

2

4

:?

With wounding,

1

1:

Medical Practitioner-Practising without a certificate... Menaces-Demanding Money by,

ཡ ཤྲུ ཡ

42

5

1

22

25

when enjoined,

Arrest (without warrant) Refusal of by private persons!

Attempting to commit other Offences (indictable), Banishment-Returning after (see also Conditional

3

3

Mendicancy,

246

246

Misdemeanor-Aiding and Abetting in,

1

1

3

3

Murder,

5

5

17

17

Pardon),

J

Birds-Breach of Ordinance for Preservation of, Births & Deaths-Breach of Ordinance for Registration

3

3

3

3

of.

Boat-neglecting to paint legibly the number of licence!

upon each bow and stern of,

20

20

??

Bonfires-Firing Crackers or making,

402

402

Breach of the Peace,

35

39

::

Burglary,

13

"

Night-Found in Dwelling Houses by-with Intent toį

commit Felony therein,

-Noises, by playing at the Game called Chai-Mui, -Noises by Watchmen, &c.,

Nuisances—Allowing Dirt and Filth to remain on Pre-

mises or in immediate Vicinity thereof,

-Blasting Stones to the danger of Persons

and Property, .

-Blowing Whistles,..

-Buildings being in a Ruinous condition,.

34

34

1

3

31

31

ลง

51

10 -

Burial of Chinese Corpse elsewhere than in a Cemetery, Cattle Diseases Ordinance-Breach of,.

7

"

14

14.

-Exploding dynamite to the danger of per-Į

sons and property,.

63

2

A

---Turned loose on Public Ways,......

Chairs and Vehicles-Breach of Ordinance for Street,.. Child-Desertion of,

65

75

1

Child-Exposing, whereby life or health endangered......... Child Stealing.

14

Coin-Offences relating to,

Contempt of Court.

*

Chinese-Territory-Crimes and Offences committed in,..

Conditional Pardon-Breach of,

Contagious Diseases' Ordinance-Offences against

Cutting and Wounding with intent to do grievous bodily

with intent to murder,

with intent to prevent lawful

apprehension,

32

2

49

23

10

*-****** 2

-Exposing Night Soil in the Streets in uncovered Buckets, and in open Boats along the Praya,

105

105

-Hanging wet Clothes, &c., to dry over

121

121

22

Public Ways..

3

32

2

RA

-Keeping Pigs, &c., without a Licence,. -Latrine,

188

188

5

5

-Neglecting to clean out Dust Bins, and

49

throwing Rubbish, &c., into the Streets,

1,277 | 1,277

23

-Neglecting to provide Dust Boxes,

208

208

-Obeying Calls of Nature in the Streets,

49

49

22

harm,

-Regulations-Breach of,

57

57

1

--Rolling barrels,

1

1

-Rough Dressing, &c. of Granite in or near

a Public place,

5

5

Dangerous and Offensive Trades--Carrying on,

Dangerous Goods Ordinance-Breach of,

-Throwing Rubbish into the Harbour or on

the Beach,

108

108

Foreign Ships,

Decoying Persons into or away from the Colony,

Desertion from British Merchant Ships,

H. M.'s Army and Navy,

Disorderly Behaviour-Accompanied with damage to

Dogs-Allowing unmuzzled ferocious, to be at large, &c.,

1

4

-Using Chairs or Vehicles for the conveyance)

of persons infected with small pox,

A

46

46

Obscene pictures-Exposing for sale,

1

93

93

Obstruction of Navigation...

264

264

of Roads and Streets, &c., by Hawkers,

1

1

Property,

-Drunkenness, Fighting, &c.,

Chair Coolies and Shopkeepers..

2,157 | 2,293

1,055

1,723

of Wharves by Boat People,

334

334

|

16

16

Domestic Servants--Misconduct as,.

26

26

"Opium Ordinance-Breach of, &c....

Drugs-Administering.

5

Offensive Weapons-Having Possession of...

Passengers-Carrying in Excess of that allowed by

1

1

701

843

2

Embezzlement,

Licence,

Embracery,

Passes Chinese out at Night without,

463

463

Escape of prisoners-Negligently allowing,

7

Pawnbrokers-Breach of Ordinance for,.

7

7

Excise Officer-Personating,

2

2 Pawning-Illegally,

3

3

Extortion or Attempt to extort,

False Charge-Preferring or giving wilful false evidence,

35

35

Perjury, (see also Preferring false Charge and giving

wilful false Testimony),

13

13

25"

Declaration-making a,

1

Piracy,

4

8

"

Imprisonment,

Police-Rescuing Prisoners from Custody of,

**

Pretences-obtaining Goods and Money by,

49

53

Police Constables-Misconduct as...

46

46

Felons-Receiving and harbouring,

5

Rape.......

1

1

Felony-Accessory before the Fact to,

2

Receiving Stolen Goods,

36

50

-Attempting to commit,

37

37

Recognisances-Breach of..

40

40

Fraud,

1

Riot,

35

35

Furious Driving,

Fraud-Uttering a forged cheque or order with intent

to defraud,

Fugitive Offenders' Act-Offences against,.

Gambling-Breach of Ordinance for Suppression of..

1

Roads and Streets--Injury to...

11

11

.5

5

From the Person with Wounding,

8

8

337

860

Robbery From the Person...

-On the Highways with Arms or with Violence,

Rogues & Vagabonds-As Street Gamblers and Watch- {

7

#

-in the Streets, treated as Obstruction ofļ

Public Ways,

36

36

men to Gamblers,.

536

536

::

!!

-As suspicious Characters..

172

172

Gaols-Breach of Ordinance for,

::

*

!.

-As Vagrants.......

22

22

Harbour Dredging at Anchorage for Ships of War in the,

*

""

Regulations-Breach of...

1

-Wandering abroad and lodging

in the open air,

58

58

Homicide, per infortunium, or by misadventure,

Sanitary Regulations-Breach of,

16

16

House Breaking...

7

12

Scavenging Contract-Breach of,

35

35

Householders and Servants-Breach of Ordinance, for

12

12

Registration of,..

Indecent Exposure of Person by Bathing or otherwise,

30

30

and Lewdness,..

29

5.

22

attend Inquests.

Larceny-Common,

Jurors-Neglecting to answer Coroner's Summonses to

from Ships or Boats in the Harbour...

2

2

***

924 1,025

11

15

Seamen-Refusal of duty by Merchant,

Ships, &c.-Neglecting to have a light on board,. Shooting with intent to do Grievous Bodily Harm.

Spirituous and fermented Liquors-Breach of Ordinance

for retail of,

Stamp Ordinance-Breach of...

Steam Launch Ordinance-Breach of,. Streams-Defiling..

1

2

to Murder......

to prevent lawful apprehension,

Carried forward,.

4.9176.518

3

26

35

1

1

38

38

Carried forward........

|12,524 14,486

368

OFFENCE.

No. of

CASES.

No. of

PRI- SONERS.

OFFENCE.

NO. OF CASES.

No. of

PRI- SONERS.

Brought forward,

12,524 14,486

Brought forward,

Unlicensed-Plying of Boats for Hire,

Streets-Noises by Hawkers,

156

156

**

Trees, &c. Cutting and destroying:

84

84

::

-Seamen's Boarding Houses, -Eating Houses,

14,411 16,420

83

83

4

Trespass on Crown Land,

371

371 Unnatural Offence,..

Triad Society-Being a member of, Turnkeys-Disobeying orders of Superintendent,

Unlawful Possession of Property,

......

261

308

1 Unwholesome Provisions-Exposing for Sale, or bring-

ing into the Colony. Watchmen-Misconduct as Private,

44

14

2

2

:)

of Trees, Shrubs, &c.,

35

Unlicensed-Hawkers,

-Money Changer,

976

35 Weights and Measures--Breach of Ordinance for. 976 Women and Female Children-Breach of Ordinance for

protection of......................

20

20

44

71

Carried forward,..

14,411 16,420

TOTAL....

14,611 16,647

Years.

Total Number of Cases.

Committed

Convicted and Punished.

Discharged.

for Trial at Supreme

Court.

Magistracy, Hongkong, 10th January, 1887.

N. G. MITCHELL-INNES, Acting Police Magistrate,

for the Police Magistrates.

ABSTRACT of CASES brought under COGNIZANCE at the POLICE MAGISTRATES' COURT during a period of Ten Years, from 1st January, 1877, to 31st December, 1886, inclusive.

ĊASES, HOW DISPosed of, and thE NUMBER OF MALE AND FEMALE PRISONERS UNDER EACH HEAD.

Committed to Prison

or detained pending Orders of His Excellency the Governor.

Ordered to find Security.

To keep the Peace,

Punishet for Preferring

Falseharge Undecided.

Total Number

to be of Good Behaviour, and

or giving

to answer any

Charge.

False Testimony.

of Defendants.

3

4

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

M.

F.

M.

F.

M.

F.

M.

F.

M.

F.

M.

F.

M. F.

M.

F.

1877,

9,283 7,336

572

1,966

364

209

15

16

192

17

14

1878,

9,100 7,16€ 628 2,126 251

200

18

11

98

10

1879,

7,009 5,758 361

1,900 189

145

13

18

230

18

1880,

7,098 5,892 252

1,775 .187

170

27

15

204

37

1881

1882,

8,203 7,049 333 7,567 6,049 394 1,922

1,678 173

192

369

34

255

259

263

1883,

1884,

10,653 8,127 670 14,065 11,748 1,088

2,398 349

121

154

62

6

2,294 268

101

228

53

6

1885,

10,281 7,951 849 2,188 258

159

357

99

1886,

14,611 12,081 842

2,198 190

157

869

100

32

20 20 10 10 10 4*

12

9,745 972

19

9,630 922

34

33

8,103 602 8,126

531

53

9,379 630

80

8,622 780

160

105

18

3

168

11,003 1,101

14,517 | 1,418

10,690

15,510 1,137

1,211

Grand Total for Į

the 10 Years,

97,870 79,157 5,989 20,445 |2,484

1,713

152

188

11

2,964

598 176

39

682

31

105,325 9,304

Average per

Year,

9,787.07,915.75989 2,044.5 |248.4

171.3 15.2

18.8

1.1.

296.4

59.8

17.6

3.9

68.2

3.1

10,532.5 | 930.4.

Magistracy, Hongkong, 10th January, 1887.

N. G. MITCHELL-INNES,

Acting Police Magistrate,

for the Police Magistrates.

CORONER'S INQUESTS.

TABLE A.-RETURN OF ALL CORONER'S CASES, 1886.

Very much decomposedTotal.

sex not

ascertainable.

Inquests Held.

Buried without Inquest.

NATIONALITY.

Men. Women. Boys. Girls. Total. Men.. Women. Boys. Girls.

N

:

:

:

:

:

N

108

50

1

61

51

9

172.

:

1

Europeans and Americans,...

11

11

Portuguese,

1

:

1

Chinese,

80

14

-}

~

Indians,..

:

Total..........

336

92

14

7

7

120

Total for 1885,... 69

16

N

3833

53

1

61

51

9

175

8

100

55

4

34

41

10

144

VERDICTS.

TABLE B.-RETURN OF İNQUESTS, 1886.

Europeans and Americans.

Portuguese.

Chinese.

369

Indians.

Total.

Men. Women. Men. Women. Men. Women. Boys. Girls. Meu. | Women.

Accidental death,......

7.

Death caused by landslip,

Do. by burning,

Do. from apoplexy,

1

lo. by hanging,

Do. from concussion of the

brain,

Do. by violence in a scuffle,..

Felo de se,

Found dead,

Do. drowned,、

Murder,..

Manslaughter,

Natural causes,

Do.,

in Gaol,

Overdose of Opium,.

Suicide while of unsound mind,

:

:

31

7

1

*H

51

2

3

1

1

1

:

1

6

2

1

8

4

6

11

1

3

3

10

3

6

5

9

Total,...........

11

1

80

14

TABLE C-RETURN OF BURIALS WITHOUT INQUEST, 1886.

Europeans and Americans.

Chinese.

Reason why no Inquest was held.

No jurisdiction,

No suspicious circumstances,

No evidence and/or decomposedĮ

state of Body..

Total,.......

Men. Women. Men. Women. Boys. Girls.

2

41

1

27

29

34 22

A

Indians.

:

120

Very much de-

Found on Land. Found in Harbour.

composed; Total.

sex not ascertain-

Known.

Un- known.

Known.

able.

Un- known.

1

100

22

60

1

17

74

31

1

42

50

1

61

51

1

9

175

23

Coroner's Office, Hongkong 10th January, 1887.

16

91

A

N. G. MITCHELL-Innes,

Coroner.

59

163

No. 1886.

36

HONGKONG.

DESPATCH RESPECTING THE WITHDRAWAL OF ECCLESIASTICAL

GRANTS IN HONGKONG.

Presented to the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government,

on the 27th August, 1886.

The Right Honourable Earl Granville, K.G., to the Officer Administering the Government of Hongkong.

(Copy:)

HONGKONG.

No. 90.

SIR,

DOWNING STREET,

2nd July, 1886.

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch, No. 93, of the 26th of March last, submitting resolution of the Legislative Council in favour of a reconsideration of the decision as to the future withdrawal of the existing Ecclesias- tical Grants in Hongkong.

2. I regret that I am unable to see sufficient reason for such reconsideration, in the fact that both in the Straits Settlements and in Mauritius, proposals for disendowment were at one time under consideration, but were not carried into

effect; for in the case of Hongkong the question was raised in a different manner, and settled by the Secretary of State after a full consideration of all the special

circumstances.

3. I concur in the opinion expressed by Lord DERBY, in his despatch, No. 103, of the 19th of May, 1883, and do not feel myself justified in reversing the decision arrived at by his predecessor.

4. I have also received your despatch, No. 109, of the 2nd of April on this subject, and I will address you separately regarding the arrangements which will have to be made when the present grants cease.

The Officer Administering the Government of

HONGKONG.

I have, &c.,

(Signed), GRANVILLE.

No.

HONGKONG.

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE HEAD MASTER OF THE GOVERNMENT CENTRAL SCHOOL FOR 1886.

Presented to the Legislative Council, by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government, on the 4th February, 1887.

No. 4.

269

12

87.

GOVERNMENT CENTRAL SCHOOL,

HONGKONG, 17th January, 1887.

SIR,-I have the honour to forward the Annual Report on this School for 1886.

1. The total number of boys on the Roll for the past year was 610. Every endeavour is being made to keep the school as full as possible, with a view to having a large number of fairly educated boys to transfer to the new building. With the same object special attention is devoted to the Upper and Middle Sections of the School, some 270 boys; that there may be a goodly number ready to occupy some of the 330 seats in the Upper Section of the New School.

2. To illustrate the condition of the School during the last five years the following table is annexed: -

1

;

1882, 1883,

.....

1884,

1885,

1886,

1882,

1883,

1884,

1885,

1886,

YEAR.

Total Number of Scholars.

Number of

Monthly Enrolment.

Average

School Days.

Maximum.

Minimum.

Daily Attendance.

572

241

443

372

390

556

236

460

378

394

558

236

462

362

411

596

238

499

382

437

610

238

507

419

446

Number

Percentage

of

School

Actual Nott

YEAR.

School Boys Examined.

of Passes.

Fees.

Expenditure.

Average

Expense of each Scholar per Average Daily Attendance.

363

91.18

4,084

10,995.35

28.20

365

96.98

4,121

13,109.51

33.22

379

95.58

4,981

13,378.62

32.48

412

95.38

5,273

12,885.00

29.45

405

94.81

5,422

11,680.41

26.17

1

3. The percentage results of the Prize Examination in English are in Classes IV, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI considerably above the average; the intelligence and special neatness of work in these classes is also a noticeable feature. The results in Classes V and VI in the important subjects of English Grammar and Arithmetic are appalling, both classes failing utterly to evince the least intelli- gent acquaintance, with the work supposed to have been taught in the year. In the Upper School, the fact that the school is in a transitional state is made very apparent by the good results obtained in Class II, and the senior division of Class I, as compared with the poor results in Class III and the junior division of Class I, for on these naturally fell the greater strain in the severer test applied. The total result of the Examination of the School is 94.81 per cent. passed, which is a slightly lower figure than has been attained during the last three years. This is, however, due to the steady, marked, gradual elevation of the standard, year by year with a view to qualifying the scholars for the pursuit of higher studies in the New School; a comparison, based on percentages alone, would therefore convey an erroneous impression, for, with the exception of Classes V and VI, I can conscientiously affirm, that in no year, since my arrival, has the examination given me such unqualified satisfaction, while in- specting the papers.

}

270

4. In spite of the numerous cases of Malarial Fever in the Colony, I am happy to be able to report, that the health of the scholars, in the past year, was quite up to the average, which is a matter for congratulation as our boys come from every part of the town froin East to West Point.

5. In April last two of our old scholars Messrs. CHAN CHING-KAI and LI TSUN-FAN were brought to the Colony by Dr. MEYERS, Superintendent of the "David Manson" Memorial Hospital, Takow in the island of Formosa; under whose instruction, they had been studying for two years, for the

for the pro- fession of European medicine. They underwent a preliminary examination in Materia Medica, Anatomy, Surgery, &c., by a Board composed of Representative Medical Practitioners in the Colony; and received very satisfactory certificates which inscribed on vellum were publicly presented by His Excellency in the Hall of this School.

6. Our Senior Pupil Teacher, Mr. Lo KIT, was a candidate for the Government Scholarship; which was not awarded this year as neither candidate obtained the necessary number of marks. take, however, this opportunity of recording my sense of the great benefits Lo KIT has derived from the course of study; as, too often, the acquirement of the scholarship and the residence in England are the only results that competitors appreciate; whereas, it is not too much to say, that by far the greatest benefits, derived from the establishment of the Scholarship, will always be enjoyed by the unsuccessful candidates, for their number, if this valuable Scholarship were properly contested, must naturally exceed the few distinguished successful Scholars.

7. At the suggestion of Mr. BATEMAN, Head Master of the Hongkong Public School, Hongkong has been made a centre of the Cambridge Local Examination. The first examination was held in December, and though the results cannot be here before May, and I have no reason to be sanguine of their nature, I can already see the benefit of the extra study on our six candidates; five of whom entered for the Junior, and the other for the Senior Examination. It is also worthy of note, as a sign of the interest taken by Chinese parents in their sons' education, that, in no case, was any demur made about paying the seven dollars Entrance Fee.

8. This year, I have instituted a Boys' Self-Supporting Lending Library. Money was advanced to procure books from England. A varied selection of Books for Boys, Novels, Works of History Travel and Biography was made; a committee of the six senior boys was formed to control the Library, which was opened about the middle of October. The subscription was put at ten cents a month, and we have had an average of no less than 74 boys, mostly Chinese, subscribers monthly. We may expect great results in English Composition and in the acquirement of Colloquial English, when our boys find pleasure, in reading English Standard Authors, and in making acquaintance with the customs and conversation of every day English life, as represented in our leading novels.

9. Six pupil teachers have been articled for a period of three years, with a security of one hun- dred dollars each, to provide the six additional Chinese Assistants that will be required in the New School.

10. It was with considerable joy that all masters, boys, and friends of the School read His Excellency's statement at the opening of the Session of the Legislative Council, that the New School would be opened early in 1888. Two-thirds of the walls are already raised, and it is most earnestly to be desired, that no stone should be left unturned to admit of the new building being occupied after Chinese New Year, at the end of February, or early in March, next year. By this means the change would take place at the time of our annual promotions, and a better chance would be afforded for obtaining a full school; besides, the important consideration, of a complete year's study in the new subjects, would be secured.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

To The Honourable F. STEWART, LL.D.,

Acting Colonial Secretary,

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

GEO. H. BATESON WRIGHT, M.A.,

Head Master.

Expenditure,

AVERAGE EXPENSE of each SCHOLAR at the CENTRAL SCHOOL during 1886.

Deduct School Fees,

Rent from 3rd Master,

""

Sale of Books,

271

$17,653.53

:

.$5,422.00 540.00

11.12

5,973.12

Total Expense of the School,.

$11,680.41

Average Expense of each Scholar per Number on Roll,

39

"

Average Daily Attendance,

$19.11 26.17

GEO. H. BATESON WRIGHT, M.A., Head Master.

Central School, 17th January, 1887.

ENROLMENT AND ATTENDANCE.

1886.

CENTRAL SCHOOL.

NUMBER

NUMBER

MONTH.

OF

OF

NUMBER

OF

SCHOLARS.

ATTENDANCES.

SCHOOL DAYS.

AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE.

REMARKS.

January, February,

419

6,937

17

408.06

502

2,484

5

496.8

March,

507

13,121

27

485.96

April,

505

7,153

15

476.87

May,

492

11,356

25

454.24

June,

476

10,845

24

451.87

July,

466

12,046

27

446.15

August,..

451

2,204

5

440.8

September,

468

8,970

20

448.5

October,

467

11,031

25

441.24

November,

457

11,019

26

423.81

December,.

432

9,035

22

410.68

106,201

238

Total Number of ATTENDANCES during 1886,................ Number of SCHOOL DAYS during 1886,

Average DAILY ATTENDANCE during 1886,

Total Number of SCHOLARS at this School during 1886,

.106,201

238

446.22

610

GEO. H. BATESON WRIGHT, M.A.,

Head Master.

Central School, 17th January, 1887.

HONGKONG.

THE EDUCATIONAL REPORT FOR 1886.

339

No. 24

87.

Presented to the Legislative Council, by Command of His Excellency

the Officer Administering the Government,

on the 29th April, 1887.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT,

HONGKONG, 25th March, 1887.

SIR,-I have the honour to forward herewith the Annual Report on Education for the year 1886. 2. The total number of Schools, subject to supervision and annual examination by the Government, amounted, in the year 1886, to 90, as compared with 41 in 1876, and 16 in 1866. The total number of scholars, enrolled in Schools subject to Government supervision and examination, amounted to 5,844 in the year 1886, as compared with 2,922 scholars in the year 1876, and 1,870 scholars in the year. 1866. It appears therefore that both the number of Schools under Government supervision in the Colony and the number of scholars attending such Schools have been doubled every decade since 1866. 3. Since the autumn of the year 1884, when, in consequence of local disturbances, the attendance in all the Chinese Schools suddenly fell off and many children were, in a panic, removed from the Colony to their homes on the mainland, the annual increase of Schools and scholars has come to a standstill. A fresh panic occurred in spring 1886 when, in consequence of an idle rumour to the effect that the Schools under Government were required to furnish a number of boys and girls to be buried alive in the tunnel of the Taitam water works, as the success of those works depended upon such a human sacrifice, most of the Chinese Grant-in-Aid Schools in the centre of the town were emptied of scholars for several days, until a proclamation of the Registrar General allayed the excitement. The fact that such a silly rumour found credence with numbers of Chinese mothers, is a striking evidence of the lamentably low state of female education in the Colony. Previous to the year 1885 there was, year by year, a steady annual increase observable in the number of Schools and scholars. This increase amounted, on an average; to 6 Schools and 472 scholars every year. But although the population has to all appearance continued to increase year by year, and 5 new Schools were started in 1886 (balanced unfortunately by an equal number of Schools which had to be closed), the previous annual increase of Schools and scholars has come to a standstill since 1884, as the subjoined table will show in detail.

TABLE shewing INCREASE and DECREASE of SCHOOLS and SCHOLARS under Government Supervision.

1879, 1880,

1881,

1882,

1883,

1884,

1885,

1886,

Years.

Increase of

Decrease of

Schools.

Scholars.

Schools.

Scholars.

Schools.

Scholars.

50

3,460

63

3,886

72

4,372

80

5,182

87

5,597

90

5,885

.90

90

5,833 5,844

379813

308 426

486

810

415

388

10

52

4. Of the above mentioned 5,844 children, attending Schools under Government supervision in 1886, as many as 3,951 were placed by their parents in Missionary Grant-in-Aid Schools where they received a Christian education, whilst 1,893 children attended the Government Schools. Of the latter number, 610 attended the Government Central School, 910 attended the outside Schools in town and villages, kept by the Government, and 382 children were under instruction in the small Village Schools kept by natives and aided by the Government (by a monthly grant). Details will be found in Tables I and II appended to this Report.

340

5. The expenses incurred by the Government, during the year 1886, on account of education in general, amounted (including the expenses connected with the Government Scholarship) to a total of $43,085.50 or $7.37 per head. The following details may be of interest. On the Central School · with 610 scholars, the Government expended (apart from cost of buildings and repairs) the sum of $11,680.41 or $19.11 per head. The expenses of the other Government Schools, including the Aided Schools, amounted to $8,454.17 for 1,283 scholars or $6.59 per head. The Grant-in-Aid Schools with 3,951 scholars, cost the Government $14,324.76 or $3.62 per head. Further details will be found in Tables IV and XIII appended to this Report.

6. In addition to the above mentioned 5,844 scholars attending 90 Schools under Government supervision, there were, during the year 1886, according to a census taken by the District Watchmen, as many as 106 Schools (including also Night Schools) at work in town and villages, attended by 2,038 scholars. There were also about 180 scholars under instruction in 5 private European Schools. The total of scholars under instruction in Schools of all classes amounted, therefore, to 8,062 scholars distributed over 201 Schools. As the estimated population of the Colony now numbers about 181,702 souls, there were therefore 4.43 per cent. of the population enrolled in Schools of all classes. This does not favourably compare with the educational condition of England and Wales where 13 per cent. nor even with Ireland where 9 per cent. of the population attend School. But it is to be considered that we have here neither a Compulsory Education Act, nor any law providing adequate school accommodation in proportion to the population, and that a considerable proportion of the Chinese people residing in the Colony do not keep their families here but leave them on the mainland. Comparing the number of children of legal school-age (5-13 years) in England and Wales and in Ireland with the number actually in attendance, we find that in England and Wales somewhat over one half, and in Ireland less than one half, of those children who ought to attend school, actually come under instruction. Here in Hongkong we have no exact data to ascertain the number of children in the Colony who are of the local school-age (6-16 years). By a rough but rather high estimate (See Table XVI), I calculate that there were, during the year 1886, about 18,200 children in the Colony, who were from 6 to 16 years of age. Hence we see, as there were 8,062 children actually under instruction, that the pro- portion of children, who actually attend school, to those who are of the proper school-age, was in Hongkong, as in Ireland, somewhat less than one half. The difference, however, is this that in Ireland accommodation is provided in the National Schools for nearly the whole number of children of the legal school-age, whilst in Hongkong, the accommodation provided falls short of the requirements of actual attendance. All our Schools are overcrowded whilst there remain about 10,138 uneducated children unprovided for. I believe there would be no difficulty in inducing about one third or possibly even one half of that number to attend school by simply providing the requisite school accommodation (and teaching staff) at the expense of the Government, though the other half would probably continue to be kept from school by stress of poverty. The majority of those 10,138 children remaining uneducated are, I believe, Chinese girls, and one of the principal causes of their remaining uneducated, year by year, is the fact that the school accommodation hitherto provided by the Government Schools and Grant-in-Aid Schools is still far below the requirements of the case.

7. The proportion of girls to boys under instruction in the Schools of the Colony continues to improve from year to year slowly but steadily. That this gradual advance of female education in the Colony is entirely the result of the successful working of the Grant-in-Aid Scheme and under it due to the alacrity and continued energy with which the several Missionary Societies develop that Scheme, will be seen from the subjoined Comparative Table.

COMPARATIVE TABLE shewing the growth of GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS and GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS in relation to the proportion of boys and girls under instruction.

Grant-in-Aid Schools.

Government Schools (including Aided Schools.)

Year.

Number of Schools.

Number of Scholars.

Year.

Boys.

Girls. Total.

Number of Schools.

Number of Scholars.

Boys. Girls. Total.

1873,

6

309

133

442

1873,

30

1,667

171

1,838

1874,

9

406

226

632

1874,

30

1,759

172

1,931

1875,

9

430

249

679

1875,

30

1,747

180

1,927

1876,

11

441

310

751

1876,

30

1,938

233

2,171

1877,

14

629

367

996

1877,

30

1,891

257

2,148

>

1878,

17

678

343 1,021

1878,

30

1,866

235

2,101

1879,

19

986

431

1,417

1879,

31

1,864

179

2,043

1880,

27

1,247

561

1,808

1880,

36

1,940

138

2,078

1881,

37

1,498

739 2,237

1881,

35

1,866

120

1,986

1882,

41

1,937

1,131

3,068

1882,

39

2,001

110

2,114

1883,

48

2,157 1,360 3,517

1883,

39

1,963

117

2,080

1884,

55

1885,

1886,

56

2,373 1,534 3,907 1884, 55 2,455 1,586 4,041 2,370 1,581 3,951

35

1,865

113

1,978

1885,

35

1,874

114

1,803

1886,

34

1,791

102

1,893

341

From the above Table we see that in the Grant-in-Aid Schools the proportion of girls to boys has been steadily improving since 1873, and that in these Schools the girls form now nearly one half of the whole number of children in school. But although in the Grant-in-Aid Schools the normal proportion of girls and boys will in all probability be reached in a few years, the case is very different in the other Schools of the Colony. Whilst in the Grant-in-Aid Schools the proportion of girls to boys is nearly 1 to 2, it is in the Government Schools like 1 to 18. Taking further into consideration all the known private Schools in the Colony, I find there are altogether 2,138 boys and 80 girls reported as having attended private Schools, not under the supervision of the Government. Accordingly we had, in the year 1886, altogether as many as 6,299 boys and only 1,763 girls under instruction in Schools of all classes, whilst it is pretty certain that there are nearly as many girls of the proper school-age in the Colony as there are boys. The needs of female education require therefore an extension of school accommodation. There is no room to doubt that the Grant-in-Aid Scheme, though expanding its sphere rather slowly, will gradually succeed in supplying the actual demands of female education in the Colony so far as the mass of the Chinese population is concerned. But as regards Schools for European children, whose education requires a more expensive staff and costly house accommodation, the Grant-in-Aid Scheme does not possess the same capabilities, because the demand of such special education, though urgent, is small and hedged in by various difficulties.

8. The results of the annual examination of the Schools under the supervision of the Government will be found detailed in the Tables appended to this Report, and, as far as the Government Central School is concerned, in the Report of its Headmaster, which will be found below. A few supplementary statistical details and general observations regarding the principal Schools and Classes of Schools may be of interest.

9. The Government Central School was examined on the principles adopted several years ago and stated in former reports. The examination papers were set by the Headmaster and revised by myself. The papers of the scholars were corrected and marked by the Headmaster and then forwarded to me to form an independent opinion thereon. With the exception of the marks allotted in the case of reading and in the case of all the subjects of the Anglo-Chinese Classes, (when the Headmaster noted results in consultation with myself), the subjoined Tables exhibit the results of the examination according to the Headmaster's own valuation of the merits of each paper.

GOVERNMENT CENTRAL SCHOOL-NUMBER of Boys PASSED in EACH SUBJECT in 1886.

Class.

Total No.

Examined.

Passed.

I..........

II.,.

မင်း

35

29

31

30

27

29

III.,

24

18

IV.

42

42

# 1 to ∞ Reading..

22

Dictation.

17 18

24

26

23

23

17

30

35

39

38

41

* 1 10 83

22

20

30

25

25

35

32

26

19

16

24

19

40

38

Arithmetic.

English.

English into

Chinese.

Chinese into

Grammar.

8333

Geography.

Map-drawing.

03 13 No 2 Composition.

29

21

19 14

20

11

14

28

a

28 23 13

17

17

18

History.

Euclid.

Algebra.

Mensuration.

Intelligence.

General

35

VI.,

29

VII.,

37

VIII., ....

39

IX.,

63

X.........

47

+ 8 & 0 No co

33

26

37

39

62

47

i o co 2 13 63

33

33

17

27

13

37

36

39

.39

61

62

47. 44

08 o to co

31

28

51

a co o to No

29

28

32

39

38

43

83 28 8 8 8

33

22

32

29

21

30

36

23

35

32

36

36

co & to con

32

26

35

38

60

59

.

Writing.

33

41

XI.,...... 24

24

24

23

21

14 24

23

:

:

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

Total,... 405 384 391

332 277 340

357 266 207 249 119 60 81 41

17

43

I.,

342

Class.

Examined.

Total No.

GOVERNMENT CENTRAL SCHOOL-PERCENTAGE of PASSES in EACH SUBJECT in 1886.

30

90.00 96.77 | 83.33

III.,

24 75.00 91.66 37.50

I.,

II.,

35

82.85 88.57 48.57 51.42 68.57| 85.71 71.42 71.42 100,00 91.42 80.00 65.71 37.14 48.57 48.57

76.66 76.66| 86.66 63.33 55.17| 80.00 96.66 | 72.41 64.82 46.66

37.50 70.83 91.66 83.33 37.50| 79.16| 83.33 | 45.83 45.83 58.33

60.00

33.34

IV.,

42

V.

35

..

VI.,

VII.,

VIII.,

2225

(100.00 97.61 | 71.42

83.33 92.85 90.47 97.61| 78.57 95.23| 90.47

94.28 94.28 94.28

48.57 82.85|94.28 62.84 91.42 91.42

29

89.65 93.10 44.83

20.68 96.55|100.00| 27.58 72.41| 89.65

37

....

IX.,

X.,

XI.,

47

24

63 98.41 96.82 98.41

100.00 100.00 | 93.61

100.00 100.00 95.83

80.94 82.53 95.2390.64

Writing.

80.84 91.48 70.21| 97.23

87.50 58.33 100.00 95.83

......

100.00 100.00 97.96 83.78 86.48 | 81.08| 97.96 95.25 95.25

39 100.00 100.00 100.00

888888

71.79 100.00 82.05| 92.30|92.30| 97.43

:

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

66.66

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

:

:

.:.

II.,.

III.,

IV.,

III.,

IV.,

V.,

VI.,

Total,... 405

94.81 96.54 81.72 68.39| 83.95| 88.14 79.64 76.38 91.84 90.84 67.41 61.83 46.06 48.57 48.31

GOVERNMENT CENTRAL SCHOOL-PERCENTAGE of PASSES in EACH SUBJECT in 1886.

Anglo-Chinese Examination.

Total

Divisions.

Total No. Examined.

Copy Writing.

Reading. Dictation.

Transla- Chinese Percentage

tion. Characters. of

Passes.

15

73.33

73.33

53.33

53.33

80.00

10

100.00

90.00

90.00

80.00

70.00

90.00

7

100.00

57.14

57.14

57.14

71.42

57.14

4.

75.00

75.00

50.00

75.00

75.00

75.00

GOVERNMENT CENTRAL SCHOOL.

Chinese Examination.

Total

Class.

No. Examined.

Essay.

Letter.

Prosody.

Total Percentage of Passes.

7 8 N N OR ON

51

94.11

88.24

45.09

94.11

80

91.25

70.00

60.00

87.50

72

86.11

65.29

38.88

69.44

32

93.75

84.27

71.87

90.62

43

93.02

74.41

72.09

42

66.66

:

88.09

66.66

343

10. In addition to the remarks of the Headmaster, which will be found in the third paragraph of his Report, I have to make but a few general observations concerning the Government Central School. Comparing the results of the Government Central School examination, as above tabulated, with the results of the previous year's examination, it is evident there has been in most classes a falling off in the following subjects, viz., English reading, dictation, and composition. In all other subjects the School did, with the exception of Classes II, V and VI, as well as or better than last year. It is noteworthy that the subjects, in which there has been a considerable falling off, are the very subjects in which the Central School would naturally be expected to be, and to my knowledge is, deficient as compared with other Schools in the Colony, such as the Diocesan School, St. Joseph's College or the Hongkong Public School. As the vast majority of the boys of the Central School are Chinese boys who do not speak English nor hear English spoken out of school, and as the Central School gives a valuable portion of its time to Chinese teaching, the natural consequence is that the results obtained in the Central School in speaking and understanding English, and in English reading, dictation and composition are somewhat below the results obtained in other Schools, although the staff, organisation and method of the Central School are of a superior character. The Central School sends out annually a number of youths thoroughly well grounded in the rudiments of an English education, but the number of English speaking people in the Colony receives but a very small increase thereby year by year. A considerable proportion of the boys trained in the Central School go abroad. Most of those who remain, enter into business relations where they have little opportunity of keeping up or adding to their stock of English knowledge and consequently they have soon but little more than a smattering knowledge of English left. The principal point, however, is that the results of the Chinese teaching, which encroaches so much upon the English, are decidedly disappointing. The vast majority of the Chinese boys enter the Central School to learn English, after having studied Chinese classics in purely Chinese Schools, for four years or so. Whilst they are studying at the Central School for some 6 or 7 years longer, a portion of their school time is devoted to Chinese studies. Yet the best that can be said of the results of the Chinese teaching given at the Central School is that, on the whole, it keeps up the amount of knowledge of Chinese which each boy brings with him on entering the School. When the present system was inaugurated, the Chinese who send their children to the Central School had but few Schools outside the Central School where their boys might keep up their knowledge of Chinese, and it was therefore necessary to teach in the Central School both the English and Chinese languages. But things are different now. Chinese parents are now universally convinced that their children must first get a good grounding in the Chinese language for some 3 or 4 years at least, before they send them to the Central School. There are now Schools enough in the Colony, both Day Schools and Night Schools, which answer the purpose of giving Chinese boys a preliminary grounding in Chinese and which would answer the purpose, by the system of Evening Schools, of advancing the Chinese knowledge of the boys of the Central School, and they would answer that purpose better than the Central School can do it. I am therefore of opinion that the time has come for relieving the English teaching of the Central School from the trammels imposed upon it by teaching the Chinese language in addition to English. If the ordinary school-hours were devoted exclusively to the subjects of an English education, the Chinese language being used only as a medium for teaching English (when required), the Central School would continue to keep ahead of all the other educational establishments in the Colony. There would be no difficulty, if required, to insist upon every Chinese boy, unacquainted with English colloquial, qualifying himself for admission into the Central School by passing an entrance examination in Chinese, equal to the third or fourth Standard examination of Chinese Grant-in-Aid Schools. Nor would there be any difficulty in teaching the classical Chinese language at the Central School, as an extra subject, out of the ordinary school-hours, on special appli- cation and by special teachers.

·

11. There is one other point connected with the future of the Central School which I deem it important to refer to. The fees charged at the Central School might well be raised after the completion of the new buildings, so as to pay at least two thirds of the working expenses of the School. Under the present system the children of wealthy and well-to-do Chinese are educated partly at the expense of tax-payers who cannot afford a similar education for their own children, and the low fees charged at the Government Central School put a handicap on private efforts in the sphere of education. Considering also that in other Colonies the desire is felt to enable the Government to withdraw, when practicable, from direct interference in educational efforts, it is quite within the horizon of probabilities that the Central School may at some future time be made a self-supporting institution under a governing body representing the taxpayers rather than the Government.

12. The Anglo-Chinese Schools of the Government, located at Sayingp'ún, Wongnaich'ung, Wántsai, Stanley and Yaumáti, continue to show fair results. Two of these Schools, located in town, are in charge of exceptionally good teachers and are every year besieged with crowds of applicants for admission who have to be refused for want of space and corresponding teaching power. In the villages, however, there is constantly a complaint that our teachers, if able to teach English, are incompetent as regards Chinese teaching, and the desire of the parents, based on the general experience that natives can ordinarily gain proficiency in English only at the expense of proficiency in Classical Chinese, generally is, that the Government should provide in Anglo-Chinese Schools a special teacher for each of the two languages. This has been done in the case of the two Schools located in town, but in the

344

villages the number of scholars, desiring to learn both English and Chinese at the same time, is too small to justify the additional expense involved. The need of a Training School to provide teachers for the Government Schools (outside the Central School) makes itself constantly felt and this need is not likely to be supplied by the training class now formed in the Government Central School.

13. The work of those Government Schools and Aided Schools which give but a Chinese education in the Chinese language, has continued during the year 1886 its usual course, and calls for no special remarks. Special effort has been made, by allotting separate prizes at the annual prize-giving, to extend the teaching of geography and of Chinese composition in these Schools, and some improvement has taken place in these respects. In the case of one Aided School, that at Aberdeen, the unhealthiness of the locality, which compelled the Government to remove the Police Station, has also necessitated the removal of the School to the opposite island of Aplichau. In the case of another Aided School, that of Shamshuipo, where the Aided system year by year shewed very poor results, an attempt has been made to improve the School by the application of the Grant-in-Aid system. The first year's trial did not improve matters, but there is hope that in course of time better results may be obtained.

14. As regards the Grant-in-Aid Schools, the year 1886 has afforded fresh proof that the alter- ations introduced in the Grant-in-Aid Scheme in 1883, principally affecting schools in Class I (i.e. Schools giving a Chinese education in the Chinese language) are beneficial. The subjoined Comparative Table, exhibiting the working of the Revised Scheme (of 1883) which came into operation in the year 1884, clearly proves, as far as Schools in Class I are concerned, that the desire of the Government to reduce the earning power of these inexpensive Schools (whilst increasing the pensum of work to be done under some Standards), and to encourage the teachers to bring more children under instruction in the higher Standards without skipping the lower ones, has been attained.

TABLE SHEWING EFFECTS OF REVISION OF SCHEME (1883) ON SCHOOLS IN CLASS I.

Number of Scholars Examined.

Amount earned by Passes (apart from Capitation Grant and Needle work).

Standards.

1884.

.1885.

1886.

1884.

1885.

1886.

$9

$

I.,

76

128

271

146

160

462

II.,.

557

823

652

3,124

3,052

2,496

III.,

470

446

474

2,208

2,196

2,184

IV.,

120

128

138

840

624

640

V.,

26

26

44

230

210

320

VI.,

Q

9

11

24

108.

120

1,251*

1,560

1,590

$6,572

$6,350

$ 6,222

*This reduction was caused by local disturbances unconnected with the Revision of the Scheme.

15. As regards the Grant-in-Aid Schools in Class III there are, this year also, but few special features calling for comment. The history and composition teaching in Schools in Class III continues to show improved results. The facility with which Chinese children, after five years' teaching of the Romanized system, write composition exercises in Romanized Chinese Colloquial, is quite equal to the average attainments of English children in the corresponding English subjects, whilst the same Chinese children would require additional five years' teaching to gain similar facility in expressing their thoughts in the written Chinese character. Nevertheless, I think, so far as practical utility is con- cerned, a child educated in a purely Chinese School in Class I, able to read and write a Chinese letter in the Chinese character, possesses a better training for practical life than the Romanized system, encroaching by the time it demands upon the time absolutely required for the teaching of the written Chinese character, can possibly give, unless the school-age is abnormally extended.

16. The Grant-in-Aid Schools in Class IV continue to improve year by year in organisation and effectiveness of teaching. It is noticeable that the Portuguese community are every year sending more and more children to pass first, for three or four years, through a purely Portuguese School before sending then to an English School. The more this movement extends, the more solid appear to be the results of the English teaching in the higher Standards. As regards the English Schools in Class IV, the Diocesan School and St. Joseph's College require special mention. The Diocesan School

i

345

continues, as before, to distinguish itself by combining with solid teaching in the ordinary Standards also the special subjects of physical geography, algebra and euclid, good results being exhibited in every Standard. St. Joseph's College has made a new move, in the year 1886, which is a move in the right direction. Whilst formerly teaching Portuguese and Chinese youths in separate classes, an arrangement has been made to confine this separate system to the lower Standards, and to move all Chinese scholars who have passed Standard III into the European Division where now Chinese and Portuguese youths are taught side by side. By this arrangement, the Chinese gain the advantage of association with Portuguese who are better speakers of English, and the Portuguese gain at the same time the stimulus arising from emulation. The consequence of this measure was also a considerable increase of numbers in the Chinese Division. At the annual examination, this Chinese Division did very well in all subjects, and in some classes the English reading was exceptionally good. As to the European Division of St. Joseph's College, there has been manifest progress in all directions. Quarterly examinations were introduced in 1886, in addition to the weekly examinations, and the organisation, method and discipline of this Division now leave little to be desired. The boys in Standard III were somewhat weak in grammar, and those of Standard V in composition (principally in consequence of the admixture of Chinese), but the composition in Standard VI was very good on the whole, and so also the arithmetic in all Standards. The cheerful spirit animating all the classes of the European Division is, side by side with the strict discipline of the whole School, a very noticeable feature of St. Joseph's College.

17. The needle-work examination was conducted in 1886 on the plan resorted to in 1885 and explained in my last Annual Report. The needle-work submitted for examination was done in my presence and then forwarded, together with a Schedule detailing the particulars of each child, to a Lady who chose her own Committee and adjudged the merits of each piece of work. This Committee reports having observed real progress made since the previous year. The Committee find that most teachers have been very successful, but that some seein hardly qualified for their position as needle- work teachers. In some cases the Committee were sorely puzzled, the needle-work done in the presence of the examiner being bad and dirty while the other portion of the work was good and clean. It is possible that this may be accounted for by assuming that the children were nervous in the presence of the examiner, but even that does not fully explain the very great difference noticed in some specimens of needle-work. The thanks of the Government are again due to the Lady and her Committee who conducted this needle-work examination with such painstaking minuteness and scrupu- lous impartiality.

18. The educational movement of the Colony received a considerable stimulus in the year 1886 by the introduction of the system of the Cambridge Local Examinations and by the arrangements made for establishing a Medical School in connection with the Alice Memorial Hospital, admission to which may soon become a keenly contested prize, like the Scholarships of the Colony, if the students receive regular and progressive teaching. With the increase of stimulants tending to promote mental exertion, it behoves educationists also to keep an eye on the encroaches which stimulated mental exertion is, especially in this climate, liable to make upon health, and to discern at an early stage what children are and what children are not fitted for the severe and protracted exertion of the mind called forth by a multiplication of competitive examinations. In this Colony, where there is hardly any sphere for the industrial education of the children of European and Portuguese residents, the tendency which Mr. GLADSTONE has described as the fault of modern education, is specially strong, viz., to overcrowd the professions that depend upon the mind as distinguished from those dependent on the hand. There is serious risk in trying might and main to fit young people for the learned and clerical professions that they may be spoiled for handicraft only in order to discover too late that they have not the natural gifts indispensable to success in the more intellectual order.

19. I enclose the usual Tables, I to XVI, containing the Educational Statistics for the year 1886.

I have the honour to be,

The Honourable F. STEWART, LL.D.,

Colonial Secretary.

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant.

E. J. EITEL. A.M., PH.D.,

Inspector of Schools.

$

346

No.

TABLE I-NUMBER of SCHOLARS attending Schools subject to Government Supervision during 1886.

Name of School.

American Board Mission, Bridges Street (Boys),

1

";

}

3

**

Aplichau,

::

Station Terrace (Boys),

East Street (Boys),.. Hinglung Lane (Boys), Queen's Road West (Boys),

Basel Mission, High Street (Girls),

8

Shamshuipo (Boys),

.9

Berlin Mission (Girls),

10

11

12

II.

"

21

13

11

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

>>

22

23

""

24

25

"}

26

Central School,

C. M. S., St. Stephen's I. Division (Boys),

Lyndhurst Terrace (Boys),

D'Aguilar Street (Boys),

Saiyingp'ún (Boys),

St. Stephen's Baxter Memorial (Girls), Lyndhurst Terrace (Girls),

Third Street (Girls),

Diocesan Home and Orphanage (Boys),

F. E. S., Bonham Road (Girls),

High Street (Girls),

Queen's Road (Girls),

Hollywood Road (Girls), D'Aguilar Street (Girls), Stanley Street (Girls), Shaukiwán (Girls),

(Boys),

27

Háwán,

28

Hoktsui,

29

Hokün...

30

Hunghòm,

31

32

33

""

34

11

35

"

36

37

"

38

39

"

40

41

42

Little Hongkong,

L. M. S., Hollywood Road (Boys),

Wantsai (Boys),...................

Yaumáti (Boys).............................

Shektiongtsui (Boys),

Saiyingpún I. Division (Boys),

II.

Hunghom (Boys),

>>

Shekt ongtsui (Girls),

Aberdeen Street (Girls),

Kau-ü-fong (Girls),

Ship Street (Girls),

(Boys),

43

"}

Yaumáti (Girls),

44.

"

Stanley Street (Girls),

45

}}

Lower Lascar Row (Girls),

46

"

47

??

48

"

49

>>

50

"

51

99

>>

52

53

54

55

53

57

58

59

60

61

22222222288GBAR38288**

">

"

*

""

European

Italian Convent (Girls),

62

63

64

Tanglungchau (Girls),

Taipingshan Chapel (Girls),

Saiyingp'un First Street (Girls); ......................................................................................................

Wantsai (Girls),...

Staunton Street, Upper School (Girls),.......................

Matauch'ung,

Matauts'un,...................

Mongkok,

New Village (Little Hongkong), Pokfulam,

R. C. M., Cathedral School (Boys),

St. Joseph's College Chinese Division (Boys),.

(Boys),

Bridges Street, Portuguese School (Mixed),

St. Francis Chapel, Portuguese School (Mixed),.

Victoria Portuguese School (Mixed),

Victoria, English School (Boys),

Lower

>>

(Girls),....

65

Victoria, English School (Girls),

66

Saiyingp'ún (English),

67

(Punti),

68

69

Sháiwán,

70

Shamsbuipo,

(Hakka),

71

Shaukiwán,

72

Sheko,

73

71

75

Stanley,

76

77

78

79

Sheungwán (Boys),

(Girls),

Taiwongkung,.

Tanglungchau (Hakka),

Tokwáwán (Eastern Village),..

(Punti),

80

(Western Village),

81

Tsát-tszmui..

82

Wantsai (English),

83

(Chinese)..

S

Wesleyan Mission Spring Gardens (Boys),

$5

"

19

Wellingtong Street (Boys),

*.86

"

"

(Girls),

87

Wongkoktsui,

83

$9

Wongmakok,

Wongnaich'ung,

90

Yaumáti,

Central School.

Native Native Grant-in- Schools Schools Aid (Govt.) (Aided). School.

Total.

610

87

87

89

42

42

44

44

72

72

60

60

63

63

45

45

36

36

610

127

127

108

108

107

107

74

74

80

80

73

73

56

56

68

68

95

95

32

32

39

39

35

35

36

36

25

25

43

43

31

31

31

...

31

14

14

19

19

5

5

31

34

171

171

98

98

96

96

...

97

97

107

107

88

88

66

29

25

34

29

10

8

113

222

151

146

45

103

103

23

34

34

47

47

40

40

610

901

382

3,951

5,844

43

43

100

100

56

58

22

22

2

60

GO

15

15

57

102

102

52

52

...

84 71

71

38

33

་་་

25

19

146

144

: +88RENE8: ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ 2887JHMENSK2

60

113

151

19

182880RZABGFSABRHRA 8225*88** & *N`ORDSIZEABK- - ****

8

60.

TABLE II-PROPORTION of SCHOLARS to POPULATION in the CITY of VICTORIA and in the VILLAGES in 1886.

347

CITY AND HARBOUR OF VICTORIA.

Population as per Census of 188, ....

CHILDREN IN SCHOOLS UNDER GOVERNMENT SUPERVISION, IN THE CITY OF VICTORIA,

VILLAGES.

Population, including Boat Population, as per Census of 188,

CHILDREN IN SHOOLS UNDER GOVERNMENT SUPERVISION, IN VILLAGES.

No. of Sholars.

1. American Board Mission, Bridges Street (Boys)....

87

1. Aplichau,

2.

22

>>

Station Terrace (Boys),

89

3.

">

East Street (Boys),

42

2. Basel Mission, Shamshuipò (Boys),. 3. F. E. S., Shaukiwán (Girls)..

4.

#

#

Hinglung Lane (Boys), ....

44

4.

Stanley (Girls),

5.

+3

Queen's Road West (Boys),

72

5. Hoktsui,

10.

""

11.

""

12.

"

6. Berlin Mission (Girls),

7. Basel Mission, High Street (Girls),

8. Central School,

9. C. M. S., St. Stephen's I Division (Boys),

!!

Lyndhurst Terracce (Boys),

D'Aguilar Street (Boys),

36

6. Hokün,

63

7. Hunghom,

610

127

II

(Boys),

108

10.

107

11.

15

74

12.

13.

Saiyingp'ún (Boys),

80

13.

14.

St. Stephen's Baxter Memorial (Girls),

73

14.

15.

#

Lyndhurst Terrace (Girls),

56

15. Mat'auch'ung,

16.

27

Third Street (Girls),

68

16. Matauts'ün,..

19.

20.

:

;"

21.

"?

22.

"

25.

""

26.

27.

28.

29.

-30.

31.

32.

33.

"

34.

>>

35.

**

36. 37.

""

17. Diocesan Home and Orphanage (Boys),

18. F. E. S., Bonham Road (Girls),

23. Háwán,

High Street (Girls), Queen's Road (Girls), Hollywood Road (Girls), D'Aguilar Street (Girls),

24. L. M. S., Hollywood Road (Boys),

Saiyingp'ún I Division (Boys),

95

17. Mongkok,..

32

8. Little Hongkong,

9. L. M. S., Hunghòm (Boys),

Shekt'ongtsui (Boys),

(Girls),

Tanglungoban (Girls), Yaumáti (Girls), (Boys),

1. New Village (Little Hongkong),

"

39

19. Pokfulam,

No. of Scholars.

60

45

31

43

14

19

34

66

97

58

96

25

34

10

8

35

20. Sháiwan.

********

36

21. Shamshuipo,

25

22. Shaukiwán,

31

23. Sheko,

171

24. Stanley,..

XECABRE**22*2°39

15

52

Wántsai, (Boys),

98

107

26.

II

(Boys),

"

Aberdeen Street (Girls),

88

25. Tanglungchau (Hakka),

27. Tokwäwân (Eastern Village),

71

(Punti),

38

33

69

28

(West Village), .................

25

39.

40.

">

19

European

41.

Italian Convent (Girls),

:>

42.

">

43.

41.

45.

46.

English School (Boys),

"

*

(Girls),

Kau-ü-fong (Girls),

Ship Street (Girls),

Stanley Street (Girls), .

Lower Lascar Row (Girls),

Taipingshan Chapel (Girls),

Saiyingp'un First Street (Girls), Wantsai (Girls),...

Staunton Street Upper School (Girls),

**

38. R. C. M., Cathedral School (Boys),........

St. Joseph's College Chinese Division (Boys)..........

Bridges Street, Portuguese School (Mixed),

St. Francis Chapel, Portuguese School (Mixed),... 60 Victoria, Portuguese School (Mixed),

36

29. Tsattszemui,.

19

62

34

31. Wongmakok,

30. Wongkoktsui, ...........................

34

9

28

32. Wongnaich'ung,

47

79

3. Yaumáti.

40

71

69

TOTAL

1 100

39

Lower School (Girls),.

53

60

113

(Boys),...

222

115

94

60

41

43

51.

18.

(Punti),

49.

(Hakka).

(Girls),

54.

47. Saiyingp‘ún (English),

50. Sheungwan (Boys),

52. Taiwongkung,

53. Wantsaf (English),...

(Chinese),...

55. Wesleyan Mission Spring Gardens (Boys),

100

58

57

102

84

146

45

56.

13

"

Wellington Street (Boys),

103

57.

·

">

·,'

(Girls),

23

TOTAL,......... ..4,609

TABLE III-NUMBER of SCHOLARS at the GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS during 1886 and EXPENSES of each SCHOOL,

No.

Name of School.

Boys. Girls. Total.

Expensc. No.

Name of School.

Boys, Girls. Total, Expense.

Brought forward,

1,051

1,051 | $13,170.33

1 Aplichau.

60

60

$

2 Central School,............

610

610

67.00 18 11,680.41 19

Shaukiwán,

60

60

156.00

3 | Hawán,

31

31

29.00 20

Shéko,........ Sheungwán (Roys),

15

15

120.00

57

51

308.00

4 Hoktsui,

14

14

60.00 21

(Girls),,

102

102

621.00

5 Hokün,

19

19

60.00 22

Stanley.

52

349,27

6 Hunghom,

5.00 28

Táiwongkung..

84

329.80

7 Little Hongkong,

34

60.00 24

Tanglungchau (Hakka),

71

71

120.00

8 Matauch'ung,

25

60.00 25

(Punti),

38

180.00

9 Mat'ants'ün,

34

34

60.00 26

Tokwáwán (Eastern Village),

33

60.00

10 Mongkok,

29

60.00 27

(Western Village),.

25

25

$0.00

11 New Village (Little H’kong).

10

10

60.00 28

12 | Pokfulam,

8

8

13 Saiyingp'ún (English),

100

59.04 29 £47.08 30

Tsattszemui, Wantsai (English),

19

19

60.00

146

100

#

(Chinese),

(144)

146 |{

463.67

250.00

14

10

(Punti),

(66)

15

12

(Hakka),

58

58

253.40

16 Shaiwan,

17 Shamshuipù,

22

22

2

2

Carried forward.............

1,051

:

1,051

146,50 31 Wongkokts'ui,

32 Wongmakok, 60.00 33 Wongnaich'ung,

2.90 34 | Yaumáti,

13,170.33

34

34

72.00

9

9

12,00

47

47

262.24

40

40

384.27

TOTAL..........

1,791

102 1,893

$17,026.58

348

TABLE IV.-AVERAGE EXPENSES of each SCHOLAR or STUDENT at the Government Schools during the Year 1886. GOVERNMENT CENTRAL SCHOOL,

Expenditure,

Expenditure,

GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS AND AIDED SCHOOLS.

Add Inspector's Salary,

Chinese Writer's Salary,

وو

Teacher's Salary,

,, Travelling Expenses,

.$11,680.41

.$ 5,346.17.

.$2,400

300

120

288

3,108.00

$20,134.58

No.

Total Expenditure for the year :-

Government Central School,

Government Schools and Aided Schools,

A.

Average Expenses calculated by the Enrolment.

1. Average Expense of each Scholar at Government Central School,

mi ci as

2.

""

39

وو

""

at other Government Schools,

3.

""

99

"

"

at Government Aided Schools,

B.

$11,680.41

8,454.17

Average Expenses calculated by the average Daily Attendance.

1. Average Expense of each Scholar at Government Central School,

Hai

39

21

""

3.

39

"

"

at other Government Schools, at Government Aided Schools,

......

$19.11 4.90 2.45

.$26.17

6.97

3.76

TABLE V.-AVERAGE MONTHLY ENROLMENT and DAILY ATTENDANCE at the Government Schools for 1886.

Name of School.

Average Monthly Enrolment.

Average Daily Attendance.

1

Aplichau,

43.55

37.83

Central School,

470.16

446.22

3

Háwán,

31.00

24.38

Hoktsui,

13.23

12.53

Hokün,

9.83

8.64

Hunghòm,.

5.00

4.04

Little, Hongkong,

30.00

29.08

8

Mat'auch'ung,..

16.58

13.92

9

Mat'auts'ün,

22.67

22.67

10

Mongkok,

18.83

17.75

11

New Village (Little Hongkong),

7.75

7.27

12

Pokfulam,

7.10

6.17

13

Sayingp'ún (English),

65.33

61.44

14

29

(Hakka),

25.67

23.21

15

""

(Púnti),

45.73

45.65

16

Sháiwán,

12.08

7.43

17

Shamshuip'ò,

2.00

2.00

18

Shaukiwán,

36.08

29.51

19

Shekò,.

13.58

12.90

20

Shéungwán (Boys),

33.50

30.35

21

(Girls),

54.33

42.92

22

Stanley,...

37.00

32.08

23

Táiwongkung,

40.75

36.32

24

Tanglungchan (Hakka),

37.17

32.27

25

"J

(Punti),

21.92

19.61

26

T'òkwáwán (Eastern Village),

24.66

20.05

27

(Western Village),

15.33

12.89

28

Ts'attszemúi,

11.58

8.99

29

Wántsai (English),

101.00

95.29

30

(Chinese),

100.50

93.59

31

Wongkoktsui,

27.00

22.41

32

33

34

Wongmakok,

Wongnaich'ung,

Yaumáti,...

8.92

8.64

31.82

28.44

26.25

24.24.

1,447.90

1,320 73

349

TABLE VI.—MAXIMUM and MINIMUM ENROLMENT and DAILY ATTENDANCE at the Government Schools during 1886.

No.

Name of School,

Maximum Monthly Enrolment.

Minimum Monthly Enrolment.

Maximum Daily

Attendance.

Minimum Daily Attendance.

(monthly average). (monthly average).

1

Aplichau,

2

Central School,

Háwán,

60

11

53.00

10.00

507

419

496.80

408.06

31

31

24.38

24.38

Hoktsui,

14

10

14.00

10.00

Hokün,

11

6

10.58

6.00

Hunghòm,.

5

5

4.04

4.04

Little Hongkong,

32

19

31.38

19.00

8

Mat'aurh'ung,..

18

13

16.59

9.61

9

Mát'ants'ün,

24

16

23.80

16.00

10

Mongkok,

24

11

23.00

10.46

11

New Village (Little Hongkong),

9

5

8.00

5.00

12

Pokfulam,.

8

5

7.89

3.52

13

Saiyingp'ún (English),

69

57

65.33

50.62

14

(Hakka),

31

22

30.30

18.65

15

(Punti),

52

18

50.00

18.00

16

Sháiwán,

16

9

11.37

4.26

17

Shamshuip'ò,.

2

2

2.00

2.00

18

Shaukiwán,

47

22

38.38

21.50

19

Shekò,

14

11

14.00

11.00

20

Shéungwán (Boys),

38

27

33.07

27.00

21

**

(Girls),

62

31

53.89

30.50

22

Stanley,

45

23

41.66

23.00

23

Táiwongkung,

56

26

56.00

25.45

24

Tanglungchau (Hakka),

45

17

39.59

17.00

25

(Punti),

25

11

23.60

11.00

26

Tòkwáwán (Eastern Village),

28

12

23.69

12.00

27

""

(Western Village),

18

9

16.50

8.54

28

Ts'attszemui,

13

7

11.42

5.15

29

Wántsai (English),

115

59

111.48

54.95

30

??

(Chinese

115

59

111.52

52.43

31

32

33

34

Wongkoktsui, Wongmákok,. Wongnaichu'ng, Yaumáti,

31

14

28.63

14.00

9

8

9.00

6.62

39.

26

81.37

24.43

30

19

28.12

18.70

1,643

1,040

1,544.38

882.87

No.

TABLE VII.-NUMBER of DAYS on which the GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS were taught during 1886.

Name of School.

School Days.

No.

Name of School.

School Days.

1 2 3

Aplichau,....

Central School,

3

Háwán,

227 238

18

**

Shaukiwán,

251

19 Chekò,

249

21

20

Hoktsui,

247

21

>"

Shéungwán (Boys),.

(Girls),

239

246

Hokün,

253

22

Stanley,

236

Hunghò,.

27

23

Táiwongkung,

243

Little Hongkong,.

252

24

Tanglungchau (Hakka),

249

Mat'auch'ung,

:

254

25

(Punti),

249

9

Mat'auts'ün,

238

26

Tòkwáwán (Eastern Village),

252

10

Monkok,

255

27

(Western Village),

254

11

New Village (Little Hongkong),

250

28.

Tsattszzemui,

252

12

Pokfúlam,.

226

29

Wántsai (English),

241

13

Saiyingp'ún (English),

229

30

""

(Chinese),

243

14

">

(Hakka),

242

31

15

(Punti),

219

32

16

Sháiwán,

253

33

Wongkoktsui,

Wongmákok,

Wongneich'ung,

253

253

228

17

Shamshuipò,...

18

34

Yaumáti,

246

350

TABLE VIII.—SUMMARY of ENROLMENT and ATTENDANCE at the GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS for the last twenty-four Years,

Years.

Minimum Daily Attendance.

Total Enrolment for the Year.

Maximum Daily Attendance. (Monthly Average).

Minimum Monthly Enrolment.

(Monthly Average),

1863,

535

469

414

301

1864,

502

417

634

324

1865,

597

535

418

330

1866,

623

572

435

337

1867, ......

700

610

533

408

1868,

916

664

572

460

1869,

942

748

627

304

1870,

1,302

950

683

556

1871,

1,292

937

741

571

+

1872,

1,480

1,157

837

665

1873,

1,838

1,326

852

760

1874,

1,931

1,271

974

836

1875,

1,927

1,312

988

863

1876,

2,171

1,388

1,057

995

1877,

2,148

1,446

1,212

1,035

1878,

2,101

1,324

1,100

936

1879, .............................................

2,043

1,356

1,027

904

1880,

2,078

1,468

1,082

987

1881.

