Sessional Papers - 1935

SESSIONAL PAPERS LAID BEFORE THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL OF HONG KONG 1935

Table of Contents

1. Co-Operative System in Hong Kong

Report on the Possibilities of a

2. Economic Commission

Report of the

3. Estimates of Expenditure

Abstract Showing the Differences Between the approved Estimates of Expenditure for 1935 and the Estimates of Expenditure for 1936

4. Jurors

List for 1935

5. Lepers

Report of the Committee on

6. Mui Tsai in Hong Kong

Report of the Committee

7. Shing Mun Valley Waterworks Scheme

Report on the Construction of the First Section of the

8. Tourist Traffic in Hong Kong

Report of the Committee to Consider the formation of a Travel association and to Make Recommendations for the Development of the

 

139

HONG KONG.

No. 1905

5

REPORT ON THE POSSIBILITIES OF A CO-OPERATIVE SYSTEM IN HONG KONG.

Various aspects of the economic life of this Colony have come under review in recent years. In 1930 there was a committee on currency, in 1934 on marketing, again in 1934 on the limited question of pigs and poultry and in 1935 the committee on the trade depression; all this I have studied, but the limited time at my disposal has not allowed me to consult officials and non-officials as freely as I should have wished. I was invited, while I was on a visit to China, to make suggestions to this Colony on the particular question of pigs and poultry, but since, in any case, a fully trained officer is necessary before any co-operative system, however limited, can be started, I am extending my proposals to the whole co-operative field. It will be open to Government in practice to limit their own activities as they think best. Though I have been in Hong Kong during the whole month of June, it has only been possible to devote a few days to the subject on which I was invited to advise.

A co-operative system should be (i) both urban and rural, (ii) concerned with both direct and indirect economic benefits and (iii) supported by unofficial interest as well as official strength. It is for this reason that I am discussing a number of other subjects in addition to pigs and poultry.

Four main considerations should be borne in mind.

1. The co-operative idea, even in its modern sense, is not new to the Chinese. I am not referring to the old clan system, which may nevertheless provide a back- ground of sympathy for co-operative societies, nor to the old-established Wui or money club, whereby a number of persons contribute in successive months a sum of money which is taken by each of them in turn. It has even been recommended that co-operative societies should be based on a reformed Wui. I believe this to be impossible and the Wui to be incapable of reform. I can only hope for its gradual extinction as new forms of simple credit are made available to the people. It is rather of the new co-operative system in China that I am thinking, where at the end of 1934 about 15,000 societies of different types, chiefly for the purpose of credit and chiefly rural, were already in existence. The movement was started by the central and provincial governments of China, and receives financial aid from the Chinese commercial banks. The attitude of the Chinese farmer and the Chinese townsman towards co-operative societies shows that he is one of the most highly qualified persons for co-operative work whom I have ever seen. There need be no anxiety in Hong Kong as to the success of a rural and an urban co-operative move- ment under the right guidance. On the assumption that over 80% of the Hong Kong population is urban and even though a large portion of this consists of floating individuals, there is still a large permanent population in the towns to which help in various forms of social organization should be given. The Chinese of British Malaya have joined in the Urban Thrift and Loan Societies. Jewish residents in Palestine are creating societies for industrial production. Co-operative housing societies in Bombay and Madras are flourishing and multiplying, while the Chinese towns are full of consumers' co-operative stores, good and bad, all of which tend to show the capacity of the Chinese to grasp the co-operative idea.

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2. The co-operative system amongst a highly illiterate population can only do substantial good if it is guided by a person, official or non-official, who has been fully trained in the principles and practice of Co-operation, and has studied them in other countries. This Government will, I think, prefer to train one of its own officers. In this case he should receive approximately six months training by means of a visit to (say) England, Belgium, Italy, Yugo Slavia, Palestine, certain parts of India, Ceylon, Malaya, Japan and certain parts of China. I believe that this can be done during six months. Denmark and similar advanced countries should be avoided since their lessons are not relevant to such a territory as Hong Kong. If it should be decided to encourage a non-official European worker instead of or in addition to a Cadet, I recommend that this be done by a grant made to one or more non-official organizations under suitable leadership. The Agricultural Association in the New Territories might serve as the agent for the rural areas, but a new association will have to be created for Victoria and Kowloon. Under the Registrar of Co-operative Societies there will in any case be required a "co-operative organizer" at perhaps $50 per month, who will do the routine work for which the highly trained co-operative officer will not be needed. The duties of the Registrar will be (i) to carry out his functions under the co-operative law as described below; (ii) to assist in the organization and the subsequent education of the members of the societies. It should be borne in mind that Co-operation is not philanthropic, i.e. the members must be continuously taught by the Registrar and the non-official organiza- tions which are promoting the movement to do as much as possible for themselves, and to learn as quickly as possible to stand on their own feet. (iii) A system of finance must be arranged for the societies, especially in the rural areas and especially in the earliest years. As indicated above, the members should be taught to do as much as possible for themselves. They should for perhaps ten years pay up small annual instalments of share money, and also make small monthly savings in their own societies. At the end of ten years the majority of societies ought to be in- dependent of outside help. In the meantime, I recommend that a certain sum, e.g. $5,000 be placed at the disposal of a semi-official Co-operative Loan Board. The members might be the Colonial Treasurer, the Registrar and two non-officials chosen from the rural and urban bodies which are promoting the movement. This Board would make advances, usually on the recommendation of the Registrar, to all rural societies with the conduct of which the Registrar was satisfied, and also in exceptional cases to urban societies; but, for the most part, urban societies should be expected either to build up their own capital or to obtain it on commercial terms from a com- mercial bank. It may be hoped that after a few years the rural societies also will be able, as in China, to obtain loans from the commercial banks instead of the Government, but this will perhaps not be practicable in the very beginning. (iv) A special ordinance covering the registration and working of co-operative societies should be passed. I have not been able to draft such an ordinance or the regulations for carrying it out during my short stay in the Colony, but I expect to be able to do so within one month and to submit it for the consideration of the Hong Kong Govern- ment. The principal duties of the Registrar under the Ordinance will be (i) to register as a society any group of persons whom he considers suitable for the purpose and to refuse to register, at his discretion, any group which he thinks unlikely to work in a co-operative manner. It is essential to leave him this discretion, and it is quite an ordinary proceeding under co-operative law. (ii) To audit or to cause a qualified person to audit every society once in each year. Urban societies may need to borrow the services of a bank accountant. The accounts of rural societies on the other hand will be very simple, and the Registrar or his Chinese organizer will be able to perform the task of this service. An audit fee can be charged in all cases, and should be paid not to the auditor but to an audit fund maintained by the Government (as a separate fund) for the payment of the Chinese organizer or for the payment of special fees to auditors of urban societies. This fund could also be entrusted to the

.

.

141

non-official organizations, if and when they become capable of employing an organizer and arranging (under the general control of the Registrar) the audit of the societies. (iii) To strike off from the Register and compulsorily to liquidate all societies which either break the law or refuse to work in accordance with their own registered bye- laws or are or seem likely to become insolvent, or in any way are working con- trary to co-operative principles. He should have full power to liquidate without the consent of the society, and with the minimum of reference to a judicial authority.

The law should also provide for the submission of certain annual returns to the Registrar of each society at a stated date, but in many cases in the earlier years the Registrar or his organizer will have to visit the societies and prepare the annual statements himself.

It is not possible to foresee the number of rural or urban societies. A study of the map of the northern district indicates that there may be a hundred or two hundred villages each of which might contain one or more societies for different purposes. The number of urban societies will depend upon the enthusiasm and the skill of the non-official association, which I should wish to see created. It will, in my opinion, be advisable for the Registrar to give more direct attention to the rural societies while leaving urban work in the first place in the hands of the non-official body, and checking its correctness and liquidating its mistakes.

The principle object for which I was invited to visit Hong Kong was to propose means for encouraging the production of pigs and poultry in the New Territories. The greatest need for assistance seems to me to be felt by the poorest class of producer, i.e. the farmer (man or woman) who is a permanent resident in the village, owns and cultivates land, and keeps only one or two pigs or a few poultry as a side issue. Their produce is sold to a class of middlemen, often but not always immigrants from Kwangtung, who keep from ten to a hundred pigs or a comparatively large poultry farm. These middlemen do not require financial assistance. If business is good, I think they will have no difficulty in obtaining all the credit required from bigger dealers or butchers or money shops or banks. In any case, they are not the kind of person for whom Co-operation is intended or adapted. If any help is given to them, it will be in respect of marketing. The demand of the producer is for pro- tection against disease, and this should be given by Government in the form of an Animal Husbandry Expert as proposed by the Marketing Committee. It is im- possible for any co-operative officer to possess the technical knowledge to instruct stock producers in veterinary science, crop raisers in botanical science, savings societies in financial methods, medical societies in medicine, housing societies in methods of construction, etc., etc., etc. A co-operative officer is an expert in Co- operation, with a general knowledge of economics, an adequate knowledge of the local language and a large fund of sympathy and enthusiasm. Whenever he is con- fronted with a technical problem, he turns to the technical officer of this science, and to appoint an agricultural expert as Registrar of Co-operative Societies is, in my opinion, a great mistake. The demand for protection against disease may, there- fore, best be met by drawing the people together in co-operative societies for some other purpose and then inviting the Animal Husbandry Expert to address them on matters of feeding or disease. The aim of the small producer is for money and he will benefit merely if co-operative credit societies are organized in the villages from which he can obtain a small loan from time to time for the purpose of new stock or food-stuffs. I have supplied a model of bye-laws for such a society to the Colonial Secretary's Office, and I recommend that the Registrar, when appointed after train- ing, devotes himself in the first place to training a Chinese co-operative organizer (at $50?) and to forming small and simple societies of credit in the New Territories. A society should undertake no other finances than the supply of money to those

142

members (but not to non-members) who need it and whose need is certified by the managing committee of the society. The managing committee will itself be chosen from the members and will itself decide whether to grant or refuse a loan to an individual member. The Co-operative Loan Board will merely issue a limited sum to the society to be administered by the managing committee of that society. It is not necessary that the managing committee should be of literate members, there is plenty of intelligence amongst the illiterate; but it is very necessary that only those members shall be admitted who are considered by the other members to be trust- worthy persons and whom they think they can supervise in the use and repayment of the money. The basis of co-operative credit is not property but income, which may be derived from temporary property bought with borrowed funds. The basis of co- operative credit is also the character of the members, and the best judges of character in a village are the members themselves. It is often necessary for the Registrar or his organizer to give assistance to the poorer farmers in order to exclude the richer farmers from the society. These latter cannot always be controlled by the other members, and are, therefore, unsuitable for admission. They are, also, sometimes moneylenders.

There is no objection to a credit society making its advances in kind. The wholesale purchase of food-stuffs may sometimes be convenient.

These village societies, each of which should be limited to a small hamlet or group of houses where all the members can watch each other every day, may in the future join together in a co-operative union; and if funds from the Co-operative Loan Board were still necessary, the Board would then make a loan to the union, which would lend to the societies, which would lend to their members. Provided that the Registrar is really trained for his duties and can give the maximum skilled advice with the minimum of orders, the more self-government a co-operative movement develops the better.

It may be practicable at a later stage to organize the small producer for joint marketing of pigs or poultry or even for breeding purposes such as the maintenance of a selected boar or the distribution of selected cocks, but I would not advise that this work be made a primary function of a credit society. Keep the societies simple. If a marketing society or a breeding society is subsequently necessary, make a separate society in the same area or in a different or over-lapping area. The credit societies should, therefore, adopt bye-laws which will permit the grant of loans for any useful purpose. It will always be in the power of the Co-operative Loan Board to impose conditions on the use of the money which they are advancing to the society. They may, if they wish, restrict loans from this money to the purchase of stock or of food-stuffs. On the whole I think they would be unwise to make too rigid a rule, but the funds of a society in the form of shares, savings and undistributed reserves will be continually growing and the Registrar and his organizer will be continually teaching the members how best to carry on their business. A credit society in China lends for all useful purposes, and at least owned funds of the society should be available for every useful purpose; they should even be available for furnerals, for a farmer cannot avoid spending money on a funeral, and if the society does not lend to him, he is driven back into the hands of the moneylender. The society will, of course, limit his expenditure on the funeral to the absolute minimum.

I should be able, if desired, to supply a model of bye-laws for a marketing society or a breeding society when the time comes for their development, but by that time the Registrar will no doubt be able to prepare them himself.

In the urban field the Registar should explain to any association which wishes to understand the subject the nature and principles of Co-operation, but he need

143

not spend the same amount of time and organization as in the villages. The three principal forms of society which appear to me to be desirable in Hong Kong are (a) the thrift and loan society, (b) the housing society and (c) the consumers' stores. The thrift and loan society flourishes in towns of British Malaya. It is suited only to a permanent population, but need not be confined to the richer members. The principle is that every individual member agrees to contribute a weekly or monthly sum out of his earnings to his own savings account in the society: he can then borrow from that same sum whenever he requires money for a purpose approved by the managing committee (if the managing committee does not approve the pur- pose, he cannot obtain a loan even from his own money, he can only resign from the society and take all his money away). Some societies permit the member to borrow a sum in excess of his own savings. I consider this a less prudent policy and if this practice is followed, there should be a higher rate of interest on such loans. All sums borrowed from a thrift society have to be repaid while the member continues in addition to make his regular contributions. Thus at the end of his service he retires (as now in Malaya) with a sum of several thousand dollars to his credit, which he is able to use for buying an annuity or building a house. These societies work best if they are confined to a single service or office or firm, since it is then simple to authorize the accountant to get the regular contribution from the members' pay and hand it over to the treasurer of the society: but there is no reason why they should not also work quite well amongst ricksha pullers or similar groups of labourers who are associated together in some way, either in a common tenement or in a common occupation.

The co-operative housing society must be distinguished from the building society as known in Europe. In Hong Kong at all events it will probably be impossible to build separate houses for clerks or other members of such a society, and co-operative housing must, as in Bombay, take the form of a co-operative tenement owned by the members generally, each of whom pays rent to the whole society and is himself a share-holder in it. It is worth the while of Government to finance such housing society if a group of clerks or other middle class persons or even Europeans should wish to set up a building in which they can live on a friendly footing and without the intrusion of persons of different habits. The Government in such a case either directly or by a guarantee to a bank would grant a loan to the society by instalments, secured by a mortgage on the growing building, and would arrange terms of gradual amortisation when the building was com- pleted. Shares of such a society should be of considerable size in order greatly to amortise the loan, but payment can be made by small instalments in order that the poorer persons may not be excluded. If the Housing Commission recently appointed recommends the formation of an unofficial Housing Association, the latter should give sympathetic support to schemes of co-operative housing. It is scarcely possible to arrange the housing of the very poorest classes on a co- operaitve basis. They are not permanent residents and their income is insecure. Such persons are nearly always handled in other countries by Government or by philanthropic bodies. Co-operative stores are now found in every part of the world, though they work on two principles, sometimes selling at the market price and repaying the surplus at the end of the year to each member according to the amount of business he or she did with the store, or selling at the lowest possible price and having virtually no surplus to distribute at the end of the year. The latter, which is more common in the Mediterranean countries, helps the poorer classes, but is dangerous because it makes inadequate provision for loss. The former is the safer, but does not help the poorest people. In my opinion safety is to be preferred. Such stores are usually financed by a commercial bank which holds a lien on the goods in the shop or in the bank's own godown.

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European and American co-operative societies aim almost entirely at a direct economic benefit. It has, however, been realized in Japan, India and to some extent also in Yugo Slavia that health, education and the avoidance of quarrels and extra- vagances are as great indirect economic benefits as any direct monetary gain. For instance in the three countries mentioned there are co-operative societies for the maintenance of a doctor in rural areas in which no doctor would settle unless he were assured of an income; the name of Kagawa is well-known in Japan in this connection. In India also there are societies for the maintenance of a teacher for either juvenile or adult schools, sometimes also for the maintenance and man- agement of the whole school itself. Societies for postal delivery in areas in which the Government postal service is scanty; societies for the prevention of useless litigation by the compulsory reference of all disputes between the members to arbitrators; and societies for the prevention of foolish and competitive expenditure on domestic ceremonies are all as fully qualified for co-operative registration as a society for the multiplication of pigs or for a consumers stores. But I will not dwell on this class of institution because it is unlikely to succeed until the Registrar himself has learned some experience and the people have learned to trust the co- operative staff as men who are working wholeheartedly for their benefit and are prepared to attack any economic problem which may be laid before them.

I recommend, therefore, that in the first place the Hong Kong Government send a carefully chosen Cadet for co-operative training by means of a tour in Europe and in Asia. I shall be glad to assist him with detailed advice if desired. He should be a man capable of understanding economics, (though not necessarily at present an advanced economist), and also capable of understanding the value of social service and spontaneous social effort. On his return, he should be appointed Re- gistrar of Co-operative Societies and should select a Chinese co-operative organizer whose pay might be derived from the Agricultural Association, which in its turn would receive a grant from Government. He should work in the villages of the New Territories explaining the co-operative idea and should, in my opinion, register no society until he has been at work for six months. The right time for registering a group of simple men as a co-operative society is not when they have first grasped the idea that cheap money may be available, but when at a later moment they have begun to doubt whether it really is coming or not and are thoroughly tired of being taught the way in which it should be used. The Registrar should, of course, remain in constant contact with the District Officers who should assure the people that there is no trap or fraud in his proposals. He should inform the District Officers of his movements and intentions in order that district arrangements may not be upset. Whether he should himself be an Assistant District Officer or not is a matter de- pendent on the arrangements of Government. If and when he ceases to be Assistant District Officer he should retain his post as Registrar of Co-operative Societies. whatever other duties he may be carrying on in Victoria or elsewhere. The Re- gistrar should welcome non-official help from the Agricultural Association and other bodies. Unofficial enthusiasm is sometimes mistaken, but it is well worth- while to train it on the right lines. In the end the Registrar's time will be saved by so doing. He should not discourage or repress the enthusiasm of urban co- operators, but should invite them to study the real meaning of Co-operation, and discuss with them any specific proposals for the formation of a society. The amount of time which he can give to urban work will depend on his other duties and upon his interest in Co-operation.

If a suitable urban body comes into existence a grant should be made to it by Government in the same way in which the Agricultural Association is aided. I con- sider that the funds granted to the Agricultural Association for the purpose of the Agricultural Show should be separate from the grant made for general purposes of which co-operative propaganda would be the chief. At the present moment an

145

undue proportion of the funds of the Association is being devoted to the show On the other hand, associations, urban and rural, will be discouraged if Government prescribes too exactly the way in which the money is to be used. The object of Government in making these grants should be to build up unofficial bodies capable of giving co-operative education and arranging a co-operative audit.

In the future the chief part in unofficial Co-operation should be played not by associations of benevolent individuals, but by co-operative unions built up from below. The rural societies will some day form a co-operative credit union, perhaps also one or more co-operative marketing unions. In the towns also there may eventually be co-operative unions of thrift societies, a co-operative wholesale society and perhaps a co-operative bank which will take over the functions of the Co- operative Loan Board. All this change will be brought about by a slow process of education chiefly carried on by the Registrar himself. This is far in the future, but it is well to keep the future in mind in order that institutions which can never become co-operative should be regarded as temporary however valuable they may be.

In the draft ordinance I shall recommend that, as in many other countries, the use of the Chinese words HOP TSOK which represent the root of the word co- operative be forbidden in any title used by an individual or a firm for a trading or other purpose. If this is not done, there will be confusion in the popular mind. There appear to be at present no companies, firms or individuals using this name in Hong Kong.

The rate of interest at which co-operative credit societies should make loans to their members should be 1% per month. The Co-operative Loan Board should not endeavour to loan at exceedingly low rates. If it loans to a society at (say) 6%, it will then be impossible for a co-operative union to come into existence, for a co- operative union borrowing from Government at 6% would have to lend to the societies at 9% and the societies would resent this if they were accustomed to borrow from Government at 6%. Government should, therefore, lend to the societies at the same rate (9 per cent) at which a union will hereafter lend to them; and if the Government feels that it is improper to receive so high a rate on Government loans, it can refund 3% not to the societies but to the audit fund main- tained by Government or by the unofficial associations for the purpose of organiza- tion, education and audit.

HONG KONG, 29th June, 1935.

C. F. STRICKLAND.

2

G.

63

REPORT

R.

No.

3

1935

OF THE

Commission appointed by

His Excellency the Governor of Hong Kong

TO ENQUIRE INTO

The Causes and Effects of the Present Trade Depression in Hong Kong

AND

Make Recommendations for the Amelioration of the Existing Position

AND FOR

The Improvement of the Trade of the Colony.

JULY 1934–FEBRUARY 1935.

PRINTED BY NORONHA & CO.,

GOVERNMENT PRINTERS,

HONG KONG.

65

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

List of Members of the Commission

Pages.

67

Report.

68

69

Chapter I, Preliminary

""

II, Procedure

III, General

20

70

71

IV, The Causes and Effects of the Depression

74

>

و,

V,

Hong Kong's Position vis-a-vis China

77

""

VI,

Hong Kong's Position vis-a-vis the British Empire

81

VII, Industry

87

دو

VIII,

Property

90

"

IX,

High Cost of Living in Hong Kong

93

X,

The Water Problem in Hong Kong

96

وو

XI, Financial Matters; Currency, Banking and Foreign Exchange. 102

XII, Aviation

""

XIII, Tourist Traffic

,,

>"

XIV, Pigs and Poultry

>>

XV,

Miscellaneous Problems:

("A") Cable Rates

("B") Price of Petrol in Hong Kong

104

.106

.108

.109

110

("C") Hong Kong, Canton & Macao Steamboat Co., Ltd.113

وو

XVI, Concluding Chapter

Appendices,

Appendix "A":

Table I,

وو

دو

,,

113

list of

.118

Total values, in Sterling and Hong Kong currency, of Imports

and Exports of Merchandise

119

II, Total values of Imports and Exports of Piece Goods and

Textiles and percentage table of distribution of Imports... 119

III,

Total quantities and values of Imports and Exports of Coal...120

IV, Total quantities and values of Imports and Exports of Wheat

Flour

121

V, Total quantities and values of Imports and Exports of Sugar...122

66

TABLE OF CONTENTS,—Continued.

Pages.

Table VI, Total quantities and values of Imports and Exports of Mineral

Oils

123

VII,

Total values of Imports and Exports of Machinery and Engines 124

VIII,

Total quantities and values of Imports and Exports of Sulphate

of Ammonia

124

IX, Total quantities and values of Imports and Exports of Cotton

Yarn

..125

5.5

X,

Total values of Imports and Exports of Metals

.125

32

XI,

Comparative statement of Volume of Imports and Exports...126

XII, Index Number of Wholesale Prices

..128

,,

""

XIII, Extract from Board of Trade Journal dated 29th March, 1934.130

Appendix "B", Comparative Statement of Revenue from duties on Liquor,

Tobacco, Bets and Sweeps, and Entertainment

132

,,

"C", Table showing average monthly sterling exchange values of

the Hong Kong dollar, 1931-1934

.133

"D", Map showing existing and projected road system in southern

Kwangtung

134

67-

MEMBERS OF THE COMMISSION.

Mr. Michael James Breen, (Chairman), Hong Kong Civil Service, Postmaster-

General.

The Honourable Mr. Charles Gordon Stewart Mackie, Member of the Executive and Legislative Councils, Partner, Messrs. Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Com- pany.

The Honourable Mr. Chau Tsun-nin, Member of the Legislative Council, Barrister-

at-Law.

Mr. John Daniel Lloyd, Hong Kong Civil Service, Superintendent of Imports and

Exports and Head of the Statistical Office. Died on 24th January, 1935.

Mr. George Clinton Pelham, His Majesty's Trade Commissioner in Hong Kong and

Commercial Secretary in South China.

Mr. Stanley Hudson Dodwell, Managing-Director of Messrs. Dodwell & Company.

Mr. Vandeleur Molyneux Grayburn, Chief Manager of the Hong Kong and Shang-

hai Banking Corporation.

Mr. Felix Alexander Joseph, Principal, F. A. Joseph.

Mr. William Johnston Keswick, Acting Head of Messrs. Jardine, Matheson & Com- pany, Limited. Resigned from the Commission on departure from the Colony on 13th February, 1935.

Mr. Li Koon Chun, Manager, Wo Fat Shing.

Mr. William Ngartse Thomas Tam, Barrister-at-Law.

Mr. William Herbert Evans Thomas, Manager of the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China. Resigned from the Commission on departure from the Colony in January, 1935.

Mr. Alfred Brearley, Manager of the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China. Appointed as a Member of the Commission on the 19th January, 1935, to succeed Mr. W. H. E. Thomas.

Secretary to the Commission:

Mr. Brian Charles Keith Hawkins, Hong Kong Civil Service.

I

68

HONG KONG, 16th February, 1935.

SIR,

On the 13th July, 1934, we were appointed by Your Excellency under the

Public Seal of the Colony :

"to enquire into the causes and effects of the present trade depression in

Hong Kong and make recommendations for the amelioration of the

existing position and for the improvement of the trade of the Colony".

CC

We have the honour to submit herewith our Report.

We have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your Excellency's most obedient servants,

M. J. BREEN, (Chairman),

A. BREARLEY,

F. A. JOSEPH,

C. GORDON MACKIE,

STANLEY H. DODWELL,

V. M. GRAYBURN,

G. C. PELHAM,

T. N. CHAU,

LI KOON CHUN,

W. N. T. TAM.

His Excellency,

Sir WILLIAM PEEL, K.C.M.G., K.B.E.,

Governor,

Hong Kong.

69

REPORT OF THE ECONOMIC COMMISSION.

Chapter I.

PRELIMINARY.

1. The first meeting of the Commission was held on Wednesday, 1st August, 1934. It was then decided that we should meet twice weekly, as far as possible, and Wednesdays and Fridays were selected as meeting days.

2. Between August 1st and October 20th we held 20 meetings of the full Com- mission, examined 26 witnesses and considered well over a hundred memoranda, records of evidence, letters and reports submitted not only by the general public but also by various members of the Commission itself. In addition, members of the Commission accompanied by the Honourable Colonial Secretary, paid visits of inspection to factories, chosen as being fairly representative of the various branches of industrial activity within the Colony. In this connection it may perhaps be men- tioned that the personnel of the Commission contained members who had already made a study of local industries and were fully acquainted with their scope and with the conditions of manufacture prevalent in factories in Hong Kong.

3. At the 20th Meeting it was decided that sufficient progress had been made in our enquiries to justify us in commencing the preparation of our final report. A Drafting Committee was appointed accordingly and the Commission was adjourned sine die.

4. It was fully realised at the time that the work of the Drafting Committee would inevitably bring to light various questions necessitating further deliberation and decision by the full Commission, but it was deemed advisable to deal with these questions by means of special meetings as and when opportunity occurred.

5. In the event it was found necessary to convene four further meetings of the Commission, making a total of 24 meetings extending over a period of nearly seven months. The Drafting Committee also met on 15 occasions.

6. The personnel of the Commission was larger than that of any other Com- mission appointed in this Colony in recent years. It consisted of twelve members, two official and ten unofficial, but, unlike the Straits Settlements Trade Commission, it did not include any members appointed as paid full-time officers. In other words. the whole of the work of the Commission was undertaken by officials and unofficials alike in addition to their other duties.

7. It is with the deepest regret that we record the death of Mr. J. D. Lloyd, Superintendent of Imports and Exports and Head of the Statistical Office, which occurred on 24th January, 1935. By virtue of his official position Mr. Lloyd was the source of a great part of the statistical information required by the Commission and he spared no pains to make this information as comprehensive and as lucid as possible. In addition, his wide knowledge and experience of trade and trading con- ditions in the Colony were of great assistance in our deliberations, while his keen- ness and energy made him a colleague whose loss it is difficult to over-estimate.

8. Two further changes in the original personnel were caused by the resigna- tions of Mr. W. H. E. Thomas, who was recalled to England in January, 1935, and of Mr. W. J. Keswick, who left the Colony on 13th February, 1935. By a Com- mission dated 19th January, 1935, Mr. Alfred Brearley was appointed to succeed Mr. W. H. E. Thomas. In view of the fact that at the date of Mr. W. J. Kes- wick's departure the work of the Commission was practically completed no appoint- ment was made to fill this vacancy.

1. The first problem priate plan of procedure. there have been only two economic problems of this the second in 1920.

70

Chapter II.

PROCEDURE.

confronting the Commission was to decide on an appro- During the past forty years, so far as can be ascertained, Committees appointed to enquire into the trade and Colony. The first of these was appointed in 1896 and

2. It will be readily appreciated that the report of the first Committee, which was mainly concerned with the displacement in local markets of British goods by foreign imports, was too limited in scope and too distant in time to be of more than academic interest to us.

3. The second Committee appointed in 1920 to enquire into the Economic Resources of the Colony had conducted their enquiries by means of numerous sub- committees each of which had submitted a separate report to the Government. These reports contained much that was useful to us, especially for purposes of comparison, but the method of investigation by sub-committees was not particularly suited to the wide scope and general nature of our terms of reference.

4. It was unfortunate that the report of the Commission appointed in 1933 to enquire into the trade of the Straits Settlements was not available at our inaugural meeting. The first volume of their careful and comprehensive survey was published shortly after we had begun our deliberations and proved of inestimable service to us in the later stages of our work.

5. In the absence of precedents, our plan of procedure was dictated solely by the exigencies of our terms of reference. So wide were these that it would be difficult to formulate any question, no matter how remotely connected with trade, which could not be included within their scope. In view of the pioneer nature of our inquisition the necessity for this latitude could not be questioned, but it was obvious that, unless we had before us certain clearly defined main lines of enquiry, we should soon find ourselves submerged in a welter of details, relevant and irrelevant, through which it would be extremely difficult to force our way to any conclusion. A certain amount of concentration was essential if we hoped to achieve a useful result in a reasonably limited period of time.

6. With this end in view it was decided that while we should endeavour to secure evidence on as wide a basis as possible and should, therefore, invite the opinions and general co-operation of the Hong Kong public, we should at the same time require individual members of the Commission to submit memoranda and, if necessary, to give evidence on various subjects of importance on which they were especially qualified to speak with authority.

The personnel of the Commission was peculiarly adapted to this method of pro- cedure in that it consisted of leading representatives of the Colony's major interests; shipping, import and export, finance, banking and Chinese business interests. generally.

7. A notice was inserted in the columns of the local press inviting the public to submit memoranda or to offer their services as witnesses before the Commission. In addition, special invitations were issued from time to time to individuals request- ing their attendance as expert witnesses in particular subjects under discussion.

8. The response to both classes of invitation was most helpful and encourag- ing and we desire to take this opportunity of expressing our thanks to all who came forward in answer to our appeals.

9. It was apparent from the outset that a considerable portion of our enquiry would be devoted to the investigation of questions of a delicate and confidential

nature.

In order to secure the fullest information on these matters and at the same time to protect the interests of witnesses it was decided that our meetings should not be open to the public and that all evidence laid before the Commission should be treated as strictly confidential.

71

10. During the course of our enquiries we had occasion from time to time to make recommendations to the Government, either in respect of specific matters . referred to us by His Excellency the Governor, or in connection with questions on which we considered early action should be taken. We have thought it better to embody the substance of these recommendations in our final report rather than to annex them thereto in the form of interim reports.

11. In conclusion we desire to place on record our appreciation of the assist- ance we have received from our Secretary, Mr. B. C. K. Hawkins, from Mrs. P. C. Stott who acted as typist and stenographer to the Commission for the five months, August-December, 1934, and from Mr. R. W. H. Maynard who took over these duties on Mrs. Stott's resignation and who has most competently carried out the arduous work involved in the final stages of preparation of this Report. We are also indebted to Miss J. Langley who acted as assistant typist for a period of two months in 1934.

Chapter III.

GENERAL.

The island of Hong Kong consists of a range of hills rising out of the sea. On the north side is the harbour backed by the City of Victoria. On the mainland, facing the City of Victoria across the harbour, is the complementary City of Kow- loon with a similar range of hills in the immediate background. Beyond, and up to the frontier, lies three hundred square miles of hilly country with a few valleys of fertile land cultivated under Chinese methods. During the ninety odd years of British occupation a crowded urban community of a million people, the vast majority of whom are Chinese, has sprung up with the harbour as its centre. This community is sustained by the Trade and Industry of the Colony, agriculture being comparatively negligible.

2. Hong Kong consequently is not an economic entity even in the most restrict- ed sense of the word and it could not, even if it would, adopt the principles of the present world wave of economic nationalism. As a community and as a trade centre it is a portion of China from which it is separated by political barriers. It shares in the strength or weakness of its neighbour's conditions and institutions. It has a relatively small Hong Kong domiciled population and its inhabitants are in the main transient workers and business men from the neighbouring province of Kwangtung who flock into the Colony when employment is available but who do not sever their interests in their family holdings on the land nor, in many cases, bring their families from their villages to reside permanently in Hong Kong. Wide- spread unemployment does not, therefore, bring in its train the serious social prob- lems it does in other countries. In general it merely results in an exodus of the workers and their temporary reabsorption in their village communities in the interior of China.

3. A depression may not, therefore, be obvious to the casual visitor to the Colony. Its visible signs are not apparent. One does not see processions of un- employed or an undue number of empty premises and shops. On the contrary, the outward appearance of the main streets seems as animated as ever, perhaps even more so as lighting improvements and reconstruction continue to transform the main thoroughfares, which indeed at the present time appear to be hives of activity. In comparison with neighbouring Eastern cities at any rate, the standard of well being of the populace is well maintained.

4. As the Colony is an urban community possessing but a small agricultural hinterland, its production of basic raw materials is negligible and it produces only a fraction of the foodstuffs it consumes. Its real commercial hinterland is South China from which it is separated by a (political) and, what is (more important a (tariff barrier) (Internal trade, usually so important as the basis of the economic

equilibrium of a nation, is (practically non-existent.

72

5. Roughly estimated, its external trade is four/fifths re-exports of goods de- stined for South China from overseas or from North China, or vice versa. In- creasingly important as local manufactures, not specifically related to shipping, have recently become, they do not account for more than a small proportion of the Colony's business. In the main, therefore, Hong Kong is but a mirror of conditions in China, one quarter of whose trade with overseas it handles. If conditions in China, whether because of general depression or as a result of protective tariffs, are such as to restrict trade, this Colony's entrepot trade must shrink proportionately.

6. In this connection it should be noted that Hong Kong Trade Statistics are far from satisfactory. To begin with they are intermittent and, moreover, there was a hiatus between the years 1925 and 1930 during which period no figures were re- corded. Even now it is not possible to draw positive conclusions from the figures available for the reason that they are figures of entrepot trade and there is no indication what percentage relates to local consumption or to manufactures in the Colony. The same caution should be given in respect of figures relating to popu- lation. The difficulties of census taking in the East are notorious and Hong Kong is no exception in this respect, but for all that, the census returns are a mine of valuable information and it is a pity that so long a period as 10 years intervenes between each successive census.

7. It would, of course, be incorrect to say that all the goods handled in Hong Kong, except the small quantity retained for local consumption, are proceeding to or from China. The excellent shipping and warehousing facilities offered by the Colony, together with its geographical position as a terminal port, place it in a very favourable position to perform entrepot and transhipment services on behalf of other Asiatic countries besides China. This is an important factor in its prosperity and one which should be encouraged, but the fact remains that the real basis of the Colony's commercial existence is, and must continue to be, the handling of the trade of China.

8. This very important function which Hong Kong renders in effecting the ex- change of South China's products for those of overseas countries does not proceed from the mere fact that Hong Kong possesses an excellent harbour but rather from the fact that between Shanghai and Indo-China there is no other deep sea harbour having at the same time convenient access to the interior as well as safe anchorage and efficient equipment and facilities. Goods in transit to or from China must in the main be conveyed in deep draught ships and they must at some stage be discharged into smaller coasting ships or into warehouses ashore. As long as Hong Kong offers peculiar facilities for this operation so long will it continue to flourish by performing an essential service to the benefit of both China and the Colony.

9. The volume of this trade between China and overseas, as will subsequently be shown, has shrunk considerably in recent years. It is subject to two main in- fluences neither of which can be affected by any policy taken locally. If for reasons of world impoverishment or high tariffs elsewhere, China cannot market her pro- ducts, it follows that she cannot afford to import, and, as her foreign trade must be reduced, Hong Kong must suffer proportionately. Of equal importance is the industrial development of China. This development is proceeding apace partly as the result of economic evolution and partly in consequence of China's recently adopted policy of economic nationalism. Inevitably, therefore, China's trade will eventually be transformed and though her imports may gradually increase they will tend to consist of capital goods such as machinery and technical equipment rather than of consumable goods themselves.

10. It is, however, reasonable to anticipate that although the nature of the trade will change, Hong Kong will probably for a long time to come continue to fulfil its natural role. The arbitrary imposition of tariffs and taxes may prove irksome to the intermediary merchant in the Colony as these cause sudden dislocations of business. The direct importer of foreign goods in Chinese territory is, however, under the same disability. There is no reason to fear that local merchants will lack enterprise and fail to adapt themselves to altered circumstances, or that the port will not be provided with the shipping facilities and connections with the interior necessary to maintain its position as the ocean gateway of Southern China.

73

11. So great was the predominance in Hong Kong of shipping interests that for many years its industrial activity has been in the main connected with shipping requirements and has concentrated round ship-building and ship repairing. As these activities had to be on a scale commensurate with the importance of the port they quickly attained proportions for a long time unequalled in the Far East. They must obviously continue to constitute the nucleus of Hong Kong's heavy indus- tries as they are essential if the Colony is to discharge its primary function as an international trade centre. It is important to observe, however, that there is con- siderable industrial activity apart from shipping. The factories which have been established are largely of recent growth and are not of the heavy industry type. The Commissioners surveyed these recent industries at some length and came to the conclusion that they had a definite future and that their development should be encouraged. It is true that the problem of marketing the products may be accen- tuated by tariff and quota restrictions, but Hong Kong as a free port has advantages, in respect of manufacturing certain standard articles at any rate, which may well set off the obstacles to be overcome, and it may also be possible to explore the possibilities of bilateral agreements with natural markets.

12. Further, the Colony possesses an asset in its attraction as a residential centre and as an holiday resort. A large number of wealthy Chinese who have retired from overseas or from the interior reside in Hong Kong where they acquire property and domicile themselves and their families. This class undoubtedly con- tributes valuably to Hong Kong's economic well being. The number of Chinese workers in Hong Kong who maintain their families here is increasing and the tendency should be encouraged. The Imperial forces maintained here contribute conspicuously to the Colony's prosperity. The money spent locally by visitors whe- ther foreign or Chinese must be considerable and with a definite measure of official encouragement local amenities might be improved, visitors might increase in num- ber and might be induced to prolong their stay.

13. While it is recognised that land available for agriculture is limited, it is felt that there must be a distinct possibility of the adoption of improved methods of cultivation and schemes of land reclamation with Government support. This would tend to render the community less dependent on outside sources of food supply. This is particularly important at a time when the earnings of the Colony as a whole have shrunk so much that in order to redress the economic situation the Colony should endeavour to spend as little as possible outside its borders. The proximity of a great urban market for produce does not seem to have stimulated the farming community to the extent that might have been expected under a progressive govern- ment. A Committee has now been appointed to explore the possibilities of develop- ment in this direction.

14. A further potential source of wealth would appear to be the Colony's fishing industry. With the introduction of more modern methods adequately sup- ported by capital the possibilities of development are so far as is known unlimited and the industry might well attain such proportions as to provide the Colony with an important export. In any event if development merely increased the local con- tingent of food supply it would, as with intensive agriculture, reduce the Colony's external expenditure on food and improve its economic position.

15. The main problem before the Commission was to make recommendations for the alleviation of the present position and for the improvement of the trade of the Colony. The foregoing brief analysis of the component factors of Hong Kong's prosperity provides the background against which this problem has to be studied and reveals immediately the limitations to which our recommendations must be sub- ject. It is obvious that we cannot recommend any alteration in the free port status of the Colony as a whole. Not only is this status essential to the entrepot trade, which is the foundation of our position as the Clearing House of South China, but also we must admit that Hong Kong is too small an unit to absorb the output of local industry or to have any great bargaining value in tariff negotiations. With these limitations therefore, it might be argued that nothing of any significance could be done, but that is an argument with which we are not prepared to agree.

16. It should be realised that China alone is more important from the point of view of the Colony's trade than the rest of the world combined and it may well be

74

possible to conclude a working agreement with her which will be mutually satisfac- tory to both parties as their neighbourly relations are of a peculiarly intimate character and transcend those of ordinary international trade. There may be also a possibility, remote perhaps, of concluding barter agreements with other neigh- bouring Governments.

17. Apart however, from such bilateral agreements with outside authorities, a field for constructive action must exist within the Colony. Hitherto the Govern- ment has been content to provide security and sound administration and, for the rest, to adopt a laissez-faire attitude towards trade and industry generally. There was no occasion to question the soundness of this policy in days when China was a low tariff country and trade flowed smoothly in traditional channels, though it is possible that, even then, the industrial potentialities of the Colony did not receive sufficient consideration or were too hastily dismissed as necessarily opposed to our entrepot interests. Now, however, these spacious days are gone and in their place has come a time when, in our opinion, there is a need for the closest and most active co- operation between Government, commerce and industry.

18. Signs are not wanting to show that a movement towards this end has already been made. We have referred to the recent appointment of a Committee to enquire into and report upon pig and poultry breeding in the Colony with a view to improving the local food supply and conserving, or rather retaining, as far as possible, the Colony's income within the Colony's boundaries.

There may well be scope for a similar, though permanent, body to foster trade and industry and to act as a connecting link between these interests and the Government. For example, productive enterprises which increase the income of the community do not now obtain sites or extensions of sites on any privileged terms nor do they invariably secure the transportation facilities by land and water that they merit. Moreover, even though Governmental action cannot ultimately force trade and industry, yet much can be done by the adoption of a consistently progressive policy in exploiting our assets of cheap labour, plentiful capital, good position, cheap shipping facilities and freedom from restrictive duties.

19. Although taxation direct and indirect is relatively light in Hong Kong, it shows a disquieting tendency to increase and, by raising the cost of living, to neu- tralise one of the Colony's chief assets vis-a-vis its competitors. No doubt the social services provided by the Government must render the constant increase of public expenditure inevitable, but the standard set should take into account the conditions which apply in the rest of the economic area of which Hong Kong is a part. Of equal significance as burdens on the trading community are the legis- lative restrictions imposed on the conduct of industrial enterprise. Social reforms based on Western models should only be introduced into Hong Kong in reasonable conformity with those enforced in neighbouring countries.

20. Though the Colony is fortunate in that the public utilities controlled locally by private enterprise can bear comparison with any in the world in efficiency and cheapness, the Government should constantly recognise that all such public charges should, in the interests of the trade of the Colony, be kept to the absolute minimum and that these services as the handmaids of industry should be afforded all possible encouragement and liberal treatment.

Chapter IV.

THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE DEPRESSION.

1. The first portion of our terms of reference required us to enquire into the causes and effects of the present trade depression in Hong Kong. While we were unanimously convinced that Hong Kong was suffering under a severe depression we quickly realised that a clear portrayal of this would be difficult owing to lack of accurate and detailed records over a number of years. Particularly in regard to trade figures were we handicaped, as for the period 1925 to 1930 inclusive

Appendix "A",

Tables I-XIII.

Appendix "A",

Table I.

,

75

no statistics suitable for purposes of comparison were kept. While, with the pre- sent modern trend towards accurate and minute statistical investigation, it might by some be considered that there should be available more detailed data relating to the trade of the Colony it must be borne in mind that Hong Kong is virtually a free port, that the object of the authorities is to impose as small a burden as possible on trade and that the production of accurate and detailed statistical information is costly. To increase the value of statistical information relating to Hong Kong more money would have to be spent. This money would either have to be provided in some manner from present revenue or further levies would have to be imposed on the merchant community. In either manner the general burden on the Colony would be increased. In the nature of the trade of the Colony the resultant value is open to doubt, and though it would be of interest and of use if we could ascertain figures showing the export of Hong Kong products, we are of the opinion that fur- ther expense in this direction is to be deprecated in this present time of depre-

sion.

2. It is a generally adopted axiom that the truest comparative portrayal of a country's trade is that made in its own currency and it will be seen from the statistical appendices to this report, in which sterling figures are also given, that after the Great War and until 1924 the trade of Hong Kong in common with that of the rest of the world appeared to be steady and prosperous. During that time there ruled a high rate of exchange with sterling. Unfortunately, owing to the hiatus in figures, we cannot see the trend from 1925 to 1930. It will be remem- bered, however, that trade was badly hit by a big shipping strike in 1925. When we come to 1931 we perceive an increase in the Hong Kong dollar value of both imports and exports but the sterling value of the dollar had become less than half what it was in 1924. Since 1931, while there has been a gradual rise in the average rate of exchange there has been a persistent drop in the dollar value of both imports. and exports. Thus in 1931 imports were valued at 652 million dollars or 34 million pounds sterling, while in 1933 the dollar value of imports had decreased to 432 millions an equivalent of 29 million pounds. This decrease has been accentuated in 1934 and an estimate based on the first nine months of the year gives for the whole year a dollar value of imports of only $402.8 millions, a rough equivalent in sterling being 29.7 millions.

3. The same tale is told with regard to exports which in 1931 amounted to 542 million dollars or 29 million pounds, in 1933 to 403 million dollars or 27 million pounds and in 1934 (estimate for the whole year based on the figures for the first nine months) only 316.8 million dollars or about 23.3 million pounds.

4. Perhaps the trend of depression as assessed by trade figures may be more accurately shown by those of the first nine months of 1934 compared with those of the same period of the previous two years as follows:---

1932

1933

Imports.

(Millions)

£31.4

Appendix "A"

Table XII.

1934

$477.8

$381.1 £25.5

=

$302.1= £22.3

Exports. $352.3 £23.2

$307.0£20.5

$237.6 £17.5

5. It will be seen that in terms of Hong Kong Currency imports in the first nine months of 1934 declined by 20.7% as compared with the corresponding period of 1933; and 36.8% as compared with the corresponding period of 1932, while exports in the first nine months of 1934, declined in value by 22.6% as compared with the first nine months of 1933; and 32.6% as compared with the first nine months of 1932.

6. Another indication of depression is the fall in wholesale prices. The Price Index for Hong Kong has been constructed on the basis of the declared quantities and c.i.f. values of commodities imported into Hong Kong, the year 1922 being taken as 100. In 1931 the index stood at a peak of 136.6 whence it has annually decreased until for the first half year of 1934 it stands at 95.9.

Appendix "B".

76

7. Further signs of depression are not wanting. If we turn to the Treasury figures of Revenue for the years 1932-1934 we find therein a steady progressive decline in every item and a strongly marked steep decline in those items which may be said to be the fruits of luxury expenditure. Appendix ("B") gives comparative tables of the Revenue derived from liquor, and tobacco duties, Bets and Sweeps and Entertainment tax during these years. The figures speak for themselves and pro- vide us with clear evidence of the effect of the depression upon the general public of the Colony.

8. The world wide depression, a reaction from the post war boom, was bound to touch China and therefore Hong Kong somewhat later than the western and more highly organised countries. It would, of course, be impossible to prescribe a special antidote to this for Hong Kong and as far as the Colony's present position is the re- sult of world depression so far must we await the general improvement in world. trade which the more optimistic of us believe now to be commencing, albeit slowly and under the doubtful aegis of economic nationalism.

