HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL ABSTRACT OF THE COLONY OF HONGKONG || 1911

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HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL ABSTRACT OF THE COLONY OF HONGKONG. 


HONGKONG: 


PRINTED BY NORONHA & Co. 


* Government Printers 


1911. KeCORNELL 


MY 



First Preface. 


The Principal Erents and notes on Trade and Industry for the period prior to the close of Sir John Pope Hennessy's administration in March, 1882, have been taken largely from Dr. E. J. Eitel's History of Hongkong. The information under these headings subsequent to that date has been mainly extracted from official publications. The notes on Public Works have been furnished by the Director of that department. In the brief summary of Legislation the Ordinances in force at the end of 1901 have been given the numbers they bear in Sir John Carrington's edition. 


Under the heading Trade the figures dealing with ships cleared and entered exclude steam-launches and junks whether engaged in foreign or local trade. The excess in numbers of emigrants returned over emigrants left is accounted for by many that leave from various Treaty Ports of China returning riâ Hongkong. 


Under Finance the percentage of expenditure devoted to Noneffective Charges is based on the inclusion under that head of Pensions and Interest. General Administration covers the Governor's Office, the Colonial Secretary's, Registrar General's and Audit Departments, the Treasury, the Post Office, the Harbour Department, the Observatory, Charitable Allowances, Transport and Miscellaneous Services. Law and Order include the Supreme Court, Magistracy, Law Officers, Land Registry, Police, Fire Brigade and Gaol. The Botanical and Afforestation as well as the Medical and Sanitary Departments are included. under Public Health. Public Instruction comprises the Education Department, Queen's College and Ecclesiastical Allowances; Public Works covers the Public Works establishment as well as annually recurrent and extraordinary works. Defence includes the Military Contribution and Volunteers. 


The statistics given under Climate were obtained from various sources prior to 1884 when the Observatory at Kowloon was established. 


The Population statistics prior to 1869 are exclusive and for that and subsequent years inclusive of the Army and Navy in the Colony. Except for the years 1904. and 1905, when the population of New Kowloon, i.e., of the New Territories South of the Kowloon Hills, is included, these statistics do not take those Territories into consideration. The population of the New Territories according to the Census taken in 1901 was 102,254 of which 17,243 were in New Kowloon. 


Under Public Instruction the figures given from the year 1875 onward show the number of Grant-in-Aid Schools in place of the number of Mission Schools and the average daily attendance in place of the total number of scholars as the progress of education is considered to be thereby more correctly indicated. In the earlier years the total number of schools under European supervision and of scholars enrolled in them are alone available. 


The statistics under the heading Public Order require no comment. Those under Defence referring to regular troops are taken from returns by the Principal Medical Officer. 


GOVERNMENT HOUSE, 


December, 1906. 


M. NATHAN. 


Second Preface. 


In 1910 it was decided that the Historical and Statistical Abstract, being a most useful record for reference, should be printed as a separate publication once in every 10 years, the unexpired decade only appearing in the Civil Service List, the first issue of this separate record to be compiled and published in 1911-up to and including 1910. 


CC 



Under 'Finance a new sub-head has been added for 1910, "Undertakings of Government" This column includes the Post Office and Kowloon-Canton Railway. Previously the Post Office had been included in "General Administration " 


To the Departments under "Public Order" has been added "District Office". A District Officer was appointed for the New Territories on 23rd September, 1907. 


Queen's College is no longer a separate Department. On 20th May, 1909, the Secretary of State approved of its being brought under the Education Department. 


The Army and Navy and the New Territories have been included in the figures shown under "Population" since the year 1907. The figures given are approximate only-except for the years in which a census has been taken. 


GOVERNMENT HOUSE, 


1st April, 19 11. 


F. D. LUGARD. 



(1.) HISTORY. 


PRINCIPAL EVENTS, TRADE AND INDUSTRIES, PUBLIC 


WORKS, LEGISLATION, 


Abbreviations. 


Pr. Ev.-Principal Events. 


Tr. & Ind.-Trade & Industries. 


1841. 


P. W.-Public Works. H. K.-Hongkong. 


Captain Charles Elliot, R.N., administered from 26.1.1841 to 10.8.1841. 


Pr. Ev.-H.K. is taken over (26/1) and Govt. administered by Capt. ELLIOT as Chief Superintendent of the Trade of Br. subjects in China in accordance with proclamation issued by him (29/1), which also declared that Chinese should be governed according to laws of China and others according to laws of Gr. Britain. 2nd proclamation (1/2) promised free exercise of religious rites, social customs and private rights. Br. and foreign merchants came from Macao to prospect (Feb.). Building commenced (March). Messrs. Jardine, Matheson & Co. erected first substantial house and godowns at East Point. Military and naval establishments first located near West Point and mercantile centre at Wong Nei Chcong Valley but this proved too unhealthy. Chinese settled to W. of this valley in "the Canton Bazaar" and near site of later Central Market in "the Bazaar". About 2,000 Tan-ka or boat people came to Colony. In 1st issue of H.K. Govt. Gazette (1/5) Ch. Magistrate appointed and in 2nd issue (15/5) original census published. Proclamation of 7/6 declared H.K. a free port. At 1st sale of lands, subsequently disallowed, 33 marine lots aggregating about 9 acres sold for total annual rent of £3,032. Outbreak of malignant malarial fever in June, violent typhoons on 21-22 & 25-26/7 and destructive fire on 12/8 retarded progress of new Colony. Harbour Master, Clerk of Works, Colonial Surgeon and Land Officer appointed. 


1842. 


Sir Henry Pottinger, Bart., G.C.B., in charge of Government from 11.8.1841 to 25.6.1843; Governor 26.6.1843 to 7.5.1844. (Mr. A. R. Johnston administered during the latter half of 1841 and 1842.) 


Pr. Ev.-Establishment of Superintendent of Trade moved from Macao to H.K. (27/2). Treaty of Nanking (29/8) confirmed cession of H.K. On conclusion of war fleet and troops, except garrison of 700, left and arrangements made to bring local affairs under Col. Office, Superintendency of Trade, held by Gov., still remaining under Foreign Office. Post Office organized. Committee appointed (29/3) to investigate claims to land and lay out town; main street called Queen's Road. Baptist Chapel opened there (7/7). Friend of China" newspaper established (17/3). Tr. & Ind.-Mexican and other Republican dollars declared to be standard in all matters of trade (27/4). P. W.-Barracks erected on Cantonment Hill, at Stanley and at Aberdeen. Central Market, subsequently removed to site on other side of Queen's Road, opened (10/6). Road constructed from Wong Nei Cheong to Shau Ki Wan. 


་ 


1843. 


Pr. Ey. Following on Royal Warrant appointing the Chief Superintendent of Trade, Sir HENRY POTTINGER, to be Gov. & C. in C. of the Colony of H.K. and its Dependencies, Col. Govt. was organized with a Lieut. Gov., Col. Sec., Treasurer, Chinese Sec., Legal Adviser, Col. Surgeon, Col. Chaplain, Ch. Magist., Harbour Mr., Col. Surveyor and Land Officer, and Postmaster. Also 18 officials and 26 unofficials appointed J.s of P. City named "Victoria" (29/6). Col. Chaplain first officiated in matshed church (24/12); he started St. Paul's College for training Chinese to be C. of E. ministers. R. C. church in Wellington Street consecrated (18/6). Mosque built. Morrison Education Society, transferred from Macao, opened school on Morrison Hill (11/1). Hosps. established by Med. Missionary Society and by naval and milit. authorities. Health very bad; between May and Oct. 24% of troops and 10% of European civilians died of fever. Committee of Public Health and Cleanliness appointed. Attempts made to check land jobbing. Tr. & Ind. At end of year 12 large English firms, 10 English merchants on smaller scale and about 6 Indian firms. As a result of peace junk trade declined and opening of 5 treaty ports including Shanghai (11/1) adversely affected trade of H.K. First H.K. built vessel The Celestial of 80 tons launched from patent slip at E. Point (7/2). Leg.-Royal Instructions of G/4 constituted Ex. and Leg. Councils, each of 3 members exclusive of Gov. 


"" 


1844. 


Governor Sir John Francis Davis, Bart., (8.5.1844 to 18.3.1848). (Major-General G. C. D'Aguilar administered on various occasions.) 


Pr. Ev.-Attempt to regulate population by Registration Ord. opposed at first public meeting in H.K. (28/10) and by general strike (30/10). Supreme Court opened (1/10). Police force organized (1/5). At land sale on 22/1 101 lots aggregating 25ac. sold for £2,562 annual rental. Anglo-Ch. College for training Ch. ministers opened by London Miss. Soc. Seamen's Hosp. built by public subscription (309). Tai Ping Shan Market started. Amateur Dramatic Club formed (18/12). Tr. & Ind.--Trade except in opium declined, partly owing to restrictions imposed by Ch. authorities under Sir H. POTTINGER'S Supplementary Treaty of 8/10/43. Piracy round H.K. also affected junk trade. First opium ord. passed (26/11) and farm let for $720 p.m. Salt tax instituted. Leg.-First sitting of Leg. Council (11/1). Land Registration Ord. (No. 1) established office for registration of conveyance of realty and inade provision for security of titles. 


1845. 


Pr. Ev.-Police rates introduced and house property rated after some opposition. Consul for U. S. A. appointed (12/11). P. & O. S. N. Co. started monthly mail steamers (1/8). School for English children and Union Church opened. "China Mail" newspaper started (20/2). Tr. & Ind. Attempt made to put currency on gold basis soon failed. Branch of Oriental Bank Corporation established (April). Opium farm let for $1,710 p.m. . W. Wong Nei Cheong Valley drained, road made round it, and colonial cemetery with chapel opened. Road constructed from Shau Ki Wan to Tytam (5.3 m.). 3 landing Piers on City front and 3 Police Stations in City built. Temporary Govt. Ho. completed (11/1). Lg.-Summary Offences Ord. (No. 1) passed. 


W.-Wong 



1846. 


Pr. Ev.-Much friction between judicial and executive branches of Govt. Vice-Admiralty Court established (4/3). Consuls for Denmark and Portugal appointed (11 & 12/3). H.K. Club opened (26/5). Tr. & Ind.-Junk trade revived. Attempt of merchants to obtain protection for tea shipped at H.K. failed. Opium farm let $1,560 p.m. 


1847. 


Pr. Ev.-Sir J. DAVIS made ineffectual milit. expedition to Canton (2/4 to 8/4) to secure fulfilment of terms of Nanking Treaty of 1842. Also failed in attempt to establish commercial relations with Annam (Oct.). Difficulties between judicial and executive branches of Govt. culminated in trial of Ch. Justice by Ex. Council (22/11). Parliamentary Comm. appointed (March) to enquire into commercial relations in China reported adversely on monopolies, petty regulations and expensive establishment in H.K. Milit. authorities decided to erect defensible barracks at Stanley (8/3). Foundation stone of St. John's Cathedral laid (11/3). China Branch of Royal Asiatic Soc. organized (15/1). Court ho. purchased from Dent & Co. Tr. & Ind. Licences substituted for opium farm. P. W.-Magistracy, Victoria Gaol (reconstructed in 1865) and Police Stations at Queen's Road East (now abolished) and at Aberdeen (since superseded) constructed. 2,440 yards of City drains laid. 


1848. 


Governor Sir Samuel George Bonham, G.C.B., (20.3.1848 to 12.4.1854). (Major-General Staveley, C.B., administered on various 


occasions up to 25.2.1851.) 


Pr. Ev.-Large excess of expenditure over revenue required reduction in establishments and stoppage of P.W. Colonial Hosp. oragnized (1/10). 13 vessels lost in typhoon (31/8-1/9). Amateur Dramatic Club revived (2/12). Tr. & Ind.-Opening up of goldfields in Sacramento Valley initiated commerce and coolie emigration to San Francisco which grew rapidly in following years. H.K. & Canton Steam Packet Co. established (19,10). P. W.-Govt. Offices near Cathedral and Court' house in Queen's Road completed and road from Aberdeen to Stanley (63 m.) constructed. 


1849. 


Pr. Ev.-HIEN FUNG became Emperor of China (25/2). Sir G. BONHAM'S interview with Viceroy SEN (17/2) failed to gain permission for merchants to enter Canton City. 83 pirate junks destroyed (Oct.). 15 Justices of Peace selected by Gov. to advise him. Commission of enquiry into land tenure appointed (Oct.). St. John's Cathedral opened (11/3). and placed under Bishop of Victoria created by Letters Patent of 11/5. Various missionary schools including the one for English children had to be closed for want of support. Victoria Regatta Club formed (25/10). Tr. & Ind.-P. & O. S. N. Co. commenced running regular steamer between H.K. and Shanghai. Leg. Various Ords. connected with administration of justice passed this year were superseded later. 



1850. 


Pr. Ev.-Revolt originating in Kwang Si afterwards developed into Tai Ping rebellion. 13 pirate junks destroyed in Mirs Bay (4/3). 136 men of 59th Regt. died out of strength of 568, mostly from fever. Plague broke out in Canton in May but did not spread to H.K. London Mission Hosp. closed for want of funds. First Bishop-G. SMITH-arrived (29/3); became chairman of Educational Committee which administered Govt. grants to schools and took charge of St. Paul's College. Tr. & Ind. Attempt of Canton Hoppo to prevent H.K. river steamers carrying cargo from H.K. to Canton checked. Leg.-Two unofficial members nominated by J.s of P. to Leg. Council which previously consisted of 3 officials exclusive of Governor. 


1851. 


Major-General Jervois, K.G., administered on various occasions between February 1851 and April 1851. 


Pr. Ev.-Discussion between Govt. & J.s of P. re Municipal Govt. which had been going on since 1849 led to no result. London Missionary Society opened chapel for treatment of out-patients (May). 472 houses North of Queen's Road destroyed by fire. Cricket Club established (June). P. W.-5 wells sunk for City Water Supply. Road from Albany Godowns to Wong Nei Cheong (now called Wan Chai Road) constructed and first Praya reclamation scheme partly carried out. 


1852. 


Fr. Ev.-Disturbances in S. China incident on Tai Ping rebellion. sent many Chinese to H. K. 19 cases of piracy in II. K. waters. Tr. & Ind. Great increase in emigration to Straits Settlements and California. Emigration to Peru also benefited H. K. for a time till abuses connected with its trade necessitated abandonment. Coinage of Br. dollar first mooted on account of Mex. dollars, Ind. rupees and Br. coins being at a discount. P. & O. S. N. Co. established regular monthly steamer between H. K. and Calcutta thereby giving Colony fortnightly communication with England. Exchange at 6 months' sight stood at 4/10 a 5/ on December 30th. 


1853. 


Pr. Ev.-Shortlived Tai Ping dynasty established at Nanking visited by Sir G. BONHAM who decided no liberal policy to be expected from it. Piratical fleet destroyed (10/5); nevertheless 70 cases of piracy during year including that of S. S. "Aratoon Apcar" (5/8). Attempt to revive school for English children failed. Tr. & Ind.-Emigration to Br. Guiana put on regular footing and that to Australia commenced. Chinese Govt. legalised importation of opium. Exchange at 6 months' sight stood at 5/on December 29th P. W.-Wong Nei Cheong Police Stn., Police Stn. No. 9 in Caine Road and 2 slaughter houses constructed; all subsequently abolished. Leg.-Ord. No. 1 made it lawful for aliens to hold and transfer real property. 