1,986

1,384

1,093

956

1882,

2.114

1,444

1,062

988

1883,

2,080

1,414

1,138

990

1884, ********

1,978

1,420

1,066

941

1885,

1,988

1,424

1,061

926

1886,

2,093

1,544

1,040

886

TABLE IX-ENROLMENT and ATTENDANCE at the CENTRAL SCHOOL during 1886.

Month.

Number of Scholars.

Average Daily Attendance.

Number of Attendances.

Number of School Days.

January, February,

419

6,937

17

408.06

502

2,484

5

496.80

March,

507

13,121

27

485,96

April,....

505

7,153

15

476.87

DAS

May,...

492

11,356

25

454.24

June,

476

10,845

21

451.87

July,

466

12,046

27

146.15

August,

451

2,204

5

440.89

September,

468

8,970

20

448.50

October,....

467

11,031

25

441.24

November,....

457

11,019

26

423.81

December,

432

9,035

22

410.68

Total,,

106,201

238

Total Number of ATTENDANCEs during 1886,

Number of SCHOOL DAYS during 1886,...

Average DAILY ATTENDANCE during 1886,

106,201 238 446,22 610

Total Number of SCHOLARS at this School during 1886,.......

TABLE X.-GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS (CENTRAL SCHOOL excepted) arranged in the order of their efficiency.

Rank I.

Saiyingp1ún, English School.

Wantsai, Chinese School.

Rank II.

Wongnaich'ung, Anglo-Chinose School. Yaumáti, Anglo-Chinese School. Wántsai, English School. Stanley, Anglo-Chiuese School. Saiyingpfún, Chinese Punti School. Taiwongkung, Chinese School. Sheungwán, Chinese (Boys) School. Sheungwán, Chinese (Girls) School.

Rank II,-Continued.

Tanglungchau, Chinese Hakka School. Tanglungchau, Chinese Punti School. Little Hongkong, Chinese School. Shankiwán, Chinese School. Shekò, Chinese School.

Rank III.

Little Hongkong (Now Village) Chi-

nese School.

Aplichan, Chinese School. Mongkok, Chinese School.

Rank III,-Continued.

Matʻauts'lin, Chinese School. Wongkoktsui, Chinese School. Ts'attszemui, Chinese School. Hoktsui, Chinese School. Mát auch'ung, Chinese School. Tòkwáwán (East), Chinese School. Tòkwáwán, (West) Chinese School. Saiyingp'ún, Chinese School. Wongmakok, Chinese Şehool. Hokün, Chinese School.

Sháiwán, Chinese School.

Pokfulam, Chinese School.

Hunghám, Chinese School.

:

Class of

School.

TABLE XI.-Number of SCHOLARS attending Schools receiving GRANTS-IN-AID (under the Provisions of the Scheme of 1883), Expenses incurred and amount of Grant gained by each, in 1886.

Name of School.

351

Boys. Girls. Total.

Expenses incurred

iu 1886.

Amount of Grant gained for 1886.

C.

I, American Board Mission, Bridges Street (Boys),

""

""

Station Terrace (Boys),.

"3

>>

""

East Street (Boys),

58893

87

87

264.00

209.30

89

200.00

237.06

42

42

237.00

174.41

"

Hinglung Lane (Boys),..

44

44

268.50

170.05

>"

>>

وو

Queen's Road West (Boys),

72

72

323.45

352.67

""

"

Basel Mission, Shamshuipò School (Boys), C. M. S., Stephen's I Division (Boys),

45

45

36.38

127

127

394.66

195.60

II

""

"

29

وو

(Boys),

108

108

312.87

226.31

33

"

""

""

""

"9

Saiyingp'ún (Boys),

""

""

""

""

""

""

""

31

""

""

""

**

""

39

22

12

"

**

39

Wantsai (Boys),

33

>>

"

Lyndhurst Terrace (Boys),

D'Aguilar Street (Boys),

Lyndhurst Terrace (Girls), Third Street (Girls),.

F. E. S., Bonham Road (Girls),

High Street (Girls), Queen's Road (Girls), Hollywood Road (Girls), D'Aguilar Street (Girls), Stanley School (Girls), Shaukiwán (Girls),

L. M. S., Hollywood Road (Boys),

Yaumati (Boys),

Shekt'ongtsui (Boys),

Saiyingp'ún I Division. (Boys),

II

Hunghòm (Boys),

Shektongtsui (Girls),

Aberdeen Street (Girls),

107

107

336.85

328.09

74

74

269.35

135.21

80

80

284.80

175.83

St. Stephen's Baxter Memorial (Girls),

73

73

272.61

185.65

56

56

233.02

192.01

68

68

223.10

173.25

32

32

454.70

87.31

39

39

202.70

120.35*

35

35

210.10

166.95

36

36

229.30

103.97

25

25

206.90

103.07

43

43

107

(Boys),

:: 5 3 8 5 5 8 8

189.34

138.60

31

31

121.32

171

171

655.95

507.04

98

98

652.06

309.96

96

96

446.30

165.39

97

97

468.36

292.36

107

596.62

228.63

88

88

553.09

258.64

66

572.84

138.90

..

-99

Kau-ü-fong (Girls),

>>

Ship Street (Girls),

""

Yaumati (Girls),

>>

""

Stanley Street (Girls),

>>

""

Lower Lascar Row (Girls),

8888

29

29

370.26

126.85

69

69

499.81

304.88

86

86

619.96

392.68

62

62

327.43

235.51

29

29

210.58

43.70

34

34

459.92

152.96

28

28

130.17

""

""

وو

23

""

""

""

Wantsai (Girls),

"

25

""

""

* * * * *

·""

""

""

European

""

"

Italian Convent (Girls),

""

♥ ☺ ☺ ☺

Tanglungchau (Girls),

Taipingshan Chapel (Girls),

Saiyingp'ún First Street (Girls),.

Staunton Street, Upper School (Girls),

""

Lower School (Girls),

R. C. M., Cathedral School (Boys), Wesleyan Mission Spring Gardens (Boys),

Wellington Street (Boys),

"

III, Basel Mission, High Street (Girls),.......

Berlin Mission (Girls),

IV. Diocesan Home and Orphanage (Boys),

R. C. M., St. Joseph's College, Chinese Division (Boys),.

Bridges Street, Portuguese School (Mixed), St. Francis Chapel, Portuguese School (Mixed), Victoria, Portuguese School (Mixed),

58

58

221.11

162.60

79

79

376.63

314.83

71

71

204.00

248.22

103

>>

(Girls),

113

(Boys),.

222

:::༄༅:;:;

69 69

680.50

436.73

39

39

127.45

583.82

53

53

243.96

60

60

297.00

113.87

45

115.24

103

408.00

389.06

23

23

207.00

57.41

63

63

759.08

476.68

36

36

1,123.78

393.90

6

95

8,165.19

414.76

113

660.65

6,135.15

222

1,280.57

151

151

2,666.45

785.51

44

94

912.00

376.45

20

40

60

1,248.00

240.47

30

30

60

1,231.00

234.73

""

"

English School (Boys),..

>>

""

>>

(Girls),

41

41

2,185.90

43

43

{

120.74

209.87

2,371 1,580 3,951 38,951.04 | 14,324.76

"

352

TABLE XII.-ENROLMENT, ATTENDANCE and NUMBER of SCHOOL DAYS at the GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS during 1886.

No.

Name of School.

Average Average Daily Number

Maxi- Mini-

Average Average Maxi- Mini-

mum

inum

mum

Enrol- Eurol-

ment. ment.

Monthly Monthly Daily Daily

mum

Monthly Attend- of

Enrol-

Attend- Attend-

ment.

ance for the

School Days.

ance.

ance.

Year.

IGO HO

618

American Board Mission, Bridges St. (Boys), ...

87

79

""

29

دو

Station Terrace (Boys) East Street (Boys),...

53

42

37

39

""

>>

Hinglung Lane (Boys))

Queen's Road West)

72

(Boys), f

39

9

10

11

12

13

14

">

Basel Mission, Shamshuipò School (Boys),

7 C. M. S., St. Stephen's I Division (Boys),

Lyndhurst Terrace (Boys),

76

II

(Boys),

87

**** 2 GONE!

38

83.00

34.00

73.41

67.30

245

44

50.16

41.22

49.66

47.06

257

28

40.84

26.83 38.51

36.41

237

44

19

39.23

14.44 39.09 34.05

261

62

69.95

58.77

69.72

66.67

254

43

11

32.81

5.28

32.36

22.38

244

40

67.38 36.19

58.75

51.60

277

43

71.69

40.07

69.66

62.61

267

77

57

73.77

56.41

70.16 68.09

265

D'Aguilar Street (Boys),

41

20

37.46

19.12

33.16

31.21

270

Saiyingp'ún (Boys),

62

36

54.83

. 31.00

47.58 43.83

270

St. Stephen's Baxter Memorial (Girls), Lyndhurst Terrace (Girls),

56

25

54.47

24.16

41.41 38.65

263

41

29

35.44

26.77

37.00

33.01

276

Third Street (Girls),

53

19

41.92

14.13

39.66

33.75

271

15 F. E. S., Bonham Road (Girls),

29

18

26.65

16.66 25.10

23.81

232

16

39

High Street (Girls),...

35

26

29.62

20.76

30.82

25.85

259

17

**

Queen's Road (Girls),

32

25

28.28

16.41

27.82

24.95

271

18

"

Hollywood Road (Girls),.

36

16

32.13

13.00

27.72

25.47

257

19

}"

D'Aguilar Street Girls),

25

14

23.29

12.23

19.18

18.07

253

20

"

Stanley School (Girls),

31.

18

25.19

15.00

27.58

22.10

271

21

**

Shaukiwán (Girls),

30

20

24.65

20.00

25.45

21.82

254.

22 L. M. S., Hollywood Road (Boys),

123

78

105.55

71.62

102.91

97.04

253

23

"

Wantsai (Boys),

75

39

72.01

36.57

66.75

63.96

261

24

J

Yaumati (Boys),

60

33

49.21

32.83

43.75

40.10

288

25

J

Shekt'ongtsui (Boys),......

59

50

55.88 40.20

56.08

52.36

270

26

Saiyingp'ún I Division (Boys),

62

50

60.65 43.33 59.83 56.63

236

27

II

""

(Boys),

62

39

58.96

31.75 58.00 54.64

254

28

""

Hunghòm (Boys),

62

16

56.00

14.14 44.91

40.90

258

29

""

Shekt'ongtsui (Girls),

26

13

24.73

11.83 21.42

20.35

267

30

"

Aberdeen Street (Girls),

54

29

49.48 26.34

47.00

40.88

280

31

""

Kau-ü-fong (Girls),..

65

40

59.96

31.11

59.17

53.68

282

32

33

""

34

23

Ship Street (Girls),

Yaumati (Girls),

Stanley Street (Girls),

45.

28

40.69 24.55

41.92

37.01

275

20

10

14.89

10.00

14.16

12.00

288

34

12

32.96

12.00 29.18 27.46

256

35

"9

Lower Lascar Row (Girls),

28

12

27.26

36

""

Tanglungchau (Girls),

49

28

43.76

37

"

Taipingshan Chapel (Girls),

62

37

51.75

11.22 23.80 39.08 29.22 48.33

22.55 21.17

256

34.10

272

39.33

275

38

39

Saiyingp'un, First Street (Girls),

56

22

47.66 17.22

45.25 40.22

279

39

"

Wantsai (Girls),

69

59

64.65 51.76

65.27 59.23

271

40

"

Staunton Street Upper School (Girls),

27

17

25.56 16.88

23.41

22.45

268

41

Lower School (Girls),

42

27

37.84 26.00

44

""

42 | R. C. M., Cathedral School (Boys), 43 Wesleyan Mission, Spring Gardens, (Boys),.. Wellington Street (Boys),

43

32

36.11 27.92

43

33

40.54

103

81

101.33

45

""

(Girls),

23

7

20.04

55

56

*** O IN 198

46 Basel Mission, High Street (Girls), 47 Berlin Mission (Girls),...

61

45

57.93

36

34

36.00

Diocesan Home and Orphanage (Boys),

65

47

56.52

35.25 32.46 36.33 29.53 37.60 35.24 79.50 6.91 42.76 55.16 52.18 29.00 35.18 33.90 45.20 59.27 52.76

272

31.87

276

245

92.72 89.06

242

17.30 15.41

243

259

263

241

49 R. C. M., St. Joseph's College Chinese Division

110

93

105.43

91.40

105.75 102.65

214

(Boys),

50

St. Joseph's College European Divi-

217

192

202.58 148.73

sion (Boys),

204.16 190.57

222

51

J

Italian Convent (Girls),

130

121

52

39.

Bridges St., Portuguese School (Mixed),

75

53

122.00 99.85 126.36 66.50 38.65 63.50

113.03

232

50.95

261

53

St. Francis Chapel, Portuguese

School (Mixed),

51

33

54

دو

399

Victoria, Portuguese School (Mixed),...

46

38

25

English School (Boys),.

31

17

"

33

(Girls),.

30

26

28.68

38.59 26.00 40.41

41.68 25.22 42.33 36.73 26.62 14.74 23.58 20.74 23.61 27.66 25.37

31.47

287

251

265

264

i

· NAME OF SCHOOL.

Class of School.

No. of Scholars Pre-

sented.

No. of Scholars Exam-.

TABLE XIII.-RESULTS of the EXAMINATION of the GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS in 1886, under the provisions of the Scheme of 15th September, 1883.

Number of Scholars who Passed. No. of Scholars who Failed. Į

Į

|

Sums to which the School is entitled.

ined.

Standard I.

Standard II.

Standard II).

Standard IV.

Standard V.

Standard VI.

Standard I.

Standard 11.

Standard III.

Standard IV.

16.-

>>

17. ---

18.--

19.--

""

"

""

20. -

??

Stanley School, (Girls)...

21.--

Shaukiwán, (Girls),..

22.-L. M. S. Hollywood Road (Boys),

23.-

7

Wántsai, (Boys),

221.-

25.-

26.-

27.-

>>

Yaumáti, (Boys),

""

Shekt'ongtsui (Boys),

"

Satyingp'ún I Division, (Boys),

II

(Boys),

11

28.

Hunghom, (Boys),

29.-

""

Shektongtsui, (Girls),

30,-

"1

Aberdeen Street, (Girls), ·

31.-

Kau-u-fong, (Girls),.

32.

"

Ship Street, (Girls),

Yaumati, (Girls),.

24.

11

Stanley Street, (Girls),

Lower Lascar Row, (Girls),

""

36,---

"

Tanglungehan, (Girls),

39

38.

39,---

40.---

41,--

,,

+

11

"

Salyingpún First Street, (Girls), Wantsui,

Staunton Street, Upper School, (Girls), Lower School, (Girls), 42.---R. Č. Mission, Cathedral School (Boys), 48.-Wesleyan Mission, Spring Gardens, (Boys), 4.- Wellington Street (Boys),

45.-~ 46.-Basel Mission, High Street (Girls), 47.-Berlin Mission (Girls), «

19

11

,

11

Taip ingshan Chapel, (Girls),.

1.- American Board Mission, Bridges' Street (Boys),.

2.

"

>>

4.

19

"

כי

""

11

Station Terrace, (Boys),

East Street, (Boys), Hinglung Lane, (Boys),.·

Queen's Road West, (Boys), .

6.-Basel Mission, Shamshuipò, (Boys), 7.-C. M. S. St. Stephen's I Division, (Boys),

༢-

35

9.-

>>

10.-

11.-

12.-

13.-

14.

""

3.

""

13

II

(Boys), Lyndhurst Terrace, (Boys),..

D'Aguilar Street, (Boys),

Saiyingp'ún (Boys),

St. Stephen's Baxter Memorial, (Girls), Lyndhurst Terrace, (Girls),

Third Street, (Girls),...

15.-F. E. S. Bonham Road, (Girls),

High Street, (Girls),.......

Queen's Road, (Girls),

Hollywood Road, (Girls), .

D'Aguilar Street (Boys),

1+

"+

(Girls),

48.--Diocesan Home and Orphanage, (Boys),.

IV

49. --R. C. Mission, St. Joseph's College, Chinese Division (Boys),..

50.--

**

European,

(Boys),.. IV

51.

52-

53.--

Italian Convent (Girls),..

}}

}}

51.-

Bridges' Street, Portuguese School, (Mixed),. St. Francis Chapel, Portuguese School, (Mixed).. Victoria, Portuguese School, (Mixed),.

IV

IV

་་་་་

English

(Boys),

IV

SH.-

(Girls),

IV

---EE 2 RRRRRRRE

36

14

2

7

IV

83

38 25

13

113

110

24

22

21

IV

11

9

IV

10

10

4

9

8

11

3

11

≈ 3 8 ~***2=2aa=888887888÷$28*~*~*968H8R8°3% Z 828258A÷

8 * 2 * 88 ≈≈ 25**3=382=288283578-9882^2===58=88C=** * 8R8MNA92

57

42

28

33

*****

1

20 10

1

23

16

3

10 14

#

16

59

2

23

30

ོ ུ ལཚ

31

26

67.30

::

40

2

47.06

28

36.41

11

30

3

94.05

56

3

66.67

4

1

3

4

22.88

4

2 12

24

1

32

1

51.60

96

e

20

11

40

10

62,31

18

80;

12

-18

12

2

3

#3

13

€8.00

24

23

25

31.21

32

31

43.83

20

8

21

8

24

11

23

38,46 16

33.01

33.75 22

16

44

5

23.81

18

25.85

18

20

24.95

8

10

12

25.47

10

12

13

18.07

6

28

19

22.10

10

7

18

21.82

14

36

17

21

36

4

82

97.01

34

81

Bichaa3:

:

:

:

:

Standard V.

Standard VT.

Total Passed.

Total Failed.

ance during School Average Daily Attend-

Year.

✪ ✪ * NË | Standard I.

Do us ho ho ho ho ho a A⠀⠀S NO 2 2 3 2 2 2 Standard II.

18

6

40

4

180

: MH8R 2 8 *:*:* 2 2 Standard III.

66

20

: & : 1392 :2228

****** :*

Standard IV.

: Standard V.

Standard VI.

Good.

Very

Good.

Fair.

Needle Work.

Capitation Grant.

Total Grant earned in

1886.

Amount due to

Teacher.

Amount due to

Manager.

67.30

209.30

52.32

156.08

47.06

237.06

59.26

177.80

36.41

174.41

43.60

130.81

34.05

170.05

42.51

127.54

10

66.67

352.67 88.16

264.51

22.98

36.38

9,00

27.29

51.60

195.60 48.90 146.70

(2.81

68.00

226.31

328.09

31.21 135,21 33.80

56.57 169.74

$2.02

246.07

101.41

43.83

175.83 43.05

131.88

9.00

38.65

185.65

46.41

139.24

60

3.00

33.01

192.01

48.00

144.01

58

1.50

33.75 173.25

43.31

129.94

20

1.50

23.81 87.31

21.82

65.49

30

1.50

25.85 120.35 30.08

99.z7

34

3.00

30

10.50

24.95 166.95 41.73 25.47 103.97 .25.99

125.22

77.08

24

8.00

18.07

103.07

25.76

77.31

30

22

10.50

22.10

138,60

34.65

103.95

12

36

1.50

21.82

121.32 30.33

90,99

216

40

97.04

507,04

126.76

380.28

9

12

60

8

63.96 18 156

72

63.96

369,96

77,49

232.47

29

32

7

40.10.

116

18

40.10

*165.39

41.34

124,05

32

16

50

52.36

128

96

13

15

40

20

56,63 22

52

90

3

28

13

45

5

54,64

6

112

78

11

8

26

4

40,90 22

28

48

5

2

17

20.35 12

20

12

12

3

33

40,88

8 36

72

32.

6

46

53.68

14

68

26

104

30

10

34

37.01 10

40

102

16

4

12.00

2

12

19

27.46

4

40

42

15

21.17

32

2

18

19

34.10 12

40

12

10

99.33 18

44

78

35

40,22 26

68

14

7

50

59.23

18

56

96

15

22,45

6

28

12

10

24

7

32.46

40

42

23

5

31.87 14

56

12

17

12

85.24

44

36

2

64

11

89.06

10

144

114

7

2

15,41

24

B

42

52.18 81

35

56

33

20

1

:

82

2

76

waleneb:

108

2

54

33

20

25

D

17

2

KHALI ANA ~ -

33.90 12

49

40

52.76

42

40 80

102.05

228

200

130

190.57

144

176

210

113.01

66

72

110

144

50.95

60

80

80

31.47

24

72

40

36.73

48

88 50

20.74

24

20

25.37

88

80

::: 5:28¤: 8: : .F^: ***::

60

140

126

28

42

42

: (88 : : : : :ÑA8 18 : : : :FSKÉ :98** :83

86

12.

60 82

50 84

28 32

16t 124 16t

102

32 118

*::*::

: AGK:::SHRAPA88: 285: :::.

52.36 292.36

73,09

219.27

56.63

228.63

57.15

171.48

54.64

258.64

64.66.

193.98

40.90

138.90

34.72

104.18

10,50

20,35

126.85

31,71

95.14

9.00

40,88

304.88

76.22

228.66

70

15.00

53.68

$92.68 08:17

294,51

13.50

17

37.01

235.51

58.87

176,64

2

12.00

* 43.70

10.92

32.78

30

7,50

2

27.46

152.96

38.24

114.72

30

3.00

21.17

130.17 32.54

97.63

40

16,50

34.10

162.60

40.65

121.95

13,50

39.33

314.83

78.70

230.13

46

12.00

6

40.22

248.22

€2.05

186.17

94 10.50

1

69.23

436.73

109.18

327.55

26

60

9.00

1.50

22.45

127.45

31.96

95.59

32.46 243.96

60.99

182,97

31.87 113.87 28.40

85.41

35.24

115.24

28.81

88.43

89.06

389.06

97.26

291.80

12

15.41

57:41

14.35

43.06

1.50

52.18

476.68

119.17

357.51

14

18.00

33.00

393.90 98.47

295.43

62.76

414.70

103.69

311.07

102.05 660.65 100.57 $1,280,57

165.16 493.40

320.14

960.48

40

4.50

1.50

118.01 785.51

196 87

589.14

50.05

378.45 94.11

282.84

80

20

4,50

31.47 60.11 240,47

36.73 58.68 234,73 20.74 120.74 30.18 25.37 52.40 200,87

180.86

176.05

90.56

157.41

TOTA

$14,324.76 3,580.89 10,743.77

* Extra Subject. † Reduction of 5 per cent, in accordance with Rule No. 3 of Grant-in-Aid Code. See C.S.O. No. 768 of 1886.

353

-354

TABLE XIV.-Percentage of SCHOLARS who passed in the. GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS during the last two Years.

No..

Name of School.

1886.

1885.

Increase.

Decrease.

123

1 American Board Mission, Bridges Street (Boys),

54.38

87.75

33.37

35

>

Station Terrace (Boys),.

95.23

95.45

0.22

ور

39

East Street (Boys),

100.00

96.96

3.04

وو

33

Hinglung Lane (Boys),...

90.90

"2

>"

Queen's Road West (Boys),

94.91

92.85

2.06

9

6 Basel Mission, Shamshuipò School (Boys), 7 C. M. S., St. Stephen's I Division (Boys),

8

Lyndhurst Terrace (Boys),

100.00

97.57

75.00

22.57

II

(Boys),

80.00

90.24

10.24

80.30

88.67

8.37

10

">

D'Aguilar Street (Boys),

92.59

93.33

0.74

11

""

Saiyingp'ún (Boys),

88.57

92.30

3.73

12

St. Stephen's Baxter Memorial (Girls),

100.00

87.09

12.91

13

22

Lyndhurst Terrace (Girls),

70.58

92.00

21.42

14

"

Third Street (Girls),....

79.31

100.00

20.69

16

17

18

"5

19

20

21

"

15 F. E. S., Bonham Road (Girls),

Hight Street (Girls),.......... Queen's Road (Girls), Hollywood Road (Girls), D'Aguilar Street (Girls), Stanley School (Girls),.. Shaukiwan (Girls),

22 L. M. S., Hollywood Road (Boys),

45.45

83.33

37.88

78.26

81.81

3.55

90.90

90.47

0.43

45.45

100.00

54.55

92.85

83.33

9.52

95.00

68.18

26.82

90.00

......

92.13

100.00

7.87

23

""

Wantsai (Boys),

88.23

92.00

3.77

24

""

Yaumati (Boys),

82.05

60.00

22.05

25

>>

Shekt'ongtsui (Boys),

98.04

88.88

9.16

26

22

Saiyingp'ún I Division (Boys),

66.66

85.37

18.71

27

II

""

12

79

(Boys),

90.00

.75.61

14.39

28

??

Hunghòm (Boys),.

86.66

94.44

7.78

29

33

Shekt'ongtsui (Girls),

100.00

93.75

6.25

30

""

Aberdeen Street (Girls),

76.74

87.80

11.06

31

32

33

""

34

A

35

>>

A

22

Kau-ü-fong (Girls),

Ship Street (Girls),

Yaumati (Girls),

Stanley Street (Girls),

Lower Lascar Row (Girls),

90.19

88.88

1.31

89.47

83.78

5.69

100.00

70.00

30.00

90.47.

80.77

9.70

100.00

36

>>

Tanglungchau (Girls),

61.29

80.95.

19.66

37

""

Taipingshan Chapel (Girls),

97.56

76.92

20.64

38

""

Saiyingp'ún, First Street (Girls),

87.50

96.29

8.79

39

25

Wantsai (Girls),

87.72

82.14

5.58

40

41

Staunton Street, Upper School (Girls), Lower School (Girls),

75.00

100.00

25.00

77.42

65.38

12.04

44

45

>>

42 R. C. M., Cathedral School (Boys),....... 43 Wesleyan Mission, Spring Gardens (Boys),

Wellington Street (Boys), (Girls),

82.14

96.43

14.29

58.62

85.33

85.85

0.52

77.77

62.96

14.81

..

48 Diocesan Home and Orphanage (Boys),

46 Basel Mission, High Street (Girls),

47 Berlin Mission (Girls),

49 R. C. M., St. Joseph's College, Chinese Division (Boys),

100.00

97.22

3.78

97.05

100.00

2.95

94.11

88.88

5.23

.95.00

96.96

1.96

50

99

European Division (Boys),

98.18

94.30

3.38

51

3.

Italian Convent (Girls),

90.00

88.40

1.60

52

>>

Bridges Street, Portuguese School (Mixed),..

100.00

100.00

53

×

.54

""

St. Francis Chapel, Portuguese School (Mixed),... Victoria, Portuguese School (Mixed),

74.07

78.94

86.12

· 90.90

4.87

55

56

39

29

English School (Boys), (Girls),

90.00

88.88

4.78

89.47

80.00

9.47

TABLE XV.--PERCENTAGE of PASSES in the various subjects in which the GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS were examined in 1886.

355

Class of

School.

Name of School.

Writing, Reading. or Com- position.

Arith- Gram- Geogra- metic. mar. phy.

History.

Repeti- Expla- Compo- tion. nation. sition.

I.

American Board Mission, Bridges Street (Boys),..

92.98 42.10

100.00

100.00 93.75 100.00

";

"

"?

"

",

"

31

Station Terrace (Boys), East Street (Boys), Hing-lung Lane (Boys),

95.23

82.22

97.61

100.00

92.85

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

87.87

100.00 100.00

""

Queen's Road West (Boys):

100.00

84.74

98.30 100.00

21

Basel Mission, Shamshuipò School (Boys),. C. M. S., St. Stephen's I. Division (Boys),

Lyndhurst Terrace (Boys),`

86.66

93.33

100.00

100.00

87.87

100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00

II.

وو

(Boys),

98.14

72.22

100.00

96.96

77.28

86.66

D'Aguilar Street (Boys),

96.29

74.07

Saiyingp'ún (Boys),.

100.00

88.57

100.00

100.00

100.00 95.24 33.33

100.00 93.75 50.50

96.29 100.00

100.00 100.00

St. Stephen's Baxter Memorial (Girls),

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

""

"

Lyndhurst Terrace (Girls),

94.11

67.64

80.00

100.00 100.00

Third Street (Girls),

100.00

81.25

100.00

100.00 100.00

F. E. S., Bonham Road (Girls),

100.00

45.45

100.00

100.00 100.00 100.00

27

"1

"

"

"

High Street (Girls), Queen's Road (Girls). Hollywood Road (Girls),

95.83

83.33

75.00

100.00 100.00

100.00

77.27

100.00

100.00 100.00

100.00 45.45

100.00.

100.00 100.00

**

"

"

>>

27

D'Aguilar Street (Girls), Stanley School (Girls), Shaukiwán (Girls),

100.00 85,71

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

90.00

100.00

100.00 100.00

100.00 85.00

100.00 100.00

*

L. M. S., Hollywood Road (Boys),

100.00

98.87

100.00

100.00 90.00

92.85

">

Wántsai (Boys),

100.00 82.35

100.00

100.00

40.00

"

Yaumáti (Boys),.

97.43

71.79

Failed

97.43 87.50

100.00

Shekt'ongtsui (Boys),

98.04 98.04

100.00

100.00 100.00

100.00

"

Saiyingp'ún I. Division (Boys),

78.33

70.00

100.00

100.00 100.00

100.00

II.

*

"

(Boys),

98.00

86.00

100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00

་ད

Hunghom (Boys),

100.00

$6.66

100.00

100.00

*

""

Shekt ongtsui (Girls),

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00

"!

"

Aberdeen Street (Girls),

100.00

67.44

100.00

100.00

96.55 100.00

"

""

Kau U-fong (Girls),

98.04

90.19

100.00

100.00 100.00

"

Ship Street (Girls),

100.00

89.47

100.00

100.00 100.00

"

""

Yaumáti (Girls).....

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00 100.00

""

::

Stanley Street (Girls),

95.65

86.95

100.00 100.00

**

"

Lower Lascar Row (Girls),

100.00

93.33

100.00

.100.00 100.00

**

>>

Tanglungchau (Girls),

96 77

45.16

100.00

100.00 100.00

Failed

""

>>

Taipingshan Chapel (Girls).

100.00

97.56

100.00

100.00 100.00

>>

"

Saiyingp'un, First Street (Girls),

95.00 90.00

100.00

100.00 100.00

""

"

Wantsai (Girls),

98.24 78.94

100.00

100.00 100.00 100.00

>>

12

Staunton Street, Upper School (Girls),.

100.00 70.00

100.00

Lower

"!

11

(Girls),

100,00

$3.87

92.30

100.00 90.00

100.00 95.24

R. C. M., Cathedral School (Boys),.

100.00

57.14

Failed

100.00 $3.33 Failed

"

27

*

Wesleyan Mission, Spring Gardens (Boys),

Wellington Street (Boys),

"

93.10 51.72

98.66 77.33

100.00

100.00

(Girls),

100.00 66.66

96.55 100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00

100.00

III.

Basel Mission, High Street (Girls),.

100.00 100.00

97.62

100.00 100.00

IV.

Berlin Mission (Girls),

100.00 94.11

82.35

100.00 100.00

#

95

"

"

23

23

";

??

""

"

""

12

>>

Diocesan Home and Orphanage (Boys).

R.C.M., St. Joseph's College Chinese Division (Boys),

Italian Convent (Girls), Bridges Street, Portuguese School (Mixed), St. Francis' Chapel, Por. School (Mixed), Victoria, Portuguese School (Mixed),

English School (Boys),

97.05

93.10

97.05

95.24

84.61 100.00

96.38

96.38

100.00

100.00

European

12

(Boys),

100.00

95.45

99.12

90.77

97.72

98.38

91.49

91.93

100.00

100.00

100.00

96.43

87.87 100.00

100.00

- 29

(Girls),

100.00 100.00 96.55 100.00 100,00 100.00 93.33

87.50

70.37 100.00 37.50 86.12 85.71 100.00 100.00 85.71 100.00

89.47 85.71 100.00. 100.00

:

J

100.00

100.00

87.50

75.00

95.83

73.33

100,00

100.00

80.00

75.00

TABLE XVI-NUMBER of UNEDUCATED CHILDREN in the Colony in 1886.

Number of Children (6 to 16 years of age) in the Colony, say..

18,200

As attending 90 Schools under Government supervision in 1886, say

5,844

As attending 111 Private Schools, not under Government supervision in 1886, say

2,218

8,062

Number of Uneducated Children in the Colony in 1886, say

... 10,138

E. J. EITEL, M.A., PH. D.,

Inspector of Schools.

ī

173

No.

40

1886.

:

HONGKONG.

MINUTE BY HIS EXCELLENCY THE OFFICER ADMINISTERING THE GOVERNMENT

ON THE ESTIMATES FOR 1887.

Presented to the Legislative Council, by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government,

on the 17th September, 1886.

W. H. MARSH,

Administering the Government.

I lay before the Council the Estimates of Revenue and Expenditure for 1887, together with an explanatory report by the Honourable Acting Colonial Secretary and Auditor General.

2. The Revenue for 1887 has been estimated at $1,291,270 which I do not think too high. The Revenue of 1885 was $1,251,889 and a revised Estimate of the Revenue of the present year gives the amount of $1,304,263.

3. It is estimated that there will be a balance on hand in the Colony at the beginning of next year of $184,783, and it may appear singular that with so large a balance a sum of $400,000 is shown as borrowed on account of the loan during the present year. The reason is that large payments have to be made at home by the Crown Agents, the average of the past five years being over £80,000, and the payments during 1885, having amounted to £122,600. The investments of assets in England having been exhausted the Crown Agents have in anticipation of the Loan advanced the sum of £60,000, at the Bank rates instead of drawing on the Colony. In the meantime a considerable portion of the surplus funds in the Colony has been placed in deposit bearing interest.

4. I have estimated that a further amount of $600,000, on account of the loan will be required in 1887, the whole of which will be required for payments at home.

5. The expenditure of 1887 has been estimated at $1,245,434. That of 1885 was $1,146,103, and that of the present year is now estimated at $1,193,472.

6. The excesses in the estimates of 1887, over those of the present year, are shewn in detail in a statement prepared by the Acting Colonial Secretary and Auditor General. They are summarised as follows:-

Interest on Loan,

Military Expenditure, Salaries, Services exclusive,

Roads, Streets, and Bridges,.

$55,000

19,048

10,929

7,000

7. Interest on the loan is the principal item in the increase over this year's Estimates, and the anticipations of the Special Committee of the Legislative Council on the recently proposed Stamp Bill in April last that this extra expenditure could be met without extra taxation have. fortunately thus far been realized.

8. The next item in importance amongst the increases is $19,000 for Military expenditure, being the difference between 3/6 and 3/ in the rate of exchange. The rate has risen since the Estimates were prepared. The annual contribution of £20,000 for Military expenditure has now been paid and since 1864 at the current rates of exchange which assuming the par value of the sovereign to be five dollars have been advantageous to the Colony until 1876, the sovereign having at one time been as low as $4.50.

9. The amount provided for Extraordinary Public Works is $760,000. For this year provision was originally made for $579,800, but it is probable that about $756,000 will be expended, the construction of Military Defences having been carried out with greater expedition than was originally contemplated. Only $52,000 was provided for this purpose during the present year whereas it is probable that $218,000 will be expended.

10. The details of the increases to salaries will be seen in the Statement of the Acting Colonial Secretary and Auditor General.

Government House, Hongkong, 17th September, 1886.

1

No. 1.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

AT A MEETING HELD IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBER, HONGKONG,

On the 7th January, 1887.

105

ν

C.S.O. 1716 of 1886.

C.O.D.

66 of 1886,

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Acting Colonial Secretary, (FREDERICK STEWART), Chairman. His Honour the Chief Justice (SIR GEORGE PHILLIPPO, Knt.).

The Honourable the Acting Attorney General, (EDWARD JAMES ACKROYD).

""

""

the Surveyor. General, (JOHN MACNEILE PRICE). HENRY GEORGE THOMSETT, R.N.

PHINEAS RYRIE.

>>

39

WONG SHING.

))

""

ALEXANDER PALMER MACEWEN.

CATCHICK PAUL CHATER.

ABSENT:

The Honourable the Colonial Treasurer, (ALFRED LISTER), on leave.

""

JOHN BELL-IRVING, on leave.

The Committee meet this day at the request of the Acting Colonial Secretary... The Report of the proceedings of the last Meeting, held on the 26th November last, being taken as read, is confirmed.

·Telegraph Line connecting Observatory with Time-Ball.

(1.). Read the following Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Govern-

ment:-

W. H. MARSH.

The Officer Administering the Government recommends the Council to vote the sum of $300 for the erection of a detached Telegraph line to connect the Observatory with the Time- Ball Tower.

The Director of the Observatory having represented that the present line, which is affixed to the same posts which carry other lines for Police, Telegraph, is sometimes defective for the purpose of dropping the Time-Ball, a new line well insulated and supported on separate poles is now proposed.

Government House, Hongkong, 7th January, 1887.

After some explanation by the Acting Colonial Secretary, the Committee recommend that the amount be voted.

Increase to Salary of Inspector of Schools.

(2.) Read the following Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Govern- ment, and the papers in connection therewith:-

*

W. H. MARSH.

The Officer Administering the Government lays before the Council an application for increase of salary by the Inspector of Schools, who has represented that, as shown by the published Annual Reports on Education, his duties have been doubled since 1878, when he joined the service; whilst his emoluments are smaller than those of the Second Master of the Central School, and are not larger than those of the Third Master.

106

The Secretary of State to whom this application has been referred, recognizing that the work of the Inspector of Schools has considerably increased, is prepared to approve an increase not exceeding $600 a year to the salary of his appointment, and the Officer Administering the Government requests the Council to vote this amount for 1887.

Government House, Hongkong, 7th January, 1887.

After some explanation by the Acting Colonial Secretary, the Committee recommend that the amount be voted.

List of Extraordinary Public Works.

Mr. MACEWEN enquired whether the list of Extraordinary Public Works for this year, promised by the Surveyor General, was ready.

The Surveyor General replied that the list was ready, and that a copy of it would be sent to each Member of the Finance Committee before the next meeting.

The Committee then adjourned sine die.

FREDERICK STEWART,

Chairman.

Laid before the Legislative Council on the 14th January, 1887.

Read and confirmed this 21st day of January, 1887.

ARATHOON SETH,

Clerk of Councils.

!

No. 2.

107

C.S.O. 2658 of 1886.

C.S.O.

151 of 1887.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

AT A MEETING HELD IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBER, HONGKONG, On the 21st January, 1887.

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Acting Colonial Secretary, (FREDERICK STEWART), Chairman. His Honour the Chief Justice (SIR GEORGE PHILLIPPO, Knt.).

The Honourable the Acting Attorney General, (EDWARD JAMES ACKROYD).

"

""

the Colonial Treasurer, (ALFRED LISTER).

PHINEAS RYRIE.

WONG SHING.

JOHN BELL-IRVING.

"}

>>

'ALEXANDER PALMER MACEWEN.

CATCHICK PAUL CHATER.

ABSENT:

The Honourable the Surveyor General, (JOHN MACNEILE PRICE), by leave.

""

HENRY GEORGE THOMSETT, R.N., by leave.

The Committee meet this day at the request of the Acting Colonial Secretary.

The Report of the proceedings of the last Meeting, held on the 7th instant, being taken as read, is confirmed.

Steam-Launch Victoria.

(1.) Read the following Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Govern-

ment:

W. H. MARSH.

The Officer Administering the Government recommends the Council to re-vote the sum of $19,000, for the construction of a Steam-tug to remove rubbish.

This sum was voted in last year's Estimates, but not expended, as the work was not then finished. Accounts have been presented for the payment of a portion of this work, and the balance will be required in March.

Government House, Hongkong, 17th January, 1887.

After explanation by the Acting Colonial Secretary, the Committee recommend that the amount be voted.

Retaining Wall, Civil Hospital.

(2.) Read the following Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Govern-

ment:

W. H. MARSH.

The Officer Administering the Government recommends the Council to re-vote the sum of $8,950, being the balance of $11,500 voted by the Council on the 19th of November last for the construction of a retaining-wall along the northern face of the cliff upon which the Govern- ment Hospital buildings are built. Only $2,550 of this vote were spent during last year. A further sum of $5,000 is now due, and the remainder will be required shortly.

Government House, Hongkong, 20th January, 1887.

After explanation by the Acting Colonial Secretary, the Committee recommend that the amount be voted.

The Committee then adjourn sine die.

FREDERICK STEWART,

Chairman.

Laid before the Legislative Council on the 28th January, 1887.

Read and confirmed this 11th day of February, 1887.

ARATHOON SETH,

Clerk of Councils.

*

No. 3.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

AT A MEETING HELD IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBER, HONGKONG,

On the 11th February, 1887.

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Acting Colonial Secretary, (FREDERICK STEWART), Chairman. His Honour the Chief Justice (SIR GEORGE PHILLIPPO, Knt.).

The Honourable the Acting Attorney General, (Edward James ACKROYD).

the Surveyor General, (JOHN MACNEILE PRICE). HENRY GEORGE THOMSETT, R.N.

PHINEAS RYRIE.

109

>>

""

WONG SHING.

JOHN BELL-IRVING.

>>

ALEXANDER PALMER MACEWEN.

""

وو

ABSENT:

CATCHICK PAUL CHATER.

The Honourable the Colonial Treasurer, (ALFRED LISTER), by leave.

The Committee meet this day at the request of the Acting Colonial Secretary.

The Report of the proceedings of the last Meeting, held on the 21st ultimo, being taken - as read, is confirmed.

Village Taxes.

Read the following Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Govern-

ment:-

W. H. MARSH.

- Mis. Doc.

1357 of 1886, and

30 of 1887.

The Officer Administering the Government recommends the Council to vote the sum of $816 to defray the expenses of collecting Village Taxes and Squatters' Licence Fees, by the Treasury.

This service, which has hitherto been performed by the Registrar General's Department, is now to be carried on by the Treasury:-

A Shroff,

An Assistant Shroff, A Coolie,

Indian Constable,

Contingencies,

$240.00 per annum.

180.00

108.00

188.00

>>

100.00

$ 816.00

The sum of $613 will be saved in the Registrar General's Department, and is, therefore, a transfer vote. The remaining $203 is the additional sum required.

Government House, Hongkong, 4th February, 1887.

After explanation by the Acting Colonial Secretary, the Committee recommend that the amount be voted.

The Committee then adjourn sine die.

1

༣་

+

I

FREDERICK STEWART,

-

Chairman.

Laid before the Legislative Council on the 4th March, 1887.

Read and confirmed this 15th day of February, 1887.

ARATHOON SETH,

Clerk of Councils.

>

No. 4.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

AT A SPECIAL MEETING HELD IN THE SANITARY BOARD ROOM, HONGKONG,

On the 15th February, 1887.

11.1

I

C.S.O.

940 of 1887.

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Acting Colonial Secretary (FREDERICK STEWART), Chairman. His Honour the Chief Justice (SIR GEORGE PHILLIPPO, Knt.).

The Honourable the Acting Attorney General, (EDWARD JAMES ACKROYD).

དཱ་

::

:

*

**

the Colonial Treasurer, (ALFRED LISTER).

the Surveyor General, (JOHN MACNEILE PRICE).

HENRY GEORGE THOMSETT, R.N.

PHINEAS RYRIE.

WONG SHING.

JOHN BELL-IRVING.

ALEXANDER PALMER MACEWEN.

CATCHICK PAUL CHATER.

The Committee meet this day pursuant to notice.

The Report of the proceedings of the last Meeting, held on the 11th instant, are read, and confirmed.

Read the following Minutes in connection with the new Central Market project:--

HON. COLONIAL SECRETARY,

NEW CENTRAL MARKET.

Minute by the Hon, the Surveyor General.

The acquisition of Marine Lot 18 has always been a desideratum in connection with the new Central Market project in order to enable a square or rectangular shaped Market to be built instead of a wedge shaped structure, and also in order to admit of the construction of a public street from the Queen's Road to the Praya on each side of the proposed new building. The enormous cost however of Lot 18 coupled with the indecision of the P. and O. Directors as to its disposal, have until recently stood in the way of the Government project to purchase it, but the matter has more recently become simplified by an expression on the part of Mr. WOODIN to sell while at the same time an offer has been made to the Government from a private quarter to purchase such portions of the lot as will not be required for the extension of the Market.

Mr. WOODIN asks for the whole of Lot 18 the sum of $335,016 plus 5,000 square feet of Crosby's Store Praya side, while on the other hand, the Government will be able to sell the residue of the lot not required for this same sum of $335,016.

The lot contains 56,541 square feet. Of this area the Government will retain 16,000 square feet, and sell 40,541 square feet.

In other words, the Government will acquire the lot without paying more than the 5,000 square feet of Crosby's store, and for this consideration it will receive 16,000 square feet of land equally valuable.

14th February, 1887.

J. M. PRICE.

Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

This proposal seems to me to be undoubtedly a most advantageous one to Government. 2. Government requires land for the extension of the Central Market. The P. & O. Company offer to sell their Marine Lot No. 18, which is much larger than the Government requires, but the Company wish to sell the whole lot and not a portion.

3. The proposal made by the Company is to exchange with Government the site on which their Offices stand, five thousand square feet, for an equivalent area of Government property known as Crosby's Store, and to sell the rest of their Lot to Government, 51,541 square feet, for the sum of $335,016.

:

112

C.S.O.

4. The Government will thus acquire the whole of Lot 18, measuring 56,541 square feet for $335,016 plus 5,000 square feet taken from Crosby's Store Lot.

2591 of 1886.

5. Of this 56,541 square feet, Government requires only 16,000 feet for the Market, and for the remaining 40,541 square feet it has an offer of $335,016, the same amount which it will have to pay for the whole lot, minus 5,000 feet, for which an exchange of an equivalent area of land is stipulated. Thus the Government will pay the P. & O. Company with the money received from the purchaser of the 40,541 square feet, and will obtain 16,000 square feet in exchange for 5,000, and will thus gain 11,000 square feet of land adjacent to the Central Market for nothing.

6. If this transaction is completed, it is understood that Government will make public streets on the East and West sides of the Market, with gates therein. The Market will then be bounded by Public Streets on all four sides.

7. If the Executive Council approve of this proposal, I will telegraph to the Secretary of State at once, and ask for authority to carry out the arrangement, which must be concluded before Wednesday morning.

8. Upon the Members of the Executive Council agreeing, a meeting of Finance Committee should be summoned for Tuesday at 4 P.M. (after the Mail), and this Minute should be laid before it. If the Finance Committee agree as well as the Executive Council, I shall probably by that time have authority from the Secretary of State to close with the offer at once.

14th February, 1887.

W. H. MARSH.

The Acting Colonial Secretary informs the Council that the Executive Council unanimously approve of this transaction; and that a telegram has been received from the Secretary of State approving of the project.

After further explanation by the Surveyor General, the Committee are unanimously of opinion that the project should be approved and recommend the acquisition of Marine Lot 18 on the terms mentioned in the foregoing Minutes.

NEW WESTERN MARKET.

The Surveyor General, in accordance with instructions from His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government, lays upon the table the papers connected with the project for the reclamation of a site for a proposed new Western Market opposite the Sailors' Home, and after explaining that the cost of this work, which was $70,000, could be spread over two years and defrayed from moneys to be realised from the Crown Lands, he invited on behalf of His Excellency an expression of opinion from the Committee as to whether the project was one which they would recommend His Excellency to carry out.

The Committee are unanimously of opiniou that the project should be approved, and recommend that it should be realised in the manner suggested.

The Committee then adjourn sine die.

Read and confirmed this 18th day of February, 1887.

ARATHOON SETH,

Clerk of Councils.

FREDERICK STEWART,

Chairman.

+

.

No. 5.

113

C.5.0. 404 of 1887.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

AT A MEETING HELD IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBER, HONGKONG,

On the 18th February, 1887.

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Acting Colonial Secretary, (FREDERICK STEWART), Chairman. His Honour the Chief Justice (SIR GEORGE PHILLIPPO, Knt.).

The Honourable the Acting Attorney General, (EDWARD JAMES ACKROYD).

>>

>>

"">

"

"}

">

33

the Colonial Treasurer, (ALFRED Lister).

the Surveyor General, (JOHN MACNEILE PRICE). PHINEAS RYRIE.

WONG SHING.

JOHN BELL-IRVING.

ALEXANDER PALMER MACEWEN.

CATCHICK PAUL CHATER.

ABSENT:

The Honourable HENRY GEORGE THOMSETT, R.N., by leave.

The Committee meet at the request of the Acting Colonial Secretary.

The Report of the proceedings of the Special Meeting, held on the 15th instant, are read and confirmed.

Street Cleansing.

Read the following Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government:-

W. H. MARSH.

The Officer Administering the Government recommends the Council to vote the sum of $1,800 for the employment of six foremen of Street cleansing.

The Secretary to the Sanitary Board reports that on the 5th November last authority was requested from the Government to employ 6 men as foremen of Street cleansing. This authority was granted till the end of December, and a report on the result of their employment requested. On the 28th December authority was requested to continue the services of the men for the month of January, before the end of which month the report asked for by His Excellency the Acting Governor would be submitted. The authority asked for was granted.

During the six weeks the men were employed in November and December last a very marked improvement was observable in the manner in which the work of surface cleansing was carried out.

The Sanitary Board, at a meeting held on the 11th instant, unanimously resolved that a letter should be addressed to the Government recommending the permanent employment of the six foremen of Street cleansing who were engaged temporarily in November last year.

The subject will be reconsidered, when the new Sanitary Ordinance has passed; and a vote

is now asked to pay the salaries of these men up to the end of the present year.

Government House, Hongkong, 18th February, 1887.

After explanations by the Acting Colonial Secretary and Mr. MACEWEN, the Committee recommend that the amount be voted.

The Committee then adjourn sine die.

.

-

:

L

:

Laid before the Legislative Council on the 4th March, 1887.

Read and confirmed this 4th day of March, 1887.

ARATHOON SETH,

Clerk of Councils.

FREDERICK STEWART,

Chairman.

No. 6.

115

C.S.O. 367 of 1887,

C.S.O.

455 of 1887.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

AT A MEETING HELD IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBER, HONGKONG,

On the 4th March, 1887.

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Acting Colonial Secretary, (FREDERICK STEWART), Chairman. His Honour the Chief Justice (SIR GEORGE PHILLIPPO, Knt.).

The Honourable the Acting Attorney General, (EDWARD JAMES ACKROYD).

19

""

""

""

the Colonial Treasurer, (ALFRED LISTER). HENRY GEORGE THOMSETT, R.N.

WONG SHING.

JOHN BELL-IRVING.

ALEXANDER PALMER MACEWEN.

CATCHICK PAUL CHATER.

ABSENT:

The Honourable the Surveyor General, (JOHN MACNEILE PRICE), by leave.

""

PHINEAS RYRIE, by leave.

The Committee meet this day at the request of the Acting Colonial Secretary.

:

The Report of the proceedings of the Meeting held on the 18th ultimo, being taken as read, is confirmed.

ment:

Assistant Gaol Hospital Warder.

(1.) Read the following Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Govern-

W. H. MARSH.

The Officer Administering the Government recommends the Council to vote the sum of $60 being the stipulated increment to the Assistant Warder in the Gaol Hospital, whose salary was $25 rising to $35 per month.

Through some misapprehension the increase was not put down in the Colonial Estimates for this year.

Government House, Hongkong, 1st March, 1887.

After explanation by the Acting Colonial Secretary, the Committee recommend that the amount be voted.

Extension of the Cattle Market.

(2.) Read the following Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Govern-

ment:-

W. H. MARSH.

The Officer Administering the Government recommends the Council to re-vote the sum of $660 being the balance due to the Contractor for the Extension of the Cattle Market at Kennedy Town, for which work a sum of $10,000 was voted in 1886.

The amount for which the Contractor undertook to perform this work was $8,133, of which sum only $7,473 were paid in 1886, leaving a balance of $660 due, for which it is necessary to ask the Council for a vote, as the provision made for this object last year has lapsed.

Government House, Hongkong, 3rd March, 1887.

After explanation by the Acting Colonial Secretary, the Committee recommend that the amount be voted.

The Committee then adjourn sine die.

Laid before the Legislative Council on the 11th March, 1887.

Read and confirmed this 11th day of March, 1887.

ARATHOON SETH,

Clerk of Councils.

FREDERICK STEWART,

Chairman.

No. 7.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

AT A MEETING HELD IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBER, HONGKONG,

On the 11th March, 1887.

PRESENT:

કરો

The Honourable the Acting Colonial Secretary, (FREDERICK STEWART), Chairman. His Honour the Chief Justice (SIR GEORGE PHILLIPPO, Knt.).

The Honourable the Acting Attorney General, (Edward JAMES ACKROYD).

the Colonial Treasurer, (ALFRED LISTER).

HENRY GEORGE THOMSETT, R.N.

ŵ

>>

>>

the Surveyor General, (JOHN MACNEILE PRICE).

2)

>>

WONG SHING.

"?

JOHN BELL-IRVING.

>>

PHINEAS RYRIE.

117

C.S.O.

410 of 1887.

>>

>>

ALEXANDER PALMER MACEWEN.

CATCHICK PAUL CHATER..

The Committee meet this day at the request of the Acting Colonial Secretary.

The Report of the proceedings of the Meeting held on the 4th instant, being taken as read, is confirmed.

Temporary Inspector of Nuisances.

Read the following Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government:—

W. H. MARSH.

In November, 1885, during the Cattle Epidemic, it was found necessary to provide for the inspection of all cattle arriving in the Colony. For this purpose one of the Inspectors of Nuisances (Inspector RAE) was transferred from the Sanitary Department, and a temporary Inspector of Nuisances was appointed in his place. This temporary Inspector of Nuisances will be required, until the appointment of a Veterinary Surgeon enables Inspector RAE to return to his proper duties.

The Officer Administering the Government therefore recommends the Council to vote the following sums :-

Salary, for 12 months, at $60 per month,

Allowance for Rent at $15 per month,..

$720.00 180.00

Allowance for Chair in Summer, at $12 per month, for 5 months, 60.00

$ 960.00

No provision was made for this service in the Estimates for 1887, as the Veterinary Surgeon has not been appointed, and his salary has not yet been ascertained.

Government House, Hongkong, 10th March, 1887.

After explanation by the Acting Colonial Secretary, the Committee recommend that the amount be voted..

The Committee then adjourn sine die,

Laid before the Legislative Council on the 18th March, 1887.

Read and confirmed this 25th day of March, 1887.

ARATHOON SETH,

Clerk of Councils.

FREDERICK STEWART,

Chairman.

+

No. 8.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

AT A MEETING HELD IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBER, HONGKONG,

On the 25th March, 1887.

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Acting Colonial Secretary, (FREDERICK STEWART), Chairman. His Honour the Chief Justice (SIR GEORGE PHILLIPPO, Knt.).

The Honourable the Colonial Treasurer, (ALFRED LISTER).

ALEXANDER PALMER MACEWEN.

ABSENT:

The Honourable the Acting Attorney General, (Edward James ACKROYD).

the Surveyor General, (JOHN MACNEILE PRICE).

*

?

HENRY GEORGE THOMSETT, R.N.

PHINEAS RYRIE.

2)

WONG SHING.

>>

119

C.S.O.

696 of 1987.

>>

JOHN BELL-IRVING.

CATCHICK PAUL CHATER.

The Committee meet this day at the request of the Acting Colonial Secretary.

The Report of the proceedings of the Meeting held on the 11th instant, being taken as read, is confirmed.

Read the following Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government:-

W. H. MARSH.

Chinese correspondence having increased very much of late, especially registered letters from America, the duties of the Senior Postman, who has to distribute all registered letters and obtain signatures to receipts, are now more than one man can accomplish in the course of a day.

The Officer Administering the Government, on the representation of the Postmaster General, recommends the Council to vote a sum of $80 to meet the salary of another Postman at the rate of $10 per month from 1st of April next.

Government House, Hongkong, 22nd March, 1887.

After explanation by the Acting Colonial Secretary, the Committee recommend that the amount be voted.

The Committee then adjourn sine die.

Laid before the Legislative Council on the 1st April, 1887.

Read and confirmed this 1st day of April, 1887.

ARATHOON SETH,

Clerk of Councils.

FREDERICK STEWART,

Chairman.

:

1

No. 9.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

AT A MEETING HELD IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBER, HONGKONG,

On the 1st April, 1887.

121

C.S.O.

.469 of 1887.

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Acting Colonial Secretary, (FREDERICK STEWART), Chairman. His Honour the Chief Justice, (SIR GEORGE PHILLIPPO, Kat.). The Honourable the Acting Attorney General, (EDWARD JAMES ACKROYD). the Colonial Treasurer, (ALFRED LISTER).

35

""

21

""

the Surveyor General, (JOHN MACNEILE PRICE). HENRY GEORGE THOMSETT, R.N.

PHINEAS RYRIE.

WONG SHING,

JOHN BELL-IRVING, (vice the Honourable WILLIAM KESWICK, on leave). ALEXANDER PALMER MACEWEN, (vice the Honourable THOMAS JACKSON,

on leave).

CATCHICK PAUL CHATER, (vice the Honourable FREDERICK DAVID SASSOON,

on leave).

The Committee meet this day at the request of the Acting Colonial Secretary.

The Report of the proceedings of the Meeting held on the 25th ultimo, being taken as read, is confirmed.

(1.) Read the following Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Govern-

ment:-

W. H. MARSH.

The_Steam-launch Stanley (formerly Victoria) being about to be handed over to the Sanitary Department to be used as a Tug-boat to remove rubbish and dredgings, it is necessary to provide for the pay of the crew, and other contingent expenses of the launch.

The Officer Administering the Government therefore recommends the Council to vote the following sums:-

Engineer at $30 per month, 10 months,

$ 300.00

Fireman at $15

150.00

""

"}

Coxswain at $10

100.00

"

""

3 Sailors at $ 7 each

210.00

""

""

$ 760.00

Coal, Oil, Water, &c. for 10 months,

Moorings,....

3,130.00

25.00

$3,915.00

The Surveyor General will make arrangements with the Conservancy Contractors to refund a portion of the expenses incurred by the tug-boat, and this will be accounted for as Revenue on account of conservancy.

Government House, Hongkong, 31st March, 1887.

After deliberation, it is decided that the question be referred to the Surveyor General for a report.

2

122

.C.S.O.

795 of 1887.

(2.) Read the following Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Govern-

ment:-

W. H. MARSH.

-

When the Green Island Light-house was built, it was thought that it would meet all requirements, if a native or a coloured man were placed in charge of the light. A very small house with two rooms was therefore deemed sufficient by way of quarters; but, subsequently, a European was put in charge, and there has been ever since one continuous complaint about the inadequacy of the house.

}

As a new roof will be required to the building, the Surveyor General has suggested that this opportunity should be availed of to make certain extensions, the cost of which would amount to $1,500.

sum.

The Officer Administering the Government recommends the Council to vote the above.

Government House, Hongkong, 31st March, 1887.

After explanation by the Acting Colonial Secretary, the Committee recommend that the amount be voted.

The Committee then adjourn sine die.

Laid before the Legislative Council on the 7th April, 1887.

Read and confirmed this 7th day of April, 1887.

ARATHOON SETH, Clerk of Councils.

FREDERICK STEWART,

Chairman.

No. 10.

123

C.S.0. 433 of 1887.

C.S.O.

794 of 1887.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

AT A MEETING HELD IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBER, HONGKONG, On the 7th April, 1887.

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Acting Colonial Secretary, (FREDERICK STEWART), Chairman. His Honour the Acting Chief Justice (JAMES RUSSELL), vice His Honour SIR GEORGE

PHILLIPPO, Knt., on leave.

The Honourable the Acting Attorney General, (EDWARD JAMES ACKROYD).

2)

21

>>

27

>>

>>

the Colonial Treasurer, (ALFREd Lister).

the Surveyor General, (JOHN MACNEILE PRICE). HENRY GEORGE THOMSETT, R.N.

PHINEAS RYRIE.

WONG SHING.

JOHN BELL-IRVING, (vice the Honourable WILLIAM KESWICK, on leave). ALEXANDER PALMER MACEWEN, (vice the Honourable THOMAS JACKSON,

on leave).

CATCHICK PAUL CHATER, (vice the Honourable FREDERICK DAVID SASSOON,

on leave).

The Committee meet this day at the request of the Acting Colonial Secretary.

The Report of the proceedings of the Meeting held on the 1st instant, being taken as read, is confirmed.

New Western Market.

(1.) Read the following Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Govern-

ment:-

W. H. MARSH.

The Officer Administering the Government has received a proposal from the Surveyor General, which has been strongly supported by the Sanitary Board, for the reclamation of a piece of ground opposite the Sailors' Home, measuring 74,000 square feet in extent, destined, when completed, for the construction thereon of a new Western Market. The cost of this reclamation and of a Praya or Retaining Wall is estimated at $73,000, and the value of the ground to be reclaimed is estimated at $370,000. The work will require two years to complete it. The Officer Administering the Government proposes that the necessary money for this work should be taken from the premia realized on sales of Crown Land which are not included in the Revenue receipts of the Colony. The Council are therefore requested to vote a sum of $35,000 to be taken from this source for defraying the cost of the portion of the work which will be executed this year.

The Finance Committee have already been consulted in this question, and have expressed the unanimous opinion that the project should be approved.

Government House, Hongkong, 6th April, 1887.

After explanation by the Acting Colonial Secretary, the Committee recommend that the amount be voted.

ment:

Hunghòm Market.

(2.) Read the following Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Govern-

W. H. MARSH.

The Officer Administering the Government recommends the Council to re-vote the sum of $6,000 for the construction of a Market at Hunghòm.

This sum was voted in last year's Estimates, but not expended, as the work was not then finished.

Government House, Hongkong, 7th April, 1887.

After explanation by the Surveyor General, the Committee recommend that the amount be voted.

"

124

C.S.C.

469 of 1887.

Steam-launch Stanley.

With reference to the vote of $3,915 per annum for the up-keep of this launch, the Surveyor General reports that the Conservancy Contractor asks to have the use of the launch for six weeks to enable him to estimate how much he would be able to contribute towards this expenditure.

The Committee recommend that the Contractor's request be granted.

The Committee then adjourn sine die.

Laid before the Legislative Council on the 15th April, 1887.

Read and confirmed this 22nd day of April, 1887.

ARATHOON SETH,

Clerk of Councils.

FREDERICK STEWART,

Chairman.

No. 11.

:

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

AT A MEETING HELD IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBER, HONGKONG,

On the 22nd April, 1887.

PRESENT:

125

C.S.O.

68 of 1887.

The Honourable the Acting Colonial Secretary, (FREDERICK STEWART), Chairman. His Honour the Acting Chief Justice (JAMES RUSSELL), vice His Honour SIR GEORGE

PHILLIPPO, Knt., on leave.

The Honourable the Acting Attorney General, (Edward James ACKROYD).

the Colonial Treasurer, (ALFRED LISTER).

17

"

the Surveyor General, (JOHN MACNEILE PRICE).

"}

";

""

HENRY GEORGE THOMSETT, R.N.

PHINEAS RYRIE.

WONG SHING.

JOHN BELL-IRVING, (vice the Honourable WILLIAM KESWICK, on leave). ALEXANDER PALMER MACEWEN, (vice the Honourable THOMAS JACKSON,

on leave).

CATCHICK PAUL CHATER, (vice the Honourable FREDERICK DAVID SASSOON,

on leave).

The Committee meet this day at the request of the Acting Colonial Secretary.

The Report of the proceedings of the Meeting held on the 7th instant, being taken as read, is confirmed.

Cattle Depôt.

(1.) Read the following Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Govern-

ment:--

W. H. MARSH.

The Officer Administering the Government recommends the Council to vote the sum of $9,600 for the extension of the Cattle Depôt at Kennedy Town.

The present Depôt can accommodate 240 head of cattle intended to be slaughtered for the meat supply of the City; but the requirements of the town and of the shipping have grown so largely that the Acting Registrar General now states that the present accommodation is inadequate, and that room should be provided for at least 360 head of cattle.

A copy of a letter on this subject from the Surveyor General is annexed. Government House, Hongkong, 22nd April, 1887,

No. 9.

Enclosure.

PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT,

HONGKONG, 10th January, 1887.

SIR,--Some years ago the Government built a Cattle Depôt at Kennedy Town destined to accommodate the cattle intended to be slaughtered for the meat supply of the City. It was stated at the time that room for 120 head of cattle would suffice, and that the market or depôt could be enlarged subsequently as the demands of the Colony increased.

