Sessional Papers - 1911

PAPERS LAID BEFORE THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL OF HONGKONG 1911

Table of Contents

1. Census of the Colony

Census of the Colony for 1911

2. Companies Bill, 1911

Report of the Standing Law Committee on the

3. Condensed Skimmed Milk

Minutes Relating to

4. Electricity Supply Bill, 1911

Report of the Public Works Committee on the

5. Estimates for 1912

Financial Statements in Connection With the

6. Estimates of Expenditure

Abstract Showing Differences Between Estimates for 1911 and 1912

7. Free Passage Scheme for Subordinate officers

Free Passage Scheme for Subordinate officers

8. Imports and Exports office

Report of the Public Works Committee on Quarters for Searchers, Etc

9. Interpretation Bill

Report of the Standing Law Committee on the

10. Jurors

List of, for 1911

11. Maternity Hospital

Report of the Public Works Committee on additions and alterations to

12. Mong-Kok-Tsui Breakwater

Diagram Showing Progress of Stone Depositing to 30th June, 1911

13. Penalties amendment Bill, 1911

Report of the Standing Law Committee on the

14. Pokfulum Water Supply

Report on an investigation of the, By the Government Bacteriologist

15. Questions By Dr. Ho Kai, C.M.G.

Reply to

16. Regisrered Partnerships Bill

Report of the Special Committee on the

17. Revenue, Expenditure, Military Contribution, and Public Works Extraordinary

Statment of, for 1896-1910

18. Roads

Report of the Public Works Committee on Road on North Side of Hill to Connect Chamberlain Road With Plantation Road

19. Royal Square, Fencing in Gardens

Report of the Public Works Committee on

20. Statute Laws (New Revised Editions) Bill, 1911

Report of the Standing Law Committee on the

21. Sterling Salaries

Precis of Correspondence on the Subject of the Sterling Salaries attached to appointments to Which Cadets Have a Preferential Claim

22. Typhoon Refuge

Statement of Progress to 30th June, 1911

23. Tytam Tuk Water Works Scheme, - Second Section

Report of the Public Works Committee on the

 

103 (1)

No. 1911

17

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF THE COLONY FOR 1911.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor, November 23rd, 1911,

CENSUS OFFICE,

HONGKONG, 27th October, 1911.

1. The decennial Census of the Colony was taken on the night of Saturday, 20th May.

2. A date in the early summer is not so suitable as one in the winter, so far as this Colony is concerned, but there was no alternative on the present occasion as it was neces- sary for the local Census to take place on a date approximating as nearly as possible to that fixed for the General Census of the British Empire.

The Enumerators were considerably hampered by the inclemency of the weather, there being almost continuous rain. In the Kowloon City District operations had to be suspended for a time on account of floods.

3. The Census was on a very much more ambitious scale than had ever before been attempted in this Colony, and the work of the Enumerators, and more especially of the tabulating staff, was correspondingly increased.

Full particulars were obtained for all the inhabitants of the New Territories and the Floating Population. The only information required of the latter in 1906 was Sex and Age. The total number of people dealt with was 450,098 (excluding the Mercantile Marine) as compared with about 284,000 in 1901 and 320,000 in 1906. Columns record- ing Religion, Married State, Degree of Education, and Infirmities, were added to the Census Schedule, and the total number of Tables is 42, as against 22 in 1901 and 17 in 1906.

The distribution of schedules commenced on about 17th May, and they were, as a rule, collected and brought in to the Census Office within a week.

4. A Preliminary Report was published on 8th June. Many of the totals were far from accurate, and it will be advisable in future to publish no figures until the Age columns are completed. On the present occasion as in the past, the Preliminary Report was compiled from the totals in the Enumerators' books.

5. What is known as the Slip System was employed for the first time in this Colony. Schedules are distributed in the usual way, but, alter collection, the particulars regarding every individual are copied off on to a separate card, and the latter are then sorted for the various Tables. This system was strongly recommended by the Indian Census Officials, and is certainly superior to the old method of obtaining all the information required by searching through the schedules. In France the cards are used from the very commence- ment, and schedules are dispensed with. Though a saving of time may result, this system possesses many inherent disadvantages, and has not been favourably reported on. A fuller description of the Slip System appears at the end of this Report in the Notes for Guidance of future Census Officers ".

103 (2)

6. Books of Schedules of 25 pages each were used for the Census of the New Terri- tories Floating Population and various rural districts in the Colony. These were filled up on the spot by the Enumerators in the course of a house to house visit. This method was very favourably reported on by the Police and Civilian Enumerators, and it might with advantage be employed to a greater extent on future occasions.

When these books are used, the Census cannot, of course, be completed in a single day. The time taken varies from a couple of days, as in the case of Lamma Island, to 3 months, as in the Northern District of the New Territories. It is impossible to employ any other method for dealing with the Boat Population, as to distribute schedules is out of the question.

7. The Census of the New Territories was commenced on 6th March and took about 3 months to complete. Que Civilian Enumerator was appointed to each of the Districts in the Northern section, and was paid at the rate of $40 a month. Those engaged were all local men, as strangers would have been of little use. Mr. Ross was besieged by applicants from all parts of the Colony, numbers of students and others journeying out by railway to Taipo daily in the hope of employment.

8. The Census of the New Territory Islands was taken by the various Police Officers, stationed there, and by the Water Police. The latter were assisted by Mr. Ch'an Tang-ch'iu, as Interpreter and Enumerator, who did excellent work. The Water Police also took the Census of Ts'ün Wan District, as the latter was difficult to reach from Taipo.

9. The usual methods were employed for the Census of the City of Victoria. The latter was divided into 60 Sections each being worked by two Civilian Enumerators accom- panied by a District Watchman in uniform. The Peak and Non-Chinese quarters of the City were enumerated by the Police, as were also the villages of Aberdeen and Stanley. In Shaukiwan and the greater part of Kowloon Civilian Enumerators were engaged, as the work would have been too heavy for the Police alone.

The Census of Pokfulam was taken by Indian Police Sergeant 615 Hussein Shah, assisted by a Chinese Constable.

10. The total population of the Colony, including persons on board merchant ships and river steamers in the Harbour, is 456,739.

11. The above numbers are composed of 12,075 Non-Chinese and 444,664 Chinese.

12. The British, European and American resident civil population numbers 5,143 (excluding 42 Eurasians) as compared with 3,860 in 1901 and 5,061 in 1906. These figures do not include Portuguese.

13. The British resident civil population numbers 3,761 as compared with 2,703 in 1901 and 3,709 in 1906. From 1901 to 1906 the increase was very rapid, but since the latter year the numbers have remained practically stationary. This may be explained by the fact that in 1906 the Colony was at the height of a wave of prosperity, succeeding several lean years, and a similar increase in the period 1906-1911 could not reasonably be expected. The 1906 Census was taken in Noveniber and the present one at the end of May. This would have a by no means unimportant effect in the relative numbers. There are many more Europeans in the Colony in the winter than the summer. The hotels are fuller, people on leave have usually returned, and those intending to depart generally do so in the early spring.

The percentage of adult females to males is 59 taking all those above 15 years of age as adults. The percentage in 1901 was 55, and in 1906, 56. A considerable number of women and children are absent from the Colony in the summer, so the figures may be held to show that family life is still steadily increasing.

14. The European and American population, other than Portuguese, number 1,382 as against 1,152 in 1901 and 1,352 in 1906. There is no important change in the numbers of the various nationalities since 1906, with the exception of the Jews who have increased from

155 to 231.

15. The above figures do not include 42 Eurasians. The number of persons who return themselves as Eurasians gets fewer every Census. In 1901 there were 267, and in 1906 228. As I remarked in my Report on the 1901 Census, the large majority of Eura- sians in this Colony have been brought up and live in Chinese fashion and would certainly return themselves as Chinese.

MacEnc>

103 (3)

16. The Portuguese number 2,558 as compared with 1,948 in 1901 and 2,307 in 1906. They are not included in some of the Tables with the rest of the European and American community, as, apart from the importance of their numbers, they occupy a somewhat pecu- liar position as compared with other nationalities. I cannot do better than quote Mr. Brewin's words in his Report on the 1897 Census: "there is sufficient distinction between the Portuguese population and other Europeans to make this division advisable and interest- ing. The Portuguese of Hongkong form a European community settled in the Tropies, thoroughly acclimatised, and apparently not recruited to any extent from Europe. will not be for another generation that any other portion of the European community will be in a similar position

It

2,386 of the Portuguese were born in Hongkong and Macao, and only 12 in Portugal. Of the balance 83 were born in various Ports in China. The females considerably outnumber the males, there being 1,401 of the former, and 1,157 of the latter.

17. The other Non-Chinese Races (exclusive of Indians) number 1,470 as compared with 887 in 1901 and 1,300 in 1906. The principal increase is among the Japanese who have risen from 484 in 1901 to 857 in 1906 and 958 in 1911.

18. The Indian resident civil population numbers 2,012 as compared with 1,453 in 1901 and 2,068 in 1906. Full particulars regarding them will be found in the Report sent to the Indian Census Officer, a copy of which is here reproduced as Table 41.

19. The total Chinese Land Population of the Colony (excluding the New Territories and New Kowloon) is 289,470 as against 233,263 in 1901 and 244,300 in 1906. The number of males aged 15 years and over is 176,038 and of females 64,495. These figures show an increase of 18,283 males and 21,758 females as compared with 1901. and 19,063 males and 14,903 females as compared with 1906. The number of Chinese children under the age of 15 years is 48,900 as compared with 32,771 in 1901 and 37,733 in 1906. The number of Chinese families in the City of Victoria is 27,073 as against 25,123 in 1901 and 25.974 in 1906. The number quoted for the present Census is a good deal under- stated, as many of the returns were incomplete in this respect. There has been a consider- able influx of Chinese women and children into the Colony during the year.

The percentage of adult Chinese females to males continues to rise. In 1901 it was 26-8, in 1906 315 and in the present year 36.6, in respect of the City of Victoria, Old Kowloon, the Peak, and the Hongkong Villages.

20. The Chinese Floating Population is 55,157, including 9,855 in the New Territories. The figures in 1901 and 1906 were 40,100 and 42,744 respectively. The increase in 1911 (excluding the New Territories boat people) is 5,200 as compared with 1901, and 2,558 as compared with 1906.

In 1906 there was a large number of Fishing and Trading Junks present in the Harbour, as the typhoon signals were hoisted, and they had come in or remained there for shelter. On the present occasion there were very few and the relative increase is therefore greater than the figures actually show.

Table 40 gives an official list of the number of licensed small craft of various classes in the Colony at the time the Census was taken.

The Census of the Floating Population of Victoria Harbour was commenced at 6 a.m. on 21st May, and completed at 6 p.m. on 27th May.

The general arrangements were the same as in 1906. The work was very heavy owing to full particulars having to be obtained for each person, only Sex and Age having been required at the previous Census. The books of schedules were extremely useful, and it would have been impossible to use loose forms.

The Harbour was divided into 9 Sections. Each section had one launch and two pull- ing boats or sampans.

The latter were used for going among the thick clusters of boats along the sea front, where a launch was unable to work. Each sampan hoisted a Blue Ensign at the masthead, so that she would be recognised by the section launch, and carried two Enumerators. One of the latter asked the necessary questions, and his companion recorded the answers in a book of schedule forms. Two Enumerators were incapacitated by sea-sickness, and had to be transferred to shore work.

78 books of schedules were used.

103 (4)

Great credit is due to Police Inspector A. C. Langley who was in general charge of the Census of the Harbour, and to the Police of all ranks employed in the Harbour. The numbers were: 11 European Police Sergeants and Constables, 23 Civilian Enumerators, 9 Chinese Water Policemen as Assistant Enumerators, and 55 Chinese Seamen, Coxswains, Engineers and Stokers. The cost was considerable, upwards of $700 being spent in the hire of launches and sampans alone.

Valuable assistance was rendered to the Police by Messrs. Nuues and Rocha of the Harbour Department, and 10 Harbour Office seamen,

21. The passengers and crews in British and Foreign merchant ships in port were enumerated by Messrs. Willoughby and Davey of the Harbour Department.

No particulars except Nationality (British, Non-British and Chinese) and Sex were required from persons on board the shipping. The returns have been kept entirely separate from those of the resident civil population. It is a matter of chance how many vessels happen to be in port on a certain day, and the figures obtained are of no value for purposes of comparison. The numbers enumerated were 353 British, 497 other Non-Chinese, and 5,791 Chinese. A large proportion of the latter were on river steamers and should be included in the Foreign Shipping totals, though, as far as I am aware, this is the first occasion on which this has been done.

22. The Chinese Land Population of the New Territories, North and South, is 94,246, or 104,101 including the Boat Population. The total in 1901 was 102,254 (vide Table XXV of the 1901 Report). These figures, however, are of little value, as there was no Census taken in the proper sense of the word. I was absent from the Colony at the time. but I understand that the totals were arrived at by ascertaining the number of houses in a village, and then guessing the average number of occupants of each dwelling. Even taking the figures for what they are worth it is almost impossible to make detailed comparisons with the 1901 returns owing to the form in which the latter were drawn up. An interest- ing feature of the 1911 figures is the large number of females. Taking the New Territories as a whole there are very nearly as many females as males. In the Northern District the former actually outnumber the latter. There is undoubtedly a large decrease in the population of New Kowloon. The present figures are 13,624 as against 17,836 in 1906, and about 16,100 in 1901. In the case of Kowloon City the Police Inspector in charge of the District reports that nearly all Chinese, who acquire a certain amount of education, try to leave the place in order to seek their fortunes elsewhere. As regards the New Territories as a whole, there was no reason to expect any considerable fluctuation in numbers during the decade. The population is almost entirely rural, and is not subject to the same influences that affect the crowded urban districts such as the City of Victoria and Old Kowloon.

In view of the completion of the Railway to Canton a complete list has been made of the number of inhabitants of the various villages in the Northern District, as it will be of interest to be able to ascertain at the next Census whether the Railway has had any effect on the distribution and size of the population. This list, which will be a most valuable record, was prepared by Mr. S. B. C. Ross, District Officer, New Territories. Its compila- tion involved an enormous amount of labour, as it was done single-handel, and by means of a search through all the books of schedules. It appears as Table 19 in the present Re- port. Some figures are given in Table 28 of Infant Marriages, which may be of interest.

23. The Non-Chinese inhabitants of the City of Victoria number 7,958 as compared with 6,862 in 1901 and 7,688 in 1906.

The 1911 figures include 105 persons living on Green and Stonecutters' Islands, as the latter were included in Victoria for Census purposes in 1901 and 1906.

The British, Europeans and Americans show a very slight decrease since 1906, but an increase of 474 over 1901. The Portuguese have increased from 1,801 in 1901 and 1,835 in 1906 to 2,064. The rest of the Non-Chinese population has remained practically stationary since 1906, but shows an increase of 325 over 1901. The present numbers are 2,948.

24. The chief interest in the present Census lies in the large increase in the Chinese population of Victoria. It now numbers 217,668, being an increase of 42,612 over 1901 and 44,379 over 1906. There is no doubt that the increase is almost entirely due to the influx of Chinese into the Colony from Canton in April and May, on account of the disturb- ances there at the end of April. What the actual number of refugees was, and how many of them returned on quiet being restored, is still a matter of speculation. Estimates as to the

A

}

103 (5)

number who finally remained in this Colony vary from 20,000 to 60,000, and the former number is generally accepted as being the more probable one. Figures were very court- eously supplied to me by the Commissioner of Customs showing the daily and monthly number of Chinese arriving here from Canton by steamer, and the departures from this Co- lony to Canton during the same period, viz., the first six months of the present year. What would have been expected in the circumstances was that there would be an abnormal rise in the number of arrivals from Canton and a great reduction in the number of departures from here. Although there was a great increase in the arrivals in April, this was counter- balanced by an even larger increase in the departures. In May the arrivals exceeded the departures by about 20,000. It happens that it is in the months of April and May that time-expired emigrants return to China in large numbers from the Straits Settlements, etc. It is therefore possible that they may help to account for the large number of departures. On the whole it is difficult to prove anything by the figures.

In noticing the increase in the present year, it must not be forgotten that there was a decrease in 1906, although in every other part of the Colony the numbers had gone up. Chinese continue to occupy houses in what were once exclusively European and Portuguese neighbourhoods, and are willing to pay high rentals for them. There are now 66,365 Chinese females in Victoria as compared with 45,660 in 1901 and 48,294 in 1906.

25. Taking the various Health Districts in the City, No. 1, the most Eastern one, shows no great change since 1906, but an increase of 1,407 over 1901. In 1901 and 1906 a large number of men were employed on the Naval Yard Extension.

on the Naval Yard Extension. When the present Census

was taken the yard was completed and in working order. The labourers during the con- struction stage largely outnumbered the present Chinese staff. No. 2 District dropped from 23,358 in 1901 to 20,024 in 1906. It has now risen to 25,629.

It has now risen to 25,629. The population of No. 5 District, which is in the heart of the City, is now 25,677 as compared with 22,618 in 1901 and only 17,593 in 1906. No. 9 District, which is one of the most thickly inhabited ones, contains 31.897 persons, the numbers in 1901 and 1906 being approximately the same, i.e., about 24,600. No. 10 District has risen from 11,032 in 1901 and 13,778 in 1906 to 17,473 in the present year. Nearly all the large Chinese Restaurants, etc., which used to be in the centre of the town, have now moved down to the extreme West.

The number of Chinese in No. 3 Health District, which may be considered a Non- Chinese quarter, shows a slight decrease since 1906, the figures being 8,903 and 8,980 respectively. The number in 1901 was only 5,434.

26. The Non-Chinese population of Old Kowloon is 2,137 as compared with 895 in 1901, and 2,269 in 1906. There was a very large rise from 1901 to 1906, but since then the numbers have remained more or less stationary.

The number of British and Europeans (exclusive of Portuguese) in Old Kowloon has slightly increased since 1906. Between 1901 ani 1906 there was an increase of about 83%. The reductions in the staff of the Dock Company probably account for the increase not being greater. In Tsim Tsa Tsui several new blocks of buildings have sprung up since 1906, and are nearly all occupied.

The Portuguese in Old Kowloon number 490, which is an increase of 20 over 1906. Between 1901 and 1906 there was an increase of 273%.

There is an important decrease in the number of Indians since 1906. In 1901 the numbers were 211, in 1906 580, and in the present year 377. The rest of the Non- Chinese community in Old Kowloon numbers 208 as compared with 16 in 1901 and 221 in 1906.

27. There is an increase since 1906, though not a large one, in the Chinese population of Old Kowloon. The present numbers are 53,873 as against 42,976 in 1901 and 52,331

in 1906.

The only District in which there is a decrease is Hunghom, and this was anticipated, as the Dock Company employs fewer men than formerly.

In 1906 there was a large number of coolies employed on the Railway throughout Kowloon but work had practically ceased when the present Census was taken. The phenomenal rate at which the population of Kowloon rose between the years 1891 and 1906 could not be expected to be maintained indefinitely. In 1891 the numbers were just under 20,000. By 1901 they had risen to 42,976, and in 1906 reached 52,331. The increase in the present year is a very fair one, taking into consideration the general progress

103 (6)

of other portions of the Colony. The number of Chinese families in Old Kowloon is 9,500 as compared with 6,718 in 1901.

28. The Non-Chinese population of the Hongkong villages of Shaukiwan, Aberdeen, Pokfulam and Stanley amounts to 392 as compared with 236 in 1901 and 358 in 1906.

29. The Chinese Land Population of the Hongkong villages is 16,106 as against 13,433 in 1901 and 17,032 in 1906.

30. The Chinese Land Population of the Shaukiwan District is 11,277 as against 9,319 in 1901 and 11,391 in 1906. The slight decrease since 1906 is due to the work on Messrs. Butterfield and Swire's Shipyard at Quarry Bay having been completed. In 1906 there was a very large number of coolies engaged in the work of construction and who were housed in matsheds near the scene of their labours. The present normal Chinese staff is of course very much smaller than in the early days before the works were finished. A considerable number of the men moreover take advantage of the Electric Tramway to return to Victoria after ceasing work. The decrease since 1906 in Quarry Bay is about 1,200. Apart from this, the population of Shaukiwan has considerably increased. Several fine blocks of buildings have been erected near the Shipyard, and they all appear to be fully occupied.

31. The Chinese Land Population of the district of Aberdeen is 3,273, which is an increase of 474 since 1901 and a decrease of 381 since 1906. Since the last mentioned year the Dock Company has practically ceased to use the Docks there, which would account for a drop in the numbers.

32. The Chinese Land Population of Stanley has decreased from 791 in 1901 and 1,276 in 1906 to 723 in the present year. This is entirely attributable to the completion of the Water Works at Tytam.

33. The Chinese inhabitants of Pokfulam number 833 as against 602 in 1901 and 711 in 1906.

34. The Floating Population of Shaukiwan is 6,440 as compared with 6,306 in 1906 and 5,439 in 1901. The figures in the year 1906 were probably higher than usual owing to a typhoon having been in the neighbourhood of the Colony when the Census was taken.

35. The Floating Population of Aberdeen is 8,900, as compared with 5,251 in 1901 and 5,637 in 1906. This represents an exceedingly large increase.

36. As regards Stanley a curious feature of the Census is that the total numbers of the Floating Population are returned as being only 72. The figures in 1901 and 1906 were 881 and 695 respectively. The abnormal numbers recorded at Aberdeen may help to explain this result.

37. The number of British, American and European children (excluding Portuguese) in the Clay between the ages of 6 and 15 years (inclusive) is 311 males and 307 females. These figures do not include the New Territories, North and South. The number of Portuguese children between the same age limits is 298 males and 318 females. The rest of the Non-Chinese children (between 6 and 15 years of age inclusive) number 164 males and 177 females. 221 British, 128 American and European, 353 Portuguese, and 148 other Non- Chinese Children making a total of 850 in all, were reported as attending school. In 1901, 889 children were so described out of a total of 1,178. These numbers are of little import- ance. Practically all the Non-Chinese children of school age, are being educated either at home or at school, whether they are returned as being "students" or not.

38. The number of Chinese children in the whole Colony, including the New Terri- tories, between the ages of 5 and 14 years inclusive, is 34.727 males and 33,723 females, making a total of 68,450. The number described as attending school or being otherwise educated is 13,796 males and 3,141 females. It is interesting to notice that the Floating Population can only boast of 106 children who call themselves "students" out of a popula- tion of about 55,000. In Victoria the figures are 11,963 out of about 217,500. In 1901 there were 15,139 Chinese boys and 12,132 girls between the ages of 6 and 15 years inclusive.

i

103 (7)

39. Imformation as to the Married State of the British, American, European and Portuguese Population of 15 years of age and upwards is supplied in this year's Census for

the first time.

The figures for the Portuguese community vary a good deal from those for the rest of the European population. The number of married men exceeds that of the bachelors, while there are twice as many Portuguese widows as there are British and European ones. Some particulars are also given as to the fruitfulness of marriages.

No details were furnished by a considerable number of married women and in any case the numbers dealt with are so small that the results cannot possess much value. Taking 400 British women, the average duration of marriage was 9.25 years and the average number of children born alive per marriage was 1.89. In the case of 117 American and European women, the results were much the same. As regards 235 Portuguese, the average number of children per marriage was 3.9, and the average duration of marriage 13:56 years.

40. The Chinese Enumerators were paid at the rate of $10 per man, and in some cases were given travelling expenses. 120 were engaged for Victoria, 8 for Sham Shui Po, 6 for Kowloon City, 18 for Yaumati, 2 for Tsim Sha Tsui, 8 for Hunghom, and 8 for Shaukiwan. There was also one man employed as Civilian Enumerator and Interpreter at the Peak. Including 9 Enumerators in the New Territories, the total number employed on land was 180 while 23 assisted in taking the Census of the Harbour.

41. The number of Police employed on Census work was 5 Inspectors, 39 European Sergeants, Lance Sergeants and Constables, 47 Chinese Sergeants and Constables, 81 Chinese Seamen, Stokers, Engineers, etc., 8 Sergeant Interpreters, and 9 Indian Sergeants and Constables.

They were paid at the following rates :-

Inspectors,......

Crown Sergeants,

Lance Sergeants,

European Constables,

Chinese Sergeant Interpreters,

Chinese Sergeants,

Chinese Constables,

Indian Sergeants and Constables,

Chinese Engineers, Coxswains, etc.,

Chinese Seamen,

.$ 20.30

15.00

12.00

10.00

7.00

5.00

4.00

4.00

2.50

2.00

The Chinese Police in the New Territories, who worked in conjunction with Civilian Enumerators were paid a bonus of $5 for the period of three months or so that the Census was going on there. They had not very much work to do.

I take this opportunity to express my thanks to the Police engaged. They all worked admirably, sometimes under the most trying conditions.

42. The Harbour Department officers were paid as follows :-

Messrs. Davey and Willoughby,

Messrs. Rocha and Nunes,..

8 Boatmen,

3 Assistant Enumerators,

..$20 each.

$10 each.

.$2 each.

..$ 4 each.

The

43. Six Head District Watchmen and 120 Watchmen took a share in the work. Head District Watchmen were paid. $10 each, and the Watchmen $4 each. The Head District Watchmen did an enormous amount of work for me before the Census day arrived, and all the members of the Force thoroughly earned their pay. The Watchmen were, as on previous occasions, told off to accompany each pair of Civilian Enumerators in the City of Victoria. They acted as guides and were responsible that no houses or floors were omitted. Being in uniform, they gave a useful air of authority to the Enumerators.

44. The Census Tabulating Staff consisted of 20 clerks, 2 at $60 per mensem, 1 at $40, and the remainder at $25. At the end of August 2 of the $25 clerks and one of the $60 ones were able to be dispensed with. At the end of September 2 more $25 clerks left. The remainder worked until 28th October, when all the Tables, etc., were completed. There was also one messenger employed, who was paid $10 a month.

103 (8)

Mr. Cheng Kam-fai again took charge of the Chinese Staff. This is the fourth Census in which he has done so. He was invaluable to me and did his work to my entire satis- faction. The compilation of some of the larger Tables, such as Occupations and Birth Places was so complicated a matter, that without the assistance of such an experienced man, I should have had very great difficulty in bringing it to a successful finish.

Mr. Ch'an Tang-chiu, who was the English Interpreter, also did excellent work.

45. No Census of the Royal Navy or Garrison was taken locally.

The returns from H.M. ships on the Station, and from the local Naval Establish- ments were sent to England to be included in the Census of the United Kingdom. This .was also the case with the British troops in garrison. About half the Indian troops had already been enumerated in India. Returns for the remainder were obtained by me, and sent to the Indian Census Officer, together with a detailed report on the local Indian com- munity.

46. The total cost of the Census was $9,115.

47. A room at the Old Supreme Court, vacated by Messrs. Dennys and Bowley, was used as a Census Office. It suited the purpose very well. There was seating room for 20 clerks. This is as large a number as can be properly supervised by one man.

48. No trouble whatever was experienced by the Enumerators with the inhabitants. either in Hongkong or the New Territories. In the latter, the people had been previously notified as to what was going to take place, and what a Census was.

49. The following Tables are attached to this Report :-

(1.) The Total Population of the Colony.

(2.) A Comparison between the Populations in the years 1901, 1906 and 1911.

(3.) The European and American Population according to Race.

(4.) The Non-Chinese Population other than Europeans and Americans.

(5.) The Birth Places of the British Population,

(6.) The Birth Places of the Portuguese Population.

(7.) The Birth Places of the Chinese Population (other than inhabitants of the

New Territories).

(8.) Natives of the Province of Kwang Tung, according to their Districts, (except

the inhabitants of the New Territories).

(9.) Birth Places of the Chinese Population of the New Territories (Nothern

District).

(10.) Birth Places of the Chinese Population of the New Territories (Southern

District).

11.) Dialects spoken in the Home (for all except inhabitants of the New Terri-

tories).

12.) Dialects spoken in the Home (New Territories, Northern District). (13.) Dialects spoken in the Home (New Territories, Southern District). (14.) Chinese Population of the villages of Hongkong.

(15.) Chinese Population of Old Kowloon-by villages.

(16.) Population of Victoria according to Health Districts.

(17.) Chinese Population of Kowloon according to Health Districts.

(18.) Chinese Population of the New Territories by Districts.

(19.) Chinese Population of the New Territories (Northern District) by villages.

(19A.) Chinese Population of the New Territories (Southern District) by villages.

(20.) The Ages of the Non-Chinese Population.

(21.) The Ages of the Chinese Population.

(22.) The Religions of the Non-Chinese l'opulation.

(23.) The Religions of the Chinese Population.

(24.) The Married State of the Non-Chinese Population.

(25.) Marriage Statistics for the European and American Population.

(26.) The Married State of the Chinese Population (except the Floating Popula-

tion and that of the New Territories).

3

103 (9)

(27.) The Married State of the Floating Population.

(28.) The Married State of the Chinese Population of the New Territories. (29.) The Degree of Education of the Non-Chinese Population.

30.) The Degree of Education of the Chinese Population.

(31.) The Infirmities of the Chinese Population.

(32.) The Occupations of the European and American Population.

(33.) The Occupations of the Non-Chinese Population, other than Europeans and

Americans.

34.) The Occupations of the Chinese Population (except that of the New Terri-

tories).

35.) The Occupations of the Chinese Population of the New Territories (Northern

District).

(36.) The Occupations of the Chinese Population of the New Territories (Southern

District).

(37.) The number of Non-Chinese Children between the ages of 6 and 15 years

in Victoria, the Peak and Old Kowloon.

(38.) The number of the Chinese Children between the ages of 5 and 14 years and

the number of Students.

(39.) The number of Chinese Families in Victoria and Old Kowloon in the years

1901, 1906 and 1911.

(40.) The number of Boats, Junks, etc., licensed in the Colony in the year 1911. (41.) Report on the Census of the Indian Population of the Colony. (42.) Notes for the Guidance of future Census Officers.

P. P. J. WODEHOUSE,

Census Officer.

LOCALITY.

Males.

Europeans and Americans other than

Portuguese.

Females.

Females.

Total.

Males.

Table I.

TOTAL CIVIL POPULATION OF THE COLONY.

NON-CHINESE.

Females.

CHINESE.

TOTAL.

Portuguese.

Indians.

Other Non-Chinese.

Total.

Totus

Malęs.

Females.

Victoria,

1,809

1,345 3,154

919 | 1,137|2,056 1,137 2,056 | 1,012

370 1,382

The Peak,

309 251

Hongkong Villages,

Old Kowloon,

603

560 178 107 285 459 1,062

1

2

3

22

1

23

97

9 106

656

6051,261 4,396

1

332

3,457

7,853 151,303

254

1 275

234

256 490 304

73

377

161

47 208 1,302

586

117 392 835 2,137

66,365

1,514 204 1,718 1,846 11,388 4,718 16,106 11,663 35,850 18,023 53,878 37,152

217,668

155,699

69,822 225,521

458 2,304

4,885

16,498

18,858 | 56,010

Green aud Stouecut-

ters' Islands,

20

38

58

.2

6

8

5

5

27

44

71

105

105

132

44

176

Total,

2,919 2,200 5,119 1,156 1,401 2,557 1,440

453 1,893

817

|

| 653 1,470 6,332 4,707 11,039 200,160

89,310 289,470 206,492

94,017 300,509

New Kowloon,

18

26

41

21

24

40

29

New Territories, Islands,

4

1

5

20

25

24

6

30

69 7,999 5,625 13,621 8,039 6,229 5,271 11,500 6,253

5,654 13,693

5,277 11,530

New Territories, Nor-

thern District,.

13

4

17

:

67

3

70

80

7

87

34,383 34,739 69,122 34,463

34,746 69,209

Total,

2,954|2,231 |5,185 |1,157 |1,401|2,558 |1

1,548

464 2,012

817

653 1,470 6,476 4,749 11,225 248,771 134,945 383,716 255,247 139,694 394,941

Floating Population.

Victoria Harbour,

:

Shaukiwan,.

Stanley,

Aberdeen,

New Territories, Islands,

Total,

:

19,119

10,771

29,890

19,119

3,653

2,787

6,440

3,653

10,771 | 29,890 2,787 6,440

34

38

72

34

38

72

5,939

2,961

8,900

5,939

2,961

8,900

5,760

4,095

9,855

5,760

4,095 9,855

34,505 20,652 55,157 34,505

20,652 55,157

Grand Total,

2,954 2,2315,185 1,157 1,401 2,558 | 1,548

4642,012

817

653|1,470 | 653 1,470 6,4764,749 11,225 283,276 155,597 438,873 289,752 160,346 450,098

British.

Other Nationalities (Non-Chinese).

Total.

Chinese.

Total.

Males. Females. Total.

Males. Females.

Mercantile Marine,.

352

1

353

496

1

497

848

2

Total. Males. Females. Total, Males. Females. 5,551

850

GRAND TOTAL,

Total. Males. Females. Total. 240 5,791 6,399 242 6,641

296,151 160,588 | 456,739

Total.

1

Males.

Females.

108 (10)

Total.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Chinese Float- ing Population.

Chinese

Land Population.

Other Non- Chinese Races.

Portuguese Civil Population. European, American and

LOCALITY.

103 (11)

Table II.

COMPARISON between the CIVIL POPULATION in the years 1901, 1906 and 1911.

1901.

1906.

1911.

Males. Females. Total. Males.

Females. Total. Males.

Females.

Total.

Victoria, The Peak,

2,433

2,097

4,580

2,779

2,300

5,079

2,750

2,526

5,276

236

186

422

330

246

576

310

253

563

Hongkong Villages, Old Kowloon,

139

38

177

155

69

224

178

107

285

394

262

656

789

678

1,467

837

715

1,552

New Kowloon,..

14

22

19

26

45

New Territories, (North),

13

4

17

New Territories, Islands,..

Total,.

4

1

5

3,202

2,583

5,785

4,067 3,301

7,368

4,1J1

3,632

7,743

Mercantile Marine,

639

7

646

987

40

1,027

*

352

1

353

Victoria, The Peak,

Hongkong Villages, Old Kowloon,

( 1,712

897

2,609

1,673

975

15

10

25

22

1

2,618 23

131

3

134

97

10:

107

1,641

935

2,576

640

162

802

465

120

585

New Kowloon,...

New Territories, (North),...

New

21

4

25

21

3

24

67

3

70

Territories, Islands, ..

20

5

25

Total,.

1,641

935

2,576

2,519

1,076

3,595

2,365

1,117

3,482

Mercantile Marine,

353

2

355

423

2

425

† 496

1

497

Grand Total, Resident Civil

Population,

4,843

3,518

8,361 6,586

4,377 10,963

6,476

4,749

11,225

Grand Total, Mercantile Ma-

rine,

992

1,001 1,410

42

1,452

848

2

850

Victoria,

The Peak, Shaukiwan, Aberdeen, Stanley, Pokfulam,

Old Kowloon, New Kowloon,..

129,396 45,660 175,056 | 124,995

48,294

173,289

151,408

66,365 217,773

1,524

124

1,648

1,514

204

1,718

6,908

2,276

9,184

8,259

3,132

11,391

8,086

3,191

11,277

1,994

848

2,842

2,565

1,089

3,654

2,308

965

3,273

462

343

805

936

340

1,276

414

309

723

441

161

602

476

235

711

580

253

833

32,860

10,116

42,976

36,765

15,566

52,331

35,850

18,023

53,873

11,601

6,235

17,836

7,999

5,625

13,624

34,383 34,739

69,122

6,229 5,271 11,500

...

1,684

114

1,798

New Territories, (North), New Territories, Islands,.... Not included in above,

Total, Chinese Land

Population,

Mercantile Marine,

173,745 59,518 233,263 187,121

1,180

75,015 | 262,136 248,771 134,945 383,716

1,180 2,508

2,508 5,551

240

5,791

Harbour, Shaukiwan, Stanley, Aberdeen,. Ch'eung Chaŭ,.

[ Lantao,

Total,..

Total Chinese Population,

18,932 9,597 28,529 19,220 10,886 30,106 19,119 10,771

3,010 2,429

520 2,940

361 2,311

5,439 881 5,251

3,840 2,466 6,306

420

3,653

2,787

29,890 6,440

275 695 3,131 2,506 5,637

34

38

5,939

2,961

72 8,900

2,601

1,841

4 442

3,159 2,254

5,413

25,402 14,698 40,100 || 26,611

200,327 74,216 274,543216,240

77,743 | 283,905 | 224,236

* British only.

Grand Total for the Colony,206,162

16,133 42,744

91,148 307,388 | 288,827 155,837 441,664

34,505 20,652 55,157

95,567 319,803 | 296,151 160,588 | 456,739

† Other than British.

103 (12)

M

Table III.

European and American Resident Civil Population

according to Race.

Race.

Males. Females. Total.

English,.

889

468

1,357

Scotch,

309

127

436

Irish,

93

47

140

Welsh,

27

11

38

Other persons of British race

not defined as above,

839

951

1,790

Total,..

2,157

1,604

3,761

American (U.S.A.),

151

144

295

Armenian,

5

5

Austrian,

9

16

25

Belgian,

2

Brazilian,

Q N

5

5

13

Chilian,

3

3

Cuban,

1

1

Danish,

21

7

28

Dutch,

33

16

49

French,

85

63

148

German,

214

128

342

Greek,

4

2

6

Italian,

16

42

58

Jewish,

136

95

231

Norwegian,

4

1

5

Peruvian,

5

15

20

Panaman,

1

1

Portuguese,

1,157

1,401

2,558

Russian,

5

5

10

Spanish,.

52

48

100

Swedish,

12

4

16

Swiss,...

15

6

21

4,097

3,604

7,701

Eurasian,

14

28

42

Total,.

4,111

3,632

7,743

103 (13)

Table IV.

Non-Chinese Races other than Europeans and Americans.

Race.

Males. Females.

Total.

Afghan,

African,

Annamese...

11

1

5

11

183

2

6

11

Arab,

4

7

Cingalese,

11

11

Egyptian,

2

2

Fijian,

2

2

Filipino,.

128

93

221

Goanese,

2.

2

Japanese,

548

410

958

Javanese,

2

2

...

Malay,

77

122

199

Persian,

10

5

15

Sandwich Islanders,

1

1

Siamese,..

1

3

Turkish,

7

West Indian,

9

16

Total,

817

653

1,470

Table V.

Birth Places of the Population of British Origin.

Where born.

Males. Females.

Total.

Great Britain,

1,358

652

2,010

Africa (South),.

7

17

24

Australia,

56

78

134

Burmah,

2

2

Canada,

15

24

Caroline Islands,

2

2

China,

55

61

116

Europe,

18

12

30

Formosa,

2

2

Hongkong,

346

417

763

Honolulu,

2

2

India,

32

22

54

Indo-China,

1

1

Java,

2

Japan,

11

14

25

Korea,

1

1

Macao,

5

5

...

Newfoundland,

1

1

New Zealand,

Other Crown Colonies,.

8

8

16

29

20

49

Philippines,

Siam,

South America,.....

2

2

Straits Settlements,

20

7

27

3

Tasmania,

United States of America,

7

9

16

West Indies,

5

6

11

At Sea,

1

4

5

Not stated,

184

245

429

Total,

2,157

1,604

3,761

...

30 N N N

~ 2 2

3

103 (14)

Table VI.

The Birth Places of the Portuguese Population.

Where born.

Males. Females. Total.

Australia,

1

1

Azores,

1

1

Brazil,

1

1

British Guiana,

1

1

...

China,

39

44

83

Formosa,

3

3

...

Goa,

9

9

Hongkong,

763

810

1,573

India,

1

1

2

Japan,

4

11

15

Macao,

317

496

813

Peru,

1

1

Philippines,

5

10

15

Portugal,

7

5

12

Siam,

2

2

Straits Settlements,

5

6

11

Timor,

3

7

10

At Sea,

1

1

2

Not stated,..

2

1

3

Total,...

1,157

1,401

2,558

Table VII.

The Birth Places of the Chinese Population (other than inhabi-

tants of the New Territories).

Provinces and

Countries.

Provinces of China :-

Males.

Females.

Total.

78 1,302

}

Chehkiang,

Chihli,

Fukien,

Honam,

Hunan,

Hupeh,

Kiangsi,

Kiangsu,

L

Kwangsi,

Kwangtung,

Nganhwui,

Shansi,

209

79

288

34

44

1,021

281

10

4

14

159

28

187

11

10

21

57

39

96

242

365

607

406

304

710

194,442

77,297

271,739

16

14

30

8

3

11

Shantung,

231

13

244

Shensi,.

10

4

14

Szchuen,

8

7

15

Yunnan,

32

6

38

Kweichaŭ,

11

12

23

Pekin,

16

29

45

Kansu,

1

...

1

Tibet,

1

1

Hak Lung Kong,..

2

Total,

196,927

***

2

78,541

4

275,468

103 (15)

Table VII,-Continued.

Provinces and Countries.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Brought forward,

196,927

78,541

275,468

Other Countries:-

America,

107

95

202

Corca,

7

0

7

Formosa,

23

8

31

Germany,.

2

0

2

Hongkong,

28,773

24,740

53,513

New Territories,

7,422

5.531

12,953

India,

4

2

6

Japan,

39

32

71

Philippines,

2

2

4

Macao,

1,657

820

1,877

Mongolia,

1

0

1

Portugal,

2

0

2

Siam,

9

4

13

Singapore,

52

59

111

Cuba,

2

0

2

Burmah,

1

0

1

Holland,

1

4

5

Honolulu,

6

12

18

Peru,

2

0

2

Indo-China,

54

50

104

Australia,

55

15

100

Penang,

6

0

6

Borneo,

3

7

10

Canada,

1

Guiana,

1

Vancouver,

1

Morocco,

Sandakan,

0

Not stated,.

105

OOGI O

0

1

0

1

1

2

1

2

2

111

Total,.......

37,738

31,421

69,159

Grand Total,..

234,665

109,962

314,627

103 (16)

Table VIII.

Natives of the Province of Kwong Tung according to their Districts

(except the inhabitants of the New Territories).

Name of Prefecture

and District.

Chiu Chau Fu--

Males.

Females. Total.

Name of Prefecture and District.

Males.

Females. Total.

Kwang Chau Fu-

Hoi-yeung,

181

31

212

Fung-shun,

19

12

31

Nám-hoi,

+

22,722

8,766 31,488

Chiu-yeung,

545

24

569

Pun-ü,

22,606

12,937

35,543

Kit-yeung,

40

3

43

Shun-tak,

10,497

·

4,852 15,349

Iu-ping,

20

20

Tung-kun,

23,625

11,973

35,598

Taipó,

11

54

65

Henng-shán,

10,746 5,606 16,352

Ching-hoi,

234

242

San-ui,

19,394

4,513 23,907

Póning,

39

43

Tsang-shing,

1,725

860

2,585

Not stated,

4,918

449

5,367

Tsing-uen,

2,584

737

3,321

San-ning,..

6,653

1,391

8,044

Total,.........

6,007

585

6,592

Tsung-fa, Sám-shui,

2.6

76

302

1

8,203

2.443

Lung-mun,

269

33

10,646 302

San-on,

10,340

4.389

14,729

Ka Ying Chau-

Fa-uen,

2,670

1,134

3,804

Not stated,

6,401

7,723 14,124

Cheung-lok,..

636

143

779

Hing-ning,

920

48

968

Ping-uen,

16

16

Chau-ping,

3

3

Total,......... 148,661

67,433 | 216,094

Not stated,

1,030

177

1,207

Total,.........

2,605

368

2,973 Lim Chan Fu-

King Chau Fu-

Hop-po, Not stated,

188888

4

22

97

265

King-shau,

Man-cheung,

20 41

14

34

4

45

Total,.........

186

101

287

Ui-tung,

2

2

...

Lok-ui,

Lam-kó,

20 2

20

2

Cheung-fa,

90

90

...

Lin Chau Fu-

Ling-shui,

112

112

...

Not stated,

180

39

219

Yeung-shán, Not stated,

84

54

5

16

100

Total,.......

467

57

524

Total,......

89

16

105

Ko Chau Fu-

Mau-ming, Tin-pák, Sun-i, Ng Chin,.... Shek-shing, Not stated,

40 ∞ ∞

5

~~] 20

3

7

7

12

Lo Ting Chau-

8

8

6

...

148

32

NNW

3

9

Tung-on,

547

231

778

2

2

Sai-ning,

990

5

995

180

Not stated,

141

69

210

Total,.........

171

47

218

Total,

1,678

305

1,983.

103 (17)

www.com

Table VIII,-Continued.

Name of Prefecture

Name of Prefecture

Males. Females.

Total.

Males.

Females. Total.

and District.

and District.

Lui Chau Fu-

Hoi-hong,

Brought forward, 10,551

1,639

12,190

Fung-chiin,

45

..

45

...

16

2

18

Hoi-kin,

33

33

Sui-kai,

7

1

8

Hoi-ping,

4,439

1,200

5,639

Tsui-mai,

2

1

3

Ilokshán,..

Not stated,

65

68

888

3,648

866

4,514

133

Ko-ming,

689

86

775

Not stated,

1,627

547

2,174

Total,

90

72

162

Total,

21.032

4,338

25,370

Nam Hang Chau

Wai Chau Fu-

Po-cheung,

2

1

3

Not stated,

11

1

12

Kwai-shin,

4,510

1,796

6,306

Poh-lo,

1.147

274

1,381

Hoi-fung,

2,726

177

2,903

Total,

13

2

15

Lok-fung,

50

18

68

.....

Ho-uen,

215

87

302

Lung-chin,

195

7

202

Wo-ping,

1

3

4

Shiu Chau Fu-

Kuk-kong, Lok-cheung,.. Yung-yuen,...

Cheung-ning,

1

9

232

2

4

Wing-on,

141

5

146

1

Not statel,

4.

4

4,2-7

1,534

5,821

4

6

Ying-tak,

56

29

85

Not stated...

43

44

87

....

Total, 13,273

3,869

17,142

Total, ...

106

80

186

Lin-ping Chau,-

Tak-hing Chan,.

48

10

58

Shiu Hing Fu-

Fa Chau,

Yam Chau,

Ko-iu,

3,665

504

4,169

Not stated,

001-00

2

10

9

15

Sz-ui,

2,318

362

2,680

San-hing,.

934

102

1,036

Yeung-tsun,

16

7

23

Total,

64

24

88

Yeung-kong,

1,061

164

1,225

Yan-ping,

2,364

496

2,860

Kwong-ning,

193

4

197

...

Grand Total,.. 194,442

77,297 271,739

Carried forward,

10,551

1,639

12,190

103 (18)

Table IX.

Birth Places of the Chinese Population of the New Territories (Northern District).

Kwong Tang Province.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Chiu Chau Fu-

Hoi Yeung,

3

Not stated,

2

32

2

Total,.

5

5

...

Ka Ying Chau-

Cheung Lok,

134

Hing Ning,

4

Total,.....

138

10

2

5

139

4

5

143

Kwong Chau Fu-

Nam Hoi,

50

32

82

P'un U,..

19

6

25

Shun Tak,

14

10

21

Tung Kun,

163

53

216

Heung Shan,.

24

12

36

San Wui,

89

8

97

Tsang Shing,..

16

16

Tsing Un,

13

1

14

San Ning,

27

37

64

Tsung Fa,

8

8

...

Sam Shui,

3

San On,

243

1,536

Fa Un,

10

13

...

3

1,779

23

Total,.......

679

1,708

2,387

Lim Chau Fu-

District not stated,

20

21

Shiu Hing Fu-

Ko Iu,

5

5

Sz Wui,

5

6

San Hing,

16

18

Yeung Kong,

1

1

Yan Ping,.

5

6

Hoi Ping,

3

Hok Shan.

3

Not stated,

3

1

4

Total,

41

5

46

Wai Chau Fu-

Kwai Shin,

354

81

435

Pok Lo,

23

1

24

Hoi Fung,

4

4

Ho Un,

1

1

Not stated,

36

23

59

Total,...

418

105

523

Shiu Chau Fu-

Ying Tuk,

1

1

2

Lui Chau Fu-

District not stated,

1

1

Total,..

1,302

1,826

3,128

J.

103 (19)

Table IX,-Continued.

Countries.

Males.

Females. Total.

Brought forward,

1,302

1,326

3,128

Hongkong,

10

2,383

2,393

Macao,

1

1

...

Kiangsi,

1

1

Annam,

4

4

Honolulu,

3

3

Philippines,

2

4

Straits Settlements,

1

3

Kwongsai,

3

7

....

Siam,

1

...

Fokien,

2

2

Kiangso,..

1

1

New Territories,

33,062

30,512

63 574

Grand Total,

34,383

34,739

69,122

Tablo X.

Birth Places of the Chinese Land Population of the

New Territories (Southern District).

Kwong Tung Province.

Males. Females.

Total.

Chiu Chau Fu-

Districts not stated,

51

7

53

Ko Chau Fu-

Districts not stated,

Ka Ying Chau----

District not stated,

3

3

1

1

...

Kwong Chau Fu-

Nam Hoi,

122

67

189

P'un U,.

27

33

60

Shun Tak,.

26

10

36

Tung Kun,

195

141

339

Heung Shan,

136

35

171

San Wui,

130

30

160

Tsang Shing,.

2

2

Tsing Un,

Tsung Fa,

Sam Shui,

323

11

14

2

3

San On,

Fa Un,

246

265

511

4

1

5

3

3

894

601

1,495

Not stated,

Total,...

Lim Chau Fu-

Districts not stated,

1

1

Lo Ting Chau-

Tung On,

4

4

Districts not stated,

28

28

Total,.

32

32

Carried forward,.

978

612

1,590

103 (20)

Table X,-Continued.

VV

Kwong Tung Province.

Males. Females.

Total.

Brought forward,

978

612

1,590

Shiu Hing Fu-

Ko Yu,

3

4

7

Sz Wui,

3

3

Yeung Kong,

1

ii

12

Hoi Ping,

9

2

11

Hok Shan,.

11

...

11

Not stated,

2

2

Total,...

29

17

46

Wai Chan Fu-

Kwai Shin,

20

4

24

Hoi Fung,.

356

16

372

Lung Chun,

2

2

Wing On,

Ι

1

Not stated,

177

12

189

Total,

556

32

588

Total Kwong Tung Province,

1,563

661

2,224

Hongkong, ...

23

41

64

New Territories,

4,598

4,498

9,096

Macao,

40

63

103

Kong Sai,

1

1

Kwong Sai,

2

2

4

Shanghai,

1

2

3

Australia,

1

2

3

Straits Settlements,

1

1

Annam,

1

1

Total,......

4,666

4,610

9,276

Grand Total,

6,229

5,271

11,500

Table XI,

Dialects spoken in the Home for Chinese Population of the Colony

(except New Territories, North and South).

Dialects.

Males. Females.

Total.

Punti,

209,936

102,056

311,992

Hakka,.

16,394

6,428

22,822

Hoklo,

6,353

596

6,949

Others,

1,982

882

2,864

Not stated (Mercantile

Marine),

5,551

240

5,791

Total,...... 240,216 110,202

350,418

X

1

103 (21)

Table XII.

Dialects spoken in the Home, New Territories (Northern District).

Districts and Dialects. Males. Females.

Total.

Au Tau District :--

Punti,

3,180

3,211

6,391

Hakka,

2,288

2,098

4,386

Others,

96

96

Ping Chau District :-

Punti,

806

724

1,530

Hakka,...

791

790

1,581

P'ing Shan District :-

Punti,

4,377

3,641

8,018

Hakka,

997

1,751

2,748

Hoklo,

2

1

·

3

Others,.

28

28

Sai Kung District :-

Punti,

1,195

1,438

2,633

Hakka,.

3,343

3,256

6,599

Hoklo,

11

11

San T'in District:--

Punti,

1,706

1,663

3,369

Hakka,..

3

3

Sha T'au Kok District:-

Punti,

157

187

344

Hakka,.

3,789

4,392

8,181

Hoklo,

29

16

45

Sha Tin District:--

Punti,

Hakka,..

Hoklo,

Not stated,

520

1,215

531 1,444

1.051

2,659

4

4

...

95

95

Sheung Shui District :—

Punti,

2,747

2,652

5,399

Hakka,..

767

693

1,460

Tai Po District :-

Punti,

1,039

1,291

2,330

Hakka,..

3,498

3,489

6,987

Hoklo,

3

8

11

Not stated,.....

113

113

Ts'un Wan District:

Punti,

375

155

530

Hakka,

1,259

1,190

2,449

Hoklo,

1

1

Not stated,

1

1

2

34,319

34.738

69,057

Misc. not stated,.

64

1

65

Total,

34,383

34,739

69,122

103 (22)

Table XIII.

Dialects spoken in the Home,

New Territories (Southern District), Land Population.

Districts and Dialects.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Ch'eung Chau District-

Punti,

Hakka,

Hoklo,

1,421

1,022

2,443

348

216

564

621

336

957

2,390

1,574

3,964

Lantao District -

Punti,

2,999

2,695

5,694

Hakka,

466

478

944

Hoklo,

40

29

69

Not stated,

3

3

3,508

3,202

6,710

Lamma District-

Punti,

168

489

657

Hakka,

123

6

129

Hoklo,

40

40

...

331

495

826

Kowloon City District-

Punti,

1,656

1,414

3,070

Hakka,

2,262

1,782

4,044

Hoklo,

133

59

192

4,051

3,255

7,306

Sham Shui Po District-

Punti,

3,047

1,484

4,531

Hakka,

812

828

1,640

Hoklo,

57

54

111

Not stated,.

32

4

36

3.948

2,370

6,318

I

.

103 (23)

Table XIV.

Chinese Population of the Villages of Hongkong.

.....

Wong Chuk Hang, Tia Wan,

Aberdeen Garden,.

Village.

Pokfulam,

Aberdeen,

Males. Females.

Females. Total.

580

253

833

951

363

1,314

44

13

57

67

44

111

22

6

28

Aberdeen, Old Village,.

74

90

164

Aberdeen, New Village,

45

53

98

Aberdeen, Brick Works,

64

64

Aplicbau,

1,041

396

1,437

Total,.........

2,308

965

3,273

Stanley,

170

180

350

Wong Ma Kok,.

14

14

28

Ma Kong,

7

...

Chung Hom Bay,

10

10

Lan Lai Wan,

4

4

To Li Wan,

53

1

54

Tai Tam,

11

13

24

Tai Tam Tuk,

52

24

76

Hok Tsui Wan,.

15

24

39

Tong Po,

17

1

18

Deep Water Bay,

8

8

Po T'oi Island,

53

52

105

Total,.

414

309

723

Shek 0,

Chai Wan,.

A Kung Ngam,.

Shaukiwan,

114

124

238

72

65

;

137

161

108 1

269

4,317

1,591

5,908

F'u Tsoi Fat,.

361

224

585

Ma Shan Ha...

458

284

742

Tsin Shui Ma Tau,

112

99

211

Sai Wan Ho,.

650

226

876

Quarry Bay,

1,648

366

2.014

Tsat Tsz Mui,

193

101

297

Total,.

8,086

3,191

11,277

Grand Total,.

11,388

4,718

16,106

City of Victoria-

Tai Hang Village,.

889

685

1,574

Wong Nei Chong Village,

452

354

806

103 (24)

Table XV.

Chinese Population of Old Kowloon.

Villages.

Males. Females. Total.

Ma Tau Wai,.

160

158

318

Ma Tau Chung,.

134

109

243

Ma Tau Kok,

145

67

212

Au Pui Lung,

44

38

82

San Shan,

117

63

180

To Ka Wan,

766

306

1,072

Shek Shan,

178

99

277

Hok Un,

789

483

1,272

Tai Wan,

61

36

97

Lo Lung Hang,

178

26

204

Hunghom,.

7,521

3,159

10,680

Mong Kok Tsui,

7,163

3,887

11,050

Yaumati,

11,291

6,478

17,769

Wong Nai U,

168

82

250

3.

Fo Pang,

126

54

180

Tai Shek Ku,.

46

24

70

llo Man T'in,

224

72

296

Mong Kok,

272

198

470

Tai Kok Tsui,

1,621

898

2,519

Fuk Ts'un Heung,

610

251

861

Sz Wo T’ong,

258

193

451

Wai Chau Tsai,.

85

45

130

Tsim Tsa Tsui,

3,893

1,297

5,190

Total,.

35,850 18,023

53,873

Table XVI.

Population of Victoria according to Health Districts.

Districts.

Non-Chinese.

Males.

Females. Total.

Eastern Police District,

1,234 |

1,198

2,432

Central Police District,..

2,747

2,000

4,747

Western Police District,

415

259

674

No. 1.

2.

>>

"}

"

""

3,

4, 5,

6,

Total,...

4,396

3,457

7,853

Health Districts.

Chinese,

Males. Females. Total.

7,721 4,285 12,006 18,212 7,417 25,629 5,153 2,940 8,093 20,900 10,344 31,244 17,241 8,436 25,677 16,675 4,761

21,436 15,057 6,431 21,488

17,558

5,167 22,725

7.

8.

9,

22,125 9,77 31,897

10,

10,661

6,812 | 17,473

Total,.....

151,303

66,365 217,668

.

103 (25)

Table XVII.

Chinese Population of Old and New Kowloon according to Health Districts.

Health Districts.

Males. Females. Total.

No. 11 Health District-

Sub-Health District I,

796

101

897

Do.

VI,

6,819

3,096

9,915

Do.

IX,

3,274

1,448

4,722

10,889

4,645

15,534

No. 12 Health District-

Sub-Health District II.

Do.

}

111,

3,097 1,196 4,293 12,212 6,953 19,165

15,309

8,149 23,458

No. 13 Health District-

Sub-Health District IV.

Do.

V..........

7,163 3,887 11,050 2,489 1,342 3,831

9,652

5,229 14,881

New Kowloon-

Sub-Health District VII..

Do.

VIII,

4,051 3,255 7,306 3,948 2,370 6,318

7,999 5,625

13,624

Grand Total,... 43,849 23,648

67,497

103 (26)

Table XVIII.

Chinese Land Population of the New Territories.

Districts.

Males. Females. Total.

Northern District-

Tai Po,

4,540

4,901 9,441

Sheung Shui,

3,514

3,345

6,859

Sha T'au Kok,

3,975

4,595

8,570

P'ing Shan,

5,404

5,393

10,797

Sai Kung,

4,549

4,694

9,243

Au T'au,

5,564 5,309

10,873

San T'in,

1,706 1.666

3.372

Sha Tin,

1,834 1,975

3,809

P'ing Chau,

1,597

1,514

3,111

Ts'ün Wan,

1,636

1,346

2,982

Miscellaneous,

64

1

65

Total,...

34,383 34,739

69,122

Southern District-

Sham Shui Po,

3,948

2,370

6,318

Kowloon City,

4,051 3,255

7,306

Ch'eung Chau,

2,390

1,574

3,964

Lantao,

3,508

3,202

6,710.

Lamma,

331

495

826

Total,...................

14,228

10,896

25,124

Floating Population.

Males. Females.

Total.

Ch'eung Chau,

2,601

1,841 4,442

Lantao,

3,159

2,254

5,413

Total,..

5,760 4,095 9,855

Grand Total,

54,371

49,730 104,101

Y

103 (27)

Table XIX.

Chinese Population of the New Territories

(Northern District) by Villages.

SAN T'IN DISTRICT.

Village.

Males. Females. Total

San T'in..........

781

818

1,599

Chau T'au

167

172

339

Liu Pok

136

101

237

Pok Wai

100

125

225

Ho Sheung Heung

110

106

216

Chuk Yun

96

88

184

Lok Ma Chau

80

77

157

Mai Po ..

84

71

155

Sha Po

73

61

134

Shek Wu Wai

37

19

56

Wai Tsai

24

20

41

Ku Tung

10

8

18

Lo Wu

8

8

Total,...........

1,706

1,666

3,372

SHA T'IN DISTRICT.

Village.

Males. Females.

Total

Wong Uk

17

22

39

To Shek

44

41

85

Chik Nai Ping

8

18

26

Ngau Pi Sha.....

26

24

50

Siu Lek Yun..

73

101

174

Wong Nai T'au.

29

24

53

Tai Tsia

7

11

18

Fa Sham Hang

2

3

5

Nam Shan

4

6

10

Mui Tsz Lam

26

33

59

Mau Ping

57

67

124

Wong Chuk Shan.

51

50

101

Ngong Ping

7

2

9

Ma On Shan

29

21

· 50

Shek Lung Tsai

16

15

31

Shek Ku Lung

18

37

55

Tai Nam Liu

23

34

57

Sha T'in

81

99

180

Fui Yiu Kok.

7

7

14

Tsok Pok Hang

19

17

36

Ngau Kok Wo

1

2

3

Sha Tin T'au

69

71

140

Shan Ha Wai

24

32

56

Pai T'au

22

27

49

Kak Tin

92

108

200

Kang Hau

86

109

195

T'in Sam

65

69

184

Tai Wai.

164

186

350

San T'in Wai

7

3

10

Pak Tin

2

1

3

Tung Lo Wan

42

48

96

Wang Pok....

8

1

9

Sheung Wo Tsia

70

30

100

Ha Wo Tsia

31

45

76

Fo Tan Kok

28

28

56

Wo Liu Hang

11

12

23

Tsung T'au Ha....

3

5

8

Min Fong

1

3

4

Pat Tsz Wo

9

8

17

Kwai Ti.......

4

4

8

Wong Chuk Yeung

23

20

43

Au Pui Wan

39

41

80

Shek Lin Tung

14

13

27

Ngau Wu Tok.

3

7

10

Shan Mi.......

42

52

94

Carried forward,

1,404

1,557

2,961

103 (28)

SHA T'IN DISTRICT,-Continued.

Village.

Brought forward,

Males. Females. Total.

1,404

1,557

2,961

Lo Sheung Tan

Ho Lek Pui........

Cheung Lek Pui

Wan Au....

3

6

9

18

27

45

26

21

47

3

2

5

Ma Niu

Kau T'o.

Lok Lo Ha Ma Niu Shui..

18

16

34

57

73

130

43

47

90

5

8

13

Chek Nai Ping

70

52

122

Tai Shui Hang

92

81.

173

Wu Yeung Pek

7

8

15

Lo Shu T'in

5

7

12

Mau Tso Ngam..

18

23

41

Kun Yam Shan.

39

35

74

Mau Tat

9

9

18

Shap Yi Wat

3

3

6

Yun Củau Kok

14

10

24

Total,.....

1,834

1,985

3,819

Au T'AU DISTRICT.

Village.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Yeung Uk Tsun

45

47

92

Wong Uk Tsun

106

89

195

Tai Wai......

96

101

197

Ying Lung Wai..

38

56

94

Tsoi Uk Tsun

45

45

90

Tung Tau...

139

151

290

Tung Tau Yun

26

12

38

Nam Pin Wai

223

296

519

Sai Pin Wai

112

126

248

Yun Long Shan Pui Tai K'iu....

458

101

559

118

155

273

78

65

143

Yau T'in

84

81

165

Kong T'au..

26

20

46

T'ong T'au Po

53

63

116

Lo Wai.

149

133

282

Nam Hang...

44

60

104

Hung Tso T'in

87

78

165

San Tsun

166

149

315

Tai Tong

55

64

119

Sham Ch'ung

48

55

103

Shek Kong

18

21

39

Ha Tsia

109

125

234

Sheung Tsia

106

93

199

Chuk Hang Tsun

103

96

199

San Lung Wai

51

49

100

Ko Po..........

19

23

42

Kam T'in Pak Pin

185

197

382

Toi Shan

366

340

706

Kat Hing Wai

122

100

222

Wing Ning Li

83

92

175

Kam T'in Yu Shi

28

28

56

Kam T'in Sha Pui Ling

12

16

28

Kam T'in Tai Hong Wai......

43

51

94

Kam T'in Tai Hong Tsun....

42

36

78

Kam T'in Wing Kong Wai

51

48

99

Kam T'in Kak Hang Yun. Toi Shan Ha Pui

Sheung Tsun...

16

9

....

25

81

69

150

339

361

700

Kap Lung

16

20

36

Lui Kung T'in

12

11

23

Shui Lau Tin

68

65

133

Ma On Kong..

88

186

274

Cheung Po.......

107

93

200

Cheung Po Tai Wo

65

66

131

Yun Kong

189

197

386

Lin Fa Ti

395

375

770

Curried forward,

4,910

4,714

9,624

103 (29)

.

AU TAU DISTRICT,—Continued.

Village.

Males. Females. Total.

Brought forward,

4,910

4,714

9,624

Sheung T’ong

36

41

77

Tsing Fai Tong

45

45

90

Tai Lam Ch'ung

189

151

340

Kwan Uk Ti....

22

21

43

Tai Lam...

26

35

61

Ha Fa Shan

5

7

12

Yau Kom T’ong

26

26

52

Ting Kau

55

57

112

Tso Kung T'an.

20

20

Sham Tseng

32

40

72

T'in Fu Tsai

53

51

104

Un Tun

46

41

87

Tseng Lung Tau

7

6

13

Chun Lung

76

65

141

Pak Shek K'in

16

9

25

Total,

5,564

5,309 10,873

SAI KUNG DISTRICT.

Village.

Males. Females. Total

Hang Hau

Tai Hang Han

Mang Kung Uk

Po To Au

Pan Long Wan Sheung Yeung

262

125

397

51

57

108

207

227

434

26

28

54

86

92

178

34

51

85

Ha Yeung

93

91

184

Tai Au Mun

14

11

25

Tsin Wo............

6

4

10

Sheung Tsz Wan

79

66

145

Tai Wan T'au

53

64

117

Mau Po Tsai.

7

7

14

Sai Hang Hau

3

7

10

T'in Ha Wan..

18

19

37

Fu T'au Chau

7

5

12

Cheung Kwan O.

90

103

193

Yau U Wan

53

63

116

Mau Fu Tsai..............

28

19

47

Ma Lau T'ong

60

71

131

Au T'au.....

13

17

30

Tai Miu

1

1

Shui Tseng T'au

23

20

43

Tsiu Lung

تو

8

16

Sai Kung Tuk

Tseng Lan Shu

Pak Shek Wo

ལམའ

12

17

29

124

152

276

15

13

28

Pik Uk

5

20

25

Mok Tse Tse..

20

31

51

Wong King Tsai

9

9

18

Shek Pok Wai

4

9

13

Kau Chun Uk

1

9

Ngau Fu Tau

4

9

Ngau Liu

9

14

Long Mi...

5

3

8

Tai Nam Wn.

13

20

33

Mang Wo

11

11

22

Chuk Yun

3

6

9

Tai No

55

52

107

Tại No Sheung Yeung..

7

7

14

Kai Ham

20

30

50

Wang Tsia..

4

1

5

Tai Po Tsai

77

95

172

Wo Mi

30

36

66

Nam Wai

178

146

324

Chuk Kok Tsun

4

7

11

Heung Ch'ung

1

3

4

Ho Ch’ung.

159

259

418

Pak Wai

44

39

83

Pak Kong Au

40

45

85

Pak Kong

75

115

190

Wu Li T'au

6

3

9

Ma Lam Wat

24

19

43

Carried forward,

2,182

2,320

4,502

103 (30)

SAI KUNG DISTRICT,-Continued.

Village.

Males.

Females. Total.

Brought forward,.

2,182

2,320

4,502

Tsiu Hang Hau...

8

5

13

Tsiu Hang......

19

15

34

Tsia King Tuk

19

18

37

Ta Ho Tun

24

22

46

Yim T'in Tsai

79

83

162

Ngau Tam....

4

5

9

K'iu Tsoi

3

3

6

Yau Ma Po

24

7

31

Sai Kung Market

320

192

512

Kap Pin Loug

13

16

29

Sha Kok Mi

152

194

346

Nam Shan

36

50

86

Ta Shek Hang

11

7

18

Fu Ti Hau..........

17

11

28

Kak Hang Tau

5

3

8

Long T'in Tsai

1

1

2

Wong Chuk Yeung

25

58

83

Lung Mi.....

10

10

20

Ngau Lin

15

17

32

Muk Min Shan

1

1

2

Sha Ha

5

6

11

Tai Wan

62

67

129

Shan Liu

33

40

73

Nam A

12

13

25

An T'an..

10

11

21

Long King..

20

21

41

Ki Ling Ha

43

40

83

Sai King

35

42

77

San Tsun

15

12

27

Nga Yin T'au

21

17

38

Tseng T'au

53

52

105

Tai Tung

24

24

48

Tsia Ha

33

40

73

Tsia Ha San Tsun

11

19

30

Nai Ch’ung

23

24

47

Kon Hang

32

24

56

Ma Ku Lam

27

36

63

Tai Tung T'in Liu

14

9

23

Tai Tung Mi........

6

8

14

Sai O

22

26

48

Cheung Muk T'au..

21

24

45

Wu Kwai Sha

59

76

135

Tseung Kwan Li

7

7

14

Cheung King......

2

4

6

Ngong Wo.......

31

43

7.4

Wong Chuk Wan

19

19

38

Shin Tin Hang..

6

6

12

Tso Wo Hang

14

10

24

Wong Mo Ying..

26

26

52

Shek Hang

14

19

33

Ping Tan

8

7

15

T'it Kap Hang.

3

4

7

T'am Fat

9

9

18

She T'au Tsun

13

10

23

Tai Po Tsai

12

11

23

Houg King Shek

15

9

24

Uk Cheung

4

2

6

Tai Mong Tsai

75

63

138

Tsam Chuk Wau

44

30

74

Wong King Ti

37

35

72

Tai Wong Ch'ung..

3

5

8

Wong Nai Chau

72

70

142

Chik Yu Wu

24

21

45

Ti Tong Tau

4

8

Ching Hang

5

5

10

Pak T'an

14

17

31

Wo T'ong T'au.

9

9

18

Nai Kau Tsai

3

2

5

Pak T'an Ch'nng

16

25

41

Yeung Shu Au

81

90

171

Nam Fung Wan

13

16

29

Lan Nai Wan

77

65

142

Sham Ch'ung.

116

•110

226

Kau Sai

29

10

39

Miscellaneous

195

259

454

Total,

4,549

4,694 9,243

103 (31)

PING SHAN DISTRICT.

Village.

Males.

Females. Total.

Shui Pin Wai

24

23

47

Shui Pin Tsun

67

65

132

Ma T'in.

92

98

190

T'in Liu...

48

57

105

Muk K'iu T'au

38

36

74

Wong Nai Tun.

52

43

95

Pak Sha Wan

70

71

141

Pak Sha Tsun

4

4

8

Shan Ha

Lam Hau

242

249

491

107

130

237

Ha Mi

13

10

23

Tai Tseng

194

219

413

Wang Chau

395

427

822

Fui Sha Wai.....

72

93

165

Hung Uk Tsun

56

64

120

K'iu T'au Wai

71

81

152

Shek Po......

108

149

257

Li Uk Tsun

32

16

48

Sai Shan

61

66

130

Sai Shan Wai

7

14

21

Ha Tsun Shi ....

120

58

178

Shek Kong Wai

134

136

270

Shek Kong Tsun

178

203

381

San Wai

215

272

487

Hong Mi Tsun

21

31

52

Cheung Kong Wai

47

39

86

Fung Kong Tsun

34

42

76

Lo Uk Tsun

74

76

150

Tung Tau.....

59

61

120

Sha Kong Wai

126

104

230

Sha Kong Tsun

36

37

73

Ngau Hom.....

61

67

128

San Tsun

54

50

104

Sha Kong

5

1

6

Mong Tseng Wai

162

174

336

Mong Tseng Tsun

25

26

51

Yun Ling Tsai

50

51

101

Shun Fung Wai

70

66

136

Nai Wai...

