Sessional Papers - 1938

SESSIONAL PAPERS LAID BEFORE THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL OF HONG KONG 1938

Table of Contents

1. Colonial accounts

I. Despatch of Secretary of State for the Colonies, Dated 25th November, 1937. -- Ii. Note By Financial Secretary, Hong Kong

2. Estimates of Expenditure

Abstract Showing the Differences Between the approved Estimates of Expenditure for 1938 and the approved Estimates of Expenditure for 1938 and the approved Estimates of Expenditure for 1939

3. Housing Commission

Report of the Housing Commission, 1935

4. Jurors

Jurors List for 1938

5. Mines

Report By the Senior inspector of Mines, Perak, Federated Malay States, on the Subject of the Control Measures Which the Hong Kong Government Should adopt in Respect of Local Mining

6. New Museum

Report on a New Museum in Hong Kong

7. Public Works

Draft Programme of Public Works

8. Rentals for Government Quarters

Report of the Committee on Rentals for Government Quarters

9. Rent Commission

Report of the Commission appointed By His Excellency the Governor of Hong Kong

10. Shanghai Refugees Committee

Report By the Chairman (Mr. W. J. Carrie) of the Shanghai Refugees Committee

11. Third Congress of Prehistorians

Report on the Third Congress of Prehistorians of the Far East, Held at Singapore

12. Training of Teachers

Report of the Committee on the Training of Teachers

13. University of Hong Kong

Despatch No. 514 of 27th June, 1938 to the Secretary of State for the Colonies

14. Water Finances

Memorandum By Financial Secretary

15. Water Finances

I. Memorandum By Financial Secretary. -- Ii. Memorandum on Modifications Decided Upon in Proposals Made in Part I

 

179

No.

9

1938.

HONG KONG.

COLONIAL ACCOUNTS.

I. Despatch of Secretary of State for the Colonies dated 25th November,

1937.

II. Note by Financial Secretary, Hong Kong.

PRINTED BY

NORONHA & CO., HONG

KONG.

GOVERNMENT PRINTERS & PUBLISHERS.

181

CIRCULAR.

Downing Street,

25th November, 1937.

SIR,

I have the honour to inform you that I have recently had under consideration the existing regulations and practice in regard to the form of Colonial accounts, and in this connection my attention has been drawn to the increasing difficulty experienced in ascertaining the financial position of a Colony from the accounts and statements at present prepared under Colonial Regulation 354 (a). In the case of those Colonies receiving grants from His Majesty's Exchequer in aid of their expenses of administration it has become evident that the information contained in these accounts is inadequate for the purpose of assessing the amount of the assistance required, and I have no doubt that more informative accounts would be of value both to you and the Legis- lature when framing and considering the Colony's budgets and would facilitate the task of the Colonial Office in forming a due appreciation of the financial position.

2. Owing to the widening scope of the financial operations carried out in the Public Treasuries, the number of accounts contained in the Colony's Ledger tends continually to increase, and the balances of all these accounts are included in the Assets and Liabilities Statements with a common cash balance. The liquid assets appearing in these statements do not always afford reliable guidance as to the cash available to meet voted expenditure, while the Excess of Assets, which appears as the. balance of the Statement of Assets and Liabilities, includes the Colony's working cash balances, and, in many cases, sums already expended in the purchase of stores, or advanced and immobilized in the form of loans, and hence does not reveal the amount available for appropriation. Further, the annual statements at present prescribed do not include particulars of outstanding loans made by the Colony, but only of the public debt.

3. After full consideration, I have decided that the following steps are necessary in order to secure that the accounts may fulfil their functions of setting forth the financial position and of ensuring financial control :—

(i) All expenditure which diminishes (other than temporarily) the surplus of revenue available for appropriation should be provided on votes and should be charged as expenditure at the time payment is made.

(ii) A "General Revenue Balance" account should be opened to which will be posted the balance of the Surplus and Deficit Account for the year, and the appreciation or depreciation of investments.

(iii) The following additional statements should be rendered as appendices to the Annual Statement of Assets and Liabilities:-

(a) A tabular summary of all special funds, trust funds, unspent loan moneys, etc., deposited in the Public Treasury, showing appreciation and depreciation of investments, where applicable, and the disposition of the balances of the funds, whether as investments or as cash balances in the hands of the Treasurer (Statement A).

(b) A statement of balances, excluding the balances of funds, etc., in the

hands of the Treasurer shown in Statement A, but including all other items in the Assets and Liabilities Statement (Statement B).

The Officer Administering

the Government of Hong Kong.

182

(c) A statement of outstanding loans made by the Colony out of its revenue, or public or other loans, generally similar to the statement of public debt rendered under Colonial Regulation 354 (v) (Statement C).

(d) A tabular summary of all unallocated stores accounts showing the open-

ing and closing stocks (Statement D).

I will now refer to each of these changes in detail.

4. In order to secure that the accounts may correctly disclose the free balance at disposal and also to serve the even more important purpose of preserving to the Legislature the fullest control over appropriation, I consider that all transactions 'which diminish the Colony's free surplus of revenue must be recorded as expenditure at the time payment is made. In future, purchases of stores, or of other material assets, loans for fixed periods and other advances to public or private bodies which are not of a current nature, should be met from voted moneys and not from surplus funds. Repayments or proceeds of realization will be brought to account as revenue, together with the interest received. Where possible, repayment of loans should, however, be effected by a fixed number of equated annuities. The record of these transactions hitherto contained in the Assets and Liabilities Statements will be replaced by the separate appended statements referred to in paragraph 3 (iii), (c) and (d).

5. In defining loans and advances for this purpose, it is necessary to distinguish them from investments. The test is the realizability of the asset. If the payment represents merely a temporary disposition of the surplus revenue in a marketable form until it may be required to meet expenditure, the transaction does not affect the position of the Colony's surplus and will properly be recorded as an investment.

6. As regards loans made from surplus balances before the receipt of this despatch, while I should prefer the outstanding balances to be voted as expenditure without delay in order to clarify the Colony's budgetary situation, I recognize that in some instances the local circumstances may render this step undesirable, and I am, therefore, content to leave the matter to your discretion.

7. I do not consider that sufficient grounds exist to justify the continuance of the practice of financing unallocated stores out of surplus balances. It is not a necessary feature of a centralized priced store-keeping system that a charge to votes should be delayed until the stores are issued for use or are written off, and in making the change it is not intended to relax in any particular the system of local control or the require- ment that the sanction of the Secretary of State be obtained to establish a stock of unallocated stores within a defined maximum. The change is purely financial.

8. To avoid swelling the expenditure votes by a second charge when the stores are expended, I propose that only the net excess of purchases over issues should be voted. A separate Unallocated Stores sub-head or Manufacturing Suspense sub-head should be included in the Estimates as part of the Expenditure Head of each depart- ment authorized to hold a stock of. Unallocated Stores. All purchases, returns and charges during the financial year will be debited to this sub-head, and the value of stores issued to Departments or Works during the financial year will be credited to the debit sub-head. The value of these issues will be included under Expenditure sub- heads exactly as at present, and cash receipts from sales of stores will be credited to a separate Miscellaneous Revenue sub-head.

9. Normally the Unallocated Stores sub-head will show a small debit balance. In the exceptional event of a credit balance resulting either temporarily or from the year's transactions as a whole, this balance will be shown in the Statement of Account as a deduction from the rest of the Expenditure Head.

183

10. The net Expenditure sub-heads will be included in the Estimates in the following form :—

Unallocated Stores-

Purchases, freight and other charges

£

Deduct value of stores to be issued to

other sub-heads and services.

£

£

(Net expenditure)

The actual figures for the year will be shown in the same detail as an inset in the annual statements of expenditure under sub-heads.

11. While the cash position would not be affected by the immediate transfer to votes of the present balances of the Unallocated Stores Suspense Accounts, this step would entail comparatively large votes in the case of Colonies where the stocks held are heavy in relation to expenditure of stores, and if you so desire, the course may be taken of debiting fresh purchases and charges to votes and crediting issues and sales to the existing Suspense Stock accounts until they have each been completely liquidated, when credits to the expenditure sub-heads would commence. If the existing Suspense Account balances are transferred immediately to Votes, provision will be made as separate items under the relative sub-heads and not as part of the purchases, etc., items of the year.

12. Under the procedure described in the foregoing paragraphs, only a net sum will be included in the Appropriation Law and in the General Warrant, but it is to be expected that, at certain times of the year, the purchases, etc., of stores will temporarily outrun the recoveries from issues by more than the net sum voted, and I give my approval for the issue, without prior reference to the Secretary of State, of such Special Warrants as may be necessary to authorize the expenditure of the gross amount of purchases and charges shown on the Approved Estimates, the general limit fixed by the Secretary of State under Colonial Regulation 265 (1) (a) being waived in the particular case of the Unallocated Stores sub-heads. Amounts authorized by you under this sanction will be included in the periodical Schedules of Additional Pro- vision.

13. The General Revenue Balance Account will exhibit the balance available for appropriation, and will replace the present running Surplus and Deficit Account as the balance of the Statement of Assets and Liabilities. It will first be opened with the balance of the existing Surplus and Deficit Account at the close of the previous financial year, and at the close of the current year there will be transferred to it (1) the balance of the Surplus and Deficit Account for the current year and (2) the net appreciation or depreciation of the investments referred to in the second paragraph of Colonial Regulation 275. No other entries will in any circumstances be made in the General Revenue Balance Account. All statements of Assets and Liabilities will show the balance of the Account in the following form either as an inset or appendix:

as an

General Revenue Balance-

Balance (1.1.1937)

£

Add or deduct Surplus and Deficit

Account (1937)

£

£

Add or deduct appreciation or depreciation of

investments (1937)

£ (X)

Balance (31.12.37)

£

The item (X) will be included only in the Statement rendered at the close of the financial year.

184

14. My decision to exclude unrealized appreciation and depreciation of invest- ments from the Revenue and Expenditure Account has been reached after considera- tion of the questions to which reference was made in paragraph 6 of the circular des- patch from Sir Philip Cunliffe-Lister (now Viscount Swinton) of 7th March, 1935, and, while satisfied as to the desirability of continuing an annual valuation of investments in order that the exact financial position of the Colony may be ascertained, I have recognized that objection may be felt to including in the annual budget an item which does not represent an actual cash transaction and which is not susceptible of legislative control.

Profit or loss realized on sales of investments will continue to be included in the Revenue and Expenditure Account, and the procedure set forth in paragraph 3 of my circular (2) despatch of 27th August last, will continue to be applied to the transfers to or from the Crown Agents of the interest and the appreciation or depreciation of Stock Transfer Stamp Duty Funds, and to any similar transactions where the profit or loss on investments is actually received or paid out in cash.

15. The purpose of the TABULAR SUMMARY OF SPECIAL FUNDS, ETC. (Statement A) is to segregate the transactions and balances of funds in the hands of the Treasurer which, while appearing in the Annual Abstract Account and the Statement of Assets and Liabilities, are not part of the public funds at the disposal of the Legislature.

Where a deposit is made in the form of an investment, or it is the duty of the Treasurer to invest the moneys deposited and credit to the special fund the interest received, any appreciation or depreciation of the investments will be shown in this summary and not in the General Revenue Balance Account. The assets of which the balance of cash fund account consists will be set out as investments and sums due to or from the Treasurer. The difference between the totals of these latter sums will show the amount of cash in the Treasurer's hands which does not form part of the Colony's available surplus, and will be carried to Statement B.

A model form of Statement A is appended. Unspent loan moneys, and balances of advances from the Colonial Development Fund or of other grants or loans from His Majesty's Exchequer funds, should be included in this statement, but, in the absence of special arrangements, General Reserve Funds should appear in Statement B.

16. THE STATEMENT OF BALANCES (EXCLUDING SPECIAL FUNDS, ETC.) (Statement B) will include all the items in the Assets and Liabilities Statement except the balances and investments of the special funds, etc., included in Statement A, and the balance of these funds in the hands of the Treasurer appearing in that statement will be deducted from the Colony's general cash balances and investments. This statement is designed to show clearly to what extent the Colony's surplus balances and temporary deposits are required for financing its current financial administration and to what extent cash is immediately available to supplement revenue. A model form is appended.

17. THE STATEMENT OF OUTSTANDING LOANS (Statement C) will record the position of all loans repayable to the Colony, except the temporary advances and imprests which continue to be provided out of surplus balances, whether the loan has been made out of voted moneys in accordance with paragraphs 4-6 above, or out of Colonial Develop- ment Fund or other Exchequer loans or grants, or out of the proceeds of loan issues.

Particulars will be given of the source and date of the loan, the ordinance or other authority under which it was made, the rate of interest and terms of repayment, the amount repaid or sinking fund accumulated, and the amount outstanding at the end of the financial year. In the case of a number of small loans made from a common source, e.g., loans to cultivators out of a Hurricane Loan, aggregate figures of the amounts lent, repaid, and outstanding will suffice.

18. This statement is the counterpart of the statement of the Colony's public debt at present rendered, and I take this opportunity to request you to arrange for the in- clusion in the latter statement of all outstanding debts due to His Majesty's Exchequer in repayment of Colonial Development Fund and other loans, if this is not already the practice in the territory under your administration.

185

19. THE TABULAR SUMMARY OF UNALLOCATED STORES ACCOUNTS (Statement D) will show, in respect of each authorized stock of unallocated stores the following parti- culars :-

1. Stock in hand at commencement of financial year.

2. ADD Purchases, returns and charges, as charged to Expenditure Sub-head. 3. DEDUCT Issues to votes and services as credited to Expenditure Sub-head

(Y).

4. DEDUCT Proceeds of stores sold as credited to Revenue (less percentage for

stores on cost) (Y).

5. Transfers between Stores (+ or−).

6. Adjustments for stores not paid for in year in which received (+or-). 7. DEDUCT Losses and deficiencies written off.

8. Stock in hand at close of finarcial year.

(Y) These items may temporarily be credited to the existing Unallocated

Stores Suspense Account.

20. Copies of each of the four additional statements will be supplied to the Auditor for examination with the Annual Account and other documents referred to in Colonial Regulation 323, and copies will also be transmitted to the Secretary of State with the returns rendered under Colonial Regulation 354 (a). In the case of those Colonies, etc., whose finances fall under the control of His Majesty's Treasury, four signed copies of the additional statements should be forwarded to me with the state- ments asked for in paragraph 9 of my predecessor's circular despatch to those Colonies of 22nd May, 1936.

21. The necessary amendments of Colonial Regulations are under consideration and will be promulgated in due course. I shall be obliged if you will arrange for the changes to be brought into operation so far as possible in preparing the accounts for the current and succeeding financial years, and for the complete procedure to be followed in the preparation of future Estimates and the relative Annual Accounts.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient, humble servant,

W. ORMSBY GORE.

1

MODEL A.

STATEMENT OF SPECIAL FUNDS, ETC., DEPOSITED IN THE PUBLIC TREASURY.

Special

Deposit.*

Savings

Stock

Transfer

Supple-

Loan

Colonial

Development

Loans.

mentary

Sinking

Fund.

Unspent

Totals.

Bank.

Stamp Duty

Sinking

Fund.

Fund.

Fund.

Unspent

Advances.

Balances.

Balance

of Deposit

Account (1-1-37)

Add Receipts

Deduct Payments

or

Add appreciation deduct depreciation

of investments

(+ or --)

Balance

of Deposit

Account (31-12-37)†

Investments held Market price

Cash in hands of

Treasurer

at

Cash due to Treasurer.

Balance as above.

* Each Fund, Trust, etc., should be shown in a separate column (e.g., Savings Bank).

+ These balances will agree,

Net cash balance in hands of Treasurer £ (being difference between O and P)

0

Р

186

MODEL B.

STATEMENT OF BALANCES (excluding Special Funds, etc.).

Previous

Year.

Assets.

Liabilities.

Deposits.

Advances

£

4

G.P.O., London

Imprests

£

£

Other Colonies

£

Suspense, etc.

£

£

Investments at market value.

£

Postmaster-General

£

Cash Balances

...£

£

Miscellaneous

£

Remittances between chests

..£

£

£

£

Joint Colonial Fund

£

Reserve Fund

£

General Revenue Balance

Drafts and Remittances, etc.

£

Deduct

£

£

Balances of Special Funds, etc., in hands of Treasurer [State- ment A].

£

£

£

£

Total £

Total £

£

Previous

Year.

-

187

}

188

Note on the effects on Hong Kong Government Accounts of the changes directed by the Secretary of State's despatch of 25.11.37.

The changes in accounting procedure set out in the Secretary of State's circular despatch of the 25th November, 1937, are designed primarily to show more clearly the surplus balances actually available for appropriation to new expenditure. Under the present system considerable parts of the nominal surplus may be locked up in un- allocated stores or in long term advances or loans made by Government for various purposes so that the nominal surplus is a deceptive guide to the actual funds available for use.

The changes proposed will also extend the control of the legislature over the utilization of surplus balances in the ways just referred to. These matters have not always in the past come directly before the legislature.

2. The following actual changes in Hong Kong Estimates will be involved :—

(1) STORES. In the past original purchases of stores have normally been debited to an unallocated stores suspense account and only charged to Heads of expenditure when allocated to the use of particular departments or services. The effect was that part of the Colony's nominal surplus balance was used in the purchase of stores. The funds which could be so allocated were limited under instructions from the Secretary of State to approximately six months' supply but did not come directly under the control of the legislature. For the future it is proposed that the actual amount to be spent on stores during any financial year shall be authorized in the Estimates in a separate Head or sub-head and that when stores are allocated to individual depart- ments or services a transfer shall be made from that sub-head to the proper sub-head .of the department concerned. Sales of unallocated stores will be credited to revenue under a separate sub-head of miscellaneous revenue. The gross figures of expenditure on stores and the net expenditure will be shown in the Estimates in the form of paragraph 10 of the circular despatch.

In this Colony there have been two un allocated stores suspense accounts, one controlled by the Railway and one by the Public Works Department.

A separate stores department has recently been set up to deal with stores at present under the Public Works Department and when the new system comes into operation in 1939 there will be two sub-heads for unallocated stores appearing in the Heads of expendi- ture of the Railway and the Stores Department.

In paragraph 11 of the circular despatch the question of transferring immediate- ly to votes the present balance of the unallocated stores suspense accounts is dis- cussed. It is thought that it would be preferable to make such transfers to the appro- priate heads of expenditure immediately in Hong Kong, involving a corresponding reduction in the nominal surplus of assets over liabilities; and it is proposed to submit the necessary votes to the Council at the end of the current year.

(2) LOANS AND ADVANCES made from Government surplus balances would also require to be authorized in the Estimates, with the exception of purely temporary advances and advances in the nature of investments. In this Colony there are no con- siderable long term advances by Government. Government has, however, made build- ing loans on special occasions to, for example, the Diocesan Boys' School and the Shek O Development Co.; and since 1933 long term building loans on mortgage have been made to officials to assist the building of houses. It is thought that all these loans should be treated in accordance with the new system. It is therefore proposed to take a vote before the end of this year to cover the outstanding building loans and to take further votes as may be required in future for any further similar advances. Repay- ments of such loans will be credited as revenue. The aggregate amount of such building loans outstanding at the 31st December, 1937, was $337,922.63.

(3) DEPRECIATION OR APPRECIATION OF INVESTMENTS held on general account has formerly appeared as either expenditure or revenue in the Estimates and depreciation has had to be voted as an item of expenditure after the end of the year concerned. The new system will obviate the necessity for a vote, which is a mere formality, while continuing the practice of revaluing investments every year in order

189

to show the true position. Appreciation or depreciation would in future be added to or deducted from the general revenue balance in the new form set out in paragraph 13 of the circular despatch. The Colony at present holds no investments on general account, so that the change is of no immediate significance.

2. A number of changes are also involved in the statement of assets and liabili- ties. These are:

·

(1) There will be substituted for the surplus of assets over liabilities a general revenue balance, see the form of statement in paragraph 13 of the circular despatch which is intended to show the true available surplus of the Colony. (2) There will be appended to the statement of assets and liabilities a tabulated statement of special funds included in it. These will include in the case of Hong Kong the special security funds held against the one dollar note issue and the nickel subsidiary coin, which it is clearly desirable should not be confused with the general balance of the Colony.

(3) There will also be appended a statement of balances including special funds

with the object of showing the actual cash balances available.

(4) A further statement of loans and advances made out of revenue will be appended showing how these have varied during the year; as already explain- ed only building loans are affected in Hong Kong..

(5) Finally a tabular summary of unallocated stores accounts will be added to

show the changes in these accounts during the year.

3. Under the present system of assessing Military Contribution an artificial in- crease in the Contribution payable by the Colony would result from the inclusion of various additional receipts as revenue in consequence of the changes envisaged by the new accounting system. Draft legislation to obviate this result is under considera tion.

S. CAINE, Financial Secretary.

Increase.

323

HONG KONG.

ABSTRACT SHOWING THE DIFFERENCES

BETWEEN THE

APPROVED ESTIMATES OF EXPENDITURE FOR 1938

AND THE

APPROVED ESTIMATES OF EXPENDITURE FOR 1939.

Stipulated Increments New Post

Total

$

Head 1.-Governor.

No.

15 1938.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

167 2,400

Transferred to Other Heads Changes in Personnel

10,271 220

2,567

Total

10,491

Other Charges.

Sub-head.

3 Conveyance Allowance

180

6 Rent of Public Telephones

306

Total

486

Sub-head.

8 One typewriter

Total

Special Expenditure.

342

$

342

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges

Special Expenditure

Total

2,567 486

$

10,491

342

3,395

Deduct Increase

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1938 Estimates, 1939

Decrease, 1939

10.491 3,395

$

7,096

$ 181,897

174,801

$

7.096

Increase.

324

Head 2.-Colonial Secretary's Office and Legislature.

Personal Emoluments.

Decrease.

Stipulated Increments

28,486

Changes in Personnel

619

Transferred from Other Heads

266,513

New Posts

17,600

Transferred to Other Heads Abolition of Posts

62,320

1,450

Language Allowance

120

Shorthand Allowance Acting Pay

180

112

Total

$ 313,011

Total

$

64,389

Other Charges.

Sub-head.

7 Transport

Sub-head.

25

Total

$

25

3 Electric Fans and Light

Total

200

$

200

Sub-head.

9 Four Typewriters

Increase.

Total

Special Expenditure.

736

$

736

Increase..

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges

Special Expenditure

Total

Deduct Decrease

$ 313,011

$

25

64,389 200

736

313,772

$

64,589

64,589

Net Increase

$ 249,183

Estimates, 1939 Estimates, 1938

$ 557,221 308,038

Increase, 1939

$ 249,183

Head 3.-Audit Department.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments.

3,785

Officers on leave (salary & allowances

Changes in Personnel Acting Pay

6,160

2,144

for Dec. 1938)

2,413

Total

.$

6,198

Total

$

8,304

Other Charges.

Sub-head.

Sub-head.

2 Conveyance Allowances

150

4 Share of Home Expenditure

.$

619

Total

$

150

Total

619

Increase.

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges

Total

Deduct Increase

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1938

Estimates, 1939

Decrease, 1939

325

$

Increase.

6,198

150

6,348

$

$

Decrease.

8,304 619

8,923

6,348

2,575

$ 125,443

122,868

2,575

Head 4.-Botanical & Forestry Department.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

New Posts

Rent Allowances

Total

1,594

740

Changes in Personnel Acting Pay

1,759

520

156

$

2,490

Total

2,279

Other Charges.

Sub-head.

3 Conveyance Allowances

Sub-head.

500

17 Upkeep of Car

100

5 Extraction of Timber

2,500

7 Forestry

3,500

10 Library

150

12 Maintenance of Gardens and

Grounds

500

14 Tools and Nursery Supplies

600

15 Transport

150

Total

$

7,900

Total

.$

100

Special Expenditure.

Sub-head.

19 One Motor Mowing Machine 20 Six Small Mowing Machines 21 Temporary Quarters for Forest

Protection Staff

Sub-head.

2,000

Three New Mowing Machines

937

600

2,700

Total

$

5,300

Total

937

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

$

2,490

$

2,279

Other Charges

7,900

100

Special Expenditure

5,300

937

Total

...$.

15,690

$

3,316

Deduct Decrease

3,316

Net Increase

$

12,374

Estimates, 1939 Estimates, 1938

151.953 139,579

Increase, 1939

$ .12,374

..

326

Increase.

Decrease.

Head 5.-Charitable Services.

Sub-head.

1 Sundry Charitable allowances and

pensions (already allocated) ......$ 2,810

Grants in aid of Charitable Institutions. General Chinese Charities Fund

140,000

Sub-head.

Grants in aid of Charitable Institutions. 5 Chinese Public Dispensaries

$

30,000

8 Hong Kong Society for the Protec-

tion of Children

5,000

10 Leper Asylum at Sheklung 12 Po Leung Kuk

36,400

10,000

16 Taipo Rural Orphanage

Annual Grant

Building Grant

2,900

16,000

17 Tung Wah and Associated Hospitals.

121,000

18 War Memorial Nursing Home

22 Relief of Refugees

15,000

150,000

Total

$ 386,300

Increase.

Increase.

Total

Decrease.

Total

Deduct Decrease

Net Increase

Estimates, 1939 Estimates, 1938

Increase, 1939

$ 386,300 142,810

$ 243,490

$ 458,264

214.774

$ 243,490

$ 142,810

Head 6.-Defence.

A.-Volunteer Defence Corps.

Stipulated Increments

$

374

Adjutant and Regimental Sergeant

Major, Pension Contribution

Changes in Personnel

Allowances to Instructors

Rent Allowances

New Posts

1,968

14,376

80

84

6,220

Total

.$

23.102

Sub-head.

4 Armoured Car and Motor Machine

Gun Section

7 Camp Expenses

16 Rifle Ranges, Expenses

20 Uniform

Total

Other Charges.

$

330

1,600

200

2,000

4.130

Sub-head.

3 Ammunition

6 Books

13 Grant to Machine Gun Troop 18 Training Expenses for Nursing

Detachment

Total

$ 142,810

Decrease.

3,150

200

5,400

100

.$

8,850

increase.

Sub-head.

23 Five Solo Motor Cycles

24 Six new Vickers Gun Locks

25 Typewriter

26 A.R.P. Equipment (Fire Buckets

27 100 sets equipment

and Scoops)

Total

Increase.

327

Special Expenditure.

Decrease.

Sub-head.

400

S. M. L. E. Rifles

3,360

1,500

Fifty sets equipment

2,000

342

Two Bren Light Machine Guns

3,905

200

4,000

.$

6,442

$

9,265

Total

Increase.

Decrease,

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges

23,102

$

4,130

8,850

Special Expenditure

6,442

9.265

Total

33,674

$

18,115

Deduct Decrease

18,115

Net Increase

$

15,559

Estimates, 1939 Estimates, 1938

$ 177,491

161,932

Increase, 1939

$

15,559

Head 6.-Defence.

B.-Hong Kong Naval Volunteer Force.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

$

111

Allowances to Warrant Officer and Petty

Officer Instructors

480

Total

$

591

Decrease.

Other Charges.

Sub-head.

2 Allowance for Officers undergoing

training in England

6 Fuel, Light and Water

Sub-head.

3 Ammunition

$

646

4 Books

1,500

5 Bounty and Rations for Ratings

122

200

1,000

10 Rent of Office and Upkeep

120

12 Travelling and Transport

400

13 Uniform Allowance to Officers

2,460

14 Uniforms

9,434

Total

$

14,560

Total

.$

1,322

Special Expenditure.

Anti-gas Equipment Two Steel Filing Cabinets

$ 4,068

3,50

Total

$

4,418

328

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges

Special Expenditure

$

591 14,560

$

1,322 4,418

Total

$ 15,151

5,740

Deduct Decrease

5,740

Net Increase

$5

9,411

Estimates, 1939

58,575

Estimates, 1938

49,164

:

Increase, 1939

9,411

Increase.

Head 6.-Defence.

C.-Air Raid Precautions.

Personal Emoluments.

New Posts

$

36,362

Stipulated Increments

325

Rent Allowances

96

Total

36,783

Sub-head.

Other Charges.

2 Badges (A.R.P.)

1,600

3 Conveyance Allowances.

1,680

4 Electric Fans and Light

400

5 Exhibitions

500

6 Experimental Work

5,000

7 Expenses of Instructors

800

8 Hire of Halls and

500

Lecturers Fees

600

9 Incidental Expenses

600

10 Propaganda

300

11 Publications

3,000

Total

14,980

Sub-head.

12 Stores for training purposes

13 Mobilization Stores

14 Equipment for St. John Ambulance

Brigade Reserve

15 Typewriter

Total

Special Expenditure.

Decrease.

Sub-head.

$

20,560 Local Precautions 250,000

50,000

15,400 342

$ 286,302

Total

$

50,000

!

Increase.

Increase.

329

Increase.

Decrease.

36,783

14,980

286,302

Personal Emoluments Other Charges Special Expenditure

Total

Deduct Decrease

$ 338,065 50,000

$ 288,065

Net Increase

Estimates, 1939

Estimates, 1938

$ 338,065 50,000

Increase, 1939

$ 288,065

Head 6.-Defence.

D.-Military Contribution.

Estimates, 1939 Estimates, 1938

.$7,097,898 5,689,578

Increase, 1939

.$1,408,320

$

Head 7.-District Office, North.

50,000

50,000

Decrease.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments New Posts

2,026

Changes in Personnel

2,284

960

Personal Allowances

108

Total

$5

3,094

Total

2,284

Sub-head.

2 Transport

Other Charges.

$

2,200

Total

2,200

Sub-head.

11 Law Books

Special Expenditure.

150

Total

$

150

Increase.

330

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

3,094

2,284

Other Charges

2,200

Special Expenditure

150

Total

5,444

$

2,284

Deduct Decrease

2,284

Net Increase

3,160

Estimates, 1939

78,948

Estimates, 1938

75,788

Increase, 1939

$ 3,160

Head 8. District Office, South.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

1,518

Transferred from Other Heads

14,222

Tranferred to Other Heads Changes in Personnel

$

20,584

12

Rent Allowance

24

Total

$

15,764

Total

$

20,596

Increase.

Other Charges.

Sub-head.

6 Rent of Office

Increase.

Personal Emoluments

$

15,764

Other Charges

Total

$

15,764

Deduct Increase

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1938

Estimates, 1939

Decrease, 1939

Stipulated Increments

New Posts

Residential Allowances

Total

Decrease.

$

20,596 200

20,796 15,764

fe

5,032

$

$

53,506

48,474

5,032

Head 9.-Education Department.

Allowance to Lecturing Staff, Evening

Institute

Total

$

200

200

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

57,262

Changes in Personnel

42,185

45,160

Abolition of Posts

25,180

3,040

Rent Allowances

2,328

Acting Pay

1,167

18,024

$ 123,486

Total

$

70,860

Increase.

331

Decrease.

Sub-head.

2 Allowance to Examiners

3 Books

$

250

700

Other Charges.

Sub-head.

4 Bonus to University Trained

Teachers

800

8 Equipment of Classes for Evening

14 Prizes

200

Institute

1,000

12 Laboratories

1,437

16 Renewals and replacements of

equipment

100

15 Pianos, Upkeep of

180

Medical Expenses

4,500

19 Students in training: Fees

1.795

20 Students in training-Maintenance

21 Students in training-Allowance...

1,870

1,920

Grants.

22 Training of Teachers

18,000

23 Transport

150

24 Uniforms

485

27 Subsidies to Urban Elementary

Vernacular Schools in Hong Kong

15,000

Grants.

Trade School.

25 Capitation Grants

26,000

28 Subsidies to Schools in New

Territories

2,000

31 Electric Light and Gas

Coal (Smiths)

300

50

Trade School.

29 Books

33 Laboratory

Total

Total

20,950

150

50

$

55,987

Special Expenditure.

34 Five Pianos

$

3,000

35 Gymnastic Apparatus

36 Desk-replacement in Government

10,000

Building Grants Two Typewriters

Schools

9,000

Trade School.

37 Tools and Equipment

Total

$

22,000

Total

Increase.

Decrease.

Special Expenditure

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges

Total

Deduct Decrease

Net Increase

$ 123,486 55,987 22,000

70,860

20,950

49,534

$201,473

$ 141.344

141,344 ·

$

60,129

Estimates, 1939 Estimates, 1938

$ 2,336,865 2,276,736

Increase, 1939

.$ 60,129

Increase.

Head 10.-Fire Brigade.

$

18,650

684

30,200

$

49,534

Decrease.

Stipulated Increments

Technical Apparatus Allowances

New Posts

Charge Allowance

Personal Emoluments.

4,878 396

1,440

180

Changes in Personnel Abolition of Posts Language Allowance Rent Allowance

4,812

4,675

71

36

Medal Allowance

Acting Pay

60 569

Total

$

7,523

Total

.$

9.594

:

Increase.

332

Other Charges.

Sub-head.

2 Clothing

3 Coal and Gas

.$

1,000

2,000

8 Oil and Fuel for Vehicles

2,000

9 Rent of Stations

200

10 Repairs to Motor Engines and

Plant

1,500

14 Transport

560

15 Volunteer Brigade Expenses

12,000

Total

$

19,260

Special Expenditure.

Decrease.

Sub-head.

17 Two sets "Salvus" Breathing

One Motor Turntable Fire Engine

Apparatus

50

Chassis

65,573

18 Two Sets "Pyrene" Foam-making

Branch-pipes

480

19 Special Course of Instruction

350

One Austin 20 H.P. Motor Ambulance Five "Metro" Leather Fire Helmets... One Typewriter

13,350

275

350

Jo

20 Overhaul of No. 1 Fire Float

7,000

Total

7,880

Total

79,548

Increase.

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

7,523

9,594

Other Charges

19,260

Special Expenditure

7,880

79,548

Total

34,663

89,142

Deduct Increase

34,663

Net Decrease

$

54,479

Estimates, 1938

Estimates, 1939

$ 378,786 324,307

Decrease, 1939

54,479

Stipulated Increments

Head 11 (A).-Harbour Department.

Transferred from Other Heads

New Posts

Rent Allowance

Total

Decrease.

Personal Emolumenis.

9,963

Changes in Personnel

$

18,936

11,732

Transferred to Other Heads

16,244

1,752

Language Allowance

237

48

Abolition of Posts

7.830

Acting Pay

2,032

.$ 23,495

Total

$

45,279

Increase.

333

Other Charges.

Sub-head.

3 Coal for Offices

5 Drawing Material, Instruments and

Equipment, G.M.S. Office

10 Hire of Tugs for Lighthouse Reliefs 13 Ocean Steamship Moorings and

$

35,000

Decrease.

Sub-head.

2,092

2 Coal and Oil Fuel for Launches....

8,000

6 Electric Fans and Light

500

55

7 Examination Fees

200

11 Incidental Expenses

12 Launch Moorings and Bucys;

Navigational Moorings and Buoys 17 Slipway at Yaumati, Maintenance. 18 Stores and equipment for Light-

houses

100

11,800

50

350

Total

$

21,000

Buoys

1,500

16 Repairs, minor improvements and

stores for Launches and Boats.

7,750

20 Uniforms

500

Total

$

46,897

Sub-head.

22 Travelling & Subsistence for S.I.L.

in England

23 Chain Cable

25 Welding Courses G.M.S. in

England

.26 One 3-ton Crane for Yaumati

27 One Steel Filing Cabinet

28 One Typewriter

Special Expenditure.

Sub-head.

410

18,000

24 Training Expenses G.M.S. in

England

One Standard Pressure Gauge Two Steel Filing Cabinets

864

358

308

990

"Dalzo" Steel for Buoys

500

3,000

Pulling Boat for Aberdeen

150

220

New Sewing Machine for Yaumati.

300

342

New Batteries for Waglan

5,500

29 New Launch H.D.4 (Replacement)

55,000

New Flasher for Cape Collinson

7,806

30 New Launch G.P.O. 1 (Replace-

New Launch S.D. 2

115,000

ment)

70,000

Diaphone for Waglan

46,623

31 New Launch Police No. 10 (Replace-

ment)

35,000

Total

$182,962

Total

$ 177,409

Increase.

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

$

Other Charges

23,495 46,897

45,279

21,000

Special Expenditure

182,962

177,409

Total

253,354

$ 243,688

Deduct Decrease

243,688

Net Increase

9,666

Estimates, 1939

$1,324,320

Estimates, 1938

Increase, 1939

1,314,654

9,666

Head 11 (B).-Air Services.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

$

1,528

Changes in Personnel

$

1,600

New Posts

312

Rent Allowances

96

Sunday and Holiday Allowance

800

Total

$

2,736

Total

1,600

Increase.

Sub-head.

2 Electric Fans and Lights

4 Flying Fees for Staff

334

Other Charges.

500 1,200

Decrease.

9 Upkeep of Motor Vehicles

250

10 Upkeep of Aerodrome

1,000

Total

.$

2,950

Special Expenditure.

Sub-head.

12 Smoke Wind Indicator

$

2,000

Three Short Rubber Buoys for Flying

Boats

$

5,000

Auxiliary Control Launch 25′6′′

20,000

Total

.$

2.000

Total

.$

25,000

Increase.

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges

Special Expenditure

Total

Deduct Increase

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1938

Estimates, 1939

Decrease, 1939

$

Increase.

Decrease.

2,736

$

1,600

2,950

2,000

25.000

7,686

$

26,600

7,686

$

18,914

$ 120,271

101,357

18,914

Head 12.-Imports & Exports Office.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

6,396

Transferred from Other Heads

14,411

Transferred to Other Heads Detective Allowance

45,552

2,520

Rent Allowance

1,644

Changes in Personnel

968

New Posts

15,312

Abolition of Post

720

Acting Pay

708

Language Allowances

216

Total

38,687

Total

$

49,760

Other Charges.

Sub-head.

Sub-head.

7 Gas for Laboratory

50

6 Electric Light, Fans and Heating..$ 8 Incidental Expenses

250.

100-

12 Overtime Allowances for Clerical

Staff

50-

15 Stationery

100

17 Uniforms and Equipment

1,000-

OPIUM.

20 Rewards for Illicit Opium Seizures.

5,000-

STATISTICAL BRANCH.

25 Electric Light and Heating

50.

Total

50

Miscellaneous Stationery

Total

50.

6,600.

Increase.

Sub-head.

30 Purchase of four Bicycles

Increase.

Total

Other Charges

Personal Emoluments

Special Expenditure

Total

Deduct Increase

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1938 Estimates, 1939

Decrease, 1939

335

Special Expenditure.

Decrease.

240

One Gestetner Duplicator Model No. 66..$

915

$

240

Total

945

$

Increase.

38,687

Decrease.

49,760

50

240

6,600 945

38,977

57,305.

38,977

$

18,328

$ 496,314

477,986

$

18,328

Head 13.-Kowloon Canton Railway.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments New Posts

Rent Allowances Overtime Allowances

9,215

Transferred to Other Heads

$

10,532

36,804

Changes in Personnel

5,212

1,468

Abolition of Posts

1,128

203

Acting Pay

2,941

Total

47,690

Total

.$

19,813

Other Charges.

Sub-head.

Sub-head.

3 Ballast

5 Carriages

6 Coal

$

1,550 3,000

8 Conveyance Allowances 28 Tools and Plant

$

35 50

128,700

12 Incidental Expenses

9 Formation and Line Protection

11 Goods Wagons

13 Locomotives

2,170

1,000

200

1,800

14 Lubricants and Oil Fuel

3,950

19 Power, Electric Fans and Light

1,000

20 Printing, Stationery and Tickets

2,600

21 Rails and Fastenings

1,350

22 Rents

78

23 Signals and Switches

750

24 Sleepers

4,000

25 Stations Buildings and Staff

Quarters

4,500

26 Stores

500

31 Uniform

870

Total

$ 158,018

Total

85

U

Increase.

Sub-head.

35 Electrical Equipments for

Carriages

36 Four 40-ton Hydraulic Liftnig

and Traversing Jacks

336

Special Expenditure.

Sub-head.

34 Detached Kitchens for Staff

Quarters and Gang huts

Hung Hom

Decrease.

4,068

200

40 New Locomotive Staff Quarters at

2,034

18,500

37 Goods Wagons heavy repairs

5,000

Improvements to north side of

38 Installation of Telephones at Level

Kowloon Station

7,100

Crossings

3,000

39 Locomotives heavy repairs

15,000

41 New Signal Post for Kowloon

Station Yard

One Neale's Token Instrument.. Additional Typewriter for Stores

Office

1,350

400

1,650

42 One all gear High Speed Column

Drilling Machine

Double Wire signalling at Fanling

Station

8,000

1,595

43 One set Neale Token Instruments

as replacements

2,800

Reconditioning of two Coaches One new Superheated Boiler for

Class B Locomotive

22,000

45,000

44 Rebuilding of Typewriters

200

45 Reconstruction of lean-to roofs and

gantries of Goods Shed at Kowloon Station

Railbus for running a shuttle service

between Fanling and Taipo Market

8,000

3,500

Provision of fans in five 3rd Class

46 Re-railing part of Kowloon Station

Yard

Coaches

900

10,000

Two new Saloon Motor Cars

7,000

47 Sidewalk for Bridge No. 47

1,000

48 Tarpaulins

2,000

Reinforced concrete road level

crossings

450

49 Two Calculating and Adding

Machines

1,000

Total

52,847

Total

$ 118,900

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

47,690

$ 19,813

Other Charges

Special Expenditure

Total

158,018 52,847

85 118,900

$ 258,555 138,798

$ 138.798

Increase.

Deduct Decrease

$ 119,757

Net Increase

Estimates, 1939

Estimates, 1938

$ 952,103 832.346

Increase, 1939

$ 119,757

Head 14.-Legal Departments.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

$

14,000

Changes in Personnel

$

4,639

Transferred from Other Heads

1,200

Transferred to Other Heads

13,420

New Post

1,050

Shorthand Allowance

180

Language Allowance

120

Abolition of Post

3,000

Acting Pay

3,800

Total

16,250

Total

25,159

Sub-head.

13 Uniform for messengers

Total

Other Charges.

Sub-head.

250

6 Incidental Expenses

$

250

Total

$

250

250

Increase.

337

Decrease.

Sub-head.

17 Books

18 Nine Registers

Total

126

135

261

Special Expenditure.

Sub-head.

16 One Typewriter

751

Safe

Total

500

1,251

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges

$ 16,250

25,159

250

Special Expenditure

261

250 1,251

Total

$

16,761

26,660

Deduct Increase

16,761

Net Decrease

9,899

Estimates, 1938

$ 492,754

Estimates, 1939

482,855

Decrease, 1939

$

9,899

Increase.

Head 15.-Magistracy, Hong Kong.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

$

3,493

New Posts

Rent Allowances

156

Transferred to Other Heads Abolition of Post

19,252

24,000

Transferred from Other Heads

43,185

Changes in Personnel

2,561

24

Acting Pay

1,200

Overtime Allowances

31

Total

$ 46,889

Total

47,013

Sub-head.

5 Law Books

Total

Sub-head.

8 One Typewriter

Total

$

Other Charges.

170

170

Special Expenditure.

.$

313

313

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges

Special Expenditure

Total

Deduct Decrease

Net Increase

Estimates, 1939 Estimates, 1938

Increase, 1939

338

Increase.

$

46,889

170

313

47,372

47.013

359

74,739

74,380

359

Decrease.

47,013

$

47,013

Increase.

Decrease.

Head 16.-Magistracy, Kowloon.

Stipulated Increments

Transferred from Other Heads

New Posts

Overtime Allowances

Rent Allowances

Total

Sub-head.

7 Uniform for Messengers

Total

Sub-head.

8 Law Books

Total

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges

Special Expenditure

Total

Deduct Decrease

Net Increase

Estimates, 1989

Estimates, 1938

Increase, 1939

Personal Emoluments.

3,453

Changes in Personnel

15,250

Transferred to Other Heads

364 15,185

948

48

55

19,754

Total

15,549

Other Charges.

40

40

Special Expenditure.

$

2

Increase.

19,754 40

$

2

19,796

15,549

4,247

55,704

51,457

4,247

Decrease.

$

15,549

(A

$

15,549

}

Increase.

339

Head 17.-Medical Department.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

$

47.989

Changes in Personnel

$

21,473

Transferred from Other Heads

18,172

Transferred to Other Heads

15,947

New Posts

180,140

Abolition of Posts

3,150

Food Allowances

1,344

Shorthand Allowance

180

Rent Allowances

Overtime Allowances

Language Allowance

3,372

71

60

Residential Allowance

658

Acting Pay

833

Total

$ 252,639

Total

.$

40,750

Sub-head.

Other Charges.

Sub-head.

A.-Staff.

B.-General.

2 Conveyance Allowances

2,500

B.-General.

16 Medical Comforts

24 Running Expenses of Travelling

$

250

4 Bedding and Clothing

7,000

Dispensary. Motor Ambulance, Buses, etc.

750

5 Board for 10 House Officers at

$365 each

27 Treatment of Opium Addicts

500

365

8 Bonuses to Dispensary Licentiates

and Clerks for vaccination of children and registration of births

C.-Port Health Officer's Office.

Repairs and Replacements

2,000

2,000

9 Cleansing Materials

500

12 Fuel and Light

10,000

14 Incidental Expenses

300

15 Maintenance of lunatics at

Canton

2,500

17 Medical Expenses for Schools

4,500

18 Medicines and Instruments 19 Notification Fees, infectious

10,000

diseases

600

21 Provisions for Patients

60,000

22 Relief of overcrowding of Chinese

Hospitals

70,000

23 Rent of Premises for Dispensaries,

and Infant Welfare Centre

144

25 Rent of Public Telephones

1,700

26 Transport

1,000

28 Uniform for Subordinate Male

Staff

4,800

29 Upkeep of Hospital Equipment,

etc.

6,000

30 Washing

9,000

31 X-Ray Apparatus, Running

Expenses and Maintenance

5,500

C.-Port Health Officer's Office.

32 Conveyance Allowances, etc.

120

33 Disinfecting and Fumigating Bureau,

Running Expenses

2,150

34 Incidental Expenses, etc.

400

35 Uniforms

2,400

D.-Bacteriological Institute.

36 Animals and Fodder

1,200

40 Fuel and Light

300

E.-Mortuaries, Victoria and Kowloon.

44 Fuel and Light

100

G-Analytical Laboratory.

52 Books and Journals

54 Fuel and Light

Total

30

100

$ 205,209

Total

3,500

Increase.

340

Sub-head.

57 Apparatus for Nursing Staff Training

School

58 Equipment for Infectious Diseases.

Block, Kowloon Hospital (Bedding & Clothing)

59 Incubator for Bacteriological

$

Special Expenditure.

950

Sub-head.

68 Typewriters

Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Apparatus (£50)

Purchase of Radium

X-Ray Therapy Equipment (£5,500)

2,100

Institute

600

60 Non Technical Equipment, Infant

Welfare Centre, West

820

61 Preventive Measures against

63 Refrigerators for Bacteriological

Infectious Diseases

62 Portable X-Ray Machine

Institute and Violet Peel Centre.

10,000

2,400

1,200

64 Replacement of Sterilizing Drums.

1,300

67 Surgical Equipment

1,000

Total

$

20,370

Increase.

Sub-head.

Personal Emoluments

Total

Increase.

Decrease.

$ 252,639

40,750

205,209

3,500

20,370

95,536

139,786

Other Charges

Special Expenditure

Total

Deduct Decrease

Net Increase

Estimates, 1939 Estimates, 1938

Increase, 1939

$478,218

139,786

$ 338,432

.$2,516,267

2,177,835.

$338,432

Head 18.-Miscellaneous Services.

Grants in Aid of Institutions.

6 Bureau of Hygiene and Tropical Diseases, London (£300)

9 Imperial Economic and Imperial

Shipping Committees (£129)...........

13 London School of Hygiene and

Tropical Medicine (£100)

15 School of Oriental Studies, London

Institution (£350)

16 Seamen's Hospital Society (£20) 23 British Empire Leprosy Relief

Association (£50)

26 Contribution to New York World's

Fair, 1939

Decrease.

230

814

5,000

89,492

95,536

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Sub-head.

Grants in Aid of Institutions.

$

1

5 Advisory Committee on Education

in the Colonies (£128)

683

212

25 Yunnan Scholarships at University.

Hong Kong Society for the

120

Protection of Children

5,000

1

War Memorial Nursing Home

15,000

5,207

Printing and Binding.

1 37 New Edition-Ordinances and

Regulations

10,000

814

Rent Allowances.

38 Senior Officers

10,000

3,500

250

41 Rent of Public Telephones

100

28 Newspapers and Periodicals

Printing and Binding.

32 Civil Service List

100

Rent Allowances.

Telegraph Services.

43 Contribution in connection with

signalling Messages to Observatory

(£75)

25

40 Asiatic Subordinate Officers

10,000

Contribution to expenses of Pacific

44 Telegrams

20,000

Scientific Congress

20,000

46 Fisheries Investigation; Grant to

Broadcasting

70,000

University of Hong Kong

1,800

Stationery, Other Services

30,000

Total

$

41,886

Total

$ 160,928

.

Increase.

341

Increase.

Total

..$

41,886

Deduct Increase

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1938

Estimates, 1939

Decrease, 1939

Sub-head.

1 Civil Pensions, Retiring Allowances

and Gratuities

2 Police Pensions (Ordinance No. 37

of 1932)

3 Widows and Orphans' Pensions

(Ordinance No. 15 of 1908)

Total

Head 19.-Pensions.

$ 410,000

35,000

25,000

$ 470,000

Decrease.

$ 160,928 41,886

$ 119,042

$ 1,752,435 1,633,393

$ 119,042

Total

Net Increase

Estimates, 1939 Estimates, 1938

Increase, 1939

Increase.

$ 470,000

$470,000

$ 2,970,000 2,500,000

470,000

Decrease.

Increase.

Head 20.-Police Department.

Stipulated Increments

Transferred from Other Heads

New Posts

Rent Allowances

Language Allowances

Miscellaneous Allowances

Acting Pay

Total

Decrease.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

$

47,854

Changes in Personnel

21,701

19,205

Transferred to Other Heads

11,980

72,456

Abolition of Posts

13,408

3,228

Medal Allowances

2,034

2,281

Personal Allowances

48

1,941

4,872

$ 151,837

Total

$

49,171

Increase.

342

Decrease.

Sub-head.

2 Ammunition

Other Charges.

Sub-head.

5,000

10 Coolie Hire

$

500

4 Bedding

500

12 Expenses of Anti-Piracy Guards.

2,000,

8 Coal and Gas

22,000

23 Petrol, Oil, etc., for Police Motor

9 Conveyance Allowances

500

Vehicles

1,500

11 Disinfectants

500

17 Light and Electric Fans

1,000

26 Remand Home Juvenile Offenders.. 29 Rewards

500

18 Medals

900

35 Telegrams and long distance

19 Mess Utensils

250

telephone calls

20 Passages for Police Officers

162,000

Passages

2,000-

200

170,000

21 Passages for Deportees, etc.

6,000

22 Recruiting Expenses

2,000

24 Photography

500

27 Rent of Stations and Married

Police Quarters

8,000

28 Repairs to Police Motor Cars and

Cycles

1,500

30 Safety First Campaign

1,000

32 Small Stores

500

34 Subsistence of Prisoners

50

36 Telephones

37 Transport

141

1,300

Total

$ 213,641

Total

$ 176,700

Special Expenditure.

Sub-head.

38 One hundred .38 Short Revolvers...$

3.450

Safety First Campaign

1,000

39 Typewriters

684

Twenty .303 Rifles and Bayonets

2,500

40 Filing Cabinets

660

Anti-gas Equipment

13,200

41 2 Motor Cycle Combinations

3.300

Motor Vehicles

5,500

42 40 pairs Peerless Handcuffs

1,060

43 300 Barrack Steel Cupboards

9,600

Thornton Pickard Detective Camera .. "Copechat" Card Index System

360

275

Two Flare Pistols

410

Fire Extinguishers for Police Vehicles.

660

Total

18,754

Total

$

23.905

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges

Special Expenditure

$ 151,837 213,641 18,754

$

49,171 176,700

23,905

Total

Deduct Decrease

384,232 249,776

$ 249,776

Net Increase

$ 134.456

Estimates, 1939

Estimates, 1938

$ 3,441,851

3,307,395

Increase.

Increase, 1939

$ 134,456

Head 21 (A).-Post Office.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

New Posts

Rent Allowances

14,803

60,562

Transferred to Other Heads Changes in Personnel

$

20,772

10,013

6,168

Overtime Allowances Acting Pay

5,000

2,000

Total

.$

81,533

Total

$

37,785

1

Increase.

Sub-head.

8 Air Mail Subsidy

5 Cleansing Materials, Utensils and

Washing

16 Transport

17 Uniform and Equipment

Total

Sub-Head.

19 Two Typewriters

Total

343

Other Charges.

Sub-head.

$ 126,101

4 Carriage of Mails:

Transit Charges

200

300

12 Rent of Branch Offices 18 Rent of Public Telephones

6,500

$ 133,101

Total

Special Expenditure.

$

Decrease.

40,000

30

117

40,147

782

Motor Mail Van

4,500

Electric Clocks

500

New Equipment Registration Branch..

2,000

$

782

Total

$

7,000

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

$

Other Charges

Special Expenditure

81,533 133,101

$

37,785

40,147

782

7,000

Total

Deduct Decrease

$ 215,416

$

84,932

84,932

Net Increase

$ 130,484

Estimates, 1939

Estimates, 1938

$ 951,030 820,546

Increase, 1939

$ 130,484

Increase.

Decrease.

Head 21 (B). -Wireless.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

New Posts

Field Allowances

10,196

Abolition of Posts

17,020

Changes in Personnel

150

Sunday and Holiday Allowances

Rent Allowances

Acting Pay

Total

27,366

Total

Sub-head.

3 Conveyance Allowances

9 Study Courses

Total

$

Other Charges.

Sub-head.

1,000

2,000

8 Repairs and Stores

12 Uniforms

5 Electric Current and Fuel

Rent of offices for radiotelegraphs

3,000

Total

$

49,312

11,645

2,100

672

500

.$

64,229

9,000 10,000

400:

18,000

$

37,400

Increase.

344

Special Expenditure.

.

Decrease.

Sub-head.

13 Laboratory Checking Equipment

14 Portable Wavemeter

15 Engraving Machine

16 Studio Equipment 17 Typewriter

$

21,804

Duplicating Machine

.$

1,045

684

586

Wireless Instruments, tools and

Standard Meters

11,500

10,000

391

Total

$

33,465

Total

$

12,545

Increase.

Decrease.

Other Charges

Personal Emoluments

Special Expenditure

Total

27,366

$

64,229

3,000

37,400

33,465

12,545

63,831

$ 114,174

Deduct Increase

63,831

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1938 Estimates, 1939

$

50,343

$ 462,994

412,651

Decrease, 1939

50,343

Increase.

Head 21 (C).-Broadcasting.

New Posts

Stipulated Increments Rent Allowance

Total

Personal Emoluments.

$ 19,412

1,060 -288

Sub-head.

2 Artists and Announcers

3 Incidental Expenses

4 Printing

5 Records

6 Rent of Public Telephone

7 Rent of Studios and Offices

.$

20,760

Other Charges.

25,000

2,500

700

4,000

342

10,800

8 Royalties and Reuter Fee

18,000

9 Translators and Occasional Staff

2,500

10 Uniforms

150

Total

$5 63,992

Sub-head.

11 Cabinets for Records

Total

Special Expenditure.

200

$

200

Decrease.

:

Increase

345 -

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

Other. Charges

20,760

63,992

Special Expenditure

200

Total

$5

84,952

Deduct Decrease

Net Increase

84,952

Estimates, 1939

84,952

Estimates, 1938

Increase, 1939

$

84,952

Head 22.-Prisons Department.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

Language Allowance

New Posts

9,035 90 7,564

Changes in Personnel

$

11,432

Rent Allowances

972

Abolition of Posts

6,960

Total

$

16,689

Total

19,364

Other Charges.

Sub-head.

Sub-head.

5 Clothing and Shoes for Staff

1,000

9 Grants to Chaplains for Religious

Services

4 Cleansing and Sanitary Materials..$ 8 Fuel

500

5,500

200

12 Light

5,000

10 Gratuities to Prisoners for Industrial

17 Rations for Indian Warders

500

Labour

350

19 Rent of Quarters for Indian

13 Maintenance of electric light,

Warders

2,000

power, etc.

1,500

20 Subsistence of Prisoners

70,000

15 Materials for Repairs and

21 Transport

2,700

Renewals

2,000

16 Photography

500

Rent of Quarters and Rent

Allowances for European Warders.

600

18 Rent of Public Telephones

104

22 Upkeep and running expenses of

Motor Vans

1,000

Total

$

6,654

Total

86,800

Special Expenditure.

Sub-head.

23 Two Printing Machines (1 at £475

and 1 at £775)

Total

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges

Special Expenditure

Total

Deduct Increase

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1938 Estimates, 1939

Decrease, 1939

20,339

20,339

$

Increase

Decrease.

16,689

6,654 20,339

19,564 86,800

43,682

$ 106,164

43,682

62,482

$ 983,622 921,140

62,482

Increase.

Increase.

846

Head 23.-Charge on Account of Public Debt.

Total

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1938 Estimates, 1939

Decrease, 1939

Decreasa.

Sub-head.

2 Interest on 34% Dollar Loan

$

19,600

Total

.$

19,600

Increase.

Decrease.

$

19,600

19,600

$1,351,631

1,332,031

$

19,600

Head 24 (A)-Public Works Department.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

32,354

Changes in Personnel

$

48,108

New Posts

15,432

Transferred from Loan Works Rent Allowance

18,461

Transferred to Other Heads Transferred to Loan Works

380,870

61,183

24

Abolition of Posts

26,797

Sunday and Holiday Allowances Lodging Allowance

Language Allowance

Total

$ 66,271

Total

7

5,000

240

240

$ 522,433

Other Charges.

Sub-head.

12 Upkeep of Government Garage

Plant

Sub-head.

2 City Hall Library

.$

400

3 Conveyance Allowances

250 16,500

14 Upkeep of Harbour Surveying

Plant

3,650

4 Drawing Materials and Mounting

Plans

350

15 Upkeep and running expenses of

Motor Lorries and Cars

5 Electric Fans, Light. and Gas

2,000

22,000

6 Incidental Expenses

1,200

16 Upkeep of Motor and Steam

Rollers

8 Rent of Public Telephones

476

4,000

11 Transport and Travelling Expenses.

250

17 Upkeep of Quarry Plants

3,000

12 Uniforms

1,600

Maintenance and Supply of

Furniture

35,000

Total

$ 33,050

Total

$

57,626

Increase.

Sub-head.

347

Special Expenditure.

Sub-head.

19 Two 2-ton Commercial Chassis,

Steam Roller Wheels

fitted with locally built general

service bodies

$

10,000

20 Five Motor Cars

17,500

One 15-25 cwt. Commercial Chassis

fitted with locally built general service body

21 One Power Hacksaw

300

One Granulator

22 Oxy Acetylene Welding outfit...

300

One 2 tons Diesel Roller

23 Two Commercial High Lift Jacks....

600

One Recording Voltmeter

24 One Universal Woodworking

One Gestetner Duplicator

Machine complete with motor

5,000

25 Loose Leaf Binders

285

26 One Adding Machine

460

27 Four Typewriters

660

28 Surveying Instruments.

2,000

29 Tools for Electrical Workshop

2,000

Total

39,105

Total

Increase.

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

.$

66,271

$ 522,433

Other Charges

33,050

57,626

Special Expenditure

39,105

17,200

Total

138,426

$ 597,259

Deduct Increase

138,426

Net Decrease

$ 458,833

Estimates, 1938

Estimates, 1939

Decrease, 1939

Transferred from Other Heads New Posts

Stipulated Increments

Language Allowance

Sunday and Holiday Allowances Acting Pay

Sub-head.

Total

2 Conveyance Allowances

Head 24 (B).-Water Works.

3 Drawing Materials and Mounting

Plans

4 Incidental Expenses

5 Rent of Public Telephones

6 Transport and Travelling Expenses..

7 Uniforms

Total

Personal Emoluments.

$2,371,510 1,912,677

458,833

Decrease.

$

3,600

3,300

3,600

4,600

800

1.300

$ 17,200

Decrease.

$ 250,946

Changes in Personnel

7,680

Transferred to Loan Works

1,969 3,400

7,001

180

7,500

2,730

$ 276,037

Total

$

5,369

Other Charges.

$

13,000

350

700

273

250

1,600

16,173

Increase.

Sub-head.

348

Special Expenditure.

8 Loose Leaf Binders

750

9 One Adding Machine

460

10 One Typewriter

342

Total

1,552

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges

Special Expenditure

Total

Deduct Decrease

Net Increase

$ 276,037 16,173 1,552

5,369

$ 293,762

$

5,369

5,369

$288,393

Increase.

Sub-head.

1 Buildings

Estimates, 1939 Estimates, 1938

Increase, 1939

2 Communications

3 Drainage

4 Lighting

$ 288,393

$ 288,393

Head 25 (A).-Public Works Recurrent.

5 Typhoon and Rainstorm Damages..

6 Miscellaneous

Total

Increase.

35,500

48,000

2,000

34,000

16,000

3,400

$ 138,900

Total Deduct Decrease

Net Increase

Estimates, 1939 Estimates, 1938

Increase, 1939

Increase.

$ 138,900

$ 138,900

$1,300,600 1,161,700

$ 138,900

Decrease.

Head 25 (B).-Water Works (Recurrent).

Sub-head.

1 Maintenance

2 Renewals and Improvements Fund,

Contribution to

Total

$ 129,500

399,907

$ 529,407

Decrease.

Decrease.

:

Increase.

Total Deduct Decrease

Net Increase

Estimates, 1939 Estimates, 1938

Increase, 1939

349

Increase.

$ 529,407

$ 529,407

967,907 438,500

$ 529,407

Head 26.-Royal Observatory.

Decrease.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments Acting Pay

.$

1,951

Changes in Personnel

113

1,334

Total

.$

3.285

Total

113

Other Charges.

Sub-head.

Sub-head.

6 Postage

.$

20

10 Transport

100

Total

20

Total

$

100

Special Expenditure.

Sub-head.

12 Aerological Investigation (England) $ 13. Steel Cupboard

250

Balloon Theodolite

.$

2,000

163

Renewal and renovation of Anemographs.

4,068

Total

$

413

Total

6,068

Increase.

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

3,285

113

Other Charges

20

100

Special Expenditure

413

6,068

Total

3,718

6,281

Deduct Increase

3,718

Net Decrease

€0

2,563

Estimates, 1938

Estimates, 1939

Decrease, 1939

94,003 91,440

$

2,563

Head 27. Sanitary Department.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

$

14,975

Transferred to Other Heads

Transferred from Other Heads

19,749

Language Allowance

New Posts

11,106

Acting Pay

93

Total

45,923

Abolition of Posts

Changes in Personnel

Rent Allowance

Total

$

$

Decrcase.

36,770

360 1,920

6,558

216

45,824

Increase.

350

Other Charges.

Decrease.

Sub-head.

Sub-head.

3 Bath-houses, fuel, light, etc.

800

8 Conveyance Allowances

720

5 Coal for Official Quarters

400

6 Coffin and Biers

2.000

10 Disinfecting and Cleansing Stores.. 18 Incidental Expenses

500

200

11 Disinfectors, operating expenses of.

500

19 Latrine. Pails

100

13 Exhumation, Recurrent

4,000

14 Expenses of Inspectors in obtaining

R.S.I. Certificates

21 Motor Lorries, Vans and Cars,

Running Expenses

2,500

300

23 Rat Poison, Rat Traps, etc.

500

20 Light and Electric Fans

4,000

29 Transport

150

Burial of Infected Bodies

750

Animal Depôts and Slaughter-houses.

32 Ammunition

3,500

Animal Depôts and Slaughter-houses.

33 Fuel

1,000

Fuel

5,000

36 Cattle Crematorium and Refuse

Destructor

1,000

Total

$

17,500

Total

$

10,420

Special Expenditure.

Sub-head.

37 Three Steel Filing Cabinets

500

38 Three Refuse Lorries (Replace-

ments)

Two Typewriters

781

30,000

39 Two Conservancy Junks

8,000

Two Refuse Lorries (Replacements) One Refuse Barge

20,000

7,000

40 One Refuse Barge (Replacement)..

7,000

Total

$

45,500

Increase.

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges

Special Expenditure

Total

Deduct Decrease

Net Increase

Estimates, 1939 Estimates, 1938

Increase.

$

45,923

17,500

45,500

$ 108,923

84,025

$ 24,898

$1,148,034 1,123,136

Increase, 1939

24,898

Total

Decrease.

$

45,824

10,420

27,781

84,025

Head 28.-Secretariat for Chinese Affairs.

.$

27,781

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

Transferred from Other Heads

3,368 13,492

Transferred to Other Heads

39,181

Changes in Personnel

37

Acting Pay

1,600

- Total

$

18,497

Total

39,181

Other Charges.

Sub-head.

Sub-head.

2 Conveyance Allowances

$

180

5 Library

50

3 Electric Fans and Light 4 Incidental Expenses

200

100

Total

$

230

Total

300

}

>

Increase.

Sub-head.

8 One typewriter

Increase.

Total

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges

Special Expenditure

Total

Deduct Increase

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1938

Estimates, 1939

Decrease, 1939

351

Special Expenditure.

$

313

313

Increase.

Decrease.

$

18,497

$

230

39,181 300

313

19,040

Head 29.-Stores Department.

39,481

19,040

20,441

$ 146,094

125,653

$

20,441

Decrease.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Transferred from Other Heads

$ 111,152

Stipulated Increments

6.479

Changes in Personnel Abolition of Posts

$

5,033

4,960

New Posts

13,869

Personal Allowance

1,600

Residential Allowance

800

Rent Allowances

384

Sunday and Holiday Allowances for

Staff

Language Allowance

Acting Pay

Total

200

60

1,100

$ 135,644

Total

9,993

Other Charges:

Sub-head.

A.-General.

2 Conveyance Allowances

$

3 Electric Fans and Light

2,280 450

4 Firewood (all departments)

3,500

5 Incidental Expenses

700

6 Losses and Depreciation of Stores.

500

7 Maintenance of Museum Exhibits.

250

8 Rent of Public Telephones

120

9 Stationery

30,000

10 Telegrams

600

11 Transport and Travelling Expenses.

750

12 Transport of Stores

5,000

13 Uniforms

200

B.-Furniture.

14 Conveyance Allowances

240

15 Electric Fans, Light and Power

600

16 Maintenance of Equipment

2,000

17 Furniture (all departments)

37,000

18 Transport and Travelling Expenses

C.-Sand Monopoly.

400

19 Conveyance Allowances

720

20 Electric Fans and Light

50

21 Maintenance of Equipment

500

22 Purchase of Sand

100,000

23 Rent of Public Telephone

80

24 Transport and Travelling Expenses

Total

250

$ 186,190

Increase.

Sub-head.

26 One Tenoning attachment for

Spindle Moulder

Total

Increase.

352

Special Expenditure.

$

400

400

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges

Special Expenditure

Total

Deduct Decrease

Increase.

$ 135.644 186,190 400

322,234 9,993

Net Increase

$ 312,241

Estimates, 1939

$ 312,241

Estimates, 1938

Increase, 1939

$ 312,241

Head 30.-Treasury, Etc.

Decrease.

$3

Decrease.

9,993

1

9,993

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

$ 7.297

Changes in Personnel

Transferred from Other Heads New Posts

11,471

Transferred to Other Heads

28,720

Total

47,488

Total

Other Charges.

.$

Decrease.

2,306 91,820

94,126

Sub-head.

Sub-head.

7 Transport

720

2 Conveyance Allowances

328

8 Upkeep and Maintenance of

Accounting Equipment

4 Incidental Expenses

100

900

5 Rent of Public Telephones 6 Stamps

123

3,000

Total

1,620

Total

3,551

Sub-head.

Special Expenditure.

10 Alterations to Cash Registers

.$

1,400

11 One Typewriter

342

Equipment for Addressograph, etc. ...$ One New Cash Register and

1,140

Equipment, etc.

11,000

Total

1,742

Total

$

12,140

і

353

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges .... Special Expenditure

Total

47,488

$

94,126

1,620

3,551

1,742

12,140

50,850

$ 109,817

Deduct Increase

50,850

Net Decrease

58,967

Estimates, 1938

Estimates, 1939

Decrease, 1939

322,901

263,934

58,967

Head 31.-Public Works Extraordinary.

Estimates, 1939

Estimates, 1938

$ 1,688,235

1,277,850

Increase, 1939

$ 410,385

Increase.

354

RECAPITULATION.

Grand Total Estimates, 1939

$

37,757,223

Grand Total Estimates, 1938

33,379,549

Increase, 1939

$

4,377,674

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments :

Personal Emoluments:

Stipulated Increments

.$ 352,936

New Posts

601,177

Changes in Personnel

Abolition of Posts

$ 218,264

174,490

Transferred from Loan Works

18,461

Transferred to Loan Works

64,583

Rent Allowances

12,688

Overtime Allowances

3,240

Personal and Similar Allowances..

1,480

Medal Allowances

1,974

Language Allowances

1,979

Acting Pay

2,353

Residential Allowances

4,498

Miscellaneous Services

119,042

Miscellaneous Allowances

20,075

Public Debt.

19,600

Officers on leave (Salary and

Allowances for December, 1938)

2,413

Adjutant and Regimental Sergeant

Major, H.K.V.D.C., Pension Contribution

1,968

Other Charges

731,713

Special Expenditure

31,330

Charitable Services

243,490

Military Contribution

.... 1,408,320

Pensions

470,000

Public Works Recurrent

138,900

Water Works, (Recurrent)

529,407

Public Works Extraordinary

410,385

Total

$4,981,220

Total

$ 603,546

Deduct Decrease

603,546

Net Increase

.$ 4,377,674

257

HONG KONG.

REPORT

OF THE

No.

12

1938.

HOUSING COMMISSION

1935.

PRINTED BY

NORONHA & CO., HONG KONG

GOVERNMENT PRINTERS & PUBLISHERS.

259

HOUSING COMMISSION 1935.

REPORT.

(Paragraph references are to paragraphs in Appendix II).

1. A Commission "to enquire into the housing difficulties in Victoria and Kowloon with special reference to overcrowding and its effect on tuberculosis and suggest steps which should be taken to remedy existing conditions" was appointed by Sir William Peel under Proclamation dated 10th May, 1935. Proclamation is attached as Appendix I.

A copy of this

2. In March, 1936, Mr. R. A. C. North was appointed Chairman in succes- sion to Mr. N. L. Smith; Mr. J. J. Paterson replaced Sir William Shenton in May, 1936; and Mr. R. R. Todd (Chairman of the Urban Council) replaced Mr. W. J. Carrie in March, 1938.

3. A number of circumstances, including those which led to the appointment of Mr. Smith to act as Colonial Secretary and subsequently as Officer Administering the Government in 1935, the appointment of Mr. North to act as Colonial Secretary in 1936 and 1937, the outbreak of hostilities between China and Japan, and the necessity of securing information regarding action taken elsewhere, led to con- siderable delay in the preparation of the report.

4. Apart from these circumstances, we have met with some difficulty in reaching an agreement among ourselves in the matter of making definite recom- mendations, and have been obliged, after much discussion, to abandon our original intention of dealing with our subject in detail, and to substitute proposals which amount, in the main, to a recommendation that the problem be approached ab initio by experts who have made a special study of such matters as Town Planning, Housing and Slum Clearance. The most that we feel ourselves qualified to do is to suggest the directions in which this approach should be made.

5. We attach as Appendix II of this report, a memorandum prepared for us by our Secretary, Mr. W. H. Owen. We have given this memorandum very careful consideration and have examined in detail the views and suggestions there put forward.

6. While we are aware that this niemorandum contains statements which are controversial, and that some of the suggestions contained therein are regarded as impracticable in present circumstances, we have included it in full and have used it to illustrate the conclusions set out in this report. We hope that this study of the problem, which is based on a careful examination of local conditions and of the methods adopted in other countries, may prove both interesting and useful.

7. It will serve to illustrate the difficulties which must be faced in any attempt to apply to Hong Kong methods which have been adopted elsewhere, if we point out that the standards of housing considered in Appendix II are below those accept- able in many European countries.

8. We have not thought it worth while to burden this report which a dis- cussion of the relationship between overcrowding and tuberculosis, and, indeed, many other contagious and infectious diseases. The facts do not admit of controversy and may, we feel, be taken for granted.

9. Hong Kong is a powerful magnet drawing to itself not only the seekers after work but hangers-on and parasites of all kinds. The struggle for existence is very severe.

It is only too common, especially amongst unskilled labourers, to find three men doing the work of one and sharing remuneration which might be adequate for one but is certainly insufficient for three; while the regular employee is fortunate if he is not maintaining a number of relatives out of his earnings.

10. The system of contracting and sub-contracting is often carried to extreme lengths, and results, in many instances, in the inability of the final sub-contractor to pay even the low wages on which he has based his contract.

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11. Still more reprehensible is the system by which individuals or organiza- tions levy commission in return for introduction to employment, or exact blackmail in the guise of" fees for protection against competition

12. Conceivably the various systems by which the proceeds of every piece of work tend to filter through to the largest possible number of individuals might be regarded as an elementary form of practical socialism, without which the even more serious problem of complete unemployment of a large part of the population would have to be faced. We believe that there is no escape from one problem or the other so long as an enormous reservoir of population exists at our door, unless it is a remedy which presents very serious difficulties, namely, restriction of immigration. ·

13. For these reasons we do not believe that any measures which can reason- ably be taken can, in the immediate future, have any noticeable effect on the problem of overcrowding, the problem which we were primarily appointed to consider. We consider, however, that some action is possible which, even it will not altogether put a stop to overcrowding may eventually reduce its propertions and at least would improve the hygienic conditions of premises, even though they be over- crowded.

14. Our investigations have led us to certain conclusions regarding the causes of overcrowding and the conditions which are essential, if overcrowding is to be alleviated, and improved housing accommodation provided for the mases.

Our con- clusions are:

(i). Overcrowding arises almost entirely from poverty which in Hong Kong is so dire that many families cannot afford any rent at all, and that, of the remainder, the majority can afford so little rent that a normal interest rate on capital outlay for housing cannot be obtained. Poverty itself is the result of an economic system over which Government has little or no control. Any attempt to alleviate over- crowding and improve housing must abide by the conditions imposed by that system. (Paragraphs 1, 3, 19-23, 28-70).

(ii). For a great number of the population the rents which can be afforded vary from nothing to a maximum of about $7.50 per month per family. (Paragraphs 19-23).

(iii). For those who can afford between $4.00 and $7.50 per month, it appears feasible under reasonably favourable conditions to provide improved housing without loss. (Paragraphs 64-73).

(iv). The existing standard types of tenement houses, which have been evolved from the use of the China fir pole, are now uneconomical in design and in many details of construction, and the plan is not adapted for family life under existing conditions of poverty. In consequence overcrowding, primarily due to poverty, is accentuated by the system of subletting which arises from accommodation not properly adapted to the needs and circumstances of the population. (Paragraphs 4, 18, 24-29).

(v). Under present circumstances it is not practicable to enforce the law against overcrowding. (Paragraphs 28, 70).

(vi). To reduce overcrowding and permit the law to be enforced it is essential (a) to provide more and better designed houses until sufficient accommodation is available, (b) to decentralize the population, (c) to reduce building density. (Para- graphs 12, 42-61, 64-73).

(vii). Decentralization cannot be achieved unless means of livelihood are provided within easy reach of new housing areas. (Paragraphs 79, 80).

(viii). The bulk of Chinese industries are of the "home" variety. Factories however are being established in increasing numbers, but at present the majority of the concerns are small and cannot afford to build their factories in undeveloped areas. They are therefore competing with householders and housebuilders for premises and sites for their factories and tending to increase the prevailing con- gestion. (Paragraphs 13-16).

(ix). Before factories can be established outside the populated districts certain requirements must be fulfilled. They include the provision of public services such as water supply, light and power supply, drainage and sewage disposal, adequate

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communications and houses for their employees. These requirements should, if possible, be fulfilled in advance of the erection of factories or at least there should be a guarantee that such provision will be made by the time the factories are ready to operate. (Paragraph 16).

(x). At the present time there is a tendency for the factories to increase in size and number. If they be permitted to be come established in the congested areas decentralization would be much more difficult and expensive. The cost may well be prohibitive. It is essential therefore that, in order to prevent further congestion in built-up areas, the establishment of factories in those areas should be strictly controlled and that every possible inducement should be offered to attract them to new areas to provide work for the decentralized population. (Paragraph 16).

(xi). The provision of adequate housing for the poorer classes cannot be left to private enterprise unassisted. If the housing is to conform to acceptable stand- ards the return on capital will not be sufficient to attract private enterprise; to put it another way, the return on capital normally expected by private enterprise can only be achieved by overcrowding in houses which are below acceptable standards. If new and improved housing be provided for these classes, it will be necessary to ensure supervision and provide social services on lines similar to those adopted in many European countries. (Paragraphs 4, 33-40, 70, 75).

(xii). Slum clearance envisages reduced building density and reduced population density, and in consequence a large number of the present population will eventually have to be housed elsewhere. This accommodation must be available before slum clearance can be commenced. (Paragraphs 78, 79).

(xiii). Before the actual clearance of slums can be undertaken, it will be necessary to prepare a survey of local industry and housing, each in relation to the other; to prepare a survey of existing buildings, particularly houses, in order to find the number and situation of those which do not conform to acceptable standards; to prepare a key plan as a guide to redevelopment as opportunity occurs; to survey sites and prepare plans for possible new developments; and to prepare legislation and devise machinery necessary to give effect to town planning and housing schemes. This preparatory work and eventual constructional work will take many years and some form of permanent authority will be necessary to organize, carry out and control such an undertaking. (Paragraphs 84, 94-103).

(xiv). If the provision of working class housing and the clearance of slums be undertaken financial provision will be required for :-

(a) New housing, both in new and built-up areas, for those who can afford

a small economic return.

(b) New housing for those who can only be housed at a loss.

(e) Compensation arising out of slum clearance.

(xv). Of the means of raising revenue for these purposes two which most immediately occur to mind are a loan or a special tax. A possible alternative is to raise revenue by the issue of "Housing Shares" in the same way that, in commerce, capital is raised by issuing shares. The last method, if successful, would eliminate the sinking fund for amortization of loan. Should circumstances permit funds might be provided from general revenue. For compensation arising out of slum clearance this might be feasible, but the provision of new housing will involve the annual expenditure of large sums, which may be beyond the capacity of general revenue, on its present basis, to provide. The financial aspect needs further examination by specialists. (Paragraphs 62, 63, 71, 72, 73, 86, 89, 90, 92).

(xvi). If and when slum clearance be decided upon, it is highly desirable that progress should be subject to as little fluctuation as possible. This would involve a steady supply of funds. (Paragraph 92).

(xvii). It is also desirable that, in order to combat the evil effects of over- crowding, parks should be provided. It is not suggested that these parks should be laid out and equipped for organized games, but that they should simply be open spaces in which the population can enjoy fresh air. They should be in or close to the congested areas and should be large enough to ensure that the air is

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purer than in the neighbouring streets. The provision of the King George V Play- ing Fields is a step in the right direction, but does not go far enough. There should be many more such parks. (Paragraph 104).

15. In view of the foregoing conclusions we recommend :-

(i). That a permanent Town Planning and Housing Committee be formed to advise Government on Town Planning and Housing matters.

(ii). That a permanent Town Planning and Housing Sub-Department of the Public Works Department be created to carry out the work mentioned in Para- graph 14 (xiii).

(iii). That, when that preliminary work has been completed, it should be subject to review and criticism by an acknowledged expert from England.

(iv). That Government should encourage and, where necessary, assist the estab- lishment, by charitable organizations, of "settlements" in the slum areas.

(1). That Government should consider the erection of experimental quarters for their Asiatic employees. While the provision of these quarters will, in a small degree, increase the amount of available accommodation, their special value will lie in enabling experiments to be made with a view to devising a more satisfactory type of dwelling.

(vi). That Section 167 Sub-Section (3) of the Buildings Ordinance of 1935 be deleted, and the following two sub-sections be substituted:—

(3) The provisions of Sections 6 and 116, so far as they relate to authorized architects, shall not apply in any case in which the Building Authority shall so decide.

(4) Buildings in accordance with type plans, approved under Regulations, prepared under the direction of the Governor in Council, and contained in Schedule O, may be erected in any part of the Colony (Note: Schedule O will, presumably, be prepared by the Town Planning and Housing Committee).

(vii). That Government shall as soon as possible put forward proposals for the provision of parks in suitable areas.

16. We cannot close this report without a reference to the valuable services rendered by our Secretary, Mr. W. H. Owen, and to the enthusiasm and ability which he has shown throughout this enquiry. Mr. Owen has made a special study of the subject of housing and town planning, and Appendix II is only one of a series of memoranda which he has drawn up for the consideration of the Commission. We recommend that suitable acknowledgment should be made of his work in this

connexion.

We have the honour to be,

Your Excellency's most obedient servants,

R. A. C. NORTH (Chairman),

R. M. HENDerson,

R. H. KOTEWALL,

LI SHU FAN,

J. J. PATERSON (subject to reservation),

R. R. TODD,

G. W. POPE (subject to reservation), G. G. WOOD.

HONG KONG, 11th October, 1938.

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RESERVATION BY THE HON. MR. J. J. PATERSON.

I am in general agreement with the report but consider the Government should be urged to explore fully the possibility of Legislative action being taken to prevent the conversion of domestic premises into factories.

J. J. PATERSON.

RESERVATION BY DR. G. W. POPE, L.L.M.R.C.P., & S.I.,

D.P.H., R.C.P. & S.I.

I am in general agreement with the report but there are two points on which I regret to say I must express disagreement :-

(1) The type of house suggested in Appendix II is, in my opinion, not satisfactory. The reduction of the minimum height of floors to 8′ would, I consider, be a retrograde step. Further I consider that houses of this type would, if overcrowded, prove even worse than the modern type tenement as they are incapable of satisfactory through ventilation. Adequate means of ventilation are provided in the exist- ing buildings, their more general use is largely a matter of educa- tion.

(2) I consider also that we should have taken this opportunity to urge upon Government the desirability of exploring the possibility of legislative action to prohibit the conversion of domestic premises to factory purposes, even if only as a temporary measure.

A.D. 1935.]

No. 2.

Appendix I.

PROCLAMATION.

G. W. POPE,

Health Officer.

Published in the Government Gazette of the 10th May, 1935.

[No. 2.

[L.S.] W. PEEL,

Governor.

By His Excellency Sir William Peel, Knight Commander of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Colony of Hong Kong and its Dependencies, and Vice-Admiral of the same.

WHEREAS by the second section of the Commissioners Powers Ordinance, 1886, it is enacted that the Governor in Council shall have power to nominate and appoint Commissioners under the Public Seal for the purpose of instituting, making, and conducting any enquiry that may be deemed advisable and for reporting

thereon:

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AND WHEREAS the Governor in Council has deemed it advisable that a Commission be appointed to enquire into the housing difficulties in Victoria and Kowloon with special reference to overcrowding and its effect on tuberculosis and suggest steps which should be taken to remedy existing conditions.

Now I, Sir WILLIAM PEEL, Knight Commander of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, the Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Colony of Hong Kong and its Dependencies, and Vice-Admiral of the same, with the advice and consent of the Executive Council hereby appoint-

The Honourable Mr. N. L. Smith,

The Honourable Mr. R. M. Henderson,

The Honourable Sir W. E. L. Shenton, Kt.,

The Honourable Mr. R. H. Kotewall, C.M.G., LL.D.,

Mr. W. J. Carrie,

Dr. G. W. Pope, L.L.M.R.C.P., & S.I., D.P.H., R.C.P., & S.I.,

Dr. Li Shu-fan, M.B., Ch.B., D.T.M. & H., F.R.C.S.,

Mr. G. G. Wood.

to be Commissioners for the purpose of instituting, making, and conducting such enquiry:

AND I do also appoint the said Honourable Mr. N. L. Smith, to be Chairman of the said Commissioners:

AND I do also appoint Mr. W. H. Owen, to be Secretary to the said Com- missioners:

AND I do further, with the advice and consent of the Executive Council, order and direct that the said Commissioners shall have the powers, rights, and privileges set out in the third section of the said Ordinance :

AND I do further require the said Commissioners, to report to me their find- ings and their recommendations in the matter of the said enquiry at as early a date as possible.

Given under my hand and the Public Seal of the Colony at Victoria, Hong Kong this 10th day of May, 1935.

By Command,

GOD SAVE THE KING.

W. T. SOUTHORN,

Colonial Secretary.

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Appendix II.

MEMORANDUM BY MR. W. H. OWEN, B.SC. TECH., A.R.I.B.A.,

A.M.T.P.I.

1. The provision of housing for the working classes is a world wide problem to which, as yet, no completely satisfactory solution has been found. The problem is initially one of economics, arising from the fact that the majority of the working classes cannot, out of their earnings, pay a rent which will cover running costs and provide interest on the capital outlay required, whether the capital be provided by private enterprise or by the State. For private enterprise house building is a method of putting capital to use for private gain. For the State it is a matter of social duty and the profit motive can be eliminated. Until recent years the State has hesitated to compete with private enterprise, but the steadily improving standards required for working class houses have cut down profits to such an extent that, for the most part, the building of working class houses is no longer attractive to the private investor, and the State has been forced to enter the field.

2. The housing problem is as old as the hills, but it is only in comparatively recent times that any concerted and sustained attempt has been made to solve it. The present movement began in Europe with the rise of industrialism at the begin- ning of the 19th Century. The rapid influx of people from the country to the towns found municipal authorities totally unprepared. Towns grew like mush- rooms, without plan and without control. Where sanitary provision was made it was extremely primitive; for the most part however it was completely lacking. Badly built houses were crammed together as tightly as possible round the factories. Condtions became so appalling that something had to be done. In England, from 1848 to the end of the 19th Century, a long series of Sanitary and Public Health Acts were passed, but the nett result was that, although sanitary conditions improved, overcrowding actually increased. Improved housing was achieved at the cost of increased rents which the workers could not afford to pay.

3. The same thing has happened in Hong Kong. Whilst the latest type of tenement is healthy enough if each floor were occupied by one normal family, the vast majority of workers cannot afford sufficient money to rent a floor for the use of one family alone and the result is that, in normal periods, we have over- crowding side by side with empty tenements. Legislation which ignores economics is useless.

4. In England, prior to the war, the State had been content to supervise the provision of housing by private enterprise. The shortage of houses and the high cost of building after the war necessitated action being taken by the State. The economic effects of pre-war legislation controlling housing, public health and com- munications had led to the working class house becoming almost standardized in plan. (See Plan No. 5 Fig. 3). The building lot was deep and narrow fronted, similar to the normal Chinese tenement in Hong Kong. (Cf. Plan No. 2 and Fig. 3 Plan No. 5). The high cost of building after the war necessitated the strictest economy and, on examination, it was found that the pre-war type of house- was uneconomical in plan. It was found that the nearer the plan approached to a square the cheaper the cost of the building covering the same area of land and the greater the access of light and air in all parts (see Plan No. 5). In spite of the utmost attempts at economy, costs could not be reduced sufficiently to enable the working classes to pay an economic rent. The responsibility for providing working class houses was thrust on to the local authorities but little was done until the Government agreed that, whatever the loss, no part of it exceeding a rate of one penny in the pound should fall upon the local authority. The supply of houses resulting from this was, numerically, a great success but the cost to the State. enormous. In consequence methods were changed and a grant was offered of a fixed subsidy per house of specified size built by private enterprise, to let or to sell, and a subsidy to local authorities for houses built to let. This method resulted in 400,000 houses being built in six years, but the majority were built to sell and not to let. The poorer working classes remained unprovided for. Other difficulties in the way of providing houses were shortage of labour and the high cost

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of materials. Costs reached their peak in 1927 but by 1929 had fallen to the levels of 1923. Even so rents were still beyond the capacity of the poorer classes, and the slum problem had not been touched. Between the end of the war and 1931 over 1,500,000 houses were built, of which about 1,000,000 were for sale and the remainder, owing to high rents, were mainly let to the superior artisan and professional classes, most of whom could afford an economic rent. A Parlia- mentary Committee in 1931 stated that "the only solution appeared to be the building of large number of working class houses at low rents Without financial assistance from the State that was impossible.

5. The erection of large numbers of low rented houses brings in its train numerous subsidiary problems. The first is that the rent must be within the means of the prospective tenant. When income is limited, a rise in rent means less money for food, and cases have been known where tenants have been removed from slum areas and the death rate among them has increased through malnutrition. Many new housing estates, ideally built and, from the point of view of health, ideally situated, have failed to attract the working classes for whom they were intended, as they were situated so far from means of livelihood, that the workers could not afford either the time for travelling or the increased transport costs. In some cases the lack of schools, churches, shops and such like have kept prospective tenants away. The slum dweller is a sociable person; his environment and almost complete lack of privacy has forced upon him a degree of sociability entirely absent in the wealthier classes. In England the change from overcrowded and overbuilt slums to the comparative solitude of twelve houses per acre, with no social centre or common meeting ground, has occasionally proved too drastic, and tenants have drifted back to the more familiar neighbourliness of the slums.

6.6

6. The type of dwelling, in relation to the people to be housed, is a matter for serious consideration. In England, the general tendency has been towards the garden suburb " but, in rebuilding congested areas, economic pressure has brought about the erection of blocks of flats. On the continent, in Europe, the early tendency was to rehouse in blocks of flats. Flats versus houses is a long standing subject for controversy. There is undoubtedly room for both, and the provision of one or the other must largely be dependant on local circumstances. For family life there are many objections to flats, even if provided with lifts. In congested areas however where the majority of tenants must be rehoused on the spot, flats appear to offer the only solution. They give more recreational area and are more economical, when land prices are high.

7. The standard of accommodation to be provided will depend on what the prospective tenant can afford and on local usage, and, also, on what communal services are available. In many European schemes no bathing or laundry facilities are provided, but in most cases this is balanced by the provision of communal bath houses and laundries. There must also be taken into account the cost and availability of public supplies for water, power and light and heating.

8. It can be seen therefore that to consider housing from one point of view only is to court failure. The factors affecting housing can be broadly classified under four headings, sociology, hygiene and standards, finance, and planning.

Sociology.

9. A very large proportion of the working class Chinese, in Hong Kong, is composed of immigrants from South China. Before their arrival in Hong Kong they lived in villages and were engaged chiefly in agricultural pursuits and native industries. For the purpose of defence the villages are generally compactly built and surrounded by a wall. In the absence of wheeled traffic, roads are reduced to the minimum necessary for pedestrian circulation. As in most rural communities sanitation is extremely primitive. With no large herds of livestock to provide manure human excreta is used for the purpose. The limitations placed by the surrounding wall on an expanding population have inevitably resulted in over- crowding.

10. The normal village house is deep and narrow fronted, the width being fixed by the maximum usable length of the China fir pole with which most floors and roofs are constructed. The ground floor is one long room, with a minute

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courtyard at the back dividing the living room from the kitchen; frequently there is no courtyard. A narrow staircase leads up to the upper floor, which is a repetition of the ground floor; or to a cockloft (mezzanine floor) used for sleeping purposes. Windows are small and the interior usually dark. The ground floor is the living room, and also the work shop, and is often used for sleeping purposes as well. The factory is unknown in the country districts, and all native industries are carried on in the home.

11. The Chinese peasant works long hours for a scanty wage and gets prac- tically no holidays. In general the Chinese are inclined to be fatalists. Although this attitude facilitates the government of the masses, it is unfortunately inimical to progress. Contact with Europeans is bound, in the course of time, to have some effect on the character of those who make Hong Kong their home. The weekend holiday, sport, and a high standard of cleanliness and sanitation are taken for granted amongst the better paid Chinese. Sooner or later the claim for better housing conditions for the masses is sure to be pressed. The longer action is delayed the more costly it will become.

It

12. As, in Europe, the town attracted people from the country, so Hong Kong has attracted the population from the neighbouring provinces of South China. Their habits and customs have had an enormous effect on the develop- ment of the town. The standard tenement has followed the traditional lines of the village house, but with an increased number of floors. Overbuilding, over- crowding, and lack of sanitation have been taken for granted, as the population have always been used to such conditions, and their fatalistic attitude towards life has produced no strong demand for improvement. It must be conceded that, when Hong Kong became a British colony, conditions were little better in Europe. is natural however that the spirit of improvement in Europe should be reflected in a British colony in the East, but, owing to slow communications in the early days, Hong Kong has lagged far behind the mother country. In consequence, in 1931, when the population was returned at nearly 850,000, there were some 270 acres populated at an average density of over 1,000 per acre, with a minimum of 800 per acre and a maximum of over 1,700 per acre in parts. Since the commence- ment of hostilities in China, there has been a rapid increase in the local population, which is now estimated at about 1,250,000. During the last few years the rate of building has been below average. It is therefore safe to assume that the above mentioned densities are now greatly exceeded. The houses themselves average over three stories in height and are built at a density of approximately 30 per acre. Much has been done to improve sanitation but, even so, there are still hundreds of houses with one latrine per house and that for the use of the ground tenants only. To add more latrines, even when structurally possible, would only add to the cost of the building and would result in increased rents and, in view of the poverty of the masses, increased overcrowding If any improvement is to be effected it can only be done by reducing building and population density and rehousing the surplus population elsewhere.

13. The great bulk of Hong Kong industries are still of the "home" variety. The ground floor of nearly every tenement is either a shop or workshop. They factory system has made its appearance, but through lack of planning and direction the factories are competing with houses for building sites and further adding to congestion and confusion.

14. Industry* and housing are so intimately related that it is impossible to consider one without the other. People live by industry and their standard of living is directly governed by the measure of return derived from industry. The type of industry, to a great extent, governs the type of housing and its situation in relation to industry.

15. In any well planned community proper provision should be made for industry and housing. In Hong Kong the basic industries are shipping and com- merce. Arising from these two, numerous other industries have become established, many of them, such as building, shipbuilding and engineering being definitely major

*It will be convenient if we combine all the innumerable methods of earning a living

under the collective term "industry".

:

:

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industries, and providing work for large numbers of employees. There still remain a thousand and one things in the way of goods and services which are considered necessary to civilization and these are supplied, largely, by the "home" industries. To meet the demand, the factory system has now made its appearance in Hong Kong, but at present the majority of such concerns are small. The more obvious factory sites have already been taken up by the major industries, and the newer concerns must seek sites in areas already used for housing and the home industries. It is questionable whether the establishment of a new factory in a built-up area will provide work for the unemployed in that area or attract additional population. Where there is no room for the existing population to spread out, the replacement of existing houses by factories is bound to increase overcrowding.