*

2. Two years ago the question was again considered, and it was stated that accommodation should be provided for at least 240 head of cattle. Accordingly in 1885, the Government placed on the Colonial Estimates for 1886, a sum of $10,000 for this extension of the Depôt.

3. But the fact is the wants of the town and of the shipping are growing enormously from day to day, and the Registrar General now states that the recent extension is inadequate, and that room should be provided in the Depôt for at least 360 head of cattle.

4. Of the necessity for this further extension I myself can entertain no doubt, for, on a recent examination of the place, I saw many bullocks picketted outside, exposed to all weathers, for want of room in the sheds.

.

4

:

126

1

5. Cattle exposed in this unsheltered and somewhat inhuman manner are liable to contract disease, and as the Government now pays compensation for diseased cattle destroyed, there is always a risk of more or less heavy demands being made on the Colonial Treasury on this

account.

6. A further extension of the cattle sheds so as to enable them to hold 360 head, would involve an outlay of $9,600, and if this proposition were sanctioned, a special vote for this amount would have to be asked of the Legislative Council.

7. I ought, however, to mention that a balance has remained over of $1,840 from last year's vote of $10,000, so that if a special vote of $9,600 were now asked for, a proportion of $1,840 would in reality be nothing more than a re-vote, and it would only be the balance, ie., $7,760 that would represent new expenditure.

S. As a considerable revenue may be derived from this place if enlarged, the Government will doubtless have all the greater inducement to sanction a further extension of the accommo- dation. The 120 stalls proposed now to be added will bring in an additional $40 a month, representing a return of 5 per cent. on the outlay.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

The Honourable F. STEWART, LL.D.,

Acting Colonial Secretary,

&c.,

&.c.,

&c.

Your obedient Servant,

J. M. PRICE. Surveyor General.

After explanation by the Acting Colonial Secretary, the Committee recommend that the amount be voted.

ment:

Officers' Quarters, Stone Cutters' Island.

(2.) Read the following Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Govern-1

W. H. MARSH.

C.S.0. 954 of 1887.

On the representation of the Surveyor General and the Harbour Master, that the Officers' Quarters at Stone Cutters' Island Magazine are now in such a state as to make any further postponement of repairs unsafe, the Officer Administering the Government recommends the Council to vote the sum of $2,000 to defray this service.

Government House, Hongkong, 22nd April, 1887.

After explanation by the Acting Colonial Secretary, the Committee recommend that the amount be voted.

The Committee then adjourn sine die.

Laid before the Legislative Council on the 6th May, 1887.

Read and confirmed this 13th day of May, 1887.

ARATHOON SETH,

Clerk of Councils.

FREDERICK STEWART,

Chairman.

No. 12.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

AT A MEETING HELD IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBER, HONGKONG,

On the 13th May, 1887.

127

C.3.0.

D48 of 1887.

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Acting Colonial Secretary, (FREDERICK STEWART), Chairman. His Honour the Acting Chief Justice (JAMES RUSSELL), vice His Honour SIR GEORGE

PHILLIPPO, Knt., on leave.

The Honourable the Acting Attorney General, (EDWARD JAMES ACKROYD),

11.

>>

""

the Surveyor General, (JOHN MACNEILE PRICE).

HENRY GEORGE THOMSETT, R.N.

PHINEAS RYRIE.

WONG SHING.

JOHN BELL-IRVING, (vice the Honourable WILLIAM KESWICK, on leave). CATCHICK PAUL CHATER, (vice the Honourable FREDERICK DAVID SASSOON,

on leave).

ABSENT:

The Honourable the Colonial Treasurer, (ALFRED LISTER), on duty.

>>

ALEXANDER PALMER MACEWEN, (vice the Honourable THOMAS JACKSON,

on leave), on leave.

The Committee meet this day at the request of the Acting Colonial Secretary. The Report of the proceedings of the last Meeting held on the 22nd ultimo, having been taken as read, is confirmed.

Press for keeping Magistracy Records.

Read the following Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Govern-

ment:

W. G. CAMERON.

The Officer Administering the Government recommends the Council to vote the sum of $150 for the purpose of supplying to the Magistracy a Press for keeping Court Records, similar to one supplied in 1883.

Government House, Hongkong, 13th May, 1887.

After explanation by the Acting Colonial Secretary, the Committee recommend that the amount be voted.

The Committee then adjourn sine die.

Laid before the Legislative Council on the 23rd May, 1887.

Read and confirmed this 23rd day of May, 1887.

ARATHOON SETH,

Clerk of Councils.

FREDERICK STEWART,

Chairman.

No. 13.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

AT A MEETING HELD IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBER, HONGKONG,

On the 23rd May, 1887.

129

C.S.O.

2853 of 1886.

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Acting Colonial Secretary, (FREDERICK STEWART), Chairman. His Honour the Acting Chief Justice (JAMES RUSSELL), vice His Honour SIR GEORGE

PHILLIPPO, Knt., on leave.

The Honourable the Acting Attorney General, (EDWARD JAMES ACKROYD).

"7

19

""

the Colonial Treasurer, (ALFRED LISTER).

HENRY GEORGE THOMSETT, R.N.

WONG SHING.

JOHN BELL-IRVING, (vice the Honourable WILLIAM KESWICK, on leave). ALEXANDER PALMER MACEWEN, (vice the Honourable THOMAS JACKSON,

on leave).

CATCHICK PAUL CHATER, (vice the Honourable FREDERICK DAVID SASSOON,

on leave).

ABSENT:

The Honourable the Surveyor General, (JOHN MACNEILE PRICE), by indisposition.

PHINEAS RYRIE, on leave.

The Committee meet this day at the request of the Acting Colonial Secretary.

The Report of the proceedings of the last Meeting held on the 13th instant, having been taken as read, is confirmed.

Compensation to certain Owners of cultivated land at Deep Bay.

Read the following Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Govern-

ment:-

W. G. CAMERON.

The Officer Administering the Government recommends the Council to vote the sum of $600 to be distributed among the original owners of cultivated lands at Little Hongkong, by way of compensation for loss sustained by them, by the resumption of a portion of their ground, which was included in the large plot at Deep Bay recently sold.

The Officer Administering the Government, although 'not recognizing the right of these original owners to any compensation whatever, yet, under the particular circumstances of the case, and as a matter of charity, recommends that a gratuity be distributed among them, to be charged against Premia on Land sales.

Government House, Hongkong, 23rd May, 1887.

After explanation by the Acting Colonial Secretary, the Committee recommend that the amount be voted.

The Committee then adjourn sine die.

Laid before the Legislative Council on the 23rd May, 1887.

Read and confirmed this 8th day of July, 1887.

J. M. GUTIERREZ,

--

Acting Clerk of Councils.

FREDERICK STEWART,

Chairman.

"

:

..

·

·

4

No. 14.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

AT A MEETING HELD IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBER, HONGKONG,

On the 8th July, 1887.

131

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Acting Colonial Secretary, (FREDERICK STEWART), Chairman. His Honour the Acting Chief Justice (JAMES RUSSELL), vice His Honour SIR GEORGE

PHILLIPPO, Knt., on leave.

The Honourable the Acting Attorney General, (EDWARD JAMES ACKROYD).

the Colonial Treasurer, (ALFRED LISTER).

11

"

the Surveyor General, (JOHN MACNEILE PRICE). HENRY GEORGE THOMSETT, R.N.

>>

")

"}

"}

PHINEAS RYRIE.

WONG SHING.

JOHN BELL-IRVING, (vice the Honourable WILLIAM KESWICK, on leave). ALEXANDER PALMER MACEWEN, (vice the Honourable THOMAS JACKSON,

on leave).

CATCHICK PAUL CHATER, (vice the Honourable FREDERICK DAVID SASSOON,

on leave).

The Committee meet this day at the request of the Acting Colonial Secretary.

The Report of the proceedings of the last Meeting held on the 23rd May last, having been taken as read, is confirmed.

Richmond Road.

Read the following Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Govern-

ment:-

W. G. CAMERON.

C.S.O.

1436 of 1887.

The Officer Administering the Government recommends the Council to vote the sum of $5,000 to defray the cost of extending and completing Richmond Road beyond Richmond Terrace, and of developing and preparing further building sites, in that locality, for auction sale.

Government House, Hongkong, 23rd June, 1887.

After some explanation by the Acting Colonial Secretary, the Committee recommend that the amount be voted.

The Committee then adjourn sine die.

Laid before the Legislative Council on the 22nd July, 1887.

Read and confirmed this 26th day of August, 1887.

J. M. GUTIERREZ, Acting Clerk of Councils.

FREDERICK STEWART,

Chairman.

1

?

No. 15.

133

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

AT A MEETING HELD IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBER, HONGKONG, On the 26th August, 1887.

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Acting Colonial Secretary, (FREDERICK STEWART), Chairman. His Honour the Acting Chief Justice (JAMES RUSSELL), vice His Honour SIR GEORGE

PHILLIPPO, Knt., on leave.

The Honourable the Acting Attorney General, (EDWARD JAMES ACKROYD).

}:

;;

>>

")

>>

"}

**

the Colonial Treasurer, (ALFRED LISTER).

the Surveyor General, (JOHN MACNEILE PRICE).

HENRY GEORGE THOMSETT, R.N.

PHINEAS RYRIE.

WONG SHING.

JOHN BELL-IRVING, (vice the Honourable WILLIAM KESWICK, on leave).. ALEXANDER PALMER MACEWEN, (vice the Honourable THOMAS JACKSON,

on leave).

CATCHICK PAUL CHATER, (vice the Honourable FREDERICK DAVID SASSOON,

on leave).

The Committee meet this day at the request of the Acting Colonial Secretary.

The Report of the proceedings of the last Meeting, held on the 8th July last, having been taken as read, is confirmed.

Cranks for the Victoria Gaol.

(1.) Read the following Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Govern-

ment:-

W. G. CAMERON.

C.S.O.

690 of 1887.

C.S.O.

1769 of 1887.

The Officer Administering the Government recommends the Council to vote the sum of $2,050 for the purchase of 50 Cranks for the use of prisoners in Victoria Gaol, as Crank labour is so much felt, and therefore so effective a deterrent to crime, and consequently so important a consideration, especially with our limited prison accommodation.

Government House, Hongkong, 23rd August, 1887.

After explanation by the Chairman, the Committee recommend that the amount be voted.

Municipal Valuer's Clerk.

(2.) Read the following Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Govern-

ment:

W. G. CAMERON.

The Officer Administering the Government recommends the Council to vote the sum of $120 for the salary of a Copying Clerk to the Municipal Valuer at the rate of $40 per month, for 3 months,

Government House, Hongkong, 23rd August, 1887.

......$

120.00

After the explanation given by the Chairman, the Committee recommend that the sum be

voted.

The Committee then adjourn sine dic.

FREDERICK STEWART,

Chairman.

Laid before the Legislative Council on the 2nd September, 1887.

Read and confirmed this 9th day of September, 1887.

J. M. GUTIERREZ.

Acting Clerk of Councils.

·

No. 16.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

AT A MEETING HELD IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBER, HONGKONG,

On the 9th September, 1887.

135

C.S.O. 1709 of 1887,

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Acting Colonial Secretary, (FREDERICK STEWART), Chairman. His Honour the Acting Chief Justice (JAMES RUSSELL), nice His Honour SIR GEORGE

PHILLIPPO, Knt:, on leave.

The Honourable the Acting Attorney General, (EDWARD JAMES ACKROYD).

**

>>

the Colonial Treasurer, (ALFRED LISTER).

the Surveyor General, (JOHN MACNEILE PRICE).

HENRY GEORGE THOMSETT, R.N.

PHINEAS RYRIE.

WONG SHING.

JOHN BELL-IRVING, (vice the Honourable WILLIAM KESWICK, on leave). CATCHICK PAUL CHATER, (rice the Honourable FREDERICK DAVID SASSOON.

on leave).

The Committee meet this day at the request of the Acting Colonial Secretary. The Report of the proceedings of the last Meeting, held on the 26th August last. haying been taken as read, is confirmed.

Honorarium to Mr. Bruce Shepherd.

Read the following Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Govern-

ment:-

W. G. CAMERON.

The Officer Administering the Government recommends the Council to vote the sum of $1,000 as remuneration to Mr. BRUCE SHEPHERD, for services rendered by him in connection with the Land Commission.

Government House, Hongkong, 2nd September, 1887.

3

Mr. RYRIE asks whether there is any precedent for giving such a large sum as an honorarium. After some explanations by the Honourable the Acting Attorney General, who was a

• Member of the Commission, the Committee recommend that the sum be voted.

The Committee then adjourn sine die.

FREDERICK STEWART,

Chairman.

Laid before the Legislative Council on the 9th September, 1887.

Read and confirmed this 9th day of September, 1887.

J. M. GUTIERREZ, Acting Clerk of Councils.

No. 17.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

AT A MEETING HELD IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBER, HONGKONG,

On the 19th September, 1887.

137

C.S.O.

2090 of 1887.

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Acting Colonial Secretary (FREDERICK STEWART), Chairman. His Honour the Acting Chief Justice (JAMES RUSSELL), vice His Honour SIR GEORGE

PHILLIPPO, Knt., on leave.

The Honourable the Acting Attorney General, (EDWARD JAMES ACKROYD).

2

>>

>>

21

>>

>>

""

the Colonial Treasurer, (ALFRED LISTER).

the Surveyor General, (JOHN MACNEILE PRICE).

HENRY GEORGE THOMSETT, R.N.

PHINEAS RYRIE.

WONG SHING.

JOHN BELL-IRVING, (vice the Honourable WILLIAM KESWICK, on leave). CATCHICK PAUL CHATER, (vice the Honourable FREDERICK DAVID SASSOON,

on leave).

ALEXANDER PALMER MACEWEN.

The Committee meet this day at the request of the Acting Colonial Secretary.

The Report of the proceedings of the last Meeting, held on the 9th instaut, having been taken as read, is confirmed.

Street Improvement.

Read the following Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Govern-

ment:

The Officer Administering the Government recommends the Council to vote the sum of $1,500 for the purchase of a small corner of Inland Lot 24, in Queen's Road West, immediately below the hill whereon stands the Civil Hospital. The thoroughfare makes a sharp angle in skirting round the hill; and, as the traffic through Queen's Road West is incessant, it would be for the safety of riders in chairs and jinrickshas to shave off the small corner, and thus avoid the accidents which are always taking place at this spot.

Government House, Hongkong, 19th September, 1887.

After some explanations by the Chairman, the Committee recommend that the amount be voted.

The Committee then adjourn sine dic.

Laid before the Legislative Council on the 23rd September, 1887.

·

237

No. 87.

4

j

HONGKONG.

CORRESPONDENCE RESPECTING THE PROPOSAL OF THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL FOR MAKING PUBLIC THE PROCEEDINGS

OF THE FINANCE COMMITTEE.

Presented to the Legislative Council, by Command of His

Excellency the Officer Administering the Government,

on the 7th January, 1887.

}

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Officer Administering the Government of Hongkong.

HONGKONG.

No. 61.

SIR,

DOWNING STREET,

17th November, 1886.

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch, No. 282, of the 30th of August, relative to a proposal which had been brought forward in the Legislative Council, for making public the proceedings of the Finance Committee upon which

you request my instructions.

2. In reply, I have to observe that the proceedings of the Finance Committee, as I understand them, are for the confidential assistance of the Governor in framing the Estimates of the ensuing year, and that any portion of the Estimates, when they come before the Council, is open to discussion by the members, so that I am unable to see any sufficient reason for altering the existing practice, which appears to have worked satisfactorily. I am, however, glad to notice the increased interest in the public expenditure of the Colony and its good government, of which the discussions which have taken place are evidence, and I fully concur in the steps you propose to take in paragraph & of your despatch, for furnishing fuller inform- ation in regard to money votes submitted to the Council.

3. I trust that in this way the object of Mr. MACEWEN and of those gentlemen who supported him, will be practically attained, while at the same time the incon- venience which might occasionally arise were the proceedings of the Finance Committee made public, will be avoided.

(Signed)

I have, &c.,

EDWARD STANHOPE.

&

-..

The Officer Administering the Government of

HONGKONG.

No. 282.

(Copy.)

No. 10

87.

HONGKONG.

DESPATCH RESPECTING THE PROPOSAL OF THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL FOR MAKING PUBLIC THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

(In continuation of No. 4 of 1887.)

Presented to the Legislative Council, by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government, on the 28th January, 1887.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 30th August, 1886.

Enclosure 1. September 2nd,

the "Daily Press."

SIR,

I have the honour to forward, for your consideration, and for such directions as you may think fit to give thereon, an extract from a local newspaper, giving a 1886. Mail Supplement to fairly accurate report of the proceedings in the Legislative Council on the 27th instant. A motion was made on that occasion, after due notice, by the Honourable A. P. MACEWEN, one of the new members who took his seat for the first time, the practical effect of which motion would have been the abolition of the Finance Committee. His motion was lost after a lengthy debate, all the Official Members and one of the Un-official Members voting for an amendment.

Enclosures 2 & 3. Finance Committee Reports, Nos.

July, 1886.

2. It will be seen from the papers which I laid before the Council that, at a 16 & 17 of 15th & 20th meeting of the Finance Committee held on 15th July last, during the recess, Mr. MACEWEN moved and carried a resolution that the Finance Committee should suspend all action, until the question was decided by the Legislative Council whether its meetings should not be held with open doors, the object being to admit reporters of the newspapers. As the meeting of the Finance Committee at which this resolution was passed, was not a full one, and as the effect of the resolution was to stop all votes of money during the recess, I requested that the action might be re-considered at a full meeting of the Committee, and I laid before them a Minute (of 17th July) pointing out the great utility of the Finance Committee, which had now been working satisfactorily since the year 1872, when the practice was bor- rowed from Mauritius. I also informed the Committee that in 1878 Governor HENNESSY had made a suggestion that the meetings of the Finance Committee should in future be open to reporters of the Press, but that this suggestion had Desp. No. 42 of 8th April, been disapproved by Sir MICHAEL HICKS-BEACH, and I added that under the circumstances I should not feel warranted, even if the resolution were carried, in giving it effect, until after I had reported the matter for the decision of the Secre- tary of State.

1879.

3. At the second meeting of the Finance Committee held on 20th July, they reversed the previous decision, and resolved that the meetings of the Finance Com- mittee should be carried on as heretofore, until the question of admitting the public to such meetings be considered at the first meeting of the Legislative Council.

4. A special meeting of Council was held on 27th instant, in order to renew the French Mail Steamers Ordinance, which expired on the 1st September, and to pass a similar Ordinance for the German Mail Steamers. Mr. MACEWEN then brought forward a resolution in a different shape. Instead of moving as in Finance Committee that the meetings of that Committee should be held with open doors, he moved "that in future all matters of public interest and more particularly the voting of public funds be discussed openly in Council and not as heretofore at private meetings of the Finance Committee." In his speech introducing the motion he refers to "the discontent and dissatisfaction which have prevailed "for many years past," on the subject of the private meetings of the Finance

44

.

264

Committee, discontent which, he says, is not "confined to two or three persons; "but has been universal for many years past." Since I came to the Colony in 1879, I have never heard of this alleged universal discontent and dissatisfaction, nor can I find any evidence of its existence in the past, and I believe that any dis- satisfaction which may now exist is far from being universal, and that it dates principally, if not wholly, from the resolutions passed this year in favour of a further large vote for Fortifications and of the raising of the Loan at home instead of here, both which decisions were undoubtedly most unpopular. In 1878 when Governor HENNESSY informed the Council that he intended to recommend to the Secretary of State that the meetings of the Finance Committee should in future be held in public, he appears to have made this suggestion spontaneously and not in consequence of any representations of public dissatisfaction.

CC

It

5. The resolution of the Honourable A. P. MACEWEN was met by an amend- ment proposed by the Acting Attorney General that, "it is not necessary to inter- "fere with the present practice of Council which has been in existence for many years and which was unanimously adopted by the Standing Rules and Orders of "Council dated 10th April, 1884." This amendment was supported by the Treasurer and the Chief Justice, and was carried by a majority of three votes. is strange that, when Sir GEORGE BOWEN laid before the Council for approval on 10th April, 1884, the new Standing Rules and Orders, which had been drafted by a Committee composed of the Attorney General, the Treasurer and Messrs. RYRIE (the seconder of Mr. MACEWEN's resolution), SASSOON, and WONG SHING, the universal discontent and dissatisfaction, alleged to have prevailed for many years past. did not prompt some member either to object to the appointment of the Finance Com- mittee or to propose that its meetings should be held with open doors. Instead of this, the new Standing Rules were unanimously adopted.

6. It was pointed out by the supporters of the amendment that the resolution was unnecessary, since it was competent to any member, when the adoption of any Report of a Finance Committee was moved in Council, to raise a full public discussion thereon without any previous resolution. It has not been the practice, however, to do this, and resolutions which have been fully discussed and decided in Finance Committee, have generally been passed afterwards by the Council without any observations or comment. The public consequently have had no means of ascertaining the reasons which have induced the Finance Committee to vote the different items, and I admit that in this respect they have some ground for com- plaint; but it seems to me that it is not the fault of the Government, if the Un- official Members give a silent vote in favour of sums, the payment of which has been discussed and recommended by the Finance Committee.

7. I have felt for some time past and before the present discussion was raised by Mr. MACEWEN, that the public had very meagre information on the subject of votes of money that were proposed by Government, and, if a reference is made to my Minutes of the present year, and they are compared with those of previous years, it will be seen that I have endeavoured to embody therein much fuller in- formation than has hitherto been given. When I first arrived in Hongkong no Minutes of the Governor, asking for votes of money, were laid before the Council. The papers were merely referred by the Governor to the Finance Committee and a vote was subsequently asked for and given without any explanation having been given at any time to the public. I think it a healthy sign that the indifference which at that time prevailed with regard to public expenditure has passed away, and that much keener interest is now manifested in the proceedings of Government.

8. I am disposed to think that by explaining fully in the Governor's Minutes the reasons why any votes of money are asked for; by laying before the Council the Reports of the Finance Committee, which has never been done before the last meet- ing of Council; and by volunteering further explanation when the adoption of that Report is moved, sufficient publicity will be given to the reasons for voting money, without admitting the public to the meetings of the Finance Committee. As has been pointed out to the Council by the Chief Justice, the Acting Attorney General, and the Treasurer, and, as I observed in my Minute of 17th July, the admission of reporters to these meetings would preclude Government in many cases from supplying important information of a wholly confidential nature. This was forcibly exem- plified in the case of the recent large vote for Fortifications, when a great deal of infor- mation was asked for and was given, which would necessarily have been withheld, if there had been reporters present at the meetings of the Finance Committee.

265

9. The question for Her Majesty's Government to consider in this matter is, whether or not the meetings of the Finance Committee shall in future be held with open doors, and it is hardly necessary for me to state that I shall carry out, with- out any hesitation, any instructions that I may receive on this subject. The Chief Justice observed in his speech that it was competent to the Legislative Council at any time to direct the withdrawal of strangers. This has, I am informed, never been done except when the Annual Jury List is settled, which is always done with closed doors. Should it be considered desirable to admit the public in future to the meetings of the Finance Committee, this power might also be reserved for the Committee. The question is really whether reporters are to be admitted, as the public hardly ever attend meetings of Council, but. are content to read the report of proceedings in the next day's newspaper.

The Right Honourable

I have, &c..

(Signed),

W. H. MARSH.

THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR THE COLONIES,

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

257

No. 97

9

87.

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE ACTING SUPERINTENDENT OF FIRE BRIGADE FOR 1886.

Presented to the Legislative Council, by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government,

on the 28th January, 1887.

No. 2.

SIR,

FIRE BRIGADE DEPARTMENT,

7th January, 1887.

I have the honour to submit the following report of the Government Fire Brigade for the year ending 31st December, 1886.

During the year the Fire Brigade has performed important work which, as regards efficiency, is creditable, though not by any means perfect.

The rapid growth of the Colony demanding additional facilities for extinguishing fires, I recommended the Government early last year to purchase two additional Steam Engines which I proposed to station in the eastern and western districts to be on the spot in case of fire occurring in either locality. The Government sanctioned the purchase of one engine which is on its way from England, and a Steam Fire Pump has been fitted to the Steam-launch Stanley, which, if placed at the disposal of the Brigade, will bring up the strength of the available Fire Engines to the following:-

No. 1 Merryweather,

Floating Steamer.

No. 2

Do.

...Land

do.

No. 3 Shand Mason & Co. ......... do.

do.

No. 4

No. 5

Do.

Do.

do.

do.

do.

do.

expected from England.

;

No. 6 Deane's (floating)

fitted in steam-launch Stanley.

Manuals-9 in number stationed in different parts of the Colony.

No. 2 Engine has been 16 years in service, and is now fitted with new steam cylinders and valve casing which will render the engine serviceable for some years.

The Government offices and other important centres have been supplied with hose and stand pipes.

With regard to fire alarms, a new bell has been supplied to the clock tower, and the bell of No. 5 Station has been raised so that its sound can be heard at a greater distance. These, however, are anything but perfect as fire alarms, as considerable time must of necessity elapse between the out- break of a fire and communication to the station. This has been proved several times by the advanced state which the conflagration had reached on the arrival of the first engine.

The whole of the hose for the steam engines has been fitted with couplings on the Metropolitan Fire Brigade pattern which greatly facilitates connecting the lengths of hose.

The engines have been periodically overhauled, and carefully examined and tested, and are all in first rate order, though I should recommend a new Fire-box for No. 3 Engine during the current year. Weekly drills have been held for instruction of Drivers and Firemen in their respective duties, when steam has been raised on each engine in turn. The system of fines sanctioned by His Excellency has proved successful in the increased attendance at weekly parades, and, a greater attention to cleanliness and dress. The whole of the Chinese firemen have been supplied with belts and hose- wrenches, and have been instructed in elementary fire drill.

4

Considerable difficulty frequently arises at low water spring tides in obtaining water at various parts of the Praya, when the floating engine proves invaluable. The dredging operations, when completed on the fore-shore, will remove what has at times been a great difficulty.

}

258

Our staff at present consists of :-

1 Superintendent.

1 Assistant Superintendent.

1

Do.

1 Clerk.

Do.

and Engineer.

1 Assistant Engineer.

2 Engine Drivers, Chinese.

3

Do..

Europeans.

2 Assistant Engine Drivers, Europeans.

6 Stokers.

1 Overseer of Water Works.

1 Inspector of Dangerous Goods.

1 Chinese Assistant Do.,

2 Foremen.

4 Assistant Foremen.

17 Firemen, Europeans.

46 Do., Chinese.

30 Do., Market Coolies. 10 Chinese Contingent.

15 Watchmen.

Floating Engine.

1 Assistant Foreman and Engine Driver. 1 Chinese Engine Driver.

1 Stoker.

2 Seamen.

Since the post of second Assistant Superintendent has been abolished and the joint appointment of Assistant Superintendent and Engineer has been made, a greater responsibility has fallen on the Acting Assistant Engineer, as the Engineer in his dual capacity is frequently called away to the scene of the fire, and must leave the Engines in charge of the next in command.

Looking to the increased duties that devolve upon the Engineer and his Assistant, who now have to keep in an efficient state six steam engines and nine manuals, I consider the remuneration, which was voted at a time when there were only two steam engines, is so newhat inadequate to the increased duties and responsibilities.

At the Annual General Inspection in November last, a new feature was introduced in the form of competition at Fire drills for prizes, which acted as a stimulus to the members of the Brigades and gave them greater interest in their work; and amongst the Chinese particularly, this has resulted in bringing to the front some really valuable firemen. As an instance of the efficiency of the Brigades, I may mention that at the recent fire which occurred in Bonham Strand on a Sunday afternoon, within the space of a few minutes of the alarm being sounded, thirteen powerful jets of water were playing upon the burning houses.

At first sight our Brigade appears to be not only adequate as regards machinery, but also numerically, but when it is borne in mind that not more than half of the Europeans are available at any one fire, and that the hilly configuration of the Colony often requires two engines to do the work of one in order to reach the elevation required, it will be seen that the Brigade is under, rather than over, the necessary strength for a growing Colony like Hongkong.

The supply of water from the new Water-works (in course of construction) will materially assist in extinguishing fires in the upper levels of the Colony, and also in the early stages of all fires, if my suggestion with regard to telephonic communication is adopted. But the value of water mains must not be over-estimated, as in a case similar to that in Bonham Strand (referred to before) it would be impossible to concentrate such a body of water at any one given point from hydrants as could be obtained by steam Engines, and the superiority of salt water over fresh, for extinguishing fires is universally acknowledged.

I cannot close this report without mentioning the able assistance I have had during the past year from the Officers of the Brigade. I may specially mention Mr. WAGNER, who has been acting as Engineer and Assistant Superintendent, Mr. RAE, the chief foreman, and Mr. CAMPBELL, Acting Assistant Engineer. These officers have devoted a great deal of time and attention to their respective duties and the present efficiency of the Brigade is in a great measure due to their untiring exertions.

We are greatly indebted to the Captain Superintendent of Police for the excellent order kept by his force at the various fires. The systematic working of the Brigade, and absence of malicious injury to hose and larceny of Government property, is greatly owing to the vigilance of the Police.

Subjoined is a tabulated form showing the number of alarms of Fires, and estimated damage for the past year.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

JOHN S. BREWER, Acting Superintendent Fire Brigade.

The Honourable F. STEWART, LL.D.,

Acting Colonial Secretary,

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

-

N

Date.

Time.

RETURN OF FIRES AND ALARMS OCCURRED DURING THE YEAR 1886.

Situation of Fire.

No. of Build-

ing destroyed.

Damage.

Wholly.

Partly.

Cause.

REMARKS.

1 January

1,

>>

""

""

""

""

9

9,

5.15 p.m.

7.30 p.m.

Grass on hillside West of Mount Davis,

A bed curtain in No. 42, Circular Pathway,

A stack of grass at the back of Joss house at Shaukiwán,

Chimney of No. 27, Gage Street,

Praya Central, Blackhead & Co.'s Store,

Saw dust in No. 21, Pound Lane,

Near Shaukiwán Market,

Grass above Tai-tam-tuk Water-Works,

Grass on the hillside at Mount Davis,

Unknown Unknown,

None

Do.

$15

Do.

Trifling

Do.

None

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

وو

$60

Carelessness with a lighted cigar,

Unknown.

Carelessness with matches. Sparks from the Engine House. Unknown.

Do.

Some thousands of. young fir trees were destroyed.

A number of Chinese account books burnt.

10

13,

8 p.m.

A stack of grass at Shaukiwán,

11

14,

5.30 a.m.

A matshed at Coffee Plantation,..

Trifling

Accidental when cooking..

A

12

19,

Trap door No. 297, Queen's Road Central,

None

Burning Incense.

13

19,

12.50 a.m.

>>

14

20,

A bed curtain and beddings in No. 41, East Street, Matshed at Hunghòm Docks,

$3

Unknown.

I

$15

Do.

""

None

Do.

15

26,

1.20 a.m.

Cook-house No. 61, Praya West,

""

$30

Do.

16

30,

A stack of grass at Taikoktsui,

""

None

Do.

17

30,

23

5.30 p.m.

Grass on the hill near Parsee Point,

18

31,

""

6.30 p.m.

Chimney of No. 4, Blue Buildings,.

Do.

Do.

19 February 2,

20

2.20 p.m.

No. 186, Hollywood Road, (Po Lok Theatre),

Whole Block

$30,000

Kerosene Lamp,

Two girls aged 9 and

None

Unknown.

Matshed at No. 2, Gap Street,

$50

Do.

5 years respectively were burned to death.

21

,,

9 p.m.

Stack of grass at Quarry Bay,

22

99

3.30 a.m.

Wooden partition at No. 49, West Street,.

Trifling

Incense Sticks.

Do.

Unknown.

23

Chimney at No. 1, Seymour Terrace,..

24

"3

9 p.m.

25

15,

39

3.15 p.m.

26

26,

11

5.45 p.m.

27 March

4,

28

7,

"

4 p.m.

29

11,

>>

30

17,

""

31

21,

22

33

22,

32 April 6,

10.40 p.m.

Midnight

6.10 p.m.

3 a.m.

Matsheds at Naval Yard, Kanlung,

Grass on the hill at Mount Davis,

No. 8, Wai Tak Lane,

Stack of grass at Shaukiwán,

$140

Do.

$4,000

Do.

Chimney at No. 11, Cochrane Street,.

None

Do.

Do.

Do.

Chimney at No. 3, Taipingsháu Street, Matsheds at Belchers Battery,

Do.

Do.

No. 3, Wing Fung Street,

1

$280

$1,200

Do.

Kerosene Lamp.

Slight

Do.

Do.

Do.

No. 56, Market Street,..

Do.

Unknown.

...

Chimney at Hongkong Club,

"

None

Do.

34

27,

5

p.m.

Chimney at No. 5 Station,

""

35 May

4 a.m.

Staircase of No. 149, Queen's Road West,.

Slight

Do.,

36

6,

3.20 a.m.

No. 84, Queen's Road East,..

1

Unknown Kerosene Lamp.

Half catty of Kerosene was found.

""

A

37

9,

3 a.m.

Wooden partition at Gilman Bazaar,

Trifling

Unknown.

"

None

Do.

38

13,

2 a.m.

No. 116, Praya West,

A

39

22,

3 a.m.

ཐ་

وو

40

25,

33

11.15 p.m.

Mosquito curtain in No. 266, Queen's Road West, Chimney of No. 235, Queen's Road Central,.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

...

259

Νο. Date.

Time.

RETURN OF FIRES AND ALARMS OCCURRED DURING THE YEAR 1886,--Continued.

Situation of Fire.

41 May

42

""

43 June

44 July

30,

45

3,

""

46

""

47

""

48

24,

4.45 p.m. 10.30 a.m.

""

49

30,

95

دو

50 August 3,

51

52

12.45 a.m.

13,

9.45 p.m.

13,

"}

5 p.m.

53

14,

Noon:

""

54

17,

8.30 p.m.

39

55

20,

10 a.m.

56

26,

""

9.30 p.m.

57

30,

Noon.

30,

31,

11.30 a.m..

8.30 a.m.

2.30 p.m.

7.30 a.m.

Midnight

5.30 p.m.

Third Street,

Mosquito curtain at No. 10, Jardine Bazaar,..

Firewood in cook-house of No. 3, Hin Lung Lane,

No. 50, Jardine Bazaar,

No. 4, Square Street,

Chimney at No. 224, Queen's Road West,.

Chimney of Medical Hall,

Firewood in the kitchen of No. 31, Gough Street,

A piece of cloth at No. 9, Wellington Street, Chimney of No. 21, Ladder Street,.

No. 24, Circular Pathway,

Roof of No. 17, Praya East,

A Hut above Kennedy Road,

Chimney at No. 27, Hollywood Road,

Mat-bags at No. 4, First Street,

Soldering shed at Bowrington,

Chimney at Tung Wa Hospital,

58 September 5,

7.30 p.m.

59

8,

11.30 a.m.

No. 41, Cochrane Street,

Matsheds above Kennedy Road,.

60

Grass on hillside near Aberdeen,.

"

61

11,

11 p.m.

12,

4.20 a.m.

55

4 p.m.

7 p.m.

6.30 p.m.

4 p.m.

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

23

""

""

""

.99

"

69 October

70

71

72

""

""

""

""

15,

17,

17,

19,

27,

29,

2,

6,

11,

11,

12,

21,

10 a.m.

5.45 p.m.

6 a.m.

9 p.m.

6.30 p.m.

No. 3, Ezra Lane,....

No. 324, Queen's Road West,

Grass on hill near Cape D'Aguilar and Stanley Road,.

No. 41, Salt-fish Lane,..

A Kerosene Lamp No. 47, Hollywood Road,..

Grass on hillside near Chai Wan,

Chimney of No. 10, Queen's Road Central,

Chimney of No. 18, Hollywood Road, ..... Carpet in Hongkong Hotel,

Grass on Mount Davis,

A mosquito curtain in No. 5, Third Street,

A matshed at Stone Cutters' Island,

No. 3, Kau U Fong,.

10.45 p.m.

No. 3, Tuk Hing Lane,

Grass on hill near Tai-tam-tuk,

73

74

""

75

22,

76

22,

""

77

29,

5.50 p.m.

78 November 2,

12.50 p.m.

79

""

80

லம்

7.20 p.m.

Grass on hillside near Stanley,

12.30 p.m.

Some mats on No. 51, Caine Road,...

Some wood in No. 225, Queen's Road West,. Chimney of Tsimshatsui Station,

Chimney of No. 95, Second Street,.

39

No. of Build-

ing destroyed.

Damage.

Wholly.

Partly.

Cause.

REMARKS.

Slight

Do.

Unknown.

Do.

...

None

Children playing with candles. Unknown.

Kerosene Lamp.

Do.

Rags and Paper.

Very little

Unknown.

None

Do.

Trifling

Do.

None

Do..

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

$5

Incendiary,

Trifling

Unknown.

$300

Overheating a soldering iron.

Trifling

Accidental.

Do.

Unknown.

Do.

Kerosene Lamp.

2

$500

Unknown.

Trifling

Do.

:

Do.

Do.

...

Do.

Mat Screen.

Do.

Unknown.

$3,500

Do.

None

Lamp burst.

Trifling Unknown.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

...

None

Do.

Do.

Trifling

1

$50

None

J

2

$12,000

None

Set on fire while worshipping graves. Unknown.

Do.

Upsetting of a lighted lamp.

Upsetting of a Kerosene Lamp by a cat. Unknown.

Trifling

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

While Chun-fat was prosecuting 3 men for larceny at the Police Court a gang of their friends set fire to his hut.

260

No.

Date.

Time.

RETURN OF FIRES AND ALARMS OCCURRED DURING THE YEAR 1886,—Continued.

Situation of Fire.

No. of Build-

ing destroyed.

Damage.

Wholly.

Partly.

Cause.

81 November 8,

82

10,

"}

83

10,

55

84

11,

""

85

13,

86

20,

87

"

20,

88

22,

ފ

89

24,

99

90

24,

""

91

26,

>>

9 p.m.

92

26,

p.m.

93

29,

5 p.m.

94 December 5,

5 p.m.

10.30 a.m.

5.15 a.m.

...

7.15 p.m.

5.40 p.m.

Chimney of No. 39, Pottinger Street,..

No. 218, Hollywood Road,

A bundle of firewood in No. 10, West Street,

Rattan shavings in No. 15, Tik Lung Lane,

A mattress in No. 74, Praya East, Flooring of No. 88, Bridges Street, Cook-house No. 6, Praya, Hunghòm,.. No. 17, Hollywood Road,

Horse Repository, Garden Road,

A mosquito curtain No. 60, Praya, Yaumati,

No. 106, Queen's Road West,

Chimney No. 36, Praya Central,

A mosquito curtain No. 7, Circular Pathway, A mosquito curtain Square Street,

Trifling

Do.

Unknown.

None

Upsetting of a Kerosene Lamp. Unknown.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Trifling

Fire from cooking stove.

$5

Some matting caught fire.

Trifling

$270

Explosion of a Kerosene Lamp.

Unknown.

$7

Do.

10

1

$40,000.

Capsizing of a Kerosene Lamp.

None

Unknown.

Slight

Do.

$1.20

Do.

95

7,

Hillside near North Fort,...

Unknown Unknown,

""

96

""

97

11,

13,

1 p.m.

Bed board at No. 23, Taipingshan Street, Grass on the hill at Aberdeen,

Trifling

Burning of Joss Paper-

Do.

Unknown.

""

98

15,

10 a.m.

Hills East of Tai-tam-tuk Village,

None

Do.

دو

99

15,

5 a.m.

No. 91, Queen's Road West,

4

2

Do.

100

16,

12.30 p.m.

Grass on hill between Chaiwan and Shekò,

Do.

101

17,

7 a.m.

No. 223, Queen's Road West,

3

$16,000

102

""

8 p.m.

103

19,

""

104

20,

>>

17,

5.40 p.m.

1.40 a.m.

No. 67, Bonham Strand West, ..... Mat-bags in No. 155, Praya West,...

Wooden partition at No. 20, Jervois Street,

None

1

2

$18,000

...

Trifling

Accidental when cooking. Unknown.

Spilling of fat in fire.

Unknown.

Carelessness with a candle.

Unknown.

105

20,

""

106

22,

""

3 p.m.

A coal godown in Ship Street, ........

Cook-house of No. 42, Jervois Street,

None

Do.

Do.

Do.

107

24,

5

""

p.m.

108

25,

""

8.30 p.m.

109.

28,

""

7 p.m.

1st floor of No. 23, East Street,

110

29,

5

"

p.m.

111

29,

""

6.30 p.m.

A matshed in Italian Convent's Garden at Kaulung,

Chimney of No. 91, Praya West,

A mosquito curtain and some bed clothing in No. 49, Square Street,

Grass on hill between Gap and Mount Kellett,

$80

Do.

...

None

Do.

Do.

Bursting of a Kerosene Lamp.

Trifling

Do.

Burning of Joss Paper.

Unknown.

112

29,

7 p.m.

Grass on the hillside above Pokfulam Road,.

Do.

Do.

...

""

Fire Brigade Department, Hongkong, 5th January, 1887.

REMARKS.

Some young trees and

grass burned down.

JOHN S. BREWER, Acting Superintendent Fire Brigade.

}

261

297

No.

16

87.

HONGKONG.

CORRESPONDENCE IN CONNECTION WITH THE BILL ENTITLED AN ORDINANCE EMPOWERING THE COURTS TO AWARD WHIPPING

AS A FURTHER PUNISHMENT FOR CERTAIN CRIMES.

Presented to the Legislative Council, by Command of His

Excellency the Officer Administering the Government,

on the 18th March, 1887.

EXTRACTS FROM SECRETARY OF STATE'S DESPATCH, No. 78,

OF 10TH DECEMBER, 1886.

(1.)

Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Officer Administering the Government of Hongkong

3. On the evidence contained in the papers now before me, and in view of the strong consensus of opinion on the subject existing in the Colony, I am prepared to approve a modification of the law relating to corporal punishment in the direction, though not to the full extent, suggested by the Commission. I consider that the Courts may properly be authorized to impose this penalty in the cases specified in the first paragraph of the letter of the Chinese Justices, except the offence of "being found armed with dangerous weapons, without sufficient reason and excuse," but I cannot sanction its imposition as a punishment of adults for petty larceny, or for the offence of returning from banishment. The number of strokes to be inflicted must be specified in the sentence, and must not exceed 36 in the case of adults, or 12 in the case of persons under the age of 16 years.

4. I approve of the Draft Prison Regulation which was transmitted with your Despatch of the 26th of June, empowering the Superintendent of the Gaol, without the concurrence of a Visiting Justice, to inflict corporal punishment for certain prison offences and requiring him to report to the Governor every case in which he exercises that power.

*

6. I concur in the opinion which you have expressed, and which is shared by the majority of the Gaol Commission, and by the Chinese Justices of the Peace, that it is not desirable to resort to cutting off the queues as a mode of punishment, and you should consider whether it may not be desirable to alter the prison regu- lation on the subject, so as not to allow the queues of Chinese sentenced to penal servitude to be cut without special permission of the Governor, this being the practice which is followed in the Straits Settlements.

7. I approve the suggested reductions in the scale of diet. No more food should be given to prisoners than is sufficient to keep them in good health and enable them to perform hard labour, when sentenced to it, and the Superintendent and Medical Officer must be held responsible for seeing that these conditions are fulfilled.

I have, &c.,

(Signed)

EDWARD STANHOPE.

{

298

SIR,

(2.)

Certain Chinese Justices of the Peace to the Acting Colonial Secretary.

HONGKONG, 26th June, 1886.

We have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, No. 986, dated the 23rd instant, inviting us to express our views on certain recommenda- tions made by the Commission recently appointed to enquire and report into certain questions connected with the Gaol.

In reply we beg to acquaint you, for the information of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government, that we have assembled together for the 'consideration of the subject-matters of your letter above referred to, and after careful deliberation, have unanimously arrived at the following conclusions:-

1. We cannot altogether agree with the said Commission in the recommen- dation of Corporal Punishment for simple larceny. We are of opinion that such punishment for such offences is unnecessarily severe. We would, however, strongly recommend Corporal Punishment in the follow- ing cases :-

(1.) Juvenile Offenders, 16 and under.

(2.) Old Offenders, having had two previous convictions or more. (3.) Earring snatching and snatching things from women and

children.

(4.) Robbery with Violence, such as garroting, &c.

(5.) Extortion and Black-mailing.

(6.) Intimidating and the sending of threatening letters or messages with the view of hindering the course of justice or the carry- ing out of public duties.

(7.) Being found armed with dangerous weapons without sufficient

reason and excuse.

(8.) Returning from Banishment.

(9.) Armed attack on or forced entry into any dwelling-house, shop,

junk, &c.

(10.) Piracy.

(11.) Indecent Assault.

2. We do not consider the cutting off of the queues of prisoners to be an effective mode of punishment. With the respectable Chinese the loss of the queue is considered a disgrace, but with the ruffians it is a matter of indifference. And we further oppose this mode of punishment on the following grounds :-

(1.) It would prevent criminals from returning to the mainland

opposite, and perforce keep them in Hongkong.

(2.) It would to a certain extent close the door against future

repentance.

(3.) It would facilitate their evading the Night-pass Ordinance as they could easily then put on European dress, the prejudice against having the queue cut off having been forcibly removed by the Government.

(4.) It is meaningless, and we cannot think of a single instance

where it is necessary and effectual.

We have the honour to be,

Acting Colonial Secretary,

&c.,

&c.

The Honourable FREDERICK Stewart,

Your most obedient Servants,

1

HONGKONG.

145

No. 34.

REPORT OF THE COMMISSION APPOINTED TO CONSIDER THE QUESTION OF INSUFFICIENT ACCOMMODATION IN VICTORIA GAOL,

Chairman to Acting Colonial Secretary.

(C.S.O.)

ATTORNEY GENERAL'S CHAMBERS,

HONGKONG, 1st June, 1886.

SIR,

I have the honour to forward herewith, for submission to the Officer Administering the Government, the Report of the Commission (Enclosure 1) appointed by His Excel- lency to consider a letter of the Superintendent of the Gaol (Enclosure 2) respecting the overcrowded state thereof.

Annexed to the papers is a letter from Mr. A. P. MACEWEN one of the members of the Commission. (Enclosure 3.)

In the Report it is stated that certain recommendations are made unanimously whilst it appears from Mr. MACEWEN's letter that he objects to some of them.

When the Report was drafted and circulated some time ago, Mr. MACEWEN was absent from the Colony; and when it was discussed and finally settled it was thought that he would not return in time to sign it, it therefore embodied the unanimous recom- mendation of the members of the Commission present in the Colony.

The question of depriving of his queue a Chinaman sentenced to a short term of imprisonment was mentioned at one of the first meetings, and discussed later on.

It was the opinion of those members of the Commission who are acquainted with the habits and customs of the Chinese that although it would be a very deterrent punishment, yet it was too severe a one to inflict, as they thought that a prisoner coming out of prison without his queue would be a subject of contempt to other Chinese,—would be shunned by them, he consequently would find it very difficult, if not impossible, to obtain a livelihood, and would thus be forced to commit some offence in order to seek refuge in Gaol.

From my short residence here I am not able to state whether this result would, or would not follow the cutting of the queue, but if it would, the question is worthy of further consideration whether, although a severe punishment to the individual offender, yet if it kept others from crime it would not be the most merciful measure in the end. The draft Report which, with the exception of a few verbal alterations, was the same as the one finally adopted, was submitted to the Honourable W. KESWICK before his departure and he approved of it.

I have the honour to be,

The Honourable F. STEWART, LL.D.,

Sir.

Your most obedient servant,

EDW. J. ACKROYD, Acting Attorney General, Chairman.

Acting Colonial Secretary.

146

(Enclosure 1.)

Report of a Commission appointed by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government to consider a letter from the Superintendent of Victoria Gaol reporting the overcrowded state thereof.

1. On the 8th April last a Commission consisting of the Honourable the Acting Attorney General as Chairman; The Honourable A. LISTER, Colonial Treasurer; The Honourable J. M. PRICE, Surveyor General; E. MACKEAN, Esquire, Acting Police Magistrate; Major-General GORDON, Superintendent, Victoria Gaol; The Honourable W. KESWICK, M.L.C.; C. P. CHATER, Esquire, J. P.; A. P. MACEWEN, Esquire, J. P.; P. MANSON, Esquire, M.D., J. P. was appointed for the purpose of considering a report of the Superintendent of the Gaol on the insufficient accommodation in that Establishment and the steps which should be taken to remedy the present state of things.

2. This Commission met at once and has held several sittings.

3. "Two sub-committees were appointed, the first consisting of:--

THE CHAIRMAN, Honourable WM. KESWICK,

E. MACKEAN, Esquire, Major-General GORDON, Dr. MANSON, and

C. P. CHATER, Esquire,

to visit the Gaol at night and report on the state thereof, and another consisting of:--

Major-General GORDON,

Dr. MANSON, and

Dr. AYRES,

to enquire into the diet of the prisoners and to report what changes, if any, should be made therein.

4. The reports of these sub-committee are annexed hereto. (Enclosures 4 and 5.)

5. On the whole question submitted to us we beg to report as follows:-

We deem it necessary in the first place to bring prominently before His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government the peculiar position of Hongkong, a position occupied by no other Colony of Great Britain.

Hongkong is situate at the very door of two of the largest provinces of China, and close to and in daily communication with Canton, one of the most populous cities of China. A famine or want of work in either of those provinces or in the city would naturally send a certain number of the inhabitants to Hongkong in search of work or of subsistence, whilst the presence in Canton of an active or severe Viceroy at once forces or induces many of the criminal class to change the scene of their depreda- tions and to migrate to Hongkong, where even if detected a mild and lenient treatment awaits them instead of the sharp and cruel punishment which they would certainly receive in China.

..

This fact cannot be too steadily borne in mind in dealing with the question

of punishment for offences.

6. In Hongkong we have to legislate not only for the Hongkong criminal class but for numbers of that class elsewhere, who are only too ready whenever the occasion arises to repair to this Colony and prey on it.

7. From a return furnished by the Superintendent of the Gaol (Enclosure 6) it appears that of the 732 prisoners confined on the 11th April, 1886, 677 were Chinese; 274 were detained under sentences of six months; 114 from six months to twelve months; 60 from one year to two years; 39 from two years to three years; 44 from three years to five years; 142 from over five years.

Of those sentenced to penal servitude many have been convicted of simple Larceny after previous convictions for the same offence, and have been so sentenced as a long imprisonment was the only punishment left to secure the public from further depredation.

1

8. With respect to the deterrent effect of imprisonment this Commission has no hesitation in saying that under the liberal diet which at present exists in the Gaol and other circumstances attending imprisonment, a short detention, say under six months, is no punishment for an ordinary Chinaman, he is better fed and better housed in prison than outside and the work or task which he has to perform is certainly less than he would have to do to obtain a livelihood were he free. He is in almost unrestricted association with criminals like himself and has one and a half day's holiday a week, a thing which the ordinary Chinese labourer never enjoys.

9. On the question of punishment the Commission have considered the legislation as to whipping.

10. The law which at present regulates whipping is Ordinance 3 of 1881. It repeals the Ordinances or Sections of Ordinances hereinafter mentioned and provides whipping with a rattan when any offender has been convicted of a crime punishable under Section 19 of Ordinance 4 of 1865 or under Section 31 of Ordinance 7 of 1865, that is

•--

Section 19 of 4 of 1865 punishes any one attempting to choke, strangle, or suffocate any other person, or who by means calculated to choke, suffocate, or strangle shall attempt to render any one unconscious or incapable of resistance, and Section 31 of Ordinance 7 of 1865 punishes robbery with violence.

11. The only other case in which whipping is at present allowed is under Section 8 of Ordinance 16 of 1875 which permits a Police Magistrate to inflict whipping on any male offender whose age appears to him not to exceed 16 years when such offender has been convicted of Larceny or any offence deemed and punishable as simple Larceny.

12. The present Ordinance, viz., 3 of 1881, repeals

1o. 12 of 1865 under which whipping could be inflicted on any male offender convicted of a crime who at the time of the commission thereof had been armed with an offensive weapon or instrument or who at the time of, or immediately before or after the commission of the crime had used personal violence, or who should at any of the times aforesaid have attempted to render any other person insensible unconscious or incapable of resistance.

2o. Sections 2 and 3 of Ordinance 12 of 1845 which enacted banishment and

branding for persons convicted of belonging to the Triad Society.

3°. Section 7 of Ordinance 12 of 1856 which allowed whipping for injury to trees, shrub fences, &c., and for obeying calls of nature in any exposed or improper place.

4°. Sub-section 9 of Section 28 of Ordinance 8 of 1885 relating to mendicancy. 5°. Section 9 of Ordinance 1 of 1886 for the suppression of piracy which

. enacted whipping for offences against that Ordinance.

6°. Section 1 of Ordinance 3 of 1868 which prescribed whipping for persons convicted of child stealing or forcible detention of any man, woman or child for the purpose of selling them.

7o. Ordinance 4 of 1872 which enacted branding and flogging for criminals

in certain cases, and

8°. Section 7 of Ordinance 16 of 1875 which gave the Magistrate the power of whipping the offender once or twice for committing the following offences a second time or under aggravated circumstance, viz.:--

Indecent assault,

Indecent exposure of his person,

Assault with intent to rob,

Common assault committed in a brothel,

Common assault committed at or in connection

with any riotous assemblage,

Malicious injury to property.

13. The Commission have also heard Dr. AYRES (Enclosure 7.) and Mr. WISE, the Police Magistrate, at present Acting Registrar of the Supreme Court (Enclosure 8.) and have carefully read the several despatches which have passed between the several Secretaries of State and successive Governors of Hongkong on the subject of Gaol accommodation and penal punishments (Enclosure 9.)

147

į

}

¿

148

14. After having carefully considered the subject submitted to them, they beg to report, that the Gaol is at present overcrowded.

15. That as a temporary measure to relieve in part this overcrowding they suggest that,

(a.) Early arrangements be made with the West End Reformatory to receive

all the Juvenile Offenders.

(b.) That and enquiry be instituted into the cases of the 39 prisoners sentenced for gambling and that such as are not gambling house owners, or keepers, shroffs or watchmen, be forthwith liberated.

(c.) That an enquiry be made into the cases of the 46 men committed in default of finding security and that the least aggravated cases be forth- with liberated.

16. With respect to the future the Commission are of opinion, that it is most undesirable in the present state of the finances of the Colony and with such heavy expenditure in view as the Fortifications, completion of Tytam Water-works, Victoria College, and Sanitary works will entail, to embark on such a large and expensive work as the erection of a New Gaol unless the necessity of it has been fully demonstrated ; and the Commission are of opinion that such a step should not be taken until other measures have been tried.

17. Respecting those other measures the Commission are unanimously of opinion that the present system of imprisonment is altogether inadequate as a means of punish-

ment.

18. They would again strongly urge on His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government the facts:-

1o. That in Hongkong we are exposed to the depredations and incursions of numbers of the criminal classes of the two Kwang provinces including the large city of Canton.

2o. That short terms of imprisonment are no punishment at all for the

ordinary Chinese.

3°. That some other kind of punishment is urgently required for cases of

petty larceny and for the offence of returning from banishment.

19. That they are unanimously of opinion that Solitary confinement by itself would not meet the evils complained of: wherefore they recommend that whipping be allowed as recommended by Mr. WISE, for all cases of petty theft and for returning from banishment.

20. At present the only punishment for returning from banishment is one year's imprisonment and the Committee have good reason for believing that such a punish- ment is not sufficient and does not prevent many from returning.

21. That the scale of diet be reduced as recommended by the Sub-Committee.

22. That if these suggestions be carried out the Commission are of opinion that the numbers in the Gaol would almost immediately be considerably reduced, as not only would there be a very sensible reduction in the offenders sentenced to short periods of imprisonment, but those of the long sentenced convicts who have not been guilty of any serious crime might receive conditional pardon and be banished.

23. Space would thus be obtained to adapt gradually nearly the whole of the present Gaol to the separate system, which should be carried out as soon as possible.

24. The present Gaol would then be sufficient for all ordinary wants, and the measures which they suggest would give within a very short period the relief so much needed, whereas if the alternative measure viz.: the building of a new Gaol be resolved on it would take at least two or three years to build and in the meantime the present state of things would continue.

25. Moreover the Commission are unanimously of opinion that even if there was ample accommodation in the Gaol the Punishment of whipping should be introduced for the offences above mentioned. They feel very strongly that in presence of the peculiar circumstances existing in Hongkong stringent measures are necessary to meet the exceptional dangers and evils to which the Colony is exposed.

26. The Commission cannot but feel that the taxpayers of Hongkong should not be called upon to provide the prison accommodation required by Western ideas for the criminal population of a province long notorious for turbulence and piracy. The only way to avoid this is by a rigorous system of repatriation and, by the logical sequence of that system, which the Colony has never yet been allowed to carry out, the infliction of whipping for the mere offence of returning from banishment.

27. All attempts at dealing with this question have hitherto been defeated, and the Administration of justice crippled by the hesitation to grant that one indispensable requirement, viz., the power to whip moderately for returning from banishment a criminal who, in his own country would be batten unmercifully simply as a preliminary to trial. This, with the separate system throughout the existing Gaol, should afford a practical solution of the whole question.

28. Lastly they beg to state that, should any of the above suggestions be carried out and imprisonment made more deterrent either by reduction of the diet or otherwise, they are of opinion that it will be necessary to increase the disciplinary powers of the Superintendent of the Gaol, and they beg to recommend that the powers conferred on the Superintendent of the Gaol by Section 11 of Ordinance 4 of 1863, viz., to punish by noderate corporal punishment not exceeding 12 strokes of a Rattan, any prisoner guilty of the offences in that article mentioned, be restored. in order to maintain discipline under the altered conditions of the Gaol.

29. Since writing the above, the Commission have received information on the Law respecting whipping at Singapore.

30. They note that whipping is allowed there for a great many offences for which they do not ask that it should be applied here; and in presence of the Singapore Legis- lation on this subject they trust that the restricted recommendation which they have made on this point will be considered most reasonable; and that it will receive from the authorities that consideration which the extent of the evil it is sought to check requires.

EDW. J. ACKROYD, Chairman.

A. LISTER, Treasurer.

J. M. PRICE, Surveyor General.

A. GORDON, Superintendent, Victoria Gaol,

E. MACKEAN, Acting Police Magistrate. PATRIC MANSON, M.D., Justice of the Peace. C. P. CHATER, Justice of the Peace.

149

(C.S.O.) No. 72.

(Enclosure 2.)

Superintendent of Victoria Gaol to Acting Colonial Secretary.

GAOL SUPERINTENDENT'S OFFICE,

HONGKONG, 30th March, 1886.

COLONIAL SECRETARY,

I feel I must again and urgently bring to the notice of Government the congested state of Victoria Gaol.

For some time past the number of Prisoners has been steadily increasing. To-day there are 674 Prisoners; deducting 7 females in a separate house, there are therefore 667 Prisoners now confined in this building.

I have in my annual Report pointed out the danger to discipline, the danger of moral contamination, and the great provocation and temptation to Prison offences, occasioned by the overcrowding in associated wards of so many Prisoners.

Prisoners. But now, as the warm weather is coming on, I must draw particular attention to the Sanitary dangers of the present overcrowding.

The cubic contents of the different cells have recently, at my request, been re- measured by the Surveyor General's Department; but as I have not yet received the measurements I assume the correctness of the old measurement, and beg to draw attention to the following alarming facts.

The cubic measurement of all the cells combined is reported as 138,948 cubic feet. This with 667 Prisoners distributed in the cells gives only 208 cubic feet per Prisoner.

150

But 71 of these cells are, solitary, crank or separate cells, containing only one Prisoner each. Each of these 71 cells has upwards of 700 cubic feet of space, some of them nearly double, but counting them only at 700 each and supposing each to be occupied, this would leave 596 Prisoners to occupy rooms whose total cubic space amounts to 89,000 cubic feet or less than 150 cubic feet per man.

I feel assured that, when these facts are taken into consideration by Government, they will recognise the necessity of taking steps to obviate the many dangers of such excessive overcrowding.

It seems to me that either the number of Prisoners must be reduced or additional accommodation must be at once provided.

There are at present 36 men in Gaol for want of Security, and 21 for gambling; these might perhaps be pardoned, but the relief would be very small, and in my opinion the best plan would be to hire another building, or a hulk where all Prisoners sentenced in default of Security, or generally sentenced to 3 months and under could be detained and breathing space thus given to the Prisoners in Victoria Gaol. This would of course necessitate an increased Prison establishment.

In short it is very evident that the Gaol accommodation is not nearly equal to the requirements of the Colony and that even if the building of a new Gaol were at once undertaken other steps would have to be adopted in the meantime to reduce the present state of congestion. Were an epidemic to break out in the Gaol in its present con- gested state the instant removal of probably half the Prisoners would become necessary. It would probably be very difficult to find immediate accommodation for them elsewhere, it would certainly be dangerous to let a large number of criminals suddenly loose on the civil population.

To some extent the congestion might be saved if Magistrates were authorised to punish certain offences by corporal punishment in lieu of imprisonment.

But I must submit that I think it becomes my duty to ask Government to fix a limit, beyond which number I shall not be compelled to receive Prisoners in Victoria Gaol.

A. GORDON.

Superintendent.

(In C.S.O. 7) No. 80.

(Continuation of Enclosure 2.)

Superintendent of Victoria Gaol to Acting Colonial Secretary.

COLONIAL SECRETARY,

GAOL SUPERINTENDENT'S OFFICE.

HONGKONG, 6th April, 1886.

In continuation of my letter, No. 72, of 30th ultimo, I beg to report that I have now received the measurements of the Victoria Gaol cells, recently made. from which it appears that the cubic space of the cells amounts to 203,844 feet, and not 138,948 feet as shewn in previous statistical returns.

The present state of the Gaol is therefore as follows:-

There are to-day 736 male Prisoners in Gaol giving an average of 276 cubic

feet for each Prisoner.

Of the 190 cells in Gaol 71 are used as solitary, separate and crank cells; these

can accommodate only 71 men.

2 are used as W. C. and store rooms and are unoccupied.

25 are used for European Prisoners and can only accommodate 25 men. These 98 cells only holding 96 Prisoners contain 78,053 cubic feet, leaving 640 Prisoners in associated wards with 125,791 cubic feet or an average of 195 cubic feet per Prisoner.

But it is impossible in accordance with regulations to equally distribute the Prisoners. Prisoners on removal are kept separate from convicted ones; first conviction Prisoners from old offenders, juveniles from grown up ones. Prisoners with itch have a separate ward, another is set apart for a leprous Prisoner. When therefore the itch or leper cell or juvenile cell containing perhaps 1,200 cubic feet are occupied by only one individual, the available cubic space for other Prisoners becomes correspondingly reduced.

Should the number of Prisoners rise to 800 there would be only an average of 178 cubic feet for each Prisoner in associated wards. Should the number rise to 850 the average would be 166 cubic feet.

A. GORDON.

Superintendent.

!

No. 474.

(A. in Enclosure 2.)

Acting Colonial Secretary to Surveyor General.

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE,

HONGKONG, 1st April. 1886.

SIR,

I am directed by the Officer Administering the Government to invite you to act as Chairman of a Board consisting of the Superintendent of the Gaol, the Honourable WM. KESWICK, and yourself for the purpose of reporting on the feasibility of establish- ing a temporary prison, pending the erection of the proposed new Gaol.

I am to add that His Excellency will be glad to have the opinion of the Board on the cost of a temporary prison, and on any other matter connected therewith, which the Board may consider necessary to include in their report.

I have, &c.,

FREDERICK STEWART.

Acting Colonial Secretary.

The Honourable J. M. PRICE,

Surveyor General.

(B. in Enclosure 2.)

REPORT.

HONGKONG, 7th April. 1886.

1. The Board constituted under the Honourable Colonial Secretary's letter, No. 474, of the 1st instant, have duly met at Victoria Gaol and taken into consideration the statistics supplied by the Superintendent.

From these statistics it appears that while there are as many as 640 prisoners in the associated cells, the aggregate space of the latter does not amount to more than 125,791 cubic feet or an average of 195 cubic feet per prisoner.

2. On the other hand however, it must be mentioned that in nearly all the cells there are open windows and cross ventilation.