1854. 


Governor Sir John Bowring, Kt., LL.D., (13.4.1854 to 5.5.1859). (Colonel W. Caine administered on various occasions up to 8.9.1859). 


Fr Ev.-Kowloon City and other towns to N.E. of H. K. taken and re-taken by Tai Pings and Imperialists. Rebels blockaded Canton River and threatened city, many Chinese taking refuge in H. K. (Dec.). On outbreak of Crimean war batteries erected for defence of Colony. 73 soldiers stricken with fever and dysentery in one month. 6 cases of beri-beri, previously unknown in H. K., occurred among Ind. troops. Tr. & Ind.-Emigration to Jamaica started (Nov.). Opening of Japan by convention of 14/10 had little immediate though important ultimate effect on H. K. trade. H. K. and Canton Steam Packet Co. broke up (13/12). P. W.-Wong Nei Cheong School (26 scholars) completed; afterwards given up. 


1855. 


Pr. Ev.-Tai Ping and Imperialist fleets of war junks ordered out of H. K. harbour (Jan.). Rebels retired from Canton river before Br. force sent froin H. K. Sir J. BOWRING failed to get recognition of this service from Viceroy YE. Commission enquired into administration of Police force (Aug.). 800 deaths among Chinese from fever between 6/2 & 28/4. Serious conflagration in centre of town (16 2). St. Andrew's school for Br. children established but failed after a few years. Tr. & Ind.Sir J. BOWRING's treaty with Siam started trade between H. K. and that country. 3 new ports in Philippine Is. opened. P. W.-Parya scheme which re-established crown rights over reclaimed foreshore in front of town opposed by European lot-holders (5/12). Leg.-Leg. Council increased to 3 unofficial and 6 official members. 


1856. 


Pr. Ev.-Anti-foreign placards and hostility of officials in Canton culminated in arrest there of Chinese crew of H. K. Lorcha "Arrow”. Surrender and apology refused by Viceroy and forts and official residences in Canton bombarded without result except destruction of European. Canton and Whampoa factories by Chinese mob. S. of S. refused to consider proposal (17/4) to license gambling houses. Serious fires at Tai Ping Shan (27/1) and Western Market (23/2). Volunteer Fire Brigade (23/1) and Chinese Fire Brigade (7/3) organized. Govt. Ho. completed. Villas and farms established at Pok Fu Lam. Anglo-Chinese College closed at end of year. Leg.-Ord. No. 1 authorized recognition of Chinese wills in local courts. 


1857. 


Pr. Ev.-S.S.s "Feima" and "Thistle" captured by Chinese soldiers (Jan.). 400 Europeans poisoned with arsenic believed to have been introduced into bakery at instance of Chinese officials (15/1); great excitement caused thereby in H. K. and in England led to Lord ELGIN superseding Sir J. BOWRING as plenipotentiary in China and to "Arrow war with that country, which was not however prosecuted during year owing to Ind. mutiny. France joined Gr. Br. and ultimatum 



issued to Viceroy (24/12). 32 cases of piracy between 1/11/56 and 15/2/57; afterwards decreased. Local educational movement at low ebb. Tr. & Ind.-Junk trade fell off owing to blockade of Canton River. New docks established at Aberdeen (June). P. W-Three Police Stations erected. Praya scheme partly carried out. Town now lighted by 350 oil lamps (1/10). Central Police Station finished. Leg.-Three official and one unofficial members added to Leg. Council. 


1858. 



Pr. Ev.-Canton captured by allied forces (5/1) and administered till 21/10/61 by allied commissioners. War transferred to N. where Taku Forts captured (20/5) and Treaty of Tientsin signed (26/6) but not ratified. Public meeting (29/7) to discuss exodus of Chinese from and stoppage of supplies to H. K. enforced by Chinese officials led to capture of Nam Tau in San On district. H. K. passage boat "Wing Sun' captured by pirates. Much disease; Asiatic cholera and hydrophobia said to have been first introduced. Violent discords in Civil Service and prosecutions of newspapers. Tr. & Ind.-Opium farm re-established and let for $33,000 p.a. Salt tax abolished. P. W.-Central, Western, Eastern, Tai Ping Shan, So Kun Poo (46 stalls) and Wan Chai (40 stalls) Markets constructed; all except last two abolished or superseded later. Police Station No. 7 erected; superseded in 1902. Leg.-The Markets Ord. passed this year lasted till 1887. An Ord. for practitioners in law empowered barristers to act as their own solicitors. Meetings of Leg. Council made public (25/3). 


1859. 


Governor Sir Hercules Robinson, Kt., (9.9.1859 to 15.3.1865). (Mr. W T. Mercer administered from 17.7.1861 to 8.9.1861 and from 12.7.1862 to 11.2.1864.) 


Pr. Ev.-Defeat of Br. fleet at the Pei Ho (25/6) and ultimatum to China (Dec.). Sir J. BOWRING recommended annexation of Kowloon for commercial and sanitary value (29/3) and C. O. urged this on W. O. in connection with renewal of war. Operation of Imp. Ch. Mar. Customs commenced at Canton, opposed by H. K. merchants. S.S. "Cumfa" plundered by pirates. Agitation in England on account of disclosures with reference to Civil Service discord prejudicial to H. K. Ophthalmia epidemic. Diocesan native training school started. H. K. Br. of R, R. Astiatic Soc. wound up and library embodied in that of Morrison Education Soc. Tr. & Ind.-Contract Emigration confined to Br. Colonies. Native boat-building greatly increased. P. W.-Civil hosp. (9 wards with 71 beds) completed; superseded in 1874. Schools built at Shek Ho (26 scholars), Little H. K. (13 scholars) and Aberdeen; all subsequently given up or superseded. Public station erected at Stanley. Bill to complete Praya scheme thrown out by influence of commercial houses. 


1860. 


Pr. Ev.-Renewal of war with China. Chusan Is. occupied (21/4), Taku Forts taken (26/8). Peking occupied (13/10) and Peking Convention (24/10) secured ratification of Treaty of Tientsin and further converted into cession a lease of the Kowloon Penin. which had been 



obtained from Canton Viceroy on (21/3). Pawnbrokers closed their shops in ineffectual protest against new Ord. P. O. transferred to local Govt. (1/5). Great rise in value of land and consequent increase in revenue. Board of Education formed for management of Govt. schools (21/1). Tr. & Ind. Shipping interests developed by commissariat and transport services during war. P. W.-Tanks constructed at Bonham. Road for City Waterworks. Station St., Tai Ping Shian, C'entre St., Second St., West St., East St., Sai Ying Pun and Peak Roads laid out. Shau Ki Wan School (57 scholars) built. Leg.-The Pawnbrokers Ord. (No. 1) regulated this business. Ords. constituting a marine court of enquiry and a board to grant navigation certificates were subsequently superseded. 


"" 


1861. 


Pr. Ev.-Emperor of China HIEN FUNG died (Jan.), and Prince KUNG head of regency. Occupation of Canton by allies terminated 21/10. Kowloon Peninsula formally handed over to Great Britain (19/1) and discussion with regard to military lands there at once commnencel. Piracy of "North Star 4 miles out of H. K. Three district schools merged into new Govt. Central School. Tr. & Ind.-H. K. Chamber of Commerce formed and establishment of Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs opposed by it. P. W.-Accommodation for 610 Scholars provided for Central School in Cough Street. Robinson Road with bridge across Glenealy laid out. Police Stations built at Pok Fu Lam and Shau Ki Wan; latter superseded in 1872. Quarters for signalmen provided on Peak. Lock Hosp. constructed this year afterwards became part of Govt, Civil Hosp. 


1862. 


Pr. Fr.Chinese issue of H. K. Gazette started (1/3). Registrar Gen. made intermediary between Govt. and Chinese. Cadet system introduced by appointment of 3 student interpreters (3/4). Strike of cargo boatmen against registration under Ord. of previous year. Trial made of recruiting Indian police in Bombay and Madras and floating station for water police established. Military opened sanitarium at Peak which proved failure. Volunteer Corps consisting of battery of artillery armed with 3 prs. and 4" howitzers first formed (1/3.) Miss BAXTER started Eurasian Schools. Piracies of "Ilenrietta Louise ", "Imogen", "Eagle" and "Iron Prince" all close to H.K. Typhoon (277) resulted in considerable loss of life. P. W.-Road from Victoria Gap to Pok Fu Lam (14 m.) laid out. Timber landing piers provided at Pottinger and Ice House Streets and Observation Place. Town Clock Tower (124 ft. high) erected by public subscription. Leg-Military Stores Ord. (No. 1) passed to stop supply of stores to Tai Ping rebels. Volunteer, P. Ô, and Police Ords. passed this year subsequently superseded. Ord. empowering barristers to act as their own solicitors repealed in 1871. 



1863. 


Fr. Ev.-Commission appointed to enquire into unsatisfactory working of Victoria Caol. Chair coolies struck for nearly 3 months. when brought under a licensing Ord. of this year. Piracy of "Bertha” near Stonecutters' Island (22/7). Sailors' Home at West Point opened (31/1). Drinking fountain erected opposite City Hall site. Tr. & Ind. -Fluctuations in value of Mexican dollar led to proposal to establish mint at H.K. and to make standard dollar and sub. coins based on it only legal tender. Messageries Maritimes mail steamers started (1/1) and regular steamer communication with Br. N. Borneo established (Dec.). P. W.-Reservoir (2,000,000 galls.) at Pok Fu Lam, connected by aqueduct with 2 tanks above City, completed; superseded in 1871. No. 4 Police Station constructed this year afterwards abolished and quarters built for Supt. Bot. and Afforest. Dep. superseded in 1892. 


1864. 


Pr. Ev.--Sir R. HART head of Ch. Imp. Maritime Customs (19/7). Tai Ping rebellion crushed by capture of Nanking (19/7). Wholesale deportation to Canton of professional beggars. Many " drain-gang" and other burglaries and murderous attacks. Riot of Malay seamen, police, and 99th reg. (12-14/9). Piracy of "Chico" (28/1). Marine and inland. lots at Kowloon sold on short leases. Military contribution of £20,000 p.a., estimated to be th of imp. military expenditure, imposed on Colony. Band (11/4), Rifle Co. (24/5) and Canton Det. (17/9) added to Volunteer Corps which numbered 200 active and 200 hony. members at end of year. Public Garden (9 acres) between Garden and Albany Roads opened (6/8). First gas lighting in Victoria (12/11). Heavy rainfall (6/6) caused collapse of houses. Tr. & Ind.-Prospectus issued in July of H.K. & Shanghai Banking Co.; 6 banks already established at H.K. P. W.-Proposal for new Praya wall and reclamation fell through owing to opposition of lot-holders. Carriage road laid out to Shau Ki Wan. Bowrington Canal (600' long and 90' wide) formed. Sai Ying Pun Market (6 shops and 81 stalls) built. Leg.-Mercantile Law Amendment Ord. (No. 1.) amended laws of trade and commerce. Compilation of edition of ord. in force completed (Oct.). 


1865. 


Mr. W. T. Mercer administered from 16.3.1865 to 10.3.1866. 


Pr. Ev.-Project of railway to connect Calcutta with Canton and H.K. mooted. Decided that criminals not to be extradited to China without guarantee that they will not be tortured. Committee appointed to enquire into mortality of troops. Board of Education abolished and Education Dep. placed under Inspector who was also head of Central School. St. Saviour's (R. C.) commercial school established. Piracy of "Georg Andrews" outside Lyemun Pass and of "Nuevo Lepanto near Lan Tao. Tr. & Ind.-Union Dock Co. registered (31/7) with capital of $500,000. H.K., Canton & Macao Steamboat Co. started (19/10) with capital of $750,000. P. -Central Police Station (for officers and 176 constables), Victoria Gaol (120 single and 8 associated 


11 


cells and accommodation for debtors), Post Office (sorting and 11 other rooms), Volunteer H. Q. (demolished 1905), Su Kun Pu School (for 150 scholars) and Sai Ying Pun School (for 75 scholars) completed. City lighted with 400 gas lamps in March. Battery Road laid out at West Point and first sections of Robinson and MacDonnell Roads in Kowloon. Leg.-Companies, associations and partnerships of more than 20 regulated by Companies Ord. (No. 1.). Ords. Nos. 2 to 7 consolidated criminal law of H. K. on lines of U. K. Acts of 1861. 


1866. 


Governor Sir Richard Graves MacDonnell, Kt., C.B. (11.3.1866 


to 11.4.1872.) 


(Major General H. W. Whitfield administered from 29.10.1868 to 12.12.1868 and from 13.4.1870 to 8.10.1871.) 


Pr. Ev.-H. K. Royal Mint opened (7/4); it had cost $400,000 to establish and involved annual expenditure of $70,000; commission appointed in Oct. to enquire into its working. System of branding and deporting criminals and flogging them if they returned to H.K. introduced. Volunteer Corps disbanded owing to non-attendance of members. Tr. & Ind.-Period of commercial depression which lasted till 1869 set in; 2 banks suspended payment. H.K. & Shanghai Bank converted into Corporation by Ord. (No. 2); capital $5,000,000. H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co. formed (11/10); capital $750,000. P. W.Mint Buildings and Harbour Office completed; latter re-constructed in 1874. Leg.--The Companies Registration Ord. (No. 1 extended provisions of Companies Ord. of previous year. 


1867. 


Pr. Ev.-Commencement (15/10) of what henceforth known as Blockade of H.K.; Chinese cruisers patrolled neighbouring waters. levying tax on junks trading with non-treaty ports; this was at first supported by British representative at Peking as means of checking smuggling from H.K. Commission reported in favour of closing Mint. Expenditure decreased to secure balance in estimates. 11 licensed gaming houses opened (15/9); afterwards increased to 16. St. Paul's College (C. of E.) closed for lack of funds. Praya wall destroyed by typhoon (8/8) in which several large vessels and many junks lost. Nearly 500 houses destroyed by fire (28/11). Tr. & Ind.--New dock of H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co. opened at Aberdeen (15/6). First of regular Pacific Mail S. S. Co.'s steamers from San Francisco arrived (31/1). H.K. Hotel Co. started operations in July. Two important and some smaller firms failed. Exchange at 6 months' sight stood at 4/4 on December 31st. P. W.-Slaughter House at Belcher's Bay (superseded 1894), Governor's Peak Residence (re-constructed 1902) and Gaol on Stonecutters' Island (since abandoned) completed. Land reclaimed at Kowloon Point by 500 ft. of sea-wall. Leg.-A Stamp Ord. passed for revenue purposes, after much opposition from commercial community. An Ord. for the maintenance of order and cleanliness authorized licensing of gaming houses. An Emigration Ord. directed against abuses such as had come to light in connection with coolie emigration from Macao was subsequently strengthened. 


10 


1868. 


Pr. Ev.-Attempt made by Canton Viceroy to collect customs dues in H.K. from junks proceeding to China defeated. Agitation against licensing of gaming houses started by H.K. Missionaries was taken up in the UK. Mint closed after making only $20,000 in seigniorage; buildings sold for $65,000 and plant to Japan for $60,000 (June). Marine lot-holders successfully resisted attempt of Govt. to make them re-construct sea-wall. Exchange at 6 months' sight stood at 4/4 on December 31st. P. W.-Police Station No. 2 built. 8 acres reclaimed by 2,700 ft. of sea-wall from Wilmer St. to Bonham Strand West. Leg.-Amendments made to Stamp Ord. The Suppression of Piracy Ord. (No. 1), directed against assistance given in H.K. to pirates, soon had good result. Volunteer Fire Brigade established by Fire Brigade Ord. (No. 2). The Treasonable Offences Ord. (No. 3) assimilated law on 


this subject with that of U. K. 