9. If we examine available statistics more closely we will find that a great proportion of the trade of Hong Kong is with China. It is indeed quite apparent that Hong Kong performs the function of a seaport for China much in the same way as does Shanghai. Hong Kong handles about one quarter of China's coastwise and foreign trade. She suffers, therefore, not only from the effect of the world de- pression on China, in which respect there is a decreased demand for China's pro- ducts and labour and therefore a decreased purchasing power for imports, but also from other factors. In 1931, having the power of tariff autonomy, China began to increase her Customs tariffs for the main purpose of increasing revenue. This factor in itself may be held to have tended to decrease foreign trade while encourag- ing local industrial efforts. Unfortunately, however, in spite of the declaration by the Chinese Government contained in Annex 3 to the Tariff Autonomy Treaty of 1928 regarding the abolition of internal taxation on foreign imports, many different classes of taxes in many parts of the country have been from time to time imposed, not only causing a decrease in purchases owing to increased prices, but also decreasing the will of people to trade freely owing to constant uncertainty. The result of this increasing taxation and the rise from time to time of political uncertainty with internecine brigandage and warfare in the interior, together with decreased world demand and the rise of alternative markets has been to decrease production of basic products in China both in quantity and quality.

10. It is difficult in many respect always to distinguish cause and effect, but whether the cause be drop in demand or a decrease in quality, exports from China have decreased in the last few years while imports of foodstuffs have increased, with a final resultant in decreased purchasing power and decreased imports of goods other than foodstuffs. A vicious circle. The one ray of hope is that of recent years China has been making a valiant attempt to establish industries calculated. to supply common needs, and recently to intensify agriculture. Very much work remains to be done, but it is hoped that the movement will continue on sound and careful lines, and at the same time that taxation may so be decreased as to give an impetus to an increase in trade and prosperity. It need hardly be said in passing that China is a country capable of great development in many directions and that Hong Kong is in a not inconsiderable position to help therein if it is given a reason- able chance to co-operate.

11. In our deliberations we had, however, to consider actual facts. As far as its commercial existence is concerned Hong Kong's raison d'etre is the entrepot trade of South China. The growth of economic nationalism throughout the world has led to a reduction of International Trade. Many goods which were formerly manufactured in one country because of special aptitude or other reasons and shipped to other parts of the world in return for the special goods of those parts, are now being manufactured in many countries, and the tendency is at present, in a great number of countries, towards an endeavour to produce their own require- ments. China is increasingly adopting this policy and, inasmuch as it does this, so the trade of Hong Kong must change.

12. While there is every likelihood that the importation of common consum- able goods into China will decrease in inverse ratio to the increase in her industrial

77

activities, there is also every reason to believe that with more stable conditions imports of capital goods, i.e., plant, machinery and equipment of various kinds necessary for industrial development, will increase. Were it to be possible for China to develop to a much greater extent her fundamental industry of agriculture and thereby obviate the necessity of importing large quantities of foodstuffs this develop- ment would ensue more rapidly. Sudden change cannot be desired nor expected, but while it is generally realised by most economists that in order to cause the least disturbance during change the movement must be gradual, according to plan, and each step consolidated, China has by the rapid imposition of high tariffs handicapped the importation of foreign goods while not yet having made adequate provision for their replacement by local production.

13. Enough has been said above to show that the existing depression in Hong Kong has its sole cause in external factors. We are suffering from the world wave of depression and as far as that is concerned Hong Kong can only wait patiently for the turn of the tide. A partial cause of our depression is that China has also suffered a decline in trade with a consequent decrease in revenue and the partial result that her Government has endeavoured to maintain revenue by increasing taxation on imports. China has also, although as yet but poorly industrially developed, adopted in common with many other countries the principal of economic nationalism which is tending to narrow the volume of international trade, and to allow it only under high costs when there is any chance of the commodities concern- ed being manufactured within the country.

Chapter V.

HONG KONG'S POSITION VIS-A-VIS CHINA.

1. In view of the circumstances adumbrated above it has been considered by some that nothing can be done to alleviate conditions in Hong Kong and that we can only wait for a revival of world trade. We have asked ourselves whether a revival of world trade will necessarily bring returned prosperity to the Colony. The answer we have made is that while Hong Kong must somewhat participate in any such improvement it is not, in view of the rising industrial activity and high tariffs of China likely to get very far without a much closer friendly economic contact with China and/or a closer economic contact with the rest of the British Empire. The second point will be dealt with in the next chapter. Here we are concern- ed with Hong Kong's position vis-a-vis China.

2. Hong Kong in natural economic circumstances is dependent on China for a great deal of its welfare. A considerable portion of its daily food comes from China and its main trading business is with China. On the other hand Hong Kong is economically of great value to South China inasmuch as it is the great sea-port through which goods flow to and from the rest of the world, a financial centre, and a storehouse of great value to trade as goods stored in Hong Kong do not have to bear duty charges. A further and very striking point regarding this Colony in its relationship to China is that its population is 97% Chinese and that the majority of this Chinese population has its roots in the South China provinces, mainly Kwang- tung.

3. A discursion here on the population of Hong Kong may be of some interest. Prior to the British occupation of Hong Kong the population ashore and afloat does not appear to have exceeded a total of 2,000 persons. In 1842 this had increased to over 15,000 persons about 12,000 of whom were Chinese. In 1871 the popu- lation was about 124,000 and in 1921, 50 years later, it had increased to over 600,000. The last census was taken in 1931 when the total population was re- corded as being, to the nearest round figure, 850,000. The actual increase in the population in the decade 1921-1931 of 215,000 people was larger than in any pre- vious decade though the rate of increase was less than that of the previous decade being only 34.44% as compared with 36.87%.

78

4. The development of Kowloon during the decade 1921 to 1931 is evidenced by the fact that in this decade the population of the island of Hong Kong increased by only 17.79% as compared with an increase of 42.19% in the previous decade whereas the increase of population in Kowloon between 1921 and 1931 amounted to 113.06%.

5. The total population of the Colony was recorded in 1931 as consisting of about $21,000 Chinese and about 28,000 non-Chinese. Of the 821,000 Chinese only 33% are recorded as having been born in the Colony the remaining 67% having been born in China (65% in the Province of Kwangtung). For those de- sirous of examining this position further it may be mentioned that the length of residence of the Chinese population has been gone into carefully in the 1931 Census Report. If suffices here to quote from that report, "The population still remains to a large extent migratory, a large proportion going backwards and forwards between the Colony and China. With the increase in family life this com- ing and going may be reduced somewhat, but the returns from this Census show that it still continues to a very great extent

6. From the above it will very naturally and correctly be inferred that over three quarters of a million Southern Chinese directly make a living in Hong Kong. There is no doubt that very many more in China derive their living from the ac- tivities of their compatriots in the Colony.

7. The Chinese population of the Colony and its commercial and industrial activities is of great value to its parent provinces in the same way that those Chinese who have gone abroad to Singapore and other parts of the world are a great asset to China. The Chinese people in Hong Kong and abroad are by their industry able to create wealth which they remit to the parent country. A recent estimate of this wealth by Mr. Remer in his book, ("Foreign Investments in China ") places remit- tances to China from Chinese abroad at a varying amount of $150 to 200 millions per annum. As the vast majority of Chinese emigrants come from the Southern Provinces and because of the excellent exchange facilities existing in Hong Kong, the bulk of these remittances pass through the Colony.

8. Inasmuch as depression in Hong Kong has caused economic stringency amongst its large Chinese population the latter's remittances to China have de- creased, and in some cases because of lack of occupation the workers are forced to return to their native provinces where they remain idle or even become destitute. Neither Hong Kong nor South China is benefited and the result is yet a further rise in the tide of depression.

9. It appears to us that South China is Hong Kong's largest and logical market and that South China needs the facilities which Hong Kong can afford. Close con- tact and effort towards mutual benefits, therefore, seem to be the only likely move which will tend towards increased prosperity. Judging from the Press, Can- ton would seem at the moment to be determined to be economically as independent of Hong Kong as she possibly can and the problem therefore, is how to turn this shortsighted spirit of independence into one of co-operative movement to the mutual benefit of both parties. In the long run of the world's history, policies of careful and balanced co-operation have always proved more efficacious than poli- cies of inconsidered independence. It may, in this connection, not be amiss to mention the recently concluded Hong Kong-Canton Railway Agreement in the nego- tiation of which mutual concessions were made in the greatest spirit of friendliness towards a final agreement. The value of an agreement on that basis can readily be seen in this case by the immediate speeding up of trains and increased traffic. The benefit cannot be otherwise than mutual. The same principle must apply to trade and commerce which are equally matters of two way traffic. Hong Kong supplies South China with the use of a first class free port and first class entrepot trading facilities. Is South China prepared to increase the value of those facilities to her- self by helping Hong Kong to maintain them?

10. Various suggestions have been made to the Commission with the view to an increase in the development and prosperity of the whole economic unit of South China and Hong Kong, but before examining these there is one point which might with advantage be dealt with here. This is the suggestion that Hong Kong should

79

break from the policy of free trade followed since its foundation, and adopt a tariff which it can use as a bargaining point with China and other countries.

We are unanimously of the opinion that such a step would cause added confusion to an already confused state of affairs. While we are not sentimentally disposed to regard the free-trade policy of the Colony as unbreakable should circumstances demand a moderate measure of protection to Hong Kong products, we are of the opinion that generally speaking Hong Kong's prosperity is still largely due to its free trade status and we do not recommend that this should be changed. The evidence that we have heard on this subject entirely supports this view.

11. Soon after we commenced our deliberations it was suggested to us that if the Colony in some way were to come within the tariff wall of China as far as trading with China was concerned, the consequent facility of closer contact and co-operation would be of great mutual benefit. It was considered that such an arrangement would open the whole area between Hong Kong and Canton to indus- trial and other development on a large scale, as an arrangement of this nature would conduce towards confidence in the economic future and reduce to a minimum that bugbear, to both China and Hong Kong, of the great but unascertainable amount of smuggling which goes on. Various alterative schemes were proposed with which it is not necessary to burden this report. Roughly they ranged from the total inclusion of the Colony within the Tariff Barrier to an inclusion of only the New Territories therein. By the adoption of some such a scheme it was anticipated that the revenues of China would be greatly increased and that both the industrial development started by Canton under the Three Year Plan and the small industries of Kowloon would expand into industrialisation of the area between those two places. The Commission has been given to realise from various press reports that suggestions such as these would at first blush meet with opposition from certain sections of the Canton Community. While this report is being drafted numerous paragraphs are appearing in the Canton press opposing "a proposal for the creation of a Customs House at Kowloon on the grounds that such would hinder the deve- lopment of agriculture, industries and commerce, increase the dumping of foreign goods and end in economic bankruptcy

12. The Commmission have no knowledge of any such suggestions having been made either by or to the Government of Hong Kong and much time seems to have been spent on combating an unformed suggestion. We are aware that negotiations took place between the Chinese and Hong Kong authorities in the year 1929 for the conclusion of a Customs Agreement somewhat on the lines of the suggestions now made. As far as we know, however, the matter has since lain in abeyance until again brought before us for consideration by some of the business community of Hong Kong engaged in importing into and exporting from China.

13. Subsequently we heard a considerable amount of evidence from merchants and manufacturers on this subject, and with few exceptions received the opinion that an inclusion of Hong Kong within the Tariff Wall of China would be of material benefit to the trade of South China both because of the actual moving of the obstructive barrier between two parts of the same Economic Entity and because increased confidence would ensure much greater activity and movement of goods, while trade would be placed on a full and proper and moral basis instead of being handicapped by the present vagaries of smuggling, a practice abhorrent to all good traders.

14. It may be interpolated here that expressions of opinion have been heard to the effect that the smuggling which goes on is actually of benefit to the Colony inasmuch as goods imported into Hong Kong and sold to dealers subsequently find their way into China free of duty, whereas if duty were to be paid the same quantity of goods would not be imported. In answer to this suggestion we are glad to say that every witness with whom this question was discussed was of the opinion that smuggling is an extremely undesirable basis for trade and that as a co-operative movement with South China for an improvement in economic conditions they would like to see steps taken for its removal.

15. Before going further it is necessary somewhat to consider the industrial aspect of the question. According to the 1931 Census Report, 52.87% of the

population of the Colony is engaged in

CC

80

earning a living. That is to say, this percentage is actually occupied in pursuits of gain". Table No. 39 on page 65 of that report gives a synopsis of Industrial Classification which is of considerable interest. The following figures have been extracted therefrom:-

Total population

.849,751

Portion of total population occupied in pursuit of gain....470,794

Portion occupied in Manufacture..

...111,156

Portion occupied in Transport and Communications

.....

71,264

Portion occupied in Fishing and Agriculture

64,420

Portion occupied in Commerce and Finance

97,026

16. From these figures it will be seen that about one quarter of those occupied in pursuits of gain (or one seventh of the total population) is engaged in some kind of manufacture, while a somewhat smaller number is engaged in commerce and finance. It is estimated, however, that of the rest of the working population a very much greater proportion is engaged in servicing finance and commerce than in servicing manufacture. These figures are merely produced, without any desire to exaggerate, to show that a substantial portion of the activities of the Colony is engaged in industry. It is, of course, quite well recognised that the principal. and basic activities of the Colony are Trade and Commerce, and the auxiliary services appertaining thereto, and that industrial activity has only recently arisen and assumed any sizeable proportion.

17. Until we examined the position we were as a body inclined, with others of the community, to consider the industry of Hong Kong as being of very minor importance. As the result of research and evidence, however, we have come to the conclusion that it has assumed a proportion which can by no means be disregard- ed and that while it has arisen in somewhat haphazard style it does contribute sub- stantially to the welfare of the economic unit of South China and Hong Kong. We are of the opinion, however, and all the evidence which we have heard bears this out, that the industry of Hong Kong cannot develop much beyond its present stage except inasmuch as it can form an economic part of the whole industrial develop- ment of South China and even to some extent of North China. While some of the factories at present existing in Hong Kong are solely Hong Kong Units, some of the more important are but sections of industrial concerns, the other parts of which operate in Canton or in Shanghai. That the still closer combination of the industry of the Colony with that of China is the logical development is still more apparent when we note that of the 111,000 engaged therein all but 800 are Chinese. Still more striking is the fact ascertained by research that there are over 400 Chinese managed factories in the Colony mainly producing consumable goods, having a total capital of somewhere about $50 millions. This capital is almost entirely Chinese.

18. From all the above it is not only clear that all the activities of Hong Kong are very much bound up with those of South China but also that from a purely economical point of view there should be no separation or cleavage in those activities. They are indeed in many respects inseparable. Owing, however, to artificial barriers placed between them mainly by way of taxation, normal co- operation and development is greatly retarded. Thus considering the area of South China and Hong Kong as a whole it seems impossible to say that any measures calculated to afford free trade within its borders can be of detriment to any part of it. Prosperity accruing to Hong Kong must be reflected in increased prosperity to Canton and the hinterland and vice versa, and any action causing economic separation can only work to the detriment of both. The fact that South China in- vests money in Hong Kong and that Chinese in Hong Kong remit money to South China alone points to this.

19. It appears equally plain that neither South China nor Hong Kong can ex- pect much increase in prosperity until both internal conditions in China and general world conditions improve. Our desire, therefore, must be to initiate arrange- ments calculated to ensure that when conditions do improve the economic unit of

81

Hong Kong and South China may fully return to its former prosperity. Can it do this if Hong Kong continues to be outside China's high tariff and the tendency on the part of China continues to be to side-track Hong Kong wherever possible, in spite of the fact that it is the best deep sea-port for South China?

20. As it is generally agreed that really sound and reliable trade cannot be based on smuggling, it is reasonable that we should be prepared to take active measures to combat it to China's advantage, provided that we too can obtain some advantage more permanent and moral than that possibly accruing at the present time from large scale smuggling.

21. We gave this subject considerable time and thought in view of the fact that in our opinion it is the most important question arising under the second and third parts of our terms of reference, viz:-" to make recommendations for the amelioration of any existing difficulties and for the improvement of the trade of the Colony "

22. We finally agreed that it would be a desirable thing if, without giving up its Free Port status and without surrendering privileges or authority, this Colony could come to an understanding with China which would enable it to have free or preferential entry into China in respect of goods manufactured within the Colony.

23. Further, we were agreed that the Colony of Hong Kong should be prepared actively to co-operate with the Chinese Authorities in safeguarding Customs revenue in return for preferential treatment from China in respect of goods manu- factured in Hong Kong.

24. In order that our suggestions might have the fullest and most careful con- sideration we are of the opinion that they should be frankly discussed with the Chinese Authorities informally and without commitment on either side, so that the ground may be fully explored. We are strongly of the opinion that personal contact and conversation would elicit true facts and a sympathetic understanding of a point of view which correspondence could not achieve.

25. Though there have been newspa paper paragraphs and rumours regarding opposition to measures of this nature, as far as we are aware no discussions have taken place and there has, therefore, been no opportunity for an exchange of views for the purpose of ascertaining whether any mutual concessions could be made or advantages obtained. In our opinion closer connections between Hong Kong and China in the way of informal meetings and discussions would do much to dispel antagonism born out of misunderstanding. Ex parte statements have been made. that the interests of Hong Kong and South China are totally opposed. We have endeavoured in the above chapter to show that on the contrary the interests of the whole area are one and that closer collaboration will tend towards increased pro- sperity for that area and the establishment of trade, commerce and industry on a sound and lasting basis. British interests are not opposed to those of China. The British are only too anxious to increase the volume of trade. Success in this direction spells prosperity to China and Hong Kong alike. Inasmuch as Hong Kong is an established trade mart having little or no raw materials for industry whereas South China is a large area having raw materials as yet largely unexploited, it would appear that the future holds out hope of increasing production on the mainland.. For this, capital, machinery and equipment, and marketing facilities are required. With regard to these requirements, given adequate encouragement Hong Kong is in a unique position to assist.

Chapter VI.

HONG KONG'S POSITION VIS-A-VIS THE BRITISH EMPIRE.

1. In the last chapter we viewed the economic position of the Colony as related to China. Here we will take into consideration the fact that Hong Kong is a part of the British Empire.

"Blue Book 1932, p. T4.

"

Blue Book "

1933, p T4.

"Blue Book " 1933, p. S14.

82

In relation to the rest of the Empire Hong Kong is geographically minute. Nevertheless, it contains the fifth largest port in the world.

2. As far as Trade Figures can depict the position the following are of interest. In 1932 the total shipping tonnage entering and clearing the Port of Hong Kong was 43,824,906 tons. Of this 20,414,218 tons or nearly half, was British. In 1933 the total tonnage entering and clearing was 37,698,985 tons, 19,553,462 tons of which was British. Again the British tonnage was about half of the total.

3. Taking 1933, the last year for which complete figures are available, the total imports into the Colony including treasure amounted to $539,052,046. Of this $98,328,141 worth, or a little less than one-fifth came from the British Empire. Of a total export in 1933 of $537,224,754, $110,510,358 worth was exported to the British Empire. This figure again represents about one-fifth of the

total.

4. It must be remembered that not more than about one-tenth of the imports are consumed in the Colony and that probably less than one-tenth of the exports are produced in the Colony. The remainder represents goods in transit for which Hong Kong is a suitable financial centre, place of storage, and port of ocean ship- ment. Hong Kong gains this business (a) because of its excellent harbour and (b) because of the cheapness of its facilities. Addition to the cost of the entrepot trade will tend towards a decreased use of Hong Kong, while conversely a cheapening of facilities will enhance its value to that trade. In a manufacturing business the economic use of bye-products tends to decrease the cost of manu- facture of the principal product. In a similar manner, the fostering of economic activities subsidiary to the main business of the entrepot trade of the Colony of Hong Kong will tend to decrease the costs of that business. The effect of a decrease in costs may, in normal times be an increase in volume.

5. The above enunciated principle applies, of course, to all activities which may be considered subsidiary to the main business of the Colony, such as wireless. and cable communications, the development of aviation, the development of the tourist traffic, and such development of industries as is possible. In this chapter we consider the matter from the industrial point of view.

6. We realised that no deliberations, having as their aim an amelioration of the existing position and the improvement of the trade of the Colony, would be complete unless we examined the possibility of Hong Kong attaining a closer economic contact with the rest of the British Empire. This question involved an examination of the Imperial Preference Policy which dates from the Ottawa Agreement of 1932.

7. We were extremely fortunate in the fact that early in the course of our meetings the Report of the Straits Settlements Economic Commission was published. With regard to Imperial Preference the position of the Straits Settlements is similar to that of Hong Kong. We have, therefore, taken advantage of that excellent report to which we acknowledge our indebtedness and from which we freely quote in this chapter.

8. As stated in the Straits Settlements report the object of the policy adopted at Ottawa was Imperial Co-operation, the rationalisation of agricultural and manu- facturing production and the safeguarding of markets. For this purpose the Em- pire falls into three categories-the United Kingdom, which is the industrial centre; the Dominions and India, which export the higher classes of foodstuffs and raw materials and have also entered into the industrial field in competition to some extent with the United Kingdom; and the Colonies, whose main function is to export produce and whose manufactures are on the whole negligible. It is obvious, there- fore, that it would not be in keeping with Imperial policy to encourage additional manufacturing production in the Colonies for world markets which could more rea- sonably be supplied by the United Kingdom or the Dominions (including India).

83

The term "world markets" is used advisedly as there are likely to be local markets of a limited nature in the neighbourhood of most Colonies which can most suitably and economically be met by local production as a natural expression of the economic life of the community.

9. Now while the above truly applies to the British Empire as a whole and while the portion relating to Colonies is indeed consonant with the conditions obtaining in practically all the Colonies of the Empire, it does not in particular apply to Hong Kong. It is not Hong Kong's main function to export produce, and with 25% of the working population engaged in industry its manufactures cannot be said to be negligible. For the rest, Hong Kong has practically no raw materials or agri- cultural production for export, and its main activities are devoted to importing and exporting goods originating from outside its borders; and the shipping, financial. professional, and technical services relating to that commerce. (Hong Kong's position in the British Empire may therefore be regarded as unique. Inasmuch as it is unique we are unanimously of the opinion that in all matters of Imperial Policy the Colony should be given careful individual consideration. Inasmuch as it is by necessity, and for the general welfare of the trade of the Empire passing through its portals, a Free Trade entrepot, and can therefore afford but little Empire Pre- ference, we consider that the rest of the Empire should whenever at all possible accord it such treatment as will enable it to prosper and continue to afford its splendid facilities at the cheapest possible rate.

10. That there is a tendency not to accord Hong Kong such treatment has been brought before us in evidence relating to specific industries. There has for instance recently been a strong endeavour on the part of certain portions of the Em- pire for the imposition of restrictions on the Empire marketing of rubber shoes. the Empire content of which is high and could be higher if so desired. We have heard that rope manufactured in the Colony by a Company which commenced operation in the last century has been virtually excluded from one Empire market., fundamentally because it can sell its goods at a cheaper (but profit bearing) cost than that of goods emanating from other parts of the Empire. It is not gainsaid that good reasons may be produced to justify such action but when we take it that the broad line of policy is Imperial co-operation we feel that in respect of her services to Empire Trade and the small measure of preference she is able to afford to other parts of the Empire, some latitude should be allowed Hong Kong, especially during this time of great depression. It is plain to us that, if the reasonable pro- sperity of the Colony cannot be maintained, the burden of taxation must become heavier, with a resultant increase in the charges on the trade of the port. We believe that the Empire will gain more by the maintenance of Hong Kong as one of the cheapest ports in the world than by adopting a policy calculated to suppress a reasonable development of her small industries.

11. At the Imperial Economic Conference at Ottawa in 1932 were present delegates representing Canada, The United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, The Irish Free State, India, The Union of South Africa, Newfoundland and Southern Rhodesia. In the United Kingdom delegation was included the Secretary of State for the Colonies and a Colonial Officer Adviser.

12. In the course of his initial speech at the Conference Mr. Stanley Baldwin said:

If

"What then should be the first aim of this Conference? It should be to clear out the channels of trade among ourselves. For that purpose we need not measure too closely or too exactly the relative value of preferences given and received. we all approach the problem with a view to seeing how much each can contribute to the common stock without detriment to our own national interests, we shall not need to concern ourselves with the relative advantages obtained by each, since we shall know that an increase in the purchasing power of any members of the Empire must show itself in the increased Imperial trade, and the prosperity of each will add to the prosperity of all "

"The present universal depression makes the extension and improvement of Imperial trade a matter of urgent importance to all parts of the Empire. The

84

extension and greater activity of Empire trade is the most hopeful means of stimulating demand in the world markets and of restoring a sound level of wholesale commodity prices."

"When I speak of the Empire, I am thinking, not only of the Dominions and India, but also of the Colonies where a keen desire exists for mutual trade with the whole Imperial connection. Colonial territories are situated mainly in tropical latitudes, and they mostly produce food and raw materials, buying manufactures in return. In recent months the Colonies have considerably extended both in range and area the preferences which have long been established as an important feature of policy, and their desire to play their part in fostering Empire trade is shown by the fact that these preferences are Empire wide ".

On our side the United Kingdom have recently granted further extensive preferences to the Colonies, a decision justified on material as well as sentimental grounds, since capacity to buy must depend on ability to sell. The value of Colonial Trade to the United Kingdom is shown by the fact that the proportion of United Kingdom exports taken by the Colonial Empire, which amounted to 7 per cent in 1924, has risen in the first quarter of 1932 to 11 per cent. A similar tendency is shown by the figures of the trade between the Colonies and the rest of the Empire. In 1930 the Colonies sold to the United Kingdom goods valued at £39,000,000 and to the rest of the Empire £20,000,000, while during the same year they bought from the United Kingdom £50,000,000 and from the rest of the Em- pire £46,000,000. It is the desire of the United Kingdom to see trade between the Colonies and the Dominions and India still further increased. We cordially welcome such arrangements as the agreement between Canada and the West Indies which has conferred benefits on both, and we shall hope that our discussions in Ottawa may do much to open up possibilities of mutual trading between the tropical and temperate regions of the Empire.

"We have made during the last few months a very intensive examination of the trade of the whole Empire, in the endeavour to find how we can help both our- selves and you, for despite clashes of sectional interest here and there we believe that the prosperity of the United Kingdom and that of all the other parts of the Empire are intimately linked together."

13. The following resolution was adopted regarding Empire Content :-

With regard to the determination of the percentage of Empire Content necessary to secure preferential tariff treatment, the Conference draws the attention of the several Governments of the Commonwealth to the importance of this subject, and recommends that each of the Governments of the Commonwealth should inves- tigate, as rapidly as possible, the standard of Empire Content which should be required by them for the import under preferential rates of the different classes of goods, bearing in mind the following principles :-

(a) That though it must rest with each Government to decide what standard it will require, a greater degree of uniformity through the Commonwealth is desirable;

(b) the standard required should not be such as to defeat or frustrate the intention of the preferential rate of duty conceded to any class of goods.

The following resolutions were adopted concerning Industrial Co-operation:---

This Conference, having examined the Report of the Imperial Economic Committee on Imperial Industrial Co-operation, finds itself in general agreement with the tenor of the Report."

"The Report makes it clear that industrial production has developed and will continue to develop in the less industrialised parts of the Commonwealth. These developments involve changes in the economic structure both of the more indus- trialised and of the less industrialised countries; and the Conference notes with ap- proval the view of the Committee that: the object of co-operation is not, and must not be, to arrest change, but wisely to direct and facilitate its course."

*

*

85

"It should, in the opinion of the Conference, be the subject of any policy of industrial co-operation within the Commonwealth to secure the best division of Industrial activities among the several parts of the Commonwealth and the ordered economic development of each part, with a view to ensuring the maximum efficiency and economy of production and distribution."

"It is further the view of the Conference that the precise nature and extent of the co-operation to be achieved in any particular industry must largely depend upon effective consultation between those engaged, or proposing to engage, in that industry in any two or more parts of the Commonwealth."

The Conference therefore recommends to the various industries in which con- ditions are suitable for the purpose, the desirability of making arrangements for such consultation at the earliest possible date; but it records its belief that such consul- tation, to be fully effective, should be conducted between responsible persons or bodies adequately representative of the industry in each part of the Commonwealth concerned.

>>

"The Conference further recommends that the Governments concerned facilitate and assist such consultations by all available means.

"The Conference further recommends that, without prejudice to their liberty to determine their own general economic policies, the Governments of the Common- wealth should give sympathetic consideration to any proposals which may be put before them by responsible parties representing similar industrial interests in the parts of the Commonwealth affected. In this connection the Conference would draw attention to the importance of taking into consideration the interests of other parts of the Commonwealth which might be affected by such proposals.”

14. In the agreement between the United Kingdom and Canada it was agreed that Hong Kong should afford Canada a preference of 20% on Motor Cars. It is not clear that whether Canada affords Hong Kong any effective preference in ex- change for this. (Ottawa Conference Blue Book, Art. 19-page 22, and schedules E. and F.)

In the agreement between the United Kingdom and Australia it was agreed that Hong Kong should afford Australia a preference on Brandy.

It is not clear whether any effective preferences are accorded to Hong Kong by Australia except in regard to ships. (Ottawa Conference Blue Book, Art. 15- page 45, and schedules F. and G.) Even in regard to ships the effectiveness is

doubtful.

In the agreement between New Zealand and the United Kingdom there appears to be no arrangement affording any effective preferences between Hong Kong and New Zealand.

The above paragraph also applies to the agreements between the United King- dom and South Africa, Newfoundland and India.

In the agreement between the United Kingdom and Southern Rhodesia it was provided that Hong Kong should afford a preference to Southern Rhodesia tobacco. There appears to be no arrangement affording any effective preference to Hong Kong.

15. In all these agreements there is provision to the effect that preference afforded by Hong Kong to one part of the Empire shall be accorded to all other parts of the Empire.

16. While the natural markets for Hong Kong manufactures are the adjacent countries, such as China, The Netherlands East Indies, French Indo-China, the Philippines, etc., the policy of national economic sufficiency adopted in those coun- tries resulting in high protective tariffs, either excludes Hong Kong or affords it pre- carious, unreliable, and dwindling markets.

86

17. As things are at present it seems that there is little or no hope of compen- sation for the exclusion from these foreign markets by entry on favourable terms into Empire markets. It is true that under the Ottawa Agreements Canada and New Zealand accord the same preferences to imports from the Colonies as to those from the United Kingdom. It appears from evidence which we have heard, how- ever, that Canada is inclined to impose restrictions on Hong Kong produce. The other Dominions and India afford Hong Kong little or no preference.

18. The conclusion we have come to is that while Hong Kong might reasonably expect some consideration from the rest of the Empire, we cannot expect sufficient preference to enable the Colony to manufacture on any large scale for the propose of supplying Empire markets. We can expect from the Empire that there should be no further restriction and that such preference as is accorded should not be rendered negative by means of dumping taxes or high valuations for purposes of duty. We are convinced that Hong Kong as a free trade channel is of benefit to the Empire and that the Colony deserves consideration on that account but, as stated in the last chapter, we believe that Hong Kong's economic value is more closely re- lated to South China and that such industrialisation as may be possible in the Colony should be a part of the economic development of South China as a whole.

19. We considered the question as to what Hong Kong could give to the Empire in exchange for preferences enabling Hong Kong to market her goods therein. We refer anyone greatly interested in the subject to Chapters 51 to 53 of the Singapore's Commission's Report. The following is a quotation from Chapter

51:-

"To implement this policy as between itself and the Crown Colonies and Pro- tectorates, the United Kingdom exempted Empire goods satisfying the prescribed conditions from the duties imposed by the Import Duties Act, 1932, and imposed duties on a number of new articles, Empire goods again being excepted, by the Ottawa Agreements Act, 1932. The conditions in question were that to qualify for preference goods must be shown to have been consigned from and grown, produced or manufactured in a part of the British Empire. For manufactured articles to be entitled to preference the general rate is that not less than 25 per cent of their value must be derived from materials grown or produced, or from work done, within a part of the British Empire. There are certain exceptional cases where a different percentage is admitted, and the Federation of Chambers of Commerce of the British Empire at its Thirteenth Congress in 1933 urged the adoption of a minimum ratio of 50 per cent and a greater approach to uniformity. So far this proposal has not been approved."

35

20. The Crown Colonies and Protectorates were invited to reciprocate by giving preference to goods manufactured in the United Kingdom, but there was no attempt at compulsion and the invitation was to be governed by the tariff policy of the Colony. (The present tariff policy of Hong Kong is "Free Trade and generally speaking we strongly

we strongly feel that it should not be altered.) We discard sentiment, however, and think that if it could be shown in respect of any one commodity that it can be economically produced in the Colony, that Can import tax would be a clear advantage to the Colony as a whole) and that such taxation would not interfere with the entrepot trade and would not invite retaliations, there is a bias in favour of affording the manufacture of that commodity in the Colony some protection. In the evidence which has been placed before us and during our own deliberations, however, we have been unable to dis- cover any article of manufacture which fulfils all these conditions.

21. Even if the Colony were to adopt forms of protection, these could only apply in respect of goods consumed within the Colony, the whole of which is only about 10 per cent of Hong Kong's total imports. To give Empire Preference on such proportion of the Imports as is consumed in the Colony would not, as regards the vast majority of commodities, be of sufficient benefit to Empire countries to warrant reciprocation. Only in respect of one commodity, Motor Vehicles, can we perceive that Hong Kong can accord a preference which is really beneficial and in respect of which the United Kingdom and Canada can be expected to re- ciprocate. It must be remembered, however, that Hong Kong is a Crown Colony, and as such purchases through its Crown Agents, large quantities of goods and

87

materials from the United Kingdom, which is a form of preference. It should also be noted that the public utility companies in the Colony make a practice of buying their goods from the United Kingdom.

22. We finally come to the position that in order to invite the Empire to give Hong Kong further preferences, it would seem that Hong Kong must be pre- pared to give the Empire some advantages and it is difficult to see how this can be done in a manner sufficiently attractive to the Empire unless Hong Kong abandons the Free Trade policy. The maintenance of the entrepot trade of the Colony which is of great value to the Empire, depends in our opinion, on the continuance of the Free Trade policy. For this reason we would reiterate our plea for special consideration from those parts of the Empire which, while gaining this benefit are apt to adopt the policy of keeping out Hong Kong products.

Chapter VII.

INDUSTRY.

1. According to a report by an Economic Resources Committee which sat in Hong Kong in 1920, the amount of capital invested in what was termed European industry, i.e., companies owned and managed by Europeans, was estimated at fifty million dollars. This class of industry is mainly concerned with Public Utilities and Docks though it also includes Cement, Sugar and Rope factories. There is little rea- son to believe that there has been any increase in this class of industry.

2. The 1920 Committee estimated that 17 million dollars were invested in Chinese owned and managed industries.

The estimate in 1920 was as follows:-

Rattan Furniture

Biscuits

Cigars

Tobacco

Preserved Ginger Soap works

Vermillion

Lard and Fat

Industries in the New Territories...

78,300

843,200

25,500

15,124,600

570,000

"

290,200

185,000

88,100

17,204,900

284,015

17,488,915

3. Since then there has been considerable development as will be seen from the following recently computed estimate of Chinese owned and managed industry :-

Industrial Survey of the Colony of Hong Kong including Kowloon and the

Class.

Aerated Waters

New Territories.

Baking and Confectionery

Cork and Cork Hats

Bricks, Cement and Tiles

Carried forward

Total Capital.

$ 1,730,000 2,386,900

11,000 757,000

..$ 4,884,900

J

88

Total Capital.

Brought forward...$ 4,884,900

Crackers Dyeing

Electroplating

335,000

55,000

23,400

Electric Torch Batteries

144,300

Electric Hand Torches and Bulbs....

751,000

Engineering

464,100

Felt and Corks Hats

233,500

Feathers

219,000

Furniture

170,000

Flour and Rice Mills

53,500

Glass

333,100

Ink (Printing)

65,900

Knitting and Weaving

5,679,700

Leather Goods

130,500

Miscellaneous

20,690,800

Metal Wares

912,200

Medicines and Perfumery

5,940,000

Mosquito and Joss Sticks

230,000

Noodles and Macaroni

Preserves and Canning

21,000

1,175,500

Printing and Stationery Peanut Oil

4,902,500

310,000

Rubber Canvas Shoes

1,060,000

Rattan and Grass Rope

213,000

Shirts and Handkerchiefs

176,400

Sugar

....

345,000

Saw Mills and Box Making

924,000

Shipyards (Chinese only)

489,000

Soap

107,000

Vermillion and White Lead

205,000

$51,244,300

4. While the figures of capital can only be taken as rough estimates, they were computed from a detailed survey and are considered sufficiently accurate to demon- strate that Chinese owned and managed industry has greatly expended since 1920.

It will also be observed that many more varieties of industry have been set up. )

5. A division between the industry of Hong Kong and that of Kowloon and the New Territories is also informative, the number of factories in Hong Kong being 166 with a total capitalisation of $27,284,000, while those in Kowloon num- ber 253 with a capitalisation of $23,960,000.

6. In the course of our deliberations we visited some of these factories and heard evidence from a number of factory owners. Most of the witnesses gave evidence to the effect that the increase in the Chinese Import Tariff had adversely affected their business. We had evidence that in some cases the effect of being cut off from the China market by the high tariff had been to stop manufacture altogether and that many factories had been closed down before we commenced our delibera- tions and before this survey was made.

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7. The opinions of factory owners varied according to their interests. Some were in favour of an endeavour to arrange for an area of the Colony to be placed within the Chinese Customs Tariff Barrier while others, who were mainly concerned with exporting their produce to markets other than China, were inclined to be in- different to such an arrangement. The general evidence we have heard, however, has been weighted on the side of some kind of a Tariff agreement which, while some- what facilitating the marketing of Hong Kong products in China would also enable Hong Kong to help the Chinese Government in the prevention of smuggling, and would generally be co-operative. This question has been dealt with in Chapter V of this Report, and the question of marketing Hong Kong products in other parts of the British Empire has been discussed in Chapter VI. These are both matters in which external factors play a deciding part.)

8. There yet remains to be considered the value of Hong Kong as a Manufactur- ing Centre for foreign markets. Ideally situated as a free port, having every facility for cheap freight and transport, and possessing above all an abundance of cheap and efficient labour, there seems no valid reason why Hong Kong should not establish for itself an ascendancy in certain specialized lines of manufacture, particularly in hosiery, rubber shoes, torchlights, firecrackers and other cheap goods-possibly toys. Finally there is to be considered the value to Hong Kong herself of her indus- tries and whether Hong Kong can take any action to foster those industries and main- tain them as a definite asset.

9. From the Chinese manufacturers collectively we have received representa- tions to the effect that they suffer under the necessity of observing stringent factory regulations, restriction of hours of labour, difficulties at times with regard to the provision of water and strict rules governing the sinking of wells. Complaints have also been made regarding the lack of security of tenure of rented factory premises. There have also been complaints regarding the necessity of obtaining auditors certi- ficates and government certificates for which fees have to be paid, thereby imposing an additional burden on industry.)

10. While many of these complaints may be met with adequate replies showing that the burdens are legitimate charges and unavoidable, and, while it is right and fitting that Hong Kong should keep abreast of the movement towards healthier and better conditions of labour, still it should always be remembered that Hong Kong has to compete with neighbours whose factory standards and industrial level are not high. For this reason, the introduction of legislation for the betterment of work- ing conditions should be cautious and not over-ambitious, lest it defeat itself. The too stringent enforcement of such laws may cause industries to close down and to throw their employees out of work. We are of the opinion that at the present time when all countries are taking a supervisory interest in their industries a careful inves- tigation into the conditions of each industry established in the Colony with a view to affording all possible assistance thereto would not be amiss. In coming to this conclusion we have had in mind the fact that industry has during the last few years become a not unimportant activity in the Colony and that its welfare must have some considerable effect on the general welfare of the Colony. That this must be so should be obvious from the fact (which we have quoted elsewhere in this Report) that one out of every four persons gainfully occupied in the Colony obtains his living from Industry. We do not propose that uneconomic activities should be artifically maintained but, where investigation shows that some measure of assistance in present times of difficulty may result in the survival of a factory on a sound basis, such assistance should be afforded.

11. Without going into details regarding this matter we would point out that a Chinese Manufacturers' Union has recently been formed, and we feel that with the aid of this body a closer study of the industry of the Colony may be possible. Elsewhere in this Report we have made the suggestion that a Special Committee should be formed for the purpose of having continuously under review the economic welfare of the Colony. If such a body were to be formed the maximum benefit possible to industry might be assured; at least there could be no complaint that the industrial situation of the Colony received no attention and scant sympathy.

12. While having thus recorded our opinion that the industry of the Colony should receive careful consideration and that all reasonable and possible relief should

90

be afforded, we feel that we should fail in our duty if we did not strike a note of warning. We do not believe that uneconomic industries should be subsidised. In highly developed countries having resources of raw material, highly skilled man power and large permanent populations, which are themselves consumers, it has sometimes been found necessary to subsidise industry in order that it may maintain its markets during temporary adversities. The premises do not apply to Hong Kong and there is every reason to believe that once a subsidy was granted to an industry in Hong Kong it would have to be continued. Moreover, the granting of a subsidy would merely mean the transference of the burden to the other activities of the Colony either in the form of increased taxation or in delay in a possible reduction of taxation, while repercussion elsewhere is incalculable. While such industries as are possible in the Colony are on a sound economic basis there is every reason to expect fair dealing with the rest of the Empire and other countries. For a sub- sidised industry such treatment cannot justly be claimed; and Hong Kong is in no position to embark on a trade war, the weapons in which are tariffs, quotas, counter- subsidies, etc.)

13. For this reason and others it is not anticipated that Hong Kong will ever be a suitable place for the establishment of heavy industries other than those naturally related to shipping and ship repairing, except in so far as it may be able to co-operate with South China in general industrial development. It has been said elsewhere in this Report that we do not advocate import duties as a means of pro- tection. Local consumption is comparatively small and against the limited benefit to local industries would have to be set the adverse effect on the much larger entrepot trade for which bonding or similar facilities would have to be organised at consider- able expense.

14. In striking this note of warning we do not wish it to be thought that we consider that nothing can be done for the existing industries which, in the main, are calculated to supply common consumable necessities to those whose purchasing power is small. Inasmuch as within large portions of the Empire the demand for such goods is very great and inasmuch as Hong Kong is an Empire source of these goods, we think that everything possible should be done by the Government for these industries and that our recommendation for investigation and sympathetic aid rather than indifferent application of rigid rules should be adopted. It must be clearly understood that the goods we have in mind are those of the cheapest category and that Hong Kong is in competition with foreign cheap producing centres and not with the United Kingdom and Dominions which are not in a position to manufacture goods of this variety to compete with foreign supplies.

Chapter VIII.

}

PROPERTY.

1. The value of and investment in property, as a general rule depends upon the prosperity of the community. The attractions of the locality, either for trading, industrial, or social purposes create the demand which determines the value. Other factors however obtain in Hong Kong which tend abnormally to enhance or depreciate values. By reason of the Colony's security and freedom from undue taxation, as compared with the unrest and insecurity existing at times in South China, property for many years has been a favourite investment for the Chinese in the neighbouring provinces of China. This state of affairs has un- doubtedly tended to create abnormally high values, bearing little relation to their present economic worth, and in times of depression these values naturally depreciate rapidly thereby resulting in the freezing up of large assets and savings of the community.

2. The accompanying table shows the growth of the rateable value of the Colony during the past twenty years. In 1934 the rateable value stood at $38,641,856. This figure capitalized on the basis of 7% per annum represents an investment in rateable property of no less than $550,000,000. This huge sum, large

91

as it is, does not include very considerable property owned by the local Government, the Navy or the War Department, or all similar property which is not included for Assessment.

3. As it is not generally appreciated how large a portion of the wealth of the Colony is invested in property, a comparison of this foregoing figure with some of the other large categories of investment may be of value.

4. For example, the total market value of the shares of local companies (other than financial institutions) listed by the Stock Exchange amounts to approximately $150,000,000, although an appreciable portion of the assets of such companies is represented by property. Similarly, the estimated total value of money invested in Chinese factories or in Chinese industry in the Colony amounts to about $50,000,000 which is only a comparatively small sum. Here again a substantial portion of such money is undoubtedly represented by the property or buildings of such factories.

5. The total note issue, which is backed by silver and by sterling securities, amounts to about $160,000,000, but even this sum, large as it may appear, is for the most part held outside the Colony and only a small portion (authoritatively estimated at 25%) is owned within the Colony.

6. These comparative figures serve to make it abundantly clear that a very large portion, if not the bulk, of the wealth of the Colony, is represented by property.

7. That this must be so is hardly surprising in a territory where there is little agriculture, almost a complete absence of any trace of mineral wealth, and where industry is still only in its infancy.

8. At the present time, property values are very depressed and it is extremely difficult to negotiate the sale of any property. There are many reasons which have contributed to this state of affairs. Among these may be mentioned:-

(a) Overbuilding.

(b) Excessive charges for water (in the case of Chinese property).

(c) Building regulations and restrictions.

(d) Rates.

9. We propose to deal with these factors in the above order.

(a) Overbuilding.--During the period of low exchange (i.e. 1930-1932) which corresponded with the early years of the world depression, large sums of money were remitted from abroad for investment in the Colony, which had not yet begun to feel the depression. The violent and rapid fall in the exchange value of the local dollar, from two shillings to under elevenpence within the brief period of twenty months in 1929-1931, produced in Hong Kong all the effects of an inflation of currency. A wave of excessive optimism swept the Colony, and large areas of Crown land were sold by Government at public auctions at high prices, mostly for the purpose of building Chinese tenement houses. These sales all carried with them covenants which have now been or are being fulfilled, in the shape of a very large number of buildings for which there is no sufficient demand, even at rentals well below that which would furnish an economic return on the cost of construction. Hence the large number of empty Chinese houses and flats at the present time.

An excess of office building in the central portion of the Colony is also becoming noticeable, but for quite different reasons. Whereas the older office buildings in this area seldom exceeded four stories in height, the newer ones which have been and are being erected in their place rise to eight and more

more stories, with a consequent doubling of the available accommodation on the same area.

Only in the case of European flats has the supply not yet overtaken the demand, but when present and projected building plans have been completed, there should be sufficient accommodation for this category to meet the needs of a considerably larger European population.

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Insofar as the surplus accommodation conduces to lower rentals, a certain degree of superfluity is beneficial to the community at large in that it reduces the cost of living.

(b) Excessive charges for Water.-In a separate chapter the question of water charges is gone into very fully. Suffice it to say here that the charges for excess water, which (when compared with the return on Chinese tenement property) may be fairly described as unreasonably high, have had a serious effect in making such property unsaleable. Clearly some relief here is overdue.

(c) Building regulations and restrictions.-A further deterring influence is the increasing number of Government regulations and restrictions in regard to building construction, tending to discourage investment in property by Chinese investors. Property owners contend that while many such regulations are reasonable and proper there are many others which place an undue burden on property and render it impossible to obtain an economic return on cost of construction.

(d) Rates.-Some years ago the rates on property were raised from 13% to 17% on the ground that the low exchange necessitated an increased revenue to cope with the large portion of the Colony's expenditure which is based on sterling. Since then exchange has risen again to its former level and property owners, who have suffered very heavily in the depression, are looking to Government to effect a reduction in rates to the former level of 13%) While it may not be possible to restore the old rate of taxation, we consider that in view of the severe depression in property it should be Government's aim to bring about some reduction at the earliest possible moment.