59

55

114

Lam Ti

46

43

89

San Tsun

21

23

47

San Hui....

72

35

107

T'in Tsz Wai

36

36

72

Tsing Chun Wai

35

34

69

Tin Sam

54

60

114

Chung Uk Tsun

67

55

1:2

Tsz Tun Tsun

62

63

125

Po Tong Ha..

25

22

47

Shin Hang...

40

28

68

Leung Ka Tsun

3.

5

8

Yeung Shin Ilang

52

53

105

Tsing Shan Kun

2

S

10

Tsing Shan

17

9

26

Tsing Shan Po

37

6

43

Wong Ka Wai

20

30

50

Ma Shim Pai...

212

218

430

Ma Shim Pai Wo T'ong Kong

41

46

90

Ma Shim Pai Ma Miu

55

59

114

Hoi Ha

3

1

7

Pak Long

89

87

176

Sheung Nam Long

112

82

194

Ha Nam Long

56

41

97

Ha Tuk Mi Ch'ung

55

46

101

Sheung Tuk Mi Ch'ung

56

48

104

Lung Ku Tan Ta Shek Chong

215

215

Nim Wan

39

41

80

Tai Shui Hang

27

14

41

Sheung Cheung Wai

52

67

119

Hang T'au....

171

223

394

Hang Mi

187

202

389

T'ong Fong

83

65

148

San Tsun

22

28

50

Heung Yun

4

6

10

Miscellaneous

27

126

153

Total,......

5,404

5,393 10,797

103 (32)

SHEUNG SHUI DISTRICT.

Village.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Sheung Shui

750

691

1,441

Shek Wu Hui

29

14

43

Fan Ling

472

442

914

Fan Ling Lau

46

45

91

So Kon Po.....

22

21

43

Tai T'au Ling

51

40

91

Tsung Pak Long

105

79

184

Kam Tsin

100

82

182

In Kong...

21

14

35

Ping Kong....

32

29

61

Lin T'ong Mi

31

· 27

58

Ch'an Uk Po....

14

13

27

Tsin Kang Wai...

38

28

66

Tsiu Kang.

15

28

43

T'ong Kung Ling

5

5

10

Hang T'au...

22

21

43

Ta Shek Wa

18

16

34

San Wai..

29

28

57

San Uk

70

67

137

Wing Ning Wai

21

19

40

Tai Teng

42

45

87

Lo Wai

17

16

33

Lo Tsun..

Sin Hang

52

52

104

25

17

12

Ma Wat Wai..

28

21

49

Ma Wat Tsun

11

18

Tung Kok Wai..........

34

31

65

Tsung Ham Tong

19

19

38

Ku Hop Shek

21

27

48

Kwan Ti

39

40

79

San T’ong Po

15

32

47

Hung Ling

35

31

66

Ling Tsai

28

24

52

Ha Tan Chuk Hang..

45

39

84

Sheung Tan Chuk Hang

43

59

102

Ma Mi Ha.....

37

35

72

Kwai T'au Ling

61

68

129

Hok T'au

66

55

121

Lau Shui Heung

32

30

62

Wan Shan Ha

Shan Kai Wat

38

28

66

94

110

201

Ping Tsia Tai Tsun

29

29

58

Ping Tsai Yun Ha

27

34.

61

Ping Tsia Kak T'in Tsun

18

16

34

Ping Tsia Shui Wai......

10

7

17

Ping Tsia T'ong Fong

17

12

29

Tai Po T'in

25

31

56

Kan Tau Wai

42

41

83

Fung Wong Wu

39

45

84

Lo Shu Ling.

98

111

209

Li Uk Tsun

41

53

94

Ping Yeung

162

132

294

Wo King Shan

27

32

59

Nga Yiu Ha

31

27

58

Heung Yun

89

79

168

Chuk Yun

18

26

44

Tsung Yun Ha

39

46

85

San Uk Ling...

36

36

72

Muk Wu

81

93

174

Miscellaneous

12

12

Total,

3,514

3,345

6,859

103 (33)

SHA TAU KOK DISTRICT.

Village.

Males.

Females. Total.

Luk Keng

182

302

484

U Shek Kok

32

36

68

Im Tso Ha

18

29

47

Shek K'iu T'au

37

61

98

Ma Tseuk Ling.......

47

78

125

Ha Ma Tseuk Ling

24

26

50

Ngam Ha

6

10

16

Tai Long

20

26

46

Au Ha.....

33

33

66

Ha Wo Hang.....

66

94

160

Sheung Wo Hang.

175

268

443

Man Uk Pin

113

116

229

Loi Tung

107

84

191

Nam Ch'ung

152

196

348

Wu Kau T'in..

165

258

423

Sam Tam Lo...

Ι

5

6

Lin Ma Hang

197

219

516

Tong To

15

9

24

San Kang Tin

9

7

16

Min Kang Tsz...

1

1

Ha Wang Shan Keuk

16

27

43

Ha Tsat Muk K'iu

27

49

76

Sheung Wang Shan Keuk

13

19

32

Kau Tam Tso

13

29

42

Shek Shui Kan....

50

55

105

Sheung Min Tin.

9

11

20

Shek Shui Kan

9

14

23

Ha Miu Tin...

48

47

95

A Ma Wat...

12

16

28

Lai T'au Shek.......

20

20

40

Kai Kuk Shu Ha

47

61

108

Nam Hang Mi.

10

16

26

Kap T'ong.

35

28

63

Fang Hang

61

87

148

Fan Shui Au...........

1

2

Kuk Po Lo Wai

140

107

126

Kuk Po San Wai

56

70

47

Kuk Po Yi T'o

24

23

43

Kuk Po San T'o

19

24

22

Kuk Po Sz T'o.

13

9

42

Kuk Po Nam Shan

23

19

28

Tai Liu Ch’ung.....

14

14

8

Kuk Po Tsia Ha

4

4

70

Miu Tsz Lam

36

34

335

Yung Shu Au

186

149

87

Hung Shek Mun

49

38

17

Cheung Wo

9

8

43

U Chau Toug

28

20

6

Wong Wan

3

3

43

Tai Chau To

22

24

228

So Lo Pun..

115

113

236

Sam A

180

106

25

Siu T'an....

13

12

6

Mo To Hang

2

4

375

Lai Chi Wo

188

187

32

Ngau She Wu

14

18

21

Ko T'an...

13

93

( Pui Tong

49

11

708

Kat O...

Tong To

San Tsun

Tsiu Hang...

386

322

101

47

57

237

122

115

15

6

9

535

Tam Shui Hang

230

305

367

Shan Tsui

162

205

135

Kong Ha

63

72

14

Sha T'au Kok Shi

14

47

Sha T'au Kok Yim Liu

29

18

12

Miscellaneous...........

12

Total,

3,975

4,595

8,570

103 (34)

TAI PO DISTRICT.

Village.

Males. Females.

Total.

Old Market

104

84

188

Nam Hang

51

48

99

Nam Hang San Wai.

14

7

21

Tai Wo Shi

377

95

472

Chuk Hang San Wai

7

11

18

Tai Po San Wai

2

3

5

Tai Po T'au

50

62

112

Tai Po T'au Wai

33

81

64

Shek Ku Lung T'in Liu

5

2

7

Shek Ku Lung

30

42

72

Kam Shan

13

10

23

Pan Chung

61

66

127

Tai Wo Yun

3

6

9

W

Vong Ka Uk Tsun

7

7

Wan T'au Kok .........

13

10

23

Pan Ch’ung Heung Chan....

2

2

Ha Wun Yiu.................

26

Wan Yiu Tío Lia

4

**

34

60

4

8

Lai Chi Shan

40

57

97

Sheung Wun Yin

53

76

129

Wan Yiu San Uk Ha

11

13

24

Yun Tun Ha..

41

38

79

Yim Ngam .....

9

13

22

Ta T'it Yan

56

58

114

Pun Shan Chau.....

12

12

24

Wong Yi An...

43.

71

114

Wong Yi An Shan Liu

21

17

38

Tai Po Kau

15

14

29

Cheung Shu T'an ..

212

197

409

Cheung Shu T'an Kun Hang

10

7

17

Cheung Shu T'an Tai Shi Mi

111

111

222

Hang Ha Po

99

147

246

Fong Ma Po

17

15

32

San Uk Pai

3

6

9

Chung Uk Tsun

52

58

110

San Uk Tsai.

12

18

30

T’ong Sheung Tsun..

46

85

131

San Tsun

24

30

54

San T'ong

8

10

18

Tsun Shui Tseng

9

12

21

Sha Pa

12

14

26

Ma Po Mi...........

26

24

50

Tai Mong Tsia...

36

50

86

Shui Wo

41

51

92

Pak Ngau Shek San Wai

15

14

29

Pak Ngau Shek

22

31

53

Ng Tung Tsai....

61

68

129

Tsai K'ek....

51

78

129

Ping Long

52

56

108

Lin Au.......

65

63

128

Siu Om Shan

21

25

46

Tai Om Shan.....

30

42

72

Tai Om......

71

88

162

Lung A Pai

40

50

90

Ko T'in Ham

7

10

17

Tin Liu Ha.

74

105

179

She Shan

84

86

170

Wai T'au.....

57

59

116

Tai Hang Tsz T'ong Tsun....

29

48

77

Tai Hang San Tsuu..

3

7

10

Tai Hang Chung Sam Wai...

52

60

112

Tai Hang Fui Sha Wai

47

70

117

Tai Hang Tai Wo........

11

6

17

Kau Lung Hang

15

19

34

Kau Lung Hang Yun Ling.

26

20

46

Lung Tong Tsun ....

14

13

27

Nam She Po..........

17

16

33

Sha Lo Tung....

120

187

307

Ping Shan Tsai

70

75

145

Fung Yun....

60

73

133

Ha Hang

40

57

97

Shun Wan Wong Yu Tan

86

79

165

Shun Wan Hai Ti Ha

25

21

46

Shun Wan Wai Ha

47

48

95

Carried forward,

3,136

3,293 6,429

103 (35)

TAI PO DISTRICT,-Continued.

Village.

Mules.

Females. Total.

Brought forward,....

3,136

8,293

6,429

Shun Wan A Shan

25

26

51

Shun Wan Tseng T'au.............

21

27

48

Shun Wan Tung Tsai

14

29

43

Shun Wan Sha Wan

73

80

153

Shun Wan Au ...........

99

106

205

Shun Wan Chim Uk

75

79

154

Shun Wan Po Sam Pai

ΤΟ

86

156

Shun Wan Shan T'au Kok

66

61

127

Ting Kok

301

368

669

Ting Kok Lai Pik Shan

19

13

32

Ting Kok Shan Lia

25

25

50

Ting Kok Kak Hang

12

15

27

Tso Tsz T'in

65

68

183

Lung Mi..

109

101

210

Tai Mi Tuk

75

74

149

Ting Kok Long Ha

14

4

18

Mai Cha An Wang Lo Ha

3

5

Shing Mun Tai Wai.............

113

121

234

Shing Mun Ho Pai

57

43

100

Pak Shek Wo....................

11

5

16

Sheung Tun....

18

Il

29

Keung Ma Wo

2

4

6

Tung Ku Shek

2

I

3

Fu Yung Suan

24

14

38

Nam Fong To .......

16

9

25

Tai Pai Lik.

9

12

21

Shek T'au Pui.....

25

31

56

King Shan.....

13

13

Miscellaneous..

5

129

134

26

26

Total,

4,540

4,901

9,441

No. 2 LAUNCH DISTRICT.

Village.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Ping Chau-

Chau Mi

89

87

176

Tai Trong

148

110

258

Chau T'au

185

140

325

Tap Mun

168

85

253

Tan Ka Wan..

51

46

97

Chik Kang

57

59

116

Tam Long

120

108

228

Ham T'in

15

18

33

Sai Wan

16

17

33

Loug K'e

16

23

39

T'o Ka Ping

9

11

20

Uk Tau

10

17

27

Ko T'ong

31

46

80

Ha Yeung

33

37

70

Tai T'an

12

23

35

Pak Sha Au

52

65

117

Pak Sha Au Hoi Ha

31

33

67

Pak Sha Au Nam Shan

9

17

26

Lai Chi Chong

30

34

64

Ch'ung Mi....

32

34

66

Fui Yiu Kok..

10

8

18

Ch'ung Pui

70

68

138

Nai T’ong Kok

19

30

49

Wang Ling T'au

53

70

123

Tai Lung Tsun..............

8

10

18

Kam Chuk Pai

39

54

93

Siu Kau..

47

43

90

Tai Kau.....

38

35

73

Sheung Cheung

11

14

25

Pak Tam Au...........................

17

16

33

Pak A Lung Shun Wan

76

88

164

She Wan ....

10

8

18

Tang A Lung Shan Wan

53

50

103

Pak Lap

13

10

23

Miscellaneous

13

13

Total

1,597 1,514

3,111

103 (36)

TS'UN WAN DISTRICT.

Village.

Tsing I

Ts'un Wan

Ma Wan..

Tsai Wan

Kwai Chung

Males.

Females.

Total.

211

163

374

908

714

1,622

252

221

473

20

13

33

245

235

480

Total,.............

1,636 1,346

2,982

NEW TERRITORIES, NORTHERN DISTRICT.

NUMBER OF VILLAGES ENUMERATED FROM TAI Po.

District.

Sai Kung

Tai Po

Ping Shan

Sha Tau Kok

An Tau..

Sha Tin

Sheung Shui

No. of Villages.

126

102

73

67

62

62

59

34

13

No. 2 Launch

San T'in

Total No. of Villages,...

598

NEW TERRITORIES, NORTHERN DISTRICT.

VILLAGES WHICH HAVE A POPULATION OF

MORE THAN 500.

Name.

Males.

Females. Total.

San T'in.... Sheung Shu

781

818

1,599

750

691

1,441

Fan Ling

472

442

914

Wang Chau

395

427

822

Lin Fa Ti

375

395

770

Sheung Tsun.

339

361

700

Kat O......

386

322

708

Toi Shan

346

360

706

Ting Kok

301

368

669

Yun Long

458

101

559

Tam Shui Hang*

230

305

535

Nam Pin Wai

223

296

519

Lin Ma Hang

197

319

516

Sai Kung Market

320

192

512

Sha T'aŭ Kok District.

103 (37)

Table XIX (a).

Chinese Population of the New Territories (Southern District).

Villages.

Males. Females.

Total.

Lamma District :-

Man Tat,

23

46

69

Yeung Shu Ha,

16

16

32

Lower Tung 0,

14

19

33

Upper Tung

(,.

18

26

44

Picnic Bay,

4

3

7

Lo So Shing,.

30

45

75

Luk Chan,...

16

38

54

Lo Tik Wan,.

17

17

34

Tai Ping,

49

64

113

Pak Kok,

15

37

52

San Pak Kok,

8

12

20

Yeung Shu Lung,

5

8

13

Tai Wan,

52

81

133

Wang Lung,

17

33

50

Ha Mi,

4

...

1

Kau Lung,

2

4

6

Sha l'o,

12

16

28

Yeung Shu Wan,

29

30

59

Total,.

331

495

826

Lantao Island :-

Luk King,.

12

8

20

Cho Lok Kok,

55

22

77

Pak Mong,...

40

35

75

Ngau Ku Long,

44

41

85

Tai Ho,

32

28

60

.....

San Chun,

61

71

132

Yi Pak,

32

27

59

Tai Pak,

27

25

52

Luk I Tong,

33

43

76-

Tai I Tong,

20

20

40

Kau Chun,..

11

7

18

Pak Ngan Heung..

81

87

168

Shap Long,

53

42

95

Lo Uk,

18

19

37

Lo Wai,.

79

86

165

San Shek Wan,

22

24

46

Cheung Sha,

19

19

38

Tong Fuk,..

104

94

198

Shiu Hau,

109

105

214

Others,..

21

13

34

Carried forward,

873

816

1,689

103 (38)

Table XIX (a),—Continued.

Villages.

Males.

Females. Total.

Brought forward,

873

816

1,689

Tai O District (Lantao Island):-

Shek San,

25

25

50

Sai Wan,

33

16

49

Sam Wat,

18

11

29

Sha Lo Wan,...

143

127

270

Shek Pik,

198

165

363

Shek Tsai Po.

71

47

118

San Keung Shan,

37

29

66

Wang Hang,

49

41

90

San T'sun,

22

20

42

Leung Uk,

46

58

104

Nam Chung, Fun Pui, Sha Tin,

25

25

50

34

25

59

44

62

45

167

Tai 0,

Others,

Tota',..

1,159

1,089

2,248

27

16

43

1,949

1,739

3,688

Tung Chung District (Lantao

Island):-

Shan T'au,

Ngau Au,

81

76

157

30

35

65

Tung Shing, Nim U, Mok Ka,

16

19

35

10

8

18.

40

37

77

Shek Lau Po,.

37

34

71

Ha Ling Pi,

36

30

66

Shung Ling Pi,.

141

142

283

Pa Mi,

27

19

46

Ma Wan,

44

42

86

Ma Wan Chung,

26

25

51

Lung Chau T'au,

26

22

48

Wong Ka Wai,

23

24

47

Fong Un,

9

11

20

San Hing,

14

17

31

Shek Mun Kap,

52

45

97

Total,.........

612

586

1,198

Total Lantao Island,.

3,434

3,141

6,575

Soko Isles....

74

61

135

3,508

3,202

6,710

Cheung Chau District:-

Ch'eung Chau,

1,918

1,326

3,244

P'ing Chau,

434

208

642

Ni Kau Chau,

38

40

78

Total,...

2,390

1,574

3,964

103 (39)

Table XIX (a), -Continued.

Villages.

Kowloon City District :-

Males. Females. Total.

Kowloon City,

Tai Wan,

3,416

2,909

6,325

10

7

17

Ngau Tau Kok,

314

126

440

Sai Cho Wan,

35

23

58

Lyeemun,

142

113

255

Cha Ko Ling,

134

77

211

Total,.

4,051

3,255

7,306

Sham Shui Po District :-

Kau Pa Kong,

73

92

165

Ap Na Liu.

270

121

391

Tin Liu Ts'un,

253

84

337

Kai Tat Shu,.

107

87

194

Un Ling Tsai,

29

32

61

Ma Lung Kung,

200

171

371

(hu Liu,..

84

58

142

Pak Shu Long,

61

90

151

Sheung Li Uk,

38

30

68

So Uk.

84

73

157

Cheung Uk,

27

28

55

Ch'eung Sha Wan,

496

157

653

Wong Uk,

141

127

271

Sheung Chu Liu,

35

19

54

Lai Chi Kok,..

144

29

173

Sai Kok,

309

199

508

Mong Po Ting,...

143

127

270

Kowloon Tong,..

113

72

185

Kowloon Tsai,

154

131

285

Muk Kung Hom,

42

20

62

Tang Sheung Uk,

16

18

34

Kip Shek Mi,..

50

22

72

Others,

48

34

82

Sham Shui P'o,

1,028

549

1,577

Total,...

3,948

2,370

6,318

...

Table XX.

THE AGES OF THE NON-CHINESE RESIDENT CIVIL POPULATION.

Americans and other

British.

Europeans except

Portuguese.

Indians.

Other Non-Chinese.

TOTAL

Portuguese.

AGE.

Fe-

Fe-

Males.

Total.

Males.

Total. Males.

males.

males.

Fe-

males.

Total.

Males.

Fe-

males.

Total. Males.

Fe-

males.

Fe-

Total.

Males.

Total.

males.

103 (40)

Under 1 year,

53 52

105

12

13

25

35

36

71

17 18

35

12

1 and under

5

years,

159

162

321

38

36

74

146 129

275

63 49

112

39

5

10

155

140

295

49

>>

50

99

""

153 164

317

70

64

134

28

50

10

15

84

90

""

174

54

50

104

152 164

316

45

44

89

27

33

2388

19

124

131

255

77

445

414

859

78

455

468

923

60

362

381

743

15

20

66

95

161

"

40

58

98

117 114

231

68

37

105

77

48

125

368

352

720-

20

25

132

104

,,

11

236

82

76

158

100 111

21.1

261 56

317

152

155

307

727

502

1,229

25

30

309

175

>>

""

484

131

81

212

92 116

208

337 56

393

177

130

307

1,046

558

1,604

30

35

341

""

200

"

541

100

72

172

89

105

194

266

44

310

114

65

179

910

486

1,396

35

40

267

139

>>

""

406

93

61

154

61

99

160

155

35

190

73

50

123

649

384

1,033

40

45

177

84

261

58

""

""

50

108

70

78

148

99 20

119

41

30

71

445

262

707

45

50

101

56

157

,,

""

56

23

79

32

65

97

53 10

63

30

11

41

272

165

437

50

55

77

"

""

28

105

21

15

36

43

65

108

31

37

25

11

36

197

125

322

55

60

24

10

*

""

34

19

35

15

41

56

20

5

13

77

81

158

60

65

11

"

23

23

23

47

70

17

141

65

70

a

19

14

У

37

46

15

12

41

55

96

75

4

3

13

14

"

75 years and over,

"}

27

3

1

4

22

22

44

3

1

5

5

16

21

1

2

1

1

2

Age not stated,

185

251

436

18

27

2

2

50

51

4

4

8

осло

12

22

34

259

265

524

Total,

2,157

1,604 3,761 *97 627

1,424 1,157 1,401

2,558

1,548 464

2,012

817

653

1,470

6,476 4,749 11,225

!

,

{

Table XXI.

"HE AGES OF THE CHINESE POPULATION.

3.

New Kowloon.

New Territories, Islands.

New Territories, Northern District.

Floating Population.

Mercantile Marine.

Total.

Total.

Males.

Fe-

males.

Total.

Males.

Fe-

males.

Total.

Males. Females.

Total.

Males. Females. Total. Males.

Fe-

males.

Total. Males. Females. Total.

85

173

5

10

15

4

7

11

26

59

85

39

30

69

,327

2,590

587

531

1,118

389

419

808

3,330

2,891

6,221

2,332

2,265

4,597

567

12,712

.795

3,481 861

784

1,645 523

622

1,145

4,472

3,693

8,165

2,971

3,101

6,072

1,723

3.592 862

650

1,512 503 508

1,011

4,008 3,294

7,302

2,969

2,673 5,642

17,895

1,262

4,708 | 1,021

1,821

575

711

1,875

706

1,561

741

319

587

402

493 1,514 538 446 7,120 886 413 1,299 681 517 2,163 7,274 803 897 1,200 669 457 4,944 2,112 7,056 844 469 1,313 432

3,744 1,568 5,312 596 365 370

281 8,355 1,303 4,653 485 340 786 2,661 319 241 2,302 275 989 142 177

984

651:

961

533

903

825

457 316

773

8,207 2,750 5,957 3,513 2,210 5,723 1,198 3.134 3,062 6,196 4,882 2,035 6,917 1,126 2,789 2,992 5,781 3,911 1,646 5,557

1,083 2,537 2,799 5,336 4,034 1,493 5,497 2,893 2,541 4,934 2,747 1,187 3,934 1,979 2,127 4,106

613

12,026 24.738 16,792 17,174 33,966 16.539 34,434 31,290 12,913 44,203 40,636 15,391 56,027

1,180

36,96)

15,651 52,611

35,375

15,495 50,870

26,413

11,829

38,242

2,542

1,077

3,619

28,43 £

10,504

33,939

560 368

249

617

1,579

1,709 3,288

1,373

715

2,088

13,479

6,717

20,196

225

500 336

272

608

1,425 1,641 3,066

1,368

686

2,054

11,613

6,810

18,423

319 228

185

413

1,081

1,319 2,400

704

442

1,146

5,942 4,075 10,017

332

530

443

973 158 202

360 160 183

343

954

1,387

2,341

623

485

1,108

4,917

4,288 9,155

147

207

233

440

76 125

201

93

122

215

658

1,056

1,714

252

256

508

2,151 2,46%

4,619

97

175

148

323

46

122

168

59

97

156

428

679

1,107

182

200

382

1,349

1,683

3,032

57

68

111

179

33

81

114

37

69

106

288

572

860

93

151

244

753

1,285

2,038

42

42

95

168

263

5,551

240 5,791

6,549

426

6,975

106

35,850

18,023

53,8737,999 | 5,625 13,624 6,229 5,271

11,500

34,393 34,739 69,122

31,505

20,652

55,157 5,551

2405,791 288,827 |155,837 | 444,664

103 (42)

Table XXII.

Religions of the British, European, American and

Portuguese Population.

Religion.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Agnostic,

43

9

52

Atheist,

2

2

Baptist,

24

20

44

Christian (sect not stated),

30

14

44

Christian Science,

9

10

19

Church of England,

1,112

894

2,006

Church of Ireland,

1

2

3

Church of Scotland,

17

7

24

Congregationalist,

33

21

54

Dutch Reformed Church,

Evangelical,

Free Thinkers,

9

French Liberal,..........

1

...

Greek Church,

8

Hebrew,.

136

95

..

Independent Chapel,.

1

Lutheran,

139

Methodist,

26

Nonconformist,

6

: : :

32

3

10

9

1

8

16

231

1

70

209

32

58

6

Pentecostal,

1

1

2

Plymouth Brethren,

3

2

5

Presbyterian,..

316

79

395

Protestant,

270

122

392

Quaker,

1

1

2

Roman Catholic,

1,603

1,901

3,504

Spiritualist,

1

1

Unitarian,

2

2

4

Universalist,

1

1

Wesleyan,

70

55

125

Not stated,.

238

282

520-

Total,.

4,111 3,632

7,743

I

Religions of the Asiatic and African Non-Chinese Population

(except Indians).

Religion.

Males.

Female 3. Total.

Atheist,

1

1

Baptist,

I

1

...

Buddhist,

488

378

866

Christian (sect not stated),

5

4

9

Church of England,

1

1

2

Free Thinker,

2

1

3

Greek Church,

Mahomedan,

1

1

126

130

256

Methodist,

6

1

7

Presbyterian,

4

7

11

Protestant,

5

3.

8

Roman Catholic,

126

101

227

Shinto,

19

25

Not stated,

32

Total,.....

Note. The Religions

found in Tab

103 (43)

Table XXIII.

Religions of the Chinese Population of the Colony.

Religion.

Males. Females. Total.

Confucian,

207,622

90,605 298,227

Animist,

70,442

58,816 129,258

Buddhist,

1,210

1,754

2,964

Taoist,

378

599

977

Church of England,

1,482

1,810

3,292

Roman Catholic,

1,115

1,551

2,666

Mahomedan,

115

135

250

Not stated,

912

327 1,239

Total,...

283,276 155,597 | 438,873

Table XXIV.

Married State of the Non-Chinese Resident Civil Population (persons of 15 years of age and upwards).

British, European and American

Males. Females. Total.

Population-

Married,

Single,

Widowed,

919

802

1,721

1,242

495

1,737

44

88

132

Portugese Population-

Married,

Single,

Widowed,

323

374

697

312

355

667

31

179

210

The Rest of the Non-Chinese

Population (except In-

dians)-

Married,

246

200

446

Single,

444

282

726

Widowed,

12

37

49

The Married State of the Indian Population will be found

in Table 41.

108 (44)

Table XXV.

Marriage Statistics for the British, American, European and Portuguese Population.

400 British Females.

Average Age

at

Average Duration of Marriage.

Average number of children born

alive per marriage.

Marriage.

24.6 years.

9.25 years.

117 American and European

Females.

Average Age

1.89.

at

Marriage.

23.3 years.

Average Age

at

Marriage.

Average Duration

of Marriage.

9.6 years.

235 Portuguese Females.

Average Duration

of

Marriage.

13.56 years.

22.5 years.

Average number of children born alive per marriage.

1.81.

Average number of children born alive per marriage.

3.9.

Table XXVI.

Married State of the Chinese Land Population (except that of the New Territories, Northern and Southern Districts).

Males. Females. Total.

Married,....

Single,

Widowed,

Total,..

115,207

46,016 | 161,223

59,522

13,997

73,519

2,065

6,767

8,832

176,794

66,780 243,574

Infant Marriages (included in above totals).

Males.

112

Females. 118

Total.

230

Concubines (included in total of Married Females).

1,290

Table XXVII.

Married State of the Chinese Floating Population.

Males.

Females. Total.

Married,..

13,400

8,772 22,172

Single,

12,859

2,888 15,747

Widowed,

858

1,331 2,189

Total,...

27,117 12,991 40,108

103 (45)

Included in the above totals are:

Males. Females. Total.

Infant Marriages,

Concubines,

30

36

66

9

...

Table XXVIII.

Married State: New Territories (Northern District).

Married,

Single,

Widowed,

Total,......

Males. Females. Total.

{

15,309

18,335 33,644 6.868 3,238 10,106 2,201 5,150 7,351

24,378

26,723 51,101

*This total includes 129 Concubines.

Infant Marriages (included in above Married Totals).

Males. Females.

881

902

Total. 1,783

Married State: New Territories (Southern District).

Married,

Single,

Widowed,

Total,..

Land Population.

Males. Females. Total.

6,347

4,100* 10,447 3,820 1,855 5,675

416 1,201

1,617

10,583*

7,156

17.739

* Including 18 Concubines.

Infant Marriages (included in above totals).

Males. Females. Total.

116

115

231

Table XXIX.

Degree of Education of the Non-Chinese Population (except Indians): Persons 10 years old and over.

British, American European and Portuguese Population.

Enceph

Able to Read and Write,

Unable to Read and Write, Not stated,

Males.

Females. Total.

3,299

2,516

5,815

12

104

116

190

251

441

103 (46)

The Rest of the Non-Chinese Population (except Indians).

Males.

Females. Total.

Able to Read and Write,

561

306

867

Unable to Read and Write,

146

239

385

Not stated,

2

5

7

The Degree of Education of the Indian Population will be found in Table 41.

Table XXX.

Degree of Education of the Chinese Land Population of the Colmy (except New Territories): Persons 10 years

old and over.

Males. Females. Total.

Able to Read and Write, Unable to Read and Write,.

154,878

17,037 171,915

30,750

56,872 87,622

Tutal,...

185,628

73,909 259,537

Degree of Education of the Chinese Boat Population of the Colony (10 years old and over).

Males. Females.

Total.

Able to Read and Write,

' 4,416

127 4,543

Unable to Read and Write,

24,747

15,129

39,876

Degree of Education of the Chinese Population of the

New Territories, Northern District.

Males. Females.

Total.

Able to Read and Write,

* 14,162

235

14,397

Unable to Read and Write,.

11,517

25,664

37,181

Degree of Education of the Chinese Population of the

New Territories, Southern District.

Males. Females.

Total.

Able to Read and Write,

Unable to Read and Write,

• 7,006 4,646

231

7,237

7,760

12,406

Table XXXI,

The Infirmities of the Chinese Population of the whole Colony.

Males. Females.

Total.

Totally Blind,

101

124

225

Totally Deaf,

51

43

94

Totally Dumb,

30

19

49

Feeble Minded

8

1

9

Total,....

190

187

377

103 (47)

Table XXXII.

The Occupations of the British, American, European and

Portuguese Population.

1.-Government Service:

Pilot

Police

153

Gaol Staff

19

Others....

265

Marine Superintendents Seamen, &c.

9.---Manufacturing and In-

1

5

39

2.-Foreign Government Ser-

dustrial:

vice ..

38

Employed in-

3.-Legal, Literary, Educ-

Sugar Refineries..

36

ational and Religious:

Cotton Mills

1

Barristers and Solicitors

35

Cement Works

7

Lawyers' Clerks.......................

14

Brick Works

2

Journalists, &c.

23

Saw Mills

1

Schoolmasters...

44

Laundries

3

Clergy and Missionaries 73

Gas Works

2

4. -Medical :-

Doctors

27

Medical Students

4

Dentists

6

Veterinary Surgeon

1

5.-Engineering, Ship Build-

ing, &c.:

Mechanical Engineers

12

Electrical Engineers

30

Civil Engineers

34

Mining Engineers

2

General Engineers

53

Apprentices

12

Breweries

Tobacco Factories Rope Works ..... Miscellaneous

10.-Printing, &c. :--

Compositors

Printers

Proof Readers.... 11.-General, Shop Keeping,

&c.:

Barbers Tailors....

Jewellers.....

4

10

420

272

11

Boiler Makers, &c.

30

Confectioner

1

Shipwrights, &c.

42

Drapers

10

Overseers, &c....

30

Book Sellers

6

Miscellaneous

36

Tobacconists

6

6. Commericial :-

Chemists

General Merchants...... 124

Grocers

General Agents and

Miscellaneous

2-2

1

Managers

20

12. Hotels, &c. :—

Insurance Agents and

Hotel Keepers...

2

Managers

12

Hotel Runners

4

Bankers

18

Publicans

14

Commission Agents

15

Bar Tenders

4

Brokers

36

.....

Accountants

72

13. Musical Theatrical and

Artistic:-

Clerks and Assistants

810

Miscellaneous

Commercial Travellers

7.—Architecture and Build-

Architects

ing :-

Surveyors

8

Actors

Pianists

42

Organist

Artist

2

1

1

Building Contractors . Miscellaneous

8.-Maritime :--

2422

Teachers of Music......

14. Miscellaneous :-

Private Means

21

Government Pensioners

3

Garage Owner

1

Master Mariners...

48

Chauffeur

1

Marine Engineers

64

Undertaker

· 1

Marine Surveyors

5

Occupations not stated

55

Bandmasters

agers

Bankers

Brokers

Commission Agents

5

Clerks, &c.

163

Trade Commissioner

1

General Contractor

1

103 (48)

Table XXXIII.

The Occupations of the Non-Chinese Population, other than Europeans, Americans and Indians.

Government Service :--

Clerks, &c.

Overseers, Foremen, &c...

Foreign Government Service .. Engineering:-

General Engineer

Commercial -

General Merchants.....

General Agents and Man-

877

Carpenters

1

22

Private Means

Shoemakers..

Tailors....

Printers

Manufacturies, &c. :—

Cigar Makers

Soap Makers

Watchmen

Journalists, &c.

Doctor ....

Medical Students

Dentists

Veterinary Surgeon

Music and Art:-

-

.....

69+

13

16

22075

6

17

4

12

Medical:-

1621

Tallymen..

32

Artists

Miscellaneous :—

Violinist

Cinematograph Operator...

1

Pianists

CO - CO

3

3

Chauffeurs

Z

Teacher of Music

1

Chefs

2

Religious :-

Billiard Markers..

Domestic Servants .................

2

51

Boarding House Keepers..

12

Runners.

2

12

Tattooers...

11

Mahomedan Priests

Budhist Priests.....

Legal and Educational ;—

School Teachers....

Solicitor

4

..

2

4

1

Masseurs

2

Law Clerks..

2

Shop Keeping, &c. :—

Maritime, &c. :-

Bakers.

2

Seamen, &c.

42

Barbers

18

Marine Engineers

Curio Dealers

20

Not stated

58

Washermen

12

Females:-

Photographers

10

Domestic Servants...

42

General Shop Keepers

29

Sisters of Charity

13

Shop Assistants

10

Dressmakers

16

Jewellers.....

8

Private Means

Grocers

6

Washerwomen

3

3

Chemists

Trades, &c. :-

Bamboo Workers

The Occupations of the Indian Population will be found in Table 41.

Tattooers

School Teachers..

228 230-322

{

7

103 (49)

Table XXXIV.

Occupations of the Chinese Population of the Colony (except that of the New Territories, North and South).

MALES.

1.-Administration :-

9.-Building:

Policemen,

560

Carpenters,

6,378

Watchmen,

369

Matsheds,

204

Excise Officers,

63

Stone-cutters,

1,532

Government Employés,

619

Builders,

1,045

2.-Defence:-

Masons,

1,215

Army,

3

Earth Coolies,...

262

Navy,

42

Painters,

1,594

3.-Service of other States:-

Miscellaneous,

427

Civil,

997

10.--Vehicles and Vessels :-

4. Provision, &c. of Cattle, &c. :—

Cattle and Pig Breeding,......

Boat Builders,

772

222

Ships and Boats,

26,847

5.- Agriculture:-

Carts, &c.,

2,303

Market Gardeners,

382

Miscellaneous,

2,107

Farmers,

1,060

Miscellaneous,

6.-Personal, Household and Sani-

35

Oil Skimmers...

2

....

Ground Nut Sheller,

11

tary Service:-

Cooks,

Personal Servants,

Washermen,

Barbers,

Gardeners,

Vegetable Sellers,

68

4,769

Fisherwomen,

7

5,716

Sugar Employees,

513

671

Dairy Employees,

52

2,188

Market Lessee,

1

421

Non-Domestic Entertainment,

49

Restaurants,

1,350

Sanitation,

1,921

Rice and Oil Dealers,

Match Box Makers,

Artificial Flower Makers,

Mat Bag Stitchers,

31

7

13

572

Scavengers, &c.,

315

Tailors,

1,650

Miscellaneous,

.....

1,488

Weavers,

10

7.-Provision of Food, Drink, &c., :

Foreign Hat Makers,

109

Vegetables,

1,894

Grass Shoe Makers,.

70

Fruit,

779

Rope Spinners,

113

Opium,

139

Fish,

....

3,966

Bakers,

210

Poultry,

190

Bamboo Splitters,

Cotton Mill Employees,

11. Articles of Supplementary re-

quirement :-

25

5

Grain and Flour,.

215

Furniture,

334

Rice,

833

Toys and Curios,

58

Tobacco,

609

Paper,

665

Pork,

646

Books,

321

Eggs,

219

Pictures,

160

Wine,

367

Tools and Machinery,..

1,774

Sugar,

396

Watches,

337

··

Beef,. Oil,

286

Arms,

88

264

....

Carving,

160

Tea,

572

Foreign Goods Dealers,

1,403

Chandlers,

138

Rice Pounders,

391

Music,

Miscellaneous,

Dress,

98

258

....

12.-Textile, Fabrics and Dress :-

...

1,780

Miscellaneous,

3,380

Cotton,..

125

8.-Light, Firing and Forage :-

Firewood,

Coal,......

Gas Lighters,

Miscellaneous,

555

Silk,..

370

207

1,561

Hemp, Jute and Coir,

Miscellaneous,

13.-Metals and Precious Stones:

Tin, Zinc and Lead,

58

108

1,206

557

Brass,

484

103 (50)

Table XXXIV,—Continued.

Precious Metals and Stones,...

Iron and Steel,

Gold, Silver and Stones,...... Miscellaneous,.....

11.-Glass and Earthenware :-

Glass and Chinaware,.

Earthen and Stoneware...

MALES, -Continued.

662

20.-Learned and Artistic Professions:-

1,625

Religion,

47

760

Students,..

11,296

84

Literature,

271

Law,

34

165

Medicine,.

563

109

Engineering and Survey,

1,770

Miscellaneons,

35

Other Sciences,

37

15.-Wood, Cane and Matting

Music, &c.,

51

Wood,

928

Pictorial Art, and Sculpture,

137

Cane and Matting,

1,415

Midwife,

1

Miscellaneous,

116

Teachers,

446

16.-Drugs, Gums, &c :-

Doctors,

520

Druggists, &c.,

755

Theatrical,

30

Photographic Materials,

255

Miscellaneous,

98

Priestesses,

Preachers,

18

20

17.-Leather, Hides, &c. :-

European Boot Makers,

Chinese Leather Boot Makers,

359

1,324

Miscellaneous,

159

Temple Keepers,

Fortune Tellers,

Music,

34

.....

18.-Commerce :--

General Merchandise,

14,964

Brokerage and Agency,

2,314

Money, &c.....

591

Compradores,

579

Dealing, Unspecified,

14,126

Shop Assistants,

10,050

19. Transport and Storage:-

Storage,

162

Joss Stick Makers,

Miscellaneous,

22.-Earthwork and General Labour:-

General Labourers,

23.- Indefinite and Disreputable

Means of Subsistence :-

Disreputable,

Indefinite,

24. Independent of Labour,

Beggars,

209

62

55

31

33,333

Water,

193

Messages,...

247

Miscellaneous,

1,261

Property Owners,

Prisoners,

Pensioner,

29

32,128

312

4

63

508

1

FEMALES.

4. Provision, &c. of Cattle :-

Cattle and Pig Treeding,

7.- Provision of Food, Drink, &c. :—

84

Tea Pickers,

54

Ginger Scrapers,

43

5.-Agriculture,

81

Oil Skimmers,

58

Market Gardeners,

66

Ground Nut Sheller,

74

Farmers,

701

Vegetable Sellers,

163

6.- Personal,

Household and

Sanitary Service:-

Hair Dressers,

492

Washerwomen,

Servants,

471

Market Lessees,

4,515

Wet Nurses,

138

Cooks,

369

House-keepers,

71

Fisherwomen,

Rice Grinders,

Dairy Employees,

Rice and Oil Dealer,

S.-Light, Firing and Forage

Firewood Sellers,.

Match Box Makers,

3,491

Sugar Employees,

207

9

33

10

101

13

36

Nurses,

451

Sanitation,.....

435

Match Makers,

Lantern Makers,

22

13

:

1

Embroiderers,.

2,625

Pillow Makers,

Seamstresses,

217

Tailors,

490

103 (51)

Table XXXIV,—Continued.

11.-Articles of Supplementary

Requirement:-

Paper Rollers...

Artificial Flower Makers,

1.-Textile, Fabrics and Dress :

FEMALES,-Continued.

18.-Commerce:-

Dealing, Unspecified,..

62 19. Transport and Storage

20.-Learned and Artistic Profes-

Water,

sions:---

Midwives,

Teachers,.

Doctors,

22

86

Spinners,.

42

Weavers,

58

Foreign Hat Makers,...

51

Nuns, Priestesses, Preachers,

Grass Shoe Makers,.

107

Temple Keepers,.

Rope Spinners,

16

Joss Stick Makers,

Bamboo Splitters...

6

Fortune Tellers,.

Cotton Mill Employees,

Students,

Miscellaneous:-

22.-Earthwork and General

Tobacco,

10

Labour :-

Eggs,

76

General Labourers,..

Tin, Zinc and Lead,...

1

Masons,

....

Ships and Boats,

17,034

Glass and Chinaware,...

2

23.—Indefinite and Disreputable

Means of Subsistence:

Wine,

16

Medicine,

75

15.-Wood, Cane and Matting:-

24.-Independent of Labour:-

Basket Weavers...

30

Mat Bag Menders,

11

Mat Bag Stitchers,.

20

Disreputable,

Indefinite,

Beggars,

Property Owner,. Prisoners,

Rattan Workers,.

43

Table XXXV.

The Occupations of the Chinese Population of the New Territories, (Northern District).

Males.

1.-Government Service :-

Police

6

Wine Sellers... Fishermen

22

.1,851

Watchmen

11

Fishmongers

74

Excise Officers

15

Oil Sellers

11

Government Clerks, &c.

26

Tea Sellers......

15

2.-Breeding, &c. of Cattle :-

Foreign Goods Dealers

4

Cattle and Pig Breeders

94

Rice Pounders.....

21

3. Agriculture:-

Miscellaneous

535

Market Gardeners

187

6.-Building, &c. :—

Farmers

....13,934

Carpenters

122

Miscellaneous

415

Matshed Builders

6

4.- Domestic Service, &c. :—

Stone-cutters

184

Cooks

98

Scaffolding Makers

3

Domestic Servants

12

Masons

145

Gardeners

6

Earth Coolies

27

Barbers

116

Brick Makers

14

Scavengers

4

Miscellaneous

11

5. Provision of Food, Drink

&c. :-

Vegetable Dealers

Fruit Sellers

Opium Sellers..................

Bakers......

Poultry Dealers

Grain and Flour Dealers

Rice Dealers

Tobacco Dealers...

21

26

23

7

6

4

5

70

18

7.-Boat Building and Sea-

faring:-

Boat Builders

Seamen, &c.

Shipwrights

Fitters

452

296

16

11

167

4

5

8.-Textile, Fabrics and Dress:-

Tailors, &c...................

Hemp Dealers.....

Miscellaneous

816

181

43

195

70

18

9

7

41

12

20

3,087

1,485

248

3,136

67,804

4

195

18

+

103 (52)

Table XXXV,-Continued.

9.-Metals and Precious

Stones :-

Tinsmiths

Males.

13. Religion, &c.:- Priests

Peachers

11

11

Jewellers....

Ironmongers

Silversmiths

Miscellaneous

10.-Glass and Earthenware:-

Glass Manufacturers

Earthenware Dealers

Miscellaneous

11.-Wood, Cane and Matting:-

Cane, Wood, Basket and

Matting Dealers

Monk

41

Necromancers

22

95

Students..

Teachers.

1

15. Medical:-

10

Doctors

4

1

17

14.-Education, &c. :-

.1,729

169

86

16.-Engineering :-

Mechanics, &c.

9

17.-General Labourers

...... 246

....

28

18. Miscellaneous :--

12,--Commerce :-

General Merchants

Mendicants...

6

195

Launch Runner

Pawnbrokers

Shop Assistants..

Shopkeepers (dealing

unspecified)............ 513

4

Musician

1

443

Fortune Teller

1

Druggists ....

18

Boot and Shoe Makers

7

Females.

224

24

12

1.-Breeding, &c., of Cattle :- Cattle and Pig Breeding Cowherds

2

AgriculturalLabourers 13,973

2.-Agriculture :-

3.-Domestic Service, &c. :—

12

Domestic Servants....

4. Provision of Food, Drink,

Fisherwomen

&c. :-

75

Wine Distiller..

1

Grocers

4

Tea Dealers...

2

Wine Dealers

6

Hawkers.

Eating House Keeper...

Bean and Curd Dealers

3

...

7.-Textile, Fabrics and

Dress :-

Seamstresses

Dressmakers

8. Wood, Cane and Matting,

&c. :-

Basket Weavers.........

Joss Stick Makers.. Plasterers

Carpenters

9.—Learned and Religious

Professions

Teachers Nuns

....

Temple Keeper

Astrologer

2222

6

13

1

1

1

33

Students

Necromancers

2

Labour :-

128

Marriage Middlewoman

10.-Earthwork and General

11.-Commerce (unspecified):-

A

General Labourers

Shopkeeper.

Rent Collectors

Tea House Keepers Druggists

5.-Light, Firing and Forage:-

Charcoal Burners

Grass Cutters

6.-Articles of Supplementary

Requirement:-

Embroiderers

Table XXXVI.

50

1

6

The Occupations of the Chinese Population of the New

Territories (Southern District).

!

MALES.

1.- Administration :-

4.-Personal Household and

Police,......

31

Sanitary Service :-

Watchmen,

9

Cooks,

55

Other Government Em-

Domestic Servante,.

4

ployees, .....

5

Barbers,

97

2. Provision, &c. of Cattle:--

Restaurant Keepers...

27

Cattle and Pig Breeding, 119

3.-Agriculture :-

Market Gardeners,...... 292

Farmers, Miscellaneous,

2,709

Sanitation,

43

5.-Provision of Food Drink,

I

&c. :-

18

Vegetables, Fruit,

19

15

I

103 (53)

Table XXXVI,—Continued.

Males.

Fish, Bread,

.1,580

35

Poultry,

4

Grain and Flour,

11

Rice,

43

Tobacco,

14

Pork,

8

Wine,

30

Oil,

1

Tea,

26

Miscellaneous,

6.-Light, Firing and

538

11.--Metals and Precious

Forage :-

ting :-

Coal,

63

7.-Buildings, &c. :-

Carpenters,

333

Matshed Builders,

6

Stone-cutters,

441

Builders,

Masons,

Earth Coolies,..

Painters,

Miscellaneous,

རཋ

15

119

57

13

104

8.-Vehicles and Vessels:-

Boat Builders,..........

145

Ships and Boats,.

180

Carts, &c.,

2

Miscellaneous,

9.-Articles of Supplement-

52

Miscellaneous,

12. Glass and Earthen-

ware :-

Glass and Chinaware, Miscellaneous,

13.-Wood, Cane and Mat-

Wood,.................

Cane and Matting,................ Miscellaneous,

14.-Drugs, Gums, &c. :—

Druggists, &c.,

Miscellaneous,

15.-Leather, Hides, &c. :—

2

**- *8 2 0" 6*2

European Boot Makers, 12 Chinese Leather Boot

Makers,

Miscellaneous,

16.-Commerce :-

General Merchants,

19

3

Brokerage and Agency, Foreign Goods Dealers, 20 Dealing, unspecified,

17. Transport and Storage:-

Stones :-

Brass,

86

Precious Metals and

Stones,..

49

Iron and Steel,

119

17

403

Water,....

30

ary Requirement :-

Messages,

1

Paper,

27

18.-Learned, Artistic

and

Books,

3

Religious Professions:-

Tools and Machinery,...

48

Priests, &c.,

11

Watches,....

10

Students,..

771

Miscellaneous,

10. Textile, Fabrics and

9

Teachers,

74

Doctors, &c.,

46

Dress :-

Surveyors, &c.,

56

Dress,

59

Cotton,

Silk,..

Miscellaneous,

57

8-25

Musicians, &c.,

5

1

Artists, &c.,

2

19.-General Labour :-

General Labourers, ...1,446

FEMALES.

27

Ι

1

12

4

1

1. Provision, &c. of Cattle:-

Cattle and Pig Breeders, 114

2.-Agriculture

---

Market Gardeners,...... 26 Farmers,...... Grass Cutters,

3.-Domestic Service, &c. :-

Hairdressers,

1,680

13

3

Washerwoman,

Domestic Servants,

Cooks,

13

Nurses,

crão ∞m co

8

5

4.-Provision of Food, Drink,

6. Textile, Fabrics and

Dress :-

Seamstresses,

Dressmakers,

Net-maker,

Rope Spinners,

Grass Shoe Makers,

7.-Wood, Cane and Matting:-

Basket Weaver,

Rattan Worker,

8.-Commerce :—

Silversmiths,.

Dealers (unspecified),...

9.-Transport and Storage:-

Water,

10. Learned and Religious

Professions :—

Midwife,

2

27

3

&c. :-

Bean Curd Seller,

1

Fisherwomen,

25

Students,

21

Fishmonger,

Nuus,

Rice Grinder,

1

Preacher,

}

Hawker,

1

Necromancer,

1

Rice and Oil Dealers,....... 16

11.-General Labour;

General Labourers,,

253

5. —Articles of Supplementary

Requirement :-

Embroiderers,

12. Miscellaneous :-

10

Disreputable, Beggar,

11

1

Table XXXVII.

The Number of Non-Chinese Children in Victoria, the Peak and Old Kowloon between the ages of 6 and 15 years inclusive.

AGE.

VICTORIA.

PEAK.

BRITISH.

EUROPEANS, &C.

PORTUGUESE.

INDIANS & OTHER NON-CHINESE.

TOTAL.

BRITISH.

EUROPEANS, &C.

TOTAL.

Males.

13

21

31

12

23

24

28

52

11

14

16

18

34

12

26

34

60

25

26

8

13

18

31

10

29

24

53

12

18

188

25

60

74 134

51

71

86 157

30

57

67

124

9

17

12

29

11

21

24

45

18

18

33

60

58

118

9 10 10 0

10

12

7

19

12

20

24

24

48

16

33

65

55

120

11

8

10

18

10

28

28

56

12

14

26

52

58

110

1

12

9

B

22

19

34

83

67

10

13

23

60

71

131

13

13

19

32

17

26

22

48

12

16

28

60

65

125

2

14

11

10

21

14

18

19

31

50

10

17

51

55 106

15

9

9

18

14

21

16

20

36

22

10

32

61

16 107

Total,

121 137 268 86

75 161 247 268 515

143 155 298

697

635 1,232

12

13

25

15

OLD KOWLOON.

BRITISH.

EUROPEANS, &c.

PORTUGUESE.

INDIANS & OTHER

NON-CHINESE.

TOTAL.

AGE.

6

12

17

7

13

19

8

9

18

618

N

13

17

10

12

11

א co

...

2

12

7

13

...

14

1

15

1

3

WTON WA - O~~

Total,.

67

56

123

15

12

27

51

Females.

Total.

J

Males.

Females.

Total.

Males

:

.1

:

6232

Females.

Total.

10

5

6

1

1

1

2

2

1

1

2 2

:

2

2

I

6

9

15

19

34

GRAND TOTAL.

MALES.

FEMALES.

TOTAL.

TOBD to 69 00 to M N

15

13

14

10

5

10

12

~*, 12+42 -

10

තපස

3

28

15

43

94

93

187

25

43

98

107

205

36

79

87

166

36

83

76

159

27

79

69

148

25

68

68

136

21

68

85

153

10

26

70

83

153

10

19

60

67

127

1

5

13

18

67

59

126

59

50 101

21

22

43

154 140 294

766

794

1,560

The Number of Children described as being Students!

Nationality.

Males.

Females.

Total.

British,

127

94

221

Europeans, Americans, etc.........................

72

56

128

Portuguese,

159

194

.363

Indians and others,

108

40

148

Total,

466

384

850

- 103 (54) —

103 (55)

Table XXXVIII.

The Number of Chinese Children between the Ages of 5 and 14 years (inclusive).

Age,

Males.

Females.

Total.

5 to 9 years (inclusive), 10 to 14

16,812 17,174 33,986 17,915 16,549 34,464

Total,.....

34,727 33,723 68,450

The Number of Chinese who described themselves as Students.

Males. Females. Total.

Victoria and Peak,

9,363

2,600

11,963

Old Kowloon,

1,622

407

2,029

Hongkong Villages,

210

75

285

New Territories (North),.

1,729

33

1,762

(South),

771

21

792

Floating Population,.

101

5

106

Total,

13,796

3,141

16,937

Table XXXIX.

The Number of Chinese Families in Victoria and Old Kowloon.

Victoria,...

1901. .25,123

1906.

1911.

25,974

27,073

Old Kowloon,

6,718 Not stated.

9,500

Table XL.

Number of Boats and Junks, &c., licensed in the Colony in

Trading Junke,

the year 1911.

Fishing

Passenger Boats,

...

Other

97

Cinder

""

Cargo

>>

Water

2.434

13,176

1,291

1,052

347 1,208

71 1,854

Village

Fish Drying Hulks,

Lighters,

65

143

21,641

Licensed Steam Launches,

120

Private

"1

Government

35

Motor Boats,

123

40

8

Total,

21,932

103 (56)

Table XLI.

REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF THE INDIAN POPULATION OF

HONGKONG TAKEN ON 20TH MAY, 1911.

Census Office,

Hongkong, 24th September, 1911.

1. The total Indian Population, Civil and Military, is 2,581 Males and 468 Females- Total 3,049.

2. The only Troops included in the Census are the 8th Rajputs and one Company of the Hongkong-Singapore Battalion, Royal Garrison Artillery.

The 126th Baluchistan Infantry and the remaining Companies of the Hongkong- Singapore Battalion, Royal Garrison Artillery, have been already included in the Census of British India. Their strength, including Followers, is 1,182 Native Officers and men.

3. The bulk of the civil male population are natives of the Punjab. They consist of Sikhs and Mussulmans in about equal numbers. They are nearly all employed either in the Government Service, or as Watchmen. The latter are to be found in the service of nearly all the foreign Commercial Companies, Shops and Hotels. A considerable number are also employed by Chinese. The Sikh watchmen are, almost to a man, professional usurers. They are largely patronized by the Chinese and Portuguese, and many of them are, from an Indian standpoint, wealthy men.

4. There is an important commercial community consisting almost entirely of Parsees, and natives of Bombay and Scinde. Some of the business houses are of very old standing. The Indian shopkeepers are principally drapers and silk dealers.

5. The majority of the permanent residents in the Colony are Mohammedans from elsewhere than the Punjab. They number roughly about 700, and have made the Colony their home. 264 males and 279 females are returned as having been born in Hongkong. This number includes a certain number of children belonging to Punjabis who have brought their families here.

6. 115 Punjabis have returned themselves as being unemployed. They are all either prospective watchmen, or men on the way to or returning from America. The Indian popula- tion of the Colony is considerably affected from time to time by the rush of emigrants to Canada and the United States. At the time the present Census was taken, this emigration was practically at a standstill.

7. The local Sikhs are nearly all Jats.

Most of them preferred describing themselves as belonging to the Khalsa, rather than giving the name of their tribe or caste.

There are

a certain number of low caste Sikhs, such as Chimbas, Tarkhans and Nais, but no Mazbis or Labanas.

8. The following Tables are attached to this Report:-

I.-The Religions of the Indian Civil and Military Population.

II. The Indian Civil Population.

III.-Birth Places of (1) the Civil and (2) the Military Population.

IV. The Mohammedam Civil and Military Population according to Caste.

V.-The Birth Places of the Punjabi Civil Community (Sikhs and Mussulmans).

VI. The Married State of the Civil and Military Population (persons aged 15 years

and over).

VII. The Ages of the Civil and Military Population.

VIII-Occupations of the Indian Civil Population (males).

P. P. J. WODEHOUSE,

Census Officer.

103 (57)

Table I.

Religions of the Indian Population (Civil and Military).

Hindu....

Mohammedan

Zoroastrian

Sikh

Christian

Buddhist

Not stated

Males.

Females.

Total.

925

931

1,069

369

1,438

66

16

82

485

69

554

7

4

11

1

1

29

32

2,581

468

3,049

Note:-The number of Troops included in this Census is only 975 +

62 Followers=Total 1,037.

The remainder of the Indian Garrison has already been in-

cluded in the Census of British India.

Table II.

The Civil Indian Population.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Parsees Sikh

66

82

476

545

Punjabi Mussulmans

404

Do.

(menial and

inferior castes)

57

Other Mohammedans

443

327

སྶ ཋསྶ།

433

13

70

770

Hindus

64

6

70

Christians

7

4

11

Religion not stated

31

31

1,548

464

2,012

Table III.

Birth Places of the Indian Civil Population.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Punjab and N. W. F. Province

1,001

102

1,103

Bombay........

124

23

147

Scinde

28

28

United Provinces

5

5

Kashmir.....

1

1

Baroda

3

3

Bengal

12

13

Madras

Assam

1

Mysore

1

:::

1

i

India (Province not stated).

46

4

50

1,230

130

1,360

Hongkong

264

279

543

Philippines

1

1

...

China

8

26

34

South Africa .......

1

1

Straits Settlements

11

4

15

...

Japan.......

1

1

Mauritius

2

2

...

Indo-China

Macao Not stated

1

1

2

2

21

23

29

1

30

1,548

464

2,012

102 (58)

Table III,-Continued.

Birth Places of the Military Population.

United Provinces

Central Provinces

Bengal....

Rajputana

Punjab

Males.

830

54

8

1

144

Total,.....

1,037

Table IV.

The Mohammedan Civil and Military Population according to Caste or Tribe.

Males.

Punjabi Mussulmans.

Rajputs

190

Gujars

27

Sayads

25

Jats

110

Females.

Total.

1237

5

195 29

28

117

72

Awans

72

Lodis

Ghakhars

2

2

5

Moghuls..

Kahuts

10

N N

7

2

12

6

6

Arains

6

Q

8

Rajas

1

:

1

Caste not stated

70

6

76

524

29

Pathans

84

Kashmiris

19

237

553

13

97

26

Mirasis

9

Julabas

2

::

9

2

Menial Castes

41

6

47

Mahrattas

2

2

...

Tamils

2

2

Arabs

3

7

Fakirs

7

3

10

Sheikhs

27

24

51

Others

348

284

632

1,069

369

1,438

Table V.

Birth Places of the Punjabi Civil Population (Sikhs and Mohammedans).

Districts.

Rawal Pindi

Shahpur

Jhelum

Males.

Females.

Total.

13

1

14

12

1

13

53

:

53

Jullunder

Hoshiapore Ferozpore Umballa

38

5

43

19

1

20

53

6

59

40

2

42

Gujrat

41

7

48

Ludhiana

114

10

124

Lahore

111

7

118

Amritsar

230

26

256

Kamalpore

14

14

Gurdaspur

26

5

31

Gujranwala

14

1

15

Hissar

2

2

Sialkot

3

3

6

Delhi

Phulkian States

Kapurthala State

District not stated...

1

1

49

3

52

3

3

123

16

139

959

94

1,053

N. W. Froutier Province

42

50

Married Single.... Widowed

Not stated

103 (59)

Table VI.

Civil and Military Population-Married State (persons aged 15 years and over).

Males.

Females.

Total.

1,326

199

1,525

903

47

950

128

42

170

32

1

33

2,389

289

2,678

Table VII.

Ages of the Indian Civil Population.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Under one year.

17

18

35

1- 4 years

63

49

112

5- 9

70

64

131

5

10-14

45

44

89

>>

15-19

68

37

105

20-24

261

56

317

25-29

337

56

393

""

30-34

266

44

310

"

35-39

155

35

190

""

40-44

99

20

119

31

45-49

53

10

63

50-54

81

""

55-59

11

>>

60--64

11

65 years and over

11

Age not stated

50

6969-

37

2525

20

20

1,548

464

2,012

Ages of the Military Population.

Under 20 years

20-40

""

40-60

"}

Males.

99

921

17

1,037

Table VIII.

Occupations of the Indian Civil Population (Mal:8).

Domestic Service

31

Legal-

Commercial-

Barrister

1

Clerks

70

Law Clerks

3

General Merchants

...... 34

Educational-

Commission Agents...... 6

School Teachers

Silk Dealers

22

Students

65

Brokers

13

Priests

Shopkeepers

6

Shop Assistants

23

General Contractor

1

Drapers..

33

Bill Collectors

2

Tailors

23

Doctors

Architects.

Barbers

Hotel Employés Printers....

Typewriters

NNG WW#GAN

2

5

4

Government Service-

Manicurist

1

Clerks

28

Chemist.....

1

Foremen

8

Telegraphist.

Gaol Staff ..................

50

Foremen

5

Police

..375

Seamen

Government Pensioners

Herdsmen.....

3

Engineering-

Engineers

Fitter.......

Private Means

4

3

Garage Owner

1

1

Chauffeur

1

Watchmen

388

Unemployed

..115

103 (60)

Table XLII.

Notes for Guidance of Future Census Officers.

1. The Slip System.The particulars about every individual are copied off from the schedules on to small cards. To facilitate the work of tabulation, certain information is conveyed by the colour of or marks on the cards.

For the Non-Chinese Population four kinds of cards were used:-

(1.) Blue, with a dark blue square on the face, for Non-Chinese males, other than

natives of Asia and Africa.

(2.) White, with a yellow cross across the face for females, other than natives of

Asia and Africa.

(3.) White, with a yellow square on the face for Non-Chinese males, other than

natives of Europe and America.

(4.) White, with a yellow circle on the face, for Non-Chinese females, other than

natives of Europe and America.

Ten different cards were used for Chinese, five for males, and five for females :---

(1.) Plain white, for Chinese married males, Puntis, and born in the Province of

Kwang Tung.

(2.) White, with blue circle on the face of the card, for Chinese males as in (1), but

unmarried.

(3.) White, with blue square on the face of the card, for Chinese males other than

Puntis, boru in the Province of Kwang Tung.

(4.) White, with blue square and cross, for married Chinese males born elsewhere

than in the Province of Kwang Tung.

(5.) White, with blue cross, for unmarried Chinese males born elsewhere than in the

Province of Kwang Tung.

The five descriptions of cards for Chinese females corresponded with those for the males, but the distinguishing symbols were red instead of blue.

The copying of the cards from the schedules took exactly two months. At first the work progressed slowly, as it took the clerks some little time to know which cards to use. When they had learnt to pick out the right card without hesitation, each man was able to do at least 500 per diem. This may. be accepted as a reasonable minimum amount.

For any- thing over 500 they were paid at the rate of $1 per 400 cards. Up to a certain point, the greater the number of varieties of cards used the easier the work of tabulation is, but it is necessary to be careful not to go too far in this direction. An undue multiplication of cards would cause such delay in the copying that it would more than outweigh the subse- quent speeding up of the tabulation. I am of opinion that it would not be wise to use more than ten varieties of cards for the Chinese.

When the copying for any particular section has been completed the cards have not, of course, been sorted according to their various classes, but each clerk is in possession of a bundle of cards of several different sorts. The next work is to sort the cards, tie them up into bundles, according to the descriptive marks, and enter the number of cards in each bundle on the back of the top card. The cards for each section must be kept in a separate pigeon-hole. The schedules can be put away. They are no longer required, except, very rarely, for purposes of reference.

once.

When the work of tabulation begins, the distinctive marks greatly facilitate the preparation of some of the Tables. Males and Females can, of course, be distinguished at In preparing the Tables for Married State and Dialects Spoken in the Home, the number of married Chinese males and females is available at once, without further counting, except in the case of persons who are not Puntis. Similarly no further sorting is required in order to obtain the number of male and female Puntis, born in Kwang Tung. It is possible occasionally to prepare two or three Tables simultaneously.

2. Enumerators.-These should all be found at least one clear month before the date fixed for the Census. A certain reserve should also be provided, as, out of 200 or more, a few always fail to present themselves.

-

103 (61)

As far as possible, they should be told off to sections with which they are acquainted, and near where they live.

It will be advisable at the next Census for the Police Officers in charge of the various Districts in Kowloon to get a list of local men who are willing to act as enumerators. This is specially needed in the case of Kowloon City, Sham Shui Pò and Hunghom. At Shau- kiwan, this should be done also.

Shortly before the Census day, arrangements must be made for the enumerators to come up in batches to receive their instructions, be told off to their sections, and (if in Vic- toria) to meet the District Watchmen who are to accompany them. Each enumerator, when he is originally approved, should be given a slip of paper telling him on what day and hour he is to come up. The Census Officer should keep a corresponding list. It is as well not to arrange for batches of more than 20 to come up at any one time.

In certain cases it may be necessary to pay enumerators travelling expenses. Those employed on the Census of the Floating Population of the Harbour should get higher pay than those working on land.

3. Books of Schedules.—These are very useful for village work, and in districts where few of the people can write. They were used for the first time at the present Census, and were very popular with the Police and civilian enumerators. The filling up of the books bas to be done by the enumerators on the spor, but the necessity of making a second visit to every house for the purpose of schedule collecting is done away with. The books are also very much more convenient for card-copying than loose schedules. Another advantage is that they are properly filled up and in legible han writing. In case of loose schedules, to be filled up by the people themselves, a large number have to be re-written by the enumer-

rators.

When enumerating villages by means of these books, enumerators must be careful to do one village completely before going on to another one. In Sham Shui Pò District great confusion ensued become some of the enumerators failed to follow this rule. They visited certain houses in one village, made the entries, went off to another village, finally returning and finishing the first one. The result was that the totals could only be found by searching through the books and collecting the scattered items. It was only in Shan Shui Po that this happened. The work was correctly done elsewhere.

4. Preliminary Returns.--These should not I think be sent in until the Age Tables are completed. Taking the figures from the totals at the end of the enumerators' books is very risky. Most serious mistakes are often made by the enumerators in totalling up their books, though the individual entries may be correct.

5. Tabulation.-Each clerk should be provided with a set of pigeon-holes, the holes being large enough to hold a card comfortably. If the cards can only barely enter, it makes the work of sorting very much more tedious. The Age Tables should be the first ones to be taken in hand. It is of no great consequence which ones are done next, but the Chinese Occupations and Birth Places should be done last. These two Tables are exceedingly difficult to coinpile. They take more time than all the others put together.

Each clerk should do about 3,000 Ages per day, together with a couple of the smaller Tables, such as Infirmities and Married State. These can be done simultaneously.

The Occupations and Birth Places are done at the rate of about 1,500 or 1,600 a day. 6. Non-Chinese work.-The Census Officer has to do practically all this himself. Even the ordinary $60 Chinese clerk, with a good knowledge of English, cannot be relied upon not to make serious mistakes, if left to prepare particulars of Nationalities and Birth Places. On the present occasion I had to copy nearly all the Non-Chinese cards myself, in addition to preparing the whole of the Tables.

7. General.-(1.) The various Census Sections should always be made to correspond with the boundaries of Health Districts and Sub-Districts. The exact population of the latter is difficult to arrive at otherwise. It is especially important to remember this in the case of Kowloon.

(2.) The officer in charge at Sham Shui Pò should only enumerate that portion of his district which lies in the New Territories. Fuk Ts'un Heung, Tai Kok Tsui, etc., which are in Old Kowloon, should be done from Yaumati.

103 (62)

(3.) A column for "Nationality" is required on the schedules as well as one for "Race".

(4.) A record of the number of books of schedules which were used is as follows :-

Floating Population of Victoria Harbour,

Shaukiwan (Land),

Lantao Island (Tai O District),

Lantao Island (other than Tai O District),

Ch'eung Chau Island,

Ts'un Wan District,

78

5

25

13

15

8

Kowloon City,

12

Lamma Island,

2

Yaumati District,

4

Hunghom District,

11

Sham Shui Po District,

26

Aberdeen (Land),

4

Sha Tin,

9

P'ing Chau,

7

Sai Kung, Tai Po,

San T'in,.

Sha T'au Kok, Sheung Shui, Au T'au,... P'ing Shan,....

19

4

21

7

18

15

23

22

No. 4.

- 103 (63)

No. 1911

18

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

STANDING LAW COMMITTEE

on the

COMPANIES BILL, 1911.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor, November 23rd, 1911.

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Attorney General, (C. G. ALABASTER), Chairman.

""

the Captain Superintendent of Police, (F. W. LYONS).

""

Dr. Ho KAI, M.B., C.M.G.

Mr. H. E. POLLOCK, K.C.

""

Mr. E. A. HEWETT.

A Bill entitled "An Ordinance to consolidate and amend the Ordinance relating to Companies" was referred to the Standing Law Committee after the second reading.

The Bill has been considered clause by clause in the presence of never less than four members of the Committee, who have held several meetings to discuss it.

The Committee suggest an alteration in the title and a number of alterations in the body of the Bill. For convenience of report a copy of the Bill is attached shewing in italics the words and figures which the Standing Law Committee desire to be inserted and in square brackets the words and figures which they desire to see deleted. The Committee have also renumbered the subsequent sections in consequence of the proposed introduction of the nev section 77. Most of the amendments are self-explanatory; but a few call for special remark. Thus it will be noticed that a second sub-section is suggested to section 1. This will remove any doubts that may have been engendered in the Colony and along the China Coast by the judgment in the Dallas Horse Repository Company case (5 HKLR 194), as to the status of the so called "Shanghai" companies, which are registered in Hongkong, but which do not carry on business there.

Section 2 has also been amended. The corresponding sections of the Imperial Act (8 Ed. 7 c. 69 s. 1) and of the Straits Settlements Ordinance (No. 5 of 1889 s. 4) limit unregistered banking partnerships to ten persons. The Secretary of State, the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury and the Board of Trade who were specially consulted, as banking companies have not hitherto come within the scope of the Colony's Companies Ordinances, were at first desirous that the Bill should be uniform with the Imperial Act and the Straits Settlements Ordinance in this respect, but when it was represented to the Board of Trade that local conditions with regard to the incorporation of Chinese banks did not make such uniformity desirable the suggestion was not pressed. The Committee therefore suggest an amendment which gives banking partnerships the same numerical limit as other partnerships which have for their object the acquisition of gain, namely twenty. By amalgamating the sub-sections of section 2 the Committee have however in other respects followed the precedent of the Straits Settlements Ordinance.

103 (64)

The Committee suggest alterations in section 27 which will cause it to differ from the corresponding section (s. 26) of the Imperial Act as after careful consideration they have come to the conclusion that local conditions justify the difference. The Imperial Act provides that the annual list of members shall be made up to the fourteenth day after the ordinary general meeting. It is the practice in the Colony for lists to be made up

for use at such meetings so that unless the practice which seems a desirable one is discontinued or unless the section is amended as the Committee suggest two lists would be required. The Committee also are of opinion that local conditions are such that it is highly desirable that the balance sheet to be filed should be accompanied by a profit and loss account. The conditions prevailing in the United Kingdom which justified the exclusion of a similar provision from the Imperial Companies Bill in 1907 do not apply in the Colony.