1869. 


Pr. Ev.-The Suez Canal, destined to have great effect on H.K. trade a few years later, was opened on 18/3. The S. of S. expressed strong disapproval of raising of revenue from gaming house licences and of manner in which this revenue was used. Police Schools established. District watchmen, paid for by Chinese, first enrolled and placed under Reg. Gen.; immediate effect was friction between Reg. Gen. and Capt. Supt. of Police. Duke of Edinburgh visited H.K. (31/10 to 16/11) and opened City Hall (2/11). Tr. & Id.-Improvement in trade in spite of falling off of junk traffic due to Blockade. Messageries Maritimes and Pacific Mail doubled number of steamers and 2 new local Steamship Co.s started. Exchange at 6 months' sight stood at 4 5 on December 30th. P. W.-Police Station No. 6 at Victoria Gap and Harbour Inspectors' Quarters built; latter afterwards given up. Leg.-Proportion of unofficial to official members in Leg. Council increased from 3-7 to 4-6 (25/8). Promissory Oaths Ord. (No. 1) and Public Assemblages (Regulation of Traffic) Ord. (No. 2.) passed. 


1870. 


Major General W. H. Whitfield administered from 13.4.1870 to 8.10.1871. 


Pr. Ev.-Proposal of H. M. Minister at Peking that Chinese consul should reside at H.K. opposed by Governor. Notice given by Lieut.Gov, as to closing gaming houses from 1/1/71 disallowed by S. of S. The Tung Wa-a Chinese free hosp. to be managed by Chinese directors under Govt. supervision-established by Ord. (No. 3). Typhoon of 26/9 caused great loss of life and property. H.K.-Amoy-Shanghai (Gt. Northern Co.) cable opened for traffic. Tr. & Ind.-Commercial exploring Expedition to Kwang Tung and Kwang Si initiated by Chamber of Commerce. H.K. and Whampoa Dock Co. absorbed Union Dock Co. and increased capital to $1,000,000. Exchange at 6 months' sight stood at 1/4 on December 31st. P. /.—Gaol Officers' Quarters built; afterwards used mostly as gaol hosp. Leg --Public Places Regulation Ord. (No. 2) passed to maintain order, etc., in public buildings, gardens and other places. 


1871. 


Pr. Ev.-Monopoly of gaming house licences sold (12/1) for $15,000 p.m.; protests from Colony and agitation in U. K. resulted in abandonment of licensing system (8/12). System of branding and deporting Chinese criminals and flogging them if they returned to Colony abolished (25/5). Agitation against inefficiency of police force. Typhoon of 2/9 damaged houses and shipping. H.K.-Cape St. Jacques-Singapore (Eastern Extension Co.) cable opened for traffic on 96. Tr. & Ind.-H.K. Wharf and Godown Co. formed. Exchange at 6 months' sight stood at 4/4 on December 30th. P. W.-Public Gardens extended by 8.2 acres between Albany Road and Glenealy Ravine. Whitfield Police Station built at Causeway Bay. Pok Fu Lam Reservoir (66,000,000 galls.) completed for City Waterworks. Leg.-Legal Practitioners Ord. (No. 1) dealt with the enrolment, etc., of barristers and attorneys. 


1872. 


Governor Sir Arthur E. Kennedy, K.M.C.G., C.B., (16.4.1872 to 1.3.1877). (Mr. J. Gardiner Austin administered from 15.10.1874 to 5.11.1875 


and from 11.3.1875 to 2.12.1875.) 


Pr. Ev. Board of Examiners in Chinese for Govt. Officers established. Gardens and Afforestation Dept. placed under representative advisory committee. Provision made for registering all births and deaths. System of branding and deporting Chinese criminals reintroduced. Coolies struck (Aug.) against tax on coolie lodging-houses. Bad year for malaria; dengue cases occurred for first time (Sept.). St. Peter's (C. of E.) church for seamen (14 1), Tung Wa Hosp. for Chinese, and St. Joseph's (R. C.) Church (30/11) opened. Victoria Recreation Club amalgamated boat club, gymnasium and swimming bath (30,11). Tr. & Ind.-New period of depression commenced. Much discussion on Blockade of H.K., and on adulteration of grey shirting in England. Attempts to form brokers' association failed. Commercial capabilities of West River explored. 1st issue of one dollar notes by H.K. & Shanghai Bank (Oct.). Revenue from opium farm $122,400 and Commission appointed (8/6) to enquire into working of monopoly recommended letting for 3 years instead of for 1 year as had been done since 1858. Exchange at 6 months' sight stood at 4/4 on December 31st. P. W.Wan Chai School (for 119 Scholars), Shau Ki Wan Market (30 stalls) and Shau Ki Wan and Hung Hom Police Stations built, last superseded in 1885. 


1873. 


Pr. Ev.-Gardens and Afforestation Dept. constituted sub-dept. under Surveyor Gen. (15/12). Horticultural Society started for annual flower and vegetable shows (13/2). System introduced (24/4) of Govt. grants-in-aid for secular education based on result of examinations; R. C. schools declined to take advantage of it. Victoria English School established but eventually became Portuguese (R. C.). 


First newspaper under solely Chinese management published in H.K. Tr. & Ind. Several important commercial undertakings failed. Commission 


12 


appointed to consider question of Blockade of H.K. Exchange stood at 4/1 on December 31st. P. W.-Yau Ma Ti Police Station built and East Praya partly constructed. Leg-Standing Rules of Leg. Council revised (2/7). Law with respect to carriage and deposit of explosives etc. amended by Dangerous Goods Ord. (No. 1). Puisne Judge added to Supreme Court for summary jurisdiction by Supreme Court Ord. (No. 3) and Summary Court, established in 1871, abolished by Supreme Court (Summary Jurisdiction) Ord. (No. 4). 


1874. 


Pr. Ev.-Attempts to enforce provisions for registration of servants contained in an Ord. of 1866 failed. Scholarship established in connection with Govt. Central School (Jan.). In typhoon of 22-23/9, 35 foreign ships, over 2,000 lives and about $5,000,000 worth of property lost in 6 hours. On other occasions 2 ships lost on rocks and 1 by collision in or near harbour. Tr. & Ind.-Chinese petition sent to Queen and memorial to S. of S. with regard to Blockade. Increased export of tea from China accompanied by complaints of adulteration. China Merchants S. N. Co. started with design of taking coasting trade from foreign ships. H.K. & Shanghai Bank lent $600,000 to Chinese Government at 8% on security of maritime customs. Exchange stood at 4/14 on December 31st. P.W.-Temporary Hosp. (54 beds) provided in Hollywood Road; it was destroyed by fire on 26/12/78. Harbour Office in Victoria re-constructed and new Harbour Office built at Aberdeen. Mint Dam and Blue Pool Dam re-constructed for City Waterworks. Roads and wells provided at Peak. Leg.-Emigration Ord. passed to supersede legislation of previous year in connection with coolie trade from Macao. 


1875. 


Pr. Ev.-TSAI TIEN became, under the style of KWONG SAI, Emperor of China with the two Empresses as regents (23/2). St. Saviour's (R. C.) School re-organized as St. Joseph's College (15/11). Tr. & Ind.-Depression in trade indicated by further failures. New proposals put forward for dealing with Blockade. Hanoi and Haiphong under French protection opened for trade (15/9). Supply to, H.K. of subsidiary coins from London Mint started (19/7). Mr. (afterwards Sir THOMAS) JACKSON Manager of H.K. & Shanghai Bank. Cosmopolitan Docks completed (Oct.). Exchange stood at 3/113 on December 31st. P. W.-Lighthouses at Cape D'Aguilar (1st order) and on Green Island (4th order) completed and lights exhibited on 16/4 and 1/7 respectively. 30 market stalls provided at Shek Tong Tsui. Leg.-Letters Patent (8/6) vested Govt. in Lieut.-Gov. or Col. Sec. in event of Governor's death, incapacity or absence. Ord. No. 7 provided for systematic record of marriages in one general register. 


1876. 


Pr. Ev.-Census taken. Extensive housebuilding operations on Peak. Fir trees planted on Mount Davies above Kennedy Road. Tr. & Ind. Opium Farm let for 1 year from 1/3 at $110,000. Exchange stood at 4/14 on December 30th. P. W.-Cape Collinson Lighthouse completed and 6th order light exhibited from 1/3. Kennedy Road, (1.82 m. long), opened. Powder Magazine constructed at Stonecutters' Island; superseded in 1905. Leg.-Chinese Passenger Ships, Public Gambling, and P. O. Ords., passed this year, subsequently superseded. 


13 


1877. 


Governor Sir John Pope Hennessy, (22.4.1877 to 7.3.1882). (Mr. W. H. Marsh administered from 31.5.1877 to 6.9.1877.) 


Pr. Ev.-Public branding and flogging of criminals stopped and their deportation restricted & lenient treatment of first offenders advocated by new Governor. First Chinese Civil marriage solemnized at Reg. Gen.'s office (7/6. First Chinese (NG CHOY) admitted to local bar (18/5). St. Joseph's (R. C.) Cathedral re-opened for service (3/6). H.K. entered postal union and postage rates reduced. Tr. & Ind.-Opium Farm let for 2 years at $132,000 p.a. Exchange stood at 3/10 on December 31st. P. W. Cattle Depôt (for 120 head) first provided at Kennedy Town. Conduit, (3.38 m. long), constructed to convey water from Pokfulam Reservoir to City. Leg.-Letters Patent of 9/4 revoked supplementary Charter of 8/6/75 and made minor alterations in constitution of Colony. Companies Ord. passed this year afterwards incorporated in No. 1 of 1865. 


1878. 


Pr. Ev.--Po Leung Kuk established by Chinese to prevent kidnapping of girls and ill treatment of domestic servant girls. Many burglaries including armed attack on Chinese Bank in Wing Lok Street (25/9). Public meeting to discuss insecurity of life and property in Colony (7/10). Serious fire in Victoria: 368 houses and $1,000,000 worth of property destroyed (25-26/12). Volunteer corps formed under Ord. of 1862 at time of strained relations with Russia. Tr. & Ind.-China Sugar Refinery Co., Ltd., established. Exchange stood at 3/6 on December 31st. 


1879. 


Pr. Ev.-System of deporting criminals resumed. Two thirds of police force ordered (17/3) to be always on night duty. Local Committee reported on defence questions for Royal Commission at home. Revision of education code confined secular system to Government schools and gave freedom to grant-in-aid schools as to religious instruction. Botanical separated from Survey Department. St. Patrick's Hall in Garden Road opened on 17/3 and R. C. Church at West Point on 22/3. Lutheran Church erected. Visit of General ULYSSES GRANT (30/4 to 12/5). Tr. & Ind.-Trade depressed; much discussion on detriment to it resulting from action of Chinese revenue cruisers. H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co. purchased ship-building slips of late Capt. Sands (1/9). Õpium Farm let for 3 years at $205,000 p.a. Exchange stood at 3/97 on December 30th. Leg.-Merchant Shipping Consolidation Ord. passed this year superseded in 1891. 


1880. 


Pr. Ev.-Military authorities reported on insanitary condition of Colony. Telegraphic communication established with Philippine Islands (1/5). Rickshaws first used in H.K. (22/4). Polo Club started (27/4). Tr. & Ind.-Cosmopolitan Dock Co. established at Sham Shui Po (3/2) but their dock subsequently (31/12) purchased by H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co. H.K. Ice Co. registered (31/2). Exchange stood 3/93 on December 30th. P. W.-Additional block erected at Govt. Civil Hosp. 


14 


originally used for Lock Hosp. Leg.-Naturalisation Ord. giving European resident (E. J. EITEL) privileges of British Subject within Colony but not elsewhere, passed this year, formed precedent frequently followed afterwards. 


1881. 


Mr. M. S. Tonnochy administered from 11.9.81 to 24.10.81. 


Pr. Ev.-Census taken. Speculation in land and house property resulted in considerable increase in Colonial revenue. Severe gale (14/10) damaged small craft in harbour. 36 houses destroyed by fire in Tai Ping Shan (19/1). Telephones taken into use in Colony. First issue of "Hongkong Telegraph" newspaper (15,6). Visit of Prince ALBERT VICTOR and Prince GEORGE of Wales (20/12 to 31/12). Exchange stood at 3/8 on December 31st. P. W. A smaller proportion of the public revenue devoted to Public Works than in any year since 1851 and no works of importance in hand. Leg.-Macao Extradition Ord. (No. 1) provided for apprehension of fugitives from justice from Macao. 


1882. 


Mr. William Marsh, C.M.G., administered from 8.3.1882 to 29.3.1883. 


Pr. Ev.-Previous year's speculation in land and house property followed by numerous bankruptcies. Mr. O. CHADWICK, C.M.G., reported as Sanitary Commissioner on sanitary condition of Colony. Enrolment of Volunteers in new Artillery Corps commenced (20/12). Tr. & Ind.-Luzon Sugar Refinery Co. established (25/3). Opium Farm let for 1 year at $210,000 p.a. Exchange stood at 3/7 on December 30th. Leg.-Banishment and Conditional Pardons Ord. (No. 1) enabled Gov.-in-Council to banish aliens for 5 years. New Volunteer Ord. superseded Ord. of 1862. 


1883. 


Governor Sir George Ferguson Bowen, G.C.M.G., 


(30.3.1883 to 19.12.1885). 


Disturbance ainong 


Pr. Ev.-Sanitary Board first established. hawkers owing to enforcement of new regulations (22/5). Belilios Scholarships instituted (29/11). New St. Joseph's (R. C.) College for boys inaugurated (6/1). The Peak Church (C. of E.) opened (17/6). H. K. connected by cable with Shanghai (29/5) and Foochow (186). Canton-Kowloon Telegraph Line opened for traffic (9/7). Tr. & Ind. Opium boiled at Govt. Factory and Dross Farm let. Exchange stood at 3/83 on December 31st. P. W.-Breakwater, 1,400 ft. long, constructed at Causeway Bay to provide safe anchorage of 100 acres for small craft. Observatory at Kowloon completed. Leg.-Distress of Rents Ord. (No. 1). 


1884. 


Pr. Ev.-War broke out between France and China (5,8) and gave rise to some unrest in Colony. Piratical attack on S.S. "Greyhound” a few hours out of H.K. Strikes of butchers (106) and of cargo-boat people and coolies (3/10). Serious fires at Hung Hom in Br. Kowloon (11 and 16/12). Jockey Club formed (4/10). Hongkong-Macao cable 


15 




opened for traffic (4,7). Tr. & Ind.-Opium boiled at Govt. Factory and Dross Farm let. Exchange stood at 3/6 ou December 31st. P. W.-European Lunatic Asylum (8 cells, etc.) constructed near Govt. Civil Hosp. 


23 acres reclaimed at Causeway Bay. Water Police Station and Time-ball Tower erected at Tsim Sha Tsui. Yau Ma Ti Market extended (30 stalls). Leg-Medical Registration Ord. 


1885. 