3. Considering the necessary delay which must take place in dealing with the large and important question of extra prison accommodation in connexion with the punish- ment of crime, the Board are of opinion that pending a settlement of this question the first efforts of Government should be directed to reducing, as far possible, the number of those inmates of the Gaol that do not belong, properly speaking, to the criminal classes.

4. It was found from the statement of the Superintendent that there were on the 6th instant 46 prisoners for want of finding surety. 39 prisoners for gambling and 12 prisoners for breaches of the Opium Ordinance.

5. Of the first 46 it is not impossible that a large proportion may be men against whose characters nothing can be found, while as to the 39 gamblers it is the opinion of the Board that whatever may be the evils from gambling, they cannot constitute as grave a danger as that which attends the overcrowding of the Gaol.

In respect of the prisoners for breaches of the Opium Ordinance, the Board are aware that it is necessary to assist the Opium Farmer in the protection of his rights, but they consider it might be possible to award other punishments besides imprison- ment for infractions of the monopoly.

6. The Board consider therefore that in the present overcrowded condition of the Gaol, it would be desirable to liberate without any delay as many as possible of these three classes of prisoners and that it would be desirable to recommend the Magistrates to refrain, except in the case of known bad characters, from committing persons to prison merely for want of security, also it might be indicated to the Magistrates to punish infractions of the Opium Ordinance by fine, in lieu of by imprisonment, while to the Police, instructions might be given to mitigate, for a time, the severity of their raids on gamblers.

7. The Board further recommend that early arrangements should be made for the permanent transfer of the youthful prisoners in the Gaol to the Reformatory at West Point, and they are also of opinion that imprisonment for debt now abolished in every part of the British Empire except Hongkong, should receive the attention of the Government on various grounds, the least of which would be that it would empty the Debtors' Ward at the Gaol and render the space available for another class of prisoners.

151

152

8. As the provision of adequate Gaol accommodation in this Colony hinges entirely on the system followed in the punishment of criminals, the Board have come to the conclusion that the two questions cannot be dealt with separately, and they find them- selves unable to submit any recommendations in respect of Gaol accommodation, provisional or permanent, without entering at considerable length into the larger ques- tion of the present treatment of the criminal classes. But this question is one of such grave importance to the community, that the Board take upon themselves to recommend that it should be referred for investigation and report to a much larger and more influential Commission than the Board as at present constituted.

9. In the belief that this would be the more adequate and satisfactory way of dealing with so important a subject, the Board now limit their observations to the few practical suggestions for immediate relief set forth in paragraphs 6 and 7.

J. M. PRICE. W. KESWICK.

A. GORDON.

C. in Enclosure 2.)

Minute by the Clerk of Councils.

On the suggestion of the Honourable the Surveyor General (Mr. PRICE) these papers are considered in Executive Council this day.

The Council advise that the Board appointed to report on this question should consist of a larger number of persons, and advise therefore the appointment of the Committee mentioned in the annexed minute by His Excellency the Officer Adminis- tering the Government.

April 7th 1886.

ARATHOON SETH,

Clerk of Councils.

(D. in Enclosure 2.)

Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

A Committee of the following gentlemen :-

1. The SURVEYOR GENERAL,

2. The ATTORNEY GENERAL,

3. The TREASURER,

4. The Hon. WILLIAM KESWICK, M.L.C.,

5. The SUPERINTENDENT OF Gaol,

6. ERNEST MACKEAN, Esquire, Acting POLICE MAGISTRATE,

7. CATCHICK PAUL CHATER, Esquire, J.P.,

8. ALEXANDER PALMER MACEWEN, Esquire, J.P.,

9. Dr. PATRICK MANSON, J.P.,

are to be requested to meet at an early date to consider a report of the Superintendent of the Gaol on the insufficient accommodation in that Establishment and what steps should be taken to remedy the present state of things.

(Enclosure 3.)

Mr. A. P. MacEwen to the Chairman.

W. H. MARsh.

HONGKONG, 28th May, 1886.

SIR,

I have to express my regret at being unable to attend the last few meetings of the Gaol Commission owing to absence from the Colony.

I have given careful attention to the Report which is to be sent to His Excellency the Administrator with the approval and signatures of the members of the Commission. I do not sign the Report as there are one or two points as regards the question of punishment with which I do not concur.

¿

To be brief, I am against Flogging with exception of for offences enumerated under section 19 of Ordinance 4 of 1865 and section 31 of Ordinance 7 of 1865 and section 8 of Ordinance 16 of 1865 and for returning from banishment.

I am of the opinion, as already expressed by me at the earlier meetings of the Commission, that if the punishment of depriving a Chinaman of his queue was to be put into force it would act as a greater deterrent than Whipping. I look upon this mode of punishment in a far more serious light than apparently some of the other members of the Commission, and I may add that several respectable Chinamen with whom I have conferred upon the subject fully agree as to this mode of punishment in preference to Flogging.

I would not inflict it until a man had received fair warning say for second offence, and in cases of first offence of petty crime, give short terms of solitary confinement on sparse diet without the option of a fine.

A few examples of depriving Chinamen of their queues might have to be made, when I believe that instead of two hundred and seventy prisoners being confined for petty offences as at present this number would be very considerably reduced.

As regards increasing the discretionary power to punish, of the Superintendent of the Gaol, I am of opinion that this should be granted, but that before acting he should be requested to consult with at least one Justice of the Peace.

In all other respects I agree with the Report.

To Honourable E. J. ACKROYD,

Chairman,

GAOL COMMISSION.

I

am, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

A. P. MACEWEN.

(Enclosure 4.)

Report of a Sub-Committee consisting of:----

Honourable EDWARD J. ACKROYD, Honourable W. KESWICK,

Major-General GORDON,

Dr. MANSON, and

C. P. CHATER, Esquire

appointed to visit the Victoria Gaol at night and report on the state thereof.

The Committee appointed Wednesday the 21st April, 1886, 10 P.M. for their visit. At the last moment the Honourable W. KESWICK, was prevented from attending. The Gaol was visited at the hour and on the day mentioned by the other members of this Sub-Committee.

We visited all the cells and corridors. In those corridors where each cell was occupied by one prisoner only we found perfect ventilation.

In other cells we found that the prisoners had closed the windows which greatly interfered, if it did not altogether stop the free current of air in the cell. Many of these cells however were not overcrowded. We visited other corridors in the cells of which there were eight, ten, or eleven prisoners confined.

Although the windows in these were left open we found strong proofs of over- crowding.

We think more openings might be made in the corridors and elsewhere with a view of increasing the volume of air.

We annex a return prepared for us by General GORDON showing the number of prisoners confined in each cell on the night in question (Enclosure 10.)

This return shows the number of prisoners and the cubic space of each cell. In presence of these figures we deem it unnecessary to offer any further comments on the question of overcrowding.

EDW. J. ACKROYD,

A. GORDON,

C. P. CHATER, PATRIC MANSON.

153

154

(Enclosure 5.)

To the Chairman,

GAOL ACCOMMODATION COMMITTEE.

HONGKONG, 30th April, 1886.

Your Sub-Committee appointed to report on the present diet in Victoria Gaol met at 5.30 P.M., this day.

Present:-Major-General GORDON, Chairman.

Dr. AYRES.

Dr. MANSON.

1. The Sub-Committee examined the diet scales as were established. Compared them with those of other Colonies and also took evidence as to the usual diet of coolie labourers in this Colony.

2. The Sub-Committee next proceeded to consider the dietary scale of Chinese male prisoners sentenced to Penal Servitude. They consider the diet for this class of Prisoners is much in excess of requirements for health. They specially observe that Chinese Prisoners of this class, while receiving better diet all round in Victoria Gaol than in Singapore Gaol, are further supplied with 16 ounces of pork a week here, as against 4 ounces a week in Singapore. The Sub-Committee recommend that the pork ration to this class of Prisoners be reduced to one issue of 4 ounces per week to be issued on Sundays.

3. With reference to the diet scale of Chinese Prisoners sentenced to over six months including Penal Servitude Prisoners (Scale No. 1.) the Sub-Committee recommend that the issue of fresh fish be reduced from 6 to 4 ounces three times a week.

4. With reference to the diet scale of Chinese Prisoners sentenced to 6 months and under (Scale No. 2.) the Sub-Committee consider the diet ample, but not excessive and they do not recommend any change.

5. The same as regards No. 3 Scale for Female and Juvenile Prisoners.

6. As regards No. 4 Scale the number of Prisoners receiving this scale is very small and Debtors subsistence is paid for without cost to Government. No change is therefore recommended.

7. Numbers 5 and 6 scales of Penal and reduced Penal diet appear suitable and should not be altered.

8. As regards No. 7 or Punishment diet scale, the Sub-Committee find that this scale is throughout British Dominions fixed at 1 lb. of bread per diem for Europeans. 11 ounces of uncooked rice weighing about 24 ounces when cooked, are equal in per- centage of nutriment to 1 lb. of bread and considering that the average weight of a Chinaman is below that of a European the Committee are of opinion that 12 ounces of uncooked rice would be a most ample equivalent and strongly recommend that 12 ounces of rice be the maximum of punishment diet scale for all Chinese Prisoners.

9. The Sub-Committee further recommend that some tentative measures be adopted experimentally to substitute other vegetables such as sweet potatoes or millet for rice, which experiments could be tried on a limited number of Prisoners under the supervi- sion of the Medical Officer, and Superintendent.

10. In recommending the introduction of these dietary changes, the Sub-Committee taking into consideration the condition of the Gaol and the circumstances stated in the Superintendent's Report for 1885 para. 16 must record their opinion that such changes cannot perhaps be carried out without some risk of disturbance and insubordination on the part of Prisoners, and keeping in view the vital importance of maintaining discipline in this establishment, they recommend that simultaneously with the introduction of reductions in diet the hands of the Superintendent should be strengthened by increased disciplinary powers.

11. Superintendents of Gaols in Ceylon and the Straits Settlements have power to try prisoners summarily and award a corporal punishment of 12 strokes. The Sub- Committee consider it very necessary, in carrying out the changes recommended, that similar powers should be vested in the Superintendent of Victoria Gaol. Such powers were given him by para. 6 Ordinance No. 4 of 1863, but were suspended by Governor Sir J. POPE HENNESSY on 5th June, 1877.

A. GORDON, Chairman.

PH. B. C. AYRES, Colonial Surgeon.

PATRICK MANSON, M.D.

(Enclosure 6.)

RETURN of PRISONERS confined in VICTORIA GAOL on the 14th April, 1886.

155

Europeans. Indians. Chinese.

Total.

Sentenced to Penal Servitude of 5 Years and upwards,...

5

2

142

149

Sentenced to Penal Servitude of 3 Years and under 5

Years,

1

44

45

Sentenced to 2 Years and under 3 Years,

1

39

40

Sentenced to 1 Year and under 2 Years,

4

60

64

Sentenced to 6 Months and under 12 months,.

114

120

Sentenced to 3 Months and under 6 Months,

12

:

103

115

Sentenced to 1 Month and under 3 Months,

Sentenced to less than 1 Month,

On Remand, for Trial, &c.,

For Debt,

14

2

110

126

}

19

24

2

42

44

:

4

5

TOTAL,..

51

4

677

732

(Enclosure 7.)

Statement of Dr. Ayres.

Saturday 17th April, 1886.

Present:-All Members of the Commission, except

Honourable ALFRED LISTER.

Dr. AYRES,-I have been Surgeon to the Gaol since November, 1873.

I think the punishment diet in the Gaol could well be reduced from 1 b. of un- cooked rice to 2 lb. of uncooked rice.

Persons committed to prison in default of finding security get full diet: that could be reduced.

I think it could be reduced to 1 lb. uncooked rice.

In India for all petty offences whipping is allowed varying from 5 to 20 strokes of the rattan on the breech.

The ordinary Chinaman is as well able to bear whipping as the Indian. All sentences of whipping are subject to the opinion of the Medical Officer that the offender is able to bear it. It worked well all the time I had to do with prisoners in India.

We never had or heard of any trouble in connection with whipping.

I have recommended whipping here for petty offences.

Separate or Solitary confinement is a severe punishment for Chinamen.

There has been no trouble with respect to the health of the men sentenced to soli- tary or separate confinement.

I am not aware that whipping in India has been abolished.

I have not gone into the several methods of Chinese punishments and I cannot say whether there are any which could be introduced here.

The separate system would I think be the most severe kind of punishment for Chinamen.

I do not think you can do without whipping.

Separate confinement reduces the man.

In England you have. often to relieve the prisoner from solitary confinement. I think for the identification of prisoners and those sent back to China more recourse should be had to photography and perhaps a small tatoo mark in some place where it would not be easily seen, the inside of the arm for instance.

3

156

(Enclosure 8.)

Statement of Mr. Wise.

Saturday, May 1st, 1886.

ALFRED G. WISE,-I am a Barrister at Law, called to the bar in 1878. I have been Police Magistrate since 1st January, 1884.

For sometime I have been strongly of opinion that whipping should be allowed as a punishment for what used to be called Petty Larceny, my reason for saying so is that the offences to which I most particularly allude viz.:-cases of theft of copper nails and pieces of copper from the Dock Company have become so frequent viz.:-8 or 9 cases a week and sometimes more that the Magistrates have been obliged to go on increasing the length of imprisonment until I saw that in more cases than one the offenders had got 4 months for thefts of 5 cents or 10 cents worth of copper nails.

I tried the stocks, but my experience of them is that they did not do much good. I put these men in the stocks on the Chinese Recreation Ground, perhaps had I put them in the stocks on the site of the theft it would have been better, but then I had to consider the expense of conveying prisoner, stocks and constable to Kowloon.

I have always thought that, in cases of small thefts, such as stealing shoes put out to dry, and small thefts from the counter or a shop, it would be better to whip the offender.

I have not the slightest hesitation in saying that, for the ordinary coolie, imprisonment in Victoria Gaol is no punishment at all. He is far better off in Gaol than outside and has not such hard work. I am of opinion that whipping should also be extended to cases of returning from banishment.

I would not extend it further. I would give not more than 12 strokes to a man convicted of stealing 5 or 10 cents nails and he should be whipped as soon as possible. I should have some place in the neighbourhood of the Court for that purpose.

At present I should say there are 15 cases a week in which I think a discretion should be given to the Magistrate to inflict a whipping.

I would not inflict it and then send the man to Gaol. He should be sent away at once; the punishment would not be severe; only sufficient to cause him to remember it for a few days.

(Enclosure 9.)

SCHEDULE of DOCUMENTS sent to the Honourable the Acting Attorney General in connection

with C.S.O. No. 762 of 1886. (Enclosure 2.)

C.S.O. DOCUMENTS.

COPIES OF DESPATCHES FROM GOVERNOR

TO SECRETARY OF STATE.

COPIES OF DESPATCHES FROM SECRETARY OF STATE TO GOVERNOR.

No. 2728 of 1877, No. 3028 of 1880, No. 1453 of 1882, No. 1682 of 1882, No. 1683 of 1882,

No. 164 of 22nd November, 1877, No. 103 of 24th October, 1878, No. 111 of 13th November, 1878, No. 76 of 31st May,

No. 61 of 19th May,

1879, 1880,

No. 1684 of 1882,

No. 129 of 2nd September, 1880,

No. 45 of 7th May, No. 48 of 5th June, No. 29 of 29th July, No. 99 of 16th August, 1881. No. 39 of 17th March, 1882. No. 224 of 13th October, 1883.

1877.

1878. 1880.

No. 1685 of 1882,

No. 56 of 5th May,

1881,

No. 1686 of 1882,

No. 60 of 19th May,

1881,

No. 2263 of 1882, No. 2272 of 1882,

No. 57 of 9th May,

1882,

No. 144 of 27th July,

1882,

No. 2399 of 1882,

No. 202 of 26th August,

1883,

No. 2452 of 1882,

No. 2518 of 1882, No. 2535 of 1882,

No. 2688 of 1882,

No. 4256 of 1882,

No. 4547 of 1882,

No. 990 of 1883,

No. 1042 of 1883, No. 1135 of 1886,

t

Enclosure 10.)

VICTORIA GAÓL.

RETURN SHOWING NUMBER OF PRISONERS IN ASSOCIATED WARDS AS SEEN BY COMMITTEE

ON THE NIGHT OF 21ST APRIL, 1886.

A. II. No. of Cell.

Cubic contents of Cell.

Number of Prisoners in Cell.

Remarks.

60-10 QUIA CO 10 par

1431.

2

1578

3

1578

1578

1578 1578

1578

1049

9

1347

10

1390

11

1382

12

1425

13

1726

14

1765

15

1425

16

1382

17

1390

18.

1347

7

19

1049

4

20

1578

6

21

1578

7

22

1578

7

23

1578

24

1578

25

1578

PNFERNON- ∞ ∞ 1-∞ 1-∞ 110 NHONDENN

7. 77

7.

7

7

8

4

7

8

8

7

8

7

5

7

All long sentence prisoners.

A III.

Cubic contents of Cell.

No. of Cell.

Number of Prisoners in Cell.

Remarks.

1

1177

10

2

1177

10

3

1177

11

1177

11

1177

10

1177

10

1177

9

8

1049

4

9

1209

9

10

1248

9

11

1232

10

12

1278

9

13

1560

9

14

1593

12

15

1278

10

16

1232

9

17

1248

10

18

1209

10

19

1049

5

20

1177

10

21

1177

10

22

1177

10

23

1177

9

24

1177

9

All short sentence prisoners--six months and under.

25

1177

9

157

158

RETURNS-Continued.

B II. No. of Cell.

Cubic contents of Cell.

Number of Prisoners in Cell.

Remarks.

1589

2

1589

3

1589:

1589

6

710

I

6

1589

4

Remand pri-

soners.

B III. No. of Cell.

Cubic contents of Cell.

Number of Prisoners in Cell.

Remarks.

1

2

1381

5

1381

130 TH 10 6

1381

6

1381

6

5

638 1381

i

5

In occupation

night.

day and

C III. No. of Cell.

Cubic contents of Cell.

Number of Prisoners in Cell.

Remarks.

1

1156

2

1409

3

1409

4

1409

5

1709

6

1709

7

1359

8

1359

9

10

1359 1228

I-I-101-CG 10 50 30

1

Leper Cell.

Itch Cells.

6

Short sentence.

6

Indiaus.

Juveniles.

Europeans ou remand.

E III. No. of Cell.

Cubicicontents of Cell.

Number of Prisoners in Cell.

Remarks.

1

1378

1378

1378

1378

1378

1354

1354

1378.

1378

9

10

1378

11

1378

12

1409

13

1200

10

FIAT 20 TH TH 30 32 COLO

5

Short Sentence and Secu-

rity prisoners.

-Europeans.

Chinese Cooks.

:

249

No. 8

87.

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF VICTORIA GAOL FOR 1886.

Presented to the Legislative Council, by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government,

on the 21st January, 1887.

No. 17.

GAOL SUPERINTENDENT'S OFFICE,

HONGKONG, 14th January, 1887.

COLONIAL SECRETARY,

I beg to forward herewith Annual Statistical Return of Victoria Gaol for the year 1886, and beg at the same time to offer the following few observations.

2. In my previous year's Report I submitted that in our Gaol administration we ought to be guided, as far as circumstances allow, by the long and very successful experience of English Prison administration, where a combination of deterrent and reformatory Prison discipline had resulted in a great decrease of crime and reformation of the criminal classes, and as far as the very different conditions of this Gaol admitted, it has been my endeavour, during the past year, to carry out the system which in England has proved so successful.

3. It must, however, be remembered that in the peculiar position of Hongkong, Prison adminis- tration, however excellent, can have but a very small influence in diminishing the criminal population which is not so much bred in the Colony as imported from the neighbouring Chinese Provinces, and the greater or smaller influx of which is chiefly dependent on extraneous causes. While therefore we may expect that both the deterrent and reformatory results of judicious Prison administration may have considerable effect in reducing the proportion of re-convictions, the administration of the Gaol can have only slight influence, one way or another, on the increase or diminution of the floating criminal population confined in the Gaol. If, as recommended by me last year, criminals discharged from Gaol were by legislative enactment placed under Police supervision, we should be able to have some reliable statistics as to how far habitual criminals had been reformed into industrious and honest citizens. At. present we can only judge vaguely, by comparing, year by year, the percentage of re-convictions. Some improvement is shewn in this respect in 1886. On the last day of the year 32 per cent. of the prisoners in Gaol were re-convicted prisoners, as against 35 per cent. of the previous year.

SUBORDINATE STAFF.

4. The Gaol Staff, besides the Warden and Head Turnkeys, consists of first and second Class Turnkeys, all Europeans, and first and second Class Assistant Turnkeys, now mostly Europeans, but having a proportion of coloured men and natives among them. These men have all been trained in the Gaol. None of them had any previous training in Gaol discipline. But more than half the Turnkeys now on the staff, including nearly all appointed during the past year, have been trained to discipline in the Army. The conduct of the European Officers during the year has been good; they were generally zealous and painstaking, they were just and judicious in their intercourse with prisoners and contributed much to the increased discipline which is very observable among the prisoners.

5. I had occasion, in my Report for 1885, to speak unfavorably regarding the coloured and native staff. I can now report a considerable improvement in that class. The most untrustworthy among them were weeded out. Those that remain are decidedly improved. I believe they have benefited from the example of the Europeans. The undue familiarity with prisoners, so observable at first, has now disappeared and I believe that illicit dealings between Turnkeys and prisoners have altogether ceased.

PRISON BUILDINGS.

6. The Prison buildings remain in the state in which they were at the date of my last Report. The difficulties we have to contend against from overcrowding in associated wards, and from want of proper work-shops, remain as before. They have already been pointed out by me at some length, and need not be repeated. I need only again record my opinion that a really satisfactory deterrent and reformatory Prison discipline cannot be established without the introduction of the separate system and suitable work-shops.

:

250

7. On the 30th March last, I made a pressing representation to Government on the overcrowded state of the Gaol and the subject was fully enquired into by a Commission of which the Honourable E. J. ACKROYD was Chairman. Their Report, dated 1st June, 1886, submitted several recommendations, which have in part been carried out, and are, I understand, in part still under the consideration of Government, but no material relief to the congested state of the Gaol has as yet been experienced, and the danger to discipline, the danger of moral contamination, and the provocation and temptation to Prison offences which I pointed out as due to the overcrowding in associated wards, now exists in as full force as ever.

8. Notwithstanding the limited and inconvenient space, an extra loom for grass-mat making and an extra loom for coir-mat making have been put up for work during the year. This not only increases the number of prisoners instructed in industrial work, but adds to the profits of the Gaol.

PRISONERS AND THEIR DISCIPLINE.

9. In the previous year's Report, I expressed an opinion that Chinese convicts were as amenable to discipline and disposed to be as well conducted as those of most other races. The experience of another year has confirmed me in this opinion. The number of Prison offences reported during the year has indeed been great, compared with those of English Prisons, but this, as formerly reported, is in a great measure due to the enforced association of prisoners, by day and night, at meals, at labour and in sleeping, and also, though in a less degree than formerly, to want of training and experience in Prison Officers. Yet the present year shows a slow but marked and steady improvement, as to the number and nature of Prison offences. In 1885, with an average number of 530 prisoners, 6,473 Prison offences were reported, giving an average number of something over 12 Prison offences a year for each prisoner. In 1886, with a daily average of 674 prisoners, 7,198 offences were reported giving an average number of a little over 10 offences a year for each prisoner. This modest though satisfactory improvement is not owing to any slackness in reporting Prison offences. For increasing strictness in this respect has been the steady rule during the year. But it is not only satisfactory to observe a reduction in the average number of Prison offences, but still more satisfactory to observe that the general experience of the results of a judicious Prison discipline have been verified in this Gaol, in so far as a much larger proportion of the offences during the past year have been committed by a smaller number of habitual offenders. On the last day of 1885 there were only 78 Chinese prisoners in Gaol who had been free of punishment for three months, while on the last day of 1886, there were 144 prisoners who had been free of Prison punishment for three months and, among these, 44 had been free of punishment for a whole year.

10. While there is a proportionate reduction, as compared with last year, of every kind of Prison offence, this reduction is most appreciable in the graver Prison offences.

11. The inveterate temptation of prisoners, in constant association, to talk is difficult to overcome. The offences under this head in 1885, were 2,132 to a daily average of 530 prisoners amounted to a small fraction above 4 offences per man per annum. In 1886 these offences were 2,659 to a daily average of 674 prisoners and amounted to a small fraction under 4 offences per man per annum.

12. The other graver offences, such as assaults, acts of violence or insubordination, obtaining tobacco or opium, show a marked diminution.

13. During the year 7 cases of insubordination towards and assaults on Officers of the Gaol were tried as against 11 cases in 1885. Of these cases 6 offenders were awarded corporal punishment and one was awarded additional imprisonment by the Police Magistrate. The cases of prisoners assaulting and fighting with each other show a fair actual and considerable proportional reduction. Nine of these cases were tried by the Superintendent and a Visiting Justice; eight of these offenders were awarded corporal punishment, and one solitary confinement. Another case, an aggravated assault with a hammer, was tried in the Supreme Court. The remaining cases of assaulting and fighting were not serious and were in fact mostly squabbles over food or work.

14. The reduction in the number of offences of having tobacco or opium is a most marked feature during the past year. This is chiefly due to the great attention and vigilance of the Prison Officers. The ingenuity of prisoners and their friends, as exercised in the efforts to pass in these narcotics, is very great, and constant vigilance is necessary.

15. In my Report for 1885, I detailed the steps adopted with this view. The tobacco introduced during the year has chiefly been brought in by the chain-gang, and by far the greater number of these offences are for secreting stumps of cigars or cigarettes picked up on the road or at work.

16. In my Report of 1885, I adverted to the risk of possible conspiracies, with so many convicts living in association. This year has not been without its experience in this respect. A conspiracy was made to set fire to the Gaol, in hopes of effecting an escape in the confusion. The attempt was frustrated, ample information having been received in time, and I am in hopes of shortly obtaining sufficient evidence to prosecute the intending incendiaries. As a full report on this subject was sub- mitted, to Government at the time, it seems unnecessary to enter into details here. The desperadoes concerned in such attempts are generally members of the Triad Society. It is very difficult to get any

1

L

251

information from members of this society, although it has been done before now. But Chinese prisoners who are not Triads are often not unwilling to give information, provided they are not called on to give evidence in a Court which would expose them to the vengeance of the illegal societies.

17. Prison discipline during the year 1886 has, in my opinion, made steady and satisfactory progress. I annex Returns as to Prison offences similar to those submitted last year, adding for the sake of comparison the statistics of 1884 and 1885. In the Return showing prisoners previously con- victed, it will be observed that in 1886, 32 per cent. of prisoners confined on the last day of the year were old offenders as against 35 per cent. in 1885.

LABOUR ON PUBLIC WORKS AND INDUSTRIAL LABOUR.

18. A chain-gang of prisoners has been working during the year under the orders of the Surveyor General on Public Works. It has generally consisted of about 60 men. During the year 1885 and in previous years the work of the chain-gang had not given satisfaction. The men had been allowed extra food, and had not apparently been kept to much hard work by the officers in charge. In con- sequence of the recommendation of a Committee, Government directed the issue of extra food to be discontinued on the 26th June last. The system hitherto in force, of changing the officers in charge of the chain-gang monthly, appeared to me unsuitable and tending to careless supervision. I therefore directed the Head Turnkey in charge and his first assistant, to be kept on this duty for six months at a time and made them responsible for a proper amount of work being done. The result has been satisfactory. The Surveyor General has assured me that during the past year the work done by the chain-gang has been satisfactory and valuable.

19. The other industrial work carried on in the Gaol has, on the whole, been as satisfactory as the limited space for work-shops would allow. Considering the great advantage of teaching trades to the criminal class, it is very desirable that facilities should be afforded for the extension of industrial labour.

20. I append an abstract showing the actual profits or savings to Government in ten different industries carried on in the Gaol. The total profit during the year amounts to $3,849.66.

21. I have also recently commenced a new industry. Instead of purchasing the tin plates and mugs for the prisoners' food and tea, I procured old kerosine oil tins and commenced making the plates and

mugs in Gaol. In next Annual Report this will be shown as a profitable industry.

22. I will only offer a few short remarks on prison industry.

23. OAKUM-has, like in the previous year, been the most profitable industry, but it has the draw- back, that in doing this work the prisoners cannot be said to be learning a trade. The demand is also limited and the storage of picked oakum is dangerous. The surplus now on hand will therefore shortly be sold by auction.

24. Coir YARN.-Another loom has been started during the year and the work has gone on well; the output has been more than doubled and the profit nearly doubled.

25. Rattan WorK.-This work has been steadily progressing, but the sale has as yet been limited. 26. NET-MAKING.-This work is only carried on when orders are received. The amount of work done has been less than in the previous year.

27. GRASS-MAT MAKING.-Another loom has been added and the work done during the year was more than triple that of the previous year.

28. WASHING.-A strict account of this industry has been kept this year, for the first time, and it appears that, charging for washing at only half the usual rate in Hongkong (one cent per piece) a very profitable saving has been realised.

29. CARPENTERING-is almost entirely confined to work done for the Gaol.

30. TAILORS' SHOP.-The work in this shop has been considerably extended. The summer clothing of the Gaol Officers was, this year, made up in the Gaol, but under considerable difficulties, and a.cer- tain amount of free labour from outside had to be hired to complete the work. I do not think this should be tried again, unless the officer in charge understood the business of tailoring.

31. SHOE-MAKING.-This trade has been very successfully enlarged.

successfully enlarged. All the boots and shoes for Prison Officers have been made and very well made in this shop at a saving of about half a dollar on each pair.

32. PRINTING-has been done for Public Offices and some money has been realised for book- binding.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

33. The most important suggestion I have to offer is one which I repeatedly made, viz.: that immediate steps should be taken to introduce the separate system at least as regards long sentence prisoners, and to increase the space for work-shops and industrial labour. Unless this is done, no really

i

252

efficient deterrent and reformatory Gaol discipline can be established on a firm basis. As the building of a new Gaol seems unlikely to be undertaken for some time, I can only repeat my suggestion of last year that short sentence prisoners, that is, men sentenced to 6 months and under, should be removed to some other building, or perhaps to a hulk; this would leave space enough in Victoria Gaol to accommodate long sentence prisoners on the separate system, and also give more space for industrial work.

34. I would also repeat my suggestion that habitual criminals and others who have earned remission of sentence should be placed by legislative enactment (as in England) under Police supervision, so that, if found returning to a criminal career, they might at once be sent back by the Magistrates to prison.

35. While the Gaol is as now so greatly overcrowded, I think the Government might take into consideration the case of the large number of prisoners mostly belonging to the criminal classes who are confined for want of finding security for good behaviour. I am not allowed to make these men work. They are well fed and live comfortably in associated idleness. I brought this subject to notice in paragraph 21 of my Report for 1885. I am sorry to say, I believe many of these men rather like their sentence and will not find security even when able to do so. And it seems an incongruity that while honest destitutes who are provided with food and lodging in Gaol are compelled to do a daily task of work, the criminal security men are freed from the obligation of performing any labour whatever beyond cleaning their own cells. 479 men were imprisoned during the year for want of finding security.

36. The overcrowding of the Gaol might also be to some extent reduced, if other punishment than imprisonment could be found for the persons now imprisoned for gambling. 399 men have been committed to prison for this offence during the year. The great majority of these men do not belong to the criminal classes. They are mostly hard-working men, rice pounders, and coal porters. They overcrowd the Gaol; they are neither deterred from gambling by imprisonment nor are they improved. It is too much to be feared that many of them are deteriorated and corrupted by compulsory and constant association with the criminal classes they meet in Gaol.

(A.)

VICTORIA GAOL.

Return of Reports for talking, &c., in the years 1884, 1885 and 1886.

MONTH.

A. GORDON,

Superintendent.

1884.

Daily average number in Prison, 552.

1885.

Daily average number

in Prison, 530.

1886.

Daily average number

in Prison, 674.

January, February,

March,

April,

May,

June,

July,..

August,

September,

October,

November,

December,

14

55

119

17

25

135

32

44

248

24

23

330

31

252

197

70

362

298

77

289

- 297

72

344

232

50

254

318

64

174

209

35

148

183

43

162

93

Total,.......

529

2,132.

2,659

A. GORDON,

Superintendent.

253

(B.)

Return of Offences reported of Prisoners fighting with or assaulting each other, for the years 1884, 1885 and 1886.

MONTH.

1884.

Daily average number

in Prison, 552.

1886.

Daily average number Daily average number

in Prison, 674.

1885..

in Prison, 530.

January, February, March, April,

22

28

14

16

18

15

23

18

17

26

29...

32

May,

June,

July,

29

6

31

DMAY 241100

22

19

19

27

13

August, September, October, November, December,

24

13

13

30

12

:

:

14

13

21.

10

2880

8

17

9

7

January, February, March, April,

May,. June,

....

Total,...

270

204

195

A. GORDON,

Superintendent.

YROW

(C.)

Return of Offences reported of Prisoners having Tobacco, for the years 1884, 1885 and 1886.

MONTH.

1884.

Daily average number in Prison, 552.

1885. Daily average number in Prison, 530.

1886.

Daily average number in Prison, 674.

July,.

August,

September,

October,

November,

December,

Total,..

$65

74

28

76

78

16

647

82

14 ··

52

133

11

66

106

7

:60

61

15

(72

*52

--9

69

47

11

82

17

31

$50

23

17

41

15

30

39

21

23

719

709

212

A. GORDON,

Superintendent.

(D.)

Comparative Return of Prisoners confined in Victoria Gaol on the 31st December, 1885, and 31st December, 1886, from 1st to 12th Convictions.

CONVICTION.

1st,

2nd,

3rd,

4th,

5th,

6th,

7th,

8th,

9th,

"

10th,

11th,

12th,

*

TOTAL,........

1885.

1886.

375

414

41

62

29

35

-30

•·27-

28

24

23

18

20

15

16

10.

1.

3

41

3

573....

612

A. GORDON,

Superintendent.

254

(E.)

ABSTRACT of ACCOUNT OF INDUSTRIAL LABOUR, VICTORIA GAOL, FOR THE YEAR 1886.

Dr.

OAKUM.

Cr.

1886.

To Stock on hand, 1st January, 1886, $ 11.05 1886.

By Oakum sold during the year,

$2,055.25

وو

Cost of Paper Stuff purchased

1,259.56

"

during the year,

Profit during the year,

1,238.74

Stock on hand, 31st Dec., 1886,—

Paper Stuff, Oakum,

Total,.....$

2,509,35

Total,.......

..$

454.10

2,509.35

COIR YARN.

1886.

To Stock on hand, 1st Jan., 1886,

$ 13.86 1886.

وو

Material purchased during the Į

1,332.45

year,

By Matting sold during the year,

Issue for Prison use during the

year,

$ 954.58

7.68

Profit,.

447.02

Stock on hand, 31st Dec., 1886,-

Material, 13,203 lbs.,. Manufactured,

792.18

38.89

Total,......

1,793.33

Total,.......

1,793.33

RATTAN WORK.

1886.

To Stock on hand, 1st Jan., 1886,

Cost of Material purchased during

the year,

Profit,

$158.70 1886.

By Chairs, &c., sold during the year,

$349.20

321.22

""

Fenders sold,....................

50.70

22

149.49

""

Articles made for Gaol use,.. Stock on hand, 31st Dec., 1886,-

51.03

Material, Chairs, &c.,

10.98

167.50

Total,........ ..$

629.41

1886.

Total,.

.$

629.41

NET MAKING.

To Stock on hand, 1st Jan., 1886,

1886.

""

Cost of Material purchased during

$41.35

the year,

Profit,.

54.07

Total........

95.42

By Value of Nets sold during the

$64.40

year,

Issue for Gaol use,

23.60

"

Stock on hand, 31st Dec., 1886,- Twine, 8 lbs.,...

3.20

Wax,

0.87

2 Nets,

3.35

GRASS MATTING.

Total,.......

95.42

1886.

"

To Stock on hand, 1st January, 1886,

Material purchased during the

14.34 1886.

135.87

By Issue for Prison use during the

$$$

year,

year,

""

Profit,.

46.64

""

Matting sold during the year, Stock on hand, 31st December,

57.10

96.09

1886,-

Grass,

.372 tbs.,

9.77

!

Hemp,

61 lbs.,

.39

Manufactured, 223 yds.,

33.50

Total,.......

196.85

Total,..

196.85

1886.

To Stock on hand, 1st January, 1886,

Material purchased during the

""

year,

Profit,..

WASHING.

1886.

By Value of Washing done during

$387.05

821.67

وو

the year, Prison Clothing, at 1 cent a piece,..

Stock on hand, 31st December,

1886,-

Total,..

1,208.72

$ 1,180.67

Soap,

.350 lbs.

Coals,

3 cwt.

26.25 1.80

Total,.

$

1,208.72

1886.

To Value of Stock on hand, 1st

""

January, 1886,

Cost of Material purchased during

the year,

Profit,.

CARPENTERS' SHOP.

255

1886.

$ 4.55

By Value of Articles made for Gaol use,

$139.16

""

Work done for Officers, &c., and

charged for,

40.73

208.50

Stock on hand 31st December,

14.34

1886,-

Material; Wood, &c.,..........

14.45

Value of manufactured

Articles,..

33.05

Total,.......

227.39

Total,......

227.39

TAILORS' SHOP.

1886.

To Stock on hand, 1st January,

1886, Flannel,

1886.

405.00

Material purchased during the

1,352.17

year,

Profit,.

248.13

59

Total,..

2,005.30

By Value of Prisoners Clothing made during the year, (including Officers' Summer Uniform Suits,)

Work done for Officers, Police,

&c., and charged,

$ 1,497.22

107.35

>>

Stock on hand, 31st December,

1886,-

Flannel, Canvas, &c., Made-up Canvas Suits, Flannel Shirts, &c.,.

191.27

209.46

Total,.....

2,005.30

SHOEMAKERS' SHOP.

1886.

To Stock on hand, 1st Jan., 1886,

Material, &c.,

1886.

$ 62.35

Cost of Material purchased during

the year,

Profit,..

619.18

50.16

By Estimated value of Shoes sup- plied to Prisoners and Repairs, Two Issues, Summer and

Winter, Uniform, Shoes to Prison Officers,

$ 74.60

265.50

دو

Sale to Prison Officers, &c.,

326.42

""

Stock on hand, 31st December,

1886,-

Material and value of new Shoes and San- dals,

65.17

Total,.......

731.69

PRINTING AND BOOK-BINDING.

Total,.....$

731.69

1886.

To Stock on hand, 1st Jan., 1886,

Printing Ink,

1886.

1.00

Printing and Book-binding Ma- terial purchased during the year,

Profit,..

32.40

By Estimated value of Printing done for Public Offices during the year, (112,943 forms),

$752.50

779.40

>>

Cash received for Books bound, Work done for Gaol use, (Book- Į

binding),

23.00

30.00

>J

Stock on hand, 31st December,

1886,-

Book-binding Material,...

7.30

Total,......

812.80

Total....

..$

812.80

PROFITS.

Oakum,....

Coir Yarn,

.$1,238.74

447.02

Rattan Work,

Net Making,

Grass Matting,.......

Washing,

Carpentering,

Tailoring,

Shoemaking,

149.49

54.07

46.64

821.67

14.34

248.13

50.16

Printing and Book-binding,

779.40

Total,......

$3,849.66

A. GORDON,

Superintendent.

Victoria Gaol Office, Hongkong, 14th January, 1887.

159

No. 35

1886.

HONGKONG.

CORRESPONDENCE RESPECTING THE GERMAN MAIL STEAMERS.

Presented to the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government,

on the 27th August, 1886.

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Officer Administering the

Government of Hongkong.

HONGKONG.

No. 82.

Memo: 24th February, 1886.

.

SIR,

DOWNING STREET,

24th June, 1886.

I have the honour to transmit to you the accompanying copies of a Memo- randum delivered by Count BISMARCK to Her Majesty's Ambassador at Berlin, and

Lord ROSEBERY, 26 Ap., 1886 of a letter in reply to it from the Earl of Rosebery to the German Ambassador at

;

this Court, relative to a request made by the German Government that certain mail vessels subsidized by that Government, should be placed on the same footing as the French Messageries Maritimes Steamers, under the Postal Convention with France of September 24th, 1856.

It is the wish of Her Majesty's Government that the privileges mentioned in article 5 of the Postal Convention with France, should be extended to these German vessels so long as the French Convention shall remain in force, and I therefore request that you will take the necessary steps for procuring the enact- ment of an Ordinance similar to No. 10 of 1884, for this purpose.

The Officer Administering the Government of

(Copy.)

HONGKONG.

I have, &c.,

(Signed),

R. H. MEADE, For the Secretary of State.

MEMORANDUM.

From July next the North German Lloyd at Bremen intends to establish a line of steamers to run between Germany, China and Australia.

The steamers will carry the official mail, for which they will receive a certain subsidy from the Imperial German Government. Besides the steamers are bound to transport, free of cost, criminals from abroad to Germany.

As, according to British Law such criminals, when the steamer touches at a British Colonial port, might demand a hearing before a British Judge, thus delay- ing the course of law and preventing the prompt delivery of the mail, the Imperial Government lays great stress on these mail steamers being looked upon as in some sense men-of-war.

This demand does not appear to be an unusual, one, for in modern Treaties of Commerce and Navigation such privileges have more than once been accorded to subsidized mail-steamers.

160

The British Government, for instance, has done so in the Postal Treaty concluded with France on September 24th, 1856. Moreover, by special Ordinance, the steamers of the Messageries Maritimes touching at Hongkong have been granted a similar privilege.

The Imperial Government, though not appealing to the provision expressed in clause I of the Treaty concluded between Great Britain and Prussia on August 16th, 1865, hope, nevertheless, that in conformity with the modern principles of International Law, the British Government will see their way to confer upon the subsidized mail steamers of the North German Lloyd the same privileges as have been granted to the French Mail steamers by the above-mentioned Treaty.

Berlin, February 24th, 1886.

(Copy.)

The Earl of Rosebery to Count Hatzfeldt.

!

M. L'AMBASSADOR,

FOREIGN OFFICE,

April 26th, 1886.

I have placed myself in communication with the Secretary of State for the Colonies with reference to the best mode of giving effect to the wishes expressed by your Government that the privileges of Ships-of-war which are accorded by Article V of the Convention between Great Britain and France of September 24th, 1856, to vessels subsidized by their respective Governments for Postal purposes should be extended to the North German Lloyd's line of steamers which is about to be established between Germany, China and Australia and which will receive a subsidy from the German Government for the carriage of mails.

I have already informed your Excellency that Her Majesty's Government are most willing to comply with the wishes of the Imperial Government in the matter, so far as they can legally do so, and I will proceed to explain the position of Her. Majesty's Government with reference to the Postal Convention with France of 1856 and to a similar convention with Belgium of February 17th, 1876, both of which contain the same provision granting the privileges of Ships-of-war to subsi- dized Postal Vessels.

From the time when the French line of the Messageries Maritimes first began to run to India and China difficulties have constantly arisen in the application of Art. V of the French Convention by reason of the Commanders of the steamers of that Company insisting with the support of French Consuls upon exercising the privileges conferred by it in their strictest sense, and so as to defeat the course of criminal justice and to deprive in certain cases private individuals of their civil remedies. In 1878 a case of collision arose at Dover between a subsidized vessel of Belgium, Le Parlement Belge, and the British steam-Tug Daring which raised the question of the privileges granted by the Belgian Postal Convention before the Tribunals in this Country. The Courts held that it was not competent for the Crown without authority of Parliament to clothe these subsidized vessels with the immunities of Foreign Ships-of-war so as to deprive British subjects of their right to proceed againts them for the enforcement of their legal rights. That decision has naturally added to the difficulty of the situation and a voluminous correspon- dence has taken place between the British and French Governments arising out of the conflicts which have occurred at Hongkong, Singapore and Ceylon between the judicial authorities and the Messageries Maritimes. Indeed Her Majesty's Government would have been compelled to determine the Postal Convention with France by notice under Art. 37 were it not that the more recent instructions which appear to have been given to the Commanders of the French Postal steamers have prevented a renewal of the complaints of the Colonial Governments.

'

His Excellency

161

In view of the decision of the Courts in this Country in the case of the Parlement Belge it is clear that Her Majesty's Government are unable to secure to Postal vessels that complete immunity from the process of the local Courts which is the privilege of Ships-of-war, but if the Imperial Government are prepared to cause instructions to be issued to the Imperial Consular Officers and to the Com- manders of the North German Lloyd's steamers and to the Agents of the Company in all British ports of call to give all necessary facilities to the local authorities in relation to Customs Regulations and to judicial process and not to claim to exercise the privilege in question to the detriment of public justice or of public rights it is unlikely that any practical difficulties will arise.

Her Majesty's Government are therefore prepared on that understanding to signify to the Governors of the Colonies at which the steamers of the North German Lloyds are intended to touch that the line is subsidized by the Imperial Govern- ment for Postal purposes and that it is the wish of Her Majesty's Government that the privileges mentioned in Art. V of the Postal Convention with France September 24th, 1856, should be extended to its vessels so long as the French Convention shall remain in force.

It is right however to add that both the French and Belgian Conventions may be determined at any time owing to the difficulties which I have pointed out and to the fact that as the British Mail steamers on the lines to India, China and Australia only touch at British ports they practically derive no benefit from the Article in question, while the other provisions of the Conventions have for the most part been abrogated by the Postal Union Treaty of Berne of October 9th, 1874, and by the Convention of Paris (the Universal Postal Union) of June 1st,

1878.

COUNT HATZFELDT,

&c., &c., &c.

(Signed)

ROSEBERY.

167

No.

38 1886.

HONGKONG.

DESPATCH RESPECTING THE GERMAN MAIL STEAMERS.

(Continuation of No. 35.)

Presented to the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government,

on the 17th September, 1886.

The Right Honourable Earl Granville, K.G., to the Officer Administering the Government of Hongkong.

(Copy.)

HONGKONG.

No. 119.

SIR,

DOWNING STREET,

2nd August, 1886.

With reference to my Despatch, No. 82, of the 24th of June, regarding the extension of certain privileges to the Mail steamers of the North German Lloyds, I have the honour to acquaint you that the German Ambassador in London has informed the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs that instructions have been

sent to the German Consular Officers at the Ports in British Possessions where

the steamers of that Company will call, and to the Officers of the Company, in the sense suggested in Lord ROSEBERY's note to Count HATZFELDT of the 26th of April last, copy of which was enclosed in my despatch above mentioned.

The Officer Administering the Government of

HONGKONG.

I have, &c.,

(Signed),

GRANVILLE.

.

No. 34

87.

451

HONGKONG.

DESPATCH RESPECTING THE APPOINTMENT OF SIR GEORGE WILLIAM DES VŒEUX, K.C.M.G. TO BE GOVERNOR AND COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF HONGKONG.

Presented to the Legislative Council, by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government, on the 19th September, 1887.

HONGKONG,

No. 143.

SIR,

DOWNING STREET,

9th August, 1887.

I have the honour to inform you that the QUEEN has been pleased to appoint Sir GEORGE WILLIAM DES Vœux, K.C.M.G. to be Governor and Commander-in- Chief of Hongkong in succession to Sir GEORGE Bowen.

Sir GEORGE DES Vœux will proceed to Hongkong viâ America by a steamer leaving Vancouver on the 5th of September or by one leaving San Francisco on the 30th of August.

The Officer Administering the Government of

HONGKONG.

I have the honour to be,

ì

Sir,

Your most obedient humble Servant,

H. T. HOLLAND.

.

371

No. 26

87.

HONGKONG.

THE HARBOUR MASTER'S REPORT FOR 1886,

Presented to the Legislative Council, by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government,

on the 29th April, 1887.

No. 47.

HARBOUR DEPARTMENT, HONGKONG, 10th February, 1887.

SIR,-I have the honour to forward the Annual Returns of this Department for the year ending 31st December, 1886.

I. Number, Tonnage and Crews of Vessels entered. II. Number, Tonnage and Crews of Vessels cleared.

III. Number, Tonnage and Crews of Vessels of each Nation entered. IV. Number, Tonnage and Crews of Vessels of each Nation cleared:

V. Total Number, Tonnage and Crews of Vessels entered at each Port. VI. Total Number, Tonnage and Crews of Vessels cleared at each Port. VII. Return of Junks entered from Macao.

VIII. Return of Junks cleared for Macao.

IX. Return of Junks entered at each Port from China and Formosa.

X. Return of Junks cleared at each Port for China and Formosa.

XI. Gross Total Number of Junks entered at each Port.

XII. Gross Total Number of Junks cleared at each Port.

XIII. Return of Junks (Local Trade) entered.

XIV. Return of Junks (Local Trade) cleared.

XV. Summary of Arrivals and Departures of all vessels, and of all Chinese Passengers. XVI. Return of Vessels registered.

XVII. Return of Vessels struck off the Register.

XVIII. Amount of Fees received under Section 3 of Ordinance No. 8 of 1879.

XIX. Return of Chinese Passenger Ships cleared by the Emigration Officer.

XX. Return of Vessels bringing Chinese Passengers to Hongkong from Places out of China. XXI. Return of Marine Cases tried.

XXI. Diagram of Tonnage of Vessels entered.

SHIPPING.

2. Under this heading, in arrivals, there is an increase on the previous year of 879 steam-ships and 727,855 tons; a decrease in sailing vessels of 56 ships representing 23,268 tons; and in junks there is a decrease of 703 vessels with 44,354 tons.

3. The total number of arrivals in the Colony in 1886 was 27,222 vessels and 6,324,164 tons, or at the rate of about 74.6 vessels, averaging about 232 tons each, per diem, comprised as follows: 10.8 steamers; 0.8 sailing vessels; and 63.0 junks. This does not include the traffic between Victoria, and the outlying villages, nor that conducted in steam-launches.

4. Of the Nationalities of the various vessels there is an increase of 11 Austrian, 491 British, 109. Chinese (European built), 37 Danish, 37 French, 184 German, 13 Italian, 17 Norwegian, and a decrease of 57 American and 21 Spanish vessels.

5. Of the 4,251, European built vessels that arrived in 1886, 111 were American, 23 Austrian, 2,982 British, 142 Chinese, 55 Danish, 38 Dutch, 123 French, 676 German, 22 Norwegian, 33 Spanish, and other Nationalities in smaller numbers. It will thus be observed that vessels under the British flag absorbed 70 per cent. of the whole.

6. Of the Countries with which this enormous trade is conducted, that with China and Formosa is the greatest, being 24,358 vessels and 3,923,953 tons, or an increase of 277,907 tons in British bottoms, an increase of 168,389 tons in foreign bottoms, excluding junks, but a decrease of 12,355 tons in junks. In British and foreign vessels there is an increased trade with Cochin China, and Japan. With the Philippine Islands, and Macao there is an increase in British vessels. The trade with the Island of Hainan and the Gulf of Tonquin shows a decrease of 36 vessels and 10,635 tons in British vessels, and an increase of 61 vessels and 23,265 tons under foreign flags. In arrivals from the Continent of Europe, the trade is about the same in British vessels, while there is an increase of 37 vessels and 63,515 tons in foreign ships. From Great Britain, there is an increase of 12 vessels and 19,189 tons in British vessels, and no difference in the arrivals of foreign vessels from that Country.

372

7. The following Table shows the number and class of vessels arrived in the Colony in 1885 and 1886 :-

Years. Steamers. Tons.

Sailing Vessels..

Tons.

Junks. Tons.

1885, 1886,

3,084 3,632,051 344 234,658 3,963 4,359,906 288 211,390

23,674 1,797,222 22,971 1,752,868

Increase,

879 727,855

Decrease,..

56 23,268

703 44,354

8. These returns do not give more information than the number of vessels and their Registered tonnage whether with cargo or in ballast, so that the actual trade with the Colony is unknown.

9. Whether it is advisable that an Import and Export Office, similar to the one at Singapore, should be established at this Port is a question that the Chamber of Commerce might be disposed to consider. Such an Office would require quarters to be built, and a staff of proper Officers to perform the duties. It is a question of expense and whether such a Department, if created, would be to the advantage of the Mercantile Community. It certainly would make known what we have hitherto been in ignorance of.

JUNKS.

10. The junk trade for the year, excluding that with villages in the locality, shows a decrease of 703 vessels and 44,354 tons. From the Coast of China and Formosa, it is 486 vessels and 12,355 tons, and from Macao 217 vessels and 31,999 tons. The trade in junks with Canton suffered some- what in July of last year, consequent on the additional taxation of imports and exports; but the trade is gradually resuming its former condition. The trade with Macao also dropped at the same time, consequent on the Chinese Government exacting taxes on cargoes to that place in junks, and the trade has improved but very little since, nothing but rice and coals being now conveyed in junks from Hongkong to that Settlement. This taxation has led to increased steam communication between Hongkong, Canton and Macao.

EMIGRATION.

11. There is an increase of 7,005 emigrants to various places during the year, the Straits Settlements showing an increase of 11,136, while there is a decrease of 3,854 Chinese to San Francisco. 2,690 Chinese left for various places in the Australian Colonies showing an increase of 343 on the previous year.

REGISTRY OF SHIPPING.

12. Nine vessels were registered during the year, and eight Certificates of Registry were cancelled.

MARINE MAGISTRATE'S Court.

13. Fifty-eight Cases were heard in the Marine Magistrate's Court during the year.

EXAMINATIONS FOR THE POSTS OF MASTERS, MATES AND, ENGINEERS UNDER SECTION 15 OF ORDINANCE 8 OF 1879.

14. The following Table will show the number of Candidates who passed, and who failed in obtaining Certificates of Competency :

Masters,

First Mates, Only Mates,

Second Mates,

GRADE.

PASSED.

FAILED.

6

13.

17

6

1

23

29

24

First Class Engineers,

11

I

Second Class Engineers,

20

4

31

5

373

MARINE COURTS, UNDER SECTION 13 OF ORDINANCE 8 OF 1879.

15. The following Courts have been held during the year :-

1. On the 19th February, 1886,-Inquiry as to the loss of the British Steam-ship Douglas, Official No. 84,357 of Hongkong, on the White Rocks on the 11th February, 1886. The Master's (MATTHEW YOUNG) Certificate of Competency was suspended for four

months.

2. On the 10th March, 1886,-Inquiry as to the striking of the British Steam-ship Thames, Official No. 85,898 of Glasgow, on the South-west point of the Lyemoon Pass, on the 2nd March, 1886. The Master's (WILLIAM ARTHUR SEATON) Certificate of Competency was returned to him.

3. On the 24th March, 1886,-Inquiry as to the loss of the British Barque Bothwell Castle, Official No. 47,822 of Newcastle, N.S.W., on the Reef surrounding Ngarik Island, Caroline Group, on the 21st December, 1884. There was not sufficient evidence-before the Court to enable them to apportion any blame for the casualty. A Court of Inquiry was also held at Sydney on the arrival of the Master, Second Mate and two of the Crew at that Port

.

4. On the 1st April, 1886,-Inquiry as to the loss of the British Steam-ship Breconshire, Official No. 79,674 of London, on the White Rocks, on the 7th Mrach, 1886. The Master's (WILLIAM EDWIN POPE) Certificate of Competency was suspended for three months. 5. On the 19th April, 1886,-Inquiry as to the stranding of the British Steam-ship Veneria Official No. 68,388 of Glasgow, on Isaki Reef off Cape Tanabé, near Kobe, on the 26th March, 1886. The Master's (WILLIAM EDWARD LAWRENCE CLEMENT) Certificate of Competency was returned to him.

6. On the 12th July, 1886,-Inquiry as to the loss of the British Steam-ship Compton, Official No. 77,080 of London, on the South-west side of the Island of Balabac in the Palawan Passage, on the 12th June, 1886. The Master's (MATTHEW BRYCE WALKER) Certificate of Competency was returned to him.

Į

7. On the 30th August, 1886,-Inquiry as to the loss of the British Steam-ship Madras, Official No. 70,626 of London, on a rock in the Bay within the West side of the Tai Chow Islands, on the 15th August, 1886. In the absence of the Master (HENRY PLENGE) who was washed overboard and drowned, and the Chief Mate's injuries having incapa- citated him from performing his duties, there was not sufficiently good evidence to enable the Court to arrive at a satisfactory conclusion as to the exact position of the rock on which the Madras struck, nor are the courses the ship is said to have been steered, very reliable. 8. On the 14th October, 1886,-Inquiry as to the stranding of the British Steam-ship Dafila,

Official No: 68,501 of Sunderland, on the South Bank, Hainan Straits, China, on the 12th May, 1886. The Master's (JAMES MOONEY) Certificate of Competency was returned to him.

9. On the 25th November, 1886,-Inquiry as to the stranding of the British Steam-ship Greyhound, Official No. 81,647 of London, on a reef running out from Nan Sa Point in the Gulf of Tonquin, on the 2nd November, 1886. The Master's (THOMAS ABRAHAM THOMAS) Certificate of Competency was returned to him.

In the latter Case, the Court recommended that the attention of the Chinese Government be called to the want of lights and marks in the Hainan Straits, which has led to the stranding of several vessels.

SEAMEN.

16. 8,589 Seamen were shipped at the shipping Office during the year, and 9,229 discharged.. 17. I am glad to see that provision is made in the Estimates for this year for the construction of a long wanted jetty off this Office, and I trust there will be no delay in building it. The present slipway answered very well when nothing but gigs were used, but it is only at certain times of the tide that a steam-launch can get in to land people, and the boats not unfrequently touch the ground to the injury of their keels and bottoms.

18. Provision has also been made for making Hunghòm, a "Harbour Master's Station," under Section 38 of Ordinance 8 of 1879. Great inconvenience is felt by the Owners and Masters of boats frequenting that place, in having to go to Victoria or Yaumáti report their arrivals and obtain their papers. This Station will, I hope, soon be ready. At present an Officer has to visit Hunghòm daily, but this is attended with much loss of time, expense, and inconvenience.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

The Honourable F. STEWART, LL.D.,

Acting Colonial Secretary.

H. G. THOMSETT, R.N., Harbour Master, &c.

{

I.-NUMBER, TONNAGE, and CREWS of Vessels ENTERED at Ports in the Colony of Hongkong from each Country. in the Year 1886.

FOREIGN.

TOTAL.

374

BRITISH.

COUNTRIES WHENCE ARRIVED.

WITIL CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews. Vessels. Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons.

Crews. Vessels.

IN BALLAST. Tons. Crews. Vessels. Tons. Crews. Vessels.

TOTAL.

Tons.

Crews.

Australia and New Zealand,

59

67,756| 2,428||

59

67,756 2,428

British Columbia,.......

...

British North Borneo,.

29

4 2,421] ` 64

27,369 465 2,032] 34

29

27,369

465

Coast of China and Formosa,....

1,658 1,807,169 67,577 37

Cochin China,

171

204,640 5,747

Continent of Europe, ....

44

75,031 4,163]

44

75,031 4,163| 100 177,729 7,997;

41 2,421 64

2 2,0321 34 41 2,421 64

37,628 1,181 1,695 1,844,797 68,758 14,033 1,424,589 193,887 8,030 654,567 108,840 22,663 2,079,156 297,727 15,691 3,231,758 261,461 8,667 692,195 105,021 |24,358 3,923,953 366,485 171 204,640 5,747 131 114,609) 3,428||

131 114,609 3,428 302 319,249| 9,175|

302 319,249 9,175 145 252,805 12,176

21

• 2,032

34

881

2

95,125 2,893||

2,032

88

95,125 2,893

34

::

4

2,421 64

:

Great Britain,

167 242,587 6,600

167 242,587 6,600 27

32,233 603

:;.

India and Singapore,

91 119,465 6,149]

367 '10

Japan,

141 192,100 6,508

Java and other Islands in the Indian Archi-

pelago,

7

Macao,

8,314]

329 412,609 15,276]

257

19

654

92 · 119,832|| 6,159] 141 192,100 6,508

8,314]

54 331 413,263 15,330||

53

44,110 1,376||

76

84,171| 4,346

257

25

25 29,797 1,371

:

527

88,854 13,634

Mauritius,

3

North Pacific,

::

3,135

116

74

11]

::

Philippine Islands,

81

48,580 3,473

3

Ports in Hainan and the Gulf of Tonquin,

74

26,831 2,007

1,384

227

42

84

49,964 3,515| 52

28,388 1,651

24

75

27,058 2,031

207

$3,973. 4,466||

Russia in Asia,..

1,776

169

Sandwich Islands,..

1,230

25

Siam,

95

82,052 3,099

95

82,052 3,099 431

30,032

991

:

South America,...

694

16

United States of America,

21

44,153 1,548

21

44,153 1,548 42

76,716 2,763

1

45

16

101 177,774 8,013|

144 252,760 12,160)

271

***

393

2,669

18

54

108

78

32,233 603 44,503 1,394 144 163,575 7,525 86,840 4,454 217 276,271 10,854

194 274,820 7,2031

25

29,797 1,371

32

38,111 1,628]

237

33,741 3,489

764

122,595 17,123

856

501,463 28,910]

239

3

3,135| 116

3,135 116

3

3,135

1

74

11

74 11

116

74 11

1,034 36

54

29,422 1,687

138

76,968 5,124

2,418

78

138

79,386 5,202

207

...

83,973 4,466||

281

110,804 6,473

227

24

282

111,031 6,497

1,885 104 8,563 70

3,661 278

1,776 · 169

1,885 104

4,793 95

2 1,230|

25

3,563 70

43

30,032 991

138

112,084 4,090

138

4,793 95 112,084) 4,090

788 16

42

1,482 32 76,716 2,763

1

694 16

788

16

63

120,869 4,311

63 120,869 4,811

:

:

1

45

16

...

760

2,669

28

108

194 274,820| 7,203. 146 164,335 7,553

219 278,940 10,962

32 38,111 1,628 34,395 3,543 1,095 535,858 32,453

::

3,661 278

1,482 32

:

...

TOTAL,....

2,938|3,331,287|124,832|

44

40,260

1,811 2,9828,371,547 126,145 15,360 2,253,932 237,4138,880 698,685 107,697 21,240 2,052,617||

,617 345,110 18,2985,585,219 362,245 8,924 788,945 109,008 27,222 6,324,164 471,253

COUNTRIES TO WHICH DEPARTED.

Australia and New Zealand,

British Columbia,.

British North America,

British North Borneo,

Coast of hina and Formosa,

Cochin China,

Continent of Europe,

Great Britain,

II-NUMBER, TONNAGE, and CREWS of Vessels CLEARED at Ports in the Colony of Hongkong for each Country, in the Year 1886.

TOTAL.

BRITISH.

FOREIGN.

Vessels.

WITH CARGOES.

Tons. Crews. Vessels.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES,

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews. Vessels. Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tous. Orews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tous. Crews. Vessels.

Tons.

Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews

24,170 1,084

1,826 34

184 10

1,525|

231

24,351 1,094)

22

22

573

16

8,351 56 578 16

3,268 62

8,509

131

11,777 193

24,170, 1,084) 6: 5,094 *961

184

10,084

1,339

261

2 1,389! 26

1,765 1,901,112 75,282

22

19

281 26,768 925 39,061 2,385| 31,896 1,616| 200 284,532 10,788 113 178,477 6,693

49

123

731

19 18,670 469 91,172 2,283

5

6,701 181

52,987 1,642 1,8141,954,099|74,924|16,973;1,794,255 241,001 5,481 153,354 4,076|| 151 180,122 5,001 76 75,328 2,816 60 22 39,061| 2,385| 34 70,084 4,396 19 31,898 1,616|| 219 303,202 11,257 186 269,649 8,976 5 6,701 181

2,931 53 80 112,536 3,973)

83

336 417,350 15,580)

336| 417,350| 15,580|

648

3,116 86

21

20

10,718 8501 33,492; 2,134

13,468 267

15

83

3,116 86 24,179 1,17 24 38,507 2,202|

13 120,837 6,506| 21 249 9

105,442 15,266

74

12,825

11,947 305

17,619 655

2,862 79 2,862 79 288,458 54,468 22,454 2,077,713 295,469 18,7388,695,867 314,283 0,530 53,890 1,498 136 128,718 4,814 104 102,096 3,741 34! 70,084 4,396 56 109,145 6,781 2,931 531 34,829 1,669]

98 124,483 4,278] 397,068 1-1,761

104 138,456 7,161

16.