16. Unfortunately these new industrial concerns are too small to build factories away from the populated areas. They cannot afford to lay-out capital to provide housing for their workpeople, and, even if they could, where can they go? Before they can build they require not only good cheap building land, with room for ex- pansion and for housing, but adequate communications and public services such as water, light and power, drainage, and sewage disposal. If these new industries are not to be permitted to add to existing congestion it is essential that they should be encouraged to establish themselves elsewhere, and the necessary provision be made for them. The cost of providing for them may be prohibitive for one small firm but not for a group of firms. The cost, too, must not be weighed against the immediate advantages, which may appear negligible, but against the ultimate objec- tive, which, on achievement, may make the initial outlay itself appear negligible. Once the nucleus of a new community is established it will attract further popula- tion. In such case the "home industries" character of local industries will be favourable to decentralization. There will be no big works to move and no expensive machinery to be transferred. All they want is a market for their wares. It is certain that, if further congestion is to be avoided, the obvious policy is to facilitate the erection of factories in less densely developed areas and not to wait until they have established themselves in Victoria and Kowloon, whence their removal will be both difficult and expensive.

17. The type of house in Hong Kong occupied by the masses has been briefly inentioned. It is however necessary to consider it in detail, to find out its defects and their bearing on the housing question generally. Does it provide accommoda- tion suited to the needs and circumstances of those for whom it is built? If it does.

not, in what way is it defective? Is it too costly or merely badly planned or both? What are the needs and circumstances of the majority of the population? An answer to the last question is a necessary preliminary to the consideration of the others.

66

18. Throughout the world it has always been recognized, and still is, that the family is the social unit. In some countries, particularly China, family ties are so strong that the term "family" includes all blood relations. The family" is: almost synonymous with the clan". For practical purposes however the clan is, too loose a term, and too variable a quantity, to be of much use, and the term

family" is applied only to parents and their direct offspring. As soon as one. of the children marries a new family is created. To provide houses suitable for- family life it is necessary to know the normal size of families.

On this point, unfortunately, no figures are available. In England, statistics show that about 75% of families consist of between two and five people. Families exceeding six are- less than 10% of the total. The general impression amongst Europeans is that Chinese families are large. Although the birth rate is undoubtedly high the infantile death rate is also high and, in consequence, the actual number of living children is probably very little greater per family than in England. Allowing for the fact that, throughout the world, the poorer classes tend to have larger families than the wealthier classes, it does not seem unreasonable to presume that the average- Chinese family is five or six. (See also Paragraph 42).

19. The next point for consideration is the normal earnings of the Chinese.. family and how much of those earnings can be allocated for rent. In Appendix III are given the normal rates of wages for different classes of workers. The wages- for skilled workers vary between $30 and $70 per month and, for unskilled workers, between $15 and $24 per month. Family factory workers earn from

269

$6 to $24 per month. Among the poorer classes both husband and wife usually work, so their combined earnings would, if on full time employment, range from $21 to $94 per month. As most of the poorer classes are casual labourers, it is probably that, amongst those normally employed, not more than twenty days work per month could be relied upon as an average.

an average. Proportionately therefore combined earnings would drop to between $14 and $61 per month. When both husband and wife are unskilled casual labourers, as they generally are, a normal wage level of between $14 and $30 per month is the most which can be expected.

On

are,

If

20. What are the maximum rents which can be expected from such incomes? It is a generally accepted principle that rent should not exceed one fifth of family income. In exceptional cases, where cost of transport, food, etc., is cheap, a rent equal to one quarter of family earnings might be permissible. For the poorer working classes of Hong Kong therefore rent should be between $3 and $6 per month and at worst should not exceed $4 to $7.50 per month. average the maximum rent should not exceed $5 per month.

There however, two other factors to be taken into consideration; namely, the number of mouths to be fed out of family income and the cost of feeding them. sufficient money is available the poorer Chinese normally spend $5 or $6 per month on food. It can be safely assumed therefore that food of satisfactory quality and quantity cannot be obtained at less than $4 per head per month. (The Society for Protection of Children normally limits its activities to those cases where family income is less than $4 per head per month.) A family of four therefore, earning a total of $16 per month, cannot really afford anything for rent or clothing. Actually they do pay something for these items, but only at the cost of under- nourishment, making them particularly liable to illness and open to attacks of infectious diseases, with consequent loss in earning capacity, and a further drop in income. No information is available as to earnings in relation to the numbers in families. It might however be reasonably assumed that, in a family with four children, the elder children will often be earning say sufficient to provide themselves with food. It might also be taken as a working basis that, where family income is less than $4 per head per month, rent of any sort is beyond their means.

21. For the purpose of housing it seems advisable to classify the population under three heads.

Class A.-Those who can remunerate private enterprise for housing accommoda-

tion.

Class B.-Those who can only afford to pay sufficient rent to provide a rate of

interest insufficient to attract private enterprise.

Class C.-Those who can only be housed at a loss.

22. No figures are available from which the numbers in each class could be estimated with any degree of accuracy.

23. Criticism of existing accommodation can now be based on certain known facts or reasonable assumptions. They are

(a) The regard for family ties amongst the Chinese is exceedingly strong,

and housing, to be satisfactory, must cater for family life.

(b) The normal size of family can be assumed to be between five and

six per family.

(e) For those whose earnings are fairly steady a rent between $4 and $7.50 per month per family might normally be expected, but there are large numbers who cannot afford even these low rents and for whom housing can only be provided at a loss.

24. Plans are attached which show the three main types of Chinese tenement houses which are to be found in Hong Kong.

Plan No. 1 shows a typical tenement of the early type and the way it is used in the congested areas. It will be noticed that the open space in rear of the house is negligible, and that there is no provision for sanitation. This type was normal until the passing of the Public Health and Buildings Ordinance of 1903. A very large proportion of the houses in Victoria are of this type.

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Plan No. 2 shows the normal type which has developed as a result of the 1903 Ordinance. The frontage is still limited to less than 16′ 0′′ as it is still governed by the normal usable length of the China fir pole, with which the roofs and floors of most of these houses are constructed. The open space in rear hast been increased and latrine accommodation has been provided. The latter however is still hopelessly inadequate, as it is inaccessible from the upper floors. No facilities for bathing are provided but, whilst desirable, it is not absolutely essential, as the kitchen can be used for the purpose. The stairs are steep, dark and narrow and usually constructed of wood of poor quality. The main living room, although an improvement on the previous type, is still deep and narrow and inner compartments have no direct access to light and air. Most of the houses in Kowloon, and later developments in Victoria, are of this type and many are still being built but with the addition of a latrine on each floor and a more compact stairway

The staircase has

In Plan No. 3 Type A is seen the latest development. been greatly improved and a latrine is provided on each floor and in some cases a small bathroom is also included. Again, however, the plan of the living room is substantially the same, deep and narrow, although, with reinforced concrete con- struction, the width is no longer restricted by the China fir pole. What does keep the width from being increased is. the great depth of the building lot, which makes increased width uneconomical. From the point of view of health only, there is little to complain about in this type, provided each floor is occupied solely by one normal family.

25. Economical pressure, unfortunately, necessitates from two to six families sharing a floor, as a rule, and, as present standards in Hong Kong permit between ten and twelve people to occupy such a floor, then the normal manner of use cannot be considered satisfactory. The narrow and deep type of room renders privacy possible only at the expense of free circulation of light and air.

The room can only be divided by means of cubicles; the walls of these cubicles cannot be taken up to the ceiling, as all light and air would be cut off from inner compartments. They are therefore merely fixed screens and the whole floor is virtually one room. In a place like Hong Kong, where infectious diseases and epidemics are ever present, the spread of disease is facilitated by such an arrangement. Whilst the arrangement permits of through ventilation it is only in very hot weather that windows are kept open, and then only at the wish of the occupants of the outer compart- ments. The occupants of the inner cubicles can have no say in the matter.

26. Another fault with the present type of tenement is that it is bigger than the absolute minimum requirements of a family, i.e., in view of normal poverty it is bigger than the normal family can afford. When the rent of a whole floor is beyond the family means, and when the law permits the floor to be occupied by a greater number than the family consists of, it is only natural that the spare floor space should be rented out, and at a profit. This situation is systematically exploited and a middleman's profit are thus introduced, with the result that rents are increased for such accommodation as the poor require or, alternatively, the area is reduced for which the poor can afford to pay.

27. When the principal floor tenant sublets to all and sundry family life is handicapped and parental control over children is rendered difficult.

28. In Paragraph 25 it has been stated that economic pressure necessitated from two to six families occupying one floor. In Paragraph 20 it has been stated that for a very large number of families the amount of rent which could normally be expected varied from nothing to $7.50 per month. Reference to the valuation tables in Appendix IV (Table 2) shows that, under private ownership, and dependant on land values and shop rents, the rents for flats in the standard tenement must vary between $18 and $28 per month at 6% nett interest, which is the normal return expected by private enterprise. Even at 4% nett interest rents must be between $13 and $16. With an average rent paying capacity of $5 per family of five or six overcrowding is inevitable, and the law is powerless to prevent it.

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29 From the foregoing paragraphs it can be seen that the present type of tenement is not conducive to the best type of family life; for health it depends on through ventilation, although its occupants for the most part keep windows closed; its cost, in relation to the normal earnings of its tenants, makes overcrowding inevit- able; by being virtually one

virtually one room per floor it facilitates the spread of disease. It cannot be described as being suited to the needs and circumstances of the

masses.

In

30. Before proceeding to consider possible improvements it would be advisable first, to give some attention to the question whether flats or houses are best suited to the Chinese poorer classes. In their villages, houses are normally one or two storied. In Hong Kong the demand for dwellings and the shortage of good building land has led to the erection of flats. Approximately 43% of Hong Kong tenements are three stories in height and 40% are four storied. (See Appendix V). Kowloon where development is of much later date than Victoria and where, owing to wider roads, increased maximum building heights are possible, the majority of houses are only three stories high. One would imagine that landlords would for the most part develope their land to the maximum intensity permissible. As they have not done so it can only be concluded that, not only is there no demand for many storied tenements, but that there is even objection to them.

י

31. In view of high land values in Victoria, it seems fairly certain that, if any rehousing and replanning is to be done, some blocks of multistoried tenements will have to be erected. For family life there are many objections to flats. There are, however, according to the Census Report of 1931, some 150,000 people over 17 years of age who are either single or widowed. Although many are no doubt living with their families a large number will be living independantly. If multi- storied blocks must be erected they might be designed to suit the needs of this class, leaving the lower blocks for the use of families.

32. High land values make the provision of two storied or single storied houses impossible for the masses. Even with land at its cheapest, the necessary rents would be prohibitive for all who could not pay at least $7 or $8 per month.

33. The question of the mixing or segregation of different social grades is a subject for controversy in Europe and particularly in England. Amongst the Chinese the distinction between classes is not so strictly regarded as in Europe. Differ- ences in circumstances there are, but they do not engender sharp social distinctions which prevent the mixing of classes. Poor and wealthy frequently live side by side in similar houses. In England it is now recognized that "while a grouping of congenial elements is a proper object of planning, the complete segregation of large blocks of different types of houses is undesirable on social grounds

* Although

social snobbery is to be deplored, a complete lack of class consciousness can give rise to a situation, which can by no means be regarded with equanimity. In Hong Kong there are many people occupying flats in the congested areas, who could well afford to move to the outskirts, and pay rents for much better houses than they now occupy. Their presence in the congested areas reduces the amount of accommodation available for the poorer classes, forces up rents, and increases the obstacles in the way of enforcement of the law against overcrowding.

If new housing is to be provided at the lowest possible rent it is essential that this class. should be discouraged from deriving advantage from it, at the expense of the poor for whom such housing may be provided.

34. To many people, the slum dwellers appear to be a shiftless crowd for whom the provision of better quarters would be a waste of money. It must be remembered however that the vast majority are the victims of economic circum- stances. They have been born and bred in the slums and have known no other environment. Experience in most countries has shown that the great majority of slum tenants react almost immediately to improved surroundings.

35. In Hong Kong it is true that there is a tendency to overcrowd, even when more commodious accommodation can be afforded. Possibly this is due to centuries of life under unsettled conditions during which time the herd instinct for self protection has become highly developed; possibly it is due to the influx of

*Ministry of Health Handbook "Town and Country Planning in England and Wales ".

272

relatives from the country, which, in combination with the strong regard for family ties, leads to large numbers of relatives congregatng under one roof, in preference to splitting up into groups in separate dwellings. Whatever the cause the existence of this tendency must be recognized. Overcrowding alone is a factor which strongly tends towards the creation of slums; coupled with lack of repair and proper mainten- ance of property rapid deterioration into slum conditions is a certainty.

36. The great majority however live under overcrowded conditions from necessity and not from choice, and if given a chance will react favourably to improved environment. That some tuition in the art of living is necessary must be conceded. They must be taught the value of personal and household cleanliness, the proper use of sanitary appliances, respect for property and the ill effects of overcrowding.

37. In many European housing schemes it is the normal practice to employ caretakers, whose duties consist not merely in collecting rents and securing the proper maintenance of the property, but who, in addition, take a personal interest in the tenants and if necessary influence them towards the higher standards of cleanliness and comfort. In Holland, and in the City of Westminster Housing Estate in London, this service goes even further. Women property managers, with experi- ence of working class life, arrange tenants in their new homes and help them in every possible way.

38. A high standard of cleanliness and order, as a social obligation, can be instilled by precept and guidance and, if necessary, by some measure of discipline. Although the great majority improve with improved environment there is undoubtedly a minority who do not. In Holland and France there is a system of segregating undesirable tenants. In Holland special colonies are set aside for this class. In France they are not so completely isolated, but have a special portion of housing schemes set aside for them. In both countries, when the tenants show evidence of improved social conduct and responsibility, they can qualify for removal into an ordinary house. The drawback to such an arrangement is that, by segregating the worst elements, the environment, especially as regards children, is very little improved; in fact, in some respects it is made worse as there is no leaven of better types with which they can mix. Probably the interspersion of undesirable tenants among the better types will do more good, with the possibility of segregation as a disciplinary measure if required.

39. The only supervision for the slum dweller in Hong Kong is that provided by the law, mainly through the Sanitary Department, who, periodically, see that houses are cleaned out and whitewashed, and inspect to prevent overcrowding and nuisances. This cold official supervision is submitted to without resentment. That a more human and intimate supervision would be tolerated, and even welcomed, is evidenced by the results of the work of the Society for the Protection of Children, the number of whose cases, brought forward voluntarily by the people themselves, is increasing year by year. The clinics too show that, more and more, the poorer Chinese are welcoming advice and assistance towards improved family management.

40. It seems highly desirable that, as a preliminary to rehousing, the required personnel should be made available, trained in property management and with experience of the life and difficulties of the poorer classes, ready to assist them in their problems, when improved housing and environment are available. Most of the Universities in England have their settlements" in the slums, where they can carry out social services. There is ample room for similar settlements in Hong Kong. Such settlements would prove an ideal training ground for the property managers and public health workers of the future. There is not the slightest doubt that, for very many years, this type of property manager will be essential to the success of any rehousing policy.

Hygiene and Standards.

41. The unit of occupation is the family and standards should be based on the requirements of family life. I have endeavoured to show that the present standard tenement, under existing economic circumstances, is not adapted to family

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life for the majority. No housing can be considered satisfactory until every family has its own self contained quarters.

If

42. To ensure the provision of a separate home for each family it is necessary to know how many families there are. With no figures available one can only estimate or, more correctly in this case, make an intelligent guess. In the 1931 Census Report the population for Hong Kong and Kowloon is given as 654,715. Of these 304,664 are single, (both sexes) 189,502 are married men, 131,369 married women and the remaining 29,180 are almost all widowed. Taking the normal family as consisting of father, mother and children, with 131,369 married women, it might be taken that that would represent the maximum possible number of families. Many of the married men and some of the women have their wives or husbands and families living in the country. It is natural to presume that this would apply mainly to married men, of whom there is a surplus of 58,133 over married women. it be assumed that 20% of the married women are living alone (a rather generous percentage) then the remaining 80% or 105,095 may be assumed to be living with their families. In other words, it seems reasonable to assume that there are round about 100,000 families requiring accommodation. The latest building returns show that there are, at present, about 75,000 tenement floors in Victoria and Kowloon. On the basis of one family per floor there is thus a shortage of about 25,000 floors or, approximately, 8,000 three storied tenements. Since the Census was taken in 1931 it is estimated that the population in Victoria and Kowloon has increased to about 750,000, an increase of 15%. Presumably, the number of families has increased in the same proportion. At the present time therefore a reasonable estimate of the number of families is say between 100,000 and 110,000 and the shortage of accommodation between 25,000 and 35,000 flats. If the widowed and single be taken as divided equally amongst the families, the average size of families would be six, the figures which was presumed in Paragraph 18.

43. If the shortage of flats is to be made up, it is highly desirable that these new dwellings should conform more nearly than do the present tenements, with the needs and circumstances of prospective tenants. They should provide for family life, for an average family of about six and the rent must, on average, not exceed $5 per month per family. Where poverty is the main factor to be dealt with, minimum permissible standards are apt to become maximum possible provision. Present and possible standards therefore need careful consideration.

44. The question of overcrowding is dependant to a great extent on unit of occupation adopted or implied. The Hong Kong Ordinances do not cater for the family as a unit; nor do they give any consideration to the question of the sex separation. The overcrowding standard is based on so many square feet of floor space and so many cubic feet of air space per person. Given sufficient floor and air space any number of people, regardless of sex, may occupy. one room. Applied to the normal. tenement each floor of which is capable of accommodating 10 or 12 persons, and in many cases more, then, provided those numbers are not exceeded, there is no overcrowding. If the available accommodation be measured on this basis, then the 75,000 floors can accommodate 750,000 to 900,000 people and there is no housing shortage. The fallacy is obvious. It would be quite impossible to dis- tribute the population evenly among the available houses. Family ties would frus- trate any attempt to do so.

45. In England family usage is recognized, as the overcrowding standards, whilst laying down minimum requirements per person, also lay down the number per room for sleeping purposes according to the size of the room, with a maximum of two pc. ons per room, however big. In addition, the standards fix the number of people who can use a house for sleeping purposes, according to the number of habitable rooms in the house. Whilst the wording of the law refers only to persons, its provisions are based on the use of the dwelling for normal family purposes. The Hong Kong Ordinances completely ignore family life amongst a people whose regards for family ties is probably stricter than that of any other nation in the world. By English standards the normal tenement floor would only permit of four adult persons living in it; i.e., less than one average family. By Hong Kong standards two normal families can occupy one floor without overcrowding. Poverty frequently compels more than two families to share a floor.

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46. The Hong Kong Ordinances require a minimum clear height of 10′ 0′′ per floor in order to let light and air into inner cubicles. They also require a minimum floor space of 35 square feet and a minimum air space of 350 cubic feet per person. If light and air were directly accessible to all habitable parts and floor heights were reduced to 8′ 0′′ clear, a floor space of 44 square feet per person would provide air space of 352 cubic feet. With an improved plan this additional floor space per person could be provided without increasing the total floor area, as, in the present tenement a large amount of the floor space is taken up by passage way, necessitated by the long narrow plan. With floor heights reduced considerable savings in building costs could be effected.

47. For ground floors the present minimum height is 11′ 0′′ clear. The height of a domestic building to the eaves must not exceed the width of the road on which it fronts. For a 50 foot road therefore, a building of four stories will not take full advantage of permissible building height, but a building of five floors will exceed it. The normal practice therefore is to make the ground floor 16 feet high and introduce a cocklöft, or mezzanine floor, officially for storage purposes, but normally used as sceping quarters for assistants. This additional floor height also permits of pulleys and shafting for machinery being installed and the ground floors of dwelling houses being converted into factories. It is generally agreed amongst the authorities that cocklofts are undesirable, and the use of ground floors as factories is objection- able.

48. If floor heights of 8′ 0′′ clear be permitted, then with a ground floor 11′ 0′′ high a five storied building could be erected on a fifty foot road and the height to the top floor would be no greater than the present normal third floor. With a ground floor eleven feet high a cockloft could not be permitted, but to balance this, there would seem to be no valid objection to permitting the ground floor to cover the whole of the building lot, provided it be used for non domestic purposes only. With the 10' 0" scavenging lane now required by law, ample light would be obtainable.

49. The Hong Kong Ordinance places no restrictions on the number or sex of people occupying one room provided there is sufficient air and floor space. It is possible that, so far as sex relationship is concerned, there is less liability towards promiscuousness when a large number of people occupy one room than there would be with the same number occupying a number of rooms. How far this would apply in Hong Kong is not known, but it is generally recognized in other countries that incest is more frequent in overcrowded areas than elsewhere. Open sex relation- ship may or may not be regarded with indifference by the Chinese lower classes, but it certainly does seem desirable that married couples should have privacy. partitions in the normal tenement are merely screens which give visual but not aural privacy.

The

50. For an ordinary family it is highly desirable that parents should have a room to themselves and that there should be separate rooms for adult children of 、each sex. For a family of six therefore three rooms would normally be required. It is preferable that the living room should not be used for sleeping purposes but, to obtain the lowest possible rents, this double use cannot be avoided. Whilst the living room should be larger than the remainder, it is essential that it should not be so large. that, to make full use of it as a sleeping chamber, the mixing of sexes would result. Children under ten years of age normally count as half an adult. A room designed to accommodate three adults could therefore be used by the parents and two children under ten years old. In a family of six the remaining two children could have a room each or if both under ten or of the same sex could share a room and leave one vacant for letting off to a lodger. For the sake of economy the combined area. of the three rooms should be as near as possible to the minimum area required by law for the whole family.

51. With the exception of the very latest cype, the normal standard tenement has only one latrine, and that is on the ground floor and inaccessible to upper floor tenants. Even in the latest type only one latrine per floor is provided to serve ten or twelve adults, and many more in overcrowded houses. The addition of another latrine would only increase building costs and therefore rents, which are

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already too high. The desirable minimum is one latrine per family but this is only possible if accommodation be exactly adjusted to the needs of the family.

52. Separate bathrooms are desirable but not essential. A small tub of water and a dipper are all that are required for bathing, and the kitchen can be used for the purpose. Alternatively, a shower bath is economical in water consumption and the cost of installation negligible. With the native type W.C. sunk level with the floor the shower could be fixed in the latrine and the W.C. would then serve the double purpose of sanitary appliance and bath waste.

53. For the Chinese a separate kitchen is essential. Electricity, gas or coal used in an enclosed stove are quite beyond their means. Normal cooking is done on a chatty under a hood which, in theory, draws the fumes and smoke into the flue. In actual practice it does no such thing, to judge by the smoke begrimed average kitchen. To cook in the living room is therefore not desirable.

54. Light and air are essential for human health. It is desirable therefore that every habitable room or part of a tenement should be well lit and that every occupant should, if he or she so desires, be able to obtain fresh air by opening a window. In the present type of tenement the occupants of inner cubicles can have no say in the matter as to whether the windows in the outer compartments be opened or closed. It must be recognized that, except in very hot weather, the Chinese slum dweller normally keeps his windows closed- and no law can force him. to open them. Openings compulsorily left in walls can easily be blocked up. If it be considered necessary to keep the air in a house fresh, whether the occupant likes it or not, the only scheme which appears to offer any hope of success is to provide an outlet for foul air by means of a flue leading to the roof. This scheme would depend for its success upon the very slow changing of air without the influx of cold air being noticeable to the occupant.

55. The successful disposal of refuse from flats is difficult of achievement. The carrying of dust bins up and down public stairs is not satisfactory, particularly when they are so full that the lid cannot be properly closed and a trail of garbage is left on the stairway. Disposal by means of chutes appears to be the best method and, although early types of chutes were not very satisfactory, faults have now been remedied and an efficient chute is obtainable. No particulars as to cost are at present available.

56. The interior finish to a house is largely governed by considerations of hygiene and economics. It must be vermin proof and easily cleaned, and must be cheap in first cost and maintenance. Cement render satisfies these conditions, but it is rather cheerless unless painted. Local tiles might be used, if costs permit, to provide a more cheerful atmosphere.

57. The question of artificial lighting is a subject for enquiry and experiment. It is obviously a waste of money to wire a house for electricity if the tenant cannot pay for current. In such a case sconces should be fixed to the walls to provide for oil lamps or candles. A standard pattern could be produced in large quantities at negligible cost and would amply repay initial outlay as an insurance against fire risks. Even when the remainder of the house is not wired, public stairways should be efficiently lighted all night, preferably by electricity.

In many

58. The provision of communal services has been the subject of experiment to a far greater extent in continental European countries than in England. European schemes these communal features include recreation and reading rooms, guest rooms, sewing rooms, billiard rooms, gymnasia and restaurants. Storage space These however are somewhat for prams and bicycles is almost invariably provided. in the nature of luxuries.

59. The frequent absence of baths and the general absence of individual hot water systems in European housing schemes is largely counterbalanced by the provision of public bath houses, laundries and drying rooms, conveniently situated and fitted in a most up-to-date manner. There are eight communal baths in Hong Kong and these are largely patronized. The women frequently do their laundry work in them.

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The local bath houses are somewhat primitive but appear to be effective. Until a 100% efficient method of rationing and preventing waste can be devised a communal hot water supply to individual houses or flats does not appear to be a practical pro- position but, to a reasonable extent, communal bath houses make up the deficiency. The provision of laundries would be an asset but does not seem to be essential. Climatic conditions and the general absence of balconies and verandahs make the washing and drying of clothing much more difficult in Europe than in Hong Kong.

60. With communal kitchens cooked foods can be provided in greater variety and at less cost than similar meals could be provided by the housewife in the house. In blocks of flats communal eating rooms might also be provided. The provision of good food at cost price would, in very many borderline cases, raise the value of incomes to a level adequate to support a family whereas, in order circumstances, it would be insufficient.

61. The normal tenement possesses no means of providing heat in cold weather. Cases have been known where tenants have been asphyxiated through chatties being used in rooms where windows have been closed and no alternative means of ventilation provided. Central heating would be ideal but appears to be impracticable in view of the poverty of the normal tenant.

Finance.

62. Throughout the world the rent problem has constituted the greatest obstacles in the way of providing houses for the poorest classes. Housing standards have outpaced income levels; now large numbers of workers must live in houses below accepted minimum standards or, alternatively, must be financially assisted to enable them to pay an economic rent. The normal method of giving this assist- ance is for the State to subsidize building so that the rents demanded are below an economic level, based on the cost of the building.

3

63. In Paragraphs 19-23 normal income levels and rent paying capacity of the masses in Hong Kong were considered, and the conclusion was drawn that, for a great many, the average rent must not exceed $5 per month per family, and for many must be even less. Some cannot afford any rent at all. Under certain circum- stances rents as low as $4 or $5 per month can be achieved but, so far as can be seen at present, it does not seem possible to reduce rents to a lower level without some form of subsidy. In Hong Kong the granting of a subsidy would raise the question whether such assistance should be limited to permanent residents or, if not, to what extent would it be justifiable to subsidize housing for new immigrants? For housing under central control tenancy could be limited to people who have lived for a given period in the Colony, who normally work here, and who, if circumstances permit, intend to stay here. For the remainder, to house whom financial assistance would be required, there seems to be no solution to the problem unless Government or charity can provide the necessary funds.

64. Plan No. 3 Type B shows a suggested type of tenement designed to remedy, as far as possible, the faults found in present standard types. The cost of the building is lower than that of Type A; the height is the same, but an extra floor is included. In consequence under similar circumstances rents for an upper floor in Type B can be reduced to nearly half of those for Type A. It cannot be claimed that, under all circumstances, rents can be reduced to suit all pockets, but, under favourable conditions, a three roomed flat, with kitchen and W.C., just sufficient for one normal family, can be let at as low as $5 per month on an average, and if, amongst a number of such houses, a higher rent can be obtained for those more favourably situated, then the rents for the remainder might be reduced accordingly.

65. In Appendix IV are given a number of tables showing development costs, and valuations for different types of houses under different circumstances. Whilst it has not been possible to deal with the innumerable variations in conditions. a sufficient number have been considered to show that, conditions being equal, rents for Type B house are appreciably lower than for Type A and that, if built by Government or some non-profit making Trust, rents can be reduced to about half those which would normally be required, under existing circumstances, with housing supplied by private enterprise.

66. The rent which would have to depend on a number of varying factors.

(a) Cost of development i.e.

and buildings.

(b) Rate of interest required.

(c) Type of ownership.

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be charged for a given type of house will They are

cost of land, site formation, roads, sewers

(d) Situation of property and neighbouring development.

67. In England the costs of roads and sewers are charged as a separate item to property owners, but in Hong Kong they are included in the sale price of the land. The average for land, roads and sewers for London Housing estates up to 1934 was £38 per house at an average density of less than 12 houses per acre. Propor- tionately at 15 houses per acre the cost would be £30, which, at current rate of exchange, would be $480 in Hong Kong. In Hong Kong, in Shamshuipo and similar districts, the upset price of Crown Land is $1.50 per sq. ft. or $1,450 per house; this includes the provision of roads and sewers. Land charges are therefore about three times higher than those on the outskirts of London, where the price of land is notoriously high.

68. Some time ago it was proposed to develop Kowloon Tsai as a European residential suburb and, after allowing for all development costs, it was estimated that, with the exception of a very small area reserved for shops, building land could be sold at a handsome profit at 40 cents per square foot. It was proposed to charge $1.00 per square foot for land in the shopping area. In its original state Kowloon Tsai was rough and hilly and development costs were high.

69. It seems therefore that it should be quite feasible to sell land on the outskirts of development for 50 cents per square foot, or even less. At first glance at the valuation tables this does not appear to make much difference to the rents required for upper floor flats. Actually however for Type A under private owner- ship it makes a difference of $7-$8 on the whole house. In the valuations it has been assumed that this increase is almost entirely counterbalanced by an increase in shop rents, but, if this cannot be obtained, it must be charged to the upper floor tenants. Actually it represents a saving of $1,000 per house. If 8,000 houses are to be erected (the estimated shortage) the total saving will be $8,000,000.

70. Normal practice, in Hong Kong, in valuation work, is to reckon on 8% interest clear of all outgoings, but it is not normal to reckon as an outgoing the amount required for sinking fund to replace worn out buildings. An average of 2% for sinking fund would be reasonable, and if allowed for as part of running costs, would reduce nett interest to 6%. Usual outgoings are Crown Rent, Rates, Insurance and Repairs, and Empties. House property in Hong Kong is not held by a small group of wealthy landlords; it is distributed amongst large numbers of landlords owning a few houses each, and for many the rent from their houses is their sole means of livelihood. These landlords must rely on a certain profit or go out of business. Reference to the valuation tables (Table 2) shows that normally therefore the lowest figure for which they can rent an upper floor in Type A is about. $18 or $19 per month, unless an unusually high rent is obtained for the ground floor shop. How then can they cater for the needs of those whose maximum rent must not exceed $7 per month? Even for this class two or more families must share a floor; for those who cannot afford even this small rent overcrowding is inevitable. With Type B house under similar circumstances the rent for a single floor is reduced to $9 per month or practically half the rent for Type A. Legally however Type A could accommodate two normal families whilst Type B could only house one.

The rent per family would therefore remain the same but the accom- modation provided in Type B is a great improvement over that in Type A. rent however is still nearly twice as high as the level required.

The

71. Table 3 Appendix IV shows the same types of housing as in Table 2 but with one change in the conditions; they are considered as being under Government, instead of private, ownership. At 6% nett interest the lowest rent for a flat is $8 per month compared with $9 under private ownership. Under

-

278

Government ownership the provision of housing would be carried out as a social obligation and not as a profitable business. Interest at 4% would therefore be ample to cover interest on borrowed money and rents could then be reduced to $5 per month. If however money for building purposes is borrowed a sinking fund must be provided for amortisation of loan and this would raise the flat rents up to about $7 per month, the top limit of the desired scale.

rate.

72. A possible alternative to a loan is to raise revenue by means of a special Rates however are included in a tenant's rent and any increase in rates would certainly be passed on and result in a rise in rents.

73. A third possibility is to issue Housing Shares, in the same way that a commercial firm issues shares in order to raise capital. To be a success interest would have to be comparatively low and therefore to be attractive must be guaran- teed. Share capital would be covered by property erected, and as can be seen from Table 5 in Appendix, IV, there is every prospect of a steady increase in the value of this cover for, as a district matures, shop rents could be raised without inflicting any hardship. By this method the cost would be limited to payment of interest during the period of construction and the deficit between income and interest rates in the early years. On an average expenditure of $2,000,000 and interest at 34% this would be between $70,000 and $95,000 per annum so long as the building programme lasted. In the later stages of development it is possible that higher interest rates than 31% would be drawn from the earlier portions of the development and this might cover partially, or even wholly, the annual deficit. As an additional inducement to investors a possible course is to pass on any increase in rents until 4% interest is being paid. Thereafter any further increase might be divided between the building concern and the shareholders. It seems fairly certain that, if this method of raising funds be adopted, Government would have to provide the guarantees.

74. It will be noticed that in the Tables in Appendix IV the valuations under Government ownership differ somewhat from those for private ownership. It is expected that under Government ownership buildings would be better constructed and better maintained than under private ownership. Replacement of buildings therefore could be deferred longer and the necessary contribution to sinking fund reduced. The rate of interest which the sinking fund is likely to derive will probably be lower in the case of the smaller property owner than in the case of Government, with the latter operating in much larger sums, and with greater opportunities for investment. Working on a bigger scale the risk of empties and defaults is much reduced and, with a larger turnover, rates of interest can be reduced. Further, Government can afford to carry its own insurance. There is however one item which must appear under Government ownership, which is absent from the valuation for private ownership. That item is management'.

The small landlord collects his own rent and deals with his property. The large property owner must employ rent collectors.

75. For rehousing the poor, management must not be confined to rent collect- ing but must include social work as well and the cost will therefore be higher. In some quarters it is contended that, although this type of management costs more, in the long run it is the cheapest form. This type of management would be new to Hong Kong, so no accurate estimates of local costs can be made. The figures shown under this item in the valuations are based on figures worked out for England, where 4% of rent is normally allowed. For Hong Kong an allowance has been made of 41% on average rents for A and B type houses under Govern- ment ownership with land values of $0.50, $1.00, and $1.50 per square foot and has been adopted as a fixed charge for Type A, four storied and Type B, five storied. Some reduction was considered justifiable for three storied houses.

76. Two other items in the valuations may be considered to require explana- tion. They are the rents adopted for shops and the proportion of shops to flats. The rents which can be reasonably demanded for shops may bear no relation to the cost of building the shop. Favourably situated shops will frequently command a rent which will provide a handsome return on outlay, not only for the shops, but all the flats above them. A shop rent of $90 per month is more than sufficient to show 6% on the total outlay for a house costing $9,000, and this without a cent in rent from the upper floors. On the other hand an unfavourably situated shop

.

279

may command so low a rent that, to make up the interest on the whole tenement, excessive rents must be charged for the upper floors. In trying to arrive at the lowest rent which might be charged for upper floor flats it is essential to allow for a shop rent which has every reasonable hope of materialising.

For 500 houses, chosen haphazard amongst the congested areas of Victoria and Kowloon, it was found that for those in Kowloon, average rent was $40 per month, the highest being $96 and the lowest $16. Very few however were below $20, the main variations lying between $20 and $50. For new development therefore a rent of $20 per month for a shop was taken as the initial rent, with the possibility of a rise up to $50 per month when the development reaches maturity.

77. In Paragraph 30 it was mentioned that, in Kowloon, the majority of houses were only three stories high but, for most streets, greater heights were per- missible and from that it was decided that three stories was the desirable maximum height. In the congested areas the ground floor is normally a shop or workshop. In Appendix V are the B.0.0. returns for the Blue Book of 1937 which show that in Victoria and Kowloon there are 75,757 floors and 23,075 houses, an average of 3.27 floors per house. How many houses have ground floor shops is not known but 75% seems to be a fair assumption. There are therefore approximately 17,300 shops to 58.500 flats or 2 shops to 7 flats. Many of these shops are really workshops which, in course of time, will probably have to give way to factories. For new development therefore it would be advisable to reduce the proportion of shops to flats and 2:10 is suggested as reasonable. The reduction of population density in new development may mean less total spending power, but low rents and a reduced number of shops may restore the turnover to its present level per shop.

78 In the congested areas not only are houses overcrowded but the areas themselves are overdeveloped, with too many houses per acre. Reduction in the number of houses and elimination of overcrowding will obviously result in a number of people being forced to find accommodation elsewhere. According to the 1931 Census Report, there were then some 270 acres with an average population density of 1,000 per acre. If the density be only reduced to an average of 600 per acre (a figure higher than in the worst slums in England) over 100,000 would have to find accommodation elsewhere and, for these, about 4,000-8,000 houses would be re- quired, varying according to the number of floors per house. Unless this surplus is to be turned into the streets that accommodation must be found for them before slum clearance can be carried out. If 500 houses per year be erected at an annual cost of $2,000,000 slum clearance operations would have to be extended over a period of 8-16 years.

79. It would be quite useless to erect these new houses, unless work for the tenants could be provided in the neighbourhood. The rate at which this work could be provided would naturally affect the rate of new house building and, with it, the rate of slum clearance, but what that rate will be it is not possible to state.

80. If the policy of erecting low rented houses elsewhere can be followed, then, not only the extent, but the quality of the means of livelihood available near the new settlements will have a bearing on the slum clearance question. It has been implied that, if factories could be attracted to new areas, and houses were provided, workers would also be attracted there; but factories for the most part employ people of Class B type (see Paragraph 21). The process of development itself will call for people of all classes, but mainly Class B and the unskilled casual labourers of Class C. If the new developments themselves are eventually to be extensive they will take many years to complete and will provide almost permanent employment for a fairly large number of both these classes. The developments themselves will, sooner or later, attract the owners of shops and small workshops. If it be possible to ensure that the majority of these new residents come from slum areas, there will possibly be a reduction in the population density in these areas. It is probable that for the most part those leaving the slums will consist of Class B people. The remainder in the slums will therefore have a greater proportion of Class C and, with the present type of tenement, unless rents are considerably reduced, will still overcrowd into a few tenements and leave the rest empty. The total of achievement will, under these circumstances be the provision of better and healthier quarters for

280

numbers of Class B people. Even if this be all, it is at least a step in the right direction. It may be however that the rate of departures from the slum will be counterbalanced by normal increase in population and population density in the slums will not decrease. If this prove to be the case the only remedy appears to be to increase the speed of new developments.

81. It might be argued that the only effect of this process on the slums will be to produce empty houses whose owners will then be forced into Class C. In a very few cases this may be so but now consider the slums and their owners.

82. The great majority of slum property is old, dilapidated, out of date in design and construction, and out worn. It is highly desirable that it should be cleared away. It's original cost was, generally speaking, less than half the cost of tenement property to-day. Those who bought the property more than twenty years ago have had time to recover the cost and provide for rebuilding. Those who have bought in recent years at boom prices have been speculators, who have hoped to make a quick sale and a profit, or who have hoped to maintain rents for old property at boom levels. These last deserve no sympathy. There remains then those who have invested in property in recent years as a genuine investment, and who bought at prices which, in accordance with present standards, would be considered reasonable. A sudden exodus from the slums would hit this class hard, but, unless enormous sums are to be spent annually on new development, it will be at least fifteen to twenty years before these new developments will even begin to affect slum rents.

83. The policy of providing low rented houses in new settlements will therefore improve the situation for a certain portion of the community and will do no harm to the remainder. An endeavour has been made to show that low rented houses are a possibility, and, if the suggestion for raising capital by the issue of housing shares proves successful, these houses can be provided at very small cost to Government and, in the long run, are likely to prove a valuable and worth while investment. The development of these new settlements is a necessary first step towards slum clearance.

84. While the new settlements are developing can anything be done in the way of improvements in the slums themselves? Hong Kong slums are not only overbuilt but they are badly planned. The individual building lot is excessively deep and narrow fronted. Ideal improvements would entail complete clearance, replanning and rebuilding. Complete attainment of the ideal will meet with innumer- able obstacles, many of them insuperable. Economy will dictate that existing underground services must continue in use as much as possible. The presence of a new and expensive building in the middle of dilapidated property will almost certainly result in modifications of the ideal plan. It is therefore necessary, in the first place, to survey existing material conditions, and then prepare a general development plan to which re-building can be adapted as opportunity occurs.

85. It is essential that many of Class B and C people must remain in the central areas. To effect improvements better housing must be provided for them. This task cannot be left to private enterprise unassisted, as the prospective profits would be too low to be attractive. Some central housing authority will be necessary to undertake the work. The cost of new buildings might, as in the case of new settlements, be met by the issue of housing shares, but the cost of resumption would have to be found from some other source. General revenue or some special form of tax, which cannot be passed directly onto the poor, appear to offer the only alternatives for this purpose. The erection of such buildings, with improved accommodation at lower rents, will assist in promoting competition amongst private owners, particularly those with dilapidated out-of-date property. When the mass of tenants see what can be done it may provoke them to demand, either more in return for their money, or reduced rents for what is provided.

86. Whilst many owners of old property would be only too pleased to co-operate in a comprehensive rebuilding scheme there are undoubtedly many who will do nothing, unless forced. The long narrow type of building is uneconomical and leads to overcrowding. Wider frontage and shallower depth will necessitate

281

re-adjustment of existing boundaries of numerous lots under separate ownership. For replanning it will be essential to treat blocks of houses as units. As an illustration take a block of eight existing tenements each 15' x 60' total frontage 120'. On rebuilding only six houses should be permitted each 20′ x 45′ total frontage 120'. The loss on total area is a strip 120' x 15' or 1,800 square feet. Under the existing Ordinances the owner could re-erect eight houses on the old lot, with the necessary improvements in planning required by those Ordinances. No powers exist by which the owner could be compelled to limit the number of new houses to six. Also, until the property is structurally unsafe, no powers exist under which the owner can be compelled to effect structural improvements on the grounds of public health. Before slum clearance can be effectively carried out the re- sponsible authority must possess these and other similar powers, which can be exercised without involving enormous sums in compensation. The majority of owners have had ample time to provide for rebuilding and improving their property. It would be inflicting no hardship on them, on rebuilding, to make the new structures conform with modern standards, even though their rentals may not be so great as they were, a prospect which is by no means a certainty. It would certainly not be reasonable that the public should pay these owners compensation for what they ought to do in any case, nor would it be unreasonable to prevent them from re-erecting buildings which are detrimental to the public health. Compensation should be strictly limited to cover losses sustained by limitation or annullment of legitimate rights. In the case of the block used as an illustration compensation. would be limited to the value of the 15 foot strip of land in rear of the buildings.

87. In some cases the redevelopment of a block may result in a nett increase in value of the property. If the 15 foot strip of land be taken off the front of the lot and used for street widening then there would be, on the ground floor, six shops with increased frontage and less competition, facing onto a wider street. These shops would each have an increased rental value which might easily more than counterbalance the loss of two shops in the block. In other countries many instances of increases in value under similar circumstances are to be found. In such a case it is only right that some portion of that increase should accrue to the planning authority. In England 75% of such "betterment is claimed by the authorities.

CC

,,

88. In theory the collection of betterment is simple but in practice it is not so easy, owing largely to the difficulties of assessing increased value. The simplest method is to deal with small areas at a time, resume all land and property required for redevelopment, replan the area and then sell the area allotted for building purposes. Whilst loss in total value may be incurred it should not be directly proportionate to the reduction in the area of building land. For example, if an area of 10 acres, including 7 acres of building land; be resumed at $4 per square foot for building area, the cost of resumption would be $1,219,680. If, on replanning, only 5 acres of building land were available for sale then, at $4 per square foot, the loss would be $348,480. It is however highly probable that the 5 acres of land would increase in value to say $5 per square foot and, on this basis, the loss would only be $130,680. If circumstances are favourable the rise in value might be even greater and result in a profit instead of a loss.

89. Where property is below certain standards and cannot, at reasonable cost, be brought up to those standards, it should be possible to declare it as unfit for habitation and compel the owner to demolish it at his own cost. Large areas in Hong Kong could legitimately be cleared of buildings in this way and, when resumption is desirable, land value only would have to be paid. Land value itself should be based, not on the rentals derived from overcrowded property but on the rentals which might reasonably be derived if the property were legitimately used. If sixty people occupy a tenement, and pay $40 a month all told in rent, then the average rent paying capacity can be taken at 66 cents per head. If the tenement can only legally accommodate 28 people, then, based on the average rent paying capacity of the occupants, the total rental which can legitimately be relied on would be $18.48, say $20. It is this latter rental from which the land value should be calculated. Compensation should always be limited to values based on legitimate-

usage.

282

90. One of the greatest difficulties in the way of slum clearance is the numerous separate ownerships. Resumption of suitable areas progressively will overcome this difficulty. Occasions may arise however where one area is being dealt with and owners in another area wish to rebuild. Reverting to the previous illustration of a block of eight houses; if they are under eight different ownerships and it is desired that only six houses be erected on the area then compensation might be paid to two owners and the remaining six allowed to rebuild with wider frontage and shallower depth but each with the same area of land that he possessed before. Alternatively, the eight owners might be pursuaded to pool their resources and build six houses between them, each taking shares in proportion to the value of his original holding.

91. It is possible however that the land on which the block is built may be required for open space, or a new road, in which case it would be necessary to resume the whole area. To reduce cash compensation to a minimum land of equal value in new settlements might be offered in exchange. On occasion it may arise that a number of blocks may have to be dealt with in order to make rebuilding opera- tions fit in with the redevelopment plan. The same procedure on an enlarged scale might be adopted.

92. It is highly desirable that all Housing Finance should be kept separate from general Colonial Accounts. For new building work it has been suggested that the general public be invited to buy shares, but for slum clearance the money for compensation would have to be supplied by Government. The costs for com- pensation cannot possibly be estimated until a re-development plan and clearance programme have been prepared. It does not seem possible to commence actual clearance work for some years. In preparation for the time when the preliminary work has been completed, and actual operations are possible, it seems advisable that Government should start a Housing and Slum Clearance Fund, with an annual contribution of as much as can be afforded. By this means, if the "resume, re-plan and re-sell" policy be adopted, there will be sufficient funds available to pay for the first resumption. A proportion of the purchase price will be recovered on resale and thereafter the annual contribution to the Housing Fund will be required to make up the losses on each area dealt with. The rate of progress will depend on the annual contribution available for use, but it would be advisable to accummulate approximately $2,000,000 to enable the first resumption to be made.

Planning.

93. Much could be written on the subject of planning, but it is a technical subject best left in the hands of a permanent planning authority.

It is only necessary here to deal with general considerations having a bearing on this report.

94. The planning of the individual tenement to suit the needs of the people has been dealt with, but only in connection with the existing types and one alter- native. There are a number of possible alternatives which might be considered, such as hostels with communal kitchens, dining rooms, lavatories, etc., and cubicles for the tenants, arranged for family or individual use. For individual tenements there is room for investigation and experiment regarding details, such as the question of staircase or balcony access (see Plan No. 4), removal of sewage, refuse and smoke, the insulation and use of flat roofs and any modifications in existing by-laws, which may be desirable for improved types of dwellings. (The suggested new design on Plan No. 3 Type B does not conform to the existing by-laws). The use, source, cost and availability of different building materials and the capacity of the building trades to cope with a building programme are subjects which also need investigation.

95. The clearance of slums involves the settlement of the dispossessed surplus elsewhere. Sites for new settlements must be found and planned. There are several possible areas in the New Territories such as Shatin, Tsun Wan, Un Long, Taipo and Fanling, but before development can be commenced the questions of water supply, communications, flood prevention, drainage and sewage disposal and in some cases reclamation must be given serious consideration. Slum clearance itself means large scale replanning of developed areas, affected by innumerable

283

complications such as separate ownerships. compensation, new buildings, existing public services and such like. No authority can cope with these difficulties unless endowed with suitable legal powers, which at present do not exist.

96. Town planning deals in the main with private property and the rights of vested interest are jealously guarded.

97. In any civilised community liberty of action cannot be allowed if such action is detrimental to the interests of the community as a whole. If a case has been made out for the clearance and replanning of slum areas some restrictions on rebuilding by private owners become essential. Private interests must be safe- guarded however and compensation paid for any legitimate losses incurred. In England, under the Town and Country Planning Act of 1932 compensation is payable when property is injuriously affected.

(1). By the coming into operation of a Town Planning Scheme (e.g., Loss

in value).

(2). By infringement or curtailment of owners' legal rights.

(3). By enforcement of powers to carry out a scheme.

(4). By incurrence of expenditure in carrying out a scheme.

98. Certain cases are specified in which the owner of property affected by a Town Planning Scheme is excluded from claiming compensation. They are:-

(1). Prescription of space about buildings.

(2). Limitation of number of buildings.

(3). Regulation of size, height design or external appearance of build-

ings.

(4). Prohibition or restriction of building operations only pending a general

development order.

(5). Prohibition or restriction of building operations permanently by reason situation or nature of land, if buildings thereon are likely to involve danger or injury to health or excessive cost in public services.

(6). Prohibition or restriction of use of land (other than by building opera- tions) likely to involve danger or injury to health or serious detriment to the neighbourhood.

(7). Restriction in use of building.

(8). Regulation of height and position of proposed fence, walls, hedges,

etc., near road corners or bends, in the interests of traffic safety.

(9). Limitation of number, or prescription of sites of new roads entering

on an existing or proposed classified road.

(10). Fixing of building lines on land not part of a building for five years

previous to material date.

(11). Provision of accommodation for loading and unloading or fuelling vehicles in buildings proposed to be used for business or industry in order to prevent obstruction of a highway.

Item 4 might be qualified by fixing a reasonable period of time during which restrictions can be imposed.

99.

It is right that the legitimate interests of the individual should not be sacrificed to the good of the community without some compensation. It is equally right that, if by the act of the community through its elected representatives, the value of individual interests are greatly enhanced then the individual should refund at least a portion of his gains to the community. The Town and Country Planning Act in England provides for the payment of 75% of such gains.

284

100. The above items give some indication of the scope of a Town Planning Scheme in so far as it may affect private property. No Town Planning or Slum Clearance Scheme, however ideal on paper, can be given effect without the aid of the law. The value of a plan is conditioned by the extent to which it can be given legal effect. In Hong Kong the only law which in any appreciable way assists redevelopment is the Valuation and Resumptions Ordinance. This however is limited in scope as it only provides for the compulsory purchase of property for a public purpose. The law of town planning is the machinery necessary to give effect to town planning. In Hong Kong the machinery is quite inadequate for the purpose. The law in other countries may or may not be adequate, but such as it is, it is based on local conditions and therefore cannot be arbitrarily taken over for use in Hong Kong. In view of the many matters with which such a law must deal, and the time which it would take to formulate, it is sufficient for this report to indicate its nature and necessity and leave the actual framing to a legal and technical committee appointed for the purpose.

101. Finally the constitution and organisation of the planning and housing authority itself remains to be considered. In England the Housing and Town Planning Authorities are usually separate committees elected from the Municipal Council. For housing itself there is usually a separate municipal department, but town planning is normally a sub-department, working under the City Engineer, an arrangement which has few advantages and many drawbacks. In European continental towns Housing, Town Planning and City Engineering are normally separate departments. In America arrangements vary considerably but it has been advocated by a prominent American town planner that the best system would be the appointment of a permanent City Planning Commission, with its own technical staff, and that the heads of various departments such as Engineering, Architectural and Legal, act as advisors.

102. It must be remembered that Housing, Slum Clearance and Town Planning deal largely with private property, and work on any appreciable scale will mean direct contact and many difficult and protracted negotiations with owners. It would not be fair to throw this work and its attendant responsibilities onto a single Govern- ment official, nor should he be made to accept nominal responsibility for the work, if carried out by a subordinate.

103. For Hong Kong a suitable organisation would be for the general direction of and responsibility for the work to be in the hands of a permanent committee, assisted by an executive and technical staff attached to the Public Works Department. for administration only, but responsible directly to the Committee for the technical side of its work. Town Planning, Housing and Public Works are closely related and co-operation is essential, to avoid overlapping or working at cross purposes.

If the Director of Public Works or his representative, such as the senior Assistant Direc- tor, be an ex-officio member of the Committee, contact is maintained, and by, the attachment of the Committee's technical staff to the Public Works Department, administration expenses can be saved and close contact between the two staffs made possible.

104. In this report we have been compelled to deal largely with generalities rather than with precise detailed facts, the collection of which would be better left in the hands of a permanent authority. The abnormal poverty of the masses. precludes any possibility of providing decent housing accommodation for all, even of a low standard, without the supply of large sums of money from Government or charity. For a certain number however, possibly a quarter or a third of the population at a guess, it does seem possible to provide adequate housing accom- modation at little or no cost to Government. Slum clearance will cost money, but, by the allocation each year of a not unreasonable sum from public funds, progress. can be made, even though it be slow. Finally, even if little can be done about the slums, there is no obstacle in the way of preventing their spread, by the simple expedient of properly planning future development, with a building unit of shallower depth and wider frontage, and zoning for different land usages. The provision of simply laid out parks, cheaply developed, would be a decided asset to induce the slum dwellers into the fresh air. These parks should be in or near the congested areas and easily accessible.

W. H. OWEN.

:

Building Trades:-

Carpenters Bricklayers

Painters

285

Appendix III.

AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES FOR LABOUR.

Plasterers

Scaffolders

Labourers (male)

(female)

$1.15 per day.

وو

وو

1.10

1.20

JJ

3)

1.10

1.70

25

0.80

0.50

>>

"

Free temporary

Working hours 9 per day. Time and a half paid for over-time. quarters provided on the building site and communal messing at cheap rates.

Shipbuilding and Engineering:

Electricians

Coppersmiths

Fitters.

Sawmillers

Boilermakers

Sailmakers

Blacksmiths

Turners

Patternmakers

Labourers

$1.45 to $1.80 per day.

1.20,,

1.80

""

0.80

1.80

1.00

1.40

1.00

1.50

1.00

1.50

وو

0.80

1.20

1.00

1.40

23

1.00

1.40

وو

0.50

0.80

,,

>>

J

Over-time-time and a half. Night work-double time.

Transport workers :—

Tram drivers

Bus drivers

Tram conductors

Bus conductors

$36 to $45 per month.

30

""

39

50 per month.

20 to $25 per month.

Working hours, nine per day. Free uniform. Bonus at end of year.

Railway workers. (Government)

$ 540 to $1,000 per annum.

Engine drivers

Firemen

Guards

Signalmen

Station Masters

Booking Clerks

Telephone Operators

Female workers in factories:--

Cigarette making

330

600

""

480 1,000

22

>>

600

22

1,000

""

""

1,000

""

1,800

600

""

1,000

وو

480

>"

1,000

22

$0.40 to $0.80 per day.

Knitting factories Perfumery

Confectionery

Working hours from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m.

from 6 p.m. to 9 p.m., at day rates.

Domestic servants :-

0.20

0.20

0.20

وو

0.55

0.50

">

0.60

وو

وو

One hour off at mid-day. Over-time

Employed by Chinese

Employed by Europeans

Gardeners

$7.00 to $20.00 per month.

15.00 15.00

40.00 30.00

With free lodging, and with Chinese employers, generally free board.

وو

Note:The rates of pay of government employees are much the same as those

of a similar category in private employ.

Coolies:--

Transport coolies

Coal

Ricksha

JJ

$0.60 to $0.70 per day.

0.80 per day.

0.60 to $0.70 per day.

PROPERTY

VALUATIONS

COMPARATIVE TABLES SHOWING RENTS

UNDER VARYING CIRCUMSTANCES

FOR

FLATS

AND RATES OF INTEREST FOR VARYING SHOP RENTS

TABLE I

TYPE OF DEVELOPMENT

VALUE OF LAND PER SQ. FT.

AREA OF LAND IN SQ. FT.

TYPE

'A'

ESTIMATED

4 STORIES

50 CIS

$1.50

$4.00

$10.00

DEVELOPMENT

TYPE

50 CTS

'B'

$1.50

COSTS PER HOU:

S STORIES

$4.00

/028

1028

1028

1028

960

960

960

960

LAND COSTS

514

$1542

*4112

19280

480

1440

$3840

$9600

ESTIMATED BUILDING COSTS

TOTAL DEVELOPMENT COSTS

7500

$7500

$7500

7500

5500

$5500

$5500

$5500

SAY*B000

9000

$11500

$17750

6000

17000

$9500

$16000

TABLE 2

LAND VALUE PER SQ FT.

50

CENTS

TYPE OF DEVELOPMENT

TYPE

A

4 STORIES

TYPE

B

5 370

DEVELOPMENT COSTS

$8000

NETT INTEREST RATES

8%

6%

4%

8%

$6000

6%

INTEREST ON CAPITAL

640

480

320

480

SINKING FUND (·02 × BUILDING COSTS)

150

150

150

110

360

110

TOTAL ECONOMIC RETURN

790

630

470

590

470

CROWN RENT ($1500 PER ACRE P. A) RATES (17% OF ECONOMIC RETURN) INS. & REPAIRS (11⁄21⁄2% × 3⁄4% × BUILDING COSTS) EMPTIES (6% OF ECONOMIC RETURN)

35

35

35

33

33

135

107

80

100

80

94

94

94

70

70

47

30

28

35

28.

TOTAL RUNNING COSTS

3/1

274

237

238

2/1

GROSS ANNUAL RENT

1101

904

707

82A

681

""

MONTHLY

"

92

75

59

69

57

ASSUMED SHOP

|AVERAGE MONTHLY RENT PER FLAT

20

20

20

20

20

$24

$18

#13

#/2

$9

TABLE 3

LAND VALUE PER SQ FT.

TYPE OF DEVELOPMENT

DEVELOPMENT COSTS

50 CENTS

TYPE

A

STORIES

TYPE

B

ގ

NETT INTEREST RATES

8%

8000

6%

$6000

4%

8%

6%

INTEREST ON CAPITAL

640

480

320

480

360

|SINKING_FUND (-012 × BUILDING COSTS)

90

90

90

66

66

TOTAL ECONOMIC RETURN

730

570

4/0

546

426

CROWN RENT (1500 PER ACRE P.A.)

35

35

35

33

33

RATES (17% OF ECONOMIC RETURN) INS. & REPAIRS (3⁄4% % × 6 × BUILDING COSTS) |EMPTIES (3% × ECONOMIC RETURN)

MANAGEMENT (APPROX 4/1⁄2% × AY RENT)

124

97

70

93

72

47

47

47

35

35

22

17

/2

16

13

35

35

35

35

35

GROSS

TOTAL RUNNING COSTS

ANNUAL RENT

263

231

199

2/2

188

993

801

609

758

6/4

'ALUATIONS

VING

RENTS FOR FLATS

CIRCUMSTANCES

VARYING SHOP RENTS

TABLE 4

TYPE 8

FLAT

LAND 50 CENTS PER SQ. FT

NETT INTEREST RATES

49%

C

NUMBER

'

NETT INTEREST RATES

3 STORIES

$4.00

$10.00

'B'

1ENT COSTS PER HOUSE

5 STORIES

TYPE

B

$1.50

$4.00

50 cys

1.50

960

960

960

960

960

1440

$3840

$9600

480

$1440

3840

$5500

$5500

$5500

$4000

$4000

$4000

54000

$7000 $9500

$16000

$4500

$5500

38000

$13500

960

960

9600

INTEREST ON CAPITAL

SINKING FUND (-012 × BUILDING COSTS,

TOTAL ECONOMIC RETURN

CROWN RENT (VARIABLE)

RATES (17% × ECONOMIC RETURN) INS. & REPAIRS (3⁄4% × 6 × BUILDING COSTS. EMPTIES (3% x ECONOMIC RETURN) MANAGEMENT (30 P A PER HOUSE)

TOTAL RUNNING COSTS

GROSS ANNUAL RENT

11

MONTHLY

M

DEDUCT FOR 8 SHOPS AT $20 PM. EACH

GROSS MONTHLY RENT FOR 40 FLATS

AVERAGE MONTHLY RENT PER FLAT

:

NOT.

J

PROBABLE

RENTS

UNDER

PRIVATE

OWNERSHIP

CENTS

1.50

TYPE B

5 STORIES

TYPE

A

4 STORIES

TYPE

B

ގ

STORIES

8%

$6000

6%

$9000

$7000

4%

8%

6%

4%

8%

6%

4%

480

360

240

720

540

360

560

420

280

110

110

110

150

150

150

110

110

110

590

470

350

870

690

510

670

530

32

33

33

33.

35

35

35

33

33

33

100

80

GO

148

1/8

87

114

90

66

70

70

70

94

94

94

70

70

70

35

28.

21

52

41

31

40

32

23

7

238

2/1

184

329

288

247

257

225

19

828

681

534

//99

978

757

927

755

58

7

69

57

45

100

82

63

77

63

>

20

20

20

25

25

25

25

25

~ s

4

2

#12

و

$6

+25

$19

$13

$13

$9.50

PROBABLE RENTS

O CENTS

UNDER

$1.50

GOVERNMENT

OWNE

TYPE

B

ގ

STORIES

TYPE

A

$6000

4 STORIES $9000

TYPE

B

5 STORIES

8%

6%

4%

8%

6%

4%

8%

7000

6%

4%

480

360

240

720

540

360

560

420

280

66

66

66

90

20

90

66

GG

.66

546

426

306

8/0

630

450

626

486

346

33

33

33

35

35

35

33

33

33

93

72

51

138

107

77

106

83

59

35

35

35

47

47

47

35

35

35

16

13

و

24

19

14

19

15

10

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

2/2

188

163

279

243

208

228

201

172

758

6/4

469

1089

873

658

854

687

518

2

51

*PE B

FLAT

PER SQ. FT

ގ

RENTS BASED

ON

16

HOUSES

3 STORIES GOVERNMENT OWNERSHIP

BLOCK OF BUILDINGS $4000 PER HOUSE, TOTAL CAPITAL OUTLAY #71.500 CROWN RENT $1500 $1000 & $500 PER ACRE SHOP RENTS $20 PER MONTH EACH

4% & 3%

UMBER

OF

SHOPS 8,

PER

ANNUM

NUMBER

OF

CROWN RENT

TABLE 5

TYPE

RA.

LAND 50 CENTS PER

GROUND

$500 PER ACRE

SQ

FLOOR

4%

2860

3%

4%

9%

4

29%

2145

2860

2/45

2860

2/45

VING COSTS)

768

768

768

768

768

768

RETURN

3628

29/3

3628

29/3

3628

29/3

:)

525

525

350

350

175

175

RETURN)

6/7

495

617

495

617

495

DING COSTS}{

450

450

450

1450

450

450

SHOP RENTS

PER MONTH EACH

PER MONTH EACH

FLAT RENTS

GROSS ANNUAL

RENT

OTHER

12

RU

ETURN)

109

87

109

87

109

87

HOUSE

480

480

480

480

480

480

$20

4 3840 10.

>STS

2/8/

2037

2006

1862

1831

1687

25 4

4320 10

INT

5809

4950

5634

4775

5459

4600

30

4800 10

484

4/3

469

398

455

383

35

4

5290 10

$20 PM. EACH

160

160

160

/60

160

160

40

4

5760 10

240 FLATS

324

253

309

238

295

223

45

6240

$

$

ER FLAT

8+

6+

8-

$

7.50

5·50

50

6720 10

NOTE AS SHOP RENTS RISE FLAT RENTS MIGHT BE REDUCED

ERSHIP

NOTE :- RATES ARE

INCLUDES INS

$4.00

"ORIES

TYPE

A

4 STORIES

TYPE

B

ގ

STORIES

TYPE

A

4 STL

$11500

$9500

$17750

4%

8%

6%

4%

0%

6%

4%

8%

6%

280

920

690

460

760

570

380

1420

110

150

150

150

110

110

110

150

1065

150

390

1070

840

610

870

680

490

1570

1215

33

35

35

35

33

33

33

35

35

66

182

143

104

148

116

83

267

207

70

94

94

94

70

70

70

94

94

23

64

50

31

52

41

29

94

73

192

375

322

270

303

260

215

490

409

582

1445

1162

880

1173

940

705

2060

1624

49

120

97

73

98

78

59

172

135

25

30

30

30

30

30

30

50

50

6

$30

$22

$14

$17

$12

B7

141

$28

OWNERSHIP

$4.0

"ORIES

TYPE A

4 STORIES

TYPE B

STORIES

TYPE

A

$11500

9500

4%

8%

6%

4%

8%

6%

4%

8%

$17750

6%

280

920

690

460

760

.66

90

90

90

66

570

66

380

66

1420

90

1065

90

346

1010

780

550

826

636

446

1510

1155

33

35

35

35

33

33

33

35

35

59

/7/

133

94

108

76

257

196

35

47

47

47

35

35

35

47

47

10

30

23

17

25

19

13

45

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

172

318

273

228

269

230

192

419

348

518

1328

1053

778

1095

866

638

1929

1503

TABLE 5

TYPE B

3 STORIES

RATES OF INTEREST

, 50 CENTS PER SQ. FT

R

OF

GOVERNMENT OWNERSHIP

ON A BLOCK OF IG HOUSES BUILDINGS $4000 PER HOUSE TOTAL CAPITAL

OUTLAY $71,500

APPENDIX IV

GROUND FLOOR SHOPS 8, SHOP RENTS VARIABLE, FLAT RENTS FIXED AT 4 P. M. EACH "NT $500 PER

ACRE P. A. UNTIL

REACH $35 P. M. & $1000 PER ACRE P. A. THEREAFTER

SHOP RENTS

SHOP RENTS

PER MONTH EACH.

FLAT RENTS

PER MONTH EACH

GROSS ANNUAL

RENT

OTHER

OUTGOINGS

RATES

CROWN RENT

RUNNING COSTS

INCOME

70

GOVERNMENT

SINKING FUND

NETT

INTEREST

RATE OF NETT

INTEREST

TOTAL ECONOMIC

RETURN

RATE OF TOTAL

ECONOMIC RETURN

ECONOMIC RETURNİ

CROWN RENT

RATE OF EC. RENT

CROWN RENT

NETT INTEREST

* CROWN RENT

RATE OF NETT INT.|

LNTY NMOYI

+

$20

4 3840

/030 360

350

40

768

350 768

768

768

768

45

50

4

25 4 4320 1030 438

30 4 4800 1030 500 350

35

4 $290 1030 575 350

$760 1030 6/0 $25

2827 3.95% 3595 | 5.02%

6240 1030 Cas 525 768 3232 4.52% 4000 5.59% 4525 | 6·33%

6720 1030 765 $25 768 3632 5.08% 4400 6.15% 4925 6.88%

1332 /·86%

1734 2.43%

21523·00%

2100 2.94%

2502 3.50%

2920 4.08%

2450 3.42%

2557 3.57% | 3325 | 4.68% |

3675 | 5·16%

/682 2.36%

2852 3.97% 2084 2.92%

3270 4.57% 2502 3.50%

2907 4.07%

4120 | 5·75%

3352 4.68%

3757 5.25%

4157 | 5·82%%%

NOTE :- RATES ARE PAYMENT FOR PUBLIC SERVICES & ARE NOT COUNTED AS INCOME

INCLUDES INS. & REPAIRS.

EMPTIES & MANAGEMENT

10.00

YPE

A

4 STORIES

TYPE 8

S STORIES

$17750

$16000

LAND VALUE PER SQ.FT.

TYPE OF DEVELOPMENT

DEVELOPMENT COSTS

3%

6%

4%

8%

6%

4%

NETT INTEREST RATES

1065

710

1280

960

150

150

110

110

640

110

1570

1215

860

1390

1070

750

35

3.5

33

207

146

235

33

182

33

/28

94

94

70

70

70

73

52

83

64

45

490

409

327

421

349

2060

1624

1187

1811

1419

1026

172

135

ގ

وو

118

86

99

MONTHLY

50

50

50

·50

50

50

$41

$28

$16

$25

517

9

INTEREST ON CAPITAL

SINKING FUND (·02X BUILDING COSTS)

TOTAL ECONOMIC RETURN

CROWN RENT ($1500 PER ACRE P. A.)

RATES (17% × ECONOMIC RETURN)

INS & REPAIRS (12% x 6 x BUILDING COSTS) EMPTIES (6% x ECONOMIC RETURN)

276. TOTAL RUNNING COSTS

GROSS ANNUAL RENT

| ASSUMED SHOP

AVERAGE_MONTHLY RENT PER FLAT

#

10.00

TYPE

A

8%

4 STORIES

$17750

6%

TYPE

8

5 STORIES

4%

8%

16000

6%

LAND VALUE PER SQ. FT.

TYPE OF DEVELOPMENT

DEVELOPMENT COSTS

4%

NETT INTEREST RATES

1065

710

1280

90

90

66

960

66

Co40

66

1510

1155

800

1346

1026

706

35

35

33

33

33

196

136

230

175

120

47

47

35

35

35

35

24

40

31

21

35

35

35

35

35

INTEREST ON CAPITAL

SINKING FUND(-OIZ X BUILDING COSTS) TOTAL ECONOMIC RETURN

CROWN RENT ($1500 PER ACRE P. 4.)

RATES (17% X ECONOMIC RETURN)

INS. & REPAIRS (34% x 5/6 X BUILDING COSTS) EMPTIES (3% x ECONOMIC RETURN) MANAGEMENT (APPROX 44% × AV. RENTS)

419

348

277

373

309

244

TOTAL RUNNING COSTS

1929

1503

1077

1719

1335

950

GROSS ANNUAL RENT

:

COMPARATIVE

TABLES SHOWING 'RENTS

FOR

FLATS

UNDER VARYING CIRCUMSTANCES

AND RATES OF INTEREST FOR VARYING SHOP RENTS

TABLE /

TYPE OF DEVELOPMENT

VALUE OF LAND PER SQ. FT.

AREA OF LAND IN SQ. FT.

LAND COSTS

ESTIMATED BUILDING COSTS

50 CTS

TYPE

'A

$1.50

/028

/028

1028

ESTIMATED

4 STORIES

$4.00

DEVELOPMENT

$10.00

1028

TYPE

50 cts

'8'

COSTS PER HOUSE

5 STORIES

7

$1.50

4.00

30

960

960

960

960

96

514

$7542

$4112

$10280

480

$1440

$3840

$9600

48

$7500

$7500

7500

TOTAL DEVELOPMENT COSTS

SAY 8000

9000

$11500

7500 $17750

$5500

$5500

$5500

$5500

$400

6000

$7000

39500

$16000

$450

TABLE 2

LÄND VALUE PER SQ FT.

50 CENTS

TYPE OF DEVELOPMENT

TYPE

A

STORIES

TYPE

B

5 STORIES

#

DEVELOPMENT COSTS

8000

6000

NETT INTEREST RATES

8%

49%

8%

6%

INTEREST ON CAPITAL

640

480

320

480

360

240

SINKING FUND (·02 × BUILDING COSTS)

150

150

150

110

110

110

TOTAL ECONOMIC RETURN

790

630

470

590

470

CROWN RENT ($1500 PER ACRE P. A) RATES (17% OF ECONOMIC RETURN) INS. & REPAIRS (11⁄21⁄22% ×3⁄4% × BUILDING COSTS) EMPTIES (6% OF ECONOMIC RETURN)

35

35

35

33

33

33

135

107

80

100

80

GO

94

94

94

70

70

70

47

38

28

35

28.

21

TOTAL RUNNING COSTS

3/1

274

237

238

2/1

GROSS ANNUAL RENT

1101

904

707

828

681

11

ASSUMED SHOP

MONTHLY

11

#

92

75

59

69

57

20

20

20

20

20

AVERAGE MONTHLY RENT PER FLAT

$24

$18

#13

$12

$9

TABLE 3

LAND VALUE PER SQ FT.

SO CENTS

TYPE OF DEVELOPMENT.

TYPE

A

STORIES

TYPE

B

ގ

STORIE

DEVELOPMENT COSTS

$8000

$6000

NETT INTEREST RATES

8%

6

4%

8%

6%

INTEREST ON CAPITAL

640

480

320

480

360

240

|SINKING_FUND (-012 × BUILDING COSTS)

90

90

90

66

66

66

TOTAL ECONOMIC RETURN

730

570

410

546

426

CROWN RENT (1500 PER ACRE P.A.) RATES (17% OF ECONOMIC RETURN) INS. & REPAIRS (3⁄4%% x % × BUILDING COSTS) EMPTIES (3% × ECONOMIC RETURN) MANAGEMENT (APPROX 4/2% x AY RENT)

35

35

35

33

33

33

124

97

70

93

72

51

47

the

47

35

35

35

22

17

/2

16

13

و

35

35

35

35

35

35

TOTAL RUNNING COSTS

263

23/

199

2/2

/88

GROSS ANNUAL RENT

993

801

609

758

6/4

MONTHLY

J

83

67

51

63

51

ASSUMED SHOP

"

20

20

20

20

20

AVERAGE MONTHLY RENT PER FLAT

$21

716

110

$11

$8

RENTS

PER HOUSE

NUMBER OF

SHOPS 8,

SH

NETT INTEREST RATES

4%

INTEREST ON CAPITAL

2860

2/45

SINKING FUND (-012 × BUILDING COSTS)

768

768

TOTAL ECONOMIC RETURN

3628

CROWN RENT (VARIABLE)

525

525

RATES (17% × ECONOMIC RETURN)

617

495

INS. & REPAIRS (3⁄44% × 6 × BUILDING COSTS)|

450

450

EMPTIES (3% x ECONOMIC RETURN)

109

87

MANAGEMENT (*30 P A. PER HOUSE)

480

480

960

9600

TOTAL RUNNING COSTS

GROSS ANNUAL RENT

MONTHLY

DEDUCT FOR 8 SHOPS AT $20 PM. EACH

GROSS MONTHLY RENT FOR 40 FLATS

AVERAGE MONTHLY RENT PER FLAT

2181 5809

17

"

484 160

324

87

NOTE AS SHOP RENTS R

TYPE

B

3 STORIES

1-50

$4.00

$10.00

960

960

960

960

$9600

480

$1440

$3840

$5300 $4000

$4000

$4000

$4000

$16000

$4500

$5500

$8000

$13500

PROBABLE

RENTS

UNDER

PRIVATE

OWNERSHIP

1.50

5 STORIES

6000

TYPE

A

4 STORIES

TYPE 8

5 STORIES

TYPE A

9000

$7000

6%

4%

8%

6%

40%

8%

6%

4%

8%

'60

240

720

540

360

560

10

110

150

150

150

110

420

110

280

920

110

150

470

350

870

690

510

670

530

390

1070

33

80

33

35

35

35

33

GO

148

1/8

87

114

10

70

94

94

94

70

28.

2/

52

41

31

40

ཀླ ༠ ༠ ✖

33

33

35

90

66

182

70

70

94

32

23

64

2/1

184

329

288

247

257

225

192

375

681

534

119.9

978

757

927

755

582

1445

57

45

100

82

63

77

63

49

120

20

20

25

25

25

25

25

25

30

وا

$6

+25

$19

$13

$13

$9.50

6

$30

PROBABLE RENTS UNDER

GOVERNMENT

OWNERSHIP

$1.50

ގ

STORIES

TYPE A

STORIES

TYPE

B

ގ

STORIES

TYPE A

6000

$9000

6%

4%

8%

6%

4%

8%

7000

6%%%

4%

8%

240

720

540

360

560

420

280

920

66

66

90

90

90

66

66

.66

90

426

306

810

630

450

626

486

346

1010

33

33

35

35

35

33

33

33

35

72

51

/38

107

77

106

83

59

/7/

35

47

47

47

35

35

35

47

13

ف

24

19

14

19

15

10

30

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

/88

163

279

243

208

228

201

172

3/8

614

469

1089

873

658

854

GBT

518

1328

51

39

9/

73

55

7/

57

43

20

20

25

25

25

25

25

25

30

$5

$22

$10

$11.50

38

$27

OPS

%

SHOP

GROWN RENT 71500

"1000 & RENTS $20 PER

"500 PER ACRE PER ANNUM

MONTH EACH

NUMBER

OF

GROUND

CROWN RENT 500 PER

FLOOR SHOPS ඒ

ACRE P. A. UNTIL

SM

3%

4%

3%

4%

3%

2145

2860

2/45

2860

2/45

768

768

768

768

768

3628

29/3

3628

29/3

3628

29/3

525

350

350

175

175

495

6/7

495

6/7

495

450

450

1450

450

450

SHOP RENTS

PER MONTH EACH

PER MONTH EACH FLAT RENTS

GROSS ANNUAL

RENT

RUNNING

Costs

OUTGOINGS

RATES

87

109

87

109

87

CROWN RENT

480

480

480

480

480

$20

4

3840

1030 360 350

2187

2037

2006

1862

1831

/687

25

4320

1030

438

350

5809

4950

5634

4775

5459

4600

30

4800

1030 500

350

484

4/3

469

398

455

383

35

5280 1030

575

350

160

160

160

160

160

160

40

5760

324

253

309

238

295

223

45

$87

6+

38-

* 6-

7.50

5.50

50

1030 610

6240 1030 CBS 525

6720 1030 705 525

$25

SHOP RENTS RISE FLAT RENTS MIGHT BE REDUCED

NOTE :- RATES ARE PAYMENT FOR PUB

INCLUDES INS. & REPAIRS. EA

$4.00

TYPE A

4 STORIES

TYPE

B

ގ

STORIES

$11500

$9500

$10.0

TYPE A

4 STORIES

$17750

8%

6%

4%

8%

6%

4%

8%

4%%

920

690

460

760

570

380

1420

1065

710

150

150

150

110

110

110

150

150

150

1070

840

610

870

680

490

1570

1215

BGO

35

35

35

33

33

33

35

35

3.5

182

143

104

148

116

83

267

207

146

94

94

94

70

70

70

94

94

94

64

50

37

52

41

29

94

73

52

375

322

270

303

260

215

490

409

327

1445

1162

880

1173

940

705

2060

1624

1187

120

97

73

98

78

59

172

135

وو

30

30

30

30

30

30

50

50:

50

$30

$22

$14

$17

$12

141

$28

$16

'IP

$4.00

$10.0

TYPE A

STORIES

TYPE A

5 STORIES

TYPE

A

4 STORIES

#11500

$9500

8%

6%

4%

8%

6%

4%

8%

$17750

6%

920

690

460

760

570

380

90

90

90

66

6C

GG

1420

90

1065

90

7/0

90

1010

780

550

826

636

446

-1510

1155

800

35

35

35

33

33

33

35

35

35

/7/

133

94

141

108

76

257

196

136

47

47

47

35

35

35

47

47

47

30

23

17

25

19

13

45

35

24

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

318

273

228

269

230

192

4/9

348

277

1328

1053

778

1095

866

638

1929

1503

1077

88

65

او

72

53

161

125

90

30

30

30

30

30.

30

50

50

50

$27

ورة

12

$15

$10.50

$6

37

$25

$13

UMBER

OF

GROUND

N RENT $500 PER

FLOOR SHOPS

8,

ACRE P. A. UNTIL

SHOP RENTS

PER MONTH EACH

FLAT RENTS PER MONTH EACH

GROSS ANNUAL

RENT

OTHER

OUTGOINGS

RATES

CROWN RENT

RUNNING COSTS

SHOP

RENTS

OUTLAY $71,500

AT $4 P. M. EACH

MOUSE TOTAL CAPITAL

VARIABLE, FLAT RENTS FIXED SHOP RENTS REACH $35 P. M. & $1000 PER ACRE P. A. THERE AFTER

SINKING FUND

INCOME

70

GOVERNMENT

NETT

INTEREST

RATE OF NETT

INTEREST

TOTAL ECONOMIC|

RETURN

RATE OF TOTAL

ECONOMIC RETURN

ECONOMIC RETURN |

CROWN RENT

RATE OF EC. RENT

CROWN RENT

NETT INTEREST

CROWN RENT

RATE OF NETT INT.

CROWN RENT

$20

4 3840

1030 360 350

768

1332

/·86%

25

4320 1030 438 350

7G8

30

4

35

40

4

45

50

4800 1030 500

3290 1030 575 350

5760 1030 610 $25

4 6240 1030 GBS $25

6720 1030 785 525

350

768

2100 2.94% 2450 3.42%

17342-43% 2502 3.50% 2852 | 3-97% | 2084 2.92%

21523.00% 2920 4.08%

3270 | 4·57%%% 2502 3.50% 768 2557 | 3·57% | 3325 | 4.68% 3675 | 5·16%

2907 4.07%

768 2827 3.95% 3595 5.02% 41205.75% 3352 4.08%

768 3232 4.52% 4000 | 5·59% 4525 | 6·33% | 3757 5.25%

768 3632 5.08% 44006-15% 4925 6-88% | 4157 5.82%

1682 2.36%

NOTE :- RATES ARE PAYMENT FOR PUBLIC SERVICES. & ARE NOT COUNTED AS INCOME

INCLUDES INS. B REPAIRS.

EMPTIES & MANAGEMENT

$10.00

TYPE

4 STORIES

TYPE B

SSTORIES

$17750

$16000

LAND VALUE PER SQ.FT.

TYPE OF DEVELOPMENT

DEVELOPMENT COSTS

8%

6%

4%

8%

6%

4%

NETT INTEREST RATES

1065

710

/280

960

150

150

110

110

640

110

1570

1215

860

1390

1070

750

35

35

33

33

33

207

146

235

182

128

94

94

70

70

70

73

52

83

64

45

490

409

327

42/

349

276.

2060

1624

1187

1811

1419

/026

INTEREST ON CAPITAL

SINKING FUND (·02X BUILDING COSTS)

TOTAL ECONOMIC RETURN

CROWN RENT ($1500 PER ACRE P.A) RATES (17% × ECONOMIC RETURN) INS & REPAIRS (12% x3⁄4% × BUILDING COSTS) EMPTIES (6% ECONOMIC RETURN)

TOTAL RUNNING COSTS

GROSS ANNUAL RENT

172

135

وو

131

118

86

50

50

50

50

50

50

MONTHLY

ASSUMED SHOP

"

$41

$28

#16

$25

519

3

AVERAGE MONTHLY RENT PER FLAT

10:00

/PE

A

%

4 STORIES

$17750

6%%

TYPE

B

$ STORIES

16000

LAND VALUE PER SQ. FT.

TYPE OF DEVELOPMENT

DEVELOPMENT COSTS

4%

8%

6%

4%

NETT INTEREST RATES

1065

710

1280

90

90

66

960

66

640

66

1510

1135

800

1346

1026

706

35

35

J3

33

33

196

136

230

175

120

47

47

35

35

35

35

24

40

31

27

35

35

35

35

35

419

348

277

373

309

244

INTEREST ON CAPITAL

SINKING FUND(·OIZ X BUILDING costs)

TOTAL ECONOMIC RETURN

CROWN RENT (*1500 PER ACRE P. 4)

RATES (17% × ECONOMIC RETURN)

INS. & REPAIRS(3⁄44% × 3⁄4% × BUILDING COSTS) EMPTIES (3% × ECONOMIC RETURN) MANAGEMENT (APPROX 4Þ3⁄4% × AV. RENTS)

TOTAL RUNNING COSTS

929

1503

1077

1719

1335

950

GROSS ANNUAL RENT

161

125

90

143

///

79

رو

MONTHLY "

50

50

50

50

50

50 ASSUMED

SHOP

"

$37

$25

$13

#23

$15

3

7

AVERAGE_MONTHLY RENT PER FLAT

Appendix V.

HOUSING.

1

Total

Number of Chinese Dwelling Houses and Floors.

Province Country, District or Parish.

Popula-

No. of

Houses.

No. of

Floors.

tion.

1 story

2 storeys

3 storeys 4 storeys 5 storeys 6 storeys

7 storeys

8 storeys

Victoria (Hong Kong)

382,119*

344

955

4,417

6,300

646

22

24

4

12,752

44,347

Kowloon and New Kow-

loon

327,858*

1,056

561

5,604

3,091

10

1

10,323

31,410

1,400

1,556

10,021

9,391

656

23

24

4

23,075

75,757

†Aberdeen and Aplichau

6,881*

67

125

133

1

326

720

Shaukiwan

23,557*

118

230

547

53

948

2,431

Total

1,585

1,911

10,701

9,445

656

23

24

24,349

78,908

* Estimate population mid-year 1936.

† Outlying villages not included (Extract

from Blue Book 1936).

Y-

Note: This form is a modification of that required by Colonial Office Circular Despatch of 30th June, 1931, to suit local conditions and to give more accurate informa- tion.

.

287

)

FROM ANNUAL REPORT 1934

H. K. SOCIETY FOR PROTECTION OF CHILDREN

TYPICAL

PLAN OF TYPICAL

IN

TENEME

CONGESTED DISTR

10

COVERED

YARD

KITCHEN

SCALE FEET

436′′

CUBICLE

UP TO

COCKLOAT

оо

CUBICLE

BED SPACE

оо

SEMI-CUBICLE SEMI-CUBICLI

I-CUBICLE

COCKLOFT OVER

THIS SECTION

BED SPACE BED SPAC

о

о

COCKLOFT

DOWN

о

i

CAL

TENEMENT HOUSE

BUILT BEFORE 1903

GESTED DISTRICT

5

SCALE FEET

43' 6"

BED SHELF OVERI

ос

о

SPACE BED SPACE

о

LE

ACE

:)

SEMI-CUBICLE SEMI-CUBICLE |SEMI-CUBICLE

EMI-CUBICLE

COCKLOFT OVER

THIS SECTION

BED

BED SPACE

UP TO

о

FIRST FLOOR

о

о

SOLID WALLS :-

CUBICLE PARTITIONS

DOWN

COCKLOFT

о

CUBICLE GRILLES

BEDS

RESIDENTS: ADULTS

CHILDREN

TOTAL NUMBER

136

25 STAT. ADULTS.

PLAN NO |

:

UP

CHINESE TENEMENT HOUSE

OLD

STANDARD TYPE

BUILT AFTER

1903

SCALE

| IN. = 8 FI

7-9

70-8

25′-0′′-

15-6′

LAT.

KITCHEN KITCHEN

UP

DOWN

CUBICLE

YARD

PLAN No 2

N

15-6′

KITCHEN KITCHEN

up

15'-6"

36'- 0"⇓

61'-0!

UP

DOWN

CUBICLE

CUBICLE

CUBICLE

J

ROOM

COCKLOFT

OVER

SHOP

UP

15- 6".

"

15

·TYPICAL UPPER FLOOR PLANS

GROUND FLOOR

PLAN

SECTION

CL

OF

SCAVENGING

LANE

TYPE A

CHINESE

T

KITCHEN

LAT

THIT प

0,01

APPROX{

APPROX

JESE

TYPE

TENEMENT

PLANS

AND

SECTIONS

HOU

SCALE - ONE INCH EQUALS TEN FEET

PARTITION WALLS

NOT EXCEEDING 6'0" HIGH

FLOOR TO CEILING

LEGAL NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS 2

AIR EXTRACTO

VS

HOUSES

PLAN NO 3

AIR EXTRACTOR

0,8

0,8

9 11

SECTION.

TYPE B

33′6′′

SECTION

TYPE A

CL

OF

SCAVENGING

LANE

9"

7'0"

#

KITCHEN

STORE

COCKLOFT OVER

SHOP

-15′ 3′′-

12' 3'

UP

9"

YAR D

LAT

7.2

9'12".

15' 3"-

·10'0"

APPROX

KITCHEN

COAT.

CU

99

RO

122

PAVE

MENT,

VERANDAH

OVER CRO

16' 0".

16' 0"

GROUND

FLOOR PLANS

TYPE

A

PRESENT

TYPE

UPPER

FLOOR P

BRIDGE

-10'0'

APPROXỈ

KITCHEN}}}

BRIDGE

ROOM

73 SQ FI

2

==

CUBICLE

69-SQ. F!

2

1

CUBICLE

99

SQ. FT

3

ROOM

122

SQ FI

3/2

OVER

CROWN LAND

FLOOR PLANS

10

28

15/10/2

17′ 41/2"-

Р

A

"

200

C L

OF SCAVENGING

LANE

up

ZENTRANCE TO FLATS

"

CLAT

KITCHEN

YARD

SHO. P

V E MENT

20' 0"

9′′

GROUND FLOOR PLAN.

TYPE

GGESTE

J

SECTIO

IGING

LANE

CILAT

KITCHEN

YARD

Σ

SHO. p

177

E

NT

20' 0"

OR PLAN.

SECTION

TYPE B

18′0′′

"

TYPE

B

GGESTED

TYPE

9.01

·SMOKE FLUE

SMOKE

KIT.

ROOM

85 SQ FI

2

ROOM

LAT

69.5 SQ. FI

1/2

ROOM

115.5 3Q FI

22

BALCONY

FIRST FLOOR VERANDAH

UPPER

FLOOR PLANS

3 ROOM

İKIT.

ROOM

TYPE

FLATS

WITH VARYING ACCOMMODATION AND

SCALE | INCH = 16 FEET

LAT.

KIT.

IL IIL

- 3 ROOM +

4 ROOM

LAT.

(207

2 ROOM

LAT.

2 ROOM

FLATS

3 ROOM

WITH

-3 ROOM

STAIRCASE

ACCES

LAT

| KIT.

KIT

LAT.]

3 ROOM

3 ROOM

FLATS

WITH

BALCONY

ACCE

LAT.

KIT.

KIT.

T'S

TYPE

FLATS

'ING ACCOMMODATION AND ACCESS

SCALE

|_ INCH = 16 FEET

KIT.

3 ROOM

WITH

LATI

LAT.

KIT

KIT.

4 ROOM

3 ROOM

KIT.

KIT.

III ITII

-3 ROOM

2 ROOM

STAIRCASE

ACCESS

+

3 ROOM

3 ROOM

TS

WITH

BALCONY

ACCESS.

KIT

2 ROOM

4 ROOM

LT

KIT

+

3 ROOM

LAT

PLAN

No 4

- 26′ 81⁄2"-

-7'10/2

12'0"

SCULLERY

LIVING

ROOM

COAL

PARLOUR

12'9"

21' 0".

FIG. I

POST-WAR DESIGN

10

5

TYPES OF ENGLISH WORKING CLASS

10

SCALE OF FEET

RDER

COAL

20

30

·6'.

· 10′ 1/2′′-

SCULLERY

6'94

LIVING

ROOM

PARLOUR

18′0′′-

FIG. 2

IMPROVEMENTS EFFECTED BY WIDENING FRONTAGE &

31′ 3′′

GLISH WORKING CLASS HOUSES

'EET

20

30

COAL

COAL

SCÜLLERY 4

6'9'd 'કન

-7'0

SCULLERY

· 10′ 13⁄41⁄2′′–

LIVING ROOM

LIVING

ROOM

PARLOUR

10' 1/2"

180"

FIG. 2

[[LARDER

29'72"-

14′3′′-

PARLOUR

15'.0"

FIG. 3

PRE-WAR DESIGN

ECTED BY WIDENING FRONTAGE & REDUCING DEPTH

:

PLAN No 5

FROM EVERYDAY ARCHITECTURE

BY MANNING ROBERTSON A.R.I. B. A., F.R.A.S.

19

HONG KONG

TO WIT.

HONG KONG.

ORDINANCE No. 6 of 1887. (JURY.)

JURORS LIST FOR 1938.

I. SPECIAL JURORS.

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

No. 1938

3

ADDRESS.

Alexander, Tom Graham

Spottiswood

* Archbutt, Geoffrey Samuel.

Austin, Frank

Beck, Terence Christopher

Thomas

Bellamy, Leonard Charles

Fenton...... Benson, Donovan

Biggar, David MacDonald... Black, Colin Charteris Braga, Noel

Brayfield, Thomas Henry

Gordon

Brown, Charles Bernard Butlin, Strathmore Tatham. * Cassidy, Philip Stanley...

Champkin, Cyril..... Chau Shiu-ng

Cheng Shou Jen.... Choa Po-yew

Churn, Samuel Macomber... Clark, Douglas Edward. Cock, Edward.. Compton, Albert Henry Cornell, William Arthur Crapnell, Frederick Harry... Croucher, Noel Victor Amor Danby, James Denison

Drummond, David

Dunbar, Lambert

Eager, Oscar

Edgar, Aubrey Jacob

Edmondston, David Charles. Fleming, John Geare, Iltyd Henry

Gee, Charles Mcqueen

Gillespie, Ronald Dare

Hall, Frederick Charles...... Hills, Herbert Stuart Ho Wing

Hughes, Arthur William

* Johnson, Marcus Theodore.

Kadoorie, Lawrence

* Kan Tong-po

Lammert, Herbert

Alexander

Li Koon-chun

Li Tse-fong...

Manager, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co... Union Insurance Society of Canton, Ld... Manager, S. J. David & Co.

Secretary, Green Island Cement Co., Ed.

General Manager, H.K. Tramways, Ld... Manager, Mercantile Bank of India, Ld.......... Manager, Chase Bank..

Manager, Furness (Far East), Ld.

On premises. 401 The Peak. Peninsula Hotel.

516 The Peak.

358 The Peak. 302 The Peak. Woodbury, Pokfulam. 114 The Peak.

Secretary, China Light & Power Co., Ld. 18 Kent Road, Kowloon Tong.

Carmichael & Clarke, Ld. .i...........

Chartered Accountant, Linstead & Davis. Chartered Accountant, Linstead & Davis. Merchant, John D. Hutchison & Co....... Exchange Broker...

Compradore, Bank Belge pour l'Etranger

d'Extreme Orient. Societe Anonime... Bank of China, Ld. Compradore, Netherlands India

Commercial Bank Union Trading Co., Lit. Merchant, J. D. Humphreys & Son H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co., Ld. David Sassoon & Co., Ld. Architect

H.K. & Kowloon W. & G. Co., Ld. Stock Broker Retired

Manager, Canadian Pacific Railway, Co. Flour Broker, Dunbar & Co.

Secretary, H.K. Laud Investment &

Agency Co., Ld................

Broker, Ellis & Edgar

Bauker, H.K. & Shanghai Bauk Lowe, Bingham & Matthews

Assistant General Manager, Standard

Vacuum Oil Co....

Manager, National Aniline & Chemical

Co.

Managing Director, Imperial Chemical

Industries (China), Ld.

Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld. Exchange Broker..

Compradore, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Manager, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.

Partner, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co. ... Financier

Bank of East Asia, Ld.

Agent, Manufacturers Life Ins., Co. Proprietor, Wo Fat Shing Shipping Co... Bank of East Asia, Ld.

Walmer, Castle Peak. 176 The Peak. 506 The Peak. 30 The Peak.

7 East Point Terrace.

44 Robinson Road. On premises.

19 Seymour Road,

53 Conduit Road.

9 Aigburth Hall, May Road. On premises.

Longridge, Repulse Bay Road. Peninsula Hotel.

557 The Peak,

Chartered Bank Building.

Repulse Bay Road, Wongneicbong

Gap.

362 The Peak. 2 May Road.

5 Bowen Road.

| Duddell Street.

356 The Peak. 293 The Peak.

Peninsula Hotel.

Peninsula Hotel.

On premises. 507 The Peak. Hong Kong Club. On premises.

464 The Peak.

On premises. Peninsula Hotel. On premises..

34 Humphreys Building. 81 Wing Lok Street. On premises.

* Exempted for limited periods.

NAME IN FULL.

20

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

Lo, Horace

*Lo Man-hin

*

Lo Yuk-tong

Macgregor, John Farrar

Mackichan, Alexander

Somerled

Masson, John Robertson Maunder, Frank Gordon McLay, Robert Mont-

gomerie

Montargis, Maurice Jean

Baptiste.... Munton, Douglas William... Murdoch, Arthur

Ngan Shing-kwan

Noronha, José Maria.....