Sir William Marsh, K.C.M.G., administered from 20.12.1885 to 25.4.1887. P. Tv-Peace declared between France and China (6;4) allayed unrest. Agitation with regard to overcrowding of City of Victoria led to appointment of Land Commission. Tr. & Ind.--Ropeworks established at Kennedy Town. Opium Farm let for 1 year at $159,000. Exchange stood at 3/4 on December 31st. P. W.-Police Boat Basin (0.43 acre) with launch slip and boat shed constructed at Tsim Sha Tsui and Police Station at Hung Hom. Leg-Weights and Measures Ord. (No. 2), Bills of Exchange Ord., modelled on English Act, (No. 3), and Married Women (Disposition of Property) Ord. (No. 5) passed. Municipal Rates Ord., subsequently modified, fixed rates at 13% for Victoria (police 83, lighting 1, fire-brigade and water 2), at 83% for the Peak, at 6% for Kowloon, etc. 


1886. 


Pr. Ev.-Land Commission recommended reclamation by Govt. Agreement (11/9) with China by which movement of opium to and from H. K. was to be registered and arrangements made for settling disputes between H. K. junks and Chinese Customs put a stop to so called H. K. Blockade which had been detrimental to trade. Tr. & Ind.Opium Farm let for 3 years at $182,400 p.a. Exchange stood at 3,3 on December 31st. P. W --22 acres reclaimed at Kennedy Town by sea-wall 3,690 ft. long. Lazaretto for 4 Europeans and 16 Chinese) constructed on Stonecutters' Island. Loan of £200,000 at 4% for carrying out public works raised by issue of debentures. Leg.-Royal Instructions of 11/10 revoked previous and enacted new instructions: official members of Leg. Council fixed at 7, unofficial at 5. Printers and Publishers Ord. (No. 4) regulated printing of newspapers and books. Usury Ord. (No. 5) made 8 % legal rate of interest. Bills of Sale Ord. (No. 7) passed to prevent fraud on creditors and Peace Preservation Ord. (No. 10. for prevention and suppression of riots. 


1287. 


Major General W. Gordon Camerom, C.B., administered 


from 26.4.1887 to 5.10.1887. 


? r. Fv.--Chinese School of Medicine founded. Alice Memorial Hosp. (London Missionary Society) for Chinese opened (17/2) 


Exchange stood at 3/13 on December 31st. P. W.--Police Stations created at Kennedy Town (subsequently used as Infectious Diseases Hospital and Mount Gough. Lg.-Defamation and Libels Ord. (No. 1) passed. Triad and other Unlawful Societies suppressed No. 2). Jury Ord (No. 5) amended and consolidated law relating to Jurors and Raw Opium Ord. (No. 9) better regulated trade in opium. 


16 


1888. 


Governor Sir William Des Vœux (6.10.1887 to 7.5.1891). (Mr. Frederick Stewart administered from 7.3.1888 to 20.3.1888, from 24.11.1888 to 18.12.1888 and from 30.8.1889 to 23.9.1889.) 


Pr. Ev.-Sanitary Board reconstituted under a Public Health Ord. of previous year and Colonial Surgeon made president. Bad year for small-pox, 99 cases being admitted into hospital. Wire-rope tramway, commenced 20,9 85, from St. John's Cathedral (100 ft.) to Victoria Gap (1,300 ft.) opened for traffic (30,5). Exchange stood at 3,03 on December 31st. P. W.-Cattle Depôt at Kennedy Town extended for 240 additional head. Leg.-Letters Patent of 19/1 revoked Charter of 5/4/43 and Letters Patent of 9/4,77 and re-enacted provisions for govt. of Colony. Royal Instructions of 191 revoked those of 11/186 and re-enacted them with slight modifications. Regulation of Chinese Ord. (No. 3) provided for registration of householders and tenants, for appointment of District Watchmen, for regulation of ceremonies, etc., and for issue of night passes. Coroner's duties transferred to Magistrates by Coroners Abolition Ord. (No. 5). 


1889. 


Pr. E.-—33.11 inches of rain fell in great storm of 29/5 and 30/5 (16.16 in 7 hours) and did considerable damage. Tr. & Ind. Opium Farm let for 3 years at $447,600 p.a. Exchange stood at 3/1 on December 31st. P. W.-Queen's College, commenced in 1884, completed and provided accommodation for 924 scholars, subsequently increased. Original Tytam Scheme for City Waterworks completed and provided impounding reservoir (312,330,000 galls. ', tunnel (1.38 m. long), conduit (3 m. long), 6 filter beds (3,245 sq. yds. agg. area), and service reservoir (5,700,000 galls.); total capacity of storage reservoir now 378,330,000 galls. Leg.-Chinese Emigration regulated by Ord. No. 1 and law of evidence consolidated by Evidence Ord. (No. 2). Praya Reclamation Ord. (No. 6) provided for extensive reclamation in front of West Praya at cost of Marine lot-holders. Chinese Extradition Ord. (No. 7) gave effect to Art. XXI of Treaty of Pekin. 


1890. 


Mr. Francis Fleming, C.M.G., administered from 19.2.1890 to 22.12.1890. 


Pr. Ev.-Visit of Duke and Duchess of Connaught (April); Duke laid memorial stone of Praya Reclamation. The Scheme initiated by Mr. (afterward Sir) PAUL CHATER was to reclaim 65 acres extending 2 miles from Naval Yard to beyond Gasworks at West Point; new road along front to be called Connaught Road. Lighting of low levels in Victoria by 50 arc lamps begun 1/12. Piracy of Passenger S.S. "Namoa" 50 m. from Hongkong (Dec.). Exchange averaged 3/2 for the year and stood at 3,5 on December 31st. P. W.-Pokfulam filter beds (4), with area of 1,360 sq. yds., constructed for City Waterworks. Leg.-Law relating to infant vaccination amended by Vaccination Ord. (No. 2) and those relating to jurisdiction, etc., of Magistrates by Magistrates Ord. (No. 3). Merchandise Marks Ord. (No. 4) framed on lines of English Act. . 


17 


1891. 


Major-General Digby Barker administered from 7.5.1891 to 9.12.1891. 


Pr. Ev.-Census taken. Tr. & Ind-Fluctuation in exchange and speculation mostly in trading and mining ventures outside Colony resulted in financial depression. Exchange averaged 3/4 for the year and stood at 3/1 on December 31st. P. W.-Foreshore at Kennedy Town (8.55 acres) reclaimed. Lunatic Asylum for Chinese (16 cells, etc.) near Civil Hosp., District School at Sai Ying Pun (for 186 scholars), and new Police Station at Aberdeen erected. The Peak, previously dependent on well water, now supplied from City Waterworks by pumping. Leg.-Gambling Ord. (No. 2) passed to stop gambling among Chinese, and Companies (Sale of Shares) Ord. (No. 5) to stop gambling in shares. Bankruptcy Ord. (No. 7) brought law of Colony into line with that of U.K. Opium Farm regulated by Prepared Opium Ord. (No. 8.) 


1892. 


Governor Sir William Robinson, K.C.M.G., (10.12.1891 to 1.2.1898). (Mr. G. T. M. O'Brien administered during absence 


of Governor in 1893.) 


Pr. Ev-State aid withdrawn from Church of England in Colony, and Cathedral handed over to trustees. Gas lighting introduced at Kowloon. Tr. & Ind.-Opium Farm let for 3 years at $340,800 p.a. Exchange averaged 3/14 for the year and stood at 2,83 on December 31st. P. W.-Gap Rock Lightho. completed and connected with H.K. by cable; 1st order light exhibited 14. City Waterworks distribution scheme completed. 10 Public Laundries opened at Wan Chai. Cattle depôt at Kennedy Town extended for 120 additional head. Albany Nullah trained. Govt. ho. ball-room, new quarters, etc., for Supt. B. & A. Dept. & staff quarters (for 11) at Govt. Civil Hosp. completed. Hosp. Ship "Hygeia" (since abolished) opened (Aug.). Leg.-The Patents Ord. (No. 2). 


1893. 


Pr. Ev.--Heavy fall in silver seriously affected public expenditure and new 3% loan of £200,000 raised for carrying out certain public works. School for girls on site of former Central School, with accommodation for 608, presented by Mr. E. R. BELILIOS, taken over by Govt. The Po Leung Kuk, a Chinese institution for the protection of women and children, formed in 1878, incorporated. Volunteers organized as a field battery and machine gun company. Waglan Lightho. completed by Chinese Govt.; light exhibited 9/5. Exchange averaged 2/8 for the year and stood at 23 on December 30th. Leg.-Volunteer Ord. (No. 4) superseded Ord. of 1882. Nethersole Hosp. (London Missionary Society) for Chinese women opened (5/9). 


1894. 


Pr. Ev.-Some trouble caused by clan fight in March. First outbreak of bubonic plague, at its height between May and July, produced temporary exodus, estimated at 100,000, and great interference to trade. 


18 


War between China and Japan, declared 1/8, for a time partially paralyzed Chinese markets. Caterpillar plague injured pine tree plantations. Typhoon of 5/10 did some damage in harbour. £140,000 of the 1830 41% loan of £200,000 converted to 3% at cost of £1,800 and balance of £60,000 redeemed from sinking fund; total loan now £341,800 of 31% stock. Hong Kong-Labuan (Borneo)-Singapore cable opened for traffic 4/5. Exchange averaged 22 for the year and stood at 2on December 31st. P. W.-New Slaughter Houses provided at Kennedy Town. Roads laid out in E. of Kowloon. 


1895. 


Pr. Ev.-Strike as protest against new lodging house regulations lasted from 23/3 to 4/4; on 27/3 over 20,000 coolies out. Tr. & Ind. ---New British dollar introduced. General improvement in local stocks and undertakings. Opium Farm let for 3 years at $296,000 p.a. Exchange averaged 2/03 for the year and stood at 2,19 on December 31st. P. W.-Resumption of insanitary properties at Tai Ping Shan completed. Central Market (138 shops and 150 stalls), commenced 1890, and Gaol extension (155 cells, etc.), commenced 1893, completed. Additional 4,400,000 gallons impounded at Pokfulam for City Waterworks; total capacity of storage reservoirs now 382,730,000 gallons. At Kowloon original waterworks to supply 250,000 gallons a day from 3 wells N. of Yau Ma Ti opened, Macdonnell Road extended to N., Cattle Depôt (112 head) built at Hung Hom, and Signalling Station established at Blackhead's Hill. Leg.-The Private Vehicles Licensing Ord. (No. 5). 


1896. 


Pr. Ev.-In second plague epidemic 8 Europeans died but dislocation of business much less than in 1894. Commission appointed to report on insanitary dwellings. Military contribution of Colony fixed at 171% of gross revenue exclusive of capital expenditure on works and buildings. Typhoon of 29/7 caused considerable damage to property. Tr. & Ind.-Unprofitable year for trade, importations except of flour and kerosine oil being on limited scale and sales generally unsatisfactory. Exchange averaged 2/24 for the year and stood at 2/11% on December 30th. P. W.-Streets laid out at Tai Kok Tsui. Leg.—Additional Royal Instructions of 7/7 substituted O. C. Troops for Ch. Justice on Leg. Council and increased number of Unofficial Members from 5 to 6. British North Borneo Extradition Ord. (No. 1) passed. Factors Ord. (No. 3) and Sale of Goods Ord. (No. 4) introduced mutatis mutandis provisions of English Acts. 


1897. 


Pr. Ev.-Area at Causeway Bay set apart as Queen's Recreation Ground. Tr. & Ind.--Trade on the whole unsatisfactory and adversely affected by fluctuations in exchange and scarcity of money. Exchange averaged 2,0 for the year and stood at 1/11 on December 31st. P. W.For City Waterworks Tytam dam raised to impound additional 94,670,000 galls.; total capacity of storage reservoirs now 477,400,000 galls. Maternity Hosp. provided at Govt. Civil Hosp. Leg.-Partnership Ord. (No. 1) on lines of U. K. Act, Probate Ord. (No. 2), Protection of Women and Girls Ord. (No. 4) and Vagrancy Ord. (No. 9). 


19 


1898. 


Major-General Wilsone Black, C.B., administered from 2.2.1898 to 24.11.1898. 


Pr. Ev.-Penny post established. By convention between U. K. and China, signed at Peking on 9/6, area on the mainland S. of line joining Deep Bay with Mirs Bay (270 sq. m.) together with Lautao and other islands (90 sq. m.) leased to Great Britain for 99 years; this area designated The New Territories. Tr. & Ind.-West River opened for trade on 3/6 and regular communication established but interfered with by piracy. Import trade of Colony improved particularly in rice and coal. Opium Farm let for 3 years at $372,000 p.a. Exchange averaged 1,10 for the year and stood at 1/11 on December 31st. P. W.--1893 loan fully expended. Tai Ping Shan improvement scheme completed. Barker Road (5,660 ft. long) and Chamberlain Road (2,340 ft." long) opened on Peak. Tai Kok Tsui Market (32 stalls) erected. Leg.-Registration of Trade Marks Ord. (No. 6) and Liquor Licences Ord. (No. 8). 


TV 


1899. 


Governor Sir Henry Arthur Blake, K.C.M.G., (25.11.1898 to 21.11.1903). 


Pr. Ev.-New Territories taken over by hoisting British flag at Tai Po on 164; on account of opposition including attack on Br. Troops by some 2,600 Chinese on 19/4, in which Chinese authorities were believed to have connived, Sham Chun City beyond new boundary occupied from 16/5 to 13/11. 2 machine gun, 1 infantry and 1 engineer companies added to Volunteers. Tr. & Ind.-Hongkong Cotton Spining, Weaving & Dyeing Co. started operations (16). Green Island Cement Co. previously at Macao commenced manufacture at Hok Un near Kowloon for local use and export. Sugar refineries did well. Exchange averaged 1/11 for the year and stood at 1/11 on December 27th. P. W.-Laying out of streets at Mong Kok Tsui, N. of Yau Ma Ti, begun. Wong Nei Cheong Reservoir (33,994,000 galls.) completed for City Waterworks; total capacity of storage reservoirs now 511,394,000 galls. Leg.-N. T. Exemption of Laws and Regulation Ords. (Nos. 6 and 8) for administering N.T., Prisons Ord. (No. 1), Criminal Procedure Ord. (No. 9), Merchant Shipping Ord. (No. 10) supplementary to English Acts, and an Ord., afterwards superseded, for sanitary regulation of buildings. 


1900. 


Pr. Ev.-H. K. served as Br. base during Boxer troubles in the North. In typhoon of 9/11 H.M.S. "Sandpiper", 10 launches and over 110 junks sunk and over 200 lives lost in 3 hours. Soldiers' Club opened (14/4). Tr. & Ind.-Chinese Customs placed difficulties in way of river steamers trading with West River Ports. Output of granite from Shau Ki Wan and Kowloon quarries estimated at $45,000 and $80,000 respectively. Cotton Spinning Co. experienced difficulties on account of labour supply. Exchange averaged 2,1099 for the year and stood at 2/1 on December 31st. P. W.-Blake Pier (200 × 40′) built. City Disinfecting Stn. completed. Signalling Station established on Green Island, and Waglan connected by cable with H.K. Wong Nei 


20 


Cheong Recreation Ground extended. Police Stations erected at Tai Po, Sha Tau Tok, Au Tau and Ping Shan in N. T. and connected by telephone. Leg.-N. T. Extension of Laws and Land Court Ords. (Nos. 4 and 8) for administering N. T., P. O. Ord. (No. 6), and and Police Force Ord. (No. 11). New. Edition of the Statute Laws of the Colony put in hand by Sir J. CARRINGTON, 


16 


1901. 