The amendment of section 35 (5) is considered desirable as in the majority of cases the registered offices in the Colony of the companies referred to therein consist of little more than a sign-board hung up in the entrance hall of solicitors' offices or stationers' shops where there is no machinery for the registration of transfers.

The introduction into the Bill of section 77 which does not appear in the Imperial Act has the approval of the Board of Trade.

The Committee consider that the proposed introduction of the word "separately" in section 92 is justified by local conditions.

After giving the matter the most careful consideration the Committee have come to the conclusion that the powers of the Official Receiver should be extended both in the case of windings up by or under the suspervision of the Court and in the case of voluntary windings up. They therefore suggest an amendment to section 146.(1), which is based on the provisions of section 50 (2) of the Bankruptcy Ordinance No. 7 of 1891, and the amendment of sections 146 (3), 149 (1), 152 (1) and (2), 181 (1) and (2), 186 (1), 188, and 196.

The proposed amendment to section 253 is made with the intention of assimilating the law of the Colony to the law of the United Kingdom under which a company registered outside the British Empire can only hold land with the licence of the Crown.

The Committee are aware that the proposed definition of the word "director" in section 261 will change the scope of every section in which the word occurs, but having regard to the peculiar position occupied by general managers, managers and persons serving on advisory or consulting committees in the Colony they deem the extension of the existing definition necessary.

In the opinion of the Committee the Bill may be dealt with by the Legislative Council in the same manner as a Bill reported on by a Committee of the whole Council.

C. G. ALABASTER,

Chairman.

Laid before the Legislative Council on the 23rd day of November, 1911.

R. H. CROFTON,

Clerk of Councils.

35

No. 1911

6

HONGKONG.

MINUTES RELATING TO CONDENSED SKIMMED MILK.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His

Excellency the Governor, May 25th, 1911.

The following are the medical opinions which induced the Government to introduce the Sale of Food and Drugs Amendment Bill :---

I.

Head of the Sanitary Department,-I find that the Chinese market is being flooded with consignments of condensed skimmed milk which is being retailed at about 15 cents a tin and that even the sellers in the shops are unaware that it differs in any material respect from condensed whole milk, which sells for 20 to 25 cents a tin. I am told that this cheap con- densed milk is being largely taken into use to feed Chinese infants, and in view of the already enormously high mortality among such infants I think that the Government should be asked to introduce further legislation to prevent the sale of such skimmed milk except under very strict regulations in regard to the labelling of the tins, not merely to the effect that it is "skimmed milk”—a terin which the Chinese purchaser would probably not understand-but also to the effect, in Chinese, that such milk is quite unsuitable for the feeding of infants.

6.

The Imperial Sale of Food and Drugs Act 1899 requires tins of condensed skimmed milk to be clearly labelled with; the words "machine-skimmed milk" or skimmed milk as the case may be, but this is no protection to the Chinese purchaser, who will probably have no knowledge of English and whose experience of milk in any form is much more limited than that of the British working-man.

One brand of this milk has a "special notice" in English that "this milk is suitable for all ordinary purposes; but like all brands of skimmed milk it should no: be used for the feeding of infants", but another brand of the saine class of inachine-skimmed milk, sold in the same shop, is labelled "Baby brand", and is evidently intended for the feeling of infants, for which it is most unsuitable, unless supplemented by crean which would be outside the means of the people who buy this stuff.

The Imperial Government has not hesitated to introduce special legislation in regard to special articles of food, e.g., Butter, when its appearance, taste, etc., were cleverly imitated by a substance ("margarine ") prepared from other fats and I think that in view of the great importance of the question of condensed tinned milks in their relation to infant feed- ing that a special Ordinance should be introduced to require the proper labelling, in the Chinese character, of all forms of milk.

FRANCIS CLARK, Medical Officer of Health.

2nd March, 1911.

86

II.

Minute by Colonel W. G. A. Bedford, C.M.G., Principal Medical Officer,

South China Command.

The point raised by the Medical Officer of Health is a very important one in the interest of the infant section of this Colony. Good "Condensed Milk", which legally means condensed whole milk, contains not less than 10 per cent. of fat; and some good brands contain considerably more.

Condensed skimmed milk contains only about 72 per cent. of fat. This amount is totally inadequate for the proper nourishment of children.

The Sale of Food and Drugs Act of 1899, referred to by the Medical Officer of Health, imposes a penalty on any person who shall sell, or offers for sale, impoverished milk, except the same is made up in packages or tins conspicuously marked and indicating that the milk is "Skimmed Milk", printed in large and legible type.

I am very strongly of opinion that similar legislation should be introduced in this Colony at an early date; and that a label, as above, both in English and Chinese be compulsory, to which be added a bilingual notice "Not suitable for infants".

W. G. A. BEDFORD, Colonel,

Hongkong, 7th March, 1911.

III.

Principal Medical Officer,

South China Command.

SANITARY BOARD OFFICE, HONGKONG, 15th March, 1911.

Sir, I have the honour, by direction of the Board, to forward the following resolu- tion which was unanimously adopted at a meeting of the Board held on the 14th instant:- That the correspondence relative to condensed skimmed milk be forwarded to

Government for consideration with a view to legislation if necessary."

""

2. I attach the correspondence and also forward 3 tins of the milk referred to therein.

I have, &c.,

W. BOWEN ROWLANDS, Secretary.

The Honourable The Colonial Secretary.

IV.

Hon. Principal Civil Medical Officer, I think

an amendment

amendment to the Sale of

"1

Food and Drugs Ordinance of 1896, on the lines of Section 11 Food and Drugs Act 1899, with the necessary modifications as to "English and Chinese infants" would cover the requirements for condensed milk.

and "not suitable for

It would, however, be better-for reasons set forth later-to make an amendment on the lines of Section 95 (a) Liquors Consolidation Ordinance (No. 9 of 1911) giving the Governor-in-Council power to make regulations as to standards of quality for food and drugs. In this connection please see Section 4 Food and Drugs Act 1899, which empowers the Board of Agriculture to make regulations.

Such an amendment is needed urgently. As the Ordinance now stands there are no legal limits for fresh milk; "skimmed milk is mentioned, but not defined (Section 10). The only substances whose quality is now regulated by law are Brandy, Whisky and Rum (Government Notification No. 65 of 1910).

4th April, 1911.

A. C. FRANKLIN,

Government Analyst.

:

I

37

V.

DRS. 0. MULLER, K. JUSTI & K. Hocu,

Hotel Mansions.

MESSRS F. BLACKHEAD & Co.,

Present.

HONGKONG, 6th April, 1911.

Dear Sirs,-As requested by you we herewith beg to submit to you our report on your "Baby" Brand Milk :-

We start with a parallel between the "Baby Brand" Milk, analyse 1 by Messrs. A. S. Watson & Co., Ld., as per report enclosed, and whole or unskimmed milk, reduced to 87·17% of water, same as the "Baby Brand " Milk :---

Baby Brand" Milk.

Fat

Proteids

Ash

Milk Sugar

Water

Cane Sugar

0·22% 2.33

19

0.44

,,

3.50

87.17

""

14.30 ""

Whole (or unskimmed) Milk.

3.69 %

3.55

">

0.71

4.88

"1

87.17

>1

This shows that the richness of fat of the Baby Brand Milk is less compared with the fat of whole milk, so we consider the Baby Brand Milk a skimmed milk. Cane sugar re- presents in 100 grammes a nutrition of 410 calories, so 14:30% equal to 59 calories, and this nutritive power gives the Baby Brand Milk at least the same nutrition as whole milk. On the other hand cane sugar is considered not as good a material for feeding babies as the greater proportion of fat in whole milk. In consequence Baby Brand Milk is not a perfect sub- stitute for whole milk, but as the poorer class of people are bound to feed the children on a very doubtful class of goods, as rice and water and even worse stuff, because a good and cheap whole milk is not obtainable, for them, we are of the opinion that under the said circumstances the Baby Brand Milk is very fit for use as a substitute for cow's milk.

We are, &c.,

DRS. MULLER, JUSTI & HOCH,

K. HOCH.

VI.

HONGKONG, April 3rd, 1911.

Dear Sirs,I have carefully examined the analyses, of the condensed milk (Volunteer Brand), made by Messrs. Watson and by the Government Analyst, and I have compared them with other standard analyses of milk.

I find that the composition of "Volunteer Brand" agrees very closely with that of machine-skimmed milk, except that, owing to concentration, it has a much smaller propor- of water, and that it contains in addition a fairly large percentage of cane sugar, which is no doubt added for the purpose of preservation.

It is evident therefore that "Volunteer Brand" contains all the nutritive properties that are contained in skimmed milk, and that there are no injurious preservatives added to it. It is not advisable to bring up a baby under a year old on skimmed milk only, because owing to the removal of the cream there is not a sufficient percentage of fatty matter left to satisfy the wants of the human infant, but there is nothing actually injurious to the infant in skimmed milk, and where poor persons cannot afford to buy whole milk, skimmed inilk is a much more suitable food for a baby than many of the patent infants' fools that are so extensively used in these days, and it is still more suitable than a pap made of rice and . water which is often employed for babies by the poorer classes in this Colony.

?

After the age of one year, skimmed milk, such as "Volunteer Brand", is well suited as a food for children because the deficiency of fat can be easily male up by giving bread and dripping or margarine; and owing to skimmed milk being cheaper than whole milk, parents of the poorer class are able to purchase skimmed milk for their children who other- wise would not get any milk at all.

Yours faithfully,

F. O. STEDMAN,

M.D., B.S., London.

Messrs. W. G. HUMPHREYS & SONS.

38

VII.

Minute by the Government Analyst.

Condensed skimmed milk is prepared in enorinous quantities on the continent of Europe by butter manufacturers. The residue left after removing nearly all the fat by separating machinery is concentrated, after the addition of sufficient cane sugar or beet sugar-to form about 35 to 45 per cent. of the finished product, i.e., an amount fully equal to the milk solids in the concentrated milk. The condensation is between 23 and 31 as a rule, i.e., one part by weight of product represents 22 to 34 parts by weight of original milk.

According to evidence given, by a witness claiming to be one of the largest manufacturers, before the Departmental Committee on Milk Regulations in 1900, cane sugar is not neces- sary as a preservative but is added to meet the public taste.

"The added sugar renders it too carbonaceous and 'fattening', though lacking in fat, "but apart from this the nutritive value of condensed milk seems to be inferior to that of "fresh milk, especially in regard to bone-formation and stamina." (Hygiene and Public Health, by Whitelegge and Newman, 1908.)

"A serious consequence arising from the addition of a large amount of sugar to con- "densed milk is that the preparation is unsuitable for ordinary purposes, unless mixed with "such a proportion of water as to dilute it far beyond the bulk of the milk before (6 concentration. Some labels bear a statement that, if mixed with from 3 to 5 volumes of "water, the milk may be used as a substitute for cream. As a fact, though the article thus "diluted will have the consistence and appearance of cream, it will contain less fat than is "present in ordinary uncondensed new milk.

"A highly reprehensible statement which is made on the labels of many brands of "condensed milk, is that, for infants' use, the preparation should be diluted with from six to "fourteen parts of water. This direction, if carried out to the extreme limit, would yield a "fluid containing only 3 to 4 per cent. of milk-solids (instead of 12 to 13 per cent.), and in some cases less than 1 per cent. of fat (instead of 3 to 4 per cent.). In some instances "the labels bear the statement that nurses are disposed to add too little water."

(6

66

"The Select Committee on Food Products Adulteration, in their report published July 1896, recommended that, in the case of condensed milk made from skimmed milk, the label of the tin should describe the contents in large and legible type, and that a notification. "should be printed thereon that such milk is not suitable for the purpose of feeding infants "and young children. But the Committee do not appear to have realised the grave mischief "caused by false statements respecting the dilution which should be practised when the milk "is intended for the feeding of infants.

Unfortunately, such flagrant misrepresentations as disgrace the condensed milk trade "are not punishable under the Sale of Food and Drugs Act, and the proceedings which are

'possible under other enactments lack the necessary initiative. "

(Commercial Organic Analysis, Vol. IV, by A. H. Allen, 1898. )

The author quoted-one of the foremost authorities on the subject-cites several brands in support of the above and shows how the milk, when diluted according to directions, will contain anything down to 0-68 per cent. of fat, even in the case of condensed whole milk.. He then concludes :-

"From these figures it appears that an attempt to feed an infaut in accordance with the directions issued with some brands of condensed milk will either result in the child being half-starved, or will compel it to imbibe such a quantity of fluid as cannot fail to prove a serious strain on its system.

77

The above remarks refer to all condensed milks, but have far greater force in the case of machine-skimined, and when it is remembered that the proteids are equally attenuated the serious aspect of the matter is increased.

Scientific and medical witnesses before the Commission of 1900 used such phrases- as "starvation to children fed on them", when speaking of condensed skimmed milks.

39

The forgoing disposes of many of the statements made on behalf of condensed skimmed milk, but, in view of the misleading comparison made between whole milk and one particu- cular brand of the condensed article, it is necessary to go farther and point out that these statements appear to be based on the assumption that the milks are to be diluted to corre- spond approximately with fresh skimmed milk. The comparison mentioned above is useless, the product of such dilution would be too thick for infants.

Some of the brands on the local market have wrappers bearing directions in Chinese that the contents should be diluted 10 or 14 times with water.

The following Table shows partially the composition of some brands as sold and if diluted as recommended :-

Brand.

C.

A.

B.

Dilution advised.

1-14

1-10

%

Original.

Diluted.

Original.

Diluted.

Original.

Diluted.

Fat

.88

·08

27

.04

·81

Use for in-

Ash

2.09

∙19

1.75

22

2.16

Proteids-

9.11

.83

8.76

1·09

9.90

fants not

advised.

Total Solids -

71.95

6.54

67 70

8.44

73.15

In calculating the composition of diluted milk parts by measure have been taken as intended and the average specific gravity of condensed milks (1:30) has been employed.

The above Table should be compared with the following which sets forth the average composition of whole milk, and human milk, and also compares a whole milk with its machine-skimmed residue :-

Fat, Ash,...

Proteids

Total Solids,

Whole Milk (average of 200,000).

Human (average of 84).

Whole Milk.

Machine- skimmed.

% 3.90

%

%

413

3.61

46

*75

•20

71

•72

3.40 12.90

2.00

3.41

3.37

13.27

12:45

9.43

To avoid friction the proposed wording of notice on label might be altered to “not suitable for feeding infants under one year".

I think it would be better if the new Section 28 gave the Governor-in-Council power to make regulations as to standards for all food products, and drugs also. There are other substances than those enumerated for which standards may become necessary, and the matter will be much simplified if the needful machinery is enacted now.

A. C. FRANKLIN, F.I.C.,

Government Analyst,

1st May, 1911.

40

Appendix A.

Extracts from Minutes of Evidence taken before the Departmental Committee appointed. by the Board of Agriculture to inquire and report upon the desirability of Regulations, under Section 4 of the Sale of Food and Drugs Act, 1899, for Milk and Cream.

Chairman:-Lord Wenlock.

I.

Dr. A. Hill, M. O. H. and Public Analyst, Birmingham, in answer to the Chairman :--

6.

78. Condensed milk does enter largely in competition with British milk does it not ?—I believe it does, and it is consumed in Birmingham.

79. The unfortunate native producer is justified, then, in wishing that we would leave the foreign alone ?-The commoner kinds of condensed milks are generally very poor in fat, but there are certain brands which are exceedingly good. The First Swiss brand is a genuine milk, and the Nestlé's brand is all very good milk, but there are a great many others where the fat has been abstracted; in fact, the milk is condensed from skimmed milk, so they are very poor in fat indeed. There is great ingenuity displayed by the people who issue these goods in taking care to hide by one end of the label that statement on the label which says it is made from skimmed milk. There is a great deal of fraud in that way. But I have examined very few samples it."

In answer to Dr. Voelcker :

"80. You say that from your knowledge of what you have examined--these units, as you term them-you know that many of them are poor ?-Many of them I know are poor, but I have not had many samples. They are starvation to the children fed on them, there is no doubt about that

II.

Dr. Bernard Dyer, D.Sc., F.I.C., Public Analyst for Leicestershire, Rutland, Wilts and Truro, in answer to the Chairman :

"368. Can you tell us anything about condensed milk ?-With regard to condensed milk it occurs to me that probably the best way of fixing a fat standard for condensed milk would be to decide that condensed milk ought to contain at least as much fat as it contains of proteids. If 35 was taken as the average proportion of proteids in good milk and it is probably about that-that would be equivalent to 3-5 standard for fat, that is to say

condensed milk should be made from whole milk not having less than 3 per cent. of fat. That is what it would resolve itself into, but I would say a quantity of fat equal to the proteins contained in it. Of course, a maker of condensed milk has a selective power over the milk that he uses; he is not compelled to buy or to use poor milk, and lie can very well take precautions to see that the milk he gets and uses for condensing is milk of a good quality. I think practically that would be an easy way of arriving at the

standard.

III.

Sir C. Cameron, C.B., M.D., Public Analyst for Dublin, in answer to Dr. Voelcker:—

"2512. Do you think any standard should be fixed with regard to the composition of that? I have examined some specimens of condensed milk containing very little more fat than is in uncondensed milk. I certainly think that the quantity of fat which should be eliminated from milk before it is condensed ought to be determined. I think some samples of condensed milk that I have examined are monstrous; it is very difficult to get convictions though."

11

In answer to Prof. Thorpe

"2514. Are you aware that for the Service, for the Army and Navy, they do specify a certain quantity of fat that the condensed milk shall contain ?-Yes, I am."

41

IV.

Dr. A. K. Chalmers. M.O.II., Glasgow, in answer to Prof. Thorpe :

(A

"3452. It is the case, is it not, in Glasgow that the local custom differs from the rest. of the kingdom? (4 pause.) What have you to tell us about condensed milk?-Just what is common knowledge in the matter; when a purchaser buys condensed milk he should know defini ely how much water he must add to bring it up to any standard of sweet milk that may be adopted."

In answer to Dr. Voelcker :—

#3526. Then with regard to the condensed milk; your views as to the desirability of stating the amount of water that should be added to condensed milk to make it up to the composition of original good milk are based upon considerations to the health of the people?

--That is 80.

V.

F. J. Lloyd, F.I.C., F.C.S., Analyst to the British Dairy Farmers' Association and the Metropolitan Dairymen's Society, in answer to Prof. Thorpe :

"6052. Will you tell us, then, briefly what you have to say with respect to condensed milk and to cream ?-With regard to condensed milk.

With regard to condensed milk. It is usual for condensed milk as sold to the public to bear a label stating the proportion of water which may be added, and it is therefore only necessary to stipulate that when so diluted it shall produce a liquid containing not less than the percentage of constituents which shall have been fixed as the minimum standard of milk. But condensed milk might be sold not so labelled, an·1, of course, it would open the door and invite people who wanted to seil condensed milk frau- dulently not to label it after that standard had been fixed. So that I think where con lens- ed milk was sold without such a label you must fix a standard of some kind. opinion this should be that it contain not less than 12 per cent. of fat-that it to say, one part of condensed milk can be added to three of water and make four parts of milk; I believe that is about the average proportion of dilution requisite."

In my

6093. We are, of course, met with the difficulty, as regards condensed milk, that some considerable portion is sweetened ?-Yes.

6094. Of course a considerable portion also is not, sweetened ?—Yes.

6095. Now the sweetened variety requires the addition of a very much larger quantity of water, in some cases at all events, to do anything with it at all-to make it practicable to use it ?—Yes.

6996. In that case how would your label read ?-Simply put the quantity of water that is necessary to make it milk of your standard as regards fat.

you

6097. But then it would still be unusable-- it would be so thick or viscid that could not use it ?-I am not sure but the sooner that sort of milk is prevented from being sold the better.

-

6998. Of course, it is a commercial article; there is nothing to prevent it? Yes, but I think you must be well aware that poor people know nothing whatever about this condensed milk; they think that the solidity is due to the constituents which they would get in the milk.

6099. Yes, I am aware of that; we have had it in evidence that a considerable quantity of this stuff is used by mothers as fool for their infants; they take it partly because it is sweet-that makes the stuff palatable to the child; but they have to dilute it with such a large volume of water to put it into the feeding bottle or to do anything with it, that practically the child is fed upon a starvation diet, the only nutrient thing being substantially the sugar. What could you do with such a case as that-how would your label affect that case?-It would prohibit the production of such stuff, would it not?

6100. We have no power to prohibit the production of it?-I do not know you can say condense 1 milk is condensed milk, and if, when a certain amount of water is added to it it does not make milk but makes something else, it has no right to be called condensed milk. In my opinion there is a great deal more trouble in the country due to the con- sumption of condensed milk tlian people have ever found out. I do not think the me lical profession have thoroughly appreciated the very great amount caused by the foolish consumption of condensed milk."

of illness, which may be

42

VI.

C. T. Lehmannn, Manufacturer of Condensed Milk, Representing the Condensed Milk Defence Association, in answer to Prof. Thorpe

"10435. You will not change my views at all, but I confess I have considerable sympathy with the movement which has been initiated largely by the Medical Officers of Health in this country protesting against the widespread diffusion amongst the poor people of an article which, as far as its solid content goes, approaches to two-thirds of its weight of sugar, which has to be so largely diluted with water before anything can be done with it in the way of feeding an infant, and which practically is almost a starvation diet to a child? -But I do not think much of it is used for the feeding of infants."

VII.

G. Lewin, F.I.C., Superintending Analyst of the Inland Revenue Branch of the Govern- ment Laboratory, in answer to Prof. Thorpe :-

**

10631. Is there anything else you desire to bring to the notice of the Committee ?- In regard to sugar in condensed milk, 1 am more than ever convinced that something ought to be done, after hearing the evidence this afternoon, in the way of a limitation of sugar in condensed milk. I think that the taste of the public has been largely vitiated in that way, and that it is detrimental to the public interest that so large a proportion of cane sugar should be permitted in condensed milk. One of the difficulties of using condensed milk for children is that you cannot dilute it to such a point, to such a small dilution as would give you milk that would be palatable on account of its sweet- ness; but if the amount of cane-sugar were considerably reduced you might then dilute condensed milk containing sugar to such a proportion as would give you gool milk such as could be given to a child. At the present time, when you add to the caue-sugar, which is nearly 40 per cent.. the 13 or 14 parts of miik sugar, you get something like 53 or 54 per cent. of total sugar in something which only contains total solids equivalent to 75 per cent. I think that is out of all proportion, and it would be greatly to the public interest, you could limit the cane-sugar under the provisions of the 4th Section, which I think you can, because it speaks of extraneous matter ".

if

VIII.

A. II. Allen, F.I.C., F.C.S., Public Analyst for Sheffield, etc., in answer to Mr. Cow an:- "4728. Can you give any information with respect to condensed milk?-Yes, there is no condensed milk on the market that is condensed more than three down to one –Ï should say three parts of milk to make one part of condense milk. Very often a portion of the fat has been removed because it is easier to condense. I would incline to insist that where skimuning is not indicated on the label the fat in the condensed milk should be not less than the amount of proteils as ascertained by any modification of Kjeldahl's test-in fact, the amount of proteids properly ascertained. That means this, that you have in the amount of proteids a measure of the concentration, and, without having to know what the original milk was, how far it has been concentrated. The proteids must increase as the water is evaporated off, and the fat will increase also; and, as there is normally at least as much fat as proteids in milk, the fat ought to be there afterwards. That should be the standard of fat in condensed milk; it should be not less than the proteids in the same milk-which relieves you of any calculation as to concentration, and of any trouble due to added sugar, and so on. I would say that the labels on condensed milk are most misleading. There is one of the best known condensed milks the makers of which say on the label that for the purpose of feeding children it should be diluted with from twelve to fourteen parts of water. Now, seeing that it never was concentrated more than three down to one hot twelve or fourteen down to one-it means that the children who are served with that milk diluted to that extent, in accordance with the directions of the manufacturers, are starved. They do not get all the fat; they only get a third of the important proteids of the milk-they only get a mere fraction of what they ought to get. It is necessary to dilute it to that extent, because it is mixed with a very large amount of cane sugar, and if only diluted again with water to the orignal measure it is as thick as treacle. If it is diluted to be used at the ordinary tea service with seven or eight parts of water then it is as thick as cream, although it has not got the fat of cream, and has only got about a third of the fat which exists in the original milk. I wish there was a means of preventing false labelling; it is doing much more harm than actual adulteration in many directions."

43

In answer to Mr. Barham :—

"4729. What would you suggest should be a penalty for a wilfully false an robbing the child of its natural sustenance. 14 parts of water instead of with 2, which

concentration.

should be the remedy for that?-That there misleading label or direction, which is really It is simply cruel to go and dilute a milk with would be sufficient to bring it to its orignal

4730. But then you tell us that with the two it would be so thick that the child could not take it ?—Then he should not be fed on it; it is unfit for children.

4733. Then it will get over the difficulty, from your point of view, if that tin of condensed milk was sold without a label and the buyer would use his judgment as to how he diluted it?--I am afraid that is worse; you are then relying on the ignorance of the people.

4734. I am thinking of the remedy ?- I am afraid that remedy is worse than the disease almost. If you have got a label on, that label should indicate that the milk is condensed to one-third, say. I would like to make the manufacturer say, 'I direct it to be diluted with fourteen parts of water, but it will make it worthless for the child'. I cannot make him do that; but he ought to say how much it has been concentrated in the directions for dilution."

In answer to Mr. Murphy :-

"4802. That is what I thought. I was asking for information, and I was afraid that the power given under the Act would not help us very much ?-Under the main Act there is a clause which has never been worked, at least I have never heard of any proceed- ings under it. In the main Act there is a clause saying a person who shall wilfully mislabel a thing shall be liable. I have never heard of any proceedings at all under that, and my authorities have never seen their way to take any such prosecution. If I may be allowed to digress a moment from the question of mikk, I may say that there is proprietary food sold under the name of somebody's Beef Peptonoids, which is on the label said to contain 80 per cent. of the nitrogenous constituents of beef, wheat, and milk. As a matter of fact, it contains 52 per cent. of milk sugar, and nitrogenous matter equal to only 20 per cent. of proteids instead of 80 per cent. My authorities do not see their way to proceed on it, because the retail vendor of the article is clearly an innocent party, and the pro- prietor, the manufacturer, lives in London, and we cannot initiate a prosecution in London. Here is this great scandal going on of a deliberate misrepresentation, saying that the stuff contains 80 per cent. of nutritive matter, when it contains only 20 per cent.; and this is only representative of a great many other instances of these special foods."

Dr. Hill in answer to Mr. Cowan :-

IX.

"129. I think you stated condensed milk was generally male from skinnel milk?—It is most frequently made from skimmed milk; it is deficient in fat.

130. Would you not think that it should be made from full milk ?-Certainly; and where it is not it should be very distinctly labelled to that effect, instead of which they label it in obscure letters that it is made with skimmed milk, and they frequently get the edge of the label over the statement so that the people are not even aware of the intimation.'

X.

Sir C. A. Cameron in answer to Dr. Voelcker:--

"2520. Do you think it should be made obligatory to declare the amount of water that it is necessary to add to a condensed milk in order to bring it up to the standard ?— Undoubtedly.

2521. It should not be sold without some statement of that kind ?-We should be told of what would mean the same thing-we should be told what quantity of milk it cor- responds to that it corresponds to eight times or six times, whatever it may be, of milk.

2522. And that should be binding?-I think so. One should know that it would make a gallon of milk or two gallons of milk, or whatever the quantity would be."

44

Appendix B.

Extracts from The Diseases of Children 9th Edition 1910 by J. F. Goodhart, M.D., etc., Consulting Physician to the Evelina Hospital for Sick Children; etc., etc.

Edited by G. F. Still, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P., Professor of Diseases of Children, King's College, London; Physician for Diseases of Children, King's College Hospital; etc., etc.

CHAPTER V.

Artificial Feeding of Infants--(Continued). Condensed Milk and Proprietary Foods.

Condensed Milk.-Amongst the poorer classes there is probably no food which is more often used for the feeding of infants than condensed milk, and we may add that there is pro- bably no food which is more often responsible for rickets of every degree, not to mention various gastro-intestinal disorders and the occasional production of scurvy. Still, in spite of the injurious effects which are so often seen from the prolonged use of condensed milk, there are undoubtedly circumstances in which its temporary use may be of value.

Two kinds of condensed milk are in common use-sweetened and unsweetened. These might be further subdivided into the cheap brands inade from skimmed milk, and totally unfit for infants' food under any circumstances whatever, and the better-class brands which are made from whole milk with or without added cream.

If condensed milk is to be used at all it must be used with an intelligent knowledge of its relation. to fresh cow's milk; some of its disastrous results are due to the reckless manner in which it is used without any regard to the exact dilution which it requires.

*

*

*

*

*

How widely these simple dilutions of condensed milk differ from human milk is sufficiently obvious; but they are often given much more diluted than this, an 1 it is little wonder if an infant slowly starves or gets rickets on these mixtures, in which the fat is diluted almost out of existence.

Appendix C.

Extract from Commercial Organic Analysis, Vol. IV, 2nd Edition, 1898, by A. H. Allen, F.I.C., F.C.S., Past President of the Society of Public Analysts, Public Analyst for West Riding of Yorkshire, the City of Sheffield, etc.

Composition of Sweetened Condensed Milk.

Brand.

Description on Label.

Total Solids.

Fat.

Proteids.

Alderney,

Guaranteed to contain 60 per cent. of

original cream,

68.10

11.05

10.93

Anglo-Swiss,

Best unskimmed country milk,

74.4

10.8

8.8

Beehive,.

From skimmed milk,

77.7

0.2

Cow.

From partly-skimmed milk,

74.9

2.0

11.5

Cowslip,

Cross,.

Skimmed; guaranteed to be entirely pure, From skimmed milk,

70-9

14

11.1

75.0

1.2

10.5

Cup,

56.9

1:0

8.5

"

""

Daily,

68.8

1.3

10.2

""

69.61

0.26

10.58

Daisy,

64.0

0.5

Darby & Joan,

Contains nothing but full-cream milk,

73.1

9.8

13.3

Farm,

Farmhouse, Fourpenny,

99

From skimmed milk,

66.6

0.12

10.14

77·0

0.1

"2

22

From unskimmed milk,

76.5

10.4

9.8

From pure fresh milk containing all its

cream,

75.36

5.4

13.18

Full weight,

From unskimmed milk,

76.5

11.0

12.3

Home & Colonial,

No description on label,

72.6

13.5

9.7

Milkmaid,

Milkman,

Swiss milk; genuine,.

76.3

11.0

9.7

Mother,

Warranted to contain all original cream,...... From unskimmed milk,..

73.66

11.8

11.4

70.6

5.57

8.32

Guaranteed to be prepared with the best

and richest cows' milk,

72.0

8.8

7.3

Swiss (Nestle's),

Prepared from pure milk of Swiss cows,

and only a small quantity of pure cane-sugar added,..

77.2

13.7

9.7

75.0

13.5

10.44

>>

.་

""

Threepenny,

From skimmed milk,

66.25

0.3

10.49

:

No. 1.

33

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

PUBLIC

WORKS

COMMITTEE

at a Meeting held on the 8th May, 1911.

No. 1911

5

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His

Excellency the Governor, May 11th, 1911.

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Director of Public Works, (WILLIAM CHATHAM, C.M.G.), Chairman.

the Colonial Treasurer, (ALEXANDER MACDONALD THOMSON).

""

Mr. CHARLES MONTAGUE Ede.

""

Mr. CHARLES HENDERSON Ross.

"2

ABSENT:

The Honourable Mr. WEI YUK, C.M.G.

Electricity Supply Bill, 1911. (C.8.0.6943/1908.)

The Chairman read the Bill. The only amendments made were the deletion of the words "within three weeks from the making thereof" and the substitution of the word (6 for" for "in" in section 6. These were agreed to unanimously.

The Chairman also read suggested amendments which he had received from the Manager of the Hongkong Electric Co., Ltd., (Mr. Graham), with respect to clauses 5 and 13 (4) of the Regulations and submitted revised amendments which had been drawn up to give effect to these suggestions. The revised amendments, which are inserted in the copy of the Bill forwarded herewith, were unanimously agreed to.

The only other amendment of the Regulations which was made was the deletion of the word "by" in the fifth line of clause 10 and the substitution of the words "except by the use of" in place thereof.

The Committee then adjourned.

Laid before the Legislative Council this 11th day of May, 1911.

R. H. CROFTON,

Clerk of Councils.

W. CHATHAM,

Chairmans

103

HONGKONG.

No. 16

1911

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH THE ESTIMATES FOR 1912.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor, October 19th, 1911.

Statement of Assets and Liabilities on the 31st December, 1910.

LIABILITIES.

$

C.

ASSETS.

$

C.

Deposits not Available, .

234,356.01

Balance, Bank,...............

109,180.16

Officers' Remittances,..

64.72

Subsidiary Coins,

218,547.71

Suspense Account,

11.55

Crown Agents' Current Account,

4,133.44

Crown Agents' Advances,

4,824,200.93

Advances,

64,259.16

Crown Agents' Bills,...

85,571.03

Imprest,.....

10,291.46

House Service Account,

605.86

Total Liabilities,

Balance,

5,144,204.24

Railway Construction,

6,144,111.41

1,406,924.96

Total,...$6,551,129.20

Total,............$ 6,551,129.20

Dr.

104

ASSETS AND LIABILITIES ON 31ST DECEMBER, 1910, AND 31ST DECEMBER, 1911, (ESTIMATED).

Revenue, Expenditure,

Surplus,.

Balance of Assets, (1909),

Balance of Assets, (1910),

1910. $ 6,960,869 6,907,113

1911. $7,209,254

7,163,800

53,756 1,353,169

$ (1910) 1,406,925

45,454

$ 1,406,925

(1911) $ 1,452,379

1910.

LOAN ACCOUNT WITH CROWN AGENTS.

1911 (Estimated).

Cr.

1910.

1911 (Estimate).

Inscribed Stock Issues of

1893 and 1906 at 31%

interest, to be paid off

on the 15th April, 1943, £1,485,732. 16. 5 £1,485,732.16. 5 Sinking Fund,

£ 97,759. 6. 10 £ 116,500. 0. 0

LOAN TO VICEROY OF LIANG HU.

Repaid by Viceroy, £ 0.0

...€ 550,000. 0. 0 £ 660,000. 0.0

Loan,

£ 1,100,000. 0. 0 £1,100,000. 0. 0

Balance due to Govern-

ment,

Total,

550,000. 0. 0 440,000. 0. 0

£1,100,000. 0. 0 £1,100,000. 0. 0

Total,

£1,100,000. 0. 0 £1,100,000. 0. 0

Repayments of Loan by

CROWN AGENTS' SPECIAL FUND ACCOUNT.

Viceroy, Interest paid by Viceroy,. Interest paid by Railway

£

550,000. 0. 0 £ 193,000. 0. 1

660,000. 0. 0 222,750. 0. 1

Construction Account,. Advances to Fund,..............

39,268. 4. 5 139,268.14.10

58,837. 4. 5 159,737. 7.10

Total,

£ 926,536.19. 4 £1,101,324.12. 4

Interest on Inscribed

Stock Issue 1906, Advanced to Railway

Construction,

Crown Agents' Commis-

sion,......

Advances to Fund Repaid, Interest on Advances, Balance paid into Sinking

Fund,

Total,

RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION ACCOUNT.

£ 180,169. 8. 6 £ 220,207. 1. 6

550,000. 0. 0

467. 1. 5 139,268.14.10 23,432,16. 0

660,000. 0.0

567. 3. 3 159,737. 7.10 23,459.14. 4

33,198.18. 7

37,353. 5. 5

£ 926,536.19. 4 £ 1,101,324.12. 4

Advances from Special

Fund,

Advances

by

Crown

Agents,

Advances from Revenue,.

Total,

(1) $5,740,316 (3) $6,997,459

(2) 4,909,772 (4) 4,114,285

1,234,339

958,256

$11,884,427

Amount expended on Railway Construction,.

$ 11,884,427

$ 12,070,000

$ 12,070,000

Total,

$ 11,884,427

$ 12,070,000

(1) £550,000 @ 1/9.

(2) £440,168 @ 1,93 and 1/103.

(3) £660,000 @ 1/9. (4) £360 000 @ 1/9.

TREASURY, Hongkong, 29th September, 1911.

A. M. THOMSON,

Treasurer.

99

HONGKONG.

No. 14

1911

ABSTRACT SHEWING DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE ESTIMATES OF EXPENDITURE FOR 1911 AND 1912.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor, October 19th, 1911.

INCREASE.

DECREASE.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS:

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS :—

New Posts,......

$ 55,540

Increase of Salaries,

*32,339

Abolition of Posts,

Reductions on New Appointments,

$ 40,042

18,764

Stipulated Increments,

21,513

Allowances,

2,086

Allowances,

Other Items,

11,354

Other Items,

2,836

1,202

Other Charges,

120,180

Other Charges,

133,249

Do.,

Special Expenditurc,

40,043

Do.,

Special Expenditure,

82,915

Personal Emoluments and Other Charges:-

Kowloon-Canton Railway,

310,303

Miscellaneous Services,.

49,814

Military Contribution,

29,312

Public Works, Recurrent,.

12,900

Public Works, Extraordinary,

67,580

Charge on Account of Public Debt,

484,686

Pensions,..........

19,160

Charitable Services,

48

Total Increase,

$1,001,612

Total Decrease,

$ 534,254

Deduct Decrease,

534,254

NET INCREASE,

$ 467,358

* Of this amount $22,172 is for Duty Pay.

co

HONGKONG.

FREE PASSAGE SCHEME FOR SUBORDINATE OFFICERS.

NO. TOIT

-2

1911

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His

Excellency the Governor, February 23rd, 1911,

The Governor appointed on the 9th October, 1908, a Committee consisting of the Director of Public Works, the Captain Superintendent of Police and the Postmaster General "to consider the petition from certain officers of the Public Works Department and to make recommendations for a scheme whereby subordinate European Officers in all departments might be granted half-pay leave and free passages every 5 years or so without expense to Government: the scheme to embrace bachelors and married officers with wives and children (as in the Police): and the Committee to consider further whether it is not feasible to extend the scheme to future appointments in the Police also ".

HONGKONG.

No. 201.

I.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE. HONGKONG, 9th June, 1910.

MY LORD,--With reference to Lord Kimberley's Despatch No. 68 of the 2nd June, 1871, I have the honour to forward for Your Lordship's consideration the enclose copy of a letter (Enclosure 1) from the Director of Public Works, dated the 30th September, 1908, covering a petition from the Overseers on the Permanent Staff of his Department asking that the Government should defray, in whole or in part, the cost of the passages of them- selves, their wives and families to and from the Colony, with a view to enabling them to take leave periodically at reasonable intervals.

2. Sir F. D. LUGARD appointed Messrs. W. CHATHAM, F. J. BADELEY, and C. McI. MESSER a Committee to consider this petition, and I have now the honour to forward a joint report (Enclosure 2) by these officers dated the 5th of April with its enclosures. advocating that Subordinate European Officers in the Service of the Colony should suffer a deduction of 24 per cent. per annum from their salaries and that after 5 years and 3 months' service, they should be granted 9 months' half-pay leave with a maximum of 31 free passages, upon the distinct understanding that, if this privilege is granted, no acting pay or distribution of salaries would be permitted. It should be explained that acting appoint- ments in the Subordinate ranks of the Civil Service are rarely made and that distribution of salaries is not frequent.

3. Your Lordship will observe that Mr. MESSER calculated that on the basis of the subordinate establishment in November, 1908, the cost of the scheme to Government after deducting 2 per cent. of the Officers' salaries would be nil and that the deduction would only amount to £446-5-8. In their report of 5th April the Committee notice the possibility of earlier marriages being encouraged by the adoption of the scheme, in which case the cost would be increased and a larger deduction would have to be made.

It is probable that this anticipation is well founded but I do not anticipate that the cost would rise very much above the sum mentioned. In these circumstances the question arose whether it is worth while to impose any deduction at all from the salaries of officers as a contribution to the scheme. Such deductions, as the Widows' and Orphans' Pension Fund Scheme has proved, are very irksome especially to bachelors and render any scheme un- popular; and it was suggested, and the suggestion received the approval of Sir F. LUGARD, that the deduction might be omitted. It is urged that the cost to Government by such remission would be more than compensated by better service on the part of subordinate officers and by avoidance of constantly recurring applications for increase of salary.

4. I considered the scheme, modified by the elimination of the 24 per cent. deduction from salaries, in Executive Council on the 31st ultimo and was advised by the members of Council that in their opinion the scheme was a good one and should be submitted for Your Lordship's favourable consideration. In this opinion I concur. I consider that the great cost of passages entailed upon European Officers in this far distant Colony is a heavy burden which it would be wise for the Government in its own interests to lighten. Under present conditions men in the Subordinate ranks of the Service are debarred from visiting Europe as often as they should do in the interest of their health owing to the difficulty of saving money for passages; they are prone from the same cause to contract undesirable marriages. with non-European women; and if married to European wives they are open to the tempta- tion of augmenting their salaries by illegitimate means in order to cover the heavy cost of passages.

I shall, therefore, be glad to learn whether an offer of the privilege may be made to the Officers concerned subject to all the European members of the Subordinate Service accept- ing it. If they refuse it, it might be compulsorily adopted for all new appointments to the Subordinate Staff.

If, however, Your Lordship considers that the principle of direct contribution by the nembers of the Service must be retained, I shall be glad to learn whether you approve of the scheme with the addition of the condition of a deduction of 2 per cent. per annum from the salaries of contributors.

The Right Honourable,

THE EARL OF CREWE,

I have, &c.,

F. H. MAY,

Officer Administering the Government.

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies,

No. 254.

&c.,

&c.,

fc.

ENCLOSURE 1.、

PUBLIC WORKS OFFICE, HONGKONG, 30th September, 1908.

SIR,-I beg to forward a petition from the Overseers on the permanent staff of this Department and one of the Land Bailiffs asking that the Government should defray, in whole or in part, the cost of the passages of themselves, their wives and families with a view to enabling them to take leave periodically at reasonable intervals.

They suggest that their periods of service in the Colony should be 5 years at a time, at the end of which they should be entitled to 9 months' leave, all of which should be on half-pay. Under the existing regulations, they are entitled to 3 months' full-pay leave and 10 months' half-pay, a few of the older hands being entitled to 4 months' full-pay leave

instead of 3.

I consider that single men, even among the II Class Overseers, should have no difficulty in saving enough money to pay for their passages. With the married men, the case is different and I can quite understand that they experience great difficulty in saving enough money, the necessary outlay in their case being considerably greater. It would however be somewhat impracticable to discriminate between the two classes in a matter of this kind.

Speaking generally, I think it would be beneficial to the men to make some such arrangement as that which forms the subject of the petition as men undoubtedly require an occasional holiday to England, but it is unnecessary for me to go into details in a matter which cannot be confined to this Department alone.

I therefore submit the petition for consideration.

The Honourable

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY.

I have, &c.,

W. CHATHAM, Director of Public Works.

*

7

:

12

5

PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT.

HONGKONG, 1st August, 1908.

SIR, We, the undersigned Overseers of the Public Works Department, beg your esteemed interest and consideration for the following petition:--

Owing to the constantly increasing cost of living in the Colony, we find it incumbent upon us to solicit the Government for some assistance in the matter of LEAVE OF ABSENCE from the Colony for health and other purposes, which is so absolutely necessary to the European Community working here.

We are unanimous in respectfully soliciting the Government's consideration, and trust you may see your way to recommend the proposals.

You will also see that the matter very materially concerns the married Overseers, therefore, we have no hesitation in putting the matter forward and feel sure it will meet with a fair consideration.

1. That, the leave of absence from the Colony granted to Overseers be for Nine months in lieu of the present Twelve months.

2. That during the term of leave the rate of half pay be granted.

3. That the Government pay the passages of such Overseers to and from Home or at least materially assist in such cost.

4. That leave of absence be given every Five years of service.

5. In the case of married Overseers the Passage be granted for Wife and family.

May we point out the advantages which will accrue to the Government.

(a.) The shorter leave of absence of its Overseers.

(b.) The payment of half, instead of the full salaries for the three or four months

of leave as at present, this will be a set-off against the passages.

(c.) Men will be in better health and more fitted for their duties, feeling that a Holiday will be due to them, whereas at present they are not in a position to estimate when Finances will enable them to have a Holiday if at all.

The advantages to Overseers will be fully appreciated.

The enormous outlay of Fares to England is such a heavy handicap especially to the married men that their hopes of taking such trips are at present so futile that they cannot with any confidence expect to see their relations in England, but once in a decade, and when such Holiday would be beneficial they are not able to lay out the cost unless at a sacrifice of funds which they may have saved against the inevitable "Rainy Days" or by borrowing, thereby imposing upon themselves a heavy tax. Many Overseers find the cost of living here so great that the margin saved for a trip home is so small as to be almost insufficient to pay the passage.

Therefore we repeat that we forward this to you with every confidence, feeling sure it will receive at your hands a fair and equitable approval and we trust you will put the mat- ter forward for His Excellency the Governor's consideration with your support.

Hon. W. CHATHAM, C.M.G.,

Director of Public Works.

We have, &c.,

L. H. MUGFORD, J. Ross, I. A. WHEAL, J. HUTCHINGS, W. T. EDWARDS, J. S. LONGSTAFF, G. W. KYNOCH,

U. A. FARRELL, J. A. HIRST, J. H. BARRINGTON, A. W. J. SIMMONS, S. R. BOYD, H. A. MORRIS, F. H. DILLON.

6

ENCLOSURE 2.

Report of the Committee appointed by the Governor.

We attach a statement which was prepared by Mr. MESSER in November, 1908. based on the conditions then existing. The figures show that, subject to certain proposed modifications in the leave regulations, the amount required to be deducted from the salaries. of the officers in question in order to ensure that no charge would fall on the Government would then have been, say 2%. The result of the scheme would however probably be- that officers would marry European wives and would marry earlier in which case the 21% deduction would prove insufficient. It has been assumed that every officer in the classes dealt with, whether married or unmarried, would be required to participate in the scheme.

We consider that better service would be obtainable if home-leave were regular and greater facilities were afforded for family life and that therefore, as a matter of policy, the scheme should recommend itself to Government. If adopted, provision should be made for its application in the case of all new appointments.

W. CHATHAM,

Director of Public Works.

F. J. BADELEY,

Captain Superintendent of Police.

C. McI. MESser,

Postmaster General,

(formerly Head of the Sanitary Department).

5th April, 1910.

Rider.

One principle involved, to which there may be considerable objection, is that under this scheme the Government, instead of granting an officer three months leave on full pay, gives him a passage grant equal to three months full pay. This principle is acknowledged to a certain extent in the Police Force, where an officer is granted a bonus in lieu of leave and free passage. The scheme in this way would mean extra cost to Government, Under the present regulations when an officer is on full pay leave another officer is supposed to perform all the absent officer's duties at no cost to the Government. In the case of sub- ordinate officers this is as a general rule impossible and the absent officer's duties are arranged as it is called departmentally.

6th April, 1910.

C. McI. MESSER.

General Considerations.

1. After a period of five years and three months service the officer to have 9 months leave on pay and passage provided, i.e., in every cycle of 6 years, 5 years are resident service and 9 months pay leave.

2. During the year previous to the year in which pay leave is taken the officer to be entitled to no full pay leave. (The full pay leave for the other years to remain as at present under the existing Colonial Office regulations.) Any leave taken during the above men- tioned period to be deducted from the 9 months pay leave.

3. Assuming an officer receives a salary of £10 a month, under the present regulations his leave would be 3 months full pay leave plus 1/6 resident service at pay, i.e., in a cycle of 6 years (54) years 10 months, that is, the proposed scheme would mean a saving to Government of three months full pay leave and 1 months pay leave in

leave in every £30 + £5.25—£35.25.

6

years or

7

4. As regards the question of deductions from salary to pay a month is deducted when on full pay and 10/- when on pay.

The result of each deduction works out as follows :

annum.

1st year. £12+.3 for interest

2nd year. £12.3+12+.915 3rd year. £25.215 +12+ 1.56 4th year. £38.775 +12 +2.239

5th year. £53.014 + 12 +2.951

4 year. £67.965+3+.868

years

pay £4.5 less disc. 167....

Total,

for passage. Assume £1 Taking interest at 5% per

£12.3

25.215

38.775

53.014

67.965

71.833

4.333

£76.166

about

£76. 38. 4d.

5. Hence for every £10 a month salary, the saving on account of less leave is £35.5 and for every deduction of £1 a month on fall salary and 10/- a month on salary is £76-3-4.

6. As regards the cost of passages, children under 12 are charged half fare, one child under 3 is carried free, and an additional child under 3 is charged quarter fare. Taking the maximum amount of passages to be provided as that for husband, wife, two children over 3 and under 12, and two children under 3, or 3 full fares, the maximum of passage to be paid by Government would be £159. 10s. 8d.

7. Taking the present officers as a basis (November 1908) the average annual cost would be

Public Works Department,,

Department.

Annual Salary.

Annual Saving by Leave.

£5,059

£249.44

Cost. £374-12- 6

Sanitary Department,

7,348

359.73

486-19-0

Gaol,...

3,532.6

172.95

282-4-9

Harbour Office,

2,880.2

141.01

192-11-10

Medical Department,

570

27.91

40-18- 14

Post Office,

600.

29.58

51- 2-10

Land Office,

405

27.91

16-7-3

£20,394.8

£1,008.53

Difference,

£1,444-16- 3

£136-5-8

Percentage of salary to be deducted, under 24 per cent.

8. Hence taking the present time (November 1908) as a basis for ages etc., if 24 per cent. was deducted from salaries, and less leave granted, then the Government would lose nothing.

9. On the other hand the staff has recently been increased and so the full average of married men cannot be expectel. One result of this scheme, if a lopted, would be that more officers would marry, as they would feel sure of their passage expenses home being paid. If however therefore 3 per cent. were deducted this should be sufficient.

10. As regards the statement that no extra expense would be incurred to Government, it is necessary to qualify this statement. Under this scheme an officer would receive three months salary in the form of a free passage, without his living a period of three months in which he would draw three months full pay. Hence if an officer went on leave during a period of one year he would receive three months full pay during his service in the Colony plus nine months half pay during his term of leave and also the Government would contribute to the passage fund, on his account, the sum equal to three months full pay. So the total amount paid by Government would be 10 months full pay. There would therefore only be three months half pay available for payment of any acting officer instead of nine months, the time the officer is on half pay leave. Under present conditions the acting officer performs the duties of the absent officer free of expense during the three months that he is on full pay leave

8

and receives half the absent officer's initial pay during the nine months that he is on half pay leave. In the case of subordinate officers, however, his duties are perforined departmentally no officer having to work overtime and the half pay lapses to the Treasury. Hence an additional condition would have to be that if an acting officer is appointed or extra pay granted to officers performing extra duties, then the total amount of such payments must not exceed three months half pay of the absent officer instead of nine months. This means that practically no acting pay could be granted. If no acting pay were granted, the increase over the estimates would only amount to £135 per annum, a small amount.

1. From the figures in para. 7 every 1 per cent, of officers' salaries amounts to £204 annually. One month's full pay in every six years amounts to £283 annually. Hence if the acting officers are to receive the nine months half pay, the necessary additional contri- bution from officers to balauce this would be 33 per cent of their salaries.

HONGKONG.

No. 223.

II.

DOWNING STREET, HONGKONG, 10th August, 1910.

SIR,I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch No. 201 of the 9th of June in which you submitted proposals for assisting certain subordinate officers of the Civil Service of Hongkong to take leave in Europe by providing them with passages at regular intervals.

2. I sympathize cor lially with the object which you have in view and if the Legislative Council approve the scheme with the modification which I am about to suggest, I shall have much pleasure in giving my assent to it.

3. I have carefully considered the question whether it is desirable to adopt the sugges- tion that the officers concerned should be required to make a contribution towards the cost of the scheme but I am satisfied that the balance of advantage is in favour of dispensing with any such contribution. The amount involved is not very large and discontent is almost certain to be caused by any system which requires the payment of the same amount of contribution while the benefits to be received vary with individual cases.

4. In one point, however, I consider that the proposals are more liberal than is necessary, that is in the number of free passages which it is proposed to grant. If these officers are relieved from the necessity of saving money for the passages of themselves and their wives they should have no great difficulty in providing passages for their families, especially if the Government will assist them by granting advances of salary for this purpose.

I think that it would have been sufficient to give passages only for the officer and his wife but I am prepared to agree to the grant of 2 passages as a maximum.

5. I have consulted Sir F. LUGARD on the subject and he agrees in the views which I have expressed in this despatch. I have therefore to request that you will now place the matter before the Legislative Council. If, as I hope will be the case, the Council agrees to these proposals, the subordinate officers now in the service should be invited to accept the scheme, which should be made compulsory for all such officers appointed in future. In view of the proposal to dispense with any contributions from the officers affected, it will not be necessary that the adoption of the scheme should be made contingent upon its being accepted by all existing officers, but it seems improbable that anyone would hesitate to accept it.

6. I should be glad if you would inform me as soon as possible whether the Legislative Council have approved the proposal.

In that event, it is desirable that the scheme should be embodied in a printed paper, shewing exactly the classes of officers to which it is applicable. I should be glad to receive a number of copies of such a paper in order that they may be distributed to officers who are hereafter selected for appointinent.

I have, etc.,

The Officer Administering the Government of

HONGKONG.

CREWE.

9

III.

GENERAL CONDITIONS OF FREE PASSAGE SCHEME.

1. The following officers only are eligible

Officers on Permanent Establishment holding offices mentioned in attached schedule,

and at the same time domiciled in a gold using country.

2. The scheme is subject to the following conditions:-

After a period of 5 years service the officer to have 9 months leave on half pay. 2nd class (non mail) passage will be provided by the Government in steamers to be selected by the Government.

3. During the year in which leave is taken and the preceding year, any leave taken, beyond leave on medical grounds, will be deducted from the nine months half pay leave.

4. The number of free passages will be limited to 2 full fares; any additional passage money being defrayed by the officer concerned.

5. In case of an officer's death, his family will be given a free passage home equivalent to 14 full fares.

6. Officers domiciled in a gold using country elsewhere than in the United Kingdom will have themselves to pay the difference between the actual cost of passage, and the cost of passage to the United Kingdom.

7. Officers holding offices mentioned in the attached schedule will not be paid any half

pay for performing the duties of any other officer mentioned in the same schedule.

List of Officers entitled to Free Passage Scheme.

Harbour Master's Department.

Master of Stanley.

8 Lighthouse Keepers. 7 Revenue Officers.

Supreme Court.

2 Bailiffs.

District Officer's Department.

3 Land Bailiffs.

Fire Brigade.

Assistant Engineer & Station Officer.

Prison.

1 Chief Warder.

3 Principal Warders.

22 Warders.

Hospitals and Asylums. 5 Wardmasters.

Sanitary Department.

24 Inspectors.

1 Storekeeper.

Public Works Department.

15 Overseers 1st class.

1 Overseer 2nd class.

2 Land Bailiffs.

Post Office.

Senior Clerk.

Superintendent, Registration and Parcels.

Branch. Superintendent of Mails. Supervisor.

Note: The cost of this scheme has been recalculated, on the basis of (1) the officers who will accept the scheme, (2) the maximum number of passages provided being reduced by direction of the Secretary of State to two and a half full fares.

The average annual cost will be £1,117 10s. Od., the value of full pay leave given up will be £892 6s. 8d., leaving a difference of £245 38. 4d. which will be more than covered by the savings in lapsing half pay due to no acting appointments being made in the majority of cases.

C. McI. MESser,

Treasurer.

26th January, 1911.

པའི་མ--

No. 4.

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

PUBLIC

OF THE

WORKS COMMITTEE

at a Meeting held on the 29th December, 1910.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor, January 12th, 1911.

No. 1912

1

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Director of Public Works, (WILLIAM CHATHAM, C.M.G.), Chairman.

Mr. WEI YUK, C.M.G.

""

Mr. EDWARD OSBORNE.

""

Mr. HENRY KESWICK,

22

ABSENT:

The Honourable the Colonial Treasurer, (CHARLES MCILVAINE MESSER).

Maternity Hospital-Additions and Alterations. (C.S.O. 7566/1909.)

The Chairman submitted a plan for extending the accommodation of the hospital by erecting building, containing a third-class ward (6 be.ls), a confinement ward and a sisters' room, immediately to the north of the existing building and for making various minor alter- ations in the latter. The estimated cost of the work was $12,000, for which provision had been made, to the extent of $10,000, in the Estimates for 1911.

The Committee approved of the plan.

Imports and Exports Office-Quarters for Searchers, &c. (C.S.O. 6 in 8268/1908.)

I

The Chairman submitted a plan for erecting a small 2-storied building on vacant land immediately to the eastward of the Harbour Office to house the staff of searchers, consisting of 1 European Inspector and about 40 Chinese. He explained that the Superintendent con- sidered it necessary that the searchers, who were at present occupying hired premises in Kowloon, should be housed in proximity to the Imports and Exports Office and that they should be under the supervision of the European Inspector attached to the Department. The rent at present paid for the premises referred to and a house-allowance paid to the Inspector would be saved under the proposed scheme. The estimated cost of the building was $10,000. A sum of $4,500 had been provided in the Estimates for 1911, but, when that provision was made, it was proposed only to erect a one-storied wooden building for the Chinese searchers. Since then, it had been decided to provide accommodation also for the European Inspector and the building was now designed to be a 2-storied one and to be built of brick.

The Committee approved of the proposals.

While approving of the foregoing items, the Un-official Members, becoming aware that, in almost all cases, the proposals submitted to them have already been decided on by the Government, beg to protest that such procedure nullifies the purpose for which it may be presumed they were appointed and submit that, if their services are to be of any practical use, the schemes on which the Government may desire to obtain their views should be sub- mitted to them in their initial stages.

The Committee then adjourned.

W. CHATHAM,

Laid before the Legislative Council this 12th day of January, 1911.

Chairman.

C. CLEMENTI,

Clerk of Councils.

+

.

!

$

No. 3.

73

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

STANDING LAW COMMITTEE

on the

Interpretation Bill.

No.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor, July 20th, 1911.

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Attorney General, (C. G. ALABASTER), Chairman.

27

the Captain Superintendent of Police, (F. W. Lyons). Dr. Ho KAI, M.B., C.M.G.

11 1911

7:

Mr. H. E. POLLOCK, K.C.

The Honourable Mr. E. A. HEWETT.

ABSENT:

A Bill entitled "An Ordinance to amend and codify the law as to Common Forms and as to the Interpretation of Terms used in Ordinances was referred to the Standing Law Committee after the second reading. The Bill has been considered clause by clause i the presence of four members of the Committee at a number of meetings.

The Committee suggest a number of alterations in its title and clauses.

The Committee suggest that the Bill be read a third time and passed in the form in which it appears in the document marked A attached to this report.

For the convenience of Members of the Legislative Council a copy of the Gazette cf the 10th March, 1911, is attached in which is printed the Bill in the form it stood when it was referred to the Standing Law Committee (vide Supplement, pages 177 to 186).

C. G. ALABASTER,

Chairman.

Laid before the Legislative Council, and adopted on the 20th day of July, 1911.

C. CLEMENTI,

Clerk of Councils.

Short title.

Application

of the Or- dinance.

Application of subse- quent Ordinances.

Application of provisious of Didin-

ance.

Commence- ment of

Ordinances and Acis of Parliament in the Colony.

Commence- ment of this Ordinance.

Definition of

74

A

A BILL

ENTITLED

No. 8-[12.6.11.—4.]

An Ordinance to amend and codify the law as to the Interpretation of Terms and as to Commou Forms used in Ordinances.

Be it enacted by the Governor of Hongkong, with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council thereof, as follows:-

1. This Ordinance may be cited as the “ Interpretation Ordinance, 1911 ”.

2. This Ordinance shall apply to the Colony of Hong- kong and its dependencies, including the New Territories, unless it is otherwise expressed.

PART I.

Of Ordinances Generally.

3. All Ordinances now in force or hereafter to be passed shall, except as provided by section 4 of Ordinance Ño. 34 of 1910, extend to the New Territories unless it other- wise appear from express provision or by necessary im- plication.

4. The provisions of this Ordinance shall apply

(a.) to this Ordinance and to all Ordinances bere- after to be passed, unless the contrary inten- tion appear;

(3.) to Ordinances now in force unless otherwise

expressly herein provided.

5.-(1) Every Ordinance shall, unless otherwise pro- vided therein, come into operation on the day of its publi- cation in the Gazette.

(2.) Statutes of the Imperial Parliament extending to the Colony, which require any act to be done in the Colony, or forbid the commission of any act in the Colony, or impose any duty on or create any right in any person in the Colony, and which do not contain any ex- press provision for bringing them into operation in the Colony, shall come into operation on the day of a notifica- tion by the Governor to that effect in the Gazette.

6. This Ordinance shall come into operation by pro- clamation of the Governor, which shall not be issued until after the Legisla ive Council has authorised the use of the New Edition of the Laws of Hongkong now in course of preparation.

7. The word

commencement", when used with re- "Commence- ference to any enactment, shall mean the day on which the ment "

enactment comes into operation.

Time of

commence- went.

Exercise of statutory powers between passing and

conimence- ment of Ordinance.

8. Where any enactment, or any proclamation, notice, order, warrant, scheme, or letters patent, made, granted, or issued, under a power conferred by any enactment, or by any competent authority, is expressed to come into opera- tion on a particular day, the same shall be construed as coming into operation on the expiration of the previous day.

9. Where the operation of any Ordinance is suspended and confers power to make any appointment, to make, grant, or issue any instrument, to give notice, to prescribe forms, or to do any other thing for the purpose of bringing the Ordinance into operation, that power may be exercised before the Ordinance comes into operation.

75

10.—(1.) In all Ordinances there shall be 2. short Citation of title, and in all references to Ordinances in any enactment Ordinances. or in any legal document it shall be sufficient, but not essential, to mention the short title thereto, together with the number of the section referred to.

(2.) Where however the short title is not used, it shall be lawful to indicate any Ordinance referred to as aforesaid by the serial number of the year in which it was passed, together with such year, and the number of the section referred to, as the same appear in the copy deposited in the Registry of the Supreme Court.

(3.) In the case of Ordinances included in Sir John Carrington's "Revised Edition" of the Laws of Hongkong the numbers both of the year and the section shall be those given to them respectively in the said Revised Edition in so far as they are perpetuated in the "New Edition" of such "Revised Laws" presently to be published, but the reference shall be taken to be to the "New Edition

****

(4.) Where such reference includes the description or citation of a portion of another Ordinance it shall, unless the contrary intention appear, be construed as including the word, section, or other part mentioned or referred to as forming the beginning and as forming the end of the portion comprised in the description or citation.

"

(5.) Where the reference to any Ordinance is to any "line" in any section thereof, it shall be held to refer, in the case of Ordinances included in the "New Edition of the "Revised Laws" of Hongkong presently to be published. to the line of such section as printed therein; and in the case of Ordinances, hereafter to be passed, not included in the "New Edition", to the line of such section as printed in the copy deposited in the Registry of the Supreme Court.

PART II.

Of Repeals.

11.-(1.) Where any Ordinance repeals wholly or in Effect of part any former enzetment and substitutes other provisions repeal on therefor, the repealed enactment shall remain in force until existing the substituted provisions come into operation.

proclama tions and

(2.) Where any Ordinance, or any part of an Ordinance, regulations. is repealed, all proclamatious, orders, notices, rules, and regulations, issued or made in virtue thereof shall remain in force, so far as they are are not inconsistent with the provisions of the repealing Ordinance, and, unless the con- trary intention appear, until they shall have been repealed or have been replaced by proclamatious, orders, notices, rules or regulations, as the case may be, issued or made under the provisions of the said repealing Ordinance.

12. The repeal of any enactment shall not, unless the Effect of contrary intention appear-

(a.) revive anything not in force or existing at the

time at which the repeal takes effect; or

(b.) affect the previous operation of any enactment so repealed, or anything duly done or suffered under any enactment so repealed; or

(c.) affect any right, privilege, obligation or liabi

lity acquired, accrued, or incurred under any enactment so repealed; or

(d.) affect any penalty, forfeiture or punishment incurred in respect of any offence committed against any enactment so repealed; or (c.) affect any investigation, legal proceeding, or remedy in respect of any such right, privilege, obligation, liability, peualty, forfeiture, or pun- ishment as aforesaid; and any such investiga- tion, legal proceeding, or remedy may be instituted, continued or enforced, and any such penalty, forfeiture or punishment may be im- posed, as if the repealing Ordinance had not been passed.

repeal

generally.

די

Repeal of Ordinances.

References to re-enacted provisions.

Reference to re-enacted Acts of Parliament.

76..

1

Provided that where the penalty, forfeiture, punish- ment imposed by the repealing Ordinance is he ier than that imposed by the repealed enactment, the pro isions by which the lighter penalty, forfeiture or punishm it is im- posed shall, unless such repealing enactment therwise provides, be applied if the Court decides to

flict any punishment.

actment

13. When any Ordinauce which repeals in vole or iu part any earlier Ordinance is itself repealed, uch last repeal shall not be construed as reviving the previously repealed, unless such revival be enacted.

xpressly

cts, with r Ordin- rovisions

14. Where any Ordinance repeals and re-er or without modification, any provisions of a form ance, references in any other Ordinance to the so repealed, shall, unless the contrary intention construed as references to the provisions so re-er sted.

pear, be

15. Where any statute of the Imperial rliament repeals and re-enacts, with or without modifier ion, any provisions of a former statute of the Imperial Pliament, references in any Ordinance to the provisions so repealed, shall, unless there is any provision in the repeali; statute from which the contrary intention shall appe:, strued as references to the provisions so re-cuact-

Operation

16. Any Ordinance which amends, repeals, o of amending the provisions of a former Ordinance shall, Ordinances. contrary intention appear, be read and construed

part of the Ordinance so affected.

Disallowance.

be con-

adds to, less the

forming

owed by

17. Whenever any enactment shall be disal His Majesty, such disallowance shall be notif 1 by the Governor in the Gazette; and from and after tl such notification, the enactment, and all proc orders, notices, rules, regulations, or other like made thereunder shall cease to have effect.

44

date of auations, cuments

12 shall >wance

he words nly, that by any mations,

Provided always that the provisions of sectio apply to such disallowance as if the words "disa and "disallowed' were read therein in lieu of

repeal” and “repealed"; with this exception any enactment repealed, modified, or amended enactment disallowed, together with all proc orders, notices, rules, regulations, or other like made under such previous enactment, shall r zive and continue in force in their original form as from tl date of the said notification.

66

ocuments

The expression disallowance shall include he signi- fication of His Majesty's pleasure not to allow a

a y Ordin-

ance,

PART III.

Ordinances

General Provisions.

18. Every Ordinance shall be a public Ordin nce, and to be public shall be judicially noticed as such, unless the ntrary is Ordinances. expressly provided by the Ordinance.

Sections to be substan-

tive enact- ments.

Schedules, etc., to

be part of Ordinances.

Sub-divisious of Ordin- auces to be recognised.

19. Every section of an Ordinance shall have effect as a substantive enactment without introductory wols.

rdinance,

20. Every schedule to or Table in any shall, together with any notes thereto, be con rued and have effect as part of the Ordinance.

21. Where an Ordinance is divided into Parts. Chapters, Titles, or other sub-divisions, the fact and par culars of such division shall, with or without express ment in such Ordinance, be taken notice of in all Cour all other purposes whatsoever.

I thereof and for

77

22. References to the Sovereign reigning at the time of References the passing of any Ordinance, or to the Crown, shall, unless to the the contrary intention appear, be construed as references to Sovereign. the Sovereign for the time being, and it shall not be neces- sary to refer to or include the Sovereign's Heirs and Successors.

23. No Ordinance shall be binding on the Crown, or Ordinances shall in any manner affect the rights of the Crown, unless not binding it is so provided in express terms.

This Ordinance shall be binding on the Crown.

on Crown unless expressed.

24. Where any Ordinance confers a power or imposes a Construction duty, then, unless the contrary intention appear, the power of provisions may be exercised and the duty shall be performed from as to time to time as occasion requires.

exercise of

powers and duties.

25.-(1.) Where reference is made to any person Construction by the term designating his office, such term shall include of references the person for the time being executing the duties of such to public office, as well as such other person as may be appointed to officers. perform any portion of such duties.

(2.) Where any Ordinance confers a power or privilege, Construction or imposes a duty on the holder of any office as such, then, of provisions unless the contrary intention appear, the power may be granting exercised and the duty shall or may be performed, as the towers to case may be, by the holder of the office for the time being, an office. or by any person appointed to act in, or perform the duties of, the said office for the time being.

the holder of

(3.) Any civil or criminal proceedings taken by any Proceedings person in virtue of his office shall not be discontinued or not abated abated by his death, resignation, or removal from office, by change in but may be carried on by and in the name of the person appointed to perform the duties of the office.

office.

26.-(1.) Where reference is made in any enactment to Construction the numbers of any series of sections of any enactment, or of references to any part of any enactment, the reference shall be held to other to be inclusive of the sections or words mentioned in the enactments; reference.

(2.) When any partienlar number of days is prescribed and to a for the doing of any act or for any other purpose, the same series of days. shall, unless the contrary intention appear, be reckoned exclusive of the first and inclusive of the last day.

27. In the measurement of any distance for the purposes Measurement of any Ordinance that distance shall, unless the intrary of distances, intention appear, be measured in a straight line on horizontal plane.

28.--(1.) Whenever any expression of time occurs in any References to enactment or in any legal document, the time referred to time. shall, unless the contrary intention appear, be held to be standard time.

The expression standard time" means standard time as used in the Colony, that is to say, the mean time of the 120th meridiau East of Greenwich, and is exactly eight hours in advance of Greenwich mean time.

sion"

(2.) The expression “a.m." indicates the period between midnight and noon on the day succeeding; and the expres- p.m." indicates the period between noon and the midnight following; and where in any enactment two such expressions occur conjunctively in relation to any specified hours, or in conjunction with the words

་་ sunser OF "sunrise", they shall be construed to relate to consecutive periods of time.

ба

29. Where any Ordinance authorises or requires any Meaning of document to be served by post, whether the expression service by 66 serve or "give", or "send", or any other expression post. is used, then, unless the contrary intention appear, the service shall be deemed to be effected by properly address- ing, pre-paying, and posting a letter containing the document, and, unless the contrary is proved, to have been effected at the time at which the letter would be delivered in the ordinary course of post.

1

+

Meaning of writing.

Meaning of "path' ,, "affidavit ' and "swear

Use of Chinese ex- pressions in Ordinances.

78

30. In any enactment expressions referring t writing or printing shall include, unless the contrary nteution appear, writing, printing, lithography, photogra] y, type- writing, and every other mode of representing vords or figures in a visible form, but in the case of a boo "print- ing" shall not include writing or type-writing.

Nothing in this section shall be taken to apply o signa-

tures.

99

31. In all Ordinances, unless the contrary appear, the words “oath and “affidavit " inclu cases of persons allowed or required by law to to solemnly affirm instead of swearing, "declara "solemn affirmation"; and swear in the includes “declare” and “solemnly affirm ".