105

22

280

196

299,314 13,199]

94

B

2,083

66

4

2,332 75

47

6,707:

816

695

112,149; 16,082-

984

2491

522,792 30,846||

9

32 30,617; 774 108,791

8,784

2,938

247

47

6,707 816

453

10

3

527 22

I

74

4:

3,569 101

580

227

94,609 4,847

33,153

298

5461

52!

45,478 1,076|

44

23,086 1,380

41

46,621

813

17

228

94,902 4,864, 309 128,101 7,041)

308

25

B

8,705 217

3:

3,705 217

3: 8,705 217

183|

15.128

573 573

4,201 7 4,201 105 336,445 56,110 24,2684,031,812 370,393 206,744 5,574 287 308,840 9,315 56 109,145 6,781 22 34,829 1,669 312 427,685 15,535 290 408,105 16,137 9 9,038 256 1,081 529,499 81,662 D 3,643 108 85 69,657 2,193 128,409 7,066 3,705 217

10 23 24,354 1,094 153 14

249

16

311

684. 26 32,212 1,146

1,060|

381

40

6841 26 33,272 1,184|

4,826 126

4,826: 126

91 5,510 152

5,510 152

10

14,373 285

10

14,373 285

29 20,278 651 6 3,528 79 31 37,888 677

16

10,605; 3541 1,333; 20

4,057

30,878 1,005

68 52,485 1,797

11,665

$92

62 34

4,861 99 41,945 739

41

8,528 79 52,261| 962]

1,333)

201

851 64,150 2,189 7: 4.861

99

4,057

62]

44;

56,318 1,024

India and Singapore,

Japan,

Java & other Islds. in the Indian Archipelago,

Macao,

North Pacific,

Philippine Islands,

Ports in Hainan and the Gulf of Tonquin,.............

Russia in Asia,.

Sandwich Islands,

Siam,....

South America,

United States of America.

TOTAL..

2,660|2,996,666 116,888

291 344,164 9,124 2,951 3,340,830 126,012 18,230 2,462,158 281,216 5,688 436,469 59,032 23,918 2,898,627 340,248 20,890 5,458,824 398,104 5,979 780,633 68,156 26,869 6,239,457 466,200

375

376

III.-NUMBER, TONNAGE and CREWS of Vessels of each Nation ENTERED at Ports in the Colony of Hongkong,

in the Year 1886.

NATIONALITY

OF

VESSELS.

ENTERED.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BAELAST.

TOTAL.

Vessels. Tons. Crews. Vessels. Tons.

Crews.

Vessels.

Tons.

Crews.

American,

104

141,217

3,930

7

7,905

121

111

- 149,122

4,051

Austrian,

23

44,514

1,337

23

...

Belgian,

1

865

15

1

44,514 .865

1,337

15

British,

2,938

3,331,287

124,832

44

40,260

1,311

2,982

3,371,547

126,143

Chinese,

141

182,912

6,835

1

392

21

142

Chinese Junks,

14,161

1,105,352

190,032

8,810

647,516

106,144

22,971

183,304 1,752,868 296,176-

6,856

Danish,

52

21,111

1,064

3

1,785

55

55

22,896 1,119

Dutch,

· 38

49,995

2,533

38

49,995 2,533

French,

121

175,269

12,400

2

1,003

38

123

176,272

12,438

German,

622

451,222

15,571

54

36,564

1,116

676

487,786

16,687

Hawaiian,

1

340

11

1

340

11

Italian,

12

18,718

677

1

542

12

13

19,260

689

Japanese,

4,882

292

...

...

7

4,882

292.

Norwegian,

22

21,586

505

22

...

21,586

505

Russian,

6

9,675

570

2

2,978

190

8

12,653

760

Siamese,

16

7.483

299

16

7,483

299

Spanish,

33

18,791

1,342

33

18,791

1,342

TOTAL,.....

18,298 5,585,219 362,245

|

8,924

738,945 109,008 27,222 6,324,164 471,253

IV.-NUMBER, TONNAGE and CREWS of Vessels of each Nation CLEARED at Ports in the Colony of Hongkong,

in the Year 1886.

CLEARED.

NATIONALITY

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

OF

VESSELS.

Vessels. Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Vessels. Tons.

Crews.

American,

66

Austrian,

19

100,049 3,221 37,547 1,216

44

49,085

842

110

19

Belgian,

1

British,

2,660

2,996,666 116,888

291

Chinese,

131

168,579 6,336

1

Chinese Junks,

17,187

1,468,505 237,769

5,485

865 344,164 392 261,858

15 9,124 23 54,422

1 2,951 132 22,672

149,134 37,547 865

4,063

1,216

15

3,340,830

126,012

168,971

6,359

1,730,363

292,191

Danish,

48

19,832

999

2,545

80

52

22,377 1,079

Dutch,

31

42,258 2,197

3,713

163

36

45,971 2,360

French,

120

176,856 12,405

7

3,051

132

127

179,907

12,537

German,

554

386,332

14,059

112

90,006

2,501

666

476,338

16,560

Hawaiian,

340

11

1

340

11

Honduras,

1

177

11

1

177

11

Italian,

9

17,562

657

3

2,042

39

12

19,604

696

Japanese,

7

4,882

283

7

4,882

283

Norwegian,

10

7,982

192

14

14,541

375

24

22,526

567

Russian,..

8

12,141

684

Siamese,

15

7,145

279

Spanish,

30

16,853 1,180

221

1,964

102

10

14,105

786

995

38

17

8,140

317

527

17

31

17,380

1,197

TOTAL,

20,890 5,458,824 398,104 5,979

780,633

68,156 26,869 6,239,457 | 466,260

V. TOTAL NUMBER, TONNAGE AND CREWS OF VESSELS ENTERED AT EACH PORT IN THE COLONY OF HONGKONG, IN THE YEAR 1886.

BRITISH.

FOREIGN.

TOTAL.

NAMES

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGoes.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

OF PORTS.

Vls. Tons. Crews.

Vls.

Tons. Crews. Vls. Tons. Crews. Vis.

Aberdeen,

513

Shaukiwán,..

Stanley,

389

165

...

Victoria,

Yaumáti,..

...

Total,

2,938 3,331,287 124,832

2,938 3,331,287 124,832

41

467

...

44

Tons. Crews. Vis.

27,713 5,969| 487 15,280 3,706) 611 13,456 1,844 175 40,260 1,311 2,982 3,371,547 126,148 13,826 2,126,001 218,669 5,471 71,482 7,225 2,136 40,260 1,311 2,982 3,371,547 126,143 15,360 2,253,932 237,418 6,880 698,685|107,697| 24,240| 2,952,617 345,110 18,298 5,585,219 362,245 8,924

Tons. Crews. VIS.

Tons. Crews. Vls. .Tons. Crews. Vls. 29,717 6,828| 1,000| 57,430 12,797 513 27,713 5,969 487 37,334 5,759|| 1,000|| 52,614 9,465)| 389 15,280 3,706| 611 10,928 1,956 340 24,384 3,800| 165 175

13,456 1,844) 518,662 67,354 19,297 2,644,668 286,023 16,764 5,457,288 343,501 5,515 102,044 25,800 2,603 173,526 33,025 467 71,482 7,225 2,136

Tons. Crews. Vis.

Tons. Crews.

29,717 6,828 1,000 37,334 5,759 1,000| 10,928 1,956j 340)

57,480|12,797 52,614 9,465 24,384 3,800 558,922 68,665 22,279 6,016,210 412,166 102,044 25,800 2,603 173,526 33,025 738,945 109,008 27,222 6,324,164 471,253

VI. TOTAL NUMBER, TONNAGE AND CREWS OF VESSELS CLEARED AT EACH PORT IN THE COLONY OF HONGKONG, IN THE YEAR 1886.

BRITISH.

FOREIGN.

TOTAL.

NAMES

OF PORTS.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGÕES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Vls. Tons. Crews.

Vis.

Tons. Crews. Vls.

Tons. Crews. Vls.

Tons. Crews. Vis.

Tons. Crews. Vls.

Tons. Crews. Vls.

Aberdeen,

...

Shaukiwán,.....

Stanley,.

213

541

161

...

...

11,121 2,286 787 32,655 4,468| 18,046 1,759|

46,309 10,511| 1,000

435

179

19,435 4,805 11,338 2,034|

976

340

Victoria,

2,660) 2,996,666 116,888

Yaumáti,

...

Total,.

2,660| 2,996,666|116,888

291 344,164 9,124 2,951 3,340,830 126,012 16,141 2,831,940 259,164 2,980 73,396 13,549 1,307 291 344,164 9,124 2,951|3,340,830126,012 18,230 2,462,158281,216 5,688

264,547 23,797 19,121

1,174

94,840 17,885 2,481

Tons. Crews. Vls.

213

57,430| 12,797| 11,121 2,286| 787

541

52,090 9,263] 32,655 4,458 435 24,384 3,793| 161 13,046 1,759 179 2,596,487 282,961 18,801 5,828,606 876,052 3,271 168,236 31,434 1,174 73,396 13,549 1,307 436,469 59,032 23,918 2,898,627 840,248 20,890) 5,458,824898,104 5,979

Tons. Crews. Vis. Tons. Crews.

46,309|10,511| 1,000| 976

19,435 4,805) 11,838 2,034| 340

608,711 32,921| 22,072 5,937,817 408,978 94,840 17,885 2,481 168,236 31,434 780,639|68,156| 26,869 6,239,457 466,260

57,430 12,797

52,090 9,283 24,384 3,793

377

7

378

VII.-Total Number, Tonnage, Crews and Passengers of Junks ENTERED from Macao, during the Year

ending 31st December, 1886.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Vessels.

Tous.

Crews.

Passen-

.gers.

Vessels. Tons. Crews.

Victoria,

499

75,399

13,055 1,219

229

Passen-

gers.

29,382 3,307 1,121

Vessels.

Tous. Crews.

l'assen- gers.

728

104,781 16,362 2,340

Total,... 499 75,399 13,055 1,219

229

29,382 3,307 1,121

728

104,781 16,362 2,340

VIII.—Total Number, Tonnage, Crews and Passengers of Junks CLEARED for Macao, during the Year

ending 31st December, 1886.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Passen- gers.

Vessels. Tons. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Victoria,

618 90,288 14,633 1,391

46

6,315

793

876

664

96,603 15,426 -2,267

Total,... 618 90,288

14,633 1,391

46

6,315

793

876

664 96,603 15,426 2,267

IX.-Total Number, Tonnage, Crews and Passengers of Junks ENTERED at each Port in the Colony of Hongkong,

from Ports on the Coast of China and Formosa, during the Year ending 31st December, 1886.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Vessels. Tons. Crews.

Passen- gers.

Vessels.

Tous.. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

l'assen-

Vessels. Tous. Crews.

gers.

Aberdeen, Shaukiwán,.

513

27,713 5,969

34

487

29,717 6.828

56

1,000 57,430 12,797

90

389

15,280 3,706

187

611

37,334

5:759

53

1,000

52,614 9.465

240

Stanley,

165

13,456 1,844

15

175

10,928

1,956

Victoria,

12,128

902,022 158,233 | 123,498

5,172

438,111

62,494

Yaumáti,.

467

71,482 7,225

38

2,136

102,044 25,800

45 29,905 47

340 24,384 3,800 17,300 | 1,340,133 | 220,727 |153,403

2,603 173,526 33,025

60

85

Total,... 13,662 1,029,953 176,977 123,772

8,581

618,134 102,837 30,106

22,243 1,648,087 279,814 | 153,878

X.-Total Number, Tonnage, Crews and Passengers of Junhs CLEARED at each Port in the Colony of Hongkong,

for Ports on the Coast of China and Formosa, during the Year ending 31st December, 1886.

Cargo.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Vessels. Tous. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Vessels. Tous. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Vessels. Tons: Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Stanley,.

Victoria,

Yaumáti...

Aberdeen,

213

11,121 2,286 Shaukiwán,... 541

32,655 4.458 161

13,046 1,759 14,480 1,247,999 201,084 1,174 73,396 13,549

Total,... 16,569 1,378,217 223,136 130,791 5,439

27

787

46,309 10,511

202

1,000

57,430 12,797

229

146

435

19,435 4,805

59

976

52,090 9,263

205

83

179

11,338

2,034

53

130,442

2,731

83,621

18,394

10,111

93

1,307

94,840

17,885

293

340. 17,211 2,481

24,384 3.793

136

1,331,620 219,478 | 140,553

168,236 31,434

386

255,543

53,629

10,718 22,008

1,633,760 276.765141,509

379

XI.—Gross Total Number, Tonnage, Crews and Passengers of Junks Entered at each Port in the Colony of Hongkong, (exclusive of Local Trade), during the Year ending 31st December, 1886.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Vessels. Tons. Crews.

Passen- gers.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Vessels. 'Tons. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

r

Aberdeen,

513

27,713

5,969

31

487

29,717 6,828

56

1,000

57,430 12,797

90

Shankiwan,..

389

15,280

3,706

187

611

37,334

5,759

53

1,000

52,614 9,465

240

Stanley,

165

13,456

1,844

15

175

10,928

1,956

45

340

24,384 3,800

60

Victoria,

12,627

977,421 171,288

124,717

5,401

467,493

65,801

31,026

18,028

1,444,914 | 237,089

155,743

Yaumáti,.

467

71,482

7,225

38

2,136

102,044

25.800

47

2,603

173,526 33,025

85

Total,... 14,161 1,105,352 190,032 124,991

8,810

647,516 106,144

31,227 22,971 1,752,868 | 296,176

156,218

XII.-Gross Total Number, Tonnage, Crews and Passengers of Junks CLEARED at each Port in the Colony of

Hongkong, (exclusive of Local Trade), during the Year ending 31st December, 1886.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Vessels. Tons. Crews.

Passen- gers.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Passen- gers.

Vessels. Tons. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Aberdeen,

213 Shaukiwán,... 541

11,121 2,286 32,655

27

787

4,458

146

435

46,309 10,511 19,435 4,805

202

1,000

57,430

12,797

229

59

976

52,090 9,263

205

Stanley,

Victoria,

Yaumáti,.

161 15,098 1,174

13,046 1,759

83

1,338.287 215,717 131,833

2,777

73,396 | 13,549

93

1,307

179 11,338 2,034 89,936 19,187 94,840 17,885

53

10,987 293

340

24,384 3,793 17,875 | 1,428,223 | 234,904

2,481

168,236 31,434

136

142,8:20

386

Total,...

17,187|1,468,505 237,769 | 132,182

5,485

261,858

54,422

11,594

22,672 | 1,730,363 292,191

143,776

XIII-Return of Junks ( Local Trade) ENTERED at the Port of Victoria from the Out-stations of the Island and

the Villages in British Kaulung, during the Year ending 31st December, 1886.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Vessels. Tons. Crews.

Passen- gers.

Vessels. Tons. Crews.

Passen- gers.

Vessels. Tons. Crews.

Passen- gers.

Victoria,.

3,634 117,916 38,574 3,958 1,295 39,993 11,513 6,136 4,929

157,909 50,087 10.094

Total,...

3,634 117,916 38,574 3,958 1,295 39,993 11,513 6,136 4,929 157,909 50,087 10,094

XIV.-Return of Junks (Local Trade) CLEARED from the Port of Victoria for the Out-stations of the Island and

the Villages in British Kaulung, during the Year ending 31st December, 1886.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Vessels. Tons. Crews.

Passen- gers.

Passen-

Vessels. Tons. Crews.

gers.

Victoria,

2,037 55,481 16,642 8,714 2,989 109,726 34,267 815 5,026

165,207❘ 50,909

9,529

Total,... 2,037 55,481 16,642 8,714

2,989 109,726

34,267

815

5,026

165,207 50,909 9,529

380

XV.-SUMMARY.

FOREIGN TRADE.

NO. OF VESSELS.

TONS.

CREWS.

British Vessels entered with Cargoes,..

2.938

3,331,287

124,832

Do.

do.

in Ballast,

44

40,260

1,311

Total,

2,982

3,371,547

126,143

British Vessels cleared with Cargoes,

2,660

2,996,666

116,888

Do.

do. in Ballast,

291

344,164

9,124

Total,

2,951

3,340,830

126,012

Total of all British Vessels entered and cleared,

5,933

6,712,377

252,155

Foreign Vessels entered with Cargoes,

15,360

2,253,932

237,413

Do.

do. in Ballast,..

8,880

698,685

107,697

Total,.

24,240

2,952,617

345,110

Foreign Vessels cleared with Cargoes,

18,230

2,462,158

281,216

Do.

do. in Ballast,

5,688

436,469

59,032

Total,

23,918

2,898,627

340,248

Total of all Foreigu Vessels entered and cleared,,

48,158

5,851,244

685,358

Total of all Vessels entered with Cargoes,

18,298

5,585,219

362,245

Do.

do.

in Ballast,

8,924

738,945

109,008

Total of all Vessels entered,

27,222

6,324,164

471,253

Total of all Vessels cleared with Cargoes,

20,890

5,458,824

398,104

Do.

Do.

do.

Total of all Vessels entered and cleared with Cargoes,

Total of all Vessels engaged in Foreign Trade only, entered and cleared,.......

do.

in Ballast,

Total of all Vessels cleared,

do. in Ballast,

5,979

780,633

68,156

26,869

6,239,457

466,260

39,188

11,044,043

760,349

14,903

1,519,578

177,164

54,091

12,563,621

937,513

LOCAL TRADE.

Total of all Vessels entered,

Do.

4,929

157,909

50,087

cleared,

5,026

165,207

50,909

Total of all Vessels engaged in Local Trade only, entered and cleared,

9,955

323,116

100,996

Total of all Vessels engaged in Foreign Trade only, entered and cleared,

Do.

do. in Local Trade only,

54,091

12,563,621

937,513

do.

9,955

323,116

100,996

Grand Total of all Vessels entered and cleared,

64,046

12,886,737

1,038,509

SUMMARY OF ALL CHINESE PASSENGERS.

NAMES OF PLACES.

From Ports other than in China or Japan,

Do.

in China and Japan,

Do.

in Macao,

Do.

in Villages of the Colony,...

88,704

612,263

57,782

10,094

Total Arrivals,.

768,843

Left for Ports other than in China or Japan,

-64,522

Do.

in China and Japan,

Do.

in Macao,......

Do.

in Villages of the Colony,

588,430

53,004 ·

9,529

Total Departures,...

715,485

Excess of Arrivals over Departures,.........

53,358

Grand Total of Arrivals and Departures,

1,484,328

XVI.-RETURN of VESSELS REGISTERED at the Port of Hongkong, during the Year 1886.

Name of Vessel.

Official Number.

Regis- Horse

tered

Power. Tonnage.

Rig.

Built of

Where built and when

Remarks, &c.

381

Agnes, str.,

88,839 293.48 30

None

Wood Hongkong, 1886.

Formosa, str.,

88,840

674.00 200

Schooner

Iron

Newcastle on Tyne, 1885.

Carisbrooke, str.,... 65,463.

973.07 140

Schooner

Iron

Dicky, str.,

Sual, str.,

Consuelo, str., ••••••

Camorta, str.,

Pasig, str.,

Soochow, str.,

88,841 143.72 30

64,100 781.61 60

88,842 15.18 10

84,285 1,355.27 | 200

58,335 257.44 45

48,331 326.59 95

Schooner Iron Kiel, 1883.

Schooner Iron Hongkong, 1873.

Cutter Wood Hongkong, 1886.

Schooner Iron Glasgow, 1881.

Schooner Iron

Glasgow, 1867.

Schooner Iron

Cork, 1858.

*

Sunderland, Durham, 1873.

Since sold to Foreigners at

this Port..

Foreign name "Carisbrooke."

Poreign name "Dicky."

Since sold to Foreigners at

Manila.

Foreign name Camorta."

Foreign name "Pasig."

Formerly H. I. C. M. S.

"Kwang-wai.'

XVII.-RETURN of REGISTRIES of VESSELS cancelled at the Port of Hongkong, during the Year 1886.

Name of Vessel.

Rig.

Built of

Where built and when

Reason of Cancellation.

Amatista, str.,... 73,453 522.06 1883 140 Schr. Iron

Dumbarton, 1880.

Sold to Foreigners at this Port.

Androklos,

73,454 392.36 1883

:

Sual, str.,

Douglas, str.,

Guam,

64,100 456.49 1883 60 Schr. Iron

Hongkong, 1873.

Amity,

Agnes, str., ...... 88,839

Consuelo, str.,... 88,842

84,357 982.33 1883 240 Schr. Iron

54,885 290.88 1883

Schr. Wood Pallion, Sunderland, 1866.

62,522 519.02 1885

Barq. Iron

Sunderland, 1869.

293.48 1886 30 None Wood Hongkong, 1886.

15.18 1886 10 Cutter Wood Hongkong, 1886.

Aberdeen, 1882.

Barq. Wood Apreurade, Germany, 1866. Sold to Foreigners at Kana-

gawa.

Registered de novo in conse- quence of alteration in tonnage. Stranded, 1886.

Sold to Foreigners at Yoko-

hama.

Transferred to Singapore, 1886.

Sold to Foreigners at this Port.

Sold to Foreigners at Manila.

XVIII. AMOUNT of FEES received under the Merchant Shipping Act, 1855, and Section III of Ordinance No. 8 of 1879 in the Harbour Department, during the Year 1886.

Matter or Duty in respect of which Fee taken.

Number.

Fee.

Amount.

Remarks, &c.

*A

$

#A

Alteration in Agreement with Seamen,

1

1

1

Certifying Desertion,

144

1

144

Declaration of Ownership,..

11

2

22

Endorsement of change of Master,

34

1

34

Endorsement of change of Ownership,.

1

2

2

Granting Certificate of Imperial Registry,

9

15

135

Iuspection of Registry,

10

1

10

Recording Mortgage of Ship,

Recording Discharge of Mortgage,

Recording Sale of Ship,...

Registering Certificate of Sale,

10 10 10 2

5474

25

20

34.78

8

Total,.......$

435.78

382

XIX. RETURN of CHINESE PASSENGER SHIPS cleared by the Emigration Officer, Hongkong, during the Year ending the 31st day of December, 1886.

No.

DATE CLEARED.

SHIP'S NAME,

TONS.

NATION- ALITY OF SHIP.

ADULTS.

CHILDREN,

MASTER'S NAME.

WHITHER BOUND.

TOTAL.

M.

F.

M.

F.

January 5 Mirzapore, str.........

""

6 Zambesi, str..............

2,164 British 1,540

R. Harvey F. Cole

Straits Settlements

197

197

735

46

17

12

810

3

""

8

August, str.

1,026 Norwegian

P. Isberg

605

17

631

>;

4

12

Tai Sang, str.

1,505 British

T. L. Davies

318

26.

355

>>

5

""

13

Ingraban, str.

894 German

J. R. Massmann

341

352

Singapore

128

Port Darwin

Cooktown

6

"

13 Airlie, str..

1,492 British

W. Ellis

Townsville

182

Rockhampton Brisbane Sydney

191

Melbourne

9

789

15 Belgic, str.

2,695

W. H. Walker

San Francisco

130;

21

16 Diomed, str.

1,47H

W. E. Guthrie

Straits Settlements

296!

""

23

16 Arratoon Apear, str.

1,392

A. B. Mactavish

252

30

~

:

31

136

296

10

303

27

"2

Port Darwin

19

Cooktown

Townsville

10

دو

19 Fei Lung, str.

752

W. N. Allison

39

Brisbane Sydney

Melbourne

11

""

19 Cathay, str.

1,884

J. P. Hassall

Straits Settlements

164

""

164.

12

"

20 | Khiva, str.

1,419

W. E. Clement

166

178

"

Port Darwin

5

Cooktown

1

13

27 Menmuir, str.

1,247

P. T. Helms

30

Sydney

21

Melbourne

3

21

23

25

HR22 2272 * *88

14

""

28 Sarpedon, str.

1,592

II. Chrimes

י

Straits Settlements

189

159

15

""

30

Wing Sang, str. .....

1,517

d'A de Ste. Croix

113

119

16

30

""

Medusa, str..

1,776 Austro-Hung. R. Deperis

295

4.

345

"

17

30

San Pablo, str..

18 February 3

Venice, str.

19

20

""

18 Sumatra, str.

13 Glenartney, str.

13 City of Sydney, str.

2,113 American

1,271 British

1,400

""

1,966 American 1,400 British

E. C. Reed

San Francisco

52

J. B. Peters

Straits Settlements

29

::

53

29

D. O. Mackinlay D. E. Friele

153

159

27

San Francisco

45

45

77

18 Falamed, str.

1,536

W. D. Worcester C. Jackson

Straits Settlements

198

207

ادارة

50

17

Port Darwin

20

>>

20 Whampoa, str.

1,109

J. E. Williams

25

12

Brisbane

5

24

"2

23 Oceanic, str..

2,440

J. Metcalfe

San Francisco

195

201

""

"

26

Arratoon Apcar, str.

1,392

A. B. Mactavish

""

Straits Settlements

622

657

20

""

27

Kasligar, str.

1,515

23

F. Speck

352

359

21

گی

Brisbane

27

27 Suez, str.

1,388

W. M. Dodd

""

Sydney

18

26

Melbourne

Straits Settlements

155

Port Darwin

51

28 March

2 Guthrie, str.

1,493

S. G. Green

Cooktown

251

"

Townsville

Sydney

23

Melbourne

7

885888.

29

"2

2 Thames, str.

30

99

2 Elektra, str.

2,131

· 2,095 |Austro-Hung. G. Ragusin

W. A. Seaton

Straits Settlements

90

367

11

19

""

4

City of Rio de Janeiro, str.

2,275 American

W. B. Cobb

San Francisco

168!

ان

32

4 Tai Sang, str.

1,505 British

33

"3

5

Kennett, str.

1,156

3-4

""

8 Telemachus, str.

1,412

T. L. Davies J. T. Sanderson H. Joues

Straits Settlements

289

16

653

13

11 10 10

90

382

178

4.

311

350

:

35

13 Gaelic, str.

2,691

W. G. Pearne

San Francisco

212

31

ଦା କା

670

350

215

Port Darwin

32

36

"

13 Tannadice, str.

1,408

W. McArthur

Cooktown Townsville

1

65

Sydney

26

Melbourne

37

41

* ******

"

16 Pandora, str.

38

16 Peshawur, str.

1,781 Austro-Hung. G. Mettel 2,130 British

Straits Settlements

691

13

10

L. H. Moule

213

:

39

17 Japan, str....

40

""

22 Parthia, str....

1,865 2,035

">

"

22

23 City of New York, str.

42

""

25 Glengarry, str..

1,964 American 1,956 British

T. S. Gardner A. Marshall R. R. Searle A. Taylor

""

27

822

29

3

1,317

18

12

San Francisco

312

Straits Settlements

416

14

237

5901

43

27 Woosung, str.

1,109

J. D. C. Arthur

"

Sydney

12

717

213

860

1,347

326 441

602

Straits Settlements

518

23

Port Darwin

54

Thursday Island

Cooktown

44

29 Afghan, str.

1,439

G. Roy

}

Townsville

13

651

Rockhampton ·

31

Sydney

23

Melbourne

4

45

30 Clyde, str....

2,244

E. M. Edmond

Straits Settlements

224

224

46

""

31 Wing Sang, str.

1,517

d'A de Ste. Croix

287

29

16

""

47 April

3 Poseidon, str.

2,510 Austro-Hung. G. Doncich

653

39

16

>>

99

0

337

712

48

3 Belgic, str.

2,695 British

W. H. Walker

San Francisco

223

226

49

8 Glenearn, str,

1,410

E. F. Park

Straits Settlements

2

574

15

593

50

29

8 Khiva, str.

1,419

51

""

8 Cyclops, str.

1,403

52

12 Picciola, str...

53

13 Hydaspes, str.

875 German 1,891 British

S. Bason

218

14

240

H. Nish

99

99

G. P. M. T. Nissen

Bangkok

137

142

G. Scrivener

Straits Settlements

189

189

Carried forward,..

88,311

1

Carried forward,......| 15,792||

500

155

86 16,533

RETURN of CHINESE PASSENGER SHIPS cleared by the Emigration Officer, Hongkong,-(Continued).

383

No.

DATE CLEARED.

SHIP'S NAME.

TONS.

NATION- ALITY OF SHIP.

ADULTS.

CHILDREN.

MASTER'S NAME.

WHITHER BOUND.

TOTAL.

M.

F. M. F.

64 April 13

55

14

Brought forward....... Arration Apcar, str. City of Peking, str.

88,311

Brought forward, |15,192

500 155 86

16,593

1,392 British 3,129 American

A. B. Mactavish H. C. Dearborn

Straits Settlements

446

43

18

515

San Francisco

313

7

326

Singapore

249

Port Darwin

23

Cooktown

1

56

15 Airlie, str.

1,492 British

W. Ellis

Townsville Brisbane Sydney Melbourne

321

24

5888

57

16 Sumatra, str.

1,406

W. D. Worcester

Straits Settlements

668

وو

17 Berenice, str.

59

21 Gilsland, str.

1,707 Austro-Hung. G. B. Verona 1,058 British

530

27

2959

"2

27

L. H. D'Egville

Bangkok

60

22 Thames, str.....

2,131

W. A. Seaton

Straits Settlements Port Darwin Cooktown

703

567

27

213

61

24 Taiwan, str.

1,109

>

T. H. Clegg

Townsville

Brisbane Sydney

100

13

Melbourne

7

228 8 983233

62

24 San Pablo, str.......

63

24 Tai Sang, str.

2,113 American 1,505 British

E. C. Reed

San Francisco

378

7

387

T. J. Davies

Straits Settlements

764

30

16

818

64

28 Venetia, str...

1,609

W. E. Clement

379

13

22

417

23

""

65

29 Achilles, str..

>>

66

""

07

May

68

1 Deuteros, str.

30 Ingrahan, str.

1 Amphitrite, str.

894 German

C. Anderson

J. R. Massmann

2,486 Austro-Hung. B. Geleich

1,193 German

1,550.

200

""

وو

...

200

451

11

3

465

11

485

70

15

10

580

35

A. E. Luthjens

Singapore

138

8

1

285

Mauritius

129

69

4

Japan, str.

1,865 British

T. S. Gardner

Straits Settlements

406

17

435

70

5

City of Sydney, str.

25

71

6

Ancona, str.

و

1,966 | American 1,874 British

D. E. Friele S. F. Cole

San Francisco

314

2

317

Straits Settlements

187

:

187

Port Darwin

28

Thursday Island

1

Cooktown

6

72

Catterthun, str.

Townsville

7

1,406

J. W. B. Darke

72

Rockhampton Brisbane

Sydney

20

Melbourne

75

76

77

PIRKK

73

10 Ferntower, str..

23

74

12

Zambesi, str.

700 1,540

J. J. Kelley

Straits Settlements

427

12

443

F. Cole

780

13

801

"

""

"

15

Oceanic, str.

"

2,440

21

J. A. Thompson

San Francisco

807

18

834

15

Vorwaerts, str....

""

1,574 Austro-Hung.] P. P. Andrianic

Straits Settlements

317

70

401

15

Wing Sang, str.

1,517 British

d'A. de Ste. Croix

542

23

570

*J

"

Port Darwin

Thursday Island

Cooktown

78

15 Galveston, str.

Townsville.

1,301

W. Chater

51

22

79

>>

80

"

20 Pekin, str.

.81

ལྟ

82

83

""

.90

CBBBBB183

84

""

85

"

28 Arratoon Apcar, str.

86 June

19 Telamon, str.

22 Whampoa, str....

25 City of Rio de Janeiro, str.

26 Adowa, str.

27 | Hector, str.

2 Titania, str.

2,275 American 1,112 British

W. B. Cobb

1,555 2,125

"}

M. H. F. Jackson Straits Settlements A. Symons

1,109

A. Hunt

Rockhampton Brisbane Sydney Melbourne

Dilly, Timor Sydney

17

8)

490

38

546

212

212

29

60

120

Melbourne

28

San Francisco

475

W. F. Caborne

Straits Settlements

599

37

1,590

""

1,392

II. E. Batt

211

A. B. Mactavish

408

وو

""

87

3 Gaelic, str.

2,011 |Austro-Hung. S. Mersa 2,691 | British

449 66

22

W. G. Pearne

""

88

>"

5 Kashgar, str.

1,515

C. Gadd

San Francisco Straits Settlements

399

150

22

89

""

7 Singapore, str...

2,367 Italian

G. Parodi

249

""

7 St. Petersburg, str.

1,885 Russian

R. Stronsky

259

27

*** *80**~

3

:

480

18

662

211

95

9

10

522

14'

'536

16

420

13

178

3

253

294

""

91

"J

9 Protos, str.

1,093 German

C. Sorensen

Bangkok

49

51

92

11

Egean, str.

750 British

T. Thomas

Straits Settlements

247

255

93

دو

دو

12

Tai Sang, str.

94

16

Orion, str.

1,505

1,833 Austro-Hung. P. Mersa

T. L. Davies.

171

49

226

478

47

10

546

"

Sydney

135

Melbourne

401

Dunedin, N.Z.

71

*95

17 McBeth, str..

622 British

J. S. Wood

Auckland, N.Z.

271

Greymouth, N.Z.

3853

35

96

18 | Khiva, str.

97

19 Diomed, str.

1,419 1,471

""

98

"

19 Soochow, str.

999

99

**

22 Belgie, str.

100

**

22 Japan, str.

101

28 Tolani, str.

2,695 1,865 981

""

1 Sarpedon, str.

ور

102 July

103

2 Medusa, str.

3 City of Peking, str.

3 Wing Sang, str.

104

;>

105

77

106

5 Parthia, str.

Carried forward,,

1,592

P. W. Case

W. B. Bigley

J. B. Harris

W. II. Walker

Nelson, N.Z. Wellington, N.Z. Straits Settlements

>>

Port Darwin Sydney

Melbourne

301

318

146

140

91

155

49

Adelaide

10

San Francisco

5851

12

602

Straits Settlements.

555

38

10

612

166

166

"

258

10

272

25

457

50

10

15

532

H. C. Dearborn

San Francisco

592

33

10

64.2

d'A de Ste. Croix A. Marshall

Straits Settlements

440

46

10

505

229

11

1

242

99

>>

Carried forward,

34,341 1,515 430 257 36,543

T. S. Gardner E. Allason H. Chrimes

1,776 Austro-Hung. E. Perini 3,129 American

1.517 British 2,035

176,182

وو

384

RETURN of CHINESE PASSENGER SHIPS cleared by the Emigration Officer, Hongkong,—( Continued).

No.

DATE CLEARED.

SHIP'S NAME.

TONS.

NATION- ALITY OF SHIP.

ADULTS.

CHILDREN.

MASTER'S NAME.

WHITHER BOUND.

TOLAL.

M.

F.

M.

F.

Brought forward,........... 176,182

Brought forward, 34,341 1,515

430 2571 36,543

107

July

7 Orestes, str.

1,323 British

108

""

7 Nurjahan, str.

1,936

109

12

2

Camorta, str.

1,355

J. Hutchinson P. S. Budd J. G. Trewin

Straits Settlements

130

:

:

130

279

25

"

184

رو

Port Darwin

18

372

311

193

110

"

12. Taiwan, str.

1,109

"

T. H. Clegg

Sydney

41

125

Melbourne

61

Adelaide

Port Darwin

Cooktown

4

Townsville

12

111

·13 | Afghan, str.

1,439

""

G. Roy

58

Brisbane

12

Sydney

15

Melbourne

9

112

13 San Pablo, str...

2,113 American

E. C. Reed

San Francisco

241

10

257

113

وو

13 Zambesi, str...

1,540 British

F. Cole

Straits Settlements

257

114

14

23

Protos, str.

1,093 German

. C. Sorensen

Bangkok

34

115

15

Elektra, str.

2,095 Austro-Hung. G. Ragusin

Straits Settlements.

123

58

15

12

285

34

89

12

18

242

116

16

Glenroy, str..

1,411 British

W. J. Geake

141

141

""

...

117

""

16 Rochampton, str..

1,391

R. Sanderson

61

61

""

118

33

17

Ulysses, str.

1,301

119

20

دو

Arratoon Apear, str.

1.392

A. W. Bremner A. B. Mactavish

130

130

""

158

46

10

وو

22

222

120-

""

22 Bormida, str.

121

122

39

123

30

24 Glencoe, str...

24 City of Sydney, str.

Tai Sang, str.

124 August 3 Iolani, str.

1,499 Italian 1,901

British

E. Pizzarello W. E. Duke

287

32

332

29

336

10

371

1,966 | American 1,505 British

D. E. Friele

San Francisco

213

218

T. L. Davies

Straits Settlements

355

68

16

18

457

Sydney

80

Melbourne

123

Adelaide

.......

981

E. Allasou

217

>>

Launceston

Wellington

Auckland

125. 126

""

5

Kashgar, str.

""

6

Manilla, str.

127

7

Glenfruin, str.

128

10

City of Rio de Janeiro, str..

1,515 2,585 Italian 1,936 British 2,275 American

C. Gadd

""

Straits Settlements

208

10

244

A. Cruciani E. Norman

116

53

7

13

189

93

93

23

W. B Cobb

San Francisco

377

3

384

129

13

Japan, str.

1,865 British

T. S. Gardner

Straits Settlements

216

40

9

6

271

130

14

Poseidon, str.

131

14

Telemachus, str.

1,421 British

132

17

""

Pandora, str.

2,510 Austro-Hung. G. Doncich

1,781 Austro-Hung. T. Radonicich

137

77

17

240

H. Jones

80)

:

80

01

201

119

23

133

17

">

Suez, str.

1,388 British

J. Anderson

179

17

203

12

Port Darwin

:

Thursday Island

Cooktown

134

"2

18 Sikh, str.

1,610

22

A. Scotland

Townsville

43

Brisbaue Sydney Melbourne

:

.135 136

"

24

Gaelic, str.

23

24

Wingsang, str.....

137

>

25

Deccan, str.

2,691 1,517 2,022

W. G. Pearne

San Francisco

418

"

d'A. de Ste. Croix

Straits Settlements

378

17.

10

>

*

138

Sept.

2

City of New York, str.

1,964 American

.139

"

2 Berenice, str.

140

""

2 Arratoon Apcar, str.

1,707 | Austrian 1,392 British

P. W. Case R. R. Searle C. Bechtinger- A. B. Mactavish

292

32

San Francisco

121

Straits Settlements

395

51

406

31

6209

සපය

3

430

434

3

333

:

124

459

3

449

J

141

**

2 Soochow, str.

999

J. B. Harris

Sydney Melbourne

82

77

171

Adelaide

12

Port Darwin

19

Thursday Island

1

Cooktown

16

142

4 Guthrie, str...

1,493

N. Shannon

Townsville

74

Brisbane Sydney Melbourne

23

143 144

""

6 Cyclops, str.

1,403

>>

11 Zambesi, str..

1,540

H. Nish F. Cole

Straits Settlements

140

140

605

"

""

278

255

24

14

647

37

Port Darwin

23

Cooktown

145

>>

13 Northern, str.

1,462

W. Richardson

Townsville

Brisbane

Sydney

Melbourne

Adelaide

146

14

""

Belgic, str.

2,695

W. H. Walker

"

147

""

14

Tai Sang, str.

1,505

T. L. Davies

San Francisco Straits Settlements

2621

205

148

15

31

Bormida, str.

1,499 Italian

149

"".

16 Khiva, str.

150

17

Thisbe, str.

1,419 British

1,848 Austro-Hung. A. Ballovich

E. Pizzarello S. Bason

133

141

:

༧ ༢

::

189

51

151

39

23

City of Peking, str.

3,129 American

H. C. Dearborn

San Francisco

215

152

23

Prometheus, str.

1,538 British

153

"J

27 Achilles, str..

1,529

J. K. Webster C. Anderson

Straits Settlements

402

26

وو

257

Port Darwin

G

154

27 Taiwan, str.

1,109

T. H. Clegg

Sydney

18

Melbourne

23

155.

"

29 Japan, str.

1,865

"

156

"

30 Glengarry, str.

1,956

27

T. S. Gardner A. Taylor

Straits Settlements

398

39

288

28

*;

Carried forward,..............| 260,600

3515

395

266

240

134

141

259

233

436

257

47

11

457

323

Carried forward,.

45,080 2,405

659

438

48,642

RETURN of CHINESE PASSENGER SHIPS cleared by the Emigration Officer, Hongkong,-(Continued).

CHILDREN.

385

No.

DATE CLEARED.

SHIP'S NAMF.

TONS.

NATION-

ALITY OF SHIP.

ADULTS.

MASTER'S NAME.

WHITHER BOUND.

TOTAL.

M.

F. M.

F.

Brought forward,..

260,600

|Brought forward,..... 45,080| 2,465

659 438 483,642

Straits Settlements

221

18

CH

Port Darwin

10

157 Sept. 30 Menmuir, str.

1,247 British

Cooktown

4

P. T. Helms

286

Townsville Brisbane Sydney

10

1

16

158 Oct. 169 160

2 San Pablo, str..

""

2 Torwarts, str.

6 Hector, str.

2,113 American 1,574 Austrian 1,590 | British

E. C. Reed F. Radonicich H. Batt

San Francisco

140

]

.149

Straits Settlements

308

74

16

405

110)

110

Port Darwin

12

161

22

7

Pathan, str.

1,762

J. Rowley

Sydney

32

88

Melbourne

42

162

""

7

Raffaele Rubbatino, str.

3,044 Italian

G. Merells

Straits Settlements

455

27

200

492

163

""

11

Antenor, str.

1,645 British

T. W. Freeman

212

212

"

164

""

12

City of Sydney, str.

165

14

Wing Sang, str.

1,966 American 1,517 British

D. E. Friele

San Francisco

95

́d'A. de Ste, Croix | Straits Settlements

559

45

166

16

Anjer Head, str.

1,300

W. Macey

274

17

24

667

101

12

7

623

296

"

167

18

""

McBeth, str...

622

J. S. Wood

323

:

323

21

23

168

"

21

Oreanic, str.

2,440

J. A. Thompson

San Francisco

153

169

170

22

21

Glenorchy, str..

1,822

>>

F. Gedye

Straits Settlements

163

54

141

27

22

Decima, str..

965 German

P.

Oestmann {

Singapore

62

Mauritius

114

171

""

23

Amphitrite, str.

172

22

23

Arratoon Apear, str.

173

26

Ravenna, str.

""

174❘ Nov.

Titan, str..

2,486 | Austrian 1,392 British 2,035 1,554

B. Gelcich

A. B. Mactavish A. B. Daniell

Straits Settlements

260

257

14

203

:

:

164

181

184

322

274

203

:

R. J. Brown

195

198

,,

175

2

City of Rio de Janeiro, str..

2,275 American

W. B. Cobb

San Francisco

88

94

176

2 Orion, str.

1,833 Austrian

G. Maltiazzi

Straits Settlements

358

443

177

2 Tai Sang, str.

178

3 Glenfiulas, str..

1,505 | British 1,409

T. L. Davies

483

5

>>

A. J. Jacobs

128

537 195

J

>>

Port Darwin

5

Cooktown

7

Townsville

179

وو

6 Afghan, str.

1,439

G. Roy

44

Brisbane

Sydney

16

Melbourne

6

180 181

6 Agamemnon, str.

1,523

"

9 Verona, str.

1,862

* A

J. Wilding

Straits Settlements

247

M. De Horne

186

Port Darwin

A

182

183

184

""

185

""

186

187

188

23

189

23 Glenearn, str.

190

24 | Cathay, str.

11 Whampoa, str.

1,109

>>

A. Hunt

Sydney

63

Melbourne

63

1

12 Japan, str.

13 Gaelic, str.

13 Medusa, str..

17 Lombardy, str..

18 Bormida, str.

City of New York, str.

1,964 American

1,865 2,691

1,776 Austrian

T. S. Gardner W. G. Pearne E. Perini

Straits Settlements

345

20

San Francisco

210

15

Straits Settlements

427

93!

1,571 British

1,499 Italian

1,410 | British

1,884

W. J. Webber E. Fizzarello R. R. Searle B. Quartly

264

19

""

152

""

San Francisco

65

Straits Settlements

392

45

11

WICOWENCON

E. Ashdown

186

:

:

:

248

186

1837

2

370

233

16

566

200.

182

71

453

186

Singapore

140

6

Port Darwin

3

Thursday Island Townsville

3

191

26 Catterthun, str.

1,406

J. W. B. Darke

194

Rockhampton

Brisbane

Sydney

Melbourne

192 Dec.

2 Belgic. str.

2,695

W. H. Walker

San Francisco

122

193

""

2 Titania, str.

2,011 Austrian

194

2 Wing Sang, str.

1,517 British

S. Mersa d'A. de St. Croix

Straits Settlements

524

106

466

2893

20

11

40

33

Port Darwin

Cooktown

1

Townsville

3

195

"3

2 Rochampton, str..

1,391

R. Sanderson

Brisbane

1

Sydney

15

Melbourne

10.

196 197

7 Rohilla, str.

7 Sarpedon, str.

198

""

10 Khiva, str.

199

13 City of Peking, str.

200

13 Orestes, str.

201

15 | Changsha, str.

202

16 Gleneagles, str.

203

""

204

17

"

205

206

21

Hydaspes, str.

207

21

""

St. Petersburg, str......

208

""

23

Domenico Balduino, str.

209

23

""

Tai Sang, str.

210

30

City of Sydney, str..

211

>>

30

Glenavon, str.

16 Elektra, str.

Arratoon Apear, str. San Pablo, str..

2,252 1,592 1,419 3,129 American 1,323 British

1,463

1,838

2.095 Austrian 1,392 British 2,113 American 1,891 British 1,885 Russian 3,044 Italian

1,505 British 1,966 American 1,936 British

E. F. Park G. Ragusin A. B. Mactavish E. C. Reed G. Scrivener R. Stronsky G. Dodero T. L. Davies

W. Barratt

Straits Settlements

223

"

""

H. Chrimes S. Bason

285

25

72

677

37

21

22

322

220

366

16

16

148

657

520

52

223

316

725

H. C. Dearborn J. W. Hutchinson

San Francisco

129

144

Straits Settlements Port Darwin

210

212

13

J. E. Williams

Sydney

80

255

Melbourne Straits Settlements

162

221

231

511

وو

333

33.

97

20

12

640

66

12

11

422

"

San Francisco

94

95

Straits Settlements

189

189

375

18

394

27

420

12

2

435

22

190

18

216

D. E. Friele

San Francisco

90

7

99

K. J. Gasson

Straits Settlements

863

50

18

6

937

TOTAL TONS,

359,152

TOTAL PASSENGERS,.

59,4263,608 884 604

64,522

386

RETURN of CHINESE PASSENGER SHIPS cleared by the Emigration Officer, Hongkong,—( Continued).

To Adelaide, South Australia,

,, Auckland, New Zealand,

,, Bangkok, Siam,

,, Brisbane, Queensland,

"3

Cooktown,

Do.,

"

Dily, Timor,

31

Dunedin, New Zealand,

,, Greymouth,

Launceston,

Do.,

Do.,

,, Mauritius,

Melbourne,..

,; Nelson, New Zealand,

"

Port Darwin, South Australia,

Rockhampton, Queensland,.....

وو

San Francisco, U.S.A.,.............

"

Straits Settlements,

"3

Sydney,

31

وو

Thursday Island, Queensland,....

Townsville, Queensland,.

,, Wellington, New Zealand,

SUMMARY.

ADULTS.

CHILDREN.

TOTAL.

M.

F.

M.

F.

29

9

247

58

63

Q

29

9

254

58.

63

29

71

9

71

9

4

243

17

260

787

796

6

14

10

470

8

8,233) 238

48,010 3,360

77

50 8,598

772

549 52,091

9431

944

12

12

206

206

:

:

5

TOTAL PASSENGERS,

59,426 3,608)

884: 604

64,522

:

+

XX. RETURN of VESSELS bringing CHINESE PASSENGERS to the Port of Victoria, Hongkong, from Places out of the Chinese Empire, during the Year ending the 31st day of December, 1886.

387

No.

DATE ARRIVED.

SHIP'S NAME.

TONS.

NATION-

ALITY OF SHIP.

ADULTS.

CHILDREN.

MASTER'S NAME.

WHERE FROM.

TOTAL.

M.

F. M. F.

1 January 2| Mosser, str.

1,326 British

Titzek

Straits Settlements

101

**

2 Cheang Hock Kian, str..

955

Webb

2951-

+5

3

105 305

:>

"

**

4

Tai Sang, str.

1,505

.་

4

Kong Beng, str....

862

Davies Jones

480

20

500

92

Bangkok

25

2

27

"

4

Arratoon Apcar, str.

1,392

Mactavish

Straits Settlements

250

250

4 Bellerophon. str.

1.397

Freeman

38

ลง

2

40

་་

""

"

4

Martha Davis..

**

5

Ingraban, str.

833 American $94 German

Benson

Honolulu

235 10

8

2

255

Massmann

Straits Settlements

324 6

330

1

9

10

17

8

Ascalon, str.

19

8

City of Peking, str.

11

9

Khiva. str.

1.523 British

3,129 American 1,419 British

Harris

67

67

>>

4

Dearborn

San Francisco

550

11

7

5

573

Clements

Straits Settlements

117

3

120

12

11

Ganges, str.

2,162

Stewart

93

93

""

1)

13

11 Sarpedon, str.

1,592

Chrimes

"

**

210 11

14

.་

11 Mongkut, str.

859

15

14 Camelot, str.

1,049

"

16

"

15 Palamed, str.

1,536

Loff Daily Jackson

Bangkok

101

Straits Settlements

327

238

1446

221

105

to

338

244

་་

Port Darwin

10

Cooktown

17

17

15 Menmuir, str..

1,247

Helms

Townsville Brisbane

35

214

32

Sydney

79

Melbourne

41

19

21

23

31

2222222R 8 N**O/28+880

18

16 Nepaul, str..

1,988

Alderton

Straits Settlements

107

,,

!!

18 Glaucus, str.

1,382

Hannah

234

""

20

11

19

12

24

"

25

**

26

.་

27

99

22

29

30

23 Venice, str.

""

26 Bangalore, str.

18 Taichiow, str.

19 Oopack, str...

19 Glenfinlas. str. 19 Southern Chief

19 San Pablo, str.

20 | Phra Cho Klao, str.

21 Carisbrooke, str.................

Orestes, str..

22 Medusa, str.

23 Glucksburg, str.

1,323

1,775 Austrian

916 German 1,271 British

Peters Bason

862

Newton

Bangkok

50

"

1,730

Jacques

Straits Settlements

321

co co co

1,409

Jacobs

350

"

""

1,220 American

Ross

Honolulu

380

2,113

Reid

San Francisco

381

1,012 British

Stratton

Bangkok

93

Co

Straits Settlements

136

973

Cass

"

Mauritius

341

Hutchinson

Straits Settlements

197

Decheris

423

20

";

Bertelsen

305

!!

288

2262

>>

32

:9

27 Wing Sang, str.

33

";

28 Stentor, str..............

1,309 1,517 1,307

125

11

>

Ste. Croix

471

"

11

Edwards

130

>>

00.631

34

19

28 | Phra Chula Chom Klao, s.

1,012

Lightwood

Bangkok

81

"

35

**

29 Thames, str.

2.131

Seaton

Straits Settlements

180

36

37

Feb.

1

Priam. str.

38

1

39

19

3 Benarty, str.

40

"

30 City of Sydney, str.

Mark Lane, str.

6 Telemachus, str.

1,965 American

Friele

San Francisco

274

1,402 British

Butler

Straits Settlements

SO

1,354

Porter

117

1

"

1,119

Le Boutellier

46

1

??

41

6 Ingraban, str..

42

8 Glenearn, str.

1,410 British

1.421

895 German

Parkes

Jones

60

3

""

Massmanu

150

""

:

861

"

43

5.

8 Cheang Hock Kian, str.

956

Webb

226

"

**

44

"

8 Oceanic, str.

2,440

Metcalfe

!!

45

10 Ulysses, str.....

•1.300

Bremner

46

15 Anchises, str.

1,304

Lapage

47

"

15 Whampoa, str..

1,109

Williams

48

"

17 Kashgar, str.

1,515

Speck

San Francisco Straits Settlements

Australian Ports Straits Settlements

197

115

118

127

108

213 ON ON H∞

:

3

107

240

53

2

329

350

380

381.

99

.:

170

202

446

316

296

125.

2

485

133

82

180.

274

80

118

47

63

150

88

3

238

203

118

120

128

111

Batavia

1

Cooktown

23

49

"

17 Guthrie, str.

1,493

Green

Townsville

Brisbane

Sydney

13

15

130

56

Adelaide

5

Melbourne

17

52

REEBO

50

"

22 Arratoon Apcar, str.

1,392

Mactavish

Straits Settlements

450

"

22 Jason. str.

1,411

:)

23 Deucalion, str.

1,374

23 City of Rio de Janeiro, str.

2,275. American

24 Elektra, str.

55

25 Clyde, str.

2,095 Austrian

2,244 British

Milligan Asquith Cobb Ragusin Edmonds

244

9$

San Francisco

851

Straits Settlements

364

co

42

450

247

100

85

2

4

376

42

Port Darwin

12

Thursday Island

Townsville

56

25 Tannadice, str.

1,408

McArthur

Brisbane

86

Newcastle

Sydney

42

Melbourne

13

57

";

26 Glengarry, str.

1,956

Taylor

Straits Settlements

150

150

58

26 Tai Sang, str.

1,506

Davies

481

12

502

??

59 March 1 Amigo, str.

771 German

Thiesen

271

1

273

>>

60

"

4 Menelaus, str.

1.300 British

Nelson

350 15

365

61

4 Formosa, str.

674

Ashton

380 16

396

"

62

4 Zambesi, str.

1.540

Cole

340 14

354

63

5 Gaelic, str.

2,691

64

8 Mongkut, str.

859

Pearne Loff

San Francisco

330

335

"

Bangkok

160

162

65

Japan, str.

1,865

Gardner

Straits Settlements

554

504

??

66

9 Atholl, str.

923

Coulter

376

9

""

67

9 Glucksburg, str.

916 German

Bertelsen

2991

53

390

307

19

68

69

70

"

11 Hydaspes, str..

12 Pandora, str.

13 Glenroy, str.

1,891 British

Scrivener

74

74

ཝཱ

:

11 Glamorganshire, str.

1,843

Davies

288

10

1,781 Austrian

Meltell

156

10

сл н

4

304

171

1,411 British

Geake

197

3.

200

#

15 City of New York, str.

1,964 American

Searle

San Francisco

180

180

Carried forward.................

104,703

Carried forward...........

15,739 290 68

35

16,132

388

RETURN of VESSELS bringing CHINESE PASSENGERS to the Port of Victoria, Hongkong,-(Continued).

No.

DATE ARRIVED,

SHIP'S NAME.

TONS.

NATION- ALITY OF SHIP.

ADULTS.

CHILDREN.

MASTER'S NAME.

WHERE FROM.

TOTAL.

M.

F.

M. F.

Brought forward..

104,703

73

March 15

Venetia, str.

74

15

Ingraban, str.

75

15

Borneo, str.

1,609 British

894 German 1,434 Dutch

Clement Massmann

Brought forward... 15,739 Straits Settlements

290

68

35

16,132

78

80

387

3

400

Swart

60

60

76

15 Cyclops, str.

1,403 British

Nish

320

329

77

78

79

*:*

80

""

18 Laertes, str..

19 Benledi, str.

20 Patroclus, str.

22 Woosung. str.

1,391 1,000 1,386. 1,109

Scale

J

218

231

"

>>

Farquhar

156

160

"

Thompson

;

*

126

.130

Arthur

Australian Ports

61

""

64

81

""

22 Polyhymnia, str..

1,053 German

Bochme

Straits Settlements

86

90

82

!>

23 Ningchow, str.

1,735 British

Castle

135 10

3

2

150

83

84

86

87

88

89

"

23 Belgic, str.

2,695

Walker

وو.

23 Kong Beng, str.

862

Jones

""

San Francisco Bangkok

977 13

990

37

4

"

24 Cheang Hock Kian, str.

956

Webb

Straits Settlements

537 18

>>

24 Wing Sang, str.

"5

24 Prometheus, str.

"9

26

Deccan, str..

""

27 Yorkshire, str.

90

""

91

11

93

94

92 April

29 Poseidon, str.

31 | Phra Chula Chom Klao, s.

2 Pembrokeshire, str.

2 Khiva, str.

2,510 Austrian

1,012 British

Ste. Croix

Webster

Haselwood Arnold

1,517

::

444 30

772

5

ON LO CH

2

.50

5

565

480

1,538

165 5

""

170

2,022

"

25

";

25

1,425

114

""

6

25

120

Doncich

502

10

9

7

528

Lightwood

Bangkok

37

3

40

1,716

>>

1,419

"

Wilkins

Straits Settlements

221

4

5

235

Bason

183

4

3

City of Peking, str.

3,129 American

Dearborn

San Francisco

1,177

32

20

Swo

3

190

19

1,248

95

*96

97

93

:)

5

Mount Lebanon

530

Nelson

Honolulu

79

79

"?

5

Nanshan, str.

805 British

Blackburn

Bangkok

31

""

5

Ghazee, str.

5

Nestor, str.

1,764 1,269

3.3

Bailey

Straits Settlements

160

:>

Thompson

92

194

32

6

2

24

2

170

19

4

100

99

12

5

Arratoon Apcar, str.

1,392

Mactavish

100

33.

Amigo, str.

771 German

Thiesen

270 386

:

270

...

""

101

"

6 Gleneagles, str.

1,837 British

Gasson

366

102

!)

6 Vortigern, str...

876

Brown

"9

Bangkok

90

E B M

400

3

3

380

3

97

Port Darwin'

13

Thursday Island

2

Cooktown

7

103

""

7 Airlie, str..

1,492

Ellis

Townsville

18

143

Brisbane

56

Sydney

43

Melbourne

4

104

105

"

8

Ancona, str....

1,877

Cole

Straits Settlements

40

40

"

8

Achilles, str.

1,528

Anderson

195

13

217

106

""

9

San Pablo, str.

2,113 American

Reed

San Francisco

483

483

107

"

10 Sumatra, str.

1,406 British

Worcester

Straits Settlements

1901

3

197

108

">

12 | Phra Chom Klao, str.

1,012

11

Stratton

Bangkok

26

27

109

19

12 Catterthun, str.

1,406

Darke

19

Australian Ports

112

112

110

""

13.

Berenice, str.

1,707 Austrian

Verona

Straits Settlements

316

40

16

406

111

"

13

Lorne, str.

1,035 British

Hunter

184

4

200

"

112

14

Tai Sang, str.

1,505

Davies

212 10

222

"

113

99

16,

Duburg, str.

921 German

Bertelsen

157

**

161

114

32

17

Glenavon, str....

1,995 British

Donaldson

221

2

234

""

115

"

17

Kaisow, str..

1,934

Thomson

70

70

"?

116

19

19

Ajax, str...

1,524

Riley

177

""

117

17

20

Venice, str.

1,271

Peters

173

పాలు

180

1

3

爷爷

183

118

""

21 Pekin. str.

2,125

Symons

70

70

**

119

21 Parthia, str..........

2.035

Marshall

250

15

*

120

97

22 Cheang Hock Kian, str..

956

Webb

247 14

121

""

24 Amphitrite, str.

2,486 Austrian

Gelcich

428

100

122

""

24 Teheran, str.

123

99.

27 Denbighshire, str.

124

27 Oxfordshire, str..

125

""

27 Japan, str.

998 1,865

126

27 Lord of the Isles, str.

.1,586

";

127

"

27 Gleneagles, str.

2,000

128

27 City of Sydney, str.

129

**

28 Whampoa, str.

1,679 British

1,663

1,966 American 1,109 British

Seymour Cuming Jones Gardner Felgate

Friele

??

10

270

00 00 10

8

275

3

271

5

543

56

60

多多

82

"

84

120

120

"!

279 10

289

751 3

78

Hogg

130!

9

139

San Francisco

566

17

2

589

Williams

Australian Ports

100

100

130

29 Benlarig, str.

1,481

*

131

29 Antenor, str.

132

29

Atholl, str.

1,376 923

"!

Clark Bragg Coulter

Straits Settlements

80

6

2

90

96

100

!!

129

133

30

Oceanic, str.

2,440

::

Thompson

San Francisco

77

134 May

1 Allie Rowe

135

""

Phra Chula Chom Kłao, s.

1,012 British

136

""

1 Ching Wo, str.

1,556

137

"

1 Titan. str.

1,554

138

"

3

Pearl, str....

706

340 Hawaiian

Brown Munk

Phillips

Honolulu

59

Lightwood

Bangkok

74

McHugh

Straits Settlements

104

6 3

:::

1

132

77

60

C

88

115

200

":

200

!

108

་་

139

4 Hector, str.

1,590

29

140

>>

6 Ravenna, str.

2,035

Batt Daniels

148

2 2

110-

}:

150

38

""

38

141

"

6 Hungtingdon, str.

1,464

Carr

130

6

"

142

39

6 Hesperia, str.

143

7 Vorwærts, str..

1,136 German 1,574 Austrian

Christiansen Andrianich

100

"

"

334

20

20

20 10 10

108

139

113

379

Port Darwin

16

Cooktown

10

144

7 Tannadice, str.

1,408 British

Craig

Townsville

91

Brisbane

Sydney

145

7 Picciola, str.

875 German

146

7| Phra Chom Klao, str.

1,012 British

Nissen Stratton

Bangkok

81

86

90

i

147

7 Monmouthshire, str.

1,871

Rickard

步步

Straits Settlements

19

'

27

148

7 Wing Sang, str.

1,517

Ste. Croix

"

194

200

149

"

7 Antonio, str.

1,214

Wallace

28

>>

30

150

19

12 Glencoe, str.

1,901

Duke

*

"

460

20

15

151

13 Telamon, str.

1,555

>

152

14 Westmeath, str.

2,095

Jackson Stonehouse

330

10

••

40

10 10

500

350

29

Ι

30

Curried forward...

223,591

Carried forward.....

31,386 871 264 160 32,681

}

RETURN of VESSELS bringing CHINESE PASSENGERS to the Port of Victoria, Hongkong,-(Continued).

389

No.

DATE ARRIVED.

SHIP'S NAME.

TONS.

NATION- ALITY OF SHIP.

ADULTS.

CHILDREN.

MASTER'S NAME.

WHERE FROM.

TOTAL.

M. F.

M. F.

Brought forward.

223,591

L

153 May

14

Mongkut, str.

859 British

Loff

Brought forward... 31,386 871 Bangkok

264

160

32,681

170

8

178

154

15

Gilsland, str.

1,058

De Egville

45

2

47

17

155

+1

15

City of Rio de Janeiro, str.

2,275 American

Cobb

San Francisco

162

162

156

15 Amigo, str.

771 German

Thiesen

Straits Settlements

392 20

15

2

429

157

18 Adowa, str.

1,111 British

Caborne

2021

15

2

1

220

158

19 James Watt, str.

1,024

Petrie

65

65

**

159

19 Gaelic, str.

2,691

Pearne

San Francisco

107

C

110

#

160

20 Verona, str.

1,862

Horne

Straits Settlements

99

99

161

20 Bellerophon, str.

1,397

Guthrie

340

350

162

20 Electra, str.

"

.1,162 German

Nagel

113

3

130

>

163

"

21 Duburg, str......

164

165

166

167

168

169

"

25 Kashgar, str.

170

";

21 Triumph, str.

21 Hampshire, str.

21

Kong Beng, str.

21 Guthrie, str.

25 Titania, str..

25 Arratoon Apcar, str.

921 674

Bertelsen

279

300

22

>

Schuldt

61

71

>>

1,700 British

Kornish

26

28

>>

862

Jones

Bangkok

54

1,494

Green

Australian Ports

80

2,011 Austrian

Mersa

Straits Settlements

4431

20

30

10

503

1,515 British

Gadd

61

1,392

Mactavish

292

"

>>

171

25 Cheang Hock Kian, str..

956

Webb

130

10

172

173

27 Fidelio, str..

27 Diomed, str..

852 German

Brock

158

2602

63

6

8

Co oo

304

2

150

160

1,471 British

Bigley

148

148

174

"

28 Singapore, str.

2,432 Italian

Parodi

223

175

28

Phra Chula Chom Klao, s.

1,012 British

Lightwood

Bangkok

68

176

29 Clieveden, str...

1,115

Gibb

72

543

5

3

1

232

4

3

75

75

";

177

29 Khiva, str.

1,419

Case

"7

Straits Settlements

42

42

178

31 Venice, str.

1,271

Peters

282

10

2

300

179

31

Glenfalloch, str.