Ormiston, James Pearce, Thomas Ernest... Pentreath, George Artis Perrin, Norman James Phillips, Alexander Roy

Henderson Priestley, Horace Hugh

Hepworth Raymond, Albert

Raymond, Edward Maurice Remedios, Fernando

Eduardo d'Almada

Ritchie, Archibald

Roberts, William Robert

Roza, Alfred William da

Schultz, Heury Louis

Seth, John Hennessey. Sheppard, John Oram Sherry, John Patrick Shewan, Ian Winchester Silva, Frederico Leocadio

da...

Smith, Featonby Stafford

Soares, Adão Maria Lourdes Sorby, Vincent Dare,

Stanton, William Telling-

hast...

Sturt, Herbert Rothsay. Taggart, James Harper.. Tang Shin-kin Tester, Percy Williamson, Stuart Taylor... Wilson, Thomas Burlington. Wong, Joseph Mow Lam... Wong Tak-kwong Wood, Gerald George

Yu

Tung Tsze-ming

Compradore, Mercantile Bank of India.

Ld.

Compradore, Jardine, Matheson & Co.,

Ld.

Managing Director, Bakilly & Co., Ld.... Manager, Caidbeck, Macgregor &

Co., L.

Leigh & Orange

Manager, Butterfield & Swire. Principal, Thomson & Co.

Bank Manager, National City Bank of

New York

Exchange Broker.

Manager, China Light & Power Co., Ld... Accountant, Jardine, Matheson & Co.,

Id.

Managing Director, China Motor Bus

Co., Lủ.

Secretary, Credit Foncier d'Extreme

Orient

Manager, Reiss, Bradley & Co., Ld. John D. Hutchison & Co. Manager, Pentreath & Co. Manager, Thos. Cook & Son, Ld.

On premises.

On premises. 19 Kennedy Road.

On premises.

On premises.

On premises.

2 Stubbs Road.

408 The Peak.

7A Bowen Road.

24 Somerset Road, Kowloon Tong.

192 The Peak.

64 Kennedy Road.

27 Ashley Road, Kowloon.

15 Humphreys Building, Kowloon. 299 The Peak.

64 Dina House.

273 The Peak.

Manager, Taikoo Sugar Refining Co., Ld. Cornhill, Quarry Bay.

Merchant, Gloucester Building

16 Macdonnell Road.

Director, E. D. Sassoon Banking Co., Ld. 39 Stubbs Road. Financier..

Merchant, Union Trading Co., Ld................. Chartered Accountant, Lowe, Bingham

& Matthews.

Banker, Chartered Bank of India &

Australia & China....... Manager, Messrs. Roza Bros....

General Manager, Standard Vacuum

Oil Co.

Perey Smith, Seth & Fleming Canadian Pacific S.S., Lil. Manager, H.K. Telephone Co., Ld. Shewau, Tomes & Co...

Member Committee, H.K. Sharebrokers'

Association

Manager, British American Tobacco

Co. (China), Ld.

Merchant

Electrical Engineer, H.K. Electric Co.,

Ld.

Exchange Broker......

China Underwriters, Ld....

H.K. & Shanghai Hotels, Ld.. Manager, Tang Tin Fuk Bank Tester & Abraham Principal, Williamson & Co. Manager, Dollar Steamship Line Merchant

Mauager, Fung Tang Imports & Exports. Leigh & Orange

Compradore, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China

H.K. Stock Exchange Building.

6 Peace Avenue, Homuntin.

180 The Peak.

17 The Peak. Roselands, Kadoorie Avenue,

Kowloon.

Altadena, 459 Barker Road. Deepdene, Deep Water Bay. 26 Lugard Road.

119 The Peak.

4 Aighburth Hall, May Road.

18 Chatham Road, Kowloon.

250 The Peak. 38 Stubbs Road.

253 The Peak.

Tien Ping Shan, Fauling.

3 Abermor Court, May Road. On premises.

Ou premises.

9 Stewart Terrace.

On premises.

Peninsula Hotel.

67 Des Voeux Road Central. Pedder Building. On premises.

45 Robinson Road.

:

NAME IN FULL.

— 21

II.-COMMON JURORS.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

A

Abbas, Abbib ................. Abbas, Abdul Aziz Abbas, Abdul Rashid

Abbas, Gerald Wazife

Abbas, Yakub........

Abbott, Albert Stanley Abesser, Peter

Ablong, Alfred Ernest, Jr. Ablong, Alfred Ernest, Sr...

Ablong, Arthur John.......................]

Abraham, Edgar Shooker... Abraham, Ezra Abraham, Jou Macoyer

Abraham, Reuben

Acconei, Öseo

*Ackber, John

Adal, Mohammed Yaqub Adam, James

Adamczewski, Dr. Boleslaw.

Adams, William Balgowan

Adamson, Willy Anderson.

Adem, Mahomed Affanassieff, Michael

Mitrophanovich

Agabeg, Leonardo Oscar Agafuroff, Burhan.... Agafuroff, Iskander Agon, Carlos Manuel Ah Ching Ahmed, Noor

Ainslie, Ernest James

Alarakia, Ebrahim

Mahomed......

Alarakia, Ismail Mohamed.

Alexander, Kuester

Theodore

Clerk, Lowe, Bingham & Matthews Overseer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Agent, Crown Life Insurance Co. Chief Accountant, Hong Kong Mines,

Ld.

Godown Superintendent, Texas Co.,

(China), Ld...........

Bookseller, Kelly & Walsh, Ld. Accountant, Connell Bros. Co. Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld.] Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Ld.

Overseer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.

Exchange Broker, 10 Ice House Street... Broker, Tester & Abraham... Clerk of Works, Blackmore, Basto &

Shank, Ld..

Share Broker. Tester & Abraham Sculptor, A. Vanuini & Co̟....................... Clerk, World Auxiliary Insurance

Corpn., Ld.

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.................. Shipwright, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Lử.

Staff, Deutsche Farben-Handelsgesell-

schaft Waibel & Co. Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineer-

ing Co. of H.K., Ld. Sub-Accountant, Chartered Bank of

India, Australia & China Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld...

Construction Superintendent, Hong

Kong Mines, Ll.

Clerk. Hong Kong Hotel Salesman, S. E. Levy & Co. Clerk, S. E. Levy & Co........ Clerk, Credit Foncier d'Extreme Orient. Clerk, Java-China-Japan Line Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld................... Merchant, The Austin Sales & Service

Co.

Overseer, Ye Olde Printerie, Ld. Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China .....

.....

25 Johnston Road.

22 King Kwong Street, 3rd floor. 57 Leighton Hill Road, Top floor.

On premises.

On premises.

On premises.

540 Nathan Road, Kowloon. On premises.

Ou premises.

H.E.C. Quarters, Gough Street

Substation.

99 Waterloo Road, Kowloon Tong. 55 Granville Road, Kowloon.

157 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. 38 Kimberley Road, Kowloon. 141 Electric Road.

17 Caroline Hill Road, 1st floor. 445 Hennessy Road, 3rd floor.

On premises.

377 The Peak.

Quarry Bay.

Gloucester Hotel.

38 Tang Lung Street, 2nd floor.

On premises.

23 Mosque Street.

6 Village Road.

6 Village Road.

97 Taipo Road.

119 Gloucester Road.

H.E.C. Quarters 24 Ming Yuen.

315 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

359 Hennessy Road, 2nd floor.

On premises.

Assistant, W. A. Hannibal & Co., Ld.... Arlington Hotel.

Alexander, William Lodge. Chartered Accountant, Percy Smith,

Ali, Dawood

Ali, Hussain

Ali, Taufik Bin

Allam, Percival Bernard... Allison, Alfred

Almeida, Bernabe Antonio Almeida, José Maria d'

Almeida, Julio Hyndman d'. Almeida, Patrick Edward d'.]

Alonço, Deus-Dedit

Antonio Alvares, John Jacques

Seth & Fleming....

Clerk, Calif-Asia, Ld.

Clerk, Calif-Asia, Ld.

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld...................... Clerk, Credit Foncier d' Extreme Orient. Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Clerk, General Electric Co. of China, Ld. Accountant, Orient Tobacco Manu-

factory

Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co....... Apprentice, China Light & Power Co.,

Ld.

Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co....... Joint Manager, Central Radio Service

267 The Peak.

47 Sharp Street East, Ground floor. 47 Sharp Street East, Ground floor. 277 Lockhart Road, 3rd floor. 30 College Road, Kowloon.

Tramway Path.

332 Ma Tau Wei Rd., To Kwa Wan.

582 Natban Road, Kowloon. 11 Austin Avenue, Kowloon.

4 Hau Wong Road, Kowloon City.

2 Canton Villas, Kowloon.

72 Waterloo Road, Kowloon.

·

NAME IN FULL.

22

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

.

A-Continued.

Alvares, José Augusto de

Sousa

Alves, Alberto Alves, Antonio Maria

Alves, Arthur Alvaro

Alves, Carlos Francisco

Xavier...

Alves, Darius Caesar

Selavisa

Alves, Eduardo

Alves, Elysio Antonio dos

Remedios.....

Alves, Erasmus Ulysses

Selavisa

Alves, Frederick Danenberg

Alves, Henrique Alberto.... Alves, José Lourenço Alves, Luis Gasper Aman, George Henry Ammann, Erik

Anderson, Charles Graham Anderson, George Anderson, George Thirkill.

Anderson, John Edgar Anderson, John Fraser

Andreson, Birgir Owrum Andrew, James Hugh

Morton

Andrews, Arthur Albert

Andrews, Charles Frederick

Angeles, Godofredo San

Luis ..... Angus, George Ian

Anson, Yao...

Antioquia, Jose Bunag.

Antonio, José Ernesto Antonio, Luiz Vietor. Antonov, Mishael Basil Aquino, Alfredo Maria d'.

Aquino, Gastão Fausto d’..

Aquino, José Goularte d' *Archipoff, Paul Peter..... Arculli, Obeidullah el... Arculli, Omar el............. Arfas, Heinz

Arndt, Walter Ferdinand. ....... Arnold, George William

Arnold, Morris Hadrian Arns, Heinz E. Arnulphy, Carlos

Assistant Overseer, China Light &

Power Co., Ld.

Assistant, J. M. Alves & Co., Ld.. Clerk, Nederlandsch Indische

Handelsbank, N. V.

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld. Assistant, J. M. Alves & Co., Ld.....

Clerk, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co.

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld............ Assistant Instaliation Engineer, China

Light & Power Co., Ld. Assistant, John D. Hutchison & Co....... Assistant, Reiss, Bradley & Co., Ld................. Broker, Payne & Co.

Assistant, Ed. A. Keller & Co., Ld. Manager, K. D. Petroleum Co. of China. Manager, Assurance Franco-Asiaticque Marine Surveyor, Anderson & Ashe Shipbuilder, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ltd.

Director, Anderson Music Co., Ld. Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refining

Co., Ld.

Manager, Thoresen & Co., Ld.

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, L.

Chief Inspector, Peak Tramways,

Co., Ld.

Assistant, Dairy Farm, Ice and Cold

Storage Co., Ld.

Bookkeeper, Thoresen & Co., Ld. Assistant Engineer, China Light &

Power Co., Lıl.

Secretary, Swie Hong Handel Maat-

schappij, N.V.

Assistant, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Assistant, II.K. & Shanghai Bank Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Manager, Ilford Ld.

Traffic Clerk, Imperial Airways (Far

East) Ld.

Agent, West Coast Life Insurance Co.

of San Francisco.... Clerk, C. E. Warren & Co., Ld Clerk of Works, Palmer & Turner.. Clerk, L. Weill & Co.... Manager, A. F. Arculli & Sons Partner, Petersen & Co.

Chief Clerk, Dollar Steamship Line Advertising Assistant, Standard-Vacuum

Oil Co.

Engineer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Manufacturer's Agent, H. E. Arus Manager, H.K. Cauton Export Co., Ld.

15 Homuntin Street, Homuntin. 302 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

8 Tung Cheong Building, Top floor.

Kowloon.

149 Waterloo Road, Kowloon Tong,

1 Carnarvon Villas, Kowloon.

145 Waterloo Road, Kowloon Tong. 302 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

8 Tung Cheong Building, Kowloon.

5 Grampian Road, Kowloon City.

149 Waterloo Road, Kowloon Tong. 145 Water oo Road, Kowloon Tong. 8 Mosque Junction.

33 Ashley Road, Kowloon. 6 Duke Street, Kowloon. Arlington Hotel, Kowloon. 23 Kai Tack Bund, Kowloon City. 6 Belfran Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

17 Humphreys Building, Kowloon.

11 Braemar Terrace, Quarry Bay, Ochsen Cottage, Victoria Road.

466 The Peak.

15 Bowen Road.

74 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

582 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

Generating Station, Hok Un.

On premises.

On premises.

14 Essex Crescent, Kowloon Tong. 304 Nathan Road, 2nd floor, K’loon. 4B Hankow Road, Kowloon.

8 Salisbury Avenue, Kowloon.

3 Salisbury Avenue, Kowloon.

3 Canton Villas, Kowloon.

2 Ashley Road, 1st floor, Kowloon.

7 Village Road, 1st floor.

126 Kennedy Road.

On premises.

6 Homuntin Hill, Homuntin.

6 Duke Street, Mongkoktsui.

3 Causeway Hill, H.E.C. Quarters. 28 Conduit Road.

300 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

23

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

A-Continued.

Assumpção, Bernardino

Senna Fernandes.... Assumpção, Carlos

Augusto d'

Astington, Bertram Atkins, Albert Edwin

Au Chiu-ting

Au Chung-yiu

Au Fong-yue

Au Kim-fung

Au Wai kwok, David

Au Wai-suen

Au Wing.......

Avis, John Christian...

Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld.............

Assistant, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld.... Manager, Swedish Match Co. Assistant, Asiatic l'etroleum Co.,

(S.C.) Ld.

Clerk, Bodiker & Co. Clerk, Bodiker & Co.

Clerk, China Light & Power Co., Ld.

Dispenser, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Mau: ger, Bank of Canton, Ld. Assistant Manager, H.K. Rubber Manu-

facturing Co., Ld.

Storekeeper, H.K. & China Gas Co., Ld. Manager, Seymour-Sheldon & Co.

(China)

Azedo, Caetano Maria Dias. Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Azevedo, Alexandre

Antonio d'

Australia & China

Assistant, Nederlandsche Handels-

Maatschappij, N.V.

Azevedo, Victor Felix d'.... Accounts Clerk, Canadian Pacific

Azim, Rahmat Moosa

Azzolini, Umberto

Steamships, Ld.

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.

Assistant, Lloyd Triestino

14 Victory Avenue, Homuntin.

8 Jordan Road, Kowloon. Casa Bianca, Deep Water Bay.

On premises.

174 Lockhart Road, 1st floor. 20 Fleming Road, 2nd floor. 174 Tung Choi Street, 1st floor,

Mongkoktsui.

14 Tsap Tseung Street. 71 Hill Street, 3rd floor.

29 Leighton Hill Road.

507 Queen's Road West, 1st floor.

Peninsula Hotel.

34 Hankow Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

29 Jordan Road, Kowloon.

14 Yik Lam Street, Ground floor.

6 Cumberland Road, Kowloon Tong

B

Baker, Edward Francis

Stephen

Baleros, Bernardino

Francisco

Baleros, Francisco Ball, Leslie Francis Ballantyne, Donald Lindsay Banker, Allan Samuel

Banner, Melville Stewart Barclay, Thomas Charles

Parclay, William Pearson.. Barker, Williain Leander

Lee

Barkus, Roberto Leo

Barnes, John Egerton

Martin....

Barr, Claude Irwin

...

Assistant, Lane, Crawford, Ld.

Assistant, Crown Life Insurance Co....... Driller, H.K. Well Boring Co., Ld. Principal, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld... Assistant Manager, Chase Bank Storekeeper, Far East Flying Training

School, Ld.

Banker, H. K. & Shanghai Bank Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refining Co.,

Ld.

Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co.......

Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co....... Draughtsman, H. K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Engineer, Innis & Riddle, (China) Ld. General Agent, Canadian National Rail-

ways

Barradas, Duarte Augusto... Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Vasco Maria

Barradas,

Barretto, Antonio Conde Barretto, Carlos Augusto

Barretto, Henrique Conde

Barretto, Octavio Alfonso Orlando Demée Barron, James Forman

Ld.

Clerk, Nederlandsch Indische Handels-

bank, N.V. ..................

Clerk, Siemens China Co.

Clerk, Nederlandsch Indische Handels-

bank, N.V.

Assistant, Nederlandsche Handels-

Maatschappij, N.V.

Store-keeper, H. K. Club

Electrical Engineer, H.K. Electric Co.,

Ld.

Chardhaven Hotel, Kowloon.

16 Nga Tsin Long Road, 2nd floor. 8 Nam Hok Road. Lewknor, 364 The Peak.

2 Aigburth Hall, May Road.

11 Liberty Avenue, Homuntin. 353 The Peak.

2 Braemar Terrace, Quarry Bay. Laichikok Installation.

Gloucester Hotel.

On premises.

Peninsula Hotel.

Peninsula Hotel.

On premises.

5 Mosque Junction.

2 Granville Road, Kowloon,

2 Hanoi Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

6 York Road, Kowloon Tong.

H.E.C. Qrts., 5 Causeway Bay.

:

24

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

B-Continued.

Barros, Antão Vasques Barros, Carlos Eduardo......

Barros, Frederico Guilherme Barros, Henrique Alberto ... Barros, Henrique Alberto... Barros, Luiz Antonio.....

Barry, Frederick Charles Bartolini, Giulio Rinaldo Barton, Maurice William Bassett, Burton Burch

Basto, Arthur José de Castro Basto, Carlos Henrique

de Senna Fernandes Basto, Carlos Pompeia Bateman, Robert William...

Bau, Julius Wen.............

Baumgarten, Martin Baxter, George Ernest

Beattie, Thomas John

McCluskie

Beavan, Roger Channey

Becher, Herbert Carl Henry Beck, Ernest Jacobsen

Becker, Anicet

Beeken, David William

Beer, Anton

Begdon, Kieran

Begg, Stewart Duncan

Belbin, Edward George

Craven.....

Bell, George Henry

Bell, Robert Barr

Bell, William

Beltrão, Nicolau Antonio

Benjamin, Vivian

Benson, Oscar Rowan Benuch, Leonide John

Beraha, Matheo Bercovitch, Samuel

Berg, Sverre

Bookkeeper, Reiss, Bradley & Co., Ld.... 2 Granville Road, 1st floor, K'loon. Clerk, Nederlandsch: Indische Handels-

bank, N.V......

Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld. Assistant, Swan, Culbertson & Fritz Assistant, Texas Co. (China), Ld.. Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China

Secretary, H.K. Realty & Trust Co., Ld. Stenographer, Texas Co. (China), Ld. ... Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. General Superintendent, Hong Kong

Mines, Ld.

Clerk, Orient Tobacco Manufactory

Architect, Little, Adams & Wood Broker, H. B. Joseph & Co. Marine Superintendent, Jardine,

Matheson & Co., Ld.... Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Ld.

Assistant, Java-China Japan Line........... Newspaper Correspondent, United Press

Association of America.............

Sugar Boiler, Taikoo Sugar Refining

Co., Ld.

Assistant, Garage Department, H. K. &

Shanghai Hotels, Ld.... Assistant, Ellis & Edgar........

Sugar Boiler, Taikoo Sugar Refining

Co., Ld.

Accountant, E. D. Sassoon Banking

Co., Ld.

Draughtsman, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld. Assistant, Van Reekum Brothers,

(Amsterdam) Ld.

Secretary, H. K. Travel Association................ Secretary, John I. Thornycroft & Co.,

Ld.

Merchant, Arnhold Trading Co., Ld....... Manager, The P. & O. Banking Cor-

poration, Ld.

Assistant Manager, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld." Supt. Eng., Butterfield & Swire... Clerk, Nederlandsch Indische Handels-

bank, N. V. ............

Broker, 10 Ice House Street, Secretary,

H.K. Stock Exchange Assistant, Carroll Bros.

Accountant, Twentieth Century Fox

Federal Inc., U.S.A.

Merchant, M. Beraba

Civil Engineer, Marsman H.K. China,

Ld.

Managing Director, Berg & Co., Ld.......

Bernardo, Victor Emanuel... Assistant, Nederlandsche Handels

Maatschippij, N.V.

14 Soares Avenue, Homuntin. 15 Soares Avenue, Homuntin. 2 Granville Road, Kowloon. On premises.

2 Granville Road, Kowloon. Repuise Bay Hotel. Tsun Wan.

28 Conduit Road,

On premises.

103 Waterloo Road, Kowloon.

9 Devon Road, Kowloon Tong. 30 Hillwood Road, Kowloon.

8 Lyemoon Building, Kowloon.

On premises.

17 Mosque Junction.

Kowloon Hotel.

3 Braemar Terrace.

8 Bayview Mansions. Chatham Annexe, Kowloon.

804 King's Road.

4 Wang Tak Street, Ground floor,

Happy Valley.

On premises.

Y.M.C.A., Kowloon.

6 Gordon Terrace, Kowloon.

48 Grampian Road, Kowloon City.

7 Peak Mansions.

Hong Kong Club.

On premises. On premises.

13 Tung Cheong Building, 1st floor,

Kowloon.

Metropole Hotel.

11A Jordan Road, Kowloon.

European Y.M.C.A.. Peninsula Hotel.

666A Nathan Road, Kowloon. 11 Glenealy Road.

On premises.

25

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

B-Continued.

Berruex, Marcel Berry, Charles Bertram, Albert Edward Bertram, John William.....

Biau, Pierre Lucian Louis... Bidwell, Harold Denison Billimoria, Phiroz Jehangir.. Bird, Francis George................

Bird, George Thomas

Biriukoff, Alexey

Yockovlevich Bishop, Sidney Frank

Bitzer, Conrad Black, Alexander

Black, Alexander Wylie Black, Donald..........

Blackmore, Ernest Wilfrid

Blair, Kenneth George Blair, Leslie

Blake, William Francis Bliss, Arthur Sydney. Blum, Constantin

Blum, Ernest

Blyth, Albert

Blyth, Harry Henry Bolton, Andrew

Bonch, Osmolovsky, Vadin.:|

Bone, David Boyd....

Bones, Leslie

Bonnar, James Leslie....................

Bonner, Horace William Bonnot, Raymond Borst, Georg *Botelho, Alvaro Alberto Botelho, Carlos Alberto. Botelho, Francisco Xavier...

Botelho, Henrique Alberto...

Botelho, Jonas Marie

Botelho, Noé Ulysses

Botelho, Peter Paul

Botelho, Peter Vicente Bourne, Walter Hargreaves. Bovaird, William Cuthbert..

Bowdey, Frank Herbert

•••

Assistant, Ullmann & Co. Salesman. Office Appliance Co., Ld.

Assistant, Lane, Crawford, Ld. Charge Engineer, China Light & Power

Co., Lử.

......

Architect, Little, Adams & Wood Assistant, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld.... Assistant, C. M. Karanjia & Co. Assistant, H.K. Rope Manufacturing

Co., Ld.

Watchman, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld. .........

Cashier, Hong Kong Mines, Ld. Chief Engineer, Green Island Cement

Co., Lư.

La Perla Del Oriente Inspector, H.K. & Yaumati Ferry Co.,

Ld.

Assistant, Carmichael & Clarke.... Chartered Accountant, Percy Smith,

Seth & Fleming

Civil Engineer, Blackmore, Basto &

Shank, Ld.

Merchant, Blair & Co....... Installation Manager, Asiatic Petroleum

Co., (S.C.) La.

Manager, The China Engineers, Ld. Clerk, H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co., Ld.. Representative, United States Rubber

Export Co., Ld..

Assistaut Manager, National Carbon Co.

Fed. Inc. U.S.A. Assistant, H.K. Hotel

Engineer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Assistant Engineer, China Light &

Power Co., Ld.

Draughtsman, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Draughtsman, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld. Wharfinger, H.K. & Kowloon Wharf &

Godown Co., Ld.

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.....

Assistant, Lane, Crawford, Ld. Assistant Chef, H.K. Hotel Manager, Steel Union China Co. Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Clerk, I.K. & Shanghai Bank Bookkeeper, H.K., Canton & Macao

Steamboat Co., Ld...................... Assistant, China Provident Loan and

Mortgage Co., Ld.

Engineer, Peninsula Hotel

Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co..... Merchant, A. G. Botelho & Co..... Merchant, A. G. Botelho & Co.. Architect

Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineering

Co. of Hong Kong, Ld. Accountant, Malcolm & Co., Ld.

6 Somerset Road, Kowloon Tong. 1 Tramway Path, Garden Road. 136 Gloucester Road.

Farraday Buildings, Tai Wan Road

Hok Un Works, Kowloon. Dina House.

Watson's Apartments, Watson Road. On premises.

Taikoo Dockyard.

Quarry Bay.

On premises.

Cement Works, Hok Un, Kowloon, 45 Conduit Road.

96 Fa Yuen Street, 1st floor,

Mongkoktsui.

72 Nathan Rd., Top floor, Kowloon.

16 Kent Road, Kowloon Tong.

7 Devon Road, Kowloon Tong. 13 Broadwood Road.

Taikoktsui.

12 Fort Street. On premises.

28 Humphreys Building, Kowloon,

On premises.

24 Pilkem Street, Top flr., Yaumati. 157 King's Road, Top floor.

Mordey Buildings, Tai Wan Road,

Hok Un, Kowloon.

On premises.

Quarry Bay.

249 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

4 Conduit Road.

15A Canal Road West. On premises. Peninsula Hotel,

6 Austin Avenue, Kowloon. 6 Austin Avenue, Kowloon.

26 Jordan Road, Kowloon.

167 Sai Yueng Choi Street, 1st floor,

Mongkoktsui.

491 Nathan Road, Kowloon. 19 Mosque Street.

16 Granville Road, Kowloon. 5 Salisbury Road, Kowloon. Powell's Building, 1st floor.

On premises. On premises.

26

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

B-Continued.

Bowers, Albert

Bowker, Arthur Cecil Irvine Bradbury, Bertram Walter.

Bradford. Gilmore Bradford, Thomas Fisher

Braga, Anthony Manuel

Braga, Hugh..

Braga, James

Braga, John Vincent..

Braga, Paul....................... Bremner, Alexander

Andrew

Brett, Geoffrey Hope...... Brewin, Joseph Irwin Mark

Britto, Frederico Maria. Britto, Guilherme Maria Broadbridge, Frederick

Arthur

Brock, Karl..................

Broekert, Anthony Willem

de

Brook, Frederick Bertram... Brostedt, Augustus

Brown, Arthur James Brown, Arthur Robert Brown, Frank Leader (Capt.) Brown, George

Brown, James Thomas Brown, John Coghill.....

Brown, Low Roberts Brown, Patrick Brown, Robert William..

Brown, Walter Joseph.................

Brown, William

Brown, William Joseph......

Browning, Harold Arrott Brumwell, William Robert...

Bryan, Mervyn Joshua

Marshall Buchanan, David Buchanan, George Buckley, James Francis......

Buhler, Curt Conrad Buis, Jan Gerard

Merchant

Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Butchery Superintendent, Dairy Farm,

Ice & Cold Storage Co., Ld., & Local Printing Press, Ld..............

Manager, General Motors China, Ld. Wharf Engineer, Holt's Wharf

Property Superintendent, H.K. Engi-

neering & Construction Co., Ld. General Works Manager, H.K. Eng-

ineering & Construction Co., Lă................. Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co.. Office Assistant, China Light & Power

Co., Ltd.

Assistant, Gilman & Co., Ld....

Chartered Accountant, Lowe, Bingham

& Matthews

Assistant, Thomas Cook & Sou..... Moulder, H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co.,

Ld.

Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld. Assistant, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld.

Mercantile Assistant, John D.

Hutchison & Co.......

Manager, National Carbon Co. Fed. Inc.

U.S.A.

Civil Engineer, Marsman H.K. China,

Ld.

Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co....... Asiatic Traffic Manager, Canadian

National Railways....

Clerk, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld. Assistant, Davie, Boag & Co., Ld.. Engineer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Assistant, W. R. Loxley & Co.

(China), Ld.

Assistant, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co,.. Boilermaker, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Lưu

Director, China Construction Co., Ld. Partner, Union Motors

Assistant Undertaker, Brown, Jones

& Co.

Office Assistant, China Light & Power

Co., L.

Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineering

Co. of H.K., Ld.

Chief Accountant, China Light & Power

Co., L.

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Overseer, H.K. Land Investment &

Agency Co., Ld.....

Engineer, The Austin Sales & Service Co.. Clerk, American Express Co., Inc................ Engineer, c'o. Captain W.C. Weston.... Salesman, Whiteaway, Laidlaw & Co.,

Ld. Proprietor, C. Buhler

Assistant, Nederlandsch Indische

Handelsbank, N.V.

244 Nathan Road, Kowloon. On premises.

Vernon House, Braga Circuit,

Kowloon.

604 Gloucester Hotel. Windsor Lodge, Austin Avenue,

Kowloon,

12 Knutsford Terrace, Kowloon.

18 Braga Circuit, Kowloon. 12 Knutsford Terrace, Kowloon.

12 Knutsford Terrace, Kowloon. On premises.

Alandale, Pokfulam. Marble Hall, Kowloon.

On premises.

34 Hillwood Road, Kowloon. 11 Hart Avenue, Kowloon.

1 Lock Road, Kowloon.

Y.M.C.A.

Gloucester Hotel.

4 Seen Keen Terrace.

Repulse Bay Hotel.

17 Jordan Road, 1st floor, Kowloon. 22 Hennessy Road.

17 Bowen Road.

14 Fort Street, Ground floor. On premises.

On premises.

269 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon, 14 Caroline Road.

45 Morrison Hill Road.

227 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

Quarry Bay.

227 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. 126 Kennedy Road, Ground floor.

I Yee Wo Street, 1st floor.

315 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. 8 Observatory Villas, Kowloon. 8 Observatory Villas, Kowloon.

186A Nathan Road, Kowloon. 6 Sai On Lane.

4 Conduit Road.

27

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

B-Continued.

Bumann, Friedrich

Bundred, James Watson Bunje, Henry Ferdinand

Burling, William John Burnie, Arthur Inglis

Burrell, Frank Bursley, Allan John

Burton, Vere Ansted................ Buse, Hans Otto

Bush. Eldred Drummond Butcher, Arthur Herbert

Roy

Butcher, Eric Robert

Butler, Edwin

Butler, Ivor Delos

Butt, Ghulam Mustapha Bux, Sheik Abdul Rabim Bux, Sheik Elias

Bux, Sheik Hassain

Bux, Sheik Omar

Bux. Sherry

Manager, Deutsche Farben-Handelsge- sellschaft Waibel & Co. (Defag) Marine Surveyor, Goddard & Douglas Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Ld.

Assistant, H.K. & Shanghai Hotels, Ld.. Representative, Confederation Life

Association of Canada

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Assistant, Asiatic l'etroleum Co., (S.C.)

Ld.

Sub-Manager, Swan, Culbertson & Fritz.. Assistant, Melchers Co.

Assistant, Union Trading Co., Ld.

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Timekeeper, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Superintendent Engineer, Holt's Wharf... Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co....... Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld................ Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Clerk, National City Bank of New

York

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Assistant, China Provident Loan and

Mortgage Co., Ld.

Mirador, Deep Water Bay.

7 Abermor Court, May Road.

On premises.

11 Gap Road.

21 Hankow Road, Kowloon. On premises.

On premises.

Gloucester Hotel. Courtland Hotel.

172 Boundary Street, Kowloon.

On premises, 7th floor.

On premises. On premises. Gloucester Hotel.

H.E.C. Quarters, 21 Ming Yuen. 16 Yee Wo Street, 2nd floor.

42 Yee Wo Street, 3rd floor. 16 Yee Wo Street, 2nd floor. 12 Yee Wo Street, 3rd floor.

12 Yuen Yuen St., Happy Valley.

C

Cairns, Marcus Alexander... Calderara, Paul Walter... Calman, Alexander Milne...

Cameron, John James Cameron, Ronald Vallance.

Campbell, Duncan MeInroy

Campbell, Ernest Campos, Henry Maria Campos, Leonardo dos Reis. Cauning, James Robert...... Capell, Ralph Stewart

Cario, Maurice Carlos, Cesar Villa...

Carnac, Percival Sidney

Rivett

Carneire, Arthur...........

Carneiro, Carlos Eugenio ... Carpenter, Alting Albertus

Samuel

Carr, l'ecil

Carr, George Wynfield Carr, John Robert ..................... Carroll, William Joseph Carruthers, Michael George.

Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Assistant, Ed. A. Keller & Co., Ld. Shipbuilder, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Engineer, Green Island Cement Co., Ld.. Assistant Superintendent Engineer,

China Navigation Co., Ld..............

Assistant Supt. Eng., China Navigation

Co., Ld,

Bar Manager, Palace Hotel Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Assistant, S. Moutrie & Co., Ld. Assistant, General Electric Co. of China,

Ld.

Broker

Clerk, Far East Oxygen & Acetylene

Co., Ld.

Electrician, Green Island Cement Co.,

Ll.

Musical Director, H.K. & Shanghai

Hotels, Ld.

Assistant, Swan, Culbertson & Fritz...... Assistant, Swan, Culbertson & Fritz...

Assistant, Nederlandsch Indische

Handelsbank, N. V.

Assistant, Lane, Crawford, Ld. ..............

Mercantile Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Principal, Carroll Bros.

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

254 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

6 Duke Street, Kowloon.

On premises.

160 Austin Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

1 Connaught Road.

On premises.

146 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. 146 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. 130 Canton Road, Kowloon.

40 Kimberley Road, Kowloon. 112 Waterloo Road, Kowloon.

1 Chung Hing Street, 2nd floor.

49B Peking Road, Kowloon.

Peninsula Hotel.

69 Wongneichong Road, Top floor.

8 Conduit Road. 12 Tai Hang Road.

5 Gap Road.

On premises.

16 Bowen Road.

353 The Peak.

:

NAME IN FULL.

28

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

C-Continued.

Carter, Benjamin Stalkartt. Carvalho, Fernão Henrique

de......

Carvalho, Leonel Augusto... Carvalho, Marcus Antonio

de

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Assistant, Andersen, Meyer & Co., Ld.... Mercantile Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld.

Assistant, Swan, Culbertson & Fritz

Carvalho, Octavio Arthur de Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank. Castilho, Lourenço

Justiniano

Castle, Gordon

Castro, Alberto Edward

Henrickson

Castro, Antoine Piu Castro, Carlos Victor.... Castro, Egydio Maria Henrickson

Clerk, Americau Express Co., Inc. Cargo Supt., H.K. & Kowloon Wharf

& Godown Co., Ld..

Assistant, Nederlandsche Handel-

Maatschappij, N.V.

Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co. Clerk, Mercantile Bank of India, Ld.

Assistant, H.K. Rope Manufacturing

Co., Ld.

Castro, Frederick Augustine Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Castro, Henry Armando.

Castro, José Alberto

Castro, José Maria

D'Almada e...................

Castro, Patrick Henry

....

Canton, Ld................

Assistant, W. R. Loxley & Co., Ld. Assistant, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld..

Assistant, Bank Line, Ld. Stenographer, American Express Co.,

Inc.

Cathrew, Peter Francis...... Travelling Salesman, British American

Caudron, Kleber Emile

Marceau

Cautherley, George Hunter. Cers, Hamilcar Cesar, Henry Osmund Chadwick, George Kenneth. Chai, Philip

Chain, William

Challinor, Richard Harold...

Chalmers, James Calder

Chaloner, Robert Yalding

Minta

......

Chan Ah Yen......

Chan, Albert Kenneth

Chan, Benny

Chan Che-pak

Chan Cheuk-chiu

Chan Chi-tung

Chan Chi-wing

Chan Chick-chi Chan Chiu-fai...... Chan Chiu-nin ·

Chan Chiu-yuen Chan Chun-cheung Chan Chung-cheong

Chan Chung-pak Chan, Clement Leslie

...

Tobacco Co. (China), Ld................

Merchant, Franco Eastern Trading Co....

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Manufacturers Representative Clerk, Green Island Cement Co., Ld.. Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Traffic Superintendent, China National

Aviation Corporation Mechanic, Dodwell & Co, Ld. Assistant, Imperial Chemical Industries

(China), Ld.

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineer-

ing Co. of H.K., Ld.

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Bookkeeper, Der A Wing & Co.

(1923), L....

Assistant, Imperial Chemical Industries

(China), Ld. ...

Clerk, Shun Yick & Co.

Clerk, Sworn Measurers' Office Clerk, Jebsen & Co.

Merchant, World Theatre

Salesman, Whiteaway, Laidlaw &

Co., Li.

Secretary, Thomas Le C. Kuen & Co. Clerk, Siemssen & Co.

Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld.

Clerk, Hepworth Priestley & Co. Clerk, Reuter Brockelmann & Co Salesman, Office Appliance Co., Ld..

Clerk, H.K. & China Gas Co., Ld. Superintendent, Thomas Cowan & Co....

Repulse Bay Hotel.

15 Ashley Road, Kowloon. 2 United Terrace, 1st fl., Homuntin.

10 Salisbury Avenue, Kowloon. 24 Granville Road, Kowloon.

14 Fort Street, Ground floor.

12A Humphreys Building, Kowloon.

On premises.

43A Nathan Road, Kowloon. 41 Hankow Road, Kowloon.

14 Knutsford Terrace, Kowloon.

14 Yick Yam Street, Ground floor,

Mongkoktsui.

11B Belfrau Road, Mongkoktsui. 217 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

12 Jordan Road, Top fl., Kowloon.

299 To Kwa Wan Road, Kowloon.

Alberose, Pokfulam.

47 Wing Lok Building, 1st floor,

Kowloon.

Peninsula Hotel.

10 Humphreys Building, Kowloon. 29 Jordan Road, Top fl., Kowloon. On premises.

Tuck Lin Apartments.

231 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

Quarry Bay.

On premises.

426 Portland Street, Mongkok.

On premises.

97 High Street.

On premises.

122 Cheung Sha Wan Road, 2nd fl.,

Shamshuipo.

9 Glenealy.

51 Tai Street, 1st floor. 32 Fort Street, 1st floor. On premises.

35 Shek Kip Mei Street,

Shamshuipo.

20 Mosque Street.

23 High Street, 1st floor. 115 Cheung Sha Wan Road,

Shamshuipo.

287 Queen's Road West. 28 Blue Pool Road.

29

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

C-Continued.

Chan Fook-chor.......

Chan Fook-yuen

Chan Fung-yin

Chan, George.

Chan, George Watson Chan, Harold Chan Hau-po

Chan Heng-meng Chan Ho....... Chan Hung-ching

Chan Hung-ho Chan, Joseph..........

Chan, Joseph Chan Ka-muk..

Chan Kai-him Chan Kai-sin Chan Kai-wah

Chan Kam-bung, Heury Chan Kam-moon, Albert

Chan Kam-to Chan Kam-to Chan Keng Chan, Kenneth

Chan Kin-kung Chan Kiu-fan Chan Kun-po.

Chan Kwai-ping.. Chan Kwai-pun

Chan Kwan-chiu

Chan Kwan-yuen

Chan Kwok-chiu

Chan Kwok-on Chan Kwok-ping Chan Kwok-yan.......

Chan Kwok-yee Chan Kwong-chung Chau Kwong-yin

Chan Kwong-yoke................

Chan Lun-ying

Chan Man-kai

Chan Man-kon Chan Man-shing Chan Man-sing

Chan, Michel Chan Ming-fai

Chan Nai-wing

Clerk, China Light & Power Co., Ld. ...| 462 Nathan Road, 2nd floor,

Assistant, Seymour Sheldon & Co.

(China)

Manager, West River Transportation &

Trading Co., Ld.

Clerk, Duro Motor Car Co., Ld. Salesman, Lane, Crawford, Ld. Accountant, Shun Yick & Co. Compradore, Siemssen & Co. ... Clerk, Lowe, Bingham & Matthews Dispenser, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.......

Clerk, Andersen, Meyer & Co., Ld. Meter Inspector, China Light & Power

Co., Lử.

Assistant Analyst, Franklin Laboratory. Compradore, K. D. Petroleum Co. of

China, Ld.

Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld. Clerk, Wallace Harper & Co., Ld. Assistant Manager, Calif.-Asia, Ld. Storekeeper, Dollar Steamship Co. Insurance Agent, Sun Life Assurance

Co. of Canada

Clerk, Furness (Far East), Ld. Manager, ('hina Ink & Lacquer Co., Ld. Assistant, Lane, Crawford, Ld.

Managing Director, Gande, Price & Co.,

Ld.

Assistant, South British Ince. Co., Ld.... Assistant, Chase Bank

Director, H.K. & Canton Sanitary

Service

Accountant, Thomson & Co.................... Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.. ....

Managing Director, Chi Min Entertain-

ment, Ld.....

Sub-Accountant, Översea-Chinese

Banking Corporation, Ld. Draughtsman, Marsman Hong Kong

China, Ld.

Clerk, Chau Yue Teng

Clerk, Lowe, Bingham & Matthews

Clerk, Credit Foncier d'Extreme Orient.

Assistant, Bank of Canton, Ld. Clerk, Sander, Wieler & Co. Clerk, Imperial Chemical Industries

(China), Ld.

Merchant, Kwangsi Provincial Import

& Export Syndicate Clerk, Dollar Steamship Co.

Clerk, China Light & Power Co., Ld. Assistant, Seymour-Sheldon & Co. China Freight Agent, Thoresen & Co., Ld....... Clerk, China Provident Loan & Mort-

gage Co., Ld.

Clerk, Optorg Co. (Malaya), Ld. Assistant, Seymour Sheldon & Co.

(China)

Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld.

Kowloon.

35 Wing Lok Street.

18 Hing Hon Road.

462 Nathan Road, 2nd fl.,

2 Tin Lok Lane.

97 High Street. On premises.

Kowloon.

241 Lockhart Road, Top floor. 107 Boundary Street, Kowloon.

283 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor. 48 Wellington Street, Top floor.

35 Ping Street, Ground floor,

Kowloon.

92 Thomson Road, 2nd floor.

184 Third Street.

2 Fung Wong Terrace, Top floor. 25 Peking Road, Kowloon. 452 Lockhart Rood, 2nd floor. 107 Boundary Street, Kowloon.

107 Boundary Street, Kowloon. 168 Ki Lung Street, Shamshuipo. 107 Boundary Street, Kowloon. 62A Bonham Road, 1st floor.

2 Essex Crescent, Kowloon Tong. On premises.

42 Elgin Street.

12 Prince's Terrace, 1st floor,

Kowloon.

77 Hennessy Road.

372 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon

21 Caine Road, Top floor.

165 Sai Yee St., Gr., fl., Mougkoktsui,

5 Sugar Street, 2nd floor.

435 Queen's Road West, 3rd floor. 153 Waterloo Road, Kowloon. St. Joseph's Building, Robinson

Road.

7 Tungshan Terrace, Stubbs Road. 9 Lyndhurst Terrace.

On premises.

46 Johnston Road, Ist floor. 33 Yik Yam Street, 2nd floor,

Mongkoktsui.

101 Fa Yuen St., 3rd fl., Mongkoktsui. 29c Wyndham Street, 1st floor. 105 Boundary Street, Kowloon.

5 Po Tuck Street, Top floor. 26 Haven Street.

8 Prince's Terrace, Kowloon. On premises.

30

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

C-Continued.

Chan Nam-chong Chan, Owen Chan Pak-lam Chan Pak-Ink

Chan Ping-cheung Chan Ping-san Chan Ping-shu Chan Shau-hok Chan Shing-tai Chan Shin Chan Shin-ki Chan Shin-tsun Chan Shin-wa Chan Siu-hung

Chan Siu-wing Chan Shu-chiu Chan Sin-ming Chan Sui-lun Chan Sui-yuen Chan Sze-taat. Stanley *Chan Tak-chiu

Chan Tak-on Chan Tak-sang Chan Tsze-hung.. Chan Wai-chit

Chan Wai-chuen Chan Wai-chung

Chan Wei-yeuk

Chan Wing-fong

Chan Wing, James

Chan Yat-kai..

Chan Yau

Chan Yau-koi.......

Chan Yew-ho. Chan Yi-tsung

Chan Yiu-nam

Chan Yuk-in

Chang Ah-loi, John Chang, Francis

Chang, Juchel Richard....

Chang Kon-yim

Chang Sai-cheong Chang Sam-chong

Chang Tsun-hing Chang Yu-chung

Chao Chi-chen Chau Iu-nin Chau Kai-wah Chau Kwok-on Chau Lok-chow Chau Man-chi

Assistant, A. R. F. Raven Clerk, John I. Thornycroft & Co., Ld.... Clerk, Che San & Co...

Compradore, Harry Wicking & Co., Ld...] Clerk, D. W. Wagstaff & Sons Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co. Clerk, Sun Life Assurance Co. of Canada. Clerk, American Express Co., Inc. Salesman, Jebsen & Co.

Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld.

Clerk, Butterfield & Swire

Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld.

Assistant, Sennet Freres...

233 Lockhart Road, 3rd floor. 11 Babington Path.

336 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor. 6 Seymour Terrace.

17 Caroline Hill Road, 2nd floor. On premises.

17 Caroline Hill Road, 2nd floor. 27 Sugar Street.

14 Victory Avenue, Homuntin. On premises.

On premises.

2 Fung Wong Terrace.

83 Jaffé Road.

Assistant, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld.... 8 St. Francis' Yard, Ground floor,

Partner, D. A. Purves & Co. Clerk, C. Buhler

Sub-Manager, The Bank of Canton, Ld. Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld Clerk, E. D. Sassoon Banking Co., Ll... Manager, Thomas Cowan & Co. Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld.

Clerk, Lowe, Bingham & Matthews...... Clerk, Blackmore, Basto & Shank, Ll.... Assistant Manager, Batten & Co Clerk, The P. & O. Banking Corpora-

tion, Ld.

Manager, Hotel Cecil, Ld.

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, L....................

Compradore, Deutsche Farben-Handels-

gesellschaft (Waibel & Co.) Draughtsman, China Light & Power

Co., Ltd.

Clerk, Universal Pictures Corporation

of China ......

Clerk, National City Bank of New York

Clerk, Sworn Measurers' Office Clerk, Carlowitz & Co.

Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld...... Principal, United Traders

Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld. Assistant, Andersen, Meyer & Co., Ld... Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld. Co-Manager, Underwriters Savings

Bank for Far East Inc. Salesman, William C. Jack & Co., Ld....

Stenographer, National City Bank of

New York

Draughtsman, W. W. Wagstaff & Sons. Assistant Manager, Ault & Wiborg Co.

(Far East)

Assistant, Shewau, Tomes & Co. Sales Representative, General Motors

China, Ld.

Manager, Central Trading Co. Architect, Chau & Lee Assistant Manager, Calif-Asia, Ld. Technician, Radio & Electric Services Assistant, Chase Bank

Manager, Chau Yue Teng

Wanchai.

23 Connaught Road, 2nd floor. 6 Sai On Lane.

19 King Kwong Street, 1st floor. 167 Electric Road, 2nd floor. 99 Fa Yuen Street, Mongkoktsui. 28 Blue Pool Road.

436 Shanghai Street, 1st floor,

Yaumari.

24 Pak Po Street, 2nd floor. 372 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. 72 Argyle Street, Top fl., Mongkok.

94 Kennedy Road. On premises.

27 Village Road, Ist floor.

On premises.

85 Fa Yuen Street, 2nd floor,

Mongkoktsui.

33 King Kwong Street, 3rd floor. 41 Fa Yuen Street, 2nd floor,

Mongkoktsui.

On premises.

132 Gloucester Road, 2nd floor. On premises.

52 Bonbam Road.

458 Nathan Road, Kowloon. 13 Hollywood Road, 2nd floor. On premises.

69 Pokfulam Road, 1st floor. 259 Temple Street, 1st floor,

Yaumati.

Chinese Y.M.C.A., Kowloon. 63 Tsun Yeung Street, 1st floor.

6 Arbuthnot Road, 1st floor. 224 Hennessy Road.

515 Empress Hotel, Connaught

Road.

9 Cedar Street, 2nd floor.

320 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

452 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor.

1 Des Vœux Road, Ground floor.

6 On Hing Terrace.

22 Kennedy Road. Ground floor.

NAME IN FULL.

31

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

C-Continued,

Chau Wan-gork

Chau Yn-tung Chau Yut-u

Cheang Wye-sam Chen Jien-ming Chen, John Augustine

Chen Kam-shing

Chen Kin-cho..

Cheng Chi-nam

Cheng Chung-choy

Cheng Chung-lung

Cheng Fan

Cheng In-chung. Cheng Kam-to Cheng Kwok-wing *Cheng Kwong

Cheng Man-tat Cheng Man-to

Cheng Moon

Chessex, Paul

Cheuk Kwai-chuen Cheuk Kwan-lee

Cheung Fan-chiu, William Cheung Hok-chau Cheung Kam-chuen

Cheung Kit-sang Cheung Kui Cheung Fong-tat

Cheung Pui-fan Cheung Shung-bing Cheung Tat-chiu Cheung Tin-lee

Cheung Ting-koon.... Cheung U-pui...........

Cheung Wandin....

Cheung Wing-kai

Cheung Wing-shing

Cheung Yau-kuen, Andrew Cheung Yeung

Chew King Lim, George Cheyne, George Tao Chia Peng-hong. Chik Yin-kai

Childe, Edgar Ronald Chin A-pau.... Chin Cheung-huang Chin, Jolin Daniel

Chiong, Manuel....

Clerk, H.K. & Kowloon Land & Loan

Co., Ld.

Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co. Clerk, H.K. & Kowloon Land & Loan

Co., Lt.

Manager, Domestic Engineers, Ld. Cashier, The Bank of Canton, Ld.......... Clerk, National City Bank of New York.

Clerk, National Carbon Co. Fed. Inc.

U.S.A.

Clerk, W. R. Loxley & Co., Ld.

Director, S. C. Lay & Co.

Clerk, Furness (Far East), Ld.

31 Elgin Street. On premises.

66 Caine Road, Ist floor.

7 Prince's Terrace, Top floor. 12 Yuk San Street, Top floor. 3 Cheung Sha Wan Road, 2nd floor,

Shamshuipo.

6 Fuk Wing Street, 3rd floor. 77 Pokfulam Road.

5 Ma Tau Wei Road, 2nd floor,

Kowloon City.

50 Des Vœux Road, Central.

Clerk, National City Bank of New York. 1 Cheung Sha Wan Road, 2nd floor,

Clerk, Bodiker & Co.

Shamshuipo.

199 Temple Street, 3rd floor, Yau-

mati.

446 Lockhart Road, 1st floor. 33 d'Aguilar Street.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S. C.) Ld. On premises. Assistant, Siu Ho Ming Clerk, Connell Bios. Co., Ld. Assistant, Furness (Far East), Ld... Clerk, Canadian National Railways Accountant, S. M. Langston

Chief Clerk, Taikoo Sugar Refining Co.,

Ld.

Manager, Gloucester Hotel.

50 Des Vœux Road Central. 215 Jaffé Road, 2nd floor. 58 Cheung Sha Wan Road,

Shamshuipo.

2 Murray Place, Quarry Bay. On premises.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S. C.) Ld. On premises. Assistant, Tsurutani & Co., Ld.

Merchant, S. C. Lay & Co...... Assistant, Fung Tang

Bookkeeper, E. D. Sassoon Banking

Co.. Lư.

Clerk, American Express Co., Inc.. Clerk, Siems-en & Co....... Assistant, Ed. A. Keller & Co., Ld.

Clerk, Renter, Brockelmann & Co. Assistant, Chase Bank

Assistant, W. R. Loxley & Co. Manager, Colonial Eastern Co.

Merchant, Luk Hoi Tung Co., Ld.

Assistant Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

(S.C.) Ld..

Accountant, J. Wong & Co. Managing Director, Wing Tseung

Feather Works, Ld.

Assistant, Asia Life Insurance Co., Inc.. Merchant

Foreman, China Light & Power Co.,

Ld.

Clerk, Williamson & Co....... Clerk, Dollar Steamship Line........ Bookkeeper, Reiss, Bradley & Co., Ld........] Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Secretary, China Underwriters, Ld. Assistant, Java-China-Japan Line... Sub-Manager, Bank of Kwangsi Treasurer, South China Manufacturing

and Exporting Co...... Ground Eng., Far East Flying Training

School, Ld.

207 Temple Street, 1st floor,

Yaumali.

35 Kimberley Road, Kowloon. Pedder Building.

20 Aplin Street, Shamshuipo.

7 Nullah Road, Kowloon. On premises.

201 Nam Cheong Street, 1st floor,

Shamshuipo.

184 Causeway Bay Road.

36 Lockhart Road, 1st floor.

145 Lockhart Road.

13 Kwun Chung Street, 2nd floor,

Kowloon.

On premises.

On premises.

184 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

8 Hing Hon Road, Ground floor.

80 Tung Lo Wan Road.

9 Norfolk Road, Kowloon Tong.

95 Argyle Street, Mongkok.

17 Cedar Street, 1st floor, Kowloon. 74 High Street, 2nd floor. 69 Spring Garden Lane, 2nd floor. 22 Sai Woo Lane, 1st floor.

8 Carnarvon Building, Kowloon. 165 Sai Yee Street, Mongkoktsui. 10 Queen Road Central.

26 Johnston Road, 1st floor.

153 Sai Yee Street, Mongkoktsui.

..

32

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

C-Continued.

Ching Hi-kwong

Ching Sik-wing Chiu Chun-chiu Chiu Hon-sang Chiu Jack-man

Chiu Keung-wah

Chiu Thong-fuen Chiu Tse-ping

Cho Chik-sang

Choa Boon-chew

Choa Hin-kee

Choa, James

Choa Po-mio Choi Ping-sum Chong Mui-fatt Chow Cham-wing Chow George Luke Chow Hau-leung Chow Hok-ye........

Chow Hou-shu

Chow Ping Chow Ping-un Chow Poa-hang

Chow Sau-yue Chow Shiu-kwan

Chow Sien-ching

Choy Hang-chung

Choy, James Tungsan Choy Ping-zau

Choy Sai-piu

Choy Wah-king....

Choy William Kang-po..............

Choy Woo-chung

Choy Yuen-sheuk

Choy Yung....

Christensen, Engelhardt

Chu Harry Chu Ka-wing

Chu Kai-yu

Chu Poh-young

Chu Po-yau

Chua Teek-hong

Chubb, Stanford Frank... Chui Ah-fei

Chui Hong-fan

Chun Kon-chee

Chun Wing, Sid.............. Chung, Cecil Gordon.............

Clerk, Deutsche Farben Handelsgesell-

schaft (Waibel & Co.)

Accountant, William Jack & Co., Ld. Manager, K. D. Petroleum Co. of China.. Assistant Mgr., East Asiatic Trading Co. Assistant, M. Beraha

Supervisor, West Coast Life Insurance

Co. of S.F.

Salesman, S. H. Langston

Clerk, National Aniline & Chemical Co.

U.S.A.

Clerk, The P. & O. Banking Corpora-

tion, Ld.

Clerk, Banque Belge pour l'Etranger

(E.O.) S.A.

Factory Supervisor, Davie, Boag & Co.,

Ld.

Assistant Compradore, Nederlandsch

Indische Handelsbank, N.V. Broker, Exchange Building Engineer, Reiss, Bradley & Co., Ld.. A/c. Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld. Clerk, National City Bank of New York. Clerk, National City Bank of N.Y. Asst. Manager, China Emporium, Ld. Assistant, Ed. A. Keller & Cɔ., Ld. Clerk, Thomson & Co.

Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Merchant..

Manager, China National Aviation

Corporation

Assistant, W. A. Hannibal & Co., Ld. Clerk, Reuter, Brockelmann & Co....... Salesman, Innis & Riddle (China) Ld. Clerk, Whiteaway, Laidlaw & Co., Lu....

Secretary, The Sun Co., Ld. .... Assistant, Swan, Culbertson & Fritz Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld...

Clerk, Chase Bank

Eelctrical Engineer, China Light &

Power Co., Ld.

Clerk, Whiteaway, Laidlaw & Co., Ld... Assistant, Butterfield & Swire

129 Cheung Sha Wan Road, 1st fl.,

Shamshuipo.

299 Hennessy Road, Top floor. 73 Chun Yeng Street. On premises.

269 Cheung Sha Wan Rd., 2nd floor,

Shamshuipo.

21 Yuk San Street, Happy Valley. 6 Caine Road, Ground floor.

1 Mosque Street, Top floor.

1 Gresson Street, 2nd floor.

95 Robinson Road.

c/o. Davie, Boag & Co., Ld., Quarry

Bay.

95 Robinson Road.

12 Macdonnell Road. 9 Gordon Road. On premises.

12 Hing Hon Road.

70 Parkes Street, 2nd floor, Kowloon. 14 Kennedy Terrace. 11 Jervois Street. 63 Sing Wo Road. 52 Jolinston Road. 12 Hing Hon Road.

3 Grampian Road, Kowloon City. 17 Old Bailey Street, 2nd floor. 203 Hennessy Road, 3rd floor. 70 Lockhart Road.

100 Fook Wing Street, 1st floor,

Shamshuipo.

2 Park Road,

2 Tai Hang Street.

210 Cheung Sha Wan Road, 2nd

floor, Shamsuipo.

226 Jaffé Road, 2nd floor, Wanchai.

165 Tam Kun Road, Kowloon City. 100 Fook Wing Street, 1st floor. On premises.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S. C.) Ld. On premises. Merchant, American Flour Co.

Accountant, Ilford, Ld.

Assistant, China Provident Loan and

Mortgage Co., Ld...................... Sub-Manager, Ilford, Ld. Chief Manager, C. P. Young & Co. Analyst, Franklin Laboratory. Draughtsman, China Light & Power

Co., Ltd.

Superintendent, Peak Tramways Co., Ld. Clerk, Java-China-Japan Line Assistant, China Underwriters Ld. Draughtsman, China Light & Power Co.,

Ld.

Clerk, National City Bank of N.Y. Assistant, Thomas Cowan & Co.

Kimberley Villas, 3 Kimberley

Road, Kowloon.

2 King Kwong, Street.

80 Queen's Road Central, 1st floor. 4 Tsap Tsung Street, Happy Valley. 231 Queen's Road Central, Ground fl. 307 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor.

366 Nathan Road, Kowloon. 50в The Peak.

4 Saifee Terrace, Kowloon. 186 Wanchai Road, 1st floor.

206 Sai Yeung Choi Street, 2nd fl.,

Mongkoktsui.

4 To Li Terrace. 28 Blue Pool Road.

.

NAME IN FULL.

C-Continued.

33

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

Chung Chi-hei Chung Hing-man, Peter Chung Kam-tong Chung King-sun..

Chung Kum-chuen.... Chung Kwan-ting

Chung Leung-chuen Chung Mow-young

Chung Pack-cheung Chung Pat-tang Chung Shu-chun

Chung Shun-cheung Chung Tak-Kwong Chung Ue-kong Chung Wai-ting. Chung Ying-chiu Church, Charles Joselyn

Church, Samuel Shriver

Churn, Edwin Johnsford

Macomber

Claque, James Wilton Clark, Duncan Hughson

Clark, Frederick Henry......

Clark, Richard Ferguson Clark, Walter Charles

Clayson, Herbert Sydney

Clemo, Alfred Bertram

Clemo, Frederick Charles...

Clemow, Wilfred Percy......

Coates, Alfred Edward Cobb, Arthur Henry

Kingston

Coelho, Alvaro José

Coelho, Carlos Eugenio.... Coelho, Cezar Augusto

Coldren, Sam

Coleman, Thomas

Colman, Hugh Frederick

Charles

Collaço, Francis Joseph Collaço, Francisco Cecilio... Colls, John Baxter... Collis, Jolin Richard Conceição, José Maria de Connolly, Francis

Cooper, George William Cooper, Hugh Glen

Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co....... Assistant, On Woo Navigation Co., Ld... Agent. Lever Bros. (China) Ltd... Yard Foreman, H.K. & China Gas Co.,

Ld.

Clerk, H.K. & China Gas Co., Ld.............. Assistant Manager, China Emporium,

Ld.

Clerk, China Light & Power Co., Ld. Clerk, The Far East Oxygen & Acetylene

Co., Ld.

Clerk, Linstead & Davis....

Manager, China Travel Service.

Clerk, Chartered Bank of India Australia

and China

Clerk, China Light & Power Co., Ld. Clerk, Reuter Brockelmann & Co................ Compradore, Linstead & Davis Assistant, Ed. A. Keller & Co., Ld. Clerk, Ed. A. Keller & Co., Ld...................... Director, Advertising & Publicity

Bureau, Ld........

Sub-Manager, National City Bank of

New York

Assistant, China Provident Loan &

Mortgage Co., Ld.

On premises. On premises.

17 Robinson Road.

363 Des Voeux Road West, 3rd floor 293 Lockhart Road.

64 Robinson Road, 3rd floor. 146 Fa Yuen Street, Kowloon.

25 Lee Yuen Street, 2nd floor. 4 Babington Path, Ground floor. 71-73 Hill Road.

305 Jaffé Road.

18 Graham Street, Ground floor. 42 Elgin Terrace, Top floor. 19 Bonham Road.

4 Thomson Road, Kowloon. On premises.

On premises.

516A The Peak.

53 Conduit Road.

Passenger Agent, Dollar Steamship Co... Knutsford Hotel. Chemist, Taikoo Sugar Refining

Co., Ld

Assistant Engineer, China Light &

Power Co., Ld.

Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refining Co., Ld. Assistant Manager, H.K. Telephone

Co., L.

Merchant, China Export Import & Bank

Co., Ld.

Assistant Accountant, China Light &

Power Co., Ld. Superintendent, China Light & Power

Co., Lả.

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard & Engi-

neering Co. of H. K. Ld. Clerk, H.K. Tramways, Ld.

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld............. Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld..... Clerk, Nederlandsch Indische Handels-

bank, N.V....

Mine Supt., H. K. Mines, Ld. Blacksmith, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co.. Lư.

Civil Engineer, Butterfield & Swire Clerk, H. K. Electric Co., Ld. Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Shipping Clerk, Bank Line, Ld. Clerk, J. P. Klink

Foreman, Taikoo Sugar Refining Co., Ld. Manager, H.K. Meat & Dairy Produce Co. Shipbuilder, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

1 Braemar Terrace, Quarry Bay.

55 Cumberland Road, K'loon Tong.. 5 Braemar Terrace, Quarry Bay.

119 The Peak.

452 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon,

Kaupûishek Substation.

1 York Road, Kowloon Tong.

On premises.

4 Village Villas, Happy Valley.

On premises.

77 Wongneichong Road, Top floor. 71 Chun Yeung Street, 1st floor.

85 Taipo Road, Kowloon. On premises.

On premises.

On premises.

4 Liberty Avenue, Homuntin. 59 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. On premises.

167 The Peak.

8 Tung Cheong Building, Kowloon. 4 Braemar Terrace.

94 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

\

34

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

C-Continued.

.

Cordeiro, Luiz Gonzaga Cordeiro, Procopio Antonio Corra, Henry

Correa, Charles Marcelino. Costa, Eusebio da

Costa, Frederico Guilherme

Meira da

Costa, Lourenço Antonio da Costa, Raul......... Costello, George Edward

Cotesworth, John Gilfillan... Cotton, John Thomas Coull, David

Coulson, Ernest William

Cox, Albert Rowland

Cox, Charlie William Craig, Robert Gilchrist ..........

...

Cramer, Leigh Reverdy......

Crawford, George William

Kenneth

Crestejo, Alfred

Crestejo, Reinaldo Autonio

Lourenço Crichton, William Crocker, Ira

Crofton, Christopher

Crommelin, Willem Constant

Crookdake, Jonathan.......

Cruz, Alberto Reinaldo......

Cruz, Felisberto Francisco da

Cruz, George Anthony

Cruz, Saturnino Maria de, Jr.

Cullen, Fred.

Cunha, Cezar Augusto Cunha, Encas Luciano

Cunha, Frederico Nathalio...

Cunningham, Albert Laing Cunningham, William

Cunningham, William Leon.. Curreem, Abdul...................... Curtis, Eric Charles Frank...

Curtis, Walter Shillito

Vaughan

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Clerk, Palmer & Turner

Assistant, L. Rondon & Co., Ld.

Accountant, Swan, Culbertson & Fritz ... Assistant, H.K. & Kowloon Wharf &

Godown Co., Ld.

Bookkeeper, Jardine Engineering

Corporation, Ld.............

Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co....... Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld............. Passenger Agent, Canadian Pacific

Steamships, Ld.

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Manager, Central Radio Service Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard & Engi-

neering Co. of H. K. Ld. Assistant, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold

Storage Co., Ld................ Electrical Engineer, H.K. Electric

Co., Ltd.

Clerk, Refrigeration Services, Ld. Chief Draughtsman, H.K. & Whampoa

Dock Co., Ld

Sub-Accountant, National City Bank of

New York

Electrical Engineer, H.K. Electric

Co. Lư.

Clerk, Kunst & Albers

Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld. Shipbuilder, W. S. Bailey & Co., Ld. Sub-Accountant, National City Bank

of N.Y.

Assistant Station Superintendent, China.

Light & Power Co., Ld. Assistant Manager, Java-China-Japan

Line..

Engineer, H.K. & Whampoa Dɔck

Co., Ltd.

Clerk, The P. & O. Banking Corpora-

tion, Ld.

Assistant, Caldbeck, Macgregor & Co.,

Ld.

Clerk, The P. & O. Banking Corpora-

tion, Ld.

Clerk, Nederlandische Indische Handels-

bank N.V.

Store-keeper, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., L.

Assistant, Green Island Cement Co., Ld. Assistant, H. K. & Shanghai Banking

Corporation...

Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China

Clerk, Canadian Pacific S.S., Ld. Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld. Engineer, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Assistant, A. F. Arculli & Sons Butcher, Dairy Farm Ice & Cold Storage

Co., Ld.

Engineer, H.K. Well Boring Co., Ltd. ...

1-3 Mallory Street, Kowloon. 29 Jordan Road, Kowloon. 23 Shouson Hill Road.

2 Liberty Avenue, Homuntin.

5 Ashley Road, 2nd floor, Kowloon.

62 Waterloo Road, Top floor,

Kowloon.

25 Kimberley Road, Kowloon.

1 Ningpo Street, 3rd floor, Kowloon.

Repulse Bay Hotel.

On premises.

27 Kimberley Road, Ground floor.

On premises.

2 Fort Street, 1st floor.

No. 8 Causeway Hill Quarters,

3 Norfolk Road, Kowloon Tong.

On premises.

6 St. John's Apartments,

H.E.C. Quarters, 10 Causeway Hill.. 73 Wongneichong Road.

Tsun Wan.

12 Peking Road, Kowloon.

6 St. John's Apartments.

On premises.

50A The Peak.

On premises.

304 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

304 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

3 Mosque Junction.

On premises.

35 Granville Road, Kowloon.

5 Humphreys Avenue, Kowloon.

King's Terrace, Kowloon. 244 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

Quarry Bay.

24 Fort Street, 1st floor. 56 Kennedy Road.

64 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

On Premises.

35

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

C-Continued.

ADDRESS.

Cutelier, Ernest Stanley

Butcher, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold

Storage Co., Ld...

21 Fung Fai Terrace.

D

Dallah, Abraham Rayman. Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Dalziel, James MacDonald Danenberg, Reinaldo Carlos Darnley. Richard John

Martin...

David, Maurice

Davies, Ernest William......

Davis, Richard Leslie Davis, Thomas

Canton, Ld...

Engineer, H.K Telephone Co., Ld. Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co.

Assistant, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China

Contact-man, Swan. Culbertson & Fritz. Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

(S.C.) Ld.

Assistant, Texas Co., (China) Ld... Assistant Engineer, 1.K. Telephone

Co., Là.

Davreux, George Maurice... Estate Agent, Credit Foncier d'Extreme

Dawson, John Philip

Deacon, Stuart

Deane, Barry O'Meara

Decker, Harvey Leroy Delcourt, Armand Hippolyte

Demee, Alfred

Demee, David Edward

Mary

*Denisou, William Ellery Dennis, Albert James Dettinger, Edgar

Devaux, Raymond Eugene

Marie

Dick, John

Diercks, Alfred Chihli

Dimond, Aubrey Kieran

Dinsdale, Herbert Suelson Ditta. Bhagwan Divett, Geoffrey Edward

Ross...

Do Ki-sui

Dobbs, Robert Montague

Conway

Doherty, Thomas Harry Donald, Frances Henry Donald, Francis Howard

Dopson, Leslie Harrington.. Dorabjee, William Edward Dow, Toohey Alexander Drake, William Stanley...... Dreyer, Holger Drummoud, Ahmed

Orient

Manager. British Wireless Marine

Service

Electrical Engineer, H.K. Electric

Co., Ld.

Assistant, Mercantile Bank of India, Ld Assistant, Texas Co. (China), Lil. Manager, Compagnie Optorg

Assistant, H.K. Engineering &

Construction Co., Ld.

Assistant, Ellis & Edgar... Assistant, Chase Bank Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Assistant, Deutsche Farben-Handelsge- sellschaft, (Waibel & Co.)..................

Manager, Far East Oxygen & Acetylene

Co., Ld.

Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Wharfinger, H.K. Yaumati Ferry Co.,

Ld.

Acting Manager. Peninsula Hotel, H.K.

& Shanghai Hotels, Ld.... Merchant, James H. Backhouse, Ld....... Merchant, Oriental American Agencies..

District Manager, West Coast Life

Insurance Co. of San Francisco Clerk, American Express Co., Inc.

Station Officer, Imperial Airways, (Far

East) Lil.

Assistant, Texas Co., (China) Ld..... Assistant, S. J. David & Co. ........... Assist., Coufederation Life Association...

Assistant, Thomas, Cook & Son, Ld...... Assistant, Union Trading Co., Ld. Assistant, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld... Merchant, Gordon's, Ld.... Import Manager, Shewan, Tomes & Co.. Engineer, H.K. & Shanghai Hotels, Ld..

82A Stone Nullah Lane, Top floor. 55 The Peak.

21 Cameron Road, Kowloon.

5 Bungalow, Stanley.

Dina House, Duddell Street,

On premises. On premises.

251 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

199 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

1 Tak Shing Street, Kowloon.

H.E.C. Quarters, 4 Causeway Hill. Watson's Apartment, Watson Road. On premises.

312 Prince Edward Road, Top floor,

Kowloon,

19 Victory Avenue, lomuutin.

18 Victory Avenue, Homantin. 6 Conduit Road. On premises.

Derrington, 7-8 Macdonnell Road.

On premises.

136 Argyle Street, Mongkok.

135 Hennessy Road.

Peninsula Hotel. 11 Tregunter Mansions 80 Hennessy Road, 2nd floor.

67 Waterloo Road, Kowloon, 223 Jaffé Road, 3rd floor.

356 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. On premises.

6 Lincoln Road, Kowloon Tong. 110 Boundary Street, 1st floor,

Kowloon Tong.

40 Kennedy Road. St. Joseph's Building. 108 The Peak.

30 College Road, Kowloon. 1 Kent Road, Kowloon Tong. 353 Hennessy Road, 1st floor.

36

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

D—Continued.

Drummond, Alistair

Drummond, Neil (Junior)...] Drummond, Neil........

Accountant, Lowe, Bingham &

Matthews

Assistant, Davie, Boag & Co., Ld

Foreman, Taikoo Sugar Refining Co.,

Ld.

Dryburgh, John Clunie...... Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineer-

Dubois, Jean

Duckworth, Ferdinand

Farrant

Duclos, Gordon

Dudman, William Forest ..

Duncan, Andrew

Duncan, George, Jr. Duncan, James Herbert

Swan

Dunlop, Robert Paterson Dunnett, Felix Frederick Dunnett, John Stewart Durrschmidt, Henry Charles Dworjak, Charles Engle-

berth

ing Co. of H.K., Ld...

Assistant Manager, Sennet Fréres

Electrical Engineer, H K. Electric

Co., Ld.

Agent, Singer Sewing Machine Co. Spares Department Manager, Far East

Aviation Co., Ld.

Engineer, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Lt.

Assistaut, W. R. Loxley & Co., Ld.

Junior Engineer, China Light & Power

Co., L

Test Engineer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Clerk, Lowe, Bingham & Matthews Banker, H K. & Shanghai Bank Engineer, Standard Vacuum Oil Co.

Electrician, H.K. Mines, Ld.

138 Hennessy Road.

2 Quarry Point, Quarry Bay.

818 King's Road.

On premises.

22 Somerset Road, Kowloon Tong.

H.E.C. Quarters, No. 2 N.P.

3 Tregunter Mansions.

37 Kimberley Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

24 Broadwood Road.

On premises.

2 Causeway Hill.

3 Minden Avenue, Kowloon.

353 The Peak. 534 The Peak.

On premises.

E

Eastgate, Geoffrey Lancelot

Eastman, Alfred Leonard

George

Edgar, Joseph Jacob.....

Edgar, Sidney Ellis

Assistant Manager, South British Ins.

Co., Lủ.

Assistant, H.K. & Kowloon Wharf &

Godown Co., Ld.

Assist int, Ellis & Edgar Broker, Ellis & Edgar

Edie, Archibald Walker Hay Assistant, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co.

Edwards, Frank

Egge, Walter

Elarte, Franklin Juliano

Elarte, Leonardo Antonio... Ellacott, Terence Charles ..

Ellis, Arthur Cecil.....

Ellis, Ernest David Elms, Paul Andrew Emmert, John Barrett Eng Wah-sun.... Escher, Georg Esmail, Hajee Ahmed Esmail, Hajee E-mail Esmail, Rahman Hajee

Abdul

Esmail, Usuf Hajee Essig, Emile

Evans, James

Evans, Norman Leslie

Everett, Arthur George...... Excell, William Charles

Eymard, Emile

Engineer, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Manager, Kunst & Albers

Clerk, Mercantile Bank of India, Ld................ Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Assistant Engineer, H.K. & China Gas

Co., L.

Insurance Manager, New Zealand

Insurance Co., Ld.

Proprietor, Davlis Stamp Co...... Assistant, W R. Loxley & Co. Attorney, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co. Assistant, Radio & Electric Service Chief Clerk, Kunst & Albers.... Merchant, H.M.H. Esmail & Sons. Merchant, H.M.H. Esmail & Sons....

Merchant, H.M.H. Esmail & Sons..... Merchant. H.M.H. Esmail & Sons.. Partner, Swan, Culbertson & Fritz Engineer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Mercantile Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld.| Engineer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Assistant Cargo Supt., H.K. & Kowloon

Wharf & Godown Co.. Ld. Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld.

On premises.

4 Highburgh Torrace, K'loon Docks. 1 Duddell Street.

1 Duddell Street. On premises.

Y.M.C A., Kowloon.

29 Stafford Road, Kowloon Tong. 16 Fort Street.

14-16 Fort Terrace, North Point.

Gas Works, West Point.

On premises.

65 Hennessy Road.

215 Wanchai Road.

9 Magazine Gap.

21 King Kwong Street, 2nd floor. 2 Stafford Road, Kowloon Tong. 9 Village Road, Ground floor. 9 Village Road, Ground floor.

9 Village Road, Ground floor 9 Village Road, Ground floor. Enidville, Repulse Bay.

8 Lau Shing Street, Top floor. Knutsford Hotel, Kowloon. 6 North Point.

Y.M.C.A., Kowloon. On premises.

37

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

F

Faggiano, Joseph Eugene... Publishing Agent, H.K. Mines, Ld.

Fan Chew-ing

Fan Chi-kuen

Fan Kwai-chong

Fan Kwok-hong.

Fantham, Henry Harold

Faria, Francisco Xavier

Lobato de

Farid, Mohamed. Farmer, Clarence Leimpter Farne, Francis Henry

*Farnud, Hassan

Farquhar, John Wallace

Farrell, Robert Emmet Farria, Saturnino Sergio

Lobato de

Felshow, William Charles... Fenton, George Lambert ...

Ferguson, James Carson

Ferguson, Malcolm

Fergusson, Thomas...........

Fernandes, Felisberto An-

tonio Bernabe Carajota. Fernandes, Francisco

Ernesto Carajota Fidoe, Joseph Henry...

Fiebig, Henrich Edouard ... Field, William Valentine....

Fielden, Lucien Jack

Algernon... Fielding, Ernest Wilde Fiennes, Michael Yorke

Twisleton-Wykeham... Figueiredo, Eduardo José

de, Jr. Figueiredo, Ernesto

Augusto Figueiredo, Guilherme

Alves de...................

Figueiredo, Henrique

Alberto de

Fincher, Eruest Francis Fingalsen, Odd Erik

Assistant, General Amusements, Ld....... Managing Director, A. B. Moulder &

Co. (1934), L

Clerk, Central Trading Co..... Mercantile Assistant, Dodwell &

Co., Lal.

Wharfinger, H.K. & Kowloon Wharf &

Godown Co., Ld.................

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Clerk, Lowe, Bingham & Matthews Assistant, Douglas Steamship Co., Ld. Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Lol.....

Assistant, H.M.H. Nemazee Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refining

Co., Lủ.

Engineer, H.K. Telephone Co., Ld.

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Architect, Little, Adams & Wood Director, West River Transportation &

Trading Co., Ld.

Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineering

Co. of H.K., Ld.................... Electrician, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Lưu

Craft Supt., H.K. & Kowloon Wharf &

Godown Co., Lah..................

Clerk, Dollar Steamship Line

Bookkeeper, Dollar Steamship Line Timekeeper, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld. Assistant, Jebsen & Co. Harbour Representative, Peninsula

Hotel

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Clerk, Butterfield & Swire

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire

Assistant, Hughes & Hough, Ld.

Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co.......

Engineer, Siemen's China Co.

Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld....... Assistant, Gilman & Co., Ld. Draughtsman, 1.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Lư.

*Finlayson, Peter Anton...... Bookseller, Kelly & Walsh, Ld.....................

Finnie, John

Fish, George

Fisher, Alfred Edward Fisher, Arthur Leslie...... Flanagan, Brian Thomas. Fleming, Joseph

Fleming, William Nicholson

Manager, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineer-

ing Co, of H.K., Lď. .. Clerk of Works, Leigh & Orange Service Man, Central Radio Service Engineer, H.K. Telephone Co., Ld. Assistant, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co.. Diver, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineering

Co. of H.K., Ld....................... Engineer, Davie, Boag & Co., Ld........

[

Knutsford Hotel, Kowloon, 46 Village Road.

39 Wongneichong Road. On premises.

39 Po Kong Road, Kowloon.

Y.M.C.A., Kowloon.

25 Caroline Hill Road. 234 Gloucester Road. 5A Pratt Building, Kowloon.

127 Waterloo Road, Kowloon. 36 Macdonnell Road.

7 Braemar Terrace. 453 The Peak.

1 Emma Avenue, Homuntin. 7 Tung Cheong Building, Kowloon.

239 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

On premises.

12 Tak Shing Street, Kowloon.

8 Kwong Ming Street, 1st floor.

40 Fort Street.

On premises.

10 Tak Shing Street, Kowloon.

15 Cameron Road, Kowloon.

On premises, 7th floor. On premises.

On premises.

2 York Road, Kowloon Tong.

112 Argyle Street, Mongkok.

2 Rutland Quadrant, Kowloon Tong.

1 United Terrace, Homuntin. On premises.

Ou premises. On premises.

27 The Peak.

27 Hankow Road, Kowloon. 10 Kwong Ming Street, Gd. floor. Exchange Building. On premises,

Quarry Bay.

Peninsula Hotel.

38

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

F-Continued.

Fok Kam-kwong

Fok Kee-wai

Fok Wa-hoi

Fok Wing-cho *Foug Iu-ping

Fong King-chew

Fong Shin-chuen

Fong, Stanley Victor.... Fonseca, José Maria *Foo Ping-yuen

Fook Hong, Louie

Forbes, Donald

Forbes, Duncan Douglas Ford, William Falconer

Forder, George

Forster, John Jacob

Forsyth, Alan Richard Forsyth, William Rennie

Fowler, William Horton Fox, Henry Leslie. Fox, John Henry Fox, Norman Percy Fox, Samuel John Henry Fox, William Alfred

*Foy, Hago Eric

....

Francis, Cedric Conyngham Franco, Carlos Alberto... Franco, Eduardo Miguel Fraser, Archibald Dick

Fraser, Joseph

Frederick, Ernest Cecil ........... Frost, Leon Harry George..

Fuertes, Domingo Pascual...

Funck, Ernst Fung Chie-ping Fung Ho-po Fung In-cheung Fung Iu-ki ... Fung Kai-leung Fung Kim-sheung Fung Kim-wah Fung Kwok-wa

Fung Man-sui Fung Nai-hang Fung Pak-ngok Fung, Paul... Fung Ping-fan Fung Sau-pok.......

Fung Shin-tsoi

Fung Shing-chung

Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China

Clerk, Millington, Id.

Assistant, A. S. Watson & ( 0.,

Ld.

Clerk, Asiatic l'etroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Secretary, F. L. Jones & Co................ Assistant Manager, Dodge & Seymour,

(China), Ld...

Assistant, Chase Bank

Assistant, Radio & Electric Service Assistant, Standard-Vaenum Oil Co.............. Assistant, China Provident Loan &

Mortgage Co., Ld.

Clerk, Kowloon Motor Bus Co., (1933)

Ld.

Director, Bank Line, Ld.

Manager, Andersen, Meyer & Co., Ld. Assistant, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Lửa

Manager, Whiteaway, Laidlaw &

Co., Lt.

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineer-

ing Co. of H.K., Ld. Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Time-keeper, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., L.

Mill Superintendent, H.K. Mines, Ld. Assistant, Wallace, Harper & Co., Ld. Manager, Office Appliance Co., Ld. Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Secretary, II.K. & Kowloon Cinema

Co, L

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Bar Manager, Palace Hotel..... Clerk, Refrigeration Services, Ld. Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineer-

ing Co. of H.K., Ld. Engineer, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., L.

Exchange Broker. E. W. Lewis District Acco ntant, Texas Co.

(China), Ld.

Assistant, British American Tobacco

Co. (China), Lil................... Assistant, Jebsen & Co. Assistant. Reiss, Bradley & Co., Ld..... A/c. Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld. Manager, Tai Shan Insurance Co., Ld... Clerk, China Light & Power Co., Ld. Clerk, Java-China-Japan Line Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Compradore, Green Island Cement

Co., L.

Compradore, Harry, Wicking & Co., Ld. Export Manager, Hang Tai & Fung Co. Compradore, Reiss, Bradley & Co., Ld.... Clerk, H.K. Meat & Dairy Produce Co... Secretary, Chinese Estates, Ld. ............ Assistant, Arnhold Trading Co., Ld.................]

Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld. Assistant Manager, Che San & Co.

14 Bonham Road.

82 Hollywood Road.

105 Hollywood Road, 2nd floor. On premises.

9 Queen's Road East, 2nd floor.

49 Sing Woo Road, 3rd floor,

Happy Valley.

12 Connaught Road West. 21 King Kwong Street, 2nd floor. 47A Robinson Road.

381 Lockhart Road, Top floor.

119 Laichikok Road, Shamshuipo. 6 Abermor Court, May Road. 4 l'eak Mausious.

Hong Kong Office.

18 Dorset Cre-cent, Kowloon Tong

On premises.

On premises.

On premises. On premises.

60 Nga Sha Wan Road, Top floor. 199c Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. Ou premises.

Ou premises, 7th floor.

63 Robinson Road.

10 The Peak.

On premises.

13 Carnarvon Road, Kowloon.

2 Leighton Hill Road.

Quarry Bay,

On premises.

Over Bays, Repulse Bay.

On premises.

49 Haiphong Road, Kowk on. 10 Tak Shing Street, Kowloon, 297 Hennessy Road. On premises. On premises.

6 Lo Lung Hang, 2nd floor. 141 Hollywood Road. On premises. On premises.

32 Fung Wing Street, Kowloon.

Leong Fai Terrace.

53 Queen's Road Central, 2nd floor. 69 Wongneichong Road. 56 Robinson Road. On premises.

253 Cheung Sha Wan Road, Sham-

sbuipo.

4 To Li Terrace, Kennedy Town. 234 Prince Edward Road, K'loon.

*

NAME IN FULL.

}

39

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

F-Continued.

Fung Shiu-bong Fung Shui-ming Fung Tsun Fung Un..... Fung Wai-sun..

Fung Yin-ho

Fung Yin-kwan

Fung Yiu-leung

Fung Yiu-po

Fung Yum-leung

Funnell, William Edwin

Clerk, Reuter, Brockelmann & Co. Clerk, Kobza Art Studios, Ld. Architect, G. G. Hewlitt & T. Fung.. Secretary, Tang Ping Kee

Chief Accountant, The Bank of Canton,

Ld.

Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld. Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld. Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Clerk, Bodiker & Co.

Assistant Bookkeeper, H.K. Telephone

Co., Lủ.

Assistant, H.K. Brewery & Distillery,

Ld.

Rapier Villa, Tai Hang Road. 10 Fok Wah Street, Shamshuipo. 161 Wongueichoug Road.

3 To Li Terrace, Ground floor.

216 Tung Choi Street, Mongkoktsui. 11 Lan Kwai Fong.

299 Jaffé Road, 2nd floor.

502 Nathan Road, 1st floor, K’loon. 67 Pokfulam Road, Ground floor.

20 Staunton Street..

58 Canton Road, 1st floor, Kowloon.

G

Gaan, Martin José

Gaddi, Leopold Gafoor, Sheikh Abdool Gahagan, Cyril Edwin

Gallagher, Brian John

Sandys Stuart

Gan Choo-liat..... Gan Sik-tin.

Garch, Cheung Garcia, Alexander

Garcia, Flavio Maria......

Garduer, Louis

Gardner, William Dempster Garner, Leigh.....

Gascon, Autonio

Gaubert, Edward Arthur

Geall, William James

Gee Hing-sang Geer, Robert Gerald

Geldart, Frank Stanley.

Gellman, Boris

Genrich. Ernst August Gerloff, Kurt Gerrard, George...

Ghafur. Abdul Curreem Gibson, Lachlan Alexander

Gidley, Sydney Maurice Gill, David Joseph........ Gill, Francisco Antonio... Gill, John Cawthra

Gillies, Hamilton Oliver

Accountaut, British-American Tobacco

Co. (China), Ld.

Chef, H.K. Hotel...

Clerk, H. K. Electric Co., Ld. Electrical Engineer, H.K. Electric

Co., Ld.

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Clerk, Berg & Co., Ld.

Assistant Manager, Jebsen & Co. Bookkeeper, Dragon Motor Car Co., Ld. Clerk, Dollar Steamship Line....

Clerk, Nederlandsch Indische Handels-

bank, N.V....

Sales Manager, Far East Motors Engineer, China Light & Power ( o., Ld. Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.....................

Assistant, Wallace Harper & Co., Ld. Mercantile Assistant, Jardine,

Matheson & Co., L........ Assistant Engineer, H.K. Telephone

Co., L.

Merchant, Luk Hoi Tung, Co., Lil. Mercantile Assistant, Jardine,

Matheson & Co., Ld............. Assistant Manager, British American Tobacco Co. ( hina), Ld................... Reception Clerk, Repulse Bay Hotel. Merchant, Schmidt & Co. Merchant, Jebsen & Co. Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineering

Co. of H.K., Lal................ Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld............ Draughtsman, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K, Ld. Clerk of Works, Leigh & Orange Foreman, Texas Co. (China), Ld.................. Clerk, Lowe, Bingham & Matthews Assistant, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold

Storage Co., Ld.................. Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld.

10 Observatory Villas, Kowloon. On premises.

5 Hysan Avenue, 2nd floor.

H.E.C. Quarters, No. 9 Causeway

Hill.

On premises.

56 Gloucester Road, Top floor. 382 Hennessy Road, 2nd floor.

40 Yiu Wab Street.

12 Jordan Road, 3rd floor, Kowloon.

32 Granville Road, Kowloon.

131 Chan Yuen Street, North Point. 30 College Road, Kowloon.

452 The Peak.

41 Kennedy Road, 1st floor.

287 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

LA Luna Building, Kowloon. Ou premises.

287 The Peak.

19 Peak Mansions. On premises.

217 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. Courtland, Kennedy Road.

Quarry Bay.

443 Hennessy Road, 3rd floor.

On premises. On premises. Tsun Wan.

11 Humphreys Avenue, Kowloon,

On premises.

On premises.

40

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

G-Continued.

ADDRESS.

Gillies, William Grant .....

Gilmore, David James

Gilmour, Walter Charles

Gelston

Gilroy, James Boyd

Gingle, Edward Francis Gislon, Antonio Gittins, William Minto Glendinning, Lyall James

Scott

Glover, Francis Harry

*Go Shing-kiem

Goldau, Alexander

Gottfried

Goldenberg, Charles

Archibald

Goldenberg, Isaac Levy Goldin, Constantin.... Goldman, Lawrence Gomes, Augusto Conceição

Gomes, Francisco Xavier Gomes, John Chrysostom...

Gomes, John Rufus Gomes, José

Gomes, José Vicente.....

Gomes, Luiz Braz

Engineer, Jardine Engineering Corpora-

tion, Ld.

Accountant, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China

Assistant

Accountant, E. D. Sassoon Banking

Co., Ld,

Proprietor, Palace Hotel Steward, Peninsula Hotel

Electrical Engineer, W. Jack & Co., Ld.

Assistant, Mackintosh's,

Ld.

Assistant General Manager, H.K.

Tramways, Ld.

Manager, Swie Hong Handel Maats-

chappij, N.V..

Reception Cierk, H.K. Hotel

Assistant, Bridge & Son Assistant, Macan Publishing Co., Ld..... Manager, Majestic Theatre... Assistant, Gilman & Co., Ld................... Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Ld.

Clerk, Banque de l'Indo-Chine Assistant, Central Radio Service

Clerk, Java-China-Japan Line Assistant, E. D. Sassoon Banking

Co., Ld.

Storekeeper, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Lủ.

Accountant, Phoebus Neon Light Co.,

Lil.

Gomes, Maximiano Antonio Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co.

Gomes, Romão

Gomeze, Albert Martin...... Gompertz, Geoffrey Hairland

Gonella, Ugo Gonsalves, Henrique

Francisco

Gonsalves, João Baptista... Gonsalves, Julio Augusto

do Costa Gonzales, Joseph Angel Goodman, Reginald James

Goodwin, Frank......

Gooey, Herbert Lau

Gorachenko, Nicholas

......

Gordon, Vyner Reginald Gosamkee, Eric Eugene Roy Gosano, Adelino Vitus Graça, Henrique José.

Grady, John

Clerk, II.K. Electric Co., Ld,

Clerk, Ruttonjee & Co.

Mercantile Assistant, Jardine, Matheson

& Co., L.

Architect, Hazeland & Gonella

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Assistant, Green Island Cement Co., Ld.

Assistant, Maxim & Co.

Overseer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Storekeeper, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ldi

Assistant Manager, H.K. & China Gas

Co., Ld.

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld........

Engineer, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Lư.

...

Secretariat Asst., H.K. Tramways, Ld... Runner, American Express Co., Inc. Assistant, Standard- Vacuum Oil Co. Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank, (K'loon).

Assistant Engineer, China Light &

Power Co., Ld.

4 Minden Road, Kowloon.

376 The Peak.

1 Ruttonjee Building.

Gloucester Hotel. On premises.

On premises.

4 Suffolk Road, Kowloon Tong.

7 Wang Fung Terrace.

359 The Peak,

8 Dragon Terrace, 1st floor.

On premises.

5 Cameron Road, Kowloon. 5 Cameron Road, Kowloon. 28 Hankow Road, Kowloon, Ou premises.

On premises.

4 Fuk Lo Tsnn Road, Kowloon. 45 Haiphong Road, Top floor,

Kowloon.

70 Parkes Street, Kowloon.

5 Kent Road, Kowloon Tong.

On premises.

8 Humphreys Avenue, Kowloon. 7 Hankow Road, Kowloon.

5 Fuk Wing Street, 3rd floor,

Kowloou.

42 Pottinger Street.

354 The Peak.

3 Dragon Terrace, 2nd floor.

23 Homuntin Street, Homuntin. 25 Homuntin Street, Homuntin.

25 Homuntin Street, Homuntin. Wanchai Substation.

On premises.

99 Waterloo Road, Kowloon

792 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

15 Peak Mansions.

35 Hennessy Road, 2nd floor. 11 Soares Avenue, Homuntin. 12 Lochiel Terrace, Cameron Road,

Kowloon.

Mordey Buildings, Tai Wan Road,

Hok Un Works, Kowloon.

*.

NAME IN FULL.

41

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

G-Continued.

Grant, Ian Farquharson Gray, Marshall James

Gray Richard Gordon Gray, Samuel...............

Graye, Henry... Greaves, Alfred Philip Green, Samuel Ebenezer Greenberg, Berry

Gregory, Cyril Leon

Greig, William

Grey, George Willis

Grieve, William Elliot Griffin, William George Grimble. Eric George Norton Grimes, Thomas Edward Grimm, William Edward

Jr.

Grivaud, Edmund Groome, Eric Leslie

Grose, Frank

Grose, John Francis

Grossart Armin

Grove, Stephen

Grover, George James

Groves, Frank

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Assistant, Seymour Sheldon & Co.,

China

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Engineer, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., L.

Manager, Concrete Products, Ld. Broker

Assistant, H.K. & Shanghai Hotels, Ld. Manager, Metro Goldwyn Mayer of

China

Assistant, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold

Storage Co., Lıl....

Shipwright, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Architect, H.K. Land Investment &

Agency Co., Ld....................

Assistant, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co...] Engineer, H.K Telephone Co., Ld. Merchant, Grimble & Co.

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire

Manager, Calif-Asia, Ld.

Chef, Peninsula Hotel

On premises.

4 Hillwood Road, Kowloon. 353 The Peak,

On premises.

32 Dina House, Duddell Street.

67 Robinson Road.

74 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

Alberose, Pokfulam.

6B Leighton Hill Road.

On premises.

Kingsville Hotel, Kowloon. On premises.

290A Prince Edward Road, K'loon. On premises.

On premises.

19 Chatham Apartments, Kowloon. On premises.

Assistant, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld....] 108 The Peak,

Assistant, Palmer & Turner

Sharebroker

Merchant, Globe Trading Co..............

Chartered Accountant, Thomson & Co....| Butcher, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold

Storage Co., Ld.....

General Manager, American Express

Co., Inc.

Groves, Walter Montgomerie Assistant, H.K. & Kowloon Wharf &

Guard, Harold

Godown, Co., Ld.

Newspaper Correspondent, United Press

Association of America

Guterres, Alvaro Maria...... Assistant, China Provident Loan &

Guterres, Antonio Alberto...

Guterres, Eduardo Maria

Guterres, George Arthur Guterres, Henrique José Guterres, José Alberto Guterres, Joaquim Jeronymo

Guterres, Luiz João Guterres, Mario Augusto Gutierrez, Alexander

Edward Gutierrez, Alvaro Eugenio

..

Gutierrez, Charles Ledbury. Gutierrez, Gregorio Maria... Gutierrez, Joaquim Maria... Gutierrez, Luis Augustus. Gutierrez, Marcus

Gutierrez, Marcus Bernado Gutierrez, Reinaldo Maria

Bernado Guttinger, Oskar

Mortgage Co., Ld...

Clerk, Nederlandsch Indische Handels-

bank, N.V.............