Pr. Ev.-Census taken. Plague mortality higher than in any year since 1894 and S. of S. petitioned to send out Sanitary experts to investigate. Tr. & Ind.--Import trade depressed. Cotton Spinning Co. wrote down shares and brought in fresh capital. Opium Farm let for 3 years at $750,000 p.a. Exchange averaged 1/11 4005 for the year and stood at 1/10 on December 31st. P. W.-Associated converted into single cells and new block (78 cells) constructed at Gaol. Police Station erected at Sai Kung in N. T. Leg.-Defence Contribution Ord. (No. 1) raised annual military contribution of Colony from 171% to 20% of gross revenue. Code of Civil Procedure (No. 3) regulated procedure in Supreme Court. Another Ord., afterwards superseded, was passed for sanitary regulation of buildings. Trustees Ord. (No. 5) and Fine Arts Copyright Ord. (No. 18) were on lines of U. K. Acts. Rating Ord. (No. 6) left rates at Victoria at 13% and raised them to 10% at the Peak, 121% at Kowloon and 7 to 101% at other places. 


1902. 


Major-General Sir W J. Gascoigne, K.C.M.G., administered from 4.1.1902 to 8.9.1902. 


Pr. Ev.-Mr. O. CHADWICK & Prof. SIMPSON reported on Sanitation of Colony. Committee on Education made various recommendations including more instruction in Chinese. Penny letter postage extended to Br. Agencies in China. Volunteer Corps re-organized into 2 Artillery and 1 Engineer Co. Tr. & Ind.-Manufacture of rattan furniture for export started on large scale by American firm. Cotton spinning did better than in previous years, sugar refining worse. Exchange averaged 186724 for the year and stood at 1,71% on December 31st. P. W.Governor's new Peak Residence completed. New quarters provided for gaol staff (6 married and 10 single Europeans and 56 Indians). Police Stations erected in Victoria (No. 7), at Sheung Shui in N. T., and at Tai O in Lantao. New Kowloon Water Works commenced (Apl.). Leg.-Four Ord.s dealt with land in N. T. Water-works Consolidation Ord. had for its object economizing of water. 


1903. 


Pr. Ev.-New Education Code made grants dependent on results. of inspection and not of annual examinations. New wing of Tung Wa Hospital opened. Letters to Europe first sent by Siberian Railway (13/10). Tr. & Ind.-Brussels Sugar Convention coming into effect 


21 


1/9 improved condition of sugar refining industry. High price of raw cotton prejudicially affected cotton spinning. Exchange averaged 1/8-5243 for the year and stood at 18 on December 31st. P. W.Victoria Hosp. for women and children (44 beds) on Peak and 16 ft. road from Kennedy Town to Aberdeen (5 m.) handed over by Jubilee Committee. Ladder Street Resumption Scheme completed. Ist public bath-house (40 baths) opened at Wanchai. Conduit Road (2,900 ft. long) opened. N. T. Survey completed. New Government Offices comnienced (June). Foundation Stone of the New Law Courts laid (12/11). Leg.-The Public Health and Buildings Ord. (No. 1) superseded all foriner Ord.s dealing with this matter and made extensive and minute provision for improving health of Colony. Waterworks Ord. (No. 16) repealed Ord. of previous year and made other provisions for economizing water supply. Four Ord.s dealt with land in N. T. 


1904. 


Mr. F. II. May, C.M.G., administered from 22.11.1903 to 28.7.1904. 


Pr. Ev.-Outbreak of war between Russia and Japan (8,2) brought influx of colliers, etc. and decrease of foreign ships. Speculation resulted in heavy losses among Chinese. Attempt to start emigration of indentured labourers to S. Africa failed owing to local opposing interests and was abandoned after shipment of 1,746. Land Court determined 354,277 claims to land in N. T., where there was evidence of increasing prosperity. Mounted troop added to Volunteers and Vol. Reserve Association established. Tr. & Ind -Cotton spinning did badly at commencement but better at end of year. Sugar industry brought large profits to refineries. Opium Farm let for 3 years at $2,200,000 p.a. reduced to $2,040,000 p.a. from 1/11. 3′ 6′′ El. Tramway from Kennedy Town to Shau Ki Wan (9 m.) opened for traffic. Exchange averaged 1/10 07176 for the year and stood at 1/11 on December 31st. P. W.-Praya Reclamation completed. Tytam Byewash Reservoir added 26,301,000 galls. to storage for City Waterworks; total capacity of storage reservoirs now 537,695,000 galls. Kennedy Town Cattle Depôt extended to hold 1,241 head. 2nd public bath-house (38 baths) opened at Tai Ping Shan. Gascoigne Road at Kowloon and 14 ft. road to Tai Po (16 m.) in N. T. completed. New Rifle Ranges provided behind Kowloon City. Leg-Sugar Convention Ord. (No. 14) forbad importation of bounty fed sugar. Pilots Ord. (No. 3) provided for exam. and licensing of Pilots. Hill Dist. Reservation Ord. (No. 4) reserved residential area at the Peak. 


1905. 


Governor Sir Matthew Nathan, K.C.M.G., 29.7.1904 to 20.4.1907. 


Pr. Ev.-Russo-Japanese war and especially proximity of Russian fleet (April-May) and subsequent sinking of Br. S.S. "Oldhamia" (18/5) and "St. Kilda" (16) gave rise at H.K. to various questions as to duties and rights of neutrals. Before signature of armistice on 1/9 shipping tended to return to normal conditions. Govt. of H.K. on 2/10 lent the Hu Kwang Viceroy £1,100,000 repayable in 10 annual instalments for redemption of Canton-Hankow Raily. concession. Unsuccessful negotiations carried on through year in connection with Ch. section of Canton


22 


Kowloon Railway. Parcel post arrangement with Germany came into force (1,6) and postage to Australia reduced (15/7). Revised rent roll introduced in N. T. Anglo-Chinese Govt. School opened at Aberdeen. Tr. & Ind. Trade adversely affected by over-speculation in 1904, by fluctuations in exchange, by boycott of American goods as protest against U. S. A. exclusion law and by reduction of Br. fleet in China. Imports to and exports from China fell off. Sugar refineries, Cotton Spinning Co. and cement and rope factories did good business. There was falling off in repairing and docking ships. Exchange averaged 1/11 2335 for the year and stood at 2,0g on December 30th. P. W.-Preliminary Survey of Br. section of Canton-Kowloon Railway carried out, route selected and land partly resumed. Construction was commenced under P.W.D. at the latter end of the year. 1st order light from Cape D'Aguilar transferred to new tower at Green Is. Disinfecting Stn. at Kowloon, Mong Kok Tsui Market (40 stalls) and Yau Ma Ti District School (for 200 scholars) completed. Resumption scheme finished at Kau U Fong (27,156 sq. ft.) and commenced at Mee Lun Lane. 900 ft. Robinson and Gascoigne South roads extended. Leg.-12 (including 4 financial and 6 amending) Ords. passed of which most important were N. T. Land Ords. (Nos. 3 & 9) for facilitating land transfers and settling land disputes. 


1908. 


Mr. F. H. May, C.M.G., administered from 15.12.1906 to 23.1.1907. 


Pr. Ev.-Commission appointed to enquire into administration of Sanitary Laws (28/4). The construction of the Kowloon-Canton Railway (British Section) was taken over by the Construction Staff appointed by Consulting Engineers in May. The Beacon Hill tunnel was commenced, South face (159) North face (1/12). Piracy of British Steamer "Sainam" on West River, British Missionary killed (13/8). Severe typhoon (18,9), 15 European including Protestant Bishop and some 10,000 Chinese drowned, 2,413 Chinese craft reported lost, 141 European vessels and launches foundered or badly damaged. British Steamer "Hankow" burut at wharf, 111 lives lost (14/10). Census taken (6/11). Kowloon-Canton Railway Final Loan Agreement signed (1011). Tr. & Ind.---General depression in trade; heavy losses through fall in price of Indian yarn; shares in local undertakings much depreciated in value. Increased importation of Australian flour. Iron mining started and a large Flour Mill opened in the New Territories. Exchange averaged 2/1.7061 for the year and stood at 2/3 on December 29th. P. W.-Harbour Office, Western Market, Bacteriological Institute, Volunteers' Headquarters, Taipo Quarters, and Gunpowder Depôt completed. Considerable progress made with Kowloon roads and extension of Conduit Road in Victoria ; Mee Lun Lane resumption scheme well advanced; new Kowloon Reservoir brought into use and rider main system completed. Leg.-17 Ords. passed including Married Women's Property and Criminal Evidence Ords. (Nos. 5 & 14) designed to bring local law into line with English statutes. 


23 


1907. 


Governor Sir Frederick John Dealtry Lugard, K.C.M.G., C.B., D.S.O., 29.7.1907. 


(Mr. F. II. May, C.M.G.. administered from 21.1.1907 to 28.7.1907.) 


Pr. Ev.-Commission appointed to enquire into administration of Sanitary Laws reported (19/3). Claim for compensation, on account of lives lost in "Saiuam" piracy, settled. Survey of Chinese Section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway commenced. H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught accompanied by H:R.H. the Duchess of Connaught and Princess Patricia of Connaught visited the Colony (6/2). Sir M. Nathan appointed Governor of Natal; succeeded by Sir F. J. D. Lugard, who was appointed 1 5 and arrived in Colony 29/7. Tr. & Ind.-Continued depression of trade accentuated towards the end of the year by world-wide restriction of commerce following upon financial crisis in America. Shipping in particular suffered. The local sugar industry held its own but shares in the majority of local undertakings further depreciated in value. A project to start a Brewery made headway. Development of iron mining in N. T. arrested. Tin smelting increased. Assessment made in July for year 1907-8 showed that rateable value for whole Colony had decreased by 2.52° Opium Farm let for 3 years at $1,452,000 p.a. Loss and inconvenience caused by depreciation of subsidiary currency and over-issue of sub. coin by the Canton Mint. Exchange averaged 2:1-8499 for the year and stood at 1/91 on December 31st. P. W.-Tho Tytam Tuk Waterworks (1st Section) were practically completed affording a further permanent storage of 195,914,000 gallons and of 210,370,000 with movable weir added. A Mortuary at Kowloon and a Market of 68 stalls at Quarry Bay were completed, also the extensions to Conduit Road East and West, the first extension of the Kowloon City Road towards Customs House Pass and a further extension of Robinson Road Northwards. The Mee Lun Lane resumption scheme was also finished. Leg.-16 Ords. (5 amendment) passed; Hongkong College of Medicine incorporated; H,K. & S. Bank authorized to increase its capital from ten to twenty million dollars and to continue incorporated for a further term of 21 years; Life Insurance Companies Ord. passed. 


1908. 


O' 


Pr. Ev.-Mr. H. N. Mody offered to present Colony with buildings necessary for a University: Committee formed to promote the undertaking and collect endowment fund. Instructions received from H.M. Government that all opium divans in Colony must be closed. Disastrous Typhoon on the night of 27th to 28th July. Riot in town of Victoria on 1st and 2nd November in connection with boycott of Japanese goods by the Cantonese. Tr. & Ind.-Money plentiful owing to lack of remunerative employment. No sign of revival in the real estate market. Import business on the whole showed some improvement on the preceding years in spite of the downward tendency of exchange and the growing tendency of trade to go direct to Canton. The sugar refining industry showed better results. The Cotton Mill had a poor year. The shipping industry shared in a world wide depression in the 


24 


carrying trade, and this was reflected locally in a marked falling off in the business of the Dock Company. All export business and especially silk suffered as a result of the great financial crisis in America. Loss by depreciation of subsidiary currency continued; the Government withdrew from circulation and demonetized $780,000 of subsidiary silver coin and $30,000 of bronze coin. Exchange averaged 19-6727 for the year and stood at 1/83 on December 31st. P. W.-The new Time Ball Tower was completed and brought into use. A section of the new Land Office at Tai Po was completed for the use of the Assistant Land Officer. The new Slaughter Houses and Animal Depôt at Ma Tau Kok, Kowloon, were completed and brought into use. The extension of P.W.D. Offices was carried out. Wanchai School was extended and its accommodation practically doubled. Saiyingpun School was also enlarged by the erection of an additional storey. The Quarters at the Victoria School had another storey added. The European Quarters in Mount Gough Police Station were considerably enlarged. The Transvaal Coolie Emigration Depôt was purchased for a Quarantine Station and buildings etc. put in order. Staff Quarters in Government Civil Hospital were extended. Obelisk at Kowloon in memory of the French sailors drowned in Typhoon 1906 was unveiled. 12 New Fire Alarms were installed in City. Nathan Road was extended from Market Street to Kowloon Farm Lot No. 2. In New Territories the Kowloon City Road was extended from its point of intersection with the Military Roads to its point of bifurcation to Customs Pass and Chin Lan Chun Village. Blake Pier Permanent Shelter was completed. New Service Reservoir at West Point was completed: capacity 448,000 gallons; also a new 8" rising main to Peak. Leg.-22 Ordinances (9 amendment) passed: the principal matters dealt with were-public health and buildings, fire insurance companies, foreign corporations, breweries, chemists and druggists, and theatres. Public Health and Buildings bill passed after much debate and permanent Head of Sanitary Dept. created (result of Commission). Chinese Emigration Ordinance 1889 amended and assisted emigrants" recognised, affording additional protection and safeguards. Small Debts Court instituted in N.T., and Widows' and Orphans' Pension Fund transferred to Hongkong Government. 


66 


1909. 


Pr. Ev.-International Opium Conference at Shanghai (Feb.). 26 opium divans in H.K. closed (1,3). The headings from each end of Beacon Hill tunnel met (17/5). Opium Ordinances amended and consolidated in accordance with the resolutions of the Shanghai Conference, additional restrictions and safeguards being imposed in respect of morphine, compounds of opiums and cocaine (1/9). Duties imposed on intoxicating liquors (17.9). Very severe typhoon (19-20/10). Conference held in H.K. between Portuguese and Chinese Commissioners for delimitation of boundaries of Macao (June-Nov.). Total endowment fund of proposed H.K. University amounted at close of year to $533,496 exclusive of $718,614 promised. Tr. & Ind.--The local money market was easy throughout the year. Real estate showed faint sigus of revival. In imports a large business was done. Exports were active; silk in good demand. The sugar refining industry prospered. 


25 



Shipping showed a slight improvement on the previous year, but this was not reflected in the local docking industries which suffered from insufficient work. Loss by depreciation of subsidiary currency continued: the Govt. withdrew from circulation and demonetized $779,712 of subsidiary silver coin and $40,646 of bronze coin. Exchange averaged 1,9-0601 for the year and stood at 1,9, on Dec. 31st. P. W.-The old stables adjoining the Government Offices were extended and raised to render the upper storey available and so provide additional accommodation for the staff of the Public Works Department. A bungalow on the mainland at Tai Po for the Assistant District Officer was completed. A staircase from the ball-room to the grounds of Government House was constructed. A road from Ma Tau Kok to Tai Shek Kn was completed; the level of Des Voeux Road, Kowloon, (re-named Chatham Road), was raised; and arrangements were made for the construction of a new road traversing Marine Lot 29 from Queen's Road East to Praya East. The old fish pond at Tai Wo Shi (N.T.) was filled in. The Albany Filter Beds were reconstructed and extended, and the filtering area increased from 3,246 to 4,945 square yards. Extensive resumptions of land at Kowloon Point were effected with a view to providing a site for the terminal station of the Kowloon-Canton Railway. Public latrines were constructed at Tai Kok Tsui, in Chuk Hing Lane, at Wongneichong Village and adjoining Kennedy Road to the westward of the Peak Tramway. Ping Shan-Shataukok Road surveyed and part constructed. Leg.-46 Ordinances (32 amendment) passed: the principal matters dealt with were-opium, liquor, trade marks, railways, and the construction of a harbour of refuge at Mongkoktsui. 