">

1,419

Webster

131

8

6

145.

>>

180 June

2 Rosetta, str..................

2,136

Brady

61

??

181

2 Palinurus, str......

1,536

Jackson

253

::

61

259

""

22

182

2 | Phra Chom Klao, str.

1,012

Stratton

Bangkok

46

6

3

59

183

3 Pearl, str............

706

Munk

Straits Settlements

111

5

4

120

??

184

19

4 Laju, str.

1,246

Mann

28

2

30

"

""

185

4

Tai Sang, str.

1,506

Davies

288

10

298

95

""

186

11

4

Quarta, str.

773 German

Kock

Bangkok

49

50

187

7 Orion, str.

1,833 Austrian

Mersa

Straits Settlements

350

36

386

188

7

Sarpedon, str.

وو

1,591 British

Chrimes

148 10

6

2

166

"

189

12

7

Woosung, str.

1,109

Arthur

"

Australian Ports

94

94

190

"

7

Sury Wangse, str.

531 German

Malsen

Bangkok

52

1

53

...

191

7 Belgic, str.

2,695 British

Walker

San Francisco

208

208

192

9 Benalder, str.

1,331

Ross

""

Straits Settlements

121

4

130

193

10 Picciola, str.

194 1

""

10 Gordon Castle, str.

875 German 1,320 British

Nissen

145

153

99

Rowell

169

174

""

195

""

12 Mongkut, str.

859

Loff

"

Bangkok

56

57

196

22

15 Euphrates, str.

1,300

Mitchell

Straits Settlements

80

85

**

197

99

15 Rohilla, str.

2,252

Barrett

44

""

"

...

44

198

*

16 Japan, str.

1,865

Gardner

506

31

10

2

549

"

"

199

་་

17 Orestes, str.

1,323

Hutchinson

340

5

345

""

"

200

"

18 Duburg, str.

921 German

Bertelsen

321

10

"

201

!!

18 Kong Beng, str.

862 British

Jones

Bangkok

30

:

84

339

34

202

19 Glaucus, str.

1,382

Hannah

Straits Settlements

170

174

"

22

203

23 Glenlyon, str.

1,410

Somers

312

12

22

"

"

201

"

24 ' Phra Chula Chom Klao, s.

1,012

Lightwood

Bangkok

£3

205

::

25 Wing Sang, str.

1,517

St. Croix

Straits Settlements

::

206

25 Medusa, str.

207

"

26 Ulysses, str...

1,776 Austrian 1,300 British

Pereni

260 30 391

10

17

"

Bremner

139

208

209

»

210

12

211

""

212 213

3.

3 Protos, str.

5 Airlie, str.

214 July

215

28 Glenfruin, str.

28 Independent, str.

28 San Pablo, str.

29 Nurjahan, str.

30 Surat, str.

30 Taiwan, str..

1,936

871 German

2,113 American

Norman

SO

23

"

Hasenwinkel

Bangkok

57 3

Reed

San Francisco

91

1,936 British

Budd

Straits Settlements

120

00 1000 2 T

8

*20290

330

95

:

300

418

150

88

60

93

3

2

2

127

1,677

Murray

104

104

1,109

Clegg

Australian Ports

46

46

1,150 German

Sorensen

Bangkok

214

214

Port Darwin

18

1,492 British

Brisbane

18

Ellis

131

Dunedin, N.Z.

30

Sydney

65

216

"

6 Zambesi, str.

217

"

6 Arratoon Apcar, str.

1,540 1,392

Cole

Straits Settlements

78

2

81

>>

Mactavish

500 15

4

519

39

!!

218

**

7 Elektra, str

219

+

8 Anchises, str.

220

"

9 Deuteros, str.

221

9 Lorne, str.

222

10 Sikh, str.

1,510

""

2,095 Austrian

1,304 British 1,197 German 1,035 British

Lapage Leuthgens Hunter Scotland

Ragusin

664 10

674

""

180

6

204

2

503

11

222

224

190

210

520

1001

10

110

19

223

>>

10 Egean, str.

750

Thomas

146

2

150

72

"

224

J

10 City of Sydney, str.

1,966 American

Friele

San Francisco

106

106

225

12 Venetia, str.

226

13 Stentor, str.

227

**

13 Bormida, str.

228

"

14 Peshawur, str..

1,609 British 1,307

1,489 Italian 2,130 British

Edwards Pizzarello Moule

Worcester

Straits Settlements

78

78

176)

182

""

130

3

139

64

229

14 Nanshan, str.

865

Blackburn

Bangkok

45

::

64

46

230

":

15 Glenartney, str.

1.400

231

**

16 Priam, str.

1.402

232.

"

17 Mongkut, str.

859

233

19 Picciola, str.

234

19 Cassandra, str.

235

236

>

237

"

19 Oceanic, str.

238

27

21 Atholl, str.

19 Jason, str.

19 Prinz Georg, str..

**

875 German 1,097 1,412 British 1,906 German

2.440 British

923

Milligan Plett

Thompson Coulter

McKinlay Butler Loff Nissen

Straits Settlements

220

10

235

90

90

Bangkok

110

115

Straits Settlements

83

87

Haeslook

134

140

"

115

11

129

*

93 10

103

San Francisco Straits Settlements

150

150

248

239

71

21 Amigo, str.

771 | German

Thiessen

"}

Carried forward................. 343,854

Carried forward...........

3 190 10

45,733 1,363

251

8.

212

484 226

47,806

་་

390

RETURN of VESSELS bringing CHINESE PASSENGERS to the Port of Victoria, Hongkong,-(Continued):

No.

DATE ARRIVED.

SHIP'S NAME.

TONS.

NATION- ALITY OF SHIP.

ADULTS.

CHILDREN.

MASTER'S NAME.

WHERE FROM.

TOTAL.

M. F

M. F

Brought forward

343,854

Brought forward... 45,733 1,363 Townsville

484 226

17,806

36

240 July

Brisbane

30

22 Whampoa, str.

1,159 British

Hunt

Sydney

19

103

Melbourne

17

241 242

"

24 Telemachus, str.

26 Patroclus, str...

1,421 1,386

Jones

Straits Settlements

260! 10

275

,,

"

Thompson

156

4

160

:>

:

243

وو

26 Tai Sang, str.

1,505

Davies

400

10

15

430

17

244

26 Kashgar, str..

1,515

Gadd

120

4

128

245

28 Mirzapore, str.

2,164

Harvey

57

57

246

30 | Phra Chula Chom Klao, s.

1,012

Lightwood

Bangkok

62

62

247

31 Menelaus, str.

1,300

Nelson

Straits Settlements

107

114

248 August 3 Cheang Hock Kian, str.

956

Webb

243 11

10

266

249

*

3

Glamis Castle, str.

1,558

Amy

294

6

300

250

3

Japan, str.

1,865

"

Gardner

490

490

251

"

4

City of Rio de Janeiro, str.

2,275 American

Cobb

San Francisco

164

164

252

5 Deucalion, str.

1,374 British

Asquith

Straits Settlements

132

137

253

19

6

Fidelio, str.

254

وو

6

Gaelic, str.

255

""

7

Poseidon, str.

256

59

Protos, str.

257

99

10

Mongkut, str.

258

12

Pandora, str.

852 German 2,691 British 2.510 Austrian

1,150 German

859 British 1,781 Austrian

Brock

2061

206

Pearne

San Francisco

167

1.72

Doncich

Straits Settlements

430

13

443

Sorensen

Bangkok

108

126

Loff

137

140

Radonicich

Straits Settlements

2301

238

259

33

12

Dardanus, str..

1,536 British

Purdy

160

"

160

260

13

??

Oder, str. ................

261

"

13

Wing Sang, str.

262

"

263

"

264

265

266

"

267

"9

268

16 Cyclops, str.

16 Polyhymnia, str.

16 | Phra Chom Klao, str..

18 Gleneagles, str.

20 | City of New York, str.

21 Laertes, str..................

21 Taichiow, str.

1,891 German 1,517 British 1,403

""

1,053 German

1,012 British * 2,000

1,964 American 1,391 British

Ppeiffer

148

148

St. Croix

87

90

Nish

182

182

Nagel

$5

10

6

101

Walton

Bangkok

48

""

Hogg

Straits Settlements

287

Searle

San Francisco

160

:

:

48

10

300

160

Scale

Straits Settlements

146

· 150

862

>>

Newton

Bangkok

31

34

Port Darwin

11

Townsville

4

269

"}

21 Guthrie, str.

1,494

Shannon

Brisbane

11

101

Sydney

30

Melbourne

45

270

"9

23

Anjer Head, str....

1,300

"

Macey

Straits Settlements

135

10

140

271

99

24

Kaisow, str.......

1,934

Thomson

270

20

6

""

300

272

""

26

Lorne, str.

1,035

Hunter

424 116

"

550

273

""

28 Arratoon Apcar, str.

1,392

Mactavish

320

18

::

338

274

>>

28 Belgic. str.

2,695

Walker

San Francisco

220

220

"

275

"

28 | Phra Chula Chom Klao, s.

1,012

"

Lightwood

Bangkok

62

67

276

Sept.

277

""

278

"

279

33

280

""

281

13

282

12

283

33

284

13

285

6

""

286

,,

287

8 Mongkut, str....

288

1 Hydra,

1 Kong Beng, str.

2 Prometheus, str.

4 Duburg, str....

4 Picciola, str.

4 Flintshire, str.

6 Amigo, str.

6 Tai Sang, str.

6 Zambesi, str.

Achilles, str.

7 City of Peking, str.

10 Neckar, str.....

1,017 British

771 German 1,505 British

1,540 1.528

"

3,129 American

785 German

862 British

Binge Jones

Honolulu

175

3

186

Bangkok

35

A

41

1,538

Webster

Straits Settlements

295

"

300

921 German

Bertelsen

107

"

116

875

Niessen

100

""

**

Doncaster

100

+2

108

23

104

Samuelsen

450

452

??

Davies Cole

4801

10

"

500

214

220

Anderson

55

3

66

Dearborn

San Francisco

271

271

859 British 1,870 German

Loff

Bangkok

56

Hi

60

Baur

Straits Settlements

73

73

289

11 Bormida, str.

290

11 Thisbe, str.

291

13 Khiva, str.

292

13 Ningchow, str.

293

"

13 Massalia, str.

294

,,

14 Hector, str.

295

14 Danube, str.

1.499 Italian 1.848 Austrian 1,419 British 1,735

19

1,262 German 1,590 British

561

Bason

Castle

Petersen

Pizzarello

321

333

Ballovich

281

294

70

>

79

165

3

180

75

76

Batt

164

15

9)

179

Anderson

""

Bangkok

641

65

296

14 China, str.

1,093 German

Haye

36

"

38

297

99

15 | Clieveden, str.

1,115 British

Gibb

30

11

35

298

15 Fidelio, str.

852 German

Brock

Straits Settlements

62

63

299

??

15 Cheang Hock Kian, str.

956 British

Webb

324

77

300

25

17 Prinz Alexander, str...

1.911 German

Eckert

335

33

360

"

350

301

:>

18 Antenor, str.

1,376 British

Freeman

390

::

396

302

18 Cambodia, str.

1,969

Wildgoose

30

*

:

30

303

20 Glamorganshire, str.

1,843

""

301

39

23 Ravenna, str.

2,038

305

"

23 Vorwaerts, str.

1,574 Austrian

306

**

23 San Pablo, str. ...

307

""

23 Japan, str.

308

11

25 Glenorchy, str.

1,822

2,113 American

1,865 British

Davies Daniell

Reed Gardner Gedye

157

Q

2

165

441

44

Radonicich

520

21

541

San Francisco

3901

10

400

Straits Settlements

350

350

28

309

27 Palamed, str.

1,536

**

310

28 Benlarig, str.

1,482

Jackson Clarke

478

29

275

30

487

:

34

Thursday Island

Cooktown

Townsville

21

311

*

29 Airlic, str.

1,492

Ellis

Brisbane

42

161

Dunedin, N.Z.

17

Sydney

431

Melbourne

9

312

""

30 Raffaele Rubattino, str....

313

30 Benvenue. str........

314

#:

30 Telamon, str.

315

30 | Phra Chula Chom Klao, S. 316 October 4 | Ching Wo, str.

Carried forward..

3,044 Italian 1,497 British 1,565 1,012

Merello

Straits Settlements

560

574

Thomson

53

55

**

Jackson Lightwood

115

121

Bangkok

60 10

75

1,556

..

McHugh

Straits Settlements

150

10

160

459,503

Carried forward....

60,320 1,862

615 281

63,078

ན་

RETURN of VESSELS bringing CHINESE PASSENGERS to the Port of Victoria, Hongkong,—(Continued).

391

:

No.

DATE ARRIVED.

SHIP'S NAME.

TONS.

NATION- ALITY OF SHIP.

ADULTS.

CHILDREN.

MASTER'S NAME.

WHERE FROM.

TOTAL.

M. F

M. F.

Brought forward..

459,503

317 October 4

City of Sydney, str.

1,966 American

Friele

Brought forward... 60,320 1,862 San Francisco

615 281

63,078

326

12

6

348

318

4

Kong Beng, str.

862 British

Jones

Bangkok

37

...

37

319

5

>>

Glenfinlas, str.

1,409

Jacobs

Straits Settlements

30

30

""

320

?>

Wing Sang, str.

321

322

323

::

6 Picciola, str.

321

"

6 Livingstone..

325

""

7 Angers, str.

326

""

8

Hesperia, str.

327

8

Titan, str.

328

"

8

Mongkut, str.

329

9

Nurnberg, str.

330

"

11

Amigo, str.

331

11 Clara, str.

6 Verona, str..

6 Dupey de Lorne, str..

531 2,077 British

1,136 German 1,554 British

??

858 2,159 German

771 674

Stiffens

1,517 1,865

Ste. Croix

190

5

10

5

200

97

$9

De Horne

100

100

27

**

2,663 French

Comp

190

10

""

875 German

Nissen

273

>>

Honolulu

183

"

Pinkham

Straits Settlements

140

Christiansen

103

"}

Brown

252

"2

Loff

Bangkok

37

OONGK 10 60

200

2 M

:

4

285

188

146

111

1

2

260

40

Berdrow

Straits Settlements

175

175

Samuelsen

18

6

4

2

30

>

""

Christiansen

Bangkok

35

35

332

333

15 Cheang Hock Kian, str.

16 Pembrokeshire, str.

956 British

Webb

Straits Settlements

318

20

16

6

360

1,717

Williams

29

30

17

2)

334

18 Benarty, str.

1,11,9

Le Boultelier

210

10

وو

>>

335

18 Agamemnon, str.

336

18

Atholl, str.

1,522 923

Wilding

155 16

Coulter

225

7

100 TH 00

99

4

3

1012

5

230

176

2

237

337

18 Tannadice, str.

338

19 Amphitrite, str.

339

19 Arratoon Apcar, str.

340

20 Toonan, str...

1,408

2,486 Austrian

1,392 British

1,262 Chinese

Craig

Australian Ports

290

10

Gelcich

Straits Settlements

397

35

Mactavish

250

10

"

Marsden

327

341

21

Moray, str.

1,427 British

Duncan

231

12

PROTE

300

18

10

444

454

275

7

3

337

7

250

342

21

City of Rio de Janeiro, str.

2,275 American

Cobb

San Francisco

503

503

343

22 Taichiow, str.

862 British

Newton

Bangkok

99

6

311

22

Fred. P. Litchfield..

1,042 American

Young

Honolulu

162 6

4

345

25

Tai Sang, str.

1,506 British

Davies

Straits Settlements

480 12

3

346

26 Diomed, str.

1,471

Bigley

138

2

2

"

347

27

Orion, str.

1,833 Austrian

Matiazzi

200

12

10

10:00 10 ONE-

115

175

500

144

7

229

348

27

Niobe, str.

1,672 German

Plaff

170

171

349

27

Kong Beng, str.

862 British

Jones

Bangkok

66 2

350

28 Edward May

890 American

Johnson

Honolulu

176

26

70

5

1

195

351

28 Gaelic, str.

2,691 British

Pearne

San Francisco

937 20

957

352

29 Bellerophon, str.

1,396

Guthrie

Straits Settlements

190

6

3

199

353 Nov.

1

Changsha, str..

1,463

Williams

185

190

:)

354

"

1

Ajax, str.

1,525

Riley

146 10

2

158

355

"

1

Electra, str.

1,162 German

Madsen

213

220

356

1

Whampoa, str.

1,109 British

Hunt

Australian Ports

150

150

Port Darwin

301

Cooktown

2

Townsville

13

357

""

2 Catterthun, str.

1,406

Darke

Brisbane

8

97

Sydney

31

1

2

Melbourne

6

Adelaide

4

358

2 Oopack, str.

1,729

""

359

3 Rohilla, str.

2,251

Jaques Barratt

Straits Settlements

357

13

4

4

378

55!

55

360

>>

3 | Phra Chula Chom Klao, S

1,012

>>

Lightwood

Bangkok

65

10

361

4 Duburg, str.

921 German

Bertelsen

Straits Settlements

294

9

00 m

8

87

304

362

4 Braunschweig, str.

2,150

Stormer

178

178

363

"

8 Lombardy, str.

1,571 British

Webber

364

"

8 Japan, str.

1,865

Gardner

29

"

365

8

City of New York, str.

1,964 American

Searle

San Francisco

366

"

9 Medusa, str...

1,775 Austrian

Perini

Straits Settlements

501 1 225 17 509 284 11

51

8

250

509

295

}

367

9 Palinurus, str..

1,536 British

"1

368

10 Bormida, str.

1,499 Italian

Jackson Pizzarello

289

4

3

296

"

115

116

"

369

"J

12 Cheang Hock Kian, str...

956 British

Webb

385

17

10

5

412

"?

370

12 Soochow, str.

999

Harris

17

Sydney Melbourne

18

41

}

59

371

15 Belgic, str.

2,695

Walker

San Francisco

760

372

15 Ghazee, str.

1,764

Johnson

Straits Settlements

460 10

373

"

15 Sarpedon, str..

1,591

Chrimes

250

10

374

27

16 Denbighshire, str.

1,663

77

Cuming

274

375

17 Iphigenia, str.

1,059 German

Valtmer

";

21

110

376

18 Orestes, str.

1,323 British

"

377

""

19 Hydaspes, str.

1,890

Hutchinson Scrivener

150

62

>>

378

29

20 Gleneagles, str.

1,838

"

Park

225 15

"

379

22 Taichiow, str.

862

";

380

23 Fidelio, str.

852 German

Newton Brock

Bangkok

41

381

24 Parthia, str.

2,035 British

Brough

Straits Settlements

370

363

21

382

25 Picciola, str.

Nissen

383

"

384

**

385

"

386

"

25 Guthrie, str.

26 Titania, str......

26 Benledi, str..

29 Wing Sang, str.

387

29 Amigo, str.

388

>>

30 City of Peking, str.

389 Dec.

1 Glaucus, str.

875 German

1,493 British 2,011 Austrian 999 British

1,517

771 German 3,129 | American

1,382 British

Shannon Mersa Riddoch

Ste. Croix

Samuelsen Dearborn Hannah

Australian Ports Straits Settlements

198

00 10

2 6

72

996m2

10 00 00 10 Na

760

480

271

2

22

280 116

156

62

250

373

3

371

:

200

130

130

::

248

20 10 10

288

138

5

143

*

350

10

360

192

192

::

San Francisco

677

677

Straits Settlements

163

390

1 Khiva, str.

1,419

Bason

111

as on

3

166

3

114

2

391

"

1 | Phra Chom Klao, str.

1,012

Walton

Bangkok

70

2

72

392

""

4 Surat, str...

1,677

Nantes

Straits Settlements

100

100

393

4 James Watt, str..

1,024

Petrie

118

"

394

6 Ulysses, str........

1,300

Bremner

>>

""

100

395

6 Alden Besse..

812 American

**

396

7 San Pablo, str.

2,113

"

397

**

398

"

10 Duburg, str.............

399

7 Arratoon Apcar, sir.

11 Elektra, str....

1,392 British

O'Brien Reed

Mactavish

Honolulu

235

22+

120

102

239

San Francisco

618

618

Straits Settlements

297

9

3

309

921 German

2,095 Austrian

Bertelsen Ragusin

218

221

11

325

ลง

2

336

**

Carried forward.....

581,539

Carried forward..............| 78,968| 2,358

811

390 82,527

392

RETURN of VESSELS bringing CHINESE PASSENGERS to the Port of Victoria, Hongkong,-(Continued).

No.

DATE ARRIVED,

SHIP'S NAME.

TONS.

NATION- ALITY OF SHIP.

ADULTS.

CHILDREN.

MASTER'S ΝΑΜΕ.

WHERE FROM.

TOTAL.

JI.

F.

M. F

Brought forward...... 581,539

400 Dec.

11

Mongkut, str.

401 402 103

::

13 Anchises, str.

#

13

Chingtu, str.

$59 British 1,304 1,459

Loff

Brought forward...... 78,968 2,358

Bangkok

$11 390

82,527

138

140

Lapage

Straits Settlements

146

165.

Varden

80

SI

**

**

33

13 Coloma,

814 American

Noyes

Portland, Oregon

850

350

Port Darwin

Thursday Island

104

"

13 Taiwan, str....

1,109 British

Clegg

Cooktown

Townsville

156

Brisbane

Sydney

Melbourne

14

405 406

**

16

Domenico Balduino, str.

3,044 Italian

Dadero

Straits Settlements

500

"

17

Lydia, str.

1,170 German

Voss

146

407

""

17 Benalder, str.

1,331 British

Ross

511

146

115

:

408

2

18 Kaisar-I-Hind, str.

2,401

Stead

56

409

20 Cheang Hock Kian, str.

955

Webb

331

410

20 Glengyle, str.

2,244

Donaldson

399

""

411

20 Stentor, str..

1.317

Edwards

180

10

༢ ༣ མཁ

56 350

406

193

412

413

"

414

415

11

416

23 Kong Beng, str.

23 City of Sydney, str.

28 Pandora, str.

28 Telemachus, str.

862

爷爷

Phillips

Bangkok

531

53

23 | Phra Chula Chom Klao, s.

1,012

Lightwood

73

75

-

1,966 American

Friele

San Francisco

553

553

1,781 Austrian -

Mersa

Straits Settlements

450

500

1,421 British

Jones

58

60

417

"7

28 Priam, str.

1.4027

Butler

120

120

"

418

"

29

Japan, str.

1,865

Gardner

283

283

419

""

29

Lorne, str.

1,035

Hunter

225 3

420

29

"

Patroclus, str.

1,386

Thompson

50

421

**

29

Fidelio, str.

852 German

Brock

296

1 2 99

1

230

52

299

422

30

>!

Oceanic, str.

2,440 British

Davison

San Francisco

607

607

423

""

30

Decima, str....

965 German

Oestmanu

Straits Settlements

299

15

421

30

":

Edward Kidder,.

965 American

425

"!

81

Picciola, str.

875 German

Griffin Nissen

Portland, Oregon

161

53

326

2

170

Straits Settlements

179

180

TOTAL TONS.................

618,373

From Adelaide, South Australia,

;)

Australian Ports,

"}

Bangkok,

;;

Batavia,

"

Brisbane, Queensland,

"

Cooktown, Queensland,

::

Dunedin, New Zealand,

17

Honolulu, Sandwich Islands,

Mauritius,

་་

""

Melbourne,

Newcastle, N.S.W.,

Port Darwin. South Australia,

""

Portland, Oregon, U.S.A.,

19

San Francisco, U.S.A.,

Straits Settlements,

Sydney,

"

Thursday Island, Queensland,

Townsville, Queensland,

SUMMARY.

TOTAL PASSENGERS,

TOTAL PASSENGERS

84,975 2,474

852 403 88.704

ADULTS.

CHILDREN.

TOTAL.

M.

F.

J. F.

VALUE

OF TREASURE BROUGHT.

9 1,190 3,566, 151

:

61

28

1,204 3,806

1:

}

255

255

125

125

$ 65,857

47

47

1,684

35

25

B

1,757

34

34

207

207

5

I

117

117

19,500

511

3

2

520

12,963 136 37

20

13.166

9,361,451

63,560 2,131

724 330

66,745

521

3

526 821,241

14

14

166

166

84,975 2,474

$52 403 88,701 $10,268,019

XXI-RETURN of MARINE CASES tried at the MARINE MAGISTRATE's Court, during the Year 1886.

DEFENDANTS, HOW DISPOSED OF.

NATURE OF CHARGE.

NO. OF CASES.

No. of

DE- Impri- Impri- FEND- soned soned with ANTS.

in Hard default Labour. of Fine.

Fined.

Forfei- ture

Repri- manded.

of Pay.

Duty.

To be Sent dis- back to charged

from Ship.

Com-

Dis- missed.

mitted for Trial.

10123

1

9

9

Absent from Ship without Leave,.. Assault,

Boarding House, Keeping Unlicensed,.

Broaching Cargo, &c.,

Disorderly Conduct,

Found stowed away,

Drunkenness,

Insubordination,

Obstruction of fairways,

Refusal of Duty,

Leaving without Clearance (Junk).

Refuse to join ship......

Throwing Ballast, &c. into Harbour,

Wilfully remaining behind,

18

20

8

TOTAL...

58

87

40

10

2

CO

3

24

6

AMOUNT OF

FINES.

$18.00

24.00

17.00

24.00

2.00

1

11

$85.00

----་་་་་་་་་་་

:

6,400,000

6,300,000

6,200,000

6,100,000

6,000,000

5,900,000

5,800,000

5,700,000

5,600,000

5,500,000

5,400,000

5,300,000

5,200,000

5,100,000

5,000,000

4,900,000

4,800,000

4:700,000

4,6co,cco

4,500,000

4,400,000

4:300,000

4,200,000

4,100,000

TONS.

1867.

1868.

1869.

1870.

XXII.-DIAGRAM of Tonnage entered at Hor

BLUE LINE represents Junk Tonnage or

RED LINE represents Foreign Shipping

THICK BLACK LINE represents entire

1871.

1872.

1873.

1874.

1875.

1876.

1877.

1875.

1876.

1877.

entered at Hongkong, from 1867 to 1886 inclusive.

Junk Tonnage only.

ɔreign Shipping Tonnage only.

represents entire Trade in Foreign Ships and Junks.

1878.

1879.

1884.

1885.

1886.

6,400,000

6,300,000

6,200,000

6,100,000

6,000,000

5,900,000

5,800,000

5,700,000

5,600,000

5,500,000

5,400,000

5,300,000

5,200,000

5,100,000

5,000,000

4,900,000

4,800,000

4,700,000

4,600,000

4,500,000

4.400,000

4,300,000

4,200,000

4,100,000

TONS.

4,600,000

4,500,000

4,400,000

4:300,000

4,200,000

4,100,000

4,000,000

3,900,000

3,800,000

3,700,000

3,600,000

3:500,000

*3:400,cco

3,300,000

3,200,cco

3,100,000

3,000,000

2,900,000

2,800,coo

2,700,000

2,600,000

2,500,000

2,400,000

2,300,000

2,200,000

2,100,000

2,000,000

1,900,000

1,800,000

1,700,000

1,600,000

1,500,000

1,400,000

1,300,000

1,200,000

1,100,000

1,000,000

Harbour Department, Hongkong, 10th February, 1887.

4,500,000

4,400,000

4,300,000

4,200,000

4,100,000

4,000,000

3,900,000

3,800,000

3,700,000

3,600,000

3,500,000

3,400,000

3,300,000

3,200,000

3,100,000.

3,000,000

2,900,000

2,800,000

2,700,000

2,600,000

2,500,000

2,400,000

2,300,000

2,200,000

2,100,000

2,000,000

[1,900,000

1,800,000

1,700,000

1,600,000

1,500,000

1,400,000

1,300,000

1,200,000

1,100,000

1,000,000

H. G. THOMSETT, R.N.,

Harbour Master, &c.

449

No. 87.

33

HONGKONG.

DESPATCH RESPECTING THE CELEBRATION OF HER MAJESTY'S JUBILEE.

Presented to the Legislative Council, by Command of His

Excellency the Officer Administering the Government,

on the 19th September, 1887.

HONGKONG.

No. 144.

SIR,

DOWNING STREET,

10th August, 1887.

I have had the honour to lay before the QUEEN your Despatch, No. 223 of the 22nd of June, and I am commanded to convey to you Her Majesty's gracious approval of the proposal to postpone the special celebration of the Jubilee. in Hongkong to the 9th of November next.

You will have learned from my telegram of the 23rd of June that Her Majesty received with much pleasure the loyal telegrams referred to in your Despatch under acknowledgment.

I have the honour to be.

Sir,

Your most obedient humble Servant,

The Officer Administering the Government of

HONGKONG.

H. T. HOLLAND.

No. 1888.

41

175

HONGKONG.

THE EVICTION OF SQUATTERS AT KENNEDY TOWN.

Presented to the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government, on the 17th September, 1886.

Minute by the Surveyor General.

These people, who were trespassers on Crown Land, were, at the request of the Military Authorities and also for sanitary reasons, removed from the vicinity of the present Belcher's Point Battery, and as they asked for time in order to look about them for fresh sites, they were allowed under covenant with the Sanitary Inspector to occupy temporarily and provisionally, and for a term not exceeding six months, the hillside at Kennedy Town just above the present Glass Works. In the arrangement between them and the Sanitary Inspector it was also stipulated by him and readily agreed to by them, that their pigsties should be kept in a pro- per condition.

They pledged themselves to observe these conditions, but kept the pigsties in a most filthy state, and at the expiration of the covenanted term of six months refused to remove.

.

The Nuisance Inspectors then on more than one occasion notified them to move away in accordance with their original promise, but they took no heed.

This breach of faith with a Government that had shown them every consider- ation, and their continuance on the ground and the increase of the nuisance compelled me to take up the matter personally, and I accordingly visited them at their camp twice, warning them that they would have to bestir themselves and look about for other places as on no account could the Government sanction their remaining at Kennedy Town. They readily promised to select other sites, and it was arranged they were to visit me at my office in a fortnight and point out to me on the map the places they had selected.

The fortnight having expired and an additional month, without any of them putting in an appearance at my office; I was compelled again to go in quest of them, and finding they had done nothing towards looking for other sites, I had them brought to me in batches of tens and fifteens, when being warned of the determination of the Government to move them out of Kennedy Town, they were made to come to some terms with me, many of them accepting sites at Kau-lung- wan and others at Kowloon. They, however, pointed out that the new ground being strange to them, they would like to go and see it first before making any application for the licences. This appeared to me reasonable, and accordingly I assented, agreeing with them that they should return in a week to settle details.

As far as I could ascertain they never went to Kau-lung-wan or Kowloon, and they never returned to see me.

My attention is very much engrossed with other and more important public matters, and it may readily be conceived that I could not devote my whole time to these people and their proceedings. Some months therefore elapsed before I could again occupy myself with them.

In the earlier part of this year I returned to the charge, and was much sur- prised upon a personal inspection of the camp to see how much each trespasser had enlarged his premises and increased the number of his pigs, and how much fouler the whole place was bidding fair to become unless steps were taken to clear the ground, and accordingly a most serious admonition was given to the trespassers warning them of the Government intention to remove them without further delay unless they went of their own accord. Most of those with whom I spoke asked for time, varying from six months to one year. This was refused.

176

About three months ago His Excellency the Officer Administering the Go- vernment directed my attention to the necessity of building a Police Station at Kennedy Town for which funds are voted in the current year's Colonial Estimates, and Dr. Ayres, Captain Deane, and myself having been directed to select the best site, we chose a spot close to the camp of the trespassers and recommended its adoption to Government.

In addition to the wholesale nuisance which the trespassers are creating they have dislodged all the stones along the bed of the nullah, so that when the great rain-storm of last July came, enormous quantities of loosened earth and debris were washed down into the Davis Street drain between the Rope Works and Glass Works, choking up and bursting this drain and putting the Government to an expense of $1,700 in repairs.

The necessity for certain additional works of storm drainage and defence against freshets, in order to prevent a recurrence of disasters of this kind made it clear that it was necessary without any loss of time to remove such of the tres- passers' huts as were situated within the area of the proposed new catch water drains and excavations, while the probability of an early beginning with the pro- posed new Police Station and approach roads made it equally obvious that those of the pigsties and huts within these works would also have to follow soon after.

Therefore on Friday, the 20th of last month, I again visited the trespassers* camp; and after vainly searching for some indication of their intention to remove, I instructed Mr. McLeod, the officer in charge of the proposed new works, to notify through the channel of the Interpreter about forty or forty-five of the trespassers who were in the way of the new works that they must, willing or unwilling, remove before the morning of the last day of August, for the new works would begin on the 1st of September. It was made clear to them that further extensions of time were out of the question, as any delay of the new works would not be tolerated.

On the same day (20th of August) Mr. McLeod duly served this notice on the trespassers concerned, reporting to me in the evening.

The last day of August arrived, and on Mr. McLeod proceeding to the spot to make arrangements for beginning the works next day, he was disconcerted to find that no notice whatsoever had been taken by the trespassers of my last warn- ing. Mr. McLeod thereupon took it upon himself to give them a final 24 hours, assuring them that his orders from me were positive and that he must himself begin removing the pigsties and huts if they did not make a beginning of their own accord.

I approved of the additional 24 hours given them by Mr. McLeod without reference to me, feeling that the sight of the workmen and other preparations in the neighbourhood would convince them that they must now prepare to go.

On the morning of the 2nd instant, the trespassers had not yet shown any sign of moving, and acting under my instructions Mr. McLeod removed such of the pigsties and huts as happened to be situated within the area of the proposed works.

Next month, when the new Police Station is begun, it will be my disagreeable duty, unless specially directed by His Excellency to the contrary, to remove many more of the huts and pigsties, due notice being of course as usual given to these poachers, not that it will do any good or in any way influence their removal of their own accord.

3rd September, 1886.

(Signed),

J. M. PRICE,

Surveyor General.

Minute by the Surveyor General.

MR. CHAN AFOOK,-I learn that the trespassers at Kennedy Town state to the Registrar General that they were not offered any sites to remove to when they were called upon by me, some months ago, to move from their present camp above the present Glass Works.

As considerable attention was given by me at the time to the selection of suitable sites in alternative districts for these people, and as my propositions were communicated to them through yourself as interpreter, I desire to hear from you what is your recollection as to the offers which were made to them.

(Signed), J. M. PRICE,

Surveyor General.

12th September, 1886.

Report by Mr. Chan Afook.

Hon. J. M. PRICE, Surveyor General.

SIR,-In accordance with your request that I should state exactly what offers were made to the pigkeepers at Kennedy Town of other sites where to move to, I beg to state that in literal interpretation of your offer I communicated to them as follows:-

Sites at Kau-lung-wan, just above Mr. Sharp's lot.

Sites at Mong-kok in Kowloon.

Sites at Tai-kok-tsui.

And to one of the men, who was a toothpowder maker, you offered a special site at Hoi Chau Wan.

It was arranged that they were all to go and inspect the sites offered and to come back within seven days to report whether they accepted them. I never heard that any of them ever came back.

12th September, 1886.

(Signed),

CHAN AFOOK.

Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

A reference to C. S. O. 2,031 of 1884 will show that in 1884 these persons were allowed to settle on this spot of ground on the express condition that they were to be there for six months only, and that in the meantime they were to look about for some other locality. They were also to keep their pigsties in proper order.

More than two years have elapsed since then, and in spite of repeated warnings they have never taken any steps to choose another site, and from the manner in which they have recently extended their huts, it would appear that they have made up their minds fully not to move from their present sites.

The site is now required by Government for building a Police Station, and further, their pigsties have for some time past become a serious sanitary nuisance.

The breach of faith appears to me to have been entirely on the part of these squatters and not of the Government, and I can see no reason why they have any claim on the sympathy of the Protector of Chinese. They pay no squatter's licence and have absolutely no right whatever to be where they are. They might with equal right squat down in the Government Gardens, on the Cricket Field, or on the Chinese Recreation Ground. They might all be punished for keeping pigsties in a filthy state.

A message came up yesterday from the Sanitary Inspector that they are now willing to remove at once to Mong-kok in Kowloon. They should be required to take out squatter's licences, as if they do not do so they will be liable to be removed from the new site.

Whether the Surveyor General has acted legally in removing these men without applying to a Magistrate is another question on which the Acting Attorney General may be asked to advise. But it is clear that they had to be removed and that they had sufficient notice to move given over and over again.

The question whether Chinese should be allowed to come over from the mainland and settle without leave or licence wherever they choose will be con- sidered by the Land Commission. It is a very important question, and I have asked the General Commanding the Troops for his opinion for the information of the Land Commission. Hongkong is a quasi-Military Station, and the question has to be considered what would have to be done in case of war, besides the im- portant point of self-preservation from disease which might be occasioned through the agglomeration of persons without any sanitary precautions.

Since 15 to 20 years ago some very stringent orders about squatters were issued by the Secretary of State to the Governinent of Mauritius, and I think also to the Governors of the West Indian Islands. I am informed that no persons are permitted to come into Gibraltar from Spain and settle down without special per- mission.

Pending the report of the Land Commission care should be taken to prevent any more Chinese from settling without permission on Crown Land, and instruc- tions must be given to the Police to report all cases that come to their notice espe- cially in the Districts. Mention to be made of all such in the morning reports.

(Signed), W. H. MARSH.

6th September, 1886.

177

4

178

Minutes by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

I visited the Chinese encampment at Kennedy Town yesterday accompanied by the Surveyor General and Major Dempster, and we walked through it. The filth and stenches on all sides were something indescribable and were enough to produce typhoid fever. In dry weather it must be much worse, as occasionally this camp, which is on a hill side, is partially cleansed by the heavy rain in summer. About 40 huts appear to have been pulled down or about one third of the

camp.

A Police Station is about to be erected and will be commenced very soon, on the very spot where these huts are erected. Therefore they must all go, and if the Acting Attorney General says that any legal notice or application to the Magistrate is necessary, it should be made at once. If he thinks that the repeated notices given by the Surveyor General's Department, which have been hitherto utterly disregarded, are sufficient, then a last notice should be given to them by the Acting Registrar General, and if they disregard it, the whole camp will be pulled down and the ground cleared for building.

I cannot help feeling some commiseration for these people on account of their poverty, but it must be remembered

1st. That they are trespassers and have been warned eighteen months ago to

somewhere else.

2nd. That their camp is a standing menace to the health of the whole commu- nity by reason of its filthy condition, and that it is the bounden duty of the Government, in the interests of the community, to remove this nuisance, and it would be equally the duty of the Government to do so if they were not trespassers but were paying rent. They are therefore liable to prosecution.

3rd. They are keeping pigs without licences, and are therefore liable to

prosecution.

In all cases where pigs are kept within the limits of the City without licences, the Law should be strictly enforced. The pigkeepers seem to think that the city exists principally for their own convenience.

I presume that it will not cost very much to transport these people and their effects in junks across to Mong-kok or whatever place may be selected by the Sur- veyor General, and I am willing to sanction such expenditure.

They are entitled to no compensation, and it would be a most impolitic action to grant them any compensation ex misericordia. It would inevitably encourage swarms of their countrymen to come over from Kwong-tung and do as they have done; settle down on Crown land without premission, and then, when either Go- vernment wanted to use the ground or their utter disregard of all sanitary rules rendered their removal necessary, expect to be compensated for removing.

My own opinion is that it is not desirable to encourage a further influx from China of persons of this class.

of this class. But this question is now under consideration by the Land Commission.

8th September, 1886.

(Signed), W. H. MARSH.

Send Copy to Surveyor General and Acting Registrar General.

(Signed);

W. H. MARSH.

Since writing the above minute I have been informed that these squatters are not so poor as I supposed. They have been able to offer a sum of money to any one who can either compel or induce the Government to leave them undisturbed where they are.

(Signed),

W. H. MARSH.

$

Extract from a letter from the Superintendent of the Botanical

Gardens, dated 14th September, 1886.

I have the honour to report that on the 26th July, when engaged in Forestry Inspections I discovered on the western side of Mount Davis 95 good-sized trees with all their lower branches cut off, and the latter lying on the ground. I also found that during the last twelve months a large number of trees in that locality had been treated in the same manner. These I have subsequently had counted and found that the number is 1,389. This seems to have been done under a regular system of cutting in patches, one succeeding another. I have had the locality carefully watched since I made the discovery, but no one has ventured to remove any of the parts of the trees which have been left to dry preparatory to their being carried away.

I believe the trees on Mount Davis have been cut by people living in mat-sheds near Kennedy Town. I have the names of three men who are strongly suspected; one of them lives in a mat-shed and is employed burning rice chaff for which a considerable quantity of fuel is required.

179.

Minute by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

The Acting Captain Superintendent of Police is requested to report what cha- racter the Squatters at Kennedy Town bear as far as the Police know.

14th September, 1886.

(Signed),

W. H. MARSH.

Minute by the Acting Captain Superintendent of Police.

Since the question of Squatters, was before the Sanitary Board at a late meeting, I have made inquiries concerning the character of those located in Kennedy Town and find that this place is inhabited by a very doubtful class of Chinese. A number of men from this Village attacked and robbed Messrs. Howard & Co.'s Com- pradore at Praya West on the 14tb ultimo. These men were armed with swords. (See Police Court case, No. 9,212.)

Several robberies had been committed at Praya West, previous to this case, but none since. This gang of robbers were living in the village for about 9 months.

The women of the village appear to work hard feeding pigs.

Some of the men are employed in making tooth-powder, but the greater number wander about the City in search of plunder.

15th September, 1886.

(Signed),

T. C. DEMPSTER, Major,

Actg. Capt. Supt. of Police.

.

1

HONGKONG.

REPORT

FROM THE

HONGKONG LAND COMMISSION

OF

1886-1887,

ON THE HISTORY OF THE

SALE, TENURE, AND OCCUPATION OF THE CROWN LANDS OF THE COLONY

WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THEIR FUTURE REGULATION AND CONTROL AND

THE FACILITATION OF TRANSFER AND ALSO ON THE ALLEVIATION

OF OVERCROWDING IN THE CITY OF VICTORIA

TOGETHER WITH APPENDIX.

DLEUM

DROT

HONGKONG:

PRINTED BY NORONHA & Co.,

Government Printers.

1887.

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE HONGKONG LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-1887.

457

No.

35

87.

Presented to the Legislative Council, by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government,

on the 23rd September, 1887.

}

T

CONTENTS.

COMMISSION,

TABLE OF CONTENTS OF REPORT,

REPORT,

APPENDIX,

Page v.

vii.

""

ix.

";

"}

1.

COMMISSION

OF

His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

[L.S.] W. H. MARSH.

Whereas it is expedient that a Commission should be appointed to enquire into and report upon the system of leasing or otherwise disposing of Crown Lands, and to suggest any alterations or im- provements therein, or to facilitate the transfer of land held directly or indirectly from the Crown and generally to report upon any means that can be adopted by the Government in the disposal of land to check overcrowding in the more thickly populated parts of the City: Now, therefore, I WILLIAM HENRY MARSH, Companion of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Officer Administering the Government of the Colony of Hongkong and its Dependencies and Vice-Admiral of the same, do hereby appoint you Sir GEORGE PHILLIPPO, Knight, Chief Justice; The Honourable EDWARD JAMES ACKROYD, Acting Attorney General; The Honourable JOHN MACNELLE PRICE, Surveyor General; ALEXANDER PALMER MACEWEN, Esquire, Justice of the Peace; and Ho KAI, Esquire, Justice of the Peace, to be a Commission to make such Inquiry and to take evidence for the purpose, and to report to me the evidence and your opinion thereon; and I hereby charge all persons in the public service to assist you herein.

Given under my Hand and the Public Seal of the Colony, this 30th day of April, 1886.

By Command,

FREDERICK STEWART,

Acting Colonial Secretary.

TABLE OF CONTENTS OF REPORT.

Pages.

INTRODUCTORY,

ix

Government Notification of 10th April, 1843,

SYSTEM OF Selling and GRANTING CROWN LANDS UPON LEASE OR OTHERWISE,

Sir Charles Elliot's Public Notice and Declaration of 1st May, 1841, Public Notice of proposed Sale of 7th June, 1841,

Postponement of Sale to 14th June, 1841,

Terms of Sale on 14th June, 1841,

Sir Charles Elliot's object in the disposal of Crown Lands,

Government Notification of 15th October, 1841,

Government Notification of 22nd March, 1842,...

Appointment of first Land Committee of 29th March, 1842,

Commencement of difficulties and misunderstandings,

Government Notification of 2nd May, 1842,

Prohibition of further grants of Land.......

Extract from Instructions to Land and Road Inspector, of 27th May, 1842,

Grants of Land under the Charter of the Colony and Her Majesty's Instructions regarding same, No Lands to be sold or let except at Public Auction,

Government Notification of 21st August, 1843, and appointment of Second Land Committee, Report of Second Land Committee, recommending the granting of Leases for 75 years and classification

of Lots,

Registration of Deeds Ordinance 3 of 1844,

Land taken possession of in 1844 by numbers of Chinese without permission,

X

X

X

xi

xi

xi

xii

xii

xiii

xiii

xiii

xiii

xiv

xiv

**

xiv

Xiv

XV

xvi

xvi

xvi

Government Proclamation of 21st October, 1844,

xvi

Encroachments by lot holders in 1844 in building Balconies and Verandahs,.

xvii

Government Notification of 19th November, 1844,

xvii

Verandahs allowed from the year 1846,

xvii

Complaints in 1847 regarding the land tenure and high Crown Rents,

xvii

Recommendations by Governors Davis and Bonham that the Leases be extended to 999 years,

xvii

Governor Bonham's Despatch of 26th August, 1848,

xvii

Earl Grey's Despatch in reply of 4th December, 1848, authorising extension of Leases in virtual

perpetuity for 999 years,

xvii

Government Notification of 3rd March, 1849,

xvii

Appointment of 3rd Land Committee of 1849,

xviii

Report of 3rd Land Committee, ....

xviii

Opinion of the Attorney General on Sub-leases of sections. August 1850,....................................................

xviii

Governor Bonham's Despatch of 29th August, 1850,

xviii

Earl Grey's Despatch in reply of 2nd January, 1851,

xviii

Houses standing upon them.......

Missing Parliamentary Blue Book (China) of 1847,

Land Commission of 1875 on high Crown Rents, Cessation of Complaints of high Crown Rents, Sales of Crown Land since 1869,...

STATISTICS:--ACREAGE OF HONGKONG,

Numbers and Rentals of Leased Lots,

Estimate of the population,

DIVISION OF THE LOTS INTO Sections and Subsections and TITLES TO Land,

Transfers of Sections allowed,

Remaining Portion Owner liable for whole Crown Rent,

xviii

xix

xix

xix

xix

xix

XX

XX

XX

XX

XX

The difficulties and complexities which have arisen,

Re-entry of Lots for non-payment of Rent,

XX

xxi

Ordinance limiting Titles advisable,

Commissioners' opinion on division of control,....

Petition of Solicitors supported by inhabitants in 1885,

Causes of complications in Titles to land,

Judgments of the Supreme Court,

Some grants of land possibly void,

Occupancy of LAND IN THE VILLAGES OTHER THAN UNDER Crown Leases,

Original Villagers, Licensed Squatters, and Trespassers,

Division of control of Crown Lands,

Grass Cutters, and keepers of Cattle and Goats,

Consequence of system of squatting,

Governor's Minute of 8th September, 1886, directing Police to prevent squatting,

xxi

xxi

xxii

xxii

xxii

xxiii

xxiii

xxħi

xxiii

xxiii

xxiii

xxiii

1

viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS OF REPORT.

Pages.

RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE COMMISSIONERS,..

(1) Special Commissioner,

(2) Or Crown Land Board,

(3) Or Surveyor General invested with greater powers, (4) Or Land Court,

Crown Land Board preferred,

Surveyors required,

Large quantities of Land held rent free and tax free,

xxiii

xxiii

xxiv

xxiv

xxiv

xxiv

xxiv

xxiv

Parties in possession of Land should be dealt with equitably and liberally,

xxiv

New Crown Leases to be granted for sections and sub-sections as a remedy for confusion,

xxiv

Constitution of Crown Land Board,

XXV

Leases to be made records of Court,....

XXV

Possessory rights and claims to easements to be considered,.

XXV

Squatting to be abolished,..

XXV

Original Owners to be granted Leases for 999 years,

XXV

Licensed Squatters compensated for disturbance,

xxvi

Trespassers of long standing to be given reasonable notice to remove and to have compensation for

improvements,

xxvi

Pastoral, Agricultural or Garden Lots,

xxvi

Government Agents for outlying districts,

xxvi

Public Maps required,

Larger Staff for Land Office,

All Buildings Lots should be granted on the same tenure,

Difficulties in 75 years Leases,..

Disposal of Lands in the best interests of the whole community,...

Extension of Leases from 75 to 999 years,.

New Registration Ordinance,

Amendments to existing Registration Ordinance,

Resumption of Land for public purposes,

New forms of Crown Lease, Assigument and Mortgage,

Registration of Powers of Attorney,

xxvii

xxvii

xxvii

xxvii

xxviii

xxviii

xxviii

xxviii

xxviii

xxviii

xxviii

Copies of all documents to be recorded in the Land Office,

Protection of boundaries,

Restriction of Chinese houses,

Assessment of rates and taxes,.

Disposal of Land outside Victoria,

Land should be sold free of temporary occupants,

OVERCROWDING IN VICTORIA, ITS Causes and METHODS OF ALLEVIATION,.

xxix

xxix

xxix

xxix

xxix

.xxix

Contracts for Sale of Crown Lands and dealings with Contracts to be registered,.

Complaints of Overcrowding,

Earl of Kimberley's Despatch of 26th November, 1880,

People rendered homeless if proposed Sanitary measures adopted,

Enormous rents,.

xxix

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

Means to check overcrowding by enlarging area,

XXX

Removal of Naval and Military Establishments from centre of Town,

XXX

Land held by Naval Authorities,.

xxxi

Land held by Military Authorities,

xxxi

Restrictions by Military Authorities on other Land,

xxxi

The Town cut in two,

xxxi

Reasons and advantages for removal of Naval and Military Establishments from centre of Town,.....

xxxi

Unnecessary restrictions ou building at Kowloon and above Kennedy Road,..

xxxii

Removal of certain public buildings,

xxxii

Free communication wanted by Railway or Tramway,.

xxxiii

REDEMPTION of Crown RENTS,

xxxiii.

Purchase moneys from Land Sales placed to a separate account,

xxxiii

Crown Rents might be put on same footing,

xxxiii

Expenses and system of reclamations,.

xxxίν

Revenue for permanent improvements,

xxxiv

Crown Land Board might allow commutations for Crown Rent,

xxxiv

Amount to be paid for commutation,

xxxiv

Growth of Crown Rents,

xxxiv

Amount at present received would hardly be missed,

xxxiv

Table shewing growth of Crown Rents, annual value of buildings, amounts received for rates and

growth of Revenue for all sources,

xxxiv

Conclusion of Report,.......

XXXV

}

LAND COMMISSION REPORT.

i

A Commission was issued by the Officer Administering the Government on the 30th of April, 1886, appointing the undersigned Commissioners for the purpose of inquiring into and reporting upon the system of leasing or otherwise disposing of Crown Lands, and to suggest any alterations or im- provements therein, or to facilitate the transfer of land held directly or indirectly from the Crown, and generally to report upon any means that can be adopted by the Government in the disposal of land to check overcrowding in the more thickly populated parts of the City. They were also empowered to receive evidence for that purpose, and to report the evidence and their opinion thereon.

Mr. BRUCE SHEPHERD, Deputy Land Officer, was appointed Secretary to the Commission on the 4th May, 1886, and on the 9th October following, Mr. JAMES SAMPSON then temporarily attached as Surveyor to the Public Works Department was appointed Land Surveyor to the Commission for the purpose of obtaining information required by the Commissioners with reference to the numbers, dwellings, areas of ground occupied, and other requisite particulars concerning the villagers in the outlying districts and the nature of their occupancy.

The inquiries of the Commission were necessarily divided under four heads :-

1st. The system of selling and granting Crown Lands upon Lease or otherwise.

2nd. The registration of deeds and documents in the Land Office, including the system of

dividing and sub-dividing the lots granted upon Lease by the Leaseholders into sections and sub-sections and sections of sub-sections.

3rd. The occupancy of Land in the villages other than under Crown Leases.

4th. The overcrowding in the City of Victoria, its causes, and methods of alleviation.

The extent and nature of these subjects induced the Commissioners to prepare a series of questions upon most of the matters under inquiry in order that answers and information might be obtained after due consideration, a copy of which is annexed, and on the 16th February, 1887, these questions were circulated among upwards of 100 of the principal Landowners, Barristers, Solicitors, Surveyors, and others having special knowledge of the subjects under inquiry, and, as the result, information and answers have been presented to the Committee by 66 individuals and important evidence has thereby been obtained.

These answers have been presented by 10 European Landowners, 34 Chinese Landowners (31 of whom have given their answers and opinions in one body), 12 Barristers and Solicitors, 4 Surveyors and Auctioneers, and 6 by Government Officers having special knowledge of the subjects under consi- deration.

Seven sittings of the Commission have been held in the Chambers of the Chairman.

X

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

THE SYSTEM OF SELLING AND GRANTING CROWN LANDS

UPON LEASE OR OTHERWISE.

The disposition of Crown Lands by sale commenced with the earliest days of the Colony. Pos- session was taken of the Island of Hongkong on behalf of the Crown on the 26th January, 1841, and on the 1st May of the same year, the following public notice of the first land sale and declaration of the conditions upon which allotments of land would be made, was published by Captain (afterwards Sir CHARLES) ELLIOT, the then "Chief Superintendent of the Trade of British subjects in China, and holding full powers, under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to execute the Office of Her Majesty's Commissioner, Procurator, and Plenipotentiary in China."

PUBLIC NOTICE AND DECLARATION OF 1ST MAY, 1841.

"The following Notice is published for general information. But the necessary particulars not having yet been obtained regarding the portions of land already surveyed, the blanks relating to number and extent of allotments and period of sale, cannot yet be filled up.

"Arrangements having been made for the permanent occupation of the Island of Hongkong it has become necessary to declare the principles and conditions upon which allotments of land will be made, pending Her Majesty's further pleasure.

"With a view to the reservation to the Crown of as extensive a control over the lands as may be compatible with the immediate progress of the establishment, it is now declared that the number of allotments to be disposed of from time to time will be regulated with due regard to the actual public

wants.

"It will be a condition of each title that a building of a certain value, hereafter to be fixed, must be erected within a reasonable period of time on the allotments; and there will be a general reservation of all Her Majesty's rights. Pending Her Majesty's further pleasure the lands will be allotted accord- ing to the principles and practice of British laws upon the tenure of quit rent to the Crown.

"Each allotment to be put up at public auction at a certain upset rate of quit rent and to be disposed of to the highest bidder; but it is engaged upon the part of Her Majesty's Government, that persons taking land upon these terms shall have the privilege of purchasing in freehold (if that tenure shall hereafter be offered by Her Majesty's Government), or of continuing to hold upon the original quit rent, if that condition be better liked.

"All arrangements with natives for the cession of lands, in cultivation, or substantially built upon, to be made only through an officer deputed by the Government of the Island; and no title will be valid, and no occupancy respected, unless the person claiming shall hold under an instrument granted by the Government of the Island, of which due registry must be made in the Government Office.

"It is distinctly to be understood, that all natives, in the actual occupancy of lands, in cultivation, or substantially built upon, will be constrained to establish their rights, to the satisfaction of the land officer, and to take out titles, and have the same duly registered.

town

yards, will take place at

"In order to accelerate the establishment, notice is hereby given, that a sale of allotments, having a water frontage of yards, and running back Macao on the instant, by which time, it is hoped, plans, exhibiting the water front of the town, will be prepared.

"Persons purchasing town lots will be entitled to purchase suburban or country lots of square acres each, and will be permitted, for the present, to choose their own sites, subject to the approval of the Government of the Island.

"No run of water to be diverted from its course without permission of the Government.

(4

Macao, 1st May, 1841."

[Hongkong Gazette, 1st and 15th May, 1841.]

(Signed),

"CHARLES ELLIOT."

On the 7th June, 1841, a Notice under the hand of Sir CHARLES ELLIOT was advertised of the proposed sale of the annual quit rents of 100 lots of land with water frontage and of 100 town or suburban lots, as follows:--

PUBLIC NOTICE OF 7TH JUNE, 1841.

"Notice is hereby given, that a sale of the annual quit rent of 100 lots of land having water frontage will take place at Hongkong, on Saturday, the 12th instant, as also of 100 town or suburban lots. The dimensions of the respective lots will be specified and defined on the spot by the Com- manding Officer of Engineers, to whom parties are referred for further particulars.

1

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

xi

"The titles will be delivered on payment of the rent, and the minimum value of the buildings to be erected on the lots, and the period allowed for erection, will also be then declared.

(Signed),

CHARLES ELLIOT,

Chief Superintendent,

14

Macao, 7th June, 1841."

charged with the Government of Hongkong.

The sale advertised for the 12th was postponed to the 14th June, 1841, when it had been found impossible to put up the number of lots (200) as advertised in the Government Advertisement of the 7th of that month, and only 50 lots having a sea frontage of 100 feet each, or nearly so, were offered for sale, and it will be observed, from the following copy of the terms of that sale, that not only was the frontage not defined, but the depth from the sea to the road (the present Queen's Road), was stated to necessarily vary considerably, and that the parties, (intending purchasers), would have the opportunity of observing the extent for themselves.

TERMS OF SALE ON 14TH June, 1841.

"1. Upon a careful examination of the ground, it has been found impossible to put up the number of lots named in the Government Advertisement of the 7th instant, and only 50 lots, having a sea frontage of 100 feet each, can at present be offered for sale. These lots will all be on the seaward side of the road. Lots on the land side of it, and hill and suburban lots in general, it will yet require some time to mark out.

"2. Each lot will have a sea frontage of 100 feet, nearly. The depth from the sea to the road will necessarily vary considerably. The actual extent of each lot as nearly as it has been possible to ascertain it will be declared on the ground. And parties will also have the opportunity of observing the extent for themselves.

"B. The biddings are to be for annual rate of quit rent, and shall be made in pounds sterling, the dollar in all payments to be computed at the rate of 4s. 4d. The upset price will be £10 for each lot, the biddings to advance by 10s.

"4. Each lot having been knocked down to the highest bidder, he will receive an acknowledgment that he is the purchaser of the lot; and this acknowledgment will be exchanged for a more formal title, as soon as the precise measurement and registration of the lots shall be completed.

"5. Upon delivery of the titles, the purchasers will be called on to pay the rent for the first year reckoning from the date of sale.

6. They will also be required to erect upon each lot a building of the appraised value of $1,000 or to incur upon the land an outlay to that amount, within a period of six months from the date of sale. As security for the performance of this engagement a deposit of $500 shall be paid into the hands of the Treasurer to the Superintendents within one week from the day of sale, the deposit repayable as soon as an equal amount shall have been expended. Non-compliance with these terms will incur forfeiture of the deposit and allotment.

66

(Signed), J. ROBERT MORRISON,

Acting Secretary and Treasurer to the

Superintendents of Trade."

Sir CHARLES ELLIOT's object respecting the disposition of the Crown Lands, pending the pleasure of Her Majesty's Government, appears in a letter addressed by him, immediately after the first land sale, to Messrs. JARDINE, MATHESON & Co. and Messrs. DENT & Co., as follows:-

66.

·MACAO, 17th June, 1841.

"GENTLEMEN, Having had under my consideration the particulars of the first sale of lots in Hongkong on the 14th instant, I am of opinion that I shall be consulting the best interests of the establishment in making immediate public declaration of my purpose to move Her Majesty's Govern- ment, either to pass the lands in fee simple for one or two years purchase at the late rates, or to charge them in future at no more than a nominal quit rent, if that tenure continue to obtain.

"My own object respecting the disposal of lands, pending the pleasure of Her Majesty's Govern- ment, was, to secure to firms and all other persons, British and Foreigners, having permanent interests in the country, sufficient space for th necessities, at moderate rates, with as little competition as might enable parties to accommodate emselves according to their respective wants.

xii

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

"I feel assured, upon attentive reflection, that steady adherence to this rule will be found most conducive to the well understood interests of the establishment, and to the fair claims of persons on the spot. Parties falling within the description I have specified, not yet supplied with lots, will soon be in a situation to accommodate themselves.

}

"May I request you, Gentlemen, to circulate this letter.-I have, &c.,

"Messrs. JARDINE, MATHESON & Co., and Messrs. DENT & Co."

[Hongkong Gazette, June 25th, 1855.]

(Signed),

CHARLES ELLIOT.

It would appear from the following Government Notification that in the interval between the sale of 14th June, 1841, and the 15th October following, it was determined to sell lots of land for building purposes at fixed rates of annual rental without public competition.

GOVERNMENT NOTIFICATION of 15th October, 1841.

"1. With reference to the Public Notice and declaration under date the 1st May, 1841, it is now found desirable that persons applying for lots of land for the purpose of building upon, should be at once accommodated upon terms which will be made known to them by application in person to the Land Officer.

"Hongkong, 15th October, 1841."

(Signed), A. R. JOHNSTON, Deputy Superintendent charged with the Government of the Island of Hongkong.

The terms of sale referred to in this Notification were the average rate of rental realised at the sale on the 14th June, 1841, and at the rate of £20 per annum per quarter acre for Town Inland Lots and £5 per quarter acre for Suburban Inland Lots.

Owing to the uncertain description of the lots sold, the claims made for allotments of land, the alteration, curtailment and enlargement of boundaries by the making of new roads, and the uncertain tenure upon which the land was to be held, difficulties began to arise in the following year, when the then Governor Sir HENRY POTTINGER issued a Notification as follows:--

GOVERNMENT NOTIFICATION OF 22ND MARCH, 1842.

"His Excellency Sir HENRY POTTINGER, Bart., Her Britannic Majesty's Plenipotentiary, &c., deems it expedient to intimate to all persons interested in the subject, that it is his intention to appoint very shortly, a Committee consisting of not less than three members, to investigate any claim that may yet be pending, regarding allotted locations of ground of whatever description and finally to define and mark off the limits of all locations that have yet been sold or granted upon any other

terms.

"The Committee will likewise definitely fix the direction, breadth, &c., &c., of the "Queen's" and all other public roads, within the settlement, and will be empowered to order the immediate removal of any encroachments that may be found to have been unauthorizedly made upon them, the expense of such removals being chargeable to the individuals, to whom the locations, in which they have been made belong.

"The Committee will further be instructed to turn its attention to the examination of the best points for laying down new lines of roads, beyond those that have already been marked off, with a view of providing locations, to meet the demands that may be expected from the rapidly increasing population of the Colony, both European and Native; and any suggestions that individuals may wish to offer on this part of the Committee's proceedings will receive from it the fullest consideration, but it is at the same time expressly notified that no purchases of ground by private persons, from natives formerly or now in possession, will be recognized or confirmed unless the previous sauction of the constituted authorities shall have been obtained, it being the basis of the footing on which the Island of Hongkong has been taken possession of, and is to be held pending the Queen's Royal and Gracious Commands, that the proprietory of the soil is vested and appertains solely to the Crown. On the same principle, the reclaiming of land beyond high water mark, must be deemed an infringement on the Royalties of Her Majesty, and it is therefore positively prohibited by any private persons.

GOD SAVE THE QUEEN.

igned),

HENRY POTTINGER,

(C

Hongkong, Government House, this 22nd March, 1842

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

xiii

The Land Committee was appointed on the 29th March, 1842, by the Governor, as follows:-

With reference to the Notification dated on the 22nd instant, the following gentlemen are appointed a Committee to carry into effect the objects therein described.

Major MALCOLM.

With the sanction of Major-General Captain MEIK, H.M.'s 49th Foot.

BURRELL, C.B.,

With the sanction of Capt. Sir THOMAS

HERBERT, K.C.B.,

CC

Lieut. SARGENT..

R. WOOSNAM, Esq.

Mr. PASCO, 2nd Master of H.M.'s Ship " Blenheim."

Captain MYLIUS, Land Officer, will attend the Committee for the purpose of giving effect to its proceedings, by laying down the necessary Land Marks, Boundaries, Roads, &c., &c.