Table showing the rateable value of the Colony for the past twenty years.

Year.

Rateable Value.

$

1915-16

14,287,285

1916-17

14,282,186

1917-18

14,410,153

1918-19

15,638,736

1919-20

16,304,801

1920-21

17,408,959

1921-22

18,696,660

1922-23

19,805,929

1923-24

21,059,700

1924-25

22,147,951

1925-26

27,287,862

1926-27

27,998,237

1927-28

29,016,439

1928-29

30,395,447

1929-30

31,617,566

1930-31

33,069,602

1931-32

35,071,566

1932-33

37,457,725

1933-34

38,941,273

1934-35

38,641,856

!

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Chapter IX.

HIGH COST OF LIVING IN HONG KONG.

1. One would naturally expect to find wages and the cost of the necessaries of life on approximately the same level in Hong Kong and in the adjoining territories of South China. The Colony is physically an integral portion of China, her popu- lation is predominantly Chinese, on whose movements inwards or outwards there are no restrictions; no duties are levied on foodstuffs and communications are cheap and frequent. In fact it ought to be cheaper to live in Hong Kong which apart from moderate revenue duties on liquor, tobacco and petrol, is a free port, than, in China which maintains an extensive tariff barrier on imports. Nevertheless it is not so. and both wages and the cost of living are substantially higher in the Colony. Several reasons might be adduced, in theory at any rate, to explain this pheno- menon. Taxation, regulations imposed by Government, currency, rent monopolies or manipulation of prices, higher standard of living one or all might be cited as the contributing cause. They all have a bearing on the Colony's economic con- ditions and merit a measure of analysis.

2. The cost of Government, ultimately represented by taxation, is undoubtedly a primary factor. Yet not one witness before the Commissioners contended that excessive taxation handicapped his business vis-a-vis his competitors elsewhere. Nevertheless so much loose thinking exists on the subject of public expenditure and the burdens it connotes that it should be scrutinised and placed in its proper perspective.

3. The Government of the Crown Colony of Hong Kong is a trinity. It com- bines the functions of a State Government, a Municipal Council and of a Harbour Authority. These activities are so intertwined that it would require a separate commission to disentangle them. The following tables represent a rough and ready classification of expenditure and revenue under these three heads. They do not claim in any sense dogmatic accuracy and are presented merely to provide material indispensible for the comparative study of Governmental systems in the Far East. The geographical restriction is important because Western Governments render a multitude of expensive social services, such as social insurance, compulsory educa- tion, etc., which have not yet been introduced into this part of the world. Further- more, the taxable capacity of Asiatics stands on a much lower plane.

TABLE "A".

EXPENDITURE (1933).

Military Contribution

Public Works, Extraordinary Other items of expenditure

Grand totals

Government

Harbour

Municipal

Grand total

Colonial.

Harbour.

Municipal.

$ 5,694,558

1,056,926

10,324,002

87,111 1,107,354

2,148,312 10,702,014

17,075,486

1,194,465 12.850.326

TABLE "B".

REVENUE. (Approved estimate for 1934).

$18,436,850

1,131,300

12,160,475

31,728,625

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4. The witnesses who appeared before the Commission did not, as stated already, complain of the undue weight of taxation in Hong Kong, but they probably considered the burden only by comparison with the position in China and not on its intrinsic justification which is of course the only valid test. The relative weight of the taxation in any community is in a sense immaterial, what really matters is whether it is justified by the services the Government renders and whether these latter are essential and such as the taxpayer can afford in the conditions prevailing. Any extravagance in the establishment or the conditions of the public service or in administrative policy constitute a burden which industry and trade must ultimately shoulder.

5. The budget shews a balance between expenditure and revenue but only by making the appropriation for Public Works Extraordinary disproportionately small. In other words standing charges, largely personal emoluments, leave an ominously small margin for the development necessary to maintain Hong Kong's competitive position. The fact that a purely fortuitous rise in exchange has come to the rescue of the Government should not be allowed to obscure the real position or to lull the community into apathy in the matter of retrenchment and the restoration of financial equilibrium. This problem obviously requires separate handling and the Commis- sioners could only give it cursory study.

give it cursory study. We are, however, unanimously of the opinion that the recommendations of the Retrenchment Commission of 1931 should be seriously reconsidered. In fact, we consider that the Commission did not go far enough. They would undoubtedly have recommended a more vigorous wielding of the axe had it been possible to foresee what the coming three years of depression and steadily rising economic nationalism had in store for the Colony. Nor are we satisfied that the Government was convinced that cutting down the establishment was imperative. Vigorous and enthusiastic officials find it easy in a bureaucratic Government to extend their departmental activities as the financial consequences are submerged and obscured by the aggregation in one budget of state and municipal expenditure. A logical preliminary step in retrenchment is to curtail services. Only then can personnel be reduced.

6. An outstanding instance of what we mean came to our notice in connection with the Harbour Office. One of the shipping members of the Commission com- mented on the large number of marine surveyors employed-16-which it is under- stood greatly exceeds that employed in Singapore. Upon investigation it was found that so long as Hong Kong remains a port qualified to give a B.O.T. certificate, the number of marine surveyors required for this service is regulated by the Board of Trade and does not rest with the local Government. It is therefore for the shipping community to decide whether the advantages accruing from this service outweigh the cost of it.

7. The next step involves the recruitment locally of a larger contingent of the Government Service and the employment of temporary officers for special works. This relieves the budget of permanent sterling commitments and provides greater control of expenditure in times of depression.

8. Retrenchment on the lines above indicated would need to be accompanied by measures calculated to reduce to a minimum the dangers of "graft", the common enemy of all Governments, both East and West. Rumours have long been current amongst the public that some departments of Government are not above suspicion in this respect. We refer to this matter with extreme reluctance, appreciating that these rumours are unsubstantiated by proof. They are, however, so persistent that we feel it to be our duty to bring them to the attention of the Government, be- cause it is vital to the future prosperity of the Colony to leave no stone unturned to ensure that the service is maintained at that high standard of integrity and honesty which built up the Colonial Empire and without which it cannot continue to flourish.

9. The Commission excluded the question of Military Contribution from considera- tion as outside their terms of reference. We were, however, surprised and gratified by the magnitude of the funds disbursed in the Colony by the Naval and Military Establishments. So important is the role the Services play in the Colony's internal economy that we would press on the Admiralty and the War Office to utilise the station to the fullest extent possible in their dispositions of ships and military units.

95

10. The burden of Government taxation cannot be dismissed without some reference to its incidence and distribution over the various sections of the commu- nity. First principles shew that import duties would be suicidal in a Colony whose main livelihood is its entrepot trade. Customs dues on any scale are therefore out of the question except in respect of liquor, tobacco and petrol, which can be easily isolated and handled without too seriously obstructing the free movement of trade. Unfortunately, income tax is barred out also because of the difficulties of collection, and of obtaining correct returns. Thus the two most obvious, most flexible and perhaps most equitable sources of revenue are not available. The Treasury has con- sequently been compelled to concentrate on property taxes, either directly, in the form of crown rent and rates, or, indirectly, through water charges. Very strong representations indeed were made to the Commission regarding the hardships to landlords of Chinese tenements involved in the latter charge. It might of course be argued that in times of financial emergency "de minimis non curat lex" and that property owners made fabulous profits in the past. It should not, however, be ignored that it has long been the practice of the Chinese community to invest their savings in house property. Depreciation of this capital which represents over half of the total wealth of the Colony has aggravated the existing trade depression by clogging the banks with frozen assets. The problem of water and the possibility of reforming the present methods of its administration has such serious financial repercussions on the Colony's internal economy that it will be further discussed in a separate chapter.

11. If the Government of the Colony has in the main escaped criticism on the charge of over taxation, it has not secured so favourable a verdict in respect of the regulations it imposes on the industrial and trading community. Several witnesses remarked on the hardships these regulations impose, particularly on nascent and struggling industries. We realise the Government's difficulties in this issue which spring from the conflict of Western and Eastern conceptions of Governmental res- ponsibility. Regulations intended to safeguard the lives and health of the community must often seem arbitrary and fanciful alike to the worker and still more to the local employer who has to struggle with insufficient capital against competitors who are exempt from any such restrictions and who more often than not enjoy the further shelter of a protective tariff. It is impossible to make any concrete suggestions other than to urge against the premature adoption of social standards too much in advance of those current in the neighbouring territories and to stress the danger of regulating an industry out of existence. Regulations are apt to be passed lightly. and without due regard to their economic consequences on the Colony's competitive industries, by all Governments and particularly by a benevolent bureaucracy when an enthusiastic or idealistic departmental head promotes them.

The same

12. Reference has already been made to the partially municipal character of the Government and its significance in the field of public expenditure. dualism exists in the field of laws and regulations. One consequence of the present system, for which due allowance must be made, is the rather cumbrous method of promulgating, under the form of statutes, what should really be municipal by-laws. The result is an unnecessary and undesirable inflexibility. Amendments and revisions are not readily made when conditions alter, and enterprise is very apt to be faced by a complexity of laws and regulations whose interpretation gives unlimited scope for delay and even on occasions for obstruction.

13. The significance of currency as an element in the Colony's economics needs no stress, and we will confine ourselves to the statement that any over valuation of the local dollar is a defect of the absolute as well as relative soundness of the Colony's monetary system which is unavoidable in existing conditions in China. This premium though it scarcely affects the entrepot trade, handicaps local industry. The Commissioners have every confidence that the enlightened control maintained over it in recent years will not be relaxed especially as there is a pos- sibility of a larger section than ever of China employing the Colony's notes as a medium in the present unsettled position of silver.

14. Undoubtedly the standard of living is higher in the Colony than in the adjoining Province. This, however, like the higher standard of currency, has the

96

merits of its defects and though it may occasionally affect the Colony adversedly, it is a welcome sign of the prosperity that good government should bring in its train and is in fact a justification for the foundation of the Colony.

Chapter X.

THE WATER PROBLEM IN HONG KONG.

1. It was with considerable diffidence that the Commission approached this large and difficult problem. So complex and many sided is the water question and such is the volume of authoritative expert opinion and argument supporting every side that the amateur explorer who, in a limited time seeks to cut hasty steps to a swift solution moves in constant danger of annihilation beneath avalanches from unsuspected quarters.

2. So far as can be ascertained, prior to 1902 there were only two systems of Government operated water supply in Hong Kong, direct main to house supply and street fountains. Meterage was unknown, the direct main to house supply being paid for in an inclusive rate which at that time was 13% of the rateable value of pro- perties in the Colony.

3. By an Ordinance dated 15th August, 1902, the system of meterage was first brought into force. Under this Ordinance it was provided that the Water Authority must within a specified time disconnect the main service to tenement houses and should not reconnect any new service without the previous consent of the Governor in Council.

4. It is clear from the "Objects and Eeasons" attached to the draft Bill that the object of this section was two-fold. The Government was endeavouring to reduce water wastage in the overcrowded poor districts of the town and they were at the same time conscious that meterage would impose a heavy burden on the landlord who would in nine cases out of ten have to pay for the cost of excess consumption.

5. This Ordinance was the subject of a petition stressing the undesirability of a return to conditions involving a non-direct house supply and urging the adoption of an alternative scheme then known as the "Chadwick Scheme" but which is now commonly referred to as the "Rider Main System".

6. As a result of this petition the Rider Main System was introduced on the Island in 1905, at a cost of $222,000, which was paid for by the Chinese com- munity. Under this system tenement houses were subjected to partial or total restric- tion of supplies in times of water scarcity, but, subject to such restriction, enjoyed a direct house supply service freed from any cost beyond the rates.

7. From 1903 until 1932 the Rider Main System for Chinese tenement houses worked parallel with the systems of metered supply and street fountains. In 1932 it was abolished and the present system of universal meterage was introduced?

8. It would serve no useful purpose for this Commission to re-open the dis- cussion of the rights or wrongs of the decision to abandon the Rider Main System. The matter was fully debated at the time and the arguments for and against the decision may be found in the pages of our local Hansard. It is, however, pertinent to record that the physical constituents of the Rider Main System had reached a stage where there remained no alternative between abolition and complete renewal, that the main argument put forward by Government in favour of abolition was that this System was wasteful and difficult to operate in times of water scarcity, and that it was definitely stated and maintained by Government that the introduction of universal meterage was not for the purpose of raising revenue but to secure a more equitable and less wasteful system of distribution.

n.)

:

97

9. Water is now supplied direct to all rated property, irrespective of the purpose for which that property is used. Each property is entitled to a so-called "Free Allow- ance" in respect of 2% of its rateable value calculated at the rate of 1000 gallons for 40 cents.

For example: rateable value

2% of

""

$20.00

Free allowance

40 cents

=50 thousand gallons per annum.

Per annum.

$1,000

20

All water over and above this "free allowance" is described as 'excess" water and is charged for at a special rate which was originally 75 cents per 1000 gallons but which has recently been reduced by 15%.

10. An examination of the foregoing summary reveals the existence of certain salient factors, which by their action and reaction on each other create and com- plicate our water problem. Prevention of waste, adequate provision for poor areas, cost and incidence of cost, considerations of health and considerations of revenue, are all inextricably interwoven and no solution can be deemed satisfactory which does not give full weight to each and at the same time provide a balance for the whole.

11. Hong Kong does not at present possess an unlimited supply of water and we are not, therefore, in a position where increased consumption can be regarded with satisfaction as increased revenue. With the completion of the Shing Mun Dam the position will be altered, but until the advent of that happy day prevention of waste is of equal importance with provision of an adequate supply.

12. Unfortunately, it is just in those areas where every law of public health and economics demands as full a supply at as low a rate as possible that waste is most prevalent and considerations of control most important. Moreover, quite apart from any question of waste, the density of population in the poor districts is so great that the normal water consumption of a Chinese tenement reaches a figure far in excess of the "free" allowance, which is based on rateable value and takes no account of the number and needs of individuals in any particular tenement.

13. Special control of these areas by the Rider Main System has been tried and found wanting and in its place the Government has introduced а system which aims at control through economic pressure supplemented by such physical restrictions as may from time to time be applied to the Colony generally.

14. The following tables show the consumption per annum in million gallons of water in Hong Kong and Kowloon during the years 1931-1934 inclusive:

Consumption of Filtered Water.

(in million gallons).

HONG KONG,

City and Hill District.

MAINLAND.

Kowloon.

(excluding water boats at Lai Chi Kok).

1931

1932

3,942.65

1,840.39

3,517.00

1,869.15

1933

3,264.75

2,051.84

1934

3,908.50

2,257.55

98

HONG KONG.

MAINLAND.

Water boats at

Shaukiwan. Aberdeen. Lai Chi Kok.

1931

38.29

30.10

104.33

1932

45.92

28.41

98.76

1933

35.12

25.74

101.49

1934

29.46

30.36

98.70

Grand Total

Hong Kong and Mainland.

5,955.76

Increase or

Decrease.

1931

1932

1933

1934

5,559.24

- 396.52

5,478.94

6,324.57

-

80.30

+845.63

N.B. Supplies to Repulse Bay, Stanley, Deep Water Bay and New Territories

unfiltered.

15. It will be seen that the change over from the Rider Main System in Oc- tober, 1932, was followed by a substantial decrease in consumption in the City and Hill District of the Island in 1933. The figures for 1934, however, are higher than for either 1932 or 1933, and it may perhaps be a legitimate inference that this increase is accounted for by the timely rainfall and consequent relaxation of re- strictions during this last year. If this is so it must be admitted that the prevention of waste is mainly dependent upon the measure of physical control exercised by the Water Authority in any given year and that the factor of prevention by economic pressure is not operative under our present system. This would appear to be further substantiated by the figures of water consumption in Kowloon which has never enjoyed a Rider Main System and has not, for some years at any rate, been subject to the same restrictions as Hong Kong. Consumption figures, excluding water boats, show increases of 28.76, 82.69 and 205.71 million gallons per annum in 1932, 1933 and 1934 respectively, which may in part be accounted for by increase in population, but which nevertheless tend to show that the charges for excess water do not in fact act as a deterrent to the wasteful consumer.

16. The fact that they do not do so has been one of the chief grounds of complaint of landlords of tenement houses both on the Island and in Kowloon. The reason is not far to seek nor difficult to understand; it is, quite simply, that the landlords pays for what the tenant consumes.

17. In theory of course this should not be the case. The landlord would estimate the cost of excess water and would pass on this burden to the tenants in the form of increased rent. In practice, however, this is not possible, partly owing to the Chinese method of sub-letting and partly owing to the fact that in the last resort the majority of these tenants are so poor that they are not only unable to bear the cost but in addition are virtually immune from any legal action for recovery. In other words, rents obtainable from Chinese tenement houses are sub- ject to the law of supply and demand but they are also subject to the inexorable factor of the prevailing standard of living.

18. Moreover, at the present time the property market in Hong Kong is in a depressed condition. Over-building and trade depression have resulted in a supply of tenements far in excess of the demand and there are many vacant flats. The time may yet come when the tenants may be made acutely conscious of the cost of excess water but in the present circumstances it is inevitable that this burden should fall on the shoulders of the landlord.

99

19. The weight of this burden may be better appreciated after consideration of the following figures, relating to a large property in Kowloon, which were put in as evidence before us by an entirely trustworthy witness :-

Kowloon Marine Lot No. 49 R. P., etc.

Canton Road, 45 houses (4 floors)

Waiching Street, 80 houses (4 floors)

Total

Position as at 30th September, 1934.

180 flats.

320

500 "

Vacancies

136 flats.

Gross rent

$70,300.00

Less disbursements :-

Government Rates

$13,260.00

Excess Water Charges

10,090.00

Water Meters Rent

937.50

Insurance

2,921.25

Repairs

2,630.00

Wages, etc.

2,150.00

31,988.75

Net Revenue

$38,311.25

Book Value

$1,209,714.98

i.e., showing a Return of 4.2% per annum WITHOUT DEPRECIATION.

20. Even allowing for the fact that this is a large property in a heavily crowded district in Kowloon, where water restrictions do not apply, it is startling to find that whereas the total Government rates amount to $13,260.00, excess water charges for the same period come to $10,090.00. It is even more startling when we con- sider that had all flats in this property been occupied and the water consumption proportionately increased, the excess water charges for this period would have amounted approximately to $13,733.00, which is more than the amount charged for rates at 17% of the rateable value.

6 6

21. A further defect in our present system is to be found at the other end of the scale, mainly in connection with large commercial properties. These properties are heavily rated and in consequence their "free or as we would prefer to call it their "valuation" allowance is correspondingly large while actual consumption is relatively very small. In the case of one expensive property which is used partially for commercial and partially for residential purposes, the valuation allowance is nearly 18,000,000 gallons per annum, while the annual consumption is less than 2,000,000 gallons. The owners of this property, therefore, are paying annually for 16,000,000 gallons of water which they do not consume, while from the opposite point of view the "valuation allowance is so large that there is no economic pressure to reduce wastage: This is by no means an extreme case nor do these properties represent a small percentage of the Colony's total. In 1933 it was estimated that 38% of metered properties did not exceed their "valuation" allowance and it follows therefore that the excess water revenue of $1,521,739.50 for that year was obtained from the remaining 62%-

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22. It is difficult in the face of this evidence to regard our present system of water charges, based on a "valuation" supply plus "extras", as being either equit- able in incidence or efficacious in prevention of waste. On the other hand it should

100

be remembered that the system is not peculiar to Hong Kong, but is working satisfactorily in many other places and that, though it is easy enough to criticise, it is by no means so easy to suggest a suitable alternative.)

23. The physical conditions of this Colony render the collection and distribu- tion of water an expensive undertaking and at the same time necessitate provision for absolute control during periods of water scarcity. Similarly, it must be admitted that considering the nature and circumstances of the bulk of our population the only practical unit for water taxation is the unit of property and the only taxpayer who can be recognised by Government is the landlord.

24. We are unable to agree with the numerous suggestions we have received to the effect that payment of excess water charges on Chinese tenements should be a matter for settlement between Government and the principal tenant of each floor. In our opinion such an arrangement is not within the sphere of practical politics.

25. We are more in sympathy with the suggestion that, to facilitate the pay- ment of water charges as between landlord and tenant, the Government should be prepared to supply a separate water meter for each floor of Chinese tenant houses. In fact we are prepared to recommend that this should be done at the expressed request of either landlord or tenant subject to the payment of a suitable cash de- posit. We realise, however, that the universal application of this scheme will entail not only a large capital expenditure but also a considerable increase in annual maintenance charges and personal emoluments and we are hopeful that, if our final recommendations are accepted, the reasons behind the suggestion will disappear.

26. Since these recommendations postulate the adoption of an entirely new attitude towards the position occupied by water in Government finance, it is neces- sary to preface them with a brief synopsis of the present situation in this respect.

This

27. Until a few years ago all expenditure incurred on water, whether of a capital or working nature, was paid for out of the general revenue of the Colony, which in its turn was credited with all income received from this source. system worked satisfactorily so long as the Colony's commitments on waterworks were on a fairly modest scale proportionate to the Colony's income; but there came a time when it was essential to embark on a large expensive programme of construc- tional works with the full cost of which it was manifestly impossible to burden the annual budget.

28. In all undertakings of this nature, where the main benefit will accrue to posterity, it is both reasonable and just that posterity should be called upon to shoulder some of the expense. This principle was admitted by the Government when they decided that these large constructional works should be financed out of loans. Up to date two loans have been issued, part of the proceeds of which has been ear- marked for waterworks construction, but so far only undertakings of major import- ance have been included in the category of "loan works".

29. From an accounting point of view, therefore, we have two systems at work, one of which has been superimposed upon the other. The result is somewhat confusing and renders more difficult the task of preparing an intelligible statement showing profit and loss at any given time.

30. At our request the Water Authority submitted a statement, reproduced below, which sets out the total revenue from and expenditure on water for the years 1932 and 1933, together with the total amount required for loan services in respect of commitments on loan works. These figures were supplemented by evidence given before the Commission by a representative of the Water Department.

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Figures showing revenue derived from Waterworks undertakings.

(a) and (b). Total Revenue from Rates @ 2% Meter Rental and Fire Service Retention Fees, and Excess Consumption.

Rates at 2%

1933.

$ 755,883.58

207,167.88 1,521,739.50

1932.

Meter Rental including Fire Service.

Excess Consumption

Total

Deduct 20% for Military Contribu-

tion

$ 729,743.67 141,045.09 1,177,394.01

$2,048,182.77

$2,484,790.96

409,636.55

496,958.19

$1,638,546.22

$1,987.832.77

(c). Maintenance Expenditure on Waterworks during the same period.

- 1. P.W.R. including 10% for Office rent, incidentals, stationery, `Ty- phoon damage, etc.

2. Salaries, including 25% for leave, passages, housing overtime, tran- sport, Treasury staff, etc.

3. Depreciation 1% on capital

$ 445,042.44

$ 380,075.29

263,946.80

237,658.59

outlay of $10,000,000 prior to borrowing

150,000.00

150,000.00

4. P.W.E. Extensions and improve-

ments

5. New Meters

Total

Apparent excess of revenue over

expenditure

302,574.87

439.341.79

321,945.29

257,704.17

$1,483,479.40

$1,464.779.84

$ 155,066.82

$ 523,052.93

(d). Loan Expenditure.

1932.

ed. fd

$ 761,359.99 5,825,775.74

1. Loan Requirements for Waterworks undertakings up to 1937, as shown in Appendix VI on page 117 of the Draft Estimates

2. Actual Expenditure

up to 31.12.1931.

$5,825,775.74

$17,124,436.52

Estimated for 1934-1937.

1933.

$1,913,254.54

$8,624,046.25

8,500,390.27

(expended)

6,587,135.73

6,587,135.73

8,500,390.27

17,124,436.52

3. Loan Charges on above.

Interest @3 p.a.

230,549.75

297,513.66

Sinking Fund @ 4%

p.a.

263,485.43

340,015.61

4. Total Loan Charges

494,035.18

637,529.27

Deduct apparent ex-

cess of revenue

155,066.82

523,052.93

5. Net Loss for the years

under review

338,968.36

114,476.34

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31. The first item for consideration in the above table is item 3 of table (c), "Maintenance Expenditure on Waterworks ". We were informed that the sum of $10,000,000 represented the capital outlay on waterworks prior to 1.1.27. Deprecia- tion at the low rate of 1% was charged annually on this sum because it was anti- cipated that at some future date these works would require renewal. It was admitted that in point of fact (a) the works had been fully paid for out of past revenues, (b) that the annual depreciation of $150,000 was not earmarked or credited to a re- serve fund which could be drawn upon for renewals, but was simply paid into the general revenue of the Colony, (c) that depreciation was charged annually upon the full capital value of $10,000,000 and not upon the depreciated capital value, ( (d) that normal replacements were covered by maintenance charges under Public Works Recurrent, (e) that extensions and small developments were covered by Public Works Extraordinary and, finally, (f) that in the event of a catastrophe rendering necessary renewal of a major work the undertaking would in all probability be financed out

of loans.

32. In these circumstances, we cannot agree that there is any justification for the inclusion of this item in Maintenance Charges on Waterworks. To so include it is to mix capital expenditure with revenue, which is contrary to the principles of sound accountancy. The capital outlay of $10,000,000 has already been fully paid for out of revenue and any major replacements which may become necessary in the future should be dealt with as they occur preferably by means of loans.

In our opinion it is quite unnecessary to burden the revenue derived from water with an annual charge of $150,000. for depreciation.

33. Turning next to items 4 and 5 of the same table ("P.W.E. Extensions and Improvements " and "New Meters ") it is admitted that the major portion of this expenditure is capital outlay which will in its turn be productive of increased revenue. This being so, it is our unanimous opinion that this expenditure should be debited to loan account and not be made a charge on current revenue.

34. Applying these recommendations to the figures given above for 1933, we find that a sum of, roughly, $847,000 is removed from Maintenance Expenditure, of which $697,000 is transferred to loan account and $150,000 is eliminated alto- gether. If from this $847,000 we subtract the $114,000 referred to in table (d). (item 5), we are left with a nett credit balance of $733,000. If, therefore, these three items had not been charged against current revenue it would have been possible, even after making provision for the nett loss on the year's working, to have budgetted for a revenue from water some $916,000 less than was the case in 1933, ($916,000 less 20% Military Contribution = $733,000). Since the revenue from excess water con- sumption for that year was $1,521,000, it would have been possible to have given a rebate of 60% on excess water charges and still have balanced legitimate working expenditure out of revenue. We therefore recommend that the rate for excess water be considerably reduced.

35. Furthermore, we are of the opinion that the present system of aggregating the revenue and expenditure on water with the general revenues of the Colony tends to obscure the situation regarding water charges and to reverse the expressed policy of Government that water should not be made a source of revenue. We are in full agreement with this policy and we recommend that, to ensure its observance, the water supply of this Colony should be re-organised as a separate Municipal under- taking under Government control and should be kept entirely separate from the Public Works or any other Government department.

Chapter XI.

FINANCIAL MATTERS.

Currency, Banking and Foreign Exchange.

1. The whole question of the Colony's currency and banking economy was adequately dealt with in the Report of the Currency Commission issued in May, 1931, and there is very little that your Commissioners can usefully add to that com- prehensive document.

103

The conclusion given in Paragraph 81 of the Hong Kong Currency Commission Report

that Hong Kong is economically part of China and must remain on a silver standard so long as China does " appeared to be understood and tacitly approved and, in the absence of any criticism to the contrary, the steps taken during the past few years to control the premium on Hong Kong currency would seem to have met with general approval in that the results were satisfactory to trade as a whole.

The question of the Colony's currency was hardly ever raised by the large number of witnesses examined by the Commission and then only in an indirect way when comparing labour and handling costs with those obtaining in Shanghai and else-

where in China.

2. On 15th October, 1934, the Nanking Government promulgated regulations raising the duty on silver exports from China from 2 to 10% with a further equalization tax, based on a sterling exchange rate related to the ruling price of forward silver in London, fixed daily by the Central Bank of China. As a con- sequence, Chinese Currency became subject to a measure of "control" and depre- ciated in terms of World currencies, resulting in an immediate rise in the Hong Kong and Shanghai inter-port cross rate of some 12%.

The Commission being in session considered the effects of this action by the Chinese Authorities as regards the Colony and after due consideration of the facts came to the unanimous conclusion that the interests of trade would best be served, for the time being at any rate, by retaining the Colony's Currency on the present silver basis.

In the event of further measures by the Chinese Government, the Colony may find it necessary to review the whole question in the light of conditions then pre- vailing.

3. Its position as the centre of the entrepot trade for South China makes Hong Kong a very important banking centre. Trade conditions, in the first place, demand a highly organised system of exchange banking. The banks established are, therefore, pre-eminently Exchange Banks which also perform the ordinary func- tions of domestic banking. In addition, three of the British Banks provide the Note Issue by means of which the trade of the Colony is financed. This combined Note Issue, which amounted on 31st January, 1935, to $158,601,900, also plays a very important part in the trade of the neighbouring Provinces of South China.

4. The Hong Kong Exchange Brokers Association is a duly constituted and re- cognized body whose members provide the link between banker and merchant in the matter of exchange rates.

5. There are two recognized Stock Exchanges in Hong Kong known as the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and the Hong Kong Sharebrokers' Association.

Suggestions were received that conditions did not warrant two Exchanges and that the two bodies might be amalgamated with advantage. It was further suggest- ed that an effort should be made to curb speculation and the "

hammering down " of local shares by interested parties.

The Commission came to the conclusion that these questions hardly came within their terms of reference and were matters for the two Exchanges concerned to ar- range among themselves.

6. No criticism can be levelled at the banks of the Colony on the score of unwillingness to finance trade and industry. Indeed few places in the world have suffered less from Exchange and Finance restrictions. At the same time, the Colony's trade has been seriously hampered by fluctuations both in the local currency and in the currency of South China, but uncertainty in regard to exchange is a disability by no means peculiar to Hong Kong. It is universal, and presents one of the greatest obstacles to world recovery. Silver, the basis of the Colony's and of China's Currency, has become a veritable gambling counter for speculators the world over, and in consequence lacks that measure of stability necessary for sound trading.

104

Undesirable, however, as its fluctuation on this account

this account may be, any artificial measures aiming at "pegging" it or severing its relationship with other world com- modities would be even more disastrous. Silver's rise and fall in the past has inexorably followed the rise and fall of other commodities, and has therefore greatly facilitated the world's trade with the silver-using countries. The belief which ap- pears to obtain in America that under any circumstances a high exchange must increase China's purchasing power is a fallacy. To accomplish that admittedly desirable object, high exchange must be accompanied by an equivalent high world commodity price level, otherwise China's products are too dear for the rest of the world to buy; she cannot export, and if she cannot export she cannot import however high the purchasing power of her currency. Therefore, while violent fluctuation due to speculation is the overseas merchant's bugbear, moderate fluctuation in accordance with legitimate trade requirements is desirable. The time may not be ripe for international action in regard to the world's exchanges, but when it is, we can only hope that the problem of silver will be disposed of with wisdom and foresight. So much depends upon this in the Far East, that one cannot but view with misgiving the many factors of minor importance operating in America to-day tending to confuse the issue.

7. So far from being unwilling to finance trade and industry, certain of the local native Banks lend money too freely on property on insufficient margin albeit at high rates of interest. This practice tends to make credit too readily obtainable. The capital thus acquired is often mortgaged again to the full and an unstable structure of credit results, which is susceptible to any set-back however small, and which renders a financial collapse inevitable when a major depression occurs. It may not be practicable to legislate against this danger, but any step tending to the adoption of sounder banking methods would increase the Colony's stability.

8. Another matter of Finance we view with some misgiving is the recent estab- lishment of "Savings Banks". This class of institution should always be kept in a fairly liquid state so as to be in a position readily to meet withdrawals of depositors who, though small in wealth, are great in numbers. It seems to us that Government should pass some regulations governing the class of investments in which "Savings Banks" may place spare funds and make a percentage limit, which may not be exceeded, for fixed loans or mortgages. Savings Bank depositors are usually people of small means and if there should be a failure of one of these institutions the loss and misery caused would be widespread.

Chapter XII.

AVIATION.

1. Aviation has developed rapidly in the last few years and, as will be seen from the Report on the Progress of Civil Aviation, 1933, recently published by H.M. Stationery Office, the British Empire has not lagged behind in this respect. China is also becoming air-minded, and in such a country with vast spaces having no road or rail communication the gradual establishment of air routes will be a logical development.

2. So far, however, China is not linked up with the rest of the world by air and this, in our opinion, is a matter which should occupy the serious attention of that country to which through air communication will be of great value, and of the British whose Far Eastern route extends as far as Singapore and thence continues to Aus- tralia.

3. It appears to us that this new means of rapid communication which will have a greatly increasing commercial value should now receive from Hong Kong the same careful consideration as has been given to its position as a great port of ocean ship-

ment.

105

4. In order to be of economic value. air lines must follow and be ancillary to established trade routes because on these are the great trade centres through which the life blood of the world pulses. Hong Kong, being the fifth largest port in the world and a great intermediate trading station has all the facilities and all the advantages to render desirable its development as an air port linking China with the near East and Europe on the one hand and Manila, America and Australia on the other. Already aviation has developed sufficiently to make this mechanically possible and all that is needed to make it an accomplished fact is enterprise and goodwill. In view of the immense advantages to be gained by all concerned from the facility of world wide rapid communication we are of the opinion that a vigorous attempt to co-ordinate the various interests which would gain by this air-link should be made and that the goodwill necessary for co-operation and the security for enterprise on an economic basis will be forthcoming.

5. It is natural and right that we should first consider Hong Kong as a Port for British air lines, but as with shipping in the past, so with aviation in the future, and we consider that having secured reasonable British participation Hong Kong must maintain an open port and welcome the aviation interests and air lines of all

countries.

6. We must envisage a very definite growth in air-traffic and air-mindedness. With established air routes it will be much easier for business men and others to pay short visits to the Far East. The more wealthy classes of tourists and holidays makers may well be induced to visit Hong Kong and China if they can do so without the need of a long sea journey. The primary reason for through air traffic must, however, be the carriage of mails. We are aware that even though the air-mail to Europe only commences at Singapore the traffic from and to Hong Kong by that route is steadily increasing. With an air connection through to Hong Kong we are confident that there would be a tremendous increase in air-mail traffic. A further considera- tion is that the definite establishment of Hong Kong as an air-port would, apart from affording increased facilities to Hong Kong and China, tend to create a new business and a new industry which may, to an increasing extent, replace waning business in other directions.

7. With regard to Air Mail we were informed that in spite of the depression there has been a steady increase in the use of the Air Mail services from Hong Kong to Europe as follows:-

1932. August to December

1933.

January to December

1934. January to June

8,618 letters

31,635

17,864

22

8. The increase in 1934 was about 10 per cent and the Air Mail letters sent were 2.46 per cent of steamers' letters. We were informed that it was generally estimated that to operate an Air Mail service 5 per cent to 10 per cent of the postal matter should pay air premiums. It must be remembered, however, that the premium on letters from Hong Kong to Europe is heavy and that, owing to lack of direct air communication the saving in time is at present not very great. In view of the fact that a direct Air Mail from Hong Kong to London would probably take no more than seven or eight days we are of the opinion that it would well pay the business man to use such service and that a great increase could therefore be ex- pected.

9. The subject having been exhaustively discussed we finally express our opinion that no time should be lost by the authorities in conjunction with British air interests in connecting Hong Kong by air to the air routes already established. We realise that the matter has already received the attention of both the Hong Kong Government and the United Kingdom authorities and that there are a number of difficulties in the way.

We feel, however, that the advantages to all concerned are so considerable that a vigorous attempt to co-ordinate all interests will not meet with failure.

106

10. Further, we are of the opinion that an endeavour should be made by British air interests in conjunction with Chinese interests to establish a Sino-British Company for the purpose of linking the trunk route with China's domestic services and running in conjunction therewith.

Chapter XIII.

TOURIST TRAFFIC.

1. From some of the earliest historical records we find that the characteristics of human kind, inquisitiveness, love of beauty, and desire to spend leisure comfort- ably, have first caused people to wander abroad and secondly to establish pleasure resorts. When Hong Kong first became a Colony it was by no means a pleasure resort, but the energy and foresight of the early Colonists have awarded us with Hong Kong as she is to-day, beautified by man's skilful guidance of natural beauty and rendered comfortable by the use of the most modern scientific discoveries. It is no wonder therefore, that tourists on first seeing Hong Kong become silent with admiration. With some, however, the second impression is disappointing and we have often heard the remark that " Hong Kong is a lovely place, but what a pity there is so little to do ". Others have been surprised that Hong Kong has not been more widely advertised.

2. With these remarks and the fact of the depression in mind we have endea- voured to explore the possibility of (a) Hong Kong becoming more widely known as a first class winter resort and (b) the making of Hong Kong more attractive to those who require more than to gaze on our natural scenery during the day and retire at an early hour at night.

3. To those residing for any length of time in the Colony there are, of course, many outdoor attractions such as riding, yachting, golf, tennis, cricket, football, bowls and bathing. There are also a number of social institutions to which the resident may belong. Most of these amenities are, however, not available for the visitor whose stay is too short for the formalities attendant on joining clubs and other institutions but who requires a variety of distractions which together go to the making up of what is usually known as a "good time".

4. While it is plain that no sudden transformation of Hong Kong to a paradise for holiday makers can be made, without the expenditure of considerable sums of money, we feel it necessary to initiate the idea that there is no reason whatever why gradual planning should not make Hong Kong more attractive. We are also of the opinion that there should be organised advertisement of the attractions of the Colony and some endeavour to open to visitors (with proper safeguards) many of the means of recreation at present closed to them.

5. After hearing important evidence relating to this question and having dis- cussed the matter ourselves we decided to address an interim report to the Govern- ment as follows:

6. "The Commission are strongly of the opinion that the Government would be well advised actively to encourage tourists whether from Overseas or from China. They maintain that Government should sponsor the development of tourism and should afford some financial aid for such development as is done in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. The Commission is apprised of the fact that there is scarcely a Political entity having attractions to offer to tourists and holiday makers which does not make organised effort to encourage visitors. In many countries, apart from national organisation, municipalities each have their own organisations for the encouragement and promotion of amenities for the visitor and for the issue of suit- able propaganda calculated to attract the visitor from abroad to the areas which they administer.

>

107

It is

7. In pursuance of their unanimous opinions the Commission propose that Government should designate an official who, with the advice of the Commission, would invite representatives of Hotels, Shipping Companies, retailers and others interested in the tourist traffic to form with him a preliminary Committee. proposed that this Committee should explore the possibility of and take steps towards the organisation of a Travel Association of Hong Kong, the membership of which would be open to all interested in developing the tourist traffic and the pro- vision of amenities for visitors. In due course such Association might itself elect its own Committee. The Committee should, however, always have a representative of the Government; the Government being considered as a particularly interested party.

8. It is recommended that Government should place a sum of money at the disposal of the Committee who will decide on a system of subscription or membership fees from members of the Travel Association. With the use of such funds and such aid as it will be able to obtain from Government and the larger organisations in- terested in the Tourist Traffic, the Committee of the Association will publish and distribute suitable literature regarding Hong Kong.

9. While it is not proposed in this interim report to go into details of the pro- cedure to be adopted by the Committee of the Travel Association it is envisaged that this body will discuss and actively take up in such direction as is proper and desir- able such matters as the following:-

(1) Moving signs and the general question of attractive advertisement. (2) The provision of amenities and amusements for visitors and arrange- ment for the use of Clubs by approved visitors in a suitable manner which will not interfere with the enjoyment of such clubs by members. The provision of amusement parks is of particular interest to Chinese visitors.

(3) The Licensing Laws.

(4) The question of a through road to Canton. The Commission is aware that considerable road development has taken place in Kwangtung and are of the opinion that, suitably taken up, it might be quite possible to make an appropriate arrangement for a through road linking up with the Kwangtung system of roads which will encourage through transport services and benefit not only Hong Kong but also Kwangtung. (5) Aviation.

(6) Measures to be taken by Hotels, Shipping Companies and retailers to

attract visitors.

10. Many other matters will present themselves for consideration from time to time. Generally the Commission is unanimously of the opinion that there should be a movement to make Hong Kong as attractive a place as possible in which money will be spent and circulated. It is envisaged that such a movement will in time more than pay for its cost.

11. Finally, the Commission is unanimously of the opinion that the licensing hours applicable to Hotels, Cabarets, Restaurants and Chinese Theatres now allowed to remain open till midnight, should forthwith be extended to 2 a.m.".

12. Since the submission of the above Interim Report the Government has extended the licensing hours and steps have been taken to implement our major recommendation regarding the establishment of a Travel Association.

<<

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13. The numerous suggestions for a brighter Hong Kong contained in memoranda and minutes of evidence which have been forwarded to Government may well be left to the consideration of this Association, but we desire to take this opportunity of emphasizing our former recommendation that the question of con- necting the roads of this Colony with the road system of Kwangtung province should receive early and serious attention.

Appendix "D".

108

14. By courtesy of the Manager of the Kowloon-Canton Railway we are able to attach a map (Appendix "D") showing existing and projected roads in Southern Kwangtung. It will be seen that the building of a bridge at Shum Chun will imme- diately link the Colony with Waichow and the Wai Yeung District generally, while it is obvious that direct road communication between Canton, Shum Chun and the Tungku and San On districts is merely a question of time.

15. We on our side should be fully prepared to take advantage of the facilities which are being placed at our door and should make every effort to secure a road connection between this Colony and China, which cannot but be to the mutual ad- vantage of both countries.

16. There was one further suggestion which we felt should receive early con- sideration. It is universally admitted that in these days one of the most efficacious methods of securing publicity is by means of wireless and we were of the opinion that the range of Hong Kong broadcasting should be extended by the purchase of a short wave transmitter which would be heard at entertainment value from India to Japan.

17. At our request several alternative schemes were put forward by the Chief Electrical Engineer of the Public Works Department and we eventually decided to recommend the adoption of one involving the purchase of a short wave transmitter specially designed for this type of broadcasting.

18. We understand that this recommendation has received provisional approval and we trust that when the apparatus has been installed full advantage will be taken of the possibilities of advertising this Colony throughout the East.

Chapter XIV.

PIGS AND POULTRY.

1. Shortly before this Commission came into being, a Committee was appointed by His Excellency the Governor to consider and advise as to what practical steps can be taken to improve and extend the breeding of pigs and poultry in the New Territories.

2. That Committee has since issued its report, and we have no hesitation in supporting its recommendations. In doing so we wish to emphasise the economic importance to the Colony of endeavouring to increase as much as possible its own. production of foodstuffs.

3. The Colony has always imported the major portion of the foodstuffs con- sumed by its population. It pays for these imports chiefly out of its earnings from trading activities and when, as at present, the volume of trade passing through the Colony has shrunk it becomes necessary by way of compensation, to increase its own productivity, thereby retaining its money and affording increased employment within the Colony. While obviously this argument is applicable to any article cap- able of economic production within the Colony it is particularly applicable to pigs, poultry and eggs, of which very large quantities are imported for consumption.

4. Our local production of pigs, though quite considerable and amounting in value to about $1,500,000 annually, is only one seventh of the quantity imported, and, as pointed out in the Committee's Report, given the requisite guidance and encouragement" an important improvement upon the existing state of affairs can be anticipated with every confidence.

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Chapter XV.

MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS.

1. In the course of our deliberations we encountered certain questions of some importance which, either by reason of their confidential nature or because of their limited scope, were not suitable for inclusion in the chapters forming the main body of this Report.

2. After consideration, we decided to include in a special Miscellaneous Chapter such of these problems as could appear in a public document and, where reasons of privacy prevailed, to submit our findings in the form of a supplementary confidential Report.

("A") CABLE RATES.

1. Representations were made to the Commission that the cable rate in Hong Kong was unduly high and constituted a definite burden on the trade of the Colony. It was given in evidence that one important trading concern spent no less than $30,000 per annum on cables and considered the charges to be excessive especial- ly as between Hong Kong and London.

2. At the invitation of the Commission evidence in explanation of this matter was given by Mr. Carter, Manager in Hong Kong of the Eastern Extension Tele- graph Company, Limited. A summary of this evidence is contained in the following paragraphs, Nos. 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7.

3. The Eastern Extension Telegraph Company is a branch of the large Merger concern, Cable & Wireless Limited, an Imperial public utility company adminis- tered by private enterprise combined with State supervision of essential elements.

4. International cable charges are fixed in gold francs and converted into local currency at a conversion rate which is subject to periodic readjustment. Since 1913 the gold franc charges, Hong Kong-London, have been reduced from Frs. 5.50 per word, (full rate) to Frs. 3.45 per word, the last reduction taking place in 1929.

5. These rates compare favourably with the rates fixed by the same Company of G.Frs. 3.50 in the Straits Settlements, G.Frs. 3.84 in French Indo-China and G.Frs. 4.00 in the Dutch East Indies. In addition to the full rate there are reduced rate services at one half and one third of the full rate charges.

6. It has not been found possible to make any further reductions since 1929 for although, by the introduction of labour saving inventions, the Company has effected economies to the extent of £2,000,000 sterling during the last two years, yet at the present moment they are only in a position to pay a .22% dividend on less than half their capital. There are several reasons to account for this:--

(a) Excessive competition has resulted in an over-development of telegraphic facilities which has led to an uneconomic position for all concerned. The estab- lishment of lines of direct communication between various European countries and their Colonies has cut into the whole structure of international telegraphy and, by reducing the volume of international cable traffic, has prevented the reduction of

rates.

(b) Cable companies have to carry a heavy burden of taxation in the form of royalties and transit and terminal taxes imposed by various Governments.

In some cases these taxes were originally imposed in times of prosperity and have been con- tinned without alleviaton in times of depression, while in others they have no justi- fication in services rendered by the taxing Government.

It is hoped that before long modern inventions will provide a weapon where- with to fight for more reasonable terms, but the whole question is very delicate and is not likely to be solved in the immediate future.

110

(c) During the past five years Cable Companies have been faced with steadily increasing competition from wireless. Generally speaking, it is far cheaper to operate and maintain a wireless than a cable station, and though communication by this method is open to many objections, especially in times of war, it has made serious inroads into one source of the Cable Companies' revenue.

(d) Finally, we were informed by Mr. Carter that no hopes could be held out for any reduction in rates until such times as a revival of world prosperity had led to a general increase in cable business or until the gradual centralisation under unified control of all the scattered systems of Empire communication had eliminated intra Empire competition.

7. Questioned as to the reason why a cable from Hong Kong to London should cost more than a cable from London to Hong Kong, Mr. Carter explained that the gold franc rate was the same for both outward and inward cables. Owing, how- ever, to the fact that the United Kingdom had gone off the Gold standard the sterling equivalent of the gold franc rate should in fact be considerably higher than it was at present. So far as London was concerned, the Cable Company was endeavouring as far as possible to maintain the volume of trade by leaving their sterling charges unchanged and were themselves carrying the loss occasioned by the depreciation of sterling in terms of gold. There was, however, no possibility that this policy would be extended to embrace other portions of the Empire.