1910. 


(Sir F. H. May, K.C.M.G., administered from 30.4.10 to 31.10.10.) 


Pr. Ev.-All opium divans in H.K. and the N.T. closed (1,3). Opium Farm let for 3 years at $1,183,200 p.a. (1/3). H.B.M.'s Government make the Colony a grant of £9,000 for the year 1910 on account of loss of opium revenue. Foundation stone of H.K. University laid by Sir F. D. Lugard (163). Endowment fund of University stood at $1,239,828 (exclusive of $96,460 promised) on 31st Dec. Considerable scarcity of water owing to dryness of the season, but leavy rains in June removed anxiety. Plague cases decreased to 25, the lowest since 1897. Trouble at Macao with pirates on Colowan Island: Portuguese troops and gunboats engaged many pirates escaped, some afterwards arrested at Cheung Chau Island in the N.T. (July). British Section, KowloonCanton Railway, opened by Sir Henry May (1/10). Portuguese Republic proclaimed in Macao (10/10). Tr. & Ind.-The local money market was easy during the first 6 months of the year, but afterwards inclined to be tight, owing probably to the fall in rubber stocks. Financial crisis in Shanghai caused by rubber boom; many banks failed (Aug./Sept.). In imports of raw sugar there was a heavy falling off due mainly to producers in Java sending direct to Northern markets without trans-shipinent in H.K. There was also a falling off in import and export of raw opium due partly to an additional tax on opium imposed, contrary to treaty, by the Canton Government. Compounds of opium including morphine also declined due to restrictive legislation 


26 


by Government. The year was fair generally for merchants and manufacturers: yarn, piece-goods, and tin did well. The number and tonnage of ships entering and clearing in the Colony was the largest yet recorded, being 545,177 vessels of 36,441,496 tons, an increase as compared with 1909 of 17,897 vessels and 1,610,651 tons. 


There was a considerable improvement in the industry of docking steamers in H.K.: during the latter part of the year the industry gained a considerable impetus, which has since been maintained.' Subsidiary currency 


remained at a discount: the Government withdrew from circulation and demonetized $5,272,012.25 (face value) of silver sub-coin and $255,446.79 (face value) of copper coin. Exchange averaged 19-60216 for the year and stood at 1/10 on 31st Dec. P. W.-A new block containing 78 cells was constructed in Victoria Goal. An extension of the Land Office at Tai Po for the accommodation of the District Officer was completed. A small slaughter house for Shaukiwan District was built at Sai Wan Ho. Argyle Street, Kowloon, was extended eastwards as far as the Railway to afford access to Yaumati Station and the diversion and alteration of Chatham and Gascoigne Roads on account of the construction of the Railway were completed. In the N. T. the road from Castle Peak Bay was completed as far as Un Long and the extension from San Tin Village to Au Ha Gap was well advanced. The large nullah west of the University site was trained. Ferro-conerete piers at Kowloon City and at the Gunpowder Depôt, Green Island, were completed. Causeway Bay was deepened to 1 foot below low water. The Kowloon Water Works Gravitation Scheme, begun in 1902, was completed. A 12" main for conveying Tytam Water to the Western district of the City was laid in Caine Road. The sites of several houses which had collapsed in Morrison Street were acquired in connection with the re-construction of the Old Western Market and further extensive areas were resumed at Kowloon Point to provide a site for the terminus of the Railway. Leg.-34 Ordinances (21 amendment) passed: Ordinances relating to the N.T. consolidated: the principal other matters dealt with were-copyright, crown suits, lepers, midwives, oaths, and volunteer reserve. 



reserve.

TRADE.

FINANCE.

REVENUE.

MILITARY EXPENDITURE.

PERCENTAGE

OF EXPENDITURE DEVOTOED

TO

MUI'S

ENTEI- ED.

TONNAGE.

EXPENDI

TURE.

Non-

General

Public

Public Instruction.

Public

Public

Local. | Imperial.

Charges.

tration.

Health.

Order.

Works.

£

£

£

1841

......

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

1842

......

...

...

...

...

V

...

1843

......

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

1844

538

189,257

9,535   54,234

58,108

152,343

24.38

1.64

2.40

21.41

50.17

63,769

1845

672

226,998

22,242 52,545

72,841

143,100

26.22

1.23

1.13

26.10

45.32

74,787

1846

67 5

229,255

27,047   29,223

60,351

141,781

29.34

1.16

1.26

32.44

35.80

54,270

is 17

691

229,465

31,079   18,394

50,969

115,149

29.38

1.51

1.32

33.27

34.52

40,473

184s

70 )

228,818

25,072   40,302

62,309

80,778

27.55

1.46

1.32

29.33

40.34

65,37 4

1849

902

293,465

23,617   11,910

38,986

75,943

.57

40.97

3.11

2.04

37.55

15.76

35,527

1850

88 3

299,009

23,527   14,150

34,314

61,628

.38

44.74

3.16

1.97

41.64

8.11

37,677

POPULATION.

PUBLIC HEALTH.

PUBLIC INSTRUCTION.

| PUBLIC ORDER.

REVENUE DERIVED FROM RATES.

NON

CHINESE.

CHINESE.

TOTAL.

DEATH-RATE PER 1,000 EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN RESIDENTS.

NO. OF SCHOOLS.

TOTAL ATTENDANCE.

9 NO. OF

J PRISONERS | IN GAOL ON : 31st dec.

POLICE STRENGTH.

European.

Indian.

Chinese.

£

...

5,650

...

......

...

..

...

1841

...

...

12,361

...

.....

...

...

......

1842

...

...

...

...

......

...

...

1843

454

19,009

19,463

117

92

78

34

48

1844

160

529

1,043

23,114

24,157

.545

4

100

108

74

62

9

1845

165

1,575

1,386

20,449

21,835

.757

4 -

102

128

67

67

24

1846

158

2,240

1,406

22,466

23,872

.358

4

118

181

50

81

24

1847

155

2,576

1,502

22,496

23,998

1,298

6

146

135

44

144

24

1848

212

3,116

1,210

28,297

29,507

.648

9

223

155

29

80

24

1849

133

2,812

1,305

31,987

33,292

1.011

12

227

158

30

80

24

1850

134

— 2

1851

1852

1853

1854

1855

1856

1857

1858

1859

1860

TRADE.

SHIPS ENTERED.

EMI

GRANTS LEFT.

REVENUE.

EXPENDITURE.

I

MILITARY EXPEN

DITURE.

’IN ANGE.

Percentage of expenditure devoted to

REVENUE

CLIMA

TEMPERATURE.

TE.

u

Ph

g

POP

NON-CIIINESE.

ULAT

1

ION.

TOTAL.

PUBLIC HEALTH.

DEATH-RATE PER 1,000 EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN RESIDENTS.

PUBLIC

NO. OF SCHOOLS.

INSTRUCTION.

TOTAL ATTENDANCE.

P

AVE

NO. O

SOI

IN (

N u mbcr.

Tonnage.

Percentage of British Tonnage.

Non-effectivo Charges

General Administration.

Public Health.

Public Instruction.

CHINESE.

Public Order.

Public Wo rks.

DERIVED FROM RATES.

Maximum.

Minimum.

Government.

Mission.

In Govt. Schools.

In

Mission Schools.

TOTAL.

Local. | Imperial.

1,082

1,097

1,103

1,100

1,736

2,091

1,070

Entered

1,975

2,179

2,888*

* Exclusi

Macao I

377,084

433,383

477,053

443,354

604,580

811,307

541,063

if Cleared.

1,354,173

1,164,640

1,555,645

re of Canton & Ivor Steamers.

54

42

46

14,683

14,130

15,810

10,217

15,183

£

23,721   20,154

43^875

21,331   22,000

43^331

24,700    9,500

34^200

27,045    5,966

33,011

47,974

35,500

58,842

62,476

65,225

94,183

£

34,115

34,766

36,419

34,635

40,814

42,426

65,498

62,979

66,109

72,391

£

51,896

50,393

50,346

41,541

34,830

39,823

239,814

267,468

.06

.05

.14

.03

1.21

.15

.33

.54

.79

43.72

36.84

36.49

33.89

28.40

27.12

26.03

24.71

23.02

25.69

2.67

3.09

2.78

2.06

1.50

1.48

1.23

1.87

4.03

4.79

2.68

2.70

1.83

3.17

2.15

2.36

1.93

2.69

3.07

2.53

42.52

39.58

39.60

41.90

39.02

43.90

38.10

37.82

39.76

35.08

8.35

17.74

19.16

18.95

27.72

24.99

32.38

32.91

29.58

31.12

£

2,959

2,326

2,705

3,327

3,917

3,868

7,377

13,281

14,047

16,573

0

«* •

•••

93

89

91

91

90.50

0

43

49

42

50

47

Ins.

78.95

95.99

109.55

119.42

81.68

75.53

83.59

59.72

1,520

1,541

1,481

1,643

1,956

2,479

Whites.

1,411

NonChinese.

1,462

1,661

2,476

31,46

35,51

37,53

54,07

70,65

69,25

Colour 75,68

Chine-.

74,04

i

85,28

92,44

1

7

J

2

1

1

?</

3

e.

1

0

1

32,983

37,058

39,017

55,715

72,607

71,730

77,094

75,503

86,941

94,917

1.035

.841

.942

.679

1.O50

.752

.678'

.320

6

6

6

6

8

9

16

20

21

5

6

4

5

3

5

2

3

14

143

158

155

134

185

237

608

977

1,001

154

158

92

113

139

126

• • •

54

109

326

297

316

247

247

324

363

662

1,086

1,327

11

If i;

i;

2

(31st

2-'Mich.

3:

2

2

flVie

— 2 —

FINANCE.

CLIMATE.

KM I-

MILITARY

Percentage<

>F EXPENDITURE DEVOTED TO

REVENUE

TEMPERATURE.

J

GRANTS LEFT.

REVENUE.

Local, j Imperial.

EXPENDI

TURE.

EXPEN

DITURE.

Non-cfloetivo Charges

General Administration.

Public Health.

Public

Instruction.

Public

Order.

Public

Works.

DERIVED FROM RATES.

Maximum.

Minimum.

...

£

23,721   20,154

43^875

£

34,115

£

51,896

.06

43.72

2.67

2.68

42.52

8.35

£

2,959

0

o

1118.

21,331   22,000

34,766

50,393

.05

36.84

3.09

2.70

39.58

17.74

2,326

43,331

«• •

...

...

24,700    9,500

34^200

36,419

50,346

.14

36.49

2.78

1.83

39.60

19.16

2,705

93

43

78.95

27,045    5,966

34,635

41,541

.03

33.89

2.06

3.17

41.90

18.95

3,327

33,011

• • •

...

95,99

14,683

47,974

40,814

34,830

1.21

28.40

1.50

2.15

39.02

27.72

3,917

89

49

109.55

14,130

35,500

42,426

39,823

.15

27.12

1.48

2.36

43.90

24.99

3,868

91

42

119.42

...

58,842

65,498

.33

26.03

1.23

1.93

38.10

32.38

7,377

...

...

81.68

15,810

62,476

62,979

239,814

...

24.71

1.87

2,69

37.82

32.91

13,281

91

50

75.53

10,217

65,225

66,109

267,463

.54

23.02

4.03

3.07

39.76

29.58

14,047

90.50

47

83.59

15,183

94,183

72,391

...

i .79

25.69

4.79

2.53

35.08

31.12

16,573

...

...

59.72

POPULATION.

PUBLIC HEALTH.

PUBLIC INSTRUCTION.

PUBLIC ORDER.

NON-

CIIINESE.

CHINESE.

TOTAL.

DEATH-RATE PER 1,000 EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN RESIDENTS.

NO. OF SCHOOLS.

TOTAL ATTENDANCE.

AVERAGE NO. OF PRISONERS IN GAOL.

POLICE.

Government.

Mission.

In Govt. Schools.

In Mission Schools.

TOTAL.

Strength.

C I c •    2

Europe:

India Chine;

1,520

1,541

1,481

1,643

1,956

2,479

H lutes.

1,411

Non-Chinese.

1,462

1,661

2,476

31,463

35,517

87,536

54,072

70,651

69,251

Coloured 75,683

Chinese.

74,041

85,280

I1

92,441

32,983

37,058

39,017

55,7 15

72,607

71,730

77,094

75,503

86,941

94,917

1.035

.841

.942

.679

1.050

.752

.678'

.320

6

6

6

6

8

9

16

20

21

5

6

4

5

3

•>

» » »

2

3

14

143

158

155

134

185

237

608

977

1,001.

154

158

92

113

139

126

54

109

326

297

316

247

247

324

363

662

1,086

1,327

179

160

138

155

214

(31st Dec.)

243 'Michaelmas )

321

266

239

360

(Michaelmas.^

29 115 30

174

11 89 13

133

51 89 13

133

29 66 38

133

52 124 28

184

53 166 39

238

53 166 49

248

36 201 70

307

39 238 70

347

1851

1852

1853

1854

1855

1856

1857

1858

1859

1860

— 3 —

T 1

UDE.

|   FINANCE.

CLIMA

T E

POPULATION.

PUBLIC HEALTH.

PUBLIC

INSTRUCTION.

SHIPS OLE Alt ED AND Ef

PTE RED,

EMIGRATION,

PERCESTAGE OF EXPENDITURE DEVOTED TO

EXCESS OF ASSETS OVER LIARII. TIES (-H OR OF LI ABILITIES OVER ASSETS ( - )•

REVENUE

DERIVED FROM

RATES,

TEMPERATURK.

RAINFALL.

; DBATll-lUTB PF.a 1.000.

NO. OF SCHOOLS.

TOTAL ATTENDANCE.

Number.

Total Tonnago.

IVrcontago of British Tonnage.

p'DU- General oHectivO A dm Inis-Charges.

Public

Health.

Public Instruction.

Public Order.

Public Works.

Pofoneo.

Maxi-mu m.

Mitii-ni urn.

TOTAL,

European & American -Residents.

Government.

Mission.

In Govt. Schools.

In Mission Schools.

Total.

I .oft.

Het timed,

REVENUE.

EXPENDITURE.

NON-CIIINESE.

CHINESE.

.£127,241|£l09,632

$

£

0

O

IlH.

1861

2,545

1,310,383

44

12,810

2,167 s

or

$

or $

>2.39

20.67

2.9 1

1.56

27.78

44.66

...

+ 393,600

15,756

90

48

78.S6

2,986

116,335

119,321

64.8

20

20

796

523

1,319

610,758

526,234

J

1-862

2,720

1,344,710

46

10,421

7,398

631,260

587,634

1.36

20.23

2.94

1.76

33.68

40.03

...