32. Where in any enactment Chinese words are used, or where English words are used, fo brackets or otherwise, by Chinese words or terms in Chinese characters or not, the Chinese words shall be held to be included in the enactment meaning and construction thereof shall be in a with Chinese language and custom.

ntention

3, in the clare or ɔn

" and

e cases,

or terms wed, in whether

or terms and the cordance

erwise

appear,

of like

33. Where the words “or”, “other”, and “o Meaning of

'or"

""other" are used, they shall, unless the contrary intentic "otherwise". be construed disjunctively and not as implying nilarity,

unless the word "similar", or some other wo meaning, is added.

Nothing in this section shall be taken to affect section 11 of the Penalties Amendment Ordinance, 1911.

Burden of

34. Where the offence with which any

erson is

proof where charged is :-

acts done without law- ful excuse.

Meaning of

(a.) the doing of any act; or (b.) the omission to do any act,

without lawful authority or purpose or reasonabl the proof of such authority, purpose or excuse s the person charged.

excuse,

ill lie on

35. In the construction of every Ordinance rating to "person" in an offence punishable ou indictment or on suminal convic- tion, the expression person shall, unless the contrary intention appear, include a body corporate.

Criminal Ordinances.

Rules as to gender, and number.

Effect of notices in Gazette.

Application

of fees.

fines and forfeiture.

66

""

36. In all enactmeuts, unless the contrary atention appear, words importing the masculine gender sha include females, and words in the singular shall include t 2 plural, and words in the plural shall include the singular.

37 Where any notice, order, or other docun nt is re- quired by any Ordinance to be published in the Gazette, or where any document is published in the Gaz të under section 26 (8) of the Evidence Ordinance, 188

a copy of the Gazette in which it is so published shall e primâ facie evidence of the facts stated in such noti, order,

or document.

any do-

ere any

38.-(1.) Where under any enactment any pe on is re- quired to pay any charge or fee for any act or thig done. or document issued, or signature or seal affixed cument, by any public officer or department, or v person is adjudged by any Court, or other auth ity duly authorised by law, to pay or forfeit any sum of money, such charge or fee and such sum of money shall be pai into the Treasury, unless the contrary is otherwise provid; and if any such charge or fee, or any commission on ceived or taken possession of, realised or other se dealt with, is required to be paid to any public officer ment, such officer or department receiving the pay it into or account for the same in due cou Tr

Treasury.

oney re-

A

depart-

ine shall 3 to the

(2.) Where under any enactment any thing or y animal is adjudged by any Court, or other authority du ́author- ised by law, to be forfeited, it shall, unless the curary is otherwise provided, or unless it is expressed by aw to be forfeited to any person, he forfeited to the Crown and the net proceeds thereof if it is ordered by competent authority to be sold, shall be paid into the Treasury, unles the con- trary is otherwise provided.

79

(3.) Nothing in this section shall affect any provision in any existing enactment or any enactment hereafter to be made, whereby any shares of fines or forfeitures, or of pro- ceeds of forfeitures are expressed to be recoverable by any person, or may be granted by any authority to any person

or officer.

(4.) The Governor may in any special case, not provided for by Ordinance, award a share not exceeding three-fourths, of

any fines or forfeitures adjudged by any Court, or of any proceeds of any forfeitures, as a reward, bounty or gratuity, to any member of the police force, for meritorious conduct, zeal displayed or injury sustained in the execution of his duty, or to such private persons or informers as may be deserving of reward for assisting in the detection of crime or the apprehension of offenders,

(5.) Section 2 of Ordinance No. 2 of 1867 is repealed.

PART IV.

Definitions.

39. In all enactments the following words shall have Definitions. the meanings hereby assigned to them, unless otherwise

provided or unless the context otherwise requires :-

46

A.-Official Definitions.

2)

* Governor means the Governor of Hongkong and Official

includes the Officer for the time being adminis- definitions. tering the Government of Hongkong :

and where the Governor of Hongkong is not intended-

Governor" means, as respects Australia, Canada, India and United South Africa, the Governor General, and includes any person who for the time being has the power of the Governor General S

and as respects any other British possession or territory under the protection of the King, means the Governor or Administrator of that possession, and includes the Officer for the time being administering the Government of that possession or territory.

Governor-in-Council", or Governor in Executive Council", or "Governor with the advice of the Executive Council", means the Governor act- ing with the advice of the Executive Council, but not necessarily in such Council assembled. "Officer Administering the Government" means the Officer who succeeds to or is appointed to the administration of the Government of the Colony.

16

Secretary of State means His Majesty's Prin- cipal Secretary of State for the Colonies, unless another Secretary of State is indicated.

"

"

Crown Agents means the person or persons for the time being acting as Crown Agents for the Colonies in England, or any one of them. The Admiralty means the Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdem for the time being, or the Commissioners for the time being executing the Office of Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom.

Privy Council" means the Lords and others for the time being of His Majesty's Most Hon- ourable Privy Council, and "Order in Council ** means an Order made by the Privy Council. "Board of Trade" means the Lords and others of the Committee for the time being of the Privy Council appointed for the consideration of mat- ters relating to trade and foreign plantations. "Imperial Parliament", and 'Parliament", mean

the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

44

· Consul” and “Consular Officer” include, consul- general, cousul, vice-consul, consular agent, and any person for the time being authorised to discharge the duties of cousul-gencral, consul or vice-consul.

Colonial definitions.

66

80

Legislative Council and "Legislature mean the Council of Government of Hongkong, and when used with reference to a British possession other than Hongkong, the authority, other than the Imperial Parliament, or His Majesty the King in Council, competent to make laws for such British possession.

"The Treasury” and “

"Treasurer

mean the Coloniał Treasury and the Colonlal Treasurer' respect-- ively.

""

"Justice of the Peace means a person appointed by the Governor to act as Justice of the Peace for the Colony.

B.-Colonial Definitions.

"The Colony", "this, Colony", or "Hongkong", means the Colony of Hongkong, and the de- pendencies thereof, together with Stonecutters Island and Kellet Island, and includes the New Territories, unless it appears from express provision or by necessary implication that the New Territories or New Kowloon is not in-- tended.

"

"Kowloon' means that portion of the peninsula of Kau-lung in the Province of Kwang-tung in the Empire of China which was ceded to Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland and to her beirs and successors by His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of China under Article VI of the Convention of Peace and Friendship between Great Britain and China signed at Peking on the twenty-fourth day of October.. 1860.

"The New Territories" means the additional ter- ritories acquired by this Colony under the Convention dated the 9th day of June, 1898, between IIer late Majesty Queen Victoria and His Majesty the Emperor of China for the enlargement of the limits of this Colony in- cluding the City of Kowloon.

"New Kowloon means that portion of the New Territories which is delineated and shewn upon a plau marked "New Kowloon" signed by the Director of Public Works and countersigned by the Governor and deposited in the Land Office. "City of Victoria ", or "Victoria ", means the area

within the following boundaries :—

on the North.-The Harbour ;

on the West.-A line running north and south drawn through the north-west angle of Inland Lot No. 1299 and extending southwards a distance of eight hundred and fifty feet from the aforesaid angle;

on the South.-A line ruuming east from the southern extremity of the western boundary until it meets a contour of the hill-side seven hundred feet above the level known as Ord- nance datum thence following the said contour until it meets the eastern boundary ;

on the East.-A line following the western boundary of the Queen's Recreation Ground until it meets the old Shaukiwan Road, thence to the south-east angle of Inland Lot No. 1018, thence along the southern boundary. of Inland Lot No. 1018, produced until it meets the road on the east side of Wongneichong Valley, thence to the north-west angle of Wongneichong School, produced until it meets the southern boundary.

"The Waters of the Colony " or

CC Colonial Waters" means all waters, whether navigable or not, included within the following boundaries :-

:

པ༔

81

on the South, the parallel of latitude 22° 9′ North between the points where it is inter- sected by the meridians of longitude 113° 52′ East and 114° 30' East of Greenwich;

on the North, from the point where the meridian of longitude 113° 52′ East of Green- wich intersects the parallel of latitude touching the extreme south-west point of the shore of Deep Bay to the said south-west point of the shore of Deep Bay, and thence along the high water mark upon the shore of Deep Bay to the estuary of the Sham Chun River. Thereafter the land boundary is as described in the agreement delimiting the northern froutier of the New Territories signed by James Hal- dane Stewart Lockbart and Wong Ts'ün-shin at Hongkong on 19th March, 1899, and follows the high water mark in Mirs Bay to the point where the meridian of longitude 114° 30′ East of Greenwich intersects the mainland ;

on the East, the meridian of longitude 114° 30 East of Greenwich between the points where it intersects the mainland and the parallel of latitude 22° 9′ North :

on the West, the meridian of longitude 113° 52′ East of Greenwich between the points where it intersects the parallel of latitude tou- ching the extreme south-west point of the shore of Deep Bay and the parallel of latitude 22° 9′ North; and between the points on the north and south coast of Lantau where the meridian of 113° 52′ East of Greenwich intersects the island the boundary follows the western coast- line of Lantau and includes the waters apper- taining thereto.

19

Harbour means, unless any other harbour is expressly indicated, the harbour of Victoria, and includes the waters of the Colony within the following boundaries :—

on the East.-A line drawn from "North Point" on the island of Hongkong to Kowloon City; and

A

on the West. A line drawn from the westernmost point of the Island of Hongkong to the western side of Green Island, continued to the western point of stonecutters' Island, thence to the north point of Stonecutters' Island, and thence to the Harbour Master's Station at Samshuipo.

Public Seal " means the public seal of the Colony. "Public Office" and "Public Department

""

mean

and include every office or department invested with or performing duties of a public nature, whether under the immediate control of the Governor or not.

"Public Officer " or Public Servant" means any person holding or discharging the duties, whe- ther permanently or temporarily, of any office or appointment in the Civil Service of the Colony, and includes every member of the Police Force, and of the District Watchmen Force appointed under the Regulation of Chinese Ordinance, 1888.

66

Officer of police" or "Police officer" includes members of the Police Force of all ranks; and where any duty or power is imposed or con- ferred in any Ordinance ou any

officer of po-

66

lice",

ΟΙ police officer ". it may be performed and exercised by any member of the police force ; and where any duty or power is imposed or conferred on any

“constable of police "constable it may be performed or exercised by any member of the police force;

}

"

or any

and where any duty or power is imposed on any officer of police other than a constable it may be performed or exercised by any member of the police force of higher rank ;

Geographical definitions.

Judicial definitions.

82

66

and where any person is referred to as not being a constable of police" it shall be con- strued to mean any person not being a mem- ber of the police force ";

66

and the expression "person employed in the police force" or other words of like meaning, shall include all the employees referred to in section 3 (2) of Ordinance No. 11 of 1900, as well as all members of the police force. "Emigration Officer ", as respects Hongkong, means and includes every person lawfully acting as emigration offi er and any person deputed or authorised by him to execute any power or perform any duty vested in or im- posed upon him by any Ordinance; and, as respects any other places, means any person acting as emigration officer under the law in force in such place.

"Revenue Officer " means any person appointed to act as Revenue Officer under Ordinance No. 9 of 1911.

"Excise Officer" means any person appointed to act as Excise Officer under Ordinance No. 23 of 1909.

""

"Forest Officer' means any Forest Guard or other person appointed by the Governor for the control or superintendence of any forest. "The Gaol" means Victoria Gaol, and includes any place that may hereafter be set apart as a prison.

C.-Geographical Definitions.

"United Kingdom wenns the United Kingdom of

Great Britain and Ireland.

"British Islands" means the United Kingdom, the

Channel Islands and the Isle of Man.

?"

"British Possession" means any part of His Ma- jesty's Dominions exclusive of the United Kingdom; and where parts of such Dominions are under both a central and a local Legisla- ture, all parts under the central Legislature shall, for the purpose of this definition, be deemed to be one British possession. "British Colony" or "Colony means, where the Colony of Hongkong is not intended, any part of His Majesty's Dominions exclusive of the United Kingdom and of British India; and where parts of such Dominions are under both a central and a local Legislature, all parts under the central Legi-lature shall, for the purposes of this definition, be deemed to be one Colony. British India" means, all territories and places within His Majesty's Dominions which are for the time being governed by His Majesty through the Governor General of India, or through any Governor or other officer subor- dinate to the Governor General of India.

፡፡

*

"India means British India together with any territories of any Native Prince or Chief under the suzerainty of His Majesty exercised through the Governor General of India or other officer subordinate to the Governor General of India.

LL

D.~Judicial Definitions.

High Court means, when used with reference to England or Ireland, His Majesty's High Court of Justice in England or Ireland, as the case may be.

"3

or

Court of Assize

" Assizes means, as respects England, Wales, and Ireland, a Court of Assize, a Court of Oyer and Terminer, and a Court of Gaol Delivery, or any of them, and as respects England and Wales, includes the Central Criminal Court;

:

66

83

and as respects Hongkong, means the Supreme Court, either one Judge or the Full Court, sit- ting in its criminal jurisdiction; and unless it is specially provided that any offence is to be or may he tried summarily before a Magistrate or otherwise, all offences shall be triable before the Supreme Court sitting in its criminal juris- diction.

Supreme Court" means the Supreme Court of

Hongkong.

"Full Court

means the Chief Justice and the Puisne Judge sitting together in Court or in Chambers.

“Probate Court" means, as respects Hongkong, the Supreme Court sitting in its probate jurisdic- tion.

66

Bankruptcy Court" means, as respects Hongkong, the Supreme Court sitting in its bankruptcy jurisdiction.

"Colonial Court of Admiralty" means, as respects Hongkong, the Supreme Court sitting in its Admiralty jurisdiction.

59

"Court means the Supreme Court as well as any

other Court holden in the Colony.

66

Magistrate" means a Magistrate appointed under Ordinance No. 3 of 1890, but does not include the Marine Magistrate in cases not coming within section 8 of the said Ordinance. unless such Magistrate is expressly indicated; and unless the contrary intention appears, the ex- pression "triable before a Magistrate" or "tried summarily", or any other expression having the like intent, means that an offence may be tried as provided by Ordinance No. 3 of 1890 ; and the expression on summary conviction or "on conviction before a Magistrate", and any other expression having the like intent, means that the offence to which it relates was triable, and has been tried, and the offender convicted. as provided by the said Ordinance; and in both cases the procedure respecting the imposition of fiues and forfeitures and all other provisions respecting the jurisdiction of the Magistrate, and the procedure of such trial, shall be held to be included; and where by any Ordinance an offence is made punishable by summary con- viction, the Magistrate, or wo Magistrates, as the case may require, shall be deemed there- by to be invested with jurisdiction to try any person accused of such offence.

"

Judge means any Judge of the Supreme Court ; and where any civil jurisdiction is required to be exercised by a Judge, such jurisdiction, if it is not otherwise expressed, shall be exercis- able by a Judge sitting in Chambers. "Rules of Court" means, when used in relation to any Court, rules made by the authority having for the time being power to make rules and orders regulating the practice and procedure of such Court, together with the forms necessary thereto.

The power of the said authority to make rules of Court as above defined shail include a power to make rules of Court for the purpose of any Ordinance hereafter to be passed directing or authorising anything to be done by rule of Court.

F.-General Definitions.

Gazette means the Hongkong Government General

Gazette.

Proclamation means, as respects Hongkong, a proclamation of the Governor or of the Gov- ernor-in-Council.

definitions.

:

:

"

84

"Definition means the interpretation to be given to words or expressions used in the Ordinance or part of an Ordinance to which such inter- pretations are declared to be applicable; and the words or expressions are to have in such Ordinance or part of an Ordinance, and in any rules, regulations, orders, or other documents made thereunder, the meanings assigned to them unless inconsistent with the context.

"Month" means calendar month, unless it appears from the context that lunar month, or Chinese

" is intended.

66

"Year

moon

means a year according to the Georgian Calendar, unless it appears from the context that a Chinese year is intended.

"Person", and words applied to any person or individual, shall apply to and include, subject only to the provisions of section 35, bodies corporate, joint tenants and tenants in common. "Statutory Declaration means a declaration made by virtue of the Statutory Declarations Act, 1835, or of the Statutory Declaration Ordinance. 1893.

"Enactment

"

means any provision made by com- petent authority, having the force of law, and any part of such provision, and includes rules and regulations made in virtue of powers con- ferred by any Ordinance or statute; and "Provided" or "Prescribed ", when used in re- ference to any enactment, means provided or prescribed by such enactment.

64

means and

Any Ordinance” or Any enactment

includes any Ordinance or any enactment, as the case may be, which is in force in the Colony at the time when the enactment in which she expression occurs is enforced or applied.

**

"Offence means any crime, misdemeanor, contra- vention, or other breach of the law for which a penalty is provided.

24

C

Committed for trial means when used in relation to any person, committed to prison with the view to his being tried before a Judge and Jury, or otherwise as the law directs; and includes a person who is admitted to bail upon recɔguiz- ances to appear and take his trial before a Judge and Jury, or otherwise.

Statute" or "Act" means an Act of the Imperial

Parliament.

7"

Treaty means and includes a treaty, convention or agreement made with a foreign State, toge- ther with protocols or declarations attached thereto, or independent thereof but referring thereto.

« Will " means and includes a will, testament, codicil, and all other testamentary papers what-

soever.

>>

"Medical Practitioner or any words importing a person recognized at law as a practitioner in medicine or surgery or as any kind of mem- ber of the medical profession, means a medical practitioner duly registered under Ordinance

No. 1 of 1884.

59

"Solicitor means a legal practitioner admitted to practice as a solicitor before the Supreme Court under Ordinance No. 1 of 1871.

"Years of age", or words of a like meaning, when used in reference to the age of any person, mean years according to English reckoning, unless Chinese reckoning is expressly indicated.

“Bank of England" means the Governor and Com-

pany of the Bank of England.

85

"Bank of Ireland” means the Governor and Com-

pany of the Bank of Ireland.

PART V.

Of Regulations, Forms, and other Matters.

40.--(1) Where any Ordinance confers on any person Extent of a discretionary power to make regulations, to issue any power to

make regu- order, or to do any act, the power shall, unless the con-

lations. trary intention appear, be construed as including the power, exercisable in like manner, and subject to the same con- ditions, if any, to amend, vary, rescind, revoke, or suspend the regulations made, or order issued, or any part thereof, and to make or issue new regulations, or a new order, or to abstain from doing the net.

66

14

(2.) Regulations' means both in this section, and Meaning of generally in this Ordinance, as well as in all other enact-

"regula- ments, regulations, rules and bye-laws, not inconsistent tion". with the provisions of the Ordinance under which they are made, and includes rules of Court.

(3.) All regulations shall, unless otherwise provided, come Publication. into force on the day of their publication in the Gazette, and not before, and shall have the same force and effect and be equally binding, and shall be construed for all purposes as if they had been contained in the Ordinance empowering them to be made; and any reference to the Ordinance shall be construed as including the regulations in such reference.

(4.) The same rule shall apply to any order made by the Other Governor or the Governor-in-Council, and to any order, documents. warrant, scheme, letters patent, or other instrument made

or issued under the provisions of any Ordinance.

41.-(1.) Unless it is otherwise enacted, whenever in Powers of any Ordinance it is provided that regulations shall be Governor-

(a.) made; or

in-Council over regula-

(b.) made subject to the approval or confirmation tions. (or other words are used of like meaning) of the Governor-in-Council, the following rules shall be observed-:-

(i.) the regulations shall be submitted for the

approval of the Governor-in-Council ; (ii) the Governor-in-Council shall have power to amend, or to disapprove the whole or any part of the regulations, and may, if lie disapprove them either in whole or in part, require further or other regulations to be submitted for approval.

The word "to amend shall include the power to add to, alter, or otherwise

vary.

(2.) This section shall apply to regulations which are by any Ordinance made subject to the approval or confirmation (or other words are used of like meaning) of the Governor or of the Legislative Council.

42. All forms in use under any Ordinance repealed by Forms in any subsequent Ordinance, and which are not replaced by repealed forms in the repealing Ordinance, shall remain in force so Ordinances. far as they are not inconsistent with its provisions, until they have been replaced by forms prescribed in accordance with the provisions of the repcaling Ordinance.

PART VI.

Of Proclamations and Orders of the Governor.

43. Proclamations and notifications of the Governor

Coming into shall come into operation on the date of their publication force of pro- in the Gazette.

clamations.

44. Where power is given to the Governor to issue a Extent of proclamation or notification, it shall include the power of power to amending, revoking, or suspending the said proclamation issue pro- or notification, and of declaring the date of its coming into clamations. force, and also of substituting another therefor,

-

Signification of orders of the Governor.

Interfering with public officers.

Protection of public offi- cers acting under

authority of enactment.

86

Provided always that where any Ordinance is to come into force on a day to be fixed by proclamation, the power to issue such proclamation shall not include the power of amending, revoking or suspending the same.

45. Where power is given to the Governor to make any order or give any direction, it shall be sufficient, unless it is otherwise expressed, for such order or direction to be signified under the hand of the Colonial Secretary or of the Assistant Colonial Secretary.

This section shall not apply to the issue of any warrant by the Governor: such warrant shall be under his hand and seal.

46. Sections 43 and 44 shall apply to proclamatious and notifications issued by the Governor-in-Council; and section 45 shall apply to orders and directions of the Gov- ernor-in-Council, except that the signification thereof shall be under the hand of the Clerk of the Councils.

PART VII.

Of Public Officers.

47.-(1.) Unless it is otherwise expressly provided in any Ordinance; if any person shall, by force or violence, resist, oppose, molest, hinder, or obstruct any public officer in the performance of his duty, or any person lawfully' engaged, authorised or employed in the performance of any public duty, or any person lawfully acting in aid or assistance of any such public officer or person, he shall be liable to a fie not exceeding 100 dollars, and tó impri- sonment not exceeding 3 mouths.

:--

(2.) The following enactments are repealed :-

Ordinance No. 2 of 1885, section 6-(3).

No. 1 of 1903, section 25.

""

48.1.) Unless it is otherwise expressly provided in any Ordinance; all actions and prosecutions to be com- menced against any public officer for anything done or omitted to be done in pursuance of any enactment shall be commenced within six months after the act or omission, and not otherwise.

(2.) Notice in writing of such action and of the cause thereof shall be given to the defendant one month at least before the commencement of the action.

(3.) In any such action the defendant may plead the general issue, and give this Ordinance and the special matter in evidence at any trial to be had thereupon.

(4.) No plaintiff shall recover in any such action if tender of sufficient amends has been made before such action brought, or if a sufficient sum of money has been paid into Court after such action brought, by or on behalf of the defendant.

(5.) If a verdict passes for the defendant, or the plain- tiff becomes nousuit or discontinues any such action after issue joined, or it, on demurrer or otherwise, judgment is given against the plaintiff, the defendant shall recover his full costs as between solicitor and client, and shall have the like remedy for the same as any defendant has by law in other cases; and though a verdict is given for the plain- tiff in any such action, the plaintiff shail not have costs against the defendant unless the Judge before whom the trial is had certifies his approbation of the action.

(6.) The term "public officer" in this and the preced- ing section shall include members of the Sanitary Board and commissioners and persons acting under Ordinance No. 13 of 1886, and persons acting under Ordinance No. 6 of 1893.

(7.) The following enactments are repealed :—

Ordinance No. 5 of 1865, section 97.

No. 6 of 1865, section 58.

""

**

No. 7 of 1865, section 27.

No. 3 of 1873, sections 19, 20.

"

No. 2 of 1885, section 6 (3).

72

No. 13 of 1886, section 11.

""

27

No. 1 of 1889, section 81.

87

Ordinance No. 3 of 1890, section 28 (4) from the

words "so, however,'

costs".

No.

so, however," to "taxed

6 of 1893, section 21. No. 4 of 1897, section 46. 4 of 1899, section 16.

}}

No.

PART VIII.

Miscellaneous Provisions.

or

Acts.

49.-(1.) In any Ordinance, instrument, or document, Citation of Any Act of the Imperial Parliament may be cited by Imperial reference to its "short title ", if

either with any, without a reference to the chapter, or by reference to the regnal year in which it was passed, and, where there are more statutes or sessions than one in the same regnal year, by reference to the statute or the session, as the case may require, and where there are more chapters than one, by reference to the chapter, and any enactment may be cited by reference to the section or sub-section of the Act in which the enactment is contained.

(2.) Where any Ordinance passed after the 18th day of November, 1897, contains such reference as aforesaid, the reference shall, unless the contrary intention appear, be read as referring, in the case of statutes included in any revised edition of the statutes purporting to be printed by authority, to that edition; and in case of statutes not so included and passed before the reign of King George the First, to the edition prepared under the direction of the Record Commission; and in other cases to the copies of the statutes purporting to be printed by the King's Printer or under the superintendence or authority of His Majesty's - Stationery Office.

(3.) In any Ordinance a description or citation of a portion of an Act of Parliament shall, unless the contrary intention appear, be construed as including the word, section, or other part mentioned or referred to as forming the beginning aud as forming the end of the portion com- prised in the description or citation.

(4.) Any reference to an Act of Parliament shall include

a reference to regulations made thereunder.

50. The following enactments are repealed :-

Ordinance No. 8 of 1897.

Ordinance No. 20 of 1908.

66

Ordinances No. 19 of 1901 and No. 20 of 1903, and all definitions of the City of Victoria con- tained in any Ordinance heretofore passed. The definitions of the "Waters of the Colony" and of the Harbour limits" in Ordinance No. 10 of 1899, and in any other Ordinance heretofore passed.

Repeal.

}

11

No.

3

1911

HONGKONG.

JURORS LIST FOR 1911.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor, 9th March, 1911,

HONGKONG

TO WIT.

NAME IN FULL.

I. SPECIAL JURORS.

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

Aagaard, Bjarne............... Anton, Charles Edward.. Areulli, Abdoolla Fuckeera Armstrong, Francis Harold.... Babington, Anthony Bailey, William Seybourne Balloch, Gideon

Barrett, Edgar George Barton, John

Beattie, John Montgomery Becker, Albert Wilhelm

Arthur.....

Bérintongue, Louis Bird, Herbert William Bisschop, Philip Johan

Roosegaarde Bolles, John Walker Bonnar, John Whyte Cooper. Bryer, Alfred

Carter, William Leonard Chau Sin Ki

Clark, Duncan

Clarke, William Edward

Consland, Alexander Stark

Dalglish

Craddock, Douglas William

David, Abraham Jacob Denison, Albert

Dickson, William Douglas, James Tory Dowley, Walter Arthur. Dyer, Robert Morton.. Ede, Charles Montague Forbes, Andrew.

Steamship Agent, Aagaard Thoresen & Co.,

1 Austin Avenue, Kowloon.

Merchant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld., | Red Hill, Peak.

Army & Navy Contractor, Assistant, Reiss & Co.,

Merchant, Shewan, Tomes & Co., Engineer, Bailey & Co.,

Merchant, Gilman & Co.,............. Sub-Manager, Dodwell & Co., Ld.,

20 Yee Wo Street.

18 The Peak.

63 Robinson Road. Highlands, Kowloon. Queen's Road.

3 Park View, Lyttleton Road.

Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld., ¦ Red Hill, Peak.

Merchant, W. R. Loxley & Co.,

Merchant, Sander, Wieler & Co., Manager, Banque de l'Indo-Chine,..... Architect, Palmer & Turner,

General Agent, Java-China-Japan Liju,.. General Manager, Standard Oil Co., Merchant, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Architect, Leigh & Orange..... Manager, China & Japan Telephone Co., Secty., Chun On Fire Insurance Co., L., Storekeeper, Lane, Crawford & Co., Secretary, HK., C. & M. Steamboat

Co., Ltd,

Manager, Ross & Co.,

General Traffic Agent, Canadian Pacific

Railway Co.,

Merchant, S. J. David & Co.,

Civil Engineer, Denison, Ram & Gibbs,.. Manager, Chartered Bank of I. A. & C., Marine Surveyor, Goddard & Douglas,... General Manager, Vacuum Oil Co., Chief Manager, Dock Co.,

|

Abergeldic, Peak.

Prince's Building. Chater Road.

6 The Peak.

York Building.

3 Elliott Crescent. St. George's Building. Prince's Building. Kingsclere.

2 & 8 Queen's Road West. Tusculum, Peak.

Hongkong Hotel.

Dunedin, Barker Road, Peak.

10 Stewart Terrace, Peak. 104 Gough Hill. Peak.

Charter Honse.

Tantallon, Barker Road, Peak. Hongkong Hotel. Kingsclere.

Secty., Union Ince. Society of Canton, Ld., On premises.

Merchant, Bradley & Co.,

Eilandonan, Peak.

:

12

-

NAME IN FULL.

SPECIAL JURORS,—Continued.

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

Friesland, Gustav Adolf Georg Fuhrmann, Ernst Richard Fung Wa Chün

Gell, John

Gibbs, Lawrence

Gok, Carl Gottfried

Gordon, Alexander Grant... Gourdin, Allston O'Driscoll Grahan, Frank

Griffin, Albert Edwin Grimble, Charles Frederick

George

Gubbay, Charles Sassoon Halton, Frederick Joseph Hancock, Herbert Richard

Budd

Harvey, Robert Donald

Haskell, David

Ho Fook.

Ho Kam Tong

Merchant, Melchers & Co.,

Merchant, Reuter, Bröckelmann & Co.,... Compradore, Shewan, Tomes & Co., Merchant,

Architect, Denison, Ram & Gibbs,.. Manager, Hamburg-Amerika Linie, Engineer, A. G. Gordon & Co., Masonic Hall,

Electrical Engineer,

Civil Engineer, Leigh & Orange,

General Broker,

Merchant, E. D. Sassoon & Co.,.. Agent, P. M. S. S. Co.,

Merchant,

Merchant,

Co., Li..

Merchant,

British-American Tobacco

Compradore, Jardine, Matheson & Co., L., Assistant Compradore, Jardine, Matheson

& Co., L.,

Hooper, Augustus Shelton...... Secretary, HK. Land Investment &

Ho Trung...

Hongh, Thomas Frederick....

Hughes, Edward Jones. Hughes, John Owen Humphreys, Henry Hynd, Robert Robertson Jack, William Charles Jupp, John Ambrose.......

Jupp, William Dennys Koehn, Adolf ... Lafrentz, Charles Julius Lammert, George Philip Lau Chu Pak. Law, Donaldson Riddell Leefe, Laurence Noel Lenzmann, Carl Robert.. Lieb, Fritz

Logan, William

Lowe, Arthur Rylands Luykx, Nicolaas Godfried

Maria

Mackenzie, Alexander Maitland, Francis

Marten, Richard..........

Medhurst, George Harold

Melchers, Friedrich Wilhelm... Michael, Joseph Rahamin... Moss, Dennis Kebir

Moxon, Geoffrey Charles

Northcote, Mowbray Stafford. Ormiston, Evan Ough, Arthur Heury Pemberton, George William

Cyril Pinckney, Herbert.. Ram, Edward Albert.. Raymond, Abraham Jacob Raymond, Albert .

Robertson, Heury Wallace Rodger, Alexander

Ross, Charles Henderson Rumjahn, Ahmet

Sassoon, Moses Silas..

Sayer, George John Budds.

Schröter, Carl Christian

Hermann

Scott, William Murray

Agency Co., Ld., Merchant,

Broker, & Govt. Auctioneer, Hughes &

Hough,

Broker, & Govt. Auctioneer, Hughes &

Hough,

Merchant, Harry Wicking & Co., Merchant, J. D. Humphreys & Son, Acting Sub-Manager, HK. & S'hai Bank, Consulting Engineer, W. C. Jack & Co.,. General Manager & Agent, Accountant,

J. D. Humphreys & Son, Manager, China-Borneo Co., Ld., Manager, Deutsch-Asiatische Bank, Merchant, Auctioneer,

Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Merchant, Butterfield & Swire, Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld., Merchant, Carlowitz & Co....... Manager, Arnhold, Karberg & Co.,. Assistant, D. Sassoon & Co., Ld., Chartered Accountant,..........

Manager, Asiatic Petroleum Co., Merchant, Arthur & Co., Merchant, Linstead & Davis, Merchant, Rädecker & Co., Manager, Dodwell & Co., Ld., Merchant, Wendt & Co., Broker,

Assistant, Alex. Ross & Co., Broker, Ellis Kadoorie & Co.,

Secretary, IIK. Land Reclamation Co., Ld., Banker, Mercantile Bank of India,. Civil Engineer, Leigh & Orange,

Queen's Building. 31 Robinson Road. On premises. Peak Hotel, The Peak.

Queen's Building. Tor Crest, Peak. 61 Robinson Road. 4 Queen's Gardens. Prince's Building.

1 Prince's Building. 9 Macdonnell Road. 15 Conduit Road.

Cheltondale, Peak.

126 Barker Road, 2 Seymour Terrace. Caine Road.

Caine Road.

Rougemont, 1 Macdonnell Road. Caine Road.

8 Des Vœux Road.

Meirion, Peak. Morrison Hill.

3 Morrison Hill. On premises.

14 Des Voeux Central.

Ian Mor, Peak Road. 3 Stewart Terrace. Clovelly, Peak Road. 6 Peak Road. Elliot Crescent. Queen's Road Central. 1 Connaught Road. | 117 Plantation Road. 2 Connaught Road. Lergisland, Peak Road.

4 Century Crescent, Kennedy Road. St. George's Building, Chater Road.

Hongkong Club.

Dunedin, Barker Road.

Nettlewood, 55 Robinson Road.

5 Duddell Street.

Hazledine, Robinson Road. Strathallun, Robinson Road.

4 Century Crescent, Kennedy Road. Kowloon.

Peak.

5 Macdonnell Road. Derrington, Peak Road. Prince's Building.

Secretary, China Fire Insurance Co., Ld., | 42 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

Exchange Broker,

Architect, Denison, Ram & Gibbs,. Merchant, E. D. Sassoon & Co.,. Assistant, S. J. David & Co., Manager, Butterfield & Swire,

Sugar Refiner, China Sugar Refinery,

Merchant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld., Merchant, II. Price & Co.,

Exchange Broker,

Civil Engineer,

Merchant, Garrels, Börner & Co.,

6 Stewart Terrace, Peak. The Peak.

Devonia, 11 Peak Road. Ravenshill, Park Road.

1 Connaught Road. East Point.

| East Point.

12 Queen's Road.

4 Ice House Street.

19 Queen's Road Central.

Shorncliffe, Garden Road.

Sugar Refiner, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, ... Quarry Bay.

K

NAME IN FULL.

13

SPECIAL JURORS,-Continued.

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

Shellim, Edward Shewan. Robert Siebs, Hans August Skelton, Alfred Holland Slade, Henry Adolphus

Warre

Stewart, Murray Swart, Schelto Tam Tsz Kong,

Templeton, David Timmerscheidt, Richard Tomkins, Herbert Edmund Turner, Arthur

Walker, William Bradley Watson, William Malcolm.. Wendt, Friedrich August White, Henry Percy Whittall, James Bowyer

Kidman

Wilford, Francis Cuming Wilks, Edward Charles. Young, George Macdonald

Merchant, D. Sassoon & Co., Ld., Merchant, Shewan, Tomes & Co., Merchant, Siemsson & Co... Storekeeper, Lane, Crawford & Co.,

Merchant, Gilman & Co.,.......... Exchange Broker,

Merchant, Schuldi & Co.,

General Manager, Hip On Insurance

Exchange and Loan Co., Ld., Sugar Refiner, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Manager, Deutsch-Asiatische Bank, Merchant, Reiss & Co.,

Architect, Palmer & Turner,

Asst. Gen. Manager, Standard Oil Co., Morchaut, John D. Hutchison & Co., Merchant, Wendt & Co.,

Merchant, Douglas, Lapraik & Co.,

Secretary, China Traders' Ince. Co., Ld., Lane, Crawford & Co., Engineer,

Sub-Manager, Butterfield & Swire,

Kurrahjeen, 7 Peak Road. St. George's Building. Lidbroke, 9 Conduit Road. Craigside, Peak.

On premises.

113, Plantation Road, Peak. 2 Victoria Lodge, Peak.

6, 7 & 8 Wa In Fong East. Corn Hili, Quarry Bay. Clovelly. Peak Road. Queen's Building. Eggesford, Peak.

18 Peak Road.

Abergelde, Plantation Road, Peak.

6 Ice House Road.

No. 1 Douglas Street.

| Red Hill, Penk.

College Chambers.

14 Des Voeux Road Central.

1 Connaught Road.

NAME IN FULL.

A

II-COMMON JURORS.

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

Abbass, Abdul Hamid Abney, Evelyn Edward de

Divelslie

Abraham, Albert

Abraham, Ezekiel Shooker Abraham, Ezra

Abraham, Reuben Alfred Adams, Francis Robert John Adolf, Carl

Ainslie, Ernest Jaines.

Aitchison, Alexander. Aitken, Robert

Aitken, Samuel Robert

Alexander, Charles William

Allan, John Niven Rodger Allen, Frederick George Allen, William Stanley Alonço, Thiago Florencio de

Silva

Alport, Claude Mashiter Alves, Alberto Eduardo

de Sclavisa

Alves, Alvaro Alvares Alves, Antonio Luiz Alves, Arthur Alvaro Alves, Egus Luiz de Selavisa. Alves, José Miguel

Andel, Alexander Willem van Anderson, George William Anderson, William.......

Andrew, John Ingram

Angelbeck, Ernst

Antonio, Ernesto....

Aquino, Eneas Goularte.......

Librarian, Hongkong Club,

Assistant, P. & O. Co., Clerk, Gas Co.,

Clerk, S. J. David & Co.,

Clerk, Chartered Bank of I. A. & C., British-American Tobacco Co., Ld., Civil Engineer, Howarth Erskine,............ Foreman Carpenter,

Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co., Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard,

Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refinery,

Engineer, Dock Co.,.....

Assistant Manager, Holt's Wharf,

Draughtsman, Dock Co.,....

Hongkong Club.

11 Mountain View.

On premises.

14 College Chambers. Chatham Road, Kowloon. Woolamai, Kowloon. The Peak.

Kowloon Docks. On premises. Quarry Bay.

Quarry Bay.

Oldesloe, Austin Road, Kowloon,

Kowloon Docks.

Kowloon Docks.

Overseer, HK. & K. W. & Godown Co., L., Sea View, Wanebai.

Manager, Sperry Flour Company,

Assistant, Siemssen & Co.,

Assistant, Showau, Tomes & Co.,

Clerk, Union Ince. Sorty. of Canton, Ld.,.. Assistant, Deutsch-Asiatische Bank, Clerk, Chartered Bank of I. A. & C., Assistant, Arnhold, Karberg & Co., Clerk, Union Ince. Soety, of Canton, L.,... Merchant.

Chief Asst., Holland-China Trading Co., Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard,... Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co., Manager, Geo. Fenwick & Co., Assistant, Robitsek & Reis,.

Clerk, Mercantile Bank of India,

33 Conduit Road.

Queen's Building. Hongkong Hotel.

On premises.

8 Arbuthnot Road. 12 Arbuthnot Road.

6 Hmaphrey's Avenue, Kowloon. 2 Queen's Building,

21 Robinson Road. Hongkong Club, Quarry Bay. On premises. Hongkong Hotel.

9 Macdonald Road. 26 Elgin Street.

Clerk, Netherlands India Commercial Bank, Des Vœux Road Central.

NAME IN FULL.

14

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

A-Continued,

Aquino, Louis Goularte....... Archbutt, Geoffrey Samuel Arculli, Adul Kader el Arculli, Osman el

Armstrong, John Henry

William

Arndt, Ernst

Arnhold-Zedelius, Werner

Carl Otto............、

Arnold, John

Arnott, Thomas Arthur, Thomas

Clerk, P. M. S. S. Co.,..........

16 Shelley Street.

Assistant, China Fire Insurance Co., Ld., | Meirion, 2 The Peak.

Merchant,

Ariny & Navy Contractor,

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire,

Manager, HK. & China Shoe Factory Ld.,

Assistant, Arnhold, Karberg & Co.,

Arnold, Edwin Lester Gilbert.. Clerk, Commercial Union Assce. Co., Ld.,

Acct., HK., C. & M. Steamboat Co., Ld.,... Engineer, G. I. Cement Co., Ld., Marine Surveyor, Goddard & Douglas, Assistant, A. Apcar & Co., Assistant, Java-China-Japan Lijn, .. Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld., Architect, Butterfield & Swire, Assistant, Butterfield & Swire,

Asger, Asadullah Ebrahim ... Atkins, Samuel William Auld, James Durran Austin, Authony Roy Austin, Frank....

B

Babcock, Alonzo Lorenzo. Backhouse, James Herbert Bagnell, Allan Eustace... Bain, Alexander..... Baist, Heinrich Reinhold Baptista, Manuel

Barnes, Oliver John Barnett, Thomas Barr, John Hunter...

Barradas, Adolfo Maria...

Barradas, Arthur Oscar.... Barradas, Cezario Maria Barradas, Myriel Francisco

d'Assis.....

Barratt, Reginald Frank Barretto, Fernando Julio Barretto, Frederico Demée Barretto, Frederico Francisco, Barretto, José Conde... Barretto, Octavio Demée, Barros, Antan Vasques

Barros, Authero Aprigio Barros, Horacio Frederico... Barros, José Francisco

d'Assis

Bassford, William Faulkner Batalha, José Xavier. Bateman, Thomas Bates, F. Lee

Bates, Henry

Bathel, Walther.?.

Bean, David Keay Bearwolf, Charles

Beattie, Matthew Pool Beaumont, Ellis Ackroyd Beaumont, William

20 Yee Wo Street.

20 Yee Wo Street.

1 Connaught Road Kingsclere.

Kingsclere. Bonham Road.

3. Albany, Peak Road. Green Island.

St. George's Building. 46 Elgin Street. York Buildings. On premises.

1 Connaught Road. 1 Connaught Road.

· Clerk and Stenographer, P. M. S. S. Co., St. George's House.

Clerk, Sander, Wieler & Co.,

Clerk, C. P. Railway Co.,

Engineer, China Sugar Refinery,. Assistant, Carlowitz & Co.,...... Assistant, Vieira & Co.,

Assistant, HK. & S'hai Bank,.. Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Works Foreman,

. Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., Ld.,.

Clerk, HK. & S'hai Bank, Clerk, China Sugar Refinery,

Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld., Assistant, Arnhold, Karberg & Co., Assistant, Standard Oil Co., Merchant, Barretto & Co., Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co., Assistant, Cruz, Basto & Co.,..... Assistant, Barretto & Co., Assistant, China Export, Import & Bank

Compagnie,..

Clerk, HK. Rope Manufacturing Co., Ld., Assistant, W. G. Humphreys & Co., ..

Clerk, Union Ince. Soety, of Canton, Ld., Sugar Boiler, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., Timekeeper, Taikoo Surgar Refinery, Clerk & Stenographer, P. M. S. S. Co.,... Assistant, HK. & S'hai Bauk, Assistant, F. Blackhead & Co., Assistant, MacEwen, Frickel & Co., Secretary, Oriental Brewery, Ld.,

Prince's Building.

3 Victoria View, Kowloon.

1

East Point Refinery.

2 Praya Central.

51 Elgin Terrace. On premises. Quarry Bay. Gas Works.

6 Robinson Road.

4 Rednaxella Terrace. East Point.

Queen's Building.

33 Wong-nei-chong Road. 4A Mosque Street. 1 Castle Road. 4 Mosque Terrance. 13 Belilios Terrace.

13 Robinson Road, Kowloon.

27 Mosque Street.

| 20 Water Street.

2 Punjab Buildings, Kowloon.

On premises. Quarry Bay,

2 Alveston Terrace. Quarry Bay, Baltimore Hotel. On premises.

4 Gordon Terrace. 4 Des Vænx Road. Causeway Bay.

Assistant Manager, W. R. Loxley & Co., On premises.

.... Clerk, Sander, Wieler & Co.,

Carding Master, Cotton Mills,. Clerk, Hongkong Hotel, Foreman Boilermaker, Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Clerk, C. P. Railway Co.,

Beaurepaire, Herbert Nicholas Beck, George ....... Bell, Michael Robson Bell, William Denny ... Bellenger, Stanley Bagg Bell-Irving, John Beltran, Nicolas Autonio Benjamin, Joseph Berblinger, Albrecht August

Carl

Bernardo, Joaquim Natividade Bevington, Francis

Bierling, Friedrich Albert

Bruno Bird, Cyril Frederick Bird, George

Prince's Building. Causeway Bay. Hongkong Hotel.

Kowloon Docks.

Quarry Bay.

Quarry Bay.

11 Humphrey's Avenue, Kowloon.

Merchant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld., | East Point. Overseer, HK. & K. W. & Godown Co.,Ld., Clerk, E. D. Sassoon & Co., Ld.,

Merchant, Berblinger & Co., Lal., Assistant, Carlowitz & Co.,.... Merchant, Bradley & Co.,

Merchant, Ferd. Bornemann & Co, Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Watchman, Taikoo Dockyard,...

6 Ashley Road.

2 Hollywood Road.

Bonham Road.

13 Mosque Street. On premises.

Des Voeux Road Central. 1 Connaught Road. Quarry Bay.

j

1

?

དོ་

NAME IN FULL.

15

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

B-Continued.

Bird, Lennox Godfrey Bishop, Ernest Murray Blackburn, Leslie James Blair, Thomas

Blason, Charles Henry

Bloxsidige, Frederick John Boanas, William Henry

Thomas.

Boisseree, Ludwig Magnus

Hubertus

Bolden, Samuel George Bone, Charles William Booth, Robert...................

Botelho, Jr., Angusto Cezar...!

Botelho, Braz Joaquim Heytor Botelho, Francisco Xavier...... Botelho, João Antonio Heytor Botelho, Julius Caesar Boulton, Andrew Adams Boulton, Sydney

Boyes, John Ridley

Boysen, Kurt....

Brachman, Günther

Bradbury, Bertram Walter Braun, Theodor Brayfield, Thomas

Gordon

Henry

Brelvad, Aago Peder Kristian Breton, Leonard Le

Brewer, Walter Frederick. Bridger, Herbert Ben

Bridger, Richard Leslic.......... Brister, John Henry Fane Bristow, Richard Woodhouse Britto, Francisco Xavier Britto, José Maria Brown, Arthur Brown, Charles Marsh Brown, George Ernest Brown, John Charles.. Brown, Reginald Loder. Brown, Robert John Brown, William Saunel Brown, Wilson Browne, Christopher Bryson, Andrew Birrell Buckle, Percy. Bulmer, John Herbert Bumann, Friedrich Carl Bune, Thomas Friedrich

Andreas

Bunje, Heary Ferdinand Burie, George Andrew Burjor, Dady Burnside, Walter Bursley, Alan John Butcher, Harry

Bux, Noor Mahomed Buyers, Charles Badenoch......

Cabos, Carl.... Caig, John

C

Caldwell, George Arthur Campbell, Hugh Frank.. Campos, Henrique Maria Campos, José Maria Carduner, Emile Le Carmichael, Alexander Carmichael, Hugh Cameron ... Carmichael, Hugh Fletcher...

Architect, Palmer & Turner,

Assistant, HK. & S'hai Bank,

Manager,

Sugar Boiler, China Sugar Refinery, Chartered Accountant, Butterfield

Swire,

Clerk, Kowloon Docks,

Clerk, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld.,

&

Assistant, Ferd. Bornemann & Co., Assistant, Standard on Co., Assistant, Butterfield & wire, Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Chief Clerk, Fumigating and Disinfecting

Bureau, La.,

Assistant, Barretto & Co., Assistant, Schuldt & Co., Assistant, Barretto & Co., Clerk, Wendt & Co., Foreman Engineer, Assistant, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Assistant, HK. & Shai Bank, Clerk, Sander, Wieler & Co., Clerk, Sander, Wieler & Co., Butcher, Dairy Farm Co., Ld., Foreman, China Sugar Refinery,

Consulting Engineer, Carmichael & Clark, Assistant, Berblinger & Co., Ld., Assistant, Alex. Ross & Co., Bookseller,..

Electrical Engineer,

Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co., Assistant, Reiss & Co., Watchman, Taikoo Dockyard

Assistant, Deutsch-Asiatische Bank, Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld., Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard,

Godown Keeper, S. J. David & x 0., Wharfinger, Hon's Wharf, Storekeeper, Duck Co.,..........

Clerk, K. & K. W. & Godown Co., Ld., Foreman Joiner, Dock Co.,

Clerk, Union Ince. Soety, of Canton, L.,, Clerk,........

Office Gunner, P. & U. Co., Assistant, Standard Oli Co., Assistant, Melchers & Co.,

Merchant,

Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., Wharfinger, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Merchant and Commission Agent, Timekeeper, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., Eugineer, Fenwick & Co., Ld., Printer's Clerk, Kelly & Walsh, Ld., Supt. Engineer, Tramway Co.,

Assistant, Java-China-Japan Lijn,.. Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld., Chief Clerk, Dock Co.,................ Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co., Clerk, Chartered Bank of I. A. & C., Assistant, G. P. Lammert, Chief Acct., Banque de l'Indo-Chine, Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Sugar Boiler, China Sugar Refinery, Marine Surveyor,

|

2 Cameron Villas, Peak. On premises.

Gas Works, Kowloon. Bowerington.

On premises.

Kowloon Docks.

Wanchai Road.

16 Des Voeux Road Central. Grand Carlton Hotel. 1 Connaught Road. Quarry Bay.

3 Chico Terrace. 44 Caine Road. York Building. 44 Caine Road. 7 Mosque Street. Kowloon Docks. Quarry Bay. On premises. Prince's Building. Prince's Building.

2 Lower Albert Road.

4 Moreton Terrace.

St. George's House, Kennedy Road. Pelham House.

Oldesloe, Austin Road.

Pedder Street.

159 Praya East.

On premises. Reiss & Co. Quarry Bay.

9 Belilios Terrace. Queen's Building. Quarry Bay.

Macdonnell Road.

Quarry Bay.

21 Canton Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

Kowloon Docks.

3 Stewart Terrace, Peak. Kowloon Docks,

2 Queen's Building.

Co. Robinson Piano Co., Ld.

On premises.

13 Macdonnell Road,

Queen's Building.

4 Des Voeux Road Central. Durbar House.

3 Quarry Point.

7 Queen's Road Central. Quarry Bay.

3 Lower Mosque Street. On premises.

124 Wanchai Road. The Peak.

York Building. On premises. Craigieburn, Peak.

13 Robinson Road, Kowloon. 15 Belilios Terrace. 51 Pottinger Street. On premises. Lyemoon Terrace. East Point. Queen's Building.

NAME IN FULL.

16

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

C-Continued.

Carroll, Anthony Henry

Carroll, William Josephi

Carter, Albert James....

Carvalbo, Beltrão Lucas de..

Carvalho, Carlos Francisco de Carvalho, Duarte de

Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld., Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co., Accountant, British-American Tobacco

Co, Lư,

Clerk, North China Insurance Co., Ld.,.. Assistant, HK. & S'bai Bank................ Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co.,

Queen's Building. On premises.

11A Conduit Road.

| 13 Mosque Juuction. 14 Arbuthnot Road. Club Lusitano.

Carvalho, Henrique José.

Maria de

Clerk, Union Juce. Socty. of Canton, Ld.,

On premises.

Carvalho, Julio Augusto de ... Clerk, Union Ince. Soety, of Canton, Ld.,

On premises.

Castro, Bonifacio Maria

Clerk, Yokohama Specie Bank, Ld.,

On premises.

Castro, Carlos Maria

Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co.,

On premises.

Castro, Joaquim Telles

d'Almada e Champion, Major James Chan Pat.... Chapman, Ben Fletcher... Chapman, Edward John Chapman, James Brand........... Chapple, Frederick Thomas Charlton, Arthur Cheng Yuet Po Cheong Lai Hing Chinchen, Sydney John

Chunnutt, Frederick George... Chunnutt, Oscar Rowan Clark, Douglas Edward Clark, Jasper .... Clark, Milton Ona Clarke, Ernest Blears

Claxton, Archibald Arthur Cobden, Alfred Sydney Cochrane, Hugh Roxburgh Coleman, Frederick Charles Collaço, Vicente Alexandre de

Paulo

Colson, George Basil.... Conceição, Maximiano

Augusto da

Cooper, David

Coppin, Alan Griffiths

Costa, Roberto Augusto da

Course, Arthur

Cousins, Ralph Hutchinson

Craik, James

Crane, Arthur

Crapnell, Albert Edward

Malcolm

Crawford, Alexander..

Crawford, Frank

Lane

Crawford, William Joseph Crispin, Charles. Croucher, Basil

Cruz, Antonio Maria da Cruz, Guilheme Pedro da Cabey, Edwin Banfield Cunha, Bernardino Maria

Cardoso da Cunningham, Charles Clement

Francis Curreem, Abdul

Currie, Alexander Scott Curry, George Percy

Assistant, International Bankg. Corp., ...I Lyemoon Villas, Kowloon.

Assistant Steward,

Hongkong Club.

Assistant, China Fire Insurance Co., Ld., | | Mosque Terrace.

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Assistant, Linstead & Davis, Draughtsman, Taikoo Dockyard, Ássistant, W. Powell, Ld., Assistant, H. Price & Co., Manager, Bismarck & Co.,

Compradore, Singer Sewing Machine Co., Manager, North-China Ince Co., L., Assistant, W. R. Loxley & Co., Assistant, W. R. Loxley & Co., Chief Clerk, J. D. Humphreys & Co., Chief, T. & B. Dept., Standard Oil Co.,... Assistant, Standard Oil Co.,

Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Lal Assistant, J. D. Hutchison & Co., Chartered Accountant, Holt's Wharf,. Accountant, Mercantile Bank, Electrician Dock Co.,

Assistant, HK, & S'hai Bank,.... Electrical Engineer,

Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld., Shipbuilder, Dock Co.,

Assistant, Bradley & Co.,

1 Connaught Road Central. Kingsclere.

Quarry Bay.

On premises.

12 Queen's Road Central.

18 and 19 Connaught Road Central. Wo On Lane.

Alexandra Building. Parkside, Kowloon. Parkside, Kowloon. 3 Stewart Terrace. 3 Queen's Gardens. 9 Pedder's Hill. Est Point.

8 Queen's Road Central. Hongkong Club. On premises. Kowloon Docks.

1 Woodlands Terrace. Electric Co.'s Works.

Queen's Building. Kowloon Docks.

On premises.

Clerk, HK., C. & M. Steamboat Co., Ld., | 10 Robinson Road.

Traffic Supt., Electric Tramway,

Dranghtsman, Taikoo Dockyard, Secretary, Hongkong Club, .... Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Assistant, Ellis Kadoorie & Co., Clerk, Dock Co.,

Clerk, Lane, Crawford & Co., Assistant, Dock Co.,

Foreman Shipwright, Dock Co., Timekeeper, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Merchaut, Cruz, Basto & Co.,. Assistant, W. G. Humphreys & Co. Chief Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard,

Clerk, Union Ince. Socty. of Canton, Ld.,

Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld., Assistant, Arculli & Co.,....... Assistant, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Local Secretary, Gas Co...................

Power Station, Bowrington. Quarry Bay. Hongkong Club.

3 Taikoo Terrace. 4 Kimberly Villas. Kowloon Docks.

Ou premises. Kowloon Docks. Kowloon Docks. Quarry Bay.

1 Fairview, Robinson Road. 56 Peel Street. Quarry Bay.

| On premises.

East Point.

22 Leighton Hill Road.

3 Sea View Terrace, Quarry Bay. On premises.

D

Dains, Gilbert Leroy Daleziel, James

Dalgety, George Mackay Danenberg, Mario José Danielsen, Friedrich Julius

Danielsen, Julius Emil Dashwood, Arthur Paul

David, Râmesh,

Assistant, Standard Oil Co.,

Chief Eugr., Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Assistant, HK. & S'hai Bank, Assistant, Reiss & Co., Assistant, Siemssen & Co., Assistant, F. Blackhead & Co., Civil Engineer, Taikoo Dockyard, Licensee, Kowloon Hotel,

Lai Chi Kok. Quarry Bay. On premises. Reiss & Co.

Ou premises.

No. 3 Granville Road, Kowloon. Quarry Bay.

Kowloon Hotel, Kowloon.

:

NAME IN FULL.

17

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

D-Continued.

Davidson, Alexander... Davidson, Harry Bertram Davidson, Horace Davidson, Peter

Davies, Arthur Frederick Davison, William Dawson, Arthur Leopold Day, Frank Oswald Day, Gilbert

Debron, William John

Delden, Eliza Jacques Henri

Van

Deschamps, Maurice

Desebrock, Hermann Emil.. Detmers, Kurt Devency, Joseph Dickie, James...... Dickson, Robert.. Dinning, Hugh Diss, Arthur Charles.. Diss, George Ambrose Donnelly, Denis Ewart Dorone, Duncan James Dorward, David Doughty, Harry... Douglas, John Phillips Dowbiggin, Hugh Blackwell

Layard

Dransfield, Albert Drew, Walter Clement Drude, Frederick Fritz Drude, Robert............... Drummond, Neil

Dübgen, Walther Edmund Otto Duncan, George Duncan, George Leopold Dunnipace, Harold Edgar Duurich, Arthur Ellis William Dutton, Sydney Hardy

E

Earle, Alan Francis Eberius, Gattfried Fritz Edkins, George Thomas.. Edwards, George Richard. Edwards, Robert Campbell Edwards, William Walter.. Eggers, Herbert.

Ehrenfels, Hugo Charles Elborough, Alfred Charles

Ernest

Eldridge, William James Ellis, Albert

Ellis, Ezekiel Isaac

Ellis, Frederick

Ellis, Oswald Isaac

Elson, William Thomas Emberley, William Henry. Engel, Gustav Christoph Esrom, Frank... Eustace, Bert

Evans, Edward Henry Evans, Llewellyn Ewing, John Jessiman Ezra, Edward

F

Farne, Francis Henry Farrell, Peter Thomson.. Ferguson, James Carson Ferguson, John

Ferguson, Robert Alexander... Fernandes, Menino.....

Chief Draughtsman, Taikoo Dockyard,... Quarry Bay.

Assistant, British-American Tobacco Co., Y.M.C.A., Alexandra Building,

Clerk, HK, Ice Co., Ld.,

Sub-Accountant, International Bank, Manager, HK. Hotel, Foreman Shipwright, Dock Co., Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard,.... Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., Assistant, G. I. Cement Co., Ld.,

Accountaut, Neth.-India Com. Bank, Clerk, Messageries Maritimes,........... Assistant, Carlowitz & Co.,... Clerk, Rädecker & Co., Spinning Master,

Assistant, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Assistant, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Assistant, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Master Tailor, Diss Bros., Master Tailor, Diss Bros., Merchant, Garner, Quelch & Co.,

Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld., Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Lt., Engineer, G. I. Coment Co., Ld., Engineer, G. I. Cement Co., Ed.,

Assistant Accountant, Mercantile Bank,... Timekeeper, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, ...... Merchant, II. Wicking & Co.,

Office Assistant, W. R. Loxley & Co., Clerk, Vacuum Oil Co., Foreman, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Manager, H. A. Fromn, Foreman Plumber, Dock Co., Assistant, MacEwen, Frickel & Co., Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Accountant, Gas Co.,

Assistant, E. D. Sasscon & Co.,

...

Ice House Street.

Magazine Gap, 151 Peak. On premises. Kowloon Docks.

1 Commanght Road. 10 Seymour Terrace. Peak Hotel. Deep Water Bay.

16 Peak Road.

On premises.

2 Connaught Road. 5 Duddell Street. Cotton Mills.

Taikoo Terrace, Quarry Bay. Taikoo Terrace, Quarry Bay.

2 Sea View Terrace, Quarry Bay. 2 Seymour Road.

36 Caine Road. Kingsclere. East Point.

Des Voeux Road.

Green Island Co.'s Works. 8 Austin Avenue.

On premises.

2 Lyemoon Terrace. 18 Macdonnell Road.

4 Humphreys' Avenue, Kowloon. 6 Lochiel Terrace.

Quarry Bay.

4 Gordon Terrace, Kowloon. Kowloon Docks.

Observatory Villas, Kowloon. Quarry Bay.

Gas Works.

Westly, Babington Path.

Engineer, Electric Traction Co., Ld.,................' 1 Morrison Hill.

Merchant, Eberius & Co.,

Sub-Manager, Butterfield & Swire, Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Lal.,

Chief Accountant, HK. & S'hai Bank, Clerk, II. Price & Co., Ld.,................ Assistant, Jebsen & Co.,

4 Macdonnell Road.

On premises.

On premises.

On premises.

12 Queen's Road Central. King's Building.

General Manager, Oriental Brewery, Ld., HIK. Hotel.

Assistant, HK. & S'hai Bank, Storekeeper, Taikoo Dockyard, Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld., Clerk, E. D. Sassoon & Co., Broker,

Clerk, E. D. Sassoon & Co., Assistant, Win. Powell, Ld., Assistant, Whiteaway & Laidlaw, Merchant, Wm. Meyerink & Co., Assistant, Schuldt & Co., Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co., Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Assistant, HIK. & S'hai Bauk, Tug Master, Taikoo Dockyard, Assistant, D. Sassoon & Co., Ld.,

Ou premises. Quarry Bay. Peak Hotel.

8 Pedder's Hill.

8 Pedder's Hill.

3 Pedder's Hill.

Alexandra Building.

9 Morrison Hill Gap Road. Ravenshill West.

On premises. On premises. Quarry Bay. On premises. Quarry Bay.

21 College Chambers.

Assistant, China Fire Insurance Co., Ld., | 45 Graham Street.

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard,

Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard,. Foreman, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Foreman, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Clerk, Kelly & Walsh, Ld.,...

Quarry Bay.

Quarry Bay.

Quarry Bay.

Quarry Bay.

4 Arsenal Street.

NAME IN FULL.

18

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

F-Continued.

Ferrier, Charles Arthur Walter Assistant, IIK. & S'hai Bank,...

Feslier, Albert

Fielder, Bertie Ernest Figueiredo, Eduardo José de... Figueiredo, Henrique João Melchiades de..... Figueiredo, Manuel Augusto... Finke, Hermann... Fisher, Thomas James

Fisher, John

Fittock, Charles, Jr.

Fletcher, Harold Leuthwaite... Forbes, Alexander Rodger.. Forbes, John Rodger.. Ford, Edward Stephen

Ford, William Falconer.. Forrester, John Franco, Viriato

Freese, Wilhelm............. Friedrichs, Carl August

Ernst Max Frisbugen, Hauns Frisk, Frithjof

G

Galloway, Alfred Douglas...... Galluzzi, Raoul

Garcia, Francisco Maria Gardner, Joseph....

Gardner, Jr. William Frederick Gardner, William

Garraway, James Graham Gaster, Ernest Gaudet, André

Gausden, James George

Stanley

Geddes, Francis

Gee, Archibald Daniel Gegg, George William Gellion, Frederick Johnson Gittins, Henry Glendinning, Walter

Glendinuing, Perey Richard... Goggin, William George Goldenberg, Harry.... Goldschmidt, Sylvain Gomes, Francis

Gomes, João Eduardo

Goulborn, Vernon

Gourgey, Ivor...... Gourgey, Maurice Gow, David

Graça, Francisco Maria de

Paulo

Graff, Reginald Charles...... Graham, Hedley White Graham, James William Gray, Robert

Gray, Samuel........... Gregersen, Christoph Gregory, Alfred

Gregory, Tigran Mattheos Gregory, William Perey Greig, Kenneth Edward Grimshaw, Thomas Groskamp, Willem Hendrick.

Gubbay, David Sassoon.... Gubbay, Raphael Aaron Güillet, Arthur Francis.. Günsher, Hugo

Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co., Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Assistant, Hughes & Hough,

Clerk, Carlowitz & Co., Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co., Assistant, Jebsen & Co., Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Engineer, Dock Co., Superintendent, Dock Co., Consulting Engr., Carmichael & Clarke,... Sugar Boiler, China Sugar Refinery, Sugar Boiler, China Sugar Refinery, Clerk, HK. & K. W. & Godown Co., Ld., Harbour Foreman Engineer, Dock Co., Sub-Acct., International Bankg. Corp. Bookseller's Asst., Kelly & Walsh, Ld.,... Assistant, Blackhead & Co.,

Assistant, Arnhold, Karberg & Co., Assistant, Carlowitz & Co.,... Manager, pre-pro. Russo-Asiatic Bank,

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Assistant, D. Sassoon & Co., Ld., Clerk, P. M. S. S. & Co.,

On premises. On premises.

1 Connanght Road.

8 Des Voeux Road.

21 Caine Road,

1 Victoria View, Garden Rd., K'loon King's Building.

1 Connaught Road. Cosmopolitan Docks. Aberdeen Docks. 2 Mountain View. Praya East.

129 Praya East. Kowloon.

... Kowloon Docks. Calder Path.

...

Clerk, Union Ince. Socty, of Canton, Ld., Assistant, Melchers & Co.,

Engineer, HK, Rope Manufacturing Co.,

Ld.,

Foreman Engineer,

Asst., China Fire Insurance Co., Ld.,................... Chief Clerk, Messageries Maritimes,

Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld., Clerk, Union Ince. Society of Cantou, Ld., Assistant, Lane Crawford & Co.,............. Hughes & Hough,.......

Electrician, W. C. Jack & Co., Accountant, Cotton Mills,

Chief Inspector, Electric Traction Co., Assistant, Horse Repository,

Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld., Assistant, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Assistant, Ullmann & Co.,

Clerk, Nippon Yusen Kaisha, Assistant, Douglas, Lapraik & Co.,

Assistant Engineer, HK. Rope Manu-

facturing Co., Ld.,

Assistant, E. S. Kadoorie & Co., Assistant, D. Sassoon & Co., Ld., Clerk, Dock Co.,

Assistant, China Sugar Refinery, Assistant, P. & O. Co.,... Manager, Connell Bros.,

Supt. Shipbuilder, Dock Co.,

Foreman, Taikco Dockyard, Foreman Turner,

Assistant, Jebsen & Co.,

2 Queen's Road East. Bonham Road.

3 Macdonnell Road, 2 Praya Central. Penk Hotel.

i Connaught Road. 11 Conduit Road.

52 Peel Street. 2 Queen's Building. Ou premises.

Villa Maria, Glenealy No. 11. Kowloon Docks. 4 Morrison Hill. On premises.

On premises. Queen's Building. On premises.

Ice House Street.

14 Des Voeux Road Central. -

Ou premises.

3 Morton Terrace.

Causeway Bay,

' 23 Belilios Terrace.

On premises.

Co. J. Ullmann & Co.

15 Seymour Road. 29 Caine Road.

Hongkong Hotel.

2 Seymour Terrace, 21 Belilios Terrace. Kowloon Docks.

58 Peel Street.

11 Mountain View, Peak. Hotel Mansions.

Kowloon Docks.

Quarry Bay.

Kowloon Docks.

King's Building.

Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld.,. 10 Humphreys Avenue, Kowloon.

Merchant, A. V. Apear & Co., Printer, Kelly & Walsh Ltd., ....... Manager, Engine Works,...... Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Accountant, Netherlandsche

Maatschappij,

Clerk, E. D. Sassoon & Co., Broker,

Clerk, A. R. Marty & Co.,

Handel

Assistant, MacEwen, Frickel & Co.,

45 Wyndham Street.

3 Carnarvon Road, Kowloon.

Quarry Bay.

Quarry Bay.

7 Garden Road.

9 Macdonnell Road.

4 Des Voeux Road Central.

15 Queen's Road Central.

4 Des Voeux Road.

NAME IN FULL.

19

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

G-Continued.

Gutierrez, Augusto Aureliano. Gutierrez, Francisco Maria Gutierrez, Gregorio Maria... Gutierrez, João Maria

H

Hacking, Johu Emmott

William

Hacsloop, Conrad Haigh, Fred. Dunwell

Haines, Hereward Francis Hall, Jonathan Hall, Robert

Hall, Thomas Philip Hamet, Abdool Hoosen. Hamilton, Alexander Hamilton, Charles Norman

Maclean

Hamilton, John Campbell.. Hancock, Harry Cyril Rider... Hanitzsch, Fritz Rudolf Hannibal, Walter Albert Hausen, Theodor Friedrich

Hansen, Wallace John Hanson, James Ernest Hardwick, William Harker, Bernard Brotherton Harrington, John Joseph Harrison, Charles Ingleby. Harrison, Frank Seymour Harrison, Tom Lloyd....... Harron, Henry Love

Hartig, Gottlieb Erust Louis. Harvey, David

Harvey, Donald

· Haskell, Ernest David

Hassan, Hoosan

Hatt, Charles

Hauswirth, Fred.

Haxton, George Kay.. Hay, George Morrison Hayward, Ernest Malcolm Hazeland, Ernest Manning Heath, Henry Thomas Hechtel, Otto Peter

Hedgwood, Otto........ Hedley, William.... Heermann, Carl Friederich Hegarty, Herbert George Heid, Alvin Henry.... Heldt, Franz

Hell, Paul Edward Heinrich

Wilhelm

Helm, Kurt Alfred..... Henderson, Alexander Henderson, Archibald Kerr Henderson, James

Henderson, John Mentiplay Hendrich, Max Heinrich Herbst, Carl Emil Peter Hermeling, Peter August

Hubert... Heron, Arthur William

Hertslet, Henry Reginald Heuser, Carl Wilhelm Hewett, Arthur Stanley Hewitt, Alfred Herbert. Hickie, Sidney Douglas... Hickling, Clement Chinery Hickman, Harry Frank.. Hidden, Stanley

Clerk, HK. & S'hai Bank, Assistant, Shewan. Tomes & Co., Clerk, HK. & S'hai Bank, Assistant, F. Blackhead & Co.,

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Assistant, F. Blackhead & Co, Assistant, Kelly & Walsh, Ld., Brakesman,

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Engineer, Holt's Wharf, Marine Surveyor,

Assistant, Garner, Quelch & Co., Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard,

Engineer, China Light & Power Co.,............ Clerk, P. M. S. S. Co., Broker,

Assistant, Arnhold, Karberg & Co., Clerk, Wendt & Co.,

Assistant, F. Blackhead & Co., Assistant, II. Skott & Co., Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Employee, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Architect,

Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard, Storeman, Dock Co,.

Ince. Asst., S. J. David & Co., Assistant, Standard Oil Co., Pansman, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Assistant, Kruse & Co.,

Marine Engineer, Dodwell & Co., Id.,

Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co.,.... Assistant, E. S. Kadooric & Co., Assistant, H. Price & Co., Ld., Inspector, C. & J. Telephone Co., Brewmaster, Oriental Brewery, Ld., Manager, HK. Ice Co., Ld., Civil Engineer, Leigh & Orange, Book-keeper, Lane, Crawford & Co., . Architect,

Foreman, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Assistant, Wendt & Co.,

Engineer, G. J. Cement Co., Ld., Timekeeper, Dock Co.,...... Merchant, Gaupp & Co., Assistant, HK. & S'hai Bank, Assistant, Standard Oil Co., Assistant, Schuldt & Co.,

Merchant, Kruse & Co.,

Assistant, Garrels, Böruer & Co.,

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard,

14 Mosque Street. 6 Conduit Roal. On premises. 1 Mosque Street.

Quarry Bay.

13 Magazine Gap. 10x Conduit Read.

31 Saw Wa Fong, Wanchai. I Connaught Road. Holt's Wharf. Hongkong Hotel.

39 Morrison Hill Road. Quarry Bay.

Kowloon. Hongkong Hotel. Peak Hotel. Kowloon.