Assistant, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China...

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Clerk, Linstead & Davis Representative, Manufacturers Life

Insurance Co.................

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Assistant, Swan, Culbertson & Fritz.....

Clerk, Lowe, Bingham & Matthews Assistant, H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co.,

Ld.

Clerk, Mercantile Bank of India, Ld...... Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Publisher, Bedikton Co. Accountant, David Sassoon & Co., Ld. Assistant, General Electric Co. of

China, Ld.

Clerk, China Light & Power Co., Ld.

Accountant

Engineer, Jardine Engineering Corpora-

tion, Ld.

55 Conduit Road.

55 Conduit Road.

On premises.

5 The Peak.

215 Fa Yuen Street, 2nd floor,

Mongkoktsui.

Homesdale, Repulse Bay.

112 Boundary Street, Top floor,

Kowloon.

67 Wongneichong Road.

562 Nathan Road, 1st floor, Kowloon.

9 Ashley Road, Kowloon.

9 Ashley Road, Kowloon. On premises.

22 Granville Road, Kowloon. 22 Granville Road, Kowloon.

8 Cameron Road, Kowloon. 9 Ashley Road, Kowloon. 167 Sai Yee Street.

218B Nathan Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

218 Nathan Road, Kowloon. On premises.

242 Nathan Road, 3rd floor, K’loon. 3 Hart Avenue, Kowloon.

35 Hankow Road, Kowloon. 126 Waterloo Road, Kowloon.

126 Waterloo Road, Kowloon.

7 Village Road.

42

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

H

ADDRESS.

Haase, Kurt Julius Karl

Hermann...

* Hailey, Guy

Haking, Wong

* Hall, Charles Mylius.....

Hall, George Albert Victor Hall, James

Hallgren, Johan Heimer

Gideon

* Ham, Charles ('hun

Ham, Jan van der

Hamblin, Frederick

Hammond, Herbert William Hammond, Vietor Milton ....... Hamson, Arthur Bird Hamson, Edward Bird

Hance, Julian Henry

Reginald

Merchant, China Export, Import &

Bank Co., Lt...... H.K. Electric Co., Ld

General Manager, H.K. Rubber Manu-

factory, Ld. Merchant

...

Architect, Way & Hall Inspector, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Manager, Swedish Trading Co., L. Assistant, B. J. Lacon

Manager, Netherlands Harbour Works

Co.

Electrical Engineer, China Light &

Power Co., Lil.

Traffic Supt., H K. Tramways, Ld. Broker, China Cotton & Yarn Co Assistant, Lane, Crawford, 1 d. Night Reception Clerk, Peninsula Hotel

Merchant, Danby & Hance....

Hanlon, Edwin Marcus Gray Engineer, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold

Hausemann, Dieter von...... Hansen, Wallace John Harber, Stanley

Hardoon, Isaac Silas ... Hargreave, Arthur Gillbanks

Haroon, Izhaak

Harper, Andrew Wallace

Harris, Sidney Samuel Harris, William Frederick

George

Harrison, Joseph Butcher...

Harrison, Richard Stuart Harrop, Joseph Hartig, Gottlieb.. Harvey, John Gordon

Hassan, Ali.................

Hassan, Ishaat

Hassan, Moosa

Hatt, Charles

Hausammann, Ernest Havelaar, Johannes Hawkin, Chan

Hay mes, Maxwell Freeland

Leycester Hayward, Allen William flearther, Ernest Rea Hedley, William Pattinson

Heggie, William Houston...

Heiberg, Sigurd

Knagenhjelm Heitmeyer, Horst

Storage Co., Ld...................

Merchant, Jebsen & Co.

Merchant, John Manners & Co., Ld. Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

(S.C.) Ld.

Clerk, E. D. Sassoon Banking Co., Ld...

Assistant, Imperial Chemical Industries

(China), Ld.

Clerk. H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Managing Director, Wallace Harper &

Co., Ltd.

Chemist, Green Island Cement Co., Ld..

Assistant Manager, Furness (Far East),

Ld.

Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Ld.

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Merchant, James H. Backhouse, Ld.. Manager, Kruse & Co.

Assistant Accountant, British American

Tobacco Co., (China), Ld............ Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Clerk, .K. Electric Co., Ld............... Engineer, H.K. Telephone Co., Ed. Merchant, Ed. A. Keller & Co., Ld. Manager, P. J. Klink

Clerk, H.K. Canton & Macao Steam-

boat Co., Ld.

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Lil. Assistant, Dollar Steamship Line Assistant, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ltd. Assistant Egineer Superintendent, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld.

Engineer, Goddard & Douglas Manager, Reuter, Brockelmann & Co.

32 College Road, Kowloon City, H.E.C. Quarters, 3 North Point,

5 Hoi Ping Road, Caroline Hill. Peninsula Hotel.

115 Boundary Street, K'loon Tong. Haystack, 9 The Peak.

I.L. 2381 Pokfulam.

414 Lockhart Road, 2nd flour.

25 Hennessy Road.

307 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. 2 Fung Fai Terrace, Top floor. 4 Tak Shing Street, Kowloon. 3 York Road, Kowloon Tong. 60 Nga Tsin Wai Road, Top floor,

Kowloon.

1 Peak Mansions.

280 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. Courtland Hotel.

On premises.

North Point Installation. 18 Village Road, 1st floor.

Ou premises.

H.E.C. Quarters, 24 Ming Yuen.

136D Argyle Street, Mongkok. 30 Kimberley Road, Kowloon.

On premises..

Ou premises. Peninsula Hotel. 17 Peak Mausions.

26 Humphreys Building, Kowloon.

Watson Apartinents, Watson Road. 439 Hennessy Road, 2nd floor. 353 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor. 353 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor. 20 Hankow Road, Top floor, K'loon. Peninsula Hotel.

Bay View Mansions, Kowloon.

21 Des Vœux Road West, 1st floor.

353 The Peak. Deep Water Bay.

242 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

Y.M.C.A.,

Kowloon.

1 Aigburth Hall, May Road. 134 Kennedy Road.

43

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

H-Continued.

Heller, Alfred.. Hellwig, Willam Adolf

Henderson, George

Heng Ah-lee

Henlee Chen

Hennemann, Jan

Henry, Arthur Boyd

Heptulla, Esufi

Herridge, Frank Gordon Herrman, Raymond Louis... Herschend, Borge Hess, Martin

Hetchel, Otto...... Hew Ah-lan

Hewett, Harry Walter....

Hewitt, William.... Hickman, John Frederick... Higgs, Henry Claxton

Hill, Frederick Arthur Hill, George

*Hillier, Wilfred Samuel......

Hillon, Frank

Hin Cheong-kiang... Hing Tung-suen, Charles...

Hirst, William Walter Ho Cheng-sheng

Ho Ching-hoi.

Ho Chow

Ho Chuen-sau Ho (bung-chow.. Ho, Francis

Ho Hung-kwan

Ho Hung-pong

Ho Iu-tin..........

Ho, John Stephen

Ho Kai-suey

Ho Kai-yuen Ho Kain-foug Ho Kam-sang.

Ho Kwan-yeung. Ho Man-ching Ho Oy-ng

Ho Ping-nam

Ho Po-cheong *Ho Quee-bim

Sub-Manager, Gloucester Hotel.............. Assistant, W.R. Loxley & Co., (China),

Ld.

Carpenter, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Lủ.

Merchant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Mechanical Engineer, Henlee Chen

Machine Works

Broker, Travel Advisers Manager, Advertising & Publicity

Bureau, L.

Manager, Abdoolally Ebrahim & Co....... Secretary, W. R. Loxley & Co., Ld................. Assistant, Texas Co., (China), Lch. Merchant, John Manners & Co., Ld.............. Assistant, Deutche Farben Handel-

gesellschaft, (Waibel & Co.) Merchant, F. Feld & Co., Ld. Secretary, China Motor Bus Co., Ld. Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Ld.

Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co..... Tailor, Mackintosh's, Ld,

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard & Engi-

neering Co. of H.K., Ld. Engineer, H.K. Well Boring Co., Ld. Mercantile Assistant, Jardine, Matheson

& Co., Ld.

Assistant, Lane, Crawford, Ld. Foreman, Taikoo Sugar Refining

Co., L.

Secretary, H. Connell & Co., Ld. Manager, China Assurance Corpora-

tion, Ld.

Manager, Steam Laundry Co.

Clerk, Deutsche Farben-Handelsgesells-

chaft, Waibel & Co.

Clerk, Deutsche Farben- Handelsgesells-

chaft, Waibel & Co.

Manger, Wing On Life Assurance

Co., Ld.

Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld.

Clerk, National City Bank of New York Clerk, Reuter, Broekelmann & Co....... Manager, H.K. Commercial Co. Assistant, H.K. Commercial Co. Assistant, Imperial Chemical Industries

(China), Ld.

Clerk, Nippon Yusen Kaisha

Secretary, Domestic Engineers, Ld. Assistant, Petersen & Co.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Clerk, China Provident Loan &

Mortgage Co., Ld.

First Shroff, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Aje. Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld. Clerk, China Light & Power Co.,

Ld.

Senior Clerk, British Wireless Marine

~ervice

Assistant, Lane, Crawford, Ld. Cashier, Oversea-Chinese Banking

Corporation, Ld...................

On premises.

Knutsford Hotel, Kowloon.

On premises.

736 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

190 Nathan Road, 2nd floor,

Kowloon.

On premises.

On premises. 20 Stanley Street. Kowloon Hotel. Tsun Wan. On premises.

1 Longsight Villas, Jubilee Road. Aigburth Hall, May Road. Chinese Y.M.C.A.

On premises.

114 The Peak.

4 King's Terrace, Kowloon.

On premises.

226 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

The Bungalow, East Point. 86 Kennedy Road.

13 Braemar Terrace, Quarry Bay.

I D'Aguilar Street, 2nd floor.

75 Hill Road.

262 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

118 Waterloo Road, Kowloon.

118 Waterloo Road, Kowloon.

34 Tai Nam Street, 1st floor,

Shamshuipo.

Tsun Wan, N.T.

36 Hennessy Road, 2nd floor. 2 Haven Street, Causeway Bay. 62 Bonham Road.

62 Bonham Road.

On premises.

12 Conduit Road.

456 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

On premises.

2 Wo Hop Street, Top floor.

4-12 Stanley Street. On premises.

196 Fa Yuen Street, 1st floor,

Mongkoktsui.

76 High Street, 1st floor. 22 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor.

346 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor.

44

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

-

ADDRESS.

H-Continued.

Ho Sai-wing Ho Sang..... Ho Shau-fook. Ho Shing-tso Ho Shiu-ka....... Ho Shiu-ping

Ho Shiu-que Ho Shiu-yan

Ho Shun-hing...... Ho Tai-chung..

Ho Tai-yung

Ho To........ Ho Woon-cheung Hoare, John

Hoare, Robert Edward

Hoey, Thomas Stewart

Hamilton.....

Holland, Alexander Wilson. Holm, Julius

Compradore, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Clerk, Sworn Measurers' Office Manager, Shun Hing Trading Co...... Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Clerk, China Light & Power Co.,

Ld.

Assistant, Wallem & Co.

Clerk, China Export Import & Bank

Co., Ld.

Engineer, Shun Yick & Co...... Clerk, Tin Tsun Modern Lithographers

& Offset Printers

Clerk, Mercantile Bank of India, Ld........ Clerk, Sworn Measurers' Office Typist, American Express Co., Inc. Office Gunner, Mackinnon, Mackenzie

& Co.

Assistant, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Mercantile Assistant, Jardine, Matheson

& Co., Ld.

Bookkeeper, Furness (Far East), Ld...... Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld...................

Holzberger, Ernst August... Assistant, Melchers & Co. Hong Siu-fai

Honniball, Robert George... Hood, John Mair

Hooi Yip-beng

Hoosen, Mohamed Omar

Hoosen, Omar................

Hope, Stewart

Hosan, Mohamed Yusoof Hosie, Edward Lumsden ́

Hospes, Edward........

Houben, Arnold Robert.

Hoven, Jan.....

Howard, Frank Andrew Howard, James Howard

Howarth, Abraham Howell, Hargreaves Milne... Howell, John Huber, Johann

Hui Siu-wing

Hui Wai-pang Hull, Gordon Burnett Gitford.......

Hulsemanu, Rudolf

Assistant Order Clerk, Texas Co.,

(China) Ld......

Clerk, Linotype & Machinery, Ld.. Assistant Engineer, Green Island

Cement Co., Ld.

Manager, Oversea-Chinese Banking

Corporation, Ld.....

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld..................... Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld................ Draughtsman, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld. Assistant, C. M. Karanjia & Co..... Secretary, II.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Agent, Passenger Department, Canadian

Pacific Steamships, Ld..... Superintendent, China Construction

Co., Ld.

Accountant, Nederlandsche Handel-

Maatschappij, N.V. Cashier, Chase Bank

Freight Clerk, Canadian Pacific

Steamships Co.

Assistant, Reiss, Bradley & Co., Ld...... Manager, Malcolm & Co., Ld. Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Engineer, Siemens China Co................. Clerk, Pentreath & Co.

Clerk, Mackinuon, Mackenzie & Co.................

Civil Engineer, Marsman H.K, China,

Ld.

Friedrich George Max. | Agriculturist, N. V. Overzeesche Kali

62 Bonham Road.

27 Johnston Road, 1st floor. On premises.

8 Lee Kwan Road.

267 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor.

101 Fa Yuen Street, 1st floor,

Mongkoktsui.

66 Village Road, Ground floor.

300 Lockhart Road.

488 Nathan Road, Top floor, K'loon.

On premises.

3 Shelley Street.

On premises.

2 Haven Street, 1st floor.

On premises.

Cosmopolitan Dock.

354 The Peak. On premises.

298 Lockhart Road, Top floor. Courtland Hotel, Macdonnell Road.

On premises.

42 King Kwong Street, 1st floor.

62в Nathan Road, Kowloon.

39 Nathan Road, Top fl., Kowloon.

234 Gloucester Road.

287 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor.

Quarry Bay.

440 Nathan Road, Top fl., Kowloon.

Ou premises.

378 The Peak.

352 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

46 Stubles Road.

320 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

15 Cameron Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

12 Broadwood Road.

On premises.

180 Lockhart Road, 3rd floor. On premises.

Peninsula Hotel.

Export-Mij, Amsterdam (Naves)...... 140 Kennedy Road, Top floor.

Humble, Jobu George

Robson

Engineer, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

On premises.

45

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

H-Continuad.

Hume, Donald William

Humphrey, Eric

Humphreys, Alfred David... Humphreys, Alfred David,

Jr.

Humphreys, John David Hung, Archibald Hung, Douglas

Hung Hing-tat

Hung, Sebastião Sarino Hung Sing-howe Hung Tsi-ming

Hunt, James Hubert....

Hurlow, Lionel Alfred

Hussan, Mohd Hussain, Ahmed..

Hussain, Mahomed................................. Huttle, Joseph Alexander... Hyde, William

Hyndman, Henry

Chief Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refining

Co., L.

Electrician, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., L

Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld.

Assistant. Dodwell & Co., Ld. Merchant, J. D. Humphreys & Son Architect's Assistant, Chau & Lee.............. Assistant Compradore, Jardine, Matheson

& Co., Ld.

Manager, West River Transportation &

Trading Co., L‹l.

Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld. Sub-Manager, Bank of Communications. Laison Officer, Far East Flying Training

School, Ld...

Engineer, Jardine Engineering Corpora-

tion, Ld.

Inspector, H.K. & Yaumati Ferry Co.,

Ld.

Bank Clerk, Chase Bank

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld................

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.......... Merchant, The China Engineers, Ld.... Clerk of Works, H.K. & Kowloon Wharf & Godown Co., Ld. Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Woodside, Quarry Bay.

On premises.

JA Chatham Path.

127 Robinson Road. On premises. 7 Babbington Path.

7 Babbington Path.

167 Tam Kung Road. 197 Fa Yuen Street, Mongkoktsui. On premises.

30 Kai Tack Bund, Kowloon City.

285 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

7 Fa Yuen Street, Mongkoktsui. 283 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor.

39 Lee Tung Street, 3rd floor. 445 Hennessy Road, 3rd floor. On premises.

223 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. 42 Wyndham Street.

Idle, John Newman

Iles, William James

Ilsley, John Leathes

Inglis, John Prosser .....

Ip Anthony Louis

Jp Chin-shuen

Ip Fook-ling

Ip In-ting

Ip Kam-wah

Ip Kau-ko

Ip Kwai-chung

Ip Kwan.

Ip Ping-lu ....

Ip Shiu-choi Ip Tak-choi

Ip Wa-kwai

Iptoyou, Samuel Fernand

Iranel, Behman Rashid

Ireland, Hubert Upshon Ismail, Abdul Hussain Ismail, Abdul Khalid Ismail, Sheik Hassan.. Israel, Bernard Jan

Itenson, Vladimir

...

Station Engineer, Imperial Airways

(Far East), Ld.

Janitor, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.................

Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Ld.

Factory Manager, Pipe Hume (Far

East`, Ld.

Clerk, Twentieth Century Fox Federal

Inc. U.S.A......

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Clerk, Lane, Crawford, Ld..

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Assistant, B. J. Lacon

Attorney to Mr. Eng Aun Tong

Director, Denis & Co., Ld.....

Principal, Ip Wing Hon Tong

Clerk, H.K. Mines, Ld.

Clerk, Sworn Measurers' Office

Clerk, Tai Shan Insurance Co., Ld. Assistant, L. Rondon & Co., Ld.

Partner, C. M. Karanjia & Co.

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Overseer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Clerk, American Express Co., Inc. Clerk, National City Bank of New York Manager, Nederlandsche Indische

Handelsbank N.V.

Technician, Philco Radio Distributors

Arlington Hotel.

On premises.

On premises.

9 Mile Castle Peak Road.

42 Western Street, 2nd floor. On premises.

10 Ön Wa Lane, 2nd floor. On premises.

On premises.

16 Pilkem Street, Kowloon.

2 Li Kwan Avenue, Tai Hang.

On premises.

60 Gloucester Road.

4 School Street, Tai Hang.

On premises.

On premises.

6 King's Terrace, Kowloon.

1 Kennedy Road.

On premises.

Wanchai Substation.

18 Leighton Hill Road.

10 King's Road, Ground floor.

8 Tregunter Mansions.

4 Village Road.

NAME IN FULL.

46

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS

J

Jabbar, Sayed Abdul.. Jack, Lawrence Jackson, Peter Cyril.

Jan, George Chance Jane Hing-keung Jason, Henry Frederick Jeacock, Frederick John ...

Jeffreys, Arthur Charles *Jenner, Frederick James

Henry

Jernbjelke, Gustav Elof

Jesus, Arturo Gregorio de Jex, Starling

Jex, Thomas Carriek

Jockisch, Walter Max Theodore....

Joffe, Eugene

...

Johannessen, Reidar .... Johnsford, Albert William...

Johnson, Ivor George

Johnson, Johan Johnson, Rolf...... Johnston, Thomas Arthur Johnstone, Thomas

McCormick (Capt.)

Jones, Arthar........ Jones, Griffith John

Jones, Henry Stephen Jones. Joel Russell

Jong, Lieuwke

Jono, Mohamed Hussain.... Joseph, Felix Alexander Joseph, Ha ry Bernard Jourt, Walter Harold

Julebin, Engene Petrovich June, James Kim Fook....

Jupp, John Edmund

K

Kai Howe-zeaming

Kailey, William Charles Kaishu, Sekchin-khu..................... Kaluzhny, Kirill Alexander. Kaluzhny, Oleg

Alexandrovich Kamemura, Senji Kan Cheong-fai.....

Kan King-chuen.......

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Merchant, Wm. Jack & Co., Ld. ...... Assistant, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold

Storage Co., Ld. Broker, Malcolm & Co., Ld. Stock Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld. Stenographer, Williamson & Co... Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard & Eng. Co.

of H.K., Ld.

Engineer, H.K. Telephone Co., Ld.

Boatswain, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Lư...

Engineer, H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co.,

Ld.

Clerk, American Express Co., Inc.................. Secretary, Wallace, Harper & Co., Ld.... Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

(S.C.) Ld.

Burner, Green Island Cement Co., Ld.... Assistant Engineer, China Light &

Power Co., Ld.

Manager, Wallem & Co....... Overseer, China Provident Loan &

Mortgage Co., Ld.....

Radio Eng., International Radio Sales

& Services

Assistant, Thoresen & Co., Ld. Merchant, Bornemann & Co. Secretary, China Construction Co., Ld...

Marine Superintendent, Butterfield &

Swire

District Acct., Texas Co. (China), Ld........ Assistant Manager, Holt's Wharf

Assistant, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Manager, Connell Bros. Co. Sub-Accountant, Netherlands Trading

Society

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.. F. A. Joseph

Broker, Joseph & Co.

Accountant, Mercantile Bank of India,

Ld.

Payroll Recorder, H.K. Mines, Ld. Assistant, H.K. & Kowloon Wharf &

Godown Co., Ld...................

Merchant, John D. Humphreys & Son

Salesman, Whiteaway, Laidlaw & Co.,

Ld.

Engineer, Wallace, Harper & Co., Ld. Clerk, Texas Co (China), Ld. Assistant, H.K. Hotel

Sub-Manager, H.K. Hotel .. Assistant, Oriental Trading Co....... Mercantile Assistant, Jardine, Matheson

& Co, Ld.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld.

42 Hollywood Road, 3rd floor. 269 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

Dairy Farm Co., Pokfulam. On premises.

Tsun Wan.

34 Ice House Street, Ground floor.

On premises.

I Aimai Villas, Kowloon.

On premises.

On premises.

765 Nathan Road, Ground fl., K'loon. 15 Jordan Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

19 Stafford Road, Kowloon Tong.

Mordey Building, Tai Wan Road,

Hok Un, Kowloon. 175 Sassoon Road.

6 Hillwood Rd., 2nd floor, K’loon.

14 Hankow Road, 3rd fl., Kowloon. 4 Luna Building, Kowloon. 3 Cheung Chau Island. 26 Canal Road.

On premises. On premises.

Windsor Lodge, Austin Avenue,

Kowloon.

108 The Peak.

6 Tak Shing Terrace, Kowloon.

On premises.

36 Tang Lung Street, 3rd floor. On premises.

43A Conduit Road.

50 The Peak. On premises.

30 South Wall Road, Kowloon City. 4 Thorpe Manor, May Road.

7 Hollywood Road.

19 Grampian Road, Kowloon City.

On premises.

Hong Kong Hotel.

On premises.

36 Kennedy Road.

1 Leighton Hill Road. On premises.

47

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

K-Continued.

Kan King-chuen Kan Koam-tsing Kastmann, Karl Kau Ko-cheu, Koma

Kay Chinn, Edward Keating, Thomas Francis...

Kee Yoke-choy Kei Chan, Frank

Kella, Andrew Charles

Keller, Harry August Kelly, George...

Kempton, John

Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co....... Banker, Bank of Communications Merchant, John Manners & Co., Ld................... Chief Clerk, National Carbon Co. Fed.

Inc. U.S.A.

Clerk, Duro Motor Car Co., Ld. Superintendent, Standard Vacuum Oil

Co.

Assistant, Wallace Harper & Co., Lu. Assistant, A. H. Potts

Wharfinger, Taikoo Sugar Refining

Co., Ld.

Merchant, Ed. A. Keller & Co., Ld. Stenographer, Freight Department,

Canadian Pacific Steamships, Ld................. Electrician, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Kennedy, Frederick Patrick. Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Kent, Ramon

Keown, Richard McArthur.

Kerbey, Geoffrey Holman Kern, Ernest

Kerr, Stanley Robert.

Kew, Arthur James Kew, Cecil

Kew, Henry

Key, Maurice Frederick Khan, Abbas

Khan, Juman

Kilby, Donald Frank.........

Kin Long, Harry

King, Clarence Albert King, Joe Owyang King, Marion Bailey *Kinsey, Edwin Alvin..

Kirby, Augustus

Montmillmon Kirby, William Edward Kirk, Noel Robinson...........

Kirkwood, Robert Kirvor, Matthew Gregory .

Kirwen, James

Kitchell, Armin

Kitterle, Wolf

Kjaer Kaj Soeren Klausz, Johannes Coenraad.

...

Knight, Thomas Leonard Knox, William Thomas......

Knudsen, Kjell..

Ko Ming-tak, Louis

Ko Ping-shan

Ko Shiu-wing...

Ko Yau-cheong George.... Ko Yau-kong Ko Yuen-heung

Ld.

Manager, Asia Life Insurance Co. Draughtsman, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld. Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Merchant, Ed. A. Keller & Co., Ld. Secretary, H. K. Club......

Assistant, Andersen, Meyer & Co., Ld.... Assistant, American Express Co., Inc.... Assistant, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold

Storage Co., Ld......

Secretary, Chamber of Commerce Assistant, A. F. Arculli & Sons... Assistant, H.K. & Kowloon Wharf &

Godown Co., Ld.

Assistant, Nestle & Anglo-Swiss

Condensed Milk Co. Engineer, H.K. & Yaumati Ferry

Co., Ld.

Salesman, Dollar S.S. Co.

Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Secretary, Dragon Motor Car Co., Ld. Passenger Agent, Nippon Yusen Kaisha.

Attorney, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co. Secretary, China Coast Officers' Guild Mercantile Assistant, Jardine, Matheson

& Co., Lử.

Engineer, H.K. Telephone Co., Ld. Electrical Engineer, General Electric

Co. of China, Ld. Engineer, Davie Boag & Co., Ld. Stock Broker, O. Kitchell & Co. Technical Merchant, Schmidt & Co. Merchant, Far East Asiatic Co., Ld.............. Export Employee, Holland-China

Trading Co., Ld.

Manager, H.K. Motor Accessory Co., Ld. Mercantile Assistant, Jardine, Matheson

& Co., Lủ.

Assistant, Wallem & Co.......

Assistant, Wallace Harper & Co., Ld. Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld.. Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co....... Stenographer, Reiss, Bradley & Co., Ld. Clerk, Java-China-Japan Line Clerk, P. & O. Banking Corporation, Ld.

On premises. On premises. On premises.

47B Peking Building, Kowloon. 37 Ping Street, Kowloon.

Laichikok Installation. 363 Hennessy Road, 1st floor. 109 Sai Yeung Choi Street,

Mongkoktsui.

816 King's Road.

5 St. John's Apartments.

245 Lockhart Road.

On premises.

:

North Point.

100 Hill Road, 2nd floor,

Quarry Bay. On premises.

15 Hillwood Road, Kowloon. 8 Conduit Road, Hong Kong. 111 Waterloo Road, Kowloon. 50 Robinson Road.

7 King's Terrace, Kowloon. 366 The Peak.

9 Larch Street, Kowloon.

1 & 3 Ashley Rd., 2nd fl., Kowloon.

Empress Lodge, Mody Road, K'loon.

7 Fa Yuen Street, 3rd floor,

Mongkoktsui.

Peninsula Hotel.

58 Fook Wa Street, 3rd floor. 5 Yuk Sau Street, Ground floor. 250 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam.

5 Tregunter Mansions. On premises.

Harbour View Hotel. 451 The Peak.

11A Cameron Road, Kowloon. 408 Des Voeux Road, Central. 34 Leighton Hill Road.

217 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. 22-24 Macdonnell Road.

160 Austin Road, Kowloon.

8 Cumberland Road, Kowloon Tong.

157 Waterloo Road, Kowloon.

10 Hart Avenue, Kowloon. 13 Cedar Street, 2nd floor. On premises. On premises.

51 Elgin Street, 1st floor. 29 Shelley Street.

53 Elgin Street, 2nd floor.

48

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

K-Continued.

Kobza, Nagy Eugene

Alexander von

Koerner, Hermann ... Koch, Ervin Ferdinant Kok, Pieter Frederik

Jacobus de .......

Koky, Tang Komorsky, Anatole

Kong Chi-nai..

Kong, Edwin

Kong Ko-woon

Kong Kwok-cheung Kong Paul ....

Kong Yick-yau

Kong Yuk-tong

Koo, Granite ....

Koodiaroff, Michael Alex

Kooter, Jacob Blauw Kotwall, James Edulji Krauss, Ulrich

Krilovsky, Alexander Kroeg-Moe, Joseph Kuelps, Fritz

Kulp, Rudolph Kung Chi-chiu Kung Sha-fung Kunihiro, Mitsuji Kwaan King-sing Kwan Ching-tak Kwan Mok-chung Kwan Sau-fung Kwan Sit-kwan Kwan Yau-kwong Kwee Sik-hok

Kwok Ho-lun...

Kwok Pui-cheung

Kwok Peter

Kwok Sau-hin

Kwok Seek-kwan, Dick

Kwok Shu-fai

Kwok Shun-chuen.

Kwok Wai-leung

Kwok Wai-sum Kwok Yik-on.................. Kwok Young, James

Kwok Yu-shu.... Kwong, Charlie

Kwong Loong Kwong, Peter.....

Managing Director, Kobza Art Studios,

Ld.

Assistant, Kruse & Co.

Attorney, Standard Vacuum Oil Co.

Clerk, Nederlandsch Indische Handels-

bank, N.V....

Assistant Assayer, H.K. Mines, Ld. Checker, Peninsula Hotel

Sub-Manager, Him Cheong Co.. Accountant, K. D. Petroleum Co. of

China

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.

Assistant, Philco Radio Distributors.... Salesman, Dunlop Rubber Co. (China),

Ld.

Salesman, Dunlop Rubber Co. (China),

Ld.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Guide, Travel Advisers

Steward, Peninsula Hotel

Merchant, John Manners & Co., Ld.. Broker

Merchant, China Export Import &

Bank Co., Ld.

Sub-Manager, Repulse Bay Hotel Representative, Thoresen & Co., Ld.. Bookkeeper, Jebsen & Co. Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld.

7 Conduit Road.

5 Basilea, Lyttelton Road. Peninsula Holel.

548 The Peak. On premises. On premises.

China Building, 1st floor.

5 Fook Wa Street.

39 Lee Tung Street, 3rd floor,

Wanchai.

93 Austin Road, Kowloon.

43 Sing Woo Road, 2nd floor.

3 Tin Lok Lee, 2nd floor. On premises.

64A Canton Road, Kowloon.

Ld.

On premises.

Assistant, Swan, Culbertson & Fritz. General Manager, Hang Tai & Fung Co. Managing Director, Oriental Trading Co. Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. H.K. Motor Accessory Co..... Assistant, F. A. Joseph Clerk, Hotel Cecil, Ld....

....

Clerk, Canadian Pacific Steamships, Ld. Assistant, Sang Kee

Clerk, Kian Gwan Co. India, Ld.

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Clerk, Kelly & Walsh, Ld... Bookkeeper, E. D. Sassoon Bauking

Co., Ld.

Manager, Trans Ocean Trading Co. Clerk, Palace Hotel....

Clerk. China Export Import & Bank

Co., Ld.

Assistant Book-keeper, American

Expres Co., Inc.

Assistant, Reiss, Bradley & Co., Ld.... Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Merchant, Wing On Fire & Marine

Ins. Co., Ld.

Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co....... Motor Mechanic, Austin Sales &

Service Co.

Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co....... Assistant, American Lloyd, Ld......

On premises.

French Bank Building.

Y.M.C.A., Kowloon. On premises.

23 Peak Mansions.

26 Humphreys Building, Kowloon. 1 Cumberland Road, Kowloon Tong. 24 Robinson Road.

53 Queen's Road Central, 2nd floor. 36 Kennedy Road. On premises.

122 Garden Street, 3rd floor. 137 Thompson Road, Wanchai. On premises.

13 Fuk Wah Street, Kowloon. On premises.

183 Sai Yeung Choi Street,

Mongkok.

8 Fort Street, 2nd floor.

On premises.

On premises.

99 Hennessy Road.

3 Prince's Terrace, 2nd floor.

31 Kimberley Road, 3rd floor, K'loon.

101 Hennessy Road.

2 Seymour Terrace.

81 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor. On premises.

2 United Terrace, Homuntin Street,

Homuntin.

On premises.

80 Sai Yeung Choi Street, 1st

floor, Mongkoktsui.

On premises.

52 Caine Road.

49

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

L

Laan, Jacobus Hendrick

Van der

Labrousse, Ernest Denys.... Labrum, Victor Charles.. Lacon, Bernard John.... Ladd, George Samuel

Lafleur, Franciscus Huber- tus Joseph Alphonsus Lagden, Peter Rayinond Lai Chick-sang

Lai, George.....

Lai Im-tong

Lai Kiang-huen

Lai Kin

Lai Ping-yiu

Lai Pui-lam

Lai Shing-tung

Lai Yuk-man

Lai Yun-kow

Laidlaw, Errington

Lam Ah-choong Lam Chik-ho Lam Chik-suen Lam Hew-cho Lam Hing-san

Lam Ho-kwan

Lam Ho-yin

Lam Hoi-sheang Lam Kai-chi Lam Kwan

Lam Kwok-kee

Lam Kwok-tsoi

Lam Kwok-tsoi Lam Man-chi

Lam Ming-fan

Lam Ngai-chuan

Lam Ping-hwa Lam Ping-yin.... Lam Shiu-yip Lam Shui-wan Lam Tit-hong

Lam Wai-nam Lam Wan-po

Lam Wing-kai Lam Woon-ki. Lam Yan-wing Lam York-fung Lam Yuen-ming..

Sub. Manager, Nederlandsche Handel

Maatschappij, N.V.

Accountant, China Underwriters, L.d. Master Printer, Ye Olde Printerie, Ld.... Principal, B. J. Lacou... Accountant, Nestle & Anglo-Swiss

Condensed Milk Co.

Assistant, M. Beraba Salesman. Whiteaway, Laidlaw & Co., Ld. Draughtsman, Marsman H.K. China, Ld. Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Manager, International Assurance Co.,

Ld.

Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld.

Superintendent, West Point Station,

Texas Co., (China) Ld..... Clerk, Waters & Watson

Assistant, Imperial Chemical Industries

(China), Ld.

Clerk, S. H. Langston Assistant, S. H. Langston

Bookkeeper, H.K. Telephone Co., Ld. Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

(S.C.) Ld.

Bookkeeper, Swedish Match Co. Engineer & Builder, Lam Woo & Co. Engineer & Builder, Lam Woo & Co. Assistant, Union Trading Co., Ld. Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld........

Clerk, H.K. Canton & Macao Steam-

boat Co.,

Ld.

...

Clerk, H.K. Canton & Macao Steamboat

Co., Ld.

Clerk, Sworn Measurers' Office Clerk, H.K. Tramways, Ld.

Manager, China Paint Manufacturing

Co., Lử.

Assistant, Lloyd Triestino Storekeeper, Taikoo Sugar Refining

Co., Là.

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld........

Secretary, Kowloon Motor Bus Co.

(1933), Ld....

Accountant Clerk, Texas Co. (China),

Ld.

Partner, A. B. C. Book Co. Partner, A. B. C. Book Co. Secretary, United Photoplay Service, Ld. Clerk, Gande, Price & Co., Ld.......... Accountant, Sun Life Assurance Co. of

Canada

Assistant, United Traders Assistant Compradore, American Express

Co., Inc.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Assistant, Thomas Cook & Son, Ld. Clerk, Hume Pipe (Far East), Ld. Typist, American Express Co., Inc. Assistant, H. K. Rope Manufacturing

Co., Là.

On premises.

Kingsville, Carnarvon Road, K'loon. 87 Waterloo Road, Kowloon. Kingsclere, Kowloon.

13 Dragon Terrace.

Ngau Chi-wan, N.K.I.L. 63 Arlington Hotel, Kowloon. 18 Yee Woo Street, 2nd floor. 24 King Kong Street, Ground floor.

10 Stafford Road, Kowloon Tong. 19 Fuk Wing Street, 3rd floor,

Shamshuipo.

Tsun Wan.

150 Fa Yuen Street, Mongkok.

On premises.

705 Nathan Road, 1st floor, K'loon.

17 Star Street, 1st floor.

27 Village Road, 2nd floor.

On premises.

138 Lockhart Road, 3rd floor.

32 Johnston Road.

42 Bonham Road.

78 High Street.

12 Kwong Wah Street, Mongkok.

9 Jordan Road, Kowloon.

9 Jordan Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

21 Western Street, 3rd floor.

On premises.

50 Russell Street.

1 Murray Place, Quarry Bay. On premises.

36 Eastern Street, 2nd floor.

90 Kai Yan Road, Kowloon,

On premises. 5 Glenealy. 5 Glenealy. On premises.

2 Essex Crescent, Kowloon Tong.

9 Morrison Hill Road, Top floor. 202 Hai Tan Street, 1st floor.

5 Chi Wo Street, Ground floor,

Yaumati.

On premises.

9 Ching Fung Street, North Point. 11 Nanking Street, 1st floor, K'loon 516 Nathan Road, 2nd fl., K'loon.

21 Weston Street, 3rd floor.

50

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

L—Continued.

Lam Yuk-shau

Lam Yuk-ying

Lamb, Francis Robert Lammert, Alfred Herbert Lammert, Lionel Ernest Lammert, Lionel Eugene Lamont, Ronald Walker

Campbell...

Landau, Leo.

Landsbert, Albert Leslie Lang, Iain Wilson

Lange, Heinz Frederick Lange, Herbert George.... Langensiepen, Herbert

Langston, Arthur Golden

Langston, Selwyn Henry Lansdowne, Ernest...

Lao, Jackson Hsuing.... Larcina, Angelo Maria Large, Milford Henry Latrille, Wolfgang. Lau Chan-kwck

Lau Fook-ki

Lau, George

Lau, George Man-hon

Lau Hin-cheung.. Lau Hon....

Lau Hon-wing

Lau Jack-kim..............

Lau, José Antonio.

Lau Kau-leung

Lau King-sang

Lau King-tsing

Lau Kong-cheung Lau Kwai-hop

Lau Kwok-cheong, Roy

Lau Leung-tsung

Lau Man-bun

Lau Pui-ki

Lau Pui-ying

Lau Sheung-po Lau Tak-po

Lau Tat-ting

Lau Ting

色母

Lau Yuk-wan Laurel, Francisco Paulo...... Law Chung-ping Law, Henry Kaye Law, Heungto Shopan

Clerk, Sworn Measurers' Office

Clerk, Java-China-Japan Line Assistant, Butterfield & Swire

On premises.

253 Hennessy Road. On premises.

Agent, Sun Life Insurance Co. of Canada. 34 Humphreys Building, Kowloon.

Auctioneer, Lammert Bros.

Auctioneer, Lammert Bros.....

Sworn Measurer, Official Measurers'

Office

Salesman, Andersen, Meyer & Co. Engineer, Mustard & Co., Ld. Passenger Agent, Canadian Pacific

Steamships, Ld..

Clerk, Jebsen & Co.

Branch Manager, Siemens China Co. Assistant, Deutsche Farben-Handels-

gesellschaft (Waibel & Co.)

Electrical Engineer, H.K. Electric Co.,

Ld.

Merchant, S. H. Langston

Manager, Jardine Engineering Corpora-

tion, Ld.

Clerk, A. W. V. Turner & Co. Accountant, Davie, Boag & Co., Ld. Inspector, Star Ferry Co., Ld. Merchant, China United Lamp Co. Assistant, H.K. & Yaumati Ferry

Co., Ld.

Salesman, General Electric Co. of

China, Ld. Clerk, Travel Advisers

Machinery Clerk, Jebsen & Co..... Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Foreman, General Electric Co. of

China, Ld.

Secretary, South China Manufacturing

& Exporting Co.

Clerk, National City Bank of New York.

Assistant, Holland China Trading Co.,

Ld.

Assistant, Chase Bank

Assistant, Wallace Harper & Co., Ld. Manager, Hoi Yeung Shipping Co. Assistant, The Sun Co., Ld.

Assistant, Ed. A. Keller & Co., Ld. Mercantile Assistant, Dodwell &

Co., Ld.

Clerk, National Mutual Life Association

of Australia, Ld.

Clerk, Franklin Laboratory Assistant, W. R. Loxley & Co. (China),

Ld.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Clerk, Mercantile Bank of India, Ld..... Manager, The H.K. & Yaumati Ferry

Co., Lil.

Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co..... Sub-Manager, Kan Koam Tseng & Co... Assistant, Hong Nin Savings Bank, Ld. Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld. Bookkeeper, American Express Co., Inc. Salesman, Ruttonjee & Co..... Assistant Manager, General

Amusements, Ld.

556 The Peak.

556 The Peak.

On premises.

19 Gap Road, Kowloon.

1 Devon Road, Kowloon Tong.

On premises.

10 Tak Shing Street, Kowloon. 10 Tak Shing Street, Kowloon.

7 Hok Sze Terrace.

287 The Peak.

4 Abermor Court, May Road.

2 Peak Mansions, 1st floor. 106 Boundary Street, Kowloon. 350 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. 1 Kimberley Terrace, Kowloon. 4 Minden Avenue, Kowloon.

11 Seen Keen Terrace.

7 Yick Kwan Avenue.

2 Maple Street, 2nd floor, Sham-

shuipo.

330 Hennessy Road, 1st floor. 33 Fook Wing Street, 1st floor.

15 Thomson Road.

7 Lee Yuen Street, 1st floor.

4 Maple Street, 3rd floor, Sham-

shuipo.

10 Prince's Terrace.

47 Pilkem Street, Yaumati.

38 Laichikok Road, 2nd fl., K'loon.. On premises.

48 Nullah Road, Mongkoktsui. 62 Lower Street, 2nd floor.

792 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

Un Long.

1608 Canton Road, 2nd fl.,

170 Queen's Road West. On premises.

K'loon..

103 Jaffé Road, 2nd floor, Wanchai.

11 Seen Keen Terrace, Causeway

Bay.

On premises.

67 Leighton Hill Road, 1st floor. 29 Wongneichong Road, 2nd floor. 297 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.. 10 Mau Lam Street, Yaumati, 41 Haiphong Road, Kowloon.

217 Fa Yuen Street, Mongkok.

51

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

L-Continued.

Law, Jerome

ADDRESS.

*Law Kwai-cheong

Law Kwong-chan Lawrence, Bayard Craig

Lawrence, George Alfred

...

Lawrence, Jorge Anthony... Lawson, James Wheeler

Lay, Alexander-Hyde Leask, Arthur James...

Lebert, Willem Henri Leckie, John Baillie

Hamilton....

Leckie, William Fletcher

Lederhofer, Rudolf Vietor... Lee, Arthur Yooklam

Lee Chan-kee

Lee Chee-leung, Antonio Lee Chen-sang

Lee Chi-tsun

Lee, Colin

Lee Fook

Lee Fook, Willie Lee, Francis

Lee. Frank

Lee, George Lee, George Albert

Lee Hau-shing

Lee Ho-chuen

Lee Iu-cheung Lee Jick-ting

Lee, Johnson

Lee, Joseph William.

Lee Kai-yan

Lee Kee, Paul

Lee Kwock-young

Lee Leung

Lee Luk-kut

Lee Mui-chi

Lee, Paul

Lee, Phillip Sydney

Lee Ping-cheung Lee Ping-nam.. Lee Po-shan

Lee, Richard Edmund Lee, Robert Ernest.... Lee, Rodney

Lee Shiu-kai..

Shorthand teacher

118 Taipo Road, Kowloon.

Clerk, E. D. Sassoon Banking Co., Ld........] 205 Johnston Road, 3rd floor,

Clerk, The Central Trading Co. District Manager, Texas Co. (China),

Ld.

Manager, A. W. Factory, A. S. Watson

& Co., Ld.

Assistant, Wallace Harper & Co., Ld. .. Engineer, Indo-China Steam Navigation

Co., Ld.

Mercantile Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Sub-Accountant, Chartered Bank of

India, Australia & China Agent, China-Java-Japan Lijn

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.................

Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Asst. Meter Inspector, China Light &

Power Co., L.

Clerk, Dollar Steamship Line..... Clerk, Chase Bank

Assistant, H.K. Mines, Ld. Assistant, Chase Bank

Civil Engineer, Leigh and Orange.. Yard No. 1

Clerk, National City Bank of New York. Stenographer, Reiss, Bradley & Co., Ld.. Harbour Representative, H.K. & Shang-

hai Hotels, Ld.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Assistant, Carroll Bros.

:

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld............

Clerk, Mercantile Bank of India, Ld. Merchant, Lee Yu Kee

Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Sub-Accountant, The Bank of Canton,

Ld.

Clerk, Java-China-Japan Line Salesman, Texas Co., (China) Ld. Record Salesman, R.C.A. Victor Co. of

China

Book-keeper, Wing Coffee Co. Clerk, Central Trading Co. Bookkeeper, Oversea-Chinese Banking

Corporation, Ld......................... Compradore, China Auction Rooms

Assistant Manager, St. Francis Hotel Merchant, China Mercantile Co., (S.C.)

Ld.

Manager, Lee Ping Chuen

Clerk, Domestic Engineers, Ld.. Book-keeper, Jebsen & Co. Architect, Chan & Lee

Accountant, Office Appliance Co., Ld. Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,(S.C.)

Ld.......

Manager, Wo Shing Co., Ld.

Wanchai. On premises.

On premises.

Aerated Water Factory, North Point. 186 Boundary Street, Kowloon,

3 Dorset Crescent, Kowloon Tong. 514 The Peak.

140 Kennedy Road. 264 The Peak.

Knutsford Hotel, Kowloon.

114 The Peak.

8 Middle Road, Kowloon.

62 Nga Chin Wai Road, Kowloon

City.

65 Hennessy Road.

109 Queen's Road East.

On premises.

84 Morrison Hill Road. On premises. Tsun Wan.

800 Nathan Road, Kowloon. 8 Matheson Street, 1st floor.

17 Cameron Road, Kowloon. On premises.

358 Prince Edward Road, Top fl.,

Kowloon.

2 Sui Wab Terrace, 1st floor. 120 Johnston Road, Wanchai. On premises.

32 Lee Tung Street, Wanchai.

60 Takuling Road, 1st floor. 4 Saifee Terrace, Kowloon. On premises.

17 Ki Lung Street, 2nd floor, K'loon. 378 New Territory Road, 3rd floor. On premises.

3 Tin Lok Lane, 3rd floor.

699 Nathan Road, 1st & 2nd floors,

Kowloon.

On premises.

46 Cheung Sha Wan Road,

2nd floor, Shamshuipo.

S

1 Waterloo Road, Kowloon. 150 Fa Yuen Street, Mongkoktsui. 193 Wanchai Road, 1st floor. 22 Kai Tack Bund, Kowloon City. 6 Fort Street, North Point.

On premises.

10 Po Shan Road.

52

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

L-Continued.

Lee Shu-sing

Lee Sik-chau

Lee Tao-nan Lee Tat

Lee Tat-Wing Lee Tse-yen Lee Wa-chue

Lee Wai-cheong. Lee Wai-tong Lee Woon-foo.....

Lee Yook-tong

Leghorn, John Kenneth

Leiper, Gerald Andrew.....

Leitão, Eduardo Ignacio

Read

Leitch, James Rea...

Lemin, Herbert George...... Leon, Caesar Augusto Leon, Luiz Francisco........ Leonard, Norman Lionel... Leonard, Stanley Lawrence.

Leong, Albert William

Edward

Leong Chong-to..... Leong Futt-yeow Leong Ngai-pooi..............

Leong Sai-yin Leong, Thomas Leong, Victor Clarence

Leong Yi *Leopoldt, Carl.......

Lessan, Francisco de la Page Leuenberger, Andre Mare...

Leung Chak-man Leung Chenk-pan

Leung Cho-n

Leung Chu-wing

Leung, Edwin

Leung Fuk-kwong Leung Hew-fung Leung Hing Leung Hong-kin Leung Hung-fan Leung In-wing Leung Kam-tong Leung Kwok-yni Leung Po-shan Leang Pong-im Leung Pui-kam

Leung Pui-yim Leung Pun-san Leung Shin-tak

Assistant, Rudolf, Wolff & Kew, Ld..............| 351 Des Voeux Road West. Meter Inspector, China Light & Power

Co., Ld.

Banker, Bank of Communications Clerk, Waters & Watson

Clerk, Manufacturers Life Ins., Co. Assistant, Chase Bank

Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Clerk, John D. Humphreys & Co., Ld. Secretary, The Swedish Trading Co................... Clerk, Chase Bank

Chinese Agent, Canadian Pacific S.S.,

Ld.

Chief Traffic Inspector, H.K. Tramways,

Ld. Sub-Accountant, Chartered Bank of

India, Australia & China

Asst., China Underwriters, Ld. Draughtsman, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., L

Salesman, Texas Co. (China), Ld.. Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Assistant, Optorg Co. (Malaya), Ld... Assistant, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold

Storage Co., Ld.

Assistant, Manufacturers Life Insurance

Co.

Clerk, Dunlop Rubber Co. (China), Ld.... Clerk, Marsman H.K. China, Ld. Attorney, Loke Yung Cheong

Clerk, Dunlop Rubber Co. (China), Ld..... Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Assistant Compradore, H.K. Land

Investment & Agency Co., Ld......................

Partner, D. A. Purves & Co. ............. Merchant, Melchers & Co.

Shipping Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld. Merchant, Nestle & Anglo-Swiss

Condensed Milk Co. Shroff, Texas Co. (China), Ld. Compradore, C. Bubler

Assistant, The Swedish Trading Co.............. Assistant, Chase Bank.

Bookkeeper, Seymour Sheldon Co. Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Clerk, Anderson & Ashe......

Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld.. Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co....... Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Assistant Manager, Yeung Fat & Co. 1st Cashier, Java-China-Japan Line Clerk, Lane, Crawford, Ld. Clerk, W. A. Hannibal & Co., Ld. Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Merchant, Globe Trading Co. Clerk, H.K. & China Gas Co., Ld.

5 Lung Kong Road, Ground floor,

Kowloon City.

On premises.

50 Morrison Hill Road.

45 Bute Street, 1st floor, Kowloon. Po Ku School, Nathan Road, K'loon. 498 Nathan Road, Kowloon. On premises. On premises.

38 Un Chaŭ Street, Top floor,

Shamshuipo.

24 Kai Tack Road, Kowloon City.

On premises.

8 Aigburth Hall, May Road.

124 Waterloo Road, Kowloon Tong.

On premises. On premises.

8 Austin Avenue, Kowloon. 8 Austin Avenue, Kowloon. 41 Kennedy Road,

41 Kennedy Road.

4 Fort Street. 59 Bouham Road.

4 Fuk Wing St., Ground fl., K'loon. 161 Sai Yeung Choi Street, 2nd

floor, Mongkoktsui. 778 Hollywood Road, 1st floor. 29 Old Bailey Street.

42 Cheung Sha Wan Road, 2nd

floor, Shamshuipo.

36 Bedford Road, 1st floor. Longsight Villa, 2 Victoria Road,

Pokfulam. Tsun Wan.

290 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. On premises.

6 Sai Un Lane.

On premises.

99 Jaffé Road, Ground fl., Wanchai. 27 Stanton Street.

4 Koon Ma Terrace, Happy Valley.

82 Peel Street, Ground floor.

2 Sai Yeung Choi St., Mongkoktsui. On premises. Ou premises.

526 Nathan Road, 3rd A., Kowloon. 6 Tin Lok Lane.

27 Wongneichong Road,

11 Fleming Road, 3rd floor.

31 Bute Street, Gr. fl., Mongkok tsui. 141 Sai Yee Street, Mongkok tsui. 753 Nathan Road, Kowloon. On premises.

67 Pokfulam Road, 1st floor.

53

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

L-Continued.

Leung Shui-po Leung Shui-wan.

Leung Sik-hong Leung Sik-kai

Leung Tien-yam Leung Tien-yau.......... Leung Tin-kau

Leung Tsai.............

Leung Tsun

Leung Wa-king Leung Wai-cheung

Leung, Wesley George Leung Wing-cheung Leung Wing-sik.........

Leung Yu

Leung Yun-bung Lew, Edmond....

Lew, John Lew Sin Lewis, Edgar Li Ching-fun ..

Li Chiu-lung Li Choi-young

Li Chor-chi

Li Fook-shun

Li Hon-ning

Li Kai-ping.... Li Koon-pak Li Kwan-hung

Li Kwan-shek

Li Kwok-hung Li Kwok-yan

Li Lam-sang

Li Man-hi

Li Man-wai

Li Pin-cheng Li Pui-fong Li Shui-yuen Li Shun-see

Li Sui-wing Li Tsze-tsoi Li Wa-fun Liang Chi-shiu Liang Hon-chih Liang, William

Liang Ying-swee

Liebenschutz, Piet Vincent

Constantijn Eduard Liedke, Ludwig Carl.. Lieu Jensen

Lik Sing-poon

Lim Cheng-joo

Clerk, Butterfield & Swire Foreman, China Light & Power Co., Ld.

Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld....... Assistant, American Asiatic Under-

writers, Fed. Inc., U.S.A. Manager, Hoy Yuen

Contractor, Hoy Yuen

Shipping Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld. Manager, Banker & Co., Ld. Draughtsman, G. G. Hewlitt & T. Fung. Assistant, Macao Jockey Club Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld.. Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Salesman, China Ink & Lacquer Co., Ld.. Assistant, Warner Bros., First National

Pictures (China), Inc. Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Assistant, Chase Bank

Assistant Engineer Instructor, Far East

Flying Training School Ld..... Sampler, Franklin Laboratory Draughtsman, Davies, Brooke & Gran Exchange Broker......

Assistant Book-keeper, American

Express Co., Inc.

Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co. Clerk, China Export Import & Bank

Co., Ld.

Sub-Accountant, Oversea-Chinese

Banking Corporation, Ld................. Clerk, The P. & O. Banking Corporation,

Ll.

Clerk, Deutsche Farben Handelsgesell-

schaft (L. Waibel & Co.) Merchant, St. Francis Hotel Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Clerk, Chinese Estates, Ld.

Clerk, The P. & O. Banking Corporation,

Ld.

Clerk, Bodiker & Co.

Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld.

Secretary, Wo Fat Sing, Ld. and other

Companies

Clerk, Sworn Measurers' Office

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Assistant, Andersen, Meyer & Co., Ld... Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld. Clerk, Bodiker & Co.

Assistant, Deutsche Farben Handelsge-

sellschaft Waibel & Co....... Compradore, Davie, Boag & Co., Ld.... Clerk, Sworn Measurers' Office. Assistant, Shewan. Tomes & Co. Merchant, King's Theatre Representative, Asia Life Insurance Co. Compradore, Optorg Co., (Malaya) Ld... Correspondent, Swie Hong Handel

Maatschappij, N.V.

Assistant, Java-China-Japan Liue, N.V. Merchant, Siemssen & Co.

Assistant, Texas Co. (China), Ld.. Clerk, Himly, Ld....... Sub-Accountant, Oversea Chinese Banking Corporation, Ld..

On premises.

33 Sung Street, 1st floor, Kowloon

City.

29 Tung Choi Street, Mongkoktsui.

10 Russell Street, Top floor. On premises.

On premises.

On premises.

19 Shelley Street.

259 Queen's Road West, 2nd floor. 76 Wellington Street, 2nd floor. On premises.

4 Fort Street, 1st floor.

9 Lok Shan Road, Tokawan Road.

82 Hollywood Road, Top floor. 30 D'Aguilar Street. 384 Lockbart Road.

422 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. 50 Haiphong Road, Top fl., K’loon. 53 Fook Wah Street, Kowloon. C/o. A. & S. Hancock,

10 Heard Street, 2nd floor, Wanchai. On premises.

3A Kennedy Street, 1st floor.

37 Kai Tack Bund, Kowloon City.

21 Graham Street Central, 2nd floor.

392 Portland Street, Mongkok. On premises. On premises. On premises.

33 Elgin Street, Ground floor. 210 Jaffé Road, Ground floor. 61 Cheng Yung Street.

23 Seymour Road.

P. & O. Building, 6th floor. On premises.

101 Hennessy Road.

101 Ki Lung Street, 2nd floor. 29 Mosque Junction,

29 Mosque Junction.

9 Ngan Mok Street. On premises.

790 Nathan Road, Kowloon. 26 Victory Avenue, Homuntin. 2 Illumination Terrace. 199 Johnston Road.

On premises.

On premises.

On premises. Ou premises.

32 Connaught Road Central.

Chinese Y.M.C.A., Kowloon,

54

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

L-Continued.

Lim En-tet

Lim Hock-aun

Lim Kim-chong

Lim Kim-choon

Lim, James Anthony....

Clerk, Hume Pipe (Far East), Ld. Storekeeper, Hume Pipe (Far East), Ld. Cashier, General Amusements, Ld. Assistant, General Amusements, Ld. General Assistant, H.K. Rubber Manu-

facturing Co., Ld.

Lima, Luiz Gonzaga de...... Assistant, Green Island Cement Co., Ld.

Lin Ho-wah

Linaker, John...

Lindars, Thomas

Linennen, Frederick

Ling Kam-hon Ling Shu-ping Ling Woon-pan

Liu Tsung-yao

Lloyd Lionel Malcolm

Snape

Lloyd, Norman Duplan Lo Chung-wan.

Lo Hing-tong

Lo Ho-kee

Lo Ho-pang

Lo Hung-fan

Lo Kai-hong Lo Koon-ming Lo Ku-him ... Lo Kwan-wai.. Lo Man-kwong

Lo Pak-him Lo Pun-wai

Lo Shau-yan

Lo Suen-wing

Lo Sui-shing

Lo Tai-yau.

Lo Tat-man Lo Wing-moon

Lo Ying-yuen.. Lo Yiu-wah Lock, Andre Lock, Thomas

Loh Meng-choon

Lok Iuh-kuin

Lok Ping-cho

Accountant, Thomas Le C. Kuen & Co.. Sworn Measurer, Sworn Measurers'

Office

Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Ld.

Assistant, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold

Storage Co., Ld....

Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co. Clerk, Deutsche Farben Handelsgesell-

schaft (L. Waibel & Co.)

Assistant Manager, China Assurance

Corporation, Ld.

Assistant, Manufacturers Life Ins. Co.... Manager, Engineering Department Compradore, Nederlandsche Handel-

Maatschappij, N.V.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld.] Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Assistant, Seymour Sheldon & Co.

China

Manager, Kai Hong Trading Co. Assistant, General Electric Co. of China. Merchant, W. H. Comstock & Co., Ld... Assistant, Lane, Crawford, Ld.. Clerk, Sworn Measurers' Office Clerk, Reiss, Bradley & Co., Ld. Clerk, Lane, Crawford, Ld. Assistant, Store-keeper, General Electric

Co. of China, Ld.

Compradore, Ed. A. Keller & Co., Ld.... Engineer, Little, Adams & Wood

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld......

Assistant, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld... Agent, West Coast Life Ins. Co. of

San Francisco

Clerk, South British Insurance Co., Ld... Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld.. Clerk, Central Trading Co.

Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Assistant Chemist, Taikoo Sugar

Refining Co., Ld.

Chemist, Arnhold Trading Co., Ld.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld..

Longfield, Geoffrey Phelps. Assistant Flying Instructor, Far East

Longfield, Stuart

Loo Yeung-po

Loo Yuen-pok Loong Tsun-ying.

Flying Training School, Ld.

Electrical Engineer, Hong Kong

Electric Co., Ld.

Clerk, Nestles Milk Products (China),

Ld.

2nd Cashier, Java-China-Japan Line.. Mercantile Assistant, Arnhold Trading

Co., Ld.

11 Nanking Street, 1st fl., Yaumati.

9 Mile Castle Peak Road.

46 Village Road.

46 Village Road.

56F Belcher Street, 1st floor,

Kennedy Town.

ޕ

5 Nanking Street, 3rd fi., Yaumati. 32 Boston Street, 2nd floor.

On premises.

On premises.

18 Morrison Hill Road. 50 Tak Ku Ling Road. On premises.

29 Tung Choi Street, 1st floor,

Mongkoktsui.

73 Hill Road.

Courtland Hotel. Arnhold & Co., Ld.

On premises. On premises. On premises. Ou premises.

4 Pottinger Street, 1st floor. 77 Pokfulam Road, Ground floor. 60 Fuk Wing Street, Shamshuipo. On premises.

222 Queen's Road East, 2nd floor. On premises.

206 Lockhart Road, 1st floor. 222 Queen's Road East, 2nd floor.

164 Cheung Sha Wan Road, 2nd

floor, Shamshuipo. 20 Po Yee Street, 3rd floor. Wang Hing Building.

21 Sai Kung Road, 2nd floor,

Kowloon.

27 Shelley Street.

70 Morrison Hill Road. On premises.

On premises.

118 Taipo Road, Top floor.

11 Dragon Road.

808 King's Road.

Chinese Y.M.C.A.

On premises.

271 (Flat C.) Prince Edward Koad,

Kowloon.

H.E.C. Qrts., 1 Duddell Street.

31 Yick Yam Street, Happy Valley. 210 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

138 Queen's Road West, 2nd floor.

;

NAME IN FULL.

55

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

L-Continued.

Lopes, Americo Augusto Lopes, Carlos Augusto Lopes, Clementino

Leonardo Lopes, Dellano Vicente Lopes, Dinarte Ferrer Lopes, Fernão Henrique

Lopes, Secundino Antonio Louey, Sui Duc

Louie, Edward

Louis Kai-hing

...

Loureiro, Francisco José da

Silva

Loveless, Edward William Lovett, George Stanley. Low, George Anthony

Low Khin-ling

Low, Thomas

Clerk, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co. Assistant, Bank Line, Ld.

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co....... Assistant, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China Manager, Jolop & Co....

Manager, Kowloon Motor Bus Co.

(1933), Ld.

11 Ashley Road, Kowloon. 17 Soares Avenue, Homuntin.

21 Granville Road, Kowloon. 21 Granville Road, Kowloon. 21 Granville Road, Kowloon.

21 Granville Road, Kowloon.

12 Dorset Crescent, Kowloon Tong.

On premises.

Clerk, Dunlop Rubber Co. (China), Ld... 25 Lee Yuen Street. Clerk, Kelly & Walsh, Ld....

Clerk, H K. & Shanghai Bank Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld.

On premises.

3 & 3A Canton Villas, Kowloon. 197 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

Merchant, The Organic Fertilizer Co., Ld. 14 Queen's Road Central. Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co.

Assistant, Arnhold Trading Co., Ld.................]

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire

Low, Victor Thomas

Engineer, Palmer & Turner

Accounting Department, British

Low, William

Lowig, Hans Lucas, Lothar.

Lueer, Heinrich

Lui Chuen

Lui Chung-sun Lui Hing-ling...

Lui In-tso

Luk Che-hing. Luk Ho-hoi Luk Man-lok

Luk Ting-cheung Luk, Wingay Luke Oi Wan

Lum, Matthew Maria

Lum, Wilkie

Lundberg, Gosta Mauritz .. Lung Tin-tong

Lunny, James Francis Lunson, Thomas H.

......

Luz, Arthur Francisco da... Luz, Francisco José da

Luz, Frederico Gustavo da

Luz, Henrique Francisco da

Luz, José Alberto da..... Luz, Juan Victor da Lye Joon-seng

Lyle, David Laird

253 Lockhart Road, 3rd floor.

205 Johnston Road, 3rd floor,

Wanchai.

On premises.

23 Stafford Road, Kowloon Tong.

American Tobacco Co. (China), Ld...] 260 Lockhart Road.

Assistant, Repulse Bay Hotel Merchant, Deutsche Farben

Handelsgesellschaft (Waibel & Co.)... Salesman, Deutsche Farben-Handels-

gesellschaft (Waibel & Co.) General Foreman, Texas Co. (China),

Ld.

Assistant, J. M. Alves & Co., Ld................... Clerk, National Aniline & Chemical

Co., U.S.A..

Merchant, National Aniline & Chemical

Co., U.S.A......

Clerk, Kian Gwan Co. India, Ld. Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld.. Assistant, H.K. Land Investment &

Agency Co., Ld

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Assistant, Seymour-Sheldon Co. Chinese Insurance Manager, New Zealand Insurance Co., Ld. Clerk, Wallace, Harper & Co., Ld.

Merchant, Wing On Fire & Marine

Ins. Co., Ld.

Engineer, Swedish Trading Co., Ld....... Assistant Cashier, Bank of East Asia,

Ld.

Engineer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld, Stock Superintendent, Dairy Farm, Ice

& Cold Storage Co., Ld.

Assistant, Netherlands Trading Society... Clerk, China Light & Power Co.,

Ld.

Clerk, The P. & O. Banking Corporation,

Ld.

Secretary, H.K., Canton & Macao

Steamboat Co., Ld.

Assistant, Netherlands Trading Society. Clerk, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld. Salesman, Advertising & Publicity

Bureau

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld.

On premises.

15 Hillwood Road, Kowloon.

R.B.L. 174, Pokfulam Road,

Tsun Wan.

5 Staunton Street, Top floor.

15 Po Yan Street, 3rd floor.

72 Wellington Street, 1st floor. 226 Jaffé Road, 1st floor. On premises.

32 Elgin Street, 2nd floor. On premises.

56 Caine Road.

14 Arbuthnot Road.

175 Sai Yeung Choi Street, 1st floor,

Mongkoktsui.

8 O'Brien Road, Wanchai.

38 Kennedy Road.

On premises.

H.E.C. Qrs., 12 Causeway Hill.

Claymore, Pokfulam. On premises.

11 Liberty Avenue, Homuntin.

14 Carnarvon Road, Kowloon.

64 Macdonnell Road. On premises.

26 Granville Road, Kowloon.

86 Caine Road.

Quarry Bay.

NAME IN FULL.

}

56

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

L- Continued.

Lyle, John

Lynevitchice, Nicolas

Ramon...

Lyon, David

Lyon, David

M

Ma Fung-shu Ma Henry Lee

Ma Hung, Joseph

Ma Kwok-hong

Ma Lai-fai

Ma Ronald

Ma Shum-ka

Ma Wai-lum

Ma Wing-fat

* Maa, Maxwell

Maberly, Charles Robert

MacAlister, Donald

Macaskill, Kenueth

Roderick

MacDonald Angus John

Henry

Macdonald, Joseph...

Mine Manager, H.K. Clays & Kaolin

Co., Ld.

Director, Cathay Ceramics Co., Inc. Electrical Engineer, China Light &

Power Co., Ld.

Mercantile Assistant, Jardine, Matheson

& Co., Ld.

Foreman, H.K. Mines, Ld... Manager, Sincere Ins. & Investment

Co., Ld,

Secretary, A. B. Moulder & Co., (1934)

Ld.

Compradore, Chase Bank

Shift Supervisor, H.K. Mines, Ld........ Secretary, The Sincere Co., (Perfumery

Manufacturers) Ld.

Compradore Assistant, Chase Bank Assistant, Davie, Boag & Co., Ld........... Clerk, China Emporium, Ld. Assistant, Der A Wing & Co., (1923)

Ld.

Draughtsman, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Architect, Palmer and Turner

Assistant, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co,, Lủ.

Clerk, Canadian Pacific Steamships, Ld. Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Ld.

Macdonald, Thomas Rose... Mercantile Assistant, Jardine, Matheson

MacEwen, David Walter Macfarlane, Alexander

Macfarlane, James Nimmo. Macfarlane, William

MacGregor, David Duncan.

MacGregor, John Kenneth

Ruthven

MacGregor, Robin

Christopher Farrar

Antonio

Machado, Francisco

MacIndoe, Andrew......

MacIntyre, Thomas John

Blackwell

& Co., Lư.

Assistant, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co... Engineer, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold

Storage Co., Ld...... Wharf Manager, Holt's Wharf Engineer, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold

Storage Co., Ld......... Sub-Accountant, Chartered Bank of

India, Australia & China

Assistant, Caldbeck, Macgregor & Co.,

Ld.

Merchant, Caldbeck, Macgregor & Co.,

Ld.

Assistant, China Provident Loan &

Mortgage Co., Ld..

Cash Manager, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld.

22 Village Road.

110 Boundary Street, Mongkok.

On premises.

16 Humphreys Building, Kowloon.

On premises.

79 Wongneichong Road, 1st floor.

41 Lee Garden Street. 5 Ning Yeung Terrace. On premises.

3 Arbuthnot Road.

5 Ning Yeung Terrace.

50 Western Street, 2nd floor. 30 Leighton Hill Road.

2B Boundary Street, Kowloon.

On premises.

12 Bay View Mansions.

On premises.

Courtland Hotel.

North Point Installation.

304 The Peak. On premises.

Ice Works, East Point, Highlands, Austin Avenue, K'loon.

Ice Works, East Point.

161 The Peak.

On premises.

On premises.

23A Cameron Road, Kowloon.

..

Quarry Bay.

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineer-

ing Co., of H.K. Lď.

Mackenzie, Andrew Neilson Assistant Engineer, H.K. & Kowloon

Mackenzie, Alexander

Mackenzie, Alexander

Kenneth

Wharf & Godown Co., Ld. Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co.

Merchant, Harry Wicking & Co., Ld. ...

On premises.

Y.M.C.A., Kowloon.

49 Kimberley Road, Kowloon.

Hong Kong Club.

NAME IN FULL.

57

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

M--Continued.

Mackenzie, David........

Mackenzie, John Murdo

Mackintosh, Charles Edward

Mackintosh, Frederick

Alexander..... Madar, Ahmed Husain Madar, Mahmud Pillay Madar, Thomas Andrew

Maher, Antonio Paulo Maher, Francis William

Maher, Marcus Maria........ Mai, Ludwig Hubert Dr.

Main, Robert

Mak Lai-yim Mak On-tai

Mak Shiu-ping

Mak U-mui.....

...

...

Malcolm, Alexander Man Kin Hanwy Tung.. Manalac, Roman Jesus Manning, Ernest..... Mansfield, William Robert..

Mansukhani, Atmaran

Udharam..... Manton, Alfred Joseph

Marçal, Henrique Oscar......

Mardulyn, Perre.........

Margrett, Harold Chitherow

Mark Chan-harr................ Markar, Cassim Gafoor...... Markar, Ebrahim Rumjahn.

Marle, Karel Eduard Van...

Marques, Carlos Vicente Marques, José Daniel

Marques, Luiz Gonzaga Marques, Luiz Zeferino

Marques, Roberto Estevão. Marriott, George Michael...

Marriott, Henry.

Marshall, Adam

Marshall, Herbert Marshall

Martin, Alfred John James Martin, James Buckland

Superintendent Engineer, H.K. &

Kowloon Wharf & Godown Co., Ld... Assistant, Freight Department,

Canadian Pacific S.S., Ld.

Assistant, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China

Manager, Mackintosh's, Ld. Assistant, A. F. Arculli & Sons... Assistant, A. F. Arculli & Sons... Manager, Twentieth Century Fox

Federal Inc., U.S.A.

Overseer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Shipwright Diver, H.K. & Whampoa

Dock Co., Ld.............

Assistant, Texas Co. (China), Ld................... Assistant Manager, Deutsche Farben

Handelsgesellschaft (Waibel & Co.).. Draughtsman. Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co., of H.K. Ld.

Clerk, National City Bank of New York. Clerk, H.K. & China Gas Co., Ld.................

Accountant Clerk, Texas Co. (China),

Ld.

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.......

Engineer, Malcolm & Co., Ld.

Assistant, Oriental American Agencies, Clerk, R. J. Manalac

Assistant, John D. Hutchison & Co... Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld......

Accountant, The Standard Press, Ld. Building Superintendent, National City

Bank of New York Clerk, Nederlandsche Indische

Commercial Bank, N.V. Accountant, Banque Belge pour

l'Etranger, (E.O.) S.A..... Manager, General Electric Co. of China

Ld.

Manager, China Emporium, Ld. Clerk, Holland China Trading Co., Ld.......... Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld..................、

Cashier, Nederlandsche Handels

Maatschappij, N.V.

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld..

Assistant, H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co.,

Ld.

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China.... Reception Clerk, H.K. Hotel Merchant, Caldbeck, Macgregor & Co.,

Ld.

Sergeant of Police, H.K. & Whampoa

Dock Co., Ld,

Shipbuilder, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Salesman, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.

Clerk, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co. Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

1 Pratt Building, Kowloon.

172-174 Sai Yenug Choi Street,

Mongkoktsni.

41 Waterloo Road,

270 The Peak.

Kowloon.

8 Fuk Kwan Avenue, Tai Hang Hill. 8 Fuk Kwan Avenue, Tai Hang Hill.

On premises. Wanchai Substation.

On premises. On premises.

524 Coombe Road, Magazine Gap.

On premises.

47 Belcher's Street West, 2nd floor. 101 Yu Chau Street, 1st floor,

Shamshuipo.

On premises.

287 Lockhart Road, Top floor. On premises.

4 Queen's Road East, 1st floor. 14 Fort Street. 19 Babington Path.

454 The Peak.

17 Robinson Road.

2 Queen's Road Central.

793 Nathan Road, 1st floor,

7 St. John's Apartments.

295 The Peak.

68 Robinson Road. 357 Lockhart Road,

449 Lockhart Road.

On premises.

9 Leighton Hill Road.

On premises.

306 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

K'loon.

11 Soares Avenue, Homuntin.

230 Nathan Road, Top fl., Kowloon,

On premises.

On premises.

On premises.

Sunshine Bungalow, Kennedy

Road.

36 Humphreys Building, Kowloon. 353 The Peak.

NAME IN FULL

58

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

M-Continued.

Martin, Lawrence Anthony

Martin, Thomas Archdale... Master, Rustam Jehangir...

Mathieson, Neil

Mathieu, Pierre Benjamin... Matthews, Charles Buchan

Matthews, Eric Arthur Matthews, William

Matti, Alfred Frederick

Gerald....

Mattos, Augusto Arthur Maueishagen, Walter..... Maurice, Matthew Stephen Mauricio, Alfred Joseph Maxwell, John Jex

Maxwell, Peter

May, George Thomas

May, Oscar Wilhelm

Octavio

Maycock, John Henry Maycock, William George.. McAlpine, Archibald.... McArthur, Andrew

McClatchie, John Dermot... McConnell, Walter John McCormack, John

McFerran, David

McKay, Hugh Stewart

McKellar, Alexander.....

McKelvie, John.

McKenny, Robert Ashton,

McKenzie, Daniel

Assistant, John D. Hutchison & Co.

Proprietor, T. A. Martin & Co. Electrical Engineer, China Light &

Power Co., Ld.

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Manager, Optorg Company (Malaya), Ld. Draughtsman, Taikoo Sugar Refining

Co., Ld.

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Ld.

Sub-Manager, Peninsula Hotel

Clerk, Mercantile Bank of India, Ld. Engineer, Bornemann & Co. Clerk, American Express Co., Inc. Physical Instructor

Assistant, H.K. & Kowloon Wharf &

Godown Co., Ld.

Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Representative, Confederation Life

Association (of Canada)

Manager, Bodiker & Co. Engineer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Clerk, A. Dransfield

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineering

Co. of H.K., Ld.

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineering

Co. of H.K., Ld...... Engineer, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold

Storage Co., Ld.........

Electrical Engineer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Assistant, Mackinnon, Mackenzie &

Co., L.

Boilermaker, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Cashier, The P. & O. Banking

Corporation, Ld....

Clerk, Peacock Motion Picture Co., Inc..

McKenzie, William Louis... Chartered Accountant, H.K. Telephone

McKibbin Robert

McLachlan, James John McMullen, Temple Edmund.

McNeill, Robert James

McPherson, James...

Medina, Matthew Joseph Meffan, Norman Dunn

Mehal, Haq Nawaz

Mehal, Wali Mahomed Meier, Haus Melrose, William

Men Chang, Harry

Co., Ld.

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co., of H.K. Ld. Assistant, Texas Co. (China), Ld. Assistant, Canadian Pacific Steamships,

Ld.

Assistant Engineer, China Light &

Power Co., Ld.

Coppersmith, FI.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Clerk, H.K. Tramways, Ld. Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld. Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.

Clerk, Banque de l'Indo Chine Merchant, F. Feld & Co. Draughtsman, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld. Investor, Dak Lai Co., Ld.....

212 Sai Yeung Choi Street,

Mongkoktsui.

7 Branksome Towers,

474 Nathan Road, Kowloon. On premises.

65 Wong Nei Chong Road.

$14 King's Road. 353 The Peak.

Taikoktsui Installation.

On premises.

18 Mau Lam Street, Yaumati. Longsight Villas, 2 Victoria Road. 3 Stuart Road.

88 Caine Road, 2nd floor.

37 Hankow Road, Kowloon. 281 Lockhart Road.

8 Hart Avenue, Kowloon.

Ellenbud Villa, Sassoon Road. 21 Shouson Hill.

2 Shouson Hill.

On premises, 11th floor.

Quarry Bay.

10 The Peak, 10 The Peak.

Quarry Bay.

Dairy Farm Co., Pokfulam. H.E.C. Quarters, 6 Causeway Hill.

On premises.

On premises.

Courtland Hotel.

480 Prince Edward Road, 1st floor,

Kowloon,

Peninsula Hotel.

On premises.

On premises.

38 Kennedy Road.

Farraday Building, Hok Un, K'loon..

On premises.

111 Leighton Hill Road.

Quarry Bay.

19 Fung Fai Terrace, 2nd floor,

Kowloon.

446 Nathan Road, Kowloon. Woodbrook, 2nd floor, Pokfulam.

Quarry Bay.

12 Tung Cheong Building, 1st floor,

Kowloon.

}

59

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

M-Continued.

Mendes, Antonio José

Francisco Nogueira ...

Mendes, Francisco Xavier

de Nogueira Mendonça, Marciano Fran- cisco Machado de Merrick, Harvie Wardman..

Meunger, Werner Meyer, Joseph George Mian Shiau-wei

Michaelson, James..

Millar, Robert.....

Millard, Cyril Edwin...

Miller, Horace Morgan

Miller, James Chalmers

Mills, Norman

Milne, George

Mills, Henry William Minoot, Alfred Minshall, Sidney Winton ...

Minu, Abdul Karim Minu, Abdul Rabim.... Mitchell, Alan Stephen......

Mitchell, James George

Mo Kung-ting Mody, Felix Hurley Mohammed, Abdul Gunni...

Moir, Archibald Black

Mok Chow-tim

Mok Hing-cheong Mok Hing-fan Mok Hing-kong Mok Kam-chan.

Mok Man-yue... Mok Yu-yan Mon Yan-mak Monaghan, Thomas

Christopher Montalto, Diniz Alecto Moors, Henry Leonard

Moosa, Sheik Morales, Luiz Gonzaga Morgau, Alfred Eric

Morgenstern, Nikolaus ...... Morosov, Vladimir Nicolas.

Morris, Walter James

Morrison, John Alexander

Duke

Assistant, H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co.,

Ld.

Clerk, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld. ......

Assistant, John D. Hutchison & Co....... Acting District Manager, Confederation

Life Association (of Canada) Chef, Gloucester Hotel Assistant, Mackintosh's, Ld. Assistant, China & South Sea Bank, Ld. Assistant Mill Superintendent, H.K.

Mines, Ld.

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Store-keeper, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Luo

Wharfinger, H.K. & Kowloon Wharf &

Godown Co., Ld.................

Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Ld.

Caretaker, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

(S.C.) Ld.

Assistant Secretary, Dairy Farm, Ice &

Cold Storage Co., Ld.

Assistant, Standard Vacuum Oil Co....... Accountant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Sworn Measurer, Sworn Measurers'

Office

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld............. Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.

Foreman, Taikoo Sugar Refining Co.,

Ld.

Assistant, J. M. da Rocha & Co. Exchange Broker

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld..

Engine Works Manager, Taikoo Dock-

yard & Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld.. Clerk, Deutsche Farben Handelsgesell-

schaft (Waibel & Co.) Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Clerk, Sworn Measurers' Office Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Clerk, Butterfield & Swire Clerk, Butterfield & Swire Clerk, Butterfield & Swire

Clerk, R. C. A. Communications Inc.

Catering Supt., Canadian Pacific S.S., Ld. Clerk, Dollar Steamship Line..... Engineer, H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co.,

Ld.

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld... Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Assistant Secretary, Chamber of

Commerce

Assistant, Wallace, Harper & Co., Ld. Civil Engineer, China Construction Co.,

Ld.

Overseer, H.K. Land Investment &

Agency Co., Ld...................

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

On premises.

354 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

17 Soares Avenue, Homuntin.

On premises.

On premises.

225 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. 1 Caroline Hill Road, 1st floor.

On premises.

On premises.

On premises.

Y.M.C.A., Kowloon.

On premises.

On premises.

Alandale, Pokfulam. Laichikok Installation. 4B Hart Avenue, Kowloon.

On premises.

314-6 Hennessy Road, 3rd floor. 314-316 Hennessy Road.

3 Basilea, Lyttelton Road.

10 Braemar Terrace, Quarry Bay. 12 Prince's Terrace, Ground floor. Metropole Hotel.

19 Fung Fai Terrace, 2nd floor,

Kowloon.

Quarry Bay.

43 Tai Street, 2nd floor.

On premises.

159 Tung Choi Street, Mongkoktsui

On premises.

On premises.

On premises.

On premises.

8 Canal Road, Wanchai.

54 The Peak.

74 Waterloo Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

411 Hennessy Road, 2nd floor. 21 Kwong Ming Street, 3rd floor.

28 Hankow Road, Kowloon. 70A Nathan Road, Kowloon.

20 Jordan Road, Kowloon.

Innings Glen, Babington Path.

On premises, 11th floor.

NAME IN FULL.

60

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

M-Continued.

Morrison, Peter

Morrison, Robert

Morse, Arthur

Morton, Howard Peter

Mose, Carlo

Motta, Antonio José da.....

Mouatt, James Lawrence Mow Fung, Frederick

Charles

Mueller, Hans Herbert Mui Chak-sang Muir, William Campbell

Mundy, Hector Herbert...... Munro, Donald

Munro, Kenneth Andrew Munze, Captain Albert ...... Murphy, Edward Owen......

Murphy, John

Murray Alastair Hamilton.

Murray, Gilbert Ramsey

Murray, Ian Norman

Muskett, William Herbert

Basil

Mercantile Assistant, Jardine, Matheson

& Co., Ld.

Boilermaker, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Assistant, China Light & Power Co.,

Ld.

Assistant, Lloyd Triestino Principal, Eastern Manufacturers'

Agents

Assistant, Thomas Cook & Son, Ld.

Salesman, Kunst & Albers Assistant, Petersen & Co. Butcher, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold

Storage Co., Ld... Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Draughtsman, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K. Ld. Assistant, Gilman & Co., Ld. Cargo Suprientendent, Anderson & Ashe Accountant, H.K. & Shanghai Hotels,

Ld.

Wharfinger, H.K. Yaumati Ferry Co.,

Ld.

Assistant Res. Sec., Manufacturers Life

Insurance Co.......

Meter Superintendent, China Light &

Power Co., Ld.

Deputy Manager, China Light & Power

Co., Ld.

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.

354 The Peak.

On premises.

On premises, 8th floor.

474 Nathan Road, Kowloon. 147 Waterloo Road, Kowloon.

47c Robinson Road. Marble Hall, Kowloon.

43 Hau Wong Road, Kowloon City. 4 Ashley Road, Kowloon. On premises.

90 Waterloo Road, Top fl., 127 Robinson Road.

On premises. On premises. 66 Caine Road.

Peninsula Hotel.

1A Austin Road, Kowloon.

Empress Lodge, Kowloon.

Kowloon.

25 Kent Road, Kowloon Tong.

6 Rutland Quadrant, Kowloon Tong.

2 Somerset Road, Kowloon Tong.

N

Nag Cheung Tak

Napoloff, Alexis...... Nazarin, Razee

Needham, Charles Francis Neill, Francis John

Nelson, Richard Edward

Harrington....

Nemazee, Mohamed Netland, Paul Anthony.....

Neves, Antonio Carles Neves, George Alberto Neves, João Maria dos

Neves, Martin Vicente Newhouse, Geoffrey

Newlin, Joseph Elwood......

Newman, Stanley Frederick

Newton, Edward Albert

Robert

Neyle, Victor John

Ng Chan-kwan

Director, Denis & Co., Ld... Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Secretary, Harry, Wicking & Co. Storekeeper, H.K. Telephone Co., Ld.... Assistant Engineer, Green Island

Cement Co., Ld.............

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Merchant, H. M. H. Nemazee Assistant Manager, American Express

Co., Inc.

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Overseer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China. Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Engineer, H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co.,

Ld.

Assistant Passenger Agent, Dollar

Steamship Co.

Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refining

Co., Ld.

Merchant, Nestle & Anglo-Swiss

Condensed Milk Co. Chief Engineer Instructor, Far East Flying Training School, Ld.. Chief Clerk, H.K. Telephone Co., Ld.

On premises. On premises.

453 Lockhart Road.

Towers, 20 Broadwood Road.

12 Carnarvon Road, Kowloon.

353 The Peak. 12 Peak Road.

4 Conduit Road. 8 Glenealy.

H.E.C. Quarters, West Point.

14 Jordan Road, Kowloon. 25 Lock Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

Peninsula Hotel.

812 King's Road.

260 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

28 Cumberland Rd., Kowloon Tong. 19 King Kwong Street, 2nd floor.

NAME IN FULL.

61

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

N-Continued.

Ng Chan-wah..... Ng Chee-ping... Ng Cheung-fart. Ng Chung-chew.. Ng Chi-chung Ng Chi-man

Ng Ching-kong

Ng Fook-man

Ng Frank

Ng Hang-on

Ng Hong-hiin..

Ng, James Ernest

Ng Kam-man

Ng Kang-ching Ng Kim-chau Ng Man

Ng Pak-king

Ng Shou-mei

Ng Soon-tuck. Ng Sze-yuk

Ng To-chiu...

Ng Tsang-chi..................

Ng Tse-tat

Ng Wai-man Philip Ng Wai-yeu Ng Wing-hong

Ng Wing-kee..

Ng Yip-chung

Ng Yip-kow

Ng Yip-shing

Ng Yuk-shang Ng Yun-tin....

Nicholls, Frederick Stephen

Nicholls, George Alfred

Nickson, Derek Nielsen, Haus Egede Nimmo, James

Ning, William

Nish, Hugb...

Noblet, Rene

Nocht, Helmut Eduard

Bernhard...

Nodes, William Oliver Noronha, Anthony Francis

Noronha, Angusto Antonio.

Noronha, Diago Julius Noronha, Eduardo Antonio. Noronha, Guilherme

Antonio

Apprentice, Texas Co. (China), Ld. Salesman, Texas Co. (China), Ld. Clerk, Java-China-Japan Line Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Merchant, Kwong Tat & Co. Clerk, Nestle & Anglo-Swiss Condensed

Milk Co.

Assistant, South British Insurance Co.,

Ld.

Cashier, Bodiker & Co.

Assistant, Swan, Culbertson & Fritz.. Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Assistant, Chase Bank Bookkeeper, Williamson & Co. Clerk, Chau Yue Teng

Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co.

Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co....... Managing Director, Far East Shipping

Co., Ld.

Assistant, South British Insurance Co.,

Ld.

Assistant, Deutsche Farben Handels- gesellschaft (Waibel & Co.).. Merchant, Luk Hoi Tung & Co., Ld........... House Manager, Chi Min Entertainment

Ld.

Assistant, Chase Bank

Assistant, Kwangsi Provincial Import

& Export Syndicate

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Broker, Payne & Co.

Clerk, American Express Co., Inc. Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Assistant, China Provident Loan &

Mortgage Co., Ld.

Clerk, St Francis Hotel Clerk, Deutsche Farben

On premises. On premises.

10 Yick Yam Street. On premises.

1 Leong Fei Terrace, 2nd floor.

7 To Li Terrace, Kennedy Town.

On premises.

90 Argyle Street, 2nd floor, Kowloon. 27 Hollywood Road,

3 Old Bailey Street, 1st floor.

9 Queen's Road East.

235 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

7 To Lee Terrace.

44 Russell Street. On premises.

84 Morrison Hill Road.

On premises.

19 Ngan Mok Street, Causeway Bay.

67 Gloucester Road.

1 Mosque Street.

85 Lockhart Road, 1st floor.

On premises.

On premises.

7 To Li Terrace.

35 Shin On Street, Sai Wan Ho. 165 Electric Road.

18 Cheung On Street, 1st floor,

Kowloon City.

58 Robinson Road, Top floor.

Handelsgsellschaft (Waibel & Co.)... 357 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. Clerk, World Auxiliary Insurance

Corporation, Ld.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Clerk, Butterfield & Swire Assistant, Jardine Engineering Corpora-

tion, Ld.

Charge Engineer, China Light & Power

Co., Là.

Acting Manager, Hong Kong Hotel ...... Agent, The East Asiatic Co., Ld. Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K. Ld. Clerk, S. E. Levy & ( o................... Sworn Measurer, Sworn Measurers'

Office

Assistant, Messageries Maritimes

Merchant, Helmut Nocht

Undertaker, Brown, Jones & Co. Assistant, Credit Foncier d'Extreme

Orient

Assistant, H.K. Canton & Macao

Steamboat Co., Ld.

Clerk, Mercantile Bank of India, Ld.... Clerk, Green Island Cement Co., Ld.

Clerk, China Light & Power Co.,

Ld.

1 Queen's Road West.

On premises.

On premises.

Y.M.C.A., Kowloon.

Farraday Building, Tai Wan Road,

Kowloon.

On premises.

5 Abermor Court, May Road.

On premises.

7 Hankow Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

128 Kennedy Road, Top floor.

1 Stubbs Road. On premises.

27 Ashley Road, Kowloon.

49 Kimberley Road, Kowloon. 31 Ashley Road, Kowloon. 49 Kimberley Road, Kowloon.

20 Hillwood Road, Kowloon.

!

62

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

N-Continued.

Noronha, Henrique Antonio.

Noronha, José Eduardo...... Noronha, Ricardo Luiz

Duarte...

Norris, Edgar Charles

Nother, Herman Fritz Otto. Nunes, Melchiades Tiago

Clerk, National City Bank of New

York Contact-man, Swan, Culbertson & Fritz.

Foreman, H.K. Engineering &

Construction Co., Ld...... Electrical Engineer, General Electric

Co. of China, Ld... Manager, Maison F. Mathieu S.A. Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.

20 Hillwood Road, Kowloon. 5 Victory Avenue, Homuntin.

311 Nathan Road, 1st floor, K'loon.

Knutsford Hotel, Kowloon. Royal Court Hotel.

572 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

Odell, Harry Oscar

Ogley, Wilfred Clarence O'Hoy, Sheow Len

O'Hoy, Suey Len

Oi Kwock.pang Okada, Yasoji O'Kieffe, Donald

Olaes, Alberto Ambrosio

Olaes, Edward Cornelius

...

Oliphant, Reginald Godfrey

Lawrence

Oliveira, Marcus Antonio... Oliveira, Oscar Mirandolino

dos Santos

Oliver, George Kenneth Olofinsky, Vsevolod................

Olsen, Alexander Short-

land.... Olsen, Christopher Alfred... Omar, Kassim Mahomed Omar, Osman Mohammed... Omar, Rumjahn Mahomed... Omar, Usuff Mohomed Ong Choo-kim

Oon Siong-ho...

Oon Tek-seng.

Orchard, William Edwin

...

Orr, William

Osborne, Alfred Richard

Managing Director, International

Investments, Ld.

Assistant, Lane, Crawford, Ld. Assistant Compradore, Dollar Steamship

Line

Compradore, Dollar Steamship Line

Branch Supt., Wing Coffee Co. Manager, Tsurutani & Co., Ld. Banker, Chase Bank

Mercantile Assistant, Jardine, Matheson

* Co., Ld.

Clerk, Jardine Engineering Corporation,

Ld.

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Clerk, Green Island Cement Co., Ld...... Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Maitre d'Hotel, H.K. & Shanghai

Hotels, Ld......

Assistant, Swan, Culbertson & Fritz. Assistant, Douglas Steamship Co., Ld.... Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Assistant, China Coast Traders... Assistant, Ellis & Edgar....

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Hotels, Ld. Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Ld.

Manager, Ye Wo Yuen

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld................

Assistant, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Timekeeper, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld.

Osborne, Patrick William... Attendant, Central Showroom, H.K. &

Osmund, Alberto José Osmund, Carlos Frederico... Osmund, Ernest Edgar

Osmund, Lionel Filomeno... Osmund, Luiz Augusto......|

O'Sullivan, John.......

Oswald, William Robert

China Gas Co., Ld.

Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co.......] Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co....... Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co.,

Ld.

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank. Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld...................

Assistant, H.K. Meat & Dairy Produce

Co.

Draughtsman, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld.

9 Ho Mun Tin Hill, Homuntin. 381 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

2 Ching Fung Street, 2nd floor.

8 Tin Hou Temple Road, 3rd floor,

Causeway Bay.

90 Nathan Road, Kowloon. 17 Kennedy Road, 1st floor. 26 Conduit Road.

14 Tung Cheong Building, Kowloon

21 Mosque Junction.

353 The Peak.

7 Torres Building, Kowloon.

36 Kimberley Road, Kowloon. On premises.

On premises.

Greenacres, Fanling. Greenacres, Fanling.

355 Hennessy Road, 2nd floor. 63 Hysan Avenue, Top floor. 376 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor. 207 Wanchai Road, Ground floor.

On premises. On premises.

12 Peel Street, 2nd floor. 18 Kennedy Terrace. Hong Kong Club.

Quarry Bay.

13 Stafford Road, Kowloon Tong. 8 Jordan Road, Kowloon. 10 Tung Cheong Building, K'loon.

1 Liberty Avenue, Homuntin. 29 Jordon Road, Kowloon.

109 Waterloo Road, Kowloon.

12 Seymour Terrace.

Quarry Bay.

NAME IN FULL.

63

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

●—Continued.

Overy, Hubert

Owens, William Waugh

Ozorio, Antonio de Padua... Ozorio, Fausto Maria.......

Ozorio, Gussy Maria

Ozorio, José de Graça

Manager, Wm. Powell, Ld. Engineer, China Light & Power Co.,

Ld.

Typist, Texas Co., (China) Ld. Assistant Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

(S.C.) Ld.

Clerk, H.K. Tramways, Ld.

Assistant, H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co.,

Ld.

Ozorio. Leopoldo Augusto... Clerk, Nederlandsch Indische

Handelsbank, N.V.

3 Minden Avenue, Kowloon.

On premises. Tsun Wan.

On premises.

10 Tung Cheong Building, Kowloon.

On premises.

St. Joseph's Building, Block A,

1st floor.

P

Pak Wan

Palmer, George Thomas Palmer, Henry Thomas....

Office Boy, H.K. Mines, Ld. Assistant, Bradley & Co., Ld. Store-keeper, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld.

Palmertz, Bartil Waldemar. Manager, Universal Pictures Corpora-

Palvie, Arthur Pan Quin, Willie Pan Sba-feng.

Pang Kok-sui..........

Pang Pun-sang

Pang Wai-kam

Park, George McKechnie...

Park, William

Parker, Robert Geoffrey Parkinson, James Dawson

Parks, Philip Barron.........

Parragh, Tibor Parsons, Douglas Nairn

tion of China

Assistant, Gilman & Co., Ld... Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld.] Clerk, Imperial Chemical Industries

(China), Ld.

Ship Broker, George Grimble & Co....... Assistant, South British Insurance Co.,

I.d.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Chief Engineer, Asistic Petroleum Co.,

(S.C.) Ld

Sub-Accountant, Chartered Bank of

India, Australia & China Architect, Leigh & Orange.. Electrical Engineer, China Light &

Power Co., Ld.