+ 475,439

19,096 (<tSo,O57)

92

42

91.01

3,034

120,477

123,511

22.4

20

19

889

143

1,332

1863

8,657

1,806,881

52

7,809

7,193

576,37 5

586,566

1.70

22.52

2.60

1.84

42.42

28.92

...

+ 145,000

27,331

91

5 <5

81.61

3,149

120,701

124,850

63.2

16

22

577

653

1,230

1864

4,558

2,046,372

55

6,607

6,778

637,846

763.308

1.1 1

1666

2.20

1.53

30.42

48.05

+ 298,190

25,519

90

41

94.08

3,630

117,868

121,498

55.5

12

22

392

759

1,151

1865

4,445

2,134,164

60

6,849

6,026

843,444

937,805

1.01

22.84

1.86

1.37

.25.23

40.01

7.68

+ 184,107

37,024

90

49

56.36

4,007

121,497

125,504

49.1

12

16

546

782

1,328

1866

3,783

1,891,281

55

5,115

9,253

769,077

936,955

1.47

‘ 32.72

1.99

1.28

25.82

25.51

10.21

4- 24,606

42,564

93

45

77.49

3,616

111,482

115,098

35.0

11

12

623

616

1,239

1867

4,879

2,376,320

63

4,283

9.866

859,404

730,917

2.16

35.71

2 68

1.68

38.89

18.88

...

+ 25,851

46,410

92

41

80.80

3,636

118,835

117,471

26.0

11

15

700

735

1,435

1868

4,095

1,974,299

• 62

8,704

10,752

1,134,106

991,311

1.69

i

i

26.19

2.25

1.46

27.43

19.46

21.52

+ 137,365

RATEABLE VALUE OF COLONY.

$ 1,642,265

88

42

88.04

No Estin

lato made of

population.

19.0

i

1

14

17

916

827

1,748

1869

4,426

2,256,049

58

18,285

16,203

923,653

912,853

1.32

29.72

1

2.71

1.83

31.60

24.17

9.95

+ 123,031

1,755,077

89

43

6,371

7,699

114,280

121,979

29.2

17

14

942

743

1.685

1870

4,791

2,640,347

62

12,992

16,618

914,976

877,224

2.08

25.65

3.34

2.16

29.77

26.31

10.69

+ 154,117

1,676,319

90.5

46

5,607

8,754

115,444

124,198

31.0

22

13

1,302

701

2,003

— 3 —

FINANCE

GLIM A

e .

POPULATION.

PUBLIC HEALTH.

PUBLIC INSTRUCTION.

PUBLIC ORDEI

PERCENTAGE OF EXPENDITURE DEVOTED TO

1

EXCESS OF

TEMPERATURE.

DEATH-RATE PER 1,000.

NO. OF

SCHOOLS.

TOTAL ATTENDANCE.

CRIMINAL STATISTICS.

p <

St

LICE, ’engt.b.

ENDI-

Public Instruction.

ASSETS OVER

REVENUE

NON

CHINESE.

In Govt. Schools.

In Mission Schools.

Daily Average Number of Prisoners, in Gaol.

URE.

effective

Charges.

(Jenera!

Administration.

Public Health.

Public Order.

Public Works.

Defence.

LIABILITIES (+) OR OF LIABILITIES OVER ASSETS ( - ).

DERIVED FROM RATES.

. Maximum.

Minimum.

M

CHINESE.

TOTAL.

European & American Residents.

Government.

Mission.

Total.

convicted of Serious Offences.

convicted of Minor Offences.

Euro- | pean. ,

Indian.

Chinese.

)9,632 or

>2.39

1.36

2.94

2.94

1.56

1.76

27.78

33.68

44.66

40.03

$

£

0

90

92

91

90

90

o

Ins.

116,335

120,477

64.8

22.4

63.2

55.5

49.1

35.0

20

20

16

12

12

11

796

889

577

392

546

623

700

916

942

1,302

523

443

653

759

782

616

<

735

827

743

701

1,319

1,332

1,230

1,151

1,328

1,239

1,435

1,743

1,685

2,003

446

558

533

447

567

584

427

529

465

481

1

73

297 80

1861

$

26,234

37,634

20.67

20.23

i

...

+ 393,600

+ 475,439

15,756

19,096

($85,057)

48

42

78.86

91.01

2,986

3,034

119,321

123,511

20

19

22

22

16

41 :

46

450

285 90

116

160 110

1862

1863

36,566

53,308

37,805

1.70

1.11

1.01

22.52

16.66

22.84

2.60

2.20

1.86

1.84

1.53

1.37

42.42

30.42

25.23

&

28.92

48.05

40.01

7.68

+ 445,000

+ 298,190

+ 184,107

27,331

25,519

37,024

55

41

49

81.61

94.03

56.36

3,149

3,630

4,007

120,701

117,868

121,497

124,850

121,498

125,504

c

> r

h           u

C

c

C

I

63 .

76

69

516

174 144

—X/-™—-  f

581

169 165

610

125 165

1864

1865

1866

36,955

1.47

32.

72

1.99

1.28

26.82

25.51

10.21

+ 24,606

42,564

93

45

77.49

3,616

111,482

115,098

12

84 ’

559

152 130

1867

1868

1869

1870

30,917

2.16

35.

71

4

1

i

i

2.68

1.68

38.89

18.88

21.52

+ 25,851

+ 137,365

1

+ 123,031

+ 154,117

46,440

RATEABLE

VALUE OF COLONY.

1,642,265

1,755,077

1,676,349

92

41

42

43

46

80.80

88.04

6,371

5,607

3,636

No Estiii

7,699

8,754

113,835

late made of

114,280

115,444

117,471

population.

121,979

124,198

26.0

19.0

.1

■j

|         29.2

31.0

11

14

17

22

15

17

14

13

905

604

852

I

2,941

2,005

3,231

113

566

328 192

31,311

1.69

26.

19

2.25

1.46

27.43

19.46

88

89

90.5

114

633

320 208

12,853

7,224

1.82

2.03

29.72

25.65

2.71

3.34

1.83

2.16

31.60

29.77

24.17

26.31

9.95

10.69

120

642

301 204

625

— 4

1871

1872

1878

1874

1875

1876

1877

1878

1879

1880

T R ADE.

FINANCE.

CLIMATE.

POPULATION.

| PUBLIC HEALTH.

PUBLIC INSTRI

SHIPS CLEARED AND ENTERED.

EMIGRATION.

REVENUE.

EXPENDITURE.

PERCENTAGE OF EXPENDITURE DEVOTED 'O

EXCESS Of ASSETS OVER LIAI ILIT1ES (+) 0 1 OF I.IABILITI IS OVER ASSETS ( —).

RATEABLE

VALUE OF

COLONY.

TEMPERATURE.

RAINFALL.

a co a

£ o

/S O

CHINESE.

TOTAL.

DEATH-RATE FER 1,000.

NO. OF SCHOOLS.

TOTAL A

- Number.

Total Tonnage.

Percentage of British Tonnage.

Left.

Returned.

Non-effective Charges.

General Administration.

Public Health.

' Public Instruction.

Public Order.

Pul lie

Wo., ks.

Defence

Maximum.

Minimum.

1 European a and

I American

§ Residents.

Chinese.

Total.

Government.

Mission.

In Govt, Schools.

AI

Sc

?

6,099

4,675

4,356

5,201

5,751

5,701

6,131

5,503

5,775

3,235,701

3,795,566

3,273,119

3,034,036

3,893,687

4,359,616

4,850,896

5,209,437

4,964,839

5,078,868

63

f

67

68

72

72

76

74

76

74

9,501

27,721

28,768

31,866

48,152

46,350

39,741

38,653

33,529

50,324

19,754

23,773

25,355

32,319

38,602

42,390

48,746

47,882

50,542

51,011

$ 844,418

921,807

847,324

854,800

896,624

885,309

1,005,312

947,638

964,095

1,069,948

$

894,209

835,698

789,874

921,480

869,823

902,500

873,208

910,523

926,868

948,014

2.07

2.33

1.96

2.09

1.72

1.53

1.57

2.82

2.78

2.69

24.30

25.57

26.73

26.69

25.70

23.39

25.20

27.29

27.99

31.08

4.04

3.25

4.03

J 3.58

4.13

4.35

4.18

I 4.72

t

4.59 *

5.41

2.15

2'45

2.78

2.56

3.04

2.85

2.84

3.41

3.72

3.84

30.97

35.54

36.19

29.66

82.81

31.50

32.57

30.71

32.06

31.79

26.07

19.94

16.63

25.02

21.35

24.62

22.C5

19.55

17.02

14.08

10.40

10.87

11.68

10.40

11.25

11.76

11.59

11.50

11.84

11.11

$

+ 120,099

+ 18 ,942

+ 235,335

+ 156,177

+ 192,498

+ 134,297-

+ 310,103

+ 300,034

+ 190,254

+ 275,652

s 1,662,647

1,620,979

1,676,052

1,682,057

1,668,410

1,657,871

1,732,186

1,764,662

1,900,870

2,095,460

o

89

89.5

91

90

91

90

95

95

94

95

o

36

43.5

49

47

41

37

41

38

45

39

Ins.

99.24

62.92

75.47

84.98

83.43

103.55

76.72

84.40

94.70

111.57

(No

1

6,421

1

No

Estimate populatio

115,564

Estimate populatio

n ide of ]

1.            f

121,985

r

made of D.

30.3

। 25.0

Non-iChines 

19.4

! 32.23

28.18

24-4'r

18.0

18.7;

18.11

16.7

p.

1

/ N

recc I avai

31.19

25.74

28.39

27.41

30.35

33.11

29.54

0        I

rds < able. /

I

22.57

31.24

25.87

28.18

26.81

29.60

32.14

28.71

A

/V/iu n’i'X,    Calculated on population according to CensuM                Calculated on population according to

tn C.'n“aJ of Til                         of                                                     GCnsUs 1M72*_____________

26 »

30

30

30

30

13

12

21

17

22

1,292

1,480

1,838

1,931

1,927

1

1

-

NO. OF SCHOOLS.

AVERAGE

Gororn-meut.

Grant-In-Aid.

In Government Schools.

In t

8,976

No

130,168

Estimate populatio

139,144

r

made of n.

1

30

30

30

30

31

36

9

11

15

17

19

। 27

1,118

1,192

1,241

1,130

1,130

1,212

FINANCE.

HENUE.

EXPENDITURE.

PERCENTAGE OF EXPENDITURE DEVOTED r. 0

EXCESS OF ASSETS OVER LIAI ILITIES (4-) 0 ? OF

LIABILITI !S OVER ASSETS ( —).

RATEABLE

VALUE OF COLONY.

Non-effective Charges.

General Administration

Public Health.

Public

Instruc-j tion.

Public Order.

Pul lie

Wo] ks.

1

.Defence

$

4,418

s

894,209

2.07

24.30

4.04

2.15

30.97

26.07

10.40

e

+ 120,099

$ 1,662,647

1,807

835,698

2.38

25.57

3.25

245

35.54

19.94

10.87

+ 18 ',942

1,620,979

7,324

789,874

1.96

26.73

4.03

2.78

36.19

16.63

11.68

4- 235,335

1,676,052

4,800

921,480

2.09

26.69

■ 3.58

2.56

29.66

25.02

10.40

+ 156,177

1,682,057

5,624

869,823

1.72

25.70

4.13

3.04

82.81

21.35

11.25

+ 192,498

1,668,410

5,309

902,500

1.53

23.39

4.35

2.85

31.50

24.62

11.76

+ 134,297 •

1,657,871

5,312

873,208

1.57

25.20

4.18

2.84

32.57

22.05

11.59

4- 310,103

1,732,186

',638

910,523

2.82

27.29

4.72

3.41 ;

30.71

19.55

11.50

+ 300,034

1,764,662

:,095

926,868

2.78

27.99

*

4.59

£

3.72

32.06 .

I

17.02

11.84

+ 190,254

1,900,870

1,948

948,014

2.69

31.08

5.41

I

3.84 j

31.79

14.08

11.11

+ 275,652

2,095,460


— 4

CLIMATE.

POPULATION.

| PUBLIC HEALTH.

TEMPERATURE.

j"

a tc H Z.

| DEATH-RATE PER

1,000.

Maximum.

Minimum.

I

B5

O

55 O

CHINESE.

TOTAL.

European and

American Residents.

Chinese.

Total.

o

89

89.5

91

90

91

90

95

95

94

95

o

36

43.5

49

47

41

37

41

38

45

39

Ins.

99.24

62.92 •

75.47

84.98

83.43

103.55

76.72

84.40

94.70

111.57

|No

6,421

1

No

8,976

No

Estimate populatio

115,564

Estimate populatio

130,168

Estimate populatio

mile of |

n.           f

121,985

r

mule of^ n.

139,144

r

made of

n.

30.3

25.0

NonChines

19.4

32.23

28.18

24.45

18.0

18.71

18.1}

16.7:

E.

/ b > reoc I avai

31.19

25.74

28.39

27.41

30.35

33,11

29.54

o j

>rds <

able, i

22.57

31.24

25.87

28.18

26.811

29.60

32.14

28.71

1 i

puJation^cordiog     Calculated on population according to Census                  Calculated on population according to

to Census of 1881.                           <>t WG.____________________________________________________Census of 1872.___


PUBLIC

INSTRUCTION.

PUBLIC ORDER.

NO. OF SCHOOLS.

TOTAL ATTENDANCE.

CRIMINAL STATISTICS.

Public Strength.

Government.

Mission.

Ill Govt. Schools.

In Mission Schools.

Total.

Daily A’•crave Numb r of Prison1 rs in

Ga >1.

1

Persons convicted of

Ser ions

Offences.

Persons convicted of

Minor Offences.

European,

Indian.

Chinese.

26

13

1,292

755

2,047

496

863

3,707

121 263 260

1871

644

30

12

1,480

619

2,099

518

994

5,616

132

1

182

608

294

1872

30

21

1,838

808

2,646

367

948

4,401

110 171 328

609

1873

30

30

17

22

1,931

1,927

1,067

1,136

2,998

3,063

348

786

3,495

107

189

340

1874

636

NO. OF SCHOOLS.

AVERAGE ATTENDANCE.

। 373

949

3,623

110 173 340

1875

Government.

Grant-In-Aid.

In Government Schools.

In Grant-In-Aid Schools.

Total.

623

30

30

9

11

1,118

1,192

460

517

1,578

1,709

427

974

4,510

.

102 174 338

1876

614

30

15

1,241

625

1,866

1,196

3,791

102 174 338

1877

• - ■

614

30

17

1,130

700

1,830

1,554

3,839

102 172 341

1878

»»•

615

31

19

1,130

939

2,069

572

1,381

3,350

103 173 341

1879

617

36

27

1,212

1,098

2,310

570

1,208

1

i

3,548

103 173 341 ^617^

1880


— 5 —

TRADE.

FINANCE.

CLIMATE.

POPULATION.

PUBLIC HEALTH.

PUBLIC

INSTI

snips

CLEARED AND ENTERED.

EMIGRATION.

p

•:rcentage of expenditure de\

OTED TO

EXCESS OF ASSETS

PUBLIC

TEMPERATURE.

w

DEATH-1

ATE PER LOCO.

NO. OF SCHOOLS.

AVERAC

Number

Total Tonnage.

Percentage of British Tonnage.

Left.