36 Nathan Road. 5 Caine Road.

2 Ormsby Villas. Quarry Bay. Quarry Bay.

2 Pedder's Street. Quarry Bay. Kowlom Docks. The Peak. Hotel Mansions. 1 Lyemoon Terrace. Hotel Mansions.

13 Austin Avenue. On premises.

2 Seymour Terrace.

12 Queen's Road Centri. No. 2 Daddell Street. Lai Chi Kok.

Ice House, East Point. Prince's Building.

On premises.

2 Park View.

Quarry Bay.

3 Ormsby Villas, Granville Road,

Kowloon.

G. I. Cement Co's Works. Kowloon Docks.

Deacon's Bungalow.

On premises.

Hotel Mansions.

York Building.

Hotel Mansions.

Kuutsford Terrace, Kowloon, Quarry Bay.

Asst. Engineer, IIK. Tramway Co., Ld.,.. 159 Praya East.

Engineer, Bailey & Co.,

Boilermaker, Dock Co.,

Assistant, Siemssen & Co.,

Clerk, Holt's Wharf,

Austin Avenue, Kowloon.

Kowloon Docks.

Queen's Building.

4 Seymour Terrace, Kovi on.

Superintendent Engineer, Nord. Lloyd,... Intramuros, Caine Real. Wharfinger, HK. & K, W. & Godown

Co., L.,

Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Assistant, Eberius & Co.,

Accountant, Chartered Bank of I. A. & C., Chief Engineer, G. I. Cement Co., Ld............... Merchant, China Express Co., Assistant, Butterfield & Swire,

11 Nathan Road.

On premises.

18A Macdonell Road. On premises. Green Island.

25 Belilios Terrace.

1 Connaught Road.

Assistant, China Fire Insurance Co., Ld., 5 Morrison Hill.

Assistant, Whiteaway & Laidlaw,

Wyndham Hotel.

NAME IN FULL.

20

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

H-Continued.

Hildebrandt, Johannes Carl... Assistant, China Export, Import and

Hi, Thomas

Hill, Walter Joseph Hoffman, Harry Edward Hoggard, Frederick Holt, Harold Osborn

Holyoak, Percy Hobson

Hooper, Joseph

Ho U-ming

Howell, Charles Lloyd

Howard, Edward

Howie, Neil McDonald

Hoy, William

Humphreys, Cecil

Hunter, George

Hunter, Hugh..

Hunter, James

Bank Compagnie, Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Chief Clerk, Oriental Brewery, Ld., Foreman, G. I. Cement Co., Ld., Book-keeper, Wm. Powell, Ld., Salesman and Assistant, Reiss & Co., Clerk, HK. & K. W. & Godown Co., Ld., Secretary, Sam Wang Co., Ld.,

Broker,

Assistant, Standard Oil Co., Draughtsman, Taikoo Dockyard, Draughtsman, Taikoo Dockyard, Assistant, W. G. Humphreys & Co.,

Humphreys, William Meyrick Clerk, W. G. Humphreys & Co........

Hunter, James Adai

Hunter, Robert

Hunter, Tobias

Hüpeden, Haus

Hurley, Frederick Charles.. Hyde, James

Hyndman, Francisco Henrique Hyndman, Henrique, Jr.

I

Ievers, Thomas Patrick....

Irving, John Mark Mardbaugh. Ismail, Sheek Ebrahim

Ismail, Sheik Ramjahu

Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld., Clerk, Union Ince. Soety, of Cantou, L., Assistant Fitter,

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Engineer, Macdonald & Co.,

Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld., Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld., Assistant, Hughes & Hough,

Clerk of Works, HK. & K. W. &

Godown Co., Ld., Assistant, Standard Oil Co., Clerk, Bailey & Co.,..

Assistant, Vacuum Oil Co.,.. Engineer, IK. Ice Co., Ld.,

Assistant, Holland-China Trading Co.,

|

1 Queen's Gardeus. Quarry Bay.

Taikoo Terrace, Quarry Bay. Kingsclere.

Deep Water Bay Works. Alexandra Building.

Westley, Babbington Path. 3 Stewart Terrace, Peak. 81 Queen's Road Central. Des Voeux Road.

17 Chater Road, West Point. Quarry Bay.

Quarry Bay.

2 Peak Road.

9 Stewart Terrace, Peak.

7 Lochiel Terrace, Kowloon.

On premises.

Gas Works. Quarry Bay.

2 Victoria View, Kowloon.

4 Humphreys' Avenue, Kowloon. 9 Robinson Road.

1 Meirion, Peak.

6 Ashley Road.

4 Rose Terrace, Kowloon.

2 Carnarvon Villas, Kowloon.

56 Nathan Road..

East Point.

5 Yee Woo Street.

Clerk, HK. & K. W. & Godown Co., Ld..] 20 Leighton Hill Road.

J

Jack, James

Jacobs, Edward

Jabrand, Alfred

Jameson, Philip Sutherland Jasse, Carl George Heinrich Jebsen, Michael

Jesus, Albino Alberto da Jesus, Francisco Montalto de. Jesus, José Vicente Paulo de. Joass, Henry Crawford Johnson, John

Johnson, William Murray. Johustone, John

Jolly, William

Jone Bong Cheng Jones, Samuel Richard

Jorge, Francisco José Vicente,

Jr.,

Jorge, Heitor Telles Joseph, Joseph Edgar Joseph, Raymond Menasse Judah, James Jacob

Judah, Raphael Solomon Juman, Samuel

Kadoorie, Ellis Kahr, Armand Kaily, William

K

Kastmanu, Karl Adolf August Keating, Augustin Kedward, Thomas Agor Keith, Allan

Keith, David

Kellinghusen, Hermann Otto

Franz

Book-keeper, Dairy Farm Co., Lal.,

Assistant, Standard Oil Co.,

Assistant, Jebsen & Co.,

Mill Manager,

Clerk, Rädecker & Co., Assistant, Jebsen & Co.,

Clerk, Canadian Pacific Railway Co., Book-keeper, W. C. Jack & Co., Assistant, Gordon & Co.,................. Assistant, IIK. & S'hai Bank,.. Storekeeper, Taikoo Dockyard, Timekeeper, Dock Co.,

2 Kimberley Villas, Kowloon.

1 Occidental Hotel, Kowloon.

No. 5 Queen's Gardens. Cotton Mills.

5 Duddell Street.

19 Conduit Road.

18 Morrison Hill Road. 13 Robinson Road.

12 Morrison Hill Road. On premises. Quarry Bay. Kowloon Docks.

Merchant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld., No. 2 House, East Point.

Secretary, Dock Co.,

Kowloon Docks.

Accountant, Singer Sewing Machine Co., 14 Lyndhurst Terrace,

Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard,

Merchant, Jorge & Co.,

Assistant, Siemssen & Co.,

Exchange Broker,......

Assistant, D. Sassoon & Co., Ld., Clerk, E. D. Sassoon & Co.,

Assistant, D. Sassoon & Co., Lid.,

Quarry Bay.

21 Old Bailey. Queen's Building. 35 Robinson Road. Devonia, Peak Road. 11 College Chambers. 11 Seymour Road.

Clerk, HK. & K. W. & Godown Co., Ld., Praya East.

Broker, E. S. Kadoorie & Co.,.. Manager, Ullmann & Co., Assistant, Standard Oil Co., Assistant, Siemssen & Co.,

Manager, Deep Water Bay Brick Work,. Ship Draughtsman, Taikoo Dockyard, Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co., Foreman Carpenter,

Assistant, Siemssen & Co.,

Prince's Building.

5 Caine Road. Lai-chi-kok. Queen's Building. Deep Water Bay. Quarry Bay.

Peak Hotel.

Kowloon Docks.

Queen's Building.

NAME IN FULL.

21

OCCUPATION,

ABODE.

K-Continued.

Kench, Owen Ceely

Kennedy, David.

Kennedy, James John Stodart. Kennett, Henry William

Balmer....

Kennett, Herbert Sydney Kerr, William.......

Kew, Charles Herbert Whiteley

Kew, Joseph Whiteley Kharas, Dinshaw Kavasji. King, James William.. King, Walter

King, Wilfrid Henry Tindal... Klimanek, Philip Harding Kuight, Charles Crosby Knox, Lefferts

Kohler, Arnold

Korten, Hanns Leonhard

Werner

Kraft, William Dana

Kramer, Oswaki.

Kuhn, Arthur

Kullmann, John

Accountant, British-American Tobacco

Co., Ld.,

Manager, Horse Repository,

Hongkong Hotel.

Causeway Bay.

Genl. Manager, Electric Traction Co., Lal., 1 Morrison Hill.

Assistant, China-Borneo Co., Ld.,

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard.......

4 Knutsford Terrace, Kowloon.

1 Comaught Road.

Quarry Bay.

Clerk, HK. & K. W. & Godown Co., Ld., 27 Seymour Road.

Engineer,

P. & O. Co.,

Storeman, Dock Co...................

Bookseller, Kelly & Walsh, Ld.,

Clerk, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld.,.... Assistant, Holland-China Trading Co., Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Manager, China Mutual Insurance Co., Assistant, Deutsch-Asiatische Bank,

Assistant, Melchers & Co.,

Assistant Manager & Attorney, Standard

Oil Co.,

Manager, II. Robitsek & Reis,

Principal, Kuhn & Komor,

Banker, Deutsch-Asiatische Bank,..

Kunze, Paul Adolf Adalbert... Mercantile Representative, Shewan,

Kwong King In

Kylling, Henry

Tomes & Co.,

Clerk, Bismarck & Co.,

Assistant, Dady Burjor & Co.,

14 Des Vœux Road Central. 14 College Chambers. Kowloon Docks.

1 Magdalene Terrace, (149 Peak). East Point Junior Mess. Hotel Mansions.

1 Connaught Road. On premises. Kingsclere, Kennedy Road.

On premises.

13A Macdonnell Road.

9 Macdonnell Road. Queen's Road Central. Club Germania.

2 Lyemoon Villas, Kowloon. Connaught Road Central. 31 Pokfulam Road.

Laing, Alfred

L

Lakin, George Mason.. Lambert, Alfred

Lambert, John

Lammert, Frank....

Lammert, Herbert Alexander Lammert, Lionel Eugene Lamperski, Albert Wilhelm Lander, John William Lang, Archibald Orr... Lang, William Edwin Langstein, Ludwig Victor.. Lanning, Oswald Victor Laurenz, Georg Rudolf. Lauritsen, Cris Lauritsen, Martin Lawder, Cecil Lawrence, John Henry Lay, Kenneth Fortescue Leask, William Laughton Lee, George

Leith, Alister Cameron. Lemm, John Lennox, John..

Leon, Manuel Valantin

Leong, Ernest.......... Lester, Hugh William Leung Feo Cooke

Leuz, Harold Rudolf

Levy, Silas Simon

Lingard, Alfred Arthur....... Little, Alexander Colbourne... Little, John Hargraves Logan, Arthur Conning. Long, Edwin Arthur Elliott... Long, Reginald Frederick.... Lopes, Arthur dos Anjos Lopes, Arthur

Lopes, Carlos Augusto Lopes, Dellano Pedro Jesus ... Lopes, José Maria Conceição. Lossens, Jacob Johau

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire,

Assistant, Gibb, Livingston & Co.,. Assistant, Leigh & Orange Lloyds' Surveyor,..

1 Connaught Road.

St. George's Building. 36 Caine Road. Alexandra Building.

Assistant, Caldbeck, MacGregor & Co.,... I Seymour Terrace.

Assistant, G. P. Lammert, Assistant, G. P. Lammert, Assistant, Melchers & Co., Timekeeper, Dock Co...............

Mercantile Asst., Gibb, Livingston & Co., Sub-Acct., Chartered Bank of I. A. & C., Assistant, Arnhold, Karberg & Co., Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Lal.,. Assistant, Carlowitz & Co.,................ Supt. Bottling Dept., Oriental Brewery, Ld, Engineer, Oriental Brewery, Ld., Assistant, China Mutual Life Iuce. Co.,... Clerk, Dock Co.,

Bank Clerk, International Bankg. Corp.,.. Civil Engineer, Leigh & Orange, Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., Assistant, IIK. & S'hai Bank, Architect,

Supdt. Engineer, Butterfield & Swire, Clerk, Arnhold, Karberg & Co., Cashier, Oriental Brewery, Ld., Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ltd., Coal Merchant, &c., Clerk, Sander, Wieler & Co., Clerk, E. D. Sassoon & Co., Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., Architect,

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Manager, Singer Sewing Machine Co., Stenographer, Standard Oil Co.,..... Electrical Engineer, Clerk, P. M. S. S. Co., Assistant, Siemssen & Co.. Clerk, P. M. S. S. Co.,

Clerk, Arnhold, Karberg & Co., Clerk, HK. & S'hai Bank,

|

Cotton Mills, East Point. 4 Elliot Crescent.

On premises.

Kowloon Docks.

St. George's Building. Queen's Road,

3 Queen's Gardens. 48 Peak.

2 Connaught Road. Lai Chi Kok. Lai Chi Kok. Elgin Street. Kowloon Docks.

West Villas, Castle Road. Ou premises.

31 Pokfulam Road.

On premises.

7 Humphreys' Avenue, Kowloon.

On premises.

25 Mosque Street.

13 Caine Road.

On premises.

53 Connaught Rond. Prince's Building.

7 Barrow Terrace. North Point.

Bank Buildings.

1 Connaught Road Central. Kingsclere.

4 Lyeemoon Villas, Kowloon. Electric Co. Works, Wanchai. Barrow Terrace, Kowloon. On premises.

6 Barrow Terrace, Kowloon. 43 Elgin Street.

On premises.

Assistaut Superintendent, P. M. S. S. Co., St. George's House.

22

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

L-Continued.

ABODE.

Loureiro, Eduardo José da

Silva

Loureiro, Peter

Chief Clerk, Rope Works,

Banker, National Bank of China, Ld.,

Luhmann, Carl Friedrich John Assistant, Carlowitz & Co.,......

Lübring, Edward

Luz, Alvaro Augusto da Lyle, David

Lynam, Charles Edward Lysanght, John Joseph.. Lyson, Cecil Hynes

M

Maas, Martin Mortimore MacCrae, Donald Macdonald, Alexander Macdonald, Donald Macgregor, Robert...... Mackenzie, Alexander Mackintosh, Frederick

Alexander Macklin, John

Mactuby, James Duncan Magner, Leo John

Maler, Antonio Sebastião.. Maher, Marcellino José.. Makelam, Charles

Makin, Henry Reginald.. Manhoff, Charles Norman Mann, Frederick Randall Manners, John Manuk, Malcolm Mark, Marvin Walter Marshall, Walter Basil Martens, Robert...............

Martin, Friedrich Julius

Philipp

Martin, James Martin, Richard Clare Mason, James..............

Matthews, William Walter Mauricio, Evaristo..... Maxfield, Walter,

May, Ernest Alfred George McCallum, Andrew Imrie... McCormack, John McCubbin, John McCubbin, John

McCullagh, William Douglas... McCulloch, William McDougall, Alexander McHugh, Frank Edward McHutchon, James Maitland. McIntosh, Alexander Forsyth. McIntyre, Wilson McKay, William McKirdy, Archibald

McLeod, John

MeNeill, Duncan

McNeillie, David

Mead, James Henry Meek, Thomas Meester, Titus de

Mehta, Byramjee Kaikhusbroo Mehta, Jamshed Naorojec Meier, John Max Heinrich Melvin, James Dewar Messner, Franz Karl Metzschky, Wilhelm Zşeh Meyer, Carl

Meyer, Carl Martin Meyer, Johannes Emil Meyer, Oscar

Michael, Sassoon Hai

Assistant, Sander, Wieler & Co.,. Clerk, HK. & S'hai Bank, Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Clerk & Stenographer, P. M. S. S. Co.,... Engineer, John Lysanght & Son, Clerk, II. Price & Co., Lil.,.....

Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard,.... Engineer.

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Clerk, C. P. L. & M. Co., Ld.,

Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co., Foremau, Taikoo Dockyard, Chemist, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Assistaut, S. Moutrie & Co., Assistant, Sander, Wieler & Co., Clerk, Chartered Bank of I. A. & C., Assistant, Dairy Farm Co., Lil., Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Accountant, Oriental Brewery, Ld., Assistant, P. & O, Co.,

Assistant, Siemssen & Co.,

Accountaut, Dairy Farm Co., L., Clerk, Gordon & Co.,

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire,

4 Belilios Terrace. 2 The Albany,

2 Praya.

Prince's Building. On premises. Quarry Bay.

11 Humphreys Avenue. 139 Wanchai Road 6 Shelley Street.

Peak Hotel. Quarry Bay. Quarry Bay. Braeside.

I Commught Road. Shewan, Tomes & Co.

On premises. Quarry Bay. Quarry Bay.

Astor House Hotel. Prince's Building.

33 Kowloon City Road. Pokfulam.

1 Connaught Road. Wyndham Hotel.

11 Mountain View, Peak. On premiss.

6 Moretone Terrace.

47 High Street,

1 Connaught Road.

Marine Supdt., Hamburg-Amerika Linie, Queen's Building.

Assistant, Wm. Meyerink & Co., Draughtsman, Dock Co., Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., Foreman, G. I. Cement Co., Ld., Assistant, Thos. Cook & Son, Assistant, Wm. Powell, Ld., Merchant, MacEwen, Frickel & Co., Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld., Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard,..... Employee, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Resident Engineer,

Assistant, HK, & S'hai Bank, Sub-Acct., Chartered Bank of I. A. & C., Mercantile Assistant, H. Skott & Co., Chief Accountant, Standard Oil Co., Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Assistant, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Loftman, Taikoo Dockyard,... Assistant, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard,

Boiler Maker, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Bookseller, Kelly & Walsh, Ld.,. Jeweller, Falconer & Co.,

Assistant, Java-China-Japan Lijn,.. Clerk, E. D. Sassoon & Co., King Edward Hotel Tobacconist, Kruse & Co., Assistant, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Assistant Superintendent, Nord. Lloyd,... Assistant, Heuser Eberius & Co., Assistant, Heuser Eberius & Co., Assistant, Deutsch-Asiatische Bank, Assistant, Garrels, Börner & Co.,. Assistant, Melchers & Co., Merchant, J. R. Michael & Co.,

20 Macdonnell Road. Kowloon Docks. Grand Hotel.

Deep Water Bay Works. 176 Queen's Road Central. Alexandra Building.

4 Des Voeux Road. On premises. Quarry Bay. Quarry Bay. Quarry Bay. Gas Works. On premises. Queen's Road.

10 Des Voeux Road.

13A Macdonnell Road. 1 Connaught Road. Quarry Bay.

3 Sea View Terrace, Quarry Bag. Quarry Bay.

Quarry Bay.

Quarry Bay.

Quarry Bay.

Quarry Bay.

3 Carnarvon Road, Kowloon.

6 Beaconsfield Arcade.

York Building.

41 Wyndham Street. On premises.

Hongkong Hotei.

3 Lyemoon Terrace, Quarry Bay. 14 Austin Avenue, Kowloon. German Club. German Club. 9 Garden Road.

4 Ravenshill. Queen's Building.

1 Prince's Building.

+

NAME IN FULL.

M-Continued.

23

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

Assistant, Standard Oil Co.,

Hotel Masions.

Middleton, George Simpson ... Sub.-Acct, International Bankg. Corp., ... Magdalene Terrace.

Mickle, Danby Minor

Millar, Andrew William

Millar, John Frederick

Miller, John Findlay

Miller, Robert Kennedy

Milroy, Anthony Alex. Heron Mistry, Kursbedjec Dhunjee-

bhoy.

Mitchell, John

|

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Salesman, A. S. Watson & Co., Engineer, Bradley & Co.,

Sugar Boiler, China Sugar Refinery, Superintendent, Sailors' Home,

Assistant, Arndt & Co.,

Assistaut, Taikoo Sugar Refinery,

Mitchelmorl, Ernest Vernon... Manager, Whiteway & Laidlaw,

Mohamed, Moosa.

Moir, Alexander..

Mok Man Cheung,.

Moodie, Frederick Archibald

Monk, Albert Victor

Moon, Henry William

Mooney, Charles

Morrison, Kenneth Sinclair Morse, Herbert John.

Moses, Naphtali Steinberg, Moulder, Augustus Bourne-

ville.... Mow-Fang, Edward Mow-Fung, Frederick Charles Muhle, Heinrich Ludwig Muir, John Greig Müller, Carl Otto Murdoch, Arthur Murphy, Charles Henry Murray, James Smith

Murray, Patrick Henry .... Murray, Malcolm Alexander Musso, Salvador.........

N

Naumann, Carl Wilhelm

Ludwig Walter

Neave, Thomas

Neidt, Arthur Carl Wilhelm.. Neilson, Donald McLaren Neilson, Jan Barr Cummings Nellner, Hartwig Nelson, Charles Cowley Newall, Stuart George

Nicholls, William

Nicholson, Robert Alfred

Nicholson, William.... Nicol, Alexander

Nielson, Jens

Nikkels, Reinard Namming

Willem

Noronha, José Maria

North, Willian

Nye, Percival Herbert

O

Obrembski, Marion von. Offer, Karl

Offermann, Paul Oliphant, Tom

Olson, Charles William Olson, John

Orchard, Ernest Frank Gordon

Ormiston, James

Ortlepp, Heinrich Friedrich Osborne, Johu.............

Osmund, Arthur Frederick

Osmund, Cesar Henry

Osmund, Eruest Edgar

Assistant, Douglas, Lapraik & Co., Manager, Peak Hotel, Compradore, Holt's Wharf,. Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard,..

Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld., Secretary, HK. Hotel, Assistant, Bradley & Co.,

Chief Accountant, Standard Oil Co., Engineer, W. C. Jack & Co.,

Merchant,

Assistant, Dady Burjor & Co., Merchant, Dady Burjor & Co., Assistaut, Siemssen & Co., Assistant, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Assistant, Carlowitz & Co.,............. Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., L., Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard,

Engineer, G. I. Cement Co., Ld., Hok-ün

Cement Works,

Marine Engineer, Asiatic Petroleum Co., Clerk, HK. & S'hai Bank, Marine Engineer, Bradley & Co.,

Assistant, Reuter, Bröckelmann & Co., Superintendent Engineer, Dock Co., Assistant, Wm. Meyerink & Co., Foreman Boiler Maker, Dock Co., Assistant, Gilman & Co.,.................. Merchant, Garrels, Börner & Co., Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard,

Quarry Bay.

2 East Avenue, Kowloon. On premises. East Point. On premises.

34 Queen's Road Central. Taikoo Terrace, Quarry Bay. Wyndham Hotel,

16 Yee Woo Street.

On premises.

267 Queen's Road East. 1 Connaught Road. Quarry Bay.

East Point.

4 Lower Mosque Terrare. On premises.

Hotel Mansions.

26 Leighton Hill Road.

Hongkong Hotel.

10 Queen's Road Central. 28 Des Voeux Road. Queen's Building. Quarry Bay.

15 Knutsford Terrace, Kowloon. East Point.

Quarry Bay.

On premises. Shaukiwan Road. On premises. On premises.

Brueside.

Kowloon Docks. On premises. Kowloon Docks. Queen's Road. King's Building. Quarry Bay.

Insurance Manager, S. J. David & Co.,... Peak.

Clerk, Dock Co.,

Engineer, Dock Co.,.............

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Assistant Supdt., Norddeutscher Lloyd,...

Acct., Neth.-India Commercial Bank, Clerk, Banque de l'Indo-Chine, Sub-Acct., International Bankg. Corp., Electrical Engineer, W. C. Jack & Co.,

Chemist, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Assistant, Arndt & Co., Sub.-Mgr., Deutsch-Asiatische Bank, Assistant, Dairy Farm Co., Lil................ Assistant, Aagaard, Thoresen & Co.,..............] Building Contractor, C. E. Warren & Co., Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co., Engineer, Macdonald & Co.,

Kowloon Docks. Cosmopolitan Docks.

1 Connaught Road. Quarry Bay,

3 Patell Villas.

On premises.

7 Rose Terrace, Kowloon. Castle Road.

14 Des Voeux Road.

Quarry Bay.

Queen's Road Central. 25 Conduit Road, Pokfulam.

Nathan Road, Kowloon. 30 Des Vœux Road Central. On premises. York Building.

Assistant, Reuter, Bröckelmann & Co.,....... 6 Morrison Hill. Engine Driver, Tramway Co.,...

38 Queen's Road East.

Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld., | 16 Belilios Terrace. Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co.,

5 Mosque Street. Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld., 16 Belilios Terrace.

$

NAME IN FULL.

24

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

●—Continued.

Osmund, George Vincent Osmund, James Daniel Otten, Gerhardus

Otto, Walter Adolph Henry Owen, James Colin Owen, Owen Elias...... Oxberry, James Henry Ozorio, Eurico Maria.. Ozorio, José Graça

Ozorio, Leopoldo Augusto......

P

Packham, Ralph

Page, Harry William........

Palmer, Henry Pattison, Walter.. Peacock, John Pearce, Harold

Pearce, Thomas Ernest. Peel, Charles Alfred Pect, James William Pereira, Carlos José Maria Pereira, John

Perrie, Robert

Perry, Isaac Samuel Pestonji, Rustom

Petley, Harold Wallace.. Peuster, Paul Oskar Phillips, Reginald Philip Piens, Charles....

Piercy, Riebard Smailes

Pinna, Sebastião Francisco de Pintos, Cecilio Paulo....... Plage, Philip

Plummer, Jolu Archibald... Pol, Gerrit Hendrik van den Polley, John David Pollock, Archibald Bar

Pond, Edward.....................

Pond, Ernest Harold Prestage, John Thomas...

Prien, Peter Georg Friedrich Pringle, William Jr. Pryce, Charles

Purcell, William Harris.. Purvis, David Aitchison Putley, Arthur Charles Pye, Edmund Burns

Assistant, Deutsch-Asiatische Bank, Clerk, China Sugar Refinery, Book-keeper, Java-China-Japan Lijn, Assistant, Berblinger & Co., Ld., Assistant, Dock Co.,

Proprietor, Grand Carlton Hotel, Manager, Grand Hotel,

...

Clerk, Chartered Bank of I. A. & C., Clerk, Percy Smith, Seth & Fleming, .... Clerk, HK, & S'hai Bank,

Cargo Supt., HK. & K. W. & Godown

Co., L..

Assistant, Dairy Farm Co., Ld.,

Overseer, Cotton Mills,

Tuner, Robinson Piano & Co., Ld., Assistant, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Assistant, Reiss & Co.,

Assistant, J. D. Hutchison & Co.,... Mercantile Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Assistant, Horse Repository,

Clerk, Caldbeck, MacGregor & Co., Assistant, W. Shewan,.

Assistant, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Broker,

Stenographer, International Bankg. Corp., Electrical Engineer,

Manager, Peak Hotel,

Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld., Assistant, Siemssen & Co.,

7 Queen's Road Central. 6 Reduaxella Terrace. Peak Road. Lyttleton Road. Kowloon Docks. On premises.

On premises.

5 Reduaxella Terrace. 58 Peel Street. On premises.

Wharf Co.'s Office, Kowloon. Dairy Farm Depôt, 10 Robinson Road

Kowloon.

On premises.

10 Des Vœux Road.

3 Lyemoon Terrace, Quarry Bay. Reiss & Co.

8 Queen's Road, Central. Eden Hall, Lyttleton Road West. Causeway Bay.

50 Peel Street.

14 Des Voeux Road.

1 Lyemoon Terrace, Quarry Bay. 31 Wyndham Street.

¦ 5 Seymour Terrace.

Electric Light Works Mess. On premises.

Hongkong Dispensary.

13 Robinson Road, Kowloon.

36 Elgin Street.

: 20 Elgin Street.

Bowrington.

Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld.,. Diocesan School. Assistant, Cruz, Basto & Co.............. Assistant, Holland-China Trading Co., Sugar Boiler, China Sugar Refinery, Assistant, Bradley & Co........ Assistant, Holland-China Trading Co., Assistant, Taikoo Dockyard,

Sub-Acct., Chartered Bank of I. A. & C., Merchant, A. B. Moulder & Co., Bookseller, Brewer & Co., Clerk, IIK. & S'hai Bank, Merchant,

Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

Clerk, Canadian Pacific Railway Co., Accountant, Kelly & Walsh, Ld., Foreman Engineer,

Clerk, K. & S'hai Bank, Assistant, Butterfield & Swire,

2 Ormsby Villas, Kowloon. Observatory Villas, Quarry Bay. Queen's Road, Hotel Mansions. Kingsclere.

On premises.

27 Conduit Road. Oriental Hotel.

5 Park View.

1 Magdalene Terrace, Peak. Kowloon Docks,

On premises.

On premises.

Q

Quinn, John

Steward, IIK. Club,.....

R

On premises.

Rafeek, Mahomed

Rahman, Abdool Karrim Ram, Harry

Ramsay, Joseph Marshall.. Ramsay, Thomas Rapp, Fritz.

Rapp, Gustav.

Rapp, Herman

Rattey, William James Raven, Arthur Robert Fenton. Ray, Edward Henry Raymond, Edward Benjamin. Raymond, Ellis Benjamin. Razack, Moosa Abdool Redl, Hanns

Clerk, Osaka Shosen Kaisha, Cashier, King Edward Hotel, ................. Assistant, John Lemm, Architect, Foreman Shipbuilder, Dock Co.,...... Ship Draughtsman, Bailey & Co., Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld., Clerk, J. D. Humphreys & Son,... Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld., Clerk, Dock Co.,

Architect, Weaser & Raven, Broker, St. George's Building, Clerk, E. D. Sassoon & Co., Clerk, E. D. Sassoon & Co., General Broker,

Assistant, Sander, Wieler & Co.,

On premises. On premises.

3 Wa In Fong Street. Kowloon Docks.

Ormsby Villas, Kowloon. Alexandra Building.

4 East Avenue, Kowloon. On premises. Cosmopolitan Docks. 53 Robinson Road. Hongkong Hotel.

5 Victoria View, Kowloon. 5 Victoria View, Kowloon. 18A Stanley Street. Prince's Building.

1

NAME IN FULL.

25

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

R-Continued.

Rees, Jacques Francois van

Reeves, Henry Reichmann, Frederick Reid, James

Reinhardt, Ewald Hans Walter Reis, Archibald Herbert Relton, Trevor Lyons Remedios, Carlos Augusto dos. Remedios, Carlos Bartholomeo

dos.

Remedios, Carlos Eugenio dos. Remedios, Carlos Maria Placé

dos

Remedios, Eduardo Maria...... Remedios, Hermillo Hermi-

gildo dos

Remedios, Jorge Maria Ozorio

dos

Remedios, José Candido, Jr.... Remedios, José Julita dos Remedios, José Maria

Vandenberg

Remedios, Maximiano

Antonio dos

Remedios, Paulo Maria Remedios, Romualdo Jacob dos. Remedios, Thoinas James..... Remedios, Vasco Luiz dos...... Ribeiro, Carlos de Monte

Carmelo Vieira.. Ribeiro, Fernando Alfredo

Vieira

Ribeiro, Francisco Xavier

Vieira

Ribeiro, Francisco Xavier

Vieira, Jr.

Ribeiro, João Chrysostomo

Vieira

.....

Ribeiro, Jorge Alberto Vicira.... Ribeiro, José Antonio da

Costa Vieira

Ribeiro, Julio de Costa Vieira Ribeiro, Oscar Francisco

Ribeiro, Venceslau Francisco

Vieira

Richardson, Hedley Thomas...

Rickett, Frank Bryce Riecken, Julius

Riegen, Johannes von

Ritchie, Alfred Alexander

Ritchie, Archibald.........

Ritchie, Archibald.....

Roberts, Charles..

Roberts, John Cookman Robertson, John

Robertson, Thomas Watson

Robinson, Walter Vaughan Robinson, William Robson, John James Robson, Thomas Ernest

Stanley

Roby, Ernest

...

Rocha, Alvaro Gustavo da Rocha, Antonio José da Cruz| Rocha, Isaias da..

Rocha, João Maria da

Rocha, Vicente Caetano da Rodger, John

Rodger, Robert Kerr Rodrigues, José Carvalho......

Manager, Nederlandsche-Handel Maats-

chappij,

Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co., Proprietor, Grand Hotel, ... General Manager, Taikoo Dockyard, Assistant, Reiss & Co.,...... Assistant, IIK. & S. Bank,. Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld.,

Assistant, Garrels, Börner & Co., Head Clerk, Russo-Asiatic Bank,

Clerk, Netherlands Trading Society, Assistant, H. Rohitsek & Reis,

Clerk, Russo-Asiatic Bank,

Clerk, Mercantile Bank of India, Clerk, HK. & S'hai Bank, Clerk, HK. & Shai Bank,

Assistant, Dock Co.,

On premises.

On premises.

Queen's Road Central. Quarry Bay. Reiss & Co. On premises.

Connaught Road Contral. Queen's Building.

Club Lusitano. Prince's Building.

Queen's Road. 17 Shelley Street.

Prince's Building,

65 Caine Road. On premises.

On premises.

Waterford, Macdonnell Road,

Queen's Building.

65 Caine Road.

2 Woodland Terrace.

Assistant, Melchers & Co.. Assistant, II. Rohitsek & Reis, Clerk, Mercantile Bank of India, Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., Clerk, Union Ince. Soety, of Canton, Ld., On premises.

Assistant, Standard Oil Co.,

Assistant, Norddeutscher Lloyd.......

Clerk, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld..

Clerk, HK. & S'hai Bank,

Clerk, IIK. & Shai Bank, Assistant, Melchers & Co.,

Assistant, Melchers & Co.,

| Assistant, D. Sassoon & Co., Ld.,

Assistant, China Export, Import & Bank

Compagnie,

Assistant, W. G. Humphreys & Co., Supt. Engineer, Canadian Pacific Railway

Co.,

Assistant, HK. & Shai Bank,, Merchant, Jebsen & Co., Supt. Engineer, Nord. Lloyd, Sub.-Acct., Chartered Bank of I. A. & C., Merchant, Ritchie & Co.,................. Supt., United Asbestos Oriental Agency

Ld.,

Asst. Wharfinger, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Assistant, HK. & S'hai Bank......... Assistant, Showau, Tomes & Co.,

Supt. Engineer, K. & K. W. & Godown

Co., Ltd,

General Manager,

Assistant, P. & O. Co.,

Engineer, Dock Co.,..

Assistant Dockyard Mannger, Assistant, Taikoo Sugar Refinery,

Assistant, Caldbeck, MacGregor & Co.,...

Assistant, Siemssen & Co.,

Clerk, Bradley & Co.,..

Clerk, Wm. Meyerink & Co., Clerk, Carlowitz & Co.,

Sugar Boiler, China Sugar Refinery, Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Clerk, Howarth, Erskine & Co.,

..........

|

36 St. Francis Street.

7 Chancery Lane.

3 Ashley Terrace.

Des Voeux Road.

On premises.

12 Mosque Street. Queen's Building.

Queen's Buiking. 4 Chancery Lane.

45 Wyndham Street.

Queen's Road Central.

3 Canton Villas, Kowloon. On premises.

No. 7 Queen's Garden.

1 Bay View House, Kowloon. Queen's Road. On premises.

Holyrood, Kowloon. Quarry Bay,

On premises.

20 Nathan Road.

Kowloon.

Co. Robinson Piano Co.. Ld. Pelham House.

Kowloon Docks,

Quarry Bay. Quarry Bay.

7 Belilios Terrace. On premises.

4 Queen's Building. Prince's Building. 6 Belilios Terrace. 129 Praya East. 1 Connaught Road. 10 Arbuthnot Road.

NAME IN FULL.

26

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

R-Continued.

Rodrigues, Louis Gonzales Rogers, Charles

Rose, Christian Georg

Heinrich

Rose, Forrest Clifton Samuel..

Rose, Guy Septimus Rose, Louis Augustus

Rose, William Edward

Ross, David McBean... Ross, John

Ross, John Singleton Ross, Walter

Rouse, Athol Bernard

Rowan, Robert Thomas

Rowher, George Henry. Rowley, Francis Joseph de

Rome

Rowoldt, Bernhard Anton

Freidrich... Roylance, George Roza, Calixto Baptista da...... Roza, Edmundo Duarte da Roza, Fernando Lima da Roza, Gregorio Francisco da....... Rozario, Alvaro Francisco

Bellundo

Rozario, Eduardo Maria Rozario, Orlando Francisco Rude-Hansen, Christian Rudow, George Rumjahn, Dawood

Ruprecht, Ludwig Theodore... Rutter, Robert Vart ...

Ruttonjee, Jehangir Hormusjee

S

Samy, Arthur Poonoo

Sandford, George Stevenson... Sargon, Ellis

Savage, Arthur Carlyle. Sayee, Kelly

Schierenberg, Hermann Wil-

hem Schlüter, Cari.... Seblüter, Hakon Axel Schmidt, Heinrich Gerhard

Johann Schmidt, Wilhelm Schoenberr, Hanns.... Schoenemann, Andreas Hein-

rich,

Schultz, Johann Anton.. Schur, Alfred

Schwandes, Erust Hermann

Bernhard Scott, Harry Hodge Scott, John Byrou..... Scott, Thomas Liddell Scriven, Henry Ernest

Seath, William Petrie .... Sennett, Frederick Walter Sepher, Sheik Ablool Sequeira, Gumelsindo Jesus.... Sequeira, Pedro Nolasco Seth, Euos....

Seth, Harold

Seth, John Hennessey Seth, Seth Arathoon

Seydler, Richard Albert Benno'

Curt

Shackleton, Charles Francis...

Clerk, Russo-Asiatic Bank,

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire,

Assistant, Melchers & Co.,

Prince's Building.

Connaught Roadi.

Queen's Building.

Storekeeper, Canadian Pacific Railway Co., 10 Wanchai Gap. Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard,

Architect,

Quarry Bay.

4 Queen's Road Central.

Asst., China Mutual Life Ince. Co., Ld.,... 42 Elgin Street.

Assistant, HK. & S'bai Bank,

Engineer, Bailey & Co.,

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Assistant, HK. & S'hai Bank,

Asst., Union Ince. Socty. of Canton, Ld., Tailor's Curter,

Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld.,

Assistant, Thos. Cook & Son,

Clerk, Wendt & Co., Brakeman, Peak Tramway Co., Clerk, Chartered Bank of I. A. & C,, Clerk, Chamber of Commerce, Clerk, Wm. Meyerink & Co., Clerk, Chartered Bank of I. A. & C.,

Clerk, Chartered Bank of I. A. & C., Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., Assistant, Deutsch-Asiatische Bank, Assistant, Hamburg-Amerika Linie, Runner, Hongkong Hotel, Clerk,

...

|

On premises.

63 Kowloon City Road.

Quarry Bay.

Ou premises.

On premises.

Lane, Crawford & Co.

¦ East Point.

St. Kilda, Magazine Gap.

25 Conduit Road,

Peak Station.

72 Caine Road.

14 Belilios Terrace.

On premises. 72 Caine Road.

5 Reduaxella Terrace. 17 Mosque Street. 17 Mosque Street. Queen's Building.

10 Morrison Hill Gap. Co. H. Price & Co., Lal.

Shipping Department, Standard Oil Co., 3 Queen's Garden.

Foreman, Dock Co.,

Merchant, H. Ruttonjee & Son,

Architect, John Lemm,

. Kowloon Docks.

5 D'Aguilar Street.

28 Bouham Road.

13 College Chambers. 80 Peak.

Sub.-Acet., Chartered Bank of I. A. & C., On premises. Assistant, D. Sassoon & Co., Ld., Clerk, HK. Land Invest., Co., Ld., Tobacconist,

Assistant, Ferd. Bornemann & Co., Merchant, Ulderup & Schlüter, Assistant, Reuter, Bröckelmann & Co., ...

Assistant, Hamburg-Amerika Linie, Assistant, Henser, Eberius & Co., Assistant, Carlowitz & Co.,....

Assistant, F. Blackhead & Co., Assistant, Garrels, Börner & Co., Engineer, Ulderup & Schlüter,

Assistant, Deutsch-Asiatische Bank, Draughtsman, Dock Co,

Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld., Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Furnishing Salesman, Lane, Crawford

& Co.,

Foreman, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Book-keeper, Robinson Piano Co., Clerk, HK. & K. W. & Godown Co., Manager, A. R. Marty,.... Assistant, Standard Oil Co., Secretary, Humphreys Estate & Finance

Co., Lủ, Commission Agent,

Acet., &c., Percy Smith, Seth & Fleming, Secretary, Dairy Farm Co., Ld.,..

14 Beaconsfield Arcade.

16 Des Voeux Road.

21 Connaught Road Central.

Queen's Gardens.

On premises. Peak Road. 2 Praya Central.

138 Magazine Gap. Kimberley Road, Kowloon. 21 Connaught Road.

7 Queen's Road Central. Kowloon Docks. Glenthorne, Kowloon. Quarry Bay.

On premises. Quarry Bay. Des Voeux Road.

3 Bowrington Canal Road. 6 Mosque Terrace. 6 Mosque Terrace.

Norman Cottage, Peak Road. Norman Cottage, Peak Road. Norman Cottage, Peak Road. Norman Cottage, Peak Road..

Manager, China Export Import & Bk. Cie., 1 Queen's Gardens. Assistant, Butterfield & Swire,

1 Connaught Road Central.

NAME IN FULL.

27

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

S-Continued.

Shallard, Harold Wentworth

Dillon

Shand, Thomas

Sharpin, Harry Douglas

Shaw, Edward Locuhart Shaw, James Totten Shearer, Johu Smith Shepherd, Edgar Bruce.

...

Shewan, William Thomson Shields, Andrew Lusk Shorey, Arthur Carlton........ Shroff, Framroze Pestonjee Siebael, Gerrit Hans Julius Silas, Charles David Silas, David Hai.............. Silva, Arnaldo Heitor da Silva, Arthur Emilio da Silva, Arthur Luiz .......... Silva, Augusto Cesar da Silva, Egydio Autonio da Silva, Francisco Britto da............... Silva, Francisco Filomeno

Eça da

Silva, Henrique Mario Silva, José Thomas, Silva, Mario Emilio da Silva, Porphyrio Maria

Nolasco da

Silva-Netto, Antonio Ferreira

Batalha

Simpson, James

Sinclair, Angus

Sire, Auguste

Skött, Christian

Skött, Hans

Sloan, James

Smirke, James

Smith, Alexander MeTurk Smith, Andrew

Smith, Arthur William Smith, Eric Grant

Smith, Ernest Elsworth. Smith, Francis Harland. Smith, George Morton Smith, Horace Percy Smith, William Percival

Clinton

Smith, William Robert Smyth, Frank.............. Snowman, Albert Washington Soares, Adão Maria de

Lourdes

!

Chief Clerk, P. & O. Co., Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Assistant, HK. & S'hai Bank,.. Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Tailor,

Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

Asst., HK. Land Investment & Agency

Co., L.,

Merchant,

Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co.,

Sub-Acct., International Bankg. Corp.,... Clerk, S. J. David & Co.,

Assistant, Wm. Meyeriuk & Co., Assistant, Dock Co.,

Assistant, D. Sassoon & Co., Ld., Clerk, Linstead & Davis,.. Clerk, Cruz, Basto & Co.,

Clerk, Chartered Bank of I. A. & C., Clerk, North China Insurance Co., Ld.,... Clerk, Chartered Bank of I. A. & C., Clerk, HK. & S'bai Bank,

Clerk, D. Sassoon & Co., Ld.,

Clerk, Chartered Bank of I. A. & C., Assistant, Hughes & Hough, Assistant, Deutsch-Asiatische Bank,

Printer, Guedes & Co...........

Manager, Jorge & Co.,

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Engineer,

Manager, Banque de l'Indo-Chine, Assistant, Skött & Co., Merchant, Skött & Co.,

Foreman, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Brakesman, Peak Tramway Co., Draughtsman, Taikoo Dockyard,. Storeman, Taikoo Dockyard, Assistant, Alex. Ross & Co., Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld., Machinery Expert, Arndt & Co., Clerk, Kowloon Docks, Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld.,

Chtd. Acct., Percy Smith, Seth & Fleming,

Assistant, British-American Tobacco Co., Clerk, Kowloon Docks, Broker, Vernon & Smyth, Shipbroker, A. Bune,

Merchant, Soares & Co.,

Soares, Carlos Marcus Salette Assistant, Barretto & Co.,

Soares, Vasconcellos

Francisco Paulo de...

Soares, Vicente Ferrer Soffietti, Paul

Solomon, Herbert Henry Soouderam, Ramasamy Sorby, Vincent Dare Soutar, Francis

Souza, Duarte Eleuterio

Maria de Souza, Francisco Maria

Xavier de

Souza, José Thomas de.......................] Souza, Viriato Bonifacio de Spalekhaver, Wilhelm Otto

Christian Spittles, Benjamin James Squair, Alexander Cook Steel, David Thomson Stein, Alexis Low

Steinhoff, Ferdinand Julius

Clerk, P. & O. Co.,

Clerk, Reuter, Bröckelmann & Co., Commission Agent, Soffietti & Co., Chief Clerk, P. M. S. S. Co., Counter Clerk, HK. Hotel, .

101 Peak. Quarry Bay. On premises.

1 Connaught Road Central. 71 The Peak.

Asiatic Petroleum Co.

26 Nathan Road, Kowloon. 4 Robinson. Road.

Kingsclere.

St. George's House.

38 & 40 Queen's Road Central. On premises.

College Chambers. Edgehill, 6A The Peak,

38 Caine Road.

38 Caine Road.

8 Punjab Building, Kowloon.

15 Mosque Junction.

30 Elgin Street.

1 Victoria View, Kowloon.

2 Beaconsfield Arcade. 15 Belilios Terrace. 8 Des Voeux Road, 25 Caine Road.

4 Seymour Terrace.

53 Wyndham Street. Quarry Bay. Peak Hotel. On premises.

10 Des Voeux Road. 10 Des Voeux Road. Quarry Bay.

Peak Tramway Station. Quarry Bay. Quarry Bay. Alexandra Building. On premises. Queen's Road. Kowloon Docks.

On premises.

The Summer House, 67 The Peak.

8 Praya East. Kowloon Docks. Hongkong Club.

34 Robinson Road.

Villa Branca, Robinson Road. Robinson Road.

Caine Road. Mosque Junction.

14 Des Voeux Road Central. HK, Hotel.

On premises.

Electrical Engineer, HK. Electric Co., Ld., HK. Electric Co., Ld., Wanchai.

Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard,.............

Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld.,

Book-keeper, Messageries Maritimes,..... Clerk, Reuter, Bröckelmann & Co.,.. Assistant, Wm. Meyerink & Co.,..

Assistant, Siemssen & Co.,

Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld., Assistant, Dock Co.,....

Assistant, W. R. Loxley & Co.,

Manager, Sun Life Assce. Co. of Canada, Assistant, Melchers & Co.,

Quarry Bay.

Queen's Building.

.

Queen's Building.

8 Barrow Terrace.

3 Barrow Terrace, Kowloon.

On premises.

Hongkong Dispensary.

Kowloon Docks.

Fernside, Peak.

On premises. Queen's Building.

NAME IN FULL.

28

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

S-Continued.

Stephens, Herbert

Stevenson, Allan

Stewart, Charles

Stewart, John Wemyss Stewart, William

Stewart, William Herbert...... Stoltz, Olav

Dady Burjor & Co.,

Assistant Manager, Dairy Farm Co., Ld., Sub-Acct., International Bankg. Corp.,... Chief Clerk, China Sugar Refinery,.... Foreman Sawyer,

Assistant, HK. & S'hai Bank, Manager, Wallein & Co., ....

Stoppa, William Christian Paul Broker, Störmer, Willy Bruno Storrie, Alexander P. Strafford, Cecil

Stubbings, John James. Stubbs, Robert Isaac.. Suffiad, Abdul Majid... Sullivan, Charles Daniel Summers, Edwin Henry Spark

Sutherland, James Sutherland, Percy Duffus

Sutherland, Robert

Swanston, John George

Symonds, Willie K.

Assistant, Melchers & Co., Assistant, Wm. Powell, Ld., Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Electrical Engineer, HK. Electric Co., Ld., Storekeeper, Dock Co.,

Clerk, Chartered Bank of I. A. & C.,................ Assistant, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, ... Storekeeper, HK. & K. W. & Godown

Co., Ld.,

Asst. Marine Supt., Butterfield & Swire, Assistant, Canadian Pacific Railway Co., Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld.,; Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Manager, Kowloon Hotel,

3 Pedder's Hill. Pokfulam. Castle Road. East Point. Kowloon Docks. On premises. Kowloon Hotel.

7 & 8 Hotel Mansions. Queen's Building. On premises. Quarry Bay.

Tesla, HK. Electric Co., Ld. Kowloon Docks.

14 Leighton Hill Road. Quarry Bay.

6 Ashley Road, Kowloon. 1 Connaught Road. 4 The Albany, Peak Hotel. Quarry Bay. On premises.

T

Taggart, James Harper Tang Chee

Tarrant, John Arthur

Tata, Fariborze Kaikaoos Tatam, John

Tavares, José Maria Placé

Taylor, Henry Herbert

Taylor, John .........

Taylor, John Kennedy

Taylor, John William

Taylor, William

Taylor, William

Temperley, Alfred

Sub-Manager, HK. Hotel, Merchant,

Secretary, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld., Commission Agent,

King Edward Hotel,

Assistant, Alex. Ross & Co., Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co., Assistant, MacEwen, Frickel & Co., Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Broker, Ellis Kadoorie & Co., Chemist, China Sugar Refinery, Pattern Maker,

On premises.

14 Des Voeux Road Central.

1 Canton Villas, Kowloon. 4 Queen's Building.

166 Queen's Road East.

4 Caine Road.

5 Ripon Terrace.

4 Des Voeux Road.

Quarry Bay.

Jelia, The Peak. East Point. Kowloon Docks.

Tebb, Lowton Waite Dewar... Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Lil., 13 Macdonnell Road.

Tennent, Thomas Bertram

Greig

Terry, Edgar William

Tester, Percy

Thiel, Eugene Heinrich Thomas, Francis Henry

Thomas, Harry Philip Thomas, Paul... Thomp-on, Frank

Thompson, Myron Lewis Tibbs, William Evan

Tisdall, Gerald

Tollan, Duncan

Toppin, James

Tucker, Alfred

Tulip, Wilfred

Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co.,

Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld., Fittings Supt., Gas Co.,

Manager, Commercial Union Assurance

Co., Ltd.

Assistant, F. Blackhead & Co.,

Clerk, HK. & S'hai Bauk,

20 Nathan Road.

|

17 Belilios Terrace.

Gas Works, West Point.

53 The Peak,

25 Conduit Road.

On premises.

Assistant, Canadiau Pacific Railway Co., Room 11, Hotel Mansions.

Agent, Messageries Maritimes,

Barman, HK. Hotel,

Supt. of Construction, Standard Oil Co., Assistant, Thos. Cook & Son,...

Manager, Russo-Asiatic Bank,

Electrical Engineer, China and Japan

Telephone Co.,

Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co.,

Townend, Lawrence Francis... Clerk, Union Ince, Society of Canton, Ld.,

Tully, Jobn

Turner, Isaac

Brakesman, Peak Tramway Co.,...... Draughtsman, Dock Co.,

Engineer, E. C. Wilks,......

Head Watchman, Dock Co.,

Turner, William Cecil Dutton Assistant, HK. & S'hai Bank,

Peak Hotel.

On premises.

Hotel Mansions. Kingsclere. Creggan, Peak.

Wongneichong Road.

7 Lochiel Terrace, Kowloon. Queen's Building.

12 Queen's Road East. Kowloon Docks. 3 Kimberley Villas. Kowloon Docks. On premises.

U

Ufford, Charles Francis Jean

Quarles van...

Uldall, Sofus Vilhelm August Ulderup, Johannes P. Underwood, Joseph Harry Unsworth, Richard

Assistant, Java-China-Japan Liju, Manager, G. I. Cement Co., Ld., Engineer,

Chemist, China Sugar Refinery, Berthing Master, HK. & K. W. &

Godown Co., Ld.,

York Building. Green Island. 21 Connaught Road. 18B Macdonnell Road.

3 Victoria View, Kowloon.

29

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

Abode.

V

Vandenberg, Francisco

Valeriano.......

Veenendaal, Everardus

Johannes...

Vieira, José Maria............. Vollbrecht, Ernst Oscar

Rudolph

Vorster, Julius Otto

W

Wagner, Otto Waldron, James Walker, Archibald Victor Walker, Charles Nigel Gordon Walker, Frederick Glover...... Walker, James Walkinshaw, Arthur William

Wellesley

Wanze, Eleuterio Alberto Warnes, Charles Aspinall Warren, Charles Edward Warrener, William Henry

Livisley Wasserfall, Heinrich Waterhouse, Wilfred Weall, Thomas Graham.... Weaser, William Lionel Wreford! Webb, Bertram

Webb, Henry Montague Webber, Ralph Grant

Weill, Albert Weir, John Weir, Walter

Wells, Alfred Ernest Wells, Michael John West, Peter Joseph Wheeler, George White, Edmund William White, George

White, Harry l'Hommedien

Whiteley, William

Whittaker, Richard Henry Whittaker, Walter

Wiesinger, Otto Christoph

Georg Carl.....

Wilkie, John

Wilkinson, William James Wilks, Owen Beynon Williams, Ernest Alfred

Mountfort

Williams, Raymond Blin Wilson, George Leopold Winkler, Werner

Winter, Adalbert Christian

Elimar

Winter, Frank Vernon Woldringh, Conradus.........

Wolf, George Morton Dudley

David

Wolff, Philip Robert Wong, Joseph Mowlam. Wong, Nathaniel

Wong Tape, Benjamin................

Wontman, Martinus Hendrik. Wood, Gerald George Wood, Robert Bryden Woon, Harry Vernon.... Worcester, William Gilbert

Gray

Worth, Thomas George. Worth, William Henry Wotherspoon, William

Assistant, Reiss.& Co.,

Assistant, Netherlandsche Handel

Maatschappij,.......

Merchant, Vieira & Co.,

Merchant, MacEwen, Frickel & Co., Assistant, Garrels, Börner & Co.,

Watchmaker, Gaupp & Co., Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard,. Assistant, Standard Oil Co., Clerk, Gilman & Co., Assistant, HK. & S'hai Bank, Manager, Dairy Farm Co., Ld.,

Assistant, HK. & S'hai Bank, Clerk, Fenwick & Co., Ld., Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co., Contractor, &c., C. E. Warren & Co.,..

Clerk, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld.,................ Assistant, Deutsch-Asiatische Bauk, Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld:, Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld., Architect, Weaser and Raven, Assistant, Arnhold, Karberg & Co., Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Sub-Acct., International Bankg. Corp., Manager, Levy Hermanos, Draughtsman, Taikoo Dockyard, Clerk, Taikoo Shipyard,

Foreman, G. I. Cement Co., Ld., Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard,. Assistant, S. Moutrie & Co., Shipwright, Dock Co.,.............. Assistant, Wm. Powell, Ld., Builder and Diver, Dock Co.,

Head Book-keeper, P. M. S. S. Co., Clerk, Dock Co.,

Publican,

Time-keeper, Taikoo Shipyard,

Asst., China Export, Import & Bank Cie., Engineer and Contractor,.

Overseer, HK. Land Invest. Co., Ld., Merchant,

23 Caine Road.

King Edward Hotel. 9 Mosque Terrace.

4 Des Voeux Road. Conduit Road.

Magazine Gap. Quarry Bay.

3 Queen's Gardens. Peak Hotel. On premises.

Sassoon's Villa, Pokfulam.

On premises.

24 Mosque Street. On premises.

30 Des Voeux Road Central.

East Point Junior Mess. 9 Garden Road. On premises. On premises. Ormsby Villas. Kingsclere.

1 Connaught Road. Kennedy Road. Queen's Road.

Quarry Bay. Quarry Bay.

39 Kowloon City Road. Quarry Bay.

25 Belilios Terrace. Kowloon Docks. On premises. Kowloon Docks. Hongkong Hotel. Cosmopolitan Docks. 40 and 41 Praya East. Praya East Hotel.

3 Macdonnell Road.

1 Observatory Villas, Kowloon. 71 Praya East. Connaught Road.

Accountant, Lowe, Bingham & Matthews, Kingsclere.

Sub-Accountant,

Architect, Palmer and Turner,

Clerk, Sander, Weiler & Co.,

Assistant, Melchers & Co., Canvasser,..

Manager, Neth.-Ind. Com. Bank,

Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

Kingsclere.

Craigieburn, Peak. Prince's Building.

Queen's Building. Praya East Hotel. On premises.

8 Gordon Terrace.

Clerk, HK. & K. W. & Godown Co., Ld., 3 Stewart Terrace, Peak.

Clerk, J. D. Humphreys and Son, Assistant Manager,

Agent, China Mutual Life Ince. Co., Ld., Netherlands Trading Society,.... Civil Engineer, Leigh and Orange,. Manager, Steam Laundry Co.,... Storekeeper, Taikoo Dockyard,

Broker,

35 Des Voeux Road Central. Mutual Stores. Alexandra Building. Queen's Road. Prince's Building. On premises. Quarry Bay.

Prince's Building.

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard,

Quarry Bay.

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard,

Quarry Bay.

Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard,

Quarry Bay.

NAME IN FULL.

30

OCCUPATION.

Abode.

W-Continued.

Wragge, Hermann Friedrich

Wilhelm Wynne, Hugh Smith Wynyard, Frederick William.

X

Xavier, Antonio Francisco de. Xavier, Francisco Miguel...... Xavier, José Maria do Rosario Xavier, José Paulino................. Xavier, Pedro Nolasco

Y

Yeadell, Stanley Preston Young, Charles Nichols Young, David

Young, David Hill

Yvanovich, Jr., Guilherme

Antonio

Assistant, Melchers & Co., Foreman Carpenter, Dock Co., Watchman, Taikoo Dockyard,

Clerk, Goddard & Douglas, Assistant, Arnhold, Karberg & Co., Clerk, Kuhn & Komor,

Clerk, Chartered Bank of I. A. & C.,.............. Clerk, HK. Rope Manufacturing Co., Ld.,

Assistant, W. R. Loxley & Co., Storekeeper, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard, Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co.,

Clerk, A. R. Marty,........

Queen's Building. Kowloon Docks. Quarry Bay.

St. George's Building. 8 Mosque Street.

8 Morrison Hill Road. 12 Belilios Terrace. 35 St. Francis Street.

Loxley & Co. Quarry Bay. Quarry Bay. Peak Hotel.

1 Rose Terrace, Kowloon.

N

Zost, Emil Hugo.. Zuylen, Hendrik van..

Assistant, H. Wicking & Co.,.............

11 Humphreys' Avenue, Kowloon.

Superintendent, Java-China-Japan Lijn,. 11 Conduit Road.

Registry, Supreme Court, Hongkong,

31st January, 1911.

G. H. WAKEMAN, Registrar.

པའི་མ--

No. 4.

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

PUBLIC

OF THE

WORKS COMMITTEE

at a Meeting held on the 29th December, 1910.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor, January 12th, 1911.

No. 1912

1

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Director of Public Works, (WILLIAM CHATHAM, C.M.G.), Chairman.

Mr. WEI YUK, C.M.G.

""

Mr. EDWARD OSBORNE.

""

Mr. HENRY KESWICK,

22

ABSENT:

The Honourable the Colonial Treasurer, (CHARLES MCILVAINE MESSER).

Maternity Hospital-Additions and Alterations. (C.S.O. 7566/1909.)

The Chairman submitted a plan for extending the accommodation of the hospital by erecting building, containing a third-class ward (6 be.ls), a confinement ward and a sisters' room, immediately to the north of the existing building and for making various minor alter- ations in the latter. The estimated cost of the work was $12,000, for which provision had been made, to the extent of $10,000, in the Estimates for 1911.

The Committee approved of the plan.

Imports and Exports Office-Quarters for Searchers, &c. (C.S.O. 6 in 8268/1908.)

I

The Chairman submitted a plan for erecting a small 2-storied building on vacant land immediately to the eastward of the Harbour Office to house the staff of searchers, consisting of 1 European Inspector and about 40 Chinese. He explained that the Superintendent con- sidered it necessary that the searchers, who were at present occupying hired premises in Kowloon, should be housed in proximity to the Imports and Exports Office and that they should be under the supervision of the European Inspector attached to the Department. The rent at present paid for the premises referred to and a house-allowance paid to the Inspector would be saved under the proposed scheme. The estimated cost of the building was $10,000. A sum of $4,500 had been provided in the Estimates for 1911, but, when that provision was made, it was proposed only to erect a one-storied wooden building for the Chinese searchers. Since then, it had been decided to provide accommodation also for the European Inspector and the building was now designed to be a 2-storied one and to be built of brick.

The Committee approved of the proposals.

While approving of the foregoing items, the Un-official Members, becoming aware that, in almost all cases, the proposals submitted to them have already been decided on by the Government, beg to protest that such procedure nullifies the purpose for which it may be presumed they were appointed and submit that, if their services are to be of any practical use, the schemes on which the Government may desire to obtain their views should be sub- mitted to them in their initial stages.

The Committee then adjourned.

W. CHATHAM,

Laid before the Legislative Council this 12th day of January, 1911.

Chairman.

C. CLEMENTI,

Clerk of Councils.

+

.

!

$

HONGKONG.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor, August 31st, 1911...

12A

No. 1911

HIGH WATER

ORDINARY

SPRING

TIDES

LOW WATER ORDINARY SPRING TIDES

MUD LEVEL

HIGH

WATER ORDINARY

SPRING

TIDES

LOW WATER ORDINARY

SPRING

TIDES

00

AVERAGE

AVERAGE

HEIGHT OF

LEVEL

STONE

OF BOTTOM

DEPOSITED TO

30TH

JUNE 1911

OF DREDGED

TRENCH

1920

MONG- KOK-TSUI BREAKWATER

V

MUD LEVEL

DIAGRAM SHOWING

PROGRESS OF STONE DEPOSITING TO 30 TH JUNE 1911

SCALE 20 FEET

INCH

FT 10

5

O

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100 FT

Stone Deposited to 30th June 1911 shewn thus:=

Total Area of Average Cross Area of Stone Deposited to Stone Proportion of Area to

Section of Breakwater shewn above =

4,790 Sq. Ft.

30th June 1911--

681

Total Area of

Cross Section

14%

Arthathe you 26.8.11.

-

No. 2.

61

No. 1911

10

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

STANDING LAW COMMITTEE

on the

Penalties Amendment Bill, 1911.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His

Excellency the Governor, July 20th, 1911.

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Attorney General, (C. G. ALABASTER), Chairman. the Captain Superintendent of Police, (F. W. LYONS).

20

Dr. Ho KAI, M.B., C.M.G.

Mr. H. E. POLLOCK, K.C.

The Honourable Mr. E. A. HEWETT.

ABSENT.

A Bill entitled “An Ordinance to abolish Minimum Penalties and to bring the Law of the Colony as to Penalties into uniformity with the Law of England, and for other pur-

was referred to the Standing Law Committee after the second reading.

poses

The Bill has been considered clause by clause in the presence of four members of the Committee, who have held several meetings to discuss it.

The Committee suggest that the Bill be passed in the form in which it appears in the document marked A attached to this report.

For the convenience of members of the Legislative Council a document, marked B, is also attached shewing the form in which the Bill stood when it was referred to the Standing Law Committee.

C. G. ALABASTER,

Chairman.

Laid before the Legislative Council, and adopted on the 20th day of July, 1911.

C. CLEMENTI,

Clerk of Councils.

Short title.

Abolition of minimum penalties.

Where impri-

somment

imposed it may be with or without

hard labeur.

Alternative

cxisting legislation repealed.

62

A

A BILL

ENTITLED

An Ordinance to abolish Minimum Penalties, and to bring the Law of the Colony as to Penalties into uniformity with the Law of England, and for other purposes.

WHEREAS it is expedient for the better administration of justice to abolish minimum penalties, and so to bring the law of the Colony as to penalties into uniformity with the law of England :-

Be it enacted by the Governor of Hongkong, with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council thereof, as follows:-

1. This Ordinance may be cited as the Amendment Ordinance, 1911 ”.

"Penalties

2.—(1.) Subject to the provisions of section 8, in any enactment now in force which provides for the imposition by any Court of minimum penalties, whether of imprison- ment or of a fine, the provisions relating to such minimum penalties are repealed.

(2.) In any enactinent now in force which provides for the imposition by any Court of the penalty of imprisonment with hard labour, the words "with hard labour are repealed; and where the penalty provided is imprisonment with or without hard labour, the words "with or without hard labour" are repealed.

(3.) Unless any enactment now in force, as printed in the New Revised Edition of the Laws of Hongkong, presently to be published, otherwise provides, where a Court is empowered or required to impose a sentence of imprisonment for life or for a period not exceeding a specified term, or of a fine, the Court may, after conviction of any person of an offence, award a sentence less than for life or for the specified term, or less than the fine specified, in the enactment.

3. Where under any enactment now in force, or under any future enactment, a Court shall sentence a person con- victed of an offence for which the penalty of imprisonment is provided, the Court may, unless the enactment as printed in the New Edition of the Revised Laws of Hongkong. presently to be published, provides that the imprisonment shall be without hard labour, inflict imprisonment with or without hard labour.

Provided always, that where under this or the preceding section, a sentence of imprisonment is imposed for more than two years, it shall always be with hard labour; and provided further, that where any person is sentenced to im- prisonment under any existing enactment for not finding sureties, such imprisonment shall be without hard labour.

This section shall not apply to commitments of any per- son to prison by a Magistrate under the following sections of the Magistrates Ordinance No. 3 of 1890:—Sections 14 (2), 18 (2), 25 (4), 64 (3), 70 (1), and 75 (3).

4. Wherever in any enactment now in force there is penaltica in provided in addition to the penalty of imprisonment for life or for a term of years an alternative penalty of "imprison- ment (for any term) with or without haid labour”, either with or without the further alternative with or without solitary confinement", both or either of such alternative penalties, as the case may be, are and is repealed; and where either of the aforesaid alternative penalties is provided as alternative to any other penalty, it is repealed; and where the aforesaid alternative as to solitary confi.ement is provided as an alternative to a penalty of imprisonment, whether with or without hard labour, it is repealed. Provided that nothing. in this section shall affect the provisions of section 80 (2) of the Magistrates Ordinance, No. 3 of 1890.

{

63

5. In all enactments now in force the words "at" or "in Repeal of the discretion of the Court", and the words “on conviction words of

discretion. thereof" when used in relation to an indictment, or other words of like meaning, wherever they occur respectively in relation to the imposition of penal ies after conviction of any person of an offence, are ropealed.

6. In all editions of the Laws of Hongkong hereafter to Authority to be printed the provisions which are repealed by this Or- incorporate dinance shall be omitted; and the sections so affected repeals in

new editions are hereby authorised to be printed as so amended, and

of the Laws. shall be construed and enforced accordingly.

Repeals and amendments

7. In order to bring other forms of penalties not included in the foregoing sections into harmony with the principles anname laid down therein, it is hereby further enacted as follows:-

(1.) In the sections of the Ordinances mentioned in Part I of the schedule, in lieu of the words "for the term of " there shall be read “ for any term not exceeding".

**

(2.) In the sections of the Ordinances mentioned in Part II of the schedule, after the word “ imprisonment there shall be inserted the words "without hard labour ".

ances in schedule.

penalties in

8. Nothing in this Ordinance contained shall be con- Saving of strued as giving to a Court the power of inflicting a minimum punishment less than the minimum punishment, if any, certain provided for offences against any revenue, customs or Ordinances. quaramine law now in force or hereafter to be enacted; nor against any statute or Ordinance relating to any of His Majes y's regular or auxiliary forces, or which carries into effect any treaty by which a minimum penalty is stipulated for the offence in question.

AND WHEREAS the language now used in the laws of the Colony in regard to other matters relating to the in- position of penalties, and to the jurisdiction of Magistrates, is cumber-ome and out of date, and it is expedient both to simplify the language and to introduce uniformity in the enactments in which such matters are dealt with, Be it further enacted as follows:-

-6

9.-(1.) Whenever in any enactment now in force pro- visions occur to the effect that if a person is convicted of an offence before a Magistrate he shall be committed to the common gaol, there to be imprisoned or to be imprisoned and kett to hari labour" for any term, or other like words are used which have a similar meaning, such person shall be liable to imprisonment, with or without hard labour, as the case may be, for any period not exceeding the term specified.

(2.) In all eliti ns of the Laws of Hongkong hereafter to be printed there shall be substituted for such provisions words indiating that the person shall on such conviction before a Magistrate, be liable to imprisonment, with or without hard labour, as the case may be, for any period not exceeding the term specified.

(3.) The enactments mentioned in Part III of the sche- dule are hereby declared to be amended accordingly, and the sectious in which such provisions occur shall be construcd and enforced accordingly.

46

"

10.--(1.) Whenever in any enactment now in force pro- visions occur to the effect that if a person is convicted of

Hable to pay an offence before a Magistrate he shall be “ or shall

forfeit and pay ". o sum of money, or such sum of money not execoding a sporified as to the Magistrate may seem mect", or other like words are used which have a similar meaning, they shall be held to be the equivalent of the following provision ---

frate'

37

(or

Sam

such person shall on conviction before a Magis- "gall on summary conviction ") be liable to a fine not exceeding the amount so specified;

15

and such provision shall be substituted accordingly in all editions of the Laws of Hongkong hereafter to be printed.

Alternative and cumu- lative penalties, how dis- tinguished.

Definition of +6 term ".

Repeal of

enactments

64

(2.) Whenever in any enactment now in force similar provisions occur, but it is further provided that the liabi- lity to pay, or to forfeit and pay, a sum of money as afore said is over and above a liability to pay the value, or such sum as the Magistrate may estimate as the value, of any animal or thing, the subject of the offence, they shall be held to be the equivalent of the following provision :---

such person

"shall be liable to pay, over and above the value of such animal," or of such thing," as the case may be " a fine" not exceeding the amount specified in the provisions and such provision shall be substituted accordingly in all editions of the Laws of Hongkong hereafter to be printed.

(3.) The enactments mentioned in Part IV of the schedule are hereby declared to be amended accordingly, and the sections in which such provisions respectively occur shall be construed and enforced accordingly.

11.-(1.) Whenever in any enactment now in force or in any future enactment, several penalties are provided for one offence, the use of the word "or" in relation to such penal- ties shall signify that they are to be inflicted alternatively;

the use of the word "and" shall signify that the penalties may be inflicted alternatively or cumulatively; and

the use of the words “together with" or "in addition to or other expressions which convey the same meaning, shall signify that the penalties are to be inflicted cumulatively.

(2.) The enactments mentioned in Part V of the sche- dule are hereby declared to be amended to the extent indi- cated in the said Part; and in all editions of the Laws of Hongkong hereafter to be printed, the said enactments are hereby authorised to be printed as so amended, and shall be construed and enforced accordingly.

15

12. In this Ordinance the word "term when used in relation to a period of imprisonment includes, unless the contrary intention is indicated, imprisonment for a period not exceeding a specified term.

13. The following enactments, being rendered unneces- sary by the provisions of this Ordinance, are hereby re- rendered un- pealed :-

necessary by this Or- dinance.

Ordinance

to apply to sentences

imposed by Magistrate.

Coming

into force of Ordinance.

Ordinance No. 3 of 1887,-the Transportation and Penal Servitude Abolition Ordinance, 1887.