8. While, from this evidence, it would appear that Hong Kong is not worse off than its neighbours, we must emphasise that in our opinion this Colony is entitled to individual consideration, and a general reduction in the cost of cable communi- cation may well help a revival of trade, or at least decrease the burden on a com- merce which is in distress. In this connection it must be remembered that the burden of cable charges is in inverse proportion to the magnitude of business transacted.

9. We would point out also that whereas during the past few years of depres- sion there has been a world wide reduction in prices of basic commodities; cable rates in this Colony have remained unaltered since 1929. We consider that it should be a matter for careful investigation by the Cable Company whether their present policy does not stand in need of drastic revision, for, in our opinion, there is a strong possibility that a continuation of the present high scale of charges will result in a permanent loss to the Company of a considerable portion of their semi- urgent traffic which will be diverted into cheaper though less expeditious channels of communication.

("B") PRICE OF PETROL IN HONG KONG.

1. Another question considered by the Commission was the price of petrol in Hong Kong as compared with the prices obtaining in other large cities in the Far East and in England. Unfortunately, owing to the number of inconstant factors which determine the selling price of this commodity, it is not easy to compile a table of comparative prices which will be readily intelligible and at the same time accurate and up to date. This must be remembered when considering the following figures, and allowance must be made for fluctuations in exchange values of currencies, variations in Customs and Excise duties, and small errors in the reduction of different measures of capacity to a common selling unit. With these reservations, however, the following table may be taken as representing an approximately correct estimate of the retail selling price of petrol, ex-pump, in the places enumerated, at the end of December, 1934.

Shanghai.

Unit of sale.

American Gallon.

Gross retail selling price

Duty

Nett retail selling price

.Sh. 91 cents.

39

""

""

52

Converted into Hong Kong currency at rate of Sh. $123=H.K. $100, and into Imperial Gallons at rate of 1 American Gallon=0.8325 of an Imperial Gallon, this equals H.K. 51 cents for 1 Imperial Gallon.

111

Dairen.

Unit of sale.

Retail selling price

Duty

Nett retail selling price

American Gallon.

.66 Japanese sen.

..nil.

66 Japanese sen.

Converted into Hong Kong currency at rate of Yen 146 H.K. $100, and into Imperial Gallons at rate of 1 American Gallon=0.8325 of an Imperial Gallon, this equals H.K. 54 cents for 1 Imperial Gallon.

England.

Unit of sale.

Gross retail selling price

Duty

Nett retail selling price

Imperial Gallon. 1/5d.

8d.

9d.

Converted into Hong Kong currency at rate of H.K. $1.00=1/8d. this equals H.K. 45 cents for 1 Imperial Gallon.

Canton.

Unit of sale.

Gross retail selling price

Duty

American Gallon.

97 cents H.K.

411⁄2 (40 to 43 c. H.K., say 414). 55 cents H.K.

Nett retail selling price

Converted at rate of 1 American Gallon=0.8325 of an Imperial Gallon, this equals

H.K. 66.7 cents for 1 Imperial Gallon.

Hong Kong.

Unit of sale.

Imperial Gallon.

Gross retail selling price

$1.10.

Duty

.25.

Nett retail selling price

.85 prior to 25.12.34,

Nett retail selling price

.75 since 25.12.34.

Summary.

Gross returns to Oil Companies on one Imperial Gallon reduced to Hong Kong cur-

rency.

Shanghai Dairen

51 cents,

54

45.

29

England

Canton Hong Kong

"

66.7

""

85

before 25.12.34,

75

3

since 25.12.34.

2. While realising that the discrepancies revealed in this table were partly ac- centuated by the conversion of prices into terms of Hong Kong currency, neverthe- less we felt that some explanation was needed of the apparently excessive charges in Hong Kong and we accordingly requested the views on this matter of the three big oil concerns in the Colony.

3. Summarized briefly, the explanations given by the Oil Companies are as follows:-

"A." Owing to over production throughout the world prices of petroleum products have been forced down to unremunerative levels, and as a consequence the major distributing companies have been faced from time to time in various parts of

112

the world with competition from smaller producers and sellers who, not having incurred the expenditure of creating an extensive marketing organisation, are in a position to market their products at prices which are definitely unremunerative so far as the major companies are concerned.

"B." The charges in this Colony do not represent more than a reasonable return on money expended by the companies and should not in fairness be compared with charges in areas where cut-throat competition has forced down prices to an uneconomic level.

"C."

In support of the first statement in "B" it must be remembered that physical conditions in Hong Kong are such as to necessitate a certain amount of duplication of plant and equipment and to increase overhead expenses generally without securing a corresponding return in the shape of increased sales. The total monthly trade in petrol in Hong Kong averages approximately 310,000 American gallons, as compared with 1,000,000 American gallons in Shanghai, and an even larger quantity in Manila. This difference in turnover means a very much higher overhead, especially since the distribution facilities provided in the Colony are designed to cater for a much larger volume of trade. Rents, rates and labour are more expensive in Hong Kong than in most of the areas mentioned above, while regulations regarding the provision of special and often very expensive forms of fire fighting appliances are strictly enforced.

"D." The figures given in the summarized table represent the approximate gross returns to the Oil Companies and not the nett returns. No allowances are made for dealers' discounts and for rebates granted to important commercial cus- tomers. Here again the restricted gallonage in Hong Kong plays an important part. Dealers sales are smaller and their discounts from the Oil Companies correspondingly larger than in areas where petrol dealing is a more profitable business. It has been estimated that the average nett return to the Oil Companies is 68 cents per Imperial Gallon, as opposed to the gross return of 85 cents.

E." Finally, it was pointed out that the cost of motor fuel represents only a small part (roughly 20%) of the total cost of operating trucks and automobiles. A reduction in the price of petrol would, therefore, have but little effect in re- ducing the operating costs of local industries, whereas the aggregate loss to the Oil Companies would be considerable.

4. There can be no question but that the geographical condition of this Colony, together with the restricted gallonage, must tend to render working costs higher and profits less. Nevertheless we are not entirely satisfied that in the existing circumstances Hong Kong is not being made to shoulder some part of the burden imposed on the Companies by competition in other areas. It is, for example, re- markable that petrol which has been stored in Hong Kong and carried from Hong Kong to Canton should, in spite of additional freightage and other charges, be sold at a cheaper rate in that city than in Hong Kong itself.

5. Undoubtedly the most potent factor in the reduction of prices is open com- petition and it must be admitted that, so far as this Colony is concerned, this factor is largely non-existent. While we would not, at the present time, advocate any measures which might tend to reduce prices to uneconomical levels, we find it difficult to credit that the large Oil Companies are selling at a loss in the above mentioned markets where prices are so much lower than in Hong Kong and, if this is indeed the case, we find it still more difficult to believe that Hong Kong sales could offset such losses.

6. We would remind those Companies that the possession of a virtual mono- poly carries with it a duty to the community which should not be overlooked and that it is in their own interests to ensure, by charging reasonable prices, that the public of Hong Kong will not welcome with enthusiasm the advent of fresh com- petitors.

7. In particular we would urge on them the propriety of passing on to the consumer with the least possible delay the benefits received from an appreciated cur- rency. We note with pleasure that since we began to consider this subject the price

113

of petrol has been reduced by ten cents a gallon, but in view of the fact that the Hong Kong dollar has been rising steadily for the past six months we do not feel that this reduction should be regarded as more than a step in the right direction. We appreciate that daily fluctuations in prices are not practicable or desirable, but we do consider that a somewhat less conservative policy might be pursued with advan- tage in the light of a rising exchange.

("C")

HONG KONG, CANTON AND MACAO STEAMBOAT COMPANY, LIMITED.

1. A comprehensive Memorandum was received from the Hong Kong, Canton and Macao Steamboat Company, Limited, setting out various problems and difficulties with which this Company is forced to contend. Most of these problems are not capable of solution in this Colony and we feel that we can take no useful action be- yond transinitting them to Government for sympathetic consideration.

2. There is, however, one complaint that must be referred to here. It is alleged that during the past three years, and especially during 1934, the Steamboat Com- pany has suffered heavy losses in respect of its passenger traffic owing to steadily increasing competition by the Kowloon-Canton Railway.

3. This competition is described as "unfair" on the grounds that the Railway is a Government subsidised concern supported by the revenues of the Colony to which the Steamboat Company as a taxpayer is forced to contribute.

The

4. A railway, whether Government or privately owned, is a public utility con- cern and as such cannot help but compete with businesses of a similar nature. Kowloon-Canton Railway for a period of eighteen years failed to cover its working expenses, not through maladministration but owing to circumstances in China, etc. If the Hong Kong taxpayer is to be regarded as a Railway shareholder then in equity he should be entitled to recover his losses when the opportunity to do so occurs.

5. Moreover, in our opinion, competition in transport stimulates trade provided that the rates charged are compatible with business efficiency. The criterion of tran- sport efficiency is the "Operating Ratio", i.e., the ratio between working expenditure and gross receipts. So long as a decrease in rates and fares leads to an increase in revenue it is a benefit both to the public and the transportation company. decrease which did not produce this result might, if maintained, be open to the ac- cusation of unfair competition, but we have evidence that the Railway administration has always aimed at decreasing the ratio and any experimental reductions in fares which have proved unremunerative have been altered without delay.

Any

6. In these circumstances we find ourselves unable to endorse the complaint of the Steamboat Company that they are suffering from unfair competition by the Rail- way, or to recommend that any steps be taken to eliminate this competition which we regard as beneficial to the Colony as a whole.

Chapter XVI.

CONCLUDING CHAPTER.

1. The Commission soon shed any illusions which they may have entertained regarding the possibility of discovering any easy road to recovery and approached their task free from any economic bias. It became obvious from the outset that factors beyond the Colony's control dominated the situation. In fact, the task from a practical point of view resolved itself into a modest enquiry into the Colony's activities, and resources, and the problem of their conservation. There is little scope in a Colony like Hong Kong, having no natural raw products and but a small domestic consumption, for the ambitious schemes of economic reconstruction or national planning which have become the modern fashion.

114

2. Although we quickly realised that there was no call for radical reorientation of the Colony's economic policy, we acknowledge that our investigations have been rewarded by the acquisition of interesting information regarding the Colony and the economic role it fulfils which hitherto was not fully realised. The interplay of poli- tical, geographical and financial forces has produced in Hong Kong an extremely complex organised community which is in a constant state of flux and if the Com- mission has achieved nothing but an analysis of this we feel that our labours would not have been in vain and that the commercial community should benefit from a consequent adjustment of the administrative viewpoint.

3. In Chapter II reference was made to an enquiry on the Colony's Economic Resources which was made in 1920. In 1896 a similar economic enquiry on a much smaller scale was made at the instance of the then Secretary of State, Mr. J. Cham- berlain. These reports reveal a gradual transformation of the Colony's economic function. In 1896 the entrepot trade was the predominant and practically sole ac- tivity of the Colony to such an extent that that vigorous and purposeful statesman recognised the position at a glance. Twenty-four years later, in 1920, no funda- mental change was apparent but other activities, though subsidiary, had grown sufficiently to justify what might be termed a census of production. In 1934 the transformation has progressed a little further and the industrialisation of the Colony has accelerated though it is still of subsidiary importance. Its progress would, how- ever, have been much greater but for one external event namely, the achievement of tariff autonomy by China in 1925. Under the previous regime of what was prac- tically mutual free trade Hong Kong was essentially as Chinese in its commercial and social relations as Shanghai or Tientsin. The flag was different but this con- stituted no economic impediment.

4. As soon as China became free to do what she liked with her Customs tariff she raised it, the main object of that time being an increase in revenue. Increases in the tariff duties have since then been rather frequent and the purpose has evolved from a simple desire to increase income to the complex aims of economic nationalism with its fiscal restrictions on the importation of foreign goods. While it is realised that this policy has not been specifically directed against Hong Kong, it has in fact caused a special hurt to the Chinese of the Colony.

5. Not that Hong Kong's entrepot trade has been so seriously affected as her other activities. Foreign goods are still imported because in the main they are essential and non-competitive with Chinese products, though many of them are likely to be gradually replaced by Chinese manufacturers. The products of Hong Kong factories are, however, now barred out from their former adjacent markets and have to seek a precarious outlet overseas. Now that, following the world depression, the overseas markets have shrunk, the instability of Hong Kong's position outside China's tariff wall is apparent.

6. Unless therefore the entrepot trade can develop sufficiently, or alternative markets be found to compensate for the loss of entry into South China of local pro- ducts, the Colony's rate of growth must slow down. The prospects of such develop- ment are not, however, promising as it is China's policy to curtail overseas imports or at any rate to import only essential raw materials and heavy machinery. Develop- ment of trade as a result of advancement of China's industrial policy must eventually depend on world recovery and an increase in China's ability to export or at least to produce more of her own common needs. These matters are entirely beyond local control and, therefore, need not here be further discussed.

7. Whether the Government of China were well advised or not in instituting a policy of restriction on foreign imports is beside the question. It is, however, extremely likely that the weapon was never intended for use against Hong Kong and that the damage the Colony has sustained is only a by-product of the tariff. It seems incredible that the Chinese Authorities should ever contemplate striking a blow at a contiguous community 98% Chinese in race whose social and financial associa- tions are almost exclusively with their brethren in the Kwang Tung Province; a com- munity moreover whose wealth automatically flows back into China.

:

115

8. It is quite obvious that foreign trade is the source of this wealth but it must be clearly seen that it is a two-way foreign trade which while providing foreign articles which China needs also takes from China those of her products which are needed by the rest of the world. A very great amount of this business is per- formed by Chinese, and one means of relieving depression in this major portion of the community would be the partial removal of the Chinese Customs barrier in favour of the products manufactured in Hong Kong by the Chinese.

9. The method by which some such alleviation might be afforded is a matter for (Government consideration and diplomatic negotiation. We have pointed out the economic value to China of the preponderant Chinese population of the Colony. This does not constitute a concession which can be offered by the Colony, but it does constitute a very cogent reason for a friendly and sympathetic gesture by the Chinese Government to the Colony. That the Colony is prepared to do all it can to assist the country of China is manifest in very many ways and we wish to go on record as being desirous more than anything of the establishment between Hong Kong and China of a concrete friendly co-operation, with China as willing as we are to show practical proof. Whether or not this may be effected by a tariff concession in respect of Chinese labour, Chinese capital and Chinese raw materials comprising the maufactured goods of the Colony; or whether a silver dollar duty analogous to the duties levied on inter-provincial trade could be applied to Hong Kong products instead of treating them as goods in which there is no Chinese interest, are matters for very friendly discussion and finally for diplomatic negotiation. Suggestions have been made for the establishment of a manufacturing zone within the Chinese tariff to be set up in the New Territory.

10. Until there is some liaison and discussion with the Chinese it will not be possible to specify what concrete benefits Hong Kong can offer China, but it is difficult to believe that she can do nothing. For example, for many years now both Hong Kong and China have been anxious to curb smuggling, and it is conceivable that with closer co-operation in anti-smuggling measures much might be achieved.

11. The Commission is in no sense under the illusion that such negotiations can be easily and readily brought to a successful issue, if for no other reason than the dualism of authority between the Central Government and provincial adminis- trations. They do, however, stress the desirability of exploring every avenue that holds out possibilities of compensation for the loss of trade which seems inevitable if (the policy of self-sufficiency adopted by almost every nation in the world has come to stay. It is a policy particularly unsuited to the economic welfare of the Colony, further restricting, as it probably will, the world's overseas trade, which is Hong Kong's lifeblood. It is difficult to believe that this policy will not ultimately give way to one of International reciprocity, but there is sufficient likelihood of its persisting long enough to become an increasing menace to the Colony's entrepot trade.>

12. As part of the Empire it is reasonable) to suppose that Hong Kong would receive some compensating benefits under the Ottawa Agreements. The somewhat complicated framework of these Agreements, however, (does not in every case permit Hong Kong in practice to share in Empire benefits that its political status merits. Curiously enough in the matter of Imperial Preference Hong Kong's close connection. with China is the obstacle.) Certain Dominions regard Hong Kong as more Chinese than British in the factors of labour and capital. The local Government) have, however, upheld the point of view that Hong Kong is entitled to be regarded as an integral portion of the British Empire. Her facilities for distribution have for several decades of free trade rendered inestimable service to British trade, and now that the Empire has seen fit to change that policy, mere justice demands that the Colony should not be denied the advantages accruing from that change.

13. It is perhaps questionable whether, in the event of a satisfactory conclu- sion being reached upon this issue, this very success might not hamper negotiations with China along the lines already suggested, but success in even one direction should go some considerable way towards arresting the present trade decline. On the other hand should overtures in both directions fail, it may well be that the Colony's natural assets, wisely employed, will eventually enable her to overcome difficulties,

116

which perhaps at the moment appear more serious than they really are. In her central position, her unique harbour, political security, law and order, freedom from tariffs and absence of restrictions on currency, trade, capital and labour, the Colony possesses advantages gradually becoming unique in the world, and which for that very reason may enhance her value as a trade, financial, and even an industrial centre. To exploit these assets to the full however, the Colony's attraction as a free port is not enough; her reputation as one of the cheapest ports in the world must be maintained, and if possible enhanced. Whether she can do this and maintain the establishment of Government at its present scale is questionable, but in any case the burdens on the community in respect of taxation and services must ever be kept under enlightened control, and there must be constant vigilance to allow free play to the enterprise of her merchants and the skill of her workers.

14. In the course of our enquiry we came to the conclusion that, while in no way questioning the goodwill of the Government, there is some doubt whether all departments appreciate the desirability of facilitating trade to the utmost of their ability. We have heard complaints that often the official attitude has been one of aloofness, and, although we would not subscribe to the statements we have heard that there is sometimes obstruction, we feel that there must have been lack of consideration. Generally we should say that the departments of Government con- cerned at times either do not, or are unable to give sympathetic consideration to enterprises tending to benefit the Colony.

15. For instance, the compaint was constantly repeated that the most onerous conditions were imposed on grants of land irrespective of the purpose for which they were acquired. This applies not merely to private industrialists, but to public utility companies, who have to pay prices, based on bargaining conditions, which of course the public have ultimately to shoulder. Still more do these bargaining methods apply to the interpretation of the various departmental regulations which control the erection and the subsequent working of factories. Many of the proprie- tors are uninfluential and inexperienced, and while they have the European General Chamber of Commerce and the Chinese Chamber of Commerce through which to make representation to Government, we recommend that the General Chamber should set up a special Committee comprising members of their own Chamber, mem- bers of the Chinese Chambers, members of the Government, His Majesty's Trade Commissioner, and such others as they may choose to co-opt, under the Chairman- ship of the representative of the General Chamber of Commerce on the Legislative Council.

16. While not in any way wishing to belittle the good work of the two exist- ing Chambers of Commerce, we feel that such a special committee would facilitate liaison between both the Chambers themselves, between industrial interests, tourist traffic interests, the Import and Export Office, the Colonial Secretariat and other Government departments whose activities should include careful consideration of economic factors.

17. It has already been observed that the promulgation of purely municipal by-laws and regulations in statute form makes for cumbrous inflexibility.

In any case, whatever form be adopted, such laws and regulations should be easily under- standable and definite, so that a prospective owner may know in advance what con- ditions he must rigidly fulfil and what margin is left to official discretion. Not only would this simplify enterprise, but it would facilitate a reduction of official staff by eliminating inter-departmental bargaining and the imposition of extra unauthorised conditions when the obligatory requirements have already been fulfilled.

18. Apart from the resulting inflexibility it is exactly this type of legislation which lends itself so readily to the evil of Government by regulations, under which wide powers are entrusted to individual officials. This danger must be ever present in a bureaucracy such as exists in Hong Kong. Often in times of emergency measures are enacted and are allowed to remain in force indefinitely. This should be guarded against by encouraging and welcoming representations from those mem- bers of the public whose interests are affected, and by periodic revision.

117

19. These regulations do not in general affect the entrepot trade so much as the miscellaneous activities of the community and the ordinary life of the citizen. Strong representations were, however, made in respect of one deficiency in the commercial law of the Colony, namely, lack of any provision for the registration of partnerships. Traders within and without the Colony constantly suffer losses when debtor firms disappear and their proprietors cannot be legally identified. We are well aware of the difficulties compulsory registration would involve in this cosmo- politan community and consequently confine ourselves to urging the Government to compel all firms to signify on their letter headings or advertisements whether they are or are not officially registered, although registrations should still remain optional as hitherto. This would at any rate indicate the possibly ephemeral nature of a trading firm to its correspondents.

20. As already emphasised, we approached our task with no preconceived views on economic doctrine and were quite prepared to consider the merits of protection either for local industries or for Imperial products, subsidies, Government monopolies of certain products, or any of the other forms of State control of trade. that have been introduced elsewhere. Though we reject them in toto as impractic- able in Hong Kong we would be prepared to relent to a minor degree in respect of one industry only, agriculture. The lack of balance between agriculture and com- merce is now universally recognised as a modern evil to be redressed. Admittedly Hong Kong can do very little in this respect, but the Government should take active steps to remedy the position by implementing as soon as possible the recommendations of the Pigs and Poultry Committee and effecting a greater degree of social and economic stability by making the Colony more self-supporting.

21. It will have been observed that from this Report much detail has been excluded. The evidence, memoranda and minutes which form three bulky typescript volumes have been communicated to Government and the Report may be taken as a general survey thereof to which our own opinions have been added. While a much more detailed Report might possibly be more interesting to read, the production of such would be a physical impossibility for the Commission constituted as it is of men who are all actively engaged in various business and Governmental activities.

*

118

List of Appendices.

Appendix "A", Table I. Total values, in Sterling and Hong Kong cur-

rency, of Imports and Exports of Mer- chandise

II. Total values of Imports and Exports of Piece Goods and Textiles and percentage table of distribution of Imports

PAGE.

119

119

""

33

III. Total quantities and values of Imports and Ex-

ports of Coal

120

""

""

IV. Total quantities and values of Imports and Ex-

ports of Wheat Flour

121

""

V. Total quantities and values of Imports and Ex-

ports of Sugar

122

VI.

"

Total quantities and values of Imports and Ex-

ports of Mineral Oils

123

دو

VII. Total values of Imports and Exports of

Machinery and Engines

124

55

VIII. Total quantities and values of Imports and Ex-

ports of Sulphate of Ammonia

124

"

IX. Total quantities and values of Imports and Ex-

ports of Cotton Yarn

125

X.

""

Total values of Imports and Exports of Metals.

125

XI.

Comparative statement of Volume of Imports

and Exports

126

XII.

Index Number of Wholesale Prices

128

وو

XIII. Extract from Board of Trade Journal dated

29th March, 1934

130

Appendix "B".

Comparative Statement of Revenue from duties on Liquor, Tobacco, Bets and Sweeps, and Entertainment

132

C”

23

Table showing average monthly sterling ex- change values of the Hong Kong dollar, 1931-1934

133

"D"

Map showing existing and projected road

system in Southern Kwangtung.

134

Appendix "A”.

Table III.

Total quantities and values of Imports and Exports of COAL during the first half years 1931, 1932, 1933 and 1934.

IMPORTS.

From

1931

Tons

1932

}

1933

1934

Tons

Tons

Tons

India

102,509

1,563,523

101,586

1,410,152

37,574

420,652

China, North

111,928

1,734,326

130,341

2,020,205

88,185

1,114,291

95,782

1,101,495

Japan

137,582

2,497,308

162,423

2,870,027

231,469

3,084,126

212,374

2,772,068

French Indo-China

49,513

601,057

29,800

406,685

28,961

361,896

30,983

296,370

Others

11,434

178,672

24,844

363,566

16,928

249,390

4,405

55,152

Total

Total Exports

Average Rate of Ex-

change for whole

year

310,457

5,011,363

449,917

7,224,006

467,129

6,219,855-

381,118

4,645,737

98,550

1,391,960

77,277

1,136,594

95,891

1,341,188

37,337

531,055

1/02

1/320

1/41

1/5/1/

120

Appendix “A”.

Table IV.

"Total quantities and values of Imports and Exports of WHEAT FLOUR during the first half years 1931, 1932, 1933 and 1934.

From

U.S.A.

Canada

Australia

Others

1931

IMPORTS.

1932

1933

1934

Piculs

SA

Piculs

Piculs

Piculs

479,233

136,729

4,731,252

386,437

2,995,890

187,384

1,254,316

179,550

1,302,601

221,829

1,869,812

144,292

1,074,700

122,104

1,062,242

828,789

36,541

332,305

639,717

4,892,838

228,023

1,525,522

171,626

905,946

23,794

177,909

182

2,285

37

327

15,899

88,937

Total

676,297

6,544,067

1,248,165

9,760,825

553,736

3,854,865

489,179

2,885,914

Total Exports

Average Rate of Ex-

change for whole

year

709,980

6,166,803

786,492

6,500,464

701,414

5,147,815

351,807

2,101,280

1/03/1

1/33/

1/41

1/5/1/

121

Appendix “A”.

Table V.

Total quantities and values of Imports and Exports of SUGAR during the first half years 1931, 1932, 1933 and 1934.

IMPORTS.

1931

1932

1933

1934

Piculs

Piculs

Piculs

Piculs

Unrefined Brown

719,288

5,675,300

969,509

6,678,960

702,118

4,385,202

961,780

4,453,973

Unrefined White

1,401,560

10,632,835

679,886

4,889,687

732,898

4,511,722

Refined White

1,327,385

11,221,630

30,218

269,099

21,829

155,419

7,326

55,187

Total

2,046,673

16,896,930

2,401,287

17,580,894

1,403,833

9,430,308

1,702,004

9,020,882

Total Exports

1,737,219-

16,345,769

1,894,428

16,362,476

1,055,516

8,665,487

1,038,579

7,228,344

Average Rate of Ex-

change for whole

year

1/02

1/32

1/41

1/5/2/

122

Appendix "A".

Table VI.

Total quantities and values of Imports and Exports of MINERAL OILS during the first half years 1931, 1932, 1933 and 1934.

123

IMPORTS.

1931

1932

1933

1934

Petrol

Fuel Oil

Imp. Gallons

4,164,685

5,060,177

6,652,152

7,814,521

dla

3,602,613

3,547,460

3,969,470

2,937,643

(Tons

87,685

85,810

103,123

94,153

4,215,140

9,618,850

4,969,980

4,354,603

Diesel Oil

Kerosine

(Tons

1,344

6,884

682

98,100

485,163

28,439

Imp. Gallons

15,463,951

14,508,080

10,666,443

9,170,138

1$

9,916,296

7,903,697

4,594,319

3,110,408

Lubricating Oil

Imp. Gallons

780,571

693,053

715,867

1,068,206

1$

989,330

1,071,488

563,716

817,598

Total Tons

Total Imperial Gallons

87,685

87,154

110,007

94,835

20,409,207

20,261,310

18,034,462

18,052,865

Total $

18,723,379

22,239,595

14,582,648

11,248,691

Tons

28,287

30,726

52,594

78,138

Total Exports

Average Rate of Exchange for whole year

Imperial Gallons

16,937,860

14,349,848

18,175,045

13,749,749

15,776,385

11,882,644

6,134,368

6,951,881

1/02/

1/33/

1/41

1/5/1/

Appendix “A”.

Table VII.

Total values of Imports and Exports of MACHINERY AND ENGINES during the first half years 1931, 1932, 1933 and 1934.

1931

$

Total

Total Exports

5,517,373

795,390

Average Rate of Exchange for whole year

1/02/1

IMPORTS.

1932

1933

$

1934

$

3,498,779

2,827,005

2,475,552

791,176

1,018,479

752,758

1/32

1/4/1/

1/5/

Appendix “A”.

Table VIII.

Total quantities and values of Imports and Exports of SULPHATE OF AMMONIA during the first half years 1931, 1932, 1933 and 1934.

IMPORTS.

1931

1932

1933

1934

Piculs

Piculs

P

Piculs

Piculs

$

Totals

898,720

8,198,168

890.435

6,853,813

901,280

6,561,345

227,361

1,363,687

Total Exports

646,237

6,434,728

655,663

5,439,532

677,898

5,680,248

208,398

1,361,299

Average Rate of Ex-

change for whole

year

1/03/

1/33/20

1/41

1/5/1/

124

Total

Appendix "A".

Table IX.

Total quantities and values of Imports and Exports of COTTON YARN during the first half years 1931, 1932, 1933 and 1934.

Total Exports

Average Rate of Ex-

change for whole

year

1931

1932

lbs.

14,564,339

$

10,841,625

lbs.

22,481,229

IMPORTS.

1933

$

lbs.

16,478,325 21,997,194

1934

lbs.

11,290,936

21,431,150

(Note.-Above figures are included in Table II).

12,971,056

6,721,067

16,216,270

1/03

9,302,968

1/33/0

Appendix "A”.

20,302,086

9,883,771

9,863,951

19,845,779

8,610,636

1/41/1/0

Table X.

Total values of Imports and Exports of METALS during the first half years, 1931, 1932, 1933 and 1934.

1931

$

1932

IMPORTS.

1933

$

1934

1/5/2/2

Totals

23,861,997

20,525,301

16,807,279

14,813,714

Total Exports

19,938,399

14,395,412

15,842,748

15,162,787

Average Rate of Exchange for whole year

1/03

1/32

1/44

1/5/2/20

125

Appendix “A”.

Table XI.

Comparative statement of VOLUME of Imports and Emports in the years 1924, 1931, 1932 and 1933, showing principal commodities.

---

126

IMPORTS.

1924

1,931

· 1932

1933

Piculs

38,348.567

39,386,180

39,743,765

37,679,988

Tons

1,200,748

847,644

948,026

1,101,786

(Coal and Coke)

(990,638)

(664,246)

(779,101)

(901,370)

(Fuel Oil, etc.)

(210,110)

(183,398)

(168,925)

(200,416)

lbs.

56,865,458

55,185,940

71,087,520

61,673,889

(Meats)

(3,079,381)

(2,319,810)

(2,339,372)

(2,249,744)

(Blankets, Woollen)

(1,561,313)

(1,066,236)

(1,046,157)

(1,134,164)

(Yarn, all kinds)

(52,224,764)

(42,022,701)

(55,788,704)

(49,418,293)

Yards

102,210,078

136,457,474

97,066,288

(Piece Goods)

(102,210,078)

(136,394,595)

(97,005,520)

66,365,363 (66,177,874)

Pieces

15,287,399

71,161,601

63,261,775

53,608,474

(Piece Goods)

(1,432,407)

(1,115,899)

(1,190,457)

(1,198,269)

(Bricks and Tiles)

(1,738,286)

(37,103,155)

(28,825,674)

(14,534,338)

(Blankets, Cotton)

(855,036)

(651,686)

(223,609)

(403,756)

(Bags, Gunny)

(10,499,385)

(31,516,321)

(32,502,754)

(36,516,864)

Gallons

31,050,807

36,799,087

38,766,733

(Mineral Oils)

(31,050,807)

(35,418,377)

(37,552,457)

30,068,618

(29,033,851)

Square Feet

8,248,584

8,297,652

8,140,855

7,284,270

Cubic Feet

5,058,882

4,010,907

5,456,002

4,275,767

Table XI,-Continued.

1924

1931

EXPORTS.

1932

1933

Piculs

31,315,765

29,281,239

30,366,787

28,970,531

Tons

218,634

256,062

231,507

254,961

(Coal and Coke)

(199,438)

(200,116)

(164,067)

(146,468)

(Fuel Oil, etc.)

(19,196)

(55,946)

(67,440)

(108,493)

lbs.

49,791,750

45,527,654

55,702,877

53,211,186

(Meats)

(455,379)

(622,549)

(534,224)

(295,036)

(Blankets, Woollen)

(494,206)

(262,227)

(332,326)

(309,518)

(Yarn, all kinds)

(48,842,165)

(35,491,293)

(44,872,344)

(45,165,255)

Yards

86,141,945

95,894,305

70,158,856

54,655,876

(Piece Goods)

(86,141,943)

(95,609,182).

(70,011,189)

(54,361,184)

Pieces

23,790,041

36,317,282

39,186,798

40,913,078

(Piece Goods)

(1,169,439)

(683,207)

(617,089)

(766,807)

(Bricks and Tiles)

(1,860,503)

(2,339,680)

(2,832,095)

(1,294,198)

(Blankets, Cotton)

(689,070)

(654,175)

(335,695)

(378,640)

(Bags, Gunny)

(19,610,440)

(31,585,323)

(34,571,955)

(37,638,841)

Gallons

26,692,502

35,909,137

33,090,227

(Mineral Oils)

(26,692,502)

(35,374,830)

(32,612,276)

25,354,227

(24,912,355)

Square Feet

Cubic Feet

4,381,785

8,255,770

8,253,565

6,290,589

1,723,383

2,018,224

1,861,762

1,354,142

127

128

Appendix "A".

Table XII.

INDEX NUMBER OF WHOLESALE PRICES.

The following Price Index has been constructed on the basis of the declared quantities and c.i.f. values of commodities imported into Hong Kong:

Average Rate of Exchange 2/66.

Foodstuffs

Textiles

Metals

Miscellaneous

1922-100.

2/4/1/

1/03

1/33/

1/41

1/5/ 1st Half

1924

1931

1932

1933

Year

1934

106.1

144.3

126.5

113.4

94.0

112.5

135.8 125.2

97.0

98.9

102.3 140.9 128.1 106.3 125.4 109.7

107.8

102.3

95.7

88.4

106.8 136.6 122.4

103.5

95.9

Average

INDIVIDUAL AVERAGES.

2/616.

1922-100.

Foodstuffs.

2/41/ 1/03/ 1/33

1/41

1/5/1/ 1st Half

1924

1931

1932

1933

Year

1934

Beans

100.3

130.9

118.6

101.3

80.3

Beef

116.9 218.0

152.3

173.2

124.1

Eggs

Flour (Wheat)

Salt Fish

Fruits, Fresh

Lard

106.9

94.5 131.1 96.4 114.0 87.6 125.9 123.4 306.7 274.5 138.0 114.7

104.5

96.7

82.0

98.5

85.7

75.0

150.0 153.4

134.7

250.1

218.3

101.2

81.5

Milk (Condensed)

92.2

185.2

176.8

170.9

140.4

Mutton

114.3

173.9

132.9 139.4

137.1

Onions

103.1

141.1

104.1

81.6

79.2

Peanut Oil

111.6

117.1

122.1

101.7

71.9

Pork

103.6

133.8

119.8

109.6

90.5

Potatoes

93.4

109.0

109.6

86.2

75.5

Poultry

111.0

175.2

147.7

117.0

90.4

Rice (Broken)

112.3 126.1

118.3

88.9

62.8

Rice (White)

110.2 133.2

113.5

93.5

71.4

Sugar (Raw)

135.8

99.0

86.6

78.7

63.7

Vegetables (Dried, etc.)

96.3

64.3

56.8

45.2

42.1

Vermicelli

106.5

120.2

101.7

80.3

65.2

A

129

Table XII,-Continued.

Textiles.

2/4/1/ 1/03 1/32

1/41

1924

1931

1932

1933

1/5/1/ 1st Half Year

1934 ·

Cotton Yarn

120.5

141.4

120.1

92.3

86.8

Cotton (Dyed Plain)

100.4

94.8

88.4

77.6

62.4

Italians (Dyed Figured, Plain)..

82.2

87.5

100.0

61.8

66.7

Shirtings (White 40/43 yds.)

91.4

97.5

83.5

68.8

53.9

Hemp (Manila)

137.9

116.9

97.3

80.8

66.7

Gunny Bags

201.5

291.1

240.6

220.5

166.7

Hessian Cloth

Silk Piece Goods

138.0

64.9

83.2

73.6

72.7

91.4

85.3

75.9

72.2

64.8

Silk Yarn (Artificial)

94.3

45.1

45.0

40.0

32.7

Blankets (Wool and Union)

105.2

156.5

124.3

101.5

96.3

Flannels

105.0

352.4 349.2

181.2

301.7

Suitings and Tweeds (Woollen).

81.8

96.0

94.6

93.7

115.3

Metals and Minerals.

Brass Sheets

99.9 127.1

100.1

99.9

94.2

Yellow Metal Sheathing

95.8

159.5

115.9

109.7

88.8

Coal

88.1

119.8

110.2

92.9

86.9

Iron and Steel Bars

90.1

113.3

85.3

84.4

92.7

Iron and Steel Nails

93.5

116.5

117.0

118.8

107.6

Iron and Steel Plates

124.7

191.9 147.5

157.3

151.9

Lead (Pig)

131.2

150.8 120.3

86.6

87.3

Kerosene

72.0

103.7

91.0

67.6

49.0

Oil Fuel

97.0 212.0

285.5

151.7

142.2

Lubricating Oil

93.5

131.8

140.6

79.6

80.9

Petrol

91.1

87.5

74.6

55.9

39.3

Tin

150.4 177.4 149.4

188.8

206.8

Miscellaneous.

Cement

75.0

71.8

61.2

41.9

46.3

Charcoal

118.3

43.6

35.9

33.8

36.8

Feather (Duck)

157.4

Firewood

Hardwoods

160.7 124.1 89.7 114.6 80.5 92.7

80.8

101.2

110.6

104.6

98.4

80.8

80.8

75.3

Hides (Cow).

178.8

192.8 134.5

113.1

147.4

Hides (Buffalo)

114.3

192.6 159.0

164.6

73.3

Leather (Sole)

87.3

135.7

123.3

102.3

100.6

Paper (Chinese)

108.8

98.3 110.0

69.4

56.4

Rattans

89.5

130.2 126.4

118.4

116.3

Saltpetre

98.0 154.0

132.2 120.2

98.9

Softwoods

115.9 127.0

114.9

95.5

87.9

Soda Ash

98.3 147.7

128.8

101.0

82.0

Sulphuric Acid

85.4 131.2

127.7

136.2 144.1

Sulphate of Ammonia

96.7

87.5

76.8

72.4

61.1

Appendix “A”.

Table XIII.

The following statement, extracted from B.O.T. Journal dated March 29th, 1934, page 484, shows the decline in values of the Imports. for Home Consumption and Domestic Exports of certain of the principal countries during the half-yearly periods of 1931, 1932, and 1933 as compared with the corresponding periods in 1929-

130

Conversions to sterling have been made at par rates*

Percentage decrease as compared with the corresponding period of 1929.

Declared Value in 1933.

1931.

1932.

1933.

Country.

Jan.-June.

| July-Dec.

Jan.-June.

July-Dec.

Jan.-June.

July-Dec.

Jan.-June.

July-Dec.

Imports for Home Consumption.

Million £.

Per cent.

Per cent.

Per cent.

United Kingdom

295.2

331.6

29.8

26.7

39.1

43.7

45.8

41.5

Canada (a)

34.5

47.9

46.7

56.8

63.6

66.8

74.7

63.2

Australia (b)

26.4

28.9

68.5

71.5

67.6

59.3

62.5

61.4

British India (b)

44.9

43.7

40.9

50.1

48.4

45.8

56.1

52.0

British Malaya (b)

19.7

21.6

45.4

51.6

56.3

58.1

62.4

57.8

U.S.A. (b)

121.7

176.0

51.6

53.5

67.3

72.7

74.1

59.5

Germany

102.1

103.6

44.2

55.9

65.0

65.6

69.4

68.1

Japan (b), (c)

104.0

91.9

46.9

40.8

37.2

33.1

21.8

2.0

Czechoslovakia

15.8

19.5

44.0

38.5

60.4

64.7

73.7

68.2

Table XIII,-Continued.

--

Declared Value in 1933.

1931.

1932.

Percentage decrease as compared with the corresponding period of 1929.

1933.

Country.

Jan.-June.

July-Dec.

Jan.-June.

July-Dec.

Jan.-June.

| July-Dec.

Jan.-Juné. | July-Dec.

Exports of Domestic Produce.

Million £.

Per cent.

Per cent.

Per cent.

United Kingdom

175.3

192.1

44.5

48.3

47.9

52.0

51.1

48.2

Canada

42.3

66.9

49.5

48.2

61.4

55.2

64.3

46.2

Australia

41.1

49.4

52.0

28.6

46.7

25.4

44.5

0.3

British India

52.2

56.2

48.9

48.7

59.7

56.2

58.8

51.3

British Malaya

19.2

24.5

52.3

60.3

64.7

65.2

64.6

54.5

U.S.A.

135.0

203.4

50.0

57.8

68.2

70.7

74.5

61.6

Germany

116.4

122.1

27.0

30.5

54.2

60.4

63.6

64.1

Japan (c)

83.2

104.4

42.5

50.4

47.0

24.5

17.7

8.6

Czechoslovakia

16.0

19.6

31.0

40.1

60.1

67.7

71.6

71.4

*The official Australian sterling figures have been used for 1931, 1932 and 1933. (a) Including silver bullion.

(b) Total imports.

(c) Particulars relate to the trade of Japan with foreign countries only.

:

131

Liquor

Tobacco

Bets and Sweeps

Entertainment

1931

Appendix "B".

Revenue.

1932

1933

Decrease since

1934

1932

*

*2,416,838.94

*2,387,257.19

*2,172,448.51

*1,973,820.00

*413,437.19

*3,364,522.13

*3,476,137.45 *2,921,456.05

*2,953,833.88

*522,303.57

323,684.74

254,109.21

166,753.99

156,930.75

334,574.25

286,479.85

275,745.90

262,974.90

23,504.95

*Since 1931, Import duty has been calculated in

conventional" dollars and then converted into local currency. Average conversion rates for 1932, 1933 and 1934-1.25, 1.24 and 1.13 respectively.

Decrease in 1934 as compared with 1932 is partially attributable to lower conversion rate in force in 1934.

132

133

Appendix "C”.

Table showing average monthly sterling exchange values of the Hong

Kong dollar, January, 1931, to December, 1934.

1931

1932

1933

1934

d.

d.

d.

d.

January

113/2

1/418

1/31

1/59

February

111

1/51%

1/31/

1/51/5

March

113

1/318

1/39

1/6

April

113

1/23

1/31

1/5

May

11,19%

1/218

1/400

1/43

June

1176

1/316

1/4/5

1/51

July

1/-

1/3-2/

1/411

1/66

August

11/1/

1/318

1/4/

1/616

September

1/-1%

3

16

1/4

1/43

1/65

October

1/20

1/315

1/418

1/7/1/2

November

1/416

1/416

1/418

1/71/6

December

1/5/

1/316

1/4158

1/81

NAM

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SHING

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TSIMKONGYUEN

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CANTON

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WHAMPOA 1,

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CANTON

FAT SHAN (POP.150,000)

TA! SHEK

PAK KONG

(NORTH

LUNG

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RIVER

CHAN CHOEN

(POP. 20,000)

LUNG SHAN

Kow.

KONG

SHUN

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(WEST RIVER)

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MACAO

STEAMER TO MACAO

দে

FERRY TO NAMTOW

SAN

{

NAM TOW

(POP 20,000)

HAO F

DEE

LANTAO

ISLAND

во

. "ING

SENG

SIEN TSUNBOM.'

SHEK HA

"ERRY TO TAIPING 4 4-

SHEK TAN

SHEK LUNG POP. 50,0COL

TUNG KUN

(POP. 500,000)

TUNG

STEAMER TO CANTON

Shek Lik Kou

70 M.

CHA SHAN

NAM SHEH

WANG LIK

60 M.

SHEUNG PING

TU TONG

50 H

KUN

CHEUNG

MUK

TAU

TAL CHAN IN

C.M.C. STN.

LINTIN I.

C.M.C. STN.

STEAMER TO MACAO

C

Y TO NAMTOW

FERRY

SAN

ON

NAM TOW

(POP.90.000)

LUM TSUN

TONG TAU HA

TONGHA

← TO TSENG SHING

POK LO HSIEN (POP. 342, 500)

40 H.

SHEK KU

TUNG Woa

YAPTSAIR

TSIKGKAIHU

MOTOR BOAT

TO CANTON

WAI CHOW

KWAI SHIN SHIEN

(POP.WAI YEUNG DIST, 653,800)

WAI

YEUNG

SANHUE

TAN SHUI (POP.150,000)

TIN TONG WA!

LUNG KONG

KUN LAN HU,

OUTAO KONG

HAO HOI WAN

DEEP BAY)

LUNG WA

PING WU

SHUM CHUN MKT. (POP.80,000) ALL

SHUM CHU

WANG KONG

LI LONG

30 H.

PU KUT

SHUM CHUN

20 M.

SHEUNG SHUI

FANLING

TAIPO MARKET

TAIPO

UENLONG

SHATAO

SHATAUKOK

SHA UE CHUNG

FERRY TO TAPM

FERRY TO SHAVE CHUNG

MIR'S

BAY

IOM.

SHATIN

TUNNEL

LANTAO

ISLAND

B

0

YAUMATI

POP 944.500

KOWLOON

VICTORIA

HONG KONG

کر تے

JUNK TO TAIPO MARKET

о

PAKHONGEA

D

BIAS

D

BAY

/ SAMUN !

C.M C. STM.

AP

FERRY TO OUTAO KONG

ة

TRANSPORTA”.

KOWLOON TO

REFERENCE:-

BOUNDARIES INTERNATIONAL

—— STEAMER

""

DISTRICT.

ROADS!

RAILWAY.

"

""

STATIONS,

HALTS.

MILES O

10

1

IPING

W

909)

WANG LIK

60 M.

SHEUNG PING

CHEUNG

ON

AD HO WAN

DEEP BAYI

TU TONG

MUK

**

150 M

TAU

LUM TSUN

TONG TAU HA

-40 M.

SNEK KU

TONGHA

TO TSENG SHING

POK LO HSIEN (POP. 342, 500)

TUNG WOO

TSINGKAIHU

MOTOR BOAT TO CANTON

WAI CHOW

KWAI SHIN SHIEN

(POP. WAI YEUNG DIST, 453,800)

WAI YEUNG

SANHUE

TAM SHUI (POP.130,000)

TIN TONG WAI

LUNG KONG

KUN LAN HUD

OUTAO KONG

LUNG WA

PING WU

WANG KONG

LI LONG so M.

PU KUT

SHUM CHUN MKT. (POP.B0.000)

SHUM CHUN

20 M.

SHEUNG SHUI

FANLING

TAIPO MARKET

TAIPO

UENLONG

JOH.

YAUMATI

SHATIN

TUNNEL

KOWLOON

POP 944,500

VICTORIA

HONG KONG

SHATAO

SHATAUKOK

FERRY TO TAPMUN

FERRY

TO SHAUE

IRS

BAY

TAPHUN

TAIPO MARKET

о

Q

PAKMONGEA

HA LE CHUNG

D

BIAS

BAY

p. 132.

APPENDIX "D".

PING SHAN

FERRY TO QUTAO KONG

REFERENCE:-

My

SAMON I

C.H C. STN.

TRANSPORTATION MAP

KOWLOON TO CANTON,

PFANWOKONG

} PINGHOI

BOUNDARIES INTERNATIONAL

- STEAMERS. FERRIES & JUNKS ROUTE.

DISTRICT.

ROADS UNDER CONSTRUCTION.

RAILWAY.

19

OPEN

""

MILES O

STATIONS.

HALTS.

PATHS.-------

10

15

20

MILES

Walk

MANAGER AND CHIEF ENGINEER, K.C.R.

DECEMBER 1934.

Increase.

165

HONG KONG.

No. 1935

H

ABSTRACT SHOWING THE DIFFERENCES

BETWEEN THE

APPROVED ESTIMATES OF EXPENDITURE FOR 1935

AND THE

ESTIMATES OF EXPENDITURE FOR 1936.