Metallurgist, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Engineer, Lee Yu Kee

....

Mercantile Assistant, Advertising &

Publicity Bureau, L.....

Parsons, Thomas Maurice... Mercantile Assistant, Jardine, Matheson

Partier, Henry Vincent...... Parton, Francis Leopold Pasco, Boris

Paterson, Brian O'Donnell... Paterson, Thomas Garner... Paton, James Roxburgh

Paton, Thomas Dickie

Pattara, Sotirios Pantazi

Pattison, Frederick

Kingsley.....

Pau Hin

Pau Man-lok

Paul, Alfred Frank.

Paul, Donald Keith

& Co., Ld.

Engineer, Chien Hsin Engineering Co.... Assistant, Douglas Steamship Co., Ld.......... Bookseller, Harris Book Shop

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Consulting Engineer, Anderson & Ashe. Manager, Sun Life Assurance Co. of

Canada

Butcher, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold

Storage Co., Ld.....

Assistant Cafe Manager, Lane, Craw-

ford, Ld..

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard and

Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld.

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Clerk, Lane, Crawford, Ld.

Electrical Engineer, H.K. Electric Co.,

Ld.

Assistant, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold

Storage Co., Ld.

On premises.

3 Homuntin Street, Homuntin.

Quarry Bay.

4 Luna Building, Kowtoon. On premises.

On premises.

On premises.

13 Man Chung Fung.

On premises. On premises.

On premises.

7 Tregunter Mansions. On premises.

Kowloon Tong Substation, 128 Waterloo Road.

Ou premises.

15 Ashley Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

1 Stubbs Road.

4 Hillwood Road, 1st fl., Kowloon. 5 Hankow Road, Kowloon.

15 Dragon Terrace, Causeway Bay,

1st floor.

353 The Peak.

196 The Peak.

Taipo.

8 Aimai Villas, Kowloon.

6в Hankow Road, Kowloon.

Quarry Bay.

On premises.

2 Ladder Terrace.

H.E.C. Quarters, 1 Causeway Hill.

25 Hillwood Road, Top floor,

Kowloon.

i

64

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

P-Continued.

Pavri, Pheroz Kawasji Pavri, Rustom Khurshedji Payne, George Richard...... Pearce, Thomas Alexander. Pearne, George Henry

Tardue

Pearne, John Reginald

Anthony

Pearson, Alfred Edward......

Pedersen, Kaj Westergard

Pendergast, William John...

Peoples, David

Pereira, Carlos Eduardo

Roza

Pereira, Carlos José Maria...

Pereira, Cornelio Charles ...

Pereira, Fernando Pedro Pereira, Firmino Maria

Pereira, João Patricio Pereira, João Victor

Pereira, Joseph Anthony Pereira, Thomas Maria

Peres, Luiz Antonio

* Pestonji, Rustom

Peters, William Henry

Petersen, Fritz Petherick, Vivian

Pethick, Harry Hathaway... Petrie, Richard

* Pfister, Charles

Philippens, Adolphe Marie

Gishlain Phoon Chan-hoi..

Phoon, Hyim

Pigott, Richard Stephen

Pilgrim, Clifford Gran Pincott, Michael Peter

Ping Chung Poon, Henry... Piona, Alberto Ruy de Pinna, Carlos Luis Petronilo

* Pinna, Henrique Roldão de

Pinna, José Mathias

K. S. Pavri & Sons Merchant, K. S. Pavri & Sons Managing Partner, Payne & Co. Assistant, John D. Hutchison & Co.

Manager, Victoria Radio Shoppe

Representative, R.C.A. Communications.

Draughtsman, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Assistant, Sander, Wieler & Co.

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineer-

ing Co. of H.K., LJ.

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard and

Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld.

Clerk, National City Bank of New York. Assistant, Caldbeck, MacGregor & Co.,

Ld.

*

Assistant Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

(S.C.) Ld.

Clerk, Dollar Steamship Line Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co.,

Ld.

Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Ld.

Clerk, Mercantile Bank of India, Ld...... Clerk, National City Bank of New York

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.

Share Broker, Benjamin & Potts Secretary to Oriental Manager, Canadian

Pacific S.S., Ld.... Partner, Petersen & Co. Wharfinger, H.K. & Kowloon Wharf

& Godown Co., Ld. Attorney, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co... Assistant Manager, Kunst & Albers Pastry Chef, Peninsula Hotel

Agent, Manufacturers Life Insurance Co. Clerk, World Auxiliary Ins. Corp., Ld...

Chinese Manager, World Auxiliary

Insurance Corporation, Ld. Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

(S.C.) Ld.

Rep., Parke, Davis & Co. Assistant Cafe Manager, Lane, Craw-

ford, Ld.

Clerk, H.K. Jockey Club Stables Clerk, China Light & Power Co., Ld. Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China

Acting Secretary, Far East Aviation

Co., Ltd.

Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China

...

Pinna, Mario Francisco de... Accountant, H.K. Brewery & Distillery,

Pinto, João Mariano

Pirenne, Maurice Hubert

Ld.

Clerk, Mercantile Bank of India, Ld. Manager, Banque Belge pour l'Etranger

(E-O) S. A.

32 Wyndham Street.

32 Wyndham Street. 14 Tai Hai Road. 299 The Peak.

276 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

106 Waterloo Road, Ground floor,

Kowloon.

On premises.

4B King's Park Mansions, 23 Austin

Avenue, Kowloon.

Quarry Bay.

Quarry Bay.

8 Tung Cheong Building, Kowloon.

On premises.

On premises.

25 Cameron Road, Kowloon.

3 Nanking Street, Kowloon.

1 Rednaxella Terrace.

On premises.

3 Carnarvon Road, Kowloon. 3 Saifee Terrace, Nathan Road, Ground floor, Kowloon.

165 Sai Yeung Choi Street, Mong-

koktsui.

8 Humphreys Building, Kowloon.

358 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. On premises.

3 Humphreys Building, Kowloon. 459 The Peak. Peninsula Hotel. On premises.

290 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. 55 Cheung Sha Wan Road, 1st floor,

Shamshuipo.

46 Wing Lok Street.

North Point Installation. Gloncester Hotel.

57 Wongneicbong Road. 24 Village Road.

25 Kimberley Road,3rd fl., Kowloon.

29 Jordan Road, Kowloon.

25 Kimberley Road, Kowloon.

375 Nathan Road, Top fl.,

72 Waterloo Road, 1st fl., 3 Ashley Road, Kowloon.

Gloucester Hotel,

Kowloon.

Kowloon.

NAME IN FULL..

65

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

P-Continued.

Piry, George

Platt, James Westlake

Poi Eng-poh

Pollock, Archibald...

Pollock, Samuel James......

Pomeroy, Henry William Pomeroy, John Bernard

Pong King-cheong....

Poon, Colin....

Poon Kei-yeung.

Poon King-wong Poon Kwong-ho.

Poon Kwong-san

Potouloff, Sviatoslav

Nicolas

Potter, Alan Stauley Power, John Charles... Pragnell, Charles Frederick

Prata, Fernando Augusto .

Prata, Frederico.....

Prata, Manuel Gonzaga... Prata, Mario Americo Price, Eliezer Richard

Priest, William James

Proulx, Benjamin Charles

Albert...

Provan, James Doig

Pun Chuck-hang Pun Iu-tung Pun Kwong-kuen

Pun Kwong-yin

Pun Tat-ming Pun Yau-hung

Pun Yun-hoi

Purves, Lancelot Dryden

...

Assistant Store-keeper, Far East

Oxygen & Acetylene Co., Ld. Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Ld.

Service Manager, Wallace Harper &

Co., Lư.

Assistant, Advertising & Publicity

Bureau, Ld.

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld. Accountant, Far East Motors.... Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co.,

Ld.

Kowloon Showroom Attendant, H.K. &

China Gas Co., Ld.

Assistant, Compradore, Ed. A. Keller &

Co., La.

Assistant, H.K. Land Investment &

Agency Co., Ld.... Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Clerk, Banque de L'Indo Chine Clerk, China National Aviation

Corporation.......

...

Steward, Repulse Bay "Lido" Mercantile Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Merchant, H.K. Motor Accessory Co. Representative, Confederation Life

Association (of Canada) Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Electrician, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Reception Clerk, Peninsula Hotel Receiving Clerk, Peninsula Hotel.. Assistant Secretary, Chamber of

Commerce

Mercantile Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld.

Film Distributor, Paramount Films of

China Inc.

Engineer, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ltd.

Clerk, Sworn Measurers' Office Clerk, Sworn Measurers' Office Sugar House Foreman, Taikoo Sugar

Refining Co., Ld.............

Clerk, Underwriters Savings Bank for

the Far East, Inc.

Cashier, S. J. David & Co.... Merchant, Lee Yu Kee

Clerk, China Light & Power Co., Ld.

Proprietor, D. A. Purves & Co.

12 Moon Street, 1st floor.

On premises.

12 Fort Street.

4 Minden Avenue, Kowloon.

On premises.

79 Wongneichong Road.

224 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

1 Ripon Terrace.

117 Leighton Hill Road.

191 Wuhu Street, 1st floor.

Li Kwan Avenue.

5A Ying Fai Terrace, Ground floor.

68 Robinson Road, 1st floor.

5 Bungalow, Repulse Bay.

2 Bisney Villas.

27 Kimberley Road, Kowloon.

210 Tung Choi Street, Mongkoktsui, 2 Lochiel Terrace, Cameron Road,

Kowloon.

On premises.

On premises.

2 Cameron Road, Kowloon.

Derrington, Macdonnell Road. 4 Fort Street.

Erinville, Tytam, Island Road.

On premises..

On premises.

On premises.

806 King's Road.

51 South Wall Road, 1st floor,

Kowloon City.

8 Haven Street, 1st floor. On premises.

115 Sai Yee Street, 2nd floor,

Mongkoktsui.

Kowloon Hotel.

Q

Quan Shu, John..........

Quick, Kenneth Raymond...

Quie, Joseph Leslie

Quin, Alfred Elliott

Assistant, Bank of Canton, Ld.................. Assistant, Imperial Chemical Industries

(China), Ld.

Secretary, Humphrey's Estate &

Finance Co. Ld. Merchant, C. H. Rolfe

31 Mosque Junction.

On premises.

21 Homuntin Street, Homuntin. 169 Boundary Street, Top floor,

Kowloon.

NAME IN FULL.

66

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

Q-Continued.

Quinlan, Edward Quinn, Alfred Maria Quon, Lyman

R

Rahumed, Abdul Kadir Railton, Norman Leslie

Howard

Rakusen, Manassah Nat Ram, Kache Ramjahn, Jahn Mahomed

Adul

Ramsay, Alfred William

Leonard Ramsay, Thomas Ramsey, William Lysaught.

Randall, Benjamin Cutler Randall, Harold Victor Cross Randall, Herbert Wells...... Randle, Joseph Arthur

Bryant...... Rapley, Frederick Louis

Raptis, Andrew John Rathour, Hakim Singh Rathour, Rangit Singh ...... Rathsam, Charles Edward...

Raven, Arthur Robert

Fenton......

Ray, Edward Henry Razack, Ahmed Abdul

Razack, Ismail Moosa

Abdul

Razack, Mohammed Izhaq.. Razack, Mohammed Usaf... Razaver, George Raymond.

Read, Alfred Leonard

Sydney

Read, Charles Isaac Reason, Harry

Reed, Francis Oswald

Reed, George Turnbull ......

Reede, Johan Frederik

Godard Van

Reeves, James William......

Reid, George William

Reid, Henderson..

Reid, Raymond Macfarlane. Reis, José Manuel

Remedios, Alberto Luiz

Vieira

Assistant, Lane, Crawford, L. Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.......... Assistant, Canadian Pacific Steamships,

Ld.

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., La.

Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld. Manager, Philco Radio Distributors Clerk, Chase Bank

Assistant Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

(S.C.) Ld.

12 Taichang Road.

15A Granville Road, Kowloon.

313 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

118 Caine Road.

113 The Peak. 4 Village Road.

19 Ching Fung Street, Ground floor.

On premises.

141 Waterloo Road, Kowloon. Peninsula Hotel.

Secretary, Steam Laundry Co. Manager, Williamson & Co. Representative, Confederation Life

Association (of Canada) Share-broker, Benjamin & Potts Engineer, China Light & Power Co., Ld. Yaumati Sub-Station. Assistant, Lane, Crawford, Ld.

***

Engineer, W. S. Bailey & Co., Ld. Assistant Accountant, H.K. & China

Gas Co., Ld.

......

Proprietor, British Bicycle Co. Proprietor, H. S. Rathour & Co... Assistant, H. S. Rathour & Co.. Mercantile Assistant, John Manners &

Co.,

Ld.

Architect

Retired,

Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China

...

Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Assistant, Gilman & Co., Ld..... Passenger Agent, Canadian Pacific

Steamships, Ld.

Assistant, Davie, Boag & Co., Ld. Night Reception Clerk, H.K. Hotel Burner, Green Island Cement Co., Ld.... Assistant, H.K. Land Investment &

Agency Co., Ld. Superintendent Engineer, Furness,

(Far East), Ld.

Sub-Accountant, Netherlands Trading

Society

Meter Inspector, H.K. & China Gas

Co., Ld.

Installation Manager, Asiatic Petroleum

Co., (S.C.) Ld.

Wharf Manager, Holt's Wharf

Accountant. Standard-Vacuum Oil Co.... Assistant, H.K. & Shanghai Bank,

Kowloon

141 Waterloo Road, Kowloon. 167 Boundary Street, Kowloon

1 Prospect Place, Bonham Road.

160 Austin Road, Kowloon.

241 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. 16 Hennessy Road.

On premises.

On premises.

On premises.

2 North View Bungalow, Shaukiwan

Road.

6 Macdonnell Road.

2 Fort Street.

2 Fort Street,

H.E.C. Quarters, 20 Ming Yuen. On premises.

1 Chatham Path.

16 Somerset Road, Kowloon Tong. 149 Sai Yee Street, Mongkoktsui, Hok Un Works, Kowloon.

8 Broadwood Road.

Y.M.C.A., Kowloon.

On premises.

14 Hee Wong Terrace, 1st floor.

North Point Installation. Highlands, Austin Avenue,

Kowloon.

23 Lyemoon Building, Kowloon.

220 Nathan Road, Kowloon,

Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld... 68 Robinson Road.

NAME IN FULL,

67

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

R-Continued.

Remedios, Alfredo

Frederico dos Remedios, Alvaro Antonio

de Souza Remedios, Antonio

Vandenberg

Remedios, Arthur Reginaldo Remedios, Augusto Maria... Remedios, Carlos Antonio

Ribeiro

Remedios, Carlos Augusto

dos.

Remedios, Carlos Francisco

dos

Remedios, Carlos Henrique

Vieira

Remedios, Edmundo Alberto

dos

Remedios, Eduardo Manuel

dos

Remedios, Edward Albert

Vincent

Remedios, Fernando José... Remedios, Francisco Xavier

d'Almada...

Remedios, Geraldo Maria

Placé

Remedios, Gustavo

Vandenberg

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Bookkeeper, Ye Olde Printerie, Ld.

Assistant, Pure Cane Molasses Co.

(H.K.), Ld......................

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Assistant, General Electric Co. of China,

Ld.

Cashier, General Electric Co. of China

Ld.

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Accountant, Kelly & Walsh, Ld.

Assistant, H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co.,

Ld.

Rec. Clerk, Repulse Bay Hotel

13 Tung Cheong Terrace, Kowloon.

41 Waterloo Road, Kowloon.

13 Knutsford Terrace, Kowloon. 34 Fort Street, 2nd floor. 6 Humphreys Avenue, Kowloon.

43 Tai Street, 1st floor, Kowloon

City.

300 Nathan Road, 2nd floor,

Kowloon.

72 Waterloo Road, Kowloon.

8 Mosque Junction,

On premises.

On premises.

12 Seymour Terrace, 2nd floor.

Assistant, China Light & Power Co., Ld. 29 Granville Road, Kowloon.

Accountant, General Electric Co. of

China, Ld. ....

Accountant, H. B. Joseph & Co.

Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China..

Australia & China

Remedios, Hector Cesar dos. Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Remedios, Helder Augusto

Ribeiro

Remedios, Hugo Mareus

dos

Remedios, Jorge Augusto... Remedios, Jorge Maria

Ozorio dos

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld..

Assistant, James H. Backhouse, Ld....... Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Chief Clerk, Mercantile Bank of India,

Ld.

Remedios, José Antonio dos. Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Remedios, José Julita

Remedios, Leonardo Maria. Remedios, Leonardo Maria

dos

Remedios, Leonel José Remedios, Luiz Atanasio

dos

Remedios, Luiz Antonio

Ribeiro

Remedios, Luiz Gonzaga Remedios, Mario dos Remedios, Maximiano

Antonio dos

Canton, Ld.

Assistant Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

(S.C.) Ld.

Stenographer, Connell Bros. Co., Ld......

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld..............

Assistant, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co....... Mill Supervisor, H.K. Mines, Ld.

Assistant, David Sassoon & Co., Ld.......

8 Liberty Avenue, Homuntin.

30 Hillwood Road, Kowloon.

13 Knutsford Terrace, Kowloon.

11 Hart Avenue, Kowloon.

23 Tai Street, 1st floor.

3 King's Terrace, Kowloon. 568 Nathan Road, 1st fl., Kowloon.

10 Jordan Road, Top floor, Kowloon.

12 Tung Cheong Building, 2nd floor.

On premises.

571 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

29 Kimberley Road, Kowloon.

29 Granville Road, Kowloon.

356 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

9 Nanking Street, 3rd floor,

Yaumati.

9 Soares Avenue, Homuntin. On premises.

7 Tung Cheong Hong, 1st floor,

Kowloon.

:

68

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

R-Continued.

Remedios, Oscar Peter Revie, John

Reyes, Amado Cuevas

Ribeiro, Angelo Cecilio

Vieira

Ribeiro, Antão Emmanuel... Ribeiro, Augusto Illidio Ribeiro, Carlos Augustus de Jesus Vieira Ribeiro, Carlos de Monte

Carmelo Vieira, Jr......

Ribeiro, Daniel

Ribeiro, Eduardo Augusto...

Ribeiro, Fernando Alfredo

Vieira

Ribeiro, Francisco Xavier

Vieira

Ribeiro, Gilberto Henrique

Vieira

Ribeiro, Henrique Augusto Ribeiro, Henrique Augusto

Vieira

Ribeiro, João Francisco

Vieira

Ribeiro, Jorge Alberto Vieira Jr..... Ribeiro, Julio Carmo Vieira, Jr. Ribeiro, Lucio Maria

Vieira

Ribeiro, Luiz Antonio

Vieira

Ribeiro, Luiz Felipe Vieira Ribeiro, Luiz Gonzaga

Vieira

Ribeiro, Oscar Francisco, Jr. Ribeiro, Reinaldo Maria

Vieira

Ribeiro, Vicente Rogerio

Vieira

Ricci-Pereira, Antonio

Padua

Richmond, John Fletcher... Richter, Hans...... Rickett, Cedric Arthur Lacy Robarts, Roberto Maria......

Robb, David Scott....

Roberts, Archibald Hynes... Roberts, Charles Colling-

wood

Roberts, John Herber Roberts, Malcolm Lindsey

Roberts, William John

Drummond

Clerk, China Light & Power Co., Ld. Assistant, H.K, & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

9 Austin Avenue, Kowloon.

On premises.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld.. On premises.

Assistant Accountant, Texas Co.

(China), Ld.

Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co....... Overseer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld...................

On premises.

20 Granville Road, Kowloon. H.E.C. Quarters, Seymour Road.

Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld... 11 Hillwood Road, Kowloon.

Mercantile Assistant, Jardine, Matheson

& Co., Lử.

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld...........

Assistant, British-American Tobacco

Co., (China) Ld......................

Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld.

Gen. Accountant, Texas Co. (China),

Ld.

Chief Tester, China Light & Power Co.,

Ld.

Clerk, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld.

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.

Mercantile Assistant, Maxim & Co.

Assistant, Maxim & Co.

Assistant, Maxim & Co.

I Saifee Terrace, Kowloon. 35 Hankow Road, 3rd floor,

Kowloon.

237 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

12 Salisbury Avenue, Kowloon.

On premises.

2 Carnarvon Road, Kowloon. 20 Granville Road, Kowloon.

32 Hillwood Road, Kowloon.

11 Hillwood Road, Kowloon.

13 Ashley Road, Kowloon.

1 Minden Avenue, Kowloon.

Assistant, Mercantile Bank of India, Ld. 181 Sai Yee Street, Mongkoktsui.

Merchant, Economical Trading Co.

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Clerk, Lane, Crawford, Ld.

6 Jordan Road, 2nd floor, Kowloon.

6 Carnarvon Road, Kowloon.

16 Carnarvon Road, Kowloon.

7 Hillwood Road, Kowloon.

Clerk, The P. & O. Banking Corporation. 2 Gordon Terrace, Kowloon.

Assistant, Uuion Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.

Assistant, Graça & Co.

Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co....... Mercantile Assistant, P. J. Klink Stockbroker

Clerical Assistant, Jardine Engineering

Corporation, Ld............. Accountant, Lowe, Bingham &

Matthews

Manager, The Standard Press, Ld.

Sub-Manager, Butterfield & Swire Manager, British Cigarette Co., Ld. Assistant Mine Superintendent, H.K.

Mines, Ld.

Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

(S.C.) Ld.

126 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor.

183 Sai Yee Street, 1st floor,

Mongkoktsui,

114 The Peak.

7 Soares Avenue, Homuntin. French Bank Building.

21 Jordan Road, Kowloon.

6 Tregunter Mansions. 98 Robinson Road.

On premises. 114 The Peak.

On premises.

On premises.

69

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

R-Continued.

Robertson, John

Robertson, William

Robertson, William Gordon

Robinson, Jack Fraser

* Robinson, John Lancaster... Robson, Thomas Edward...

Rocha, Antonio João Lizola

Rocha, Carlos Lizola.........

Rocha, Claudio Lisola

Rocha, Edward Lizola Rocha, Epiphanio Maria da

Rocha, Henry Lizola Rocha, José Estevão

Rocha, José Gabriel Rocha, Luiz Antonio da Rocha, Mario Lizola.

Rocha, Ruy Marcos da Rockholtz, Georg Otto

Rodger, John Rodrigues, Alberto Antonio

Maria

Rodrigues, Antonio Joseph

Rodrigues, Carlos Augusto

de Carvalho Rodrigues, Carlos Henrique.

Rodrigues, Frederico João

Maria

Rolfe, Benjamin...................

Rome, Louis de Rosario, Adrião Patricio

Rosario, Lionel Enrico

Rosario, Luiz Alberto Rosario, Luiz Gonzaga Rosario, Pedro Manuel

Francisco.... Rosario, Sergio Flaviano Ross, John Kennedy Ross, John Walter.... Rosselet, Charles Simon...... Rossum, Rudolf Van

Rothe, Hans Joachim

Rother, Erich

Rouban, Michael John Rouffaer, Humphrey

Edmond

Assistant, H.K. & Kowloon Wharf &

Godown Co., Ld.........................

Accountant, American Express Co., Inc. Director, Pure Cane Molasses Co.

(H.K.), Ld.................... Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Proprietor, J. L. Robinson Engineer Superintendent, Furness (Far

East), Ld.

Assistant, Wallace Harper & Co., Ld.

Assistant Mill Superintendent, H.K.

Mines, Ld.

Mercantile Asst., Jardine, Matheson &

Co., Ld.

Salesman, Wallace, Harper & Co., Ld. Assistant, China Provident Loan &

Mortgage Co., Ld.

Mill Supervisor, H.K. Mines, Ld. Clerk, British-American Tobacco Co.,

Ld.

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Clerk, China Light & Power Co., Ld. Storekeeper, H.K. Brewery & Distillery,

Ld.

Merchant, J. M. da Rocha & Co. Marketing Assistant, Texas Co.

(China), Ld.

Merchant, Central Agency, Ld.

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.......

Assistant Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

(S.C.) Ld.

Clerk, Ellis & Edgar Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China

Clerk, Nederlandsch Indische

Handelsbank, N.V. Accountant, The P. & O. Banking

Corporation Ld.

Engineer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Clerk, Andersen, Meyer & Co., Ld.

Assistant, Reiss, Bradley & Co., Ld.......

Assistant, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld... Claims Clerk, Dollar Steamship Line

Clerk, China Light & Power Co., Ld. Assistant, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Merchant, Alex. Ross Motor Co. Assistant, Manufacturers Life Ins., Co... Theatre Manager, Star Theatre Accountant, Netherlands Harbour

Works Co.

Merchant, Deutsche Farben Handelsge-

sellschaft (Waibel & Co.)...... Merchant, Deutsche Farben Handelsge-

sellschaft (Waibel & Co.)... Book-seller, Kelly & Waish, Ld.

Assistant Manager, Java-China-Japan

Line.....

Kingsville Hotel, Kowloon. 13 Chatham Road, Kowloon.

173 The Peak. On premises.

Harbour View Hotel.

106 Waterloo Road, Kowloon. 232 Tung Choi Street, 1st floor.

Mongkoktsui.

On premises.

5B Chancery Lane, 1st floor. 183 Sai Yee Street, Mongkoktsui.

222 Wanchai Road. On premises.

27 Granville Road. Kowloon. 3 Broadwood Road.

215 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

6 King's Terrace, 1st floor, Kowloon. 215 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

1 Knight Street, Kowloon.

2 St. Joseph's Terrace, 1st floor.

On premises.

6 Knutsford Terrace, Kowloon.

St. Joseph's Villa.

St. Joseph's Villa.

Knutsford Hotel, Kowloon. H.E.C. Quarters, 7 North Point. St. Joseph's Building, 12 Robinson

Road.

St. Joseph's Building, Middle

Block, 12 Robinson Road. 27 Jordan Road, Kowloon. 16 Victory Avenue, Homuntin.

12 Austin Avenue, Kowloon. 12 Austin Avenue, Kowloon. 54 The Peak.

7 Village Road.

24 Broadwood Road.

Gloucester Hotel.

Y.M.C.A., Kowloon.

114 The Peak. On premises.

4 Conduit Road.

NAME IN FULL.

70

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

R-Continued.

Rounds, Kenneth Karl

Roza, Alvaro Antonio da ... Roza, Carlos Vicente Ferrer

da.......

Roza, Cesar Augusto da Roza, Crispinianò

Ignacio da

Roza, Eduardo Bruno da Roza, Edward Albert da

Roza, Henrique Arnaldo da. Roza, Julio Henrique da

Roza, Leandro Maria..... Roza, Louis Augusto de

...

Roza, Pereira Lionel Maria. Rozario, Antonio Joseph ... Rozario, Arthur Cornelio... Rozario, Carlos Francisco do. Rozario, Emerico Isidoro Rozario, Heliodoro

Francisco

Rozario, Henrique Alberto Rozario, Luiz Gonzaga ....

Rucker, Hans... Rudolff, Ingward Rull, Marcelino Joseph

Rumjahn, Abdul Mannan Rumjahn, Abdul Mannub Rumjahn, Habibullah

Dawood.

Rumjahn, Sheik Mobamed.. Rumjahn, Sirdar Ahmet ....

Rush, James Patrick.. Russell, John

Rutherford, Robert.................. Ryan, Lionel Ernest

Norwood.... Ryde, Derek Robert

Sub-Accountant, National City Bank of

New York

Broker, A. A. R. Botelho

Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China

Clerk, Mercantile Bank of India, Ld.

Mercantile Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Assistant, A. A. R. Botelho & Co....................... Bookkeeper, E. D. Sassoon Banking

Co., Ltd.

Clerk, Mercantile Bank of India, Ld. Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Assistant, Caldbeck, Macgregor & Co.,

Ld.

Assistant, Far East Aviation Co. Ld. Clerk, Linotype & Machinery, Ld. Clerk, National City Bank of New York Clerk, Dollar Steamship Line Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Office Assistant, H. K. Jockey Club...... Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Clerk, Nederlandsch Indische Handels-

bank, N.V....

Merchant, Globe Trading Co. Assistant, Melchers & Co.

Assistant Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

(S.C.) Ld.

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.

Clerk, Manufacturers Life Insurance Co.

Clerk, Holland China Trading Co., Ld. Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld....... Assistant Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

(S.C.) Ld.

Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refining Co., Ld. Engineer, C. E. Warren & Co., Ld.

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire

Agent, Canadian Pacific S.S., Ld...................... Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld

Peninsula Hotel.

7 Liberty Avenue, Kowloon.

5 Homuntin Street, Homuntin. 39 Caine Road.

18 Jordan Road, Kowloon. 7 Liberty Avenue, Homuntin.

10 Somerset Road, Kowloon Tong. 39 Caine Road.

558 Nathan Road, Kowloon. 39 Caine Road,

On premises.

7 King's Terrace, Kowloon, 15 Gap Road, Top floor. 38 Hankow Road, Kowloon. 35 Granville Road, Kowloon. 68 Parkes Street, Yaumati.

17 Ashley Road, Kowloon. 35 Granville Road, Kowloon.

35 Granville Road, Kowloon. On premises. Courtland Hotel.

On premises.

355 Hennessy Road, 3rd floor. 355 Hennessy Road.

235 Hennessy Road, Top floor. 40 Tang Lung Street, 1st floor.

On premises.

8 Braemar Terrace, Quarry Bay. 11 Bayview Mansions, Causeway

Bay. On premises.

Hong Kong Club.

17 Observatory Road, Kowloon.

S

Sabhan, Mohammed Sadick, Omar Rumju.

Sadick, Osman

Saenger, Willy Frederick... Saery-Siryk, Peter Julius... Sahmet, Ernest Manuel.....

Sai Hung-phoon, Rudy Sai Yick-cban

Sala, Robert Perez de la Sales, Reinaldo Camillo

Maria.

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld........

Accountant, Metropolitan Land Build-

ing, Ld.

Clerk, Ed. A. Keller & Co., Ld. Proprietor, P. J. Saery-Siryk & Co. Clerk, H.K. Engineering & Construction

Co., Ld.

Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co. Engineer, R.C.A. Victor Co. of China Merchant, John Manners & Co., Ld.......

Merchant, Arnhold Trading Co., Ld.......

453 Hennessy Road, 3rd floor.

52 Village Road.

52 Village Road, 1st floor. 29 Cumberland Road, Kowloon. 34 Hankow Road, Kowloon.

795 Nathan Road, 8th floor, K'loon On premises.

8 Tung Choi Street, Mongkoktsui. On premises.

6 Granville Road, Kowloon.

NAME IN FULL.

71

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

S-Continued.

* Salleh, Mohamed Ali.......

Salleh, Rajab Salleh

Salmon, Adolph .....

Salter, Alfred Walter

William

Sammon, Ernest Percy Samy, Abdul Rhaman

Mahomet

Samy, Arthur....... Sanchez, Francisco

Sander Wolfgang

Sanger, Richard Sansome, Robert James

Santos, Carlos Liberato dos Santos, Delfino Eduardo dos Santos, Guilherme Faustino Santos, Hermilho Pricio Santos, José Clemente Santos, Joseph Andrew. Santos, Vicente Paulo Sasso. Innocent Maurice Sauer, Georg Friedrich

Sauerbeck, Helmut

Sawyer, Edward Warren ... Scarpa, John

Clerk, Ed. A. Keller & Co., Ld. Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld..................

Merchant, Adolf Salmon & Co.

Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Bar Manager, Palace Hotel

Chief Meter Inspector, China Light &

Power Co., Ld.

Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Assistant, American Llloyds, Ld. Merchant, Sander, Wieler & Co....... Attorney, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co. Asst., Terminal Supt. Texas Co.

(China), Ld.

Assistant, Netherlands Trading Society Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Clerk, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld. Rec. Clerk, Repulse Bay Hotel Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Assistant, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Clerk, Linstead & Davis

Maitre d'hotel, H.K. Hotel. Pharmacist, China Export Import &

Bank Co., Ld.

Assistant Manager, Orient Tobacco

Manufactory

Chief Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld.... Agent, Lloyd Triestino

Schelkunoff, Valdimir Peter. Assistant, Pure Caue Molasses Co.

(H.K.), Ld......................

Schlotter, Johannes Petrus. Cashier, Nederlandsche Handel

Schmidt, Helmuth Schmidt, Richard Schreiber, Feodor

+

Schuldt, Guenther Schwob, Rudolf Hugo Scoones, Philip Hugo Scott, Barry Hodge

Seah Cheow-hong

Searle, Edward Valentine...

Seath, William Petrie

Seidler, Herbert

Selle, Pieter Bertus

Sequeira, Alfredo Jesus......

Sequeira, Augusto Dario Sequeira, Carlos Maria. Sequeira, Felizberto

Augusto

Sequeira, Henrique Remijio. Sequeira, João Octavio Sequeira, Luiz Alberto

Sequeira, Luiz Romano Sequeira, Secundino dos

Santos

Maatschappij, N.V.

Assistant, Melchers & Co. Manager, Carlowitz & Co. Mining Engineer, Marsman H.K.

China, Ld.

Mercantile Assistant, Melchers & Co. Manager, Siemens China Co.

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank, K'loon. Engineer Manager, H.K. & Whampoa

Dock Co., Ld........

Clerk, Kian Gwan Co. India, Ld.

Electrical Engineer, Jardine Engineer-

ing Corporation, Ld.

Foreman, Taikoo Sugar Refining Co.,

Ld.

Manager, Van Reekum Bros.

(Amsterdam), Ld. ....

Cashier, Nederlandsch Indische

Handelsbank, N.V.

Serviceman, Central Radio Service

Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co....... Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co.......

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Broker, F. L. Silva..... Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Assistant, Caldbeck, MacGregor & Co.,

Ld.

Assistant, John D. Hutchison & Co.....

419 Hennessy Road.

8 Victory Avenue, Homuntin. 73 Seen Keen Terrace, Causeway

Bay.

On premises.

213 Fa Yuen Street, Mongkoktsui.

457 Lockhart Road.

88 Bonham Road.

7 Salisbury Avenue, Kowloon. 528 The Peak.

402 The Peak.

Tsun Wan. Ou premises. On premises.

222 Wanchai Road.

79B Wongneichong Road. 31 Nam Lung Street, 1st floor. 29 Caine Road, 1st floor. 13 Mosque Junction. On premises.

On premises.

90 Waterloo Road, Kowloon. Tsun Wan.

16 Homuntin Hill, Homuntin.

141 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

Ellenbud, Sassoon Road. Caerlon, Pokfulam Road.

47 Grampian Road, Kowloon City. Woodbrooke, Pokfulam Road.

5 Carnarvon Building, Kowloon. On premises.

On premises.

201 Ki Lung Street, 2nd floor,

Shamshuipo.

92 Waterloo Road, Kowloon.

812 King's Road.

Repulse Bay Hotel.

8 Conduit Road, 1st floor. 12 Granville Road, Top floor,

Kowloon.

27 Stafford Road, Kowloon Tong. 9 Soares Avenue, Homuntin.

146 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

1 Rednaxella Terrace.

12 Granville Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

9 Soares Avenue, Homuntin.

Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co....... 16 Jordan Road, Kowloon.

NAME IN FULL.

72

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

S-Continued.

Servanin, Paul Fernand... Seth, Harold Seth, William Clark Sewell, George William Sham, Percy Samuel

Shank, Charles Leroy

Shannon, Oliver John

Sharp, William

Shaw, Eric Ernest Liddell

O'Neill

Shaw, John Archibald Shaw, Joseph Hilton...

Shea, Edward Francis

Shea, William Albert Shek Pui-kie Shen Chong-kong, Christopher...

Shim Wai-chong Shing Fat-choi Shing Wing-poon Shiu Yuen-li Showpan, Timothy Shum Hon-chuen Shum Tsze-chung Siew Tham-yuen Silkstone, Albert Edmund... Silva, Alberto Augusto......

Silva, Alfred Maria da Silva, Ambrosio Cezar da Silva, Antonio Francisco

Paula da

Silva, Antonio Padua Eça

da....

......

Silva, Arnaldo Heitor Silva, Carlos Maria da Silva, Daniel Oswald Oliver

da......

Silva, Francisco Britto

Peres da

Silva, Francisco Maria da...

Silva, Francisco de Paula

da........

Silva, Francisco Xavier......

Silva, Francisco Xavier

Maria da

Silva, Frederico Eugenio Silva, Frederico Noberto da Silva, George Honorio da... Silva, Henry Edward Eça da

Silva, João Maria

Silva, Jorge Alberto Britto

da....

Silva, José Machado Nolasco da

Branch Manager, Crown Life Ins., Co.... Passage Broker, Himly, Ld. Partner, Travel Advisers Merchant, Robertson, Wilson & Co., Ld. Assistant, John D. Humphreys & Son,

Ld.

Contractor, Blackburn, Basto & Shank,

Ld.

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

18 Kennedy Road, 1st floor. 2 Conduit Road.

134 Kennedy Road. On premises.

On premises.

21 Broadwood Road. 10 The Peak.

Secretary, Manufacturers Life Ins. Co.... 260 Prince Edward Road,

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co....... Stores Superintendent, China Light &

Power Co., Ld.

Secretary to Passenger Agent, Canadian

Pacific Steamships, Ld..... Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Accountant, Bank of East Asia, Ld.

Salesman, United States Rubber Co., Ld.

Agent, Asia Life Insurance Co...... Assistant, Kwanan Trading Co........... Clerk, Sincere Co., Ld.

Assistant, China Travel Service Analyst, Franklin Laboratory.. Typist, Swan, Culbertson & Fritz Merchant, Globe Trading Co. Stock Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld.. Manager, Moutrie & Co., Ld...... Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.....

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld.

Assistant, General Electric Co. of

China, Ld.

Clerk, H.K., Canton & Macao Steam-

boat Co., Ld.

Assistant, Linstead & Davis Assistant, China Light & Power Co., Ld.

Insurance Agent, Sun Life Assurance

Co. of Canada

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Accountant and Cashier, Pure Cane

Molasses Co. (H.K.), Ld.

Assistant, Netherlands Harbour Works

Co.

Assistant Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

(S.C.) Ld.

Assistant, Netherlands Trading Society... Assistant, Green Island Cement Co., Ld.. Storekeeper, H.K. Mines, Ld............. Engineer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld...

Clerk, Banque Franco-Chinoise

Broker,

Assistant, P. M. Nolasco da Silva.................

On premises. 114 The Peak.

Hok Un Works, Kowloon.

Kowloon.

354 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. 6 Village Villas. On premises.

47 Sing Woo Road, Happy Valley,

2nd floor.

54 Taipo Road, 2nd floor, Kowloon. On premises.

11 Salisbury Avenue, Kowloon. 4 Ching Fung Street.

34 Electric Road.

16 Bridges Street, 1st floor. On premises.

Tsun Wan.

113 Boundary Street, K'loon Tong.

771 Nathan Road, Top floor,

Kowloon.

On premises.

14 Tung Cheong Building, Kowloon.

5 Nanking Street, Yaumati.

18c Hillwood Road, Kowloon, 39 Wyndham Street.

10 Austin Avenue, Kowloon.

37 Hankow Road, 1st fl., Kowloon.

65 Peace Avenue, Homuntiu.

7 Jordan Road, Kowloon.

Chardhaven Hotel, Kowloon.

On premises.

On premises.

235 Nathan Road, Kowloon. On premises.

29 Kimberley Road, 2nd fl., Kowloon. 18c Hillwood Road, Top floor,

Kowloon.

9 Tung Cheong Building, Kowloon.

1 Austin Avenue, Kowloon.

7 Garden Road.

NAME IN FULL.

73

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

S-Continued.

Silva, José Maria da

Silva, José Maria Nolasco da

Silva, José Sa

Silva, Ladislao Severino Silva, Leonard Augusto

Lourdes da

Silva, Leonardo José.. Silva, Lionel Antonio Silva, Lionel Clement Silva, Marciano Antonio Caterino da...........

Silva, Mario Maria...

Silva-Netto, Antonio

Ferreira Batalha Jr. ... Silva-Netto, Roy Alexander Silva, Pedro Alberto Perez

da.......

Silva, Porphyrio Maria Nolasco da Jr. Silva, Renaldo Alberto da.... Silva, Ricardo Crescencio da

Silva, Ricardo Domingos Silva, Roque Maria Simmonds, Ernest William

Charles......

* Simmons, Benjamin William

Simmons, John Henry Simmons, William

Frederick... Simões, Manuel Augusto Simonsen, Frederick Simpson, Joseph Austin

Simpson, Sydney.............

Simpson, Walter Alfred

Sin Hap-sang. Sindlinger, John Raymond. Sing, Thomas....

Sing Wu-cheng Singer, Vinzenz

Sipitsky, Charles Isaac...... Siu Ho-ming Siu Ping-kee

Skeet, Charles William.

Skinner, Walter John Sleap, Ronald........... Sleap, Sidney Alfred. Sling, Harry Hong. Sloan, Charles Sloan, John Kane Smalley, John Frederick

Longfield.......

Smeby, Nils Wenneche...... Smith, Albert James Victor

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Ins. Agent, Confederation Life Associa-

tion of (Canada).....

Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China...... Clerk, Banque de L'Indo Chine...

Engineer, Palmer & Turner Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

109 Waterloo Road, Kowloon Tong.

7 Garden Road.

798 Nathan Road, 1st fl., Kowloon, 4 Ningpo Street, Kowloon.

1 Austin Avenue, Kowloon.

13 Knutsford Terrace, Kowloon. 29 Kimberley Road, Kowloon.

Clerk, Mercantile Bank of India, Ld...... 6 Granville Road, Kowloon.

Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld. Assistant Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

(S.C.) Ld.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co.......

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Clerk, China Light & Power Co., Ld. Merchant, The Colonial Trading Co....... Assistant, H. M. H. Nemazee

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bauk

Assistant Fitting Supt., H.K. & China

Gas Co., Ld.

Engineer, H.K. Telephone Co., Ld........ Traffic Inspector, H.K. Tramways, Ld...

Secretary, H.K. Tramways, Ld....... Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co. Cashier, Crown Life Insurance Co. Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Ld.

Chemist, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineer-

ing Co. of H.K., Ld.

Merchant, Nestle & Anglo-Swiss Con-

densed Milk Co.....

Clerk, Sworn Measurers' Office Attorney, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co. Mechanic, H.K. Motor Accessory Co.,

Ld.

*

Secretary, Macau Jockey Club Managing Engineer, Chien Hsin

Engineering Co., Ld....................... Salesman, S.E. Levy & Co. Architect, Exchange Building Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Ld.

Accountant, Canadian Pacific Steam-

ships, Ld......

Surveyor, Waters & Watson Assistant, A.S. Watson & Co., Ld. Assistant Secretary, H.K. Jockey Club...| Manager, H. Hong Sling

Assistant, Gilman & Co., Ld...................... Elec. Engineer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.

Assistant, H.K. & Kowloon Wharf &

Godown Co., Ld.

Import Assistant, Thoresen & Co., Ld. Electrical Engineer, China Light &

Power Co., Ld.

43B Peking Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

Hennessy Road Service Station. 10 Granville Road, Kowloon.

1 Austin Avenue, Kowloon.

7 Garden Road.

67 Kimberley Road, Kowloon. 155 Sai Yeung Choi Street, 2nd floor

Mongkoktsui.

150 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. 23 Jordan Road, Kowloon.

97 Waterloo Road, Kowloon Tong. The Institute, Gloucester Road. 85 Leighton Hill Road.

15 Peak Mansions.

4 Saifee Terrace, Kowloon. 53 Sharp Street.

On premises.

Quarry Bay.

Arlington Hotel, Kowloon, On premises. Hong Kong Hotel.

231 Nathan Road, Kowloon. '50 Western Street.

14 Felix Villas.

St John's Apartments.

7 Essex Crescent, Kowloon Tong.

310 Hennessy Road, 3rd floor.

25 The Peak.

76A Nathan Road, Kowloon. On premises, North Point. 268 The Peak.

9 Garden Terrace. On premises.

20 Broadwood Road.

18 Lyemoon Building, Kowloon. 5 Suffolk Road, Kowloon Tong.

307 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

NAME IN FULL.

74

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

S-Continued.

Smith, Arthur.........

Smith, Charles Brent Smith, Douglas Thomas Smith, Eric Grant... Smith, Flight Lt. Philip

Holyrood....

Smith, George Alfred

Smith, Hugh

Smith, James.

Smith, John Sanderson Smith, Peter

Smith, Raymond Walter

Smith-Wright, Edward

Gerald

So Fook-wing.... So Shin-an

So Yee

So Yuet-wah

Soares, Alberto Carios

Soares, Francisco Xavier * Soares, Joannes Alves de Vasconcellos

Soares, Joaquim Rocque Soares, Luiz Antonio..... Soldwedel, Ehrhardt Soltau, Bernhard

Sommer, Gerhart John

Constantin

Sommerfelt, Allister

Sommers, Hilmar Florenz...

*Soo Pui-chen

Soo Wai-fook

Sormani, Francisco

Josephus Carlos Sousa, Antonio Eduardo

Botelho de Sousa, Antonio Phillip Sousa, Casimiro Marcelino

de

Sousa, Eduardo Valerio

Maria Botelho de Sousa, Frederico Eduardo...

Sousa, José Eduardo de.............. Sousa, Luiz Gonzaga.

Sousa, Miguel Alberto de ... Sousa, Sylvio Sylvestre...... Sousa, Hermenegildo

Turibio Sousae, William Manuel Souza, Alberto Francisco de.

Outside Overseer, China Light & Power

Co., Ld.

Accountant, Marsman H.K. China, Ld... Clerk, American Express Co., Inc. Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld.

Chief Flying Instructor, Far East Flying Training School, Ld.... Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refining

Co., Ld.

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K. Ld. Shipping Clerk, Bank Line, Ld. Merchant, Lane, Crawford, Ld. Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineer-

ing Co. of H.K., Ld. Engineer, H.K, Electric Co., Ld.

Manager, E. D. Sassoon Banking Co., Ld. Clerk, H.K. Meat & Dairy Produce Co.... Manager, H.K. Import & Export Co. Director, The Globe Motion Picture

Studio

Clerk, Manufacturers Life Insurance Co.

Assistant, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Assistant, Roza Bros. Clerk, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld. Clerk, Petersen & Co........ Assistant, Bodiker & Co.

Merchant, China Export, Import &

Bank Co., Ld.....

Chartered Accountant, Linstead & Davis Assistant, Swan, Culbertson & Fritz...... Broker

Salesman, Whiteaway, Laidlaw &

Co., L.

Student, Java-China-Japan Line

Assistant, China Auction Rooms Clerk, Mercantile Bank of India, Ld.

Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China

Assistant, China Auction Rooms Stenographer, Canadian Pacific Steam-

ships Co., Ld....

Assistant, China Auction Rooms Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China Assistant, Bank Line, Ld. Clerk, Mercantile Bank of India, Ld.

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.............. Assistant Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

(S.C.) Ld.

35 Hau Wong Road, 2nd floor. 2 Bungalow, Repulse Bay. 3 Gascoigne Road. Peninsula Hotel.

279 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

818 King's Road.

On premises.

30 Cheung Chau.

17 Grampian Road, Kowloon City.

On premises.

H.E.C. Quarters, No. 1A Causeway

Hill.

Gloucester Hotel.

117 Queen's Road East. 28 Bonham Road.

6 Tai Street, Kowloon.

45 Cheung Sha Wan Road, 2nd floor,

Shamsuipo.

9 Nanking Street, Kowloon. 3 Homuntin Street, Homuntin.

2 Liberty Avenue, Homuntin. 20 Hillwood Road, Kowloon. 2 Liberty Avenue, Homuntin. On premises.

R.B.L. 174 Pokfulam.

The Tower, Queen's Building. 196 The Peak.

1 Abermor Court.

14 Prince's Terrace.

1086 Canton Road, Top floor,

Kowloon,

4 Conduit Road.

39 Granville Road, Kowloon.

3 Ashley Road, Kowlcon.

159 Sai Yeung Choi Street,

Mongkoktsui.

39 Granville Road, Kowloon.

39 Granville Road, Kowloon. 39 Granville Road, Kowloon.

181 Wuhu Street, Hunghom. 1 Hart Avenue.

92 Parkes Street, Yaumati.

22 Johnston Road.

20 Johnston Road, 1st floor.

On premises.

NAME IN FULL.

- 75

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

S-Continued.

Souza, Alvaro Miguel Souza, Antonio Maria Placé. Souza, Antonio Padua de

Souza, Eduardo Augusto de

Souza, Eduardo Paulo ...

Souza, Eric Anthony.... Souza, George Allister

Souza, Jorge Carlos

Souza, José Francisco Souza, Leo Antonio Souza, Lino Vicente de......

Souza, Luiz Carlos de

Rozario

Souza, Marcus Antonio

Rozario ....

Souza, Satyro Estevão

Spencer, Abner Norris Sperling, Helgi Sporledar, Walter

Stainton, Thomas Fletcher

Stalker, Archibald

Stanesby, Sydney John

Cleave

Stanton, John Reginald

Leslie

Stark, Crawford Charles Starling, Edward Leonard... Starling, Robert Archibald Stewart, Charles Edward Stewart, Douglas Haig .....

Stewart, George Anthony... Stewart, Gilbert Hugh

Stewart, James Bryan

Stewart, William Alexander. Stewart, William Alfred

Stokely, Harry Venton Stoneham, Herbert Frederick

......

Stride, Roland Albert Stuart-Smith, Kenneth Sturgeon, James Bassindale.

Suddin, Usaf Sham Sue Ing, William Sue, Thomas

Suffiad, Abdul Gaffoor

Suffiad, Abdul Rashid

Clerk, Lane, Crawford, Ld........... Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Assistant, General Electric Co. of China,

Ld.

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld..................

Clerk, Nederlandsch Indische

Handelsbank, N.V.

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld............

Clerk, China Light & Power Co., Ld.

Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Electrical Engineer, China Light &

Power Co., Ld.

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.......

Clerk, Nederlandsch Indische Handels-

bank, N.V.

10 Pak Tai Street.

6 Pak Tai Street, Kowloon.

155 Saiyee Street, Mongkok tsui. 181 to 183 Wuhu Street, 2nd floor,

Hunghom.

732 Nathan Road, 1st fl., Kowloon. 33A Wongneichong Road, 1st floor. 33A Wongneichong Road, Ground

floor.

151 Sai Yee Street, Ground floor,

Mongkoktsui.

36 Ice House Street.

3 Saifee Terrace, Kowloon.

1 Yun Po Fong Street.

14 Shan Kwong Road, Happy

Valley.

33A Wong Nei Chong Road.

3 Saifee Terrace, Kowloon.

Assistant, British Cigarette Co., Ld....... 57в Wongneichong Road. Clerk, Carlowitz & Co.

Merchant, Melchers & Co.

Timekeeper, Taikoo Sugar Refining

Co., Ld.

Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineering

Co. of H.K. Ld...

Confidential Secretary, H.K. Electric

Co., Ld.

Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld Managing Director, H.K. Mines, Ld. Wharfinger, Holt's Wharf Assistant, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.

Asst., H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co., Ld... Assistant, Dunlop Rubber Co., (China)

Ld.

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineer-

ing Co. of H.K., Ld.

Assistant Accountant, Mercantile Bank

of India, Ld.

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Managing Director, Davie, Boag &

Co., Ld.

Rep. Parke, Davis & Co........

Clerk, Holt's Wharf

Assistant, Lane, Crawford, Ld. Assistant, A. H. Potts & Co.... Draughtsman, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., L

Clerk, Chase Bank

Architect, 8a Des Voeux Road Central... Accountant, Andersen, Meyer & Co.,

Ld.

......

-

Clerk, British-American Tobacco Co.

(China), Ld.

Clerk, Banker & Co., Ld.

Courtland Hotel.

The Tower, Queen's Building.

9 Braemar Terrace, Quarry Bay.

On premises.

265 The Peak.

6 Conduit Road. 274 The Peak. On premises.

12 Braemar Terrace, Quarry Bay. On premises.

10 Abermor Court.

10 The Peak.

Quarry Bay.

Allendale, Dairy Farm, Pokfulam. 253 The Peak.

197 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. Gloucester Hotel.

Belleview Hotel, Chatham Road,

Kowloon.

121aihang Road.

54 The Peak.

On premises.

377 Hennessy Road, 1st floor. 101 Pei Ho Street, 1st floor.

14 Staunton Street, 1st floor.

4 Fly Dragon Terrace.

16 Leighton Hill Road.

76

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

-

ADDRESS.

*

S-Continued.

Sullivan, Arthur Leslie......

Sullivan, Hector Francis Summers, Alexander

William

Summers, Charles Henry

Sun Kai-yin

Sun She-chuen

Sun Yan-kit, George

Sung Kit-man.....

Sung Sheong-kwong Sung Shou-tin

Sung Tak-kwong

Sutherland, Richard

Findlater

Svendsen, Lorenz Svend

Julius

Swan, Thomas

Sweeney, James Napier

Manager, World Auxiliary Insurance

Corporation, Ld............

Engineer, A.S. Watson & Co. Ld........

Engineer, Austin Sales & Service Co. Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineering

Co. of H.K., Ld...... Assistant Cashier, Crown Life Ins. Co... Assistant, Sang Kee

Secretary, China Entertainment & Land

Investment Co.. Ld.

Meter Inspector, China Light & Power

Co., Ld.

Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld. Clerk, Java-China-Japan Line Assistant, Imperial Chemical Industries,

(China), Ld......................

Assistant, Dairy Farm Ice & Cold

Storage Co., Ld........................

Manager, Deutsche Farben-Handelsge-

sellschaft, (Waibel & Co.)..... Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co., of H.K., Ld......... Shipbuilder, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Lal.

20 Luna Building, Kowloon. 3 Seen Keen Terrace.

Ngan Shi Wan Villas.

Quarry Bay.

40 D'Aguilar Street, 2nd floor. 4A Des Voeux Road Central.

4 Babington Path.

181 Fa Yuen Street, Mongkok tsui. 11 Castle Road.

16 Fort Street, Ground floor.

Un premises.

7B Armend Building, Kowloon.

Two Bays, Repulse Bay.

Quarry Bay.

On premises.

T

Tai Fook-lam

Tại Hong

Taipo, Mann Peter...

Tai Pak-choi

Talan, Moses Tam Heung-shing Tam, John Baptista Tam Kwok-ying.

Tam, Louis..

Tam Man-yim

Tam Pak-fan

Tam Shing-foon....... Tam Shing, Joseph

Tam Sik-yau Tam Tsung-hou Tam Woon-tong. Tam Yat-wah.. Tan Hong-lee...............

Tang Chan-po

Tang Che-cheong Tang Iu-Hing...

Tang Kin-chi Tang King-man Tang Man-chun

Tang Pak-chuen Tang Pao-chun Tang Pui-hee

Clerk, Deutsche Farben Handelsgesell-

schaft (Waibel & Co.)

Secretary, G. G. Hewlitt & T. Fung Manager, China Paul E. Sammann &

Co., Ld.

Clerk, Kunst & Albers

Manager, American Lloyd Ld.

Assistant Architect, Palmer & Turner Clerk, Banque de L'Indo Chine ..... Manager, United Film Distribution Co....| Clerk, Banque de l'Indo Chine Clerk, National Aniline & Chemical

Co., U.S.A.

Clerk, China Light & Power Co., Ld.

Clerk, Carlowitz & Co.

Assistant, China Provident Loan &

Mortgage Co., Ld.

Assistant, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co... Assistant, Chase Bank

Clerk, National City Bank of New York. Assistant, China Coast Traders ... Assistant Manager, Kwai Gwan Co.

India, Ld.

Assistant, Imperial Chemical Industries

(China), Ld.

Clerk, Kian Gwan Co., India Ld. Accountant, Universal Pictures Corp. of

China

Salesman, Texas Co. (China), Ld. Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Merchant, Wrigly & Co.....

Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Banker, Tang Tin Fuk Bank................ Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld.

7 Conduit Road.

176 Causeway Bay Road.

93 High Street.

308 Queen's Road Central.

7 East Point Terrace, 8th floor.

1A Hillside Terrace.

4 St. Joseph's Terrace.

37 Jordan Road, 2nd floor, Yaumati. 4 St. Joseph's Terrace.

42 Mongkok Road, Top floor,

Kowloon.

I Cheung Ning Street, 1st floor,

Kowloon.

260 Lockhart Road.

461 Hennessy Road, Top floor. On premises.

36 Fook Wa Street.

13 Hing Wan Street, 2nd floor. 106 Jaffé Road, 1st floor.

89 Leighton Hill Road.

On premises.

363 Hennessy Road, 3rd floor.

153 Hollywood Road, 3rd floor. On premises.

133 Caine Road.

41 Caine Road.

18 Austin Road, 1st floor, Kowloon.

On premises.

On premises.

77

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

T-Continued.

Tang Shao-chuen Tang Yew-hung... Tang Ying-loong

Tanner, George Tansley, William Arthur Tarbuck, Alfred Peter Tate, George William

Tavares, Alfredo Augusto

Tavares, Alvaro Maria

Tavares, Arthur Richard Tavares, Augusto Maria Tavares, Carlos Eugenio Tavares, Fernando José

Tavares, José Filipe Taverner, Edmund Lacy Taylor, Robert

Taylor, Robert Blake....................

Taylor, William

Tebbutt, Henry Jemson Tetzel, Charles

Tham Khai-hong

Thompson, Edgar

...

Thompson, Frank Mernick. Thompson, George Edward

Foster

Thompson, William John... Thomson, Basil William

Thomson, Frederick Sutter. Thomson, George Bowman

Smith

31 Queen's Road East, 2nd floor.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. On premises. Clerk, H.K. & China Gas Co., Ld. Salesman, Whiteaway, Laidlaw &

Co., Ld.

Salesman, Lane, Crawford, Ld. Foreman, Reiss, Bradley & Co., Ld. Assistant, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Works Manager, Taikoo Sugar Refining

Co., Ld.

Assistant, Nederlandsche Handels

Maatschappij, N.V.

Manager, L. Rondon & Co., Ld......................

Clerk, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Assistant, Lepack & Co....... Clerk, Reiss, Bradley & Co., Ld. Assistant, H.K. Rope Manufacturing

Co., Ld.

Accountant, Reiss, Bradley & Co., Ld.... Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Works Manager, Green Island Cement

Co., Ld.

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld. .... Charge Engineer, China Light & Power

Co., Lủ.

Architect, Davies, Brooke & Gran...... Clerk, National City Bank of New York. Assistant Manager, Kian Gwan Co.,

India Ld.

Electrical Engineer, H.K. Electric

Co., Ld.

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Accountant, H.K. & China Gas Co., Ld.. Wireless Engineer, Williamson & Co. Supt. Afloat, H.K. & Kowloon Wharf

& Godown Co., Ld.

Shift Manager, H.K. Mines, Ld.

Accountant, H.K. & Kowloon Wharf

& Godown Co., Ld.

Thomson, James Downie ... Secretary, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold

Thomson, John Butler

Thong, Pohing

Tillery, William Campbell,

Jr

Tin Yuk-on

Tinson, Arthur Cecil

Tipple, Leslie Woodward

To, Lester

To Shing-chung..

...

Tobias, Lewis Albert......... Tock, Frank

Storage Co., Ld...................... Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co., of H.K. Ld. .............. General Assistaut, H.K. Rubber Manu-

facturing Co., Ld.

Testing Engineer, China Light &

Power Co., Ld.

Clerk, China National Aviation

Corporation....

Electrical Engineer, China Light &

Power Co., Ld.

Engineer, Kowloon Motor Bus Co.

(1933), Ld.

Central Showroom Attendant, H.K. &

China Gas Co., Ld.

Accountant Store Clerk, H.K. Telephone

Co., Lư.

Optician, N. Lazarus

Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld..........

51 Yue Chow Street, 2nd floor,

Shamshuipo.

84 Kennedy Road.

22 Johnston Road. 2nd floor. H.E.C. Quarters, 22 Ming Yuen.

Woodside, Quarry Bay.

On premises.

295 Prince Edward Road, 2nd floor,

Kowloon.

20 Ashley Road, Kowloon. 4 Caine Road.

6 Caine Road.

10 Robinson Road.

14 Tung Cheong Building, Kowloon, 353 The Peak.

Cement Works, Hok Un, Kowloon.

Quarry Bay.

Kelvin House, Tai Wan Road, Hok

Un, Kowloon.

Sheung Kai, Repulse Bay. 7 Warren Street.

80 Caine Road.

530 The Peak. 353 The Peak.

Y.M.C.A.

9 Bay View Mansions.

297 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. On premises.

Repulse Bay Hotel.

23 Waterloo Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

34 Hay Wong Terrace, 1st floor,

Kennedy Town.

8 Tantallon Terrace.

134 Tung Lo Wan Road.

129 Waterloo Road, Kowloon.

Diamond Hill.

16 Dragon Terrace.

222 Jaffé Road, Ground floor. Alberose, Pokfulam,

171 Sai Yeung Choi Street, 1st floor,

Mongkoktsui.

78

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

T-Continued.

Tokuda, Masao

Tollan, Duncan Tolle, Franz Tom Shew-tong

Tong Kwai-fun

Tong Kwok-kwong

Tong Mun-foo

Tong Shiu-ki Tong Shiu-wai

Tong Sik-ming

Tonnochy, Percy John

Joseph.....

Torres, Thomas Alba....... Tracy, Fred Dillingham Treskin, Vladimir Triggs, Clifton James Trong, Tran Van

Tsang Chin-yuen Tsang Chung-nin Tsang Fook Tsang Kam-chuen Tsao Chung-yan...

Tsau Ding-hau

Tse, Andrew Tse Po-wan Tse Shau-ping

Tse Shiu-wing

Tse Tim-chao......

Tsiu Wing-chiu Tso Chak-chun

Tso Chak-kau

Tso Te

Tso Yeu-Woon

Tsoi Chiu

Tsoi Ki-cheung, Jasper...... Tsoi Sai-fan Tsoi Wing-kai

Tsu Ho-tseung

Tsu Hoo-cheun

Tsui Keng-chan... Tsui Shu-hung

Tsui Wah-chiu

Tsui Wai-sun

Tsung Po-tong

Tung Teng. Tung Wing-ki

Tye, Albert Matthew Tye, George Daniel

Tyndall, Frederick........

Tyson, Frederic Hunter

Assistant, Tsurutani & Co., Ld. Engineer, H.K. Telephone Co., Ld. Clerk, Carlowitz & Co.

Salesman, Imperial Chemical Industries,

(China), Ld.

Assistant, Torbor & Co.....

Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co..... Salesman, United States Rubber Export

Co., Ld.

Clerk, Sworn Measurers' Office Clerk, Sworn Measures' Office Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld....

Clerk, Ruttonjee & Co.

Mercantile Assistant, Dodwell & Co. Ld. Attorney, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co. Engineer, Kunst & Albers

25 Kennedy Road.

Dunrose, Castle Peak Road.

2 Longsight Villa, Victoria Road.

On premises.

136 Kennedy Road. On premises.

78 Macdonnell Road. On premises.

On premises.

95 Prince Edward Road, 1st floor,

Kowloon.

2 Fort Street, North Point, Top

floor.

268 Chatham Road, Kowloon. Altadena, The Peak.

4 Ashley Road, Top floor, Kowloon.

7 Dragon Terrace, 1st floor.

143 Thomson Road.

Engineer, H.K. & Shanghai Hotels, Ld... Peninsula Hotel. Clerk, Banque de l'Indo Chine Broker, Payne & Co. Bookkeeper, Jebsen & Co. Principal, Tsang Fook Piano Co. Director, Banker & Co., Ld. Shipping Clerk, Jebsen & Co.

7 Sugar Street, Causeway Bay.

On premises.

7 Jordan Road, Kowloon.

9 Cheung Sha Wan Road, 2nd floor,

Shamshuipo.

Assistant Compradore, Jebsen & Co....... 5 Cheung Sha Wan Road, Ist floor,.

Share Broker

Assistant, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co. Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.......

Clerk, Central Showroom, H.K. &

China Gas Co., Ld. Bank Clerk, Oversea Chinese Banking

Corporation, Ld........

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Acting Manager, Paramount Films of

China

Branch Manager, Warner Bros. First

National Pictures, Inc.

Clerk, Sworn Measurers' Office Staff, Dentsche Farben Handelsgesell-

chaft (Waibel & Co.) Clerk, Sworn Measurers' Office Clerk, Andersen, Meyer & Co., Ld. Clerk, Pentreath & Co. Clerk, Pentreath & Co. Clerk, Gande, Price & Co., Ld. Assistant, Ulderup & Co. Salesman, Texas Co., (China) Ld.. Clerk, Thomson & Co.

A/c. Clerk, Texas Co., (China) Ld. Accountant, Warner Bros. First National

Pictures, Inc.

Shamshuipo.

61 Robinson Road. On premises.

12 Wing Hing Street, 2nd floor.

85A Hennessy Road.

22 Ladder Terrace, Top floor. On premises.

37 Tai Street, Kowloon City.

8 Breezy Terrace, Top floor,

Bonham Road.

On premises.

229 Queen's Road Central, 2nd floor. On premises.

119 Hollywood Road, 2nd floor. 177 Hennessy Road, 3rd floor. 177 Hennessy Road, 3rd floor. 355 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor. 24 Fook Wa Street, Shamshuipo.

On premises.

151 Connaught Road West. On premises.

74 High Street, 3rd floor.

2nd Compradore, H.K. & Shanghai Bank 2 Ning Yeong Terrace. Assistant, T. A. Martin & Co.

Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co....... Clerk, American Express Co., Inc. Traffic Representative, China National

Aviation Corporation............. Assistant Engineer, H.K. & China Gas

Co., Ld.

Attorney, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co.

7 Po Tuck Street, 2nd floor. On premises.

11 Channel Road, Top floor.

4 Fuk Lo Tsun Road, Kowloon City.

Y.M.C.A., Kowloon.

8 Branksome Towers, May Road.

79

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

U

U Chan-jong

U Kiu-yin

U Shiu-ki

U Shiu-wing

U Tat-chee

U Wing-kee

U Ze-wing

* Ue Sai-ling

.....

Uen Shu-shum

* Umnuss, Robert Heinrich

Ludwig August ........

Un King-sang.... Unbebaum, Charles

Ung Yu-sung.

V

Vago, Aladar

Vaidya, Keshav Balkrishna. Vau der Schalk, Herman

Milius

Van Heyningsen Adolph

Van Leeuwen, Henri....... Van Wylick, Gabriel

Edouard Charles.......

Vannini, Augusto Vargassoff, Nicolas

Varn, Madison Howell Vas, George Augusto Veldhuijzen, Evert

Ferdinand

Verevkin, Boris John Victor, Carlos de Monte

Carmelo

Victor, Guilherme

Francisco

Vieira, Bernardino Senna Vieira, Bomfilho Maria, Jr.. Vieira, Henrique Emilio Volkoff, Nicolas

Vos, Robert de

Principal, Torbor & Co. Advertising Manager, Chi Min Enter-

tainment, Ld.

Chief Clerk, Mustard & Co., Ld. Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Merchant, H. Connell & Co., Ld. Assistant. Lloyd Triestino Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Manager, Asiatic American Co..... Clerk, Jebsen & Co.

Merchant, China Export, Import &

Bank Co., L.

Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co....... General Manager, Hume Pipe (Far

East), Ld.

Accountant, The Bank of Canton, Ld.

Manager, A Sator

...

Merchant, K. B. Vaidya & Co., Ld........

Clerk, Java-China-Japan Line Shipping Agent, Java-China-Japan

Line......

Shipping Clerk, Java-China-Japan Line...

Acting Manager, Credit Foncier

d'Extreme Orient

Stonemason

Electrical Engineer, H.K. Electric

Co. L.

Attorney, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co....... Assistant, Yokobama Specie Bank, Ld...

Assistant, Nederlandsche Indische

Handelsbank, N.V.

Assistaut, Texas Co., (China) Ld.......

Clerk, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld.

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Book-keeper, Millington Ld. Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld................ Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co..... General Representative, Netherlands

Harbour Works Co.

214 Wanchai Road, 2nd floor.

35 Fook Wing Street, Shamshuipo. 49 Tung Choi Street, Mongkoktsui. On premises.

9 Fook Wing Street, 2nd floor. 18 Larch Street, Taikoktsui.

5 Dorset Crescent, Kowloon Tong. 24 Stubbs Road.

95A High Street, Ground floor.

Ellenbud Villas, Sassoon Road. On premises.

On premises.

4 Beautiful Terrace, Ground floor.

310 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. 30 Village Road.

68 Conduit Road.

8 Conduit Road. 4 Conduit Road.

9 Peak Mansions.

141 Electric Road.

4 Fort Street, Ground floor. Gloucester Hotel.

761 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

8 Conduit Road. Tsun Wan.

11 Gap Road, 2nd floor, Happy

Valley.

238 Wanchai Road.

21 Stafford Road, Kowloon Tong. 286 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor.

5 Chi Wo Street, 1st fl., Kowloon. 3 Humphreys Building, Kowloon.

Repulse Bay Hotel.

W

Wade, Leland Walton

Wah Seyle Lee Wahab, Abdool Magid

Wahab, Mohammed Abdul...

Wai Man-lok

Wai Man-wei

Wai Ming-seto

Sub-Accountant, National City Bank of

New York

Assistant, Texas Co., (China) Ld. Clerk, Dollar Steamship Line............

14 Peak Mansions. On premises.

351 Lockhart Road, East Point.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld.. On premises. Second Cashier, H.K. Telephone

Co., Ld.

Cashier, H.K. Telephone Co., Ld................ Director, The Globe Motion Picture

Studio

486 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor.

29 Village Road, 2nd floor.

380 Prince Edward Road, 1st floor,

Kowloon.

NAME IN FULL.

80

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

W-Continued.

Waid, John....

Walch, Eric Russell

Walch, Leon David Walker, George Findlay

Walker, John Erskine Jule Walker, John Michael

Walker, Vernon

Wallace, Robert Cooper......

Walle, Izaak Jacobus

Gerardus

Waller, George Albert

Waller, Horatio Annesley... Waller, Prosper Alestaire... Walsh, Peter Christopher...

Wan Hung-kwan Wan Kwong-yiu

Wan Shing-tet

Wan Wai-in

Wang Chi-hsin

Ward, Albert Stephen Warnecke, Ludwig Herbert Warren, Eric John Truro ...

Warren, Leslie Beal Wat Hew-kin........

Wat Kwing-kay Wat Lun.....

Watson, Henry Chalwin

Barr....

Watson, James Alexander

Watson, John..... Watt Kam-yuen Watts, Eric Henry.

Watts, Ernest Miller.

Waun Keok-yien, William

Waung, Thomas........ Way, Edward. Way, Harry

Way, William Kenneth..

Weaver, Shoge Hsu Webb, Donald Arthur Webb, Harry Robin Webb, Robert Leslie

Shepherd..............

Webster, Arthur..

Webster, John

Foreman, Taikoo Sugar Refining

Co., Ld.

Accountant, Lowe, Bingham &

Matthews

Manager, J. Ullmann & Co. Chartered Accountant, Percy Smith,

Seth & Fleming

Assistant, Jockey Club Stables Accountant Clerk, Percy Smith, Seth &

Fleming

Chief Assistant Engineer, H.K. Tram-

ways, Ld.......

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineer-

ing Co. of H.K., Ld.

Assistant, Export Dept., Holland-China

Trading Co., Ld...... Clerk, China Provident Loan &

Mortgage Co., Ld................... Clerk, Ruttonjee & Co. Clerk, Benjamin & Potts

Sales Manager, D. Gestetner (Eastern),

Ld.

Clerk, Chase Bank

Clerk, Lane, Crawford, Ld.

816 King's Road,

20 Broadwood Road.

19 Humphreys Building, Kowloon.

On premises. On premises.

175 Sai Yeung Choi Street, 2nd

floor, Mongkoktsui.

4 Broadwood Road.

Quarry Bay.

2 Devon Road, Kowloon Tong.

8 Li Kwan Terrace, Tai Hang Road.

3 Li Kwan Avenue, 1st floor. Diocesan Boys' School.

10 Bayview Mansions.

504 Shanghai Street, Yaumati. 199 Fa Yuen Street, Mongkoktsui.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld..] On premises.

Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China.

Translator, Advertising & Publicity

Bureau, Ld......

Assistant, Netherlands Trading Society... Robertson, Wilson & Co., Ld. Manager, Australian Sandalwood Co.,

Ld.

Merchant, Warren & Co., Ld....... Assistant, Eng. Instructor, Far East

Flying Training School, Ld. Clerk, South British Ins. Co., Ld...... Clerk, South British Insurance Co., Ld....

Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum, Co., (S.C.).

Ld.

Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineering

Co. of H.K., Ld........ Representative, Arthur & Co.. Clerk, Carlowitz & Co...... Assistant, Lane, Crawford, Ld. Traffic Officer, Imperial Airways, (Far

East) Ld.

Director, H.K. & Canton Sanitary

Service

Sub-Manager, The Bank of Canton, Ld.. Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co....... Architect, Way & Hall

Manager, Peacock Motion Pictures Co.,

Inc.

Managing Director, Weaver & Co., Ld... Salesian, Lane, Crawford, Ld. Assistant, Gilman & Co., Ld....

Acting Manager, Commercial Union

Assurance Co., Ld.

Electrical Engineer, H.K. Electric Co.,

Ld.

Mercantile Assistant, Davie, Boag &

Co., Lư.

50 Argyle Street, Mongkok.

65 Gloucester Road.

On premises. On premises.

180 The Peak.

19 Broadwood Road.

372 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. On premises. On premises.

On premises.

Quarry Bay. On premises.

361 Hennessy Road, Top floor. 86 Kennedy Road.

Flat 1 Rutton Building, Duddell St.

5 Arbuthnot Road.

25 Wongneichong Road, 2nd floor. 11 Hing Hon Road.

37 Bonham Road, Top floor.

5 Village Road, Happy Valley. 194 Hill Road, 3rd floor. 12 Taihang Road. On premises.

62 Macdonnell Road.

H.E.C. Quarters, 1 North Point.

8 Jubilee Apartments, Kowloon.

81

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

W-Continued.

Wee Joo-hoch

Wei Lan-sang

Wei Tat

Weight, William Alfred

Weill, Leo

Weill, Maurice Bernard Welch, Paul

Weston, Walter Cyril, Capt.

White, Alexander Robert

James

White, Edmund Herbert

Patrick

...

White, Claud Ellsworth White, George White, George Alexander...

White, Headley Dymoke ... White, Herman John Henry White, John Paul

White, Philip Francis

Whiteley, William Henry...

Whyte, James Jardine

Wicks, Kessler

Wiele, Hermann............ Wild, Richard Henry Wilkinson, Frederick James

Williams, Henry Fisher

Williams, Tiffany Bernard Williams, George William

Williamson, Hugh Basil Willson, Charles Cyril

Wagstaffe

Surveyor, Waters & Watson

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld.. Assistant, Sang Kee

Assistant, Thos. Cook & Son, Ld..

Share-broker, L. Weill & Co.

Share-broker, L. Weill & Co.

76A Nathan Road, Kowloon. On premises.

4A Des Voeux Road, Central. Marble Hall, Kowloon.

R.B.L. 218, Pokfulam.

R.B.L. 218, Pokfulam.

Assistant, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld... Knutsford Hotel, Kowloon.

Engineer, W. C. Weston

Mercantile Assistant, Jardine, Matheson

& Co., Ld.

Assistant Accountant, H.K. & Shanghai

Hotels, Ld.

Manager, Far East Motors.

Arcade Supt., Gloucester Hotel .. Assistant Meter Superintendent, China

Light & Power Co., Ld. Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Manager, Kowloon Hotel Assistant, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Mercantile Assistant, Jardine, Matheson

& Co., Ld.

Manager, Der A Wing & Co., (1923)

Ld.

Timekeeper, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld. Technical Assistant, Texas Co., (China)

Ld.

Merchant, Jebsen & Co.

Manager, South British Insurance Co. Assistant, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold

Storage Co., Ld...........

Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Ld.

Assistant, Standard-Vacuum Oil Co. Travel Representative, American

Express Co., Inc.

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire

Sub-Accountant, Chartered Bank of

India, Australia & China

Wilmer, Ralph Dolf Herbert Assistant, Nederlandsch Indische

Wilson, Charles Robert...... Wilson, Daniel Godfrey...... Wilson, Walter George

Matthews

Wing Hong-kwan Winglee, Harold William Winter, Frank Bathie Witchell, George Bernard... *Witkamp, Adrianous

Wolf, George Morton Dudley David........

Wolfe, Joseph

Woloshinoff, Constantine

Mark

Handelsbank, N.V.

Assistant, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Assistant, Lowe, Bingham & Matthews

...

Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Ld.

Architect, Davies, Brooke & Gran.. Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Inspector, H.K. & Shanghai Bank...... Marine Engineer, Williamson & Co. Shipping Clerk, Java-China-Japan Line.

Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Lal.

Assistant, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold

Storage Co., Ld..

65 Grandview Building, Kimberley

Road, Kowloon.

10 Felix Villas.

Lido, Repulse Bay.

27 Cameron Road, Kowloon. On premises.

21 Kent Road, Kowloon Tong. On premises.

On premises.

On premises.

4 Leighton Hill Road.

16 Broadwood Road.

Quarry Bay.

Tsun Wan.

Repulse Bay Hotel.

On premises.

10 Cumberland Road, Kowloon

Tong.

On premises.

194 Sassoon Road.

373 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. On premises.

161 The Peak.

8 Conduit Road.

H.E.C. Qrs., 11 Causeway Hill. 20 Broadwood Road.

On premises.

115 Waterloo Road, Kowloon. On premises.

Ardsheal, 357 The Peak.

231 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. 26 Conduit Road.

On premises.

242 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

Merchant, Wolosh's Commercial Agency. 9 Salisbury Avenue, 1st floor,

Kowloon.

NAME IN FULL.

82

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

W-Continued.

Wong, Arthur Valentine Wong, Charles Pingiu Wong Cheuk-tong.. * Wong Cheung-tsing

Wong Chin-kit

Wong Ching Wong Chok-chow

Wong Chor-leung Wong, Fait-fone...

Wong Fai-tong

Wong, Fred Victor

Wong, Harry

Wong, Hay...

Wong, Henry

Wong, Herbert Charles

Percival....

Wong Hong-kai... Wong Hui-wau

Wong Iu-sun

Wong, James Chang Ling Wong, James Ning Wong, Johnston....

Wong, Joseph Chung-kong. Wong Kai-cho

Wong Kam-chueu

Wong Kam-fan

Wong Kam-lai Wong Kam-pun

Wong Kam-to

Wong Kam-tong Wong Kam-ying

Wong Kang-sai Wong Keat-soon..

Wong Kee-kwong Wong Kin-tsoi Wong King-ko

* Wong Kun-hoong

Wong Kung-min

Wong Kwai-yin...... * Wong Kwok-king

Wong Kwong-yan Wong Loong-chi

Wong Man-keung Wo ong

Man-kit Wong Man-to........ Wong Oi-kut

Wong Pak-nin

Wong Pak-tong

Printer, Local Printing Press, Ld....... Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Architect,

Secretary, On Woo Navigation Co., Ld... Clerk, Chartered Bank of India, Australia

and China

Clerk, Alex. Ross Motor Co....... Clerk, Sander, Wieler & Co.

Clerk, National City Bank of New York Draughtsman, H.K. Engineering &

Construction Co., Ld....

117 Waterloo Road, Kowloon. On premises.

14 Queen's Road, 1st floor. On premises.

2 Staunton Street.

149 Johnston Road, 2nd floor. 244 Apliu Street, 1st floor,

Shamshuipo.

18 Mongkok Road, Kowloon.

47 Fuk Wa Street, 1st floor,

Shamshuipo.

Clerk, Holland-China Trading Co., Ld. ... 10 Jordan Road, 2nd floor, Yaumati.

Clerk, Thomson & Co.....

Assistant, Asia Life Insurance Co.. Clerk, Lepack & Co.

Assayer, H.K. Mines, Ld.

Charge Engineer, China Light & Power

Co., Ld.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld..| Merchant, Wong Hui Wan.....

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld..] Assistant Engineer, Holt's Wharf Secretary, Gande, Price & Co., Ld.. Branch Manager, Columbia Films of

China, Ld.

11 Cumberland Road, Kowloon Tong. 193 Fa Yuen Street, Mongkok tsui.

235 Jaffé Road.

On premises.

On premises.

On premises.

15 Tin Lok Lane, 2nd floor. On premises.

Ou premises.

16 Essex Crescent, Kowloon Tong.

12 Bonham Road.

Clerk, National City Bank of New York. 5 Landale Street, 1st floor Wanchai. Compradore, Holland-China Trading Co.,

Ld.

Engineer, Reiss, Bradley & Co., Ld.. Manager, International Assurance Co.,

Ld.

Broker, Payne & Co.

Clerk, Banque Belge pour l' Etranger

(E.O.), S.A.

Assistant Compradore, Banque Belge

pour l'Etranger (E.O.), S.A. Assistant, Seymour Sheldon & Co. China Representative, Confederation Life

Association (of Canada)......................... Bookkeeper, Jebsen & Co. Mercantile Assistant, Dodwell & Co.,

Ld.

Assistant, Bank of East Asia, Ld.. Assistant, A.S. Watson & Co. Ld. Salesman, Nestles Milk Products,

(China) Ld.......

Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co. Clerk, Java-China-Japan Line

Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co. Clerk, H.K. Land Investment & Agency

Co., Lư.

Clerk, Schmidt & Co. Accountant, National Aniline &

Chemical Co., U.S.A. Manager, W. S. Sherly & Co. Clerk, Chau Yue Teng Assistant, United Traders

Managing Director, A. B. Moulder &

Co., L.

Assistant, Reiss, Bradley & Co., Ld.. Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co, (S.C.)

Ld.

10 Jordan Road, Gr. floor, Kowloon. 184 Ma Tau Chung Road.

28 Fort Street, 2nd floor,

North Point.

373 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

4 Alveston Terrace.

4 Alveston Terrace. 50 Ship Street, 3rd floor.

271 Hennessy Road. 119 Hennessy Road.

157 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor. On premises.

22 Fort Street, Ground floor.

On premises. On premises.

3 Fook Wah Street, 1st floor,

Shamshuipo. On premises.

382 Hennessy Road, 1st floor. 92 Tai Po Road, Shamshuipo.

23 Lan Kwai Fong, 1st floor. 27 Mosque Street.

54 Tak Ku Ling Road. 1st floor. 2 On Hing Terrace, 3rd floor.

60 Caine Road. 9 Breezy Terrace.

On premises.

83

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

W-Continued.

Wong, Parkin.... Wong, Peter Wong Ping-kwan Wong Shenk-lin ... Wong Shin-chi Wong Shiu-chuen

Wong Shiu-hung Wong Shiu-kan Wong Shun-him.

Wong Shun-tak Wong Sik-chung

Wong Sik-kay

Wong Sik-kuen

Wong Sik-kwai Wong Sik-kwong

Wong Sui-ki Wong Sun-man

Wong Sun-yee

Wong Sung-ki

Wong Tai-cho

Wong Tak-cheong.. Wong Tat

Wong Tchek-sing.

Wong, Thomas * Wong Thomas

Wong Tsang-sau

Wong Tse-kwong Wong Tso-tong Wong Un-fong Wong Wal-ding

Wong, William Richard

Wong Wing-seen Wong Yat hung Wong Yat-ping

Wong Yau-cheong.. Wong Yew-mun Wong Ying-hang Wong Yu-ki Wong Yin-kung, Wong Yiu-sang Wong Yu-yeck Woo Ho-ching Woo Pak-kwai Woo Wing-chow Woo Woon-kui

Wong Woon-pui...........

Woo Yuk-fan..............

Woo Ziang-mae Wood, James

Wood, John Bower

Woodcraft, Ronald...

Compradore, American Express Co., Inc. Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Mercantile Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld... Assistant, Thomas Cook & Son, Ld. Bottler, Caldbeck, Macgregor & Co., Ld.. Storekeeper, Caldbeck, MacGregor & Co.,

Ld.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld..| Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld.. Assistant, Kwangsi Provincial Import &

Export Syndicate Clerk, Hotel Cecil, Ld.

...

Compradore, H.K. & Kowloon Wharf &

Godown Co., Ld. Compradore, Jebsen & Co. Assistant Compradore, H.K. & Kowloon

Wharf & Godown Co., Ld. Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co. Managing Director, Wing Tseung

Feather Works Ld.

Assistant, W. R. Loxley & Co., Ld. Clerk, Swedish Match Co. Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Manager, U. Spalinger & Co., S.A.

Architect

Salesman, The China Engineers, Ld Compradore, Swedish Match Co. Draughtsman, China Light & Power

Co., Ld.

Assistant, W. R. Loxley & Co., Ld. Clerk, The Austin Sales & Service Co.... Clerk, World Auxiliary Insurance

Corporation, Ld...................

Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co....... Engineer Assistant, Sui Ho Ming Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co....... Assistant, H.K. Land Investment &

Agency Co., Ld........

Assistant Engineer, Kowloon Motor

Bus Co. (1933), Ld.

Assistant, The Sun Co., Ld.

Shipping Clerk, Java-China-Japan Line.. Clerk, British American Tobacco Co.

(China), Ld.

Salesman, The China Engineers, Ld....... Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co...... Assistant Manager, Central Trading Co.. Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Clerk, Java-China-Japan Line Clerk, Chase Bank

Apprentice, Texas Co., (China) Ld. Assistant, Thomas Cook & Son, Ld.... Assistant, T.A. Martin & Co. Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Storekeeper, General Electric Co. of

China, Ld.

Merchaut, Wing On Fire & Marine

Ins. Co. Ld.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld.. Accountant, S.E. Levy & Co.

Shipwright, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Shipwright, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld. Buyer, Malcolm & Co., Ld,

19 Peiho Street, Shamshuipo. 38B Bonham Road. 52 Centre Street, Kowloon. 80 Thomson Road. On premises.

On premises. On premises. On premises.

19 Yick Yam Street, 1st floor. On premises.

31 Granville Road, Kowloon. 27 Bonham Road.

1 Middle Road, 3rd floor, Kowloon. On premises.

27 Bonham Road.

25 Cedar Street, Shamshuipo. 97 High Street.

1 Yen Wah Terrace.

8 Fook Kwan Avenue, Tai Hang

Hill Road.

12 Fung Wong Terrace, 2nd floor,

Wanchai.

On premises. 97 High Street.

155 Fa Yuen Street, Mongkoktsui. 39 Kai Yan Road, Kowloon City. 35 Gillies Road, Top floor.

191 Ki Leung Street, 1st floor. On premises.

5 Hoi Ping Road. On premises.

406 Hennessy Road, 2nd floor.

788 Nathan Road, 2nd floor,

Kowloon.

10 Ying Fai Terrace. 37 Tung Street.

70 Peel Street, 3rd floor. On premises. On premises. On premises. On premises. 249 Hennessy Road.

60 Bonham Strand East.

On premises.

41 Johnston Road. 15 Kennedy Road.

324 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor.

IA Austin Road, 1st floor, Kowloon.

32 Pokfulam Road, Top floor. On premises.

7 Haukow Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

On premises.

On premises.

NAME IN FULL.

84

OCCUPATION.

www

ADDRESS.

W-Continued.

Woodier, George Arthur Wooding, Wilfred

Woolley, William John. Worrall, Geoffrey Clare......

Wright, Robert

Wright, William................ Wright, William Morley Wu, Paul.......

Wu Sui-chee Wyllie, Roy Leslie...

X

Xavier, Alberto Carlos Xavier, Antonio Maria

Xavier, Antonio Padua.... Xavier, Armando Maria

Xavier, Arnaldo dos Santos. Xavier, Bernado Maria ... Xavier, Carlos Eugenio...... Xavier, Carlos Maria..... Xavier, Cesario Maria

Xavier, Domingos Xavier, Francisco Maria

Xavier, Frederico Antonio. Xavier, Gabriel Maria Xavier, Hermenegildo

Maria

Xavier, Hypolito Maria

Favacho

Xavier, João Maria de

Jesus

Xavier, José Hermenigildo Xavier, José Hilario

Xavier. José Maria

Assistant, Ed. A. Keller & Co., Ld. Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Ld.

Assistant, Lowe, Bingham & Matthews. Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Ld.

Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineering

Co. of H.K., Ld...............

Shipping Manager, Dodwell & Co., Ld... Marine Surveyor, Carmichael & Clarke... Clerk, Banque Belge pour l' Etranger

(E.O.), S.A.

Clerk, National City Bank of New York. Manager, Charles, Morgan & Co., Ld. ...

6 Fort Street, 1st floor.

On premises.

6 Suffolk Road, Kowloon Tong.

On premises.

Quarry Bay.

9 Tregunter Mausions. 1 Leighton Hill Road.

4 Alveston Terrace.

16. Stanley Street, Top floor. 12 Kennedy Road.

Assistant, Netherlands Trading Society... On premises. Clerk, The P. & O. Banking

Corporation, Ld....

Clerk, Arnhold & Co., Ld. Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld........ Clerk, General Electric Co. of China, Ld. Assistant, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Assistant, Netherlands Trading Society. Assistant Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

(S.C.) Ld.

Tallyman, Dollar Steamship Line

Clerk, National City Bank of New York. Merchant, Xavier Bros., Ld. Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld.

Clerk, H.K. Tramways, Ld.

Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Merchant, Xavier Bros., Ld Clerk, H.K. Tramways, Ld. Traffic Clerk, Imperial Airways, (Far

East) Ld.

Xavier, Leonardo Francisco. Clerk, Banque Belge pour l'Etranger

Xavier, Luis Augusto

Xavier, Luiz Maria

Xavier, Maria Viriato

* Xavier, Michael Anthony

Xavier, Miguel Abellar...... Xavier, Paulo Maria

Xavier, Pedro Francisco

dos Santos

Xavier, Pedro Nolasco...

Xavier, Ricardo Maria

Xavier, Vasco de Gama

Maria Xavier, Victor Maria...

(E.O.) S. A.

Clerk, Arnhold & Co., Ld. Assistaut, Nederlandsch Indische

Handelsbank, N.V.

Assistant, M. J. B. Montargis Architect

Overseer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Clerk, C. E. Warren & Co., Ld..

Assistant, Caldbeck, MacGregor & Co.

Ld.

Assistant, H.K. Rope Manufacturing

Co., Ld.

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Assistant Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

(S.C.) Ld.

8 Tung Cheong Building, 1st floor,

Kowloon.

222 Tung Choi Street, Mongkoktsui. 12 Tung Cheong Building, Top floor,

Kowloon.

354 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. 19 Austin Road, 1st floor, Kowloon. 29 Jordan Road, Kowloon. On premises.

On premises.

4 Mosque Junction.

10 King's Terrace, Kowloon. 64 Macdonnell Road.

Ou premises.

1 Broadwood Road.

2 Granville Road, Kowloon.

40 King Kwong Street, 2nd floor.

64 Macdonnell Road.

1 Broadwood Road.

27 Kimberley Road, 2nd fl., Kowloon.

6 Cameron Road, Kowloon.

97 Tai Po Road, Shamshuipo.

10 Tung Cheong Building, 1st floor,

Kowloon.

5 Queen's Road Central. 64 Macdonnell Road.

71 Austin Road, 1st floor, Kowloon.

5 United Terrace, Homuntin,

Kowloon.

On premises.

18 Robinson Road.

12 Tung Cheong Building, Top floor,

Kowloon.

7 Homuntin Street, Homuntin.

On premises.

85

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

Y

Yang Ching-toh..............

Yap Fui-sin

Yat Kwong-chow Yan Hing-kwai

Yau Kam-shing

Yee, James Raymond Yee Khin-seong.. Yeh Cheng-sien Yen Si-liang

Yeo Choon-cban... Yeung Fook-lam Yeung Fook-ping

Yeung Shiu-hong Yeung Shun-hang Yeung Sing-choy Yeung Wing-hong. Yeung Wing-sek

*Yew Man-chiŭ

**

Yick Soy-kwan Yin Toi-gin

Yip Chung-kay Yip Chung-shu Yip Sik-hung Yiu Kin-tso

Young, Benjamin Alfred ... Young, Charles

Young Chen-chuen

Young, Frederick Charles... Young, James.......

Young Kee-hung Young, Kenneth Philip Young Kong-sen

Young Moo-kee Young, Nathan Lun Young, Robert

Young Tsun-shin Yowkey, George

Yoxall, Walter Thomas. Yu Chik-yin

Yu Chung-keng

Yu Foo-keung

Yu Fook-che Yu Fook-chin..... Yu Shu-chuen.

Yu Sze-hing

Yu Wing-chun

Yu Woon-man

*Yue Ping-yin....

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.)

Ld.

Clerk, Marsman H.K. China Ld.

Merchant, May Kee Hong, (H.K.) Ld.... Export Clerk, Jebsen & Co. Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld.

Mercantile Assistant

Secretary, Tung Lok Motion Picture Co. Clerk, National City Bank of N. Y. Assistant, Sun Life Assurance Co. of

Canada

Clerk, Chase Bank

Shipping Clerk, Java-China-Japan Line.. Clerk, British American Tobacco Co.,

(China) Ld.

Assistant, The Bank of Canton, Ld. Clerk, Siu Ho Ming

Assistant, Western Trading Co., Ld................ Partner, Yeung Fat & Co Clerk, British American Tobacco Co.,

(China) Ld.

Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld. Assistant, Far East Shipping Co., Ld. Clerk, F. A. Joseph...................

Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Clerk, Sander, Wieler & Co. Assistant, Swan, Culbertson & Fritz Assistant, China Travel Service Assistant, J. M. Alves & Co., Ld.. Caretaker, Gloucester Hotel

Salesman, Imperial Chemical Industries

(China) Ld.

Dunlop Rubber Co., (China) Ld. Installation Engineer, China Light &

Power Co., Ld.

Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld. Assistant, J. M. Alves & Co., Ld... Treasurer, Weaver & Co., Ld....

Manager, Young, Hayward & Co. Assistant, The Bank of Canton, Ld. Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

(S.C.) Ld.

Clerk, Luen Hop Delivery Co., Ld.......... Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.) Ld. Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Secretary, Lepack & Co....... Assistant, Wallace Harper & Co., Ld. Clerk, Kowloon Motor Bus Co. (1933),

Ld.

Secretary, Lai To Construction Co. Clerk, Lepack & Co.

Clerk, Kowloon Motor Bus Co. (1933),

Ld.

Assistant Cashier, H.K. Telephone

Co., Ltd.

Clerk, World Auxiliary Insurance

Corp., Ld.

Clerk, World Auxiliary Insurance

Corp., Ld.

Clerk, James H. Backhouse, Ld.

On premises.

228 Tung Choi Street, 1st floor,

Mongkoktsui.

22 Shouson Hill.

180 Wanchai Road, 1st floor. 123 Chun Yeung Street, Ground

floor.

11 Babington Path.

10 Tin Lok Lane, 1st floor. 60 Wellington Street.

44 Causeway Bay Road.

25 Sand Street, Ground floor. 103 Gloucester Road.

5 Cliff Road, 3rd floor.

47 Cumberland Road, Kowloon Tong. 19 On Lan Street, 2nd floor. 10 Wing Hing Street, Ground floor. 32 Leighton Hill Road.

18 Pau Cheung Street. On premises.

12 Tung Choi Street, Mongkoktsui. 15 Lungkai Terrace, Top floor, Tai

Hang.