In Ordinance No. 2 of 1865, sections 59 and 60. No. 4 of 1865, sections 51 and 52.

"

""

""

No. 5 of 1865, sections 99 and 100. No. 6 of 1865, sections 59 and 60. No. 7 of 1865, sections 30 aud 31.

14. This Ordinance shall apply to penalties imposed on a summary conviction by a Magistrate, or by two Magis- trates, or by the Marine Magistrate; and in consequence, the following provisions of the Magistrates Ordinance, 1890, are repealed :-sections, 3, 4, 33 (1), and 33 (3).

15.-This Ordinance shall come in force by proclamation of the Governor, which shall not be issued until after the Legislative Council has authorised the use of the New Edition of the Laws of Hongkong now in course of pre- paration.

65

SCHEDULE.

PART I.

Sections of Ordinances in which, in virtue of section 7 (1), in lien of the words “for the term of” there are to be read the words “for any term not excceding”.

Ordinance No. 2 of 1865, sections 19, 23, 25, 26,

"

30 (1), 42, and 48.

No. 4 of 1865, section 33.

No. 5 of 1865, sections 5, 10, 19, 21, 30,

33, 46, 75, and 77.

,,

No. 6 of 1865, sections 19, 20, and 22 (2).

19

No. 7 of 1865, section 10.

PART II.

Sections of Ordinances in which, in virtue of section 7 (2), after the word "imprisonment" there are to be in- serted the words “without hard labour

Ordinance No. 1 of 1845, sections 19, 20, 21, 22,

>>

and 23.

No. 7 of 1865, section 19, in relation to

first offence.

No. 1 of 1867, section 4 (2).

No. 2 of 1869, section 6.

No. 3 of 1873, section 30.

No. 7 of 1875, section 29.

No. 4 of 1886, sections 4 and 18.

"

No. 3 of 1888, section 31 (2).

"

No. 3 of 1890, s. 49 (2) (as amended

by No. 1 of 1909, s. 3), section

50 (2), and rule 15 of the second schedule.

No. 2 of 1891, section 9.

No. 7 of 1891, section 82 (4).

No. 4 of 1893, section 27.

No. 4 of 1895, section 4.

>>

No. It of 1899, sections 5 (8) and 36

*

(14).

No. 10 of 1900, section 10 (2).

PART III.

Sections of Ordinances in which, in virtue of section 9, the term of imprisonment is substi-uted for references to committal “to the common gaol, etc.”

Ordinance No. 5 of 1865, sections 12 (1), 15 (1), 24 (2), 25 (2), 27 (1), 28 (1),

28 (2), 52, and 53 (2).

No. 6 of 1865, sections 21 (1), 21 (2),

22 (1), 23 (1), 23 (2), 24 (2), 28 (2), 29, 32 (1), 43 (1).

PART IV.

Sections of Ordinances in which, in virtue of section

liable to a liable to a fine" is

10 (1) and 10 (2) the expression “ substituted for the expression “ forfeit and pay a sum of

money.

Ordinance No. 5 of 1865, sections 12 (1), 13 (1), 17, 24 (1), 25 (1), 26, 27 (1),

""

28 (1), 52, 53 (2).

No. 6 of 1865, sectious 21 (1), 22 (1),

23 (1), 24 (1), 28 (2), 29, 32 (1),

43 (1):

No. 1 of 1875, section 4.

PART V.

Sections of Ordinances in which the following amend- ments are made, in virtue of section 11, in order to make the words used in regard to the imposition of alternative or cumulative penalties uniform :—

Ordinance No. 2 of 1865, in section 7, for the "there shall

words

or to pay

be read "and to pay", and the words from "in addition to"

to the end are repealed.

66

Ordinance No. 2 of 1870, in sections 2 and 5 (2), for the words "with or without" there shall be read "and to".

Ordinance No. 1 of 1874, in section 6, for the or to a fine to " there

words"

shall be read "and to a fine

of ", and the words "or to both" are repealed.

Ordinance No. 6 of 1885, in section 3 (3) for the words "with or without imprisonment with hard la-

""

bour there shall be read "and to imprisonment"

+

Ordinance No. 10 of 1886, in sections 4, 5, 9 (3), and 12, for the words "or to imprisonment" there shall be read and to imprison- ment " and the words " or to both" are repealed.

Ordinance No. 1 of 1887, in section 6, for the words "and to pay there

shall be read “and in addition

29

to pay";

and in section 7, for the words from "

or fine or both " to the end, there shall be read "for any term not exceeding one year and to such fine as the Court may award".

Ordinance No. 1 of 1889, in section 9 the words "either in addition to or in substitution for such imprisonment" are repealed; in section 65, for " or to imprisonment" there shall be read "and to imprisonment" and the words or to both are repealed;

66

in section 78 (1) and (2), for the words "or imprisonment" there shall be read "and im- prisonment", and the words

66

or either of such punish- ments in the discretion of the Court" are repealed ;

66

in section 83, for the words "and to a penalty" there shall be read " or to a fine", and the words or to either of such punishments in the discretion of the Court" are repealed;

and in section 87, the words either or in addition or in substitution for such impri- sonment" are repealed.

Ordinance No. 4 of 1890, in section 3 (3) (a), for the words "or to a fine,

or to both imprisonment and fine" there shall be read "and to a fine not exceeding 2,000 dollars".

Ordinance No. 2 of 1891, in section 6, for the

words "be liable to a penalty, or to imprisonment, with or without hard labour, or to both Provided that such penalty shall in no case ex- ceed the sum of 1,000 dollars, and that there shall be read "be liable to a fine not ex- ceeding 1,000 dollars and im- prisonment; provided that".

""

67

Ordinance No. 4 of 1893, in section 27 for

the words "or to imprison-

ment" there shall be read "and to imprisonment'

and

the words "or to both' are

repealed.

Ordinance No. 2 of 1897, in section 15, for the words "or to imprison- ment" there shall be read "and to imprisonment", and the words "or to both such penalty and imprisonment` `- are repealed.

Ordinance No. 4 of 1897, in section 12 for the words "or to imprison- ment" there shall be read “and to imprisonment" and the words or to both are repealed;

and in section 47 (3), for the words "or to imprisonment there shall be read and to imprisonment“, and

the

words "or to both penalty and imprisonment" are re- pealed.

Ordinance No. 1 of 1898, in sections 3, 4, 5,

6 (1), and 6 (2), for the words

40

or to a fine" there shall be

read “and to a fine ", and the

words"

pealed.

*

or to both are re-

Ordinance No. 4 of 1899, in section 12, for the words "or to imprison- ment" there shall be read "and to imprisonment", and the words or to both in the discretion of the Court" are repealed.

66

Ordinance No. 10 of 1899, in section 23 (2), for the words or to im- prisonment" there shall be read" and to imprisonment", and the words "

or, at the discretion of the Stipendiary Magistrate, to both penalty and imprisonment are re- repealed.

Ordinance No. 3 of 1904, in section 6. for the

2

words "by fine or imprison-

ment "there shall be read

"by fine and imprisonment", or both" are

and the words

repealed.

66

Ordinance No. 11 of 1907, in section 30, for

66

the words or to a fine “

there shall be read "and to a

fine and the words

*

both" are repealed.

or to

66

Ordinance No. 15 of 1907, for the words or

to a fine there shall be read and to a fine and the

words"

pealed.

or to both" are re-

Short title.

Abolition of minimum penalties.

Where impri- sonment imposed it may be with or without

hard labour.

Alternative

existing legislation repealed.

68

B

A BILL

ENTITLED

An Ordinance to abolish Minimum Penalties, and to bring the Law of the Colony as to Penalties into uniformity with the Law of England, and for other purposes.

Be it enacted by the Governor of Hongkong, with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council thereof, as- follows:

1. This Ordinance may be cited as the Amendment Ordinance, 1911".

"Penalties

2. In any enactment now in force which provides for the imposition of minimum penalties, whether of imprisonment or of a fine, the provisions, if any, relating to such minimum penalties are repealed in mauner provided by the following sections; and unless the enactment as printed in the New Revised Edition of the Laws of Hongkong otherwise pro- vides, where a Court is empowered or required to award a sentence of imprisonment with hard labour for life or for a term of years, or of a fine, the Court may award a sentence less than for life or for the term of years, and with or without hard labour, or less than the fine, specified in the

enactment.

3. Where under any enactment now in force or in any future enactment, a Court shall sentence a person for an offence for which the penalty of imprisonment is provided, the Court unless the enactment as printed in the New Revised Edition of the Laws of Hongkong or any such future enactment otherwise provides, inflict imprisonment with or without hard labour.

may,

4. Wherever in any enactment now in force there is penalties in provided in addition to the penalty of imprisonment for life or for a term of years an alternative penalty of" imprisonr ment (for any term) with or without hard labour", eithe- with or without the further alternative "with or without solitary confinement", both or each of such alternative penalties, as the case may be, are repealed; and where either of the aforesaid alternative penalties is provided as alternative to any other penalty, it is repealed; and where the aforesaid alternative as to solitary confinement is pro- vided as an alternative to a penalty of imprisonment, whe- ther with or without hard labour, it is repcaled.

Repeal of words of discretion.

Repeal of words of conviction.

5. In all enactments now in force the words "at or in the discretion of the Court", or other words of like mean- ing, wherever they occur in relation to the imposition of penalties, are repealed.

6. Sentences imposing penalties can only be imposed after the person charged has been found guilty and con- victed according to law; it is therfore hereby enacted that in all enactments now in force the words " on conviction thereof", or "and being convicted", or other words of like meaning, wherever they occur in relation to the imposition of penalties, are repealed.

7. In all editions of the Laws of Hongkong hereafter Authority to incorporate

to be printed the provisions which are repealed by this Or- repeals in

dinance shall be omitted; and the sections so affected are new editions hereby authorised to be printed in manner and form corres- of the Laws ponding as nearly as may be with the following "example", and the sections in which such provisions occur shall be construed and enforced accordingly :-

of the Colony.

Example.

Ordinance No. 6 of 1865, s. 4:

"Every person who unlawfully and maliciously des- troys any part of any ship or vessel which is in distress, or wrecked, stranded or cast on shore, or any goods, merchandise, or articles of any

1

69

kind belonging to such ship or vessel, shall be guilty of felony and being convicted thereof, shall be liable, at the discretion of the Court, to imprisonment with hard labour for any term not exceeding fourteen years and not less than three years, or to imprisonment for any term not exceeding two years, with or without hard labour and with or without solitary confine-

ment.

17

The aforesaid section shall be printed as follows:-

"Every person who unlawfully and maliciously des- troys any part of any ship or vessel which is in distress, or wrecked, stranded or cast on shore, or any goods, merchandise, or articles of any kind belonging to such ship or vessel, shall be guilty of felony, and shall be liable to impri- sonment with hard labour for any terin not exceeding fourteen years.

8.—(1.) In the sections of the Ordinances mentioned in Repeals and Part I of the schedule, the words “with or without hard amendments labour" after the word "imprisonment" are repealed. in Ordin-

ances in

(2.) In the sections of the Ordinances mentioned in Part schedule. II of the schedule, in lieu of the words " for the term of'. there shall be read "for any term not exceeding”.

(3.) In the sections of the Ordinances mentioned in Part III of the schedule, after the word “imprisonment" there shall be inserted the words "without hard labour ".

(4.) The Ordinances mentioned in Part IV of the sche- dule, are repealed to the extent therein mentioned.

9. Nothing in this Ordinance contained shall be con- Saving of strued as giving to a Court the power of inflicting a minimum punishment less than the minimum punishment, if any, penalties in provided for offences against any revenue, customs or Ordinances. quarantine law now in force or hereafter to be enacted.

certain

before

10. Wherever in any enactment now in force it is Amendment provided that in case a person is convicted of an offence of words of before a Magistrate he shall either be "committed to the conviction common gaol, there to be imprisoned, or to be imprisoned Magistrate and kept to hard labour for any term ", or other like words in existing are used which have the same meaning, the person shail be Ordinances. liable to imprisonment, with or without hard labour, as the case may be, for the same term; and in all editions of the Laws of Hongkong hereafter to be printed the provisions above referred to are hereby authorised to be printed in manner and form corresponding as nearly as may be with the following "example", and the sections in which such provisions occur shall be construed and enforced accord- ingly:

Example.

Ordinance No. 5 of 1865, section 12 (1), in part:-

66

Every person who steals any dog shall, on con- viction thereof before any Police Magistrate, either be committed to the common gaol, there to be imprisoned, or to be imprisoned and kept to hard labour, for any term not exceeding six. months, or..."

This part of the aforesaid section shall be printed as

follows:-

Every person who steals any dog, shall on con- viction before a Magistrate, be liable to impri- sonment for any terin not exceeding six months

or...

11. Whenever in any enactment now in force it is pro- Amendment vided that in case a person is convicted of an offence of words before a Magistrate he shall be liable to pay", or "to imposing fine

in existing forfeit and pay", a sum of money, or such sum of money not

Ordinances. exceeding a specified sum "as to the Magistrate may seem meet", or other like words are used which have the same meaning, the person shall be liable to a fine of the amount, or not exceeding the amount so specified, as the case may be; and in all editions of the Laws of Hongkong hereafter

.

ΤΟ

to be printed, the provisions above referred to are hereby authorised to be printed in manner and form corresponding as nearly as may be with the following "example", and the sections in which such provisions occur shall be con- strued and enforced accordingly.

Examples.

(a.) Ordinance No. 5 of 1865, section 12 (1), con-

tinued:-

or shall forfeit and pay, over and above the value of such dog, such sum of money not exceeding one hundred dollars as to the Ma- gistrate may seem meet.”

This part of the aforesaid section shall be printed as

follows:

*--

.......er shall be liable, over and above pay- ment of the value of such dog, to a fine not exceeding 100 dollars."

*

(b.) Ordinance No. 5 of 1865, section 13:-

"Every person who unlawfully has in his possession or on his premises any stolen dog, etc., shall on conviction thereof before a Police Magistrate, be liable to pay such sum of money not exceed- ing one hundred dollars, as to the Magistrate may seem meet.”

This section shall be printed as follows

46

'Every person who unlawfully has in his possession or on his premises any stolen dog, etc., shall, on conviction before a Magistrate, be liable to a fine not exceeding 100 dollars."

12. Whenever in any enactment now in force provisions Amendment to the following effect occur, or other like words are used of words which have the same meaning, in relation to the exercise giving sum-

mary juris- of summary jurisdiction by a Magistrate over offences, diction to that is to say, "under and in accordance with the provi- the Magis- sions of any Ordinance for the time being in force relating trate in to the jurisdiction of Magistrates and the practice and pro- legislation.

existing cedure before them in relation to offences punishable on summary conviction", they shall be held to be the equiva- lent of the following provision:--

"the Magistrate may deal with the case summarily and may impose a fine not exceeding" such sum as may be provided.

And in all editions of the Laws of Hongkong hereafter to be printed, the provisions firstly above referred to are hereby authorised to be printed in manner and form corres- ponding as nearly as may be with the provision above substituted therefor, and the sections in which such provi- sions occur shall be construed and enforced accordingly,

13. The following sections of Ordinances, being rendered unnecessary by the provisions of this Ordinance, are hereby repealed :-

In Ordinance No. 2 of 1865, sections 59 and 60. No. 4 of 1865, sections 51 and 52.

"

Repeal of enactments

rendered un-

necessary

by this Or- dinance.

No. 5 of 1865, sections : 9 and 100.

""

>>

No. 6 of 1865, sections 59 and 60.

No. 7 of 1865, sectious 30 and 31.

99

14. This Ordinance shall come in force by proclamation Coming of the Governor, which shall not be issued until after the into force of Council has authorised the New Edition of the Laws of Ordinance. Hongkong now in in course of preparation to be the only

authorised version of such Laws.

71

SCHEDULE.

PART I.

Sections of Ordinances in which the words “with or without hard labour” after the word "imprisonment" are repealed.

Ordinance No. 1 of 1845, sections 36, 38, and 44: and section 3 of the amending Ordinance, No. 7 of 1905.

No. 1 of 1860, section 25.

"

No. 1 of 1868, sections 6 and 8.

27

No. 1 of 1873, section 13.

27

""

No. 1 of 1870, section 4.

32

No. 4 of 1875, sections 7, 8, and 11 (2).

"}

*

*1

No. 7 of 1875, sections 18, 28, and 32.

No. 1 of 1882. section 5.

No. 1 of 184, section 16.

No. 10 of 1886, sections 4, 5, 7 (2),

8 (2), 9 (83), and 12.

No. 2 of 1887, sections 2 (2), 2 (3), 7.

and 8.

No. 4 of 1887, sections 6, 10 (1), and

11 (4).

No. 3 of 1888, sections 46, 47, and 48.

PART II.

Sections of Ordinances in which in lieu of the words

the term of” there are to be read the words “for any term not exceeding".

66

for

Ordinance No. 2 of 1865, sections 19, 25, 26, 30,

42, and 48.

No. 5 of 1865, sections 5, 10, 19, 21, 30,

33, 46, 75, and 77.

6 of 1865, sections 19, 20, and 22 (2).

PART II.

Sections of Ordinances in which after the word "imprison-

ment" there are to be inserted the words

C

without hard labour”.

Ordinance No. 1 of 1845, sections 19, 20, 21, 22,

3

and 23.

No. 7 of 1865, section 19, in relation to

first offence.

No. 4 of 18×6, sections 4, 19 (1).

19

No. 1 of 1867, section 7.

"

No. 3 of 1888, section 31 (2), 53.

PART IV.

Sections of Ordinances which are amended by the repeal of the following words.

Ordinance No. 1 1844, in section 24. the words

" and not less than seven years".

"

""

No. 1 of 1868, in sections 2 (2), 3 (2)t

and 4, the words from "and nos

"

less to the end of the section

respectively;

and in section 5, the words from

""

and not less to "hard labour".

No. 3 of 1868, in section 3, the words

66

**

or for any term to the end of

the section;

and in section 8 (2), the words from "with or without hard" to the end of the section.

4 of 1875, in section 9, the words from or to imprisonment to the end of the section.

72

Objects and Reasons.

The object of this Ordinance is to bring the law of the Colony on the subject of punishments into line with the law of England. It accomplishes this first, by abolishing minimum penalties, and thus gives the Judge the power of dealing leniently with cases which deserve to be so treated.

The Ordinance also does away with the confusion and redundancy of language which now exist in the penalty clauses of the Criminal Laws of the Colony. In the English Acts, from which our laws have been copied, there were alternative penalties provided of penal servitude for a maximum and minimum term (which was usually three years), and imprisonment with or without hard labour for not more than two years. The Criminal Law Ordinances, as originally passed, followed this form of alternative pen- alty. By Ordinance No. 3 of 1887, penal servitude was abolished, and imprisonment with hard labour substituted for it. In the Ordinances as they appear in the Revised Edition, "imprisonment with bard labour" has been sub- stituted for "penal servitude"; but no further change was made, with the result, as in the " example" given in s. 7, that the alternatives became "imprisonment with hard labour for not more than 14 and not less than 3 years' and imprisonment with or without hard labour for not more than 2 years". This is meaningless and the Or- dinance eliminates the second alternative. It should be noted that the penalty of "imprisonment with or without hard labour as an alternative to penal servitude has been climinated in England, but by a different process.

""

"

The use of "examples" is based on Indian legislation, and due recognition of it will be made in the new

"Inter- pretation Ordinance" now being drafted.

A further effective change is made by making the pen- alty of imprisonment always subject to the discretionary with or without hard labour (as it is in fact in the majority of cases) unless any Ordinance expressly provides otherwise. This is made to apply to future enactments, and will make the drafting of Ordinances uniform.

The superfluous words "at the discretion of the Court"

on conviction thereof are eliminated.

and **

The result of these changes so far as mere revision is concerned will be to reduce the bulk of the criminal laws of 185, by at least one-third. But the more important result will be to let each offence clearly appear, and to condense the penalty clauses as much as possible, leaving them to be governed by the general principles laid down by this Ordinance.

The schedule makes correspending alterations in the other Criminal Ordinances. The changes effected in Part II are in Ordinances where the penalty is in this form-

"impri- sonment with hard labour for three years, or imprisonment with or without hard labour for not more than two years In these cases the "three years" is not an absolute penalty because there is an alternative, and therefore the alteration is warranted.

Solitary confinement is a prison disciplinary measure and it is unusual for it to be put within the province of the Court to impose it as part of the original sentence; it is therefore proposed to delete the words "with or with- out solitary confinement" wherever they occur. This has been done with the concurrence of the Police and Prison authorities.

The schedule carries the amendments down to the stage at which the Revision Manuscript has at present arrived. In due course, as the Revision proceeds, legislation will be introduced adding other Ordinances to the different Parts of the schedule.

Three other clauses have been introduced, sections 10, 11 and 12, which deal with old, cumbersome, and out of date expressions, substituting therefor modern formulas.

It is not proposed that the Ordinance should come into force until the Council has sanctioned the New Edition as the authoritative version of the Ordinances of the Colony.

F. T. PIGGOTT,

Chief Justice.

כי

No. 20

1911

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON AN INVESTIGATION OF THE POKFULUM WATER SUPPLY BY THE GOVERNMENT BACTERIOLOGIST.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor, December 21st, 1911.

Introduction,

CONTENTS.

PAGE.

107

The Pokfulum Catchment Area :-

Note by Mr. HOLLINGSWORTH, A.M.I.C.E.,

108

The liability to contamination of,...

109

The Storage of the Water,

109

The Source of the Samples of Water examined,

111

111

113

The Preparation of the Media used,

The method of taking and examining the samples,

The Coli Group :-

The tests used by various Authorities for the Group,

The tests used in this investigation,

The value of the Coli Group as an indicator of pollution,.....

The presence of Pathogenic organisms in water,

The results of the examination of the water :-

(A.) The Unfiltered Pokfulum Water :-

1. The total unfiltered water,

2. Intake The Plunkett's Gap Stream,

-The Mount Austin Stream,

3.

"}

4.

""

The No. 1 Syphon,

5.

-The Pinewood Nullah,

"1

130 samples,..

16

""

16

"1

....

57

30

""

6. General summary of results of unfiltered water,

(B.) The Filtered Pokfulum Water :-

1. The No. 6 Bed, 45 samples,

114

...

119

....

.... 120 121

... 122

130

132

134

138

140

141

2. The No. 2 Bed, 18

... 145

3. The No. 5 Bed, 34

??

147

4. The No. 1 Bed, 32

17

9

150

5. General summary of results of the filtered water,

153

(C.) Other Hongkong Water Supplies, 42 samples,

153

The results obtained from water in England and America, and in the Tropics

generally,

155

Summary of the Bacteriological results obtained in this investigation,

160

1. The Lactose Fermenting Bacilli in Human Excreta,

160

2. The Lactose Fermenting Bacilli isolated from the water,

Conclusions,

List of Original Papers consulted,

163

167

169

107

INTRODUCTION.

An investigation of Pokfulum Water Supply, as to whether there was evidence of contamination or not, was ordered by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government Sir Henry May, K. C.M.G., in a minute dated October 6th, 1910, (Č.S.O. 2533/1909). This investigation has occupied practically twelve months.

As the lines along which the investigation was to take place were left undefined, it appeared to me that the most profitable line of investigation to take would be a research into the presence and characters of the Lactose fermenting organisms in the water- leaving such subsidiary indicators as Streptococci and Bacillus Enteritidis to be gone into only if time permitted.

As the work progressed, it soon became evident that if the Lactose fermenting Bacilli were to be worked out with any thoroughness, other side-issues must be left alone on account of want of time. This course was adopted and the following report consists essentially of an investigation of the Lactose Fermenting Bacilli.

No attempt has been made to isolate and classify the usual array of harmless water organisms. This has been done repeatedly elsewhere and the amount of information as to whether the water is polluted or not which can be derived from it is negligible.

Briefly the method pursued in this research was that if an organism was isolated which did not ferment Lactose, it was discarded. This naturally puts Pathogenic or- ganisms such as Typhoid and Cholera out of the scope of the investigation, but, as will be pointed out below, it should be a well known fact that the chances of isolating these organisms, even if present, are very small.

The statement often seen in Water Reports-"No pathogenic organisms present" is of no value whatever unless details of the amount of work done to isolate the organisms are also given.

"

There are no animals in the area except a few deer, some dogs and birds; it was therefore not considered necessary to investigate the Lactose Fermenting Bacilli of animals. An investigation of the Lactose Fermenting Bacilli of healthy Chinese has however been made and the results obtained have been compared with those of Mac- Conkey (1905) in England, Major Clemesha (1909) in Madras and Castellani (1910) in Colombo.

The methods used and the results obtained with the Lactose fermenting organisms have been recorded briefly as exactly as possible in order that any one may be able to draw his own conclusions on such a disputed group as the Coli Group. As the Bacteriological results alone are not sufficient grounds for judging a water, Mr. A. H. Hollingsworth, Executive Engineer in charge of the Water Branch of the Public Works Department, has been good enough to supply a short note on the Water Works them- selves,, and I have added some topographical notes on the Catchment area from personal inspections.

In an investigation of this kind-involving so many laborious details-it would have been impossible to get over the work done without the very capable assistance of Mr. Chan Tsun-kon, L.M. & S., Hongkong, the Bacteriological Assistant. He has taken a most energetic part in the work and the whole staff of the Institute has worked exceedingly

well.

A list of the original papers made use of in this investigation is given at the end of the Report; as some excuse for the incompleteness of this list the isolated position of Hongkong must be taken into account.

GOVERNMENT BACTERIOLOGICAL INSTITUTE,

Hongkong, 1st October, 1911.

HAROLD MACFARLANE,

Government Bacteriologist.

108

-

THE POKfulum CATCHMENT AREA AND WATER WORKS.

1

Note by Mr. A. H. Hollingsworth, A.M.1.C.E., Executive Engineer in charge of the Water Branch, Public Works Department.

"The Pokfulum reservoir is situated in the valley to the South of Victoria Gap and has a watershed of some 416 acres in extent.

The Reservoir is formed by an earthen Dam across the valley forming a basin capable of impounding about 70 million gallons of water.

The Dam is provided with an overflow at one end over which flood waters pass without damage to the main embankment.

The top water level is about 554 feet above mean sea level.

The hillsides forming the catchment area are composed chiefly of granite and syenite on which the fir tree grows up to a level of about 700 feet above sea. On the upper parts of the hillsides the vegetation consists principally of scrub and coarse grass.

The tops of the hills to the East and West of Victoria Gap are occupied by the European community as residential areas and some of the houses have been built within the catchment area of the Pokfulum Reservoir as well as the roads which open up the different areas that have been built upon.

The distance of the houses from the Reservoir is considerable and the greatest care has been taken that all sewage waters are intercepted by properly constructed drains and are led away and discharged outside the catchment areas.

There is also one road that leads from the Victoria Gap through the centre of the catchment area and past the Reservoir joining up with the lower road leading from the City of Victoria to the village of Aberdeen.

This road is not greatly used, indeed, with the exception of those who walk for pleasure, and few natives employed by the Dairy Farm to carry milk to the residences on the hills, there is practically no traffic.

There are very few animals in the Island so that from the point of view of possible contamination of the catch grounds they may be disregarded entirely.

The water from the Reservior is led to filter beds situated at West Point by a conduit 1' 6" x 1' 6" built of brickwork and covered with granite slabs, which contours the Western slopes of High West and in its course intercepting certain streams whereby some additional catch grounds are secured.

There is an arrangement at the Reservior by which all the water from the catch. grounds enters the Reservoir, or some part can be diverted from the Reservoir and led into the conduit direct.

It has been found that heavy rains are apt to bring a good deal of sand into the Reservoir and that the water is liable to become turbid and charged with a considerable quantity of muddy matter derived chiefly from the disintegrated granite. Under these circumstances the water must be allowed to rest for a while until the matter has sub- sided.

The streams however clear rapidly and these are led past the Reservoir to the filter beds during the time of heavy rain.

The filter beds at West Point are six in number having an individual area of 330 square yards or a total of 1,980 square yards.

The beds are fitted with controlling valves whereby the speed of filtering may be regulated.

109

S

The filtering material is fine sand varying from 2' 0" to 2' 4" in depth, overlying fine and coarse stone.

The beds are built on the ridge and furrow system and discharge the filtered water into a covered Reservoir capable of holding about 850,000 gallons, and from which the water is passed into the cast iron pipes which form the distribution system of the City."

THE LIABILITY OF THE CATCHMENT AREA TO CONTAMINATION.

Very different opinions have been expressed as to the suitability or otherwise of this area; among the more important unfavourable opinions may be quoted that of Colonel Bedford, P.M.O., Member of the Sanitary Board who in a minute dated 1st January, 1910, states:

"In spite of arguments to the contrary, I maintain that Pokfulum area stands condemned in the eyes of practical men ; and the sooner that steps are taken to extend the other sources of water supply to the Colony, and the closing of this most suspicious one, the better."

The Report of a Select Committee of the Sanitary Board appointed "to enquire into the conditions obtaining with regard to Mount Austin Nullah and the Water Supply collected from that area 30th April, 1910, contains the following opinion

"We are of the opinion that no authority on sanitation could uphold for an instant the classing of a watershed (from which water for drinking purposes is collected) as ideal or under any other heading than dangerous, when the number of possible sources of contamination, the traffic and the number of houses on the area are taken into consideration."

On the other hand, opinions as strongly in favour of the area bave been expressed.

The possible sources of pollution in the area are :—

(1) There are 59 European houses with their coolie quarters containing some

hundreds of Chinese in the area.

(2) The system of conservancy is the bucket system.

(3) The area is intersected by several Public Roads along which a consider-

able amount of coolie traffic takes place.

On the other hand, there is practically no cultivated ground in the area and no animals except dogs and perhaps a few deer and birds. Most of the soil is very poor.

Under these circumstances it is imposible to regard the area as in any way ideal, the casual habits of nightsoil coolies etc. are too well known; on the other hand there is no apparent good reason for condemning the catchment area as long as a careful supervision is kept over it and efficient storage and filtration of the water carried out.

A plan of the area, prepared by Mr. Hollingsworth, is attached from which the details of the area can be seen.

THE STORAGE OF THE WATER,

It will be noted from Mr. Hollingsworth's account of the Water Works that a considerable amount of the water especially in wet weather is never stored at all, but is led directly on to the filter beds.

There is unfortunately no means of knowing definitely what proportion of the water run on to the filter beds is stored and what is unstored; after long drought practically all the water comes from the Reservoir, and during wet weather most of the water is taken direct without any storage at all. Between these two extremes a mixture of unknown proportion is apparently used.

* Not printed.

110

In view of the extreme importance of storage of the water this state of affairs is un- fortunate. It is only necessary to refer to the very valuable work of Dr. Houston, Director of Water Examination, Metropolitan Water Board (Report for month of December, 1910) on this subject to see how much a water loses in safety for the want of adequate storage.

After speaking about filtration Houston writes (p. 28) "Storage, on the other hand, rests on a different basis altogether, it relies not on purely mechanical proportional effects, but on the absolute extinction of the life of all the microbes of epidemic water-borne diseases. It is based on biological not merely mechanical principles, and it aims, with the aid of time and unfavourable surroundings, at effecting its object with a certainty inapplicable to any known filtration process.

A further advantage of stored water is pointed out that when a new filter bed is started, taking several days to form a proper filtering layer, the filtered water cannot always be run to waste till the bed is working properly. If stored water is used this would not matter; on the other hand with unstored water, if contaminated, the results might be serious.

Houston also considers "it would be safer to use a coarse sand and filter rapidly when dealing with adequately stored water than to use a find sand and filter slowly when dealing with an inadequately stored water ".

From his experiments on the vitality of the Typhoid Bacillus (First Research Report) Houston states "in practically all the 18 experiments, 99.9 % of the Typhoid Bacilli could not be recovered after one week"-" it is obvious that the advantages accruing from even a few days storage may be so material tha there is no justification for the use for filtra- tion purposes of raw unstored river water".

It is obvious of course that Hongkong does not derive its water supply from such a suspicious source as London does and that therefore storage is not such an essential condition. But if safety is to be aimed at, it appears that the fullest use should be made of all facilities for storing the water before filtration. It is especially undesirable that in the rainy season the water should be run direct on to the filter beds if this can be avoided.

In conclusion the chief advantages enumerated by Houston that are obtained by storage may be quoted here:-

"(1) Storage reduces the number of bacteria of all sorts.

"(2) Storage reduces the number of bacteria capable of growing on agar at blood heat.

*(3) Storage reduces the number of bacteria capable of growing in a bile-salt medium at blood heat,

chiefly excremental bacteria.

(4) Storage reduces the number of coli-like microbes.

"(5) Storage reduces the number of typical B. coli.

(6) Storage alters certain bacteriological river water raties; for example, it reduces the number of typical B. coli to a proportionately greater extent than it reduces the number of bacteria of all sorts.

*

(7) Storage, if sufficiently prolonged, devitalises the microbes of water-borne disease (e.g., the typhoid

bacillus and the Cholera vibrio).

"(8) Storage reduces the amount of suspended matter.

64

(9) Storage reduces the amount of colour.

66

(10) Storage reduces the amount of ammoniacal nitrogen.

86

(11) Storage reduces the amount of oxygen absorbed from permanganate.

66

(12) Storage usually reduces the hardness and may reduce (or alter the quality of) the albuminoid

nitrogen.

"(13) Storage alters certain chemical river water raties; for example, the colour results improve more

than the results yielded by the permanganate test.

"(14) Storage has a marked "levelling" effect on the totality of water delivered to the filter beds. "(15) Storage tends generally to lengthen the life of the filters. (Only under exceptional conditions

is the converse true)

66

(16) An adequately stored water is to be regarded as a 'safe' water, and the safety change' which

has occurred in a stored water can be recognised by appropriate tests.

(17) The use of stored water enables a constant check to be maintained on the safety of London's

water antecedent to, and irrespective of, filtration,

Γ

111

(18) The use of stored water goes far to wipe out the gravity of the charge that the chief sources of

London's Water Supply are from sewage polluted rivers.

"(19) The use of adequately stored waters renders any accidental breakdown in the filtering arrange-

ments much less serious than might otherwise be the case.

68

(20) The habitual use of stored water would lighten the grave responsibilities of the Water Board, as regards the safety of the London Water Supply, and would tend to create a sense of security amongst those who watch over the health of the Metropolis."

SOURCE OF SAMPLES EXAMINED.

POKFULUM WATER.

(a) UNFILTERED WATER.

(1) From Intakes :-

Plunkett's Gap

Mount Austin Stream Pine Wood Nullah....

No. 1 Syphon Intake..

2) The total mixed unfiltered water as it flows on the beds

Total samples..

(6) FILTERED Water.

(1) No. 1 Bed

16

16

30

57

119

130

249

15

(2) No. 5 Bed

(3) No. 6 Bed

(4) No. 2 Bed

(5) No. 1 Bed

(6) No. 5 Bed

ADJUNCT SAMPLES.

15

45

18

17

19

129

Samples taken monthly from the unfiltered and filtered total water of

Pokfulum, Kowloon and Tytam Supplies

Miscellaneous unfiltered samples from Tytam and Kowloon

32

10

Grand Total of Samples ...........

420

The 119 samples of unfiltered water taken from four different intakes were examined chiefly with the view of finding out whether they showed any essential difference from each other or from the total unfiltered water which was examined at the same time.

As each of these intakes drains a separate area of the catchment area, it was thought that if there was contamination it would show in one or other of the areas; a short description of each area will be found included with the results obtained below.

Samples of unfiltered water were also taken from the Tytam and Kowloon catchment areas for further comparison.

Of the 129 samples of filtered water examined taken from four beds, these show the results obtained with the various rates of filtration used by the Water Authority and also the different kinds of filtrate obtained when a bed is first started and when it is in full working order. In all cases a sample of unfiltered water, taken as it flowed on to the bed, was examined at the same time to show the efficiency of the filtration.

PREPARATION OF THE MEDIA.

In order to interpret the results properly, it is necessary to know something about the composition of the media used and how it was used. Briefly the media used was made as follows:-

112

The Bile Salt Media.

These media were prepared exactly as recommended by MacConkey (1908), Neutral Red being used as the indicator throughout. To the stock Bile Salt Peptone water solu- tion, the various sugar media were made by adding respectively Glucose 1%, Lactose 1%, Cane Sugar 1%, Dulcit 0.5%, Adonit 0.5%, Inulin 1%, Inosit 0.5%, Mannite 1%.

Great care was taken not to overheat the media in the sterilisation and Durham's tubes for gas fermation were always used.

For the water samples concentrated solution was used for the larger quantities as required.

The Bile Salt Agar was made by dissolving 2% of Agar and 1% Lactose in the stock fluid clearing with white egg and using Neutral Red as the indicator.

The Litmus milk, Gelatine and the ordinary Agar Media were all carefully brought to a + 10 (Eyre Scale) Reaction to Phenolphthalein; 12% Gelatine was used for the Gelatine Media and extract of beef was used both in the case of the Gelatine and Agar Media.

Acidity in Litmus Whey.

The cultures were grown for 3 days at 37° C. in a known volume of medium and then tested by the addition of N N A ŎH.

10

The results can only be considered approximate and it is very doubtful if the results obtained were worth the trouble involved.

The Reduction of Nitrates.

The medium used was as follows:-2 grammes of Nitrite free Potassium Nitrate and 10 grammes of Peptone were added to a litre of Am monia free distilled water.

The reduction was tested for by means of Ilvosay's solution made up as described by Thresh (1904). The reaction was applied cualitatively only, there was unfortunately no time to carry out the quantitative method described by Erich Pelz (1911). Using the qualitative test only, the results given proved to be of little value. The first 120 Lactose fermenters taken from the stock of pure cultures isolated from the water all gave the reaction and further tests also gave positive results.

"}

These results agree with those of MacConkey (1909), Savage (1906), etc. Houston (1902-3) states “that possibly the test is neglected without sufficient reason and that a negative result with a coli-like microbe isolated from water would be a point against considering such a microbe as of intestinal origin".

66

Indol Reaction.

The method used for this test was Ehrlich's as described by Bohme (1906) and Marshall (1907). No case was considered negative unless the organism had first been grown for six days before applying the test. In doubtful cases the culture after addition of the reagents was shaken up with Amyl Alcohol to extract any colouring matter which might be there. As the test was thus used with a considerable amount of care a good deal of importance was attached to a negative result.

Vosges and Proskauer's Reaction.

A Glucose tube was inoculated and grown at 37° C. for four days, a strong solution of alkali was then added and the tube stood at Room Temperature for twenty-four hours. It was then examined for the reaction.

The Neutral Red Reaction.

This reaction was tested for either in Neutral Red Broth or in Neutral Red Glucose Agar shakes, made up according to Savage (1901). In my experience this is an unsatis- factory test and its use was continued only so as to be able to classify the organism by the "Flaginac" and "Excretal" methods.

113

Other Media.

For plating out and isolating Lactose fermenters from the Bile Salt tubes other media were occasionally used instead of MacConkey's Bile Salt Neutral Red Lactose Agar. The chief among these were the Conradi Drigalski Medium, Fawcus' Medium, Endo's Medium and especially Savage's modification of Endo's Medium. Of all these coloured Lactose media, perhaps Savage's modification of Endo's Medium was the most useful but none of them has in my experience any advantage in isolating Lactose fermenters over MacConkey's Medium. To be accustomed to the use of any one of these media appears to counter balance any advantage which might be derived from using another medium of which you have not had an equal experience.

METHOD OF TAKING THE samples.

Nearly all of the samples were taken by Mr. Barrington, Overseer in charge of the West Point Filter Beds, who has special knowledge of sample taking; uniformity of procedure was thus obtained.

The samples were only taken at their sources, i.e., at any particular intake at the filter bed just before or just after filtration, etc.; no samples were taken from any pipe or main where the possibility of contamination might arise.

Each sample was taken into a glass stoppered bottle sterilised at 150° C., the bottle was at once put into a metal case surrounded by, but not in direct contact with ice.

The samples usually arrived at the Institute within half an hour of their collection and were examined almost at once. There was therefore no chance of any material alteration taking place in the water between the time of its collection and the time of its examination.

Routine method of examining the samples.

With a few modifications which will be noted as they occur, the following amounts . of each sample were inoculated :-

rocc Acc 1cc

on to Agar plates.

Foce

1cc

2cc

1cc

2cc

MacConkey Bile Salt Neutral Red Lactose Agar plates.

MacConkey Bile Salt Neutral Red Glucose Peptone water.

5cc

cc

1cc

2cc

Бес

10cc

20cc

MacConkey Bile Salt Neutral Red Lactose Peptone water.

50cc

These were incubated at 37° C. for 24-48 hours and were then examined, the Bile Salt peptone waters for Acid and Gas change, the Agar plates for total colonies in lcc, and the Lactose Agar plates for coli-like colonies.

Tubes showing no Acid and Gas change at the end of 48 hours were regarded as not containing B. coli.

As a rule, the three lowest Lactose tubes showing Acid and Gas change were plated on to dried Lactose Agar plates (usually MacConkey's Bile Salt Neutral Red Agar) by means of sterile glass rods.

These plates were then allowed to dry for an hour or so and then incubated at 37° C. In this way discrete colonies could practically always be obtained.

114

At the end of 24 or 48 hours these plates were examined for Lactose fermenting colonies and if present a suitable number (4 to 8) were picked off and grown on Agar slopes and from these Agar slopes the detailed examination was inade.

In putting up the samples Gelatine plates were not poured after the first week or SO. It was found so difficult to maintain an incubator at the low temperature necessary for incubation of these plates that the method was abandoned. In a Tropical water the Gelatine total count does not appear to me to be of much importance and nothing is lost by doing without it.

The picking off of the colonies of the Lactose Agar plates is an extremely uncertain matter, and in view of the idea held by some that B. coli communis colonies can easily be identified when growing on MacConkey's Agar medium, it will perhaps be well to note that MacConkey (1908) says in his paper on the Bile Salt media which bears his name: "I have repeatedly tried to distinguish one organism from another by the appear- ance of the colonies on Bile Salt Neutral Red Lactose Agar but invariably without success. The form of a colony on Bile Salt Agar is of no value in identifying a Lactose fermenting organism". My experience in working out the characters of over a thousand Lactose fermenters isolated from this media entirely agrees with this statement.

J

A selection has therefore to be made in some way or another except for the smallest quantities of water (ce, 1 cc) when the whole can be plated. This selection naturally introduces an element of uncertainty but extended over a long period it is more or less equalised.

Incubation, etc.

Throughout all cultures, with the exception of Gelatine, were incubated at 37° C. There appears to be no sufficient reason for raising the temperature to 42° C.

THE COLI GROUP.

This group will be briefly dealt with under the following headings :-

(1) The tests used by various authorities for the group.

(2) The tests used in this investigation.

(3) The value of the Coli group as an indicator of pollution in water.

It is impossible to give more than the briefest notes on the above points but without some notes on the subject it is impossible to interpret the results.

The terms "B. coli" or "the Coli group" have been used in such various ways that it is necessary to state definitely on what tests the diagnosis of Coli is made.

If the tests are few, a very wide group with many organisms of very doubtful importance will be included. On the other hand it is impossible to restrict attention to B. coli communis (Escherich) alone as it is not the only excretal organism.

It is also evident that the more tests which are employed the fewer samples can be worked out. A middle course of some kind must therefore be taken and where the line is to be drawn varies with the worker.

1. The tests used by various Authorities for the Coli group.

(a.) Gage (1903) used the following tests for the Coli group :-Agar streak-gas in Dextrose Bouillion--coagulation of milk-Reduction of Nitrates Produc- tion of indol and non-liquefaction of gelatine in 14 days.

(b.) Boyce-Grünbaun-MacConkey and Hill (1902) defined the group as :—non sporing-non liquefying-giving; acid and gas on Glucose and Lactose and may do so on Saccharose-acid in milk and usually clot also-grow well at 42° C. and give acid and gas on Glucose Bile Salt Broth.

115

(c.) McWeeney (1904) states the characters of genuine coli as :-

(a) Character of the Gelatine colony and non-liquefaction of that medium even after a long time. (b) Non-retention of the stain by Gram's method.

(c) Fermentation of Lactose with formation of gas and acid.

(d) Coagulation of milk within four days at 37°.

(e) Production of yellowish-green fluoresence in Neutral Red Agar shake culture.

(ƒ) The production of indol in liquid peptone media.

As accessory tests on which principal stress is not laid are :

(9) The bubbling of "ordinary" and glucose gelatine shake culture.

(h) Growth on potato.

On the presence of metility or its absence, not much stress is laid.

*(d.) The English Committee appointed to consider the Standardisation of Methods for the Bacterioscopic Examination of Water defined B. coli as :- "A small, motile, non-sporing bacillus, growing at 37° C. as well as at room temperature. The motility is well observed in a young culture in a fluid glucose medium. It is decolorised by Gram's method of staining. It never liquefies gelatine, and the gelatine cultures should be kept at least 10 days in order to exclude a liquefying bacillus. It forms smooth thin surface growths and colonies on gelatine non-corrugated, growing well to the bottom of the stab (facultative anacrobe). produces permanent acidity in milk, which is clotted within 7 days at 37° C. It ferments glucose and lactose, with the production of both, acid and gas. The typical bacillus coli must conform to the above description and tests. It generally also forms indol, gives a thick yellowish brown growth on potato (greatly dependent on the character of the potato), sometimes ferments Saccha- rose (about 50%), changes neutral red (Grubler's) and reduces nitrates, and half the gas produced by it from glucose is absorable by KOH; and these tests, if time and opportunity permit, may be performed in addition to the foregoing ".

It

*(e.) The Committee on Standard Methods of Water Analysis of the American Public Health Association in 1905 drew up the following set of diagnostic characters for B. coli :-

"(1) Typical morphology, non-sporing bacillus, relatively small and often quite thick.

(2) Motility, when a young broth or gelatine culture is examined.

(3) Fermentation of dextrose broth, with the formation of about 50% of gas, of which about one-

third (CO2) is absorbed by a 2% solution of sodium hydrate.

(4) Coagulation of milk, with the production of acid, in 48 hours or more at 37° C., either

spontaneously or upon boiling.

(5) Non-liquefaction of gelatine.

(6) Production of indol in peptone solution.

(7) Reduction of nitrates."

Savage (1905) defines his "Execretal B. coli” on the following tests :-

(a) Growth on gelatine slope for morphology-motility. The growth should have a non-

corrugated appearance, should not liquefy gelatine in 14 days.

(6) Litmus milk, permanent acidity with clot within 2 weeks.

(c) Lactose peptone Litmus solution with production of acid and gas.

(d) Peptone water-Indol production in 7-10 days.

(e) Glucose Neutral Red Agar shake-for acid and gas fluoresence.

It is not considered essential to stain by Gram's method as a routine practice. He further states (1906) that whether the organism ferments Saccharose, Dulcite, etc., or not, with the above characters they can all be spoken of as B. coli.

(g.) Houston (1906) has introduced the word "flaginac" to describe his coli

tests which are :-

(1) Greenish fluoresence in neutral red broth cultures.

(2) Acid and gas in lactose and glucose peptone cultures.

(3) Indol formation in broth cultures.

(4) Acid and clot in litmus milk.

The growth on gelatine and more recently the growth on Saccharose is also investi- gated.

(h.) MacConkey (1909) in a review of the tests used for the Coli group recom- mends the use of Lactose, Saccharose, Dulcit, Adonit, Inulin, Inosit, and perhaps Mannite together with Indol test, the observation of Motility and perhaps the Vosges and Proskauer's Reaction. The tests used for all the organisms isolated from the first 244 samples of water examined in this investigation have been based on this valuable paper. As the organisms worked out have been classified by MacConkey's Table, it will be well here to give a copy of that table for reference :-

* These reports have not been consulted in the original and are quoted from MacConkey (1909).

Dulcit

Adonit

Lactose

Litmus milk

Gelatine

Gram's stain

Motility

Indol

Reduction of nitrates......... +

Acidity in litmus milk ......

Saccharose

Inulin

Inosit

Vosges and Proskauer's

reaction

........

infor

B. acidi lactici (Huppe)

B. levans

B. Grünthal, B. Sulcatus gasoformans, B. Castellus.

B. vesiculosus

B. Coli mutabilis (Massini)

+

+

}

1.

+

B. Coli communis, B. Cavicid a

B. Schafferi

1

+

+

+

+

+

20% 14% 20% 25%

1

+

T

1

+

+

+

+

116

TABLE 1.

MacConkey's Group I.

+

MEDIA.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

33

34

35

36

+

+

+

of

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

1

+

1

+

+

+

+

+

+

+ +

+ + +

+

+

}

+

+.

28%22%

+

}

+ 1

+

1

+

+

+

+ +

Group II.

Lactose

MEDIA.

Litmus milk

Gelatine

Gram's stain

Motility

Indol

Reduction of nitrates

Acidity in litmus milk

Saccharose

Dulcit

Adonit.

Inulin

Inosit

Vosges and Proskauer's reaction

B. oxytocus perniciosus.

+

+

-117

TABLE 1,-Continued.

MacConkey's Group III.

65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

¡26%

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

1

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+ +

+

+

+

I

+

+

I

1

1

+

1

+

+

+

+

B. rhinoscleroma, B. Friedländer.

+

13

+

|

+

+

+

+

14%

+

of

+

+

1

+

+

+

1

+

+

+

1

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Li

B. Neapolitanus.

1

+

+

22%

+

+

Į

I

+

ཡི

X

+

1

+

+

+

+

+

·

MEDIA.

97

Lactose

+

Litmus milk

+

Gelatine

+

Gram's stain.

Motility

Indol

+

I

118

TABLE 1,-Continued.

MacConkey's Group IV..

98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109

+

+

+

+

+

+

Reduction of nitrates

Acidity in litmus milk...

Saccharose

Dulcit

+

+

+

+

+ + +

│·

Adonit

Inulin

Inosit...

Vosges and Proskauer's

reaction

+ =acid and gas, acid and clot, liquefaction of gela- tine, etc.,

acid without gas

-=no production of either

acid or gas

+

1

+

+

T

+

+

+

+

+

I

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

|

I

+

+-

30% 12%

1

+

+

+

|

+

+

+

+

+

|

+

+

+

+

|

+

B lactis aerogenes, B. capsulatus (Pfeiffer).

B. gasoformans non-liquefaciens.

B. coscoroba

B. cloacæ.

+1

-

+

+

+

I

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

1

+

25% 20%

+

I

+

|

+

+

TF

+

+

རྩ་

+

}

1

I

+

I

I

+

119

(2.) THE TESTS USED IN THIS INVESTIGATION.

For the first 244 samples of water, all cultures isolated (1,265 in number), were tested in the following way :-

Agar slope.

Gelatine for liquefaction after 10 to 14 days and then for 30 days or longer. Gram's stain, its retention or not.

Motility, its presence or absence.

Morphology

Lactose

Glucose

Saccharose

Dulcit

Adonit

for acid and gas production (after 4 to 6 days).

Inosit

Inulin

Mannite

Litmus milk for acid and clot.

Peptone water for indol formation after 5 to 6 days. Neutral red for fluoresence.

A glucose tube for Vosges and Proskauer's reaction. Nitrates for reduction to nitrites.

Litmus whey for acid production.

It is obvious that all these tests do not have an equal value and that different workers do not always attach the same value to a given test.

In this investigation, the morphology of the organism, its growth on agar and gelatine were noted only and not recorded as after the first hundreds of organisms had been examined, it was found that no diagnostic value could be attached to these tests. The testing for fluoresence on neutral red, also appears to me to be an unsatisfactory test and the reduction of nitrates to nitrites is also a test which might well be omitted.

It is unnecessary here however to go into these points fully, it has already been done by MacConkey (1909) in his valuable paper on the differentiation of the lactose fermenters and by others.

For the second part of the investigation, involving 144 samples of water with 504 pure cultures, only the following tests were used:---

Agar slope.

Gelatine for liquefaction in 10 to 14 days.

Gram's stain.

Motility.

Lactose

Glucose

Saccharose

for acid and gas after 4 to 6 days.

Dulcit

Peptone water for indol formation.

Neutral red for fluoresence.

Glucose tube for Vosges and Proskauer's reaction.

Litmus milk for acid and clot.

These tests do not allow of the organisms being worked out so fully, as in the case of the first set of tests, but they are sufficiently comprehensive to give definite coli groups.

From either set it is possible to classify the organisms by either Houston's "Flaginac" test or by Savage's "Excretal B. coli" test.

On the difficult question of the fermentation of Saccharose, MacConkey considers that Savage may be said to voice the general opinion when after giving a definition of B. coli he says "organisms with all the above characters, whether they ferment Saccharose, Dulcit, etc., or not, can all be spoken of as 'B. coli'". Houston found that 70% of B. coli from human fæces either did not ferment Saccharose at all or fermented it only feebly; in sewage the number of Saccharose fermenting bacilli is extremely great.

120

But in all cases Saccharose and Dulcit have been tested so that the coli groups into MacConkey's four sub-groups according as they ferment or not

can be divided up

these two sugars.

THE VALUE OF B. COLI AS AN INDICATOR.

It must be admitted that the ordinary standards for B. Coli in drinking water used in England do not appear to be strictly applicable to a Tropical Water.

Not much work has been done as regards Tropical Waters, but as far as it goes the evidence seems to indicate that a much stricter series of tests must be used for B. Coli in the Tropics than is usually required at Home.

16

Using group tests such as the "Excretal" or Flaginac" and using a Home standard, many tropical waters which are in use would be at once condemned.

In the absence of sufficient investigation, reliance appears to have been placed on the absence of water-borne epidemics among he people drinking a water-supply with the Coli Group present in small quantities of the water.

It is hardly necessary to point out how very unsafe it is to base an opinion about the potability of the water on the absence of water-borne epidemics for a time.

It is impossible here to go thoroughly into the question of Coli in water at Home -for that reference must be made to the long series of investigations made by Houston, Savage, MacConkey and others; but a few points may be noted about which there does not seem to be any great difference of opinion.

Houston has shown that domestic sewage usually contains 100,000 B. Coli per cc. and that in fæces they are 10 to 100 times as numerous. Thus with even one B. Coli in lcc. of water a very large dilution has taken place.

There are unfortunately no means of differentiating between B. Coli of man and those of animals; or between B. Coli from a case of Typhoid and from a normal healthy individual.

The Pathogenicity of the isolated coli is also no help in determining whether a water is dangerously infected or not. "Virulence as a property of B. Coli is a very variable element" (Savage, 1903).

It is sometimes stated that the pollution of water is due to Birds and Fish but as has been pointed out by Houston polluted waters do not have a monopoly of these and in non-polluted areas B. Coli is relatively absent.

Of course the chief value of B. Coli as an indicator turns on the point as to whether it is really confined to focally contaminated waters or whether it is present generally where there is no chance of such contamination.

On this point Savage (1906 p. 141) considers that it is not too much to state "that there is no evidence or observations which have ever shown that B. Coli, reasonably defined, is present in any numbers in sources which have not been exposed to some form of focal contamination.'

This statement appears to represent the general opinion on the subject at Home.

A further point is that under conditions such as are met with in connection with the examination of water supplies, there is no evidence of multiplication of true coli in the water, but on the contrary, gradual decrease and extinction. Under similar conditions, no multiplication of pathogenic organisms would take place; on the contrary they would die out much more quickly than the B. Coli do.

121

As regards standards for B. Coli used at Home that suggested by Houston (1902-3) as a tentative standard is probably the most generally accepted. It is stated to be clearly meant to be governed or controlled by knowledge of local conditions and other circumstances.

Class 1.

100 c.c.

A water showing no evidence (bacteriologically) of recent objectionable contamina- tion, and therefore, in the absence of conditions of an actually or potentially dangerous kind, seemingly "safe" for domestic use.

Class 2. + 100 c.c., 10 c.c. A water showing appreciable evidence (bacteriologically) of presumably objectionable contamination, and therefore not absolutely free from the suggestion of being potentially, if to an almost negligible extent, dangerous to health.

Class 3. + 10 c.c., 1 c.c.

A water showing definite evidence (bacteriologically) of contamination presumably objectionable in character, and therefore to be regarded with some suspicion.

Class 4. + 1 c.C., •1 c.c.

A water showing such obvious indications (bacteriologically) of pollution, presumably objectionable in character, as hardly to fall within the category of waters reasonably safe for potable purposes in the absence of contra-indications of a convincing kind.

Class. 5.1 cc., 01 c.c. A water showing such clear evidence (bacteriologically) of presumably

objectionable contamination as to be quite unfit for domestic use, on the basis of this test.

Class 6.01 c.c., ⚫001 c.c.

W

A good sewage effluent.

Further comment is superfluous.

The question of what standards can be applied in the Tropics will be better con- sidered after the results of the samples have been examined.

THE PRESENCE OF PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS

such as Bacillus Typhosus and the Cholera Vibrio in water.

Some remarks are necessary to explain the absence of any investigation into the water for pathogenic organisms. The statement is frequently made in Reports on water that "no pathogenic organisms are present". This conveys rather a misleading idea as from it, it might be thought that the isolation of these organisms, if present, is an easy and certain

matter.

It would be well perhaps to briefly notice what is the probability of isolating these organisms from a water.

Willson (1905) in his paper on the isolation of B. Typhosus from water could only find six genuine cases in which B. Typhosus has ever really been isolated from water- supplies in the past. Of these six cases, four were wells in which the contamination would be much more direct than it would be in a large catchment area; the two remaining cases were the Berlin Water Works in 1895 and the Prague Water Supply in 1904.

Houston (1910) during 1907 and 1908 examined 156 samples of sewage polluted river water using tried methods. Out of 7,329 selected microbes from these samples not one could be identified as B. Typhosus.

It is of course quite an easy matter, as Houston points out, to isolate Typhoid-like organisms aud this accounts probably for the numerous reported cases of isolation of True Typhoid Bacilli.

Quite recently Volpiue and Cler (1911) have recommended the use of the complement fixation method for the detection of Typhoid Bacilli in drinking water but not enough work has yet been done to prove its practical value.

Unless some improved method is devised it is obviously of no value to say these organisms are not present or could not be found without carrying out a very large amount of work.

As regards Cholera, there does not appear to be any reasonable chance of the Water Supply becoming infected. Cholera is not endemic in Hongkong and the few imported cases which occur should not have any opportunity of contaminating the Supply.

#22

THE POKFULUM UNFILTERED WATER.

The following Tables give the condensed results of the examination of 130 samples of the total mixed unfiltered water as it flows on the filter beds.

The following amounts of each sample were examined :-

The first 38 samples

cc,

cc, lcc on agar plates.

cc, lec, 2cc on Lactose Agar coloured plates.

lec, 2cc, 5cc on to Lactose N. R. Bile Salt Peptone water.

Icc, 2cc, 5cc, 10cc, 20cc on the Glucose N. R. Bile Salt Peptone water.

The examination of the next 40 samples was the same with the exception that the 10cc and 20cc amounts of the samples were added to Lactose Peptone water instead of to Glucose Peptone water.

From the 79th sample onwards, the Lactose Agar coloured plates were given up and cc of the sample added to the Lactose and Glucose Peptone waters instead and in addition to the other amounts.

The plating out and isolation of colonies was done as already described.

The "Coli Group" results are recorded in two columus, 1st the Group results, 2nd the organisms considered to be more or less identified.

For the Group results, an organism which gives acid and gas in Lactose and Glucose acid and clot in Litmus milk; is Motile and non Gram staining; gives Indol in Peptone water and fluoresence in Neutral Red and does not give a Vosges and Proskauer reaction and does not liquefy gelatine in 10 to 14 days, is regarded as positive and recorded by the sign+. If any of these reactions are negative, the fact is recorded in brackets, e.g.,

+ (Indol − ).

These organisms were also tested for acid and gas on Saccharose and Dulcit and the result recorded thus + (S-S+) or + (S+ D +) etc. In this way the organisms can be clas- sified into the four groups of MacConkey.

The organisms isolated from the first 94 samples were however in addition fully worked out by the set of tests given on page 119 and where the organisms gave the necessary reactions, MacConkey's identification numbers are given. Only the chief organisms are recorded here; organisms of doubtful characters are not noted but will be dealt with when the whole of the organisms worked out are discussed.

}

+

Characters of the chief organism isolated.

Total Unfiltered Pokfulum Water as it flows on to the Filter Beds.

No. of

cultures

Classification on the "Coli Group" Basis.

Total

Colonies

Ref.

in lcc

isolated

Date.

No.

No.

on agar

and

48 hours

at 37° C.

investi-

gated.

123

TABLE 11.

5.11.10

1

1

1,000

10

+ (S—D+) in 1cc

7.11.10

من

250

+ (8-D+) in 1cc

8.11.10

240

10

+ (S-D+) in 2cc

9.11.10

7

4

1,000

8

+ (S+D—Indol-) in cc

10.11.10

10

4.00

10

+ (S+D+) in rocc

11.11.10

12

240

7

+ (S+D+Indol-) in lec

12.11.10

14

7

400

10

+ (S-D+Al.-) in 1cc

14.11.10

16

160

9

+ (S+D+) in rocc

15.11.10

18

9

900

12

+ (S-D+) in 2cc

16.11.10

17.11.10

220208

10

120

11

+ (S+D+A.−) in 1cc

11

800

12

+ (S+D+A.−) in 1cc

18.11.10

24

12

150

19.11.10. 26

13

21.11.10

28

14

100

7

22.11.10

30

15

150

10

23.11.10

32

16

120

8

24.11.10

34

17

150

8

25.11.10

36

18

140

+ (S-D+) in 2cc

26.11.10

38

19

110

14

+ (S-D-Indol-) in occ

+ (S-D+Indol-) in cc +(S-D+A.-) in ce

+ (S+D-fl.-Indol-) in 1cc

+ (S-D+) in 2cc

I 4 B. Grünthal, II 34 B. Coli Communis II 34 (Indol-) III 71 I 7 II? in 1cc

II 34 B. Coli Communis I 7 in 2cc

III 74 IV in cc and lec

III 71 in cc; I 1 I 7 III 71 IV in lcc; I 4 II 34 IV in 10cc III 74 in 1cc

II 34 B. Coli Communis III 71 II 34 (Indol~) in 1cc and upwards.

I 4 B. Grünthal and III 71 in lcc and upwards.

II 34 B. Coli Communis and IV in 2cc

III 71 in lcc; II 34 B. Coli Communis, III 71 in 2cc

III 71 IV in lcc; II 34 B. Coli Communis in 2cc; III 109, IV in 5cc Discarded.

Discarded.

IV 109 III? in cc, 1cc and 2cc

IV 109 in fcc and 1cc; IV 109 IV 107 I 4 in 2cc; IV in 8cc

IV

II 34 B. Coli Communis in 2cc

II 34 II 34 (Indol—) III 71 in 2 and 5cc

I 1 I 4 I 7 III 74 in 1cc

Total Unfiltered Pokfulum Water as it flows on to the Filter Beds, Continued.

Ref.

Total

Colonies

in lec

No. of

cultures

isolated

Date.

No.

No.

Classification on the “Coli Group " Basis.

on agar

and

Characters of the chief organism isolated.

48 hours

at 37° C.

investi-

gated.

28.11.10

40

20

110

10

+ (8-D+) in 2cc

I 7 in lcc; II 34 III 71 in 2cc

29.11.10

42 21

120

11

+ (S-D-Indol-) in 1cc

I 7 etc. in 1cc

30.11.10

44 22

110

6

+ (S+D+) in 5cc

1.12.10

46

23

130

9

+ (S-D-) in rocc

2.12.10

48

24

180

9

+ (8+D+) in lcc

3.12.10

50

5.12.10

0 10 1A

1x 88

25

150

9

+ (S+D-) in 2cc

52

26

170

10

+ (S~D~fl.-) in 1cc

110

10

+ (S-D-) in 100

+

7.12.10

56

28

110

12

+ (S-D-Indol-) in 1cc

IV in. lcc; III 71 in 5cc

I 4 B. Grünthal in cc; III 71 III 74 in 1cc.

III 71 in 1cc; I 4 B. Grünthal in 2cc.

IV in 2cc; I 7 in 10cc.

I 4 B. Grünthal in 1cc.

I 4 in lcc: III 106 in 2cc I 7 etc. in 2cc.

17 in lcc; III 71 in 2cc.

8.12.10

58

29

120

4

+ (S-D-Indol-fl.-) in 1cc

I 7 in lcc.

9.12.10 60

30

110

9

+ (S-D+Indol-) in 2cc

10.12.10

62

31

110

7

+ (S+D) in 5cc

II 34 (Indol-), III.

IV 109.

12.12.10 64 32

110

Plates spoiled.

13.12.10

66

33

100

8

+ (S+D-) in 2cc

14.12.10 68 34

110

14

+ (S+D+) in lec

15.12.10 70

35

90

10

16 12.10

72

36

110

17.12.10 74

37

120

19.12.10 76

38

150

+ (S-D+ Motility-) in 1cc

+ (S-D+) in 5cc

III 71.

III 71 and I 4 B. Grünthal in 1cc

II 35 B. Schafferi in 1cc

Negative in 5cc

II 34 B. Coli Communis

Negative in 10cc

124

TABLE II.

Total Unfiltered Pokfulum Water as it flows on to the Filter Beds,-Continued.

Ref.

Total

Colonies

in lec

No. of

cultures

isolated

Date.

No.

Classification on the "Coli Group" Basis.

No.

on agar

and

48 hours

at 37° C.

investi-

gated.

Characters of the chief organism isolated.

20.12.10

78

39

100

5

+ (S+D+) in 5cc

III 71

21.12.10

22.12.10

88888

80

40

120

+ (S+D+Indol--) in 5cc

III 74

82

41

110

23.12.10

84

42

150

24.12.10

86

28.12.10

88

80

43

150

44

100

12

+ (S+D+) in 1cc

29.12.10

90

3.1.11

92

888

45

90

46

100

4.1.11

94

47

100

5.1.11

96

48

90

8

+ (S-D-) in 2cc

6.1.11

98

49

110

Plates over 1cc spoiled.

7.1.11

100

50

90

9.1.11 102

51

100

6

10.1.11 104

52

60

10

+ (S−D+) in 10cc

+ (S+D+) + (S-D+) in 1cc

+ (S+D+) in lcc

+ (S+D+) in 5cc

+ (S+D- Indol-) in 5cc

Cultures lost.

in 5cc; not plated higher.

Lost.

in 5cc; +in 10cc; details lost.

I 4 B. Grünthal I 7 III 71 in 1cc

II 34 B. Coli Communis II 35 B. Schafferi III 71 in 10cc

III 71 II 34 B. Coli Communis in lcc; III 71 I 7 in Sce. III 71 in 1cc.

I 4 B. Grünthal in 2 and 5cc.

in lcc; Plates over 1cc spoiled.

III 71 in 5cc.

IV ? in 5cc.

11.1.11 106

53

90

12.1.11 108

54

100

13.1.11 110

55

14.1.11 112

56

16.1.11 114

57

15

110

4

+ (S+D+Indol-) in 10cc

120

+ (S+D+) in 10cc

120

6

+ (8-D+) in 10cc

Negative in 10cc; not tested higher.

Negative in 10cc; not tested higher.

III 74 IV 108 in 10cc: III 71 IV 107 in 20cc.

III 71 in 10cc.

II 34 B. Coli Communis, III 71 in 10cc.

·

. 125

TABLE II.

Characters of the chief organism isolated.

Total Unfiltered Pokfulum Water as it flows on to the Filter Beds,-Continued.

Ref..

Total

Colonies

in lec

No. of

cultures

isolated

Date.

No.

No.

on agar

and

Classification on the "Coli Group" Basis.

48 hours

at 37° C.

investi-

gated.

110

100

-5 cc; +(8+D+) in 10cc

17.1.11

116

18.1.11

118

19.1.11

120

20.1.11 122

21.1.11 124

23.1.11 126

24.1.11 128

25.1.11

26.1.11 136

3 2 8 3 8

58

59

60

100

61

120

4

+ (8+D— V. & P.+) in 10cc

62

150

132

27.1.11

140

2 2 3 2 8

63

120

64

140

65

100

5

+ (S+D—Indol—) in 10cc

66

110

4

+ (S-D+) in 20cc

67

100

28.1.11

144

68

110

+ (S-D+) in lcc

3.2.11 148

69

130

+ (S-D-Indol-) in 5cc

4.2.11 152

70

150

6.2.11 156

71

120

+ (S-D—) in lee

7.2.11 158

71A

130

+ (S-D-) in 5cc

8.2.11 162

72

120

9.2.11 166

73

120

8

+ (S+D-Indol-V. & P.+) in 2cc

10.2.11 170

74

130

7

+ (S+D—Indol-) in lec

13.2.11 174

75

100

+ (8+D+) in 10cc

Negative in 10cc; not tested higher.

Negative in 10cc ; not tested higher.

Negative in 5cc; + in 10cc; cultures lost.

I 7+ unclassed in 10cc

Negative in 10cc; not tested higher.

III 71 in 10cc

Negative in 10cc; not tested higher.

IV in 10cc

Negative in 10cc; I 4 I 1, II 33 in 20cc Negative in 10cc; not tested higher.

II 34 B. Coli Communis in 1cc

I 7 in 5cc

Negative in 2cc; not tested higher.

I 4 B. Grünthal in 1cc and 2cc

I 4 B. Grünthal in 8cc

No Coli like organisms found in 2cc; not tested higher.

I 7 in 2cc and some unclassed organisms.

IV in lec

III 71 in 10cc

I

TABLE II.

126

Total Unfiltered Pokfulum Water as it flows on to the Filter Beds.

Total

Colonies

Ref.

in lcc

No. of

cultures

isolated

Date.

No.

Classification on the "Coli Group" Basis.

No.

on agar

8 hours

at 37° C.

and

investi-

gated.

Characters of the chief organism isolated.

14.2.11

178

15.2.11

182

21

76

140

.6

+ (8+D+) lcc; + (S-D+) in 5cc

77

100

5

+ (S~D+) in 5cc

16.2.11 186

78

130

6

+ (S-D-) in 5cc

17.2.11 190

79

130

5

18.2.11 194 80

110

19.2.11 198

81

140

20.2.11 201

82

90

+ (S+D—Indol—) in 5cc

21.2.11 205 83

22.2.11

23.2.11 210

100

+ (S+D+ V. & P.+) in 5cc

208 84

100

+ (S-D-) in 5cc

85

24.2.11 216 86

25.2.11 218

87

27.2.11 225

28.2.11 228

89

20 850 88 88

105

+ (S+D-Indol-Clot-) in icc and 2cc

+ (S+D+) in 5cc

III 71 II 34 B. Coli Communis in 5cc

II 34 B. Coli Communis in 5cc

I 4 B. Grünthal in 5cc

in Icc; not tested.

Unclassed.

III 71 in 5cc

IV in 5cc

III 72 B. neapolitanus.

I 4 B. Grünthal.

No coli like organism found in 10cc

110

3

110

3

140

3

125

3

+ (S+D+) in 5cc

No coli like organism found in 1cc No coli like organism found in 5cc No coli like organism found in 5cc IV in 5cc

not tested in higher amounts.

1.3.11 230

90

90

2.3.11 237

91

140

3

+ (S-D-Indol-) in 1cc

3.3.11 241

92

150

+ (S-D+) in 1cc

4.3.11 244

93

120

+ (S+D-Indol-) in 2cc

+ (S-D-Indol― Clot―) in 5cc

No coli like organism found in 5co

I 7 IV 108

II 34 III 71 in Icc

Unclassed in 2cc

1

127

TABLE II

Total Unfiltered Pokfulum Water as it flows on to the Filter Beds, - Continued.