Head 1.-Governor.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

$

208

Higher Rate of Exchange Changes in Personnel

25,260

29

Total

$

208

Total

.S

25,289

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

2. Coal

400

3. Electric Fans and Light for

Public Rooms

200

4. Furniture

250

5. Incidental Expenses

350

Total

.1,200

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

$

208

$

+

25,289

Other Charges

1,200

IL

Total

208

$

26,489

Deduct Increase

208

Net Decrease

$

26,281

Estimates, 1935

$ 163,644

Increase.

Estimates, 1936

Decrease, 1936

137,363

26,281

Head 2.-Colonial Secretary's Office and Legislature.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

$ 16,068

Higher Rate of Exchange

57,792

Transferred from Other Heads

71,729

Transferred to Other Heads

24.763

Language Allowances

Shorthand Allowances Acting Pay

60

Changes in Personnel

2,213

120

Abolition of Post

7,875

135

Total

$ 88,112

Totoal

$

92,643

Increase.

Sub-Head.

166

Decrease.

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

2. Cleaning of Offices

100

7.

Transport

50

8. Uniforms for Office Attendants

and Messengers

100

Total

250

Special Expenditure.

9. Fifty Canvas Bags with Yale

Pattern Locks

Twenty Steel Cabinets

3,300

400

Total

400

Total

3,300

Increase.

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges

Special Expenditure

Total

Deduct Increase

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1935

Estimates, 1936

Decrease, 1936

Increase.

Decrease.

88,112

$

92,643

400

250 3,300

$ 88,512

$

96,193

88,512

$

7,681

$ 330,194 322,513

7,681

Head 3.-Secretariat for Chinese Affairs.

Stipulated Increments

Transferred from Other Heads Acting Pay

Total

$

$

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

5,184

23,791 2,268

Higher Rate of Exchange Transferred to Other Heads

21,856 11,306

31,243

Total

$

33,162

Increase.

Personal Emoluments

31,243

Total Deduct Increase

$

31,243

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1935

Estimates, 1936

Decrease, 1936

$

Decrease.

33,162

33,162

31,243

CA

1,919

$ 153,906 151,987

1,919

1

Increase.

167

Head 4.-Treasury.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

8,169

Higher Rate of Exchange...

30,949

Transferred from Other Heads

22,135

Transferred to Other Heads

38,048

New Posts

7,785

Changes in Personnel

10,001

Overtime Allowances..

480

Abolition of Posts

320

Acting Pay

840

Total

39,409

Total

79,318

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

3. Incidental Expenses

500

4.

Stamps etc.

500

6.

Upkeep of Motor Car

100

Total

1,100

Special Expenditure.

Sub-Head.

7. Equipment for Addressograph etc..$

1,000

Total

1,000

Increase.

Personal Emoluments

$ 39,409

Other Charges.....

1,000

40,409

Special Expenditure

Total

Deduct Increase

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1935

Estimates, 1936

Decrcase, 1936

Increase.

Stipulated Increments

Transferred from Other Heads Acting Pay

Total

$

Decrease.

79,318 1,100

$

$

80,418 40,409

40,009

$ 274,700

234,691

40,009

Head 5.-Audit Department.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

3,881 814

2,022 Higher Rate of Exchange

Transferred to Other Heads

16,528

4,154

6,717

Total

20,682

168

Decrease.

Increase.

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

Share of Home Expenditure (£412)...$

Total

$

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

.$

6,717

$

Other Charges....

Total

$

6,717

20,682

1,221

21,903

Deduct Increase

6,717

Net Decrease

$

15,186

Estimates, 1935

$ 116,432

Estimates, 1936

$ 101,246

Decrease, 1936

15,186

Increase.

Head 6.-District Office, North.

1,221

1,221

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

New Post.......

2,102

480

Higher Rate of Exchange.. Transferred to Other Heads..

6,476

15,966

Language Allowances

60

Changes in Personnel....

297

Total

$

2,642

Total

22,739

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

3. Electric Light & Fans

.$

5.

8.

Local Public Works Uniforms

100 1,000 100

Total

1,200

Special Expenditure.

Sub-Head.

10. Maps

220

Total

.$

220

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

$

2,642

22,739

Other Charges

1,200

Special Expenditure

220

Total

$

2,862

23,939

Deduct Increase

2,862

Net Decrease

$

21,077

Estimates, 1935

90,413

Estimates, 1936

$

69,336

Decrease, 1936

21,077

Increase.

169

Head 7.-District Office, South.

Personal Emoluments.

Decrease.

Stipulated Increments

.$

Transferred from Other Heads

1,023 17,048

Higher Rate of Exchange Transferred to Other Heads

$

4,652

11,229

Changes in Personnel

50

Total

18,121

Total

15,881

Sub-Head.

7. Transport

Total

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

$

50

4. Local Public Works

$

250

5.

Rent of Office

600

50

Total

$

850

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

$ 18,121

$

15,881

Other Charges

50

850

Total

$

18,171

16,731

Deduct Decrease

$

16,731

Net Increase

1,440

Estimates, 1936

46,973

Estimates, 1935

45,533

Increase, 1936

1,440

Increase.

Head 8 (A).-Post Office.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

$

10,854

New Posts

3,072

Higher Rate of Exchange Changes in Personnel

.$

15,190

6,131

Language Allowances

Rent Allowances

Total

120

Acting Pay

1,000

120

14,166

Total

$

22,321

Sub-Head.

3. Cleansing Materials, Utensils and

Washing

5. Incidental Expenses

Total

$

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

2.

Carriage of Mails:-Transit

100

Charges

.$

10,000

200

9.

Stamps

1,000

12.

Uniform & Equipment

500

300

Total

11,500

Special Expenditure.

Motor Mail Van

$

1,800

Total

$

1,800

170

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

$ 14,166

$

22,321

Other Charges

800

11,500

Special Expenditure

1,800

Total

Deduct Increase

14,466

$

35,621

14,466

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1935

Estimates, 1936

$

21,155

$ 520,002

498,847

Decrease, 1936

21,155

Increase.

Head 8 (B).—Wireless.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

$ 4,322

New Posts

3,018

Higher Rate of Exchange Changes in Personnel

2,775

1,030

Rent Allowances

192

Total

7,532

Total

3,805

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

4.

Documents relating to Radio-

telegraph Service

5. Incidental Expenses

8.

Uniforms

Total

100

50

300

$

450

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments Other Charges

$ 7,532

3.805 450

Total

Deduct Decrease

Net Increase

$

7,532

$

4,255

4,255

$

8,277

Estimates, 1936 Estimates, 1935

Increase, 1936

$

183,614 180,837

$ 3,277

Increase.

Decrease.

Head 9.-Imports and Exports Department.

Stipulated Increments

$

Personal Emoluments.

12.841

3,120 21,000

Higher Rate of Exchange Changes in Personnel

Rent Allowances

Acting Pay

New Post

Transferred from Other Heads

Language Allowances

Total

132

$ 37,093

Total

$

32,700

30,911

156

171

63,938

Increase.

Sub-Head.

22. Expenses of 13 Government

Opium Shops.....

171

Decrease.

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

4.

Torches and Batteries for searching

$

15,000

purposes

200

6.

Electric Light, Fans and Heating...

100

9. Laboratory Stores

300

16. Transport

200

17.

Uniforms and Equipment

2,700

19.

Packing Expenses and Carriage..

1,500

20.

Purchase of Raw Opium, including

Reward for Illicit Opium

10,000

21.

Transport

800

25. Electric Light and Heating

100

28. Miscellaneous Stationery....

50

29.

Printing of Reports

500

31.

Uniforms for Coolies and Messengers

50

Cleansing Materials and Washing...

300

Total

..$

15,000

Total

$

16,800

Special Expenditure.

Partial Rearming of Revenue Officers ...$

2,200

Total

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments Other Charges..... Special Expenditure

$

37,093

$

63,938

15,000

16,800

2,200

Total

$

52,093

82,938

Deduct Increase

52,093

Net Decrease

30,845

Estimates, 1935

$ 425,190

Estimates, 1936

$ 394,345

Decrease, 1936

$ 30,845

$

2,200

Increase.

Decrease.

Head 10 (A).-Harbour Department.

Stipulated Increments New Posts

Overtime Allowances. Acting Pay

Personal Emoluments.

$ 12,641

4,212

Higher Rate of Exchange Changes in Personnel

72,016

2,783

520

50

Transferred to Other Heads.. Personal & Similar Allowances

3,881

192

Total

$

17,423

Total

$

78,872

Increase.

Sub-Head.

172

Decrease.

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

Coal and Oil Fuel for Launches......$ Examination Fees Launch Moorings and Buoys, Navigational Moorings and Buoys Repairs, minor improvements and Stores for Launches and Boats ... Slipway at Yaumati, Maintenance. Transport

5. Drawing Materials, Instruments

and Equipment, G.M.S. Office.$ Ocean Steamship Moorings and

Buoys

2.

270

7.

11.

900

13. Rent, Light and Water Allow- ances for Slipway Staff

14.

360

16. Stores and Equipment for Light-

houses

2,000

15. 17.

Total

$

3,530

Total

50,000

200

8,000

26,000

500

200

.$

84,900

Special Expenditure.

Sub-Head.

Sub-Head.

21. New Engine to H.D. 8

.$

9,000

19.

New Police Launch No. 9

$

Repairs to Green Island Light ... 23. Repairs to Diaphone at Waglan... 24. New Flasher at Cape Collinson... 25. Fog Signal Actuating Clock

1,800

20.

New Police Launch No. 1

25,750 93,400

400

Steel Filing Cabinets for G.M.S.

200

1,400

New Launch to replace H.D.I..

10,000

900

Instruments and Models for G.M.S.

500

27.

28.

26. New Light for Lan Tau

Gestetner for G.M.S. Office Conversion of Old Police Launch I

29. Transfer of Boiler from H.D. I to

1,200

Dalton Adding Machine

375

680

New Engine for R.D. 1

9,000

1,200

New Engine for H.D. 7

9,000

Motor Boat

8,000

"Aldecoa"

30. Jib Crane

Total

450

Electric Machine for Sewing Heavy

1,200

Canvas

2,000

.$

18,230

Total

$ 158,225

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges....

Special Expenditure

Total

Deduct Increase

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1935

Estimates, 1936

Increase.

Decrease, 1936

$

Increase.

Decrease.

17,423

$

78,872

3,530

84,900

18,230

158,225

39,183

$ 321,997 39,183

$ 282,814

$ 1,802,090

$ 1,019,276

$ 282,814

Head 10 (B).-Air Services.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments New Post

978

Higher Rate of Exchange

$

4,355

480

Changes in Personnel

Abolition of Posts

148 2,340

Rent Allowances

Acting Pay

144 175

Total

1,453

Total

$

7,162

Increase.

173

Other Charges.

Decrease.

Sub-Head.

Sub-Head.

2. Electric Fans & Light 3. Flying Fees for Staff 6. Upkeep of Buoys

$1,500 2,475 100

7.

Upkeep of Motor Roller

$

150

9.

Upkeep of Fire Engine

300

Annual Subsidy to Volunteers.....

30,000

Total

$ 4,075

Total

30,450

Special Expenditure.

Sub-Head.

10. Instruments & Books for Examina-

tions

Total

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

$ 1,453

7,162

Other Charges

4,075

30,450

Special Expenditure

500

Total

$

5,528

38,112

Deduct Increase

5,528

Net Decrease

32,584

Estimates, 1935

$

70,915

Estimates, 1936

38,331

Decrease, 1936

$

32,584

Increase.

Stipulated Increments New Post

Total

Head 11.-Royal Observatory.

$

$

500

500

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

2,602 6,000

Higher Rate of Exchange Changes in Personnel Acting Pay

$

7,667 36 2,043

8,602

Total

.$ 9,746

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

Sub-Head.

5. Maintenance of instruments and

7. Printing

$

500

plant

450

10.

Uniforms

50

8. Subscription to International

Meteorological Organisation ...

Subscription towards cost of

60

printing results of Inter- national Upper Air Research.

150

Total

510

Total

700

!

Increase.

Sub-Head.

11. Brief Gestetner

Total

174

Special Expenditure.

.$

$

1,750

1,750

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

$

8,602

$

Other Charges

510

9,746 700

Special Expenditure

1,750

Total

10,862

10,446

Deduct Decrease

10,446

Net Increase

416

Estimates, 1936 Estimates, 1935

71,071

70,655

Increase, 1936

$

416

Increase.

Head 12.-Fire Brigade.

Decrease.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

New Posts

Rent Allowances

4,150 968

1,008

Higher Rate of Exchange Changes in Personnel Acting Pay

S

11,690

7,111

2,571

Total

6,126

Total

$

21,372

Sub-Head.

6. Incidental Expenses 7. Light and electric fans 12. Transport

$

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

100

2. Clothing

.$

1,000

700

3.

Coal and oil fuel

2,000

50

5.

Hose

2.000

9.

Repairs to motor engines and

plant

1,000

10. Repairs to floating engines

1,000

11. Stores

1,000

Total

$

8,000

Total

$

850

Sub-Head.

14.

One Motor Fire Engine 15. Fire Hydrant Service, G.P.O.

Building

Total

Special Expenditure.

Sub-Head.

$

3,100

20,000 Two small Motor Ambulances for

Destitutes One Motor Ambulance

$

5,000

8,500

23,100

Total

13,500

175

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

$

6,126

$

21,372

Other Charges

850

8,000

Special Expenditure

23,100

13,500

Total

$ 30,076

$

42,872

Deduct Increase

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1935

Estimates, 1936

Decrease, 1936

30,076

$ 12,796

$ 322,555

$

309,759

12,796

Increase.

Head 13.-Supreme Court.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

5,631

Higher Rate of Exchange

$

26,778

New Post

3,000

Transferred to Other Heads

17,875

Acting Pay

3,098

Changes in Personnel

3,300

Shorthand Allowances

180

Total

11,729

Total

$

48,133

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

Sub-Head.

4. Conveyance Allowances

$

180

11.

Uniform for Messengers

Total

180

Total

88

50

50

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges

Special Expenditure.

Increase.

11,729

180

Sub-Head.

12. Halsburys "Law of England"

replacement of four sets: fourth Instalment

$

Total

Decrease.

48,133

50

Special Expenditure

527

Total

$

11,909

48,710

Deduct Increase

11.909

Net Decrease

$

36,801

Estimates, 1935

$ 252,468

Estimates, 1936

Decrease, 1936

215,667

36,801

527

527

Increase.

176

Head 14.-Attorney General.

Personal Emoluments.

Decrease.

Stipulated Increments

800 Higher Rate of Exchange

Changes in Personnel...

.$

10,050 108

Total

800

Total

.$ 10,158

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

$

800

$

10,158

Total

$

800

$

10,158

Deduct Increase...

800

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1935

Estimates, 1936

$

9,358

$

ਉੱਤੇ ਰਹਿ

54,256

$

44,898

Decrease, 1936

$

9,358

Increase.

Head 15.-Crown Solicitor.

i

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

Changes in Personnel

Shorthand Allowances

409 3,562 60

Higher Rate of Exchange.. Acting Pay

6,160 10,500

Total

$

4,031

Total

$

16,660

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges

Total

Deduct Increase.

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1935

Estimates, 1936

Decrease, 1936

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

2. Books

100

Total

100

Increase.

4,031

Decrease.

16,660

100

4,031

$

16,760 4,031

*A

12,729

$ 54,314

€A ¤A

$ 41,585

¤A

12,729

Incrcase.

177

Head 16.-Official Receiver.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

$

1,317 Higher Rate of Exchange.....

$

3,411

Total

$

1,317

Total

.$

3,411

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

1,317

$

3,411

Total

.$

1,317

3,411

Deduct Increase..

1.317

Net Decrease

CA

2,094

Estimates, 1935

Estimates, 1936

€s es

24,655

22,561

Decrease, 1936

2,094

Increase.

Head 17.-Land Office.

Personal Emoluments.

Decrease.

Stipulated Increments Shorthand Allowances

$

2,167 60

Changes in Personnel Acting Pay

གླ་

15,137 12,938

Total

.$ 2,227

Total

.$ 28,075

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

$ 2,227

$

28,075

Total Deduct Increase

$ 2,227

$

28,075

2,227

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1935

$

25,848

73,158

Estimates, 1936

47,310

Decrease, 1936

25,848

Increase.

Stipulated Increments Personal Allowances

Total

Head 18.-Magistracy, Hong Kong.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

$ 4,048

12

Higher Rate of Exchange... Transferred to Other Heads..

$

8,715

32,223

Overtime Allowances..

17

Acting Pay

1,500

4,060

Total

$

42,455

Increase.

Sub-Head.

5.

Law Books

Total

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges.....

Special Expenditure

Total

Deduct Increase

Net Decrease

Increase.

Estimates, 1935

Estimates, 1936

Decrease, 1936

$

178

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

80

2.

7.

80

Electric Fans & Light Uniform for Messengers

Special Expenditure.

Increase.

4,060

80

4,140

Law Books

Total

Total

Decrease.

42,455

45

100

*A

$

42,600 4,140

$ 38,460

$ 101,042

$ 62,582

¤A

38,460

Head 19.-Magistracy, Kowloon.

Decrease.

25

25

20

45

.$

100

100

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

.$

Transferred from Other Heads

2,506 11,223

Higher Rate of Exchange... Transferred to Other Heads....

5,798

11,180

New Post

Overtime Allowances

280 51

Sub-Head.

Total

$

14,060

2. Electric Fans & Light

Total

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

200

$

200

Total

5. Uniform for Messengers....

Total

Special Expenditure

6. Law Books

16,978

50

.$

50

590

Total

590

179

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

$

14,060

$ 16,978

Other Charges.....

200

50

Special Expenditure

590

Total

$

14,260

€A

$

17,618

Deduct Increase

14,260

Net Decrease

$

3,358

Estimates, 1935

$

46,472

Estimates, 1936

$

43,114

Decrease, 1936

$

3,358

Increase.

Head 20.-Police Force.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

$

39,139

Higher Rate of Exchange

$ 245,172

Transferred from Other Heads

13,694

Transferred to Other Heads

4,800

New Posts

66,320

Changes in Personnel

46,879

Shorthand Allowances

240

Abolition of Posts

10,536

Language Allowances.

Rent Allowances

Personal Allowances

5,244

Good Conduct Medal Allowances...

48 260

Acting Pay

232 1,711

Total

$ 124,945

Total

$ 309,330

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

Conveyance Allowances

9.

10.

Coolie Hire

15. Incidental Expenses

25. Rent of Stations and Married

Sub-Head.

360

3.

Upkeep of Arms

S

500

500

4.

Bedding

500

500

6.

Cleansing Materials and Washing

100

7.

Clothing and Accoutrements

10,000

Police Quarters

27.

Rewards

28.

Secret Service

33.

Transport

6,720

12.

Expenses of Anti-piracy Guards.

2,000

2,500

14.

Identification of Criminals

100

10,000

19.

Mess Utensils

500

500

21.

Petrol, Oil, etc., for Police

Motor Vehicles

1,000

23.

Rations for Indian Police...

4,000

24.

Remand Home Juvenile

Offenders

2,000

Cycles

29.

Small Stores

32.

telephone calls

Total

21,080

Total

26. Repairs to Police Motor Cars and

Telegrams and long distance

500

1,000

200

22,400

Special Expenditure.

35.

50 .38 Long Revolvers

3,500

36.

6 Thompson Guns

2,800

Wireless for Mobile Police Police Telephone Pillars

$

5,000

1,000

37. 2 Refrigerators

1,200

38. 80 .303 Rifles and Bayonets....

6,400

39.

1 Motor Cycle Combination...

1,100

40.

2 Steel Cupboards

280

41. Anti-gas Equipment

15,600

50 .38 Short Revolvers Spare Parts for 3 Pdr Guns 2 Motor Cycle Combinations

Polishing Equipment Musketry Equipment

3,600

720

2,980

350

500

Total

30,880

Total

$

14,150

180

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges

$ 124,945

$ .309,330

Special Expenditure

21,080 30,880

22,400 14,150

Total

$ 176,905

Deduct Increase

$ 345,880 176,905

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1935

Estimates, 1936

Decrease, 1936

$ 168,975

$2,989,761 2,820,786

168,975

Increase.

Head 21.-Prisons Department.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

Language Allowances

Rent Allowances

9,809

900 48

Higher Rate of Exchange Changes in Personnel Acting Pay

61,936

10,305

2,200

Total

.$

10,757

Total

74,441

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

4. Cleansing and Sanitary

Sub-Head.

2.

Arms and Ammunition

100.

Materials.

12. Light

15.

Photography

400

5.

Clothing and Shoes for Staff....

500

1,000

6.

Clothing for Prisoners

2,000

200

8.

Fuel

1,000

17. Rent of Quarters and Rent

allowances for European

14.

Materials for Repairs and

Renewals

200

Warders

19.

Subsistence of Prisoners

2,000

20.

Transport

200

20,000 21.

Upkeep and running expenses of

Motor Vans

200

Total

23,600

Total

$

4,200

Personal Emoluments Other Charges

Special Expenditure

Total Deduct Increase

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1935

Estimates, 1936

Decrease, 1936

Special Expenditure.

One Printing Machine £400 One Ruling Machine £380

Total

Increase.

Decrease.

$

10,757

$

74,441

23,600

4,200

11,700

$

34,357

90,341

34,357

$

55,984

$ 875,441

819,457

55,984

6,000

5,700

$

11,700

Increase.

181

Head 22.-Medical Department.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

$

New Posts

42,394 13,214

Higher Rate of Exchange Transferred to Other Heads

$ 150,338

8,400

Personal Allowances

108

Changes in Personnel

19,716

Total

$

55,716

Abolition of Posts

Rent Allowances.

Acting Pay

3,814

528 3,826

Total

$ 186,622

Other Charges.

$365 each

12.

Fuel & Light

Sub-Head.

5. Boarding for 5 House Officers at

14. Incidental Expenses

Sub-Head.

2. Conveyance Allowances.

.$

$

5

9.

Cleansing Materials

7,000

10.

500

Dental & Other Special Treat-

ment

1,500 500

500

18.

Notification

Fees, infectious

diseases

350

11. Expenses of Courses of Study & attendance at Medical Con-

22.

Transport

150

gresses

2,000

25.

X-ray Apparatus, Running Ex-

penses & Maintenance

16.

Medical Comforts

250

2,000

17.

Medicines, Surgical Appliances

32. Disinfecting and Fumigating

& Instruments

20,000

Bureau, Running Expenses

4,850

20.

Provisions for Patients

20,000

33.

Repairs & replacements.........

500

21.

Rent of Premises for Dispen-

43.

Conveyance Allowance for Kow-

saries and Infant Welfare

loon Messengers

6

Centre

1,440

55.

Incidental Expenses

50

23.

Treatment of Opium Addicts

1,000

26.

Running Expenses of Travelling

Dispensary and Motor bus for

Lady Ho Tung Welfare Centre

1,400

28.

Washing

1,500

31.

Uniforms

50

34.

Animals and Fodder

2,000

36. Apparatus and Chemicals

200

37. Books & Journals

50

39.

Fuel and Light

150

42.

Uniforms

100

46.

Anti-Malarial Field Work

500

48.

Equipment

500

49.

Incidental Expenses

30

50.

Uniforms

100

52.

Books & Journals

150

56.

Uniforms

50

Total

15,411

Special Expenditure.

Total

$

53,970

57. Anti-Gas Equipment

11,760

59. Emulsifying Machine..

2,650

60. Equipment for Queen Queen

Mary

Hospital

35,000

Equipment for Kowloon Hospital Equipment for Tai Po Dispensary Refrigerator for Tsan Yuk Hospital Microscope for V. D. Clinic.....

!

5,000

3,000

800

800

61. Repairs and Calibration of In- struments for Government Laboratory

62. Suction Hose for Disinfecting

and Fumigating Bureau....

250

550

Total

50,210

Total

$9

9,600

182

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

$

55,716

Other Charges.....

15,411

Special Expenditure

50,210

$ 186,622 53,970 9,600

Total

$ 121,337

Deduct Increase..

$ 250,192 121,337

Net Decrease

$ 128,855

Estimates, 1935

Estimates, 1936

Decrease, 1936

$ 1,780,233

$ 1,651,378

$ 128,855

Increase.

Head 23.-Sanitary Department.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

$

15,573

Higher Rate of Exchange..

76,501

New Posts

8,160

Changes in Personnel..

11,857

Transferred from Other Heads....

21,000

Abolition of Posts

19,050

Transferred to Other Heads

20,520

Rent Allowances

1,056

Language Allowances

300

Personal Allowances

24

Acting Fay

109

Total

$

44,733

Total

$ 129,417

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

Sub-Head.

Crematorium, Running Expen-

ses

2,500

17.

General Cleansing, Chinese New

Year

4.

50

5.

3. Ambulances, Coffins, Dead Vans

and Dead Boxes

Bath-houses; fuel, Light, etc.... Burial of Infected Bodies

200

500

250

20. Light

500

6.

Coal for Official Quarters

150

32. Training of Probationary Asiatic

Inspectors

7.

Conservancy

5,000

1,200

8.

Conveyance Allowances

440

10.

Disinfectants

3,000

Animal Depôts & Slaughter Houses.

12.

35.

Incidental Expenses

11. Disinfecting and Cleansing Stores. Disinfectors, Operating expenses

500

500

of

350

13.

15.

Dust and Water Carts, Upkeep of Expenses of Inspectors in

350

Obtaining Royal Sanitary

Institute Certificates

150

21. Motor Lorries, Vans and Cars,

Running Expenses

5,000

22. Nightsoil Receptacles

100

23.

Paint, Turpentine etc.

200

24.

Rat Poison, Rat Traps, etc....

500

27. Scavenging Villages

300

28. Scavenging Gear

1,200

30. Uniforms for Staff

1,500

31. Workshop Apparatus

50

Animal Depôts & Slaughter Houses.

33.

Ammunition

500

34. Fuel

&

250

36. Light

100

37. Motor Meat Vans: Running

Expenses

3,000

38. Cattle Crematorium and Refuse

Destructor

100

Total

4,750

Total

$

23,690

Increase.

Sub Head.

39. Pier at Aplichau Island

1 Tapley Brake Meter

40.

41.

1 Embossing Press

42. Anti-gas Equipment

183

Decrease.

Special Expenditure.

200

1 10 h.p. Chassis

3,000

100

2 Deep Draft Barges

22,000

200

4,600

Conversion of 2 30 cwt. Refuse Lorry

Chassis to Water Wagons

3,000

2 Refuse Lorries

8,000

3 Towing Barges

30,000

1 Filing Cabinet

250

Total

.$

66,250

Total

$

5,100

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

$

44,733

$ 129,417

Other Charges

4,750

23,690

Special Expenditure

5,100

66,250

Total

$

54,583

$ 219,357

Deduct Increase..

54,583

Net Decrease

$

164,774

Estimates, 1935

$ 1,186,291

Estimates, 1936

1,021,517

Decrease, 1936

$

164,774

Increase.

Head 24.-Botanical and Forestry Department.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

$

1,306

New Posts

748

Higher Rate of Exchange Changes in Personnel

$

5,700

1,548

Rent Allowances

144

Language Allowances

120

Total

$

2,198

Total

7,368

Other Charges.

14.

Sub-Head.

Conveyance Allowances

6. Forestry

Uniforms and Accoutrements....

Sub-Head.

100 2,000

13.

Transport

15. Upkeep of Car

$

100 100

250

Total

$

2,350

Total

200

Increase.

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges

2,198 2,350

Total

$

4,548

CA

Deduct Increase

Net Decrease

$

CA

Estimates, 1935

Estimates, 1936

Decrease, 1936

Decrease.

7,368 200

7,568

4,548

3,020

$ 130,649

6A

$

127,629

3,020

184

Increase.

Head 25.-Education Department.

Decrease..

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments.

New Posts

54,077

14,054

Higher Rate of Exchange Changes in Personnel

$ 137,874

Rent Allowances

Acting Pay

136

Abolition of Posts

49,211 3,780

1,500

Total

$

69,767

Total

$ 190,865

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

19.

Sub-Head.

5. Conveyance Allowance to Director

of Education

17.

Students in training:-Fees

18. Students in training:

Maintenance

Students in training:-

3. Books

294

$

240

4.

College Calendars

200

770

6.

Domestic Science Classes

50

7.

Electric Fans and Light

400

1,150

a.

Equipment of Woodwork Classes

300

10.

Incidental Expenses

500

Allowances

800

11.

Laboratories

800

23. Capitation Grants

10,000

12.

Medical Expenses

500

15. Renewals and replacements of

Trade School.

equipment

100

20.

Transport

240

28. Coal (Smiths)

50

21.

Uniforms

650

29.

Consumable Stores

1,000

22.

30. Electric Light and Gas

31. Incidental Expenses

200

24.

1.000

University Examination Fees Compensation to Railway for

School childrens' tickets

3,400

500

Total

.$

15,210

Total

S

7,934

Special Expenditure.

Sub-Head.

32. Junior Technical School;

Carpentry Equipment .........$

105

Junior Technical School; Laboratory

Equipment

Junior Technical School; Other

Trade School.

Equipment

Equipment of Schools

2,708

949

1,294

33. Books, Wall Charts etc.

1,200

34. Carpenter's Shop

4,368

35. Drawing Office

1,285

36.

Fitter's Shop

3,184

37.

Forge

524

38.

Laboratory

4,800

39.

40.

Machine Shop

Power House

41. Setting Out Equipment

Total

12,178

1,000 732

$ 29.376

Total

4,951

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

$

69,767

$ 190,865

Other Charges

15,210

Special Expenditure

29,376

7,934 4,951

Total

$ 114,353

Deduct Increase

$ 203,750 114,353

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1935

Estimates, 1936

Decrease, 1936

89,397

$1,981,700 1,892,303

89,397

185

Increase.

Decrease.

Head 26.-Kowloon-Canton Railway.

Stipulated Increments

New Posts

Sub-Head.

3. Ballast

4.

Bridgework

Personal Emoluments.

9,477 1,128

Higher Rate of Exchange.

14,539

Changes in Personnel

17,871

Abolition of Posts

12,662

Rent Allowances

296

Overtime Allowances

3,400

Personal Allowances

Temporary and Miscellaneous

129

Allowances

Acting Pay

6,610

5,143

Total

$

10,605

9. Formation and Line Protection...

10.

Furniture

23. Rents

31.

Tunnels

33. Motor Cars and Lorries,

Running Expenses

Total

.$

60,650

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

1,000

6.

Coal

81,655

100

12.

Incidental Expenses

50

500

13.

Locomotive Repairs

8,750

100

14.

Lubricants

9,300

1,177

20. Power, Electric Fans and Light.

400

850 22.

Rails and Fastenings

4,600

25.

Sleepers

8,500

1,000

26.

Stations Buildings and Staff

Quarters

1,500

27.

Stores

2,500

29. Tools and Plant

750

30. Transport

32.

Uniform

50 1,750

Total

$

4,727

Total

$ 119,805

Sub-Head.

34. Double-wire Signalling at Yaumati

Station

35. Conversion of Taipo Market

Station into a Crossing and Train Token Station

Special Expenditure.

Sub-Head.

$ 4,300

42. Reinforced-concrete Gantries in Carriage Shed

6.460

3,000

36.

37.

Re-railing Beacon Hill Tunnel... Reinforced-concrete road level-

25,300

43. New Traffic Quarters at Lowu...

New Permanent Pale Fencing Reconstruction of Sheung Shui

Station

6,080

3,900

7,000

Smoke Stacks in Running Shed,

crossings

100

Hunghom

2,700

38. Wiring Shatin Station for

Flush System to Latrine for

Electric Light

1,300

39. Creosoting Plant

1,500

40. Provision of fans in eight 3rd

Class Coaches

Female Carriage Cleaners Semi-rotary Furnace for Cast Iron New Body work for 4 Coaches....

600

3,450

40,000

1,920

Reconditioning Two Locomotive

41. New Boiler for Class B Locomo-

Boilers

30,000

tives

24,000

Permanent Coal Stage at Locom-

otive Yard

200

Permanent Shelter for Coaling

Coolies

150

Extension of Yaumati Station

Yard

400

Total

61,420

Total

$ 100,940

186

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

10,605

60,650

Other Charges

4,727

119,805

Special Expenditure

61,420

100,940

Total

76,752

Deduct Increase

$ 281,395 76,752

Net Decrease

$ 204,643

Estimates, 1935

Estimates, 1936

$ 984,513 779,870

Decrease, 1936

5 204,643

Increase.

Stipulated Increments

New Posts

Head 27.-Defence

(A) Volunteer Defence Corps.

Personal Emoluments.

415

4.320

Higher Rate of Exchange Changes in Personnel

Abolition of Post

Adjutant, Pension Contribution

Total

4,735

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

Total

Decrease.

4,740 554 1,900

195

$

7,389

Sub-Head.

4. Armoured Car and Motor

Machine Gun Sections

420

11. Equipment and Upkeep of Arms. 17. Uniform, including Boots

187

4,200

3.

Ammunition

19. Training expenses for Nursing

Detachment, H.K.V.D.C.

2 Allowances for Officers and N.C.O's.

undergoing Training in England

6. Books, Stationery and Printing...

20. Subsidy to Flying Section

30,000

400 12. 16.

Fuel and Light

Transport

Total

$

35,207

Total

Special Expenditure.

$

188

2,607

50

50

240

3,135

Sub-Head.

Sub-Head.

25.

3 Motor Cycle Combinations

$

1,752

21.

Night Glasses, 6 Pairs

.$

270

27. Anti-gas Equipment

993

22.

31.

Equipment for M. G. Bn,

23.

3 Slide Rules (M.G.) and Cases.. Clinometers

16

97

Signals

2,840

24.

2 Night Firing Boxes, Machine

32.

48 S.M.L.E. Rifles

2,160

Gun.

75

28. Mobilization Equipment

1,191

29.

Steel Helmets

2,180

Armoured Car complete with

Machine Guns

18,500

Locks Skelton Mk. I Vickers,

Machine Gun

300

6 Bar Foresight Machine Gun 3 Motor Cycles for M.M.G.

73

Section

3,060

Total

7,745

Total

25,762

187

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

4,735

$

Other Charges

35,207

Special Expenditure

7,745

7,889 3,135 25,762

Total

Deduct Decrease

Net Increase

47,687

EA

36,286

36,286

11,401

Estimates, 1936

Estimates, 1935

$ 151,569 140,168

Increase, 1936

$ 11,401

Increase.

Head 27.-Defence

(B) Naval Volunteer Force.

1.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Incrernents

Personal Allowances

1,943 420

Language Allowances

$

180

Total

$

2,363

Total

$

180

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

2. Allowances for Officers undergoing

training in England

Sub-Head.

3.

Ammunition

1,395

1,224

4.

Books, Stationery and Printing,

5.

Bounty for Ratings

1,019

etc.

5

10.

Rent of Office

983

6.

Fuel, Light and Water

47

13.

Uniform Allowances to Officers...

200

8.

Medical Stores

100

14.

Uniforms

110

16.

Upkeep and Renewals of Mess

Gear

100

17. Upkeep of Ships and Boats

90

Total

3,536

Total

1,737

Special Expenditure..

Sub-Head.

19. Duplicating Machine (Gestetner) $ 20. Anti-gas Equipment

680

.22 Morris Tube (5)

300

202

.455 Revolvers and Holsters (15). .303 Rifles (10)

788

1,275

1 W/T Set

1,500

Total

882

Total

3,863

Increase.

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges

2,363 3,536

180

1,737

Special Expenditure

882

3,863

Total

Deduct Decrease

Net Increase

Estimates, 1936 Estimates, 1935

$

6,781

5,780

5.780

1,001

36,988

35,987

Increase, 1936

$

1,001

A

188

Increase.

Head 28.-Miscellaneous Services.

Sub-Head.

Sub-Head.

Decrease.

Grant in aid of Institutions

1.

3.

Bonuses for Examination Crown Agents' Commission

1,500.

3,000

27.

24. Hong Kong Travel Association...$

Broadcasting

15,000

Grant in aid of Institutions.

11,220

5.

28.

Language Study Allowances

1,000

Advisory Committee on Education

in the Colonies (£170)

510-

30.

New Year Bonuses to Chinese

6.

Employees

5,000

Bureau of Hygiene and Tropical

Diseases, London (£300)

900

7.

Colonial Medical Fund (£80)...

240

Rent Allowances.

8.

Farnham House etc. (£14)

207

9.

39.

Senior Officers

18,000

41.

40. European Subordinate Officers... Asiatic Subordinate Officers

15,000

Imperial Economic, Imperial Ship- ping, Imperial Agricultural Bureaux (£250)

750.

10,000

42. Rent of Public Telephones

1,000

10. Imperial Institute of Entomology,

London (£50)

150

11.

Imperial Institute (£600)

1,800-

12.

Total

$ 76,220

Total

Deduct Increase

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1935

Estimates, 1936

Decrease, 1936

$

Increase.

76,220

Institution of Civil Engineers;

Committee on Deterioration

of Structures exposed to Sea Action (£25)

13. League of Nations Health

Organisation Eastern Bureau (£250)

75

750

14. London School of Hygiene and

Tropical Medicine (£100)

300

15.

Royal Asiatic Society (£25)

75

16.

School of Oriental Studies

London Institution (£30)

90

17.

Seamen's Hospital Society (£20)

60

20.

District Watchmen Fund

1,900

29.

Newspapers and Periodicals

500

Printing and Binding.

33.

Civil Service List

200

36.

Miscellaneous Papers

3,000

Reports

2,000

37. Ordinances Regulations and

38.

Purchase and Upkeep of Type-

writers and Calculating

Machines

43. Stationery, Prison Department...

44. Stationery, Other Services

Telegraph Services.

45. Contribution in connection with

Signalling Messages to

Observatory (£75)

47. Transport of Government

Servants

Hong Kong Rifle Club Log Books for Ships.

$

Total

Decrease.

80,172 76,220

3,952

$ 1,616,210

$

1,612,258

3,952

540

30,000

5,000

225

25,000

500

900

80,172

Increase.

189

Head 29.-Charitable Services.

Decrease,

Sub-Head.

Sub-Head.

8. Hong Kong Benevolent Society...$

10. Leper Asylum at Sheklung

1,000

1,500

1. Sundry Charitable Allowances

and pensions (already allocated)

$

6,061

11.

Little Sisters of the Poor

30

3. Aberdeen Industrial School

1,750

General Charities Organisation...

250

16. Passages and Relief of Destitutes

1,500

17. Mercantile Marine

Fund

Assistance

5,000

Total

Total

Deduct Increase

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1935 Estimates, 1936

Decrease, 1936

$

2,530

Total

$

14,561

Increase.

Decrease.

2,530

14,561

2,530

12,031

$ 191,867 179,836

$

12,031

Increase.

Decrease.

Head 30.-Charge on Account of Public Debt.

Total

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1935

Estimates, 1936

Decrease, 1936

Sub-Head.

2. Interest on 31% Dollar Loan

($14,000,000)

$

19,600

Total

$

19,600

Increase.

Decrease.

19,600

19,600

$ 1,410,431 1,390,831

19,600

Increase.

Total

Net Decrease

Estimates, 1935

Estimates, 1936

Decrease, 1936

190

Head 31.-Pensions.

Increase.

Sub-Head.

Decrease.

1.

Civil Pensions, Retiring Allowances

and Gratuities

$ 200,000

2.

Police Pensions (Ordinance No. 37

of 1932)

50,000

3.

Widows' and Orphans' Pensions

(Ordinance No. 15 of 1908)...

10,000

Total

$ 260,000

Decrease.

$ 260,000

$ 260,000

$2,070,000 1,810,000

$ 260,000

Increase.

Decrease.

Head 32.-Public Works Department.

Personal Emoluments.

Stipulated Increments

50,591

Transferred from Other Heads

10,263

Transferred from Loan Works

10,596

New Posts

11.008

Higher Rate of Exchange Transferred to Other Heads Transferred to Loan Works Changes in Personnel

.$ 269,606

11,419

23,018

23,417

Personal and Similar Allowances.. Rent Allowances

100

Abolition of Posts

10,476

984

Language Allowances

240

Personal Allowances

12

Overtime Allowances Acting Pay

500

2,600

Total

83,542

Total

$ 341,288

Other Charges.

Sub-Head.

Sub-Head.

2. City Hall Library

300

3.

Conveyance Allowances

2,000

14. Upkeep of Harbour Surveying

4.

Drawing Materials and Mounting

Plant

4,000

Plans

1,000

17. Upkeep of Quarry Plants 20. Repairs, Stores and Current

5,000

6.

Incidental Expenses

1,500

3,000

7.

Lifts Maintenance Government

Buildings

500

g.

Maintenance and Supply of

Furniture

5,000

10. Technical Library

200

12. Uniforms

400

13.

Upkeep of Government Garage

Plant

200

15.

Upkeep and running expenses of

Motor Lorries and Cars

4,000

16. Upkeep of Motor and Steam

Rollers

1,500

18. Upkeep of Triangular Monuments 21. Transport

300

500

Total

$

12,300

Total

.$

17,100

191

Increase.

Decrease.

Special Expenditure.

22. Light Diesel Roller 2 ton..... $

5,000

Harbour Surveying

7,000

23.

Two 2 ton Lorries

6,000

Portland Cement Grouting Machine...

700

24.

Three Morse Instruments

1,224

Additional Transmitting Equipment...

80,000

25.

Office Equipment

1,200

Additional Receiving Equipment

32,000

26.

Short-wave Telephone

transmitter

Two W/T Receivers

4,600

72,000

Short-wave Telephone Telegraph

27. Three Electrical Motors

700

Receiving Equipment

12,500

28. One Compressor for Spraying

Creed Undulators

2,000

plants

700

Turntable for Studio

2,300

29. Combined planning Machine

2,500

W/T Receivers for Hospitals

1,800

Addressograph Machine

4,100

Additional Workshop Equipment

75 Thong Binders, Kalamazoo or Twin

lock type

2,500

1,000

Crusher jaws, Government Quarry

5,000

Road Roller wheels, Gear etc..

5,000

One 30 cwt, commercial chassis

4.500

Dennis lorry replacement (major parts) One Dennis 2 ton Chassis with

3,000

pneumatic tyres and 3 way

Total

$

89,324

Increase.

Personal Emoluments

Other Charges

83,542

Special Expenditure

12,300 89,824

Total

$ 185,166

Deduct Increase

Net Decrease

Increase.

Sub-Head.

Estimates, 1935

Estimates, 1936

Decrease, 1936

hydraulic tipping gear 12'2"

.

wheel base

Weighing Machines

11,500

1,000

Total

$ 180,500

$

Decrease.

341,288

17,100 180,500

$ 538,888 185,166

$ 353,722

$ 2,556,918 2,203,196

$ 353,722

Head 33.-Public Works Recurrent.

Decrease.

Hong Kong.

Sub-Head.

1. Buildings

25,000

2.

Communications

20,000

3. Drainage

5,000

4.

Lighting

15,000

6.

Waterworks

40,000

7.

Miscellaneous

5,000

Total

$110,000

Increase.

Sub-Head.

14. Miscellaneous

.$

192

Kowloon.

Sub-Head.

3,000 8. Buildings

9.

11. Lighting

Total

13.

3,000

New Kowloon.

25. Lighting

Waterworks

27.

Total

Decrease.

$

2,000

Communications

15,000

3,000

Waterworks

2,000

Total

$

22,000

15. Buildings

$

2,000

16.

Communications

3,000

18. Lighting

1,000

20.

Waterworks

1,000

Total

$

7,000

New Territories.

500 22. Buildings

Communications

28. Miscellaneous

$

1,400 23.

1,900

Total

Increase.

Decrease.

Hong Kong Kowloon

New Kowloon

$ 110,000

$

3,000

22,000

7,000

New Territories

1,900

9,000

Total

$

4,900

Deduct Increase

$ 148,000 4,900

Net Decrease

$ 143,100

Estimates, 1935

$1,612,100

Estimates, 1936

1,469,000

Decrease, 1936

$ 143,100

Increase.

Head 34.-Public Works Extraordinary.

Estimates, 1936

Estimates, 1935

Increase, 1936

$ 3.207,560 8,079,450

.$ 128,110

.$

3,000

5,000

1,000

9,000

Decrease.

Increase.

Decrease.

Head 35.-Naval Arsenal Yard and Kellet Island.

Estimates, 1935

Estimates, 1936

Decrease, 1936

$ 500,000

$ 500,000

Increase.

193

RECAPITULATION.

Grand Total Estimates, 1935

Grand Total Estimates, 1936

Decrease, 1936

.$32,556,102

29,598,148

$ 2,957,954

Decrease.

Personal Emoluments:

Personal Emoluments:

New Posts

$ 151,367

Higher Rate of Exchange

$1,337,224

Stipulated Increments

324,761

Changes in Personnel

256,981

Rent Allowances

500

Abolition of Posts

72,753

Language Allowances

5,676

Acting Pay

37,782

Personal and Similar Allowances.

843

Overtime Allowances

2,866

Transferred from Loan Works

10,596

Temporary and Miscellaneous

Allowances

6,610

Public Works Extraordinary

128,110

Adjutant, H.K.V.D.C., Pension

Contribution

195

Good Conduct Medal Allowances.

232

Transferred to Loan Works

23,018

Other Charges

250,091

Special Expenditure

278,821

Miscellaneous Services

3,952

Charitable Services

12,031

Public Debt.

19,600

Pensions

260,000

Military Contribution

374,551

Public Works Recurrent

143,100

Naval Arsenal Yard and Kellett Island

500,000

Total

.$ 3,579,807

Total

$ 621,853

Deduct Increase

621,855

Net Decrease, 1936

.$ 2,957,954

3

+

HONG KONG.

ORDINANCE No. 6 of 1887. (JURY.)

J

HONG KONG

TO WIT.

NAME IN FULL.

JURORS LIST FOR 1935.

I. SPECIAL JURORS.

OCCUPATION.

No.

ADDRESS.

2

1935

* Archbutt, Geoffrey Samuel.

Austin, Frank

*

Bellamy, Leonard Charles

Fenton......

Biggar, David MacDonald... Botelho, Antonio

Alexandrino Rosello Botelho, Pedro Vicente Braga, Noel

Brayfield, Thomas Henry

Gordon

Brearley, Alfred

Brown, Charles Bernard

Butlin, Strathmore Tatham. * Cassidy, Philip Stanley.

Champkin, Cyril... Cheng Shou Jen. Choa Po-yew

*

Churn, Samuel Macomber... Clark, Douglas Edward..

Cock, Edward.... Compton, Albert Henry Cornell, William Arthur Crapnell, Frederick Harry Danby, James Denison

Davies, Edward James Drummond, David Dunbar, Lambert * Ellis, Felix Maurice * Fleming, John

Gee, Charles Mcqueen Gray, Herbert Castell Greig, Kenneth Edward

Hall, Frederick Charles...... Hancock, Herbert Richard

Budd Hills, Herbert Stuart Ho Wing

Hughes, Arthur William

* Kan Tong-po

Kennedy, Robert

Union Insurance Society of Canton, Ld.... 454 The Peak. Manager, S. J. David & Co.

Peak Hotel.

General Manager, H.K. Tramways, Ld... 358 The Peak. Manager, Chase Bank

Broker,

Manager, Botelho Bros.

Secretary, China Light & Power Co.

(1918), Ld.

Carmichael & Clarke, Ld.

Chartered Bank of I., A. & C.