245 Lockbart Road, 3rd floor.

44 Johnstou Road.

230 Wanchai Road.

140 Wu Sang Street, Kowloon. 30/32 Mongkok Road, Top floor. On premises.

On premises.

4 Conduit Road, 2nd floor.

135 Waterloo Road, Kowloon. 56 Haiphong Road, Kowloon. 22 Po Hing Fong, Top floor. 44 Haukow Road, Ground floor,

Kowloon.

42 Cross Street, 1st floor. 197 Wanchai Road, Ground floor.

On premises.

365 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. On premises.

10 The Peak.

22 Bonham Road, 1st floor. 63 Bonham Road.

63 Bonham Road.

217 Hennessy Road. 65 Caine Road.

63 Bonham Road.

21 Cheung Sha Wan Rd., 3rd floor.

18 Larch Street, 2nd floor,

Shamshuipo.

13 Fa Ynen Street, 2nd floor,

Mongkoktsui.

18 Pak Ho Street, 2nd floor.

L

NAME IN FULL.

86

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

Y-Continued.

Yue Sze-tsun

* Yuen Cheung-wan. Yuen Kam-chuen Yuen Kam-fui Yuen Kwok-ching

Yuen Shen-yao

Yuen Tat-ming Yuen Wai-yang Yum Hok-in Yung Chi-yim

Yung Chiu... Yung Hin-shing

Yung Hok-ming.

Yung Nai-foon Yung Shin-cho

Yung Soong Stanley Yusuf, Samet

Yvanovich, Philipe Antonio Yvanovich, Vicente

Antonio

Mer. Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Manager, Channel Trading Co. Managing Proprietor, Kam Chuen & Co. Clerk, Holland China Trading Co., Ld.... Clerk, Java-China-Japan Line

Clerk, National Carbon Co. Fed. Inc.

U.S.A.

Clerk, Chase Bank

Manager, China Can Co., Ld........... Clerk, Weaver & Co.. Ld. Clerk, Chartered Bank of India

Australia & China. Clerk, Lane, Crawford, Ld.......... Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.....

Assistant, Kian Gwan Co. India, Ld...... Assistant, U. Spalinger & Co., S.A. Staff, J. Wong & Co.

Salesman, Schmidt & Co.

Clerk, H. K. Electric Co., Ld.

Assistant, John D. Hutchison & Co.................

Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld.......

41 Village Road.

109 Queen's Road East. 29 Tang Lung Street, 3rd floor. 160 Hennessy Road, 1st floor. 5 Tung Fong Street.

190 Sai Yeung Choi Street,

Mongkok tsui.

149 Queen's Road West. On premises.

47 Queen's Road Central.

27 Mosque Road.

23 Luard Road, 2nd floor.

48 Bonham Road, 1st floor. 33 High Street, 1st floor. 1 Breezy Terrace.

184 Nathan Road, Kowloon. 45 Bonham Road.

458 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor. 17 Soares Avenue, Homuntin.

4 Kimberley Villas, Kowloon.

Z

Zimmern, Francis Richard...

Zimmern, William Alfred

COUNCIL CHAMBER,

16th March, 1938.

Agent, Sun Life Assurance Co. of

Canada

Broker, F. Kew & Co.

5 Seymour Terrace.

21 Cumberland Road, K'loon Tong.

T. MEGARRY,

Clerk of Councils.

{

295

No.

14

1938.

HỒNG KÔNG,

REPORT

BY THE

SENIOR INSPECTOR OF MINES,

PERAK, FEDERATED MALAY STATES,

ON THE SUBJECT OF

THE CONTROL MEASURES

WHICH THE HONG KONG GOVERNMENT

SHOULD ADOPT IN RESPECT OF

LOCAL MINING.

PRINTED BY

NORONHA & CO., HONG KONG

GOVERNMENT PRINTERS & PUBLISHERS.

297

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE,

HONG KONG.

September, 1938.

Sir,

Referring to C.S.O. 15/5048/38, I have the honour to submit my report and

recommendations, together with appendices and plans, regarding measures that should

be adopted for the better control of mining in the Colony of Hong Kong.

2. During my investigations, I made detailed inspections of the mines mention.

ed in Appendix II, and discussed matters with His Excellency the Governor, the

Crown Solicitor, the Honourable the Director of Public Works, the Third Assistant

Colonial Secretary, the District Officers North and South and the managements of the

mines concerned.

THE HONOURABLE,

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY,

HONG KONG,

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient servant,

A. E. P. KERSHAW,

Senior Inspector of Mines, Perak,

Federated Malay States.

299

REPORT BY THE SENIOR INSPECTOR OF MINES, PERAK, FEDERA.

TED MALAY STATES, ON THE SUBJECT OF THE CONTROL

MEASURES WHICH THE HONG KONG GOVERNMENT SHOULD

ADOPT IN RESPECT OF LOCAL MINING.

Hong Kong: C.S.O. 15/5048/38

F. M. S.: F.S. 2703/38.

TERMS OF REFERENCE.

<<

"Mining in this Colony is as yet in its infancy and at present "there are no adequate regulations for the inspection and 'control of the existing mines. As there have recently been a few casualties among mine workers and as it is possible that "more mines will be opened up in the near future, it is "desirable that this Government should have expert advice "upon the measures that should be adopted for the better "control of mining."

2. MINERAL DEPOSITS INDICATED BY PROSPECTING AND MINING OPERATIONS IN

THE PAST.

Small scale prospecting and mining operations in the past would appear to indicate that there are no minerals of economic value on the Island of Hong Kong but that in the New Territories there are deposits of the following minerals, the further pro- specting and mining of which should be encouraged :

Argentiferous Galena, Wolframite, Molybdenite, Magnetite, Hematite, Manganese, Granite for building purposes, and Kaolin for bricks and porcelain.

3. Prospecting in the past was undoubtedly hindered by excessively high fees, as much as $1,000 being charged for a Prospecting Licence for one year in 1920, and by the absence of any geological maps. It is unfortunate that a geological survey, undertaken by Mr. R. W. Brock in 1923, has not been completed or any report received to date, which would give some indication of the mineral potentialities of the Colony. The early completion of this survey and publication of the report is strongly recommended.

4. During 1937 however, Messrs. Marsman Investments Limited examined reported occurrences of economic minerals in connexion on with their proposed pro- specting applications and the attached plan A* indicates the position of mineral deposits examined by them. This will serve as a useful location map of mineralized zones, pending receipt of the Brock geological report.

5. PRESENT MINING ACTIVITIES.

As far as can be ascertained, there are four mining leases in existence, the posi- tion of which are indicated on attached plan B* shaded blue.

They are as follows:

M.L. 1. Issued 1st January, 1932 period 3 years renewable.

Lessee-Hong Kong Clays and Kaolin Co., Ltd.

Area 3.12 acres.

A good quality kaolin being mined on a small scale.

M.L. 3. Issued 23rd June, 1922 period 75 years.

Lessee-Hong Kong Mines Limited.

Area-150.15 acres in addition to which a further 1196.45 acres adjoining have

been approved but no lease issued yet.

* Not printed.

300

Argentiferous Galena in quartz veins is being mined, with which are associated pyrites and chalcepyrites in small quantities; modern type of milling plant installed of 150 tons per day capacity.

M.L. 8. Issued 1st April, 1931 period 50 years. Lessee-New Territories Iron Mining Company. Area-One square mile. Magnetite Iron ore. Being worked by Chinese on small scale. M.L. 9. Issued 9th May, 1936 period 21 years. Lessee-Marsman Hong Kong China Limited. Area-540 acres.

Wolframite in four major quartz veins, with which molybdenite is associated in small quantities, is being mined on a contract basis.

6. Since 1936 some 20 prospecting applications have been received. Of these 10 have been approved and the remainder are still under consideration. Attached plan B* indicates the locations of those approved (coloured pink) and under consideration (outlined pink).

7. Six applications for mining licences have been received (as indicated outlined blue on plan B*). All these are still under consideration.

8. It would appear that the present tendency is for scientific deep prospecting and mining backed by adequate capital as compared with the shallow scratchings of the past. This should be encouraged as far as possible by the issue of titles at low fees and, where necessary, the remission of royalty, either wholly or in part, during the development stages.

9. MINING LAW AXIOMS.

There are two fundamental axioms of mining law.

(i) The right of the miners to a perfectly secure title to their property so long as they fulfil certain specified conditions, the fulfilment or non ful- filment of which is absolutely within their own control.

(ii) The right of the state, or other landlord, to certain rents, royalties, or

taxes on the profits of the mines, and to the reasonably constant con tinuation of effective work on the mines.

10. MINING LAW relates principally to the acquisition and tenure of mines, whilst MINING REGULATIONS more especially concern the methods of working, the safety of the men, and the conduct of mining operations generally. Both alike exist for the collective good of the community, and the present Hong Kong mining laws are lacking in this respect.

11. HONG KONG MINING LAWS.

The only mining law in force is "Ordinance No. 7 of 1906" and is cited as the Prospecting and Mining Ordinance, 1906, which gives the Governor in Council power

to:

(i) Issue prospecting licences.

(ii) Issue mining licences.

(iii) Issue mining leases.

(iv) Make regulations for payment of fees, rents and royalties; and to impose

fines not exceeding $200.

12. Under this ordinance, the necessary regulations were made for :

(i) New Territories on 10th July, 1906.

(ii) Hong Kong on 5th April, 1907.

* Not printed.

301

These regulations specified the forms and conditions under which the licences and leases were issued and conditions of mining. In particular they specified the following:

(i) Prospecting licence fee $500-period 6 months.

(ii) Mining licence fee $250 per square mile-period 12 months.

(iii) Mining leases-rent $2 per acre, plus $50 per acre surface rent of

occupied area-royalty not exceeding 5%-period 75 years.

13. These very necessary mining regulations, which not only acquaint the would-be prospector and miner of the conditions under which he may operate but also specified definite forms of title to be issued and procedure to be followed, were however rescinded by Gazette Notification No. 622 dated 14th August, 1934, subject to a note that "the terms of any grant of a mining lease or a prospecting or mining licence will hereafter be determined according to the circumstances of the case. There is therefore a complete lack of control of mining operations as regards rules and penalties, which has resulted in a considerable amount of discussion as to the form of lease and licence that should be issued.

14. The reason for rescinding these regulations is not clear, but it would appear that during 1934 the price of wolfram rose, and it was considered that greater revenue could be obtained by increasing the fee of a mining licence from $250 to $2,500 per square mile than what could be obtained on a 5% royalty basis. I cannot trace the monetary result of this theory, which is entirely wrong in principle, quite apart from the fact that it hinders normal prospecting and development of possible mineral deposits.

15. GOVERNMENT MINING POLICY.

3

Owing to the absence of a detailed geological report, the mining potentialities of the Colony are unknown. There are however definite indications of mineral deposits in the New Territories and neighbouring islands which may prove of economic value if prospected and mined by up to date methods backed with adequate capital, and the prospecting and development of these should be encouraged as far as possible with a view to ultimate increased revenue to Government from royalties. With this view, mining laws and regulations and the issue of titles at low fees are necessary in place of those previously in force. Present mining conditions do not warrant the formation of a mines department, and regulations should be in a simple form so that operations can be controlled and supervised by officers now in Government departments. The appointment however of a capable Chinese mines overseer for routine inspection, to be attached to the local land office, is strongly recommended, and it is advisable that he be sent to the Federated Malay States for a short training course of 3 months under the Mines Department there.

16. SUGGESTED MINING Laws.

The following amendments and additions to Ordinance No. 7 of 1906 are recom- mended with a view to bringing it more in line with modern practice and local condi- tions.

Section 2.

(i) Insert the word "samples" in place of the word "specimens".

(ii) Period of 6 months be altered to 12 months.

Note. In actual practice the period should be proportionate to the area under

licence.

Section 3.

Delete as being difficult of control and unnecessary at present.

Note. Any existing applicants for mining licences should be informed that Government is only prepared to consider applications for either prospecting licences or mining leases.

!

!

302

Section 4.

The term of 75 years be altered to 21 years, which is sufficient security for instal-

lation of necessary modern plant under local conditions.

Note. The section provides for a longer term if necessary and the suggested

regulations for renewal of lease.

Section 5.

Amend by deleting sub-sections (i) and (ii) and substituting the following:-

It shall be lawful for the Governor in Council to make regulations for the purposes of this Ordinance. Such regulations may provide for :

(i) the fixing of premia, rents, fees and royalties.

(ii) prescribing procedure to be followed.

(iii) the regulation of mining operations and the adoption in or about mines of any precautions necessary or desirable for the prevention of accidents and protection of human life and property.

(iv) the furnishing by owners or managers of mines of statistical returns and

the keeping and production by them of books and plans.

(v) prescribing the fine with which the contravention of any regulation shal be punishable, but so that such fine shall not exceed one thousand dollars. (vi) any other matters, whether similar or not to those above mentioned, as to which regulations may be necessary or desirable for the purposes of this Ordinance.

17. SUGGESTED MINING REGULATIONS AND CONTROL.

As already stated in this report, mining regulations are essential for the proper control of mining operations, safety of persons and property and procedure generally, The old regulations were somewhat lacking in this respect and the form of lease and licences were unduly complicated for local conditions. The suggested new regulations contained in Appendix I to this report have been drafted, subject to revision by the Crown Solicitor, in as simple a form as possible compatible with requirements and with a view to easy control. With such regulations in force and the aid of a mines overseer, there is no reason why mining operations should not be controlled in a satisfactory manner by officers at present in the Hong Kong Government Service.

18. The mines should be under the general control of the district officers and records etc., should be kept in the local land offices. If the district officer requires advice regarding safety measures, an engineer of the Public Works Department should be available for the purpose. If such engineer's recommendations are disputed by the miners, which is unlikely under present conditions, the decision of the Director of Public Works should be final. Later on, if deep level mining on a large scale eventuates, it may be necessary to appoint an Inspector of Mines.

Machinery, particularly boilers, should be inspected once a year and the most suitable person for this purpose would appear to be the Government Marine Surveyor.

Provision should also be made for the collection of royalty, which should be paid. into the land offices of the district where it should be recorded on a separate sheet in the relative mining lease file in that office and the amount then forwarded to the Treasury.

All these suggestions have been provided for in the suggested mining regulations in Appendix I, which, in their general terms, give very wide powers to Government without specifying any particular Government officer beyond the Governor and the

Land Officer.

19. REMARKS ON THE APPENDIX.

303

In view of the wording of section 5 of Ordinance No. 7 of 1906, it should be noted that the suggested regulations contained in Appendix I, cannot be brought into force until that section has been amended as recommended in paragraph 15 section 5 of this report.

Part I.

From time to time it may be necessary to alter the rate of royalties, fees, etc., and the most convenient method is by notification in the Gazette.

In the initial development of a low grade mine, the temporary remission of royalty, either wholly or in part, may be necessary. This is provided for.

The premia and fees have been reduced to reasonable limits with a view to encouraging prospecting and mining. It is not from these that Government will benefit to any great extent, but from the royalty on the recovery of minerals.

Royalty should be paid on removal of the ore from the mine, based on the miners' or Government's assay value. If sales are made abroad, a deposit should be made on such assay values, to be adjusted on receipt of sales assay values from abroad. Any temporary remission of royalty can be made on express condition of the lease. Part II.

Under present procedure, mining applications appear to be made to and dealt with by the Secretariat. It is suggested that in future they should be made to and registered in the local land office. After reference to the Military authorities and inspection of the area as regards local objections, the District Officer should forward his report and recommendations to the Secretariat, who can then refer to any other departments if necessary. All necessary data should then be available to enable the Governor to make his decision. It would facilitate matters if the Military authorities could supply the Secretariat and District Officers with a general regional map, con- fidential if necessary, indicating areas in which they are not prepared to permit mining. Two plans should be kept at the Secretariat and each district office, on which should be marked the position of (a) any lease issued (b) any prospecting licence issued, and each application should be dealt with in a separate file in which there should be a small tracing of similar scale indicating the area under application together with any conflicting rights or applications, so that it can be superimposed on the main plan for easy reference without having to mark them.

Such procedure is set forth in this part, together with the rights of and implied conditions on the part of a lessee, and other matters concerning a lease. These permit the issue of a simple standard form of mining lease, to which may be added any special conditions as may be necessary in any particular case.

Part III.

Procedure of application, rights and conditions of a prospecting licence are set out in this part. These also permit the issue of a simple form of permit, as in the case of a lease, and provide for the necessary measures of control of prospecting operations under the regulations.

The form of prospecting licence has been purposely so drafted as to omit any right or claim to the issue of a lease but merely priority of application. Prospecting operations under such licence however undoubtely carry a certain "moral right" to the issue of a lease, so no licence should be issued where Government does not intend to permit mining under lease.

Part IV.

Provides for the control and purification or water which is necessary in connexion with mining operations.

Part V.

Provides for the regulation of mining operations generally and for the safety of persons in particular, and is essential if mining operations are to be controlled in a satisfactory manner. In order to augment the general regulations of this part, provision is also made for the lessee or manager to frame, with the approval of Government, such detailed regulations as may be necessary for the safety of persons employed under any particular circumstances.

1

304

Where hydraulicing or Gravel pump mining is permitted, a sketch plan should be attached to the permit indicating the limits of the dumping area, and spillways should be of masonry construction, no wooden spillways being allowed. The mines overseer should inspect regularly and report any cases where planks on spillways or hidden contraptions in dams are used to discharge slimes unlawfully at night, in which event the miner should be prosecuted.

Part VI.

Provides for the penalties for breach of the mining regulations, without which the proper control of mining operations is not possible.

Part VII.

Covers points in general which are self explanatory.

Schedules I and II.

These mining regulations, which provide for the control of mining operations in general permit the issue of a simple standard form of mining lease and pro- specting licence in place of the lengthy and complicated forms formerly in force. They also provide for the addition of any special condition as may be considered necessary in any particular case, but in view of the regulations, in practice these are rarely necessary and, if required, should be limited as far as possible.

Before being brought into use these suggested draft mining regulations should be referred to the Crown Solicitor for any necessary revision, but from a technical point of view, any variations that may be considered necessary should be of form rather than of substance.

20. REPORT AND RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING EXISTING MINES.

I have made a detailed inspection of the mines working at present and my report and recommendations regarding each one are contained in Appendix II attached to this report.

21. ACCIDENTS.

As the control of mines will be under Government officers who are not acquainted with mining operations, it should be kept in mind that mining is a hazardous occupa- tion and that without a mines department accidents are only to be expected. With the suggested regulations in force however, the appointment of a mines overseer and the gradual training of unskilled labour the number of accidents should be reduced to a minimum in future.

22. I have to express my thanks to the management of the mines visited for transport to the mines and their co-operation in supplying information necessary for my investigations, and to Mr. R. J. Minnitt, Third Assistant Colonial Secretary, for producing a large number of Government files and plans and for his advice on matters of procedure.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient servant,

A. E. P. KERSHAW, Senior Inspector of Mines, Perak,

Federated Malay States.

i

305

Appendix I.

PROSPECTING AND MINING ORDINANCE, NO. 7 OF 1906.

MINING REGULATIONS MADE UNDER SECTION 5

OF ORDINANCE No. 7 OF 1906.

Mining.

1. No person shall carry on or do any act with a view to carrying on mining or Unlawful prospecting operations except in accordance with the provisions of these regulations or with the authority of the lessee of any mining land.

Part I.

ROYALTY, PREMIA, RENTS AND FEES.

2. All minerals or metals won within the Colony shall be liable to such royalty Royalty. as may from time to time be fixed by notification in the Gazette.

3. Total or partial remission of payment of any such royalty may be granted Remission

of Royalty. either generally or in any particular case.

4. Subject to any remission in exceptional cases, the premia, rents and fees to Premia be charged shall be as follows:

(i) MINING LEASE.-Premium of $10 per acre and rent at $2 per acre per

annum.

(ii) PROSPECTING LICENCES.--A fee of $25.

Rents Fees.

Part II.

MINING LEASES.

How Made.

5. Any person wishing to apply for a mining lease shall lodge in the land office Application of the district an application and plan setting out the position and approximate area of such land and giving the address of the applicant.

6. The Land Officer of the district shall thereupon mark such application with How

Application a distinctive number and shall note thereon the day of receipt and shall file the same to be dealt in the land office according to the order in which they are received, but so that with. priority of application shall give no claim or priority of claim to a mining lease.

upon

7. Should an application be approved, the Land Officer may require any ap- Procedure plicant to make a deposit of such amount as to cover the cost of survey and emplace- approval. ment of permanent boundary marks.

delivery of

8.-(i). Upon receipt of a certified plan showing the area of the land approved Preparation, and position of all boundary marks the Land Officer shall cause to be prepared a min- signing and ing lease in duplicate in the form of Schedule I with such plan delineated thereon and mining lease. shall call upon the applicant to sign such mining lease.

(ii) Whenever such mining lease has been signed by the Governor, the Land Officer shall call upon the applicant to accept such mining lease and pay any sum due and shall file one duplicate copy thereof in a book to be called the "Register of Mining Leases" and the lessee shall sign a receipt for such mining lease.

of

9. Every mining lease shall vest in the lessee thereof in the absence of any Implied express condition to the contrary the following rights, and such other rights, if any, as nights. may be expressly set forth therein :

lessee.

:

306

Implied

(i) The right to win and get all metals and minerals found upon or beneath the land and to remove, dispose of, and dress the same during such term as may be men- tioned in the mining lease.

(ii) The right to roast, calcine, and smelt all such metals or minerals found upon or beneath the land.

(iii) Subject to the consent of the Military authorities, the right to use such portions of the land as may be required for the purpose of erecting such dams, truck- ways, houses, lines of sheds or other buildings as may in the opinion of the Govern- ment be reasonable for the purposes of the mine.

10. There shall be implied in every mining lease, in the absence of any express conditions on condition to the contrary the following covenants and conditions on the part of the

lessee:

part of

lessee.

Mineral or metal in transit.

(i) That the lessee will duly pay the rent and any royalty that may become due to the Government at such time and place and in such manner as may from time to time be prescribed, and to such persons as may from time to time be authorized to re- ceive the same.

(ii) (a) That the lessee will commence mining operations upon the land within a period of one year from the date of issue of the mining lease.

(b) That thereafter the lessee shall not at any time during the term of the mining lease fail for a period of more than twelve consecutive months substantially and efficiently to carry on mining operations on the land to the satisfaction of Govern-

ment.

(iii) That the lessee will carry on all his mining operations in a safe, orderly, skilful, efficient and workmanlike manner, and will not cause danger or damage to the owners or occupiers of other lands, and will observe and perform all regulations and orders made or given by Government in pursuance of these regulations.

(iv) That all Government officers duly authorized in that behalf shall at all rea- sonable times have free access to the land and to all workings and buildings in or upon the same.

(v) That the lessee will permit the taking and removal, without payment, from the land, by any person duly authorized in each particular case in writing by the Gov- ernment, of any earth, stone, gravel, timber and other road-making or building materials which may be required by Government for any public purpose and in the opinion of Government is not reasonably required for the purposes of the mine.

(vi) That the lessee shall cause to be kept such true and sufficient books of ac- count of the disposal of the metals and minerals obtained as required by Government and will, if so required, produce or cause to be produced such books for the inspec- tion of any person duly authorized by Government in that behalf.

(vii) That the lessee shall allow over or through the land such access to any land as shall not, in the opinion of Government, interfere with his rights under the lease.

(viii) That the lessee shall allow the construction and use on the land of such water courses and military or other works as shall not, in the opinion of Government, interfere with his rights under the lease.

(ix) That the lessee will take all due and proper precautions and will comply with all requirements of the Government as to the health and safety of all persons em- ployed on the land.

(x) (a) That no mineral or metal shall be removed from the boundaries of any land held under mining lease without being accompanied by a permit signed by the lessee or manager stating the nature and weight of such mineral or metal and the num- ber of the mining lease from which it was obtained; and any mineral or metal not accompanied by such permit shall be liable to confiscation by Government if not claim- ed within 14 days of such seizure.

(b) The purchaser or the agent of the purchaser of such mineral or metal shall forward such permit together with a statement of the price paid to the land officer of the district from which such mineral or metal was mined.

!

307

11.-(i) Breach of or default in observance of any of the covenants or condi- Liability to tions specified in:

forfeiture.

Regulation 10:

subsection (i)

Regulation 10:

subsection (ii)

shall if not repaired or made good within such time as the Governor may in each case direct render the mining lease liable to forfeiture.

(ii) If the lessee shall fail to satisfy the Governor that the lease ought not to be forfeited the Governor may by writing under his hand declare the lease to be forfeited and such declaration after notification in the gazette or service upon the lessee, shall be final and conclusive between all parties and shall not be called in question in any court of law.

(iii) The acceptance of any rent in respect of any mining land shall not be held to operate as a waiver against forfeiture.

12. Any lessee desirous of obtaining a renewal of his mining lease shall make a Renewal of written application therefor to the Land Officer of the district not less than twelve mining lease. months before the expiration of the current term of his mining lease.

13.-(i) If any lessee wishes to sub-lease his land such lessee and the intended Sub lease. sub-lessee shall execute and present together with the mining lease a memorandum of sub-lease in duplicate at the land office of the district, and the Land Officer shall duly endorse such sub-lease and date on the lease and land office duplicate and register and file the duplicate copy together with the duplicate of the head lease.

(ii) The Land Officer shall not register any sub-lease of charged land unless the chargee shall have consented in writing to such sub-lease. Such written consent shall be attached to the original and duplicate memorandum of sub-lease and filed there- with.

(iii) The implied covenants and conditions specified in regulation 10 shall con- tinue binding on the lessee notwithstanding that he may have sub-leased the land or any part thereof, and shall also be binding on the sub-lessee of the land.

14.-(i) If any lessee wishes to transfer his lease such lessee and the intended Transfer of transferee shall execute and present together with the mining lease a memorandum mining lease. of transfer at the land office of the district.

(ii) Whenever such transfer has been approved by Government the Land Officer shall duly endorse such transfer and date on the lease and land office duplicate and issue the lease to the transferee on payment of any fee due.

15. Any person holding a lease other than a mining lease may apply for con- Conversion version of such lease to a mining lease in the manner provided under regulation 5.

of other leases to mining lease.

Part III.

PROSPECTING LICENCES.

prospecting.

16. No person shall prospect any land, whether leased or otherwise, except in Unlawful accordance with the provisions of this part of the regulations or otherwise where ap- plicable.

17. Licences may be granted to prospect

(i) Portions of Crown land which have not been leased.

(ii) Portions of Crown land leased other than for mining-

(a) To the lessee.

(b) To any person holding the consent in writing of the lessee.

(iii) When a licensee duly empowered in that behalf prospects any land held under lease he shall be liable to make compensation to the lessee for any disturbance or damage caused by such prospecting operations; and such compensation may in de- fault of agreement be claimed and determined by suit in court.

(iv) No licensee shall transfer or attempt to transfer his licence.

Licences to prospect.

Licensee to

to Govern-

308

18. Every prospecting licence shall be in the form in Schedule II and shall work subject convey to the licensee the right to undertake and continue such work only as may, in the opinion of Government, be reasonably necessary to enable him to test the qualities of the land in respect of the metal or mineral specified in the licence, and in accord- ance with the mining regulations where applicable.

ment direc-

tion.

Application

How made.

Rights and conditions

of a pros-

pecting licence.

19.-(i) Any person wishing to apply for a prospecting licence shall lodge in the land office of the district an application together with the prescribed fee and plan set- ting out the position, approximate area and boundaries of the land in respect of which the application is made and stating the metal or mineral for which it is proposed to prospect.

(ii) The Land Officer shall thereupon mark such application with a distinctive number and shall file the same in the land office according to the order in which they are received, but so that priority of application shall give no claim or priority of claim to a prospecting licence.

20.—(i) In the absence of an express provision therein to the contrary every prospecting licence shall convey to the licensee the exclusive right to prospect within the area specified within the prospecting licence for metals or minerals specified there- in and the prior right to apply for a mining lease over any area specified therein upon proof that the licensee has done a sufficient amount of prospecting work.

(ii) No other application, whether for a prospecting licence or mining lease, in respect of any land specified in a prospecting licence shall be considered, and no por- tion of such land shall be leased for any purpose until all rights of the licensee in respect of such land shall have been satisfied.

(iii) If before the expiration of any prospecting licence the licensee shall prove to the satisfaction of Government that he has good and sufficient reason for not hav- ing completed prospecting, the period of such licence may be extended by Govern- ment in respect of the whole or any part of the area comprised therein. Such ex- tension shall be effected by endorsement on the licence for such period and fee as Government shall determine.

(iv) A prospecting licence may at any time after the expiration of three months from date of issue thereof be cancelled by Government if the licensee shall have failed to make a bona fide commencement to prospect the land under licence, or if he shall have altogether abandoned prospecting for a period to be fixed by Government and set forth in the prospecting licence.

(v) Upon completion of prospecting under any prospecting licence the licensee shall fill in all pits, shafts or excavations, unless the licensee obtains authority in writ- ing from Government exempting him from this obligation, and Government may call upon the licensee to provide security not exceeding one thousand dollars for the due fulfilment of such conditions.

(vi)

It shall be lawful for the licensee to remove from the land and dispose of all samples of metals and minerals raised in the course of prospecting operations with- out payment of royalty, provided the amount shall be such as may, in the opinion of Government, be reasonably necessary to enable him to test the qualities of the land.

(vii) The licensee shall compensate any occupiers of the land under licence for any damage sustained by them as the result of prospecting operations.

(viii) Every licensee shall

(a) permit any person duly authorized by Government in that behalf at all

reasonable times to inspect any prospecting operations.

(b) render to the Land Officer, within one month of the expiry of the licence or completion of the prospecting work, whichever event may first occur, a full, true, particular and just report and plan of the result of his pros- pecting operations.

(ix) Every prospecting licence shall be liable to be cancelled by Government upon proof of the breach of any of the conditions of this part of the regulations or otherwise where applicable.

309

Part IV.

PROVISIONS REGARDING WATER.

21. (i) It shall not be lawful for the lessee of any mining land or holder of a Alteration prospecting licence to make or permit any other person to make, without sanction of in water

supply Government, any such alteration in the water supply as may prejudicially affect the prohibited. water supply enjoyed by Government or any other persons or land.

(ii) Whenever any such alteration shall have been so made, the lessee or licensee of the lands benefited thereby shall, in the absence of proof to the contrary, be pre- sumed to have made it.

(iii) Any person who shall in the course of mining or prospecting operations interfere with the bank of any river, stream or water course may, by written order of Government be required to restore the same to the condition in which it was immedi- ately prior to such interference or to re-make the same in such manner as may be specified in the order.

of water.

22.-(i) Every lessee or holder of a prospecting licence who shall use water in Purification connexion with his mining or prospecting operations in whatever way shall make such provision as will ensure that all water so used shall, before it leaves the area on which it has been so used, be freed from all chemicals deleterious to animal or vege- table life.

(ii) No lessee of mining land or holder of a prospecting licence shall allow effluent water from any area under his control containing solid matter in excess of 500 grains per gallon to discharge into any river or natural water course or otherwise pass beyond his control.

(iii) The Government shall on complaint of failure on the part of any lessee or holder of a prospecting licence to comply with the requirements of sub-sections (i) and (ii) hold an inquiry into the matter of such complaint, and may, with or without such complaint at any time order any such person to provide such fixed masonry spill- ways, dams, settling pits and other mechanical appliances or devices and to use such chemical methods as may be necessary for effectual compliance with the said sub- sections, and may also order such person to suspend his mining or prospecting opera- tions until such provision has been made and such methods adopted.

(iv) Compliance with an order of Government made under sub-section (iii) shall not affect the liability incurred by any such person through breach of the provi- sions of sub-sections (i) and (ii).

Part V.

THE REGULATION OF MINING OPERATIONS.

23.-(i) No gunpowder, dynamite, petroleum or other inflammable oil in bulk, or other substance of an explosive or dangerous nature, shall be brought onto, stored, placed or used upon any land held under mining lease or prospecting licence except in such places, in such quantities, in such manner and on such conditions as shall be approved by Government; and no detonator, match or other highly inflammable sub- stance or liquid shall be stored together with any explosive substance or liquid.

(ii) Only wooden tamping rods in charging holes for blasting and only regula- tion pliers for fixing the detonator to the fuse may be used and only clay or other suit- able material shall be used for tamping.

(iii) Sufficient warning shall be given to enable all persons in the vicinity of the workings to reach a place of safety before any fuse is ignited. The number of shots exploding shall be counted and if all the shots have not exploded no one shall be al- lowed to enter the working place for a period of thirty minutes after the fuses were lighted.

(iv) A charge that has misfired shall not be withdrawn and only such tamping as can be easily removed may be withdrawn to enable the missed charge to be re- primed and fired; alternatively a new hole shall be bored by hand parallel to but not below and not nearer than 18 inches to the misfire and shall be charged with one and a half times the amount of explosive in the misfired hele.

Explosives

not to be used in mine or

stored or

building

except as

prescribed.

1

Accidents to

310

24. Whenever any accident causing or resulting in loss of life or serious bodily be reported. injury to any person or serious injury to the property of any person has occurred upon any mining land it shall be the duty of the lessee or mining manager to report im- mediately to a police or land officer the facts of the matter so far as they are known to him.

Regulations by lessee

or manager

of mine.

Tailings and over- burden.

Under- ground workings.

Hydraulic mining prohibited

save as

herein provided.

Machinery.

25. The lessee or manager of any mine shall if so ordered by Government frame such regulations in Chinese to be approved by Government for the conduct and guid- ance of persons employed in or about the mine as appear under the particular cir- cumstances best calculated to ensure their health and safety and copies of such regula- tions shall be kept posted in conspicuous places on the mine. Fines inflicted under any such regulations while in force may be deducted by the lessee or manager from the salary of any person employed in or about the mine who has in the opinion of such lessee or manager become liable to pay the same, and any such person aggrieved by the decision of the lessee or manager may appeal within thirty days to the nearest magistrate who may confirm, vary or reverse the decision of the lessee or manager.

26. Except with the written consent of Government, the lessee of mining land may not dump or permit any other person to dump tailings or overburden outside the limits of the land held under lease by him.

27.—(i) No boy under the age of 16 years and no woman or girl shall be em- ployed in any underground working.

(ii) No shaft shall be sunk or underground excavation made within 150 feet of the centre of any road or railway or Crown land set apart for a road or railway with- out the written permission of Government.

(iii) The lessee of mining land in which any open pit, shaft, or adit exists shall erect and thereafter maintain such fencing as may be necessary to prevent the occur- rence of any danger or damage to man or beast and surround with a substantial wall the top of any shaft which for the time being is out of use or used only as an air shaft.

(iv) All shafts, adits, levels, galleries and underground passages shall at all times, where necessary be securely timbered and supported in such manner as to en- sure the safety of all persons working in or passing through the same.

(v) Such ladder or other ways as will furnish effectual means of exit from any underground working or of ascent or descent of persons without the assistance of winding machinery shall be provided and maintained.

(vi) All parts of every underground working shall be properly and sufficiently ventilated to the satisfaction of Government.

(vii) Every working shaft exceeding 150 feet in depth which is used or intended to be used for raising or lowering persons or minerals shall, unless Government grants exemption in writing, be provided with mechanical haulage fitted with special and suit- able appliances to prevent the sudden fall of the cage down the shaft.

28.-(i) No person shall work any land by ground sluicing or gravel pump min- ing or by any method of removing or excavating earth by the direct action of water without the written consent of Government.

(ii) Such consent may be for a period not exceeding twelve months and subject to such conditions as shall be therein stated and shall specify the area upon which the waste matter from such workings shall be retained.

(iii) Government shall have the power to cancel or suspend such consent at any- time upon proof that the lessee has failed to observe or comply with any of the condi- tions thereof, or upon proof that he is carrying on mining operations in such manner as to injure or be likely to injure the property of the Crown or to impair or be likely to impair the lawful rights, privileges or possessions of any other person.

29.-(1) Any machinery employed on mining land may be subject to inspection by any person duly authorized by Government in that behalf who may issue any orders that may be considered necessary for the safety of persons.

(ii) No machinery shall be operated unless and until all moving parts are SO shielded or fenced as to obviate danger to persons, and no person shall be permitted to stand or pass between machinery in motion and any such shield or fence.

311

(iii) No attempt shall be made to clean machinery whilst in motion.

(iv) Where men are required to enter any boiler for purposes of cleaning, re- pairing or inspection effective disconnexion shall be made from any other boiler or vessel containing steam or hot water.

(v) Only suitably qualified engineers or drivers shall be in charge of machinery and no person shall be permitted to be in charge of any machinery unless such per- son has had at least 14 days training under the direction and in the immediate com- pany of a person who himself has had not less than six months experience in operating such machinery.

Part VI.

TRESPASSES AND PENALTIES.

Fine and

forfeiture

30. Any person found to be prospecting or mining on any land without having received lawful authority to prospect or mine the same under any provisions of these for illicit regulations shall be liable, on conviction, to a fine not exceeding one thousand dol- mining or lars, and all machinery, tools, plant, buildings or other property, together with prospecting. ore which may be found upon, or proved to have been obtained from, the said land shall be liable to forfeiture.

any

for infring-

31. Any person who shall make default in observing any of the covenants and Penalty conditions of his document of title to any mining land as prescribed by these regula-

ing condi- tions shall be liable to a fine of two hundred and fifty dollars.

tions of title.

32. Any person who shall make default in observing any section of Part III, Penalty for IV, or V of these regulations shall be liable to a fine of one thousand dollars.

33. In the event of any person employed in or about a mine doing any act in such an unskilful or unworkmanlike manner as to be likely to cause danger or damage to any person or failing to take all such due and proper precautions as may be neces- sary to ensure the safety of any person on or about such mine, such person shall be liable to a fine of two hundred and fifty dollars or to one month's rigorous imprison-

ment.

breach of sections.

Penalty for conduct.

negligent

34. Any person who shall fail to obey any lawful order made by Government Other shall, in cases where no penalty is specifically provided, be liable to a fine of five penalties.

hundred dollars.

breach of

35. Any person offending against the provisions of any regulation made under Penalty for these regulations shall, in cases where such offence is of a continuing nature, be liable, continuing in addition to any fine prescribed, to a further fine of ten dollars for every day during sections. which such offence may continue.

Part VII.

GENERAL.

of leased

36. All lands leased otherwise than for mining purposes shall be liable to be Resumption acquired by Government for mining purposes provided suitable compensation is paid land. therefor.

37. No title, licence or other authority issued under Ordinance No. 7 of 1906 or Miners these regulations shall exempt any person from liability in respect of any damage oc- for damage.

liability casioned by such person to the property of the Crown or of any person.

38.—(i) All offences against the provisions of these regulations shall be triable Trial of by a magistrate and a sentence of imprisonment not exceeding six months of either offences. description in default of payment of a fine may be imposed.

(ii) Any person aggrieved by any decree, order or decision in the magistrate's court may appeal, within thirty days from the date of the decree, order or decision, to the Supreme Court.

informers.

39. It shall be lawful for the court before whom a conviction may be had Rewards to under these regulations to direct that any sum not exceeding one half of any fine re- covered or value of any property forfeited upon such conviction shall be paid to any person upon whose information or evidence such conviction was obtained.

J

District of

NO:

312

Schedule I.

REGULATION 8 (i).

MINING LEASE.

This mining lease is issued by the Governor of Hong Kong in the name and on

behalf of KING GEORGE VI to

to occupy for the term of

years from

and those claiming under

and for such

further term as be authorized by endorsement hereon under the hand of the Governor,

that lot of land at

roods

estimated to contain

acres

poles more or less which said lot of land with the dimensions abuttals

and boundaries thereof is delineated on the plan drawn particularly on Government survey plan number

on these presents and more deposited in

pay-

Subject to the payment therefor of an annual rent of ......................... dollars and the ment of such royalties as may be notified from time to time in the Gazette and to the provisions covenants and conditions set out in the Mining Regulations, and to the ex- press conditions set forth hereunder :

EXPRESS CONDITIONS.

In witness whereof the said Governor'

has hereunto set his hand and caused the

seal of the Colony to be fixed at

this....

day of

in the presence of

19.......

313

Signed by the said

this....... day of

19......

in the presence of

Registered at

.this

day of

19........

No:

No. of former title

District of

Land Officer.

5

1

LOT NO:

314

(Surveyed plan to be drawn here indicating north point, scale, bearings and length of the boundaries, area in acres, roods, poles, and number of Government plan.)

,

315

Schedule II.

This Licence authorizes

of

SECTION 18.

PROSPECTING LICENCE.

(a) to prospect for the following metals or minerals namely

months commencing from the

for the period of

>

day of

19... within the area hereunder described and indicated by

sketch plan, subject to the conditions and limitations of Part III of the mining Regulations and otherwise where applicable.

(b) to remove from such land free of Royalty, such samples of metals or minerals herein stated as may, in the opinion of Government be reasonably necessary to enable him to test the qualities of the land in respect of such

metals or minerals.

(c) to select and the prior right to apply for a lease within such area hereunder

described and according to sketch plan an aggregate of

acres on

proof to the satisfaction of Government that the licensee has done a suf-

ficient amount of prospecting work to entitle him to such lease.

This licence is liable to cancellation if the licensee shall cease altogether to work within such area for a period of

.months.

EXPRESS CONDITIONS.

:

!

Position

Approximate area

Boundaries N.

S.

E.

W.

316

DESCRIPTION OF. PROSPECTING AREA.

Dated this

day of

...19...

Fee paid $

For and on behalf of the Governor in Council.

Registered at

..this day of

No:

District of

Clerk of Councils.

Land Officer.

19...

}

317

SKETCH PLAN.

(Sketch plan to be drawn here indicating approximately north point, scale, posi- tion and area of the land.)

318

Appendix II.

REPORT AND RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING EXISTING MINES.

(i) HONG KONG CLAYS & KAOLIN CO., LTD.

An opencast mine situated at Cha Kwo Ling and held under a 3 year lease over 3.12 acres from Government which expired six months ago, at a rent of $4,000 per annum and $393 rent for area outside the lease occupied by drying beds and godowns. Twelve to thirty coolies are employed on daily wage and the average output amounts to approximately 2,500 tons per annum. The clay, which is of good quality kaolin, is mined in a primitive fashion and after drying is bagged in the raw state and exported mostly to Japan. The output, which is regulated according to demand, has dropped from 500 tons to 20-30 tons per month since that country's war activities. Although the mine is awkwardly situated and cramped for space, there is room for considerable improvement in the method of treatment and there is no doubt that a clay of a more refined quality could be produced which would have a wider market and fetch a relatively higher price.

RECOMMENDATIONS.

The high rent and short term lease of this property are definitely a hindrance to expansion, in that no company is likely to instal plant etc. when security of tenure is limited to 3 years. It is recommended that the lease due for issue be issued for 10 years according to form, premium and rent as provided for in Appendix I, and that royalty for the next 3 years be based on the average output for the last 3 years for a minimum return of $1,000 per annum. The regulations provide for cancellation of lease if insufficient work is being done. This is the only mine working for kaolin and every encouragement should be given to a new industry.

The supervision of the mine is satisfactory. The ground stands up well and the faces of the mine are in good condition, but as work advances there may be a tendency to their becoming too steep and dangerous. It is recommended that the following code of rules in Chinese be posted in conspicuous places on the mine.

(i) Where the working faces of the mine exceed 20 feet in height, benches

of a minimum width of 10 feet must be maintained at such intervals. (ii) Where the working face of the mine exceeds 10 feet in height, it shall be worked in a series of steps sufficiently wide to afford secure foothold. (iii) No undercutting of a face is permitted.

(iv) Any person committing a breach of these rules shall be liable to a fine

of 3 days' pay.

Needle Hill Mine.

(ii) MARSMAN HONG KONG CHINA LTD.

An underground mine worked for wolfram, with which a small quantity of molybdenite is associated, on the adit system with narrow stopes and held under a 21 years' lease over 540 acres from Government at a rent of $2 per acre. Approxi- mately 500 coolies, women and children on the surface and men underground, and plant of 50 H.P. operated by electricity are employed. Some 1,640 piculs of wolfram has been recovered to date, which is exported to England and royalty of $8,645 has been paid up to May, 1938. The ore is purchased from the sub-contractors on a sliding scale from $82.50 to $95.00 per picul, the company supplying all facilities such as plant, power, transport, accommodation, etc. The cost of production is approximately $120 per picul and the company has sustained a loss of some $71,000 to date. Original investigations indicated the possibility of large ore deposits, and with a view to proving them the company carried out a considerable amount of development which has since proved to be dead work. Adits 1 and 2 were driven 556 and 590 feet and connected by a drift of 800 feet, and another adit 315 feet below was driven 1,110 feet to prove any ore in depth, but without success. This development work, which cost $80,000, proved that the ore bodies were limited to

319

the upper levels and were not large enough to warrant the installation of modern plant, so the method of mining described above was adopted. Based on the proved ore reserves, the mine has a life of approximately 1-2 years and provided production and price of metal remains at present levels, the company should just about recover the capital invested.

RECOMMENDATIONS.

During the inspection of the property, I noticed some very fine and expensive coolie lines in course of erection, which are far above the standard in use in the Federated Malay States, and other places in the East. The expense of such costly and permanent coolie lines is a heavy item on the charges of a mine of this nature and will undoubtedly militate against any incentive of miners to take up leases on a low grade proposition. It is suggested therefore, that the medical authorities cut down their requirements to a minimum, particularly in connexion with a mine in its develop- ment stage or one with a short life, where a temporary building would appear to be more reasonable.

The supervision and running of the mine is satisfactory and the labour force is experienced, having worked on the mine for many years. The ground stands up well and the small size of the stopes reduces the necessity of timbering to a minimum, but for the greater safety of the miners employed it is recommended that the following rules in Chinese be posted up at the office and entrance to each adit which is in use:

(i) Miners are recommended to wear crash helmets when working under-

ground. These are available at the mine office.

(ii) All tracks and manways shall be kept clear.

-

(iii) Sub-contractors shall inspect and maintain all ladder ways and platforms

in a safe condition and have props placed in stopes where necessary. (iv) The names of shot firers shall be registered at the mine office and only

such shot firers shall carry out blasting operations.

(v) In fixing fuse to detonators, only pliers of an approved type may be used. (vi) After blasting operations, the shot firer and timber boss of any particular working place shall bar down any loose rock, and timber where necessary before permitting coolies to enter the working place.

(vii) No coolies may enter a working place after blasting operations until

permitted by the shot firer and timber boss.

(viii) Any loose ground shall be reported immediately to the timber boss.

(ix) Any person committing a breach of the rules shall be liable to a fine of

3 days' pay.

Plan of workings is attached marked C.*

Lin Ma Hang Mine.

(iii) HONG KONG MINES LTD.

Working a galena deposit for silver and lead by underground methods on the adit system and held under a lease of 75 years over 150.15 acres at a rent of $2 per acre, a mining lease over an additional 1196.45 acres adjoining has also recently been approved to the company, but not yet issued. The ore carries an average of 2.5 ozs. per short ton of silver and 10.4% lead. A labour force of 500, 350 under- ground and 150 on surface, with plant of 575 H.P. is employed. Production to date amounts to 5,526 short tons of concentrates carrying 15.8 ozs. per short ton silver and 69% lead, at a cost of £12 per ton.

The management of the property was taken over by Neilson & Co. during January 1937, at which time there were some 7,000 feet of tunnels and raises, and approxi- mately 80,000 tons of ore blocked out. Construction of a 150 ton per day all flotation type of mill, buildings, and development work were then put in hand, since when 2,800 feet of capital and 1,760 feet of development work has been done.

The mill commenced operating during October, 1937, the probable ore reserves as on 1st January, 1938 amounted to 111,700 tons and the tonnage milled to date amounts to 38,358, from which 5,526 tons of concentrates have been produced and shipped to Europe. Additions to the mill are now in hand which will increase the capacity by 100 tons per day. Supervision under eight Europeans or Americans is good and the mine, which is run on standard lines is in good condition. The fatal

*Not Printed.

320

accidents which occurred this year were mainly due to the lack of skilled labour which is not available and in consequence the carelessness of the individual miner As the labour force becomes trained the number of accidents should decrease, but it should be kept in mind that mining, particularly underground, is a hazardous occupation at any time.

RECOMMENDATIONS.

I understand that the matter of royalty is still under consideration and that none has been paid to date. It is recommended that in future, a suitable advance is paid on removal of the concentrates from the mine, to be adjusted on receipt of assay value and sale receipts from Europe, as required by the proposed regulations.

For the greater safety of persons employed at this particular mine, it is recom- mended that the management has the following code of rules printed in Chinese and posted at the mine office and at the portal of each adit which is in use.

Safety rules for native employees.

(i) Miners are recommended to wear crash helmets when working under-

ground. These are available at the mine office.

(ii) Level bosses shall report immediately to the timber boss, any timber or rock that may have become dislodged and which is in a dangerous position.

(iii) No person shall leave any timber, debris, waste rock or ore above the level of the sleepers on which the tram lines are laid, and the level boss shall be responsible that levels under his charge are kept clear.

(iv) No person shall ride on a truck.

(v) All trucks in motion shall have a light hung on the front of the body of

the truck.

(vi) No person may pull a truck, they must always be pushed, and the level boss shall be responsible that trucking is done only by experienced truckers.

(vii) Stope bosses shall be responsible that all manways are kept clear and

that all ladders are securely fixed.

(viii) No person shall leave tools, timber or other articles in proximity to the top of any manway, winze or stope in such manner as to be likely to cause injury to persons below.

(ix) Stope bosses shall not permit any person to enter a working place until all loose rock has been barred down by a competent assistant under his supervision. Any loose rock on the roof or sides of a stope shall be immediately reported to the stope boss.

(x) The names of shot firers shall be registered at the mine office and only such shot firers shall carry out blasting operations or be in possession of explosives.

(xi) Before firing a charge the shot firer shall call out or give sufficient warning to any person in the vicinity and shall not permit any person to enter the working place until a period of 30 minutes shall have elapsed from the time of lighting the fuses.

(xii) All blasting operations shall be carried out at stated and regular

intervals.

(xiii) Any person committing a breach of these rules shall be liable to a fine of 3 days' pay, double for a second offence and dismissal without fine for a third offence.

*Plan of the workings is attached marked D 1, 2.

*Not Printed.

321

(iv) NEW TERRITORIES MINING Co., Ltd.

One square mile held under lease at Ma On Shan for a period of 50 years. An outcrop of magnetite iron ore is being mined on the quarry system by 120 contract coolies under Chinese management. Approximately 8,000 tons have been produced since 1931 and royalty amounting to $3,600 has been paid up to February, 1938. Production is regulated according to demand and the whole of the output is being sold at present to the Green Island Cement Co. at $10.50 per ton, the cost of pro- duction, transport and royalty being $8.00 per ton. Owing to the limited time at my disposal, I was unable to visit the mine. After some trouble I located and visited the Company's office where there was no responsible person in charge at the time, and it was only at the last moment that I managed to interview the Chinese managing director. According to him, there has been no fatal accident since the mine opened up seven years ago, so it would appear that mining operations are being controlled in a satisfactory manner under the Chinese manager.

HONG KONG.

REPORT

ON A

NEW MUSEUM

IN HONG KONG.

PRINTED BY

NORONHA & COMPANY,

GOVERNMENT PRINTERS & PUBLISHERS.

1

No. 1998

3

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE APPOINTED

TO ADVISE UPON THE NATURE OF THE

COLLECTIONS, WHICH THE

COLONIAL MUSEUM OF HONG KONG

SHOULD CONTAIN AND UPON THE

ACCOMMODATION

WHICH THOSE COLLECTIONS

ARE LIKELY TO REQUIRE.

BOTANICAL AND FORESTRY Department,

1, Peak Road,

Hong Kong,

11th January, 1938.

THE HONOURABLE

SIR,

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY,

HONG KONG.

I have the honour to submit the report of the Committee with five enclosures attached, appointed with the following terms of reference :--

"To advise upon the nature of the collections which the Colonial Museum of Hong Kong should contain and upon the accommodation which those collections are likely to require."

I asked His Excellency the Governor whether the Committee might exceed the terms of reference in view of the fact that two of its members would shortly be leaving the Colony and he gave me verbal permission to do this.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient servant,

(Sd.) G. A. C. HERKLOTS.

P.S. C.S.O. File No. 2880/34, the existence of which we were unaware, was received after the completion of our report. The evidence in this file merely supports our observations and in no way affects the conclusions which we had already reached.

(Intd.) G.A.C.H.

12.1.38.

ESSENTIALS.

5

A NEW MUSEUM IN HONG KONG.

I. CURATOR.

(a) qualifications.

(b) salary.

(c) powers.

II. BOARD OF DIRECTORS.

(a) personnel.

(b) powers.

III. BUILDING.

Construction and establishment.

IV. MUSEUM.

(a) reasons for.

(b) objects of establishment.

(c) methods of fulfilling.

(d) finance of establishment.

(e) access of public.

V. SITE.

- 7

!

I. CURATOR.

He should be a young man of British nationality, enthusiastic, widely qualified, with specialist knowledge in one branch, artistic, capable of using his hands and willing to learn Chinese.

(a) Qualifications.

(i) an honours degree of a British University, subjects studied to include at least two of the following:-

Zoology Botany

Geology

Archaeology

Anthropology

some other approved subject.

(ii) a diploma or certificate given by the Museums Association, this is only granted after an apprenticeship in a reputable museum has been completed to the satisfaction of the Museums Association.

The qualifications suggested above need not be rigidly enforced if a man with other qualifications and with high recommendations is available.

(b) Salary.

The salary must be sufficiently attractive to encourage the right type of ap- plicant for the post. The advice of the Museums Association should be taken on this

matter.

We consider that the absolute minimum commencing salary to be offered should be £450, exclusive of house allowance or house, in order to encourage the right type of applicant.

(e) Powers.

The Curator must be given the absolute power of refusal of gifts and loans. If this is not his then quantities of un-wanted material will accumulate. The Board of Directors might be called upon to give advice on acceptance or refusal of gifts or loans but the last word on refusal must be in the power of the Curator.

II. BOARD OF DIRECTORS.

(a) Personnel.-The nominations of His Excellency the Governor.

On approval of the establishment of a Museum we suggest that a small Board of Directors be appointed and that representatives of the following bodies be invited to serve on this board.

The Hong Kong Government-Education Department.

The Hong Kong University.

The Chamber of Commerce.

Botanical and Forestry Department.

The Chinese Chamber of Commerce.

(b) Powers.-To give advice on the upkeep, maintenance, general manage- ment, and finance of the Museum.

III.

BUILDING.

Construction and Establishment.

1. It is highly desirable, though not essential, that the building should be air- conditioned throughout. If this is not practicable for reasons of cost, then perhaps one wing could be so constructed. In this wing natural history exhibits, books, paintings and other objects particularly susceptible to damp, could be housed. Such a wing would also be gas-proof and could be used as a temporary shelter in

:

8

time of emergency. A bomb-proof vault, in which valuable exhibits could be stored, would be worth considering. Uniformity of temperature and humidity would result in a far longer life of the specimens.

2. It is highly desirable that all exhibits, save those not protected, should be housed in scientifically designed, artistic, metal and glass, dust-proof cases.

3. A lecture hall-designed for this purpose with correct acoustic properties- equipped with a first class epidiascope lantern and a cinematograph lantern for the projection of pictures, slides and films of special interest should be included in the building. This room should be built to hold at least 300 persons. If the scheme is in conjunction with a City Hall then such a hall would fulfil this purpose.

4. A smaller room should also be included which could be used by societies for their meetings, e.g., Hong Kong Horticultural Society, Aquarium Society and a Natural History Society (which would certainly be inaugurated). Such a room should be equipped with benches (with water and electric-fittings) with blackboards (ground glass or concrete) and with a small epidiascope lantern and screen. number of exhibits could also be permanently housed in this room as well.

A

5. A large preparation room, or two smaller rooms equipped with benches, water, gas and electricity and with a dark room for photographic use, are absolutely essential.

6. A research laboratory for the use of the Curator and visiting scientists is also essential.

7. A small library and reading room open (on conditions) to the public is highly desirable. A great deal of scientific literature could be obtained free and certain journals could be purchased or obtained in exchange for the museum's publications. If this library is contained within the air-conditioned wing the University might consider the housing therein of the more valuable books on Chinese art from the Hankow library. The coloured plates are particularly susceptible to changes in humidity; examples of such books are the volumes of the catalogue of the Eumorfopoulos collection.

8. The rooms, in which the exhibits are to be staged, must be well lit, spacious and attractively furnished. There is an abundance of literature on museum design and furniture so no difficulties should be experienced..

9. We consider that provision should be made for the following rooms:-

2 rooms for prehistory, archaeology and geology.

2 rooms for ethnographic sciences to illustrate racial settlement and

migration.

2 rooms, in addition to a central hall, for Chinese arts to include in parti-

cular porcelains, paintings and bronzes.

1 room devoted to marine biology.

1 room devoted to terrestial biology.

2 rooms devoted to industries representative of China, e.g., silk, tea,

porcelain and paper.

A minimum total of 10 rooms in addition to a central hall.

IV. MUSEUM.

(a) Reasons for establishment.

It is highly desirable for many reasons that Hong Kong should possess a museum worthy of its situation.

In the British Empire it is unique in being an island situated at the extreme S.E. corner of Asia and just within the tropics. Its fauna, flora and prehistory

i

9

are of more than ordinary interest for these reasons. The seas around Hong Kong are unusually rich in seaweeds of many kinds and already from local waters several hundred species of fish have been identified. Again, owing to its geographical posi- tion, the Colony is on the line of autumn and spring migrations of fishes and birds. The snakes are of especial interest because in their numbers are both tropical and temperate forms. The flora is tropical but the Colony forms almost the extreme north- eastern limit of the distribution of many of its plants.

Hong Kong, as a Colony, is also unique in the British Empire in not possessing a museum or art gallery. Reference to this fact is made in no uncertain terms by the Museums Association in their Empire survey carried out at the request of the Carnegie Corporation of New York:-

وو

Hong Kong, in fact, represents the low-water mark in museum provision throughout the whole of the Empire, excepting only the smaller islands of the Pacific and some of the more backward African territories.' Report on the Museums of Ceylon, British Malaya, the West Indies, etc. The Museums Association, 1933, p. 8. On pages 20 & 21 in this same report, the Museum situation in Hong Kong is discussed in further detail: See Appendix I.

We consider that the present time is appropriate for the removal of this stigma.

The Colony, being geographically part of China and situated in the track of racial migrations in proto-historic times, has unique advantages for the study of the origins · and development of Chinese culture in many of its aspects.

establishment of

The Chinese Government has spent large sums on the museums and libraries in Peiping, Kaifoeng, Nanking, Shanghai and in many other cities, which in design and management follow those of Europe and America. This fact, coupled with the wealth of material available, provides an ample reason for the. establishment of a museum which at the least should be on a level with the standard attained in China.

A museum, such as is envisaged in this report, would form a link between the Universities and Museums of the Empire and those of China and would provide facilities for the interchange of students and knowledge between the English and Chinese speaking peoples.

In the Colony, the museum would form a centre for discussion, research and education, and a means for the widening of outlook of both school-children and the general public.

(b) Objects of Establishment of a Museum.

The objects of the museum should be

1. The collection, study, classification, arrangement and display of material of scientific, historic, artistic and economic interest to the Colony of Hong Kong and to the country of China.

2. The interpretation of the collections with a view to interesting and educating the public. This involves not only the artistic display and thorough labelling of specimens but also the giving of lectures on special topics and the writing for publica- tion of both papers and books to further the same end.

3. Co-operation with existing Government and Educational Departments with a view to increasing the interest and education of the people in a variety of biological, geological, archaeological and other subjects.

The Museum must, in our opinion, be confined in its scope to Hong Kong and Chinese interest. If this rule is not rigidly adhered to the museum, like its predecessor, will become a repository for odds and ends from every corner of the globe. A general

10

and comprehensive museum is quite outside the present requirements of Hong Kong and should not now be envisaged.

Suppose, for example, that one exhibit consisted of a series of models illustrating the different types of fishing boats used in S.E. China, there would be no objection to including for comparison a limited number of examples from adjacent regions, e.g., N. China, Indo-China, Formosa, Malaya and Borneo; the Chinese element must, however, always predominate.

In the last City Hall Museum there were inter alia a collection of Australian parrots, mineralogical specimens from Wales, old clocks, etc., such exhibits are undesirable and should never be admitted into the new museum.

(c) Methods of fulfilling the objects.

Much will depend on the initiative and energy of the Curator and on the willingness of Government Departments to co-operate with him. It must be apparent that visible results will take time to prepare. In consequence, it might be advisable to start with one section at a time and when a representative exhibit had been arranged it could then be made available to the public and left as it stood whilst the energies of the Curator and his assistants were devoted to another section.

I. EXISTING COLLECTIONS BELONGING TO GOVERNMENT.

1. CHATER COLLECTION.

Provision should be made for the exhibition of a part of the collection of paintings and drawings by Chinnery and his pupils. These, and the other prints and drawings, could be changed frequently and the rest of the collection could be available for students at any time on special request.

The collection of porcelains consists of 17th, 18th and 19th century wares, imitating a small group of Chinese ceramics of the K'ang-hsi period of the Ch'ing dynasty. These are by no means representative of Chinese ceramic art and the ex- hibition of more than a selected few would be tedious and misleading to the public and absolutely of no value to students. Mr. R. L. Hobson, Keeper of the Depart- ment of Oriental Antiquities at the British Museum, has seen this collection and we believe that our statements are in agreement with his views. There are two dishes of the Cheng-te period of the Ming dynasty of moderate interest and these are worth exhibiting.

2. OLD CITY HALL MUSEUM COLLECTIONS.

On the 30th September, 1937, a report on the existing collections was sub- mitted. The signatories recommended the destruction of the majority of the speci- mens, which had been damaged by insects, dry rot, neglect and by the typhoon of September 2nd. Among the specimens to be kept are a number of marine shells (many un-named) and an interesting collection of named fresh-water shells. These collections should be included in the New Museum collections.

3. COLLECTIONS IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBER.

These, consisting of geological and mineralogical specimens collected during the the survey of Hong Kong and of four funerary urns from Sha Tin and Sheung Shui, could be transferred to the New Museum.

4. THE LAMMA EXCAVATION COLLECTION IN RICCI HALL.

This is at present in the custody of the Jesuit Fathers at Ricci Hall and could be transferred to the New Museum.

11

II. COLLECTIONS TO BE MADE FROM LOCAL MATERIAL.

1. ARCHAEOLOGY.-This is a large branch and the amount of work required to clear up problems that already confront us will take years but something might be arranged and displayed after a few months time with the help of loan collections.

2. NATURAL HISTORY.-Here again a vast field presents itself but one or two groups might be tackled and completely dealt with in a short time, e.g., the Snakes, of which about 30 species are known. A representative collection of Butterflies might be displayed after a very short time possibly supplemented by lean collections.

3. GEOLOGY.-A representative collection of the rocks and minerals of the Colony could be arranged almost immediately.

The museum must have its own journal or access to a journal of established repute. We suggest for consideration that the Hong Kong Naturalist, now in its ninth year, should be considered as convenient medium for the publication of researches. The writing and publication of simple books would follow naturally and here co-operation with the University and Education Department would be most valuable.

(d) Finance of the Museum.

We think it probable that the Empire Grants Committee of the Museums Association would make a grant towards the initial cost of the building and its equipment. Our Chairman spoke some years ago to the Secretary of that Committee, Mr. S. F. Markham, on this subject and was told that no grant would be considered unless :--

(1) A properly qualified Curator were appointed.

(2) The authorities concerned gave definite proof that they intended to continue active support of the institution. The first annual report and other relevant papers are included in the Appendix as enclosures B, C* and D*.

2. The Colonial Development Fund might be willing to give a grant towards the initial cost. The Hon. Mr. S. Caine was at one time Secretary of this Fund and could be asked for his advice.

3. It is probable that certain wealthy Chinese might be willing to make dona- tions, if approached in the right manner. We think the best way of acknowledging such donations would be to follow the custom in force at the British Museum, where a tablet is affixed to the wall on which is inscribed the details of the gift. This would obviate a difficulty that might arise were a room named after the donor; he might wish to exhibit his own gifts or loans and expect that his advice be sought on its use.

If and when a public appeal is launched for gifts of money towards the building or endowment, emphasis should be laid on the fact that the museum is for the Chinese and for the study of Chinese art and natural history, and that therefore the idea should especially appeal to the cultured Chinese of the Colony.

4. We consider that an endowment fund should be established, the revenue from which would be devoted to museum interests. A possible way of augmenting this would be by Government releasing a special postage stamp issue and devoting the entire profits from the sale to the fund.

A number of the Chinese and foreign business firms might be willing to give an annual grant to this fund. Appeals might be launched through the Chambers of Commerce represented on the Board of Directors.

5. Government should be prepared to meet annual charges of upkeep and salaries. Here it must be mentioned that no museum of this type should be con-

* See Appendix II for enclosure B. Enclosures C and D are not printed.

12

——

templated without a budget, independent of the interest from the endowment fund, at the disposal of the Curator, acting with the guidance of the Board of Directors if thought desirable. Money must be available not only for upkeep but also for the purchase of specimens. This is why a thoroughly competent Curator, qualified to discriminate between the genuine and the forgery, is absolutely essential.

6. There should be available a travel fund, to be used at the discretion of the Board of Directors, to enable the Curator or one of his assistants, or a visiting student or scientist working in the museum, to visit cities in China. The Curator must be encouraged to widen his experience of things Chinese and a man of the standing required would certainly wish to do this. When on home leave the Curator should be encouraged to study in European or American museums.

7. The annual budget should provide for the salaries of the Curator and of at least two Chinese assistants. These should be Chinese scholars who have had experience either in reputable Chinese museums or with the Academia Sinica. Knowledge of English should not be an essential qualification. These two men could train and instruct young Chinese as technicians whose wages would also have to be met out of the annual budget. The technicians, working under the direction. of the Curator and his assistants, would prepare the specimens for exhibition and design labels, mounts, backgrounds, etc. We feel sure that there would be no difficulty in recruiting the right people for these posts.

8. Provision must also be made for the staff of clerks, coolies, messengers and watchmen as well as two or three technicians.

(e) Access of public.

In the old City Hall Museum access was free to all and sundry, in consequence it became a resting ground for illiterate coolies and the poorest of the Chinese who came in and out of the cold or rain in search of shelter. Under conditions of this nature the real students were discouraged. Whilst not wishing to exclude the poorer classes we yet do not think that the objects of the museum would be fulfilled if such were freely admitted.

We suggest that an entrance fee of 10 cents be charged, this would entitle anyone to enter. School children in parties of from 10 to 20 in charge of a teacher should be admitted free. We suggest that a Museum Association be opened to the public at an annual subscription of $1.00 which would provide free entry for one

year.

There is a further possibility that persons of means, who were interested in the objects of the museum, might be invited to become patrons by donating annually a sum of not less than $100.

V. SITE.

Since the use to which the Albany site should be put is due for re-consideration on February 1st, 1938, we suggest that the possibility of its adoption as a site for the museum be entertained.

The area would allow of ample space for a central block 100 feet by 40 feet and of two side wings 80 feet by 40 feet. These would provide sufficient space for the rooms which we consider necessary to house the exhibits.

Sketch plan, enclosure E*, gives a possible lay-out of such buildings.

* Not printed.

(Sd.) G. A. C. HERKLOTS,

12.1.38.

(Sd.) W. SCHOFIELD,

12.1.38.

(Sd.) A. D. BRANKSTON.

13

Appendix I.

REPORTS ON THE MUSEUMS OF

CEYLON, BRITISH MALAYA, THE WEST INDIES, ETC.

THE MUSEUMS OF HONG KONG.

The Museum situation in Hong Kong.

Mention has already been made of the fact that Hong Kong represents the low-water mark in museum provision throughout the whole of the Empire, excepting only the smaller islands of the Pacific and some of the more backward African territories, but this statement, sweeping as it is, is not sufficient to give a general idea of the museum backwardness of this Colony. It is true there was a small museum in the City Hall building which existed precariously from 1874 to 1933, but even this has now disappeared, and the Hong Kong authorities generously presented part of the collections to a Portuguese Museum in Macao and to other institutions. In the same City Hall building there was a library consisting mainly of 19th century books in a very poor state; some of the more valuable books and many of the less valuable have been attacked by pests of all kinds, and even the recent attempt of the British Museum authorities to have proper precautionary methods taken may prove to be too late. The University, the Hong Kong Club and the Helena May Institute have libraries open to their members, and there is a fine Chinese library in the University, but apart from these there is little public library provision. When it is realised that the population of the Colony is 841,000 and its area just under 400 square miles, or three to four times that of Malta, it will be realised how lacking in certain cultural amenities is this Colony.

On the other hand the Botanic Gardens include a fine herbarium and a small, but good, botanic library. There are, of course, teaching collections at the Univer- sity, which has a fine Medical School. To these may be added the Sir Paul Chater collection of objects d'art which is to be handed over to the Government on the death of Lady Chater. The Government already own the Chater collection of pictures, which is temporarily housed in various public buildings and offices.

It would seem, therefore, that there is a need in the Colony for a cultural centre embracing a Library, a Museum and possibly an Art Gallery, and there are indica- tions that such a proposal is at the moment being considered by the Government. Such a scheme would obviously command approval if there were some indication that the Government would recognize and assist such an Institution on terms at least comparable with the Colombo Museum or the Raffles Museum at Singapore. If some such guarantee were forthcoming, if there were definite indications that a first- class librarian and a first-class curator would be appointed, then without doubt Hong Kong would soon be as advanced in museum and library services as the best of the other Colonies.

At the moment the Hong Kong University is becoming an authoritative centre of information on the Biological Sciences for the whole of China, and comparatively large quantities of fauna and flora are being collected and sent away to Universities and Museums throughout the world for classification and study. These authorities not only return named specimens, but also write up the data in the form of articles, the best of which are published in the " Hong Kong Naturalist "--an excellent quarterly publication now in its fourth year. But nowhere in Hong Kong is there any adequate public museum of Chinese flora or fauna to supplement this excellent work, and it would seem as if the University itself should take the lead in founding a Museum of Natural History (archaeology might be added later) in order that its work on these lines may be more adequate.

14

Appendix II.

CC

REPRINTED FROM THE MUSEUMS JOURNAL ", Vol. XXXIII, March, 1934.

Grants to Colonial Museums: Draft Conditions.

The Museums Association is now prepared to receive applications for grants towards museum developments in the British Colonies. These grants will be made. from a fund of $54,000 placed at the disposal of the Museums Association by the Carnegie Corporation of New York.

There is no limitation as to the purposes for which applications may be made, provided the general tendency will serve :

(a) for the investigation of accumulated material by experts,

(b) for the publication of the results of such investigations,

(c) for providing expert assistance in the reorganization of collections,

(d) to assist in the purchase of cases and exhibitional apparatus,

(e) for the development of educational work,

(f) to permit curators to visit the best museums elsewhere, (g) any analogous field of museum or art gallery activity.

Two general qualifications will, however, be strictly adhered to:-

(1) No grant will be given to any museum which has not a qualified curator,

whether paid or honorary.

(2) No grant will be given to any museum unless there is definite proof that the authorities concerned intend to continue their active support of the institution.

In other words, no grant can become the opportunity for a government or muni- cipality to reduce its customary contributions.

While definite maxima for the grants have not yet been fixed, it is improbable in the early stages of the experiment that any grant will exceed £1,000. Of the $54,000 available for grants, a portion will probably be earmarked for Newfound- land and Southern Rhodesia, and applications are equally invited from these two

areas.

All correspondence in this connection should be addressed to Mr. S. F. Markham, Empire Secretary, The Museums Association, Chaucer House, Malet Place, London, W.C.1, England.

Representatives of Colonial Museums who may be visiting London are most warmly invited to call at the Association headquarters at the above address.

289

HONG KONG.

DRAFT PROGRAMME OF PUBLIC WORKS.

13

No. 1938.

:

In order to enable the Public Works Department to plan its work properly and continuously it is desirable that, if possible, a programme of major works to be undertaken during the next few years should be approved. The field of desir- able public works has therefore been reviewed and a list drawn up of the works which it is thought ought to be undertaken during the next five years. This list is confined to works which it is believed can, during that period, be financed from revenue. The undertaking of certain other works, mainly waterworks, from loan has already been approved. No account is taken here of expenditure upon general town-planning and slum clearance. Unquestionably this will be of an order which could only be financed by loan money. Moreover, no concrete proposals can be made in this direction until the Housing Commission's report has been studied and schemes have been prepared in consultation with the Secretary of State for the Colonies.

2. The works listed are intended to include only the main new works which it is expected to undertake in the period named and funds are expected to be available for smaller works which can be considered year by year, including such continuous activities as street widening and road improvement. Other major works will, of course, also be added in later years if it appears that funds will be available.

3. The total estimated cost of the works listed is $13,135,000; though it must be noted that many of the estimates are very approximate and may require much correction when more detailed surveys and plans have been prepared. To meet this total expenditure funds are expected to be available as follows:-

(1) The balance of $839,000 in the Government House and City Develop- ment Fund can be utilized to meet part of the expenditure on item 1. Funds may also be received from the sale of the old City Hall and other sites but it is not proposed to rely on these.

(2) The Colony has to-day a Surplus of Assets over Liabilities of approxim- ately $15,000,000. After inaking certain deductions to allow for accounting changes it is expected to be about $13,500,000 by the end of the your. The minimum reserve it is regarded as desirable to keep in hand is $10,000,000 and the excess of $3,500,000 is therefore available to meet deficits occasioned by expenditure on Public Works Extraordinary.

(3) There remains a balance of $8,796,000 to be met. During the last ten years revenue has exceeded ordinary expenditure by a total of $36,977,463, roughly $3,700,000 per annum, which has been spent on Public Works Extraordinary or added to the Colony's surplus of assets. This period is not regarded as one of exceptional prosperity and it is not unreasonable to assume that the surplus of revenue during the next five years will be sufficient to cover the sum required as well as necessary expenditure on minor public works.

(4) Some of the works in the list might properly be met from loan funds, e.g., items 5 and 6; but it is always preferable to meet even revenue-producing works from revenue if it can be done and the above figures suggest that there should be no difficulty.

(5) Of the items listed Nos. 3 and 4 (Hospitals) will necessitate permanent additions to recurrent expenditure for staff, etc.; but most of the others will result in actual savings in recurrent expenditure.

:

290

(6) In addition to the list of works, notes have been added on individual works and a schedule is attached showing as accurately as possible the sums it is estimated will be spent on the various works in each year from 1938 to 1943.

LIST OF WORKS.

Estimated Cost.

$

(1) Government House

(2) City Development

(3) Infectious Diseases Hospital

2,000,000

1.000.000*

1,000,000

(4) Kowloon Hospital (Extension)

2,000,000

(5) Addition to Vehicular Ferry Piers (including reclamation

and resumption)

585,000

(6) Improvements to Canton through Road from Castle Peak

Road to Mah Fu Ferry including new Quarry

2,200,000

(7) Government Quarters

1,000,000

(8) Air Raid Precautions

1,000,000

New Peak School

(9)

160,000

Peak Bungalows

150,000

(10) Rebuilding of Police Stations and Police Training School

700,000

(11) New Garages and Quarters at Kennedy Town

100,000

(12) Protective Works, Causeway Bay Typhoon Shelter

140,000

12,035,000

Compensations and resumptions connected with the

above

1,100,000

Total

13,135,000

*To be spent in the period 1938-43.

NOTES.

(1) Government House.-A separate memorandum on this which has

already been circulated appears as an annexure hereto.

(2) City Development. It is probable that by 1943 considerable pro- gress in the development of the site now occupied by the Secretariat, P.W.D. and Volunteer Headquarters and of the St. John's Place area will have been made. The figure of $1,000,000 should be regarded as a token sum.

(3) Infectious Diseases Hospital.--Recent experience suggests the neces- sity of providing more accommodation than previously contemplated and the estimate has been increased accordingly.

(4) Kowloon Hospital Extension.-Revised plans are now under considera- tion and the estimate is very approximate. Assuming the continued development of Kowloon the provision of increased hospital accom- modation is a necessity. The ultimate completion of buildings and equipment may require still further provision.

291

(5) Vehicular Ferry Piers. The present piers and concourse on the Hong Kong side are inadequate for the traffic and it is necessary to provide for expansion, which, owing to royalty arrangement with the company, is directly remunerative to Government. The scheme will also provide permanent pier accommodation for the Harbour Department.

(6) Canton Through Road.-Increasing traffic is thought to be inevitable, which will be remunerative both directly and indirectly. The capital expenditure now proposed aims mainly at strengthening and widening the existing road and will effect large economies in maintenance expenditure in future years. Included in the estimate is the cost of developing a new Government quarry on the mainland.

(7) Government Quarters.-A lump sum is provided to cover the erection of more quarters for both senior and subordinate officers, plans for which are now under examination. The return by way of rents from officers and saving in rent allowances will give a reasonable economic return on the capital invested. The provision of more housing for officers is one of the ways in which Government can help to reduce the present shortage of houses.

(8) Air Raid Precautions.This is to be regarded as a token sum: plans have not reached the stage at which estimates can be framed but it is feared that large expenditure will be necessary.

(9) New Peak School and New Peak Bungalows. The present school was designed for about a third of the number now attending it and a modern building is badly needed.

The Peak Bungalows which adjoin the Peak School are in a very dilapidated condition and due for rebuilding.

It is proposed to rebuild the Peak Bungalows on a new site and to combine the old site with the existing school site.

(10) Police Buildings. Several stations are in need of extensive additions or rebuilding. It is proposed to build a new Training School on a site to be selected beyond the new Police Recreation Ground and the domestic buildings now used for that purpose will be available for sale, so recouping part of the cost.

1

Architectural Office

Roads Office

Port Development Office

ABSTRACT OF ESTIMATED EXPENDITURE.

1938.

1939.

1940.

1941.

1942.

1943.

Office Total.

F

850,000

2,550,000

1,900,000

2,050,000

1,760,000

9,110,000

100,000

650,000

650,000

500,000

300,000

2,200,000

150,000

250,000

255,000

70,000

725,000

2,420,000

Compensation and Resumptions

Total

100,000

1,650,000

3,450,000

2,655,000

Grand Total

1,760,000

12,035,000

1,100,000

13,135,000

292

293

MEMORANDUM BY THE GOVERNOR.

I have now been able to give consideration to the Government House and City Development Scheme which was prepared some years ago and was discussed in à memorandum by my predecessor of the 30th of November, 1936. I find myself in agreement with Sir Andrew Caldecott in disliking the proposal for intensive development of the sites now occupied by Government House and the Colonial Secretariat and neighbouring buildings. On the other hand I cannot agree with him regarding the undesirability of building a new Government House and hold with Sir William Peel that the balance of advantage lies in proceeding with such construction.

2. My reasons for reaching this conclusion are as follows:--

(1) It is no longer economically sound to continue to maintain the present Government House and this factor will become progressively more cogent as time goes on. Furthermore the present Government House and its grounds are not adequate to modern requirements either in size or convenience.

(2) The existing Central Offices of Government are quite unworthy of the Colony's status, as regards both the accommodation which they offer and their appearance.

Mereover, they also, for structural reasons, will need to be replaced before many years are out. But no develop- ment is possible of their present site, which is considered to be the most suitable for the Government's Headquarter Offices, until the occupants of the existing buildings have been housed elsewhere. This could best be done in the present Government House which must, of course, first be evacuated.

3. I consider therefore that the project of removing Government House to another site should be proceeded with at once, both on economic grounds and as an essential preliminary to a worthy development of the area lying between Queen's Road and the Public Gardens and for this purpose I regard the Magazine Gap site as being the most advantageous of those put forward for consideration. Adoption of this site would enable the Governor to dispense with Mountain Lodge, the upkeep of which is very expensive.

4. The cost of erection including the preparation for this site is put in round figures at $2,000,000. It is suggested that funds can be found by the utilization of the amount now lying to the credit of the Government House and City Develop- ment Fund $840,000 and the amounts which it is hoped to realize by the sale of the old City Hall site and other sites at present available or expected to be rendered available as a result of the removal of Government House. On the basis of present valuations of these sites the financial scheme would be as follows:-

(b) Sale of old City Hall site, 15,500 sq. ft. @ $65 per

sq. ft.

(a) Utilization of amount lying to the credit of the Govern-

ment House and City Development Fund

$

840,000

1,007.500

(c) Sale of Beaconsfield Arcade site 13,300 sq. ft. @ $50

per sq. ft.

665,000

(d) Sale of (former) Inland Lot No. 564 7,000 sq. ft.

$30 per sq. ft.

@

210,000

$ 2,722,500

294

Estimated cost new Government House

Balance in excess

Add, value of present Government House, if sold, 150,000

sq. ft. @ $8 per sq. ft.

Available for other development

$ 2,000,000

$

722,500

1,200,000

$ 1,922,500

The financing of the new Government House is not, however, dependent on the actual sale of the sites referred to above. Money can be found immediately from surplus balances which will be replenished in due course when the sites are actually sold. Nor does this proposal make it absolutely necessary to sell all the sites in question if, as a result of further consideration of the development of this area, it is thought preferable to retain them or any parts of them for other purposes.

5. A suggestion is contained in paragraph 3 above that the site now occupied by the Secretariat and Public Works Department buildings should ultimately be used for the Central Buildings of Government. In the writer's mind there is the further conception that the City Hall and the Colonial Museum should form part of such a scheme the attached sketch* shews in block form how this idea might be carried out. But this is a question which raises many issues and cannot be settled immediately. The decision whether or not a new Government House should be built should be taken independently of it; there is no real connexion between them, except that the removal of Government House to another site would clear the ground both literally and figuratively for consideration of the subsequent problem. The justification for building a new Government House at the present time rests upon the arguments in paragraph 2 above.

* Not printed.

2

G. A. S. NORTHCOTE,

Governor.

*

CAN

No.

HONG KONG.

REPORT

OF THE

COMMISSION APPOINTED BY

HIS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR OF HONG KONG

A. to inquire into and report upon

(1) the prevalent charges for rent in the towns of Victoria

and Kowloon, having regard to their rise and fall during the last ten years,

and

(2) the extent to which and the manners in which tenants and landlords have been and are affected by the sudden growth of the population of Hong Kong since the beginning of Sino-Japanese hostilities last

year:

B. to receive oral and written evidence upon the foregoing issues:

C. to make such relevant recommendations as may commend them-

selves to members.

5

1938.

SIR,

99

HONG KONG, 2nd April, 1938.

On the 9th March, 1938, we were appointed by Your Excellency under the Public Seal of the Colony-

"A. to inquire into and report upon

(1) the prevalent charges for rent in the towns of Victoria and Kowloon, having regard to their rise and fall during the last ten years, and

(2) the extent to which and the manners in which tenants and landlords have been and are being affected by the sudden growth of the population of Hong Kong since the beginning of Sino-Japanese hostilities last year:

B. to receive oral and written evidence upon the foregoing

issues:

C. to make such relevant recommendations as may commend

themselves to members."

We have the honour to submit herewith our Report.

We have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your Excellency's most obedient servants,

W. SCHOFIELD (Chairman),

W. J. LOCKHART-SMITH,

R. J. MINNITT.

His Excellency,

Sir GEOFFRY ALEXANDER STAFFORD NORTHCOTE, K.C.M.G.,

Governor,

HONG KONG.

101

PART I.

Preliminary.

1. The first meeting of the Commission was held on 9th March, 1938. It was then decided that a notice should be inserted in the columns of the local press, both English and Chinese, inviting landlords and tenants to submit in writing any facts relative to our terms of reference which they might wish to bring to our notice, and intimating that we would request the writers of such statements as might appear helpful or relevant, to appear before us at the Urban Council Chamber and give oral testimony at such time and on such date as might be notified. A similar notice was posted at all Police Stations in Victoria and Kowloon.

2. It was apparent that a considerable portion of our investigations would cover matters of a confidential nature, and we thought it right that our meetings should not be open to the public. We inserted in the press notice referred to in the preceding paragraph, a statement that all communications would be treated as confidential, if desired.

3. We decided to commence sitting to examine statements and receive evidence on the 14th March, 1938, at the Urban Council Chamber, and thereafter to sit daily to hear evidence from 9.30 a.m. to 1 p.m., Saturdays and Sundays excepted. The Urban Council Chamber was not always available in the afternoon, and it was considered necessary to devote afternoons and the whole of each Saturday to the task, which in the event proved a large one, of translating, considering and classifying documents and typing the notes of evidence taken. It proved essential, however, to hold additional hearings on the afternoons of the 15th and 23rd March, 1938, and on the morning and afternoon of Saturday, the 26th March, 1938.

4. A certain number of letters addressed to His Excellency the Governor and the Honourable Colonial Secretary were forwarded to us by the latter and considered at our first meeting. Over forty letters addressed to the Hon. Mr. R. H. Kotewall, C.M.G., LL.D., as a result of a notice inserted by him in the Chinese press, were also received and considered at the same time.

5. In addition to the letters mentioned in the foregoing paragraph, 216 com- munications in both English and Chinese were received between the 14th and 24th March, 1938. Of these communications 30 were from landlords and 186 from tenants. A number of the latter were from groups of tenants. Many complaints related to shops and business premises, but we ignored such complaints unless the proprietor was actually resident in the premises. The great majority of complaints alleged merely an increase of rent. Between 40 and 50 concerned bare notices to quit.

6. We were no less impressed by the gravity and difficulty of the task assigned to us than were the Housing Commission appointed in the year 1923 (Sessional Paper No. 10 of 1923, Paragraph 3), and we could have wished to follow that Commission in taking "ample time to prosecute our investigations" (ibid.), but in view of the alleged urgency of the position, and of our Chairman's pending departure from the Colony, we deemed it right to aim at completing this Report before the end of the month in which we were appointed. Nevertheless, we wish to lay stress on the necessarily hasty nature of our inquiry, and to point out that a complete review of the situation supported by full statistics would take many weeks to prepare.

7. We concluded that the best method to obtain a rapid and yet substantially accurate picture of the situation was, after considering as carefully as time permitted the whole of the documents collected, to take selected cases of apparent genuine hardship from various types of house property in different districts of the areas to which our terms of reference were confined, and accordingly we heard oral evidence in 54 cases. It appeared that there was a considerable misapprehension of the

102

scope of our functions in certain quarters. We were frequently asked to prohibit landlords from raising rent or giving notice to quit, or to arbitrate between landlord and tenant. In one case a tenant who had been evicted on a magistrate's warrant desired us to intervene, and in another a tenant who had been an unsuccessful defendant in an action for recovery of possession in the Supreme Court.

8. We also received evidence from the Government Assessor of Rates, the Executive Engineer in charge of the Buildings Ordinance Office, and various unofficial witnesses. We considered in addition written cases submitted by tenants, and written arguments, tables of figures and extracts from account books submitted to us by a number of prominent house property owners.

9. By the evening of the 21st March, 1938, we felt we had progressed sufficiently to justify us in notifying in the columns of the press, and at all Police Stations in Victoria and Kowloon, that we would not receive further complaints after the 23rd March, 1938, and such notification was given accordingly on the 22nd March, 1938.

10. We had hoped on and after the 24th March, 1938, to devote our time to analysing the evidence and information we had obtained, and to drafting this Report, but a delay, was caused by circumstances which we desire to explain. We requested the Secretary of the Kowloon Residents Association, which had before our appoint- ment inserted in the newspapers an advertisement incorporating a questionnaire whereby tenants were invited to ventilate their grievances, to appear before us. The Secretary to the Association duly appeared before us on the morning of the 14th March, 1938, when he informed us that the Association had up to that date receiv- ed about 130 replies to its questionnaire. We requested him to ask his Committee to consider the correspondence, and to select for us those cases in which investi- gation seemed most necessary. The Association held a general meeting on the 22nd March, and on the afternoon of the 23rd March we received a deputation representative of its members who informed us that on account of the fact that their advertisement had contained the words "All replies will be treated con- fidentially" they did not feel at liberty to disclose particulars of any complaints they had received. The Association had not investigated any of the complaints. They stated that the number of complaints received up to and including the 19th March, 1938, was 321 and that they did not propose to entertain any further complaints. They requested us to extend our enquiry, so far as the complaints that they had received were concerned, until the 26th March, 1938, in order that they might find time to inform their complainants by means of press advertisements that those who desired their cases to be investigated by the Commission, should com- municate directly with us. In view of the large number of complaints received by the Association, and the startling increases of rent alleged to have been imposed in a summary presented to us by the deputation, which in six cases were said to exceed 150%, we felt that we had no option but to agree to the request.

11. We sat on the morning and afternoon of Saturday the 26th March, 1938, to deal exclusively with the Kowloon Residents Association's cases. Owing to an unfortunate error in a comment in a Chinese newspaper on the Association's advertisement, for which the Association was in no way to blame, the Chinese public were led to believe that we were prepared to hear all cases, and considerable con- fusion resulted. We endeavoured to ascertain which of the many applicants had in fact applied to the Association before the 19th March, 1938. Some had not complained to the Association at all; others had not complained before the 19th March, 1938; others were not resident in Kowloon and others were tenants whom we had already seen or whose written complaints we had already considered.

All these we declined to hear. Those tenants who had actually written to the Associa- tion, as distinct from merely filling in its questionnaire, had been notified by its Secretary that they should report to us, and we interviewed all those in possession of his letter. In addition, we heard what appeared to be the more outstanding cases. In no case did we discover any such huge increase as was alleged in the summary

103

given us by the Committee's deputation, but we must admit the possibility that some cases may have been overlooked in the prevailing confusion.

12. In spite of our endeavours to make our inquiry as widely known as possible, in which we received some assistance from the staff of the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, many tenants who were in a position to complain forthwith delayed writing to us until after we had ceased to entertain fresh cases,

The principle underlying the maxim "vigilantibus non

vigilantibus non dormientibus æquitas subvenit" may justly be regarded as applicable to such cases.

13. We have decided not to publish the evidence which we received, some of which was confidential, in the shape of appendices to this Report, and the only appendices annexed hereto are Appendix I, Appendix II and Appendix III, repre- senting respectively a table showing the decrease in vacant accommodation, a graph illustrating the same decrease, and figures relating to the house construction now in progress. The points from the evidence, both oral and written, upon which our findings are based will be found incorporated in the body of the Report, and the notes of oral evidence, the written evidence, the original memoranda and corre- spondence and a file of press cuttings have been communicated to Government.

14. Our Report is divided under the following headings:

1. Preliminary.

2. The Reasons for, and the Extent of, the Rise in Rents.

3. Landlords' Return on Capital.

4. Evictions and Alternative Accommodation.

5. Possible Solutions.

6. Miscellaneous and Conclusion.

and a separate part of this Report is devoted to each heading.

15. Finally, we desire to place on record our appreciation of the courtesy of the Honourable Secretary for Chinese Affairs in allowing us to make use of the services of Mr. Lai Chi-cheung as interpreter and Mr. Chung King-pui as translator. Our thanks are also due to the Chairman of the Urban Council for permitting us to make use of the Urban Council Chamber, and to the Honourable Director of Public Works for subsequently permitting us to complete this Report in his depart- mental board room. We wish to express our thanks to the Honourable Mr. R. H. Kotewall, C.M.G., LL.D., for collecting and forwarding information to us; to the Land Officer for certain data as to mortgages; to the Government Assessor of Rates for providing us with figures and assisting us in referring to his records; to the Execu- tive Engineer in charge of the Buildings Ordinance Office for compiling certain statistics and assisting us with an appendix; to the Deputy Registrar of the Supreme Court for particulars relating to distraints and to Miss R. Bercovitch, Mrs. A. Osmund, Mr. Lai Chi-cheung and Mr. Chung King-pui. To Miss Bercovitch and Mrs. Osmund for sterling work as typists and stenographers, and to Mr. Lai and Mr. Chung for equally good work as interpreter and translator respectively.

PART II.

The Reasons for, and the Extent of, the Rise in Rents.

1. Under our terms of reference we were to have regard to the rise and fall of rents during the last ten years, but only very few tenants were able to give us a continuous history for so long a period. This fact is of great significance, and goes to the root of the present situation of tenants in the Colony.

2. A wealth of evidence was furnished to prove that owners of house property were the victims of a disastrous slump during the years 1933 to 1937, No doubt there were during the last ten years cases of speculative building in which men of

גי

104

straw who hoped to make a quick boom profit were deservedly punished, and it is a fact that in the years 1933 to 1937 there was in the Colony what has been described to us as an overbuilt position ", but the majority of property owners must be regarded as legitimate investors, and had it not been for the overbuilt position, the present acute shortage of accommodation would have been much accentuated.

3. During the years of severe depression, property owners were left with great numbers of vacant tenements on their hands, and were glad to find tenants at rentals which did not yield an economic return on capital outlay. Many tenants availed themselves of this position to move into a class of premises considerably superior to that which they would normally occupy, and when, with the increased demand for accommodation due mainly, but probably not entirely, to the outbreak of the present Sino-Japanese hostilities, rents began to show an upward tendency, these tenants found themselves faced with demands for rentals which they could not afford to meet but which were not in the great majority of cases at all exorbitant having regard to the class of property in respect of which they were charged. The Government Assessor of Rates gave us an example in his evidence of flats let in Wongneichong for $145 per month four or five years ago, fetching after the slump and until the commencement of the upward tendency only $70 per month, and later made the general statement that in some cases where he had found what appeared to be a very heavy increase in rent, investigation had shown that during the depression rents were excessively low for the class of property concerned. If a more normal level of rental were taken as a standard, there was in fact no excessive increase.

rents.

4. Many other tenants did not move from their residences, but reaped the benefit of the slump by threatening to quit unless their landlords reduced the existing The landlords were forced to agree to reduction in order to avoid being left with empty and wholly unremunerative premises on their hands. The Govern- ment Assessor of Rates summed up this aspect of the situation in his evidence in the words tenants have for the past few years been holding a pistol to the landlords' heads.

5. Our attention was thus directed to the question whether the rentals which we had been informed had been increased or were about to be increased had on the average reached or were about to reach a rate of rental higher than that prevailing for the same premises before the depression set in.

6. A prominent member of the Chinese community, whom we invited to give evidence, stated that up to November, 1937, beyond which date he had not pursued enquiries, statistics showed that rentals had not gone back to pre-depres- sion figures.

7. We next investigated the records at the office of the Government Assessor of Rates from 1928 or, in the case of new buildings, from the first assessment, until the present time, paying particular attention to the premises referred to by landlords and tenants in their written or oral statements.

8. Of some 269 addresses, some of which probably included several floors, only 213 provided sufficient data upon which to base any conclusions whatever. In only 45 of these 213 cases did the Government Assessor's records of assessment show definite figures for 1933 and 1937, the figure for 1937 being confirmed by the tenant, who also provided a figure for 1938. Of the 45 cases, 8 showed an increase of rent above the 1933-1934 level; 11 showed a return to that level; 17, while increased beyond the 1937 level, had not reached the 1933-1934 level and in 5 cases we were already aware that a bare notice to quit had been given. Of the 8 cases showing an increase over the 1933-1934 level, one related to a factory, one to a school and one, we learned from the landlord, was really a notice to quit. Of the 5 remaining cases, the increases over the 1933-1934 level were either small or, in relation to the class of premises concerned, not excessive.