Ref.

Total

Colonies

in lcc

No. of

cultures

isolated

Date.

No.

No.

on agar

and

Classification on the “Coli Group" Basis.

48 hours

at 37° 0.

investi-

gated,

Characters of the chief organism isolated.

These organisms were tested on Saccharose and Dulcit so as to divide them into the Four Groups, but they were not further worked out.

27.3.11

04

94

130

6

28.3.11 07

95

140

7

29.3.11

010

96

130

{

30.3.11

5

015

97

130

10

31.3.11 019 98

150

2

1.4.11 024 99

358

+ (8+) in 1; + (S−) in 1cc

+ (S+D+) in 2cc;+(S—D+) and (S+D+) in 5cc

+ (S+D- Indol-) in 2cc; + (8+D+) in 10cc

+ (S+D+) in 2cc and in 5cc

+ (S+D+) in 5cc

+ (S~D~Indol-) in lcc; + (S+D~)

in 2cc

3.4.11 026 100

150

+ (S+D+Indol—) in Icc

4.4.11 031 101

170

+ ($+D+) in Ice

5.4.11 034 102

160

+ (S+D—) in 2cc

6.4.11 038 103

260

+ (S+D) and (S+D+Indol-) in 1cc

7.4.11

042 104

200

+ (S+D+) and (S+D-) in 2cc

8.4.11 046 105

210

+ (S+D—) in 1cc

10.4.11 050 106 overgrown

Negative in 1cc

11.4.11 054 107

400

Negative in 1cc

12.4.11 056 108

200

Negative in 1cc

13.4.11 058 109

190

+ (S-D+) and (S+D+) in 1cc

20.4.11 063 110

175

+ (8+D+) in 5cc

128

TABLE II

Total Unfiltered Pokfulum Water as it flows on to the Filter Beds,-Continued.

Total

No. of

Ref.

Colonies

in lcc

cultures

isolated

Date.

No.

Classification on the "Coli Group" Basis.

No.

on agar

48 hours

and

investi-

at 37° C.

gated.

Characters of the chief organism isolated.

These organisms were tested on Saccharose and Dulcit so as to divide them into the Four Groups, but they were not further worked out.

21.4.11 067

111

220

6

{{

22.4.11 071 112

180

+(S+D+Indol-) in cc; + (S-D+) and

(S+D-) in 2cc

Negative in 2cc

24.4.11 077 113

180

Negative in 1cc

25.4.11 079 114

240

Negative in 1cc

26.4.11 085 115

200

Negative in 1cc

27.4.11 087 116

1,000

+ (S+D+) in occ

28.4.11 091 117

500

5

+ (S~D+) in ce

29.4.11 095 118

300

4

+ (S−D+), (S+D+) and (S+D-) in 1cc

1.5.11 099 119

200

2.5.11 0103 120

550

+ (S+D+) in fcc

+ (S—D+Indol-) in ce

3.5.11 0108 121

150

5

+ (S+D+Indol-) in ce

4.5.11 0111 122

210

Negative in ce

5.5.11 0115 123

270

6.5.11 0119 124

200

8.5.11 0122 125

220

4

+ (S-D-Indol-) in cc

+ (S-D-) and (S+D—) in 1cc

+ (S+D+Indol-) in cc

9.5.11 0126 126

350

Negative in cc

10.5.11 0134 127

250

4

+ (S-D+) in 1cc

11.5.11 0138 128

300

4

+ (S-D+) in 1cc

12.5.11 0142 129

300

4

+ (8+D+) in occ

129

TABLE II.

Intake.

130

THE PLUNKETT'S GAP STREAM.

Unfiltered water, 16 samples.

Amounts of samples tested:-

Acc., Acc., lcc. for Agar plates.

1cc. on to Lactose Agar coloured plates.

rocc., lcc., 2cc., 5cc. Glucose Peptone water.

Tec, lcc., 2cc., 5cc., 10cc. Lactose Peptone water.

Organisms isolated are worked out both by the "Coli Group" method and by the full method, (see p. 119.)

This stream and the next (Mount Austin) are really direct feeders of the Reservoir, but as they can and are from time to time diverted so as to run direct into the Conduit without going into the Reservoir at all, they are treated as Intakes. The map* attached shows the areas they drain.

* Not printed.

.

:

-

Total

Colonies

No. of

cultures

Ref.

in lcc

isolated

Date.

No.

No.

on agar

and

48 hours

at 37° C.

investi-

gated.

Plunkett's Gap Stream, Unfiltered Water.

Classification on the “Coli Group" Basis.

Characters of the chief organism isolated.

15.2.11 185

1 overgrown

5

+ (S+D+ V. & P.+) in 2cc

III unclassed.

16.2.11 189

2

140

5

+ (S+D-) in 2cc

IV

17.2.11 193

3

250

18.2.11 196

4

140

+ (S-D+) in lcc

20.2.11 199

5

110

+ (S-D-) in 5cc

21.2.11 203

6

120

4

+ (S-D-) in 2cc

22.2.11 206

7

150

Co

23.2.11 213

8

120

24.2.11 215

9

140

+ (SD) in lcc

25.2.11 220

10

130

3

27.2.11 224 11

175

28.2.11 227

12

200

N

1.3.11 233

13

175

6

+ (S+D− ) in 5cc

2.3.11 235 14

250

3

+ (8-D-) in 5cc

3.3.11 238

15

150

LO

+ (S-D+) in 2cc

4.3.11 243

16

110

+ (S+D+) in 1cc

+ (S-D-Motility-) in 1cc

+ (S+ D− ) in oce

Plates spoiled.

II 34 B. Coli Communis I 4 B. Grünthal in 1cc

I 4 B. Grünthal in 5cc; III 71 in 10cc

I 4 B. Grünthal in 2cc

III 71

No Coli found in 5cc

I 4 B. Grünthal in 1cc

No Coli found in lec

Negative in 2cc

I 5 B. vesiculosus

IV

I 4 B. Grünthal and IV 106

II 34 B. Coli Communis II 35 B. Schäfferi in 2cc

IV in occ

131

TABLE III.

Intakes.

132

THE MOUNT AUSTIN STREAM.

16 samples of unfiltered water.

Amounts of the samples examined :---

cc., cc., lcc, on to Agar plates.

1cc. on to Lactose Agar coloured plate.

bcc., lcc., 2cc., 5cc., 10cc. Glucose Peptone water tubes.

fbcc., lcc., 2cc., 5cc., 10cc. Lactose water tubes.

The organisms isolated are worked out both on the "Coli Group basis and by the full method (p. 119.)

!

Total

Colonies

No. of

cultures

Ref.

in lcc

isolated

Date.

No.

No.

on agar

and

48 hours

at 37° C.

investi-

gated.

Mount Austin Stream, Unfiltered Water.

Classification on the "Coli Group" Basis.

Characters of the chief organism isolated.

Group IV only

Group IV only

Plates spoiled

II 34 3 Coli Communis

Group IV only

I 4 B. Grünthal

Coli Group not found in 5cc

Group IV only

I 4 B. Grünthal

Not found in 5cc

III 71

III 71 III 72 B. Neapolitanus

II 34 (Indol-) II 35 (Indol− )

Group IV only

II 34 B. Coli Commun is

10.11.11

9

1

900

12

+ (S+D-) in 1cc

15.2.11 184

2

60

+ (S+D+) in 5cc

III 71

16.2.11 188

110

4

+ (S+D-) in 2cc

17.2.11 192

120

18.2.11

197

70

4

+ (S-D+) in 5cc

21.2.11 202

6

100

+ (S+D-) in 5cc

22.2.11

207

100

+ (S−D−) in 2cc

23.2.11 212

8

110

24.2.11 217

9

150

+ (S+D) in 2cc

25.2.11

221

10

155

5

+ (S-D-) in cc

27.2.11

223

11

80

28.2.11 226

12

110

+ (S+D+) in 1cc

1.3.11 232

13

150

+ (S+D+) in 2cc

2.3.11 234

14

110

+ (S—D+Indol—) in 1cc

3.3.11 239

15

100

6

+ (S+ D−) in lec

4.3.11

242

16

60

+ (S-D+) in 2cc

133

TABLE IV.

Intakes.

134

J

No. 1 SYPHON INTAKE.

57 samples of unfiltered water.

Amounts of samples examined were :--

Acc., Acc., lcc. on to Agar plates.

Acc., lcc., 2cc., 5cc,, 10cc. on to Glucose Peptone water.

bcc., lcc., 2cc., 5cc., 10cc. on to Lactose Peptone water.

The organisms isolated from the first 28 samples were worked out both on the "Coli Group" basis and also by the full method described on p. 119.

From No. 29 onwards-only the Group method was used.

The Hatton Road joins the Harlech Road at the top of this area; otherwise the area appears to be a good one.

:

+

Total

Colonies

in lec

No. of

cultures

isolated

No. 1 Syphon Intake-Samples of Unfiltered Water.

Classification on the "Coli Group" Basis.

Characters of the chief organism isolated.

135 -

TABLE V.

Ref.

Date.

No.

No.

on agar

48 hours

at 37° C.

and

investi-

gated.

24.1.11 131

1

90

25.1.11

135

2

28

+ (S-D+) in acc

75

+ (S+D+) in 10cc

II 34 B. Coli Communis, II 35 B. Schafferi in cc; III 71 in lcc; II 34 B. Coli Com III 71, III 74

[munis III 71 in 5cc.

26.1.11

139

90

+ (S+D+ Motility-) in 10cc

III 72-B. Neapolitanus.

27.1.11

143

80

28.1.11

147

90

888

in 10cc

4

+ (S+D-Indol-) in 10cc

Group IV only.

3.2.11 151

6

100

6

+ (S+D+) in 1cc

Group IV only.

4.2.11

155

90

0

in 5cc

7.2.11 161

100

in 5cc

8.2.11 165

90

+ (S+D-Indol-) in 5cc

10.2.11

169

10

12.2.11 173

11

100

13.2.11

177

12

288

90

+ (S+D+) in acc

+ (S-D+) in 10cc

80

5

+ (S+D+) in 10cc

14.2.11

181

13

100

4

+ (S-D-Indol−) in 10cc

15.2.11

183

14 overgrown

+ (S-D−) in 10cc

Group IV only.

III 71 in cc; I 7 III 71 in 5cc; IV 109 in 10cc

I 1 II 34 B. Coli Communis

III 71 I 7

17

I 4 B. Grünthal.

16.2.11 187

15

100

0

in 10cc

17.2.11 191

16

85

0

in 10cc

18.2.11 195

17

60

6

+ (S-D-) in lec

20.2.11

200

18

110

21.2.11 204

19

70

+ (S-D+) in 5cc

in 10cc

I 4 B. Grünthal; I 7

II 34 B. Coli Communis.

Cultures discarded as not Coli.

Characters of the chief organism isolated.

Total

No. of

cultures

No. 1 Syphon Intake Samples of Unfiltered Water,-Continued.

Colonies

Ref.

in lcc

isolated

Date.

No.

No.

on agar

48 hours

at 37° C.

and

investi-

gated.

Classification on the “ Coli Group" Basis.

136

TABLE V.

22.2.11 209

.20

80

23.2.11 211

21

75

25.2.11 219

22

110

.5

27.2.11 222

23

100

4

..

28.2.11 229 24

80

1.3.11 231

25

135

in lcc

+ (S+D) in 5cc

in 10cc

+ (S+D-Indol-) in 5cc

+(S-D-Indol-) in 1cc

+ (S+D-) in 1cc

Group IV only.

Cultures discarded as not Coli.

IV 109

17

Unclassified.

Not Coli.

2.3.11 236

26

120

0

in 100c

3.3.11 240

27

80

4.3.11 245

28

27.8.11

03 29

8288

6

in 5cc

70

+ (S-D+) in 2cc

50

28.8.11

06

30

100

+(S+) in 10cc

+ (S+D-Indol-) in 10cc

29.3.11 011

31

70

30.3.11 016 32

60

88

6

+ (8-D−) in 1cc

Not Coli.

II 34 B. Coli Communis, III 71, IV 105 (not liquefied in 14 days). The following organisms were classified into the four groups only.

+ (S+D-Indol-) present in 2cc

5

+ (S+D+Indol-V. & P.+) in 5cc

31.3.11 020 33

120

6

+ (S+D−) in loc

1.4.11 023

34

113

5

+ (8-D+) in lcc

+ (S-D) and (S+D-) in 2cc

8.4.11 027

35

100

4

+ (S+D+) in 5cc

4.4.11 032 36

160

+ (S+D+) in 1cc

5.4.11 036

37

100

1

+ (S+D+) in 1cc

6.4.11

040

38

100

4

+ (8+ D + ) in lec

T

+

Characters of the chief organism isolated.

Total

Colonies

No. 1 Syphon Intake-Samples of Unfiltered Water,-Continued.

No. of

cultures

Ref.

in lcc

isolated

Date.

No.

No.

on agar

and

48 hours

investi-

at 37° C.

gated.

Classification on the "Coli Group" Basis.

+ (S-D+) in 10cc

7.4.11 044

39

240

3

+ (S+D+) in lec

8.4.11 047

40

220

4

+ (S+D~) in 1cc

10.4.11 052

41

150

4

+ (S+D-Indol-) in 5cc

20.4.11 065

42

120

-

in 2cc

21.4.11 069 43

160

3

+ (S+D-Indol−) in 1cc

22.4.11 072

44

190

4

+ (S+D-) in 2cc

24.4.11 075

45

180

+ (S+D~) in Icc

25.4.11 081

46

150

+ (S+D+) in Ice

26.4.11 083

47

180

+ (S+D-Indol-) in 5cc

27.4.11 089

48

1,000

+ (S+D+) in acc

28.4.11 093 49

100

+ (S+D-) in Ice

29.4.11 097

50

150

+ (S+D+) in rocc

1.5.11 0101

51

250

+ (S-D+Indol-) in 1cc

2.5.11 0104

52

300

4

+ (S+D+) in lcc

3.5.11 0109

53

4.5.11

0113

54

5.5.11 0117

55

8.5.11 0123

56

10.5.11 0136

57

3333 5

150

+ (S+D+) in bee

230

+ (S+D-Indol—) in occ

200

+ (S~D+) in occ

200

+ (S-D+) in Tocc

200

+ (S+1)+) in lec

:

Also one organism + (S+D+) in 1ce

>

TABLE V.

137

138

THE PINE WOOD NULLAH INTAKE.

UNFILTERED WATER.

Method used exactly the same as in the case of the No. 1 Syphon, only all organisms isolated were worked out on the "Coli Group" basis.only.

This area is crossed in two places by the Hatton Road and at the top a Battery with Barracks. These Barracks do not drain into the area, but it is possible that some of the nightsoil may be dumped into the stream. In view of the fact that B. Coli Com- munis was found in 30°, of the samples which is doable the percentage of any other intake, the question of nightsoil requires careful investigation.

139

TABLE VI.

Pine Wood Nullah Intake.

Total

Colonies in

No. of

Ref.

Date.

No.

Icc on Agar

cultures

No.

37 C for 48

isolated.

hours.

Classification on the "Coli Group" Basis.

27.3.11

02

1

30

4

28.3.11

08

2

80

10

5

29.3.11 012

3

80

7

30.3.11

014

4

60

3

31.3.11

018

5

60

3

+

1.4.11 022

6

100

3

3.4.11

028

7

140

7

4.4.11

030

8

80

5

5.4.11

035

9

100

4

+

6.4.11 039

10

overgrown

2

+ (S+) in 2cc (Dulcit not tested).

+ (S−D+) in 2cc

+ (S+D+Indol-) in 1cc

+ (S-D+) in 10cc

+ (S+D-Indol-) in lcc

Negative in 10cc

+ (S+D-) in lcc; + (S-D+) in 2cc

+ (S+D+) in lcc

(S-D+Indol-) in lcc

+ (S+D-) in 1cc

7.4.11 043

11

80

4

+ (S-D-) in lec

8.4.11 048

12

90

6

+ (S+D-Indol-) in lec

10.4.11 051

13

100

8

20.4.11 064

14

65

+ (S−D+) in 2cc

Negative in 5cc

21.4.11 068

15

150

4

+ (S-D-) in 5cc

22.4.11 073

16

125

4

+ (S+D+) in 10cc

24.4.11 076

17

90

3

+ (S+ D) in lcc

25.4.11 080

18

120

Negative in 5cc

· 26.4.11 084

19

90

4

+ (S-D+) in lcc

27.4.11 088

28.4.11 092

22

20 over 1000

2

+ (S-D+) in cc

21

100

4

+ (S-D+) in 2cc

29.4.11 096

22

100

4

+ (S+ D + ) in lcc

1.5.11 0100 23

230

2.5.11 0105

24

180

4

Negative in cc not plated higher.

+ (S−D+) in ce

3.5.11 0107

25

120

5

+ (S+ D + Indol-) in 1cc

4.5.11 0112

26

130

3

+ (S+D+) ince

5.5.11 0116

27

90

4

+ (S+D-Indol-) in 1cc

6.5.11 0120

28

150

4

+ (S-D+ Indol-) incc

8.5.11 0124

29

230

4

+ (S-D-) ince

10.5.11 0135

30

140

4

+ (S+D-Indol-) in 1cc

(I) THE INTAKES.

140

THE UNFILTERED WATERS.

The results of 119 samples of water taken from four intakes have been given.

For comparative purposes it will be best to take only those organisms which give the reactions of true B. Coli Communis (Escherich) i.e. II 34, or where Group reactions only are used, the Group + (S-D+).

Whatever difference of opinion there may be as to the significauce of many of the other organisms isolated, it may be taken that true B. Coli Communis means recent fæcal contamination. There is however no bacteriological evidence

prove

whether that contamination was human or animal in origin.

to

The following table gives the comparative results :-

TABLE VII.

Intake.

Date.

Group +(S-D+)

II 34

Amount of

sample.

%

28.3.11

+

2 cc.

3.4.11

++

2 cc.

7.4.11

+

1 cc.

10.4.11

+

Pine Wood Nullah

26.4.11

+

30 samples

27.4.11

+

Not worked out

2 cc.

1 cc.

30% of all samples.

cc.

28.4.11

+

2 cc.

2.5.11

+

8.5.11

24.1.11

+

+

16 cc.

To cc.

+

cc.

13.2.11

+

+

10 cc.

20.2.11

+

5 cc.

4.3.11

+

+

2 cc.

No. 1 Syphon

57 samples

1.4.11

+

5.4.11

+

5.5.11

+

8.5.11

Not worked out

1 cc.

14% of all samples.

1 cc.

1 cc.

cc.

18.2.11

+

+

Mount Austin

16 samples

4.3.11

+

+

2 cc.

18.2.11

+

+

1 cc.

Plunkett's Gap

16 samples

3.3.11

+

+

2 cc.

5 cc.

12.5% of total

samples.

12.5% of total

samples.

+

L

141

(II) THE TOTAL WATER.

These four intakes with others go to make up the total Pokfulum unfiltered

water.

This total unfiltered water was examined on 130 occasions and in 23 of these examinations the Group + (S-D+) was found=17·6%.

This result is very similar to that given by the total intakes where 119 samples gave 21 positive or 17·6%.

In 16 out of the 23 cases in which the Group + (S-D+) was found, organ- isms giving the reactions of B. Coli Communis were isolated; in the remaining seven cases, the organisms were not further tested.

As regards the lowest amount of the samples in which these organisms were found, it was as follows:-

o cc., on 2 occasions.

1 cc., on 8

2 cc., on 7

3

5 cc., on 10 cc., on 3

23

11

??

""

RESULTS OBTAINED FROM No. 6 FILTER BED.

Area of bed 330 sq. yards. Fine sand 2′ 3′′ deep overlying fine and coarse stone. The Bed was built on the ridge and furrow system, and is fitted with a regulating valve whereby the rate of filtering can be adjusted to suit requirements.

The sand was last cleansed on Wednesday, 2nd November, and the Bed was recharged with filtered water.

The rate of filtration was maintained at 500 gallons per sq. yd. per day throughout.

The Bed received the total mixed unfiltered water from the Catchment area.

The first sample was taken on the 5th November and the last on the 29th December, 1910, after which the Bed was discarded by the Water Authority.

In all 45 samples of filtered water were examined.

The results are recorded exactly as for the total unfiltered Pokfulum Water and the same explanation of signs applies equally here.

Samples 1 to 38 inclusive had lcc., 2cc. and 5cc. added to Lactose Neutral Red Bile Salt Peptone water and lcc., 2cc., 5cc., 10cc., 20cc., and 50cc. added to Glucose Neutral Red Bile Salt Peptone water.

Samples 39 to 45 had lcc., 2cc., 5cc., 10cc., 20cc. and 50cc. added to Lactose Neutral Red Bile Salt Peptone water and lec., 2cc. and 5cc. to Glucose Neutral Red Bile Salt Peptone water.

In all other respects as regards incubation, plating out and determining the lowest amount of the sample to contain numbers of the Coli Group, the method is exactly that used for the unfiltered water already recorded.

Ref.

Date.

No.

No...

Age of

Filter in

days.

Total

Colonies

in lcc

No. of

cultures

isolated

on agar

and

48 hours

at 37° C.

investi-

gated.

Water filtered by No. 6 Filter Bed,

Classification on the "Coli Group" Basis.

5.11.10

2

1

3

7.11.10

4

250

240

9

+ (S+D-) in 1cc

8

+ (S-D+) in Tocc

8.11.10

6

Co

CO

Co

60

+ (8+D+) in 1cc

9.11.10

4

7

120

13

+ (S+D+) in Icc

10.11.10

11

5

8

75

12

+ (S+D+) in lcc

11.11.10

13

9

.50

10

+ (S−D+) in lec

12.11.10

15

14.11.10

17

7

.00

.10

75

10

+ (S+ D−) in 10cc

12

15.11.10

19

9

13

ོ་ ི

30

10

+ (S+D+) in 10cc

45

12

+ (S-D-) in 2cc

16.11.10

21

10

14

40

10

+ (S−D+) in 5cc

17.11.10

23

11

15

22

18.11.10

25

12

19.11.10 27

13

24

16

20

22

5

+ (S-D-) in 10cc

6

C

5cc Lactose

17

1

21.11.10 29 14

19

15

6

+ (S+D+Indol-) 2cc

22.11.10 31 15

20

10

6

+ (S+D+Indol-V. & P.+) 20cc

23.11.10

38. 16

21

25

9

+ (S-D-Indol-) 5cc

24.11.10

35- 17

22

26

9

+(8-D-) 5cc

25.11.10 37

18

23

30

+ (S-D+) 10cc

26.11.10

39

19

24

25

20cc

Characters of the chief organism isolated.

142

TABLE VIII.

Group IV and I 7

I 7, II 34 B. Coli Communis in ce; ditto in Ice

III 71 and Group IV

III 71 in lcc; I 4 B. Grünthal in 2cc

III 71 in 1cc; III 71 II 34 B. Coli Communis in 2cc

II 34 B. Coli Communis III 74 in lcc; II 34, I 4 B. Grünthal in 2cc Group IV

III 71 and Group IV in 10cc; I 7 in 20cc

I 4. B. Grünthal, I 7 in 2cc; I 7, II 34 (indol--) in 5cc

II 34 B. Coli Communis I 4 B. Grünthal III 71 in 10cc and upwards.

II 34 B. Coli Communis, III 71 in 5cc; II 34 I 7, IV I 4 in 10cc & upwards.

I 4 B. Grünthal.

Given up

Given up

}

as there was a suspicion of accidental interference

}

III 74 II 34-Indol-in 20cc

IV 108 B. Cloacae in 20cc

I 7 in 5cc; IV 98, IV 99 in 5cc; I 4 B. Grünthal in 20cc

I 4 B. Grünthal in 5cc; II 34 B. Coli Communis in 10cc; IV 105, IV 109 in 20cc

I 4 B. Grünthal II 34 B. Coli Communis in 10cc; I 4 in 20cc

No Coli-like organisms in 20cc.

Ref.

Age of

Date.

No.

Filter in

No.

days.

Characters of the chief organism isolated.

Total

Colonies

in lec

on agar

48 hours

at 37° C.

No. of

cultures

isolated

and

investi-

gated.

Water filtered by No. 6 Filter Bed,-Continued.

Classification on the “Coli Group" Basis.

1

28.11.10

41

20

26

24

9

+ (S-D−) in 10ce

29.11.10

43

222222

21

27

30.11.10

45

22

28

NO NO

25

4

+ (S-D-) in 20cc

25

1.12.10

47

23

29

.20

2.12.10

49

7243

24

30

3.12.10

51

25

31

5.12.10 · 53

26

33

NO 19 20

27

20

6.12.10

55

275

34

20

6

7.12.10

57

28

35

26

12

8.12.10

59

29

36

20

6

9.12.10

61

30

37

16

10.12.10

63

383

31

38

25

6

+ (S+D+) in 10cc

12.12.10

65

32

40

16

in 20cc

+ (S~D+) in 5cc

+(S-D-Indol-) 10cc

+ (S-D-) 10cc

All negative in 5cc Lactose Peptone water; not tested higher.

Plated 10cc, 20cc and 50cc Glucose Peptone water on to Lactose agar plates.

I 4 B. Grünthal, I 7 in 10cc

I 4 B. Grünthal, IV 108 B. Cloacae.

No Coli-like organisms found in 20cc

II 34 B. Coli Communis I 4 B. Grünthal, I 7 in 5cc

I 7 in 10cc; I 7, III 71, II 34 (Indol-) in 20cc

I 7 in 10cc; II 34 (Indol --) in 20cc Coli Group absent from 50cc of sample. III 71 present in 20cc

II 34 B. Coli Communis present in 10cc

II 34 B. Coli Communis present in 10cc

Coli Group absent from 50cc of sample. III 71 present in 10cc, 20cc and 50cc Coli Group absent from 50cc of sample.

13.12.10

67

33

41

20

14.12.10

69

34

42

19

""

Coli Group absent in 50cc of sample.

15.12.10

71

35

43

25

""

16.12.10

73

17.12.10

75

19.12.10

77

2 2 5

36

44

37

45

38

47

NO NO NO

27

25

3

Original samples

Peptone water.

negative in 5cc Lactose

Plated out 10cc, 20cc and 50cc Glucose Peptone

water on to Lactose agar plates.

>>

Chromogenic organism only.

"

25

>>

""

20.12.10

79

39

48

25

Negative in 20cc, 50cc gave I 4 B. Grünthal and IV.

143

TABLE VIII.

Total

Colonies

in lec

No. of

cultures

Water filtered by No. 6 Filter Bed,-Continued.

Classification on the "Coli Group" Basis.

Ref.

Age of

isolated

Date.

No.

Filter in

No.

days.

on agar

48 hours

at 37° C.

and

investi-

gated.

Characters of the chief organism isolated.

Negative in 50cc original Lactose Peptone water.

25

Plated 50cc Lactose Peptone water.

Coli Group absent from 50cc of sample.

No Coli-like organisms in 50cc of sample.

55

>>

22

Negative in 50cc original Lactose Peptone water.

"

""

20

>>

21.12.10

22.12.10

81

40

49

20

83

23.12.10

85

24.12.10

63 13 10

41

42

87

43

28.12.10

89

44

29.12.10

91

45

2 8 8 9 8

50

51

52

56

57

N N N N N

24

144-

TABLE VIII.

145

No. 2 FILTER BED.

Last changed, December 31st 1910, Sand 2′ deep.

First sample taken on January 3rd 1911.

Rate of filtration 500 yards gallons per day throughout.

The amounts of the samples tested were :-

cc., cc., lcc. on to Agar plates.

cc., lcc., 2cc. on to Lactose Agar coloured plates.

1cc., 2cc., 5cc., on to Glucose N.R. Bile Salt Peptone water.

lcc., 2cc., 5cc., 10cc., 20cc., 50cc. on to Lactose N. R. Bile Salt Peptone water. Organisms isolated were worked out as given on p. 119 and are classed here on both the Coli Group" Basis and by the organisms identified.

For unfiltered water taken on same day see previous pages

Total

Colonies

No. of

cultures

Ref.

in lcc

isolated

Date.

No.

No.

on agar

48 hours

at 37° C.

and

investi-

gated.

No. 2 Filter Bed-Filtered Water.

Classification on the “Coli Group" Basis.

Characters of the chief organism isolated.

+ (8+D+) in 1cc

+ (S+D+) and (S-D+) in Icc

3.1.11

93

200

9

4.1.11

95

N

40

5.1.11

97

35

+ (S+D+) in 2cc

6.1.11

99

40

+ (S+D+) in 2cc

7.1.11 101

50

10

+(8-D-) in lec

9.1.11 103

35

6

+ (S+D+) in 5cc

10.1.11

105

65

11.1.11

107

200

12.1.11 109

50

+ (S+D+) and (S-D)~) in 5cc

13.1.11 111

10

100

+ (S−D+) in 2cc

14.1.11 113

11

35

6

+ (S+D+) in 10cc

16.1.11 115 12

45

17.1.11 117

13

35

33333

18.1.11 119

14

40

6

19.1.11 121

15

30

20.1.11 123

16

30

7

+ (S—D+) in 20cc

21.1.11 125

17

35

8

+ (S-D-) in 10cc

23.1.11 127

18

40

6

+ (S-D-Indol-) in 20cc

III 71 in 1cc

III 71 and II 34 B. Coli Communis in 1cc

III 71 in 2cc

III 71 in 2cc

I 4 B. Grünthal in 1cc; II 71 III 72 B. Neapolitanus in 2cc

III 71

Negative in 5cc

Negative in 5cc

I 4 B. Grünthal, III 71 in 5cc

II 34 B. Coli Communis, III 71 in 2cc

III 71 in 10cc

Negative in 10cc

Negative in 10cc

Negative in 20 cc

Negative in 20cc

II 34 B. Coli Communis, III 71 in 20cc

I 4 B. Grünthal in 10cc; II 34 B. Coli Communis, III 71 in 20cc

I 7 in 20cc; II 34 B. Coli Communis, III 71 in 50cc

TABLE IX.

146

1

:

Č

147

No. 5 FILTER BED.

FIRST SERIES.

Last changed January 14th, 1911. Sand 2' deep.

Rate of Filtration varied from 375 to 500 yards gallons per day. (See tables attached.)

Amounts of sainples put up were :--

Acc, cc, lec on to Agar plates.

cc, lec, 2cc on to Lactose Agar plates.

1cc, 2cc, 5cc on Glucose Bile Salt N. R. Peptone water.

lec, 2cc. 5cc, 10cc, 20cc, 50cc on to Lactose N. R. Peptone water.

Method of recording results as before.

Total No. of samples examined 15.

For unfiltered water taken on same day, see above.

No. 5 Filtered Bed-Filtered Water.

Total

Colonies

in lec

No. of

cultures

isolated

Classification on the "Coli Group" Basis.

Rate

Ref.

Date.

No.

No.

of

Filtration.

on agar

48 hours

at 37° C.

and

investi-

gated.

Characters of the chief organism isolated.

148

TABLE

X.

+ (S+D+) in 10cc

24.1.11 130

1

500

36

5

+ (S~D+) in 20cc

25.1.11 134

26.1.11 138

27.1.11 142

28.1.11

Q

500

40

+ (S−D+) in 2cc

4

లు

500

40

500

30

146

500

3.2.11

150

6

500

4.2.11 154

7

500

6.2.11 157

400

7.2.11 160

9

375

8.2.11 164

10

400

NO IS OO NO CO i

40

6

+ (S+S+) in 10ce

30

+ (S+D+) in 5cc

20

30

9.2.11 168

11

400

10.2.11 172

12

400

13.2.11 176

13

400

No No 20

25

7

+ (S-D-) in 5cc

20

6

30

7

+ (8+D+) in 20cc

25

4

+ (S+D) - Indol-) in 20cc

20

14.2.11 180

14

400

15

5

24.2.11 214

15

500

25

115

+ (8+D+) in 20cc

+ (S+D-Indol-) in 20cc

II 34 B. Coli Communis, III 71 III 72 B. Neapolitanus in 20cc

II 34 III 72 in 2cc

III 71, II 33 in 10cc

Negative in 20cc, probably + in 50cc, but overgrown

III 71 in 10cc

III 71 in 5cc; III 71 II 34 in 10cc and in 20cc

Negative in 20cc

Negative in 50cc

I 4 B. Grünthal in 5cc, IV in 10cc

No true Coli found in 20cc

III 71 I 7 in 20cc

IV in 20cc

III 71 I 7 in 20cc

III 71 in 50cc

Negative in 20cc

+

149

No. 5 BED. SECOND SERIES.

Last changed March 1st, 1911. Sand 2' deep; commenced filtering on April 16th.

Rate of filtration about 300 yards gallons per day.

Amounts of samples tested :--

cc, cc and 1cc on to Agar plates.

loce, lec, 2cc, 5cc on to Glucose N. R. Bile Salt Peptone water.

Tocc, lec, 2cc, 5cc, 10cc, 20cc on to Lactose N. R. Bile Salt Peptone

water.

Results worked out on the "Coli Group" Basis only.

For unfiltered water taken at the same time, see previous pages.

TABLE XI.

No. 5 BED.

Total Colonies in

Date.

Ref. No.

No.

Rate of Filtration.

1cc on Agar

No. of cultures

Classification of the "Coli Group" Basis.

37° C. for

48 hours.

isolated.

20.4.11 062

1

300

30

4

22.4.11

070

2

360

30

6

23.4.11

074

3

300

25

25.4.11 078

4

294

190

4

26.4 11

082

5

400

35

2

27.4.11 086

6

400

50

LO

5

28.4.11

090

7

294

30

5

+(S+D) in 20cc.

+ (S+ D) + in 10cc; +(S-D+)

in 20cc.

Negative in 20cc.

+ (S+ D + ) in 5cc.

+ (S+ D + ) in 20cc.

+(SD) in 5cc.

+ (S + D + ) in 5cc.

29.4.11

094

8

325

25

4

+ (S− D + ) in 10cc.

1.5.11

098

9

300

25

5

+ (S−D+) in lcc.

2.5 11 0102

10

294

30

5

+ (S+D+Indol-) in 5cc.

3.5.11 0106

11

294

20

5

4.5.11 0110

12

300

20

4

5.5.11 0114

13

300

25

4

6.5.11 0118

14

294

15

8.5.11 0121

15

294

25

+ (S−D+) & (S-D-) in 10cc.

+ (S− D + ) in 5cc.

+ (S+ D - Indol — ) in 20cc.

Negative in 20cc.

Negative in 20cc.

9.5.11 0125

16

294

20

+(S+D) & (S-D-) in 20cc.

10.5.11 0133

17

294

30

Negative in 20cc.

11.5.11 0137

18

294

Negative in 20cc.

12.5.11 0141

19

290

25

4 +(S+D) in 20cc.

150

No. I FILTER BED. FIRST SERIES.

Made up January 18th, 1911. Sand 2' deep.

Rate of Filtration 375 to 400 yards gallons per day.

Amounts of samples tested were:-

fcc,

cc, lcc Agar plates.

'bcc, lcc, 2cc Lactose Agar coloured plates.

lec, 2cc, 5cc Glucose Bile Salt N. R. Peptone water.

lec, 2cc, 5cc, 10cc, 20cc, 50cc Lactose N. R. Peptone water.

Organisms isolated worked out fully as described on p. 119.

Results given both by "Group basis" and by organisms isolated.

For total unfiltered water taken on same day, see previous pages.

+

:

ألا تقم

No. 1 Filter Bed-Filtered Water.

Total

Colonies

in lcc

No. of

cultures

Classification on the "Coli Group " Basis.

Rate

Ref.

isolated

Date.

No.

No.

of

Filtration

on agar

48 hours

at 37° C.

and

investi-

gated.

+

Characters of the chief organism isolated.

24.1.11

129

400

40

9

+ (S−D+) in 5cc

25.1.11

133

2

· 400

35

+ (S-D+) in 10cc

26.1.11 137

400

100

+ (S+D+) in 20cc

27.1.11

141

4

400

30

+ (S+D+) in 20cc

28.1.11 145

400

30

6

+ (S+D+) in 20cc

3.2.11 149

6

400

35

4.2.11

153

400

20

7.2.11 159

400

25

+ (S-D-A-) in 20cc

8.2.11 163

9

375

25

+ (S+D+) in 20cc

9.2.11 167

10

400

30

+ (8+D+) in 5cc

+ (S-D-Indol-) in 10cc

II 34 in 5cc; I 4 II 34 in 10cc and in 20cc

II 34 III 71 in 10cc

III 71 in 20cc

III 71 in 20cc and 50cc

III 71 in 10cc

I 7 in 10cc; I 4 in 20cc; I 4 III 71 in 50cc

Negative in 20cc

I 1 I 4 in 20cc; III 71 in 50cc

III 71 in 20cc and 50cc

IV in 5cc

10.2.11 171

11

375

30

+ (8+D−) in 20cc

IV

13.2.11

175

12

375

25

+ (S+D+) in 10cc

III 71 in 10cc

14.2.11

179

13

371

35

+ (S-D-) in 10cc

I 4 B. Grünthal

151 -

TABLE XII.

152

No. 1. BED. SECOND SERIES.

Made up January 18th, 1911. Sand 2' deep.

Rate of Filtration 250 yards gallons per day and upwards.

Amounts of samples tested were:-

ce, cc, lcc Agar plates.

face, lcc, 2cc, 5cc Glucose Peptone water.

rec, lec, 2cc, 5cc, 10cc, 20cc Lactose Peptone water.

Results are given on to "Coli Group" Basis, see p. 119 for details. Organisms not further worked out.

For the total unfiltered water taken on same days as these samples, see previous pages.

TABLE XIII.

No. I

Bed.

Date.

Ref. No. No.

Rate of Filtration.

Total colonies in lec on Agar

37°C for

48 hours.

No. of cultures

• Classification on the “Coli Group" Basis.

isolated.

27.3.11

01

1.

250

overgrown

6

28.3.11

05

2

294

overgrown

3

29.3.11

09

3

294

80

4

30.3.11 013

4

294

60

3

31.3.11

017

10

5

294

100

6

1.4.11 021

6

294

71

6

CO

3.4.11

025

7

294

140

2

+(SS+) in 5cc (Dulcit not

tested)

+ (S+D — Indol -) in 10cc.

+ (S—D+ ) & (S+ D + ) in 10cc

+(S+ D-Indol — ) in 10ce

+(S—D+) in 5cc

+(S+D) in 10cc

+(S+D) in 10cc

4.4.11 029

8

294

30

3

+ (S + D− ) in 10cc

5.4.11 033

9

250

60

3

+(S+ D) in 10cc

6.4.11 037

10

250

65

7.4.11 041

11

250

80

5

Negative up to 10ec

+(S+D) & (SD) in 20cc

8.4.11

045

12

250

55

4

+(S+ D) in 5cc

10.4.11 049

13

294

36

4

+(S—D+) in 5cc

11.4.11 053

14

290

70

Negative up to 10cc

12.4.11

055

15

290 overgrown

2

13.4.11 057

16 290

50

3

21.4.11 066

17

400

50

4

+(S+D-Indol-) in 10cc

+ (S + D− ) in 5cc

+(SD) in 10cc

?

THE

153

FILTERED

WATER.

An inspection of the results given by the 129 samples of filtered water is in some respects disappointing.

No. 6 Bed filtering at 500 yards gallons was taken as the type and was therefore the most thoroughly tested. It required seven or more days after the commencement of this filter before it became effective; it then remained in working order till the 56th day when it was discarded by the Water Authority

Even at the best time of filtration the results are poor compared with what can be done at Home.

All the filters tested showed inefficency for the first week or more after their

commencement.

Coli may be got in even smaller quantities in the filtered water than in the unfiltered water when a bed is first started, apparently obtaining this increase from the sand of the filter, which had been previously used.

It is therefore undesirable to change more than one bed at a time otherwise the total filtered water for a week or so will be practically unfiltered.

As regards rates of filtration, 400-500 yards gallons appears to give as good a filtrate as 250-400 does; there is, however, no reason to believe that a rate of 700-800 yards gallons as is sometimes used (see Filtration Table for 1910) would be effective.

That the filtration is not as effective as obtains at Home seems to be another reason in favour of satisfactory preliminary storage of the water.

The other filter beds examined give probably a rather unduly unfavourable picture of the filtration as they were examined chiefly early after their commencement, when they were not really effective.

The following diagrams *give a rough idea of the filtration from the point of view of the Coli Group. They can only be taken as approximate as all forms of Laotose fermenters are included and so the lines have by no means always an equal value. As far as they go however they give a general idea of how a filter bed starts.

OTHER PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES IN HONGKONG.

Some forty-two samples of Filtered and Unfiltered Water taken from other sources of Water Supply in the Colony have also been examined since the beginning of this year.

Only a few of those samples gave results requring notice of which the chief are as follows:

KOWLOON WATER

Filtered water examined on four occasions: the total Colonies in one c.c. Agar varied from 10 to 25 giving an average of 17.5 per c.c. and the Coli Group was absent up to 50 c.c.

In the unfiltered water, the Coli Group varied from negative up to 20 c.c. down to present in 1 c.c.

On the whole, the Kowloon water gives very good Bacteriological results, better than any other water supply in the Colony.

TYTAM WATER.

Filtered.-Total Colonies on agar in 1 cc. varied from 10 to 40 on 7 occasions and 100 on one occasion and the Coli Group varied between present in 10 c.c. to absent in 20 c.c.; eight samples tested.

Unfiltered.-The total Colonies on Agar in 1 c.c. varied from 60 to 320 on 13 occasions it was examined; the Coli Group was present in 10 c.c on 2 occasions, in 5 c.c. on 3 occasions, and during the month of May in 1 c.c.

Generally speaking this water supply occupies an intermediate position between the Kowloon and the Pokfulum Waters.

*Not Printed.

YEAR 1910.

Pokfulum Reservoir Water Filtered at

West Point FILTER BEDS

Average Rate of Filtration per month in gallons per square yard of Filter Bed per day.

154

TABLE XIV.

BED NO. 1.

BED NO. 2.

BED NO. 3.

BED No. 4.

BED No. 5.

MONTH

Days

in use

Gallons

yard day

Days

in use

Gallons

yard day

Days

in use

Gallons

yard day

Days

in use

Gallons

yard day

Days

in use

Gallons

yard day

Days

in use

BED NO. 6.

Gallons

yard day

January

22

549

20

630

18

630

February

28

382

19

612

9

655

March

22

655

27

516

4

352

31

735

April

23

634

1

652

21

572

10

418

7

455

May

12

533

2

376

7

369

23

552

26

654

June

22

July

25

August

O 10 000

670

24

717

21

643

23.

694

20

515

21

680

679

19

768

22

723

27

675

25

876

29

723

28'

631

29

769

26

835

29

651

25

743

23

805

September..

26

774

27

October

30

713

22 20

769

22

859

27

545

27

766

27

893

692

29

742

26

782

21

646

24

849

November

30

501

21

527

16

531

30

525

26

503

December

4

503

19

503

27

503

12

503

31

503

- 155

RESULTS OBTAINED FROM

WATER SUPPLIES.

(1) in England and America.

(2) in the Tropics generally.

It is necessary to note very briefly the chief differences between the Hongkong Waters and waters of a Temperate climate and other parts of the Tropics.

To illustrate what obtains in England the "Reports on the condition of the Metro- politan Water Supply" for the year 1910 have been made use of. It was considered particularly desirable to take the London Water as the example, though this is usually not done, as the Hongkong Water has already by others been compared with the London Water.

For America, the Report of the Massachusett's State Board of Health for the year 1909 has been made use of.

In both cases it will be noticed at once how far more efficacious the filtration is than is got either in Hongkong or in other parts of the Tropics. Tropical filtration gives relatively very disappointing results both as regards the total colonies on Agar per c.c. and as regards the removal of B. Coli from the filtered water.

As regards reports on the water in the Tropics generally, only a very scanty number of reports have been available; as far as they go they have been briefly noted.

LONDON WATER.

The following tables are complied from the "Reports on the condition of the Metro- politan Water Supply" which were published monthly during the year 1910.

The average total number of colonies on Agar at 37° C. for 24 hours in the unfiltered raw waters ranged from 47 to 1,228 and typical B. Coli were present from 001 c.c. of the sample up to samples which were negative in 100 c.c.

After filtration the total number of Colonies on Agar at 37° C for 24 hours varied from 1-3 to 4.6 per c.c. (see Table XV) and B. Coli (Typical) were absent from 79 to 93 per cent of the samples in 100 c.c. of water (Table XVI). No such good results as these are obtained in Hongkong or as far as I know in any other Tropical place.

AMERICA.

Table XVII represents the results published by the Massachusett's State Board of Health for the year 1909 of the Lawrence City Water.

156

ABSTRACTED FROM TABLE A

OF THE

Reports on the condition of the Metropolitan Water Supply.

TABLE XV.

E.-All London Waters-filtered.

Agar at 37° C. (counted after 20-24 hours).

Number

Month.

of samples.

:

Average (exclusive of samples

containing 100 or more microbes per cc). General results.

Samples containing

100 or more microbes

per cc.

January

624

2.6 per cc.

February

623

3.2

"1

March

630

2.5

""

April

630

2.0

May

553

2.5

3

""

:

June

...

560

4.6

2

July........

472

3.0

N

2

...

""

August

491

2.9

3

""

September

495

2.6

1

""

October

639

1.3

2

91

November

...

683

1.9

1

17

December

556

4.0

,

Averages for

1910

2.7

17

(1

+

157

TABLE XVI.

B. coli test (typical B. coli).

Filtered Waters (including unfiltered water from Kent, Eastern and New River Districts).

All London Waters.

%

1910 Month

- 100 c.c.

+ 100 c.c.

+10 c.c.

+ 1 c.c.

+ '1 c.c.

+ '01 c.c.

Averages for

year 1909...

79.1

15.3

4.4

0.9

0.08

0.03

January 1910...

79.2

17.3

3.0

0.5

February

75.9

21.0

2.6

0.3

0.1

March

91.7

7.6

0.6

April

93.5

5.4

0.9

May.

90.1

7.6

2·0

888

0.0

6.15

0.3

June

82.5

15.1

2.2

....

July..

80.6

15.3

3.4

0.6

August

79.6

16.6

3.0

0.6

0.2

September

78.9

16.1

4.6

0.2

0.2

October

88.5

9.4

1.8

0.1

November

73.7

19.1

6.5

0.6

December

63.8

26 6

7.9

1.2

0.4

Averages for

year 1910...

81.7

14.6

3.2

0.4

0.08

Massachusett's State Board of Health for year 1909.

158

TABLE XVII.

Average Bacterial Analyses of the Lawrence City Filter.

Per cent of Bacteria removed.

Per cent of samples con- taining B. Coli.

Bacteria per c.c.

40° C.

40° C.

20° C.

20° C.

Total.

Red.

Total. Red.

1c.c. 100c.c.

}

7400

180

100

100.0 100.0

60

7

3

99.2

96.1

97.0

8.6

50.7

+

...

100

9

3

98.7

95.0

97.0

17.1

56.9

Merrimack River-Intake of the Lawrence City Filter

Effluent from Lawrence

City Filter (old Filter)

Effluent

from Lawrence

City Filter (new Filter)... [

Mixed Effluents as pumped

to Distributing Reservoir

Water from Outlet of the

Distributing Reservoir

Water from a Tap at Law-

rence City Hall

80

6

2

32

5

1

...

9.4

57.4

4.2

55.7

32

4

1

0.0

42.5

II. REPORTS ON WATER SUPPLIES IN THE TROPICS.

Unfortunately it has proved very difficult to get any extended results from neigh- bouring places; the following are the chief facts obtained.

SHANGHAI.

Total average colonies in the filtered water grown on agar at 37° C. 15 per c.c. The unfiltered water is only occasionally tested and is stated to contain roughly 50,000 colonies per c.c. (N.B.-It is not stated if this figure is a gelatine or agar count.)

The filtered water has very little variation.

Bacillus Coli Communis is stated to be present as a rule in 0-3 c.c. of water and upwards.

The Health Officer does not consider the public filtered water supply satisfactory for drinking purposes unless further treated domestically by boiling or Berkefeld filtration.

The above facts were supplied by the Acting Secretary, The Council Room, Shanghai, in a letter to the Colonial Secretary, Hongkong, dated July 26th, 1910.

MANILA.

The following information regarding the water supply in Manila was received from the Bureau of Science of the Philippine Government and forwarded by H.B.M's Acting Consul General to the Officer Administering the Government in a letter dated 29th August, 1910-

"The unfiltered water of the City Water Supply of Manila generally contains in the neighbourhood of 350 Colonies per c.c. The number after filtration depends on the cleanliness and the method of filtering.

159

With older filters there has been a higher bacterial count. On one or two occasions the old water supply was found to contain Bacillus Coli Communis but in no instance has this organism been obtained from the new water supply.

Water is condemned for drinking purposes in which B. Coli Communis is found or when the water contains about 500 nicro-organism per c.c.

SINGAPORE.

A very valuable investigation of the Singapore Water Supply, both as regards its Bacterial contents and as to the efficiency of the filtration, was carried out by Dr. G. A. Finlayson, the Bacteriologist, and the results are contained in the Administration Report of the Singapore Municipality 1905.

The rate of filtration recommended is that of 400 gallons per sq. yard per day giving a Bacterial content of a little over 40 organism per c.c. in the filtered water.

On the important question of the presence of the B. Coli Group, Dr. Finlayson expresses the following opinion (p. 74) :-

"Suffice it to say that B. Coli or organisms so strongly resembling B. Coli that they may well be included in the large and expanding Coli Group can be readily isolated by means of MacConkey's medium from 5 to 1 c.c. of water.'

The opinion is also expressed that the water "cannot be regarded as otherwise than wholesome and fit for drinking purposes ".

As these findings naturally carried much weight, it is necessary to consider, as has been pointed out above, on what grounds the organisms were included in the Coli Group.

In Appendix C p. 94 of the Report, a table is given grouping together these organisms under the title "Coli form Organisms". The tests used were as follows:—

Morphology, Motility, Gram's stain, Bouilion, Agar Streak, Gelatine Streak, Milk, Litmus Bouilion, Glucose Agar, Neutral Red Agar, Peptone water and Potato. There are 8 Types of "Coli form organisms" described, of which the following is a brief

summary:-

5 out of the 8 liquefied gelatine within 10 days, 3 of the five are described as doing so rapidly. 2 of the five gave no change in milk and 1 gave clot with subse- quent liquefaction of the casein. The other 2 gave no gas on glucose agar.

3 did not liquefy gelatine in 10 days; of these :-

1 gave no change in milk, no gas on glucose agar, no fluoresence on Neutral

Red and no Indol on Peptone water.

1

gave no gas on glucose agar and no fluoresence on Neutral Red.

1 B. Coli gave positive reactions to the tests.

As has been pointed out above, opinions vary very much as to what organisms can be called members of the Coli Group. But there is now a very general agreement on the essentialness of certain characters whatever other characters may be absent.

"}

It seems to me to be impossible to admit into the Coli Group organisms which liquefy gelatine within 10 days, or which do not ferment Lactose and Glucose with Acid and gas production. On this standard, 7 out of 8 of the above "Coli form Organisms would be at once excluded as not members of the Coli Group. Similar organisms have been repeatedly isolated in the investigation of the Pokfulum Water but have been discarded as of no relative importance as soon as their true nature became evident.

* The water here means the unfiltered water (note from Dr. Finlayson, 15th May, 1911).

160

FEDERATED MALAY STATES.

From a Report published by Dr. C. W. Daniels in 1904 on Water Supplies (Institute of Medical Research Vol. 3 pt. 2) it is found that in the water supply of Kwala Lumpur derived from an impounding Reservoir of 37,710,000 gallons and a catchment area of 1,500 acres, in long continued drought the total Bacteria are from 50 to 60 per c.c. from subsidence; after heavy rains you can get 8,800 organism per c.c., 300 to 500 per c.c. are the usual number got.

In MacConkey's medium (? Glucose), even when the smallest number of organisms were present, a reaction was obtained with 1 c.c. of water but not with 4 c.c. On all occasions in 2 c.c. Acid and gas forming organisms were present.

COLOMBO.

The Bacteriological Examination of the Town Water by the Director, Bacteriological Institute, 4th Quarter 1909, gives the following results :-

No. of Bacteria per c.c. of water (Agar plates)

""

Streptococci

Bacillus Coli....

""

B. Enteritidis Sporogenes Germs liquefying gelatine

(Gelatine)

CALCUTTA.

.....288

....320

...absent

""

""

..nil

The Report of the Health Officer for the year 1908 gives the following information —

The filtered water is examined weekly, in all the examinations B. Coli Communis were found to be present in 2 c.c. and even sometimes in 1 c.c. or less of water, but neither Cholera Vibrios nor B. Typhosus were ever detected. It has been observed that no relation could be established between the head of water, the number of days the filters had been at work and the number of colonies of bacteria found.

+

MADRAS.

Major Clemesha (1909) states that of the 18 towns in the Madras Presidency which are provided with a protected water supply, not one would pass at all times of the year the requirements which are usually accepted as necessary in England. Working on MacConkey's method, he classifies the Lactose fermenters isolated by what is his expe- rience of their resistance to Sunlight; roughly the more resistant they are to Sunlight, the less importance he attaches to them. As the least resistant to unfavourable influences, he gives: class I, oxytocus pernicious, Nos. 10, 39, 69, 70, 97, 98, 34, 35, and 36; and as the most resistant, class III, Nos. 73, 75, 4, 7, 8, and 108. As the standard for good filtered Lake Water he considers less than 100 colonies per c.c. on agar, no Lactose fermenters in 20 c.c. and no organisms of class 1 in 50 c.c. should be obtained.

SUMMARY OF THE BACTERIOLOGICAL RESULTS OBTAINED

IN THIS INVESTIGATION.

1.-1he Lactose Fermenting Bacilli in Human Excreta.

Nine samples were examined from healthy adult Chinese coolies. The coolies examin- ed have a salary of from $8 to $9 (15/- to 17/-) a month which allows of a rice and vegetable diet with meat occasionally, but is not sufficient for a Europeanised diet. It is assumed that they represent the large majority of coolies working in Hongkong.

In each case a small quantity of fresh excreta was emulsified in Peptone water and then plated, without preliminary incubation, on to dried MacConkey Lactose Agar plates by means of sterile glass rods. These plates were incubated at 37° C. for 24 to 48 hours and the discrete colonies were then picked off on to Agar slopes from a segment of the plate, care being taken to avoid selection,

!

:

161

407 cultures were isolated and examined, and if these are divided up into the four groups of MacConkey, a comparison can than be made between the results given by these Chinese coolies with those obtained by MacConkey (1905) in England, Major Clemesha (1909) working with natives of Madras, and Castellani (1910) working with natives of Colombo.

The following table summaries these results:

TABLE XVIII.

MacConkey Hongkong

1905

1911

Madras 1909

Colombo

1910

Total no. of Cultures from

Human Excreta examined.

}

241

407

751

105

Chinese

Natives

Natives of

Source of Cultures.........

English

Coolies

of Madras

Colombo

Group I

34%

32.4%

55.7%

14·3%

...

Group II..

38%

41.7%

23.7%

15.3%

Group III

15%

19.7%

7.5%

61.9%

....

Group IV

12%

6-2%

14.3%

8.5%

....

The

non-Saccharose Fer-

menting Bacilli Groups

72%

74.1%

794%

19.6%

I and II

The Saccharose Fermenting

27%

25·9%

21.8%

70·4%

Bacilli Groups III and IV

On the group classification, the results given by the Chinese coolies are very close indeed to those of MacConkey. The results obtained in Colombo are essentially different, and those of Madras occupy an intermediate position.

162

The working out of these groups for Hongkong is shown in the following table:

TABLE XIX.

SOURCE OF ORGANISM CHINESE COOLIES.

-

Media

Lactose

Litmus Milk. +

Gelatine

......

Gram's stain

Motility

Indol

Reduction of Nitrates....

Acidity in

Litmus Whey

Saccharose

..

Dulcit

Adonit

Inulin

Inosit

Vosges and

Proskauer's reaction

Glucose

Mannite

Classification

on

MacConkey's method

isolated

T

I

+

7

+

Group I

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

14

|: |

14

1* |

14

{ |

|: |

14

།ཤ།

-

+

+

}

Group II

Group III

Group IV

Remarks

+

+

+

14

|ཁུ །

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

-

+ + +.

|

I

I

+

1

1

30%

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

14

14

14

IF |

-

+

100

+

+

1

│ |

14

|:|

14

14

|ཥ།

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

I

+

+

1

1

+

+.

+

+

1

Į

+

14

|*|

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

1:

14

+

+

1

+

+=acid and gas, acid and clot, Indol formation, Liquefaction of Gelatine, etc., as the case may be.

——no acid and gas, no Liquefaction of Gelatine, etc.

The Nos. under the signs equal days, e.g. -no Liquefaction after 14 days growth.

All non-motile and all non-Indol forming organisms were also

tested on 5% Gelatine at 37° C. for 11 days.

The Cultures were then cooled down to see if Liquefaction had oc- curred or not.

+

+

}

+

+

+

+

+

+

I

}

+

+

1

+

+

1

+

+

+

No. 1

+

+

B. Grünthal, No. 4

B. Vesiculosus, No. 5

No. 34 B. Coli Communis

Unclassed No. 7

B. Schafferi, No. 35

Unclassed

+

1

+

+

+

++

+ +

No. 71

+

No. 72

No. of cultures

5 119 2 2 2 156 5 12 75

No. 74

No. 101

No. 106

I

+

anglen

+

Uuclassed

3

Co

1 1 23 1

+

407 Cultures

MacConkey (1909) in his examination of human excreta obtained 21 varieties of Lactose fermenting Bacilli out of 178 cultures examined. But 146 out of these 178 cultures were confined to five varieties, the remaining 32 cultures being divided up among 15 varieties and therefore not of much practical importauce.

The chief organisms isolated were:-

No. 4 B. Grünthal

No. 5 B. Vesiculosus

No. 34 B. Coli Communis

No. 35 B. Schafferi

No. 71

No. 72 B. Neapolitanus

8 Cultures 33

37

27

11

"1

42

,,

15

=146

:

163

In the Chinese coolies examined in Hongkong the chief organisms were:

No. 4 B. Grünthal

No. 34 B. Coli Communis

No. 35 B. Schafferi

No. 71

No. 106

119 Cultures 156

19

5

75

23

These accounted for 378 out of the 407 examined the remaining 29 cultures being divided up into 9 other varieties. If B. Grünthal and B. Vesiculosus are taken together the results obtained by MacConkey are much the same as here, only here B. Grünthal was the predominating organism and not B. Vesiculosus. B. Coli Communis was found to be slightly more prevalent here even than in MacConkey's results; and in Group III No. 71 was in both cases the most prevalent organism.

Castellani (1910) on the other hand states that he found B. Coli Communis to be extremely rare; it was isolated only 6 times out of 114 cultures. The majority of the organisms be isolated were represented by B. Neapolitanus, B. Acidi Lactici and B. Paraentericus; in other words 61.9% of the organisms isolated belonged to Group III.

These results are entirely different from those obtained either in Hongkong or by MacConkey. The comparative absence of B. Coli Communis is of interest and of practical importance as, if absent in excreta, it would be useless looking for it in water. It would be of interest to know if this comparative absence of B. Coli Communis in the natives of Colombo is also obtained in the natives of Manila where B. Coli Communis is stated to be absent even from the unfiltered water (page 158).

Major Clemesha (1909) working with natives of Madras, considers that the Grünthal Group, the Coscoroba Group and to a less extent the Coli Group undoubtedly form the bulk of Lactose fermenting Bacilli in the dejecta of man and cattle in Madras.

B. Coli Communis is recorded by him in the following percentages from human dejecta :-

751 Colonies

Series I

[ Series II

Series III

Series V

Series VI

Series IX

24% 35.3%

.6

30%

12%

4%

The presence of B. Coli Communis in natives of Madras is therefore not essentially different from the results of MacConkey or the Hongkong results.

11.-The Characters of the Organisms isolated from the water.

Out of 1,226 cultures isolated from the water and examined by the method given on p. 119, 299 were discarded for various reasons as not true members of the Coli Group.

The remaining 927 organisms divided into MacConkey's four Groups give the following results :-

189 cultures

142

Group I. Group II. Group III. 359 Group IV. 237

19

""

""

20.4%

15.1%

38.8%

25.7%

If to these 927 organisms are added the 478 cultures isolated from the 2nd series and tested on the Group Basis (p. 166) a total of 1,405 cultures is obtained and these grouped give the following results :-

1405 cultures

Group I. Group II. Group III. Group IV.

236 cultures

236

""

505

""

428

19

16.8%

16.8%

36·0%

30.4%

Table XX shows the characters of the 927 organisms which were fully worked out and Table XXI the Group characters of the 478 organisms worked out only on the Group Basis.

·

Media

Lactose

Litmus Milk.

Gelatine

Gram's stain

Motility

...

Indol

Reduction of

Nitrates

Acidity in

Litmus Whey

Saccharose

...

Dulcit

Adonit....

Inulin

Inosit

Vosges and

Proskauer's

reaction

Glucose

Mannite

1.

164

TABLE XX.

SOURCE OF ORGANISM÷POKFULUM WATER.

+

+

+

+

1

Group I 189 cultures

ཡང་

+

+

+

+

+

I

1

1

I

+

1

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

1

+

1

20% 25%

t

1

}

+

+

}

J

1

1

1

T

1

I

+

1

1

+

+

+

+

+

......

+

+ +

Classification by MacConkey's method

No. of cultures isolated

I

Group II

142 cultures

Unclassed

+

+

1

+

+

I

+

+

1

+

1

1

1

Į

1

F

+

1

+

!

+

28% 30% 22%

+

1

+

+

I

1

T

Unclassed

+

+

6

+

+

+

+

+

1

1

+

+

1

}

+

+

|

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

1

+

+

+

+

7 105 4 71 1 1 2 105 19 13 1 2

18

+

+

+

+

+

Group III .359 cultures

00

1

30

+

+

1

11

30

+

+

+

+

| g|

+

+

of

+

| g|

+

+

00

1

+

+

+

+

1

00

+

| g|

30

+

+

+

+

+

+

|

+

+

+

+

+

Į

+

+

+

+

+

+

}

1

+

00

+

+.

+

+

+

+

+

+

Unclassed-23 cultures in 9 varieties

+

+

1

+

I

I

I

+

+

+

+

it

+

+

+

refro

+

fre

|

}

+

+

1

+

+

+

}

+

+

GO

3

1 270 13 2

29 23

+=Acid and gas, acid and clot, liquefaction of gelatine, etc., as the case may be.

-Acid only.

No acid and gas. No liquefaction of gelatine. Non-motile, etc.

All the cultures were tested on gelatine for 14 days for liquefaction. None liquefied in that time. They were subsequently tested on gelatine for 30 days or longer and

liquefaction, when recorded as positive, means in the second testing.

Media

Lactose

Litmus Milk

......

Gelatine

Gram's stain

Motility

+

Indol

Reduction of

Nitrates

Acidity in Litmus

Whey

Saccharose

Dulcit

Adonit

Inulin

Inosit

Vosges and Pro-

skauer's reaction

Glucose

Mannite

+

No. 97

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Classification on MacConkey's method

No. of cultures

isolated

No. 100

+

+

Co

No. 101

+

13

No. 102

+

}

165

TABLE XX,-Continued.

SOURCE OF ORGANISM POKFULUM WATER.

Group IV. 237 cultures

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

No. 104

+

+

+

7

83

|

+

+

131

+

+

30

30

+

+

+

+

I

+1

+

+

1

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

7

1

30

30

+

+

26%

20%

+

No. 107, B. Coscoroba

No. 108, B. Cloacae

No. 109

32323

4

62

+

+

1

+

+

+

7

+

+

+

+

CO

6

4

6

Co

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+=Acid and gas, acid and clot, liquefaction of gelatine, etc., as the case may be.

Acid only.

No acid and gas. No liquefaction of gelatine. Non-motile, etc.

All the cultures were tested on gelatine for 14 days for liquefaction. None liquefied in that time. They were subsequently tested on gelatine for 30 days or longer and liquefaction, when recorded as positive, means in the second testing.

1

8

+

30

+

*

7

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+.

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

7

+

+

+

+

Unclassed. 8 cultures in 7 varieties, 4 of which fermented Inulin.

+

+

1

14 15 16

166

TABLE XXI.

Characters of Organisms isolated from Samples or to 0145 inclusive.

504 organisms were isolated and worked out as shown in the following table. Four of the 504 were unclassed so that the table deals with 500.organisms.

Organisms from sample 01 to 0145 (inclusive).

+

+

Days

to to

+

Days

10-14 days

ta ta

+a+a |

+

Group I Group II

Group III

Group IV

Media

1 2 3 4 5

6

7 8. 9

10 11 12

13

Lactose

+

+

2

Litmus milk

+

+

2

+*+*

++

+2 +2

+ +

+

2

+

2

+a+a

Gelatine ....

10-14

Gram's stain

+

+*+*

+

+

Į

+

+

+

+

+

+

= acid and gas, and Vosges and Proskauer's reaction. Indol formation or Motility as the case may be.

non-liquefaction of gelatine. Non-motile. No acid and gas.

+= a positive result.

10 to

+2 +2.

10+ 10

10 to 10

+6

+

2

G

1 +~+~

+

+

6

+

+

+

+

6

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

$

6

+

+

6

+

+

ta ta

+*+*

+~+~

+a+a

2

+2 +2

to ta

+~+~

+~+~

ta ta

+2 +2

884 ·10- 9107 15 151064 56 19. 1 9. 14- 1 7.

+:

2

+*+*

+*

+ *

+~+~

+

to fo

Motility

Indol

Saccharose....

Dulcit

Vosges and Proskauer's reaction

Glucose .......

+

U

2

N. R. for-Fl.....]+

500..

The Group distribution of the organisms isolated from the water when taken as a whole is practically the reverse of those isolated from human excreta, as will be seen from Table XXII.

TABLE XXII.

2

No. of cultures 89

Total No. of cultures

of

407

1410

Chinese Coolies

Pokfulum Water

32.4%

16.8%

41:7%

16.8%

19.7%

36·0%

3.2%

30.4%

Groups I and II in the water-isolated organisms are only half the percentage of the excretal isolated organisms, whereas in the water, Group III gives double the percentage and Group IV almost five times the percentage obtained from the Chinese coolies. If it is assumed that the reactions given by the various organisms isolated from the water are stable, the question arises, are all these different organisms of equal value as indicators of pollution?

Sources of cultures

Group I.....

Group II

Group III

Group IV

167

To v

Savage (1906) has defined the characters of a perfect bacterial indicator as (1) it must be abundant in the substance for which its presence serves as an indicator (2) it should be absent or at least relatively so from all other sources, (3) it should be easily isolated and numerically estimated, (4) its characters should be definite and not liable to variation. An additional character appears to me to be necessary, that is, that the bacterial indicator must not be able to live and multiply indefinitely or even for a considerable time in the water, otherwise it may only indicate old standing contamination.

That the indicator should be relatively abundant and relatively non-resistant appears then to be of the greatest importance. True Baccillus Coli Communis fulfils the condition of being relatively abundant in Human Excreta and with the other chief mem- bers of Group II is generally considered to be relatively non-resistant.

Of most of the other organisms classified, very little is known beyond the fact that they are obtained in the excreta of man and animals.

The numerous rare organisms may be dismissed as of very little practical use-if they were found, other organisms would be found as well.

There still remain however a considerable number of organisms met with in fair numbers, such as B. Grünthal, B. Vesiculosus, No. 71, No. 72, B. Coscoroba, etc, to be dealt with. What their resistance to adverse circumstance is, is little known.

Major Clemesha (1909) has given a classification based on his experience of the resistance of these organisms to Sunlight. As the result of his experiments, he states that the Grünthal Group, B. Cloacae, No. 73 and No. 75 are the most resistant organisms, some of them are recorded by him as having lived in the ground for 2 or 3 years. If that is so, their value as indicators is very slight.

Among the least resistant of the organisms, he gives B. Coli Communis, No. 35 and No. 36, all belonging to Group II, and some rare organisms.

In the present want of exact knowledge about many of these organisms, it appears best to confine attention chiefly to Group II and especially to B. Coli Communis. This course has been followed in this investigation.

An advantage of MacConkey's classification is that it excludes other varieties of organisms giving different reactions and probably having different qualities from being all classed together with true B. Coli Communis.

Some experiments are being made with B. Grünthal, No. 71, and other predominating organisms as regards their resistance to adverse circumstance and if the results appear to justify it they will be continued, but the matter is undoubtedly a difficult one.

In the meantime the presence in the water of Bacillus Coli Communis or its close allies in Group II is taken to indicate recent fæcal contamination and when found in small quantities of water, is considered to justify an unfavourable opinion on the sample, The presence of the other organisms alone, especially members of Group IV and organisms such as B. Grünthal in Group I is not considered so seriously but owing to want of exact knowledge, they cannot be entirely disregarded.

CONCLUSIONS.

1. The water flowing on to the Filter Beds may be :-

1. Nearly all direct from the Streams with no storage.

2. May be mostly from the Reservoir.

3. May be a mixture of (1) and (2) of varying proportions.

2. Apparently in wet weather, the most of the water comes direct from the Streams with no storage at all, and it may be filtered and passed straight into the pipes with hardly any stay in the Service Reservoir..

168

3. No sufficient evidence has been found to condemn the area either from inspection

or from Bacteriological examination provided reasonable precautions are taken.

4. The results given by the unfiltered water taken from the various intakes and streams seem to show that the area is liable to some intermittent contamination with fecal matter.

5. The contamination however does not appear to be either continuous or large in amount. It certainly does not appear to be in sufficient amount to render the water incapable of being converted into a good drinking water.

6. The Pine Wood Nullah shows twice as much contamination as the other intakes,

the reason for this requires to be found, and put a stop to.

7.

The method of running the water direct from the intakes on to the filter beds with no preliminary storage is very undesirable as if there was any infection of the water with pathogenic organisms, they would not have time to die out.

8. This method is even more undesirable if the water happened to be filtered by a

new filter bed which was not yet efficient.

9. If water must be used directly from intakes with no preliminary storage, a very strict supervision must be kept over the area drained by the intake to prevent its being contaminated with human excreta, and it should only be filtered by a Bed which is known to be efficient.

10. The whole water should be stored as far as practicable before being filtered.

11. The Filter Beds appear to require at least a week before they become efficient;

during that time the water is used as far as I know and is not run to waste.

12. Therefore when several filters are in use, they should be changed one at a time

and not all at the same time.

13. The filters, as far as they have been tested, never give such good results as

are apparently obtained at Home.

14.

15.

The rate of filtration of 400 to 500 yards gallons appears to give as good results (for a tropical filter) as 300 to 400 yards gallons; but it by no means follows that an increase of the rate up to 700 to 800 yards gallons as is sometimes done (see table of filtration for year 1910) would give a satisfactory filtrate.

As a whole, with the exception of the No. 6 Filter Bed, the filtration results are disappointing showing far too much fluctuation, the importance of prelimi- nary storage of the water is therefore more evident.

16. A standard equal to the results given by No. 6 Bed should be maintained for

all filter beds.

17. The remarks on the Bacteriological results of the water are based on the presence of organisms giving the reaction of true Bacillus Coli Communis (Escherich). Further investigations will be required before the exact signifi- cance of the other Lactose Fermenters can be determined.