Chartered Accountant, Linstead & Davis.] Chartered Accountant, Linstead & Davis. Merchant, J. D. Hutchison & Co.. Exchange Broker. Bank of China, Ld. Compradore, Netherlands India

Commercial Bank Union Trading Co., Ld. Merchant, J. D. Humphreys & Son H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co., Ld. David Sassoon & Co., Ld. Architect, Denison, Ram & Gibbs H.K. & Kowloon W. & G. Co., Ld.. Retired

Manager, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Manager, Canadian Pacific Railway, Flour Broker, Dunbar & Co..... Stockbroker, Ellis & Edgar...... Lowe, Bingham & Matthews Manager, National Aniline & Chemical Union Ince. Socty. of Canton, Ld. Taikoo Dockyard & Engineering Co.

of H.K.

Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld..

Stewart Bros.

Exchange Broker..

Compradore, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

General Manager, Union Insurance

Society of Canton, Ld.

Bank of East Asia, Ld.

Woodbury, Pokfulam.

35 Granville Road, Kowloon. On premises.

Ming's Terrace, 19 Homantin Street,

Homantin, Kowloon.

Flywheel, Tai Po.

17 The Peak. 176 The Peak. 506 The Peak.

30 The Peak.

Rutton Building, 7 Duddell Street.

On premises.

Chung Tin Building.

53 Conduit Road.

7 Tregunter Mansions.

On premises.

Homesdale, Repulse Bay Road.

548 The Peak.

361 The Peak.

Repulse Bay Road, Wongneicbong

Gap.

356 The Peak. Co.. 362 The Peak.

Co.

2 May Road.

455 The Peak.

293 The Peak.

Roadside, Mt. Davis Road.

401 The Peak.

Quarry Bay. 507 The Peak.

286 The Peak. Hong Kong Club. On premises.

464 The Peak.

On premises.

Manager, Mercantile Bank of India, Ld... 302 The Peak.

* Exempted for limited periods.

?

NAME IN FULL.

4

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

Lammert, Herbert

Alexander

Lay, Arthur Trandescent Lay Kam-fat

† Li Koon-chun

Li Tse-fong.....

f Little, Alexander Colbourne

Lo Man-hin.....

Logan, Malcolm Hunter Mackichan, Alexander

Somerled

McLay, Robert Mont-

gomerie

Melchers, Carl Gerhard...... Montargis, Maurice Jean

Baptiste.... Noronha, Jose Maria.

Ohl, Rene Joseph Francois

Laurnet

Pearce, Thomas Ernest.. Pentreath, George Artis Phillips, Alexander Roy

Henderson

Plummer, John Archibald

Hugh

Priestley, Horace Hugh

Hepworth

Raymond, Albert

Raymond, Edward Maurice Ritchie, Archibald ....

Rocha, João Maria da Ross, Sydney Hampden..

Roza, Carlos Augusto da Russell, Donald Oscar Schultz, Henry Louis

Seth, John Hennessey Sheppard, John Oram Sherry, John Patriek Shewan, Ian Winchester Shields, Andrew Lusk. Silva-Netto, Antonio

Ferreira Batalha........ Soares, Adão Maria Lourdes Stanton, William Telling-

hast.. Stevenson, Allan

Sturt, Herbert Rothsay..

* Sum Pak-ming

*

Taggart, James Harper. Tang Shiu-kin Tester, Percy Waddington, William

Janson..... Williamson, Stuart Taylor Wilson, Thomas Burlington. Wong, Joseph Mow Lam... Wong Kwok-shuen

* Wong Kwong-tin * Wong Tak-kwong

Wong-Tape, Benjamin

Wood, Gerald George Yung Tsze-ming

Agent, Manufacturer's Life Ins., Co....... Manager, Reiss, Massey & Co., Ld. Bank of Canton, Ld.......

Proprietor, Wo Fat Shing Shipping Co... Bank of East Asia, Ld. Little, Adams & Wood..............

1 Peak Mansions. Thorpe Manor. 6 Norfolk Road. 81 Wing Lok Street. On premises.

5 Aighburth Hall, May Road.

Compradore, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld. On premises. Engineer, Logan & Amps

Leigh & Orange. ....

Bank Manager, National City Bank of

N.Y.

Partner, Melchers & Co.

Exchange Broker

Secretary, Credit Foncier d'Extreme

Orient

Messageries Maritimes Cie. des

J. D. Hutchison & Co...... Manager, Pentreath & Co.

8A Des Voeux Road Central.

On premises.

408 The Peak.

512 The Peak.

7A Bowen Road.

27 Ashley Road, Kowloon,

9 Stubbs Road.

299 The Peak. Hong Kong Club.

Manager, Taikoo Sugar Refinery Co. Ld. Cornhill, Quarry Bay.

Bradley & Co., Ld.

Merchant

Repulse Bay Hotel.

5 Macdonnell Road.

Director, E. D. Sassoon Banking Co., Ld. On premises. Financier

Chartered Accountant, Lowe, Bingham

& Matthews

Merchant

Chartered Accountant, Percy Smith,

Seth & Fleming

Roza Bros....

W. R. Loxley & Co.

Asst. General Manager, Standard Vacuum

Oil Co........

Percy Smith, Seth & Fleming Canadian Pacific S.S., Ld.

Manager, H.K. Telephone Co., Ld. Shewan, Tomes & Co

Shewan, Tomes & Co.

Silva-Netto & Co.... Merchant

Exchange Broker

Quarndon, 15 The Peak.

Peninsula Hotel.

3 Robinson Road.

Morningside, Shek O. 5 May Road. Hong Kong Club.

Altadena, 459 Barker Road. Deepdene, Deep Water Bay. 1A Po Shan Road. 119 The Peak. Gloucester Building. Gloucester Building.

4 Knutsford Terrace, Kowloon. 38 Stubbs Road.

Tien Ping Shan, Fauling.

Manager, Dairy Farm, I. & C. S. Co., Ld. Domum, Sassoon Road.

China Underwriters, Ld.

Sum Pak Ming & Co.

Hong Kong & Shanghai Hotels, Ld. Manager, Tang Tin Fuk Bank Tester & Abraham

P. & O. Banking Corporation, Ld............................ Principal, Williamson & Co. Manager, Dollar Steamship Line Manager, China Emporium, Ld.......... Manager, National Commercial &

Savings Bank.... Compradore, Holt's Wharf Manager, Fung Tang Imports & Exports. Department Manager, Sun Life Ins.

Co., Ld.

Leigh & Orange

3 Abermor Court, May Road,

41 Conduit Road.

On premises.

On premises.

272 The Peak.

519 The Peak. 53 The Peak.

215 Prince Edward Road. 184 Ma Tau Chung Road, K'loon.

8A Des Vœux Road Central. Aimai Villas, Kowloon. Pedder Building.

On premises.

On premises.

Compradore, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China

On premises.

(†) Exempted to 21st July, 1935.

:

NAME IN FULL.

5

II. COMMON JURORS.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

A

Abbas, Abbib ...... Abbas. Abdul Aziz Abbas, Abdul Hamid Abbas, Abdul Rahim Abbas, Sheriff... Abbas, Yakub......

Abbott, Albert Stanley Abesser, Peter Ablong, Alfred Ernest Ablong, Arthur John......

Abraham, Edgar Shooker... Abraham, Ezra

Abraham, Jon Macoyer. Abraham, Reuben Ackber, Jolin ................... Adal, Mohammed Yaqub Adam, James ....

Adamczewski, Dr. Boleslaw.

Adams, William Balgowan

Adamson, Alan Scott.. Adem, Mahomed Ahmed, Noor

** Ainslie, Ernest James

Ainsworth, Abraham

Edward

Clerk, Lowe, Bingham and Matthews... Overseer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld................... Assistant Secretary, H.K. Club Asst., H.K. & K'loon W. & G. Co., Ld... Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Godown Superintendent, Texas Co.,

(China), Ld......

Bookseller, Kelly & Walsh, Ld. Accountant, Connell Bros. Co.... Asst., Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.), Ld.. Overseer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.....

Exchange Broker

Broker, Tester & Abraham .......... Foreman, Blackmore & Blackburn, Ld. Share Broker, Tester & Abraham Clerk, J. M. da Rocha & Co. Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Shipwright, H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co.,

Ld.

Staff, Deutsche Farben-Handelsgesell-

schaft Waibel & Co.

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineer-

ing Co. of H.K. H.K. & Shanghai Bank Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Assistant, Laue, Crawford, Ld.

Inspector, Star Ferry Co., Ld.................

Alabaster, James Wilfred ... Asst., Union Ince. Socty, of anton, Ld... Alarakia, Ebrahim

Mahomed....

Alarakia, Ismail Mohamed.

Alexander, Tom Graham

Spottiswood

Ali, Taufik Bin Allam, Percival Bernard... Allaye, Nassaiuque Emmanuel Allen, David Lawrence Allen, Douglas Geoffrey

Glenn

Allgood, Henry Patrick Almeida, Bernabe Antonio . Almeida, Jose Francisco de.

Almeida, Jose Maria d' Almeida, Patrick Edward d'

Alonço, Deus-Dedit

Antonio Alvares, Alfred Victor

Jorge

Alvares, Jose Augusto de

Sousa

Alves, Alberto

Alves, Alberto Eduardo

Sela visa

Alves, Alvaro Alvares Alves, Arthur Alvaro

Overseer, Ye Olde Printerie, Ld. Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia and China

Asst., Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co. Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.....

Clerk, Credit Foncier d' Extreme Orient.

Manager, Central Trading Co. Clerk, Fox Films Corporation

Analyst, A. C. Franklin Asst. Wharf Manager, Holt's Wharf Clerk, General Electric Co. of China, Ld.. Accountant, H.K. Brewers & Distilleries,

Ld.

Accountant, Orient Tobacco Manufactory Apprentice, China Light & Power Co.

(1918), Ld......

Assistant, Standard Vacuum Oil Co.

Draughtsman, Credit Foncier d'Extreme

Orient

Asst. Overseer, China Light & Power Co.

(1918), Ld...

Assistaut, J. M. Alves & Co., Ld.........

Managing Director, Lopes & Alves Share Broker, Exchange Building Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.

261 Wanchai Road. 84 Percival Street, Top floor. 216 Wanchai Road, 1st floor. 51 & 53 Leighton Hill Road. 16 Morrison Hill Road, Top floor.

21 Kai Tak Bund.

On premises.

540 Nathan Road, Kowloon. On premises.

H.E.C. Quarters, Gough Street

Sub-station.

99 Waterloo Road, Kowloon. 55 Granville Road, Kowloon. 119 Argyle Street.

38 Kimberley Road, Kowloon. 17 Caroline Hill Road, 1st floor. 445 Hennessy Road, 3rd floor.

On premises.

17 Peak Mansions.

Quarry Bay.

10 The Peak.

38 Tang Lung Street, 2nd floor. 3 Wing Wah Terrace, 3rd floor. 14 Broadwood Road.

63B Wong Nei Chong Road. 10 Peak Mansions.

359 Hennessy Road, 2nd floor.

8 Caine Road, ground floor.

On premises.

344 Lockhart Road, 3rd floor. 190 Prince Edward Road, 2nd floor.

On premises.

140A Kennedy Road.

Repulse Bay Hotel.

Windsor Lodge, Austin Avenue. 332 Ma Tau Wei Road, To Kwa Wan.

159 Sai Yeung Choi Street, K'loon. 12 Jordan Road, ground floor.

Kowloon Tong Substation, Waterloo

Road.

35 Hillwood Road, Kowloon.

6 Cameron Road, Kowloon.

Kowloon Tong Substation, Waterloo

Road.

302 Prince Edward Road.

131 Waterloo Road.

11 Macdonnell Road.

149 Waterloo Road.

:

:

NAME IN FULL.

L

6

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

A-Continued.

Alves, Carlos Francisco

Xavier.....

Alves, Darius Caesar

Selavisa

Alves, Eduardo Alves, Eduardo Augusto...) Alves, Frederick Danenberg

* Alves, Henrique Alberto....

Alves, João Antonio

Selavisa

Alves, Jose Lourenco Alves, Jose Maria Machado Alves, Luis Gaspar Ammann, Hugo Amps, Leon Williamson Anderson, Charles Graham Anderson, George Anderson, George Anderson, James Leslie...... Anderson, John Edgar Anderson, John Frazer Anderson, William..

* Andreson, Birgir Owrum * Andrews, Arthur Albert

Andrews, Charles Frederick Andrews, William John

Angeles, Godofredo San

Luis Angus, George Ian

Antioquia, Jose Bunag

Antonio, Ernesto Antonio, Luiz Victor Aquino, Gustav Fausto d'...'

Aquino, Jose Goularte d' Archipoff, Paul Peter... Arculli, Obeidullahı el..... Arculli, Omar el....... Arndt, Walter Ferdinand. Arnold, George William

Arnold, Morris Hadrian Arnulphy, Carlos Ashby, Ronald Robert Wilson........ Atkins, Albert Edwin Atkinson, Clark..

Au Chiu-ting

Au Chung-iu

Au Fong-yue

Au Ping-sam

Au Shiu-ping

Au Shui-min

Au Wing.......

Aumuller, Karl Henry

Austin, Clande

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld......... Assistant. J. M. Alves & Co., Ld. Clerk, National City Bank of New York. Asst. Installation Engineer, China Light

& Power Co. (1918), Ld.

Assistant, John D. Hutchison & Co.......

Merchant, Hughes & Hough, Ld. Assistant, Bradley & Co., Ld... Assistant, A. A. Alves Assistant, Renters, Ld... Attorney, A. Goeke & Co. Engineer, Logan & Amps Manager, Assurance Franco-Asiaticque... Marine Surveyor, Anderson & Ashe Foreman Steel Erector, Logan & Amps... Radio Technician, Sennet Freres Director, Anderson Music Co., Ld.. Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refining Co., Ld. Managing Director, Anderson Music Co.,

Ld.

Manager, Thoresen & Co., Ld.

Chief Inspector, Peak Tramways, Co., Ld. Assistant, Dairy Farm I. & C. S. Co., Ld.. South China Transporting and

Stevedoring Co. ...

Bookkeeper, Thoresen & Co., Ld. Assistant Engineer, China Light &

Power Co. (1918), Ld. Assistant, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Reception Clerk, Peninsula Hotel. Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Life Underwriter, Manufacturers' Life

Insurance Co.

Clerk, C. E. Warren & Co., Ld. Clerk of Works, Palmier & Turner Clerk, L. Weill & Co.

Manager, A. F. Arenlli & Sons Chief Clerk, Dollar Steamship Line Advertising Assistant, Standard Vacuum

Oil Co.

Engineer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld..... Manager, H.K. Canton Export Co., Ld..

Merchant, Dodwell & Co., Ld..

Asst., Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.), Ld.. Shipwright, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Id.

Clerk, Bodiker & Co.

Clerk, Bodiker & Co.

Clerk, China Light & Power Co. (1918),

Ld.

Broker, Wm. Meyerink & Co........... Shroff, S. J. David & Co........ Clerk, Holt's Wharf....

Storekeeper, H.K. & China Gas Co., Ld... Manager. British-American Tobacco

Co., Ld...

Assistant, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld....

|

2 Carnarvon Road, Kowloon.

145 Waterloo Road, Kowloon Tong. 302 Prince Edward Road. 149 Waterloo Road.

Kowloon Tong Substation, Waterloo

Road.

145 Waterloo Road, Kowloon Tong,

145 Waterloo Road, Kowloon Tong,

8 Mosque Junction.

11 Macdonnell Road.

33 Ashley Road, Kowloon. On premises. Hong Kong Club. On premises.

1 Carnarvon Building, Kowloon. Courtlands, Kennedy Road. Y.M.C.A., Kowloon. Empress Lodge, Kowloon.

| Taikoo Terrace, Quarry Bay.

Empress Lodge, Kowloon.

Ocksen Cottage. Victoria Road. 15 Bowen Road.

3 United Terrace, Ho Man Tin.

32B Nathan Road, Kowloon.

578 Nathan Road, Kowloon,

Generating Station, Hok Un, K'loon.

On premises.

17 Stafford Road, Kowloon Tong. Peninsula Hotel.

3 Salisbury Avenue, Kowloon.

2 Knutsford Terrace, Kowloon. 228B Nathan Road, Kowloon. 7 Village Road, Ist floor. 126 Kennedy Road.

6 Homuntin Hill, Kowloon.

30 Kimberley Road, Kowloon. 3 Causeway Hill, H.E.C. Quarters. 300 Prince Edward Road, K'loon.

11 Shouson Hill. On premises.

On premises.

174 Lockhart Road, 1st floor. 20 Fleming Road, 2nd floor.

Kowloon Tong Substation, Waterloo-

Road.

187 Fa Yuen Street, Mongkok. 60 Tung Lo Wan Road, 3rd floor. 63 Woo Sung Street, Top floor,

Yaumati.

580 Queen's Road West, 1st floor.

19 Peak Mansions.

I Lyeemoon Building, Kowloon.

:

7

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

A—Continued.

Austin, David....

Azevedo, Alexandre

Antonio d'

Azevedo, Antonio d'

Azevedo, Victor Felix d'........

Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refining Co., Ld. | 6 Quarry Point, Quarry Bay.

Assistant, Nederlandsche Handels-

Maatschappij, N.V.

Assistant, Thomas, Cook & Son, Ld..

Accounts Clerk, Canadian Pacific Steam-

ships, Ld.

On premises.

7 Nanking Street, Ground floor.

19 Jordan Road, Kowloon.

B

Babbidge, Henry George... Diver, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineering

Bacci, Emile

Bailey, Henry Preston.....

Bailey, William Charles Baker, Edward Oliver

Balman, Cyril Walter Ballantyne, Donald Lindsay Balyoryien, Charles Baptista, Cezar Antonio

Octaviano

Barclay, Thomas Charles ... Barker, Paul England Barlow, Brabazon Disney

Gerrard

Barnes, Francis Henry Barnes, John Egerton

Martin

Barr, Claude Irwin

Barradas, Duarte Augusto... Barradas, Vasco Maria

Barretto, Antonio Conde.... Barretto, Carlos Augusto

Barretto, Frederico Alberto

Maria

Co. of H.K., Ld...........

Manager, Sennet Freres.

Electric Engineer, General Electric Co.

of China, Ld.

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Factory Representative, Connell Bros.,

Co., Ld..

Assistant, Lane, Crawford, Ld. Assistant Manager, Chase Bank. Bar Manager, Palace Hotel...

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refining Co., Ld. Assistant, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld....

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank...... Chief Clerk, Singer Sewing Machine Co..

Manager, Callendar's Cable & Construc-

tion Co., Ld.

General Agent, Canadian National Rail-

ways

Asst., Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C.), Ld.. Clerk, Nederlandsch Indische Handels-

bank, N.V.

Assistant, Siemen's China Co.

Clerk, Nederlandsch Indische Handels-

bank, N.V.

Clerk, Nederlandsch Indische Handels-

bank, N.V.

Barretto, Henrique Conde... Assistant, Nederlandsche Handels-

Barros, Antão Vasques

Barros, Carlos Eduardo..............

Barros, Frederico Guilherme Barros, Henrique Alberto Barros, Henrique Alberto... Barros. Luiz Antonio................

Barrow, John Edward

Barry, Frederick Charles Barton, Maurice William Baskett, Paul Evelyn.... Basto, Antonio

Hermenegildo

Basto, Luiz Eduardo

Beck, Ernest Jacobsen

Beck, Terence Christopher

Thomas Becker, Anicet

Maatschappij N.V.

Bookkeeper, Bradley & Co., Ld.

Clerk, Nederlandsch Indische Handels-

bank, N.V. ...

Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld.

Quarry Bay.

4 Village Road.

5 Gap Road, Top floor. On premises.

3 Hankow Road, Kowloon. Y.M.C.A., Kowloon.

2 Aigburth Hall, May Road. 695 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

12 Granville Road, Kowloon. 1 Quarry Point, Quarry Bay. 4A Cheung Chau.

353 The Peak.

37 Granville Road, Kowloon.

Peninsula Hotel.

Peninsula Hotel. On premises.

St. Joseph's Building, Block C.

1st floor.

2 Granville Road, Kowloon.

2 Gordon Terrace, Kowloon.

2 Gordon Terrace, Kowloon.

On premises.

2 Granville Road, 1st floor, K'loon.

21 Jordan Road, 1st floor.

18 Soares Avenue, Homuntin.

Assistant, Alex Ross & Co. (China), Ld. [2 Granville Road, Kowloon. Assistant, Texas Co. (China), Ld.

Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China

Charge Engineer, China Light & Power

Co. (1918), La.

Secretary, H.K. Realty & Trust Co., Ld. Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld.

Agent, Manufacturers' Life Ince. Co.......

Architect, Raven & Basto Chiropractor

Sugar Boiler, Taikoo Sugar Refining

Co., L.

13 Soares Avenue, Homuntin.

2 Granville Road, Kowloon.

Hok Un Works, Kowloon.

| Peninsula Hotel. 110 The Peak.

3 Basilea, Lyttelton Road.

16 Taipo Road, Kowloon. 18 Ice House Street.

9 Dragon Terrace, 1st floor, Cause-

way Bay.

Secretary, Green Island Cement Co., Ld... 11 Carnarvon Building, Kowloon. Accountant, Arnhold & Co., La

4 Wong Tak Street.

8:

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

B-Continued.

Belbin, Edward George

Craven.....

Bell, Michael Robson..

Benjamin, Charles * Benjamin, Vivian

Benson, Charles Henry..

Benson, Oscar Rowan Bentley, John............. Berg, Sverre Bergaust, Marius Bergne-Coupland, John

Richard Berruex, Marcel Bertram, John William

Besseling, Albert Jean

Billinghurst, Lewis Rhodes. Bird, George Thomas

Bird, Lennox Godfrey Bishop, Sidney Frank

Bitter, Willelm Melchior

Bitzer, Conrad

Black, Alexander Wylie Black, Charles

Black, Colin Charteris Black, Donald....

* Blackmore, Ernest Wilfrid

Blake, William Francis. Blair, Kenneth George Blas, Aquilino Tito. Bliss, Arthur Sydney. Blyth, Harry Henry Bolton, Andrew

Bone, David Boyd

Bonnar, James Leslie.......

Bonner, Thomas William Boomsma, Douwe Frans

Botelho, Alvaro Alberto Botelho, Arnaldo Guilherme Botelho, Carlos Alberto...... Botelho, Francisco Xavier...

Botelho, Jonas Marie.....

Botelho, Noé Ulysses

Boulton, Sydney...

Exports Manager, Arnhold & Co., Ld. Draughtsman, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Broker

Broker, 9 Ice House Street

General Manager, American Express Co.,

Inc.

Assistant, Carroll Bros.

Asst., Union Ince. Socty, of Canton, Ld... Managing Director, Berg & Co., Ld. Assistant, Thoresen & Co., Ld.

Engineer, Reiss, Massey & Co., Ld. Assistant, Ullmann & Co. Charge Engineer, China Light &

Power Co. (1918), Ld. Sub-Accountant, Nederlandsche Handels-

Maatschappij N. V.

Assistant. Butterfield & Swire Watchman, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineer-

ing Co. of H.K., Ld........ Architect, Palmer & Turner Chief Engineer, Green Island Cement

Co., Ld..

Clerk, Nederlandsch Indische Handels-

bank N.V.

Bitzer & Co.

Assistant, Carmichael & Clarke

Peak Hotel.

On premises.

Room 422 Gloucester Building. Peak Hotel.

Hong Kong Hotel.

11A Jordan Road. On premises. 50 The Peak.

13 Hillwood Road.

16 Macdonnell Road.

6 Somerset Road, Kowloon Tong.

Hok Un Works, Kowloon.

On premises.

On premises.

Quarry Bay.

On premises.

Cement Works, Kowloon.

1 Village Road, 1st floor.

10 Felix Villas, Pokfulum. 72 Nathan Road, Top floor.

292 The Peak.

Assistant, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co. Ou premises. Manager, Furness (Far East), Ld. Chartered Acct., Percy smith, Seth &

Fleming

Civil Engineer, Blackmore & Blackburn,

Ld.

Merchant, Boyd & Co., Ld. Merchant, Blair & Co.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co. (S.C.), Ld. Clerk, H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co., Ld... Engineer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld................... Assistant Engineer, China Light & Power

Co. (1918), Ld. Draughtsman, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K. Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld....

Bakehouse Asst., Lane, Crawford, Ld. Cashier, Nederlandsch Indische Handels-

bank, N.V.

Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Manager, Botelho Bros. Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Bookkeeper, H.K., Canton & Macao

Steamboat Co., Ld........... Engineer, Peninsula Hotel

Assistant, Standard Vacuum Oil Co.

Botelho, Pedro Vicente, Jr. Assistant, Botelho Bros. ....

Bower, Albert.....

Bowes-Smith, Aubrey

Maurice

Bowker, Arthur Cecil Irvine Boyd, Leslie Coutts ..... Bradbury, Bertram Walter.

Watchman, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineer-

ing Co. of H.K., Ld.

Manager, Palace Hotel.................

Bullion Broker, Prince's Building Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Assistant, John Manners & Co., Ld. Butchery Supt., Dairy Farm I. & C. S.

Co., Ld.

Seven Sisters, North Point.

280 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. 9 Cameron Road.

13 Broadwood Road. On premises. On premises.

11A Shaukiwan Road, Top floor.

Generating Statiou, Hok Un, K'loon.

Quarry Bay.

On premises. 23 Bowrington Road.

5 Tregunter Mansions, May Road. 6 Austin Avenue, Kowloon.

163 Waterloo Road, Kowloon Tong. 6 Austin Avenue, Kowloon.

25 Jordan Road.

491 Nathan Road, Kowloon. 19 Mosque Street.

5 King's Terrace, Kowloon.

Quarry Bay. On premises.

516 The Peak. 167 The Peak. Repulse Bay Hotel.

219 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

A

-

9

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

B-Continued.

Bradford, Ian Halsey. Bradford, Thomas Fisher Braga, Anthony Manuel Braga, Hugh.

Braga, John Vincent....

Braga, Paul........................... Bramble, Harry Olver Bremner, Alexander

Andrew

Brewin, Joseph Irwin Mark Britto, Frederico Maria....

Broadbridge, Frederick

Arthur.

Broadbridge, William

Edward

Brook, Joshua

Brostedt, Augustus

Brouwer, Jan Reinier

Brown, Albert Paul Brown, Arthur James Brown, Arthur Robert Brown, Conrad

Brown, Frank Leader (Capt.) Brown, George Ernest Brown, John Coghill.....

Brown, John McIntyre Brown, Walter Joseph..

Brown, William

Brown, William Joseph......

Browning, Harold Arrott Broxup, Thomas Sigurd

Brumwell, William Robert.

Brusset, Auguste

Bruusgaard, Odd

Bryn, Alfred

Buchanan, David

Buehner, Wilhelm August...

Bullock, Harry Bumann, Friedrich

Bunje, Henry Ferdinand

Bundred, James Watson Bunn, Horne

Burling, William John Burn, Lindsay

H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Wharf Engineer, Holt's Wharf Private Secretary

General Works Manager, H.K. Engineer-

ing & Construction Co., Ld. Office Assistant, China Light & Power

Co. (1918), Ld.....

Motor Dealer

Merchant, Dodwell & Co., Ld.

Chartered Accountant, Lowe, Bingham

& Matthews

Moulder, H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co., Ld. Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld.

Mercantile Assistant, John D. Hutchison

& Co.

Assistant, Gilman & Co., Ld.

Marine Representative, Standard Vacuum

Oil Co.

Asiatic Traffic Manager, Canadian

National Railways...

Agent, Nederlansche Handel-

Maatschappij

Engineer, Alex. Ross & Co. (China), Ld.. Clerk, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld... Assistant, Davie Boag & Co., Ld. Clerk, Brown, Jones & Co........ Engineer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refining Co., Ld. Boilermaker, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Office Assistant, China Light & Power

Co. (1918), L.....

Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineering

Co. of H.K., Ld..........

Chief Acct., China Light & Power Co.

(1918), Ld....

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank......... Accountant, E. D. Sassoon Banking

Co., Ld.

Overseer, H.K. Land Investment &

Agency Co., Ld.........................

Acting Manager, Banque Franco Chinoise Shipowners' Representative, Thoresen

* Co., Lả.

Assistant Terminal Superintendent,

Texaco Co. (China), Ld.

Clerk, American Express Co., Inc. Mercantile Assistant, Robertson, Wilson

& Co., Lả.

Asst., Asiatic Petroleum Co. (S.C.), Ld... Manager, Deutsche Farben-Handelsge-

sellschaft Waibel & Co. (Defag) Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co. (S.C.),

Ld.

Marine Surveyor, Goddard & Douglas Service Engineer, Western Electric Co.

of Asia...

Assistant, H.K. & Shanghai Hotels, Ld... Draughtsman, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Lủ.

353 The Peak.

Windsor Lodge, Austin Avenue, St. George's Building.

On premises.

St. George's Building, 12 Knutsford Terrace. 273 The Peak.

The Peak Hotel. On premises.

Ho Tung Mansions, 2 & 4 Ashley

Road.

I Lock Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

73 Seen Keen Terrace

Repulse Bay Hotel.

On premises. 16 Nullah Road.

17 Jordan Road, 1st floor, Kowloon. 99 Waterloo Road, Kowloon.

45 Morrison Hill Road.

17 Bowen Road.

Matsubara Hotel, Ice House Street.

On premises.

10 The Peak.

Kowloon Tong Substation, Waterloo

Road.

Quarry Bay.

Kowloon Tong Substation, Waterloo

Road.

353 The Peak.

Repulse Bay Hotel.

20 Johnson Road.

Shouson Hill Road.

Repulse Bay Hotel.

Texaco, Tsun Wan.

8 Observatory Villas, Kowloon.

53 Cumberland Road, K'loon Tong. On premises.

Mirador, Deep Water Bay.

On premises.

7 Abermor Court, May Road.

21 King Kwong Street. 11 Morrison Gap Road.

On premises.

NAME IN FULL.

10

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

B-Continued.

Bursley, Allan John Bush. Amos John

*

Butler, Basil Gordon

Butler, Edwin

Butler, Ernest Oswald

Butt, Ghulam Mustapha

Butt, Wilfred Lawson, Jr.... Butterfield, William Arthur

Buyers, William Nicoll

Bux, Sheik Abdul Rahim Bux, Sheik Elias Bux, Sheik Hassain Bux, Sheik Omar

Asst., Asiatic Petroleum Co. (S.C.), Ld... Assistant, Wallace, Harper & Co., Ld. Attorney, Standard Vacuum Oil Co. Superintendent Engineer, Holt's Wharf...

Mercantile Assistant, Jardine, Matheson

& Co., Lư.

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.

Engineer, MacDonnell & Gorman, Inc. Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co. (S.C.),

Ld.

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld....... Clerk, National City Bank of N.Y. Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.. H.K. Electric Co., Ld.............

On premises.

13 Liberty Avenue, Homuntin. Peninsula Hotel.

Glenthorne, 79 Kimberley Road,

Kowloon.

Glenthorne, Kimberley Rd., K'loon. H.E.C. Quarters, 5 Ming Yuen

Building. Shing Mun.

On premises.

6 Aigburth Hall, May Road.

16 Yee Wah Street, 2nd floor.

9 Sugar Street, East Point, 2nd floor. 16 Yee Wah Street, 2nd floor. 99 Leighton Hill Rd., ground floor.

***

Cain, Robert Herbert....... Cairns, Marcus Alexander... Calamel, Antoine Yves

Calcraft, Leslie Arthur Calman, Alexander Milne...

Cameron, Donald Milton

Cameron, Peter Weather-

don Grant

..... Cameron, Ronald Vallance.

Campbell, Duncan McInroy

Campos, Henrique Maria

Campos, Henry Maria ...... Campos, Reinaldo Augusto.

Canney, Joseph Stanislas

Canning, James Robert...... Capell, Ralph Stewart

Caplan, Alexandre Louis Cario, Maurice .......

Carlos, Cesar Villa....

Carnac, Percival Sidney

Rivett

Carneiro, Carlos Eugenio Carr, d'Arcy Arthur Baker.

Carr, George Wynfield Carroll, Anthony Henry ... Carroll, Ronald Anthony Carroll, William Joseph Cartwright, George Dawson Carvalho, Fernão Henrique

de.....

Outfitter, William Powell, Ld.... Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Engineer, H.K. Brewers & Distillers,

Ld.

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Shipbuilder, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Assistant, H.K. Rope Manufacturing

Co., Ld.

Assistant, Carroll Bros. Assistant Superintendent Engineer,

China Navigation Co., Ld.....

Assistant Supt. Eng., China Navigation

Co., Ld.

Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China

Sugar Boiler, Taikoo Sugar Refining

Co., Ld.

Assistant, S. Moutrie & Co., Ld.

Assistant, General Electric Co. (China),

Ld.

Manager, Fox Films Corporation Broker

Clerk, Far East Oxygen & Acetylene

Co., Lử.

Electrician, Green Island Cement Co., Ld. Assistant, Swan, Culbertson & Fritz Assistant Manager, British-American

Tobacco Co., Ld.

Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Assistant, Carroll Bros. Assistant, Carroll Bros. Principal, Carroll Bros... Traveller, Office Appliance Co.

15A Morrison Gap Road.

254 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

232 Nathan Road, Kowloon. On premises.

On premises.

Y.M.C.A., Kowloon.

14 Bowen Road.

On premises.

On premises.

146 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. 146 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

146 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon.

Taikoo Terrace, Quarry Bay. 7 Middle Road, Kowloon.

40 Kimberley Road, Kowloon. 21 Morrison Gap Road. 18 Felix Villas.

1 Chung Hing Street, 2nd floor.

305 Prince Edward Road, Kowloon. 12 Jordan Road, Kowloon.

Gloucester Building.

5 Morrison Gap Road.

14 Bowen Road.

14 Bowen Road.

16 Bowen Road.

29c Nathan Road, Kowloon.

Assistant, Andersen, Meyer & Co., Ld. ... 15 Ashley Road, Kowloon.

[

11

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

C-Continued.

Carvalho, Guilherme

Augusto

Carvalho, Marcus Antonio

de

Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld.

Assistant, Swan, Culbertson & Fritz

Carvalho, Octavio Arthur de Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Castilho, Lawrence

Justiciano

Castle, Gordon

Castleton, Reginald Gaze... Castro, Alberto Edward

Henrickson

Castro, Albert Joseph Castro, Antoine Piu Castro, Carlos Victor. Castro, Egydio Maria

Henrickson

Castro, Frederick Augustine

Castro, Henry Armando Castro, Innocencio Samson. Castro, José Maria

D'Almala

Castro, Luis Samson Cave, Leonard James... Chadderton, Christopher Chaffoy, Edgar de Chak Tai-kwong

Challinor, Richard Harold...

Chalmers, James Calder

Chan, Albert Kenneth

Chan, Carlos Chan Chee-wai Chan Chi-man

Chan Chin-nin Chau Chiu-ting Chan Chuck-fai Chan Chun-cheong Chan Chun-ngao Chan, Edward Chan Fook-chor

Chan Fung-yin

Chan, George Watson

Chan Harr

Chan Heng-meng Chan, Henry

Chan Hin-cheang Chan Hung-ching

Chan Hung-cho Chan, Joseph

Chan Kai-sin

Chan Kai-wa

Chan Kam-moon, Albert

Clerk, American Express Co., Inc. Cargo Supt., H.K. & Kowloon Wharf

& Godown Co., Ld.... Assistant, Butterfield & Swire

Assistant, Nederlandsch Handel-

Maatschappij, N.V.

Clerk, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld. Asst., Standard Vacuum Oil Co........ Clerk, Mercantile Bank of India, Ld...................

Assistant, H.K. Rope Manufacturing

Co., Ld.

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld...

Assistant, W. R. Loxley & Co., Ld. Assistant, Thoresen & Co., Ld.

Assistant, Bank Line, Ld. Assistant, Thoresen & Co., Ld. Assistant, Mustard & Co., Ld. Asst., Jardine Engineering Corpu., Ld.... Manager, Orient Tobacco Manufactory... Assistant, Oji Paper Manufacturing Co.,

Ld

Assistant, Imperial Chemical Industries

(China), Ld.

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineer-

ing Co., of H.K., Ld..... Assistant, Imperial Chemical Industries

(China), Ld. Merchant, C. Chan & Co. Clerk, Butterfield & Swire Clerk, American Express Co., Inc. Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld. Assistant, A. G. Pile

Clerk, Bank of East Asia, Ld. Clerk, Reuter, Brockelmann & Co.. Assistant, Gay Kee

Clerk, China Emporium, Ld.

Clerk, China Light & Power Co. (1918),

Ld.

Manager, West River Transportation &

Trading Co., Ld.

Cashier, Arts and Crafts, Ld. Merchant,

Clerk, Lowe, Bingham & Matthews Clerk, Palace Hotel

Treasurer, China Emporium, Ld. Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld..............

Clerk, Andersen, Meyer & Co., Ld. Meter Inspector, China Light & Power

Co. (1918), Ld.

Clerk, Wallace, Harper & Co., Ld... Clerk, L. Weill & Co. Insurance Agent, Sun Life Assurance

Co. of Canada

7 Austin Road, Kowloon.

589 Orient Building, Nathan Road,

Kowloon.

7 Austin Road, Kowloon.

75 Wong Nei Chong Road.

222c. Nathan Road. On premises.

On premises.

11 Caroline Hill Road, 1st floor. 43A Nathan Road, Kowloon. 41 Hankow Road, Kowloon.

32 Granville Road, 2nd fl., K'loon.

14 Yick Yam Street, Ground floor. 143 Waterloo Road, Kowloon Tong. 207 Fa Yuen Street, Mongkoktsui.

10 Jordan Road, Ist floor, Kowloon. 207 Fa Yuen Street, Mongkoktsui. 14 Essex Crescent. Y.M.C.A., Kowloon. 582 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

2 Perfection Place, Tai Hang.

On premises.

Quarry Bay.

On premises.

312 Nathan Road, Kowloon. On premises.

172 Hennessy Road.

2 Miu Kang Terrace, 2nd floor.

On premises.

On premises.

23 High Street, 1st floor.

On premises.

1 St. Stephen's Lane.

St. George's Building.

18 Hing Hon Road. On premises.

68 Robinson Road.

251 Lockhart Road, Top floor. 60 Haiphong Road, Kowloon. 7 Bay View Mansions.

283 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor. 46 Pottinger Street, 2nd floor.

Kowloon Tong Substation, Waterloo

Road.

232 Third Street.

18 Hennessy Road. 2nd floor.

On premises.

12

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

C-Continued.

Chankee, Lee Chan Keng. Chan, Kenneth

Chan Kim-cho Chan Kin-kung Chan Kiu-fan Chan Kui-iu

Chan Kwai-ping. Chan Kwai-pun

Chan Kwan-chiu Chan Kwan-yuen

Chan Lai-sang Chan Man-kai

Chan Man-ling

Chan Man-shing...

Chan, Owen Chan Pick-man Chan Ping-fai.. Chan Ping-fan Chan Ping-san

Chan Ping-shu Chan See-ming

Chan Shau-hok

Chan Shek-kwong Chan Shik-sum Chan Shiu

Chan Shiu-tsun Chan Shin-wan Chan Sui-ki Chan Tak-sang

Chan Tse-yuen Chan Wai-chi Chan Wai-chuen Chan Wai-chung

Chan Wingate Chan Wing-fong

Chan Wing-nai Chan Yat-kai Chan Yau-koi.. Chan Yi-tsung

Chan Yiu-nam Chan Yuk-in Chang Ah-hoi, John Chang, B. K.

Chang Kon-yim ... Chang, Matty Fat Chang Sam-chong

Chang Tse-yu........ Chang Tsing-man Chang Tsun-hing

Clerk, Dollar Steamship Line Assistant, Lane, Crawford, Ld.

Managing Director, Gande, Price & Co.,

Ld.

Clerk, Butterfield & Swire

Assistant, South British Insce. Co., Ld... Assistant, Chase Bank... Assistant Wharfinger, Holt's Wharf

Clerk, Boyd & Co., Ld.

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld..

67 Hennessy Road, 1st floor. 62A Bonham Road, 1st floor.

2 Essex Crescent, Kowloon Tong. On premises.

On premises.

42 Elgin Street.

29 Dung Choi Street, 1st floor,

Mongkok.

147 Lockhart Road.

372 Prince Edward Road.

Theater Manager, H.K. Amusements, Ld. 3 Knutsford Terrace, Kowloon. Sub-Accountant, Overseas Chinese

Banking Corporation, Ld.

Assistant, A. Goeke & Co. Clerk, China Light & Power Co.

(1918), Ld.

Clerk, China Provident Loan & Mort-

gage Co., Ld.....

Chinese Branch Office Manager, States

Steamship Co.

Clerk, John I. Thornycroft & Co., Ld. Clerk, Standard Press

Clerk, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld. Surveyor, Palmer & Turner... Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co. Clerk, Sun Life Assurance Co. of Canada] Assistant, Asia Life Insurance Co., Inc...

Typist, American Express Co., Inc. Clerk, Bank of East Asia, Ld. Clerk, St. Francis Hotel A/c. Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld. Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld.... Assistant, Sennet Freres Clerk, Butterfield & Swire Bookkeeper, Eastern Mercantile &

Construction Co., Ld. Compradore, A. Goeke & Co. Clerk, Bank of East Asia, Ld.... Manager, Hotel Cecil

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld......

Assistant, H. Skott & Co., Ld. Draughtsman, China Light & Power Co.

(1918), Ld.

Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld. Clerk, National City Bank of N.Y. Clerk, Carlowitz & Co.

Life Underwriter, Manufacturers' Life

Insurance Co....

Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld....................... Assistant, Andersen, Meyer & Co., Ld.... Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld.

Manager, W. W. Ahana & Co., (Hong

Kong), Ld.

Clerk, Reuter, Brockelmann & Co....... Stenographer, Dollar Steamship Line..... Assistant Manager, Ault & Wiborg Co.

(Far East)

Clerk, Butterfield & Swire Compradore, Compagnie Optorg. Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co.

71 Bute Street, 2nd floor. On premises.

Kowloon Tong Substation, Waterloo

Road.

576 Queen's Road, 1st floor.

26 Victory Avenue, Homuntin. 2 Ying Fai Terrace.

14 Amoy Street, 1st floor, Wanchai. 31 Cooke Street, Kowloon.

71 Leighton Hill Road. On premises.

On premises.

182 & 184 Ma Tau Chung Road,

1st floor.

23 Jardine's Bazaar.

On premises.

On premises.

69, Hennessy Road, 2nd floor.

2 Fung Wong Terrace.

18 Hennessy Road.

On premises.

372 Prince Edward Road.

On premises.

On premises.

On premises.

20 Village Road, 1st floor. 47 Village Road, Ground floor.

Kowloon Tong Substation, Waterloo

Road.

20 Wing On Street.

41 Fa Yuen Street, 2nd floor. 32 Gloucester Road, 2nd floor.

52 Bonham Road.

19 Parkes Street, 2nd floor, K'loon. 15 Hollywood Road, 2nd floor. 13 Un Chau Street, 2nd floor.

Ou premises.

94 Jaffé Road, 3rd floor. 796 Nathan Road, 2nd floor.

85 Gloucester Road, Top floor. On premises.

4 Dragon Terrace, Happy Valley. 107 Tong Choi Street, 2nd floor.

1

!

NAME IN FULL.

13

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

C-Continued.

Chassels, Thomas Rae Chau Chiu-mo Chau Fook-ng

Chau Hau-leung. Chau Iu-nin

Chau Kwai-kan

Chau Lok-chow

Chau Nai-in Chau Peng Chau Shiu-ng Chau Wan-gork

Chau Yin-ho.. Chau Yu-tung Chau Yut-u

Chen Chao-chi

Chen, Eren

Chen, I. S.

Chen, John Augustine

Chen Kim-chung

Chen Kin-cho..... Chen, Panlman

Cheng Chung-lung Cheng Chung-yin Cheng Fan

Cheng Kwong Cheng Ling...... Cheng Lok-sang. Cheng Man-tat Cheng Moon

Cheng Ying-bui Cheong Pong-tat Cheung Hok-chau Cheung Kam-chuen

Cheung Kam-sing

Cheung Kit-sang Cheung Shung-hing Cheung Tak-po Cheung Tat-chiu Cheung U-pui...........

* Cheung Wah-sun

Cheung Wai-yu Cheung Wing-keu

Cheung Wing-shing

Cheung Yau-kuen Andrew. Cheung Yeung

Cheung Yik-tak...... Cheyne, George Tao Chia Peng-hong. Childe, Edgar Ronald * Chim Ping-kwong

Chin, David George. Chin Yau-fai

Ching Hi-kwong

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Clerk, Java-China-Japan Line Assistant, National & Commercial

Savings Bank, Ld.............. Assistant, China Emporium, Ld. Architect, Chau & Lee....

Accountant, Bank of East Asia, Ld. Assistant, Chase Bank..

Clerk, Bank of Canton, Ld...................... Clerk, P. & O. Banking Corporation, Ld. Merchant, Kelley & Co., Ld.

Clerk, H.K. & Kowloon Land and Loan

Co., Ld.

A/c. Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld.. Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co. Clerk, H.K. & Kowloon Land and Loan

Co., Lư.

Manager, Central Trading Co....... Clerk, Ault & Wiborg Co. (Far East) Cashier, Ault & Wiborg Co., (Far East). Clerk, National City Bank of N.Y. Accountant, Overseas Chinese Banking

Corporation, Ld.

Clerk, W. R. Loxley & Co., Ld. Secretary, Standard Press

Clerk, National City Bank of N.Y Clerk, Arnhold & Co., Ld. Clerk, Bodiker & Co.

Assistant, Furness (Far East), Ld... Assistant, Bank of East Asia, Ld. Assistant, Lane, Crawford, Ld. Clerk, Canadian National Railways

Chief Clerk, Taikoo Sugar Refining Co.,

Ld.

Clerk, St. Francis Hotel

Clerk, Ed. A. Keller & Co., Ld. Assistant, Fung Tang

Bookkeeper, E. D. Sassoon Banking

Co., Ld.

Assistant, Passage Dept., Canadian Pacific Steamships, Ld....... Bookkeeper, American Express Co., Inc. Assistant, Chase Bank..

Cashier, E. D. Sassoon Banking Co., Ld.. Assistant, W. R. Loxley & Co. Assistant Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co.,

(S.C.), Ld.

Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia and China

Assistant, Chase Bank..... Compradore, Douglas Steamship

Co., Lư.

Assistant, Asia Life Insurance Co., Inc... Merchant,

Foreman, China Light & Power Co.

(1918), Ld...

Clerk, Bank of East Asia, Ld.... Clerk, Dollar Steamship Line Bookkeeper, Reiss, Massey & Co., Ld. Secretary, China Underwriters, Ld.... Clerk, Assurance Franco Asiatique Clerk, Java-China-Japan Line A/c. Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld............... Clerk, Deutsche Farben Handelsgesell-

schaft (Waibel & Co.)

On premises.

39 Sharp Street East, 2nd floor.

86 Morrison Hill Road, 1st floor.

6 Leighton Hill Road.

1 Hing Hon Road.

On premises.