105

9. As regards the 168 cases remaining after deducting the 45 cases of which there were exact assessment figures for the years 1933 and 1937, we were in some difficulty, for assessments had often been made on whole houses and we had therefore in such cases to make an estimate of floor rents by having regard to the rent of the whole house and inquiring what rents were the basis of assessment for comparative floors in the neighbourhood. In order to avoid any possibility of bias, we made this estimate without having the figures given by landlords and tenants before us, and with some doubt we consider that in 29 cases the rent has been raised above the 1933-1934 level; in 22 cases has been restored to that level; in 52 cases has been raised above the 1937 level, but has not yet reached the 1933-1934 level and in 27 cases has been raised above the 1937 level with no figures of pre-depression rentals available. In 36 cases we were already aware that bare notice to quit had been given. The remaining 2 cases are probably increases to a high rent with a view to getting rid of the tenant.

10. Although we have done our best to arrive at a correct conclusion, these figures are at best guesswork, and may be either too high or too low. Even the figures relating to the 45 cases mentioned above are only approximate. We prefer to place greater reliance on the facts and figures set forth in the succeeding para- graphs of this Report.

·

Illustrations from Written and Oral Evidence.

11. A tenant of a floor in Glenealy wrote to us, and his own words are illuminating :—“I have been living in the above address

since 1935 June paying a monthly rent of $60 and in December 1935 I asked for a reduction of $10 and my landlord

only comply with it when I sent in the month's notice to leave

$60 rent I could not pay, but as the locality is good I meant to stay for 6 months only unless finding me a good and regular tenant the landlord will reduce the rent to $50". It will be observed that the tenancy com- menced during the depression, and that the tenant obtained accommodation of a type for which he could not afford to pay even during that period in the hope of obtaining a reduction. The landlord now proposes to raise the rent to $65 per

month.

12. A tenant in Kennedy Road writes: "For over two years I have been paying a rental of $90. When I moved in, this place was not at all considered a bargain (witness the fact that it had been vacant for some time before I took it over)

Again the rent of $90 commenced during the depression and

it is obvious that the landlord would accept a rental at that figure rather than leave the premises vacant.

13. A letter in the issue of the South China Morning Post of the 17th March, 1938, alleged an increase in rental as follows:-

"Another house in Kowloon :-

Old Rent $60. New Rent $100, an increase of 663 per cent.; subject to a lease for 2 years being signed within 15 days of notice, the new rent is to be reduced to $90".

The letter went on to allege extortion on the part of "one of the biggest property owners in the Colony". The writer of this letter did not appear before us, but his landlords did, and from unimpeachable evidence we are satisfied that the true facts are as follows:-

In September, 1930, the flat (not house) in question was let for $107 per month "including taxes and water". In December, 1930, the rent was adjusted to $95 per month "exclusive of taxes". (This really means 'rates'). This adjustment amounted to a monthly liability on the part of the tenant to pay $110.80. In September, 1933, by which time the depression was beginning to make itself felt, the tenant asked for a reduction of his rent to $90, adding that he would be compelled to give notice if his request was not acceded to. The landlords did not agree to the reduction, the tenant left, and the flat stood vacant for over two months.

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In January, 1934, the flat was let to another tenant at $80 per month. This tenant left in October, 1934, and in November, 1934, the flat was let to the tenant con- cerning whom the letter above referred to was written at a rent of $70 per month. In July, 1935, this tenant asked for a reduction in rent which was refused. In December, 1935, he gave a month's notice to the landlords. In February, 1936, he was still in occupation and again gaye notice. As from April,

As from April, 1936, the landlords agreed to a rent of $60 per month, and although the terms of tenancy made the tenant liable for excess water charges, the landlords did not in fact claim such charges from him. In October, 1936, the tenant was three months in arrears with his reduced rent. In December, 1936, he was again two months in arrears. In February of this year the landlords notified him that his rent would be increased to $100 per month, subject to a reduction if a lease for one year were signed.

14. A European limited company submitted to us a comparative statement compiled from the company's records, which we were invited to inspect, relating to three types of Chinese tenement property owned by the company. The period covered is 1934-1937. In every case, without taking into account losses sustained by excess consumption of water, vacancies and defaults in payment of rent, which are subjects dealt with later in this Report, the statement shows throughout a decline in rent since the commencement of 1934, and in no single instance had the rent at the end of 1937 regained the level obtaining four years previously. We were assured that there was no immediate increase of rent under contemplation.

15. A Chinese limited company submitted to us figures in relation to property owned or managed by the company, which were vouched for by a leading European bank, as follows:-

(a) 328 flats, Chinese, without flush system in two streets in the Eastern dis- trict. Inclusive figures were given for the years 1929-1937. In the first street the gross annual rental fell from a maximum of $51,709.49 in 1930 to $18,633.60 in 1935, and in the second from a maximum of $51,601.90 in 1929 to $18,660.70 in 1936. In both streets average rentals of $40 per flat in 1929 had been reduced to an average of $24 by 1938, repre- senting a reduction of 40%. It is not intended to increase rents at present.

(b) 224 Chinese flats without flush system in the Eastern district. In 1930 the gross rental received amounted to $63,681.00. In 1934 it had dropped to $21,938.00. In 1937 it recovered to $38,981.50. The average reduc- tion in rent per flat was 45%. It is not intended to increase rents at present.

(c) 84 Chinese flats of concrete with flush system. In 1932, when the flats were not fully occupied, the gross rental received amounted to $31,730.25. In 1935 it had dropped to $19,214.00. In 1937 it recovered to $24,454.40. In 1930 the average rent per flat was $40. At present the average is $26-$30 per month. It is not intended to increase rents at present. (d) 32 European flats. In 1934, when the flats were not fully occupied, the gross rental received was $20,550.00. In 1936 it had dropped to $14,838.00. In 1937 it had recovered to $18,098.13. In 1934 the average rent per flat per month was $70. At present the average is $58 per month. It is not intended to increase rents at present.

16. A large European limited company sent us figures showing that the rents of the majority of their European flats and houses were to be increased as from 1st April, 1938, but the increase in net rental returns varying from 1.61% to 4·58%, will only in one instance exceed the net returns obtained in 1933, and that by a trivial amount. The figures for the company's Chinese flats show an increase in rentals as from the 1st May, 1938, varying from 10.59% to 15.54%, but the com- pany acquired the property as mortgagee and entered into possession during the depression. The pre-depression rentals are not available. The net return with the proposed increases will not cover the interest charges on the amounts advanced on mortgage.

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17. A Chinese landlord, who wrote to us through a firm of solicitors, is the owner of eight and agent for three houses in Po Tuck Street, comprising 33 Chinese flats. He intends to raise the rents of these premises, but in no case does the proposed increase restore the flat rentals to the level obtaining at the beginning of 1933. In the first quarter of 1933 the total monthly rental was $742.35. Inclusive of the proposed increases it will amount to $638. At present it stands at $470.

18. A property owner, interested either as owner or agent, or as an officer of limited companies in over 200 widely distributed houses, gave evidence as to the severe losses sustained over all the premises during the depression. One of many examples supplied by him may be found in the case of 14 houses in Lockhart Road comprising 56 flats. In the case of each flat an increase in rent is imposed as from the 1st April, 1938, but in the case of only six flats does the proposed increase bring the monthly rental to a figure exceeding that obtaining at the commencement of 1933. Of these six cases, the increase over 1933 is $1 per month in four cases, $2 per month in one case and $7 per month in the remaining case. No complaint was received by us in respect of any of these six flats. As regards all the fifty-six flats, a sharp average reduction in rent was made between January, 1933, and March, 1938, and the average proposed increase does not restore the 1933 average rental. For the first quarter of 1933 the total gross receipt of rents for the 14 houses was $1,779 per month. Including the proposed increases, the gross receipt of rents will amount to $1,588 per month. We received complaints from two tenants of floors in this group of property. The first moved in in 1936 at a rent of $26 per month. It is proposed to increase his rent to $33 per month, but in 1933 the flat was let for $35 per month. The second has resided in his flat for 5 years. In 1933 he himself paid $29 per month. In March, 1938, his rent had fallen as low as $18 per month. It is now proposed to increase his rent to $23 per month.

19. A Chinese partnership submitted detailed figures relating to premises both in Hong Kong and Kowloon. A typical example from each of the three main blocks of property affected is worthy of note.

(a) A ground floor flat in Catchick Street was let in 1930 for $45 per month.

In 1937 it was let for $19 per month.

(b) A first floor flat in North Street was let in 1928 for $28 per month. In

1937 it was let for $18 per month.

(c) A second floor flat in Chatham Road was let in 1928 for $10.50 per month.

In 1937 it was let for $7 per month.

The partnership have not notified an increase of rent, but should they do so it is obvious that on a percentage basis there may be a very considerable increase with- out exceeding the rents charged before the depression.

20. The same comment applies with equal force to 133 houses in Hong Kong and 33 houses in Kowloon, comprising respectively 488 and 102 floors separately let, in respect of which figures were submitted to us by Chinese landlords. In a few cases pre-depression figures are not available, the premises having either been first let, or entered into by mortgagees, during the depression, but the periods of vacancy in this case show that the landlords were bound to accept, in order to obtain tenants at all, rents at a very low level. Figures in Chinese were also submitted to us by landlords, but in the time and with the staff at our disposal it was not possible to examine them as fully, for we considered that of the many Chinese documents. received, the first to be examined should be the complaints of tenants. We were able sufficiently to investigate these figures, however, to leave no doubt in our minds that these landlords, and especially a hospital, had suffered disastrous losses.

:

21. Hence a mere percentage of increase in rent affords no true test of undue profiteering on the part of landlords. A large property owner wrote to us on this point (in relation to an actual case) as follows:-- $40 rental reduced to $20 represents a reduction of 50% BUT $20 rental put back to its original $40 repre- sents an increase of 100%". In deciding whether an increase is unduly large,

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it is vital to ascertain the rental as it stood at a date when a reasonable return on capital outlay was being earned.

22. We are satisfied by the figures submitted to us, by the admissions of tenants, and from our own enquiries in the cases where both landlord and tenant appeared before us, that there is no evidence that landlords as a whole are at present raising or notifying an intention to raise rents beyond, or even so high as, the level ruling before the depression. A prominent member of the community, not himself a landlord of house property, considered that even if 1,000 complaints of increases. of rent and evictions were received, which would only affect about 1% of tenement flats in the Colony, it would not be in the highest interests of the Colony for Government to take action. In fact no such number of complaints was received, and of those received many were not substantiated. Two disinterested witnesses of importance thought there were a few hard cases, but that hard cases made bad law.

PART III.

Landlords' Return on Capital.

1. At the outset of this part of our Report, we desire to quote the following extract from the Report of the Economic Commission published as Sessional Paper No. 3 of 1935:

"2.

In 1934 the rateable value (i.e., of the Colony) stood at $38,641.856. This figure capitalized on the basis of 7% per annum represents an investment in rateable property of no less than $550,000,000. This huge sum, large as it is, does not include very considerable property owned by the local Government, the Navy or the War Department, or all similar property which is not included for Assessment.

3. As it is not generally appreciated how large a portion of the wealth of the Colony is invested in property, a comparison of this foregoing figure with some of the other large categories of investment may be of value.

4. For example, the total market value of the shares of local companies (other than financial institutions) listed by the Stock Exchange amounts to approximately $150,000,000, although an appreciable portion of the assets of such companies is represented by property. Similarly, the estimated total value of money invested in Chinese factories or in Chinese industry in the Colony amounts to about $50,000,000 which is only a comparatively small sum. Here again a substantial portion of such money is undoubtedly represented by the property or buildings of such factories.

5. The total note issue, which is backed by silver and by sterling securities, amounts to about $160,000,000, but even this sum, large as it may appear, is for the most part held outside the Colony and only a small portion (authorita- tively estimated at 25%) is owned within the Colony.

6. These comparative figures serve to make it abundantly clear that a very large portion, if not the bulk, of the wealth of the Colony, is represented by property.

7. That this must be so is hardly surprising in a territory where there. is little agriculture, almost a complete absence of any trace of mineral wealth, and where industry is still only in its infancy." (Chapter VIII, paras. 2 to 7). The figures quoted above may require some modification at the present time, but it is abundantly clear that any measure which would have the effect of depriving those persons whose capital is locked up in land of a fair return on their money, must necessarily be detrimental to the general well being of the Colony.

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2. We ascertained from official records covering the years 1920-1926, during which time the principle of rent restriction was fully debated, and restrictive legisla- tion was enacted and permitted to expire, that it was then conceded that a net return of 8% on capital outlay was a fair return. The Government Assessor of Rates stated in evidence that "in 1923 and onwards for some years, it was customary for valuers in Hong Kong to work on the assumption of 8% clear profit for Chinese tenements and property generally ". In answer to our question whether that might at present be regarded as a fair figure, he expressed the opinion that 7% clear profit would be a more reasonable average to work on. A Chinese witness, the whole of whose evidence greatly impressed us, agreed that an average return of 7% was the normal return for investments in house property, and added that any less return would not attract private enterprise. The witness pointed out that at the present time 6% or 61% could be obtained on shares without difficulty.

3. Without unduly delaying this Report it is impossible fully to analyse the mass of figures we received, but we have no doubt whatever that in the great majority of cases property owners have not been receiving a reasonable income from their property investments, and have not for several years earned a figure approaching 7% on capital outlay. It should be remembered that in many cases the possession of one or two houses is the sole means of livelihood of the owners. In some instances property owners may have been somewhat over-generous in their estimates of capital outlay, but the contentions of the larger property owners were exceedingly well documented, and we do not feel that there has been any substantial attempt to mislead us on this head.

4. A good example may be found in the case of a European company which until recently mainly confined its activities in the Colony to advancing money on building mortgages at 8%. The advance was in each case limited to two-thirds of the amount certified on valuation. We are asked not to disclose actual figures, but it was established that owing to defaults by mortgagors the company had to take over forty properties in respect of which a vast total amount had been advanced, and that during the year 1937 the net revenue derived by the company from rents. exceeded 4% on the amount advanced in only four cases, was in most cases under 3%, and in a number of cases less than 2%. This revenue was on a sum which before the depression had been certified as only two-thirds of the value of the properties, and must be compared with the 8% which would have been earned if the mortgagors had been able to carry out their side of the bargain. It should be added that borrowing money for building is a universal practice, without which develop- ment would come to a standstill, and that 8% at the time of the loans was a common rate of interest for building mortgages in this Colony. The company now for the first time since taking over the properties is able to obtain tenants for all its premises, and proposes an all-round increase in rentals calculated to yield, pro- vided that there are no defaults and vacancies, between 5% and 6% per annum on capital outlay. Many complaints have been made against this company, at least one of which appears to have been deliberately untruthful, but most of which can be explained by the movement of tenants referred to in paragraph 3 of Part II of this Report. We are satisfied that the company has been a good landlord.

5. Another example is furnished by the case of a European company which gave a general notice to tenants of a block of flats let at an average rental of $120 per month, of an increase as from the 1st March, 1938, to $170 per month, or $150 in the case of tenants who signed a lease for at least one year. The increase appears large, but we were given figures to prove that the landlords had had to borrow at 6% and then at 5% to carry on their business, and had not been earning more than 4%, and at one time less, from their property. The landlords satisfied us that in spite of their notice of general increase, concessions had been made in particular cases, and that the net revenue estimated to be produced after the increases became effective, amounted, given full occupation, to approximately 6% on capital outlay.

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6. Evidence which really puts the matter beyond doubt and disposes of the necessity for a long inquiry into particular cases, was given by a representative of a European bank.

He told us that his experience during the last six years had convinced him that the position of house owners had been growing worse all the time—“their revenue has gone". The bank had advanced money to many such owners. Valuations of property were arrived at by ascertaining the revenue derived from rents and calculating the capital sum on which such revenue would represent a return of 8%. This standard of calculation was not rigidly adhered to, but represents the broad basis of valuation. The usual advance was limited to 60% of the valuation, and interest was charged at 5%. The witness told us that in a great many cases during the depressed years landlords had not been able to obtain sufficient to pay the 5% interest on 60% of the valuation. At the end of 1937 he had reviewed several hundred mortgages. The values of the properties, based on the rent returns at that time, barely covered the advance, whereas a few years previously the advance had only represented 60% of what the witness regarded as the real value of the properties.

7. The evidence referred to in the three preceding paragraphs is authorita- tive, but in all cases landlords have stated, and we believe them, that they have sustained a drop in income, in most cases very severe, while in many cases they have not been able to pay the interest on loans which they have been compelled to obtain from the banks in order to carry on at all.

8. It has been suggested that in assessing a fair return on capital outlay, regard should be had to the conditions, obtaining at the time when the expenditure was incurred. That is to say that if property is acquired at the peak of a boom period when property values are unusually high, it would be unreasonable in a landlord to expect a steady return of 7% on his abnormal expenditure. But the problem is essentially one of supply and demand, and the investor in house property who comes in on the crest of a wave, will inevitably suffer when the wave recedes. It seems a strong thing to say that when demand revives, the investor shall be debarred from endeavouring to reimburse himself merely because his original investment was unduly optimistic. Be that as it may, we are satisfied that the majority of landlords are at present persons who built or acquired property as a permanent investment. The speculative builder who hoped to reap a quick profit on a rising market has either defaulted altogether, or been replaced by concerns which advanced him money limited to a percentage of valuations made in the ordinary course of business and which have thus become, to adopt an apt phrase used before us, "unwilling land- lords "

The property market in this Colony, for many years at least, has always displayed short spells of activity followed by long intervals of slackness.

It is not to be expected that investors will build only in the slack periods at a low cost, when returns must be small, on the chance of an early revival. It is only on the signs of revival that persons will begin to purchase and build house property and in the process the standard of necessary expenditure inevitably rises, but if investors did not incur this higher expenditure, it is obvious that periods of activity would disappear and development be permanently arrested. It should be added that there is at present little or no evidence of an increased market for Crown Land or private house property. There is only a general upward tendency in rents.

PART IV.

Evictions and Alternative Accommodation.

1. The Government Assessor of Rates provided us with a table compiled from his records showing the number of tenements vacant monthly in the Colony from January, 1935, up to the end of February, 1938. A copy of this table is annexed to this Report as Appendix I. In July, 1936, the number of houses and floors standing

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.

vacant was 3,505. At the end of February, 1938, the figure had fallen to 522. The Government Assessor's figures do not, for reasons which he gave us, include every vacant tenement, but they sufficiently indicate the downward trend which, he informed us, still continues. We also annex as Appendix II a graph illustrating the decline in vacant accommodation, during the same period, originally supplied to us by the Government Assessor and reproduced on a smaller scale by the Executive Engineer in charge of the Buildings Ordinance Office. It will be seen from these appendices that a tenant who is given notice to quit is faced with a serious dif- culty. The Government Assessor told us that of the vacancies on his list at present not one was suitable for the Portuguese clerical class or European subordinates.

,

2. In some cases an apparent notice of increase of rent probably amounts, as between Chinese landlords and tenants, to a notice to quit. The landlord in these cases has usually a shrewd idea of the amount the tenant is able to pay. As the landlord is now in a position to obtain an economic rental and to insist on good tenancy, we think it likely that in some cases his way of getting rid of a tenant has been to ask for a rent which he knows the tenant cannot possibly pay. In one case a tenant who had moved into the ground floor of a Chinese tenement house two years ago during the depression at a rent of $21 per month was notified by Chinese letter in the first moon of the present Chinese year that he would in future be charged a rent of $60 per month, and this was followed by a letter from a firm of solicitors giving a bare notice to quit. The tenant himself admitted that when he first moved in "nearly all the floors in the street were vacant", and that he had himself parti- tioned the floor into cubicles for the purpose of sub-letting. We are of the opinion that the landlord really wants the premises back to let as a shop, and that the tenant only acquired the premises at a rent of $21 because no other tenant could be obtain- ed.

It is

3. In other cases the landlord states that he desires to obtain recovery of his property "for his own use". This may mean for the use of himself and his own family, for near relatives, for more or less distant relatives or clansmen, or for letting out as shops, factories or other business premises. Tenants frequently alleged that the object of the landlord was in reality to obtain well to do refugee tenants at an abnormally high rent, but this was never established. On the other hand in cases where the landlord appeared and claimed that he genuinely wanted the pre- mises for his own use, we were only once in doubt as to whether he was speaking the truth. In one case, the landlord wanted a European flat back for the use of his own son on his pending marriage. "I do not see anything unreasonable", said the landlord's son, "in our getting back our own house for our own use". hard to disagree. In another case an owner possessing one house in the Colony and himself in employment in Canton wanted to recover the house for the use of twelve of his immediate dependents, as he did not desire his family to remain in Canton during the present unsettled conditions. We may here comment on the provision in the expired Hong Kong Rent Restriction Ordinances whereby a landlord was pro- hibited from giving his tenant notice to quit unless he provided him with alter- native accommodation of a similar nature at a similar rent. At present it is in most cases impossible for the landlord to provide alternative accommodation. The pro- vision in question was based on a comparative provision in England, introduced as a temporary wartime measure, and limited to houses of a certain value, at a time when the great majority of the landlords affected were resident in England with their families. To-day a number of refugees from China desire to occupy their own houses in the Colony, built perhaps with a view to trouble in the interior.

4. In other cases where the landlord has given notice to quit, he may be suffering from resentment at the treatment he has received at the hands of his tenant during the depression. For example, two flats in Babington Path were let over twelve years ago at $150 per month. In 1925 the landlords asked for $180 per month, and after negotiation, a rent of $160 per month was agreed to. In 1935 this rent was reduced to $140 per month, and then to $110 per month for the twc flats. Some time in 1934 the remaining members of the tenant's family gave up

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one of the flats, and retained the other at a rent of $55 per month. In 1936 the tenants gave notice of removal. The landlords "asked us to stay on at any rent'. $45 per month was offered and accepted. This year notice to quit was given by the landlords and an increase of rent offered by the tenants was refused. The tenants have now obtained accommodation in a hostel. The facts are taken from the tenants' own evidence. Here is the "pistol to the head" referred to by the Govern- ment Assessor of Rates. (See paragraph 4 of Part II of this Report.)

5. Landlords have perforce accepted unsatisfactory tenants during recent years. Tenants have been in arrears with their rent for months. Houses and flats have been constantly vacant, sometimes for years. Landlords have been called upon to pay enormous charges for excess water. Tenants by threatening to quit, have forced down rents to excessively low levels. Almost any page extracted from a landlord's accounts will justify the foregoing statements as regards the cheaper class of premises, and tenants in their evidence frequently admitted as much. A European banker referred to "cases where landlords have cancelled several months' back rent so long as the tenant promised to stay on and pay his rent in future". We think that notices to quit have been given in many cases because the landlord is at last in a position to ged rid of a bad tenant.

6. Unsatisfactory tenants may be dismissed without further notice, but the problem presented by the tenant who (a) is living in a class of premises which normally commands a rent he cannot afford to pay, or (b) is given notice to remove because the landlord requires the premises for his own use, is one of real difficulty.

7. As regards class (a), the answer would simply be, if there were no shortgage of accommodation, that now the landlord is in a position to demand and obtain an economic rent, the tenant must revert to the type of premises from which he came, but unhappily at the present time that type of premises has itself been taken up, and though the general restoration of pre-depression rents may gradually force successive classes of tenants one rung down the social ladder, yet the humblest class will be forced off the ladder altogether, and must either leave the Colony or sleep in the streets. The problem resolves itself into a balance of hardships. Is the landlord, who has suffered great losses, to forego his opportunity to recoup himself because his tenant is unable to pay an economic rent and cannot find alternative accom- modation; or is the tenant, who has not unnaturally seized the opportunity to move into pleasanter surroundings, and who in most cases has now made strenuous but unsuccessful endeavours to secure cheaper premises, to be forced either to meet charges which in his circumstances are ruinous, or to be rendered homeless? The question can only be answered by having regard to the effect of any legislative inter- vention on the general prosperity of the whole community.

8. In the first place it should be remembered that it is only human to protest against increased charges, and we are not satisfied that in all cases tenants could not, perhaps by effecting other savings, afford with more or less difficulty to pay economic rents to their landlords. In one case a Chinese clerk with a wife and two children earning $75 per month employed two servants at wages of $7 and $5 per month respectively. His rent is to be increased by $6 per month. By dispensing with a servant he could in the one case more than, or in the other almost, meet the increased rent. The same tenant had not looked for other accommodation because he "relied on the Rents Commission", and this attitude was not uncommon. Another had failed to inquire for other premises because her notice had not yet expired and there was, therefore, "no need to worry". A European tenant of a flat sent us a written com- plaint. In May, 1935, during the depression, he obtained the flat at a rent of $120 per month including refrigeration. On his providing his own refrigerator, the rent was reduced to $112.50 per month. In January, 1938, the landlords (a limited. company) informed all the tenants of this block of flats who had not entered into leases, that as from 1st March, 1938, the rent would be $170 per month, or to those who signed a lease for at least one year, $150 per month. The tenant wrote to the landlords stating that he would probably be relieved at the end of April, and it was

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verbally arranged that he should stay on in the flat at the rent of $150 for the months of March and April. The landlords completed a tenancy agreement from the 1st May, 1938, with a new tenant. Subsequently, the tenant learned that his relief had been postponed and desired to remain in the flat until the end of May, 1938. The landlords informed him that they could not agree, as the flat was already re-let. The terms of the correspondence are not free from doubt, but it seems to us that it is capable of the construction that the tenant led the landlords to believe that he would vacate the flat at the end of April, 1938, and we are satisfied that the landlords acted upon that construction in good faith. The landlords' representative told us that he had another flat of a similar size which he was prepared to allow the tenant to occupy until his departure at the same rent of $150, but that the tenant had written to us without applying to the landlords for alternative accommodation. The tenant in this case was an Admiralty Civil Servant, and we refer to this class of tenant later in our Report. We are inclined to believe that fear of "loss of face" has deterred some tenants from moving into cheaper premises. In one case the landlord had offered a family a cheaper flat in an adjacent street, but they refused to accept the offer. One witness had still 20 old Chinese tenement flats vacant which he was prepared to let at about $20 per month.

9. In the second place, it should be observed that it is not only landlords who have been through bad times in recent years. There has been a general depression. In trade and commerce there has now been a considerable general improvement. We think that this improvement is not solely accounted for by the present hostilities and the influx of refugees into the Colony. A prominent Chinese member of the com- munity told us that in his view the Colony had shown signs of recovery, after a long depression, quite apart from the Sino-Japanese hostilities. Whatever its cause, the improvement is undoubted. The annual reports of limited companies in general show increased profits, and we believe, although we have no actual figures, that many concerns, and notably the dock companies, are employing considerably more labour. The Inspector of Factories reports that between May, 1937, and February. 1938, 155 new factories were opened as against 46 (mostly small) closed, and that after allowing for closures, approximately 2,200 males and 2,300 females were taken on in factories. The Inspector further reports that there have been considerable extensions to existing factories, with a corresponding increase in employment, but accurate figures of this increase are not available. We were also informed by other witnesses that there had been a considerable increase in wages in certain trades. In the clerical grade of employment, however, there is as yet little or no improvement. Trading concerns have to recover from a severe set back and in view of the prevailing uncertainty a cautious attitude is only to be expected. A witness to whose views we attach particular weight, did not think there had been a long enough spell of good trade to justify increased wages for the latter class of society. Nevertheless it is possible that in the near future an upward tendency will commence, which should in some measure help to solve the problem of higher rents. There is no doubt that at the same time there is a rise in the general cost of living, a condition which always attends economic recovery, but which at present is largely due to the Sino-Japanese hostilities.

PART V.

Possible Solutions.

1. The considerations set out in the last two paragaphs of the foregoing part of this Report may to some extent reduce the problem, but they have not disposed of it. What then are the possible solutions? They seem to us to be two in number-(a) the statutory restriction of rents, and (b) the inception of rapid house construction work. The second solution, whether achieved by governmental action or by private enterprise, has the obvious disadvantage that some time must inevitably elapse before it becomes effective.

114

(a) Statutory Restriction of Rents.

..if you start On the same point

2. As disinterested witnesses of importance have unanimously testified, the great difficulty inherent in a statutory restriction of rents is to devise an equitable basis upon

which a standard rent may be assessed. If the level obtaining immediately before the present rise in rents commenced be taken, then as we have shown the effect will be artificially to continue the depression as regards house property owners and to deprive them of a living income. The evidence of a European banker on this point is worth considering in some detail. "If you are going to restrict rents, what guarantee in return are you going to give the landlord? Are you going to guarantee payment of his rent in bad times?.

.If a man has property and you restrict his resources so that he cannot pay his bank interest, there will be a crisis.... banks calling in mortgages, then you will have a serious crisis. a prominent Chinese stated: "Inability to pay interest induced by any legislative action may result in foreclosure (which word we think he used to describe all mortgagees' remedies) which would mean depression of market values to the great detriment of the Colony's prosperity." Bearing in mind the quotation we have already made from the Economic Commission's Report, these are words of grave significance. Legislation which will further undermine the already depreciated value of investments constituting "a very large portion, if not the bulk, of the wealth of the Colony" can only work against the best interests of the community as a whole. The ruin of private enterprise with holdings on so vast a scale must lead to repercus- sions the extent of which it is difficult to exaggerate. It is especially worthy of note that we have evidence that large corporations controlled by both Europeans and Chinese, including Chinese banks, have been forced to borrow from European banks in connection with their dealings in house property.

are

3. If the level of rents obtaining before the depression be taken as the standard, then in our view no benefit will be derived by the tenants, for we consider that the increases now proposed seldom restore the present rents to the level then obtaining. If rents be limited to a certain reasonable net percentage return on capital outlay, again the tenants will not benefit as against the majority of landlords, for we satisfied that landlords as a class will not derive an undue revenue from their invest- ments even when the proposed increases are taken into account, and such a measure would invite fraudulent valuations of property. No one with any experience of con- veyancing in this Colony will question the possibility of such fraudulent valuations. It may be objected that rent restriction is still in force in England, and was at one time in force in this Colony, to which we reply that the circumstances in which such restrictions were imposed bear no comparison with those which we are now considering. In this Colony rent restriction was imposed in 1921, which was a period of great prosperity, and there was no hardship in limiting the landlords' rents to the level obtaining in 1920. The time at our disposal does not allow us to consider the details of earlier legislation. We must content ourselves by observing that the distinction between the state of the property market then and now is vital and sufficient, and that official records show that it was considered both at the time when the earlier legislation was permitted to lapse and when_suggestions of its reintroduction were made, that it had largely failed in its object. We can only reach the conclusion that the statutory restriction of rents is an impracticable measure in present conditions

4. Legislation prohibiting evictions alone without at the same time restricting increases of rent would prove useless. It might, for example, be evaded by the device already referred to of raising the rent beyond the tenant's means, but in our view the time is not ripe for intervention until the rent actually charged exceeds a figure which is fair in relation to the class of property in question.

(b) Inception of Rapid House Construction Work.

5. The solution of rapid building, apart from its necessarily slow consummation, is attended by many difficulties. It is necessary to restore confidence in the pro- perty market before much development can be expected at the hands of private enter- prise. "Who to-day", asked a witness, "will develop property in Hong Kong"? We

115

endeavoured to answer this question, and were shown graphs by the Executive En- gineer in charge of the Buildings Ordinance Office, of which copies are not available, showing a continuous decline in construction since the year 1931. In 1932, 1,472 houses were actually completed. In 1937 only 168 houses were completed. Tables showing the actual building of houses now in progress are given in Appendix III to this Report. It is obvious that the present rate of building is wholly inadequate.

6. Several witnesses told us that there is plenty of money lying idle in the Colony, but that investors have no confidence in land, They have before them the losses incurred by landlords during recent years, and they require to be assured that there will be a continued demand for accommodation before they will supply it. For this reason, although there is a general rise in rents, and a sharp decline in vacant accommodation, the market for the sale of land and house property remains depress- ed. Investors are not convinced that this demand for premises is more than tempo- rary, and they fear that if they put their money into house property they will, on the cessation of the present hostilities, be faced with the same question of vacancies.

7. Another factor which is undoubtedly depressing the market is the excess water problem, and we invite reference to Chapter X of the Economic Commission's Report. (Sessional Paper No. 3 of 1935). The question of Government policy does not concern us, but we have found as a fact throughout our inquiry that charges for the consumption of excess water have imposed a heavy burden on landlords, especi- ally as regards Chinese tenement houses, and one of the reasons for increased rents, now that there is a demand for accommodation, is to lighten this burden. In the case of some property in Kowloon acquired as an investment, the gross rental was approxi- mately $24,000 per annum, and in one year the charges for excess water were about $4,000. "The question of water", said a witness,

..is a genuine hardship on the landlord, and it is putting the price of property down. Until something is done about it, we shall never get a good land market in Hong Kong for Chinese tenement house property". Investors also fear that should the present increase in population prove only temporary, the constant defaults in payment of rents will again recur. ferences to extracts from landlords' books show that rents in a huge number of cases were constantly in arrear, and that in many cases tenants slipped away owing several months' rent. Rather than earn no income at all, landlords permitted such tenants to stay on in the hope that they would ultimately pay something.

CC

Re-

8. It was pointed out to us by a prominent landlord, that the remedy of dis- tress, a powerful weapon available to a landlord in England, is in this Colony, at least as far as the majority of Chinese tenants are concerned, almost completely useless. We asked the Deputy Registrar of the Supreme Court to supply us with figures, and we found that sales under distraints since September, 1937, until the present time amounted to a farce. The claims for arrears of rent were in many cases substantial, claims in excess of $100 being common, and in excess of $200 not in- frequent. The returns in these cases were often nil returns, or returns showing recovery of a few cents. In the very great majority of cases the landlord did not

recover even the costs of the distraint. There is no doubt that there is often collusion between principal tenants and sub-tenants as regards the ownership of goods in premises which are the subject of distress. The Deputy Registrar supplied us with further figures showing that landlords are resorting to distress in a greater number of cases in recent months, but we think that warrants are issued more with a view to getting rid of undesirable tenants than with any hope of recovering arrears of rents. It is possible that in some cases landlords have abused the remedy of distress, for example by refusing rent when tendered and then alleging that rent is in arrear, but we received no evidence of this. The only complaint we received was from a tenant who claimed that distress had been issued for an amount in excess of the amount actually due. This witness was invited by a member of the Commission to attend with him at the Registry of the Supreme Court in order that the complaint might be investigated, but the witness did not appear at the Registry, and on hearing the landlord we were satisfied that the amount claimed was in fact owing. Again, we are not concerned with policy, but we find as a fact that the remedy of distress is singularly ineffective in this Colony.

116

9. One witness dealt with the question of Crown Leases for a term of 75 years without the option of renewal. He had no doubt that whatever the legal position might be, the question was affecting sales. He thought that when properties were leased for 75 years, the Crown tenants, particularly Chinese, thought that the leases would be renewed at an increased rental and did not realise that they would, in effect, have to "buy the property again". We think it possible that former Govern- ment practice may have contributed to this belief. We have not had time to ascertain how many of these leases are now current, but we agree with the witness that pur- chasers for the properties affected will not readily be found until renewal is assured and the approximate cost of renewal indicated. A point to be remembered is that a prospective Crown lessee must accept the term of years offered by the Crown or nothing. He cannot in this Colony acquire the freehold or bargain for a longer term.

10. The rising cost of building at the present time must hamper development. The Executive Engineer in charge of the Buildings Ordinance Office, referred us to his Annual Report for 1937 (not yet published) in which he says: "The large increase in the cost of building materials which occurred during the middle of the year was reflected in a marked falling off in the number of plans deposited during the last quarter". A witness of experience gave us figures showing large increases in the cost of cement, steel bars for reinforced concrete houses, and hardwood.

11. We think that everything possible should be done to remove the landlords' difficulties indicated in the foregoing paragraphs and to restore confidence in house property, but we doubt whether any immediate private development can be hoped for. We understand that the question of the building of various types of houses by Government is now being considered by the Housing Commission, and we do not feel that any useful purpose can be served by our attempting, in a rapid survey, to cover ground which is being explored by experts. We merely desire to observe that if the provision of additional accommodation is accepted as the correct solution to the present difficulty, and if private enterprise will not supply that accommodation, the only alternative is for Government to undertake the necessary construction, but we would add that any action calculated to discourage private enterprise should be avoided in the interests of the Colony as a whole. It should also be remembered that there is an enormous untapped reservoir of potential refugees across the border, and that any cheap houses erected may prove to be merely the receptacle for its overflow. "Anything that we build", said the Government Assessor of Rates, "is certain to be filled up while the present conditions last, but when the property market (i.e., the letting market) is normal again, there may be a lot of empty houses". If Government sees fit to erect houses, they might be reserved for the present for permanent residents of the Colony who cannot find alternative accommodation.

PART VI.

Miscellaneous and Conclusion.

1. We learned that in two cases notice to quit had been given to a number of tenants with the object of converting premises into factories, and we believe that other instances of this nature are to be found. The establishment of factories is to be encouraged, but they should if possible be prevented from occupying residential buildings. We understand that this question is also being considered by the Housing Commission, and we leave it to that Commission to make recommenda- tions.

2. We received a communication from a group of Admiralty Civil Servants. It seems to us that the Navy, Army, Air Force and Civil Service Authorities might consider whether they could provide further accommodation for their respective services, meanwhile granting such allowances in lieu of quarters as may be adequate

117

in the circumstances prevailing from time to time. It is earnestly to be hoped that concerns employing large clerical staffs will recognize that many of their employees. are now compelled to pay increased rents in the absence of cheaper premises, and will adjust salaries or grant allowances to meet present conditions.

3. A scheme devised by a European company, which has had infinite trouble with its tenants as regards arrears of rent, defaults and excess consumption of water seems to us worthy of notice. A lease of a whole house has been granted to the occupant of one floor, who has deposited a lump sum by way of security with the company, which pays a small rate of interest on the deposit. The lessee is respon- sible for the payment of the rent of the whole house, and has collected contributions towards the deposit from the occupants of other floors. He is to collect propor- tionate shares of the total rent from the other occupants of floors, and is restricted by the terms of his agreement from profiteering. The other occupants signed an application to participate in the scheme before the lease was granted. It is a term in the lease that the lessee shall be responsible for rates and excess water charges. The company is willing to extend this scheme, and in return for its increased security will be satisfied with a lower rental than it would feel compelled to charge if a house were let on a monthly basis by floors. How far the scheme is enforceable. in the absence of good faith on the part of the lessee is not free from doubt, but in so far as it proves workable it appears to us to deserve serious consideration by other landlords as a method of ending many of the difficulties of the present situation in tenement property.

4. Lastly, while we consider that landlords as a class have incurred much undeserved odium, we are well aware that there may be unscrupulous landlords who may take advantage of this Report to indulge in profiteering.. Landlords should remember that in 1921 Government was forced most unwillingly to impose rent restriction, and that they or their predecessors found it a great burden. We recom- mend a public statement that Government sees no reason at present to impose restriction, but is carefully watching the situation, and will not hesitate, should future circumstances justify such a measure, to pass legislation restricting increases in rent which unduly benefit landlords.

118

APPENDIX I.

VACANT TENEMENTS.

Hong Kong

Kowloon & N.K.

HK., K.

& NK.

Whole T.

Floors

Total Whole T. Floors

Total

Total

1935

Jan.

690

I, 154

1,844

434

539

973

2,817

Feb.

672

I, 197

1,869

412

581

993

2,862

Mar.

622

1,162

1,784

373

582

955

2,739

April

679

1,432

2, III

407

695

I, 102

3,213

May

634

1,400

2,034

417

801

1,218

3,252

June

615

1,339

1,954

449

697

1,146

3,100

July

781

1,503

2,284

480

696

1,176

3,460

Aug.

632

1,275

1,907

469

667

1,136

3,043

Sept.

613

1,416

2,029

459

711

1,170

3,199

Oct.

687

1,482

2,169

516

739

1,255

3,424

Nov.

656

1,508

2, 164

514

727

1,241

3,405

Dec.

643

1,459

2,102

504

723

1,227

3,329

1936

Jan.

652

1,556

2,208

538

734

1,272

3,480

Feb.

638

1,491

2,129

477

703

1, 180.

3,309

Mar.

633

1,385

2,018

479

726

1,205

3,223

-April

671

1,443

2,114

501

737

1,238

3,352

May

621

1,393

2,014

484

734

1,218

3,232

June

624

1,366

1,990

450

728

1,178

3,168

July

648

1,584

2,232

457

816

1,273

3,505

Aug.

579

1,568

2,147

408

.801

I,209

3,356

Sept.

613

I,443

2,056

396

803

1,199

3,255

Oct.

563

1,404

1,967

408

758

1,166

3,133

Nov.

548

1,294

1,842

371

736

1,107

2,949

Dec.

512

1,265

1.777

346

706

1,052

2,829

1937

Jan.

491

1,253

1,744

341

723

1,064

2,808

Feb.

483

1,205

1,688

326

721

1,047

2,735

Mar.

462

I, 132

1,594

309

688

997

2,591

April

468

1,072

1,540

324

650

974

2,514

May

449

1,025

1,474

312

615

927

2,401

June

445

1,009

1,454

313

581

894

2,348

July

538

1,052

1,590

328

528

856

2,446

Aug.

412

720

I, 132

155

463

618

1,750

Sept.

315

585

900

58

365

423

1,323

Oct.

254

478

732

54

271

325

1,057

Nov.

277

485

762

42

244

286

1,048

Dec.

218

414

632

40

198

238

870

1938

Jan.

181

300

481

45

тоб

151

632

Feb.

170

235

405

39

78

117

522

TOTAL VACANCIES

4000

3000

2000

1000

1935-

1936-

1937

1938-

1936

1935

APPENDIX II.

VACANT TENEN

JAN.

FEB.

MAR.

APL.

MAY.

JUN.

JUY.

DIX II.

ENEMENTS

1938

119

JUY.

AUG.

SEP.

OCT.

NOV.

DEC.

JAN.

FEB.

ASSESSOR'S OFFICE,

FEB. 1938.

121

APPENDIX III.

HOUSES IN COURSE OF ERECTION IN HONG KONG.

II European type houses for one occupation.

4 European type houses forming 15 tenements. 2 Chinese type houses for one occupation. 27 Chinese type houses forming 107 tenements.

HOUSES IN COURSE OF ERECTION, KOWLOON.

7 European type houses for one occupation. 6 Europeon type houses forming 32 Tenements. No Chinese type house for one occupation. 25 Chinese type houses forming 94 Tenements.

HOUSES APPROVED (NOT STARTED), KOWLOON.

3 European type houses for one occupation. 7 European type houses forming 33 Tenements. I Chinese type house for one occupation. 9 Chinese type houses forming 35 Tenements.

4

123

HONG KONG.

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON RENTALS

FOR GOVERNMENT QUARTERS

6

No. 1938

We were appointed to consider and report upon expenditure incurred in housing Government servants and to make recommendations regarding the percentages of salary which should be paid by various grades of Government servants as rent for the use of Government quarters. We have held three full meetings in addition to informal meetings for the exchange of views between individual members.

2. The present position as to the provision of Government quarters for officials is as follows:-

I. Subordinate officers all receive free quarters or an allowance in lieu.

II. Senior officers fall into three classes :---

(a) Those entitled to free quarters including first a number of officers in Medical, Police, Prison and other departments who are required by the nature of their posts to live in hospitals, barracks, etc., and secondly certain heads and deputy heads of departments recently appointed on revised scales of salary to which free quarters are attached as part of the conditions of office (it is intended that eventually all heads and deputy heads will received free quarters and somewhat lower salaries than at present).

(b) Those liable to pay rent for Government quarters if occupied at the rate of 6% of their salaries (plus 1% for Government furniture if used). This group includes the vast majority of serving senior officers Those liable to pay rent for Government quarters if occupied at economic rentals not exceeding 15% of their salaries. This group includes only officers recently appointed on revised salary scales com- monly known as the African Scales.

3. Officers in group (b) not in occupation of Government quarters are eligible for rent allowances equal to the actual rent paid (subject to maximum rentals fixed for various salary groups) less 6% of salary. They are thus placed in substantially the same position as if they were in occupation of Government quarters. Officers in group (c) may also receive rent allowances if unable to secure quarters suitable to their status at rentals of less than 15% of their salaries.

4. Our inquiry naturally concentrated on the officers in group (b). Where it has been thought fit to allot definite free quarters to a post no question arises of whether an economic rent is received. As regards officers in group (c), (whose numbers are in any event at present negligible) they are already paying a much higher percentage of their salaries towards rent for quarters if occupied and the con- sideration of any revision in their case is obviously dependent upon the main issue.

5. We first inquired as to the origin of the present position. Prior to 1915 senior officers were not provided with Government quarters or any rent allowance in lieu. In that year proposals were made for the payment of rent allowances to married senior officers because they had "the greatest difficulty in meeting their annual expenses and in laying by enough to defray the heavy cost of periodical visits to England and for the education of their children in that country Ultimately the Secretary of State for the Colonies approved a scheme applying to both single and married officers providing for the payment of allowances varying with salaries, pending the erection of Government quarters. The scheme of erecting Government

124

quarters contemplated that rents should be charged sufficient to show a gross return of about 34% on the capital cost. The rents proposed to secure this return appear to have approximately equalled in practice the rent allowances paid, indicating that they were approximately 50% of the rentals an officer might reasonably be expected to pay if living outside Government quarters. This principle was more definitely recognized by the Salary Commission of 1919 which recommended rent allowances at the rate of 50% of the rent actually paid by the officer. Rentals for Govern- ment quarters were, however, fixed at 6% of salary on the precedent of the practice at Ceylon and later in order to remove certain anomalies the present system of rent allowances was introduced.

6. It is clear from this history of the matter that rent allowances were originally introduced deliberately in order to supplement salaries, that the provision of actual Government quarters came later and that it was always intended that the rents paid for such quarters should be less than an officer would have to pay to an outside landlord. Government houses and flats were not erected or purchased in large numbers until some years after the initiation of the scheme of rent allow- ances and Government quarters have never been available for more than a small proportion of senior officers.

7. When the general review of salaries by the Gollan Commission took place in 1929 the scheme of housing assistance and rent allowances was accepted and endorsed and was taken as part of the basis on which salaries were then fixed. Although not strictly within our terms of reference we think it desirable, in order to correct misapprehensions, to point out that although sterling salaries fixed by the Gollan Commission were higher than those previously in operation there had pre- viously been in operation a system of exchange compensation which greatly increased the actual emoluments drawn by sterling paid officers; and the increase in sterling salaries were insufficient to compensate for the withdrawal of this exchange compen- sation system.

8. A further revision of certain salaries has recently been made, primarily in order to bring into harmony with salaries in other Colonies the emoluments attached to posts forming a part of the Unified Colonial Services which have recently been established in the Colonial Empire generally. We are immediately concerned only with the effect of these new scales as regards payment for quarters, but it may be noted that these scales, which apply only to new appointments and promotions, are in general somewhat lower than existing scales and in particular provide lower pensionable emoluments so that some ultimate economy may be expected from their introduction. The feature which principally concerns us is that under the new scales officers will be required either to pay a full economic rent for quarters up to a maximum of 15% or will be entitled to wholly free quarters as part of their emoluments.

9. In our opinion the present system substantially carries out the intentions in mind when the original system of rent allowances and assisted quarters was devised. The rentals of 6% at present charged may be regarded as approximating to 50% of the economic rental based on costs.

10. We have also been supplied with information regarding the practice as regards provision of quarters for Government officials in other parts of the British Colonial Empire. In African colonies the usual practice is to supply free quarters to all officers. In the West Indian Colonies, Mauritius and other smaller colonies the provision of any Government quarters is exceptional. In the remainder Government quarters are usually supplied at rentals varying from 6% to 10%. In brief where quarters are supplied by Government it is nowhere the practice to charge a full economic rent. In the Straits Settlements and Ceylon rentals of 6% of salary are charged as in Hong Kong.

11. Our unanimous conclusion is that having regard to the origin of the present system of rent allowances and housing assistance, to the fact that existing

**

:

125

salaries were fixed in the light of that system and to the usual practice in other parts of the Colonial Empire, the basis of rentals could not be altered without concomitant revision of salaries. Any attempt to vary rentals without adjusting salaries would be equivalent to a salary cut and would result in anomalies as between officers at present entitled to free quarters and officers not eligible for such free quarters but liable to pay rent. We recommend therefore that no change be made in the rentals

at present charged.

12. We desire to express our thanks to our Secretary, Mr. D. Kelvin-Stark, for his able assistance in our investigation.

13. Mr. W. J. Carrie, who was appointed a member of the Committee and attended all its full meetings, left the Colony on long leave before the final form of our Report was settled and is therefore unable to sign it, but he had already expressed full agreement with the general purport.

S. CAINE,

H. E. POLLOCK,

J. K. BOUSFIELD.

16/3/38.

127

No.

7

1938.

HONG KONG.

REPORT

BY THE CHAIRMAN (MR. W. J.

W. J. CARRIE)

OF THE

SHANGHAI REFUGEES COMMITTEE.

PRINTED BY

NORONHA & COMPANY,

GOVERNMENT PRINTERS & PUBLISHERS.

129

SHANGHAI REFUGEES COMMITTEE

REPORT BY THE CHAIRMAN.

I. Preparation for the Refugees.

1. The decision to evacuate British women and children from Shanghai to Hong Kong was taken on Sunday, 15th August, 1937, and was at once communicated by telegram to the Government of Hong Kong by H.M.'s Consul-General in Shanghai.

2. Instructions were received from the Secretary of State for the Colonies in a telegram dated 16th August detailing the practice in such cases of evacuation and assuring the Government of Hong Kong that all expenditure incurred would ultimately be refunded by H.M.'s Government in the United Kingdom.

3. A Committee was formed and charged with the duty of making arrange- ments for the reception and accommodation of the refugees. The Committee met for the first time at 10.30 a.m. on Tuesday, 17th August, when the following were present :-

Brigadier H. G. Seth-Smith, D.s.o., (in the Chair).

Hon. Mr. R. M. Henderson, Director of Public Works.

Mr. G. H. Bond, Architect, Public Works Department.

Dr. T. W. Ware, Port Health Officer.

Mr. J. H. Taggart, Managing Director, Hong Kong and Shanghai

Hotels, Limited.

Mr. J. H. B. Lee, (Secretary).

4. I had not then been appointed Chairman and was therefore not present. It is a matter of great regret that this occurred as action was taken at the beginning by many willing voluntary workers without co-ordination by any central authority. I was, however, relieved of my other duties on the morning of 18th August and thereafter took charge.

t

5. The Committee took the name of the " Shanghai Refugees Committee " There was at one time a slight resentment shown by some of our visitors and guests at being called **refugees

refugees", and it was stated that they preferred to be called 43 evacuees This is but natural. From the view point of Shanghai they had been evacuated from that port but to the Hong Kong mind they had taken refuge in Hong Kong.

6.6

After all arrangements had been made for the reception and accommodation of the refugees the administrative work was carried on by the Chairman alone and his staff.

6. At the first meeting of the Committee Mr. J. H. Taggart was asked to take charge of preparing the accommodation for the reception of the refugees and of arranging for their disembarkation, transportation and maintenance. Mr. Taggart had for some time been considering a problem similar to that of the accom- modation of refugees and the Committee was fortunate in this respect. The Stand of the Hong Kong Jockey Club at Happy Valley was the first building selected as suitable for the housing of the refugees and it proved ideal for the purpose, more especially as an initial receiving depot. The building is modern, light and airy, and has adequate lavatory accommodation, while the kitchens were designed to cater for the considerable number who frequent the race meetings held there and were easily expanded. Happy Valley is easily accessible from the centre of the town and no difficulties arose over the

over the catering which was undertaken by Messrs. Lane, Crawford, Limited (Café Wiseman).

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66

7. A magnificent piece of work was done in having accommodation available for 500 persons within 36 hours of instructions being received to

go ahead" Two thousand camp beds were ordered of which 200 were later taken over by the Peninsula Hotel for the dormitory accommodation arranged at that hotel. Blankets, linen and stores were lent by the Hong Kong & Shanghai Hotels, Limited, and were placed in charge of Mrs. A. K. Taylor, as Matron, who had had previous experience in this work.

8. Mr. B. A. Proulx was placed in charge at the Happy Valley Centre and worked continuously there until the Centre closed down on 10th September. He was of excellent service during the very trying period when the refugees were arriving from Shanghai and his previous knowledge of the building was of immense assistance in adapting the premises for their new use.

9. Mr. F. W. Kendall was of great help also in supervising the installation of beds, etc. He has a flair for getting the utmost done in an emergency.

10. As stated earlier, accommodation was available for 500 persons by the evening of 19th August. Subsequently it was clear that we could accommodate at Happy Valley about 780 persons with a further 300 if the stables, attached to the Stand were brought into use. There were of course obvious objections to this latter addition.

11. Meanwhile, however, at the suggestion of Brigadier H. G. Seth-Smith, the new Central British School was prepared for the reception of further refugees by the Headmaster, Mr. D. M. Richards, Mrs. Richards and members of the School staff, Mr. Crozier, Mr. McLellan, Mrs. Cooper, Mrs. Hill and Miss Curtin. Work was commenced on Saturday, 21st August, and some 40 refugees were transferred from Happy Valley to the new Central British School on Sunday, 22nd August. Mattresses, blankets and sheets were borrowed from the Military Authorities and for the first day or so until camp beds were sent over from Happy Valley the refugees slept on the floor. Catering was undertaken by the firm of Kay Lee.

12. The main difficulty at the commencement of our work arose from the fact that we had no knowledge how many of the refugees would require accommoda- tion to be provided for them.

13. By the s.s. "Rajputana ", which arrived in Hong Kong on the evening of 19th August, 679 women, 346 children and 4 men came to Hong Kong. Out of this total of 1,029 persons, only 273 sought accommodation at Happy Valley on the morning of 20th August-the remainder having found accommodation elsewhere with friends, in hotels and boarding houses or in the separate centres arranged by the big business houses with interests throughout China. In some cases also the refugees stayed only a few days in the Centre and, having found accommodation elsewhere, left.

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14. The Empress of Asia " brought 1,368 refugees to the Colony and arrived on Saturday, 21st August, but, partly due to departures to private accom- modation and partly due to the excellent arrangements made for the staffs of large business firms, the numbers in the Centres only increased by 296.

15. It is easy to be wise after the event but such uncertainty prevailed on Sunday, 22nd August, that steps were taken to explore the possibilities of other buildings in the Colony for further centres. Inquiry was also made from Singapore whether accommodation was available there in the event of our being swamped here.

16. As things turned out there was ample accommodation at Happy Valley for all who sought board and lodging from Government and the Centre at the new Central British School need never have been opened. Accommodation was made available by the Military Authorities for men at Hankow Barracks, Shamshuipo, as it was impossible to provide separate accommodation for men at Happy Valley.

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17. An advertisement was placed in the local newspapers inviting offers of accommodation in private houses and the Committee guaranteed payment of standard rates of $3 a day for adults and $2 a day for children under 15 in cases where the refugees had no funds immediately available.

It was not necessary, however, to billet out many except on medical grounds...

18. On 30th August a special centre was arranged by the Trustees of the Ohel Leah Synagogue for Orthodox Jews, who wished to have special kosher food. This Centre was most successfully and economically run by Mrs. A. Raymond who was ably assisted by Mrs. D. S. Gubbay, Mrs. R. Weill and Mrs. H. Joseph. The standard rates as detailed above were paid by the Committee but when the Centre closed down approximately 25% was returned and duly apportioned to reduce the bills of individual refugees.

II.

Disembarkation and Reception.

19. The arrangements for the disembarkation of the refugees and their convey- ance to the Centres were in the hands of Mr. F. C. Barry, Secretary of the Hong Kong and Shanghai Hotels, Limited. He was ably assisted by Mr. A. K. Dimond, Manager of the Peninsula Hotel; Mr. F. Lee, Harbour Representative of the Hotel Company; Mr. Mok Yee Lick of the Tourist Department and Mr. Fred Poon of the Garage Department of the Hotel Company. The arrangements were carried out in excellent fashion.

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20. It was unfortunate that the first ship, the P. & O. s.s. Rajputana arrived alongside the wharf after dark and in heavy tropical rain. Those who had accommodation reserved for them were allowed to leave as soon as they could, while those who wished to have accommodation found for them were advised to remain on board until the following day. Out of a total of 1,029 on board, 273 only were transferred to Happy Valley on the morning of 20th August. The s.s. Empress of Asia" arrived on the afternoon of Saturday, 21st August." Again those for whom On this occasion accommodation had been arranged were allowed to leave first. there were several parties of employees of the big business firms in China, Messrs. Jardine, Matheson & Company, Limited, (Ewo Cotton Mills and Paton & Baldwins), Imperial Chemical Industries, Limited, the British-American Tobacco Company, the Banks, Sassoons and so forth. These were allowed to leave the ship first and cross the wharf to the firms' launches waiting there, before the Police cordon at the end of the wharf was broken and the general public, who were meeting friends, allowed on board the ship.

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21. Those who had no accommodation were transferred to Happy Valley that evening. Out of a total of 1,368 on board the "Empress of Asia about 300 only sought refuge in the Centre.

22. It was unfortunate that on both occasions the weather played us a sorry trick and for the next few days the refugees suffered considerable discomfort on account of heavy rain.

23. The total numbers in the Centres at Happy Valley and Central British School on the night of Sunday, 22nd August, were 528 and 41 respectively.

24. Disembarkation from the "Patroclus" and the "Maron" on the 23rd August was more easily accomplished. 58 joined the Happy Valley Centre and 20 Central British School from the "Patroclus", while a further 40 were transferred from Happy Valley to Central British School and 40 men from the "Maron" were accommodated at Hankow Barracks, Shamshuipo.

25. The "Empress of Canada" arrived on 28th August with 910 refugees of which 572 were British subjects. Of these 115 were transferred to Happy Valley and 40 to Central British School, while 27 men arrived at Shamshuipo. The total in

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all the Centres on that night was 732: 528 at Happy Valley; 138 at Central British School and 66 at Shamshuipo.

26. No further special accommodation was arranged in Shanghai for further evacuation and thereafter only a few individual refugees reached Hong Kong-some by rail via Canton.

27. Mr. Barry also supervised the subsequent removal from Happy Valley and Shamshuipo to Lai Chi Kok and the conveyance of the refugees and their luggage was carried out without a hitch.

28. When evacuation was later made from Hankow and special trains arrived on the 13th December, 25th December, 1937, and 1st January, 1938, one lady was accommodated at the old Central British School from the first train, one from the second, and 58 men, women and children from the third.

III. Medical Relief and Welfare.

29. Hong Kong was at the time of the arrival of the refugees in the midst of a cholera epidemic and it was considered essential that all refugees should be inoculated. A clinic was at once established under the direction of Dr. Lilias Dovey who was indefatigable in her efforts on behalf of the refugees. Many of them arrived in a state bordering on collapse, probably due to shell shock; many appeared to be undernourished and the work of the clinic was therefore continuous. Mrs. Dovey was ably assisted by several ladies who are trained nurses, notably Mrs. P. F. S. Court, Mrs. G. H. Bond, Mrs. D. Cuthbertson, Mrs. C. G. Perdue and Mrs. Fairly. Several nurses were kindly lent by St. John's Ambulance Brigade, and by the Health Officer for Schools.

30. Mrs. M. G. Jessiman and Mrs. Hillhouse, themselves refugees from Shanghai, were appointed to the staff as nursing sisters, and later Mrs. Brand and Mrs. Clark. All continued at Lai Chi Kok also. Mrs. G. Fletcher was appointed Matron at the new Central British School and Mrs. Marsden, nursing sister there, where a small clinic was also necessary.

31. A Ladies Welfare Committee was also formed as many of the women were in dire need of clothes and comforts beyond what could be supplied from public funds. Several generous donations were made to a Welfare Fund, notably the sum of $10,000 by Mr. J. H. Taggart. This fund was administered by the Ladies Wel- fare Committee.

32. There were many willing voluntary helpers and much good work was done in making the refugees comfortable and happy after their unfortunate experiences in Shanghai.

Motor cars were lent for trips to the bathing beaches and parties were taken to cinema theatres, etc.

IV.

Registration and Organization.

33. The work of recording particulars of all persons who sought accommoda- tion in the Centres was undertaken by a special staff composed mainly of school- masters who were then on holiday. Rev. Mr. G. E. S. Upsdell, with Mr. M. G. O'Connor and Mr. H. G. Wallington assisted at Happy Valley; Mr. D. J. Crozier and Mr. D. McLellan at Central British School, Mr. L. B. Holmes and Mr. C. Mycock at Shamshuipo and at Head Office.

34. In accordance with the instructions given in the Secretary of State's telegram of 16th August undertakings to repay the cost of housing and maintenance were obtained from all refugees. A special form of agreement to pay to the Government the sum of $5 a day for each adult and $3 a day for each child under

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15 years of age was signed by all refugees for themselves and for the children in their charge. A further form was used at Shamshuipo Camp for men where the charge was $3 only and a separate form was employed in the case of those billeted in private premises where the charge was $3 a day for an adult and $2 a day for children under 15 years of age. Copies of these forms are attached to this report. (Appendices 1, 2 and 3).

35. Some misunderstanding arose regarding these charges and the allowance in respect of refugees living in private houses. The charge for private premises was made as low as possible in the belief that the inhabitants of Hong Kong, who kindly offered hospitality to one or more refugees from Shanghai, did so altruistically, from a sense of public duty, and without any idea of making a profit. This belief was strongly reinforced by the numbers who generously gave hospitality to refugees from Shanghai without any thought of payment whatsoever. The increase in over- head charges in an ordinary household by the addition of one or two guests is not great and the authorized charge was therefore calculated to meet the cost of board only, and the small increase in other expenses.

36. At the several Centres however in addition to the bare cost of food, there were innumerable overhead charges which it was impossible at the beginning even to estimate. There was the cost of preparing the Centres for the reception of the refugees and for reconditioning them after their departure; there were the expenses of disembarkation, of the dispensary and of many other items. It was felt neces- sary, therefore, to make a charge which would cover all these expenses and would not result in a loss to Government if the standard rate were paid by all. It was, however, made clear that in the event of the actual cost being less than the standard rate, a charge would only be made of the actual cost. At a later date when it became necessary to issue some final bills, the standard rates were reduced to $3 and $2 respectively for those who remained in the Centres after 1st September.

37. When the refugees were about to arrive it was arranged that they would be received in the Happy Valley Centre without question and would be housed and fed for twenty-four hours. Registration would take place and meal tickets would be issued covering a period of a week during which time an investigation would be carried out as to the financial standing of the refugees and a decision made whether further credit should be allowed.

38. This investigation was most competently organized by Mrs. R. A. C. North, who was, however, deterred by illness from carrying out the individual examinations. These were ably and sympathetically done by Mrs. B. C. K. Hawkins and Mrs. D. Kelvin Stark together with Mrs. E. Colter, who, as Secretary of the British Womens' Association of Shanghai, brought local knowledge to the aid of the Committee. A questionnaire form was filled up in respect of each family. (Appendices 4 and 5). It is possible that the investigations of this Committee led to some misunderstanding on the part of the refugees, as cases arose where refugees had stated they could only pay some ridiculously small sum and later claimed that as this had been recorded by the Committee they, were exempted from paying what they had originally signed to pay.

39. While this investigation has proved of considerable value, the basis on which it was originally organized was erroneous. The question did not arise whether credit should be extended beyond the first week. Practically all those who had funds and could afford to support themselves left the Centres before the expiration of the first week or ten days and found private accommodation. Only those who were destitute or at least temporarily without funds remained and most of the accounts have had to be held over for collection after the refugees returned to Shanghai.

40. It then became necessary to organize a Records Office. Miss Joan Massey (now Mrs. J. Findlay) a member of the staff of H.M.'s Consulate-General in Shanghai, and Mrs. W. Elliot were appointed to take charge of the records and

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a file was opened for each family of refugees containing (i) the guarantee form, (ii) the statement made before the Investigating Committee and (iii) a record form (Appendix 6) detailing dates of arrival in the Colony and in any of the Centres and subsequent departures. From this latter form the whole history of the refugees" stay in Hong Kong is disclosed.

41. The Records Office also dealt with all accounts. To begin with Mr. G. White, Principal of the Trade and Technical Schools, kindly kept accounts of all disbursements and purchases of stores mainly for Central British School. On 6th September Mr. W. C. Scott, Accountant of H.M.'s Consulate-General in Shang- hai, arrived in the Colony, his secondment to organize the accounting work having been suggested by the Foreign Office and gratefully accepted by the Hong Kong Government.

42. Debit forms were prepared and sent out as soon as possible to those refugees who had spent a few days in the Centres and had then found their own accommodation. A few of these were paid but the bulk of the accounts can only be settled in Shanghai after conditions have become more settled there and after the refugees have attained some form of rehabilitation.

43. Mr. Scott after organizing the accounting system returned to Shanghai on 24th September. The accounts were thereafter in charge of Mr. H. M. Cockle, of the Senior Clerical and Accounting Staff.

44. Over 4,000 men, women and children left Shanghai and arrived in Hong Kong during the last ten days of August, 1937. While about 750 were known to be accommodated in the Centres organized by Government, there were numerous anxious inquiries for friends and relatives who had found their own accommodation. The Hong Kong Broadcasting Station Z.B.W. was most helpful in locating missing friends by broadcasting many S.O.S. messages. It was apparent, however, that something more was required and it was decided to compile a full directory under the auspices of the Hong Kong Travel Association, whose staff had already done splendid service in directing refugees to vacant accommodation. All Shanghai visitors were invited to send in their names and addresses, and a card index was. compiled. This was kindly published twice a week as supplements to the South China Morning Post during the first four weeks, and proved a most useful "Guide for Friends or directory. It was later handed over to "Poste Restante" at the General Post Office.

V. Maintenance of the Centres.

(A) The transfer to Lai Chi Kok and closing of the Happy Valley Centre; the

transfer from the new to the old Central British School.

45. The Stand of the Hong Kong Jockey Club at Happy Valley was kindly lent free of charge for the period of one month from 18th August. Much anxiety was felt, however, by the Stewards lest the premises should not be vacated in time for racing to be resumed after the summer on 25th September. It is easily realized that in such an event the Club would have been faced with a serious loss.

46. When the first rush was over, therefore, and it appeared unlikely that further evacuation from Shanghai would be necessary, steps were taken to find alternative accommodation and it was eventually decided to transfer all the refugees to the commodious sheds at Lai Chi Kok, originally constructed to serve as a quarantine station and in recent years used as an overflow prison. The Happy Valley Stand had proved an excellent receiving depot but it was somewhat expensive to run and it was now necessary to make more permanent arrangements. The cost of adapting the sheds at Lai Chi Kok for the reception of refugees was somewhat heavy, but cheaper arrangements for catering were possible at Lai Chi Kok and it was expected that the saving in running costs would soon balance the initial. expenditure in putting Lai Chi Kok in order.

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47. It was originally intended to transfer all the refugees to Lai Chi Kok both from Happy Valley and from the new Central British School, which would shortly be required for its proper use as a school, but it was found that this would result in some slight overcrowding and at the last minute the transfer of those in the new Central British School was cancelled.

48. Lai Chi Kok had a not very enviable reputation as the neighbourhood is somewhat malarious. A considerable sum was therefore spent on screening the sheds against mosquitoes. The transfer was eventually made on the 9th and 10th September and the climate of Hong Kong again dealt us a nasty blow. While on the first days at Happy Valley we had continual torrential rain, for the first days at Lai Chi Kok we had days of blazing sunshine and Lai Chi Kok with its con- siderable cement pathways had no cover from the glare. Considerable difficulty was therefore experienced in inducing the refugees to take precautions against the malarial mosquito. The weather was exceedingly hot and many of them slept in the open rather than endure the heat behind the screened windows.

It was inevitable therefore that cases of malaria eventually arose.

49. The transfer to Lai Chi Kok where the accommodation was undoubtedly not so lavish nor so comfortable as at Happy Valley resulted in many leaving the Centre and finding their own accommodation. This was not unexpected and was a

clear indication that some could have done so earlier if they had wished and if they had not found conditions quite favourable at Happy Valley. The number transferred to Lai Chi Kok was 477 but eight days later it had fallen to 367.

50. The decision not to transfer the refugees at the new Central British School was sound. They were all of a type that will most likely eventually meet their obliga- tions to H.M.'s Government and it was not unreasonable therefore to continue to provide them with somewhat better accommodation.

51. The School, however, also had to be vacated as the school holidays ended on 13th September. Alternative accommodation was found in the buildings that formerly housed the School in Kowloon and which had been vacated since the splendid new school was built and opened in the previous year. The old Central British School provided suitable and adequate accommodation for the number required which was under 100, and the cost of adapting it was not great. The move from the new to the old Central British School was carried out on the 21st September and the new Central British School was reopened as a school again on 27th September, a fortnight late.

52. The Jockey Club premises were vacated on Friday, 10th September, and the work of reconditioning them was immediately started. The cost was not great, and the premises were reinstated to the complete satisfaction of the Stewards in time for the resumption of racing on 25th September. The thanks of Government are due to the Hong Kong Jockey Club for placing their premises at the disposal of the Refugees Committee free of charge for the period that they were required.

(B) Medical.

53. A clinic was at first opened at Happy Valley in connexion with the inoculation against cholera. Considerable sickness, however, prevailed among the refugees on arrival; several were sent to the Government Hospitals and some remained in hospital throughout their stay in Hong Kong. The Government hospitals were soon full and several of the refugees were sent temporarily to the War Memorial Hospital and to the Matilda Hospital. Later several cases of chronic illness, including two of advanced tuberculosis, were housed in the hospital of the Convent of the Precious Blood where they were kindly admitted at reduced charges. There were three deaths among the refugees on account of illness and one from a motor accident. The work of the clinic was continuous both at Happy Valley and at Lai Chi Kok. It is some indication of the work done that 4,839 persons were treated at the clinic. During the first ten days 718 inoculations were performed and 381 persons treated for minor ailments and injuries.

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54. As was anticipated several cases of malaria arose at Lai Chi Kok and it was necessary to set aside the ground floor of one of the sheds as a hospital ward and to increase the staff of nursing sisters and nurses. There were 111 admissions to the hospital of which 78 were for malaria. This considerably added to the cost of the Lai Chi Kok Centre compared with previously as, in all cases of destitute refugees, those who were admitted to Government hospitals were treated there free. After the move to Lai Chi Kok Dr. Lilias Dovey was required to return to her work as Visiting Medical Officer for Chinese Hospitals; for a short time Dr. G. H. Henry visited the Centres daily, and later Dr. (Mrs.) G. R. Nash was placed in full charge.

(C) Carrying on and the return of the Refugees.

55. After the refugees were safely housed in Lai Chi Kok and old Central British School the Centres carried on smoothly. There was naturally considerable anxiety on the part of many of the refugees to return to their homes in Shanghai as soon as possible. Even as early as the 19th September a large number returned to Shanghai by the Messageries Maritimes s.s. "Chenonceaux" but comparatively few of these were from either of the Centres. Conditions in Shanghai appeared to have improved considerably and the Committee office was bombarded daily with requests for assistance to return. This could not be given and only those who were able to make their own arrangements for passages were able to leave.

56. Tentative suggestions were put forward on the 13th October that men who had reasonable expectations of resuming business in Shanghai and women who had guaranteed posts to which they were anxious to return should be given assisted passages to Shanghai, but this was not approved.

57. About thirty left the Centres for Shanghai on 2nd October, twenty- three on 15th October and thirty-four on the 31st October. Thereafter restrictions on return were somewhat relaxed and sixty-three (mainly Iraquians) were sent back on the Lloyd Triestino s.s. " Conte Rosso" on 22nd November. In all cases where passages had to be provided for the refugees a promise to repay the cost thereof was obtained. (Appendix 7).

58. Towards the end of November further telegraphic correspondence took place with H.M.'s Consul-General in Shanghai on the subject of the return of the Refugees, and authority was given to repatriate those who had accommodation available in the International Settlement south of the Soochow Creek or in the French Concession.

59. The Consul-General also asked on 30th November that a list of the refugees still maintained in the Centres should be forwarded for the guidance of the British Fund for relief in China and that notification should be made to him when destitute refugees were returning to Shanghai. Such a list was prepared and for- warded to Shanghai and in all subsequent repatriations those who might require some help on arrival in Shanghai were reported by telegram and referred to by their number on this list.

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60. Twenty-eight were sent back by the Messageries Maritimes s.s. II" on 12th December and 148 left by the s.s. "Conte Verde" and "D'Artagnan on 25th and 26th December. The remainder who had been detained on account of illness left by the s.s. "Conte Biancamano" on 9th January. The Lai Chi Kok Centre was closed on 26th December, 1937, and the old Central British School after the last refugees left on 15th January, 1938.

61. It will be seen that the process of returning the refugees to Shanghai was somewhat protracted. Though numbers were diminishing almost daily the cost of maintaining the Centres was not proportionately reduced. Overhead charges remained much the same whether there were 300 or 200 resident in the Centre. Every effort was made to curtail expenses, staff was reduced and salaries lowered.

(D) School for Refugee Children.

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62. Considerable anxiety was felt for the welfare of the many children who had come to Hong Kong from Shanghai at the loss of all educational facilities at a formative period of their lives. A few were enrolled in Hong Kong schools but naturally there was no room for the majority.

63. During the month of September therefore Mr. Pardoe, a member of the staff of the Lester Technical Institute, Shanghai, was asked to organize a school for children resident in Kowloon. He approached several of the lady teachers of the Shanghai Municipal Council who willingly co-operated with him. The School was opened on 22nd September on the premises of the Union Church, Jordan Road, kindly lent by the Rev. Mr. J. D. MacLean and classes were held in the morning for the children from Lai Chi Kok Centre and in the afternoon for children living in private premises. At the same time a kindergarten class was opened at Lai Chi Kok for those who were too young to travel by bus-this class was equipped by the Ladies Welfare Committee.

64. The premises at the Union Church were however inadequate and after about two weeks the school moved to the old Kowloon Magistracy Building. It was then possible to accommodate both groups of scholars at the same time. There were then about 200 pupils in attendance but by the end of October, when on the return of the lady teachers to Shanghai the school was temporarily closed, the numbers had fallen to between 160 and 170. The ages of the pupils ranged from six to eighteen and were divided into seven classes, the top form being composed of children who hoped to sit for their Cambridge Matriculation Examination in December.

65. A fee of $3 was charged for the first child in each family and $1 for every additional child, to cover the cost of stationery, school supplies, servants' wages, etc. The children from Lai Chi Kok, however, paid no fees. Very little had to be spent on text-books as these were kindly lent by the Headmistress of the Diocesan Girls' School and by Mother Ida of the Italian Convent. A very fine piece of work was done by Miss G. W. Meech, who was in charge after Mr. Pardoe left, and her fellow teachers of the Shanghai Municipal Council Schools.

66. Mrs. M. J. Lambert kindly undertook to carry on the school and after a short break classes were resumed on 8th November. As it seemed imperative that the children should not remain unoccupied I authorized the engagement on the very small salaries of $75 a month, which were only meant to cover out of pocket expenses, of five teachers Mrs. Smith, B.A., Mrs. Warr, Mrs. Vicary, Mrs. Hamilton and Mrs. Mitchell. There were then 73 pupils on the roll at the old Kowloon Magistracy Building and 24 at Lai Chi Kok under Mrs. Mitchell. The school closed on 15th December.

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VI. Non-British Refugees.

67. In addition to the British refugees from Shanghai a considerable number of other nationals arrived in Hong Kong during the last week of August. Many passed through immediately. Portuguese, of whom 250 arrived on 27th August by the Empress of Canada were either accommodated by friends or passed on to Macao, those of French nationality to Saigon, and citizens of the United States of America to Manila. A Centre for about 100 refugees of Norwegian, Danish and Swedish nationalities was organized by their respective consuls in premises at the Cosmopolitan Dock, kindly lent by the Chief Manager of the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Company, while the German Community of Hong Kong organized another Centre for their fellow nationals in a house on Stubbs Road.

68. Some non-British nationals were, however, included among the British refugees, being mainly relatives of women who had acquired British nationality by

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marriage and a few cases of women who had been British subjects by birth and had lost that status by marriage to an alien.

69. A telegram dated 18th August, 1937, was received from H.M.'s Consul- General, detailing the procedure adopted in Shanghai regarding non-British refugees. It was apparently assumed that permission to land in Hong Kong would be refused to all non-British nationals unless an undertaking was forthcoming from their respec- tive Consular representatives in Hong Kong that they would not become a charge on Government. In point of fact as detailed above excellent arrangements were made by the various Consuls in Hong Kong for the accommodation of their nationals. A few only were admitted to the Government Centres and this was done on the assumption that Consular guarantees had been obtained in Shanghai.

70. While this was no doubt true as regards non-British nationals who were given passages on board the British vessels specially engaged for the evacuation, there were a few foreign women who arrived in Hong Kong on foreign vessels who had not been passed by the Consular Authorities in Shanghai. They were destitute and there was no alternative but to provide accommodation for them in the Centres until they could be sent back to Shanghai. A few Russian men and women, deported from Canton and elsewhere, had also to be admitted, and subsequently repatriated to Shanghai.

71. I submit that as these people came to Hong Kong because of the hostilities in China, it was imperative to maintain them until they could be sent back to Shanghai. Hong Kong could not allow these women and one or two men to be stranded without means of subsistence in their midst. Their maintenance and sub- sequent repatriation was a proper charge on the funds placed at the disposal of the Refugees Committee, eventually to be refunded to Hong Kong by H.M.'s Government

in London.

VII. Gratuitous Services.

72. Before detailing the cost of the whole scheme for evacuating a large pro- portion of the British women and children from Shanghai and maintaining them in Hong Kong it is not inappropriate to detail the many services that were rendered in the cause of the refugees by individuals in Hong Kong, by business firms, and by the Government.

73. I have already mentioned that not a few of the refugees were taken into the homes of residents of Hong Kong as guests in the fullest meaning of that term. The large business firms with interests in Shanghai and throughout China looked after the families of their China staffs and maintained separate Centres for their accommoda- tion. The Commissioner of Police, and Chief Officer of the Fire Brigade placed at the disposal of the wives of Shanghai Police and Fire Brigade Officers vacant Govern- ment quarters that were available. Vouchers for free transportation were issued by the Hong Kong Tramways, Limited, the Bus Companies and the Hong Kong and Yaumati Ferry Company offered transport at half rates. I have also mentioned that no rent was charged by the Hong Kong Jockey Club for occupation of their Stand at Happy Valley.

74. Messrs. Lane, Crawford, Limited (Café Wiseman) who undertook the catering for the refugees at the Happy Valley Centre at $1 per meal reduced their charge to 75 cents on finding that this covered their outgoing expenses.

75. The Hong Kong Electric Company, Limited, waived all charges for elec- tricity at Happy Valley during our occupation of the Jockey Club Stand-their bill would have amounted to nearly $440. The Hong Kong Telephone Company, Limited also made a considerable contribution to the welfare of the refugees. Telephones were installed on every ship as it arrived at the wharf and this connexion was of great assistance during disembarkation. Several telephones were installed at

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Happy Valley, new and old Central British School, Shamshuipo and subsequently Lai Chi Kok. A public address system, which greatly facilitated communication between the office and somewhat distant dormitories, was installed at Happy Valley, at new Central British School and at Lai Chi Kok. The cost of installation alone of this telephonic apparatus amounted to nearly $1,700 while rentals for the period required would undoubtedly have exceeded $500. All these charges were waived.

76. Passages to Singapore at a reduced rate were kindly granted by Messrs. Jardine, Matheson & Company, Limited in the few cases where refugees were sent there to find work. These passages were paid for from Welfare funds.

77. I have already mentioned that a great many of the refugees were taken into the free wards of the Government Hospitals. The services of Dr. Lilias Dovey, Dr. G. H. Henry and Dr. G. R. Nash were lent by Government without charge. No charge has been made by Government as rent for the occupation of new or old Central British School, nor for Lai Chi Kok, and all water charges have similarly been waived. A great deal of equipment, etc., for the dispensary was kindly lent by the Director of Medical Services and all drugs supplied were charged for at cost price. No debit entry has been made for my salary for the six months during which I have been wholly occupied on this work.

78. An office in Exchange Building was kindly lent free of charge by the Hong Kong and Shanghai Hotels, Limited for the accommodation of the Records Office.

79. There is also the great band of voluntary helpers who did yeoman service, particularly at the beginning when the first arrivals of distracted mothers and children had to be soothed and comforted after their distressing experiences in Shanghai and on the voyage to Hong Kong. To begin with there was perhaps some lack of co-ordination but the Ladies Welfare Committee was soon formed and quickly took charge. They rendered magnificent service in the cause of the welfare and comfort of the refugees. My duty was to house and feed those placed in my charge but there were many real necessities of life which it was impossible for me to provide. The Ladies Welfare Committee have submitted a separate report which is attached. (Appendix 8).

80. In addition to the Welfare Funds placed at the disposal of the Ladies Welfare Committee various sums were subscribed and administered by me as Chairman.

These totalled $2,227.84, the main contributions coming from the South China Morning Post $513, the Lido Dance Hall $401, the First Church of Christ Scientist $100, and Mr. Percy Gaunt $315 and an anonymous donor in Manila through H.M.'s Consul-General there, $100. A further sum of over $500 was paid into my account by the Ladies Welfare Committee mainly for passages which I had arranged on their authority. $690 was spent on passages, about $680 ex- pended in relief mainly for the men, $175 in loans, $165 for purchase of rm cardigans for the men, over $60 in providing spectacles and nearly $200 in mee 90 an extra charge for maintenance of certain old people who could not be placed Centres.

.::

81. Lastly I cannot praise too highly the magnificent voluntary work done in the early days by Mr. J. H. Taggart. He had fully studied the problem a another aspect and he had a great organization behind him but it was only his foresight and personal energy that enabled us to be ready for the initial batch on refugees less than forty-eight hours after the first step was taken to prepare for their reception.

82. I attach a list of voluntary workers who rendered excellent service time of great emergency and who deserve the thanks of the Community for willing co-operation. (Appendix 9).

+

2

140

VIII. Finance.

83. All expenditure connected with the reception, housing, maintenance and repatriation of the Shanghai refugees has, in the first instance, been borne by the Hong Kong Government and has been debited to an Advance Account. On four occasions an advance of $50,000 has been placed at my disposal under Advance Warrant.

84. As the organization of the Hong Kong and Shanghai Hotels, Limited, was employed in the preparation of the Jockey Club Stand at Happy Valley all accounts were met by the Company and were submitted after they had been passed by the Company's auditors. This arrangement was continued after the re- moval to Lai Chi Kok; these accounts being under the charge of Mr. F. C. Barry throughout. At the beginning it was imperative that work should be done and stores supplied at once. Much hard work was put in by Mr. C. J. Triggs, Engineer of the Hong Kong and Shanghai Hotels, Limited, in the preparation of Happy Valley and later of Lai Chi Kok and by Miss R. C. P. Xavier of the Purchasing Department of the Hotel Company who supervised the supply of linen and stores.

85. At the Central British School the initial equipment was kindly lent by the Military Authorities supplemented by the purchase of sheets, pillows, etc. Mr. D. M. Richards, Headmaster of the School, assisted by his wife, supervised all purchases for that Centre.

86. The catering at Happy Valley was placed in the hands of Messrs. Lane, Crawford, Ltd. (Café Wiseman) who originally agreed to supply three full meals a day at $1.00 each. As mentioned earlier this charge was later reduced to 75 cents a meal. Meal tickets were used at Happy Valley and payment was made only on the number of tickets presented, so that the actual cost per head per day was some- what less than $1.82.

87. Catering at new Central British School and later at the old School was in the hands of Messrs. Kay Lee, who agreed to supply three meals a day for the sum of $1.35 for adults and 65 cents for children under 15. This, however, did not include any supply of milk for the children and "Klim" was purchased separately. Gas was used as the heating agent at both new and old Central British School and the caterer paid one-third of the amount consumed.

88. At Sham Shui Po, during the short time it was occupied, Messrs. Kay Lee also supplied meals at the rate of $1.35 per day.

89. Prices rose in Hong Kong somewhat sharply at the end of August, due undoubtedly to the considerable increase in the population, both British and Chinese. In arranging for the catering at Lai Chi Kok I considered it essential that fresh milk should be supplied for the children and while agreeing to continue at the rate of $1.35 per days for adults Messrs. Kay Lee submitted that the same rate should apply also to children under 15. Tables and chairs were hired for the dining room. from the same contractor and as the price of coal was rising very rapidly, it was agreed that $12 a day should be paid to cover both items.

90. At Lai Chi Kok a few orthodox Jews (men) were allowed to have their own mess and were granted a subsistence allowance of $1.00 a head per day.

The Staff Quarters at Lai Chi Kok were also granted a subsistence allowance to run their own catering in lieu of joining in with the general messing arrangements.

91. The following is a classification of the accounts, but it must be noted that in many respects this classification is fallacious--for example equipment bought while the Happy Valley Centre was open was later transferred to Lai Chi Kok and used there. It is impossible therefore to show the exact cost of each Centre.

141

92. The vouchers supporting the accounts and all account books will be forwarded to H.M.'s Consulate-General in Shanghai.

93. Classification of Expenditure.

Preparation of Centres and Reinstatement.

Happy Valley

New and Old Central British School

Lai Chi Kok

Sham Shui Po

Equipment, Stores and Running Expenses.

Happy Valley

Central British School

Lai Chi Kok and Sham Shui Po

Catering.

Happy Valley

$

3,066.96

864.54 7,077.27 28.20

$ 11,363.74 3,305.75

8,879.60

$ 17,299.85

$ 11,036.97

23.549.07

Sham Shui Po

:

Lai Chi Kok

1,365.65

Central British School

Private Houses

Jewish Centre

11,475.19

43,803.42

14,296.09

8,192.00

96,432.20

Wages.

Happy Valley

$

3,834.07

Central British School

2,686.71

Lai Chi Kok and Sham Shui Po

10,942.98

17,463.76

Electric Light and Gas.

Happy Valley

Sham Shui Po

Central British School

Lai Chi Kok

Transport.

Happy Valley

Central British School

Sham Shui Po

Lai Chi Kok

139.93

2,172.46

1,930.86

4,243.25

2,466.09 106.30

68.80

Landing Charges

Return Passages

School fees and upkeep of Refugee School

Hospital fees and Medical Expenses

Funeral Expenses

Administration Expenses

Total Expenditure

1,117.29

365.00

13,795.35

17,918.83

531.44 2,018.56

156.00 2,901.15

$ 176,251.23

Or keeping the claim by the Military Authorities separate $173,896.50 and £147.3.5.

142

94. Deducting the sums expended for accommodation in private houses and in the Jewish Centre, and for return passages to Shanghai, this works out at $2.88 per head per day including adults and children together.

95. In closing the accounts claims have been submitted by the Hong Kong and Shanghai Hotels, Limited, and by the Military Authorities for loss and deprecia- tion of stores kindly lent by them.

96. Linen, that is sheets, bath towels, hand towels, pillow-cases, dusters, table cloths and so forth to the value of nearly $6,000 was lent by the Hotel Com- pany. The Company stated that the articles returned would be of little use to them in their first class hotels and submitted a claim of $3,000 for depreciation.

The linen was inspected by the Steward, and Principal Matron, Medical Department and by the Matron of the Queen Mary Hospital and on their advice I accepted the claim. as fair and reasonable.

97. The claim submitted by the Military Authorities was in the first instance for £176.8.9, but this included an item of £10.16.3 for bedding lent to the s.s. "Maron" and found deficient on the return of the ship to Hong Kong. This did not concern the Hong Kong Committee and was cut out. A few other adjustments reduced the claim to £147.3.5 which has been accepted.

98. The statement contained in my interim report of the expenditure up to 31st October omitted several items which had not been brought to account by the Hong Kong and Shanghai Hotels, Limited, and the total cost is therefore higher than was anticipated.

99. The return of the refugees to Shanghai was very protracted as no British passenger ships called at that port until January 1938. This considerably increased the cost per head as overhead expenses remained much the same whether 300 or 200 were in residence. The claim by the Military Authorities is also very much. higher than was anticipated. The losses of stores were in some ways serious. Many of them occurred during the typhoon of the night of 1st-2nd September when the refugees were almost washed out of their quarters. Sheets and blankets were used to stop up broken windows, etc., and to stay the flocd of water pouring in under every door. The opportunity for theft by coolies, etc., cleaning up next. morning, when chaos prevailed, was therefore great. There were also, I am afraid, considerable thefts by the refugees themselves, e.g., eleven electric irons have disappeared. Some of the sheets, towels, etc., were also put to improper use and later destroyed.

100. On the receipt side the sum of $17,414.81 has been repaid by the refugees, and a sum of $2,200 was refunded by Mrs. Raymond from the amount granted to her for running the separate Jewish flave. Messrs. Kay Lee refunded one-third of the cost of gas consumed at atral "ritish School amounting to $522.90.

101. From the sale of stores the sum of $3.245.58 has been obtained. As it was intended to use the Lai Chi Kok premises as an overflow hospital for Chinese, bedding and stores were sold to the Medicalment on valuation which I consider was fair and reasonable amounting $1,055.16. Several camp beds were sold privately for the sum of $1 each including 50 to the American School evacuated from Hankow. The auction of the remainder

tres produced $2,160.42.

143

102. The receipts were therefore:-

Repayments by refugees (including sale of a few

camp beds)

Refund from Jewish Centre

Refund by Messrs. Kay Lee for gas consumed

$ 17,414.81

2,200.00

522.90

Refund by Messrs. Tak Hing of over payment

9.57

Sale of Stores-Medical Department

1,055.16

American School

50.00

Auction

2,160.42

Balance of Welfare Funds

Interest on Current Account

2.12

3.45

$ 23,418.43

The deficit at present amounts to $152,832.80 which at 1/3, the prevailing rate of exchange equals £9,552.0.1.

103. The outstanding accounts for the refugees amount to $133,841.55. so that even if they were all paid in full there would still be a deficit for $18,991.25. These accounts have been calculated on the basis of $3 a day for adults and $2 a day for children under 15 and while every refugee signed a promise to pay in full the cost of their maintenance in Hong Kong, I do not recommend that any attempt be made to recalculate the accounts on any higher basis.

104. The result is somewhat disappointing. I had hoped to approximate more closely to the actual cost or even to show a small "paper" profit but this result is entirely due to the long delay in returning the last of the refugees to Shanghai.

105. Of the outstanding accounts, I estimate that perhaps half may eventually be recovered.

W. J. CARRIE, Chairman,

Shanghai Refugees Committee, 28th February, 1938.

{

Here insert full

name of person

signing under-

taking.

Here insert full name of each person in charge of or accompany- ing the person signing.

144

Appendix 1.

GOVERNMENT OF HONG KONG

In consideration of the Hong Kong Government providing me the undersigned

and

Witness to above signature.

with board and lodging at the Jockey Club Stands at Happy Valley, I hereby agree to pay to the said Government on demand in respect of such board and lodging the sum of Five dollars ($5.00) per day for each adult and three dollars ($3.00) for each child under 15 years of age.

Signature

Last address in

SHANGHAI

Occupation

If signed by married woman

full name and occupation} of husband

This form must be signed by every person who accepts board and lodging under the arrangements made by the Government of Hong Kong.

Those who do not have funds immediately available will thus be able to obtain credit.

Those who are unable to afford these charges will be required to appear before a Government representative and to give a full statement of their circumstances.

W. J. CARRIE,

Chairman,

Shanghai Refugees Committee.

Here insert full

name of person

signing under-

taking.

Here insert full name of each person in charge of or accompany- ing the person signing.

Witness to above signature.

145

Appendix 2.

GOVERNMENT OF HONG KONG

In consideration of the Hong Kong Government providing me the undersigned

and

with board and lodging at the Shamshuipo Camp, I hereby agree to pay to the said Government on demand in respect of such board and lodging the sum of Three dollars ($3.00) per day.

Signature

Last address in

SHANGHAI

Occupation

This form must be signed by every person who accepts board and lodging under the arrangements made by the Government of Hong Kong.

Those who do not have funds immediately available will thus be able to obtain credit.

Those who are unable to afford these charges will be required to appear before a Government representative and to give a full statement of their circumstances.

W. J. CARRIE,

Chairman,

Shanghai Refugees Committee.

Here insert full

name of person

signing under- taking.

Here insert full name of each person in charge of or accompany- ing the person signing.

Witness to above signature.

146

Appendix 3.

GOVERNMENT OF HONG KONG

In consideration of the Hong Kong Government providing me the undersigned

and

with board and lodging in private premises, I hereby agree to pay to the said Government on demand in respect of such board and lodging the sum of Three dollars ($3.00) per day for each adult and two dollars ($2.00) for each child under 15 years of age.

Signature

Last address in

SHANGHAI

Occupation

If signed by married woman full name and occupation of husband

This form must be signed by every person who accepts board and lodging under the arrangements made by the Government of Hong Kong.

Those who do not have funds immediately available will thus be able to obtain credit.

Those who are unable to afford these charges will be required to appear before a Government representative and to give a full statement of their circumstances.

W. J. CARRIE,

Chairman,

Shanghai Refugees Committee.

CONFIDENTIAL.

147

Appendix 4.

SHANGHAI REFUGEES COMMITTEE

1. Name in full

2. Married or Single

3. Birth place

4. Nationality (by birth)

QUESTIONNAIRE

(by marriage)

5. Accompanied by:

NAME.

AGE.

PARTICULARS (Relationship, etc.).

* §5 per day for adults *$3 per day for children.

6. *Ability to pay maintenance rate

Full

Proportionate

*Not required by those able to

pay full rate

7. *Statement of means:

(a) Cash in hand

(b) Own and/or husband's salary

(c) Investments

(d) Property

(e) Other sources

148

8. Possibility of repatriation

9. Remarks

CONFIDENTIAL.

Appendix 5.

SHANGHAI REFUGEES COMMITTEE

1. Name in full

QUESTIONNAIRE

2.

Married or Single

3.

Birth place

4.

Nationality (by birth)

*$3 per day.

5.

Ability to pay maintenance rate*

Full

Proportionate

*Not required by those able to pay full rate.

6. *Statement of means:

(a) Cash in hand

(b) Salary

(c) Investments

(d) Property

(e) Other sources

7. Possibility of repatriation

8. Remarks

NAME

ex. s.s.

Arrived Hong Kong on

Left Hong Kong on

by s.s.

Duration of stay in Hong Kong

Accommodation in Hong Kong:-

In J.C.S., H.V. from

In C.B.S. from

In Laichikok from

In

In

In S.S.Po Camp from

1. Guarantee form

2. Questionnaire

Assessment of ability to pay

Here insert full name of person signing under-

taking.

Here insert full name of each

person in charge

of or accompany- ing the person signing.

149

Appendix 6.

...days.

to

inclusive.

to

inclusive.

to

inclusive.

from

to

inclusive.

... from

to

inclusive.

... to

inclusive.

Appendix 7.

GOVERNMENT OF HONG KONG

In consideration of the Hong Kong Government providing

undersigned

and

with

Dollars

passages to Shanghai, I hereby agree to pay to the said Government on demand in respect of such passages the sum of

($

).

Witness to above

signature.