18. It is desirable that an investigation of the habits of the nightsoil coolies in the Peak District in the early morning should be made from time to time. Even negative evidence on this point would be of great value.

19.

From the results given it should be possible to produce a filtered water with a total agar count of 30 to 40 per c.c. and with Lactose Fermenters absent from 20 c.c.

This result would be, for the Tropics, a very good one.

At present, though samples equal to or even better than this are from time to time obtained, still a steady standard is not maintained.

20. For drinking purposes, of the unfiltered water, the best would be the water

which has been stored in the Reservoir for some time.

...

169

LIST OF ORIGINAL PAPERS

consulted and made use of in this investigation.

Bohme, Die Anwendeneg der Ehrlichschen Indolreaktion fur bakteriologische Zwecke.

Central f. Bak. I. Orig. Bd. 40, p. 129.

Boyce, MacConkey, Grümbaun & Hill (1902).-The Pollution of The River Severn in the Shrewsbury District.

2nd Report Royal Sewage Commission, p. 93.

Braun (1906).—Le Rouge Neutre, Bul. Inst. Pasteur, Toine IV, p. 561.

Calcutta (1908).-Report of the Health Officer of Calcutta for the year 1908.

Castellani (1910).-Note on the intestinal bacteriological flora of normal individuals in the Tropics.

Central f. Bak. orig. Bd. 54, Heft 2.

Clemesha, Major I. M.S. & Assistants (1909).-A Study of the Bacteriology of Drinking Water Supplies in Tropical

Climates. The King Institute, Madras.

Colombo Municipality (1909).—Report of the Medical Officer of Health.

Daniels (1904)

Water Supplies, Studies from Institute for Medical Research, Federated Malay States.

Durham (1898).--On the Serum Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever with especial reference to the Bacillus of Gaertner

and its allies.

Lancet, January 15th, 1898.

Endo (1904).—Ueber Ein Verfahren Zum Nachweis der Typhus Bacillen.

Central f. Bak. I. Orig. Bd. 35, p. 109.

Erich Pelz (1910).—Ueber Nitritbildung durch Bakterium.

Central f. Bak. I. Orig. Bd. 57, p. 1.

Eyre (1900).-Nutrient Media of Standard Reaction for Bacteriological Work.

B. M. J., p. 21, 1900.

Eyre (1901). Further Observation on the Standardization of Nutrient Media.

B. M. J., September 21st, 1901.

Eyre (1904). On the Distribution of Bacillus Coli in Nature,'

Lancet, March 5th, 1904. ⠀⠀

Firth & Horrcks (1902).—An enquiry into the influence of Soil, Fabrics, and flies in the dissemination of

Enteric Fever.

B. M. J., September 27th, 1902.

Gage (1903).—Bacteriological Studies at the Lawrence Experimental Station with special reference to the deter-

mination of B. coli.

Massachussetts State Board of Health Report for year 1903, p. 397.

Gordon (1903-4).-Characters by which Streptecocci and Stapylococci may be differentiated and identified.

1. G. B., Report of Medical Officer, 1903-4, p. 388.

Grünbaun & Hume (1902). --Note on Media for distinguishing B. Coli, B. Typhosus and related species.

B. M. J., June 14th, 1902.

Hamer, Dr. W. H. (1911).-Typhoid Carriers and Contact Infection.

Proc. Royal Society of Medicine, Vol. IV, No. 6.

Horrocks (1901).—A comparative Study of Varieties of B. Coli isolated from "Typhoid" and Normal Dejecta.

J. of H., Vol. 1, p. 202.

Houston (1900-01). -Report on the Chemical and Bacteriological Examination of Chichester Well Water.

L. G. B., Report of Medical Officer, p. 511, and 1901-02, p. 494.

Houston (1900-01)-Report on the Inoculation of Soil with Sewage.

L. G. B., Report of Medical Officer, 1900-01, p. 405, and 1901-02, p. 455.

Houston (1902-3).-The Bact. Exam. of Normal Stools.

L. G. B., Report of Medical Officer.

:

Houston (1902-03).—Report on the Chemical and Bacteriological Examination of Tunbridge Wells Deep Well Water.

L. G. B., Report of Medical Officer, 1902-03, p. 581.

Houston (1903).-The Colon Bacillus in Ground Water.

J. of H., Vol. 3. p. 155.

170

Houston (1904).-The Bacteriological Examination of Oysters and Estuarial Waters.

J. of H., Vol. 4, p. 173.

Houston (1904-5).-Report on the Bacteriological Examination of Upland Surface Water.

L. G. B., Report of Medical Officer, p. 326

Houston (1910).-Discussion on recently acquired knowledge concerning the Bionomies of Pathogenic Organisms etc.

B. M. J., November 12th, 1910, p. 1499.

Irons (1902).-Neutral Red in the Routine Examination of Water.

J. of H., Vol. 2, p. 314.

Jordan (1903).-The Kinds of Bacteria found in River Water.

J. of H., Vol. 3, p. 1.

Jordan (1901). The relative abundance of B. coli Communis as index of Selfpurification of Streams.

J. of H., Vol. 1, p. 295.

Klein & Houston (1902-03).-Report on the identification of Bacillus Typhosus in stools.

L. G. B., Report of Medical Officer, 1902-03, p. 622.

Ledingham (1909-10).- Report on the Enteric Fever "Carrier" being a review of current knowledge on this subject.

L. G. B., Report of Medical Officer, 1909-10, p. 246.

Lorrain Smith & Tennant (1899).—A Study of the Epidemic of Typhoid Fever in Belfast.

B. M. J., January 28th, 1898.

MacConkey (1905).-The Lactose Fermenting Bacteria in Faeces.

J. of H., Vol. 5, p. 350.

MacConkey (1906).-The Bacteriology of Milk.

J. of H., Vol. 6, p. 385.

MacConkey (1906).-On the liquefaction of gelatine by Bacillus Cloacae.

J. of H., Vol. 6, p. 23.

MacConkey (1908).-Bile Salt Media and their advantages.

J. of H., Vol. 8., p. 322.

MacConkey (1909).---On the differentiation of Lactose Fermenting Bacilli.

J. of H., Vol. 9, p. 69.

McWeeney (1904).-Report on Shellfish Layings.

B. M. J., February, 1904, p. 497.

Mair (1908)On the Survival of B. Typhosus in sterilised and unsterilised soil.

J. of H., Vol. 8, p. 37.

Marshall (1907).—The Para dimethyl-amido-Benzaldehyde test for indole.

J. of H., Vol. 7. .

Martin (1900-01). Report on the Nature of the Antagonism of the Soil to the Typhoid Bacillus.

L. G. B., Report of Medical Officer, p. 487, 1900-01.

Metropolitan Water Supply.-Monthly Reports for the years 1908, 1909 and 1910 of the water examiner and the

Director of water examinations.

Penfold, W. J. (1911). —The Variability of the Gas-forming Power of Intestinal Bacteria.

Proc. Royal Society of Medicine, Vol. IV, No. 4.

Savage (1901).-The Neutral Red in the Routine Bact. Exam. of Water.

J. of H., Vol. 2, p. 314.

Savage (1902).—The significance of B. Coli in drinking water.

J. of H., Vol. 2, p. 320.

Savage (1903).-The Pathogenicity of B. Coli in relation to the Bacteriological Examination of Water.

J. of H., Vol. 3, p. 388.

Savage (1905). The characters of Bacillus Coli and Excretal Contamination.

Lancet, February 4th, 1905.

Savage (1903).-The characters of Bacillus Coli.

Lancet, February, 1903, p. 284.

Savage (1905).—Bacteriological Examination of Tidal Mud as an index of pollution of the river.

J. of H., Vol. 5, p. 146.

Savage (1906).-The Bacteriological Examination of Water.

171

Savage (1906).-Organisms of the Gaertner group.

L. G. B., Report of Medical Officer, p. 255.

Savage (1907-08). Further report upon the presence of the Gaertner group of organisms in the animal intestine.

L. G. B., Report of Medical Officer, p. 425.

Savage (1907).-The Bacterial Examination of surface wells.

J. of H., Vol. 7, p. 477.

Thomson, Dr. Theodore (1910).-The Enteric Fever Carrier.

Proc. Royal Society of Medicine, Vol. IV, No. 1.

Thresh (1904).-The Examination of Water and Water Supplies.

Willson (1905).-The isolation of B. Typhosus from infected water with notes on a new process.

J. of H., Vol. 5, p. 429.

Volpino u. Cler (1911).-Die Untersuchung der Wasser auf Typhusbacillen, etc.

Central f. Bak. I Orig. Bd. 58, p. 392.

Extract of Meteorological Observations

made at the Hongkong Observatory.

RAINFALL

DATE

1910

J910

1910 September October November December

1910

1911

1911

1911

1911

January

February March

April

1911 May

ins.

ins.

ins.

ins.

ins.

ins.

ins.

ins.

ins.

1234 6

0.405 0.005

0.045

0·030

2.215

0.025

0:160

0.910

5.645

0.080

0.650

0.670

5

0.800

0.055

6

0.005

0.185

0.020

7

0.020

0.060

0.105

0.065

8

0.085

1.000

9

0.460

0.580

0.005

0.065

10

1.150

1.040

1.215

1.290

11

0.480

0.020

0.130

2.005

12

0.905

0.015

2.160

1:110

13

0.845

0.210

0.025

14

0.005 0.280

0.205

15

0.790

16

0.015

0.225

17

1.205

0.075

0·030

'IIN

1-150

0.600 0.090

0 015

18

1.465

0.095

0.010.

19

0.275

0.285

0.005

0.015

0·015

0.080

20

0.005

0.435

2.735

21

0.055

0.015

0·605

0.015

22

0.050

0.530

1.195

23

0.140

0.015

0.030

24

0.810

1.325

25

0.280

0.500

26

1.265

1.485

27

0 370

2.445

28

0.015

0.045

29

0.010

0.225

0.205

30

0.105

0.620

1.240

0-055

31

0.035

0.035

1.170

Per

month

15.950

0.045

2.535 0.790

0.735

3.810

5.935

22.145

HONGKONG.

No.

4

1911

REPLY TO QUESTIONS BY THE HON. DR. HO KAI, C.M.G.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor, May 11th, 1911.

31-

Revenue.

Expenditure.

Margin, i.e., Excess of

Ordinary

Gross.

Extraordinary Ordinary.

Revenue over

Ordinary

Year.

Extraordinary

viz. not asses-

Exclusive of Exclusive of

Exclusive of

Amount

of

Military

Total

Expenditure

Gross.

sed for Mili- tary Contri- bution.

Ordinary.

Military Con- Expenditure tribution and from Loans tribution and Volunteers. and Reserves. Volunteers.

Military Con-

Military Con-

Expenditure exclusive of

Public Works| Contribution. Extraordinary

011

Remarks.

tribution and

Volunteers.

$

$

$39

$

$

$

$

$

$

1896

2,609,878

2,250,179

359,699

2,182,401

69,510

1,882,272

367,907

509,679

300,129

1897

2,686,914

334,518

2,352,866

2,486,245

127,716

2,036,824

315,542.

460,378

449,421

1898

2,918,159

246,052

2,672,107 2,458,376

234,381

2,088,150

583,957

503,305

370,226

1.

1899

3,610,143

744,384

2,865,759

2,634,644

131,660

2,381,744

484,015

620,744

252,900

1900 4,202,587

967,258

3,235,329 2,972,761

473,205

2,499,556

735,773

616,589

473,205

1901

4,218,893

240,315

3,973,578

3,260,622

388,473

2,872,149

1,101,429

846,275

388,473

1902

4,901,073

571,361

4,329,712

4,954,366

1,157,104

3,797,262

582,450

914,038

1,157,104

1903

5,238,857

510,165

4,728,692

4,397,295

649,831

3,747,464

981,228

961,408

649,831

1904 6,809,047

486,098

6,322,949

9

5,061,462

1,382,814

3,678,648

2,644,301

1,270,741

1,382,814

1905

6,918,403

392,259

6,526,144

5,530,314

1,673,440

3,856,871

2,669,271

1,362,650

1,673,440

2.

1908

1909

1910

1906 1907 6,602,280 6,104,207

6,822,966

6,960,869

7,035,011

412,941

6,622,070

5,480,073

1,503,789

8,976,284

2,645,787

1,305,185

1,503,789

159,750 6,442,529 6,034,849

69,358

6,286,832

536,134

6,628,183

332,686

4,497,609

728,650

3,768,959

2,673,570

1,214,310

728,650

6,633,754

*

792,242

4,290,414

5,277,502

5,199,882

*1,159,923

*1,176,437

4,048,050

""

Expenditure "Extraordinary does not include Railway and Harbour of Refuge.

1. Military Contribution fixed at 17% of gross revenue, exclusive of "Extraordinary ", cost of new Barrack Works and total cost of new Defence Works. 2. Military Contribution fixed at 20% of gross revenue, exclusive of "Extraordinary

1,744,435

1,250,168

2,343,340

*

2,238,782

1,226,441

1,229,452

4,295,058 2,333,125

1,372,486

1,204,823

3

3

95

1

93

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

SPECIAL COMMITTEE

on the

Registered Partnerships Bill.

No. 1911

13

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His

Excellency the Governor, October 19th, 1911.

PRESENT:

The Honourable Mr. C. G. ALABASTER, (Attorney General), Chairman.

""

Mr. A. W. BREWIN, C.M.G., (Registrar General).

Dr. Ho KAI, M.B., C.M.G.

97

Mr. WEI YUK, C.M.G.

""

Mr. H. E. POLlock, K.C.

A Bill entitled "An Ordinance to establish Registered Partnerships and to give effect to certain Chinese Partnership Customs" was referred to a Special Committee, consisting of the above members of the Legislative Council, after the second reading. The Bill has been considered clause by clause in the presence of all the members of the Committee at a number of meetings. The Committee are of opinion that the Bill may be dealt with by the Council in the same manner as a Bill reported on by a Committee of the whole Council.

The Special Committee suggest a number of alterations in its title and clauses, and that the Council should adopt the Bill in the form in which it appears in the document inarked A attached to this report, and that, subject to any amendments which the Committee of the whole Council may make, it should be passed in that form.

For the convenience of members of the Legislative Council a document, marked B, is attached shewing the form in which the Bill stood at the time when it was referred to the Special Committee.

A special report by the Hon. Mr. H. E. Pollock, K.Ç., is also attached.

C. G. ALABASTER,

Chairman.

Laid before the Legislative Council on the 19th day of October, 1911.

C. CLEMENTI,

Clerk of Councils.

Short title

94

A

No. 35-[5.10.11.-6.]

A BILL

ENTITLED

An Ordinance to provide for the registration of Chinese Partnerships, and to enable partners therein to register and thereby to limit their liability.

BE it enacted by the Governor of Hongkong, with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council thereof, as follows

1. This Ordinance may be cited as the Chinese and applica- Partnerships Ordinance, 1911, and shall apply only to such partnerships as in the opinion of the Registrar of Companies can properly be described as Chinese Partuerships.

tion.

Interpreta- tion of terms.

Ordinance No. 1 of 1897.

Ordinance No. 1 of 1865,

4

2. In the construction of this Ordinance the following words and expressions shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in this section, unless there be something in the subject or context repugnant to such construction:-

"Firm", "firm name", and "business" have the same meanings as in the Partnership Ordinance, 1897.

"

'Registered Partner shall mean any partner includ- ing a firm, a family tong or a body corporate who or which is registered as such under this Ordinance.

Registrar of Companies" shall mean the officer appointed for the registration of Companies under the Companies Ordinance, 1865, or any Ordinance amending or substituted for the same.

"

"The Court shall mean the Supreme Court.

Full name' >>

shall, in the case of a person who carries on business in more than one name, include all the names, whether tong names or otherwise, in which such person carries on business, and in the case of persons with Chinese names or of Chinese origin shall include his sur- name and Fit Tsz () and the places of his birth and the District in China to which he belongs.

"Hung Kú shareholder" ineans a person who is registered as such in a registered partnership and who holds a hung kú (I) or red share, and is a person who is entitled to no interest on capital, but who shares with the partners the surplus profit after interest on capital has been paid.

Registration 3. From and after the cominencement of this Ordin- of Chinese ance Chinese partnerships and partners therein may register partnerships in the manner and subject to the conditious by this Ordin-

ance provided,

and

partners.

Conditions of registra- tion.

4.-(1.) No partnership may register under tliis Ordin- ance unless one at least of its partners registers as a partner therein.

(2.) Firms or family tongs may be registered as part- ners in a registered partnership, provided that a firm or family tong so registered shall be regarded, so far as the partnership in which it is registered is concerned, as one person, and provided also that one partner only in the firm or one member only of the tong shall be registered as a representative of the firm or tong so registering as afore- said, and provided also that no person may be registered as a representative of a firm or tong unless the Registrar of Companies is satisfied that he has the authority of the other members of his firm or the adult members of his tong to be registered as their representative in the re- gistered partnership, and unless one month shall have elapsed since an announcement of his intention to apply for registration as a representative of the firm or t'ong in ques- tion shall have been published in the Gazette and in two Chinese daily newspapers circulating in the Colony.

(3.) The Registrar of Companies shall register the names of all members of a family tong, disclosed to him by such representative, including infants of any age; and thereafter members so registered shall have their liability limited in the same manner as if they were registered as partners under this Ordinance.

(4.) Bodies corporate may be registered as partners in a registered partnership.

95

5.--(1.) The liability of each partner in a registered Effect of partnership, which may sue and be sued in its registered registration on liability. name, shall be unlimited in respect of assets in his posses- sion connected with the registerel partnership.

(2.) The liability of each unregistered partner in a registered partnership shall be unlimited.

(3.) The liability of each registered partner in a regis- tered partnership beyond his liability under sub-section (1) of this section, shall be limited to such proportion of the debts and obligations of the registered partnership as his interest in the registered partnership bears to the total interest of all the partners therein, whether registered or unregistered.

(4.) Where a firm or family tong is registered as a registered partner in a registered partnership, but is not itself registered as a registered partnership the liability of each of its partners or members shall be unlimited in res- pect of assets in his possession connected with the registered partnership, but his further liability shall be limited to such proportion of the debts and obligations of the registered partnership as the interest of his firm or tong in the re- gistered partnership bears to the total interest of all the partners therein whether registered or unregistered.

(5.) Where a firm or family tong is registered as a re gistered partner in a registered partnership and is itself also registered as a registered partnership the liability of each of its registered partners or members shall be unlimited in res- pect of assets in his possession connected with the registered partnership in which his firm or t'ong is a registered part- ner; but his further liability shall be limited to such pro- portion of what would have been his total liability if his firm or tong had not itself been a registered partnership as his interest in his own firm or tong hears to the total in- terest of all the partners therein, whether registered or un- registered.

(6.) Where a firm or family t'ong is registered as a re- gistered partner in a registered partnership and is itself also registered as a registered partnership the liability of each of its unregistered partners or members shall be un- limited in respect of assets in his possession connected with the registered partnership in which the firm or tong is a registered partner; but his further liability shall be limited to such proportion of the debts and obligations of the re- gistered partnership as the interest of his firm or tong in the registered partnership bears to the total interest of all the partners therein whether registered or unregistered.

(7.) No person registered only as a hung kú share- holder shall be under any further liability for the debts and obligations of the firm in which he is so registered than the liability imposed by sub-section (1) of this section.

(8.) The burden of proving that assets in his possession are unconnected with the registered partnership shall be on the person who seeks to have his liability limited under this section.

(9.) No member of a firm or family tong which is registered as a partner other than the registered repre- sentative thereof shall take part in the management of the business of the registered partnership or shall have power to bind the registered partnership.

Provided that any member of such a firm or tong may by himself or his agent at any time inspect the books of the firm and examine into the state and prospects of the partner-hip business.

If a member of such a firm or tong other than the registerel representative thereof takes part in the manage- ment of the business of the registered partnership he shall be personally liable to an unlimited extent for all debts and obligations of the registered partnership incurred while he so takes part in the management thereof.

(10.) A firm or family tong registered as a partner in a registered partnership may be sued in its firm or tong name in respect of the debts and obligations of the registered partnership, and service on its registered representative shall be deemed sufficient service on the partners in the firm or the members of the t'ong.

Dissolution and wind-

ing up of registered partnerships.

Ordinance

96

6-(1.) A registered partnership shall not be dissolved by the death, or bankruptcy, or admission, or succession, or retirement of a partner; and the lunacy of a partner shall not be a ground for dissolution of the partnership by the Court unless the lunatic's share cannot be otherwise ascertained and realised.

(2.) In the event of the dissolution of

a registered part- nership its affairs shall be wound up by the partners unless the Court otherwise orders.

(3.) Applications to the Court to wind up a registered No. 1 of 1865. partnership shall be by petition under the Companies Ordinance, 1865, or any Ordinance amending or substituted for the same, and the provisions of such Ordinance relat- ing to the winding up of companies by the Court and of the rules made thereunder (including provisions as to fees) shall, subject to such modification (if any) as the Governor-in-Council may by rules provide, apply to the winding up by the Court of registered partnerships, with the substitution of partners for directors.

Law as to

private

(4.) Subject to any express agreement between the part-

ners,-

(.) Any difference arising as to ordinary matters connected with the partnership business may be decided by a majority of the partners; (b.) A partner shall not be entitled to dissolve a regis-

tered partnership by notice.

7. Subject to the provisions of this Ordinance, the Partnership Ordinance, 1897, and the rules of equity and partnership of common law applicable to partnerships, except so far to apply as they are inconsistent with the express provisions of the inconsistent last mentioned Ordinance, shall apply. to partnerships and

partners registered under this Ordinance.

where not

with this Ordinance.

Manner and particulars of registra- tion.

Registration

8. The registration of a partnership under this Or- dinance shall be effected by delivering to the Registrar of Companies a statement signed by such of the partners and hung kú shareholders as desire to be registered under this. Ordinance contaiuing the following particulars :—

(a.) The partnership name;

(b.) The general nature of the business;

(c.) The principal place of business;

(d.) The full name and address of each of the part- ners and hung kú shareholders who desires to be registered under this Ordinance ;

(e.) The term, if any, for which the partnership is eutered into, and the date of its commence- ment;

(f.) The total capital of the partnership and the amount of such capital which has been paid up; (g.) The sum contributed by each partuer who desires to be registered under this Ordinance, and whether paid in cash or how otherwise; (h.) The proportion which the interest in the part- nership of each partner who desires to be re- gistered under this Ordinance bears to the in- terests of all the partners, whether registered or unregistered, in the partnership;

(i.) The interest in the firm of any hung ku share- holder who desires to be registered as such under this Ordinance,

9.—(1.) If during the continuance of a registered of changes in partnership any change is made or occurs, whether by partnerships. reason of the death of a registered or unregistered partner

or otherwise howsoever, in :—

(a.) the firm name,

(b.) the general nature of the business,

(e.) the principal place of business,

(d.) the registered partners or the name of any re-

gistered partner,

(c.) the term or character of the partnership, (f) the sum contributed by any registered partner, (9.) the proportion which the interest in the partner- ship of any registered partner hears to the in- terests of all the partners, whether registered or unregistered, in the partnership,

97

a statement, chopped with the chop of the partnership and signed by the manager or in his absence by one or more of the registered partners, specifying the nature of the change shall within fourteen days be delivered to the Registrar of Companies.

(2.) If default is made in compliance with the require- ments of this section such manager and all the registered partners who cannot prove that they were ignorant of the change shall, on summary conviction before a Magistrate, be liable to a fine not exceeding ten dollars for each day during which the default continues. Provided that no person shall be liable to pay a fine exceeding a total sum of five hundred dollars.

on contri-

10. The statement of the amount contributed by a re- Ad valorem gistered partner, and a statement of any increase in that stamp duty amount, sent to the Registrar for registration under this butions Ordinance, shall be charged with an ad valorem stamp duty by registered of $1 for every $500 or portion of every $500 up to partners. $10,000, and $1 for every $1,000 or portion of $1,000 on the next $15,000 and 50 cents for every $1,000 or portion of $1,000 on sums above $25,000 of the amount so con- tributed, or of the increase of that amount, as the case may be; and, in default of payment of stamp duty thereon as herein required, the duty with interest thereon at the rate of eight per cent. per annum from the date of delivery of such statement shall be a debt to the Crown and shall be recoverable by the Colonial Treasurer from such registered partner in the same manner as is provided for by the Crown Remedies Ordinance, 1875, in respect of rent due to the Crown.

11. Every oue commits a misdemeanour who makes, Making false signs, sends, or delivers for the purpose of registration returns to be under this Ordinance any false or incomplete statement misdemean- known by him to be false or incomplete.

our'.

statement

12. On receiving any statement made in pursuance of Registrar this Ordinance the Registrar of Companies shall cause the to file same to be filed, and he shall send by registered post or and issue deliver to the partnership from which such statement has certificate of been received a certificate of the registration thereof. registration.

13. The Registrar of Companies shall keep at his office, in proper books to be provided for the purpose, a register and an index of all the partnerships registered as aforesaid, and of all the statements registered in relation to such partnerships.

Register and index to be kept.

14.-(1.) Any person may inspect the statements filed Inspection of under this Ordinance by the Registrar of Companies, and statements there shall be paid for each such inspection a fee of one registered. dollar; and any person may require a certificate of the registration of a registered partnership, or a copy of or extract from any registered statement, to be certified by the Registrar of Companies, and there shall be paid for such certificate of registration, certified copy, or extract such fees as the Governor-in-Council may appoint, not exceeding $1 for the certificate of registration, and not exceeding forty cents for each folio of seventy-two words.

(2.) A certificate of registration, or a copy of or extract from any statement registered under this Ordinance, if duly certified to be a true copy under the hand of the Registrar of Companies or one of the Deputy Registrars (whom it shall not be necessary to prove to be the Registrar or Deputy Registrar) shall, in all legal proceedings, civil or criminal, and in all cases whatsoever, be received in evi- dence.

15. The Governor-in-Council may make rules con- Powers of cerning any of the following matters :—

(a.) The fees to be paid to the Registrar of Companies under this Ordinance so that they do not exceed in the case of the original registration of a limited partnership the sum of twenty dollars and in any other case the sum of three dollars.

Governor-in- Council to make rules.

*

Effect of registration

98

(b.) The duties or additional duties to be performed by the Registrar of Companies for the purposes of this Ordinance.

(c.) The performance by Deputy Registrars and other officers of acts by this Ordinance required to be done by the Registrar of Companies.

(d.) The forms to be used for the purposes of this

Ordinance.

(e.) The publication from time to time in the Gazette of a list of the partnerships registered under this Ordinance.

(f) Generally the conduct and regulation of registra- tion under this Ordinance and any matters incidental thereto.

16. Nothing in this Ordinance shall be taken to affect any

debt or liability incurred by a registered partnership or a trospective. registered partner or hung hu shareholder prior to the date

of their respective registrations.

not re-

Commence. ment of Ordinance.

17. This Ordinance shall come into operation on the first day of January, 1912.

Appendix.

1. If the amendment in clause 1 of this Bill had not been agreed to by the Special Committee, of which I am a Member, I should have felt bound to oppose this measure in toto, for I am clearly of opinion that it would have been absurd to make the provisions of this Bill apply to any partnerships other than Chinese partnerships.

2. Even as regards Chinese partnerships this Ordinance is absolutely different in its scope from all previous Bills on the subject of the registration of partners in Chinese firms.

All such previous Bills started from the point of view that it was imperative to protect creditors by facilitating the identification of partners in the debtor firm and consequently that all the names, including t'ong names, of all the partners in a Chinese firm must be registered. The coyness of Chinese traders proved, however, a fatal obstacle to the success of any such attempts at legislation.

3. This Bill, on the contrary, is admittedly drawn from the point of view of bribing rather than compelling a partner to register, by offering to him, if he registers, a certain limitation of liability, which limitation is, I believe, sanctioned by Chinese Custom.

4. In view of the important nature of this measure I would beg leave to suggest that it be published for general information in the Gazette in its present shape and that it be not passed into law until the public have had a reasonable opportunity of considering it.

6th October, 1911.

H. E. POLLOCK.

>

HONGKONG.

No.

4

1911

REPLY TO QUESTIONS BY THE HON. DR. HO KAI, C.M.G.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor, May 11th, 1911.

31-

Revenue.

Expenditure.

Margin, i.e., Excess of

Ordinary

Gross.

Extraordinary Ordinary.

Revenue over

Ordinary

Year.

Extraordinary

viz. not asses-

Exclusive of Exclusive of

Exclusive of

Amount

of

Military

Total

Expenditure

Gross.

sed for Mili- tary Contri- bution.

Ordinary.

Military Con- Expenditure tribution and from Loans tribution and Volunteers. and Reserves. Volunteers.

Military Con-

Military Con-

Expenditure exclusive of

Public Works| Contribution. Extraordinary

011

Remarks.

tribution and

Volunteers.

$

$

$39

$

$

$

$

$

$

1896

2,609,878

2,250,179

359,699

2,182,401

69,510

1,882,272

367,907

509,679

300,129

1897

2,686,914

334,518

2,352,866

2,486,245

127,716

2,036,824

315,542.

460,378

449,421

1898

2,918,159

246,052

2,672,107 2,458,376

234,381

2,088,150

583,957

503,305

370,226

1.

1899

3,610,143

744,384

2,865,759

2,634,644

131,660

2,381,744

484,015

620,744

252,900

1900 4,202,587

967,258

3,235,329 2,972,761

473,205

2,499,556

735,773

616,589

473,205

1901

4,218,893

240,315

3,973,578

3,260,622

388,473

2,872,149

1,101,429

846,275

388,473

1902

4,901,073

571,361

4,329,712

4,954,366

1,157,104

3,797,262

582,450

914,038

1,157,104

1903

5,238,857

510,165

4,728,692

4,397,295

649,831

3,747,464

981,228

961,408

649,831

1904 6,809,047

486,098

6,322,949

9

5,061,462

1,382,814

3,678,648

2,644,301

1,270,741

1,382,814

1905

6,918,403

392,259

6,526,144

5,530,314

1,673,440

3,856,871

2,669,271

1,362,650

1,673,440

2.

1908

1909

1910

1906 1907 6,602,280 6,104,207

6,822,966

6,960,869

7,035,011

412,941

6,622,070

5,480,073

1,503,789

8,976,284

2,645,787

1,305,185

1,503,789

159,750 6,442,529 6,034,849

69,358

6,286,832

536,134

6,628,183

332,686

4,497,609

728,650

3,768,959

2,673,570

1,214,310

728,650

6,633,754

*

792,242

4,290,414

5,277,502

5,199,882

*1,159,923

*1,176,437

4,048,050

""

Expenditure "Extraordinary does not include Railway and Harbour of Refuge.

1. Military Contribution fixed at 17% of gross revenue, exclusive of "Extraordinary ", cost of new Barrack Works and total cost of new Defence Works. 2. Military Contribution fixed at 20% of gross revenue, exclusive of "Extraordinary

1,744,435

1,250,168

2,343,340

*

2,238,782

1,226,441

1,229,452

4,295,058 2,333,125

1,372,486

1,204,823

3

3

95

No. 3.

101

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE▸

No. 1911

15

PUBLIC

WORKS

COMMITTEE

at a Meeting held on the 28th September, 1911.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His

Excellency the Governor, October 19th, 1911.

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Director of Public Works, (WILLIAM CHATHAM, C.M.G.), Chairman.

the Colonial Treasurer, (ALEXANDER MACDONALD THOMSON).

""

"

Mr. WEI YUK, C.M.G.

Mr. CHARLES HENDERSON Ross.

ABSENT:

The Honourable Mr. CHARLES MONTAGUE EDE (absent from the Colony).

Road on North side of hill to connect Chamberlain Road with Plantation Road. (C.S.O. 6673/1903.)

The Chairman explained that it had been decided to construct a road on the line indicated above and a track had been cut to show approximately where it would run. A petition had however been received from a number of residents requesting that, instead of following the track which had been cut, the road should be extended to a point on Plantation Road near the Western boundary of Rural Building Lot 27, thus obtaining an easier gradient than that afforded by the latter road above the point where the track referred to joins it.

The Chairman read the petition and explained that, as at present pro; osed, the road would have a gradient of 1 in 20 for a short distance from Chamberlain Road and would be practically level for the remainder of its length to its junction with Plantation Road. Beyond this point, Plantation Road had an average upward gradient of 1 in 15 whilst an extension of the proposed road, which it was also intended to construct, from the same point, would have a downward gradient of 1 in 16. This extension should open out some possible building sites above the houses on Barker Road. The petitioners' proposal, if adopted, would afford a gradient of about 1 in 40 to the new point of junction with Plantation Road, but the gradient of the road to open out the new building sites would then become about 1 in 6. There were difficulties also in the way of carrying out the petitioners proposal on account of some large masses of rock which would be traversed by the road and which, owing to the excessive steepness of the hillside, it would be extremely difficult to deal with. The track which had been cut avoided these masses of rock, running just below them. These facts had been communicated to the Hon. Mr. H. E. Pollock, K.C., on behalf of the petitioners. His reply in which it was pointed out that, apart from the considerable number of people living near Plantation Gap, regard should be paid to the large number of residents in the Peak Hotel, who might desire to use the road, was read.

After full discussion, it was unanimously agreed to recommend that the road should be constructed on the line of the track which had been cut.

The Committee then adjourned.

W. CHATHAM,

Laid before the Legislative Council this 19th day of October, 1911.

C. CLEMENTI,

Chairman.

Clerk of Councils.

No. 2.

59

No.

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

PUBLIC WORKS COMMITTEE

at a Meeting held on the 8th June, 1911.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of lis Excellency the Governor, July 6th, 1911.

9 1911

PRESENT :

The Honourable the Director of Public Works, (WILLIAM CHATHAM, C.M.G.), Chairman.

the Colonial Treasurer, (ALEXANDER MACDONALD THOMSON).

""

""

Mr. WEI YUK, C.M.G.

Mr. CHARLES MONTAGUE EDE.

Mr. CHARLES HENDERSON Ross.

Royal Square,-Fencing in Gardens. (C.S.O. 4287/1904.)

The Chairman read the following minutes:-

Minute by His Excellency the Governor, dated 14th November, 1910.

""

the Colonial Secretary, dated 22nd December, 1910.

""

His Excellency the Governor, dated 21st May, 1911.

His Excellency the Governor, dated 26th May, 1911.

The members of the Committee, who had studied the conditions on the ground, were of opinion that the pattern of the existing iron railings and granite pillars enclosing the gardens belonging to the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank should be adopted for the gardens belonging to the Government on the following grounds :-

(a.) They are sufficiently elegant.

(b.) They are reasonably inexpensive.

(c.) They are sufficiently high to exclude intruders.

The Committee then adjourned.

Laid before the Legislative Council this 6th day of July, 1911.

C. CLEMENTI,

Clerk of Councils.

W. CHATHAM,

Chairman.

No. 1.

45

wind-condom

HONGKONG.

No.

77 1911

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

STANDING LAW COMMITTEE

at a Meeting held in the Attorney General's Chambers, Hongkong, on the 27th May, 1911.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His

Excellency the Governor, June 1st, 1911.

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Attorney General, (C. G. ALABASTER), Chairman.

the Captain Superintendent of Police, (F. W. LxoxS).

";

Dr. Ho KAI, M.B., C.M.G.

Mr. H. E. POLLOCK, K.C.

??

ABSENT.

The Honourable Mr. E. A. HEWETT.

The Statute Laws (New Revised Edition) Bill, 1911.

On the 18th May, 1911, a Bill entitled "An Ordinance to authorise the publication of a Newly Revised Edition of the Revised Edition of the Statute Laws of the Colony pre- pared in virtue of Ordinance No. 12 of 1900" was referred to the Standing Law Committee. under Rule 43 of the Standing Rules and Orders of the Legislative Council of Hongkong.

In accordance with the provisions of Rule 40 of the aforesaid Rules, I the Chairman of the said Committee hereby certify that the said Bill has been considered clause by clause in the presence of four members of the Committee, and that in the opinion of the Committee. the said Bill may be dealt with by the Council in the same manner as a Bill reported on by a Committee of the whole Council.

The Committee recommend that the Bill be read a third time and passed in the form in which it appears in the document marked A attached to this report. A document marked B is also attached to this report shewing in brackets matter in the text of the Bill as referred which the Committee suggest should be deleted and in italics matter in the text which the Committee suggest should be inserted. When the Bill was referred it was without marginal The Committee suggest the adoption of the marginal notes appearing in the docu- ment marked B.

notes.

C. G. ALABASTER,

Chairman.

Laid before the Legislative Council, and adopted on the 1st day of June, 1911.

R. H. CROFTON,

Clerk of Councils.

Short title.

Interpreta- tion.

Authority to Editor to issue New Revised Edition of the Laws.

Powers of Editor.

*

.

46

A

No. 20:-[23.5.11.—2.]

A BILL

ENTITLED

An Ordinance to authorise the publication of a Newly Revised Edition of the Statute Laws of the Colony.

WHEREAS Owing to the great number of Amending and Consolidating Ordinances which have been passed since the publication of the Revised Edition of the Laws of the Colony by Sir John Carrington, Kt., formerly Chief Jus- tice of Hongkong, that Edition is in need of revision, and it is expedient to authorise the publication of a Newly Revised Edition of the Laws of the Colony :

BE it enacted by the Governor of Hongkong, with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council thereof, as follows:-

"6

The Statute Laws

1. This Ordinance may be cited as (New Revised Edition) Ordinance, 1911 ".

2. In this Ordinance-

66

Revised Edition" means the Revised Edition of the Laws of Hongkong prepared by His Honour Sir John Carrington, Knight, C.M.G., formerly Chief Justice of the Colony, and authorised to be used by proclamation of the Governor, dated 20th July, 1904, made in virtue of Ordinance No. 12 of 1900.

New Revised Edition" ineans the newly Revised Edition of the Laws of Hongkong authorised by this Or- dinance.

3-(1.) His Honour Sir Francis Taylor Piggott, Knight, Chief Justice of Hongkong, hereinafter called the Editor, is hereby authorised to prepare a new and revised edition of the Ordinances of the Colony, including those contained in the Revised Edition, to make such necessary arrangements for publishing the same, and for the supply of copies to the Government, and for the reprinting of the Edition in case of need, as the Governor shall approve.

(2.) In case the said Sir Francis Taylor Piggott is unable from any cause to complete the New Revised Edi- tion the Governor may appoint some other fit and proper person or persons to complete the work, subject to such equitable arrangements as may be agreed upon between the Governor and the said Sir Francis Taylor Piggott, or his representatives, or failing such agreement, as the At- torney General shall determine.

4. In the preparation of the New Revised Edition the Editor shall have the following powers in regard to the Ordinances included therein:

(i.) to omit-

(a.) all Ordinances or parts of Ordinances which have been repealed;

(b.) all introductory words of enactment; (c.) prefatory words to short titles,

(d.) headings of sub-divisions of Ordinances which in the opinion of the Editor are not necessary to the proper interpretation of the Ordinances, so long as they are not headings or titles of Parts, where an Ordinance is divided into Parts, in which case such omis- sion shall not be made, nor shall any alteration in the headings or titles of such Parts be made, unless they are included in one of the Ordin- ances mentioned in section 6;

i

47

(.) to insert in their proper place in the Ordinances amended all provisions of amending Ordinances as indicated in such Ordinances, as if the said amended Ordinances had been ordered to be printed as amended in such amending Or- dinances; and further, where all the amend- ments made by such amending Ordinances are so inserted as aforesaid so that the object of such Ordinances has been effected, to treat the remainder of such Ordinances as exhausted, and to omit the same;

(iii) to make minor, grammatical and typographical amendments, and to revise the punctuation where in the opinion of the Editor such revi- sion is necessary;

(ie.) to substitute :-

(a.) figures for words,

(6.) the serial number in references to Ordin-

ances instead of the short titles,

where in the opinion of the Editor such sub- stitutions are convenient;

(v.) to adopt a convenient standard form for the definition sections in all Ordinances; and

(vi.) to do all such things relating to form and method which may be necessary for the per- fecting of the New Revised Edition.

5. The numbering of the Ordinances contained in the Numbering Revised Edition, and of the sections of such Ordinances, of Ordin- shall be preserved, unless by special authority of the ances in Governor a new numbering of the sections of any Ordin- New Edition. ance is considered advisable, in which case such new num- bering shall be included in the special Ordinance referred to in section 6 (4).

The numbering of the Ordinances passed since 1901 shall in nowise be altered.

Editor for

6.—(1.) All omissions and amendments in the Ordin- Ordinances ances comprised in the New Revised Edition, other than to be pre- those referred to in the preceding sections, shall be col- pared by lected by the Editor and submitted to the Legislative the purposes Council in the form of one or more "Law Revision" and of revision. "Law Amendment" Ordinances respectively.

(2.) Where any omission or amendment is in the opi- nion of the Editor sufficiently important a special amending Ordinance shall be submitted to the Legislative Council, and if such Ordinance is passed the authority to make such omissions and amendments shall be the coming into force of such Ordinance.

(3.) The following omissions shall be held to be includ- ed in sub-section (1):

(a.) parts of Ordinances which have expired or have

become spent or have lost their effect;

(b.) repealing sections, and tables and lists of repealed enactments, in schedules or other- wise:

(c.) preambles, or parts of preambles, to Ordinan- ces which in the opinion of the Editor no longer serve any useful purpose;

(d.) introductory words of enactment in any part of an Ordinance, which in the opinion of the Editor are no longer required;

(e.) sectious prescribing the date when, or the method by which, any Ordinance, or any part of

any Ordinance, is to come into force, where the omission in the opinion of the Editor can be conveniently made; provided that in all cases a note shall be inserted at the commence- ment of all Ordinances of the date of their commencement, and where any special method of bringing an Ordinance into operation has been prescribed, of the method and date by and at which the Ordinance has been brought into operation.

Extent of Revision.

Approval of

48

(4.) Where entire Ordinances have expired, or have be-- come spent, or have lost their effect, and ought to be repealed, or where it is considered advisable to repeal en- tire Ordinances, or a considerable part of any Ordinance, such repeals shall be embodied by the Editor in a special Ordinance "for promoting the General Revision of the Law", to be submitted to the Legislative Council, in which the reason for each such repeal shall be succinctly stated.

(5.) The Editor shall be at liberty to recast the marginal notes of the sections of all Ordinances included in the New Revised Edition where in his opinion it is necessary for greater clearness.

7.-(1.) The New Revised Edition shall be comprised in two Volumes, which shall include all the Ordinances in force down to the end of the year 1910, together with such of the Ordinances passed in the year 1911 as, having regard to the exigencies of printing, can conveniently be included. Such of the Ordinances passed in the year 1911, as cannot be so conveniently included shall be collected and printed with the necessary references as an Appendix, to be included in the third Volume hereafter referred to; but such Appendix shall for all purposes be considered to form part of the New Revised Edition.

(2.) The Editor shall prepare and issue as part of his undertaking :-

(a.) a chronological table of all the Ordinances of the Colony, including those which have been repealed, or which were not included in the Revised Edition: provided that he may for such purpose adopt the Chronological Table prepared for the Revised Edition by Sir John Carrington;

(b.) a full and complete index to the subject matter of all Ordinances contained in the New Revised Edition;

(c.) references to Orders issued by the Sovereign in His Privy Council relating to or affecting the Colony, in so far as it may be practicable; (d.) such Tables of References to the aforesaid or other matters as he may consider necessary for perfecting the New Revised Edition of the Laws of Hongkong;

all which things, together with the Appendix of the Or- dinances passed in 1911 above referred to, shall be included in a third Volume, and the three Volumes to- gether shall form one series entitled "The Laws of Hongkong".

8.-(1.) Each Volume of the series before it is issued new Edition shall, by general order of the Governor in that behalf, be by proclama- impressed on the title page thereof with the seal of the

tion.

Sealed copies of future Ordinances

to be depo- Registry of

sited in

Supreme Court.

Colony.

(2.) On some convenient day after the issue and pub- lication of the Second Volume, and after the passing of the Ordinances referred to in section 6, the New Revised Edition shall be laid before the Legislative Coun- cil for approval, and such approval, if given, shall be notified, by proclamation of the Governor.

AND WHEREAS doubts have arisen by reason of the co-existence of Ordinances No. 16 of 1886 and No. 12 of 1900, as to the true version of the Ordinances passed up to the end of 1901, AND WHEREAS it is expedient to remove such doubts:

Be it further enacted as follows:-

9.-(1.) Ordinance No. 16 of 1886 (the Statute Law Revision Ordinance, 1886) is repealed.

(2.) A copy of all Ordinances passed after the coming into force of this Ordinance, certified under the hand of the Governor and the seal of the Colony shall, as soon as conveniently may be after they have been passed by the Legislative Council, be transinitted by the Clerk of Councils to the Registrar of the Supreme Court, for re- cord; and such copies shall be deemed to be the originals

49

thereof and to be the law, and may be proved in any Court or judicial proceeding by certified copies thereof, or, by order of a Judge, by the production thereof by the Registrar. Subject however to objection being taken any Ordinance passed after the commencement of this Or- dinance may be proved by the production of a copy of the Gazette containing the print of such Ordinance as passed by the Legislative Council, or a copy thereof purporting to be printed by the Government Printer.

(3.) Any person shall be entitled to inspect such sealed copies during the office hours of the Registry on payment of twenty-five cents for each inspection not exceeding three hours, and to take copies of extracts therefrom for certification by the Registrar, on payment of twenty-five cents per folio of seventy-five words for each copy or

extract.

10.-(1.) Ordinance No. 12 of 1900 (The Statute Law Validation (Revised Edition) Ordinance, 1900) is repealed.

of variances between

former

copies.

(2.) The Revised Edition, so far as Ordinances passed Revised up to the end of 1901 are concerned, is hereby declared to Edition and have been the true and only version of those Ordinances, sealed all variances between such Ordinances as printed therein and the sealed copies thereof deposited in the Registry under Ordinance No. 16 of 1886, and anything in Or- dinance No. 16 of 1886 to the contrary notwithstanding ; and in so far as there are such variances the Ordinances as contained in such sealed copies are to be taken to be and to have been repealed by Ordinance No. 12 of 1900.

(3.) This section shall come into force at the same time as the proclamation referred to in section 8.

11. From and after the date of such proclamation the New Edi- Revised Edition shall cease to be the statute book of the tion author- Colony up to the date of the latest of the Ordinances con- ised to be tained therein, and subject only to the provisions of Courts, and section 9, it shall be lawful to use the New Revised for all pur- Edition in all Courts of Justice and for all purposes what- poses. soever as being the authorised statute book of the Colony in regard to all Ordinances passed by the Legislative Council up

to the end of the year 1911; Provided that nothing in this section shall affect the operation of any Ordinance which may be passed, before the issue of such proclamation, for the repeal, alteration or amendment of any earlier Ordinance after such Ordinance has been printed in the New Revised Edition.

editions of

12. Where in any existing enactment or in any exist- Construction ing document of whatever kind, reference is made to of references an Ordinance which is affected by or under the operation to formier of this Ordinance, such reference shall, where necessary Ordinances. and practicable, be deemed to extend and apply to the corresponding enactment as contained the New Revised Edition.

50

B

A BILL

ENTITLED

No. 20:--[23.5.11.-2.]

An Ordinance to authorise the publication of a

Newly Revised Edition

Edition [of

[of the Revised Edition] of the Statute Laws of the Colony [prepared in virtue of Ordinance No. 12 of 1900].

WHEREAS Owing to the great number of Amending and Consolidating Ordinances which have been passed since the publication of the Revised Edition of the Laws of the Colony by Sir John Carrington, K., [late] formerly Chief Justice of Hongkong, that Edition is in need of revision, and it is expedient to authorise the publication of a Newly Revised Edition of the Laws of the Colony:

Be it enacted by the Governor of Hongkong, with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council thereof, as follows:-

The Statute Laws Short title.

1. This Ordinance may be cited as (New Revised Edition) Ordinance, 1911”.

2. In this Ordinance-

"

"Revised Edition means the Revised Edition of the Laws of Hongkong prepared by His Honour Sir John Carrington, Knight, C.M.G., [late] formerly Chief Justice of the Colony, and authorised to be used by proclamation of the Governor, dated 20th July, 1994, made in virtue of Ordinance No. 12 of 1900.

"New Revised Edition' means the newly Revised Edition of the Laws of Hongkong authorised by this Or- dinance.

Interpreta- tion.

Revised

3.-(1.) His Honour Sir Francis Taylor Piggott, Authority to Knight, Chief Justice of Hongkong, hereinafter called the Editor to Editor, is hereby authorised to prepare a new and revised issue New edition of the Ordinances of the Colony, including those Edition to contained in the Revised Edition, to make [the] such the Laws. necessary arrangements for publishing the same, and for the supply of copies to the Government, and for the reprinting of the Edition in case of need, as the Governor shall approve.

(2.) In case the said Sir Francis Taylor Piggott is unable from any cause to complete the New Revised Edi- tion the Governor may appoint some other fit and proper person or persons to complete the work, subject to such equitable arrangements as may be agreed upon between. the Governor and the said Sir Francis Taylor Piggott, or his representatives, or failing such agreement, as the At- torney General shall determine.

4. In the preparation of the New Revised Edition the Powers of Editor shall have the following powers in regard to the Editor. Ordinances included therein :-

(i.) to omit-

(a.) all Ordinances or parts of Ordinances which have been repealed;

(5.) all introductory words of enactment; (c.) prefatory words to short titles;

(d.) headings of sub-divisions of Ordinances which in the opinion of the Editor are not necessary to the proper interpretation of the Ordinances, so long as they are not headings or titles of Parts, where an Ordinance is divided into Parts, in which case such omis- sion shall not be made, nor shall any alteration in [such] the headings or titles of such Parts be made, unless they are included in one of the Ordinances mentioned in section 6 [(4)];

}

51

(ii) to insert in their proper place in the Ordinances amended all provisions of amending Ordinances as indicated in such Ordinances, as if the said amended Ordinances had been ordered to be printed as amended in such amending Or- dinances; and further, where all the amend- ments made by such amending Ordinances are so inserted as aforesaid so that the object of such Ordinances has been effected, to treat the remainder of such Ordinances as exhausted, and to omit the same;

(i) to correct] make minor, grammatical and typographical [errors] amendments, and to revise the punctuation where in the opinion of the Editor such revision is necessary;

(iv.) to substitute :---

(a.) figures for words,

(b.) the serial number in references to Ordin-

ances instead of the short titles,

where in the opinion of the Editor such sub- stitutions are convenient ;

(c.) to adopt a convenient standard form for the definition sections in all Ordinances; and [iv.] (vi.) to do all such things relating to form

and method which may be necessary for the perfecting of the Revised Edition.

New Edition.

5. The numbering of the Ordinances contained in the Numbering Revised Edition, and of the sections of such Ordinances, of Ordin shall be preserved, unless by special authority of the ances in Governor a new numbering of the sections of any Ordin- ance is considered advisable, [when] in which case new numbering shall be included in [one of the Ordinances] the special Ordinance referred to in section 6 (4).

The numbering of the Ordinances passed since 1901 and of the sections of such Ordinances shall in nowise be altered.

46

Editor for the purposes of revision.

6.—(1.) All omissions and amendments in the language Ordinances of the Ordinances comprised in the New Revised Edition, to be pre- [including] other than those referred to in the preceding pared by sections, shall be collected by the Editor and submitted to the Legislative Council in the form of one or more Law Revision and "Law Amendment" Ordinances respect- ively; provided that where such omissions or amend- ments are sufficiently material, although they do not affect the spirit and meaning of the provisions amended, the authority of the Governor shall be first obtained].

22

(2.) Where any omission or amendment is in the opi- nion of the Editor sufficiently important [and does not come within the preceding sub-section an] a special amending Ordinance shall be submitted to the Legislative Council, and if such Ordinance is passed the authority to make such omissions and amendments shall be the coming into force of such Ordinance.

(3.) The following omissions shall be held to be includ- ed in sub-section (1):—

(a.) parts of Ordinances which have expired or have

become spent or have lost their effect ;

(b) repealing sections, and tables and lists of repealed enactments, in schedules or other- wise;

(4.) preambles, or parts of preambles, to Ordin- ances which in the opinion of the Editor no longer serve any useful purpose;

(d.) introductory words of enactment in any part of an Ordinance, which in the opinion of the Editor are no longer required;

(e) sections prescribing the date when, or the method by which, any Ordinance, or any part of any Ordinance, is to come into force, where the omission in the opinion of the Editor can be conveniently made; provided that in all cases a note shall be inserted at the commence- ment of all Ordinances of the date of their commencement, and where any special method of bringing an Ordinance into operation has been prescribed, of the method and date by and at which the Ordinance has been brought into operation.

52

(4.) Where entire Ordinances have expired, or have be- come spent, or have lost their effect, and ought to be repealed, or where it is considered [subject always to the authority of the Governor being obtained] advisable to repeal entire Ordinances, or a considerable part of any Ordinance, such repeals shall be embodied by the Editor in a special Ordinance "for promoting the General Re- vision of the Law", to be submitted to the Legislative Council, in which the reason for each such repeal shall be succinctly stated [in a special preamble].

(5.) The Editor shall be at liberty to recast the marginal notes of the sections of all Ordinances included in the New Revised Edition where in his opinion it is necessary for greater clearness [and he shall introduce into the margin such references to the "Law Revision", the "Law Amendment" and the "General Revision" Ordinances above referred to as he may consider advisable].

7.—(1.) The New Revised Edition shall be comprised Extent of in two Volumes, [and] which shall include all the Or- Revision. dinances in force down to the end of the year [1911] 1910, together with [all] such of the Ordinances passed in the year 1911 as, having regard to the exigencies of printing, can conveniently be included. [All] Such of the Or- dinances passed in [of] the year 1911, [which] as cannot be so conveniently included shall be collected and printed with the necessary references as an Appendix, to be included in the third Volume hereafter referred to; [which however but such Appendix shall for all purposes be considered to form part of the New Revised Edition.

(2.) The Editor shall prepare and issue as part of his undertaking:-

(a.) a chronological table of all the Ordinances of the Colony, including those which have been repealed, or which were not included in the Revised Edition: provided that he may for such purpose adopt the Chronological Table prepared for the Revised Edition by Sir John Carrington;

(b) a full and complete index to the subject matter of all Ordinances contained in the New Revised Edition;

(c.) [a collection of] references to Orders issued by the Sovereign in His Privy Council relat- ing to or affecting the Colony, in so far as it may be practicable;

(d.) such Tables of References to the aforesaid or other matters as he may consider necessary for perfecting the New Revised Edition of the Laws of Hongkong;

all which things, together with the Appendix of the Or- dinances passed in 1911 above referred to, shall be included in a third Volume, and the three Volumes to- gether shall form one series entitled The Laws of Hongkong".

8.-(1.) Each Volume of the series before it is issued Approval of shall, by general order of the Governor in that behalf, be new Edition impressed on the title page thereof with the seal of the by proclama-- Colony.

(2.) On some convenient day after the issue and pub- lication of the Second Volume, and after the passing of the Ordinances referred to in section 6 (4)], the New Revised Edition shall be laid before the Legislative Coun- cil for approval, and such approval, if given, shall be notified, by proclamation of the Governor.

And Whereas doubts have arisen by reason of the co- existence of Ordinances No. 16 of 1886 and No. 12 of 1900, as to the true version of the Ordinances passed up to the end of 1901, and whereas it is expedient to remove such doubts :

Be it further enacted as follows :~

9. (1.) Ordinance No. 16 of 1886 (the Statute Law Revision Ordinance, [1887] 1886) is repealed.

tion.

(2.) A copy of all Ordinances passed after the coming Sealed copies into force of this Ordinance, certified under the hand of the of future Governor and the seal of the Colony shall, as soon as Ordinances conveniently may be after they have been passed by the to be depo- Legislative Council, be transmitted by the Clerk of [the] Registry of Councils to the Registrar of the Supreme Court, for re- Supreme cord; and such copies shall be deemed to be the originals Court.

sited in

i

Š

53

thereof and to be the law, and may be proved in any Court or judicial proceeding by certified copies thereof, or, by order of a Judge, by the production thereof by the Registrar. Subject [only to the foregoing provision] however to objection being taken any Ordinance passed after the commencement of this Ordinance [shall be suffi- ciently] may be proved by the production of a copy of the Gazette containing the print of such Ordinance as passed by the Legislative Council, or a copy thereof purporting to be printed by the Government Printer [at or about the time of the passing thereof],

[(3.) The provisions of the preceding sub-section shall apply to all proclamations issued and to all rules, orders, regulations, or bye-laws heretofore or hereafter made in virtue of any Oidinance, now in force or hereafter to be passed.]

[(4.) The Registrar shall carefully preserve and file all such Oruinances, proclamations, rules, orders, regulations or bye-laws so transmitted to him.]

[(5.)] (3.) Any person shall be entitled to inspect such sealed copies [Ordinances and other documents aforesaid] during the office hours of the Registry on payment of twenty-five cents for each inspection not exceeding three hours, and to take copies or extracts therefrom for certi- fication by the Registrar, on payment of twenty-five cents per folio of seventy-five words for each copy or extract.

10.—(1.) Ordinance No. 12 of 1900 (The Statute Law Validation (Revised Edition) Ordinance, 1900) is repealed.

of variances between

former

(2.) The Revised Edition, so far as Ordinances [contained Revised in it] passed up to the end of 1901 are concerned, is here- Edition and by declared to have been the true and only version of sealed those Ordinances, all variances between suchi Ordinances copies. as printed therein and the sealed copies thereof deposited in the Registry under Ordinance No. 1 of 1887] 16 of 1886, and anything in Ordinance No. [1 of 1887] 16 of 1886 to the contrary notwithstanding; and in so far as there are such variances the Ordinances as contained in such sealed copies are to be taken to be and to have been repealed by Ordinance No. 12 of 1900.

(3.) This section shall come into force at the same time as the [New Revised Edition] proclamation referred to in

section 8.

used in

11. From and after the date of [the] such proclamation New Edi- [referred to in section 6 (4)] the Revised Edition shall tion author- cease to be the sole and only proper] statute book of the ised to be Colony up to the date of the latest of the Ordinances con- Courts, and tained therein, and subject only to the provisions of for all pur- section 9, it shall be lawful to use the New Revised poses. Edition in all Courts of Justice and for all purposes what- soever as being the authorised statute book of the Colony in regard to all Ordinances passed by the Legislative Council up to the end of the year 1911; Provided that nothing in this section shall affect the operation of any Ordinance which may be passed, before the issue of such proclamation, for the repeal, alteration or amendment of any earlier Ordinance after such Ordinance has been printed in the new Revised Edition.

editions of

12. Where is any existing enactment or in any exist- Construction ing document of whatever kind, reference is made to of references an Ordinance which is affected by or under the operation to former of this Ordinance, such reference shall, where necessary Ordinances. and practicable, be deemed to extend and apply to the corresponding enactment as contained the New Revised Edition.

55

No. 1911

8

HONGKONG.

PRECIS OF CORRESPONDENCE ON THE SUBJECT OF THE STERLING SALARIES ATTACHED TO APPOINTMENTS TO WHICH CADETS HAVE A PREFERENTIAL CLAIM.

}

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor, July 6th, 1911.

On 29th April, 1910, a representation was made by the Governor to the Secretary of State for the Colonies to the following effect :-

(a.) That the sterling salaries substituted in 1902 for dollar salaries effected a considerable reduction in the value of posts in Hongkong whereas in the Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States they resulted in an increase which was evidenced not only by figures but also by the fact that although officers on dollar salaries in the sister Colony were in most cases glad to accept the Sterling Scheme, no officer in this Colony would do so,

(6.) That this reduction was due to an accident, in that the conversion was based on single exchange compensation (and was in fact even below that scale) whereas the Secretary of State had already agreed to the grant of double ex- change compensation to Hongkong Cadets, and the correspondence of the time showed conclusively that the objects in view were to increase and not to decrease the scale of salary.

.) That the existing state of things resalted in an increasing dissatisfaction, and was prejudicial to the public interests of this Colony, in that the Service had become unpopular, and was only accepted by those who were at the bottom of the competitive list.

Lord Crewe in his reply on 16th June, 1910, informed the Officer Administering the Government that as a result of memorials received from members of the Cadet Service in the Malay Peninsula he had instructed Mr. R. E. Stubbs of the Colonial Office to proceed to Singapore and to inquire into and report upon the salaries and classification of officers in the Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States and that, as it was desirable to deal with the Hongkong Cadet Service on similar lines, he had, after obtaining the concurrence of Sir F. Lugard, instructed Mr. Stubbs to visit Hongkong with a view to holding a similar inquiry there.

The Governor after discussion of the question with Mr. Stubbs addressed the Secretary of State on 5th January, 1911, recommending the scales embodied in column 4 of the Com- parative Statement attached. In explanation of the introduction of duty pay His Ex- cellency wrote:-

"Mr. Stubbs informed me that in the similar scheme agreed upon with Sir John An- derson for the Straits Settlements and the Federated Malay States, increases of salary took the form of duty pay to be drawn in the Colony by the officers actually performing the duties of the posts concerned. The principle is in my opinion sound. It entails no increase. in pensionable salary and by increasing the emoluments of an officer while at work in the Colony will deter officers from taking leave of very long duration. I have accordingly adopted it in the recommendations I have to make."

56

His Excellency further recommended that the District Officer should be placed in Class II subject to a deduction for rent of house at Taipo of $1,080 per annum if married and of $600 per annum if unmarried; and that the post of Assistant District Officer at Taipo should be placed in Class III and that on the occurrence of the next vacancy the officer selected should be subject to a deduction of $720 per annum if marriel and of $480 if un- married.

Mr. Harcourt under date 9th March, 1911, replied :-

"I am prepared to approve the adoption of the scale which you recommend in para- graph 3, provided that the Legislative Council agree.

"You do not suggest a date for the new scale to be brought into operation. I am in- clined to think that the most convenient date would be the 1st of July next, but if the Le- gislative Council consider that its introduction should be deferred until the 1st of January next, I am ready to accept that view. In any case the introduction should not be antedated.

"Existing officers should be given the option of coming upon the new scale at the point which they would have reached if it had been in force at the time when they were appointed to the Classes in which they are now serving.

"I share your views as to the soundness of the principle of making a part of the emoluments of a European Officer serving in the tropics a duty allowance payable only while he is actually on duty.

"I concur in the proposa's in the next paragraph of your despatch as to the District Officer and Assistant District Officer at Taipo."

The above terms have been offered to all officers in the Hongkong Service holding ap- pointments to which Cadets have a preferential claim, and which carry salaries not lower than those attached to Class III posts (see p. 191 of the Hongkong Civil List 1911). The following officers have accepted:-Capt. F. W. Lyons, Messrs. A. G. M. Fletcher, G. N. Orme, R. O. Hutchison, D. W. Tratman, E. C. Lewis, P. P. J. Wodehouse, P. Jacks and C. A. D. Melbourne. All other officers have declined to accept the terms. In other words all sterling paid officers concerned have accepted and all dollar paid officers concerned have declined the scheme.

The attached schedule shows how the sum of $6,241 is calculated.

Comparative Statement of Salaries under the Dollar, Sterling and New Schemes.

}

Dollar Salary.

Equivalent in Sterling.

Salary under Sterling Salaries Scheme.

New Scheme.

Class I

".

$6,000-$7,200 × $600 III £900 – £1,080 × £90 III | £800 – £1,000 × £100 III £800 – £1,000 × £100 III

Class II, . $4,800 – $5,400 × $300 III £720-£810 × £45 III

Class III, $3,600 – $4,200 × $300 III | £540 – £630 × £45 III

£600-£720 × £40 III

£420-£540 × £40 III

and £150 duty pay. £600 – £720 × £40 III and £120 duty pay. £400–£560 × £20 I and

£100 duty pay.

I signifies annual and III triennial increments.

1

Name.

Date

Appointment.

of

Appointment.

Schedule.

Present

scale

of salary.

Salary for the period from 1st July

to 31st December, 1911.

Proposed

scale

of salary.

Difference.

Under present scale of salary.

Under proposed scale of salary.

$

F. W. Lyons,

Deputy Superintendent of Police, etc.,

18. 9.1902.

A. G. M. Fletcher,.

Deputy Official Receiver, etc...............

21. 1.1909.

£600 to £720 by £40 triennially.

£420 to £540 by £40 triennially.

G. N. Orme,

Assistant District Officer, South,

18.11.1908.

Do.

£600 to £720 by £40 triennially plus Duty Pay £120. £400 to £560 by £20 annually plus Duty Pay £100.

Do.

$2,629 or £460 from 21.1.1909. (1)

$2,455 or £460 from

18.11.1911.

$4,017 or £720 from $4,703 or £720 plus 18.9.1911.

686

£120 from 18.9.1911.

$3,429 or £500 plus- £100 from 21.1.1911.

800

R. O. Hutchison,

D. W. Tratman, ..........

E. C. Lewis,

Superintendent, Imports and Exports, Second Assistant Registrar General, Assistant Postmaster General,

30.10.1909.

Do.

Do.

21. 9.1909.

Do.

Do.

3. 1.1899.

Do.

Do.

$2,400 or £420 from 30.10.1909. $2,400, i.e., at £420 per annum. $3,086 or £540 from 3.1.1908.

$3,113 or £460 plus £100 from 18.11.1911 or £440 plus £100 from 1.7.1911. $3,011 or £440 plus! £100 from 30.10.1911.

658

611

$3,035.

635

P. Jacks,

| P. P. J. Wodehouse, ... Assistant Superintendent of Police, etc., 15. 3.1901. Assistant Land Officer,.......

Do.

Do.

15. 9.1905.

Do.

Do.

C. A. D. Melbourne,

Deputy Registrar and Appraiser,

21. 9.1906.

Do.

Do.

$3,086 or £540 from 15.3.1910. $2,764 or £500 from 15.9.1911. $2,629 or £460 from 1.9.1909.

$3,771 or £560 plus £100 from 1.7.1911. $3,771 or £560 plus

685

685

£100 from 1.7.1911. $3,496 or £520 plus

732

£100 from 15.9.1911. $3,378 or £500 plus £100 from 21.9.1911.

749

Total,

6,241

(1) Allowed to draw the first increment from 21.1.1909, the date of appointment.

57

89

HONGKONG.

TYPHOON REFUGE,

STATEMENT TO 30TH JUNE, 1911,

(vide pages 10 and 11 of Hansard, 23rd February, 1911).

12

No. 1911

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor, August 3rd, 1911,

Contract time for completion-5 years from the 27th October, 1910.

Contract price,.

$2,018,002

Cost of Contractor's extras other than those for

which provision is made in the Contract,

Nil.

.$2,018,002

...S

33,633 per month.

Total amount of Contract and Extras,

Divided into 60 months,

8 months at $33,633,

Amount earned by Contractor on work actually accomplished including sum retained under the provisions of the Contract in the hands of the Government,

.$ 269,064

160,866

Note.-Soundings show that the rubble is not yet up to the sea-bed level.

In view of

the fact that the Contract was only signed on 27th October, 1910, and that much preliminary work was necessary, progress is considered satisfactory.

10th July, 1911.

W. CHATHAM, Director of Public Works.

}

No. 4.

103 (65)

NO. 1911

19

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

PUBLIC WORKS COMMITTEE

at a Meeting held on the 7th December, 1911.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His

Excellency the Governor, December 21st, 1911.

A

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Director of Public Works, (WILLIAM CHATHAM, C.M.G.), Chairman..

the Colonial Treasurer, (ALEXANDER MACDONALD THOMSON).

""

Mr. WEI YUK, C.M.G.

""

Mr. EDWARD Osborne.

Mr. CHARLES HENDERSOx Ross.

Tytam Tuk Water Works Scheme-Second Section. (C.S.O. 5758/1911.)

The Chairman read his letter of the 30th September, 1911, addressed to the Honourable the Colonial Secretary, and a report by Mr. JAFFE, Executive Engineer, marked "A", which accompanied it and in which the capabilities of the existing works and the probable future requirements in the matter of water supply were dealt with. The report showed that in years of deficient rainfall, such as 1901, the existing works, comprising Pokfulam, Wongneichong, Tytam, Tytam Byewash and Tytam Intermediate Reservoirs, would fall short of present requirements to the extent of nearly 500 million gallons. The joint capacity of the reser- voirs mentioned was 747 million gallons, but, under such conditions as prevailed in 1901, the reservoirs might only contain 560 million gallons at the commencement of the dry season, whilst the statistics of recent years showed that during a dry season extending over a period of 280 days, the consumption would amount to 1,270 million gallons. The yield of the streams during the same period would amount to about 227 million gallons so that storage of 1,043 million gallons was required to ensure constant supply or 482 millions in excess of that afforded by the present works, or, in round figures, 500 millions.

Probable requirements in the near future, including a supply to Shaukiwan District, which could be most economically supplied from the source under consideration, were estimated at about 560 million gallons. The capacity of a new reservoir to meet existing and provide for estimated requirements must therefore not be less than 1,060 million gallons..

When the Second Section of the Tytam Tuk Scheme was formerly under consideration, (1903-04), it was considered important, in selecting the site for the dam, to secure the largest possible drainage area and it was therefore proposed that the dam should be con- structed on what had been designated on the plans as "Site No. 1", which was situated in

103 (66)

Tytam Bay. A report and estimate, prepared by Mr. JAFFE and dated 6th February, 1905, were forwarded to Government, for the construction of a dam on this site, with the neces- sary contingent works. The estimate was as follows:-

Dam (to impound 1,200 million gallons),

Pumping Station, pumping plant and mains,

Tunnel for discharge of storm-water during construction of

dam and subsequently for draw-off pipes,

Road Diversion,

Temporary Works,

Total,

$2,445.000

337,000

127,000

60,000

343,300

$3,312,300

.

The gauges which were fixed in 1903 in the Tytam Valley had shown however that, in years of average rainfall, the quantity of water available would be sufficient to fill a reservoir capable of containing 1,500 million gallons, though the drainage area were curtailed by constructing the dam at a higher point than that already referred to and accordingly a site which was designated "No. 3", immediately below Tytam Tuk Village, had been thoroughly investigated. To ensure the filling of such a reservoir during years of low rain- fall, a short catchwater to intercept the drainage of an important valley to the north-eastward would be constructed, thus rendering available nearly the whole of the drainage area secured by the adoption of Site No. 1. If this were found inadequate, further catch waters, which would amply ensure the filling of the proposed reservoir, could be constructed.

In other respects, the scheme was on the same lines as that. fornierly proposed and all the works, which had been carried out under the heading "Tytam Tuk Scheme, First Sec- tion", (Sessional Paper No. 3 of 1904), would be fully availed of, the existing suction main being taken up and relaid as a rising main. Site No. I would still be available if it became necessary to provide further storage accommodation in the future but it would be necessary to construct an extensive system of catchwaters in order to fill such a reservoir.

In justification of the proposal to construct a dim capable of impounding 1,500 million gallons, bacteriological researches had resulted in revealing the fact that the storage of water produced a great improvement in its condition and it was therefore important that there should be ample storage.

The estimate of the amended scheme was as follows:-

Dam (to impound 1,500 million gallons),

Pumping Station, pumping plant and mains,. Road Diversion, etc.,

Catchwater,

Total,

$1.642,000

320,000

35,000

20,000

.$2,017,000

The Committee unanimously agreed to recommend that the amended scheme be under- taken and that it be carried out as expeditiously as possible.

W. CHATHAM, Chairman.

Laid before the Legislative Council this 21st day of December, 1911.

R. H. CROFTON,

Clerk of Councils.