Returned:

REVENUE.

EXPENDITURE.

Non-effective Charges

General Administration.

Public Health.

Public Instruc tion.

1 Public Order.

I’ublic Works.

Defence

OVER LIABILITIES (+) OR OF LIABILITIES OVER ASSETS (—).

DEBT LESS ACCUMULATED SINKING FUND.

VALUE OF

COLONY.

Maximum.

Minimum .

S

NonChines

CHINESE.

TOTAL.

Non

Chinese

c

Iiinese.

Total.

Government.

Grantin-Aid.

In Govt. Schools. •

$

$

$

£

$

0

o

Ins.

A r—<

1881

1882

6,412

6,880

5,686,488

6,337,024

74

75

70,625

78,864

52,983

61,905

1,324,456

1,209,517

981,582

1,094,805

2.98

3.54

30.73

27.96

5.45

5.28

3.95

4.07

31.77

29.71

14.05

19.45

11.07

9.99

+ 663,710

+ 1,148,664

2,093,139

2,308,882

96.0

95.0

40.0

38.0

98.21

73.13

9,712

150,690

160,40

2

r

18.22

15.75

4.45

>6.78

24.07

26,11

i according to Census of 188

35

39

37

41

1,210

1,235

1883

6,785

6,882,381

74

57,438

74,722

1,289,448

1,842,299

2.16

24.17

4.62

3.93

24.50

32.28

8.34

+ 1,067,201

ic Debt

2,380,010

98.0

40.0

117.20

17.60

t

0.84

30.04

39

48

1,229

1884

6,601

6,961,758

77

51,247

73,767

1,173,071

1,595,398

1.93

24.75

3.43

3.09

22.75

36.65

7.40

+ 729,562

No Publ

2,404,802

91.8

43.0

75.42

. No Estimate made of . population.

16.37

7.59

26.91

>n population

35

55

1,224

1885

6,827

7,699,099

78

57,517

80,773

1,251,890

1,621,250

2.24

23.40

3.44

3.07

20.76

39.85

7.24

+ 427,692

( 2,432.767 X | (to 30.6.85) I | 2,561,944 (

30 6.86) J

89.3

45.0

108.92

-

20.90

33.10

32.36

Calculated c

35

55

1,206

1886

8,448

9,080,390

74

64,522

88,704

1,367,978

2,020,862

2.09

20.23

3.03

2.47

17.08

48.94

6.16

- 191,512

200,000

2,590,942

89.7

41.8

69.17

10,412

171,290

181,720

18.54

28.65

28.07

§

34

56

1,321

1887

8,152

9,169,534

74

82,897

92,375

1,427,486

2,023,002

4.57

19.19

3.10

2.46

18.13

46.23

6 32

+ 631,734

196,464

2,900,698

90.7

42.8

66.29

10,522

175,410

185,962

23.31

8.90

28.59

J popula

33

61

1,333

1888

7,581

9,006,677

72

96,195

98,195

1,557,300

1,992,330

7.22

24.26

3.56

2.77

18.26

37.17

6.76

+ 360,650

189,392

3,042,201

92.9

40.6

104.58

10,692

179,530

190,222

23.28

3

2.22

31.72

CO

34

63

1,425

1889

1890

7,588

8,219

8,971,990

9,771,743

74

72

47,849

42,066

99,315

101,147

1,823,549

1,995,220

1,833,719

1,915,350

8.23

7.38

28.32

24.82

7.32

I

7.72

3.28

3.91

20.23

19.47

30.30

30.19

7.32

6.51

+ 505,110

+ 309,732

182,320

175,248

3,283,279

3,768,027

92.5

93.8

40.3

44.0

119.72

70.93

10,832

10,972

183,650

187,770

194,482

198,742

17.54

17.13

2

4.00

3.25

23.64

22.90

Calculated on

35

36

69

76

1,565

„ 1

1,732

1891

8,707

10,279,043

70

45,162

105,199

2,025,303

2,449,086

6.03

20.06

6.J5

3.23

15.99

31.35

17.19

+ 231,178

165,947

3,749,121

92.9

44.8

117.12

10,494

214,320

224,814

18.2J

4.18

23.90

36

81

1,626

1892

8,974

10,294,152

74

52,143

1

97,971

2,236,933

2,342,837

7.36

23.03

7.56

3.85

18.40

28.32

11.48

+   35,106

157,242

3,630,946

93.9

44.2

90.97

10,590

221,072

231,662

1’7.37

|1.30

21.18

36

95

1,793

1893

8,758

10,537,859

74

82,366

108,644

2,078,135

1,920,524

13.20

24.96

8.48

4.17

20.21

13.01

15.97*

+ 1,489,023

148,232

3,637,643

92.3

32.0

99.95

10,686

228,038

238,734

17.97

1

2.93

22.71

24

102

1,576

* Expenditure on loan for Public Works in this year not included in calculation of percentage.

— 5 —

FINANCE.

CLIMATE.

POPULATION.

PUBLIC HEALTH.

PUBLIC

INSTRUCTION.

PUBLIC ORDER.

p

•-RCENTAGE OF EXPENDITURE DEVOTED TO

EXCESS OF ASSETS

PUBLIC

RATEABLE

TEMPERATURE.

w

DEATH

-RATE 1’ER LOCO.

NO. OF SCHOOLS.

AVERAf

?E ATTENDANCE.

CRIMINAL STATISTICS.

' POLICE.

REVENUE.

EXPENDITURE.

Non-eiiectivo Charges

General Adm inis tration.

Public Health.

Public Instrnc tion.

Public Order.

Public

Works.

Defence

OVER LIABILITIES (+) OR OF LIABILITIES OVER ASSETS (—).

DEBT LESS ACCUMULATED SINKING FUND.

VALUE OF COLONY.

Maximum.

Minimum.

RAINFAL

Nox-ClIINE.-

CHINESE.

TOTAL.

j Non-iChinese

1 1 Chinese

1 Total.

Government.

Grantin-Aid.

In Govt. Schools.

1

In Grant

-in-Aid

Schools.

i

। Total.

i Daily

1 Average Number of Prisoners in Gaol.

Persons convicted of

F erious Offences.

Persons convicted of Minor Offences.

European.

5

Indian. =

I •

Chinese.

1

$

1 1,324,451

i 1,209,517

I 1,289,448

1,173,071

1,251,890

1,367,978

1,4 27,486

$

981,582

1,094,805

1,342,299

1,595,398

1,621,250

2,020,862

2,023,002

1,992,330

1,833,719

1,915,350

2,449,086

2,342,837

1,920,524

2.98

30.73

27.96

24.17

24.75

23.40

20.23

19.19

5.45

5.28

4.62

3.43

3.44

3.03

3.10

3.95

4.07

3.93

3.09

3.07

2.47

31.77

29.71

24.50

22.75

20.76

17.08

18.13

14.05

19.45

32.28

36.65

39.85

48.94

46 23

11.07

9.99

8.34

7.40

7.24

6.16

6 32

$

+ 663,710

+ 1,148,664

+ 1,067,201

+ 729,562

+ 427,692

- 191,512

+ 631,734

+ 360,650

+ 505,110

+ 309,732

£

$

2,093,139

2,308,882

2,380,010

2,404,302

( 2,432,757 "J 1 (Io 80.6.85) 1 ) 2,.->61,944 ( (.(» 806.86) )

2,590,942

2,900,698

3,042,201

3,283,279

3,768,027

3,749,121

3,630,946

3,637,643

0

96.0

95.0

98.0

91.8

89.3

89.7

90.7

92.9

92.5

93.8

92.9

0

40.0

38.0

40.0

43.0

45.0

41.8

42.8

40.6

40.3

44,0

44.8

44.2

32.0

Ins.

98.21

73.13

117.20

75.42

108.92

69.17

66,29

104.58

119.72

70.93

117.12

9,712

150,690

160,402

f

18.22

15.75

17.60

16.37

20.90

18.54

23.31

23 28

24.45

26.78

30.84

27.59

33.10

28.65

28.90

32 22

24.07

26.11

30.04

26.91

32.36

28.07

'■>8 59

1 w co

35

39

.19

37

41

1,210

1,235

1,229

1,224

1,206

1,321

1,333

1,425

1,565

1,732

1,598

1,974

2,162

2,471

2,535

2,889

2,871

2,834

3,218

3,514

3,529

3,968

4,234

2,808

3,209

3,391

3,695

3,741

4,210

4,204

4,259

4,783

5,246

657

613

643

552

530

674

584

531

1,390

1,405

1,178

1,297

1,298

1,389

1,234

1,116

1,109

1,412

1,687

1,728

1,391

4,459

3,602

4,014

4,743

3,707

6,457

6,310

5,772

4,529

5,007

9,320

8,245

7,095

104

171

314

1881

1882

1883

1884

1885

1886

1887

1888

1889

1890

1891

1892

1893

3.54

Census of 1

104

589

171

314

2.16

1.93

2.24

2 09

Debt.

__J                    V____,__ ipulation.         Calculated on population according to

48

55

55

56

102

589

171

314

a

PU

o

X

200,000

196,464

189,392

182,320

175,248

165,947

157,242

148,232

. No

10,412

10,522

10,692

10,832

10,972

10,494

10,590

10,686

Estimate n populatio

171,290

175,410

179,530

183,650

187,770

rade of J n.

1

181,720

185,962

190,222

194,482

198,742

224,814

35

35

34

33

101

101

103

5)57

171 314

586

Ip 312

590

200 304

2.46

61

114

607

220

347

1,557,300

1,823,549

1,995,220

2,025,303

2,236,933

2,078,135

7.22

8.23

7.38

6.03

7.36

13.20

24.26

3.56

2 77

18.26

37.17

6.76

7.32

31 72

"V" d on estimated p<

34

63

114

681

222 349

23.32

24.82

20.06

7.32

7.72

6.15

7.56

8.48

3 28

20.23

19.47

15.99

30.30

30.19

31.35

28.32

13.01

17.54

17.13

18.2.)

24.00

23.25

23.64

22.90

35

69

581

685

102 227 350

3.91

0J rt 3

rt

86

76

679

120 227 350

3.23

17.19

+ 231,178

+   35,106

+ 1,489,023

214,320

221,072

228,038

24.18

23.90

J •—>

36

81

1,626

1,793

1,576

507

697

127 227

’>50

23.03

24.96

3.85

4.17

18.40

20.21

11.48

15.97*

93.9

92.3

90.97

99.95

231,662

238,734

1’7.37

17.97

21.30

22.93

1

21.18

22.71

36

24

95

102

5,761

5,810

515

458

704

128 226 342

696

118 226 357

701

* Expenditure on loan for Public Works in this year not included in calculation of percentage.

6 —

1894

1895

1896

1897

1898

1899

1900

1901

1902

1903

1904

1905

1906

1907

1908

1909

1910

TRADE.

FINANCE.

CLIMATE.

POPULATION.

PUBLIC HEALTH. 1

PUBLIC

Ships engaged in Foreign Trade Cleared and Entered.

EMIGRATION.

REVENUE.

EXPENDITURE.

PERCENTAGE OF EXPENDITURE DEVOTED TO

EXCESS OF ASSETS OVER LIABILITIES (-H OR OF LIABILITIES OVER

ASSETS ( — ).

PU BLIC Di.BT LE^S ACCUMULATED 81NKX1G FUN 6.

HATEABLE VALUE OF COLONY.

TEMPERATURE.

RAINFALL. [

NonChinese.

CHINESE.

TOTAL.

DEATH-RATE PER 1,000.

RECORDED DEATHS

FROM PLAGUE

NO. OF SCHOOLS

Number.

Total Tonnage.

Percentage of British Tonnage.

Left.

Returned.

Non-effective Charges.

*

General Adm inis tratlon.

*

Undertakings of

Govern

ment.

Public Health.

Public t ■        Public

’■Ho™-

Public Works.

Defence.

Maximum.

Minimum

Non

Chinese.

Chinese.

Total.

i

Government.

Grantin-Aid.

8,452

9,089

9,352

9,944

11,058

10,905

10,940

10,807

12,461

14,489

16,976

18,103

16,397

18,096

19,604

18,714

17,557

10,469,232

11,525,586

12,333,396

12,124,599

13,252,733

13,437,147

14,022,167

14,599,141

16,275,998

19,018,411

19,333,096

19,778,176

19,833,666

*

20,381,421

20,104,795

20,171,755

20,966,504

7 5

71

71

67

66

65

65

53

59

59

70

67

61

51.5

58.6

56.7

57.8

49,023

73,138

66,822

62,831

60,432

61,075

83,643

65,774

71,711

83,381

76,304

64,341

76,725

105,967

71,081

77,430

H1,OM

96,095

112,685

119,468

115,207

105,441

110,448

121,322

129,030

129,812

140,551

149,195

140,483

134,912 J

145,822

157,809

144,821

149,564

1

2,278,528

2,486,229

2,609,879

2,686,915

2,918,159

3,610,143

4,202,537

4,213,893

4,901,074

5,238,858

6,849,048

6,918,404

7,035,012

6,602,280

6,104,207

6,822,966

6,960,869

$ 2,299,096

2,972,373

2,474,910

2,641,410

2,841,805

3,162,792

3,628,447

4,111,722

5,909,549 '

5,396,669

*

6,376,235

6,951,275

6,832,611

5,757,203

7,929,478

6,542,839

6,907,113 J

14.00

7.51

9.91

11.29

11.54

10.42

8.82

8.28

6.47

7.26

5.84

5.25

4.89 *

5.45

6.73

4.86

6.32

30.39

22.40

26.24

27.97

27.25

31.10

25.75

26.35

27.64

17.64

14.13

17.66

20.55

17.97

15.39

19.09

11.53

7.88

7.41

5.92

9.06

8.73

8.27

8.04

7.65

7.56

6.66

12.70

10.16

9.40

9.65

11.27

8.32

9.39

8.66

3.53

2.08

3.16

2.83

2.61

2.43

2.25

2.16

1.59

2.46

2.43

2.33

2.89

3.20

2.59

3.35

3.27

17.06

12.98

16.72

15.09

13.82

14.06

15.92

15.00

11.26

16.05

13.42

12.17

12.19

14.72

11.25

14.45

13.83

11.01

36.79

; 13.77

16.04

18.24

13.41

21.54

19.96

30.22

25.38

33.40

32.75

30.54

25.50

39.38

29.52

28.15

IO*-*   —                      —                           —   tc   —

O      50      CT.      —      CO      0      O      co      Cl      Zj      GO      Q      GO      GC      «—      tO      O

C".       GO •           QC       0                to       —                                                                        to

Expenditure on loan for Public Worku in these year* not included hi calculation of percentages.

+    +    +    +    +    +    +    1    +    +    +    1    +    1    +    +    +

—«         —1                       •                                                                     1—>         1-^

"co   ”o         Cl         te               O         GO    tc         OiCnrf-

O    -iM^Cn^CDClQlCzOC: — —    O-Oito

~O      ’’M                                  Vj      "co       on       *1                co      'cn      'co      *03       Ci

ho      ci      h-      os      cc      cd      to      —      —r      to      co      -1      o<               cl      -4      —

4-0 — cooioco*— ocncicooo-'i^rf^co

Arrears of revenue not included in these amounts.                                                      Unexpended balance of 1^93 loan for Public

A'orks included in these amounts.

£

341,800

341,800

340,205

336,625

332,945

329,171