"The Committee will report to Government any cases in which they are of opinion that the native Chinese should be remunerated for ground which was in their possession previous to the occu- pation of the Island by Her Majesty's forces, and which may have been appropriated, as well as the amount of remuneration.

"The Committee will select the most eligible spots for building landing places, will define the limits of the Cantonments, or locations for Officers, near the different Barracks; will likewise fix the extent of ground to be preserved for the Naval Depôt, and for Dock Yards, including spots for one or more Patent Slips which it is understood are likely to be erected by Companies or individuals.

"It being the intention of Government to form a watering place for the shipping, hereafter, Committee will select the most eligible spot with a running stream of good water for the purpose.

(Signed),

HENRY POTTINGER.

the

"Dated at Hongkong, Government House, 29th day of March, 1842."

This Committee appears to have granted several lots of land but made no report upon the subject.

.

At this time sales of lots had begun to take place from one holder to another, difficulties had already arisen as to the liabilities of the purchasers to the Crown, and as no system of registration had then been adopted the purchasers were not known except to the seller of the lot. No Lease or other deed of grant of the lots was issued to the purchaser, the "Grant" of the lot being simply an entry in a book kept by the Land Officer shewing only the name of the person purchasing and the side measure- ments of the lot purchased.

As a remedy for these difficulties in the future, and to provide for the registration of sales, the following Government Notification of the 2nd May, 1842, signed by the Land Officer was issued :--

"GOVERNMENT NOTIFICATION of 2nd May, 1842.

"With a view to the prevention of future misunderstanding and difficulties, His Excellency Sir HENRY POTTINGER, Bart., is pleased to direct that no sales of land are to be made by the holders of Grants to other parties except with the knowledge of the Land Officer and that any sales that may have been made, or may be made in future, unless registered in the Land Office shall be held to be invalid.

"Purchasers of grants from the individuals before holding them are to understand distinctly that they will be under the same liabilities to Government as the parties from whom they purchase.

By Order,

"Land Office, Hongkong, 2nd May, 1842."

(Signed),

GEO. F. MYLIUS, Land Officer.

Two weeks, only, afterwards, the appointment of Land Officer was temporarily abolished, and further grants of land were prohibited, and on the 27th May, 1842, a "Land and Road Inspector" was appointed.

The following are extracts from his instructions with reference to Crown Lands, the continuance of the prohibition against further grants of land, the prevention of encroachments on unappropriated lands or upon roads, and the registration of the sales and transfers of land in his Office.

xiv

:

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

"EXTRACT FROM INSTRUCTIONS OF 27TH MAY, 1842.

"As the existing prohibition against further grants of land is to continue in full force pending the receipt of commands from Her Majesty's Government, it will not even be necessary for you to bring any applications on that subject to the notice of the Deputy Superintendent who will be charged with the Civil Government of the Island during the absence of His Excellency Sir HENRY POTTINGER, Bart.

"You are to take the utmost care to prevent any encroachments on the unappropriated lands in any part of this Island or on the roads, whether completed, or now in progress, and should anything of the kind come to your knowledge, you will, whatever be the plea or pretence assigned, instantly stop the work and report the circumstance to the Deputy Superintendent.

"Ground will probably, however, be required for the erection of Barracks, and other Military Buildings on different parts of the Island, and regarding it you will receive directions from the Deputy Superintendent.

"You will register in your office all sales and transfers of land, in conformity with the Notifica- tion issue by the Land Officer on the 2nd, and published in the Friend of China and Hongkong Gazette of the 5th instant."

(Signed), J. ROBT. MORRISON,

Acting Secretary and Treasurer.

GRANTS OF LAND UNDER THE CHARTER OF THE COLONY AND HER MAJESTY'S INSTRUCTIONS.

The Island of Hongkong, and its Dependencies, were erected into the "Colony of Hongkong" by Royal Charter bearing date the 5th April, 1843, (or nearly two years after the first Land Sale), and full power and authority is thereby given to the Governor of the Colony for the time being, in the name of Her Majesty and on Her behalf, (but subject nevertheless to such provisions as might be in that respect contained in any Instructions which might from time to time be addressed to him by Her said Majesty) to make and execute, in the name and on the behalf of Her said Majesty, under the Public Seal of the said Colony grants of land to Her said Majesty belonging within the said Colony to private persons for their own use and benefit, or to any persons, bodies politic or corporate, in trust for the public uses of Her said Majesty's Subjects there resident or any of them.

Her Majesty's Instructions also dated the 5th April, 1843, directed to Sir HENRY POTTINGER prescribe with reference to the disposal of further Crown Lands, and the reservation of lands for roads, &c. as follows:-

“And it is Our further Will and pleasure that no such lands shall be sold or let except at public auction; and that at every such auction, the lands to be then sold or let, be put up at a reserved, or minimum price equal to the fair reasonable price and value or annual rent thereof."

"And it is Our pleasure, and We do further direct you to ascertain what particular lands it may be proper to reserve in the said Colony for public roads and other internal communication whether

or as or by water, or as the sites of Towns, Villages, Churches, School-houses or Parsonage-houses, or as places for the interment of the dead, or as places for the future extension of any existing Towns or Villages, or as places fit to be set apart for the recreation and amusement of the inhabitants of any Town or Village, or for promoting the health of such inhabitants or as the sites of quays or landing places, which it may at any future time be expedient to erect, form, or establish on the sea coast, or which it may be desirable to reserve for any other purposes of public convenience, utility, health or enjoyment, and you are to cause such tracts, pieces or parcels of land as may appear best adapted to answer and promote the several public purposes before mentioned, to be distinguished on the public charts of the said Colony, or in some other authentic manner. And it is Our Will and pleasure and We do strictly enjoin and require you that you do not on any account, or on any pretence what- soever, grant, convey or demise to any person or persons, any of the lands so specified, as fit to be reserved as aforesaid, nor permit or suffer any such lands to be occupied by any private person for any private purposes.'

On the 10th April, 1843, the progress of further buildings was ordered to be stopped until final arrangements with reference to the land already sold had been concluded and the Land Officer, (who had then been again appointed), was authorized to take summary measures to prevent encroachments, a Government Notification of that date being issued as follows:-

GOVERNMENT NOTIFICATION OF 10TH APRIL, 1843.

"In consequence of instructions recently received from Her Majesty's Government, and until defined regulations can be framed and promulgated grounded upon those instructions, His Excellency Sir HENRY POTTINGER, Bart., K.C.B., &c.. &c., is pleased to notify as follows:-

REPORT FROM LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

XV

"1st. All persons holding land of any denomination on the Island of Hongkong, are hereby required to send in the fullest explanations as well as the proofs they possess of their claims to such land, to the Land Officer with the least possible delay.

"2nd. The Land Officer has been authorized and instructed to prevent the commencement of any further buildings upon, or clearing away of, locations, until final arrangements can be made

The Land Officer has also been authorised and instructed to take summary measures in concert with the Chief Magistrate, to put a stop to all buildings that may be in progress on locations of whatever denomination, where the explanation or proof submitted, may appear to him to be at variance with his present instructions and also in cases where the explanation and proofs now called for may be delayed beyond a reasonable time.

"3rd. The Land Officer has further been authorised and instructed to summarily prevent the pro- gress of all buildings, on locations which may, in his opinion, encroach on the present, or any future line of roads or streets, and to oblige all persons to confine themselves to the exact dimensions of the Lots which were originally allotted to them.

"4th. It has been repeatedly intimated that the terms and tenure of holding all Lands on the Island of Hongkong, were to depend solely upon the pleasure and commands of Her Majesty's Go- vernment and the information called for in this notification is required before such terms and tenure can be announced to the public.

By Order,

Hongkong, Government House, 10th April, 1843.”

(Signed),

RICHARD WOOSNAM.

In August, 1843, the Governor having received instructions from Lord STANLEY, then Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies, directing him to abstain from alienating any of the land on the Island for any time of greater length than might be necessary to induce and enable the tenants to erect substantial buildings, &c., and refusing to sanction any such grants as had already been made, but with a promise that an enquiry should be instituted into the equitable claims of all holders of land to a confirmation, either permanent or temporary, of their titles, issued the following Government Notification :---

GOVERNMENT NOTIFICATION OF 21ST AUgust, 1843.

"His Excellency the Governor having had under his careful consideration the instructions which he has received from Her Majesty's Government on the subject of Crown Lands in this Colony is pleased to publish the following extracts of a despatch from Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies.

"Sir HENRY POTTINGER is to abstain from alienating any of the land on the island, either in perpetuity or for any time of greater length than may be necessary to induce and enable the tenants to erect substantial buildings,' &c.

"But with the general prohibition against the alienation of Crown Lands, and with the general refusal to sanction any such grants as may have already been made, Lord STANLEY would connect a promise that immediately on the establishment of a regular Government in the place an enquiry should be instituted, by some competent and impartial authority, into the equitable claims of all Holders of Land, to a confirmation either permanent or temporary, of their titles so far as they could be confirmed consistently with a just regard to the interests of Society at large.'

"With advertence to the principle laid down in the above extracts it will be understood that Her Majesty's Government do not recognize the validity of any grants, or sales of Land that may have been made or may have taken place under any authority whatsoever previous to the exchange of the ratification of the Treaty upon which event the Island of Hongkong became a bona fide possession of the British Crown, and from which day the payment of rents derivable from such Land will only be held to commence.

“In obedience to the intimation conveyed in one of the preceding extracts, His Excellency the Governor in Council is pleased to appoint,-

A. G. GORDON, Esq., Land Officer, &c.

Captain D'HAVILLAND, H.M.'s 55th Regt., Assistant Surveyor, and

CHARLES EDWARD STEWART, Esq., Treasurer and Financial Secretary to Government. to be a Committee assisted by RICHARD BURGASS, Esq., Legal Adviser to Government, to enquire into the equitable claims of all Holders of Lands, to define the classes to which particular lots shall henceforward belong, as well as their future annual rent, and to arrange for the disposal of further lots regarding which Her Majesty's instructions prescribe:- And it is Our further Will and pleasure that no such lands shall be sold or let, except at public auction; and that at every such auction, the lands to be then sold or let, be put up at a reserved, or minimum price equal to the fair reasonable price and value or annual rent thereof.""

1

xvi

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

On the 4th January, 1844, the last mentioned Committee reported that the sale of the Marine Lots. ·gave an average annual rental of nearly £350 per acre, and looking to the fact that this was the result of a public sale, and that the purchasers were under the impression that the time for which the land was disposed of was unlimited, recommended that all the Marine Lots hitherto sold or granted should be recognised and confirmed for a period of 75 years, excepting those which had been abandoned or forfeited, and considering that, in some instances, the rate of annual rent at £20 per quarter acre at which Inland Town Lots had been sold was too low, and in others, too high, further recommended that all lots, other than Marine, that had hitherto been granted or occupied should be classified and rated according to a scale determined with reference to locality.

On the 13th January, 1844, the Committee recommended a system of classification of lots (other than Marine) for rental as follows:--

:

:

No. of Classes

At the rate of per acre per annum.

1

2

£160. 0.0 120 0.0

3

100. 0.0

4

80. 0.0

5

60. 0.0

6

40. 0.0

7

20. 0.0

8

12. 0.0

9

6. 0.0

10

3. 0.0

11

2. 0.0

12

1. 0.0

13

0.10.0

On the 28th February, 1844, an Ordinance, (No. 3 of 1844), was passed for the registration by the Land Officer, in the Land Office, of all dealings with land, or its disposition by deed or will, and providing for the priorities of registered documents, the forms of registration by Memorial, and deposit of deeds and documents for safe custody.

This Ordinance is in force at the present day without alteration or amendnient.

In the same year (1844) a large number of Chinese had come over to the Colony and taken possession of land for erecting their dwellings and carrying on their business, without any grant or permission.

To check this the then Governor Sir JOHN F. DAVIS issued a proclamation directing their removal within a reasonable time as follows:-

GOVERNMENT PROCLAMATION OF 21ST OCTOBER, 1844.

"Whereas a great number of Chinese and others have, without permission and in direct opposition to Law and Custom, settled themselves upon the Queen's Road and at divers places along the coast of this Island, and have there erected mat-houses, and in some instances even wooden houses, wherein they live and carry on business without paying any rent to the Crown for the land so occupied.

"This is to give notice, that the Surveyor General of this Colony has received my commands to give the aforesaid persons notice to remove themselves and structures within a reasonable time, and at his discretion and in default of their doing so to eject thein and remove their mat sheds and other structures.

"This proclamation to be translated into Chinese and circulated throughout the Island.

CC GOD SAVE THE QUEEN.

(Signed),

J. F. DAVIS, Governor, &c.

"(

Victoria, Hongkong, 21st October, 1844."

[Friend of China & Hongkong Gazette, October 23rd, 1844.]

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

xvii

At this time also it was found that the lot holders had encroached on Crown Land, and on the space set apart for streets, by building balconies and verandahs outside the limits of their lots. The removal of these buildings was directed by the Governor and the following Government Notification of the 19th November, 1844, to that effect was published:-

GOVERNMENT NOTIFICATION OF 19TH NOVEMBER, 1844.

"As it has come to the knowledge of His Excellency the Governor, that persons have encroached on the property of the Crown, and on the space set apart for Streets, by erecting Buildings and con- structing Balconies and Verandahs, extending beyond the limits of the Lots held by them on Lease: His Excellency has given instructions to have the encroachments removed; and warns all persons, that no permission will in future be granted to any one to exceed the Boundaries of his Lot, on any pretence whatever.

"By Order,

(Signed),

FREDERICK W. A. BRUCE, Colonial Secretary.

"Victoria, Hongkong, 19th November, 1844." In January, 1846, however, Government permission was given for the construction of Verandahs projecting beyond the boundaries of Lots over any Public Road or Street within the City of Victoria, in accordance with a plan, open for inspection at the Surveyor General's Office; and from time to time since that date regulations have been made for the more solid construction of Verandahs with the view of preventing the spread of fire, but no provision has ever been made in the Crown Lease for these erections which are, to this day, allowed by Surveyor General's licence. The consequence is that the purchaser of a house, in hundreds of cases, acquires no other title or estate in the exterior parts of the building he purchases than what would pass by his Deed of Assignment as an easement, if such an easement attached to his holding, which, under the Governor's instructions for the disposal of Land, appears to the Commissioners to be somewhat doubtful.

In consequence of complaints arising in the year 1847 from the Landowners of the Colony in regard to the land tenure of the Colony, and the high Crown Rents, it was, after much consideration, represented first by Governor Sir JOHN DAVIS and afterwards by Governor Sir GEORGE BONHAM, that the extension of the term of 75 years on which the lands of this Colony were then held, or the grant of the lands in perpetuity, would be accepted as a boon by the merchants, and Governor Sir GEORGE BONHAM suggested (Despatch No. 64 Financial of 26th August 1848) that he might be authorized to extend the term of tenure from 75 years to any other that Her Majesty's Government might approve of, and mentioned that at Singapore the term is for 999 years, and that the intention there was to convey to the landholders all the advantages that attach to a permanent grant, without saddling them with the inconvenience sometimes attending the tenure of real property.

In reply to that Despatch, Earl GREY stated (Despatch No. 766 of 4th December 1848) that fully appreciating the difficulty in proposing any plan, short of the actual reduction of the rents, which would prove entirely satisfactory to the general body of Landowners, he was inclined to concur in the opinion that to extend the term of the existing leases would be the most expedient course to adopt. Earl GREY then authorized the Governor to take the necessary measures for granting these leases in virtual perpetuity for the term of 999 years. Thereupon the following Government Notification was published:-

GOVERNMENT NOTIFICATION OF 3RD MARCH, 1849.

"It is hereby notified that, under instructions from Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies, all Crown Leases heretofore granted for a term of 75 years may be extended for a further term of 924 years.

"All Tenants of the Crown who may be desirous of availing themselves of the above concession will, on application at the Surveyor General's Office, receive the directions necessary to enable them to obtain a prolongation of their respective Leases in conformity with the above instructions.

By Order,

"Colonial Office, Hongkong, 3rd March, 1849."

(Signed),

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

:

xviii

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

In the year 1849 the tenure of the land of the Colony was again the subject of consideration, and a Committee, consisting of the then Colonial Treasurer, Surveyor General, Assistant Commissary General, and two Merchants, were appointed to report upon the landed tenure generally, and to represent individual cases in which the amount of rent paid seemed extravagant. Another subject offered to the Committee at this time for its consideration and opinion was whether it would not.be for the interest of the Colony to reserve in all future Land Sales a portion only of the price in the form of rental, the competition being made to turn upon the premium offered.

In their joint letter of report dated 18th May, 1850, the Committee on this occasion represented the difficulty, which already then existed, of disposing of landed property in consequence of the inability of lessees to transfer a subdivision of their lots. In many cases several houses were, at that time, built upon one lot and it was considered convenient for the owner to dispose of a portion or portions of it which, under the prevailing system, he was unable to effect. The Committee then recommended that such sales and transfers be permitted and fresh titles granted by Government, stating that the restrictions then felt would thus be removed and an enhanced value be given to property in the Colony.

Upon this subject the then Governor Sir SAMUEL G. BONHAM took the opinion of Mr. STterling, the Attorney General, whose opinion dated August, 1850, was as follows:-

"The Crown Lessee unless prohibited by his lease may make sub-leases; this being so, house property is similarly circumstanced here, as in all towns in England.

"If in any case the Crown be willing to adopt the under-tenant as its immediate lessee it can do so, (supposing there be no liens or encumbrances attaching to the head lease), in its own discretion, by accepting a surrender in writing of the head lease, and then granting two leases of the original lot as apportioned by the two tenants, but in doing so or in any other way interfering with the title created by the first lease, the danger will arise of interfering with the securities and remedies of unregistered encumbrances or creditors having or about to obtain executions."

"August, 1850."

(Signed), "PAUL STERLING.

In the remarks of Governor BONHAM upon this question to the Secretary of State (Despatch No. 85, Financial, of the 29th August, 1850), he states that, in his opinion, it would be well that parties should be allowed to dispose of portions of their properties, as recommended by the Committee; but thought the concession might be open to much abuse in cases where any party having a house erected on a large lot of ground might be desirous of getting rid of a part of the ground to a man of straw because it was useless to him, while the individual to whom it was sold having no property in the Colony might quit it leaving the Government without any means of enforcing its just claim.

In the Despatch of Earl GREY to Governor BONHAM of 2nd January, 1851, acknowledging the receipt of Governor BONHAM'S Despach of the 29th of August preceding, Earl GREY communicated the conclusions at which he had arrived, after a careful consideration of the papers before him, and as regarded the system of selling Crown Lands to the highest bidder of an annual rent stated he was decidedly of opinion that, in future, biddings for Crown Lands should not be in the form of an advance of rent, but that any such property should be offered for lease at a moderate rent to be determined by the Crown Surveyor and that the competition should be in the amount to be paid down as a premium for the lease at the rent so reserved by parties desiring to obtain it.

And on the question of affording Crown Lessees the power of alienating portions of their lands Earl GREY stated his opinion to be that such a measure, if properly guarding against the inconvenien- ces suggested by Governor BONHAM, and the Attorney General, would be very desirable, and it was a subject which he was quite prepared to entrust to the discretion of the Local Government.

In the inclosures accompanying the last mentioned Committee's Report, many references are made to a Parliamentary China Blue Book of 1847 which would seem, from the references made to it, to have dealt exhaustively with the disposition of Crown Lands in this Colony, but the Commissioners regret that they have been unable to obtain a copy in the Colony as it might have afforded them some very valuable information.

}

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

XIX

In June, 1875, another Commission was appointed consisting of the Attorney General, the Acting Treasurer, Mr. PHINEAS RYRIE, Mr. HENRY LOWCOCK and the Surveyor General to inquire into the alleged magnitude of Crown Rents in various parts of the City owing to the complaints which had, from time to time, been made to the Government by the holders of Crown Lands in the less populous parts of the Colony, that the rents were out of proportion to the real value of the lands, so that they could not turn the lands to profitable account, or to advantage, to the injury of the complainants and to the hindrance of the general progress of the Colony.

The Commissioners, however, reported that no reduction of Crown Rents would appreciably affect the diminished value of property in certain portions of the City.

These complaints have, however, with returning prosperity ceased, and in no single instance has any complaint, as to excessive Crown Rents, been made to the Commissioners.

The sales of Crown Land which have taken place since the year 1869, have been at a fixed annual rent with an upset price, the highest bidder above the upset price being declared the purchaser at the fixed annual rent.

ACREAGE OF HONGKONG.

The acreage of Hongkong has been estimated to be as follows:-

Acres

cultivated.

Acres

uncultivated.

Total.

Hongkong (exclusive of Victoria,)

406

....

16,796

17,202

Victoria,

Kowloon,....

412

1,309

900

1,721

Stonecutters' Island,

192

192

Totals,.......

818

18,297

20,015

These figures, however, are only estimate in so far as they relate to the cultivated area, and the inquiries of the Commissioners would lead them to believe that the lands actually in possession of villagers, squatters, and trespassers, &c. greatly exceed the estimate.

NUMBERS AND RENTALS OF LEASED LOTS AND THE HOUSES STANDING UPON THEM.

The following shows the number and description of leased lots with their rental as existing on the 25th December, 1886 :-

Marine Lots, (for 999 years),

No.

Annual Rental.

276

$62,143.69

Inland Lots, (,, 999 ),

947

71,019.63

??

Quarry Bay, Marine, (for 999 years),

1

2,534.44

Victoria Farm,

Rural Building,

(" 75

),

42

1,067.88

{" 75

""

),

43

3,013.01

>>

Sowkewan Lots,

Stanley, Inland,

Aberdeen, Marine, (

Inland, ( 999

Apleecbow, Marine, (,, 999

Inland, (,, 999 (,, 999

")

999

5

579.16

12.

>>

),

56

329.36

25

},

19

142.26

19.

),

19

186.84

""

).

91

1,087.50

(,, 75

""

};

1

1.00

Kowloon, Marine, (,, 999

Inland, (,, 75

""

},

15

10,748.85

),

113

3,270.35

Farm,

(

999

>>

23

""

},

9

240.37

""

Garden, (" 14

Hunghom, Inland,

),

68

2,017.32

7,5

),

143

1,139.00

Total,................

1,847

$159,520.66

ཏཾ - བལྟ

XX

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

Resumed Lots paying no rent, but the rentals of which are now being adjusted for payment

Inland Lot, No. 51,

""

No. 136,

No. 134,

No. 135, ...........

19

No. 139,

>>

Total annual rental for 1886,.

1882,......

>>

Increase in 4 Years,.........

492.70

287.35

208.98

240.33

3.06

1,232.42

159,520.66

$160,753.08

$148,450.87

$ 12,302.21

The total number of acres held under leases, (excluding encroachments which are not ascertained), was on the same day, (25th December, 1886), 1,118.

The houses which have been built on these lots, and upon which rates have been paid for 1886,

are:

In Victoria,

In Kowloon,

In the Villages (including the Peak),

Total,

.7,318

1,161

..1,512

..9,991

The estimate of the population living in these houses at the end of the year 1886, amounts to 157,400, being an average of 18 people for each house in Victoria, 13 for each house at Kowloon and 7 for each house in the Hongkong Villages, but the Commissioners have reason to believe that the numbers are greatly under-estimated.

There are also a large number of houses and dwellings erected by squatters and on a few of the leased lots, and also a very large floating population which pay no rates, and these are not included in the above.

+

DIVISION OF THE LOTS INTO SECTIONS AND SUB-SECTIONS AND

TITLES TO LAND.

Owing probably to the objections raised by the Governor, and the Attorney General, in 1849, before referred to, while it was considered advisable to allow transfers of sections and sub-sections of lots to be registered it was apparently considered desirable to keep the original holder, or his assignee who was owner of the Remaining Portion of the Lot, responsible for the whole of the Crown Rent.

Great difficulties have arisen in consequence, the lots have been built upon to the extent of many houses upon one lot, all owned by different people, as section holders, sub-section or section of sub- section holders; in great numbers of cases no proportion of Crown Rent was allotted on the first carving out of the sections, and consequently none on the carving out of the sub-sections or sections of sub-sections. Streets have been made over and across several lots disregarding the line of boundaries of the lots as sold and held upon lease, and very many houses have been built along the line of street frontage so that the front part of the house is on one lot, the middle of the house on another and the rear upon another, and the owner of one house would properly speaking have to pay proportions of Crown Rent to the owners of the Remaining Portions of three different lots. In very

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

xxi

many cases the line of the lease boundary runs through the centre of a house, in many others across the house, sometimes obliquely, in others at right angles, and the titles are often most complicated in regard to different portions of the same house, the Remaining Portion owners of the original lots find it so difficult as to render the recovery of the due proportion of Crown Rent so impracticable, that they ultimately prefer to pay the whole Crown Rent without any attempt at recovery, and thus the owner of one portion of a lot has become burdened with the Crown Rent apportionable upon another portion of the same lot. In other cases where there is no Remaining Portion owner, or where, as in many instances, the Remaining Portion is left as part of a roadway or passage way (some of the lots, as Inland Lot No. 8 comprising as many as 5 separate private streets) over which the owner of each house has a right of way, the Remaining Portion owner, by death, or absence, ceases to pay the rent of the lot, the Remaining Portion is an unsaleable property, and the Crown Rent ceases to be paid, a section holder to prevent forfeiture has to pay the whole Crown Rent without power of recovery from the owners of the other portions of the lot, as it is impossible to fix the due proportion of the Crown Rent recover- able from the other owners.

At the present time there are 5 lots, representing an annual rental of $1,233, which were re entered upon by the Government in October, 1885, for non-payment of Crown Rent, upon which 137 houses in the most central part of the city are standing, owned by 45 different people. This question still remains unsettled, although most of the section owners are willing to pay more than their due proportion of Crown Rent to get new leases, but all are unwilling, principally because they believe themselves to be unable, to collect proportions from other owners, particularly as no house on the borders of the lots stands within its lease boundary. In all these cases the Remaining Portion owners, who have been kept on the Rent Roll, have not a vestige of interest remaining in the lots, the original leaseholders being dead, without representatives or known estate, and the intermediate assignees, when there were Remaining Portions, having disposed of all their interest, without leaving any Remaining Portion owner.

It is true that each portion of a lot is liable to the whole of the Crown Rent, but in dealing with a number of people it is impossible to make one pay for the whole without creating, under all the circumstances of the case, an intolerable hardship upon some, to the profit of others, which should not be allowed.

The Commissioners have annexed to this their Report several tracings produced before them by the Deputy Land Officer, shewing specimens of the manner in which various lots have been divided and sub-divided, and of other complexities which the commissioners think it would be desirable to remove.

In connection with this subject the Commissioners have also appended to their Report a Petition to the Legislative Council, signed by all the Solicitors in the Colony and supported by several of the leading inhabitants, transmitting a Bill for dealing with this question, dated January, 1885. It is therein alleged that a very large number of Titles to land in the Colony have fallen into a most complicated and entangled condition, and to such an extent that there are comparatively very few titles in the Colony which the Court could force upon an unwilling purchaser.

These complications, they say, have arisen from a number of causes, viz., the exigencies of street building; the ignorance, until within recent years, which prevailed in the system of granting leases and making assignments to families and even partnership firms in an assumed unincorporate title which cannot be recognised by the Courts, and to which no legal Estate could pass; the difficulty, amounting in many cases to the impossibility, of finding in whose custody the deeds are, because no Remaining Portion of the lot has been kept, the whole lot in those cases having been divided into sections and subsections without a Remaining Portion; the number of owners who take or send their title deeds, relating to the title of others as well as to their own, out of the Colony to the mainland, to India, to

xxii

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

Persia, and to England; the great number of documents of title which have been destroyed by fire, or lost in transit from one place to another; the number of deeds executed under Powers of Attorney, the deeds remaining and the Powers of Attorney either lost or destroyed as useless; and the exten- sions of the further term of 924 years having been, in years past, granted in many cases to people on an erroneous representation of ownership.

Owing to these circumstances the sale of land with a marketable title is in the majority of cases an absolute impossibility, and unless the purchaser is a willing purchaser, or intends to keep his pro- perty in his own hands and descendants for a long term of years, the sale of landed property in the Colony has become to a great extent an impracticable undertaking.

The Commissioners would also refer to recent Judgments of the Supreme Court which they have appended to this their Report, viz., Ow Yeong Kwon Sek v. Tang A Lok, which shows a state of things which they believe not to have been uncommon; Lo On v. Lee Foo Wing, which shows that possessory rights, without registration, have been under certain circumstances acknowledged; Chun Yik Chung v. Stephens, which enters fully into the original mode of marking out boundaries; and The Official Administrator of the Estate of Leung Kwong Chi v. Ho Yung relating to land at Apli- chau, showing that leases have been granted to fictitious persons, a course which in the earlier days of the Colony the Commissioners are assured was not infrequent.

With reference to limitations of Title, and the Ordinance to that effect put forward by the Soli- citors, it appears that the Ordinance was considered objectionable on the ground that it recognised possessory rights, without registration, which was considered by some undesirable. The Commissioners are of opinion, however, that with some modifications it might be advisable to adopt some of the suggestions with regard to the new Leases which may be granted, and also with regard to the invest- igation of Titles for the purpose of granting such new Leases; but a better opinion could be given upon this subject by those who will have the opportunity of working out the new arrangements.

In view of the Instructions issued to the Governor that no land shall be disposed of otherwise than by Auction, the question arises whether the Governor, in granting extensions of lots to Leaseholders for the purpose of adding to their holdings, or of rectifying or modifying boundaries, or in order to effect reclamations, or otherwise; the Registrar General in granting licences for squatting on Crown Lands, and the Surveyor General in granting licences for easements upon Crown Land, have been justified in doing so by such Instructions, and whether such grants are not therefore void in law ab initio.

No copies of Instructions have been kept in the Land Office, and where the sanction of the Secretary of State has been applied for and received, (if that were considered sufficient under the power given to the Governor by the Crown), no reference to such sanction has been made in the grant, nor has there been any such sanction recorded in the Land Office, and although a great deal of reference has been made in the Colony to missing Powers of Attorney no reference has been made by any one, apparently, to the powers of the Governor, the Registrar General, or the Surveyor General, in dealing with land or rights connected therewith from the very foundation of the Colony up to and inclusive of the present time. Everybody seems to have thought, including the authorities themselves, that the Governor, as representing the Queen, had the power to dispose of Crown Lands in any way he thought fit, and that the Surveyor General as Commissioner of Crown Lands, and the Registrar General as delegated by the Governor, had full power to grant licences affecting interests in such Lands. In fact all parties seem to have considered that, in dealing with a public Officer, they were in fact dealing with the Crown, and that the Crown was in fact bound by the action of its Officers in respect to Land, even if the Governor exceeded the powers which were delegated solely to him and the other Officers had no powers conferred upon them to deal with land, or with interests arising therefrom, by the Crown at all.

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

THE OCCUPANCY OF LAND IN THE VILLAGES OTHER THAN

UNDER CROWN LEASES.

xxiii

In addition to the land which has been granted on lease for 999 years or 75 years, there are other descriptions of holdings throughout the Colony.

1. The original villagers upon the Island at the time of its cession, or their descendants, a Village Rent Roll of numbers and rents of houses, but not of names, being kept until quite recently by the Registrar General, and now by the Treasurer, who collects rents, rates and taxes from all.

2. The squatters licensed by the Registrar General from year to year under a squatter's licence.

3. Trespassers, who although not licensed, yet have built several hundreds of dwellings on undisposed of Crown Land in the outlying districts, many of whom are assessed for rates and taxes.

The Crown Lands are under the control of the Surveyor General; the lands occupied by the original Villagers were, until very recently, entirely under the supervision of the Registrar General, who collected their annual Village rents, and the supervision is now divided between the Registrar General and the Treasurer, the latter of whom now collects the rents; the lands occupied by squatters are or were under the control of the Registrar General, but the rents, rates and taxes are collected by the Treasurer; the woods and forests, which are now growing and becoming every year of greatly increased value, are under the control of the Superintendent of the Botanical and Afforestation De-

partment.

There are other lands also upon which grass cutters have been allowed to cut and take away the growth of herbage, and people who keep cattle and goats have been permitted to let them graze. These lands are principally under the control of the Surveyor General, but are partly under the supervision of the Botanical Superintendent for the protection of the young trees, neither of whom has a sufficient staff to effectively exercise any but the slightest semblance of control.

The Commissioners are of opinion that the division of the control and supervision of the Crown Lands ainong different departments, where each department is working separately, is mischievo and obstructive to the best interests of the Colony particularly as there can be n, effective control under the circumstances.

Amongst other things also the consequences are, as pointed out by the Registrar General three years ago, that the proper sanitation of the Colony is undoubtedly impracticable if the system of squatting, as at present practised, is any longer continued, on account of the miserable shanties in which these people live, owing to their having no fixity of tenure.

In connexion with the question of trespassing, the Commissioners would refer to a Report made by the Surveyor General, which was laid before them, and which they have appended hereto, and which in their opinion shows the absolute necessity of adopting some measures to prevent the rights of the Crown being encroached upon in the country districts. One of the first things which the Commissioners did, principally in consequence of that Report, was to recommend that trespassing should be put a stop to at once, and a Minute was issued by the Acting Governor on the 8th day of September, 1886, directing the Police to prevent any further trespassing, and, if necessary, to pull down any houses or matsheds that may be erected in spite of their prohibition.

1

RECOMMENDATIONS.

The Commissioners recommend, either:-

(1.) That a Special Commissioner, with Deputies if necessary, be appointed to examine into questions of Title, invested with full power for that purpose by the Crown or by the Legislature, or by both.

1

xxiv

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

(2.) Or that a Crown Land Board be appointed with special powers to deal with all ques-

tions affecting the land of the Colony.

(3.) Or that the Surveyor General should be furnished with much greater powers than he

at present possesses.

(4.) Or that there should be a duly constituted Land Court.

The authority to be constituted could decide, upon inquiry into the merits of each case, what arrangements should be made with Leaseholders, and other than Leaseholders, subject to the Governor's approval, and the approval of the Secretary of State if considered necessary.

The general opinion is that a Crown Land Board should be constituted.

Considerable differences of opinion, however, seem to exist as to what ought to be the powers and authorities of the Crown Land Board, and also with regard to the persons who ought to compose

it.

The Commissioners think, for obvious reasons, it would be most objectionable to have a large Board, but that a Board consisting of three or at most five members would be sufficient, and there are obvious reasons why they should be Government Officials having no personal interest in the disposi- tion of the Crown Lands.'

If the supervision of Crown Lands is to be removed from the Surveyor General, or even if it remains with him, it would be absolutely necessary that the services of one or two Surveyors should be secured in connexion with the survey of Crown Lands who should have no other duties to perform, but these Surveyors should be under the control of the Surveyor General and be responsible to him. Their salaries might be charged to the Crown Land Office. The Commis- sioners in considering their draft Report, and in anticipation of this their Report, have already strongly urged the Government forthwith to obtain the services of at least one Surveyor for this purpose, to be attached to the Surveyor General's Office.

ppended is a statement in which is collated the information already obtained by Mr. SAMPSON for the Commissioners regarding the numbers of squatters houses and land held by them in the different villages, shewing that large quantities of land are held by these people rent free and tax free or on payment of police rates only. Mr. SAMPSON has, as yet, been able to examine into the holdings in 25 villages, and there still remain 30 more villages for his inquiries, but the Commissioners have every reason to believe that in all the other villages in the Colony the same state of things will be found to exist, and it is absolutely necessary that some steps should be adopted, as speedily as possible, to bring the lands now occupied by squatters and others in the villages under effective control. The Commissioners have suggested that Mr. SAMPSON's services should be continued in obtaining this information until he has completed his enquiry throughout all the villages, and that he should report the result from time to time to the Surveyor General, as they are of opinion that the information collected by him now, will prove of very great value hereafter when the Government has to determine what should be done in respect of the villagers, and with respect to any claims made by them to lands or houses in their occupation.

The Commissioners are of opinion that all parties in possession of land should be dealt with equitably and liberally, and that the necessary powers for this purpose should be given to the Crown Land Board, or other authority created to decide upon these questions.

The Commissioners think the only remedy for the confusion which has been pointed out is to permit the assignee of each separate house to surrender his section or sections and to grant him a new Crown Lease with a separate rent to be fixed on equitable terms, and to be paid direct to the Crown. No difficulty can arise with regard to the collection of the Crown Rent, because each house is of very much greater annual value than the Crown Rent.

d

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

XXV

The Commissioners themselves are very strongly of opinion that there should be constituted, at once, a Crown Land Board to whom all applications for Land, or for in any way dealing with Crown property, should in the first instance be submitted; and they are of opinion that there ought to be no more difficulty in dealing with Crown property in this Colony than in dealing with any well managed large estate in England. That, indeed, there ought to be less as there can be no difficulty in obtaining any legislative powers that may be considered necessary or desirable. That the Surveyor General should be the Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board. That for the present the Land Officer and the Attorney General should be members of the Board, but that, if the recommendations of the Commissioners are eventually carried out, the Special Commissioner for investigating Titles, or Judge of the Land Court, should be substituted for the Attorney General, and it should be the particular business of the Officers, other than the Surveyor General, to see, in conjunction with him, that the decisions of the Board, when approved by the Governor, are duly carried into effect and that all legal requirements and formalities are complied with. The Commissioners think that there ought to be frequent, say weekly, sittings of the Board in order to dispose of current business. The Commissioners think that such a Board if constituted with the necessary powers, with a good Secretary, and a proper staff, might proceed at once to deal with a great many cases which are at present in a state of entan- glement. Under the present law relating to registration the difficulties as to accepting a surrender are not very great; the chief things that are required in order to accepting a surrender and granting a New Lease, if the Title on the Register is clear, are consent of all parties interested; proofs of possession under the Title, and of identity, and these might be easily provided for by requiring advertisement of application for some fixed time before a surrender is accepted.

If, in addition to this, proceedings by way of scire facias to set aside a Crown Lease were provided for (see Regina v. Hughes L. R. 1 P. C. 81), by making the Leases records of the Court, the Com- missioners think that no wrong could be inflicted upon any one for which there would not be an adequate remedy.

There are, however, many Titles the Commissioners feel sure for which further provision would have to be made either by the appointment of a Special Commissioner or the formation of a Land Court with special powers, and the nature of those special powers the Commissioners think the Crown Land Board would be in a far better position than themselves to suggest after some experience of the nature of the difficulties to be surmounted.

The Commissioners would have to receive, either from the Crown or by Ordinance, greater powers than have been given to the Governor or to the Surveyor General for the purpose of dealing with the land, and the Commissioners think it advisable that some rules should be laid down for their guidance within which they, with the approval of the Governor, should have given them large dis- cretionary powers.

The Commissioners would also recommend that possessory rights, and also claims to easements, should be taken into consideration, as between individuals, where they would be sustained by Law, and even as against the Crown where they could not be so sustained, as far as possible, but the Commissioners would recommend that in the new Registration Ordinance, that they propose should be framed, no rights to Land or easement should be allowed by virtue of mere possession, or user, unless they appear in the Register. These claims are generally founded either on force or on fraud, and the Commissioners conceive no harm can be done to any person by refusing to recognise claims which are not founded upon matters of record.

The Commission recommend that trespassing should be entirely put a stop to, and the system of squatting abolished.

With regard to original holders of Land, at the time of the occupation of the Colony, their assignees and descendants who can prove their claims, the Commissioners consider that great liberality

=

:

xxvi

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

should be shown to them by the Government, even to the extent of granting them leases for the remaining portion of 999 years from the foundation of the Colony.

With regard to licensed squatters the Commissioners consider that they can have no just claims to be confirmed in their holdings. If their lands were not required for other purposes, and they were in a condition to take out leases, some amount of preference might be shown to them, but whenever a squatter, who has been in possession for a lengthened period, is dispossessed the Com- missioners think that it would only be just to give him some compensation for disturbance, however small, and to allow him the value of any improvements he may have made; and with regard to trespassers, of long standing especially, such as have been rated, the Commissioners think that they should have a reasonable notice to renove, and some compensation if they have, owing to the laches of the Crown, been induced to effect any permanent improvements, or are damaged owing to their having put up buildings in the belief that they would not be disturbed.

The Commissioners see no reason why lands, not wanted for other purposes, should not be dis- posed of for pastoral or agricultural purposes, or for garden lots. These lands might be either disposed of to tenants from year to year, or on leases for 7, 14 or 21 years, and the Commissioners think that considerable discretion might be given to the Crown Land Board in dealing with any applications for Land, for these purposes, that may be made to them, subject of course to approval by the Governor, or the Governor in Council, and in accordance with any Instructions that he may receive from the Secretary of State.

With regard to the means to be taken by the Government for looking after the interests of the Colony, in the outlying districts, the Commissioners are satisfied the Government will have eventually to appoint suitable men with similar powers to the Government Agents in Ceylon, and other places.

The Commissioners are strongly of opinion that there should be one such Agent resident in Kowloon; one in the South-Eastern, and one in the North-Eastern Districts of Hongkong.

The duties of these Agents, so far as regards the Land question, would be to make themselves acquainted, in the first instance, with the present occupiers and tenants; to act as Deputy Land Com- missioners and to report to the Crown Land Board upon all existing claims to Land in their respective Districts; to receive, and to report on, applications for grants of Land, or for other privileges which it might be in the power of the Crown Land Board to grant; to superintend the collection of Crown rents and rates and taxes; to prevent trespassing; to look after the forests, and to prevent the trespassing thereon, and the cutting down of trees for sale, or for use as fuel, a temptation to which the villagers, and others, are becoming more and more exposed; to regulate, under the directions of the Crown Land Board, or of the departments concerned, the cutting of grass, the keeping of pigs, the depasturing of cattle and goats. For such duties the Commissioners think that the services of a Passed Cadet might be utilized and that it would afford him a good opportunity for familiarizing himself with the languages spoken in Hongkong; for bringing him into contact with the various departments and for enabling the Government to form some opinion as to the capacity in which his services would be most likely to be useful thereafter; and the Commissioners consider that the increase to the revenue resulting from more strictly looking after the interests of the Crown in the outlying districts would more than com- pensate for the increased staff that would be required. In addition to the duties we have suggested these gentlemen might be appointed Magistrates and deal with criminal cases subject to an appeal or re-hearing before the Magistrates in Victoria and they might also have a limited jurisdiction for dealing with cases of petty debt, and the Commissioners cannot help saying, although not within the scope of their present enquiry, that in their opinion such appointments would have the best possible effect in bringing the Government more into touch with the people and the weakening of the power of the secret societies to which, as we understand, the people now turn for redress whenever they consider that they are in any way wronged as amongst themselves. These gentlemen ought also generally to

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

xxvii

concern themselves about the Government interests in their Districts; to report to the departments interested; to look after the Police, Forest guards, Collectors of Revenue, Lands, Fishing Boats Fisheries, Industries, agricultural and otherwise, the Junk Trade, Roads, Lighthouses, Reservoirs, Water supply, Reclamations, Public Buildings, Repairs, Contractors and workinen employed by Government, &c., &c., &c. These duties the Commissioners think would keep them actively employed and would be of great use to them in after life.

Of course a permanent staff would be required, but only experience can show what that staff should consist of. At present the staff employed is singularly deficient for the work that has to be done. There are Inspectors of Police at Kowloon; at Sowkewan; at Stanley, and at Aberdeen, each with a small body of Police under them; there are three forest rangers for the whole Island, and there are light-house keepers, &c., at each of the light-houses in the Island.

The Treasurer has lately employed an extra shroff and collector in his office; the Surveyor General sends an Inspector occasionally; the Registrar General has hitherto only received applications that have been made to him, and used formerly occasionally to send out a collector; each department works separately, and there has been absolutely no local supervision beyond what the heads of depart- ments, or their deputies, could occasionally give.

The Commissioners think that the time has fully come when some such supervision should be established.

If, however, the Government take a different view, and should not feel justified in incurring the increased expense, the Commissioners think that the services of the Inspectors of Police in the outlying districts might be utilized to a far greater extent than they have hitherto been.

A larger staff will be required at the Land Office, but the Commissioners can make no recom- mendations on that subject, which recommendations must wait the result of experience.

Many suggestions have been made to the Commissioners that there is no sufficient survey of the Colony, especially of the City of Victoria, which, with a public map, it has been represented is very much required for registration and other purposes, and several persons have suggested that the survey should be undertaken and a public map prepared as soon as practicable. Some suggest that a staff of the Ordnance Survey Department in England should be sent out for the purpose, and that the expense to the Colony would, ultimately, be very small, as the value of the map would cover the expenses, and possibly leave a profit.

The Commissioners are informed, however, that there is a very useful map of 160 feet to the inch, prepared some time ago in the Surveyor General's Office and corrected to the latest date, and the Surveyor General has promised that a copy of this map shall be furnished to the Land Office. The Commissioners would recommend that this map should also show houses and street numbers and be kept at the Land Office under constant correction. The Commissioners attach the greatest im- portance to the compilation of proper maps for registration purposes, and recommend the subject to a Crown Land Board, or other authority to be hereafter constituted in lieu thereof.

The Commissioners are of opinion that it is desirable in the interests of the Colony that all the land granted upon lease (except for agricultural or pastoral purposes, or for garden lots), should be granted upon the same tenure. Before very long it will be necessary that something should be done in reference to the Leases for 75 years. The same difficulties will soon arise in dealing with them as arose with the 75 years Leases granted in the early days of the Colony, when the lot holders looked forward to the fact that the termination of their Leases was within a measurable distance; to remedy which the term was extended for a further period of 924 years. The lots become unmarketable, tenants will do nothing towards repairs, or in the improvements or sustenance of their dwellings; if they were habitable towards the expiration of the term that is as much as they would be. No one

xxviii

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

has bought land on a 75 years Lease only, with the idea that the Crown would enforce its right of re- entry at the end of 75 years and turn them out. Nor does it appear why there should be any dis- tinction on one side of the harbour to the other; or on lands in the town or in the country. It may be urged that parties should be kept to the strict performance of their engagements with the Crown, and that where land has risen in value the landlord should be entitled to the unearned increment, at least proportionably with the tenant.

In modern days it has been strenuously urged that the landlord, even if a private individual, has no right to this unearned increment. In case the Crown insists upon its rights, however, the Crown will, at the expiration of 75 years, take not only the unearned increment, but the whole value of the improvements effected by the tenants.

The Crown in dealing with Crown Lands is not like some private persons selfishly seeking to drive a hard bargain at the expense of an individual, but to dispose of its lands in the best interests of the whole community.

}

The Crown, as the Commissioners have endeavoured to point out in another part of this Report, has the entire monopoly of all ungranted land, and in the case of the settlers at Kowloon, and on the Hills, purchasers were, and are, compelled either to accept the terms that are offered by the Crown, or to go without the land.

The Commissioners feel sure that the same reasons which decided Earl GREY to sanction the extension of the Town Lots from 75 to 999 years would apply equally to the extension of the Leases of all other lots from 75 to 999 years.

A new Registration Ordinance is required under which all new Titles should be registered, but the Registration Ordinance, 3 of 1844, should not be repealed, so that the old Titles may still be kept under that Ordinance until they are all got rid of and absorbed under the new system.

The Commissioners, however, have already suggested that some amendments to that Ordinance might be at once made so as to facilitate the bringing of Land under the new system.

Great objection has been taken to the provision in the Leases for the resumption of Land for public purposes at a valuation to be made solely by the Surveyor General, and the Commissioners think that in any new Leases to be issued this provision might be omitted, and an Ordinance might be passed with similar provisions respecting the valuation of such lands as were prescribed in the Ordinance recently passed for the valuation of lands required for the purpose of constructing Tramways.

!

With regard to the form of Crown Lease to be hereafter issued the Commissioners are of opinion that it is very desirable many of the covenants and provisions should be omitted, as unnecessary, and other covenants might be replaced by the provisions of an Ordinance.

A form of lease might be prepared for the new leases to be issued, leaving it to the authority who shall have the control of these matters to decide as to whether any special covenants are required under special circumstances.

A short form of assignment, and of mortgage, might also be adopted which might be extensively used in all ordinary transactions.

The Commissioners have attached to this their Report specimens of the various grants and licences issued by the Government or Government Officers.

The Commissioners recommend that provisions should be made for the registration of all Powers of Attorney under which deeds relating to land are executed, and also for their production and keep- ing copies in the Land Office, and for examined, or office copies, to be accepted in evidence; and that with respect to present Titles, which are affected by Powers of Attorney not being forthcoming, some legislation is desirable.

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

xxix

:

The Commissioners are also strongly of opinion it is desirable, under the new Registration Ordinance, that copies of all original documents affecting Title should be recorded in the Land Office.

With regard to the protection of boundaries, and the fixing of Boundary Marks or Stones, the Commissioners think that this question can be left to the Crown Land Board, or other Authority here- after appointed.

The restriction of Chinese Houses should in the opinion of the Commissioners be retained, and the present boundaries should be fixed by Ordinance, and power might be given to the Crown Land Board, or other Authority appointed, from time to time to alter such boundaries with the approval of the Governor and with notice, previously to the restriction being removed, to the neighbouring lot- holders so as to give them an opportunity of objecting, if they considered their interests affected.

With regard to the assessment of rates and taxes, if the Crown Land Board is appointed the Commissioners consider that such Board should constitute the authority to which the Rate-payers could appeal in the first instance, and this would not be to them so grave a thing as to appear in Court. The Rate-payer could simply go before the Board himself and state his reasons for considering that he was rated too high.

As to the preparation of the valuations and Rate Books, the Commissioners are of opinion that this could most properly be done in the Crown Land Office and under the authority of the Crown Land Board.

With reference to encouraging applications for the disposal of land outside Victoria the Commissioners think that, if their suggestions as to a Crown Land Board and District Deputy Com- missioners of Lands are adopted, ample opportunity will be given to persons requiring land for any purposes to make their wants known to the Government, and the Crown Land Board, if constituted, will be in a position to make any suggestions that they think advisable in each particular case as it may arise..

It sometimes happens when lands are sold that squatters are living upon the ground sold, and one of the conditions of sale in such cases has been that the purchaser should compensate the squatters to the satisfaction of the Government before the Lease is issued. Cases have happened where this con- dition has prevented the delivery of the Lease to the purchaser, owing to his being unable to bring evidence that the squatter has been properly compensated, or even compensated at all, as the terms of compensation were not reduced to writing, and the squatters have removed to places where they cannot be found. This is an undoubted inconvenience to the purchaser which inconvenience would not arise if the squatters were first dealt with by Government and the land sold free of temporary occupants; but if the recommendation of the Commissioners with regard to temporary occupants are adopted this inconvenience would scarcely arise in future.

The conditions of sale generally issued by the Government state that the purchaser shall accept a Crown Lease in the usual form and execute a counterpart when called upon, and the Lease would thereupon issue. In a great many cases, however, the building covenant was disregarded and lands which ought to have been built upon have remained unproductive. This led to the necessity of stopping the grant of the Lease until the building stipulations in the contract have been performed to the satisfaction of the Surveyor General. It is alleged by some persons that this provision has caused unnecessary inconvenience to the purchasers, who, in many cases, have to borrow money in order to complete their buildings, which they are unable to do until the Lease has been issued, no duplicate contract for sale being handed to the purchaser, and there being no provision for the registration of dealings with the contract to safeguard the purchaser or mortgagee. This the Commissioners think would be sufficiently obviated by the registration of the contract, and all dealings under it, in the Land Office in the same manner as the original Lease, for a limited period, and the delivery to the

.

XXX

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

purchaser of a duplicate of his contract; but there should be stringent limitations as to the time during which the temporary registration should be allowed, as otherwise some purchasers would probably neglect to take out their Leases at all. When the Lease is taken out the Register in respect of each particular piece of land should be closed.

OVERCROWDING IN VICTORIA, ITS CAUSES AND METHODS

OF ALLEVIATION.

With regard to overcrowding, it appears that so long ago as the year 1849 Mr. DUDDELL called the attention of the Land Committee sitting at that time to the remarkable hoarding together of the

Chinese.

And this has gone on increasing to the present day.

In 1874 the Colonial Surgeon called the serious attention of the Government to the evils of over- crowding.

In 1880 the Military Authorities complained to the Government of the excessive crowding of the houses erected within the neighbourhood of the Barracks, endangering the health of the Troops, and suggested a Colonial Ordinance should be passed limiting the inhabitants of a house to what Health Officers consider a fitting number of human beings.

In the same year the Earl of KIMBERLEY, (Despatch 26th November, 1880), complained to Governor HENNESSY that little appeared to have been done since the date of the Colonial Surgeon, Dr. AYRES' reports to improve the sanitary condition of those parts of the Town of Victoria which are inhabited by Chinese, and that the rapid growth of the population cannot fail to have added to the evil of overcrowding.

Statements have recently been made that, if the sanitary measures proposed by the newly con- stituted Sanitary Board are adopted, large numbers of people will be rendered homeless, and even now, notwithstanding the cold season has not yet come to an end, it is alleged people are already obliged to sleep in the streets.

Rents in the Colony are simply enormous, the rents charged for European dwelling houses being at least three times as much as the rents obtained in any close suburb of London, without the same accommodation and at least double what they ought to be.

The Commissioners are of opinion that this will be a question for a Crown Land Board, or other constituted body, to consider seriously and to report as to whether any steps can be taken by the Government to afford relief, in this respect, by putting land in the market for sale at a reduced Crown Rent or otherwise.

The Government, as has been pointed out, has a monopoly of all the unsold land, and an intending purchaser must either comply with any terms that the Government may demand, or purchase land already sold by Government, and in the hands of private persons, (much of which is in the hands of persons who have bought for investment), or go without.

The sale of land by Government has no effect in reducing rents, because as lands in the hands of private parties increase in value an additional and proportional Crown rent is claimed by Government. In addition to this as rents increase, so, in like proportion, do rates, and the result of all these combined causes is that houses for respectable European families are difficult to obtain; rents are constantly being forced up higher, and the Commissioners are informed that a large number of the poorer classes of the European community are compelled, to their great detriment, owing to the high rents asked for the very smallest European house, to live in Chinese houses.

The best means to adopt for the checking of overcrowding is to enlarge the area in which people can live, and the most obvious thing to do is, if possible, to get the Naval and Military Establishments, removed from the centre of the Town, or at all events to remove as far as they can do so consistently with the interests of the Government.

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

xxxi

The Commissioners have received returns from the Naval and Military Authorities which they have appended to this their report. From these returns it would appear that the Naval authorities have in their possession:-

In Victoria; Naval Yard,

2.

Mt. Shadwell,

>>

Hongkong, Mt. Gough,

Out of Victoria; Kowloon,

A. R. P.

...4.3.26

...

6.3.33

.........4.3.23

At Stone Cutters' Island the use of a rifle range extend-

ing to 600 yards,...

....

....5.0. 3

At Kowloon the use of a rifle range extending to 400 yds.

say 22 acres or 958,320 square feet.

A. 21.3. 5

And the Military Authorities have in their possession about 337 acres or 13,579,720 square feet. Some of this land is at Stone Cutters' Island and some at the Peak.

But in addition to this the Commissioners understand that there are tracts of land more especially at Kowloon and at the back of Kennedy Road, which owing to the restrictions placed upon them by the Military Authorities the Government is unable to dispose of, although otherwise readily saleable.

The amount occupied by the Naval and Military Authorities in the centre of the Town, and cutting the Town in two, is:-By the Naval Authorities 4 acres—or at the rate of 43,560 square feet to the acre-206,910 square feet; and by the Military Authorities, 84 acres, or 3,659,040 square feet. In addition to which the proposed reclamations in front of the Naval and Military Establishments, except what is wanted for the new Praya are claimed as follows:-By the Naval Authorities 2 acres or 108,900 square feet, and by the Military, 6 acres, or 261,360 square feet, making a grand total of 4,236,410 square feet.

1

It has been pointed out to the Commissioners, by several persons, that the City of Victoria is really divided into two Towns, and the effect of the recent purchases by the Military Authorities has been to make things worse than they were before, both in regard to their having turned out a number of people having to seek for some other places in which to live and carry on their businesses, and that from the fact of their having dispossessed and turned out all these people from the Queen's Road they have more than ever divided the Town into two complete parts.

The land now occupied by the Naval and Military Authorities is extremely valuable, and has for some time been steadily increasing in value, and, although it might not be advisable to put the whole of the land into the Market at once, yet, with the present increasing population of the Colony, it would be rapidly absorbed, and the Government would not only get the premium for it, but a large Crown Rent.

In addition to this, as soon as the land is covered with houses the Government would get a large

amount for rates.

There are other measures which could be carried out, in the event of the Government arranging for the Naval and Military Authorities to give up a sufficient quantity of the land they now occupy, such as tramways, reclamation of the foreshore, and other reclamations advantageous to be effected, all of which would tend to increase the general revenue of the Colony.

If the Naval and Military Authorities even gave up only the land to the North of the Queen's Road it would be very much to the public advantage.

Although the Commissioners are aware that there is great objection to giving up, on the part of the Naval and Military Authorities, of any portion of their land, yet the Commissioners think that

xxxii

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

the Naval and Military Authorities would not oppose themselves to the well being and the interests of the whole community if they were thoroughly satisfied that they were standing in the way of the best interests of the Colony.

Sooner or later, the Commissioners think, that if the population continues to increase, it will be absolutely necessary with the increasing want of space, and value of land, that the space occupied by the Naval and Military Authorities will have to be relinquished in consequence of the pressure of population in the adjoining portions.

Now that the forts are completed they will be worse than useless unless the garrison is largely increased. If the garrison is increased more buildings will have to be erected, and the cost of removal will be very greatly increased. If the best lands of the Colony are occupied for military purposes the Colony is really contributing enormously towards the expenses of the troops, and can hardly be called upon, in justice, to make any further military contribution.

The Commissioners, while attaching the greatest importance to the views of military experts, especially to those of so competent and liberal minded an officer as the present Major-General CAMERON, C.B., are not convinced of the necessity of cutting the City into two parts. They venture to think that other positions might be found, which, with the aid of speedy communication that might be obtained, would be equally advantageous for all military purposes, and for the protection of the City, looking to its peculiar configuration, and would be prepared to suggest what they would consider to be suitable sites for the whole barrack accommodation, inclusive of officers quarters and bungalows for married officers, and parade grounds, if there was the slightest chance of inducing the Military Authorities to consider the advisability of removal.

Whether the Military Authorities can be induced to leave the centre of the City, or to withdraw from the Northern side of Queen's Road as far as they can possibly do so consistently with keeping open their communication with the sea, the Commissioners consider that they should at all events be called upon to determine as to what portion of the 337 acres now in their occupation should be retained by them, and what restrictions it is necessary for them to impose upon land that is required for building purposes.

Great complaints have been made to the Commissioners as to alleged unnecessary restrictions imposed upon building at Kowloon, and also as to building villa residences above Kennedy Road which are greatly required, and as to both of which complaints the Commissioners, as at present advised, believe the restrictions alleged to have been imposed to be unnecessary, either for military purposes in the one case, or with necessary restrictions as a sanitary precaution, in the other.

The Commissioners also strongly recommend the removal of all public buildings, that are not absolutely essential, in the heart of the Town. The Supreme Court House and Offices in consequence of the great value of the site could be removed, without any expense, if a suitable site could be obtained elsewhere.

If the land were reclaimed between the City Hall and Murray Pier the Post Office could be removed to a much better position for it there, where the Post Office Officials could be alone to themselves, have plenty of light, plenty of air, and free communication with the water.

And the Gaol might be removed.

The cost of the new Gaol would be large, and it is considered that the value of the ground would be very much less than the cost of the new Gaol, and it is said that a new Gaol is not at present required, and that, if removed, the site would be wanted for Government purposes.

But if the Gaol were removed, whatever buildings are removed to its site would be removed from the lower parts of the Town, and the Commissioners think that in the valuations which have been made, the

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

xxxiii

*

increased Crown rents and rates to be obtained have not been taken into consideration, and that it may not be advisable to spend all the money estimated as the cost of the new Gaol for some time to come, if sufficient space is reserved for extension. Still, as a measure of relief, its removal would open out a considerable space for building houses for some of the European population who are unable to find or afford the expense of a house on the higher levels.

These reasons, apart from any other questions, make it avisable for the Gaol to be removed from the centre of the Town.

If the Magistracy is continued there, of course provision would have to be made for prisoners before trial, and for those who are committed to trial at the Supreme Court.

The Commissioners are of opinion that if the Naval and Military Authorities can be prevailed upon to remove from the centre of the Town, and if the public buildings to which they have referred are also removed there will be sufficient available space to be filled up for some time to come.

If this is, however, impracticable, the Commissioners think that some relief may be obtained by having free communication by Railway or Tramway with the villages and outlying districts, and by reclamations that may be effected at a moderate cost.

It is impossible, at present, to say what effect the making of Railways would have, but judging from other places it is reasonable to suppose that it would have the effect of removing many work- shops, and a large number of people, from the central part of the City, and, with better protection, the better class of Chinese might be induced to remove their family houses out of the city. The Villages would be increased; a portion of the Junk trade would find it convenient to go to the outports, espe- cially if some allowance were made with regard to the payment of fees, and it would certainly make the Crown lands in the neighbourhood of considerably increased value.

If it is thought desirable the construction of a Railway as an experiment might be tried, but seeing that if it fell into the hands of private persons it must inevitably be a monopoly, the Commis- sioners think if it were undertaken, (and there are no engineering difficulties in its way), it would probably be better that it should be undertaken by the Government, even if it were subsequently leased to a private Company; and considering the vast numbers of Chinese who are constantly passing through this place it would have a considerable effect in introducing improved means of communica- tion, and railways, into the Southern part of China, thus increasing the commercial importance of the Colony.

If the propositions for transferring Crown Lands to the Crown Land Board are entertained the Crown Land Board will be able to undertake public works which would be remunerative; they would be in a position, probably to entertain some such scheme; and with reclamations in the harbour, and removal of public buildings from the centre of the Town, the Government could provide a considerable amount of space.

REDEMPTION OF CROWN RENTS.

The whole of the purchase moneys received from the sales of land are not now brought into the general Revenue of the Colony, but are placed to a separate account, on the ground that the present population ought not to be spending the assets of the Colony except in permanent improvements which will be to the benefit of their successors.

The Crown rents, the Commissioners think, might well be put on the same footing and ought to be expended in the first instance in the improvement of the Crown property, transferring only the annual profits received by the Crown Land Board, and not required for the purposes of improvement, to the general revenue.

xxxiv ·

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

The expenses of reclamations, and expenses of many of the recommendations that are made to Government are enormous, and the Commissioners think that in regard to reclamations, which have hitherto mostly been made at the expense of individuals, the Government, owing to not having the means to affect reclamations itself, has hitherto acted upon an entirely wrong principle, detrimental to the public interests.

If the moneys receivable for Crown rents were put into the same fund as the purchase moneys, the Crown Land Board would have a Revenue which would enable them to make permanent improve- ments, many of which would yield a large annual Revenue to the Government, in the shape of assess-

ments.

In that case the Crown Land Board might be empowered, with the consent of the Governor, subject to the instructions of the Secretary of State not only to spend their current Revenue, but to allow commutations for Crown rent, which, in the opinion of the Commissioners ought not to be less than 25 years' purchase, and also to borrow upon the security of Crown rents.

It must be remembered that the Crown rents are the first charge upon all the lands, and is one of the safest modes of investment that can be devised.

If the handing over the Crown rents to the Crown Land Board cannot be acceded to, at present on account of the deficiency which would be created in the annual Revenue, yet the Revenue has been growing so largely that in a year or two's time the amount that is at present received for Crown rents would hardly be missed, and the effect of improvements to Crown property will certainly, or most probably, increase the rates to a very large amount.

The following table shews the growth of Crown rents, the estimated annual value of buildings for rating purposes, the amount received for rates, and the growth of Revenue from all sources during the last 12 years :-

Table shewing growth of Crown rents, estimated annual value of buildings for rating purposes, the amount received for rates, and the growth of Revenue from all sources from the year 1875 to the year 1886 inclusive.

Years.

Amount of Rent Roll.

Estimated Annual · Value of Buildings for Rating Purposes.

Received for Rates. Received for Rates.

Total Revenue of the

Colony from all sources (except premia from Land Sales.)