6 On Hing Terrace.

28 Lyndhurst Terrace, 3rd floor. 11 Chiu Loong Street. 44 Robinson Road,

31 Elgin Street. 57 Caine Road. On premises.

66 Caine Road, 1st floor. On premises.

3A Castle Road, Top floor. 24 Sai Yeung Choi Street.

19 Fuk Wing Street, Shamshuipo.

Chinese, Y.M.C.A.

64 Pokfulam Road.

3 Hart Avenue, Kowloon.

86 Taipo Road, 3rd floor.

27 Hennessy Road.

199 Temple Street, 3rd floor, Yau-

mati.

407 Hennessy Road.

On premises.

106 Thomson Road,

215 Jaffé Road, 2nd floor.

2 Murray Place, Quarry Bay.

On premises.

On premises. Peddler Building.

217 Aplin Street, Shamshuipo.

48 Hennessy Road.

7 Nullah Street, Mongkok. 13 Fleming Road. 24 Stanley Street. 145 Lockhart Road.

On premises.

13 Fleming Road.

6 Breezy Terrace, Bonham Road.

28 Granville Road.

6 Polo Street, Tai Hang.

6 Glenealy Road.

Kowloon Tong Substation, Waterloo

Road.

On premises.

74 High Street, 2nd floor.

69 Spring Garden Lane, 2nd floor. 8 Carnarvon Building, Kowloon. China Building, 1st floor.

726 Nathan Road, 1st floor. 24 Connaught Road, 1st floor.

190 Cheung Sha Wan Road, Sham-

shuipo.

1

NAME IN FULL.

14

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

C--Continued.

Ching, Mieliacl

Ching Sik-wing

Ching Tai-ming Chinn, Edward Kay Chick Pek-eng

Chin Chu-ting

Chin Chun-chiu

Chin Keung-wah

Ch Po-van Chin Tse-ping

Cho Chik-shun Choa Hin-kee

* Choa Po-min Choa Robert Choi Ping-za Chong Mui-fatt Chong Thean-yew Chou Sung-waang

Chow Cham-wing Chow Chin-cheung Chow, George Luke Chow, James Chow Ping-un

Choy Nai-shing

Choy Sai-pin

Choy Wah-king.

Choy Wai-hung

Choy Yuen-sheuk

Christensen, Engelhardt Chu Chuk-wah.

Chu Jackson

Chu Shin-mei.....

Chui Hong-fang... Chun Kon-chee

Chun Man-yee Chung Chee-ling

Chung King-chuen Chung King-sun.....

Chung Kum-chuen.. Chung Kwan-ting

Chung Man....

Chung Mow-young

Chung Pat-tang. Chung Shau-ki Chung Shui-chun

Chung Sui-on...

Chung Wa-hi

Chung Ying-chiu

Mining Engineer, McDonnell & Gorman

Inc.

Accountant, William Jack & Co., Ld. Clerk, Java-China-Japan Line Clerk, Duro Motor Co., Ld..................... Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co.,

Secretary, Lepack & Co.

Assistant, A. Goeke & Co.

Shing Mun.

209 Jaffé Road, 2nd floor.

119 Gloucester Road, 2nd floor.

37 Ping Street, Kowloon.

57 Saikung Road, 3rd floor, Kowloon

City.

On premises.

On premises.

Assistant, Asia Life Insurance Co., Inc... 21 Yuk Sau Street, 2nd floor, Happy

Analyst, A. C. Franklin

Clerk, National Aniline & Chemical Co.

U.S.A.

Clerk, P. & O. Banking Corporation, Ld. Factory Supervisor, Davie, Boag & Co.,

Id.

Broker, Exchange Building

Compradore, Banque Franco Chinoise Assistant, Swan, Culbertson & Fritz A/c. Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld. Clerk, Advertising & Publicity Bureau Manager, Commercial Press, Ld...

Clerk, National City Bank of N.Y. Clerk, Butterfield & Swire Clerk, Logan & Amps

Cashier, Duro Pump & Engineering Co. Director, Yuen On S.S. Co., Ld. &

Shui On S.S. Co.. Ld.

Secretary, The Sun Co., Ld.. Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld. Clerk, Chase Bank

Managing Director, H.K. Trading Co.

(1931), Ld....

Clerk, Butterfield & Swire Merchant, American Flour Co.

Director, South British Brickworks, Ld..... Clerk, H.K., Canton & Macao Steam-

boat Co., Ld.

Clerk, Butterfield & Swire

Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld.... Draughtsman, China Light & Power Co.

(1918), Ld.

Salesman, Millington, Ld. Agent, Universal Pictures Corporation

of China & Colonial Electric Co. Clerk, Butterfield & Swire

Yard Foreman, H.K. & China Gas Co.,

Ld.

Clerk, H.K. & China Gas Co., Ld........ Assistant Manager, China Emporium,

Ld.

Godown Man, Imperial Chemical

Industries (China), Ld............... Clerk, Far East Oxygen & Acetylene

Co., L.

Manager, China Travel Service

Secretary, A. B. Moulder & Co., Ld................. Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China .............. Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Cauton, Ld......

Assistant, Lane, Crawford, Ld. Clerk, Ed. A. Keller & Co., Ld.

Valley.

307 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor.

4 Peking Road, Ground floor.

1 Gresson Street, 2nd floor.

c/o. Davie Boag & Co., Ld., Quarry

Bay.

4 Macdonnell Road. 5 Broadwood Road. 2 Haiphong Street.

18 Kok Hang Choon Road. 31 Fook Wah Street.

6 Yenlo Building, Fly Dragon

Terrace.

12 Hing Hou Road. On premises.

18 Nullah Road, 2nd floor, Wanchai.. 189 Fa Yuen Street, Kowloon.

12 Hing Hon Road.

3 Caine Road.

378 Hennessy Road, 2nd floor. 226 Jaffé Road, 2nd floor, Wanchai.

29 Kimberley Road, Kowloon. On premises.

Kimberley Villas, 3 Kimberley Road. 68 High Street, 3rd floor.

41 Sands Street, Kennedy Town. On premises.

186 Wanchai Road, Ist floor.

Kowloon Tong Substation, Waterloo

Road.

38 Fort Street, gr. fl., North Point.

31 Caine Road, 2nd floor. On premises.

363 Des Voeux Road West, 3rd floor.. 30 Bowrington Road, 3rd floor.

64B Robinson Road, 2nd floor.

On premises.

25 Lee Yuen Street, 2nd floor.

9 Fook Wah Main Street, Kowloon. 68 Castle Peak Road, 1st floor.

149 Thompson Road.

4 Woi On Lane, 1st floor. 64 Hennessy Road, 3rd floor. On premises.

15

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

C-Continued.

Church, Charles Joselyn

Claasen, Theodor

Clark, Brian George

Clark, Duncan Hughson

Clark, Frederick Henry......

Clark, Ritchard Ferguson Clark, Walter Charles Clemo, Alfred Bertram

...

Clemo, Frederick Charles...

Coales, Anthony John Coates, Alfred Edward Coelho, Alvaro José Coelho, Carlos Eugenio... Coelho, Cezar Augusto

Cole, Wilfred James Coleman, Thomas

Collaço, Francisco Cecilio... Collaço, Maximiano

Antonio

a

Collis, John Richard ................. Colman, Hugh Frederick

Charles Cook, John Turnbull.. Coppin, Alan Dudley. Cordeiro, Luiz Gonzaga ... Cordeiro, Procopio Antonio Corlett, Donald Alexander. * Correa, Charles Marcelino

Corver, Johan Henri Costa, Eusebio da

Costa, Frederico Guilherme

Meira da

Costa, Lourenço Antonio da Costa, Raul....................... Costello, George Edward

Cotton, Charles Henry

* Coulson, Ernest William

Coulthart, John .... Cox, Albert Rowland Cox, Harold

Craig, Robert Gilchrist

Cramer, Leigh Reverdy......

Crawford, George William

Kenneth

Crichton, William ..

Director, Advertising & Publicity

Burean, L.....

Clerk, Nederlandsch Indisch Handels-

bank, N.V.

Electrician, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Chemist, Taikoo Sugar Refining

Co., Ld

Assistant Engineer, China Light &

Power Co. (1918), Ld.

Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refining Co., Ld. Asst. Manager, H.K. Telephone Co., Ld.. Assistant Accountant, China Light &

Power Co. (1918), Ld. Superintendent, China Light & Power

Co. (1918), Lư.

Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Clerk, H.K. Tramways, Ld. Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Clerk, Nederlandsch Indische Handels-

bauk, N.V......

Chartered Accountant, Thomson & Co.... Blacksmith, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co.. Lư.

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Assistant Harbour Master, H.K. &

Shanghai Hotels, Ld....... Shipping Clerk, Bank Line, Ld................

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Assistant, Douglas Steamship Co., Ld. ... Exchange Broker, Alexandra Building.... Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Clerk, Palmer & Turner Agent, States Steamship Co. Accountant, Swan, Culbertson & Fritz Mechanical Engineer,

Assistant, H.K. & Kowloon Wharf &

Godown Co., Ld.

Bookkeeper, Jardine Engineering Corpn.,

Ld.

Assistant, Standard Vacuum Oil Co. Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Passenger Agent, Canadian Pacific

Steamships, Ld. .............

Reception Clerk, Peninsula Hotel Assistant, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold

Storage Co., Ld.....

On premises.

1 Village Road, 1st floor.

On premises.

1 Braemar Terrace, Quarry Bay.

Kowloon Tong Substation, Waterloo

Road.

Quarry Point, Quarry Bay. 118 The Peak.

On premises, Kowloon Tong.

Generating Station, Hok Un, K’loon. 313 Prince Edward Road.

4 Village Villas. Happy Valley. 75A Wong Nei Chong Road, 1st fl. 71 Chun Yeung Street, 1st floor.

$3 Taipo Road, Kowloou. 24 Shouson Hill Road.

On premises.

12 Jordan Road, Kowloon.

4 Liberty Avenue, Kowloon. 167 The Peak.

On premises.

Knutsford Hotel, Kowloon. 3 Braemar Terrace, North Point. 3 Mallory Street.

12 Jordan Road, Kowloon. 20 Lyeemun Building.

2 Liberty Avenue, Homuntin. 32c Nathan Road, Kowloon.

1 Ashley Road, Kowloon.

62, Waterloo Road, Top floor. 27 Kimberley Road, Kowloon. 151 Tam Kung Road, 1st floor.

Repulse Bay Hotel. On premises.

8 Garden Terrace.

Sec., H.K. Rope Manufacturing Co., Ld... Hong Kong Club. H.K. Electric Co., Ld.

Sub-Accountant, Chartered Bank of

India, Australia & China Chief Draughtsman, H.K. & Whampoa

Dock Co., Ld..

Sub-Accountant, National City Bank of

New York

Electric Engineer, H.K. Electric, Co., Ld.

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineer-

ing Co. of H.K., Lď.

Causeway Hill Quarters, No. 8.

103 The Peak.

On premises.

65-66 Courtland Apartments,

Kennedy Road.

H.K.E.C. Quarters, 12 Causeway

Hill.

Quarry Bay.

NAME IN FULL.

16

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

C-Continned.

Crofton, Christopher

Assistant Station Superintendent, China

Light & Power Co. (1918), Ld.

Crookdake, Jonathan......... Engineer, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Croucher, Noel Victor Amor Cruz, Alberto Reinaldo...... Cruz, George Anthony Cruz, Saturnino Maria da

(Junior)

Cullen, Fred.

Cunha, Cezar Augusto Cunha, Enens Luciano Cunha, Frederico Nathalio...

Cunningham, Albert Laing. Cunningham, Bertram Tweedals....

Cunningham, William

Curreem, Abdul.

Currie, Norman Meluroy Curtis, Walter Shillito

Vaughan

Cutcher, Ernest Stanley

Co.. Ld.

Stock Broker..

Clerk, P. & O. Banking Corporation, Ld. Clerk, P. & O. Banking Corporation, Ld.

Clerk, Nederlandsch Indische Handels-

bank, N.V.

Store-keeper, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Lủ.

Assistant, Green Island Cement Co., Ld. Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank, Kowloon Clerk, Chartered Bank of India, Australia

and China

Clerk, Canadian Pacific S.S., Ld..

Electrical Engineer, Taikoo Sugar

Refining Co., Ld.

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld. Assistant, A. F. Arculli & Sons.... Manager, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld.

Electrical Engineer, Duro Pump &

Engineering Co.....

Butcher, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold'

Storage Co., Ld..

Hok Un Works, Kowloon.

On premises.

P. & O. Building.

9 Tung Cheong Building, Kowloon. 9 Tung Cheong Bldg., 1st fl., K'loon.

17 Robinson Road, 3rd floor.

On premises.

4 Carnarvon Road, Kowloon. 5 Humphreys Avenue, Kowloon.

2 Carnarvon Villas, Kowloon. 30 Kai Tack Road.

Quarry Point, Quarry Bay.

Quarry Bay.

56 Kennedy Road. 364 The Peak.

8 Dorset Crescent, Kowloon Tong.

21 Fung Fai Terrace.

D

Dale, Eric George..... Dallah, Abraham Rayman.

Dallinga, Harmannus Dalziel, Adam Gray

Dalziel, James MacDonald

Dand, Arthur Anderson.....

Civil Engineer, Leigh & Orange Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld...

Accountant, Java-China-Japan Line Assistant, Dairy Farm Ice & Cold

Storage Co., Ld........

Engineer, 11.K. Telephone Co., Ld................... Chief Draughtsman, W. S. Bailey & Co.,

Ld.

Danenberg, Reinaldo Carlos Assistant, Far East Aviation Co., Ld.

Danenberg, Roy

Darling, Robert

Davidson, Gerald Lloyd Davis, John Pierson

Angustine

Davis, Maurice Israel

Davis, Thomas

Deacon, Stuart

Decker, Harvey Leroy

Delcourt, Armand Hippolyte Delgado, Agrippino

Francisco

Denison, W. Ellery Dennis, Albert James Devan, Thalakodi Madathil

Vasu

Devaux, Raymond Eugene

Marie

Dick, John

Dimond, Aubrey Kieran

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co., (S.C ) Ld. Assistant, Williamson & Co. Bauker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank.

Assistant, Mackintosh's, Ld. Manager, Metro Goldwyn Mayer of

China

Asst. Engineer, H.K. Telephone Co., Ld. H.K. Electric Co., Ld..

Assistant, Texas Co. (China), Ld. Manager, Compagnie Optorg

Asst. H.K. Brewers & Distillers, Ld. Assistant, Chase Bank.. Engineer, Dodwell & Co., Ld.

Bookkeeper, Bitzer & Co.

Manager, Far East Oxygen & Acetylene

Co., L

Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Acting Manager, Peninsula Hotel, H.K. &

Shanghai Hotels, Ld.

On premises.

82A Stone Nullah Lane, Top floor. Gloucester Building.

Dairy Farm Co., Ld., Pokfulam. 12 Broadwood Road.

4 Kent Road, Kowloon Tong.

3 King's Terrace, 2nd floor. On premises.

16 Chatham Road, Kowloon. 10 The Peak.

Naval Yard.

17 Felix Villas.

17 Broadwood Road.

H.E.C. Quarters, 4 Causeway Hill. 24 Broadwood Road.

247 Prince Edward Road.

H. B. Brewery, Sham Tseng.

6 Conduit Road.

I Hankow Road, Kowloon.

431 Marine Lot 101 Top floor,

North Point.

On premises.

9 Cameron Road, Kowloon.

Peninsula Hotel.

*

NAME IN FULL.

17

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

D-Continued.

Dinsdale, Herbert Suelson Diercks, Alfred Chihli

Dixon, Lawrence Richard... Dixon, Philip Albert... Dodd, Richard Valentine Docherty, Edward.......

Donald, Francis Henry

Donn, Alexander Godfrey... Dorabjee, William

Dorsser, Johannes Adrianus

van

Drake, William Stanley... Draper, Thomas John Dreyer, Holger

Drude, Robert..... Drummond, Ahmed Drummond, Neil (Junior)... Drummond, Neil........... Duckworth, Ferdinand

Farrant Duclos, Gordon ... Dudley, Guildford Charles Dudman, William Forest

Duggan, Edward Wilfred Duncan, Andrew

Duncan, George, Jr. Duncan, Llewellin Arthur

Robert

Dunkley, George Samuel Dunlop, Robert Paterson

Dunn, Samuel

Dunne, Patrick O'Neil

Merchant, James H. Backhouse, Ld. Wharfinger, H.K. Yaumati Ferry Co.,

Ld.

Assistant, Union Trading Co., Ld.. Representative, South China Agencies. Salesman, Reiss, Massey & Co., Ld. Shipwright, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co.. Lủ.

Assistant, S. J. David & Co.

Assistant, Mercantile Bank of India, Ld.. Assistant, Union Trading Co., Ld.

Sub-Accountant, Nederlandsche Handels

Maatschappij N.V. Merchant, Gordons, Ld.

Attorney, Standard Vacuum Oil Co. Impt. Manager, Shewan, Tomes & Co.... Assistant, Standard Vacuum Oil Co. Engineer, H.K. & Shanghai Hotels, Ld... Assistant, Davie Boag & Co., Ld. Foreman, Taikoo Sugar Refining Co., Ld.

H.K. Electric Co., Ld.. Agent, Singer Sewing Machine Co..... Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Spares Department Manager, Far East

Aviation Co., Ld.

Manager, American Express Co., Inc..... Engineer, H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co.,

Ld.

Assistant, W. R. Loxley & Co., Ld. ......

Asst., Asiatic Petroleum Co. (S.C.), Ld.... H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Chemist, H. K. Electric Co., Ld.

Broker

Mercantile Assistaut, Advertising &

Publicity Bureau, Ld.

4 Luna Building, Kowloon.

135 Hennessy Road.

24 Wyndham Street, 3rd floor. 224B Nathan Road, Kowloon. 10 Boundary Street, Kowloon Tong.

On premises.

110 Boundary Street, 1st floor,

Kowloon Tong.

20 Peak Mansions. 10 Mosque Street.

On premises.

8 Aimai Villas, Kowloon. 25 The Peak.

19 Kent Road, Kowloon Tong. .92 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

353 Hennessy Road, 1st floor. 2 Quarry Point, Quarry Bay. 2 Quarry Point, Quarry Bay.

H.E.C. Quarters, No. 2 N.P. 3 Tregunter Mansions. 10 Kent Road, Kowloon Tong.

23 Kent Road, Kowloon Tong. 1 Tregunter Mansions.

On premises.

1 Highburgh Terrace, K'loon Docks.

On premises. Bank Mess.

H.K.E.C. Quarters, 2 Causeway

Hill.

4 Kingsclere, 2nd fl., Kennedy Road.

5 York Road, Kowloon Tong.

E

Eager, Oscar

Easterbrook, Charles

Bertram

Easterbrook, Frederick

James

Eastman, Alfred Leonard

George

Eckford, Charles Vyvyan

Lavers

Eddy, Albert

Edgar, Aubrey Jacob

Edgar, Joseph Jacob....

Edgar, Sydney Ellis

Edie, Archibald Walker Hay

Edkins, John Theodore Edkins, Sydney Herbert

Assistant Secretary, H.K. Land Invest-

ment & Agency Co., Ld.

Electrical Engineer, China Light &

Power Co. (1918), Ld.

Architect, H.K. & Kowloon Wharf &

Godown Co., Ld

Assistant, H.K. & Kowloon Wharf &

Godown Co., Ld.

Engineer, Jardine Engineering Corpora-

tion, Ld.

Sub-Manager, Peninsula Hotel

Broker, Ellis & Edgar

Assistant, Ellis & Edgar

Broker, Ellis & Edgar

Kingsclere Hotel.

Kowloon Tong Substation, Waterloo

Road.

On premises.

42 Hankow Road, 3rd floor, K'loon.

Ewo Mess, 194 The Peak. On premises.

29 Stubbs Road.

39 Stubbs Road.

39 Stubbs Road.

Assistant, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co... On premises.

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bauk

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire

353 The Peak. On premises.

18

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

E-Continued.

Edmondston, David Charles Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank.

Edwards, Frank

Edwards, Robert Patrick

Egge, Walter

Euren, Guenther von

Elarte, Leonardo Antonio... Elliott, Francis Storrey.

* Ellis, Arthur Cecil.

Ellis, David

Ellis, David Ernest

Ellis, Nathaniel Solomon.... Ellis, Norman.....

Elms, Paul Andrew Emmert, John Barrett Evans, James.. Everest, Robert John

Vincent

Everett, Arthur George...... Excell, William Charles

Engineer, Dodwell & Co., Ld............. H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Manager, Wm. Meyerink & Co..........

Assistant, Jebsen & Co.

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Haystack, 9 The Peak. Y.M.C.A., Kowloon. 353 The Peak.

Philips House, Kowloon.

136 Kennedy Road.

14-16 Fort Terrace, North Point.

Asst., Asiatic Petroleum Co. (S.C.), Ld... North Point Installation.

Insurance Manager, New Zealand

Insurance Co., Ld.

Sharebroker, Ellis & Edgar..

Manager and Secretary, Vit-Alexin

(China), Ld......

Peninsula Hotel.

3 Braemar Terrace.

468 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor.

Asst., Asiatic Petroleum Co. (S.C.), Ld.. On premises. Charge Engineer, China Light &

Power Co. (1918), Ld. Assistant, W. R. Loxley & Co. Attorney, Standard Vacuum Oil Co. Engineer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld...................

Sales Representative, Texas Co.. (China),

Ld.

Engineer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld........ Asst. Cargo Supt., H.K. & Kowloon

Wharf & Godown Co., Ld.

Hok Un Station, Kowloon.

201 Wanchai Road.

9 Magazine Gap Road.

73 Seen Keen Terrace, Causeway Bay..

Government Electrical Works,

Kowloon.

6 North Point.

218c Nathan Road, Kowloon

F

Fairburn, Thomas Campbell Sworn Measurer, Official Measurer's

Falla, Albert George......... Fan Kwai-chong Fantham, Henry Harold

Faria, Francisco Xavier

Lobato de Faria, Saturnino Sergio

Lobato de

Farmer, Clarence Leimpter Farne, Francis Henry

Farnud, Hassan

Farrell, Robert Emmet

Felshow, William Charles... Fenwick, Thomas James

Johnston. Ferber, Helmuth

* Ferguson, Malcolm

Ferguson, James Carson

Fergusson, Thomas....................

Fernandes, Felisberto An-

tonio Bernabe Carajota. Fernandes, Francisco

Ernesto Carajota Fernandes, Leopoldo Dario. Fernandez, Antão Vasque... Ferreira, Alberto Francisco Fiebig, Henrich Edouard Field, William Valentine....

Fielder, Bertie Ernest Fielding, Ernest Wilde......

Office

Reception Clerk, Repulse Bay Hotel Clerk, Central Trading Co....... Wharfinger, H.K. & Kowloon Wharf &

Godown Co., Ld.........................

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Douglas Steamship Co., Ld. Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, L....... Assistant, H.M.H. Nemazee Engineer, H.K. Telephone Co., Ld. Architect, Little, Adams & Wood

H.K. & Shanghai Bank Attorney, A. Goeke & Co. Electrician, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Lủ.

Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineering

Co. of H.K., Ld............. Craft Supt., H.K. & Kowloon Wharf &

Godown Co., Ld..........

Clerk, Dollar Steamship Line......

Bookkeeper, Dollar Steamship Line Assistant, H.K. & Shanghai Hotels, Ld.. Clerk, Peninsula Hotel...... Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld... Assistant, Jebsen & Co. Harbour Representative, Peninsula

Hotel

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Clerk, China Navigation Co., Ld.

3 Gap Road, Top floor.

On premises.

On premises.

12 Carnarvon Road, Kowloon.

15 Mosque Junction.

14 Stafford Road, Kowloon Tong..

5 Pratt Building.

127 Waterloo Road.

16 Macdonnell Road. 435 The Peak,

7 Tung Cheong Building.

Repulse Bay Hotel. 140 Kennedy Road.

On premises.

Quarry Bay.

4 King's Building, Kowloon.

16 Fort Street.

67 Sing Woo Road, Top floor. 14 Pak Tai Street, Kowloon City. 96 Parkes Road, Kowloon. 798 Nathan Road, Kowloon. 10 Tak Shing Street.

19 Peking Road, Kowloon. On premises.

On premises.

NAME IN FULL.

19

OCCUPATION.

-

ADDRESS.

F-Continued.

Figueiredo, Eduardo Jose

de, Jr.

Figueiredo, Guilherme

Alves de........

Figueiredo, Henrique

Alberto de

Figueiredo, Jose Henrique

de

Figueiredo, Manuel

Augusto

Fincher, Edward Charles Fincher, Ernest Francis Fingalsen, Odd Erik ...

Finnie, John

Fisher, Arthur Leslie....... Fisher, James Alfred..... Fitzgerald, George de la Poer Beresford Flanagan, Brian Thomas. Fleming, William Nicholson Fletcher, William Charles

Henry

Fok Kam-kwong

Fong King-chew

Fong Shiu-chuen

Fong, Stanley

Fonseca, José Maria Foraita, Walter Forbes, Donald

Forbes, Duncan Douglas Ford, Alfred Charles

Ford, William Falconer

Forder, George

Forsyth, William Rennie ...

Fox, Henry Leslie....... Franco, Eduardo Miguel Franco, Viriato

Fraser, Alexander Stewart. Fraser, Archibald Dick

Fraser, David James..

* Frederick, Ernest Cecil......

Frost, Leon Henry George.

Frost, Thomas Norton Fuertes, Domingo Pascual...

Funck, Ernst * Fung Chik-man Fung Ho-kin Fung Iu-cheung Fung lu-wing...

Fung Kai-leung Fung Kui-yin.....

Assistant, Hughes & Hough, Ld.

Engineer, Siemen's China Co......................

Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld.

Assistant, Hughes & Hough, Ld.

2 York Road, Kowloon Tong.

2 Rutland Quadrant, Kowloon Tong.

1 United Terrace, Kowloon.

2 York Road, Kowloon Tong.

On premises.

On premises.

Accountant, Green Island Cement Co., Ld. 65 Waterloo Road. Assistant, Gilman & Co., Ld.................... Assistant, Gilman & Co., Ld... Draughtsman, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Assistant Shipyard Manager, Taikoo

Dockyard & Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld......

Engineer, H.K. Telephone Co., Ld. Clerk, Benjamin & Potts

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

On premises.

Quarry Bay.

On premises.

15 Caroline Hill.

357 The Peak.

Assistant, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co... On premises. Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co.

Printer, Ye Olde Printerie, Ld. Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China .. Asst. Manager. Dodge & Seymour.

(China), Ld.

Assistant, Chase Bank......

Radio Technician, Tsang Fook Piano

Co.

Assistant, Standard Vacuum Oil Co. Assistant, A. Goeke & Co.. Director, Bank Line, Ld.. Manager, Andersen, Meyer & Co., Ld. Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard and

Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld. Assistant, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Assistant, Whiteaway, Laidlaw & Co. Time-keeper, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Assistant, H. Skott & Co. Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld Assistant, Standard Vacuum Oil Co. Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineer-

ing Co. of H.K., Ld. General Agent, States Steamship Co...... Exchange Broker, E. W. Lewis Chief Accountant, Texas Co., (China),

Ld.

Assistant Manager, Pentreath & Co. Assistant, British American Tobacco

Co. (China), Ld................. Assistant, Jebsen & Co.

Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co...... A/c. Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld. Sub-Accountant, Bank of Canton, Ld.. Assistant Manager, Ka Wah Life

Assurance Co., Ld..... Clerk, Java-China-Japan Line Assistant, Fung Tang.

Peak Hotel.

23 Cumberland Road, Kowloon Tong.

201 Hennessy Road, Top floor.

11 Hok Sze Terrace, 1st floor,

Kennedy Town.

10 Lung Kai Terrace, 2nd floor, Tai

Hang.

21 King Kwong Street, 2nd floor. 47A Robinson Road.

216 Nathan Road, Kowloon. 8 Tregunter Mansions. R.B.L. 250 Sassoon Road.

Quarry Bay.

Hong Kong Office.

14 Kent Road, Kowloon Tong.

On premises.

4 Leighton Hill Road. 301 Lockhart Road.

141 Wong Nei Chong Road. Laichikok Installation.

Quarry Bay.

I Thorpe Manor, May Road, Over Bays, Repulse Bay.

On Lee, Mt. Davis Road. Repulse Bay Hotel.

49 Haiphong Road, Kowloon. 10 Tak Shing Street.

370 Hennessy Road, Top floor. 14 Kwong Ming Street. 46 A Bonham Road.

1-3 Third Street.. 34 Square Street. On premises.

NAME IN FULL.

20

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

F-Continued.

Fung Kwan-ng.

Fung Pak-ngok Fung Ping-fan Fung Pui-ying Fung Shin-tsoi Fung Shiu-wa.. Fung Sun-lam Fung Wai-sun... Fung Yin-ho Fung Yin-kwan Fung Yiu-leung Fung Yiu-po

Fung Yum-leung

Fung Yun-chi

Assistant Clerk, Taikoo Sugar Refining

Compradore, Reiss, Massey & Co., Ld. Sec., Chinese Estates, Ld. Clerk. Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld. Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld.. Compradore, Harry, Wicking & Co. Clerk, Bank of East Asia, Ld, Sub-Accountant, Bank of East Asia, Ld. Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld.. Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Clerk, Bodiker & Co.

Assistant Bookkeeper, H.K. Telephone

Co.,

Ld.

Broker, Reuter Brockelmann & Co.

2 West Street, Quarry Bay. 69 Wong Nei Chong Road. 1 Park Road.

228 Third Street, West Point. 213 Apliu Street, Shamshuipo. 213 Apliu Street, Shamshuipo. On premises.

On premises.

25 D'Aguilar Street.

25 D'Aguilar Street.

498 Nathan Road, 1st floor, K'loon. 87 Bonham Road, Ground floor.

153 Pak Hoi Street, 1st floor. Rapier Villa, Tai Hang Road.

G

Gaan, Carlos Alfred

Gaan, Martin Jose

Gaddi, Leopold

Gahagan, Cyril Edwin

Gamble, Graham Spencer...

Gan Cheong-sim

Ganz, Rudolf Emil..... Garch, Cheung ... Garcia, Alexander

Garcia, Flavio Maria..

Gardiner, James Bounar

Salesman, Phoebus Neon Light Co., Ld. 10 Observatory Villas, Kowloon.

Acet., British-American Tobacco Co.

(China), Ld.

Chef, H.K. Hotel

H.K. Electric Co., Ld....................

Asst. Manager, South British Insurance

Co., Ld.

Meter Inspector, China Light & Power

Co. (1918), Ld.

Branch-Manager, Siemens China Co....... Bookkeeper, Dragon Motor Car Co., Ld. Clerk, Dollar Steamship Line....... Clerk, Nederlandsche Indische Handels-

bank, N.V.....................

Mercantile Assistant, Jardine, Matheson

& Co., Ld.

Gardiner, John Pennington Assistant Manager, Swan, Culbertson &

Gardiner, Ramsay

Wimberley

Gardner, John

Gardner, Joseph.

Gardner, Louis

Garrod, Stanley Hall.......

Garton, Vivian Arthur Gascon, Antonio.....

Geall, William James Geare, Iltyd Henry

Gerard, Richard Alfred Gerloff, Kurt Gerrard, George....

Gerrard, William

Ghafur, Abdul Curreem Gibson, Adna Wallace Gibson, James Smith.

Gidley, Sydney Maurice

Fritz

Local Manager, Commercial Uniou

Assurance Co., Ld........

Asst., Asiatic Petroleum Co. (S.C.), Ld... Asst., Union Ince. Socty. of Canton, Ld...

Assistant, Imperial Chemicals Industries

(China), Ld.

Passenger Agent, Canadian Pacific

S.S. Co.

Architect, Blackmore & Blackburn, Ld.... Service Manager, Wallace Harper & Co.,

Ld.

Asst. Engineer, H.K. Telephone Co., Ld. Assistant General Manager, Standard

Vacuum Oil Co..... Surveyor, Logan & Amps Assistant, Jebsen & Co.

Clerk, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineering

Co. of H. K., Lid....................

Timberman, Logan & Amps

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.

10 Observatory Villas, Kowloon. On premises.

H.K.E.C. Qts. No. 9 Causeway

Hill.

On premises.

Kowloon Tong Substation, Waterloo

Road.

108 Austin Road, Kowloon. 40 Yiu Wah Street.

12 Jordan Road, 1st floor, Kowloon.

6 King's Terrace, 1st floor, K'loon.

Harbour View Hotel.

18 Macdonnell Road.

369 The Peak. On premises.

302 Cambay Building, 2nd floor, Nathan Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

53в Nathan Road, Kowloon. 178 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

7 Liberty Avenue, Homuntin. la Luna Building, Kowloon.

Peninsula Hotel.

30 Hillwood Road, Kowloon. Ava Mansions, May Road.

Quarry Bay.

Metropole Hotel.

445 Hennessy Road, 3rd floor.

Assistant, Standard Vacuum Oil Co....... 9 Magazine Gap Road.

Architect,

Clerk of Works, Leigh & Orange

7 Julia Avenue, gr. fl., Homuntin.

221 Fa Yuen Street, 1st floor.

NAME IN FULL.

21

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

G-Continued.

Gill, John Cawthra

Gilmore, David James

Gilson, Lloyd L. Gittins, Samuel Victor

Gittins, William Minto Glendinning, Lyall James

Scott

Glendinning, Walter Scott.

Glover, Francis Harry

Gockchin, Lambert Goldenberg, Charles

Archibald .... Goldenberg, Isaac Levy Goldenberg, William Goldin. Constantin.... Goldman, Lawrence

Gomes, Antonio dos Santos Gomes, Augusto Conceição

Gomes, Francisco Xavier

Gomes, José

Gomes, Jose Vicente..

Gomes, Luiz Braz

Gomes, Luiz Maria

Gomes, Maximiano Antonio Gomes, Romao

Gonella, Ugo Gonsalves, Henrique

Francisco

Gonsalves, Joao Baptista... Gonzales, Joseph Angel Goodall, Donald MacGregor Goodman, Reginald James

Goodwin, David Alexander

Goodwin, Frank......

Gooey, Herbert Lau

Goon, S. L......

Gordon, John Mackinley

Gordon, Vyner Reginald Gore, Dudley Eric

Gorla, Benvenuto Gosamkee, Eric Eugene Roy Gosano, Carlos Norberto Gosby, Herbert Jacques

Goulborn, Vernon Graca, Henrique José Graca, José Anthanasio

Maria de

Grady, John

Grant, Arthur Burgess Gray, Samuel....

Gray, Samuel Alexander Graye, Henry

Assistant, Dairy Farm Ice & Cold

Storage Co., Ld....................

Accountant, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China...

Banker, Chase Bank

Life Underwriter, Manufacturers' Life

Insurance Co.................

Y.M.C.A., Kowloon.

360 The Peak. Peninsula Hotel.

23 Ashley Road, Kowloon.

Electrical Engineer, W. Jack & Co., Ld.. 4 Suffolk Road, Kowloon Tong.

Assistant, Mackintosh's, Ld. Outside Superintendent, H.K.

Tramways, Ld.

Asst. General Manager, H.K. Tramways,

Ld.

Sub-Manager, Wing On Bank

Assistant, N. S. Moses & Co., Ld. Broker

Merchant, N. S. Moses & Co., Ld.

12 East Point Terrace.

12 East Point Terrace

359 The Peak, On premises.

4 Duke Street, Kowloon Tong,

4 Duke Street, Kowloon Tong. 7 Torres Buildings, Kowloon,

Theatre Manager, H.K. Amusements, Ld. 15 Hankow Road, Kowloon, Assistant, Gilman & Co., Ld. Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld.......

Ou premises.

3 Humphreys Avenue, Kowloon.

4 Fuk Lo Tsun Road, Kowloon. 60 Village Road.

Asst., Asiatic Petroleum Co. (S.C.), Ld... On premises. Clerk, Bauque de l'Indo-Chine Assistant, Arnhold & Co., Ld.. Storekeeper, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., L

Accountant, Phoebus Neon Light Co.,

Ld.

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld... Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co.. Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.......... Architect, Hazeland & Gonella

Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

On premises.

8 Humphreys Avenue, Kowloon. 48 Haiphong Road, Top fl., K'loon. 37 Ashley Road, 2nd floor.

5 Fuk Wing Street, 3rd Al., K'loon. 3 Dragon Terrace, 2nd floor.

23 Ho Mun Tin Street, Kowloon.

Assistant, Green Island Cement Co., Ld. 23 Ho Mun Tin Street, Kowloon. Overseer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Retired

Storekeeper, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Managing Director, W. S. Bailey &

Co., Ld.

Assistant Manager, H.K. & China Gas

Co., Lử.

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld....

Manager, Hop On Woo Goon Kee

Co., Lư.

Foreman, Taikoo Dockyard & Engineer-

ing Co. of H.K., Ld.

Secretariat Asst., H.K. Tramways, Ld.... Salesman, Whiteaway, Laidlaw &

Co., Lư.

Engineer, H.K. & Shanghai Hotels, Ld... Runner, American Express Co., Inc......... Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co. (South

China), Ld.....

Supt., H.K. Rope Manufacturing Co., Ld. Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank, (K'loon)

Assistant, Lammert Bros.

Assistant Engineer, China Light &

Power Co. (1918), Ld. Assistant, H.K. & Shanghai Hotels, Ld... Engineer, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Li.

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank. Manager, Concrete Products, Ld.

|

Wanchai Sub-Station. Ava House, 1 May Road.

On premises.

Knutsford Hotel.

Courtlands, Kennedy Road.

10A Hankow Road.

493 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

Quarry Bay.

14 Peak Mansions.

Harbour View Hotel.

9 Morrison Gap Road, Top floor. 55 New Reclamation, North Point. 11 Soares Avenue, Homuntin.

On premises.

Y.M.C.A., Kowloon.

6 Cameron Road, Kowloon.

On premises,

Hok Un Works, Kowloon. Peninsula Hotel.

On premises.

10 The Peak.

112 Waterloo Road, Kowloon.

NAME IN FULL.

22

OCCUPATION.

Address.

G-Continued.

Green, Douglas Samuel

...

* Green, Samuel Ebenezer

Greene, George William ... Gregory, Cyril Leon

Greig, Hugh Allister..... Greig, William

Grenham, John Charles

Michael

Grey, George Willis .........

Grieve, Ronald James

Douglas Clerk

Griffin, William George Griggs, Ronald George..... Grimble, Eric George Norton Grimes, Thomas Edward Grose, Frank

Grose, John Francis

Grossart, Armin..........

Grossman, Edward..

Groves, Walter Montgomerie

Gubbay, Henry Ezekiel......

Gundesen, Jakob Christian

Anker

Guterres, Alberto Eduardo Guterres, Antonio Alberto...

Guterres, George Arthur Guterres, Jose Alberto Guterres, Jose Candido

....

Guterres, Joaquim Jeronymo

Guterres, Luiz Joao Gutierrez, Alexander

Edward

Gutierrez, Alvaro Eugenio

Gutierrez, Gregorio Maria... Gutierrez, João Jose Gutierrez, Luis Augustus Gutierrez, Marcus Bernado

Gutierrez, Reinaldo Maria

Bernado

Guttinger, Oskar

Assistant, Dunlop Rubber (China) Co.,

Ld.

Assistant, H.K. & Shanghai Hotels, Ld... Company Manager, Asia Lands, Ld. Assistant, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold

Storage Co, Ld......

Banker, H.K. & Shanghai Bank Shipwright, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Agent, Manufacturer's Life Insurance

Co.

Architect, H.K. Land Investment &

Agency Co., Ld..............

Mercantile Assistant, Jardine, Matheson

& Co, Ld.

Engineer, H.K. Telephone Co., Ld. Assistant, Tsang Fook Piano Co. Grimble & Co.

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire

Assistant, Palmer & Turner

Sharebroker

Assistant, Bitzer & Co.... Exchange Broker.

Assistant, H.K. & Kowloon Wharf &

Godown Co., Ld.

Accountant, Phoebus Neon Light

Co., Ld.

Technical Representative, Netherlands

Harbour Works Co. Assistant Steward, H.K. Hotel Clerk, Nederlandsche Indische Handels-

bank, N.V............

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co. (S.C.), Ld. Clerk, Linstead & Davis

Assistant, China Provident Loan &

Mortgage Co., Ld.... Representative, Manufacturers' Life

Insurance Co........ Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Clerk, Lowe, Bingham & Matthews Assistant, H.K, & Whampoa Dock Co.,

Ld.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co. (S.C.), Ld. Assistant, The Bank Line, Ld. Accountant, David Sassoon & Co., Ld. Clerk, China Light & Power Co.,

(1918), Ld.

Clerk, Mustard & Co., Ld.

Engineer, Jardine Engineering Corpora-

tion, Ld.

...

54B Nathan Road, Kowloon. 54в Nathan Road, Kowloon. 2 Conduit Road.

3 Humphreys Buildings. 3-5 Kennedy Road.

On premises.

2A Armend Building.

Kingsville Hotel.

194 The Peak.

14 Tak Shing Street.

1.19 Wong Nei Chong Road.

108 The Peak.

On premises.

55 Conduit Road.

55 Conduit Road.

45 Conduit Road.

1 Branksome Towers.

Empress Annex, 1 Minden Avenue,

Kowloon.

242 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

532 The Peak.

9 Ashley Road, Kowloon.

9 Ashley Road, Kowloon. On premises.

22 Granville Road, Kowloon.

22 Granville Road, Kowloon.

9 Ashley Road, Kowloon. 9 Ashley Road, Kowloon.

20 Robinson Road.,

On premises.

On premises.

25 Kimberley Road, Kowloon. 797 Nathan Road, 2nd fir., Kowloon.

Kowloon Tong Substation, Waterloo

Road.

25 Kimberley Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

H

Haase, Kurt Julius Karl

Hermann...

Haigh, John Gordon Hailey, Guy Hale, William Eric

Merchant, China Export, Import &

Bank Co., Ld.......

Assistant, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld.... H.K. Electric Co., Ld.....

Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld.

251 Repulse Bay. Kingsclere Hotel.

H.K.E.C. Quarters, 3 North Point. 7 Cameron Road, Kowloon.

23

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

H-Continued.

Hall, Charles Mylius...

Merchant

Hall, George Albert Victor | Architect, Way & Hall

Hallgren, Johan Heimer

Gideon....

Ham, William

Hamid, Sheik Abdool

* Hamilton, Samuel Weir.....

Hammond, Herbert William Hampton, Horatio Hamson, Arthur Bird Hanke, Martin Josef

Gerhard

Hanlon, Edwin Marcus....

Harley, Roderick Cecil. Haroon, Izhaak ............. Harper, Andrew Wallace...

Harrigan, John

Harriman, Gilbert Alexander Harris, Frederic Thomas

Harris, Irwin Stewart

Harris, Sidney Samuel

George

Harris, William Francis

Manager, Swedish Trading Co. in

China, Ld.

Assistant, Williamson & Co. Clerk, Dollar Steamship Line Sub-Accountant, National City Bank of

New York

Traffic Supt., H.K. Tramways, Ld. Assistant, Lane, Crawford, Ld.

Peninsula Hotel.

Red Roofs, N.K.I.L. 1360, Ngau Shi

Wan.

3 Pokfulam, G. L. 2381. 235 Nathan Road, Kowloon. 55 Lee Garden Street.

274 Prince Edward Road. 2 Fung Fai Terrace, Top floor. Empress Lodge, Kowloon.

Manager, Wallace, Harper & Co., Ld...... 3 York Road."

Engineer, F. Feld & Co.

Engineer, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold

Storage Co., Ld...

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld............ Managing Director, Wallace Harper &

Co., Ld.

Engineer, Williamson & Co. Broker, Ice House Street...... Wharfinger, H.K. & Kowloon W. & G.

Co., Ld.

Assistant Passenger Agent, Dollar

Steamship Ld.......

Chemist, Green Island Cement Co., Ld....

Asst. Manager, Furness (Far East), Ld...

Harrison, Joseph Butcher... Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co. (South

Harrop, Joseph

Hartig, Gottlieb

Harvey, Albert Frnest Harvey, Arthur Vere...

Harvey, David

Hassan, Ali....

Hassan, Dollah

Hassan, Ishant

Hassan, Moosa

Hast, Victor Mayor

Hatch, Herbert

Hatt, Charles Hausamann, Ernest Hayward, Allen William Hazeland, Andrew John

Manning

Healey, Stanley Patrick Hedley, William Pattinson Heiberg, Sigurd

Knagenhjelm

*Heitmeyer, Horst

Henderson, George Henderson, Maurice James.

Henderson, Reid........... Henry, Arthur Boyd... Henry, James Edward Henry, Richard Morris

Herde, Josef

Herdman, Andrew Elliott Herman, Harold.......... Herridge, Frank Gordon

China), Ld...................

Merchant, James H. Backhouse, Ld. Manager, Kruse & Co..... Retired

Manager, Far East Aviation Co., Ld. Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Clerk, H.K, Electric Co., Ld.......... Clerk, Harry, Wicking & Co., Ld. Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld................ Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld........

Y.M.C.A., Kowloon.

On premises at East Point. On premises.

404 Lockhart Road, 1st floor.

199 Prince Edward Road, 118 Nathan Road, Kowloon. 11 Queen's Road, Central.

5 Pratt Buildings, Kowloon.

10 Kennedy Road.

10 Hart Avenue, Kowloon.

110 Boundary Street, Kowloon.

On premises.

16 Peak Mansions.

43 Nathan Road, Kowloon. Palace Hotel.

523 The Peak. Knutsford Hotel,

439 Hennessy Road, 2nd floor. 291 Hennessy Road.

353 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor. 353 Lockhart Road, 2nd floor.

Asst., H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co., Ld... On premises. Assistant, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.

Engineer, H.K. Telephone Co., Ld... Merchant, Ed. A. Keller & Co., Ld. Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld.

Architect, Hazeland & Gonella Freight Solicitor, Dollar Steamship Line. Assistant, H.K. & W'poa Dock Co., Ld...

Engineer, Goddard & Douglas Manager, Reuter, Brockelmann & Co. Carpenter, H.K. & W'poa Dock Co., Ld. Mercantile Assistant, Jardine, Matheson

& Co., Ld.

Manager, Holt's Wharf Assistant, Reuters, Ld.. Manager, Reuters, Ld.

Sub-Accountant, National City Bank

of New York

Engineer, Siemssen & Co. Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Manager, Office Appliance Co. Secretary, W. R. Loxley & Co., Ld.

H.K.E C. Quarters, 10 Causeway

Hill.

20 Hankow Road, Top floor, K'loon. On premises.

14 Braemar Terrace.

Fanling, N. T. Peninsula Hotel. On premises.

1 Aigburth Hall, May Road. 453 The Peak. On premises.

5 York Road, Kowloon Tong. Highlands, Austin Avenue, K'loon. 2 Connaught Road, 2nd floor. On premises.

The Argyle, Conduit Road. Kowloon Hotel.

On premises.

5 Gap Road, Happy Valley. Kowloon Hotel.

24

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

H-Continued.

Hess, Martin

* Hetchel, Otto.....

Hew Ah-lan

Hewett, Harry Walter..

Heytman, Bertram Leo......

Hill, David Smith Hill, Frederick Arthur Hill, George

Hill, George Lee ....