Signature

Address in SHANGHAI

Occupation

150

This form must be signed by every person who wishes arrange- ments for their return to Shanghai to be made by the Government of Hong Kong.

Full payment will be exacted in due course in Shanghai.

W. J. CARRIE,

Chairman,

Shanghai Refugees Committee.

Appendix 8.

SHANGHAI REFUGEES COMMITTEE.

REPORT OF THE LADIES WELFARE COMMITTEE.

News was received in the Colony on Monday, 16th August, 1937, that the Consular Authorities in Shanghai had decided to evacuate British nationals to Hong Kong. A men's committee, called the Shanghai Refugees Committee was at once formed here and preparations were made to receive the refugees. It was felt that a Ladies' Committee would be needed and Mrs. R. A. C. North kindly offered to form one. Mrs. N. L. Smith, Lady MacGregor, Mrs. Lindsell and Mrs. Hender- son were invited to join this Committee and the first meeting was held on Friday, 20th August, with Mrs. North as Organizing Secretary. The first refugees arrived in the s.s.

'Rajputana" and these and subsequent arrivals were welcomed by some members of the Committee and other voluntary helpers who tried to make them forget their distressing experiences and settle down in their new quarters. A general meeting to which all helpers were invited was called for Saturday, 21st August, and at this meeting the name "Ladies Welfare Committee " came into being. A Welfare Bureau was inaugurated and a duty list for workers drawn up. From then onwards the Bureau was open daily with helpers in attendance to give advice and information to the refugees and to supply them with clothing and other necessities.

The health of the Refugee Centre was in the capable hands of Dr. Lilias Dovey who ran a hospital and a dispensary with the help of voluntary and one or two paid nurses. This department, which was under the Men's Committee, worked in close and friendly co-operation with the Ladies Welfare Committee.

151

Mrs. North assisted by Mrs. Hawkins, Mrs. Kelvin-Stark and Mrs. Colter of Shanghai started an Assessment Office to inquire into the financial status of the refugees. This was a fine piece of work and of great help. As a result of these investigations the Committee was later able to make weekly allowances to those without funds.

The South China Morning Post opened a subscription list and $513 was collected. At this stage Mr. J. H. Taggart came forward most generously with a munificent donation of $10,000 for the refugees, to be disbursed at the discretion of the Ladies Welfare Committee. Mr. F. C. Hall very generously sent a donation of $1,000 and Mrs. C. G. Alabaster $100. Later gifts included $50 from the Rotary Club, $50 anonymous and $325 from Sir Vandeleur Grayburn.

At the Committee meeting of 28th August a letter from Hon. Mr. R. A. C. North was read saying that Mrs. North had been seriously ill for some days and was obliged to withdraw from the Committee. Mrs. North had done very valuable and arduous work and her resignation was much regretted.

It was then decided to enlarge the Committee, as with the charitable funds at its disposal the scope of the work had grown. The Committee was then constituted in the following manner and so remained until it was wound up on 25th January, 1938:-

Chairman, Mrs. N. L. Smith,

Treasurer, Lady MacGregor,

Secretary, Mrs. R. M. Henderson,

Mrs. Lindsell,

Mrs. Dicken,

Mrs. Richards,

Mrs. Gerrard,

Mrs. Wolf.

Meetings were held daily during the first week, then twice weekly for a month, and subsequently once a week.

Jockey Club Refugee Centre.

At a meeting held on 22nd August it was decided that Mrs. Lindsell should be in charge of the Welfare Bureau at the Jockey Club, helped by Mrs. Whyte-Smith and Mrs. Maughan supported by a capable band of assistants.

The maximum number of refugees accommodated at this Centre was 528.

Clothing, etc.

The public came forward spontaneously with gifts of clothing, perambulators, cots, books, toys, cigarettes, etc., and there was a ready response to broadcast appeals. The Hong Kong Benevolent Society sent a quantity of clothing and Messrs. Davie, Boag sent a very generous consignment of shoes and clothes and later a further gift of 7 dozen pairs of rubber shoes.

Library.

Books and magazines were most kindly donated and a library was started in charge of Mrs. Margrett.

Nursery School.

Mrs. Nicol helped by Mrs. Key, Mrs. Pryde and the Girl Guides ran a Nursery School which was a great help in keeping the children employed.

152

Children's Food.

Mrs. Selby was of great assistance in finding out the different kinds of milk foods needed by the babies and small children, and with the help of Mrs. Cheetham of Shanghai, a trained dietician, drew up a suitable diet for them.

Jewish Hostel.

Mrs. Raymond who visited the Jewish Refugees at the Jockey Club Centre on 22nd August decided that it would be better if some were moved to a Centre of their own.

A house was found on Upper Castle Road and the Jewish Hostel was opened. The Ladies Welfare Committee gave Mrs. Raymond money to buy bedding and certain necessities, but after that the Jewish Hostel supported itself on the ordinary billeting grant allowed to Refugees.

Transport.

The Hong Kong Tramways Co. through Mr. L. C. F. Bellamy very kindly gave free passes on the trams to refugees and one day put a tram at their disposal to take them round the city to see the sights. Messrs. Wallace Harper & Co. were extremely kind in placing a car and a chauffeur at the disposal of the Centre. Many private individuals lent their cars and took parties of children to the beaches, and a car bureau was run by Mrs. Frederick and Mrs. Dyer assisted by Mrs. Tinson.

Entertainment.

The Petty Officers and Men of H.M.S. Osiris, H.M.S. Orpheus and H.M.S. Proteus were extremely kind in getting up dances and entertainments for the refugees. H.M.S. Rover also organized a dance and most generously raised $252 in aid of the refugees. The Filmo Studio kindly gave short shows for the children every afternoon for a week. The Lady Cake Shop kindly donated 200 small cakes. Mr. Stafford-Smith generously came forward with a gift of 3,000 cigarettes. "Lizzie " from Tester's Beauty Parlour kindly spent a Sunday cutting the children's hair.

Closing of Jockey Club Centre.

The refugees were moved over to the Laichikok Centre on 9th and 10th September and the Jockey Club Centre was closed down.

Central British School Refugee Centre.

This Centre was opened on 22nd August for 350 refugees, though the maximum at any one time never exceeded 150. The great majority were British women and children. Mrs. D. M. Richards was asked by Mrs. North to take charge of the Welfare work, with a Matron and a Nursing Sister to assist. Of many other voluntary helpers the following were outstanding:-Mrs. Crozier, Miss Curtin, Mrs. Cooper, Mrs. Ingram, Mrs. Clarke, Mrs. Cole, Mrs. Tong. The various activities, linen, stores, meals, diets, help with children, etc., were divided into two shifts, 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. and 2 p.m. to 7.30 p.m. The Kowloon residents gave generous assist- ance in the way of clothing, toys, books, wireless sets, etc., and many picnics were arranged. The catering was supervised by Mrs. Fletcher and Mrs. Cooper (Domestic) Science mistress at the School). Klim was provided daily, also fresh fruit to all children under 15. The Kowloon Boy Scouts and Girl Guides as well as the senior pupils of the School were very helpful, as also were the local members of Tec H.

On 20th September, as the School was needed by the Education Department, this Centre was moved to the premises formerly used as a British School but now vacated, and continued on the same lines until it closed down on 15th January.

Laichikok Refugee Centre.

As stated above the refugees from the Jockey Club Centre moved to Laichikok on 9th and 10th September. As this was more inaccessible it was decided that the

153

Welfare Bureau should be run by members of the Committee helped by Mrs. Maughan, Mrs. Grigor, Mrs. Prior, Mrs. Calthrop and Mrs. Norman. Mrs. Colter of Shanghai was engaged to be at the Bureau from 10 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. (Sundays excepted) at a salary of $50.00 a month and transport. When she returned to Shanghai her place was taken on the same terms by Miss Walker, a refugee from the Central British School Centre. Miss Walker returned to Shanghai on 10th December and it was decided that her place need not be filled as all refugees were shortly expected to return.

A large amount of clothing was received from the foreign community in Foochow, which was greatly appreciated as stocks were running low and colder weather approaching. As time went on this became a pressing problem. Broadcast appeals brought in some warm things but not enough, and scarcely anything for the boys and girls. It was therefore decided to buy what was still necessary. A total sum of $566.78 was spent in providing inexpensive knitting wool, jerseys and cardigans, shorts and skirts and thick overcoats for the journey to Shanghai. Messrs. Whiteway, Laidlaw & Co. supplied these coats at half price, a generous offer for which the Committee was very grateful.

The maximum number of refugees accommodated at this Centre was 477.

Education.

With the long stay of the refugees in the Colony the education of the children became a problem. Mr. Pardoe with the assistance of some Shanghai teachers had opened a school in Kowloon Union Church for Refugee children, and on being approached he agreed to include the children at Laichikok. It was decided that a school under Miss Aliston should be opened in Laichikok for children up to 8 years of age, and that the rest should travel into Kowloon daily. Mr. Pardoe found it was impossible to accommodate all the children in the Union Church Hall and was fortunate in securing from Government the use of the old Kowloon Magistracy, which proved a very suitable building for a school. Part of the bottom floor of Block 6 at Laichikok was turned into a school room. The Committee bought stools and had tables made and got the very simple equipment for which Miss Aliston asked. The school proved most successful, and continued to run till these teachers returned to Shanghai. After a short time the schools were reopened under Mrs. Lambert, who got a staff of teachers together, and the schools con- tinued to run until 17th December when they closed down. Mrs. Mitchell taught the kindergarten at Laichikok.

A physical drill class for boys and girls was most efficiently run by Mr. Powis, who kindly came out every day, and a very enjoyable display was given by his class at the Benefit Dance for the children of the late Mrs. Stuart Xavier.

H.M.S. Parthian very kindly arranged a dance on 9th October to which many of the refugees were asked and the $375 raised was most generously given to the Ladies Welfare Committee to buy rattan tables and chairs to furnish a Recreation Room, and chairs for the dormitories.

A Benefit Dance for the seven children of the late Mrs. Stuart Xavier was held on 10th November. Kay Lee, the Army Contractor who was caterer at Lai- chikok and Central British School Centres, generously provided the refreshments and the China Fleet Club lent the hall. $497.13 was realized and this was sent to Mr. Haines of Shanghai to be used for the education of the Xavier children.

The Laichikok Welfare Bureau closed on 23rd December as it was understood that the refugees would be leaving during the Christmas holidays.

Relief Funds.

A list of persons without means at the Jockey Club Centre was obtained from Mr. Carrie on 31st August. Mrs. Dicken, Mrs. Gerrard and Mrs. Wolf assisted by

154

Mrs. Colter (of the British Women's Association in Shanghai) investigated every case and recommended what grants should be made to allow each a little pocket money. The amounts varied from $2 to $5 per week according to their needs and number of children. Mesdames Dicken, Gerrard and Wolf afterwards visited the Centres weekly to distribute these allowances. At one time the recipients numbered over ninety but these were gradually decreased as the total refugees diminished. In all $4,580 was distributed in this way. The Committee spent a great deal of time in investigating the individual cases and deciding what help should be given.

Passages, etc.

There were several cases of refugees who for business, family or health reasons wished to return to Shanghai or to go to Singapore, but who had not the requisite funds. In some cases refugees who wished to go to England could find part but not all of the fares. The Committee felt that they should help in this matter as the cost would otherwise fall on the Government. Only the cheapest passages were provided and the total spent was $1,999.

Grants were also made, to a total of $1,635 for landing expenses, railway fares, etc., on arrival at their destinations. On the final repatriation to Shanghai of the remaining refugees similar grants were made, which are included in the above total.

Help to Mothers.

Many of the refugee mothers had four or five children to look after and in cases where the youngest were only babies the Committee paid for an amah and pro- vided rattan perambulators. When a mother was unable to look after her child the Committee paid for its maintenance at the French Convent.

Dental Aid.

Some refugees needed dental attention and the Committee paid for this.

Fresh Fruit.

It was felt by the Committee that fresh fruit was necessary for the children, and as this was not supplied by the caterer at Laichikek and Central British School this was purchased from welfare funds and distributed twice a week. During the cholera epidemic only imported oranges and apples were given, but later Dr. Valentine authorized bananas and pumeloes.

Milk.

Klim was provided by the Committee for babies, young children and patients in the Laichikok hospital. Lactogen and "Cow and Gate" were also supplied when necessary; also fruit, milk and eggs to a few refugees in outside hospitals.

Miscellaneous.

Three mattresses were bought by the Committee for the hospital at Laichikok, and the Matilda Hospital very kindly donated 12 hot water bottles.

Conclusion.

Before closing this Report the Welfare Committee wish to express their deep gratitude to Mr. J. H. Taggart for his magnificent donation without which much of their work would have been impossible.

They also express their thanks to all others who in various ways helped in the work, by gifts of money or in kind, by providing entertainments, and by personal service.

155

Attached is a general statement of accounts and a list of helpers without whose capable and unselfish assistance the Ladies Welfare Committee could not have carried out their task.

MAUD V. SMITH,

Chairman,

Welfare Committee, 7th February, 1938..

Treasurer's Report.

I was appointed Treasurer at the first meeting of the Ladies Welfare Committee, and began work on 24th August with $100, most of which was immediately expended on essential purchases for the camps at Happy Valley and the old Central British School.

Our original funds were very generously contributed by Mr. J. H. Taggart who donated $10,000 to our Committee. The balance of that sum was transferred to me in instalments, $300 on 31st August, $300 on 7th September, $7,300 on 14th September and the remaining $2,000 on 25th October.

Other sources of revenue have been :-

$1,000 from Mr. F. C. Hall

$100 from Mrs. C. G. Alabaster

$50 from the the Rotary Club for toys

$5 from Miss Marrick for fruit

$69 from three anonymous donors

$252 from a dance sponsored by H.M.S. Rover

$375 from a dance sponsored by H.M.S. Parthian

$514.33 proceeds of a dance for the children of the late Mrs. Xavier $325 from Sir Vandeleur Grayburn.

The sale of tables and chairs realized $95.75 and bank interest increased our balance by $3.67.

An advance of $350 made on 30th November to Mrs, M. A. Brown was repaid by her on 8th December.

Our total revenue has therefore amounted to $13,139.75.

Expenditure has fallen mainly into five categories. Refugees resident here have been assisted with pocket money; money has been required for wool for knitting, clothing for men, women and children, fruit and toys; passages have been provided for a number, and many have been given small sums as landing money; all the money subscribed for Mrs. Xavier's children has been sent to Shanghai for their maintenance except for a small sum paid to them here to enable them to land in Shanghai with a little money in their pockets, and money is now being spent in maintaining in Hong Kong the last of our refugees.

:

Our total expenditure up to date is $12,868.08, and I have in my hands a balance amounting to $271.67.

G. M. MACGREGOR,

26th January, 1938.

:

156

Chairman:

LADIES WELFARE COMMITTEE.

Mrs. N. L. Smith

Hon. Treasurer: Lady MacGregor

Mrs. Lindsell

Mrs. Dicken

Mrs. Richards

Mrs. Gerrard

Mrs. Wolf

Hon. Secretary: Mrs. Henderson

Mrs. North (ex Committee).

Mrs. Whyte-Smith

Mrs. Maughan

Mrs. Newill

Mrs. Nicol

Miss Curtin

Mrs. Clarke

Mrs. Cole

Mrs. Crozier

HELPERS.

Jockey Club.

Mrs. Selby

Mrs. K. S. Robertson

Mrs. Prophet

Mrs. Lambert

Central British School.

Mrs. Cooper

Mrs. Ingram

Mrs. Tong.

Lai Chi Kok.

(and Jockey Club)

Mrs. Grigor

Mrs. Calthrop (,,

Mrs. Maughan

Mrs. Prior

(

>>

Mrs. Hawkins

Mrs. Richardson

Mrs. Kelvin-Stark

Mrs. Scott (Shanghai)

Mrs. Colter (Shanghai)

Miss King

Mrs. Thomson

Mrs. O'Connor

Mrs. Key

Mrs. Margrett

Further Helpers.

Mrs. Norman (and Laichikok)

Mrs. Stopani Thomson

Misses Hance

Mrs. Perdue

Mrs. A. White

Mrs. Howard

Miss Abbott Mrs. Shields

Miss Bell

Mrs. Pryde Mrs. Raymond Mrs. Elliott

Mrs. G. White

Mrs. Baskett

Girl Guides

Mrs. Mills

Mrs. Dyer

Mrs. Westlake

Mrs. D. J. Valentine

Miss Rutherford

Mrs. Tinson

Mrs. L. Garner

Mrs. Frederick

Mrs. D. Forbes

Mrs. Durran Mrs. Branson

Mrs. Pittendrigh Mrs. C. C. Black

Mrs. Innes

Mrs. Compton Mrs. Glover

157

Mrs. Mackintosh

Mrs. Sleap

Miss Pittendrigh

Mrs. Greaves

Mrs. H. F. Williams

Mrs. Cheetham

Mrs. Abbott

Mrs. Dunbar

Mrs. Scott Harston

Central British School.

Mrs. Hast

Mrs. Hayward

Mrs. Dick

Mrs. Easterbrooke

Mrs. J. Roger

Mrs. Silson

Mrs. Blakey Mrs. Stroud

Mrs. Hill

Miss Felling

Appendix 9.

Mrs. Woods

Mrs. Bolton

Mrs. Donald

Mrs. Lawrence

Mrs. Silkstone

Miss Thomas

Miss Ingram

Mrs. Shirley

Mrs. Godby

VOLUNTARY HELPERS.

Mr. F. C. Barry

Dr. G. W. Pope

Mr. A. K. Dimond

Dr. Lilias Dovey

Mr. F. Lee

Mr. Mok Yee Lick

Mr. Fred Poon Mr. C. J. Triggs Miss R. C. P. Xavier

Mr. B. A. Proulx

Mr. F. W. Kendall Mrs. A. K. Taylor Mr. D. M. Richards

Mrs. D. M. Richards Mrs. A. Raymond Mrs. D. S. Gubbay Mrs. R. Weill Mrs. H. Joseph Mr. L. B. Holmes

Mr. G. E. S. Upsdell Mr. M. G. O'Connor Mr. H. G. Wallington Mr. D. J. S. Crozier

Dr. G. R. Nash

Dr. P. Ruttonjee Mrs. P. F. S. Court

Mrs. D. Cuthbertson

Mrs. G. H. Bond

Mrs. C. G. Perdue

Mrs. D. Black

Mrs. L. R. Shore

Mrs. Watson Miss D. L. Lopes Miss Heung Miss Kitty Fox Miss Irene Anderson Miss Phyllis Churn Miss Sham You Lin Dr. J. A. R. Selby

Mr. L. A. Collyer

Mr. F. Buckle

Mr. N. J. Bebbington

158

Mr. D. McLellan

Mr. W. J. Dyer

Mr. C. Mycock

Mr. G. White

Mrs. R. A. C. North

Mrs. B. C. K. Hawkins

Mrs. D. Kelvin-Stark

Mr. H. R. Forsyth Mr. D. L. Prophet Mr. K. Begdon

Miss D. Raven

The Ladies Welfare Committee

and their associates.

15

HONG KONG.

No. 1938

2

REPORT ON THE THIRD CONGRESS OF PREHISTORIANS OF THE

FAR EAST, HELD AT SINGAPORE, 1938.

Of the three Congress meetings held hitherto, this has proved beyond doubt the most important; first, for its production of new and valuable prehistoric material, which I shall outline below; and second, for the increased number of delegates present and countries represented; for besides an increased delegation from Indo-China, and representatives of State governments and learned bodies in the Straits, a delegate from the National Research Institute of China, Professor Lim of Amoy, and two delegates, from the Sydney and Melbourne Museums respectively, brought China and Australia respectively into the circle of countries participating in these Congresses. Of the Far Eastern governments, Siam and Japan were the most notable absentees.

The Congress opened with a business meeting on Monday, 24th January, 1938; the first business was the question of its next meeting-place. I duly conveyed the Government's invitation that it should meet in Hong Kong in 1941, pointing out that that was our centenary year. The Congress accepted the invitation. A second invitation was conveyed in writing by Dr. Willems, of the Netherlands Indies delegation, to meet in Batavia in 1941 if for any reason Hong Kong could not hold the Congress then, and if a meeting did take place in Hong Kong in 1941, then the invitation to the Congress was to be for its 5th meeting in 1944.

This was duly noted with thanks.

The programme of papers was then settled. They included two papers by associate members, one of whom was Father Maglioni, of the Italian Mission, Hong Kong.

After the official reception by the acting Colonial Secretary, the President, Mr. W. Linehan, delivered an address on the preservation of antiquities of all kinds in Malaya, pleading for legislation for that purpose, and pointing out the necessity of providing that antiquities of value found by chance shall be retained, and their full value paid to the finder, by the local government; in fact, that reward as well as punishment be employed to prevent dispersal of such antiquities. In this connexion I would point out that small bronze pieces are being disposed of occasionally in Lamma to hawkers in return for groceries or cash, according to Father Finn.

One of the resolutions of the Manila Congress had been that each country should prepare a report on the glass beads found within it. Two countries only actually presented such reports to the Congress; the Netherlands Indies, and Hong Kong. The Straits Settlements report was not presented, though practically ready, partly perhaps because of the very full programme before the Congress. The Philippines and Indo-China failed to make a report.

Another matter of business raised during the Congress was the date of publication of the Manila Congress proceedings. Dr. Beyer made an explanation of the various difficulties and obstacles that had hitherto prevented publication, and promised that in the course of this year the proceedings would be published and sent to the Govern- ments and delegates concerned.

The papers read demonstrated clearly the rapidly increasing development of Far Eastern prehistory, the growing interest it is arousing, and the speedy widening of its scope, emphasized by the presence of Australian and Chinese delegates. As usual, the most spectacular results were produced by the Netherlands delegates :

16

Dr. Callenfels dealt with the Toalian flaked implement culture in South Celebes; Dr. van der Hoop with the Bronze Age culture of the N.E.I.; and Dr. Willems with an urn burial site, also in Celebes. Dr. von Koenigswald, however, gave the Con- gress its most important paper by far; a description of two newly discovered skulls of Pithecanthropus erectus, one from the Trinil beds (middle Pleistocene) of Java, and one from the lower Pleistocene, dealing with their relation to Sinanthropus, and proving the falsity of recent views as to the non-humanity of the former genus of Hominid. The older skull is that of a child, and presents features relating it closely to the main stem of human descent, whereas the skulls of adults show comparatively marked specialization.

The French delegates dealt with Quaternary geology and read papers chiefly dealing with ethnographical subjects; one on types of reaping knives, with explana- tions of their singular forms, which threw considerable light on two stone objects from Shek Pek; and another on modern evidences of an ancient solar cult.

The Philippines delegation presented two papers, one on the progress made during the last three years in Philippine prehistory, and one on the prospects of a new museum in Manila. In the former, the questions of immigration by land bridges during the Ice Age and of the various industries of the Iron Age were discussed.

The Australian delegates both read important papers; one on the present state of prehistoric research there, describing the leading types of implement found. The author took the view that so far as actual age goes, man in Australia is of moderate antiquity only, and that there is no evidence of Pleistocene man there. He also put forward the theory that Tasmanians arrived direct by sea from the New Caledonia region. In the discussion that followed, much was said of the existence of land bridges all over the Archipelago, across Torres Straits, and Bass Straits, during the Ice Age, which were flooded by the melting of the ice, and would have allowed early man to travel extensively, and such jungle tribes as the Negritos to reach Luzon and Mindanao. The other paper dealt with the close typological relations between certain Australian implements and those of the Far East, notably the flaked palaeoliths of Tongking; the sumatra type first described from Sumatra; and the protoneoliths ", flaked tools with polished edge, of Tongking and the Archipelago. The conclusion reached was that a diffusion of culture, but not of race, had taken place from Cape York and the N.W. Australian coast respectively into the interior.

6 C

>>

The Straits delegates' contribution was small but important: a description was given of an excavation at a site where a stratum with flexed burials and implements of Sumatra type was found underlying another stratum with secondary burials and tools of Hoabinh (Tongking mesolithic) type, thus fixing the succession of races and cultures in Perak, where the site lies. The pottery found was also dealt with.

The Hong Kong delegates dealt with the results of the Shek Pek excavation, exhibiting plans and sections of the site and photos of the objects and burials found; also with the relation between the bronze culture of classical China and the stone cultures of the "barbarians ".

This last subject was also dealt with by the Chinese delegate, whose contribu- tion showed that a culture closely related to that of Hong Kong extended northwards through the interior of Fukien and Chekiang as far as the neighbourhood of Hangchow, with hard and soft pottery, and stone tools; this immense extension of the Hong Kong culture province I regard as the most important feature of this Congress so far as our local studies are concerned. Neither in this nor in Father Maglioni's almost equally important paper on the Swabue prehistoric finds was any site of stratigraphic importance described, such as exist in Hong Kong. Father Maglioni's communication dealt with the sites of the Swabue culture, the succession of culture-phases so far as he can make them out, and the meaning of the signs found on what is called the "soft" pottery, which he interpreted as a rule as signs for magic protection of the vessel or its owner, or as good wish emblems, such as are common on modern Chinese articles of all sorts.

;

17

The final meeting was for business. The chief recommendations were: limita- tion of length of papers to 1 hour, to allow time for proper discussion; summaries of papers to be provided beforehand for foreign delegates; discussions to be noted down by a secretary or reporter and printed with the paper to which they refer; and delegates to communicate to their respective governments the view of the Congress that archaeological legislation should be promoted as soon as possible for the preservation of sites and antiquities, especially those of monetary value, as suggested in the President's address.

<<

,,

The question was also raised of each country compiling a corpus of pottery made by hand, or partly turned on the wheel, found within its borders: not neces- sarily for publication. This has already been done in Indo-China by Mlle. Colani, and is perhaps worthy of consideration, though the further suggestion of making plaster casts of such pottery is hardly practicable until we have a museum.

It is clear, therefore, that prehistoric science in the East is advancing rapidly, and that it is incumbent on governments to make some permanent and professional provision for its study; it is emerging from the stage in which amateurs can make serious and valuable contributions to it. In other words, a museum with a com- petent curator is now needed where one does not already exist, to take charge of finds already made, to keep abreast of foreign research, and to make scientifically acceptable researches in his own country.

The Congress finally concluded with an excursion to Malacca to inspect the local antiquities, in particular the standing stones found in the neighbourhood. The theory chiefly favoured was that the carved stones at a local shrine were ancient and certainly pre-Mohammedan, but that the uncarved stones standing in rows on tumuli were merely ancient Malay gravestones. Their curved shape is merely due to the weathering off of large flakes from granite and porphyry boulders, forming shell- shaped pieces, which were then taken and used as grave stones.

W. SCHOFIELD.

10-2-38.

1

1

159

HONG KONG.

REPORT

OF THE COMMITTEE

ON

No.

8

1938.

THE TRAINING OF TEACHERS.

PRINTED BY

NORONHA & CO., HONG KONG.

GOVERNMENT PRINTERS & PUBLISHERS.

161

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE TRAINING OF TEACHERS.

We, six of the seven members of the Teacher Training Committee appointed by His Excellency the Governor, have the honour to submit our report.

2. Our original terms of reference were "to review and report on the teacher training systems in operation at the Hong Kong University and in the normal classes held in connexion with the Evening Institute, and to make recommendations in relation to either or both systems." At our request, however, His Excellency the Governor agreed that the terms of reference should be widened so as to include (a) review of the present policy of appointing teachers from Great Britain on the one hand, and from Hong Kong on the other, to schools in the Colony; and (b) review of the present system of recruitment and training of teachers for the vernacular schools in the Colony."

A

3. In response to invitation by the Committee, memoranda were submitted by Professor Hsu Ti Shan (Professor of Chinese at the University of Hong Kong), Mr. J. Ralston (Director, Evening Institute), Mr. Y. P. Law (Inspector of Vernacular Schools), Father G. Byrne, and the headmasters of four Government schools. joint memorandum setting out the views of all the headmasters of Grant-in-Aid Schools was also submitted. The latter is attached to our report as Appendix I, and Mr. Ralston's memorandum as Appendix II.

4. Our report falls into four sections dealing respectively with the training of

A. University (of Hong Kong) Trained Teachers.

B.

Anglo-Chinese (non-graduate) Teachers.

C.

Vernacular Teachers for Rural Schools.

D. Vernacular Teachers for Urban Schools.

A. University (of Hong Kong) Trained Teachers.

(I) Course of Studies.

The University of Hong Kong provides a four-year course leading to the B.A. degree, with special groups of studies in this course for students training to become teachers. We consider this system to be open to the following objections: (a) it imposes too heavy a burden on the students who have to complete their academic studies and receive their professional training concurrently; (b) it permits insufficient time for practical work in teaching under skilled guidance; (c) the result in many cases is that the students receive neither an effective general education nor an adequate professional training. We are of opinion that students should complete their academic studies first, before embarking on their professional training, and accordingly we make the following recommendation:

"That for the training of potential Anglo-Chinese teachers at the University of Hong Kong, students should take the ordinary course (at) present a 4 years' course) for an Arts Degree, to be followed by a year's post-graduate course for a diploma in teaching, this being in accordance with resolutions of the Faculty of Arts, the Senate and the Council of the Hong Kong University.".

(II) Awards and subsidies to students in training.

Under the existing system, a number of students annually are awarded student- ships or scholarships by the Government through the Education Department and sent to the University to be trained as teachers for Government schools.

The cost

to Government for each such student is approximately $1,500 per annum.

We

162

are of opinion that these awards are too lavish, especially as no "means test" is imposed, and that the money spent should provide for a greater number of students so as to widen the field of candidates from whom teachers could be chosen, not only for Government schools but for other schools as well. We accordingly make the following recommendation :

"That, in place of the present scheme, Government should make an annual grant which it is estimated will not in cost exceed $45,000, to be administered by the Director of Education, out of which not more than 12 scholarships each of $400 per annum for the period of the B.A. degree course at the University should be awarded on the results of the Matri- culation examination and personal interview; that of the 12 scholars not more than 6, to be selected by the Director of Education, who proceed to the post-graduate diploma course, should receive a further award of $1,000 each for the year of that course; and that if in any particular case $400 or $1,000 is found to be insufficient, the Director of Education should be empowered to pay an additional allowance from the grant. Each such scholar should give the usual undertaking to serve Govern- ment, if required, as a teacher on the obtaining of his diploma."

(III) Pay and prospects.

We are of opinion that the existing scale of salaries for University Trained Teachers is adequate, but they have at present open to them no higher posts carrying additional emoluments. We accordingly make the following recommendation :

"That while the present scale of pay of the University Trained Teachers is adequate, they should have better prospects and in future the Headmasterships of Cheung Chau, Un Long, Taipo and Gap Road Schools should normally be allotted to such University Trained Teachers, and should each carry a charge allowance of $50 per month; and that the four Inspectorships of Vernacular Schools, together with the Headmastership of the Vernacular Normal and Middle School, should also normally be allotted to University Trained Teachers with special Chinese qualifications."

(IV) Employment in Government Schools.

We have considered the question of replacing British teachers in the Govern- ment schools by University Trained Teachers and are of opinion that some replace- ment of this kind could be effected without loss of efficiency and with considerable saving of expense to Government. We therefore record the following opinion :

That in our opinion there is scope for the replacement of European teachers in Government schools by University Trained Teachers—a re- placement which the Director of Education has already initiated.'

(V) Employment in Grant-in-Aid Schools.

At present University Trained Teachers occasionally find employment on the staffs of Grant-in-Aid Schools, but the Grant schools are unable to employ as many University Trained Teachers as they would like, owing to their inability to pay an appropriate scale of salary. We consider that the staffs of Grant-in-Aid Schools should include a greater number of University Trained Teachers and accordingly make the following recommendation:

"That since it appears clearly impossible at present, for financial reasons, for the Grant schools to employ more University Trained Teachers than they do, it is desirable that Government should grant these schools greater assistance, so as to enable them to employ a larger number of such teachers."

163

B. Anglo-Chinese (non-graduate) Teachers.

The only organization for training this type of teacher, from which the staffs of non-Government schools are largely recruited, is the Evening Institute. The Institute provides a three-year course of evening classes which untrained teachers in the Grant-in-Aid Schools attend, many of them after completing (as have also the lecturers) a full day's teaching in their schools. We consider these classes at best a makeshift arrangement which cannot give really adequate training-their fundamental weakness being the lack of practical work under skilled guidance. The Grant schools, and probably private schools also, will for some time to come require a regular supply of non-graduate teachers and the only way of ensuring that such teachers receive adequate training is by providing full-time training at a train- ing college or centre.

We recommend accordingly:

66

That, assuming that the grant-in-aid system remains more or less as at present, the evening class system should be discontinued as soon as practicable, and that immediate steps should be taken to replace it by an organization, to be formed as a department of a Government school and staffed jointly by the University and the Education Department, for the training of student teachers, with a two years' practical and general course; that entrants should have reached matriculation standard; and that at the end of the course successful students should be granted Teachers' Certificates by the Government, and that if necessary students taking the course should be subsidized by Government."

C. Teachers for Rural Vernacular Schools.

The only training facilities at present available to this class of teacher are the Normal School at Taipo which provides a three-year course for men vernacular teachers, and has an annual average output of four or five teachers. The curriculum of the training course has no rural bias. We consider that a much larger supply of trained teachers is necessary if the vernacular schools in the New Territories are to be adequately staffed and are to reach a reasonable standard as centres of education. We realise however that under the existing system the pay and prospects of vernacular teachers are so poor that few students, and those not of the best quality, are likely to be attracted to this career, and we are forced to the conclu- sion that this difficulty can only be overcome by Government accepting greater responsibility for vernacular education, which in the New Territories should have a definitely rural bias.

We recommend accordingly :

.

"That Government take immediate steps to establish and maintain a new training centre or centres for men and women rural teachers in the New Territories and that the course of training should make a complete break with the past and should conform more closely to the conception. of rural education which prevails in the African colonies and elsewhere.

This proposal is based to a large extent on our view that Government should be prepared to undertake greater responsibility for primary verna- cular education in the New Territories."

D. Teachers for Urban Vernacular Schools.

At present there are two organizations for the training of this class of teacher (1) Normal Schools and (2) the Evening Institute Classes.

(1) Normal Schools.

There are two normal schools on the island, one for men and one for women. The Vernacular Normal and Middle School, as its name implies, has two functions:

164

(a) it provides a secondary vernacular education ("middle school") for school pupils, and (b) it has normal classes which train men student teachers, giving them a two years' course. The annual output averages about six teachers. We consider the output to be insufficient for the adequate staffing of urban vernacular schools and we think the training of such teachers requires a separate institution with its own staff.

The Vernacular Normal School for Women provides a four-year course of raining. The annual output averages about eight teachers. Here again we con- sider the output insufficient. To attract sufficient numbers of suitable students, however, both men and women, the pay and prospects of vernacular teachers in general will have to be much improved.

(2) Evening Classes.

The Evening Institute has classes providing a three-year course for both men and women. The annual output averages about 25 teachers. We consider these evening classes open to the same criticisms as the corresponding classes for Anglo- Chinese teachers. The system is a makeshift one and cannot give really adequate training.

It must be remembered that vernacular teachers are required not only for vernacular schools, but also for teaching Chinese studies in the Anglo-Chinese schools. At present, we are informed, it is almost impossible to get such teachers who are capable of taking the higher Chinese studies in the upper classes of these schools. There is also a considerable body of opinion in favour of replacing English by Chinese as the medium of instruction in the lower classes of the Anglo- Chinese schools--a scheme which if carried out would largely increase the demand for trained vernacular teachers. It is also considered desirable that some at any rate of this class of teacher should have a knowledge of English which would enable them to start instruction in English in the top classes of the vernacular primary schools.

We recommend accordingly :

"That Government should take immediate steps to provide a new training centre or centres in Hong Kong for training men and women vernacular teachers. That the new centre or centres should provide a course of two years' duration, and that the scholastic qualification for admission to this course should be the completion of the Senior Middle School course, but that the Director of Education should have power in his discretion to admit students with lesser qualifications to the course so long as this may be necessary to secure an adequate supply of teachers, provided that this discretion shall be subject to review after 5 years.

That the new centre or centres should accommodate the existing Normal Classes of the Vernacular Normal and Middle School and the Vernacular Normal School for Women and have room to allow for expan- sion up to a total of 200 students.

That the new centre or centres should be staffed and managed on the same lines as the centre for Anglo-Chinese teachers already recom- mended.

That Government assistance should be provided where necessary for the students in training.

That as soon as a sufficient supply of trained teachers from the new centre or centres is available, the evening classes should be discontinued.

The above recommendations are based in the main on our view that Government should undertake greater responsibility for primary vernacular education particularly in the way of establishing its own vernacular schools; they are also based to some extent on our view that the adoption of

:

165

Chinese as the medium of instruction in Classes 8 and 7 of the Anglo- Chinese schools may be desirable and that an experiment in this direction should forthwith be made in a number of Anglo-Chinese schools.

We support the views expressed in the memorandum of the Heads of Grant Schools (attached as Appendix I to the Committee's report) and in connexion with paragraph 3 (f) on page 9 thereof are of opinion that it is desirable that the prospects of vernacular teachers should be so improved as to attract students passing out from Anglo-Chinese schools to the career of a vernacular school teacher, in order that among other things there should be a sufficient supply of teachers to teach English in the last year of the primary vernacular school."

5. We regret that this report is not unanimous since Mr. G. R. Sayer, whose views are set out in the minority report attached, found himself unable to support most of our recommendations.

R. E. LINDSELL (Chairman),

D. J. SLOSS,

L. FORSTER,

F. SHORT,

LI TSE FONG,

C. G. SOLLIS.

Appendix I.

MEMORANDUM ON THE TRAINING OF TEACHERS

BY

REPRESENTATIVE HEADMASTERS OF GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS.

The question of training teachers in Hong Kong covers:

(1) Vernacular Teachers,

(2) Student Teachers,

(3) Graduate Teachers.

Vernacular Teachers.

(a) Vernacular Teachers teaching in the Primary Schools and in the lower

classes of the Secondary Schools.

(b) Vernacular Teachers fitted to teach language, literature and history

in the higher classes of Secondary Schools.

To each of these groups one preliminary remark seems to apply. It is a matter of common knowledge that the written language of China is at present, and has been for the past decade or so undergoing very rapid evolution. The issue is sharply set between the older classical school, with its enormous insistence on memory, its reluctance to depart from old, stereotyped forms, and its very com- pressed and difficult style; and the newer school, inseparably connected with the name of HU SHIH, which has developed the freer, easier, yet beautiful modern style. An apt parallel lies between the present state of things in China and the Europe of four centuries ago, which witnessed the rise of vernacular literature.

166

Classical Chinese, without being entirely neglected, must, like Latin, give way to a style of language more easily adaptable and better suited to become the means of literary expression.

In this respect Hong Kong is definitely behind China, and is still clinging to forms of writing and methods of teaching which are rapidly being superseded in China itself. This calls for a very radical change in all grades of vernacular teaching from the Primary School to the University.

It is suggested, therefore, that, if the training of Vernacular Teachers is to be put on a proper basis, an Adviser be engaged from the Education Board of the Chinese Government. This official

(a) should be a highly trained and experienced man,

(b) should be paid a good salary,

(c) should be given a free hand to re-organize Chinese Studies and the

Method of Teaching in the Colony,

d) should have a good knowledge of English, so as to allow of full co-

operation with the educational world of Hong Kong.

This suggestion seems drastic, but it is justified because the teaching of Chinese in Hong Kong lags far behind the teaching of English and other subjects, both in method and in the standard attained.

This is due to the fact that the training of Vernacular Teachers, such as it is— it might be interesting to find out how many of the thousands of Vernacular Teachers in the Colony get any training at all-is far from satisfactory.

The vast majority of the Vernacular Teachers are engaged in Primary Educa- tion. Attacking Graduate and Student Teachers will not go far towards improving the educational standard if the foundation of education is allowed to remain faulty. The axe must be laid to the roots, not to the branches.

The first call, therefore, is for a detailed study and a complete transformation of PRIMARY EDUCATION in the Colony. The Secondary Schools get their pupils from the Primary, and unless the teaching in the latter is efficient an immense amount of time is wasted.

It is agreed on by all that the first years in the Secondary Schools are made the more difficult because during these years it is necessary to train the children. into an entirely new way of working. It is not an impossible task when the pupils come into Class 8; but it is well-nigh impossible when students come from Verna- cular Schools to the Secondary Schools at the Class 4 or 3 stage.

It is granted that it is not the state of Primary Education in itself which is the subject matter of this memorandum, except in so far as the state of Primary Education gives a very fair indication of the need of improved training for Primary Teachers. It is felt that unless that is taken in hand other reforms cannot possibly attain their full value. No matter how good, well-trained and efficient Secondary Teachers may be, they cannot get the maximum results from students who have got a bad foundation.

The course of studies in local Normal Schools leaves much to be desired:

a) There is too much CLASSICAL Chinese.

(b) There is far too little GENERAL EDUCATION.

(c). There is too little SCIENTIFIC TRAINING IN METHOD.

(d) There is too much theoretical and far too little practical work.

167

The result is that teachers

(a) have little to give the pupils and consequently cannot hold their interest. This accounts, to a very great extent; for the want of dis- cipline in Primary Schools and in the vernacular classes of Secondary Schools;

(b) must content themselves with getting their pupils to memorize, day after day, portions of the only Chinese books the teachers know. The result is a very one-sided education;

(c) have not been trained to draw out the children, to make them do even rudimentary thinking for themselves. Memory is developed, and wonderfully developed, but at the expense of intellect.

This is the state of things which generally, if not universally, meets the teachers in other subjects in the lower classes of the Secondary Schools.

What steps should be taken to improve this state of things?

To train Teachers adequately a complete change over from the present system is called for:

(1) The ideal would be a Training College, with a two-year course, strict supervision, weeding out of those who show that they are not interested in teaching for itself.

(2) The Training College or its present equivalent, the Evening Institute, should have a permanent staff, or (and this is considered the absolute minimum) a permanent Head free from all other work. Great care should be taken in the selection of the Head, to ensure that the one who holds such an important post is enthusiastic in his work, efficient, and of a personality which will arouse enthusiasm in the students.

(3) The Course should include

(a) more Science (particularly, in view of the New Territories' Schools, Science of a practical nature, likely to be useful in an agricultural community).

(b) Theoretical and Practical Hygiene. Many of the Primary Schools are innocent of any attempt at sanitary conditions. To introduce compulsory Physical Instruction without providing adequate means to ensure that the Physical Instruction be really effective (i.e., adequate sanitary arrangements, baths, etc., in the schools) is merely putting the cart before the horse.

(c) Modern, Social History of China--not merely Chinese History as

taught in Chinese text-books.

(d) A course which would ensure a speaking knowledge of Mandarin

(Kwo Yu).

(e) A course of reading and writing with ease and speed in the modern

style.

(f) Sufficient English to allow of their giving lessons in simple English during the last year. This would make the task of the Secondary

Schools much easier.

(g) A course in Practical Phonetics.

(h) Some attempt should be made at teaching these men and women how to teach. Hence practical lessons should be given under the eye of a skilled teacher. Some of the principles of modern pedagogy should be imparted to them.

(i) Definite methods of teaching and correcting compositions should

be insisted on.

168

It may be objected that this is very ambitious, and would require very much more expense than is at present incurred.

The reply is that, while a proper Teachers' College is the ideal, even under present circumstances much could be done through a revision and improvement of the courses given through the Evening Institute. The cost might be met

(a) by a subsidy from Government. Such a subsidy would be money well

spent; or

(b) by a curtailment of Government Secondary Education and the ap- plication of the money thus saved towards the improvement of Primary Education; and

(c) by a modest scheme of scholarships, to be held for one or two years at Chinese Universities. These might, in the long run, prove of very great value.

This suggestion of Teachers' Scholarships at Chinese Universities deserves even more thought when one comes to consider the second class of Vernacular Teacher mentioned above, i.e., Vernacular Teachers fitted to teach language, literature and history in the higher classes of Secondary Schools.

It is hardly an exaggeration to say that Hong Kong does not produce, and makes no attempt to produce men of this calibre. It is the general experience that it is almost impossible to procure a thoroughly competent Vernacular Teacher for the top classes in Hong Kong Secondary Schools, and doubly difficult to secure such a man trained in Hong Kong. The demand for this kind of man is not large; still, such men are employed, and should, therefore, be trained in the Colony.

These highly qualified Teachers should know English-no educated man in any country is satisfied to know only one language. This would enable them to receive their specifically pedagogical training with other Teachers in Hong Kong. Here also it would be of great value if a modest scholarship scheme made it possible for them to complete their Chinese education at a Chinese University.

Student Teachers.

A "Student Teacher" in the wording of the Grant Code is one who is studying at one of the Teachers' Classes at the Technical (now Evening) Institute". At present these Teachers' Classes are open only to such students as have already passed the Matriculation or School Leaving (Class 1) Certificate Examination.

We wish to record at once our conviction that these Teachers' Classes should NOT be open to young men and women who have merely finished their School Certificate (Class 2) Examination.

We consider that the future Teachers of the Colony should have AT LEAST one year's further schooling after Class 2, independent of their specifically professional training.

educational system of very willing and very Indeed, supplemented

These Student Teachers play a very large part in the the Colony. They are for the most part very painstaking, industrious. They do admirable work in the lower classes. by a stiffening of European and/or Graduate Teachers, we consider that they form a more efficient staff for the lower half of the Secondary School than a staff of Europeans or of Graduates. We sincerely hope that nothing will be done to dis- courage Teachers of this type; but that, on the contrary, steps will be taken to assist them in every way.

We should be glad to see much of the money spent, or proposed to be spent on the training of Graduate Teachers, diverted to the better training of these Student Teachers, because:

169

(a) they form the backbone of the Teaching Staffs of the Grant-in-Aid Schools, which are more numerous than Government Schools, and which show, on the basis of examination results, an equal proficiency with Government Schools;

(b) the salaries as scaled for Graduate Teachers make the employment of such, at least in big numbers, from a financial point of view, out of the question for non-Government Schools.

Hence the Student Teacher is a very important factor in the educational life of the Colony.

A Teachers' Training College, financed by Government very largely, if not entirely, may not be an immediate possibility, but it is in that direction that cur efforts should tend. It must be remembered, however, that this is a very poor country, and if longer training is to be demanded of our Teachers, the expense must be largely met by Government.

There is, however, at the moment no Teachers' Training College, and we must be content with the Evening Institute.

Under actual conditions as they now exist we wish to make the following remarks:

(a) The courses as provided are not satisfactory.

(b) There should be more LANGUAGE training, both oral and written,

and much less CLASSICAL LITERATURE.

We regard the present syllabus, by which three Plays of Shake- speare and one modern novel are covered in three years as entirely unsuitable. We think that young Teachers should be required to read intelligently and attentively at least one modern book per month and should be examined on these.

(c) They should get much training in composition work.

(d) They should be drilled in the taking of notes.

(e) They should be encouraged to practise impromptu speaking.

(f) Special stress should be laid on correct pronounciation PRACTICAL PHONETICS showing lip and mouth formation in pronouncing vowels and consonants-the difference between long and short vowels-the avoidance of staccato reading-and other forms of oral work.

The aim should be not to produce literatures, but to assure that the language is accurately and thoroughly known.

(g) Less Hygiene, as that is now incorporated in the Class 2 syllabus. (h) A modified course in Psychology. The course as now offered seems to contain little more than Behaviourism, and to omit all study of the will, etc.

We think that the courses in Method-and indeed, in most other subjects also- would gain, were they entrusted to older and more experienced Teachers, prefer- ably from Grant-in-Aid Schools. It is but reasonable to assume that those who are going to employ these young Teachers afterwards will be more likely than others to work hard for them during their training.

We think that the present hours and the present method of using teachers make an impossible demand both upon the students and professors. Both have already done a day's work, and cannot possibly be at their best during the Evening Courses.

We consider that the Evening Institute should have its own staff of men, who are free to devote their whole time to that work.

.

170

Graduate Teachers.

This Memorandum is written from the point of view of the Grant-in-Aid Schools. It is not proposed, therefore, to spend much time discussing the training of Graduate Teachers, on the ground (already mentioned) that for reasons of finance such Teachers are never likely to play a big part in the staffing of Grant Colleges and Schools.

We regard the training of such Teachers, as it is at present given in the University, as altogether inadequate.

Whether the product of the new scheme of training envisaged will replace the European Teacher in the Colony is merely a matter of conjecture. Graduate Tea- chers, properly trained, should be able to take all classes in the Secondary Schools in all subjects with, perhaps, the exception of English in the higher classes.

If that standard is to be reached, however, there must be a radical reform in the courses which have been given up to this.

Appendix II.

I. VERNACULAR TEACHERS.

My experience during the last 24 years in Hong Kong has not provided me with much opportunity to study the system or success of the methods of training verna- cular teachers. What little chance I have had of observing their work has been in the course of my duties in various Government Anglo-Chinese Schools, and, with very few exceptions, this class of teacher has never impressed me from the point of view of either discipline or methods of teaching. The former, I have found, in most cases weak, perhaps on account of the latter which were generally uninspir- ing and old-fashioned.

In my opinion the standard of educational attainment of many of these teachers is not sufficiently high, and most seem to lack energy, initiative and enthusiasm. I think if this branch of local education is to be done properly, a different type of recruit must be obtained, submitted to modern training in educational methods, and gradually utilized to replace the old order as its members retire. I shall return to this subject later in connexion with University Training.

As Director of the Evening Institute, I have taken the opportunity recently of strengthening the Staff of the Vernacular Teachers' Classes. The changes were made in accordance with the advice of Mr. Y. P. Law, Inspector of Vernacular Schools, and Mr. Li King Hong, Headmaster of the Vernacular Normal and Middle School. The supervisor of these classes, Mr. Lo Yuk Lun, has recently resigned, his resignation has been accepted, and Mr. Y. P. Law, it is hoped, will succeed him as from the commencement of next term, i.e., October, 1938. Men and women in these classes are taught separately.

II.

ANGLO-CHINESE TEACHERS.

For

EVENING INSTITUTE.-I find myself able to speak with more authority regard- ing the training given to Anglo-Chinese Teachers in the Evening Institute. many years I was lecturer in these classes, and, on several occasions acted as examiner. These classes are "Mixed ". Burney (p. 23) states that arrangements for this type of training were "in the main satisfactory". I think there is great.

171

room for improvement, and since my appointment in January, 1936, as Acting Director of the Evening Institute, have had the question of suitable changes in view.

I append (A) a minute recording the recommendations of an informal meeting held on February 17th, 1938, and also (B) a new suggested syllabus revised in accordance with these recommendations. The approval of these suggestions by the Director of Education will be sought, with a view to their adoption after the summer vacation.

At present, students in these classes attend three evenings per week, twice for a session of two hours, from 5-7 p.m., and once for one hour. The former is devoted half to instruction in English Language and Literature, and half to instruc- tion in School Method; the single hour is utilized for Hygiene teaching by one of the Chinese Health Officers of Schools. The course consists of three years, each year being divided into two terms of about 14 weeks each. Only in exceptional circumstances, is a student permitted to attend the Second or Third Year until the previous examination has been passed. Success in the Third Year test requires a "Pass

in Practical Teaching. On the successful completion of the course a student becomes recognized as a "Passed Student Teacher" in terms of the Grant Code, 1924.

The Grant-in-Aid schools rely on these classes in a large measure to supply them with qualified staff. Under the present system these Student Teachers have to come to classes after a full day's teaching and in many cases after travelling a con- siderable distance and with no rest interval between the end of their teaching and the commencement of the lectures. Moreover it may be 7.30 p.m. or even later before many arrive back at their homes. I submit that under these conditions the students are mentally and physically too tired to take full advantage of the lectures.

The majority of these teachers have very few "free periods " in their schools. with the result that if they are to perform their duties efficiently, they have to do a large amount of preparation and correction outside of school hours. It is too much to expect teachers to attend lectures on 3 nights a week, read text-books, write essays and notes of lessons, etc., in addition to their other work.

Under this present system the lecturers also have previously done a full day's teaching and a further 2 hours of lecturing is an equally great strain on them.

It will thus be appreciated that the curriculum is neither taught nor studied as well as it should, and might be, in more favourable circumstances; and I feel that part-time teaching can be the only really satisfactory arrangement, if this inexpen- sive system of training teachers is to be continued.

The lecturers are usually members of the Government Education Department, and I consider that without undue dislocation of Staffing arrangements they might be released in order to lecture to these classes, say from 2.30 to 4.30 p.m. three or four afternoons per week during the Evening Institute session, i.e., for about 28 weeks per annum. Part of this time would be devoted to supervision of Practical Teaching, an essential part of the efficient Training of Teachers. It is not at present a part of the work of lecturers.

These suggestions, of course, would also entail a certain reduction of the hours of class teaching by the students; but I do not think we need fear any very strong opposition on the part of the Heads of Grant Schools, though, this might with. advantage be made a matter of inquiry before any new scheme was promulgated.

Briefly, the adoption of the revision of the Evening Institute Classes as outlined above would entail:-

(a) approximately half-time class-work by Students in Training,

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(b) the half-time seconding for a part of the year of a certain number of Government Masters or Mistresses as lecturers or Masters of Method for these classes,

(c) suitable arrangements for class-room accommodation for lectures, and (d) granting to lecturers the right of entry" to schools in order to

permit of the supervision of students while at work in their classes.

GRADUATES. The product of Hong Kong University varies as does that of any other Training Centre; but I think it is generally agreed that many local Graduates in Arts (Teaching) have proved themselves capable of teaching their own subjects in all classes of Hong Kong Primary and Secondary Schools.

Secondary Schools. Needless to say, a young Hong Kong Graduate Teacher requires assistance and advice; in the same way so does the young graduate in any other country and in any other profession. The charge has been levelled, and in some cases I think justifiably, that the standard of colloquial English of the University Trained Teacher is not as high as it should be. If this is so, and in a few cases I have found it to be so, then the fault lies with the University authorities who either accept immature material or allow the English of suitable matriculants to deteriorate.

I suggest that some distinction should be drawn between the training given to teachers who will be employed in Primary Schools and that given to those in training for posts in Secondary Schools. A degree should be insisted on for both; but the Primary Teacher should follow a course such as in British Universities would lead to an Ordinary Degree, and an Honours type of Degree should be required of those granted certification for teaching in Secondary Schools. The ordinary degree would embrace a greater variety of subjects; and the Honours or Secondary Teachers' Course require a lesser number but more intensive study in each. Alternatively or additionally there might be a differentiation in the Pro- fessional Training, i.e., in the selection of subjects in which instruction is given regarding "Methods of Teaching ".

Some years

I now wish to return to the subject of Vernacular Teachers. ago, a small committee of inquiry sat under Sir Wm. Brunyate, and, as a result, one or two Government Scholars were definitely ear-marked as prospective teachers of Chinese, though I think, not necessarily solely of Chinese. I suggest that this scheme be again considered by the Director of Education and the University, and that an Arts course for Teachers of Chinese should be instituted. Thus, and I think only thus, will a satisfactory type of Vernacular Teacher be produced. In this connexion I should point out that, in Government service, the maximum salaries are the same for University Trained Masters, Anglo-Chinese Masters and Vernacular Masters.

9

J. RALSTON, Inspector of English Schools. 7th April, 1938.

"A"

After the Results of the Annual Examination of the Evening Institute Teachers' Class (English) had been received by me from the examiner, Mr. Rowell, I con- vened an informal meeting for the consideration of these results and the Curriculum and Course of Study generally. This meeting was held on February 17th, 1938.

Messrs. Sollis, Ralston, Rowell, Wilson, Rees and Dyer were present, and the following recommendations were agreed upon unanimously :

173

1. The standard of admission, previously the Hong Kong University School Certificate Examination should be altered to the Hong Kong School Certificate Examination.

2. The Method Lecturer should be required and empowered to visit all students in their respective schools, observe them at work before classes, and render advice and help. Any Student Teacher in the First Year who evinced no signs of ever developing into a useful member of the profession should be advised to seek other occupation, and, in any case, refused permission to attend further E.I. Classes.

The co-operation of Heads of Schools should be solicited in this matter, and attention invited to the necessity of supervising Record Books and Notes of Lessons.

3. All or most of the lectures of these classes ought to be held in School Hours. To avoid undue depletion of Student Teacher Staff from schools, it would be advisable to hold lectures for only one Year" at any one time.

4. The Course of Lectures in Method and Class Management should be revised with a view to emphasizing the instruction in the Teaching of English as a foreign language. In this connexion the study of English Literature could be much reduced and the resultant available lecture time devoted to Speech Training, which would include the elementary principles of Phonetics.

5. The discussion in class of the General Principles underlying Educational Practice should follow, and not precede, instruction in the Methods of teaching various ordinary school subjects, viz., English, Arithmetic, Geography and History. The curriculum should be altered accordingly.

6. Model and Criticism Lessons should be held occasionally in all years, and more especially in the 3rd year. The annual examination in the latter should continue to embrace a test in Practical Teaching.

7. An Oral Test in English should be an essential part of the Annual Examina- tion in each year.

8. A revision of the Syllabus on the above lines should be drawn up by the Director on the basis of suggestions from the lecturers and brought into use next term, i.e., Autumn 1938.

J. RALSTON,

Director, Evening Institute. 11th March, 1938.

"B"

TEACHERS' CLASSES (ENGLISH).

These Classes are for both men and women Teachers. The Certificate granted at the end of the course is recognized by the Government, and the holder classified as "Passed Student Teacher'. Instruction is given in Oral English, English Language and Literature, Psychology, School Method and Hygiene.

Students may be admitted to these classes although not actually engaged in the Teaching Profession; but all entrants must have passed the Hong Kong School Certificate Examination, or an equivalent examination. No student may proceed to a Second or a Third Year Class until the previous examination has been passed, with the following exceptions

174

(a) Candidates who have passed the Intermediate Examination in Arts at the Hong Kong University, or an equivalent examination, may be exempted from the First Year Examination.

وو

(b) A University Graduate in Arts or Science may be recognized by the Education Department, Hong Kong, as "Passed Student Teacher after attending the Third Year Course in School Method, and passing the Examination in that subject, and also an Examination in Practical Teaching.

In all cases, before the Third Year Certificate is granted, the student must pass a test in Practical Teaching.

CURRICULUM.

FIRST YEAR.

School Method.

I. Preparation of lessons; Notes of Lessons.

II. The teaching of:

:-

(a) English as a foreign language,

(b) Arithmetic,

(c) History.

(d) Geography.

III. Criticism Lessons.

English Language and Literature.

I. Speech Training; Phonetics. II. Composition; Dictation.

III. Grammar; correction of errors. IV. Literature; Chaucer to Milton.

V. Debates.

Text Books:

Hygiene.

English for Chinese Students "Luard and Monks.

(South China Morning Post.)

Life in English Literature "-Redlich and Strong.

(Gollancz).

General structure of the body-positions of bones and organs.

Skeleton. Formation and growth of bone.

Muscles. Function and proper development.

Teeth. Structure and development. Care of the teeth.

The Circulatory System. Blood-heart and blood vessels-circulation-

lymphatic system.

The Respiratory System. Mechanism, cause and regulation of respiration.. Digestion. Foods. Elimination. Habit formation.

Controlling system. Brain, spinal cord and nerves. Reflex action.

Air and ventilation. Aids to natural ventilation.

Water. Sources and kinds. Water and Diseases.

175

SECOND YEAR.

School Method.

I. Delivery and Development of Lessons.

II. Discipline; Interest; Attention.

III.

Educational Reformers.

IV. Criticism Lessons.

English Language and Literature.

I. Speech Training.

II. Composition; Style; Figures of Speech; Idioms; Paraphrasing.

III.

IV.

Grammar.

Literature; Goldsmith to Browning.

V. Prosody.

VI. Debates.

Text Books:

Hygiene.

English for Chinese Students"-Luard and Monks.

(South China Morning Post).

"Life in English Literature "--Redlich and Strong. (Gollancz).

Food. Classes. Diseases and food. Defective Nutrition. School planning.

Site-types of building-classrooms-offices and lava-

tories-cloakrooms-furniture-cleaning-warming-lighting-spac·

ing playgrounds.

Structure and functions of skin.

Special senses. Structure and functions. Eye-defects of vision. Ear-

defective hearing. Detection and amelioration.

Taste, smell and touch.

Tonsils and adenoids.

School Method.

I. Principles of Education.

Muscular sense.

Detection and remedy.

THIRD YEAR.

II. Introductory Psychology; Memory; the Will. III. Modern Educational developments.

IV. Criticism Lessons.

English Language and Literature.

I. Speech Training; Reading; Recitation.

II. Composition; Paraphrasing; Précis Writing.

Grammatical errors and their correction.

III.

Hygiene.

Growth and development of child-time and rate. Exercises. Systems of drill. Posture.

Fatigue. Rest and sleep. Time table.

i

Communicable diseases-recognition and prevention. Epidemic diseases

in schools. Regulations.

Hygiene teaching in schools.

Physical and Mental defects. Recognition and educational treatment.

176

REPORT BY MR. G. R. SAYER.

I regret to find myself in a minority of one: but the reason is not far to seek. Unlike my fellow committeemen I am officially responsible for the arrangements which they seek so radically to improve upon. Nor does the repeated assurance

of our Chairman that, though officially detailed to attend, I do so as a private individual and not as Director of Education make it much easier for me to join them. The fact is that even in my private capacity I find it less easy than they to accept some of the arguments advanced in favour of change. For example when the Heads of the Grant Schools, in a memorandum accepted en bloc by my colleagues, base their recommendation for the engagement of a Chinese expert from China on the ground that "the teaching of Chinese in Hong Kong lags behind",-not the teaching of Chinese in China-but "the teaching of English in Hong Kong"; the argument does not impress me.

Nor do I regard as by any means conclusive the verdict of the Anglo-Chinese schools on the efficiency of the teaching in the primary vernacular. It is true it is based on the personal observation by experienced teachers of the intelligence of the children at the point of transfer to the English system: but it must be remembered that the "siu hok" does not profess to lead to the English system but to the chung hok"; moreover it cannot be assumed that the child who transfers to the English system is a typical product of the "ch'o siu": indeed the probability is that he is not.

66

Again I cannot follow Mr. Sloss when he urges the scrapping of our existing normal school for rural teachers and the substitution of a school on an African model. If I am correctly informed that the problem of the African teacher is how to handle a very primitive and uncultured people, it seems to me that the African model is highly unlikely to suit Hong Kong.

Moreover with the best will in the world I am unable to divest myself of official experience gained over three years and more as acting Director of Education.

That experience, while not I hope blinding me to our weaknesses, has given me a strong sense of the complexity of the problems; and the importance of accurate diagnosis.

In particular I have a firm conviction of the need for a carefully devised

economy.

Hard facts compel me to be satisfied with limited objectives and a gradual approach to their attainment.

As regards the existing training course for undergraduates at the University I was regretfully unable, on economic grounds, to support the proposal to extend it to five years. In my opinion 4 years should suffice to provide the material required.

For the same reason I suggested in committee that the Director's attention might be invited to the possibility of reducing the Vernacular Women's Normal Course from 4 years to 3.

On economic grounds too I had, before entering the Committee already decided on a limited programme of substitution of European Teachers by Anglo-Chinese in the Government Anglo-Chinese Schools.

To the proposal largely to increase the amount of money to be provided by Government for studentships at the University I subscribed, but only on the explicit understanding that I did so in a private and not an official capacity.

As regards the proposal to establish, under the joint control of the University and the Education Department, a training college for Anglo-Chinese teachers giving

177

a 2 years' course to matriculants, I lent it my support, subject to the express reservation that I could not foresee the closure of the Teachers' Classes at the Evening Institute. This I did because I identify not only Mr. Sloss, the mover, with the Vice-Chancellor of the University but Mr. Sollis, the seconder, with the chief adviser to the Director on English schools. Actually I apprehend that the Director may find that the idea of joint control presents considerable difficulties.

In the case of the Vernacular Normal Schools I found myself freer to express this view. The line of advance in my opinion is to staff all these schools, so soon as suitable material is available, with graduates of the Chinese Groups of the Hong Kong University (or some similar institution); but to leave their development in the hands of the Director and his vernacular advisers.

In this connexion it is worthy of note (and I invited my colleagues to note) that while we are by no means entirely dependent for trained Vernacular Teachers on our local training arrangements-these local arrangements do in fact provide amply for normal wastage in our urban subsidized schools, and already account for 40% of the total staff of these schools. Some 50% of these are the products of our normal schools and my suggestion to the Committee was that with a view to encouraging still more to take the normal course the Government should be asked to provide free books for all these normal classes.

G. R. SAYER. 17th May, 1938.

205

No.

11

1938.

HONG KONG.

UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG.

Despatch No. 514 of 27th June, 1938, to the Secretary of State for the Colonies.

PRINTED BY

NORONHA & CO., HONG KONG.

GOVERNMENT PRINTERS & PUBLISHERS.

No. 514.

207

GOVERNMENT HOUSE,

HONG KONG, 27th June, 1938.

SIR,

I have the honour to refer to correspondence on the subject of the report of the Hong Kong University (1937) Committee.

2. Full consideration was given to the report by the Governing Bodies of the University during the past winter. The important conclusions now reached as regards the Engineering Faculty, the Professorships of Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics, the Department of Education in the Faculty of Arts and the Medical Faculty, as also on general financial questions, are discussed in the following paragraphs. The decisions subsequently reached on the subject of the University's constitution will be reported to you in due course.

3. Meetings of the Senate, following meetings of Faculties, were held on February 3rd, February 24th, March 3rd, March 10th, March 17th, and April 7th, 1938, to consider the report of the University (1937) Committee. Before the Senate had completed its consideration of the report, the University Council by resolution of 11th February called on the Vice-Chancellor to give his views on the issues raised in the report. This he did in the form of motions for discussion by the Council. At meetings on April 8th, 25th and 29th the Council first considered the resolutions of the Senate and afterward the motions of which notice had been given by the Vice-Chancellor. Where the resolutions of the Senate and the motions of the Vice-Chancellor touched the same issues, and advocated change in the existing organizations or arrangement, they were deferred and considered together. All the remaining resolutions of the Senate were considered, but the Council took no action upon those that were in the nature of replies to comments by the Committee beyond forwarding them to the University Court.

No. 1.

4. The Court met on May 23rd, 1938, under the chairmanship of myself as Chancellor a copy of the relevant portion of the minutes of the meeting is Enclosure attached. The agenda consisted of the resolutions of the Council, that is to say. of the motions proposed in the Council by the Vice-Chancellor as they were passed, sometimes with amendments by the Council. Ten days before the meeting of the Court a printed paper was sent to all members of the Court which gave in parallel

columns-

(a) extracts from the report which were the matter of resolutions passed

by the Senate or the Council.

(b) resolutions of the Senate and resolutions of Faculties endorsed by the

Senate.

(c) resolutions of the Council.

No. 2.

5. A copy of this printed paper is the second enclosure of this despatch. Enclosure Members of the Court were asked to inform the Registrar of their intention to move amendments to the Council's resolutions which were the agenda of the Court meet- ing, and in the same notice attention was called to the resolutions of the Faculties and Senate. Notice of two amendments was received; the one given by Mr. S. Caine, the Financial Secretary, deferring to a committee of the Court to be appointed by the Chancellor all proposals relating to modifications of the machinery of the

The Right Honourable

MALCOLM MACDONALD, M.P.,

&c., &c., &c.

1

1

Enclosure No. 3.

208

University management; further mention of this occurs in paragraph S, infra. The other, afterwards withdrawn, was moved by the Bishop of Hong Kong. No notice of motions arising directly out of the resolutions of the Faculties and Senate was received.

6. In the few cases in which any members of the Court dissented from a ⚫ resolution of the Council, the fact is recorded in the minutes. The resolutions passed by the Court are shown in the minutes and these, read in conjunction with the resolutions of the Senate and Council shown in parallel columns against the paragraph of the report to which they refer and with the memorandum on the proceedings of the Court meeting, give in detail the judgment of the various University bodies on the issues raised in the report.

*

7. The resolutions of the Court, which is the " supreme governing body" of the University, may, for convenience of comment, be grouped together. Resolu- tion XXIV in the minutes shows that, with the acquiescence of the University Council, various proposals intended to simplify the conduct of University business by a closer co-ordination of University authorities and by the establishment of small executive bodies functioning, in the one case, by the authority of the Court and, in the other, by the authority of the Senate, were referred through an amendment of the Council's original resolution, to a committee, to be nominated by the Chan- cellor, for further consideration and for the preparation of such draft amendments of the University Ordinance as might be found necessary. The committee should be able to report to the Court at a meeting to be held early in the academic year commencing in September next. A copy of its report will be sent to you as soon as circumstance allows.

8. Resolution X approves the proposal for the time being to eliminate specialized training in mechanical and electrical engineering. These subjects will still continue to be taught to the necessary standard in the course for the degree of B.Sc. in engineering (civil). The summary statement of the progress of teaching in the three branches of engineering since the institution of the University given as enclosure No. 3 of this despatch shows the major reason for this change. A subsidiary reason is that it has been found impossible to organize adequate appren- ticeship in industrial engineering in Hong Kong, so that, after graduation, the best men have had to be assisted to apprenticeships, chiefly in Great Britain. The Council and the Court accepted the view that an adequate supply of industrial engineers could be maintained if the University of Hong Kong were able to give scholarships to assist students who had shown definite merit in the intermediate examination in engineering, to be held hereafter in Hong Kong by the University of London. The purpose of such scholarships would be to enable the holders to complete their education in industrial engineering in England where facilities for adequate appren- tice-training are ample.

9. Resolution XIX, dealing with paragraph 63 of the report, gives the Court's approval of the Council's resolution that the Professorships of Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics should be reduced to lectureships or readerships unless the financial condition of the University improves or unless the work done in these departments of the University develops. The discussion in the Council centred in the second condition and in effect ignored the condition as to finance. These departments at present and in the past have done almost no work except such as is preliminary to medical and engineering studies. At rare intervals there have been one or two students for a three year course in these subjects and at even rarer intervals has there been a student for a fourth year course. Not one of these departments can show any record of original work in fact they have been and are little more than school departments doing school work.

209

10. The proposal that they should, if these conditions persist, cease to be treated as University departments should be considered in conjunction with two other resolutions of the Court. The first, in resolution XX of the minutes, wel- comes the appointment by the Governor of a committee to make proposals for the improvement of the training of teachers in the Colony. This Commitee has already recommended a complete reorganization of the University teachers' training course and copies of its report will be sent to you shortly. Hereafter professional and technical studies in education will be subject for a post graduate University diploma. The proposed changes have already been approved by the Senate and Council of the University, and if they are put into operation undergraduates will be able to com- plete the prescribed four-year courses in chemistry, physics, mathematics and other subjects and will no longer have to give up the work of the final years in these subjects in order to devote themselves to the study of the theory and practice of education.

11. A second proposal that bears upon these contingent proposals affecting chemistry, physics and mathematics is in resolution XXIV (d) (1). It was felt that to end the grouping of the sciences in an Arts Faculty, to develop a separate Faculty of engineering and science and to institute a degree in science might stimulate the study of the sciences. This change in the grouping of studies also provides an adequate framework within which can be organized the more restricted engineering teaching proposed for the immediate future.

12. Certain of the resolutions of the Court will affect the financial position of the University-

(i) Resolution V, when implemented, will mean that for the safeguarding of its capital endowment the University hereafter must be content with a less rate of interest than that which it obtained on mortgage loans in more favoured days.

(ii) Resolution VII dissents from the University (1937) Committee's recom-

mendation that house allowances should be reduced.

(iii) Resolution VIII proposes new expenditure on the building of staff residences, but this should produce an annual saving on house allow- ances of nearly $7,500 after all interest charges have been met.

(iv) Resolution XXI proposes a reduced rate of salaries for professors, readers and lecturers but joins, thereto a proposal for improved Provident Fund provision for members of the University staff recruited in Great Britain. The comparison inevitably was made of the value of pensions of Government servants in positions of like responsibility with professors and lecturers of the University, and a strong case was made for the improvement of the conditions on which University men could retire. The like considerations governed the attitude of the Council when the question of a restoration of the 10% salary cut that still is in force was debated. The feeling of the Council, endorsed unanimously by the Court, was that the restoration of the cut should be made by means of a more liberal University contribution to the Provident Fund account of its European officers.

(v) In resolution XXIV (a) the Court resolved that the administrative costs of the University might be reduced by a modification of the present arrangement, whereby administration is in the hands of a full- time Vice-Chancellor and a Registrar paid on the scale of pay approved for a professor of the University.

(vi) Resolution XII (ii) advocates the establishment of an Institute of Pre- ventive Medicine to remedy the most conspicuous weakness of the

210

medical teaching of the University. So far no detailed estimate of the cost of the Institute has been made, but manifestly the project will involve substantial capital expenditure and substantial recurring charges.

13. Resolutions XIII and XIV outline the views of the University on the relations that should exist between the Civil Medical Department of Government and the University.

Resolution XV indicates how the University proposes to deal with the consulting practice allowed to clinical professors, a fruitful source of local discontents hitherto.

Resolutions XVI and XVII indicate means whereby the University and the Government Education Department might work together with common advantage.

14. Paragraph 89 of the University (1937) Committee's report referred to conditions on which study leave had been given. This matter was dealt with separately at a Council meeting held on February 11th, 1938, when short rules governing the grant of study leave were approved.

15. Two related matters arising out of the report were considered and the judgments of the Council and the Court are contained in resolutions XXIV and XXVI. In the first it was resolved that it was unnecessary to attempt a definition of the powers of the Vice-Chancellor, in the second, that it was unnecessary to restrict the freedom of the Senate to discuss matters touching the interest of the University. These resolutions arose out of the comments in the report on the state of discipline in the University. Another resolution arising out of the same series of considerations is in resolution XXVII which lays down the constitution of the committee that hereafter will deal with complaints of breaches of discipline levelled at senior members of the University staff. The purpose of this resolution was to change a procedure whereby, at present, disciplinary charges can be discussed in a mixed assembly, the Court, consisting of nearly seventy members.

16. Attention may perhaps be called to resolution XVIII. This arises in part from a belief accepted by the Council and the Court that hitherto the University has tended excessively to stress the practical and technological quality of its course and has failed sufficiently to emphasize the value of a University as an instrument of civilization in a commercial community. The Vice-Chancellor has on several occa- sions addressed the members of the Court on this and on cognate matters.

17. The remaining resolutions of the Council and the Court are self- explanatory.

}

18. No specific reference is made in the Court Minutes to certain important matters of the University (1937) Committee's report, but generally the reason for the omissions are clear. For instance paragraph 64 of the report comments on the organization of the Department of Education within the Faculty of Arts and recom- mends the abolition of the Professorship of Education. Both in the University and outside there has long been dissatisfaction with the work done by the University in the training of teachers. For this reason, in my speech of Congregation on January 7th, 1938, I announced my intention to appoint the committee to which reference is made in an earlier paragraph of this despatch. As the University was adequately represented on this Committee and as the Committee was to report directly to the Governor, I understand that the Council was content to abstain from passing any resolution on this issue. The Committee, as has been already stated, did not accept the conclusion of the University Committee (1937) Report but, on the contrary, has advocated a wide extension of the training of teachers for Anglo-Chinese and Chinese schools in which, it is contended, co-operation between the University and the Government Education Department will increase the responsibility and the volume of work to be done by the University Department of Education.

CC

211

19. I invite particular attention to the Court's resolution No. III. This resolution was moved in the Council by the Honourable Mr. M. K. Lo and was passed unanimously. The Council and the Court deliberately abstained from express- ing opinions on any resolution of the Senate which did not call for specific action by the Council or the Court. In effect, this meant that the Council gave its atten- tion in the main to the Senate's resolutions calling for action and these resolutions were taken in conjunction with motions proposed by the Vice-Chancellor which in almost every case dealt with the same issues. The chief exception to this is in the resolution now under consideration in which the Council (a) repudiated criticism of committee's procedure made by the Senate and (b) asserted its view that com- ments interpreted as derogatory of the professional status" of members of the University staff had been read in a sense not intended by the committee. The members of the committee, who were all present at the Council meeting, supported this motion which was accepted on behalf of his colleagues by Professor Ride, Dean of the Faculty of Medicine. The resolution has had the effect of removing the sense of grievance under which a number of the members of the staff have suffered. It is significant that, at the Court meeting, dissent from the resolutions of the Council was expressed by only a minority of the senior members of the University staff. The same group dissented from the proposal to limit the area of engineering teaching and from the contingent proposal touching the future of the Departments of Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics. Among the rest, I gather, the resentments expressed against the report when it was first published are no longer heard, and in general the senior members of the staff with four exceptions have actively supported the proposed changes. This disregards the opinion of two men absent on leave, one of whom would have supported, the other probably would have opposed.

20. It may, I think, be safely claimed that the reforms advocated by the Court, which are derived almost entirely from the able and penetrating report of Mr. N. L. Smith's Committee (1937), go far towards the right adjustment of the University's aims and methods. Interdependent as many of them are, I trust that they will succeed in obtaining your complete concurrence.

21. I am aware of the suggestions which were made in 1937 that an indepen- dent academic commission should be invited to study the problems now in question. Sir Andrew Caldecott in his Congregational Address of 4th of January, 1937, men- tioned such a possibility and the Questions and Answers in Parliament on the date 26th of May, 1937, which accompanied your note of 3rd of June, 1937, were also concerned with this.

I have no hesitation in advising you that the conclusions now reported render it unnecessary for such a proposal to be further considered at the present time and I trust that that view will have your concurrence.

22. I should take this opportunity of paying a tribute to Mr. D. J Sloss who from the moment of his arrival as Vice-Chancellor at the very end of October, 1937, has worked whole-heartedly towards finding solutions for the many and difficult problems which the Report in question raised. That a conclusion should have been reached on the various issues raised which is practically unanimous is due very largely to his energy, tact and personality.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your most obedient, humble servant,

G. A. S. NORTHCOTE, Governor.

212

Enclosure No. 1.

University of Hong Kong.

Minutes of the 51st meeting of the Court of the University of Hong Kong held on Monday, May 23rd, 1938, at 5.30 p.m. in the Fung Ping Shan Library.

Present-H.E. Sir Geoffry Northcote, K.C.M.G.

Mr. D. J. Sloss, C.B.E.

Mr. G. S. Archbutt.

Dr. G. D. R. Black, O.B.E.

Hon. Mr. S. Caine.

Mr. P. S. Cassidy.

Hon. Mr. Chau Tsun Nin, C.B.E.

Hon. Sir Shouson Chow, Kt., LL.D.

Mr. E. Cock, M.B.E.

Hon. Mr. Leo D'Almada e Castro, Jr.

Hon. Mr. S. H. Dodwell.

Lieut.-Colonel H. B. L. Dowbiggin, O.B.E.

Mr. D. Drummond.

Mr. D. C. Edmondston.

Mr. Eu Tong Sen, O.B.E.

Hon. Mr. J. A. Fraser, M.C.

Mr. Fung Kung On.

Hon. Mr. R. M. Henderson.

Mr. Ho Kom Tong, O.B.E.

Mr. Kan Tong Po.

Hon. Mr. T. H. King.

Hon. Dr. R. H. Kotewall, C.M.G., LL.D.

Mr. Li Jowson.

Mr. Li Tse Fong.

Mr. W. H. Lock.

H.H. Sir A. D. A. MacGregor, Kt.

Mr. G. P. de Martin, M.B.E.

Mr. Mok Kon Sang.

Mr. A. Morse.

Hon. Mr. R. A. C. North,

Mr. T. E. Pearce.

Hon. Sir H. E. Pollock, Kt., K.C., LL.D.

Mr. F. J. de Rome, M.B.E.

Mr. J. H. Ross.

Mr. G. R. Sayer.

Hon. Dr. P. S. Selwyn-Clarke, M.C.

Hon. Mr. N. L. Smith, C.M.G.

Mr. Sum Pak Ming.

Mr. M. P. Talati.

Mr. Tang Shiu Kin, M.B.E.

Dr. Ts'o Seen Wan, C.B.E., LL.D.

Rt. Rev. Bishop Henry Valtorta. Rt. Rev. Bishop R. O. Hall.

Mr. B. Wong Tape. Professor W. Brown.

Professor L. J. Davis.

213

Professor K. H. Digby.

Professor W. Faid.

Professor W. I. Gerrard, O.B.E.

Professor Hsu Ti Shan.

Professor L. T. Ride.

Professor L. R. Shore, M.C.

Professor R. K. M. Simpson, M.C. Professor C. A. Middleton Smith.

Mr. S. V. Boxer (Acting Registrar).

The following Members of the Court were unable to attend the meeting:

H.E. Major-General A. W. Bartholomew, C.B., C.M.G., C.B.E.,

D.S.O.

Sir Robert Ho Tung, Kt.

Hon. Dr. Li Shu Fan.

Mr. M. H. Turner.

1. The Minutes of the 50th Meeting of the Court, held on 21st April, 1958, having been approved in circulation, were adopted.

2. The Court first considered resolutions of the Council regarding six resolu- tions passed by the Senate dealing with the University (1937) Committee's Report generally.

I. Senate Resolu- tion No. 1.

II. Senate Resolu- tion No. 2.

III. Senate Resolu- tion No. 3.

Resolved that the reprinting of the University Blue Book of 1912 was not necessary as there was already a copy in the Library.

Resolved that no immediate action was considered

necessary.

Endorsed the opinion of the Council expressed in the following resolution of the Council; that, whilst desiring generally to abstain from expressing any views on the Report of the Committee published in March, 1937, and the Resolutions of the Senate thereon which do not call for definite action on part of the University,

the

(a) This Council wishes to dissociate itself from the expressions of regret as set out in the Senate's Resolution No. 3 with regard to the procedure as to the publication of the Com- mittee's findings; and

(b) With reference to paragraph 73 of the Committee's Report and the Senate's Resolution thereon, whilst this Council agrees that the wording of the second part of the paragraph, taken by itself and not in conjunc- tion with the preceding two paragraphs of the Report, might convey an impression derogatory to the professional status of the Professors of

IV. Senate Resolu-

tion Nos. 4

to 6.

V. Paragraph 12.

VI. Paragraph 14.

VII. Paragraph 16.

VIII. Paragraph 17.

IX. Paragraph 18.

X. Paragraph 25.

214

L

the University, this Council is satisfied that such an impression was utterly unintended by the Committee.

Resolved that no action was necessary.

The Court proceeded to consider, section by section, the resolutions of the Council on certain paragraphs of the University (1937) Committee's Report.

Resolved (nem. con) that the investment of University funds in mortgages in Hong Kong and in Shanghai is not satisfactory.

Resolved (nem. con) that Budget provision as a reserve against depreciation charges is necessary and should be a first charge on any surplus of income over expenditure.

Resolved (nem. con) that the present scale of house

allowance paid to men living off the University, estate is not too high in comparison with the cost of provision made for men living in University houses and that house rent allowances should be paid as subventions towards actual rent paid, but only to the maxima of the present house allowance scale.

(1) Resolved (nem. con) that the Finance Committee be asked forthwith to consider from the financial point of view the project of building four to six flats on the University estate for bachelors or younger married lecturers or professors.

(2) Resolved (nem. con) also that the commitments entered into by members of the staff who have had to seek accommodation outside should be given sympathetic consideration if, and when, increased housing accommodation in the University grounds becomes available.

?

Resolved (nem. con) that the sterling superannuation fund be maintained as a separate account and the capital sum be invested in British Government securities, the present guarantees of the Provident Fund being maintained.

Resolved by a majority vote that the teaching of Engineering in the University be reorganized on the following basis :-

(a) When the posts of Professor of Elec- trical Engineering and Professor of Mechanical Engineering fall vacant they should be held in abeyance;

(b) In Engineering the University should for the present confine itself to teaching and examining, in its fourth year courses, for a degree in Civil Engineering;

XI. Paragraph 29.

XII. Paragraph 42.

XIII. Paragraph 47.

215

(c) Arrangements should be made with the University of London for the holding in Hong Kong of an Intermediate Examination in Engineering to be taken by students who wish to become Electrical and Mechanical Engineers; and

(d) The University should contribute in the form of scholarships to be awarded to students from China to assist such students to- wards completing in London degree courses in Electrical and Mechanical Engineering after passing the Intermediate Examination in Hong Kong, and should endeavour to interest the Federation of British Industries China Com- mittee in this scholarship scheme and secure a contribution from them towards the training and apprenticeship of such students;

Provided that the elimination of the specialized courses in Mechanical and Electrical Engineering proposed under paragraph (b) should be contingent on the implementing para- graphs (c) and (d) and that the University should now recognize that specialized courses in Mechanical and Electrical Engineering may be justified at a time when Chinese industry is more developed (See paragraph 37).

Professor C. A. Middleton Smith spoke against and the

Více-Chancellor in support of the motion.

Resolved (nem. con) that the Court gratefully acknow-

ledges the assistance given by the Public Works Department of the Colony in the matter of post- graduate apprenticeships, and that Government be asked to institute a cadre of locally appointed assist- ant Engineers to be recruited in the main from the Graduates of Hong Kong University by selection after a period of apprenticeship in the Public Works Department.

Resolved (nem con)

(i) that difficulties with regard to the employ- ment of doctors trained in the University can best be met by the institution of a scholarship scheme whereby more students are attracted from China and after graduation, are induced to return there; and

(ii) that a Department of Preventive Medicine should be instituted in the University, and that one of its important functions should be social hygiene propaganda.

Resolved (nem. con) that the Court is of opinion that the present relations existing between the Clinical Pro- fessors and the Government Medical Service are satisfactory and that the system whereby the Clinical

XIV. Paragraph 51.

XV. Paragraph 52.

216

Professors are in the service of the University and not in Government Services should be maintained, but that this opinion does not necessarily extend to all non-Clinical professorships.

It was decided to place on record a proposal made by Professor Ride and supported by the Hon. Dr. Selwyn-Clarke that the above resolution should not be held to preclude the re-opening of the matter should circumstances change at any future date.

Resolved (nem. con)

(a) that the Court is of opinion that more effective use of existing facilities could be made if the staffs of the University Department of Pathology and the Government Bacteriological Institute were organized to work in co-operation;

(b) that the Court is of opinion that it would be economical and advantageous if the Biology Department of the University and the Government Botanical and Forestry Department were organized to work in co-operation;

(c) that the Court is of opinion that if Govern- ment should decide at any time to establish a De- partment of Zoology, it would be in the interests of all concerned if arrangements could be made with Government for the head of such department to be employed to teach Zoology at the University.

The Court approved of the following action taken by the

Council.

The Council gave authority to notify the vacancy of the post of Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology on the terms as to salary and consulting practice stated below.

The basic salary shall be £1,000—25-£1,250; and the Professor shall be entitled to receive an honorarium of $500 per month from Government, and in addi- tion receive an honorarium of $500 per month from the University; and all consulting fees shall be payable to the University.

The Council further agreed to the following terms under which the new Professor of Obstetrics and Gynae- cology may be permitted to undertake consultative work.

(1) The Clinical Professor shall be allowed to act as Consultant to Government and to His Majesty's Forces in Hong Kong.

(2) The Professor shall be permitted at the request of a duly registered practitioner to give his opinion as to diagnosis and advice as to treatment of cases.

XVI. Paragraph 56.

XVII. Paragraph 57.

217

(3) The Professor shall be permitted to carry out the treatment of a patient concerning whom he has been consulted by a private prac- titioner,

(a) if so requested by the attending practitioner, in which case the Professor shall be entitled to state the conditions under which he is willing to undertake such treatment;

(For the purposes of this rule, the word "conditions" is taken to include choice of hospital, anaesthetics and assist- ants, control of after treatment, etc.);

(b) at the request of the patient or those responsible for the patient, in the event of a disagreement between the attending practitioner and the consultant concerning the treatment. In this case the fact of such disagreement shall be com- municated to the patient in accordance with the British Medical Association, rules on "Etiquette of Consultation."

(4) It shall be the duty of the Professor to arrange his consulting work so that it does not interfere with his academic duties.

Resolved (nem. con) that closer liaison between the University and the Government Education Depart- ment can best be achieved by closer co-operation in the training of graduates and undergraduate teach- ers in a common institution whereby the teaching resources of the University may be used to a fuller degree than at present and Departmental schools much more fully used for demonstration lessons and for the training of graduate and undergraduate students in the art of teaching.

Resolved (nem. con) that in pursuance of the power of the University under paragraph 7 of Section 4 of the University Ordinance-

(a) at the request of the Education Depart- ment the University should arrange for co- operation with Officers of the Education Depart- ment in the inspection of the schools of the Colony from which alone candidates would be admitted to the University Matriculation Examination.

(b) at the request of the Education Depart- ment the University should give facilities to its Professors and Lecturers to inspect and report on the teaching of particular subjects in the schools of the Colony.

XVIII. Paragraph 61.

XIX. Paragraph 63.

XX. Paragraph 64.

XXI. Paragraph 69,

218

Resolved (nem. con)

(1) that the Court is of opinion that the degree courses in Science or Arts subjects based on a conception of general education as well as courses leading to professions are an essential need in this University.

(2) that the development of good schools of English and Chinese in this University is an essential need.

(3) that a school of Economics and Politics based upon the teaching of History and the study of working Political Institutions of the West and East is an essential need, and that, if necessary, provision for such teaching should be made at the expense of the present courses in Commercial Law and Jurisprudence at any rate until such time as there is a demand for courses in Law leading to a Law Degree.

It was recorded that this decision should be subject to the provision that it would not be put into operation to the prejudice of students who were already taking the course.

Resolved by a majority vote that unless the financial con- dition of the University has improved or unless there is a development of advanced work in these depart- ments, the Professorships of Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics when they fall vacant, be suspended and that there be substituted for them Lectureships or Readerships as the circumstances in each case may dictate.

Resolved (nem. con)

(1) that the Court is aware that present provi- sion for the training of teachers by the University is unsatisfactory in that there is not sufficient time allowed in the present organization of the course for adequate training of either theory or practice of teaching.

(2) that the Court welcomes the appointment by His Excellency the Governor of a Committee to make proposals for the better recruitment of teach- ers and for the training of teachers for work in the Colony.

Resolved (nem. con) that the Court would favour an experiment towards recruiting professors and lectur- ers for appointments hereafter to be filled on the following scale :

Professors

Readers

Lecturers

£1,000-25-£1,250

700-25— 1,000

550-25- 850

XXII. Paragraph 74.

XXIII. Paragraph 77.

XXIV. Paragraph 79.

219

Junior Lecturer in Eng-

lish (three year

appointments)

£500-20-£ 540

provided that the Provident Fund provision be 'amended so that a man recruited at about 30 to a professorship might retire at the age of 55 with a sum of not less than £10,000 to his credit in the Provident Fund.

Resolved (nem. con)

(a) that the Court considers it desirable to re- store, as soon as financial circumstances permit, the equivalent of the Gollan scale of salaries to those members of the staff who are entitled to that scale, and that the Finance Committee be asked to consider the possibility of effecting this by a revision of the terms of the Provident Fund:

(b) that the attempt to apply differential scales of pay when recruitment is made by a Committee in London acting as advisers to the University would still further narrow the already restricted area of recruitment.

Resolved (nem. con) that contracts for all men appointed hereafter provide that the normal retiring age of lecturers and professors be 55 and that extension from year to year up to the age of 60 be permitted only if the University desires to retain the services of a lecturer or professor, on condition that the proviso to the proposal under Report paragraph 69 is accepted.

Resolved (nem. con)

(a) that the Court is of opinion that in normal times the cost of administration through a full-time Vice-Chancellor and a Registrar paid on the scale of a professor is high.

The Court considered the following resolution of the Council:-

(b) that the present constitution of the Univer- sity is cumbrous (Para. 79 of Report) is a matter of common experience and that the following modi- fications of the constitution of the University would make for simpler working:

(i) that the present Council of the University be abolished and that there be substituted a smaller body, an Executive Committee of the Court to consist of not more than 11 members which should have statutory powers to carry out the functions at pre- sent under the Ordinance assigned to the Council.

220

(ii) that the Executive Committee of the Court consist of 6 members of the Court who are not full-time officers of the University but including the Treasurer who would be a member ex officio, and at least two of whom shall be of Chinese race, one to be selected from the Chinese members of the Legislative and Executive Councils, to- gether with 5 full-time officers of the Uni- versity including the Vice-Chancellor and the Deans of Faculties who would be members of the Executive Committee ex officio: the Executive Committee to be appointed as to members other than mem- bers ex officio, by the Chancellor ;

(iii) that if the above changes are made, the powers of control of the Senate be limited to purely academic matters and that para- graph 8 of Statute to be amended to read to make representations to the Court through the Executive Committee on any matter relating to the University ".

C

(c)--(i) that there be a Standing Committee of the Senate which shall consist of the Vice-Chan- cellor, the Dean of each Faculty and one other member from each Faculty to be elected for one year by the Senate :

(ii) that the Standing Committee be the execu- tive of the Senate and meet at least once a month during term time-

(1) to consider all business to be placed before the Senate and to make recommendations thereon;

to take such action in accordance with the Regulations as may be necessary to carry out the general instructions of the Senate; (3) to receive reports and decisions of the

Matriculation Board and to act on them;

(4) to conduct all routine business of the

Senate;

(iii) that the meetings of the Senate be held twice a year in October and in March and at such other time as may be found necessary.

2

The Hon. Mr. S. Caine moved the following amendment, which was carried nem. con: that matters covered in the University Council's resolu- tion (b) and (c) on paragraph 79 of the Univer- sity (1937) Committee's Report (pp. 22-24) be referred for further consideration to a committee to be nominated from among the members of this Court by the Chancellor that the recommendations of that committee accompanied by drafts of any

:

+

፡፡

1=

XXV. Paragraph 80.

XXVI. Paragraph 81.

XXVII. Paragraph 82.

XXVIII. Paragraph 84.

XXIX. Paragraph 86.

221

amendments of the University Ordinance which might be involved, be reported to this Court at a date early in the University Session 1938-39.

The Treasurer spoke strongly in support of the reorganization of the Council as an Executive Com- mittee of the Court.

The Court further resolved, by a majority vote.

(d)(i) that the present Faculty of Arts be divided the present Departments of English, Chinese, Economics and Political Science, Mathe- matics, Education and History to constitute the Faculty of Arts, and the Departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Mathematics and Civil Engineer- ing to constitute the Faculty of Engineering and Science.

(ii) that the separate Faculty of Engineering cease to exist and provision be made for a degree of B.Sc. in addition to the present B.Sc. in Engineer- ing.

Resolved (nem. con) that the Court is of opinion that it is unnecessary to attempt a definition of the powers of the Vice-Chancellor.

Resolved (nem. con) that the Court is of opinion that the elimination of Section 8 of Statute 10 would be contrary to the spirit of British University organization.

Resolved (nem. con) that complaints of serious breach of discipline charged against senior members of the staff should be investigated by a Committee of the Court appointed ad hoc by the Chancellor to consist of the Vice-Chancellor, a senior member of the University staff who is a member of the Council or Executive Committees, and one non-academic mem- ber of the Council or Executive Committees, the proceedings and decision of the Committee to be subject to review, and confirmation by the Chan- cellor.

Resolved (nem. con) that the Court is of opinion that Deans should, as at present, be elected by Faculties, but for a period ordinarily of three years from the beginning of the University session, and with provi- sion for eligibil