$

$

$

$$

1875

128,509

1,670,410

186,098

893,818

1876

128,130

1,694,695

184,509

871,308

1877

129,404

1,733,515

190,865

920,910

1878

130,123

1,764,662

197,925

936,606

1879

130,812

1,900,870

171,342

962,687

1880

131,716

2,094,235

230,557

1,063,949

1881

146,227

2,062,854

221,796

1,120,797

1882

148,450

2,308,882

252,938

1,209,517

1883

153,109

2,330,010

258,614

1,289,448

1884

153,923

2,404,302

263,989

1,173,071

1885

155,490

2,562,254

285,765

1,251,890

1886

160,753

2,590,942

306,132

1,367,978

If at any time the Crown Rents should yield a profit, the first thing which should be done, the Commissioners think, is to reduce the amounts that are paid for rates which are now, in the City, no less than 13 per cent. on the estimated annual value.

REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

XXXV

The reason of the delay in making this report has been the vast nature of the inquiry. It would have been desirable for the Commissioners to have examined the witnesses, as they might have altered their opinions if they had been acquainted with the facts in the possession of the Commissioners. The absence of the Chairman, the Chief Justice, was unavoidable, and it was thought by the members of the Commission desirable to get the Report prepared before he went away, more especially as he would then be in a position to give any information which might be required in England. They therefore decided to close their enquiry before his departure, and agreed to the draft Report, which has since been amplified by him, and has been transmitted by him in its present shape from Japan.

The Commissioners feel that their Report is somewhat imperfect, but that, even such as it is, they owe it in a large measure to the exertions of their Secretary, who has spent much time in collecting the materials for them, and whose labours they think should be adequately rewarded.

14th April, 1887.

:

GEO. PHILLIPPO,

Chairman.

EDW. J. ACKROYD.

J. M. PRICE.

A. P. McEWEN.

HO KAI.

ADDITIONAL REMARKS BY THE SURVEYOR GENERAL.

I concur generally in the recommendations contained in this Report with the exception of those at pages 26 and 29 in connexion with trespassers and squatters.

I desire to record my objection to any compensation for disturbance being awarded to trespassers of however long standing,

Native poachers are perfectly well aware that they are acting illegally in surreptitiously appro- priating Crown Land and-looking to the difficulties of detection-I think that the laches of the Crown in not evicting immediately that the trespass has been committed should be no reason on which to found any recommendation for indemnity.

Nor in respect of Squatters can I see the justice of saddling the general ratepayers of the Colony with the burthen of any compensation for disturbance in view of the covenants endorsed on the Licence of the squatter which specially set forth that the latter is only a tenant at will.

(Signed),

J. M. PRICE,

Surveyor General.

LIST OF APPENDIX.

Page.

Appendix, No. 1.-Questions submitted by the Commissioners for the consideration and opinion of Landowners, Barristers, Solicitors, Surveyors, and others, regarding the sale and tenure of the land of the Colony, and other matters relating thereto, the answers to which were required for the information of the Commissioners,..

Appendix, No. 2.-Tracings produced before the Commissioners by the Deputy Land Officer shewing specimens of

the manner in which various Lots have been divided and subdivided:-

3

No. 1.-Plan of Marine Lots Nos. 91 and 92, shewing the Remaining Portions tinted red, the owners of

which pay Crown Rent for the whole areas,

9

No. 2.-Plan of Marine Lot No. 63в, with portions of Marine Lots Nos. 1a and 63, shewing houses in

Wing Shing Street standing on portions of the 3 Lots,

No. 3.-Plan of portions of Inland Lots Nos. 1 and 129, shewing Tong Tak Lane running obliquely through the Lots and houses with the lot boundaries running obliquely through them, ...... No. 4.-Plan shewing boundaries between Marine Lots Nos. 37 and 83 supposed to be identical, but really leaving the strip, tinted red, not included in either Lot. The houses are built over the boundaries and over the strip tinted red,

11

13

15

No. 5.-Plan of Inland Lots Nos. 385 and 386, shewing buildings on Inland Lot No. 385 encroaching over adjoining ground and Inland Lot No. 386 with no entrance to it except through adjoining lots,

17

Appendix, No. 3.-Petition to the Legislative Council signed by all the Solicitors in the Colony and supported by

several of the leading inhabitants, transmitting a Bill for dealing with Land Questions dated January, 1885,

Appendix, No. 4.-Judgments of the Supreme Court of Hongkong:-

19

No. 1.-Ow YEONG KWON SEK v. TANG A LOK, shewing dealings with property by individuals who

had no Title,

25

No. 2.-LO ON v. LU Foo WING, shewing that possessory rights, without registration, have been under

certain circumstances acknowledged,..

27

No. 3.-CHUN YIK CHUNG and Others v. M. J. D. STEPHENS, entering fully into the original mode of

marking out boundaries,.

28

No. 4.-The Official Administrator of the Estate of LUNG KWONG CHI v. HO YUNG, shewing that Crown

Leases have been granted to fictitious persons,

333333

Appendix, No. 5.-Report laid before the Commissioners by the Surveyor General upon the subject of Squatting, 36

Appendix, No. 6.-Statement in tabular form of the information obtained by Mr. Sampson in 25 Villages, shewing

that large quantities of land are held by Squatters rent free and tax free or on payment of Police Rates only,.... 39

Appendix, No. 7.-Specimens of grants and Licences issued by the Government or Government Officers :—

No. 1.-Form of Crown Lease under the Seal of the Colony and signed by the Governor,

No. 2.-Form of Agreement with Surveyor General to erect Verandahs over Crown Land,

No. 3.-Form of Squatter's Licence signed by the Surveyor General,

No. 4.-Form of Registrar General's Agreement for Tenancy of Crown Buildings, ....

No. 5.-Form of Receipt by Registrar General or Treasurer for original Villagers' Rent and Cultivated

Land,

Appendix, No. 8.-Returns furnished by the Naval Authorities,..............

Appendix, No. 9.-Returns furnished by the Military Authorities,

42

==

44

46

46

....... 47

47

49

APPENDIX TO REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

Appendix No. 1.

:

3

QUESTIONS submitted by the Commissioners for the consideration and opinion of Landowners, Barristers, Solicitors, Surveyors, and others, regarding the sale and tenure of the land of the Colony, and other matters relating thereto, the answers to which were required for the information

of the Commissioners.

Questions.

1. Is your acquaintance with the land of the Colony an extensive one as Landowner, or Solicitor having the prepara- tion of Deeds relating to the land, or as Surveyor, or otherwise?

2. Where land is not granted to persons already in possession, or having an admitted claim to the grant of a Lease, it is put up to public auction on the application of an intending purchaser-such application and proposed sale being first approved by the Governor. An annual Crown Rent is fixed by the Surveyor General and the land is offered at the auction at an upset price, upon certain conditions, the highest bidder above the upset price being declared the purchaser for a term of 999 years if a Victoria Marine or Inland Lot, and for 75 years if of another class, and in any case subject to the payment of the fixed annual rental. Has any inconvenience in this mode of sale to the public by auction, on the application of indi- viduals, arisen or come to your knowledge? If so will you be good enough to state the nature of the inconvenience and your opinion thereon.

3. The purchaser at the auction signs a contract for purchase in the terms of a form previously advertised. Until recently the essence of the contract was that the purchaser would accept a Crown Lease in the usual form and execute a counterpart when called upon, and the Lease would thereupon issue; now, the building and other conditions are stated in the contract and the Lease is not granted until the conditions are complied with to the satisfaction of the Surveyor General. Has any inconvenience or hardship arisen, so far as you know, particularly with regard to the purchaser's dealing with or selling his contract to purchase before the Lease can be issued, or otherwise with regard to the stipulations of the contract? If so, what is the nature of the inconvenience or hardship, and your opinion thereon?

4. When the purchaser has complied with his conditions of purchase a Crown Lease is issued to him from the Land Office containing reservations and covenants, and your opinion is desired upon the following points as regards the effect of the Lease upon the Lessee or his Assignees and Successors in Title.

All earth, stones, and minerals are excepted and reserved from the grant, so that the lessee has left in him the surface only of his Lot, and the erections standing upon it for the term for which the Lease is granted. Can you say whether this reservation has ever been found appreciably injurious to the lessee in his occupation or dealings with the ground so granted, or that the effect of this reservation is of no moment to him?

5. The Crown, by the Lease, reserves the right of digging for, acquiring, and carrying away the excepted earth, stones, and minerals if required for public purposes, of course doing as little damage as possible to the lessee. Has this reservation any effect upon the value of property, or does it occasion any difficulty in its sale, or is it otherwise injurious to the lessee?

6. Is it generally believed by purchasers of property that the Crown would not exercise this right, and is it treated as a nullity and therefore of no effect?

7. And with regard to the covenants to keep in repair as between Landlord and Tenant with power to the Surveyor General to view and serve notice of, and compel such repairs as he may consider necessary, are these covenants of use to the inhabitants generally in preventing dangerous decays, or are they deemed useless when the Building Laws in force in the Colony are carried into effect?

8. Certain noisome and offensive trades are prohibited by covenant in the Lease, unless carried on with licence. Do the lessees as a rule comply with this covenant, and do purchasers of property where these prohibited trades are carried on inquire whether a licence has been obtained before they complete their purchases or is no inquiry upon this subject made?

9. By Ordinance 10 of 1872, and the Rules under Ordinance 7 of 1883, provision is made in respect of noisome and offensive trades. Is it considered that the Police Regulations are sufficiently stringent without the necessity of the clause in

the Lease at all?

4

APPENDIX TO REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

10. The Crown reserves to itself by the Lease the right of determining the Lease and resuming possession of the ground, when required by the Government for public purposes, on 3 months' notice and payment to the lessee of a full and fair compensation to be fairly and impartially made by the Surveyor General. Has this right of resumption by the Crown on payment of the Surveyor General's valuation occasioned any harm or inconvenience to your knowledge?

11. Has it any effect upon the value of the property?

12. Does it act in any way to the prejudice of its transfer?

13. And what is your opinion upon the clause generally?

14. Is it desirable to have a simpler form of Crown Lease? Would there be any objection to embody the usual provi- sions in an Ordinance and to confine the Crown Lease to a description of the parties and to the property leased?

15. When a lot is sold, pickets, and in some cases boundary stones are fixed in the ground to mark its boundaries. These are frequently removed in the course of building operations by the contractor or his workmen, and it is subsequently found out that the lot has become altered in measurements. How do you propose that the lessee should be dealt with in such cases with the view to keeping his Title to the Lot strictly in order?

16. The owner of a Lot which adjoins vacant ground has a width upon which he can build 3 houses. He builds 5 under one roof of which 2 and part of a third are over the boundary of his Lot on the previously vacant ground to which he has no Title. The lot is sold with the 5 houses described as erected thereon. What steps as to measurement are usually taken by a purchaser to ascertain that in buying the 5 houses they are all comprised in the vendor's Title which is described by Lot and not by houses?

17. Is it the case that frequently on sales and purchases of houses that neither the vendor nor purchaser can establish by measurement or otherwise that a house which is sold or purchased really forms part of the Lot comprised in the vendor's Title Deeds?

*

18. Are there many cases where a purchaser accepts a vendor's Title to a Lot which by the Lease he purports to sell is described as in one situation when the property he takes possession of under his purchase deed is found to be actually in another situation?

19. Generally as to boundaries, are they so ill-defined by the Leases, particularly the Leases granted during the first 30 years after the foundation of the Colony, that by reason of the variation of boundaries, buildings, formation of private streets and alleys, and otherwise such boundaries cannot be even approximately identified?

20. Or, with originally well defined Lease boundaries have such boundaries been changed with changes in building by successive owners as to render the boundaries so unrecognisable that they cannot be located as approximating the boundaries as described by the Leases?

21. Or, when the boundary of a Lot is sought for and cannot be ascertained is it found that both Lease description and change of building are the causes ?

22. What from your experience and in your judgment is the most approved manner of protecting boundaries of Lots from obliteration during a long term of years so as to cause the least trouble of identification when the ground and buildings of the Colony are dealt with?

23. A Building Lease contains a lessee's covenant to build to the satisfaction of the Surveyor General, and the style of house is limited in some localities to European and in others to Chinese. Is there any inconvenience to the lessees or the tenants in this restriction?

24. Do you consider that with varying Colonial circumstances the restriction as to the class of house to be built should from time to time be modified to meet such circumstances?

25. Would it be advisable for the present limits to be fixed by Ordinance, leaving by such Ordinance a course open to amendment from time to time? Or should it be left to the Surveyor General, or a Crown Land Board with the approval of the Governor ?

26. What is your opinion as to the localities where European houses ought alone to be built? Or should there be any restriction?

27. When the ground comprised in a Lease is dealt with the document,-assignment, settlement, mortgage or other instrument affecting it,-must be registered with the proper Officer under a covenant in the Lease. A Registration Ordi- nance [No. 3 of 1844] provides a method of registration by Memorial and regulates the priorities of the documents regis- tered-the system of registration being more a registration of Titles than of Deeds. Does this system of registration answer any useful purpose or in your opinion can it be improved?

APPENDIX TO REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION. OF 1886-87.

28. Would it be more useful to record the documents in extenso; or, if the system can be improved in any in what respect?

5.

other way,

29. Do the registers of Titles in the course of time-by giving notice of old transactions-outstanding legal estates which probably cannot be got in, and other things,—become an impediment, rather than an assistance, to the Title?

30. Would you suggest that the Register of Titles, so far as it gives notice to a proposed purchaser or mortgagee, should be limited as to time? For example, an owner's registered Title is in order for the last 17 years, but is not market- able owing to apparently outstanding estates created more than 17 years ago not having been got in. If the Title could be limited to 16 years so that no notice could be obtained of prior defects would such Title be marketable?

31. If you suggest a limit of time what time would you consider a reasonable limit considering the circumstances of the Colony and the number of absentee owners?

32. Would it not in your opinion be better to provide by Ordinance for settling such questions by citing the parties, apparently having claims, before a Court to shew cause why a clear Title should not be granted, or what other method would you suggest?

33. When part only of a Lot is sold it is registered as a section, and when part only of a section is sold it is registered as a sub-section, and so on—and by reason of blocks of buildings having been erected in a direction not intended nor thought of when the Lot was originally sold it happens in many cases that one house stands on two and sometimes three Lots, and the Title to one house occupies 3 folios of the different register books so that three searches of three different Lots are necessary to ascertain the state of the Title to one house. How do you consider questions of this sort should be dealt with?

34. If by register of the Title to a house by name or street number, how would you propose the identification of the house and ground it stands on should be kept clear?

35. The owner of a house standing upon portions of three separate Lots has to pay proportions of Crown Rents to three different owners of the remaining portions of the Lots-the owner of a remaining portion being looked upon as directly responsible for the whole Crown Rent to the Crown. How would you deal with the question of payments of proportions of Crown Rents in such cases?

36. By what legal means does the owner of a remaining portion recover the proportion of Crown Rent due from the section holders, and section holders from the sub-section holders and so on?

37. If a sub-section holder pays up the Crown Rent to prevent forfeiture (there being no remaining portion or no remaining portion owner) how does he recover the proportions from the owners of other sections and sub-sections?

38. What powers of cross distress are usually given in cases of sales and purchases of sections and sub-sections?

39. Do you consider the system hitherto practised of permitting sections and sub-sections to be registered a good system or not? If not, state objections and whether it would be desirable for all holders of sections and sub-sections to hold direct from the Crown under a new Lease from the Crown, and if so the reasons for your opinion?

40. Numerous Deeds have been, and are still being, executed by the Attorneys of absentee owners; how is the Memo- rial evidence of a Deed executed by an Attorney under power seeing there is no evidence in the Land Office records that such a power exists?

41. Would you insist on the Power of Attorney being registered when land is dealt with under it?

42. Many Powers of Attorney are missing, and Deeds executed under them, and their Memorials, cannot by any means be proved to be properly executed and signed by the proper parties. How do you consider that cases of this sort—which render a Title unmarketable-should be dealt with, so as to render the Title marketable, if no other defect exists?

43. The Memorial of a Deed gives no statement of the usual covenants the Deed contains-such covenants being presumed-If the law were that every Deed should be taken to comprise certain usual covenants would Deeds and their registration become in your opinion-more simplified?

44. Are the forms of Memorials generally adopted for registration, in other respects, sufficient as secondary evidence of missing Deeds? If not what defects are there and how do you consider they should be remedied?

45. When the Title to a lot was defective owing to a comparison of the description of the Lot gathered from the Title Deeds with the Lot itself shewing the original ground has been added to, it was customary for the Crown to accept a surren- der of the Lot and grant a new Lease with corrected boundaries, and adjusted rental. If the former Lot was sold at a premium an extra premium would be assessed and charged at the same rate for the additional area. Now, if the surrender

F

6

APPENDIX TO REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

of a Lease is accepted and a new Lease granted the premium for additional area is assessed by the Surveyor General at such rate as he finds to be the market rate of the day in the particular locality the Lot in question is situated. Do you consider there is any objection or inconvenience to this course being continued and if so what is the nature of the objection or incon- venience?

46. Is it advisable for the Crown to accept surrenders and to grant fresh Crown Leases upon an exparte application and without notice to possible claimants? Or is it desirable to make provisions ou the subject so as to do justice to all parties and to have the applicant's Title approved by some competent tribunal before surrenders are accepted?

47. In addition to the Marine and Inland Building Leases for 999 years and Rural Building for 75 years there is another form of Lease called a Farm Lease the extra privileges it confers beyond a Building Lease being the low rate of Crown Rent charged, and the liberty it gives to “turn out cattle, sheep, or other stock upon the "waste or uncultivated hills adjoining "the Lot. Its extra restrictions being the reservation of all timber, trees, and underwood and a covenant not to build except what is required for the purposes of a Farm.

These Lots are now nearly all built upon as if they were Rural Building Lots and ornamental trees and shrubs have been planted upon them, the buildings having been erected with the sanction of the proper Government Officer, but the Lots remain with the restrictions of the Farm Lease and consequently at the lower rent. Is it in your opinion desirable that these restrictions should be removed, and if so upon what terms as to payment of premium and extr. Crown Rent, and how to be assessed and whether the terms should be optional or compulsory..

48. There are also certain Garden Lots at Kowloon granted for 14 years, renewable, to which the same statement and questions apply. Does your opinion include both Farm and Garden Lots and if not, in what respect is there a difference?

49. How are the Lots mentioned in the two last statements dealt with, and what steps does a purchaser take when he purchases a Farm or Garden Lot with a house standing upon it to ascertain that it is not contrary to the terms of the Lease and the sanction of the Government?

50. Ground is also held by squatters under a form of Squatter's Licence. Do you know whether there are any dealings by the squatters among themselves or others selling, mortgaging, or underletting their holdings?

51. If so what title is given or accepted?

52. Do you consider that before underletting his holding a squatter should be compelled to purchase a Lease? what class of Lease and upon what terms as to payment of permium and Crown Rent?

53. Do these people keep cattle, pigs, or goats to any extent? If so, do they take out licences? Do they depasture their animals on Government property beyond the ground covered by their licences? If so by what authority and should such a practice if existing be stopped or checked ?

54. Land is sold with squatters upon it, licensed or unlicensed, subject to the purchaser compensating them to the satisfaction of the Government. Do you consider this a satisfactory mode of sale?

55. Some ground is held upon Lease for 75 years at a high Crown Rent, and for which a high premium has been paid. Similar or better land is held by licensed squatters at a low rent for which no premium has been paid. What effect have these different tenures upon the value of property, its transfer and occupation?

56. Do you consider that the occupier, not being a trespasser, no matter how low the tenure of his holding, should have an option of purchasing a better tenure against all new comers; if so upon what terms, and how are the terms to be assessed to the best advantage for all classes of Leaseholders?

4

57. Do you consider that a trespasser after, or before, being assessed on the rate books should also have an option of purchasing the ground he is occupying as such. If so under what circumstances and upon what terms?

58. If such occupier, licensed or unlicensed, be too poor to purchase his lot how would you then propose the property he holds should be dealt with in the event of its being required by an intending purchaser able and willing to pay the market premium of the day and Crown Rent?

59. How are leased lands affected by the 3 classes of squatters viz. :-

(1.) The licensed squatter who pays rates and a low Crown Rent.

`(2.) The squatter, unlicensed, who gets on to the rate books and pays rates only, and

(3.) The squatter who pays neither rates nor rent and who as a rule is too poor to pay either?

60. Crown Rents are reserved by every Lease and Licence, viz. Marine, Inland, Farm, Rural Building and Genden Lot Leases and Squatters Licences. Do you consider as regards the Marine and Inland Lot Leases for 999 years and Rural Building Lot Leases for 75 years that advantages would accrue to the Colony generally and the value of property become more assured if the Leaseholders had the option of redeeming their Crown Rents. These Crown Rents vary very consider-

K

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*

APPENDIX TO REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

ably, some properties paying more than one hundred times as much as other properties of equal value, and unless something is done, this inequality will continue with respect to Leases for 999 years, practically, for ever. Is there any reason why this inequality should continue, and if not what do you consider a fair price for the Leaseholder to pay for its redemption? Would 20 years' purchase be too much or too little?

61. In your opinion would the opportunity of redeeming ground rents be taken advantage of to any extent?

The present yield of Crown Rent is about $170,000 per annum. Twenty years purchase would amount to $3,400,000. In consideration of the very large requirements for public works is there any reason why this amount should not be raised?

62. Do you consider that the holder of a lower class of Lease or tenure should also have an option to redeem his Crown Rent, and if so upon what terms and how to be fixed?

63. How many Crown Leases are there for 999 years? sections and sub-sections and how many houses built thereon?

How many sections and sub-sections? How many owners of How many Farm Lots, Rural Building Lots and Garden Lots? Are there any section or sub-section holders on these? If so, how many? and how many houses? How many Squatters Licences and how many houses, and of what decription? How many trespassers and how many houses and of what description? How many houses of all descriptions are there that are rated in each class?

64. What property is held by the Military and Naval Authorities, and what amount of land is prevented from being occupied by the action of the Military Authorities?

65. Is the present mode of granting Crown Land satisfactory, or would you recommend that a Crown Land Board should be appointed to consider applications for the grant of Land, to sit at frequent intervals and to report to the Governor and generally to have the management of everything connected with Crown property? If so of what members should the Board consist and should they be remumerated or should their services be given voluntarily ?

66. Would it be desirable that the Board, if appointed, should have agents outside of Victoria to receive applications, and would it be desirable for the Inspectors of Police in the outlying districts to be such agents and report to the Board, or should the agents be of a different class?

67. Is it advisable to encourage applications for the disposal of land outside of Victoria ?

68. If so, are there any concessions to Chinese sentiments which, in dealing with the waste lands of the Colony, the Government might make so as to induce respectable Chinese to build their Family houses in the country districts?

69. Are there any concessions which the Government could make in dealing with such land for the purpose of increasing

manufactories?

70. In your opinion has the time yet come when it is advisable to have Government Agents who would also be Magis- trates in Kowloon and in the Country Districts of Hongkong, to attend amongst other things to receiving applications for grants of land, to look after the Crown's interests in the Forests, to have the superintendence of the collection of Crown Rents and Rates and Taxes and generally to look after the Crown's interests in outlying districts, and if so how many should be appointed in the first instance ?

71. With respect to Forests, is it advisable that they should be placed under the Crown Land Board?

72. With respect to sales of land generally, are there any peculiar difficulties in the making of Titles owing to the present arrangements respecting the grant of Crown Leases and assignments of sections and sub-sections? If so, please state what difficulties are experienced in these or in any other respects and the best way in your opinion to remove such

difficulties.

73. Are there many Titles to land in your experience which the Court would refuse to enforce upon an unwilling purchaser, and of what nature are the objections to the Title?

74. Are Conditions of Sale with regard to blots upon Title frequently made and what are the most usual blots for which conditions are provided?

75. Is the market value of property injuriously affected by such conditions?

76. With respect to existing dispositions of Crown Land, is it in your opinion possible without a full and complete inquiry into the whole of the property to make the present Titles correspond with the actual land occupied? Or is it desirable to inquire into all the Crown Leases already granted and to grant new Crown Leases upon equitable terms as far as practicable in accordance with present holdings giving to each Crown Lessee and to all holders of sections and sub-sections a new Crown Lease and thus starting afresh, and commencing registration de novo?

77. If in your opinion it is desirable that such a course should be adopted would you recommend that it should be compulsory, or should it be made compulsory upon the application of a Crown Lessee, or of a majority in number and value of holders under any one Crown Lease?

:

APPENDIX TO REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

78. Should the inquiry be conducted under the authority of a Crown Land Board or of Commissioners to be specially appointed for the purpose, with an appeal on questions of law to the Supreme Court or under a Land Court to be appointed for the purpose?

79. Supposing new Leases to be granted is it desirable in future to recognize possessory Titles without documentary evidence of record in the Land Registry?

80. Would the provisions of the last Registration Act in England "The Yorkshire Registration Act, 1884," 47 and 48 Vic. c. 54 meet the present requirements as to Land Registry?

81. Would it be advisable to introduce the Australian system of Land Registry in cases where it was so desired, and would such a system of registration be likely to be taken advantage of to any extent ?

82. Would it be advisable to simplify the Crown Leases by Ordinance so as to make it necessary only to describe the parties and the land?

83. Is there any objection to an Ordinance simplifying Assignments, Mortgages, and Underleases?

84. Would it be advisable to register Memorials only, or would it be better to preserve a copy of all original documents

in the Land Registry? Or is it advisable to give the party registering an option in the matter?

85. Is the present system of granting Leases suitable to the circumstances of the Colony or is it desirable to convert leaseholds into freeholds ?

86. If the Leasehold system is to continue how should property bequeathed by Will be registered? Also in cases of intestacy where Leasehold property is not required by the Administrator for payment of debts?

87. In future sales of Crown Land is there any reason why Crown Rent beyond a nominal sum should be charged, or is it advisable that the value of the Crown Rent should be considered in the upset price?

88. Is it advisable that the purchase money should be charged in a lump sum, or would it be any convenience to pur- chasers if the amount of purchase money with interest was distributed over a number of years, or at least until after build- ings were erected.

89. At present no one knows who are the Crown Tenants. A list is made out by the Registrar of owners of Crown Leases of Inland and Marine Lots, Farm, Rural Building, and Garden Lots, and by the Registrar General of holders of Squatters licences, and furnished to the Treasurer. The rents are collected by the Treasurer who receives the amount from any one who chooses to pay. Does this practice leave any opening for fraud on the Government?

90. Are the amounts punctually collected or are there generally large arrears?

91. Is it desirable for the assessment of rates and taxes to be made by a Crown Land Board?.

92. Should appeals be made in the first instance to the Crown Land Board?

93. Is it desirable that Crown Rents and Rates should be collected by the Board or its Officers so as to bring them more directly in contact with the Tenants?

94. As to overcrowding. Can any measures in your opinion be adpoted by Government to prevent the overcrowding in certain districts in the city?

95. What Government Buildings are there in the City and can any be advantageously removed to places less required by the business portion of the community?

96. What land is occupied by the Naval and Milltary Authorities in the City and could any inducements be offered to them to remove their establishments or any portion of them to places outside the City limits?

97. Is any land elsewhere available and if so where?

98. Supposing the authorities were willing to remove, would the land now occupied by them be likely to be taken up by the Community for building purposes?

99. Would the Hongkong Government be likely to obtain sufficient from the sales to justify the offering to build new Barracks and Officers Quarters in a less populous locality?

100. If the land were generally taken up for building purposes, would the Hongkong Government be in a position out of the rates to pay a larger amount of subsidy for military purposes?

101. Would the making of tramways to Shau-ki-wán and Aberdeen have any effect in removing any of the people from the crowded districts to other localities, and could Government grant any facilities for construction?

102. Could any of the junk trade be removed to the harbours on the South side of the Island ?

103. Could any greater facilities be given for settlement at Kowloon?

104. What effect would the completion of the Praya between the Eastern and Western portions of the City be likely to have? Is it an undertaking that should be commenced at once?

105. Is there any portion of the sea shore in the Colony where reclamations are desirable?

N

E

M

EAS***

STRE

7

300

Appendix, No. 2.

Plan, No. 1.

Plan of Marine Late Nos Il and 92 Shewing the Remaining Portions tinted red, the Owners of which pay

pay Crown Rent for the whole areas.

Marine Lot No 92

Area of Rem? Por 490 Sg. feel Area 31500 Sq. feet

:

105.0"

20

E

N

S

PRA Y A.

Area 25270 Sq. feet- Area of. Rems. Po: 407 Sq. feet.

Marine Lot No91

R O

D

9

:

2

M.

LOT. NO);

Appendix, No. 2,—(Continued).

Plan, No. 2.

P

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SEC A. M.L. JA.

SEC.B.M.L.NDIA.

POR. OF M.LIA,

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SECC.M.L.NBI" MLIAMLJA M.4.12. M.LIA SEC.B.M.LN9633 POR. REMG SECC SECD SECE

M.

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M.1.633 M.L.632 M. L. 3 BML63 SEC.F.NL.63B

1

SUBSEC 7 OF SEC.J.

M.L.6.3.

PREM. POR

OF SELJA

4.63 SUBSEC. 2 OF SEC J. M.L.63.

3

SUBSEC. 3.'

OF SEC J.

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SUBSEC 6.

OF SEC. J.

M. L. 63.

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SEC. G. M. L.N? 63 B.

SUBSEC, IO OF SECJ. M. L.63.

SUBSEC. 9 OF NEW M. L. 63.

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Plan of Marine Lot

SH

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N° 63B. with portions of Marine Lots Nos l^and 63.

No

63.

STREE

Shewing houses in Wing Shing Streel-

standing on portions of the Three lots:

Picale 30 feet = /inch.

QUEEN F

ROAD.

11

TONG

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1. LM9419.

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LANE

LANE (RIGHT OF WAY)

LOT NPI.

SECH.JL

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RIGHT OF WAY,

TAK LANE (RIGHT

SEC G.

IXLAND LOT No199.

L Y N D HURST

TERRACE.

Appendix, No. 2,--(Continued).

Plan, No. 3.

Plan of portions of Inland Lots Nos 18129 shewing Tong Tak Lane running sliquely through. the lot's and houses with the lot boundaries running through them obliquely.

INLAN

کے کا کیا کر کے

13

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سا

Appendix, No. 2,-(Continued).

Plan, No. 4.

Plan showing boundaries Between Marine Lots N2537 a. d 33 supposed to be

and identical, but really leaving the strip

tinted red not included in either Iol- The houses are built over the boundaries and over the strip tinted red.

PANOR

Enter

HILTON

#

15.0

#

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N° 37

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4.

83.

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15

Appendix, No. 2,-(Continued).

Plan, No. 5.

17

Plan of Inland Lots No 385 386 shewing buildings on Inland Lot N385 encroaching over adjoining ground

and Inland Iob No 386 with no entrance

to it except through adjoining lots."

1.4.3384

H

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1

APPENDIX TO REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

19

Appendix No. 3.

PETITION TO THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL SIGNED BY ALL THE SOLICITORS IN THE COLONY

AND SUPPORTED BY SEVERAL OF THE LEADING INHABITANTS, TRANSMITTING

A BILL FOR DEALING WITH LAND QUESTIONS DATED JANUARY, 1885.

To the Honourable

THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL

OF HONGKONG.

THE HUMBLE PETITION OF THE UNDERSIGNED PETITIONERS.

SHEWETH:-

I. That your petitioners the undersigned solicitors constitute the whole body of solicitors in the Colony of Hongkong.

II. That a very large number (it is believed a majority) of the titles to land in the Colony have, for various reasons, during the existence of the Colony, fallen into a most complicated and entangled condition, so much so that there are, as your said petitioners have experienced, a very great number of titles which, though possibly so far good in the sense that no one could dispossess their owners thereof, are, from a technical point of view, practically bad in the sense of their not being, as they should be, titles which a Court of Equity would force on an unwilling purchaser.

III. Owing to these facts the transfers of land in the Colony have become to a large extent difficult, if not, indeed, on open contracts, impracticable undertakings, demanding strong guarding conditions of limitation on sales, which, how- ever valuable as a protection to Vendors, are apt to startle intending purchasers and prejudice the biddings, or where the contract is an open one, such as by letter, as so many are, the result, as the experience of the last three years con- clusively proves, is frequently a law-suit.

IV. In consequence of the legal difficulties above referred to attaching to transmissions of land, your said petitioners, at a meeting lately held by them, considered the whole question, and the mode that would be best in the public interest to effect a remedy.

V. At the same meeting your said petitioners unanimously passed the following resolutions:-

(1.)—That in order to assimilate the law of property in this Colony to that now in force in England, and to facilitate the transfer of land in the Colony, it is very desirable that the Imperial Acts known as the Real Property Limitation Act 1874 and the Vendor and Purchaser Act 1874 should be extended to this Colony so far as the provisions of the same are applicable and with such variations and additions as may be

necessary.

(2.)—That having regard to the manner in which the Crown Lots in this Colony have been and are still being divided into Sections and such Sections into Sub-sections, and the difficulty, and in some cases the impos- sibility, thus occasioned in tracing and obtaining production of such of the Title Deeds as relate to the whole of the Crown Lot or Section before such division, it would greatly facilitate and cheapen the trans- mission of land if a system for filing official copies of all Deeds which have now to be registered in the Land Office were legalized, either by duplicate copies of such deeds being left with the originals, or by such originals being copied by clerks to be appointed for the purpose, such official copies to be taken and received as evidence of the originals, and if certified copies of the memorials of all such deeds as have already been registered were (unless and except so far as they should be proved to be inaccurate) to be taken to be sufficient evidence of the deed and of the due execution thereof so far as the same were exemplified in the

memorial.

VI. Your said petitioners also discussed several other points of practice and procedure, and came unanimously to the conclusion that without the aid of state legislation nothing effectual could be accomplished towards rescuing the land question of the Colony from its present hopeless and entangled position.

VIP The accompanying draft form of Ordinance has been prepared by your said petitioners after careful considera- tion and regard to the special nature of the requirements of the practice of conveyancing in the Colony.

20

APPENDIX TO REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

VIII. If an Ordinance to the proposed effect were passed, your said petitioners have no hesitation in saying that it would be a great relief to a large majority of land-owners and would materially facilitate dealings with lands in this Colony.

Your said petitioners therefore humbly pray Your Excellency and the Legislative Council to introduce an Ordinance to the above effect and your petitioners will ever pray, &c.

A. B. JOHNSON,

Crown Solicitor.

WILLIAM WOTTON.

VICTOR H. DEACON.

ALFRED PARKER STOKES.

H. L. DENNYS.

F. H. O. WILSON

C. ERNEST BOWLES.

ERNEST R. WOOD.

W. H. R. MOSSOP.

MATHEW J. D. STEPHENS.

HENRY J. HOLMES.

CREASY EWENS.

H. T. ARKCOLL.

DANIEL E. CALDWELL.

GODFREY C. C. MASTER.

WE, the undersigned residents and landowners of the Colony of Hongkong, having read the foregoing Petition, are advised and firmly believe that if its prayer be granted the effects will be of a highly beneficial nature to the large body of residents who have interests in, and will greatly facilitate dealings with, lands in this Colony.

W. KESWICK.

T. JACKSON.

F. D. SASSOON.

WONG SHING.

C. P. CHATER.

WM. H. FORBES.

A. P. McEWEN.

J. S. LAPRAIK

by his Attorney, C. D. BOTTOMLEY.

C. D. BOTTOMLEY.

E. R. BELILIOS.

E. MACKINTOSH.

J. BELL-IRVING,

H. HOPPIUS.

A. GULTZOW.

M. GROTE.

M. E. SASSOON.

C. STIEBEL.

W. KERFOOT HUGHES.

L. POESNECKER.

C. ERDMANN.

A. McIVER.

H. W. DAVIS

by his Attorney,

FRED. T. P. FOSTER.

EDMUND SHARP

by his Attorney, FRED. T. P. FOSTER.

GRANVILLE SHARP

by his Attorney, FRED. T. P. FOSTER.

FRED. T. P. FOSTER.

J. GODFREY BIRD.

CLEMENT PALMER.

DORABJEE NOWROJEE,

F. DODWELL.

W. H. RAY.

E. L. WOODIN.

A. MCCONACHIE

Attorney for the Executors of R. J. GILMAN, Deceased.

R. J. ASHTON

by his Attorney, A. MCCON ACHIE.

A. R. HUDSON

by his Attorney, A. MCCONACHIE.

W. S. YOUNG

by his Attorney, A. MCCONACHIE.

H. G. THOMSETT.

J. P. MCEUEN

by his Attorney, H. G. THOMSETT.

R. K. LEIGH.

CHEONG KAI.

LI SING.

YU SUIWAN.

HO LAI SHI

by her Attorney, HO KAI.

WEI A YUK.

LEE TUCK CHEONG.

СНОА СНЕЕ ВЕЕ.

CHAN TAI

by his Attorney,

PUN PONG.

CHING KWAI

by his Attorney, PUN PONG.

APPENDIX TO REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

FORM OF ORDINANCE ENCLOSED IN THE ABOVE PETITION.

21

!

A BILL

ENTITLED

An Ordinance for the further limitation of actions and suits relating to the recovery of land and rent and for altering and amending the law of conveyancing within the Colony of Hongkong, 1885.

W

HEREAS it is desirable further to limit the times within which actions or suits may be brought within the Colony of Hongkong for the recovery of land or rent and of charges thereon, and to facilitate the transfer of land within the Colony by means of certain amendments in the law of conveyancing: Be it therefore enacted by the Governor of Hongkong, with the advice of the Legislative Council thereof as follows:--

1. This Ordinance may be cited as The Conveyancing Ordinance, 1885.

2. The terms hereinafter mentioned shall have the mean- ings assigned to them unless there be something either in the subject or context repugnant to such construction that is to say :-

The expression "the Land Office" shall mean the

Land Office of the Colony.

The expression "the Land Officer" shall mean the person (other than the Governor) who shall for the time being have the lawful control and super- intendence of the Land Office.

The word "Land" shall extend to messuages, land, tenements and hereditaments of any tenure situate in the Colony.

The expression "the Court" shall mean the Supreme

Court of the Colony.

3. After the commencement of this Ordinance no person shall make an entry or distress, or bring any action or suit, to recover any land or rent, but within twelve years next after the time at which the right to make such entry or distress, or to bring such action or suit, shall have first accrued to some person through whom he claims, or, if such right shall not have accrued to any person through whom he claims then within twelve years next after the time at which the right to make such entry or distress, or to bring such action or suit, shall have first accrued to the person making or bringing the same.

4. A right to make an entry or distress, or to bring an action or suit to recover any land or rent shall be deemed to have first accrued, in respect of an estate or interest in reversion or remainder, or other future estate or interest, at the time at which the same shall have become an estate or interest in possession by the determination of any estate in respect of which such laud shall have been held, or the profits thereof or such rent shall have been received, not- withstanding that the person claiming such land or rent, or some person through whom he claims, shall, at any time previously to the creation of the estate which shall have determined, have been in the possession or receipt of the profits of such land, or in receipt of such rent; but, if the person last entitled to any particular estate on which any future estate or interest was expectant shall not have been in the possession or receipt of the profits of such land, or in receipt of such rent, at the time when his interest determin- ed, no such entry or distress shall be made, and no such action or suit shall be brought by any person becoming entitled in possession to a future estate or interest but within twelve years next after the time when the right to make an entry or distress, or to bring an action or suit for the recovery of such land or rent, shall have first accrued to the person whose interest shall have so determined, or within six years next after the time when the estate of the person becoming entitled in possession shall have become vested

Short title.

Interpreta- tions.

The Land Office.

The Land Officer.

Land.

The Court.

No land or rent to be recovered but within twelve years after the right of action accrued. [37 & 38 Vict., c. 57, s. 1.]

Provision for case of future estates. 137 & 38 Vict., c. 57, s. 2.]

Time limited to six years when person entitled to the particular estate out of possession, &c.

ཀ་::ཀ ་་

22

APPENDIX TO REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

In cases of Infancy,

coverture or

lunacy when right of action accrues, six years to be allowed from termination of disability or previous death. [37 & 38 Vict., c. 57, s. 3.]

No time allowed for absence from Colony.

[37 & 39 Vict., c. 57, s. 4.]

Thirty years utmost allow- ance for disabilities. [37 & 38 Vict., c. 57, s. 5.]

Mortgagor to be barred at end of twelve

years from the time when mortgagee took posses- sion or from last written acknowledg- ment.

[37 & 38 Vict., c. 57, s. 7.]

in possession, (whichever of those two periods shall be the longer) and, if the right of any such person to make such entry or distress, or to bring any such action or suit, shall have been barred under this Ordinance, no person, after- wards claiming to be entitled to the same land or rent in respect of any subsequent estate or interest under any deed, will, or settlement executed or taking effect after the time when a right to make an entry or distress, or to bring an action or suit for the recovery of such land or rent, shall have first accrued to the owner of the particular estate whose interest shall have so determined as aforesaid shall make any such entry or distress, or bring any such action or suit, to recover any such land or rent.

5. If, at the time at which the right of any person to make an entry or distress or to bring an action or suit to recover any land or rent, shall have first accrued as aforesaid, such person shall have been under any of the following disabilities, that is to say, infancy, coverture, idiotcy, lunacy, or unsoundness of mind, then such person, or the person claiming through him, may, notwithstanding that the period of twelve years or six years (as the case may be) herein- before limited shall have expired, make an entry or distress, or bring an action or suit to recover such land, or rent, at any time within six years next after the time at which the person to whom such right shall first have accrued shall have ceased to be under any such disability, or shall have died (whichever of those two events shall have first hap- pened).

6 The time within which any such entry may be made, or any such action or suit may be brought as aforesaid, shall not in any case after the commencement of this Ordinance be extended or enlarged by reason of the absence from the Colony, during all or any part of that time, of the person having the right to make such entry, or to bring such action or suit, or of any person through whom he claims.

7. No entry, distress, action, or suit shall be made or brought by any person who, at the time at which his right to make any entry or distress or to bring an action or suit to recover any land or rent shall have first accrued, shall be under any of the disabilities herein before mentioned or by any person claiming through him but within thirty years. next after the time at which such right shall have first accrued, although the person under disability at such time` may have remained under one or more of such disabilities during the whole of such thirty years, or although the term of six years from the time at which he shall have ceased to be under any such disability, or have died shall not have expired.

8. When a mortgagee shall have obtained the possession or receipt of the profits of any land, or of any rent com- prised in his mortgage the mortgagor, or any person claiming through him, shall not bring any action or suit to redeem the mortgage but within twelve years next after the time at which the mortgagee obtained such possession or receipt, unless in the meantime an acknowledgment in writing of the title of the mortgagor, or of his right to redemption, shall have been given to the mortgagor or some person claiming his estate, or to the agent of such mortgagor or person, signed by the mortgagee or the person claiming through him; and in such case no such action or suit shall be brought but within twelve years next after the time at which such acknowledgment, or (if more than one) the last of such acknowledgments was given, and when there shall be more than one mortgagor, or more than one person claim- ing through the mortgagor or mortgagors, such acknowledg- ment, if given to any of such mortgagors or persons, or his or their agent, shall be as effectual as if the same had been given to all such mortgagors or persons, but where there shall be more than one mortgagee, or more than one person claiming the estate or interest of the mortgagee or mort gagees, such acknowledgment, signed by one or more of such mortgagees or persons shall be effectual only as against the party or parties signing as aforesaid, and the person or persons claiming any part of the mortgage money or land or rent by from or under him or them, and any person or persons entitled to any estate or interest, to take effect after or in defeasance of his or their estate or interest, and shall

*

APPENDIX TO REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

not operate to give to the mortgagor or mortgagors a right to redeem the mortgage as against the person or persons entitled to any other undivided or divided part of the money or land or rent; and where such of the mortgagees or persons aforesaid as shall have given such acknowledg- ment shall be entitled to a divided part of the land or rent comprised in the mortgage, or some estate or interest therein, and not to any ascertained part of the mortgage money, the mortgagor or mortgagors shall be entitled to redeem the same divided part of the land or rent on payment, with in- terest, of the part of the mortgage money which shall bear the same proportion to the whole of the mortgage money as the value of such divided part of the land or rent shall bear to the value of the whole of the land or rent comprised in the mortgage.

9. No action or suit or other proceeding shall be brought to recover any sum of money secured by any mortgage, judgment, or lien, or otherwise charged upon or payable out of any land or rent at law or in equity, or any legacy, but within twelve years next after a present right to receive the same shall have accrued to some person capable of giving a discharge for or release of the same, unless in the meantime some part of the principal money or some interest thereon, shall have been paid, or some acknowledgment of the right thereto shall have been given in writing signed by the person by whom the same shall be payable, or his agent, to the person entitled thereto or his agent, and in such case no such action or suit or proceeding shall be brought but within twelve years after such payment or acknowledgment, or (if more than one) the last of such payments or acknowledgments was given.

10. After the commencement of this Ordinance no action, suit, or other proceeding shall be brought to recover any sum of money or legacy charged upon, or payable out of, any land or rent, at law or in equity, and secured by an express trust, or to recover any arrears of rent or of interest in

respect of any sum of money or legacy so charged or payable, and so secured, or any damages in respect of such arrears, except within the time within which the same would be recoverable if there were not any such trust.

11. In the completion of any contract for sale of land made prior to or after the commencement of this Ordinance, and subject to any stipulation to the contrary in the contract, twelve years shall be the period of commencement of title which a purchaser may require.

12. In the completion of any such contract as aforesaid and subject to any stipulation to the contrary therein, the obligations and rights of vendor and purchaser shall be regulated by the following rules, that is to say :-

First. Under a contract to grant or assign a term of years, whether derived or to be derived out of a freehold or leasehold estate, the intended lessee or assignee shall not be entitled to call for nor enquire into nor make any objection to the title to the freehold;

Second. Recitals statements, and descriptions of facts, matters, and parties contained in deeds, instru- ments, ordinances, or statutory declarations twelve years old at the date of the contract, shall, unless and except so far as they shall be proved to be inaccurate, be taken to be sufficient evidence of the truth of such facts, matters, and descriptions;

Third. The inability of the vendor to furnish the purchaser with a legal covenant to produce and furnish copies of documents of title shall not be an objection to title in case the purchaser will, on the completion of the contract, have an equitable right to the production of such documents; Fourth. Such covenants for production as the pur- chaser can and shall require, shall be furnished at his expense and the vendor shall bear the expense of perusal and execution on behalf of and by him- self and on behalf of and by all necessary parties other than the purchaser ;

Money charged on land and legacies to be deemed satis- fied at the end of twelve years if no interest paid nor written acknowledg- ment given meantime.

[37 & 38 Vict.. c. 57, 6. 8.]

Time for recovering charges and arrears of interest not to be enlarged by trusts for raising same. [37 & 38 Vict., c. 57, s. 10.]

Twelve years the root of title.

[37 & 38 Vict., c. 78, s. 1.]

Rules for regulating obligations and rights of vendor and purchaser. [37 & 38 Vict., c. 78, 8. 2.]

(37 & 38 Vict., c. 78, s. 2.]

[37 & 38 Vict.. c. 78, 8. 2.]

[37 & 38 Vict, č. 78, s. 2.]

L

23

24

APPENDIX TO REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

Trustees may sell, &c., notwithstand-

ing rules.

[37 & 38 Vict.,

c. 78, 8. 3.]

Vendor or

purchaser may obtain decision of Judge in chambers as to requisitions or objections. &c. [37 & 38 Vict., c. 78, s. 9.].

Copies of

deeds, &c.. to be made by land officer.

Notarially certified copies of powers of attorney, &c., to be regis- tered.

True copies of memorials of deeds, &c., registered prior to the

commence- ment of

Ordinance to be evidence.

Commence- ment of Ordinance.

Fifth. Where the vendor retains any part of or any interest in any estate to which any documents of title relate, he shall be entitled to retain such documents but shall, at his own expense if required, give to the purchaser notarially certified copies of such documents as he shall retain ;

Sixth. The inability of the vendor to get in the legal estate of and in any land contracted to be sold which shall have been outstanding for a period of at least twelve years immediately preceding the date of the contract shall not be an objection to title.

13. Trustees who are either vendors or purchasers may sell or buy withont excluding the application of the 10th section of this Ordinance.

14. A vendor or purchaser of land, or their representa- tives respectively, may at any time and from time to time apply in a summary manner to a Judge of the Court in Chambers in respect of any requisitions or objections, or any claim for compensation, or any other question arising out of, or connected with the contract not being a question affecting the existence or validity of the contract, and thereupon the judge shall make such order as to him shall appear just, and shall order how and by whom all or any of the costs of and incident to the application shall be borne and paid.

15. The land officer shall make and retain in the Land Office a copy (certified by him to be a true copy) of every deed, probate, letters of administration, judgment, or other instrument, or writing, whether under seal or not, which shall be registered in the Land Office under Ordinance No. 3 of 1884, or Ordinance No. 10 of 1856, and such certified copy shall be taken to be sufficient evidence of the original deed, probate, letters of administration or other instrument or writing of which it is a certified copy.

16. Where any person shall desire to register in the Land Office any deed, or other instrument, or writing, whe- ther under seal, or not, which shall have been or shall pur-. port to have been executed or signed by the attorney of any party thereto under a power of attorney or other authority in writing such person shall simultaneously with such regis- tration deposit in the Land Office a notarially certified copy of such power of attorney or other authority, and such notarially certified copy shall be taken to be sufficient evi- dence of the original power of attorney or authority of which it is a notarially certified copy, and any deed or other instrument, or writing, whether under seal or not, which prior to the commencement of this Ordinance shall have been or shall purport to have been executed or signed under or by virtue of any power of attorney or other authority in writing whether such power of attorney or other authority can be produced or not shall, unless and except so far as the contrary be proved, be deemed to have been duly and lawfully executed in pursuance of such power of attorney or other authority, and such power of attorney or other autho- rity shall, unless and except so far as the contrary be proved, be deemed to have contained full and sufficient power and authority for the execution or signature of such deed or other instrument or writing.

17. A copy certified by the land officer to be a true copy of the registered memorials of any deed or other instrument or writing which shall have been registered in the Land Office prior to the commencement of this Ordinance shall, unless and except so far as the same shall be proved to be inaccurate, be taken to be sufficient evidence of the contents, and due execution of the deed, or other instrument or writing of the memorial of which it is a certified copy.

18. This Ordinance shall commence and take effect on the

day of

1885.

I

APPENDIX TO REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

Appendix No. 4.

JUDGMENTS OF THE SUPREME COURT OF HONGKONG.

No. 1.

IN THE SUPREME COURT OF HONGKONG.

ORIGINAL JURISDICTION.

Suit No. 61 of 1878.

25

Between Ow YEONG KWON SEK, Plaintiff,

and

TANG A LOK, Defendant.

Judgment of The Honourable Sir George Phillippo Kt., Chief Justice, delivered 21st May, 1883.

This suit, which has been pending for a long time, was brought by the plaintiff in respect of Inland Lot No. 323, which was taken by the Government in 1876 for a market, and for which certain lands were given by the Government to the defendant in exchange. Neither the plaintiff nor defendant deserve any sympathy in this case, the one having abandoned his property according to his own account, and the other having, according to his account, purchased without any title and spent money upon the land which he had so acquired.

Like other cases which have come before the Court, it shows how little in former days the interests of the Crown have been looked after, and it also seems to show that if some measures are not speedily taken to prevent it, before very long many of the titles to land in the Colony will be in a state of great if not hopeless confusion. It is admitted on both sides that in February, 1851, Inland Lot No. 323, which had been previously granted by the Crown, was assigned by the assignee of the original Crown Lessee, and that a memorial was registered at the Land office of an assignment from LOK AYEE to Ow YEONG KWON SEK. The plaintiff alleges that the land was purchased by his father for him, and that the assignment was taken by his father purposely in his name, and that his father let him into possession, and that in 1854 or about that time he built three wooden houses thereon, and let the land and premises to one WONG YEE for $9 per month, payable quarterly. That he received three quarters' rent from WONG YEE when he borrowed $100 from him upon an agreement that he should pay himself out of the rent, and shortly after left Hongkong and did not return until 1876, when he returned in consequence of some letters he received from the defendant addressed to his father in respect of this land. It further appeared from the evidence that WONG YEE had parted with the land in question to TANG ALOK, but it was alleged that the plaintiff was not the OW YEONG KWON SEK to whom the land was assigned by Lok AYEE, but that this real Ow YEONG KWON SEK OF KUM SEK was an older man, a carpenter by trade, who has never been heard of by any one for many years. That this Ow YEONG KWON SEK allowed the Crown rent to fall into arrear, when the land was sold by public auction and was bought at auction by WONG YEE for $44. There is no doubt that the defendant entered into possession and was in possession for many years but there is no satisfactory evidence of any sale by auction or purchase by WONG YEE. In 1876 the property was required by Government for a market and negotiations were opened with TANG ALOK for an exchange with him of other land for the land in question. It was soon discovered, however, that TANG ALOK had no title. TANG ALOK seems to have referred to WONG YEE, but WONG YEE had no title either. Whether the sale by auction had been mentioned to any one before or whether it was then suggested for the first time is not clear, but at any rate it appears to have been communicated to the Crown Solicitor that such was the case and the Crown Solicitor seems to have suggested a statutory declaration by WONG YEE and TANG ALOK and a surrender to the Crown by WONG YEE and TANG ALOK of the land in question and a Crown grant to TANG ALOK of the land to be exchanged. We are not informed as to when this suggestion of the Crown Solicitor was made, but TANG ALOK seems immediately to have opened negotiations with WONG YEE to induce him to sign the necessary papers. WONG YEE, however, who it is said was living at Chinese Kowloon, was not inclined to do so without being paid for his trouble, and according to TANG ALOK's own account wanted $300 for his trouble. This TANG ALOK was unwilling to pay and he wrote the following letter to the father of the plaintiff :---

(Translation.)

HONGKONG, 7th April, 1876.

SIR,

To Mr. SHUN, my benevolent brother,

I respectfully state that notwithstanding I am a great distance from you, you are always in my mind. Trusting that you and your family are enjoying perfect health and good luck, and your sons and grandsons are worthy and virtuous. I am very thankful for the good advice which you have so constantly given me when you were in Hongkong, I have lately bought a piece of ground from WONG YEE situated at Wanchai, Inland Lot No. 323. Now the British Government used the said ground for forming a market, and they agree to give the ground No. 686 Saiyingpún in exchange, but they are so dull of understanding and foolish and say that I have no deed for the former ground to hold for proof and they press me to find out a witness to give satisfactory proof before the exchange be undertaken. I understood that this

!

26

APPENDIX TO REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

ground was formerly bought by you from the Government afterwards the Government sold it by auction on account of your owing certain amounts for Crown rent. WONG YEE bought the said ground at auction without a title deed, and I bought it from WONG YEE but there was no deed of transfer given either to WONG YEE nor tò̟ me.

Now, dear Sir, have you got the old deed in your hands and if so I shall be very grateful if you will kindly bring it with you as soon as possible to my house at Hongkong. If the deed is missing I beg of your goodness to come and give satisfactory proof that the ground is yours. The passage expenses on your coming here, and going back, I shall repay heavily, I hope you will not refuse. Herewith I enclose one dollar, please examine and receive. Hoping you are getting riches and enjoying health. (A card enclosed named TANG WAI CHING).

(Translation.)

To HAK SHUN, my benevolent brother,

HONGKONG, 16th May, 1876.

I respectfully state that I bought a piece of ground from WONG YEE, Inland Lot No. 323, situate at Wanchai, with three houses thereon. It was originally your ground, you left it to WONG YEE to live there. Because five quarters Crown rent were owing, therefore Government sold the ground by auction. WONG YEE says he has bought it at auction but there is no deed granted to him. Certainly WONG YEE did not buy it at auction. The deed is registered in your Crown rent is paid regularly by me in your name. Now the Government used the ground for forming a market and gave a piece of ground at Saiyingpún in exchange, but I have no deed for the ground in my hands therefore Govern- ment object to issue a deed to me and say a deed must be made to be signed by you before the exchange is undertaken. I send Mr. Woo SAM to your house and beg you will come to Hongkong with him. I shall give you one hundred dollars for your trouble. Hoping you are getting riches and enjoying good health, in haste.

name.

(Signed) TANG HOG KAI.

(Seal) TANG YUNE CHEONG.

Upon receipt of the last of these letters the plaintiff came down and it would seem that upon the plaintiff refusing to part with his interest in the land for $100 and finding that the plaintiff had no title deeds in his possession the defend- ant closed with WONG YEE for $150 and their surrender of the land was accepted by the Government and a new grant given to the defendant for the land which had been agreed to be given him in exchange. The plaintiff at once took the two letters to Mr. HOLMES to commence proceedings against the defendant and those letters have been in Mr. HOLMES' possession ever since. At the trial the defendant swore himself and produced witnesses to prove that the original owner of the land was not the plaintiff Ow YEONG KWON SEK, the son of the person to whom he had written, but Ow YEONG Kwon or KUM SEK, a carpenter who had not been heard of for many years, but I was not satisfied with the evidence. The cause has now been pending for several years since, and during all that time no better evidence can be produced by the defendant, because, I presume, no better can be obtained, and I do not see how the defendant can get over the state- ments made in his letters which he eventually admit ted were written by his direction, he well knowing the person to whom they were addressed to be the father of the plaintiff, unless he can explain how it was that he came to make such a mistake as to suppose that the plaintiff's father had anything to do with the land in question if he new all the time that it was owned by quite a different person. Several technical objections as to the admission of evidence were taken by the Attorney General, which I decided to overrule upon the trial and which decision, upon consideration, I have seen no reason to alter, and although it would have been much more satisfactory if the plaintiff had been able to produce his title deeds, yet as between him and the defendant I do not see that he ought to lose his land because he has been unable to do so. It would also have been much more satisfactory, and this case never could have arisen, if the Crown had exercised its rights years ago and entered on possession of this land. But I have to deal with matters as they stand. The plaintiff has made out to my satisfaction that he was the person in whom the land was vested in 1851, and it is admitted that since then he has done nothing to part with his rights to the land in question and that the statute of limitations does not apply in his case. That being so the question remains as to what redress he should receive. It seems to me in- equitable that under the particular circumstances of this case he should recover either the value of the original piece of the land with the improvements effected thereon or that he should recover the pieces of land which the Government have given the defendant in exchange for the original piece of land together with the improvements effected by the defendant, and it was so admitted by the plaintiff's counsel. The order of the court will be therefore such as was suggested by the plaintiff's counsel, viz.: that it be referred to the Registrar to ascertain the value of the land apart from any buildings thereon at the time it was taken over by the Government, and that the defendant shall pay to the plaintiff the amount which shall be so found to be such value, together with the costs of this suit. The defendant would have found it cheaper to have settled with the plaintiff in the first instance than to have paid $150 to WONG YEE for joining in the surrender to the Crown especially if the defendant's story was true, which appears to have been mentioned for the first time at the trial, namely that he had documents in Chinese in his possession which could not be admitted in evidence as he was not prepared with proof of their execution, but which shewed that WONG YEE had assigned to TANG ALOK his whole interest in the land many years before the surrender was made by WoNG YEE and TANG ALOK to the Crown.

:

-

APPENDIX TO REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

Appendix No. 4,-Continued.

No. 2.

. IN THE SUPREME COURT OF HONGKONG.

ORIGINAL JURISDICTION.

Suit No. 98 of 1882.

27

Between Lo ON, Plaintiff,

and

LEE FOO WING, Defendant.

Judgment of the Honourable Sir George Philippo, Kt., Chief Justice, delivered 4th August, 1882.

This case came before me upon an Agreement under the Code of Civil Procedure, Section 88, and the question for my decision is as follows:-Has the defendant a legal right to the possession of No. 46, Jervois Street, Victoria, Hong- kong not barred by the Statute 3 and 4, Wm. IV. C. 27?

The premises in question were a portion of Inland Lot No. 202 which was granted by a Crown Lease dated 3rd June, 1846, to one CHING CHEONG for 75 years.

By an Indenture bearing date the 28th December, 1850, indorsed on the Crown Lease of 3rd June, 1846, and made or purporting to be made between Her Majesty the Queen of the one part and JOHN GRAHAM MORRISON of the other part After reciting that Her Majesty had been pleased to direct that the term of existing Crown Leases of lands and premises in Hongkong should be extended from the period of 75 years for the further term of 924 years, and that the said JOHN GRAHAM MORRISON had represented that all the title and interest in the within Lease had duly vested in him the said J. G. MORRISON Her Majesty leased the said Lot to the said J. G. MORRISON for the term of 924 years to be computed from the expiration of the said term of 75 years at under and subject to the like rent payable in like manner as in the original Crown Lease is mentioned in respect of the rent thereby reserved and to the like covenants provisions and agreements as are therein respectively contained. By Indenture bearing date 29th July, 1881, Mr. MORRISON by his attorney Mr. RYRIE assigned to YIU CHOW and by Indenture bearing date 28th October, 1881, YIU CHow assigned to the defendant.

It was admitted by the Attorney General who appeared together with Mr. FRANCIS and Mr. Ho KAI for the plaintiff that as far as documentary Title goes the defendant had a good Title but that he, the defendant, must prove that he has the right of possession as well as Title.

Being myself of that opinion I ruled that the defendant must show a right to possession.

Mr. McKEAN, for the defendant, then called some evidence to show that in 1868 the premises had been rebuilt after a fire by the Agent of Mr. MORRISON, but he was unable to give satisfactory evidence that such was the case. Mr. Mc- KEAN Whilst admitting present possession in plaintiff, refusing to admit 20 years adverse possession, the Attorney General called evidence to that effect which was unshaken by cross-examination and remained uncontradicted.

It was contended on the part of the defendant that the 3rd and 4th Wm. IV. did not apply to this Colony inasmuch as all lands in the Colony are held by Lease from the Crown and the Statute of Limitations did not bind the Crown who, if bound at all, come under the provisions of 9 Geo. 1II. C. 16. and several cases were cited in support of this contention. Upon examination of them however they do not appear to me to bear out the contention. One of the cases related to disseisin, and in another of the cases cited the trespasses alleged occurred prior to the Leases granted and not, as in this case, many years after. In that particular case therefore the Lessees took all the rights the Crown had not parted with. In this case the trespass originally, if it was a trespass, was not against the Crown but against the Lessee and the Crown's interest at the time was not prejudicially affected. (Dart's Vendors and Purchasers 404.)

The first entry appears from the evidence given on the part of the defendant to have taken place between the years 1855 and 1858. It does not appear whether Mr. MORRISON was or was not then in the Colony, but as it was not alleged that he was under disability during the time I conclude that he must have been in the Colony when the alleged wrongful entry was first made and that he made no objection thereto.

Mr. McKEAN also referred to Ordinance No. 3 of 1844. Now although the object of the Ordinance as stated in the preamble is "to prevent secret and fraudulent conveyances and to provide means whereby the title to real and immove- able property may be easily traced and ascertained" yet the Ordinance does not provide against merely possessory Titles in any way whatever, but merely provides for the registration of any documents affecting Title.

28

APPENDIX TO REPORT FROM THE LAND COMMISSION OF 1886-87.

The Proclamation of 1st May, 1841, would seem to have provided for the abolition of merely possessory Titles up to that date and in subsequent Crown Leases the Legislature may have considered that the Crown had already provided for the prevention of merely possessory Titles, inasmuch as amongst the covenants for Title contained in the Crown Leases for which a condition of re-entry is imposed is one that "the Lessee shall not nor will let underlet mortgage or otherwise assign over or otherwise part with all or any part of the land leased for all or any part of the term demised without at the same time registering such alienation in the Land Office, or in such other office as may hereafter be instituted for the purposes of registration in the said Colony of Hongkong and paying all reasonable fees and other expenses thereon."

If the Attorney General were not counsel for the plaintiff I should perhaps have thought it necessary that he should be served with notice of this question being raised on a Crown Lease so that he might take any steps on behalf of the Crown that he might consider advisable. As it is he has notice of the suit and will as a matter of course take steps to protect the interests of the Crown if he considers such interests involved.

As the case stands at present I must hold that the defendant's right to the possession of the premises is barred by the Statute 3 and 4 Wm. IV. C. 27, which I take it is in force in this Colony as it has been decided to be in India and recognized as it has been to a certain extent by Ordinance 13 of 1864, subject to any legislatiou which may have affected

it.

As neither the Proclamation of 1841 nor Ordinance 3 of 1844 as it seems to me in any way prohibits possessory titles as between individuals or even as against the Crown, the law of England in respect thereto must be considered to

be in force here.

The defendant therefore in my opinion has not a legal right to the possession of the premises in question.

The effect