Hillier, Wilfred Samuel...... Hirst, William Walter Hislop, David Kenneth.. Ho Chow

Ho Chuen-sau Ho Chung-chow.. Ho Hung-kwan Ho Hung-pong Ho Iu-nam

Ho Iu-tim

Ho Kam

Ho Kam-sang..

Ho Ki

Ho Kim-chee

Ho Kwan-yeung Ho Man-ching Ho Man-hon Ho Man-kam

Ho Man-lam Ho Oy-ng

Ho Ping-nam

Ho Ping-nam Ho Po-cheong

Ho Quee-bim

Ho Shing-tso

Ho Shiu-ping

Ho Shiu-que

Ho Tai-yung Ho Tung-sang Ho Wai-cheung Ho, William Ho Yue-lam Hoare, John

.

Hoare, Robert Edward Hodjash, Mark

Hogg, Francis

Assistant, Deutche Farben Handel-

gesellschaft, (Waibel & Co.)....................

Merchant, F. Feld & Co., Ld........... Secretary, China Motor Bus Co., Ld....... Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co. (S.C.),

Ld.

Mercantile Assistant, Advertising &

Publicity Bureau, Ld............. Engineer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Engineer, H.K. Well Boring Co., Ld.............. Storekeeper, Indo China Steam Naviga-

tion Co., Ld.

Sub-Accountant, National City Bank of

New York

Assistant, Lane, Crawford, Ld... Manager, Steam Laundry Co.

Assistant, Thomas Cook & Son, Ld. Manager, Wing On Life Assurance

Co., Ld.

Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld.

Clerk, National City Bank of N.Y. Manager, H.K. Commercial Co. Assistant, H.K. Commercial Co...................... Assistant, Imperial Chemical Industries

(China), Ld.

Asst., Imperial Chemical Industries

(China), Ld.

Broker, W. Meyerink & Co.

Clerk, China Provident Loan &

Mortgage Co., Ld.

Compradore,

Clerk, Butterfield & Swire

No. 1 Shroff, H.K. & Shanghai Bank A/c Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld............. Clerk, Butterfield & Swire

Head Godownman, Holt's Wharf

Clerk, Bishop & Lacey, Ld. Clerk, China Light and Power Co.

(1918), Ld.........

Senior Clerk, British Wireless Marine

Service

Assistant Cashier, Bank of East Asia, Ld. Assistant, Lane, Crawford, Ld. Cashier, Overseas Chinese Banking

Corporation, Ld......

Director, H.K. Trading Co., Ld.. Clerk, China Light and Power Co.

(1918), Ld.

Assistant, Wallem & Co.......

Clerk, Mercantile Bank of India, Ld. Assistant, Gay Kee....

Clerk, Lane, Crawford, Ld..... Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Draughtsman, Williamson & Co.

Office Gunner, Mackinnon, Mackenzie

& Co.

Assistant, H.K. & W'poa Dock Co., Ld... Assistant, British-American Tobacco

Co. (China), Ld.

Veterinary Surgeon, H.K. Jockey Club

Stables

The Diligent Home, 194 Sassoon

Road.

Aigburth Hall, May Road. Chinese Y.M.C.A.

On premises.

36 Hankow Road, 3rd floor, K'loon. H.K.E.C. Quarters, 3 North Point. 226 Prince Edward Road.

5 Basilea Terrace.

8 Abermor Court, May Road. IB Robinson Road.

262 Prince Edward Road. High House, Mt. Davis Road.

307-309 Tai Nam Street, 1st floor,

Shamshuipo.

Tsun Wan, N.T.

53 Pokfulam Road, 2nd floor. 62 Bonham Road.

62 Bonham Road.

On premises.

On premises.

41 Water Street.

54 Bridges Street, Top floor.

Tytam Villa, Stanley.

On premises.

4/12 Stanley Street.

35 Western Street.

On premises.

193 Temple Street, 1st floor, Yau-

mati.

6 Lok Hing Lane, 2nd floor.

Kowloon Tong Substation, Waterloo

Road.

76 High Street, 1st floor.

On premises.

22 Lockhart Road.

1 Stewart Road, 2nd floor, Wanchai.

8 Lee Kwan Road.

Kowloon Tong Substation, Waterloo

Road.

224 Wanchai Road.

49 Pottinger Street, 1st floor. On premises.

290 Portland Street.

28 Canton Road, Kowloon.

103 Ma Tau Wei Road, Kowloon.

On premises. Cosmopolitan Dock.

250 The Peak.

Covelawn, Shui Shon Hill.

>

25

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

H—Continued.

Holcroft, Frank Saul..... Holm, Julius

Hon Ying-lau........ Hooi Yip-beng

Hooley, John Redvers ..... Hoosen, Mohamed Omar

Hoosen, Omar......

Hope, Stewart

Hopes, Archibald Walter

Hopkins, Hubert Carew

Horne, Ngok-chow..... Hosie, Edward Lumsden

Hospes, Edward..........

Hoven, Jan...............

Howard, Frank Andrew Howard, Henry John Howard, Samuel....

Howard, William James Howe, Albert George Howell, John

Howes, Harold Albert Howie, James Herbert

William

Hu Iu-wan

Hui Chi-tsun

Hui Wai-pang Humble, John George

Robson

Hume, Donald William

Humphrey, Edmond

Rouffaer

....

...

Humphreys, Alfred David... Humphreys, John David Hung, Archibald Hung, Hing-fat

Hung Hing-tat

Hung, Sebastião Sarino...... Hunt, James Hubert Hunt, William Edmund

Hunter, Henry James Hunter, James

Hunter, John Hussain, Mahomed. Hutchison, Alexander

Carmichael.

Stockbroker

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld................... Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Manager, Overseas Chinese Banking

Corporation, Ld.................

Assistant, Gibb, Livingston & Co., Ld.... Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld...

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.....

Draughtsman, Taikoo Dockyard &

Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld.

Asst. Inspector, British Wireless Marine

Service

Accountant, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia and China..

Secretary, H. Connell & Co., Ld. Secretary, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Agent, Passenger Department, Canadian

Pacific Steamships, Ld.....

Accountant, Nederlandsche Handel-

Maatschappij, N.V.

Cashier, Chase Bank....

Assistant, Standard Vacuum Oil Co. Engineer, John I. Thornycroft &

Co., Lủ.

Freight Clerk, Canadian Pacific S.S. Co... Mercantile Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld.

Sales Pilot, Far East Aviation Co., Ld.

Engineer, Logan & Amps

Clerk, Bodiker & Co.

Sales Representative, Texas Co.

(China), Ld.

Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co.

Engineer, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Chief Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refining

Co., Ld.

Assistant Manager, Java-China-Japan

Line......

Asst., Dodwell & Co., Ld.

Merchant, J. D. Humphreys & Son Articled Pupil, Denison, Ram & Gibbs Assistant Compradore, H.K. & Kowloon

Wharf & Godown Co., Ld. Manager, West River Transportation &

Trading Co., Ld.

Assistant, China Underwriters, Ld......... Engineer, Jardine Engineering Corpn. Ld. Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co. (S.C.),

Ld.

Assistant, Bradley & Co., Ld. Supt. Fittings Dept., H.K. & China Gas

Co., Lưu

Mercantile Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire

38 Stubbs Road.

298 Lockhart Road, Top floor. 2 Queen's Street, ground floor.

37 Nathan Road, Top fl., Kowloon. Repulse Bay Hotel.

c/o 117 North Point Reclamation,

Top floor, Shaukiwan Road.

388 Hennessy Road, 2nd floor.

Quarry Bay.

56A Nathan Road, Kowloon.

360 The Peak.

27 Hillwood Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

On premises.

On premises.

4 Conduit Road.

10 Essex Crescent, Kowloon Tong.

4 Kennedy Road.

3 Tak Shing Street, Kowloon. 273 The Peak.

6 Kennedy Road. Peninsula Hotel.

14 Tak Shing Street, 1st floor,

Kowloon.

17 Lan Kwai Fong, 1st floor.

3 Tin Lok Lane, 1st floor. On premises.

On premises.

Woodside, Quarry Bay.

4 Conduit Road.

1A Chatham Path.

On premises. 90 Robinson Road.

99 Robinson Road.

167 Tam Kung Road, Kowloon. 312 Nathan Road, Kowloon. Stafford Road, Kowloon Tong.

On premises. Metropole Hotel.

14 Kennedy Terrace, Top floor. | 273 The Peak.

125 Hennessy Road, 3rd floor.

On premises.

NAME IN FULL.

26

OCCUPATION.

Address

H-Continued.

Hyde, William

Hyndman, Edgar Oscar

Peter

Hyndman, Henry

Hyndman, Raphael Emmanuel

Clerk of Works, H.K. & Kowloon Wharf

& Godown Co., Ld.

Sub-Manager, Repulse Bay Hotel Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank

2 King's Park Buildings, Kowloon.

11 Ashley Road, Kowloon. 38 Wyndham Street.

Assistant, Thomas, Cook & Son, Ld................. 11 Homuntin Street, ground floor.

Igglesden, Sidney Dixon Ildefonso, Lucio Rivera Iles, William James

...

Ingram, Archibald William

Ip Chung-shu.... Ip Fook-ling Ip Hang-fong...

Ireland, Hubert Upshon Ismail, Abdul Hussain Ismail, Abdul Khalid Ismail, Sheik Hassan. Iu Tak-cheuk

Iu Tak-lam........... Ivy, Matthew Herbert

Architect, Leigh & Orange

Clerk, American Express Co., Inc..... Janitor, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld...... Secretary, Y.M.C.A...

Merchant, Sander, Wieler & Co..... Clerk, Lane, Crawford, Ld.... Asst., Compradore, Compagnie Optorg Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Overseer, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.......... Clerk, American Express Co., Inc. Clerk, National City Bank of New York. Asst. Compradore, National City Bank

of N.Y.

Partner, Clark & Iu................

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.

...

269 The Peak.

2 Salisbury Avenue, Kowloon.

On premises.

5 Torres Building, Kimberley

Road, Kowloon.

44 Johnston Road, 2nd floor. 10 On Wo Lane.

On premises.

On premises.

Wanchai Substation.

18 Leighton Hill Road.

412 Hennessy Road, Top floor.

On premises.

111 Robinson Road.

Gloucester Building.

J

Jabbar, Sayed Abdul.... Jack, Lawrence

Jackson, Cyril

Jan Shiu-tsi

Jardine, Raymond Angus... Jason, Henry Frederick Jebsen, Michael.... Jeffreys, Arthur Charles Jenkinson, Edward Arnold

Jenner, Frederick James

Henry

Jesus, Arturo Gregorio de Jett, Harry Levi

Jex, Starling

Jex, Thomas Carrick... Joanilho, Faustino Araujo... Joffe, Eugene .....

Johannessen, Reidar Johnsford, Albert William

Johnson, Leonard Nost........

Johnson, Richard Seymour Johnson, Rolf....... Johnson, William Daniel

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld....... Merchant, Wm. Jack & Co., Ld...................... Asst., Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold Storage

Co., L......

Book keeper, Imperial Chemical Industries

(China), Ld.....

H.K. & Shanghai Bank Stenographer, Williamson & Co...... Clerk, Jebsen & Co...... Engineer, H.K. Telephone Co., Ld. Mercantile Assistant, Jardine, Matheson

& Co., Ld.

Boatswain, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., L...

Clerk, American Express Co., Inc.. Overseer, McDonnell & Gorman Inc....... Secretary, Wallace Harper & Co., Ld. Asst., Asiatic Petroleum Co. (S.C.), Ld...] Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.... Assistant Engineer, China Light & Power

Co. (1918), Ld. Manager, Wallem & Co.

Overseer, China Provident Loan & Mort-

gage Co., Ld..................... Sub-Manager, National City Bank of

New York

...

| Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Principal, R. Johnson & Co. Sub-Accountant, Chartered Bank of

India, Australia and China

361 Lockhart Road, 3rd floor.

6 Lincoln Road, Kowloon Tong.

Dairy Farm Co., Pokfulum.

On premises.

353 The Peak.

34 Ice House Street, Ground floor. Ara Mansions, May Road. Telephone Building, Kowloon.

303 The Peak.

On premises.

780 Nathan Road, Ground fl., K’loon. Shing Mun.

23 Ashley Road, Kowloon. On premises.

145 Wong Nei Chong Road, 1st fl.

Generating Station, Hok Un, K'loon. 3 Luna Building, Kowloon.

556 Nathan Road, 2nd floor, K'loon.

512 The Peak. On premises. 3 Cheung Chau.

103 The Peak.

>

27

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

*

J-Continued.

Johnston, Thomas Arthur... Assistant, British

American Tobacco

(China) Co., Ld...

53 Conduit Road.

Dock Co., Ld.

Johnston, William Henry... Head Time-keeper, H.K. & Whampoa

Johnstone, Alan Colville Jones, Edward Jones-Evans, Gordon

Shepherd..... Jones, Henry Stephen Jones. Joel Russell Jones, Keith Williamson

Jones, Reginald George

Edwardes

Jong, Theodore Willem de

Jonge, Bonifacius Cornelius

de

Jono, Mahomed Hussain.

Joseph, Ellis Meyer

Joseph, Felix Alexander Joseph, Harry Bernard

Jow Kwan-bok

Ju York-sun, Charles Jue Dune-hing

June, James Kim Fook...... Jupp, John Edmund

K

Kaishu, S. Khu

Kaluzhny, Kirill Alexander Kaluzhny, Oleg

Alexandrovich

Kam Cheoug Kam Wah-lenng.

Kamemura, Senji Kee Fung-iu

Keith, David Luckie.

Keller, Harry Kelly, George......

Kempton, John

Kennedy, Frederick Patrick.

Keogh, Daniel James

Keown, Richard McArthur.

Kerley, Victor George

Kern, Ernest

Kerr, Stanley Robert Kew, Arthur James

Kew, Cecil

Kew, Harry Marmaduke Kew, Henry

Engineer, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Assistant, Butterfield & Swire

On premises.

20 Hillwood Road, Kowloon. On premises.

15 Seymour Terrace, Top floor. 104 Waterloo Road, Kowloon.

Sales Pilot, Far East Aviation Co., Ld.... On premises. Assistant, H.K. Electric Co., Ld. Manager, Connell Bros. Co. Sub-Accountant, Chartered Bank of

India, Australia & China

Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co. (South

China), Ld.

Sub-Accountant, Netherlands Trading

Society

Passage Department, Java-China Japan

Line....

Clerk, H.K. Electric Co., Ld.. Broker. Joseph & Co.

F. A. Joseph..........

Broker, Joseph & Co.

Assistant, Canadian Pacific S.S., Ld. Assistant, Paul Braga

Clerk, Bank of Canton, Ld........

Asst., H.K. & K'loon W. & G. Co., Ld... Merchant, John D. Humphreys & Son

Clerk, Texas Co. (China), La. Assistant, H.K. Hotel

Sub-Manager, Hong Kong Hotel. Assistant, Maxim & Co.

Clerk, Far East Oxygen & Acetylene

Co., Lư.

Oriental Trading Co.

Clerk, China Light & Power Co. (1918),

Ld.

Shipwright, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Merchant, Ed. A. Keller & Co., Ld. Stenographer, Freight Department,

Canadian Pacific Steamships, Ld................... Electrician, H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co., Ld.

Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co. (S.C.),

Ld.

Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co. (S.C.),

Lt.

Draughtsman, Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co. of H.K., Ld. Electrical Engineer, H.K. Electric

Co., Ld.

Merchant, Ed. A. Keller & Co., Ld. Secretary, H.K. Club

Assistant, Andersen, Meyer & Co., Ld. Assistant, American Express Co., Inc. Clerk, Boyd & Co., Ld......

Assistant, Dairy Farm, Ice & Cold

Storage Co., Ld.....

103 The Peak.

On premises.

On premises.

2 Pratt Building, Kowloon.

6 Tang Lung Street, 3rd floor.

4 Felix Villas.

49 Stubbs Road.

4 Felix Villas.

37 Fook Wa Street, Shamshuipo. 402 Portland Street.

191 Yew Chow Sreet, 3rd floor,

Shamshuipo.

30 South Wall Road, Kowloon City. On premises.

26 Des Voeux Road, West. Repulse Bay Hotel.

On premises.

49 Des Voeux Road Central.

5 Chung Ning Street, 1st floor,

Kowloon.

36 Kennedy Road.

Generating Station, Hok Un, K'loon.

On premises.

On premises.

245 Lockhart Road.

On premises.

North Point.

On premises.

Quarry Bay.

4A Village Road, 1st floor. On premises. On premises.

111 Waterloo Road, Kowloon. 50 Robinson Road. 10 Fort Street.

7 King's Terrace, Kowloon.

1

28

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

K-Continued.

Key, Maurice Frederick

Khan, Abbas

Khan, Juman

Ki Man-cheung

Kilby, Donald Frank.

Kinchin, Albert Victor......

King, Dudley Leonard

King, Francis Henry.. King, James Joseph Osborne King Man-tse

King, Marion Bailey Kinghorn, John Richard

* Kinnaird, John Daniel

Kirkwood, Robert Kitchell, Armin Knight, John Stephen. Knight, Thomas Leonard Knudsen, Kjell. Ko Chi-chung.

Ko Leong-hoe..

Ko Ling-man

Ko Sik-on

Ko Yau-cheong

Ko Yuen-heung

Kobza, Nagy Eugene

Alexander von

Kok, Pieter Frederik

Jacobus de

Kom Shni-wing .... Komor, Henry Solon Komor, George Fernanol Kong, Edwin

Kong Jack-seng. Kong Ko-woon

Koodiaroff, Michael Alex Kookel, Victor Kooter, Jacob Blaauw Kotwall, James Edulji Kou Khengboon...

Krilovsky, Alexander Kring, Niels Ove

Kruppa, Helmuth (Dr.)........

Kuelps, Fritz

Kulp, Rudolph

Kunihiro, Mitsuji

Kwai, Ü. I.....

Kwan Heung-chuen Kwan Mok-chung Kwan Shau-fung Kwan Sit-kwan Kwan Yim-chor.

Kwan Yin-kwong Kwek Kiam-seng Kwok Chan

Secretary, Chamber of Commerce Assistant, A. F. Arculli & Sons... Assistant, H.K. & Kowloon Wharf &

Godown Co., Ld. Assistant, D. Coppin Assistant, Nestle & Anglo-Swiss

Condensed Milk Co.

Stables Manager, H.K. Jockey Club

Stables

Secretary, China Provident Loan &

Mortgage Co., Ld........ H.K. & Shanghai Bank

Jeweller, G. Falconer & Co. (H.K.), Ld.. Clerk, Butterfield & Swire ... Secretary, Dragon Motor Car Co., Ld. Assistant Superintendent Engineer,

China Navigation Co., Ld. Director, Davie, Boag Co., Ld........ Engineer, H.K. Telephone Co., Ld.. Stock Broker, O. Kitchell & Co........ Secretary, H.K. Motor Accessory Co. Manager, H.K. Motor Accessory Co...... Assistant, Wallem & Co....... Assistant, W. A. Hannibal & Co. Director, Sung Yip Land Investment

Co., Ld.

Treasurer, China Can Co., Ld.

Clerk, Ault & Wiborg Co. (Far East) Stenographer, Reiss, Massey & Co., Ld...

26 The Peak.

9 King's Terrace, Kowloon.

103 Ashley Road, 2nd fl., Kowloon. Alexandra Building.

Empress Lodge, Kowloon.

On premises.

113 The Peak.

353 The Peak,

2 Aimai Villas, Kowloon. On premises.

5 Yuk San Street, Ground floor.

On premises.

16 Braemar Terrace, Quarry Bay. Telephone Building, Kowloon. 186 Nathan Road, 1st floor, K'loon. 39 Tak Ku Ling, Kowloon Tong. 12 Stafford Road, Kowloon Tong. 10 Hart Avenue, Kowloon.

18 Li Po Lung Path, Top floor.

5 Moreton Terrace.

122 Queen's Road.

119 Sai Yee Street. 51 Elgin Street, 1st floor.

Clerk, P. & O. Banking Corporation, Ld. | 53 Elgin Street, 2nd floor.

Managing Director, Kobza Art Studios,

Ld.

Clerk, Nederlandsch Indisch Handels-

bank, N.V.

Clerk, Butterfield & Swire Merchant, Komor and Komor Komor & Komor

Assistant, A. Goeke & Co. Clerk, Butterfield & Swire

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld...

Steward, Peninsula Hotel Reception Clerk, H.K. Hotel

Staff, John Manners & Co., Ld.. Broker

Manager, Central Commercial Co.

Reception Clerk, H.K. Hotel Clerk, John Manners & Co., Ld. Agricultural Adviser, Jebsen & Co. Bookkeeper, Jebsen & Co. Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld. Managing Director, Oriental Trading Clerk, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China

Clerk, Andersen, Meyer & Co., Ld. Assistant, F. A. Joseph

Clerk, Hotel Cecil

Bay View Mansions, Top floor.

1 Luna Building, Top floor, K’loon. On premises.

20 Hillwood Road, Gr. floor, K'loon. 18 Hillwood Road, 2nd floor, K’loon. On premises.

On premises.

39 Lee Tung Street, 3rd floor.

Wanchai.

On premises.

On premises.

10 Hart Avenue, Kowloon. French Building.

69 Seen Keen Terrace, Top floor,

Causeway Bay.

On premises.

15 Felix Villas.

9 Felix Villas.

May House, Sassoon Road.

1 King's Terrace, Kowloon.

Co. 36 Kennedy Road.

68 Pokfulam Road.

9 Gage Street.

137 Thompson Road, Wanchai. On premises.

Clerk, Canadian Pacific Steamships, Ld. 193 Peiho Street, Kowloon.

Clerk, Bank of Canton, Ld...

Assistant, Sang Kee.......

Accountaut, Ipekdjan Bros., Ld.

Compradore, Banque de l'Indo Chine

65 Caine Road, 2nd floor.

4A Des Voeux Road, Central.

On premises.

French Building.

NAME IN FULL.

29

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

K-Continued.

Kwok Ho-lun...

Kwok On Kwok Sau-him

Kwok Yu-shu.............. Kwong Kuen-pun

Kwong Loong

L

Labrousse, Ernest Denys. Labrum, George Beresford Labrum, Victor Charles... Ladd, George Samuel

Lafleur, Franciscus Hubertus Joseph Alphonsus

Lai Hi-iu

Lai Kwan-chit

Lai Pui-lam

Lai Sin-chau

Lai Yun-kow

Lam Ah-Choong

Lam Chik-ho Lam Chik-suen Lam, Chun-sang.. Lam Hang-chimen Lam Heung-wing

Lam Hew-cho Lam Hing-san

Lam Ho-kwan

Lam Kai-chi Lam Kin

Lam Kow-kwong Lam Kwan

Lam Kwan-yuen

Lam Kwok-tsoi Lam Kwok-tsoi

Lam Kwong-sik Lam Man-chi

Lam Man-hung Lam Ming-fan

Lam Ngai-chuan Lam Shui-wan Lam Tit-hong Lam Wa-hung

Lam Wai-man....

Lam Wan-ngok Lam Wan-po

Lam, William Charles

Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld...

Assistant, Banque de l'Indo Chine.. Bookkeeper, E. D. Sassoon Bauking

Co., Lư.

Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co. Assistant, Sugar Boiler, Taikoo Sugar

Refining Co., Là.

Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co.

Accountant, China Underwriters, Ld...... Printers Secretary, Ye Olde Printerie, Ld. Master Printer, Ye Olde Printerie, Ld.... Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld

Manager, Holland China Trading Co., Ld. Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co. Chief Clerk, Millington, Ld. Assistant, Imperial Chemical Industries

(China), Ld.

Clerk, National City Bank of N.Y Bookkeeper, H.K. Telephone Co., Ld. ... Bookkeeper, Swedish Chinese Export

& Import Co., Ld.

Engineer & Builder, Lam Woo & Co. Engineer & Builder, Lam Woo & Co. Assistant, A. Goeke & Co..... Sharebroker, G. A. Harriman Director, Sung Yip Land Investment

Co., Ld.

Assistant, Union Trading Co., Ld.... Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld........

Clerk, H.K. Canton & Macao Steam-

boat Co., Ld.

Clerk, H.K. Tramways, Ld.. Assistant, A. Goeke & Co.

Assistant, Asia Life Insurance Co., Inc... Manager, China Paint Manufacturing

Co., Ld.

Assistant Clerk, British Wireless

Marine Service

Clerk, Butterfield & Swire Store-keeper, Taikoo Sugar Refining

Co., Lử.

Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co. Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld............... Shroff, S. J. David & Co. Secretary, Kowloon Motor Bus Co.

(1933), Ld....

A/c Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld... Clerk, Gande, Price & Co., Ld. Acct, Sun Life Assurance of Canada Assistant, Kowloon Motor Bus Co.

(1933), Ld. .............

Assistant, Eastern Mercantile & Con-

struction Co., Ld. Clerk, G. A. Harriman

Assistant Compradore, American Express

Co., Inc.

Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld.

8 Fort Street, 2nd floor. French Building.

164 Hennessy Road. On premises.

24 Luen Fat St., 2nd fl., Wanchai. On premises.

On premises.

5 York Road, Kowloon Tong. 87 Waterloo Road, Kowloon Tong.

478 Nathan Road, 1st floor, K'loon.

Ngau Chi Wan. On premises.

37B Wellington Street.

On premises.

175 Queen's Road West, 2nd floor. 27 Village Road, 2nd floor.

45 Bute Street, 1st floor.

117 Waterloo Road, Kowloon. 117 Waterloo Road, Kowloon. On premises.

11 Queen's Road Central, 2ud floor.

44 Village Road.

78 High Street.

12 Kwong Wah Street, Mongkok.

9 Jordan Road, Kowloon.

21 Western Street, 3rd floor. On premises.

c/o. All Saints' Church, Homuntin.

On premises.

68 Prince Edward Road, 1st floor. On premises.

1 Murray Place, Quarry Bay. On premises.

36 Eastern Street, 2nd floor. 17 Ngan Mok Street, 1st floor.

144 Prince Edward Road. 45 Bute Street, 2nd floor. 2 Essex Crescent, Kowloon Tong. On premises.

761 Nathan Road, 3rd fl., Kowloon.

761 Nathan Road, Kowloon. 11 Queen's Road Central, 2nd floor.

2 Tak Shing Street, Kowloon. 205 Wanchai Road.

>

30

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

L-Continued.

Lam Wing-chuen

Lam Woon-ki.

Lammert, Alfred Herbert ...

Lammert, Frank Edward

Weatherston

Lammert, Lionel Eugene Landau, Leo.

Landolt, Joseph Savage.. Lane, Alfred James Lange, Heinz ....

Lange, Herbert George... Langley, Charles William... Langston, Arthur Golden Lansdowne, Ernest

Lanyon, John Burrill..... Lao, Jackson

Lao, Jackson Hsuing.. Lapsley, Robert .... Larcina, Angelo Maria

Large, Milford Henry Larson, Charles Martin Larssen, Karsten

Clerk, American Oriental Finance

Corporation

Assistant, Thomas Cook & Son, Ld. Life Underwriter, Manufacturers' Life

Insurance Co., Ld.

Assistant, Reuters, Ld. Auctioneer, Lammert Bros Salesman, Andersen, Meyer & Co. Assistant, Canadian Pacific S.S., Ld. Architect.

Clerk, Jebsen & Co.......

Branch Manager, Siemens China Co.. Assistant, Central Agency, Ld. H.K. Electric Co., Ld....... Branch Manager, Jardine Engineering

Corporation, Ld....

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire Managing Director, South China Brick-

works, Ld.

Assistant Accountant, Asia Lands, Ld.... Asst., H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co., Ld.... Accountant, Davie, Boag & Co., Ld.................

Inspector, Star Ferry Co., Ld................. Assistant, Standard Vacuum Oil Co. Managing Director, Larssen, Karsten Co.

(H.K.), Ld..

Lasala, Robert Perez de...... Assistant, John Manners & Co., Ld. Engineer, Reiss, Massey & Co., Ld. Clerk, Butterfield & Swire

Latimer, Dennis

Lau Cheuk-shan

Lau Fook-kee....

Lau Jack-kim................

Lau, Jose Antonio Lau Kau-leung Lau Kin-sang. Lan Kwong-cheung Lau Sheung-po

Lau Siu-ming Lau Tak-po

Lau Tat-ting

Lau Wai-pui

Lau Yuk-wan

Lau Yung-bei....

Laurel, Francisco Paulo... Lauritsen, Christian

Law Chung-ping Law Kwong-chan

Law, Matthew

Lawrence, Bayard Craig Lawrence, George Alfred

Lawson, James Wheeler

Lee, Arthur Yooklam

Lee Chee-leung, Antonio Lee Chi-tsun

Lee Chin-fen

Broker, General Electric Co., of China,

Ld.

Clerk, National City Bank of N.Y......

Clerk, Holland China Trading Co., Ld.... Assistant, Chase Bank .

Clerk, Wallace Harper & Co., Ld. Dept. Superintendent, Sun Co., Ld... Clerk, Mercantile Bank of India, Ld.... Assistaut, A. Goeke & Co.

Manager, The H.K. & Yaumati Ferry

Co., L.

Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co. Clerk, China Provident Loan & Mort-

gage Co., Ld.

Asst., Hong Nin Savings Bank, Ld. Secretary, H.K. Printing Press, Ld. Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld...] Managing Director, Dragon Motor Car

Co., Ld.

Bookkeeper, American Express Co., Inc. Clerk, Central Trading Co...... Accountant

District Manager, Texas Co. (China), Ld. Manager, A. W. Factory, A. S. Watson

& Co., L.

Engineer, Indo China Steam Navigation.

Co., Ld.

Asst. Meter Inspector, China Light &

Power Co. (1918), Ld.

Clerk, Chase Bank

Assistant, Chase Bank..

101 Chun Yeung St., North Point.

138 Whitfield Road, 1st floor.

1 Peak Mansions.

7 Village Road.

18c Macdonnell Road.

7 Tin Hau Road, Causeway Bay. 21 Gap Road.

107 The Peak.

10 Tak Shing Street.

10 Tack Shing Street, Top floor. Claremont Hotel, Kowloon. 287 The Peak.

Repulse Bay Hotel. On premises.

106 Boundary Street, Kowloon. 106 Boundary Street, Kowloon. On premises.

6 to 8 Foh Lok Tsun Road,

Kowloon City.

21 Hankow Road, Kowloon, Laichikok Installation.

7 Peak Mansions.

15 Felix Villas.

5 Thorpe Manor, May Road. Un premises.

7 Yick Kwan Terrace, Causeway

Bay.

17 Cedar Street, 2nd floor, Sham-

shuipo.

10 Prince's Terrace.

47 Pilkem Street, Yaumati.

341 Laichikok Road, 2nd floor. On premises.

103 Jaffé Road, 2nd floor, Wanchai. On premises.

11 Seen Keen Terrace, Causeway

Bay. On premises.

4 Stour Terrace.

29 Wongneichong Road, 2nd floor. 22 Po Kong Road, Kowloon City. 224 Prince Edward Road.

58 Village Road.

10 Mow Lum Street, Yaumati. On premises.

312 Nathan Road, Kowloon. 4 Conduit Road.

Aerated Water Factory, North Point.

3 Dorset Crescent, Kowloon Tong.

Kowloon Tong Substation, Waterloo

Road.

7 Lun Fat Street, Queen's Road East. 84 Morrison Hill Road.

Asst., H.K. & K'loon W. & G. Co., Ld... 5 & 5a Ashley Road, Kowloon.

1

31-

NAME IN FULL.

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

>

L-Continued.

Lee Chung-chee.................. Lee, Edward Cheong Lee, Francis

Lee, Frederick Kenneth

Lee, George Lee Hau-shing

Lee, Hugh King

Lee In-cheung

Lee Jick-ting

Lee, Johnson

Lee, Joseph William.. Lee Kai-yau

Lee Kwok-hung. Lee Leung

Lee Mui-chi

Lee, Phillip Sydney

Lee, Richard Edmund

Lee, Robert Ernest....... Lee, Rodney

Lee, Sebastian

Lee Shao-yuan

Lee Shek-fook, Paul

Lee Shiu-kai.

Lee Shiu-yuen

Lee Sik-chau

Lee Tse-yen Lee Wa-chune Lee Wai-cheong. Lee Wing-cheung

Lee Woon-foo.... * Lee Woon-tsoi

Lee Yook-mun Lee Yook-tong Leghorn, John Kenneth

Leiper, Gerald Andrew....

Leitão, Eduardo Ignacio

Read Lemm, Herbert George....... Leon, Caesar Augusto Leon, Luiz Francisco.... Leong, Herbert Sui On...

Leong Po-hin Leong, Thomas Leong Yue-sang.. Leuenberger, Andre

Leung Chak-man Leung Chee-foong Leung Chee-wah

Leung Chu-wing

Assistant Engineer, Palmer & Turner Salesman, Concrete Products. 1 d. Stenographer, Reiss, Massey & Co., Ld. Assistant Cashier, Manufacturers' Life

Insurance Co.

Clerk, Asiatic Petroleum Co. (S.C.), Ld. Assistant, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.................

Life Underwriter, Manufacturers' Life

Insurance Co. Merchant, Lee Yu Kee

Assistant. Shewan, Tomes & Co. Sub-Accountant, Bank of Canton, Ld. Clerk, Java-China-Japan Line

Clerk, China Provident Loan & Mort-

gage Co., Ld.

Clerk, Bodiker & Co.

Clerk, Central Trading Co. Compradore, China Auction Rooms

Merchant, China Mercantile Co. (S.C.),

Ld.

Architect, Chau & Lee

Accountant, Office Appliance Co. Assistant, Asiatic Petroleum Co. (S.C.),

Ld.......

Merchant, Kwan Yip Construction &

Investment Co., Ld.

Clerk, Dollar Steamship Line Assistant Manager, St. Francis Hotel Manager, R. H. Kotewall & Co... Clerk, Bodiker & Co.

Meter Inspector, China Light & Power

Co. (1918), Ld.

Assistant, Chase Bank....

Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Clerk, John D. Humphreys & Co., Ld.... Assistant, Asiatic Underwriters Fed.,

Inc. U.S.A... Clerk, Chase Bank

Asst. Cashier, Bank of Canton, Ld.

Canadian Pacific Steamships, L. Chinese Agent, Canadian Pacific S.S., Ld. Chief Traffic Inspector, H.K. Tramways

Ld. Sub-Accountant, Chartered Bank of India,

Australia & China ......

Asst., China Underwriters, Ld. Salesman, Texas Co. (China), Ld... H.K. & Shanghai Bank Clerk, H.K. & Shanghai Bank.. Dept. Head, Ka Wah Life Insurance

Co., L.

Clerk, Carlowitz & Co.

Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Manager, Yue Sang & Co. Merchant, Nestle & Anglo-Swiss

Condensed Milk Co. Shroff, Texas Co. (China), Ld. Clerk, Butterfield & Swire

Theatre Assistant, H.K. Amusements,

Ld.

Assistant, Chase Bank...

11 Prince Terrace, Ground floor. 5 Rednaxela Terrace.

16 Morrison Hill Road, 1st floor.

24 Kai Tak Bund, Kowloon City. | On premises.

12 Tin Lok Lane, Top floor.

79 Pokfulam Road. On premises.

132 Lee Tung Street, Wanchai. 60 Takuling Road, 1st floor.

185 Sai Yeung Choi St., Mongkok.

72 Seen Keen Terrace, 2nd floor. 120 Jaffé Road, ground floor.

On premises.

5 Queen's Road Central.

163 Sai Yeung Choi Street, 1st floor,

Mongkok.

22 Kai Tak Bund, Kowloon City. 6 Fort Street, North Point.

On premises.

456 Pottinger Street.

20 Matheson Road, 1st floor.

43 Ha Heung Street, To Kwa Wan. 10 Po Shan Road.

29 Mosque Junction.

Kowloon Tong Substation, Waterloo

Road.

364 Portland Street, 3rd floor. 498 Nathan Road, Kowloon. On premises.

153 Prince Edward Road.

7 Stewart Road, 3rd floor Wanchai. 3 Lan Lee Street,Ground floor,

Causeway Bay.

783 Nathan Road, Kowloon. 161 Tam Kung Road, Kowloon,

7 Leighton Hill Road, Top floor.

7 Carnarvon Road, Kowloon.

6 Devon Road, Kowloon Tong. 400 Hennessy Road, ist floor. 8 Austin Avenue, Kowloon. 8 Austin Avenue, Kowloon.

70 Tai Po Road.

25 Johnstone Road, Top floor. 72 Peel Street, 1st floor. 18 Arbuthnot Road..

Peninsula Hotel.

20 Amoy Street. On premises.

175 Tung Choi Street. Mongkok. 99 Jaffé Road, ground floor, Wanchai.

NAME IN FULL.

32

OCCUPATION.

ADDRESS.

L-Continued.

Leung Chung-yin

Leung Fat-tin

Lenng Hung-fan Leung Kam-tong Leung Kwong-tsoi. Leung Loo Leung Ping-kwan Leung Po-shan Leung Pong-im Leung Shu-yan Leung Shui-po Leung Shui-wan.

Leung Tat-man Lenug Tin-kau Leung Ting-kai

Leung Tsai...... Leung Tse-wa..

Leung Wing-chin Leung Yin-cheung... Leung Yin-choi Leung Yun-bung

Lewe Yin-fan.... Lewis, Edgar

Li Ching-fun

Li Chin-lung

Li Chor-chi

Li Chung-ching

Li Fook-shun Li Hoi-tung Li Hon-yuen Li Jowson

Li Kan

Li Kwan-shek.

Li Kwok-yau

Li Lam-sang

Li Po-chun

Li, Raymond

Li Shiu-hang

Li Shu-fong

Li Shui-kong Li Shun-see

* Li Sni-wing Li Wa-fun Li Yin-chow

Liang Chi-shiu

* Liang Han-chih

Liang Kwoh-chong Lima, Luiz Gonzaga de. Linennen, Frederick Ling Man-i...

Ling Shu-ping Linge, Alfred James

Clerk, Nestle & Anglo-Swiss Condensed

Milk Co......

Compradore, Gibb, Livingston

* Co., Lử

Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co. Manager, S. C. Lay & Co. Clerk, Butterfield & Swire Assistant, H.K. Jockey Club Stables.. Clerk, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ld. Clerk. Lane, Crawford. Ld...

Clerk, James H. Backhouse, Ld.. Clerk, Bank of Canton, Ld.......... Clerk, Butterfield & Swire Foreman, China Light & Power Co.

(1918), Ld.......

Clerk, P. & O. Banking Corporation, Ld. Shipping Clerk, Texas Co. (China), Ld. Merchant, Chinese Estates, Ld.

Manager, Banker & Co., Ld. Bank Clerk, Overseas Chinese Banking

Corporation, Ld...

Clerk, Bank of Canton, Ld. Clerk, G. A. Harriman

Clerk, Mackinnou, Mackenzie & Co, Assistant, Chase Bank............

Shroff, Millington, Ld........... Exchange Broker ..

Bookkeeper, American Express Co., Inc. Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co....... Sub- Accountant, Overseas Chinese Bauk-

ing Corporation Ld............. Merchant, Kin Yip Construction &

Investment Co.. Ld.

Clerk. P. & O. Banking Corporation, L. Managing Director, Banker & Co., Ld.... Clerk, Wallace Harper & Co., Ld. Company Director, A.B. Moulder & Co., Ld.¦ Bookkeeper, Imperial Chemical

Industries (China), Ld.....

Clerk, P. & O. Banking Corporation, Ld. Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld.

Secretary, Wo Fat Sing, Ld, and other

Companies

Financier,

Clerk, Bank of Canton, Ld..

Assistant, Li Po Chun..

Cashier, Wing On Bank

Clerk, Butterfield & Swire

Assistant, Deutsche Farben Handelsge-

sellschaft Waibel & Co................ Compradore, Davie, Boag & Co., Ld..... Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co. Clerk, American Oriental Finance

Corporation

Managing Director, China Entertainment

& Land Investment Co, Ld.......... Representative, Manufacturers' Life

Insurance Co................ China Can Co., Ld.

Assistant, Green Island Cement Co., Ld. Assistant, Dairy Farm. I. & C. S. Co., Ld. Accountant, G. A. Harriman Clerk, Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co. Superintendent, Logan & Amps..

|

11 Old Bailey Street, 2nd floor.

11 Seymour Terrace. On premises.

6 Tin Lok Lane, 1st floor. On premises.

On premises.

On premises.

11 Fleming Road.

37 Bute Street, Gr. floor, Kowloon. 9 Reclamation Street, 1st fl., K'loon. On premises.

Kowloon Tong Substation, Waterloo

Road.

182 Johnston Road, Top floor.

131 Battery Street, top fl, Yaumati. Tung Tack Co., i.d, & Queen's

Road Central.

19 Shelley Street.

137 ook Wah Street, Shamshuipo. On premises.

11 Queen's Road, Central.

On premises.

18 Front Row, 1st floor, Tai Hang

Village.

42 Laichikok Road, 1st floor. 519 The Peak.

279 Lockhart Road. On premises.

37 Kai Tak Bund.

45 Robinson Road.

21 Graham Street Central, 2nd fl. 17 Babington Path.

18 Shantung Street, 2nd fl., M'kok, 105 Austin Road, Kowloon.

On premises.

42 Elgin Street, ground floor. 61 Chum Yuen Street.

23 Seymour Road.

Strathallen, 39 Conduit Road. 1 Ning Yeung Terrace.

57 Robinson Road.

On premises. On premises.

29 Mosque Junction.

11 Ngan Mok Street.

460 Nathan Road, Kowloon.

3 Tin Lok Lane.

26 Victory Avenue, Homuntin.

2 Illumination Terrace. 89 Connaught Road.

5 Nanking Street, 3rd floor. 18 Morrison Hill Road. · 11 Queen's Road Central. On premises.

30 Humphreys Building.

(C.S.O. 2/4756/30).

Ty

No.

1

1935

HONG KONG.

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON LEPERS.

1. We were appointed to enquire into the incidence of leprosy in the Colony and to suggest methods for dealing with lepers found in the Colony.

2. We were fortunate in being able to profit at one of our meetings by the presence of Professor Dr. Bernhard Nocht, late Director of the Hamburg Institute of Tropical Diseases and President of the 1930 International Commission on Leprosy, and of Dr. J. L. Maxwell of the Lester Institute Shanghai, Medical Secretary (for China) to the Mission to Lepers, who happened to be in the Colony at the time.

3. As regards the local incidence of the disease we are conscious that any estimate must be almost purely conjectural, but from an examination of the figures available from neighbouring countries and of the Gaol statistics we conclude that there are probably at present somewhere between 800 and 1000 lepers in the Colony.

4. Leprosy is not one of the "epidemic, endemic, contagious or infectious”. diseases dealt with under the Public Health and Buildings Ordinance No. 1 of 1903.

5. On the other hand the Lepers Ordinance No. 24 of 1910 indicates the belief held at the time of its introduction that leprosy is a dreaded infectious disease, the victims of which should be removed from all intercourse with the rest of the in- habitants. The Attorney General of that day in introducing the Bill said: "The object of this Bill is to check the spread of leprosy in the Colony by providing for the segregation and treatment of lepers"

6. We are advised that leprosy is not a hereditary disease; that it is probably communicable especially at an early age by long and close association; that it is not commonly communicable from husband to wife or vice versa; that workers in leper settlements may safely mix with lepers without any special precautions; and that deliberate experiments to infect clean persons by injection of bacilli have not succeeded.

7. Modern methods of treatment may cure the disease if taken at an early stage and may mitigate its violence at all stages. Segregation is not an essential condition at either stage.

8.

complete ith the above in view it might seem attractive simply to recommend the

complete repeal of Ordinance No. 24 of 1910 and to allow leprosy to take its chance like tuberculosis, the infectivity of which is much greater.

9. But the revolting nature of the disease in its advanced stages and the horror with which it is commonly regarded seem to us to call for some special legislation alike for the protection of the public from distressing spectacles and still more for the amelioration of the leper's own unhappy lot.

10. Under the existing law every person is either a leper or not a leper. If he or she is a leper then the full vigour of the Ordinance theoretically makes itself felt. No treatment by a private practitioner or as an out-patient at a hospital is permis- sible however slight the symptoms. The Police must be at once notified and the unhappy victim expelled from the Colony or segregated,

2

11. No asylum, as contemplated in the Ordinance, has yet been established, probably owing to the fear that such would attract from South China a large number of lepers whom the Colony should have no proper claim to support.

12. We consider that a leper asylum should be established in the New Territories but that this should be under the control of some missionary or philanthropic body with a subsidy from the Government based on the number of genuinely local cases admitted. We therefore recommend the deletion of that part of section 2 of the Ordinance which prohibits the establishment of a leper asylum by a private person.

13. We consider that segregation in such an asylum should no longer be com- pulsory in cases where ordinary medical treatment is considered sufficient.

If so, we are of the opinion, from the experience of other countries, that accommodation for at most 100 local lepers would be found to be adequate at least as a start. Although lepers in an advanced stage of the disease would probably greatly prefer life in an asylum to the wretched existence which is the only alternative elsewhere, we consider that their removal to such an asylum, at the discretion of the Director of Medical and Sanitary Services, and their retention there, should continue to be legally enforcible. In this we are equally influenced, as indicated above, by the rights of the public to be spared the distressing sight of lepers in the streets.

14. We consider that the references to the Governor or to the Governor in Council called for under the present law are unnecessarily cumbrous and that more discretion should be given to the Director of Medical and Sanitary Services.

15. As the treatment of leprosy in its early stages is reported to us to be most effective when applied in clinics we recommend that, so far from segregation being compulsory in such cases, private practitioners, hospitals and health centres should be encouraged to treat leprosy by recognized methods. We consider that the Medical Authorities should be notified confidentially of all caess of leprosy, but in our opinion this will not be opposed when it is known that segregation will not normally be en- forced.

16. To prevent the influx of lepers from elsewhere into the Colony's asylum we consider that entry should still be prohibited and that the right to deport such cases should be preserved. But in our opinion any genuine resident of say three years standing should be admitted to such an asylum regardless of the question of British nationality.

17. We recommend that Ordinance No. 24 of 1910 should be either amended in accordance with the above recommendations or, if the alterations are considered too drastic, repealed and replaced by another Ordinance.

18. Our only other specific recommendation is that the Government should approach some suitable missionary or philanthrophic body with a view to the establish- ment of a leper asylum on terms to be agreed upon.

11th January, 1935.

N. L.. SMITH, Chairman,

A. R. WELLINGTON,

M. K. LO,

LI CHUK.

:

195

G.

R.

MUI TSAI IN HONG KONG.

REPORT

OF THE

COMMITTEE

APPOINTED BY

No.

8

1935

His Excellency the Governor

Sir WILLIAM PEEL, K.C.M.G., K.B.E.

}

PRINTED BY NORONHA & CO.,

GOVERNMENT PRINTERS,

HONG KONG.

CORRIGENDA AND ERRATA.

REPORT ON MUI TSAI IN HONG KONG.

Page 64. Appendix No. 13.--Delete contents and substitute the following:-

The Protection of Women and Girls Amendment Ordinance, No. 21 of 1929.

Sec. 5.-Section 32 of the Protection of Women and Girls Ordinance, 1897, is repealed and the following section is substituted therefor :-

Guardianship of Adopted Girl, etc.

32.—(1) If any parent or person acting in the place of a parent has, within or without the Colony, voluntarily parted with a girl under the age of eighteen years for the purpose of adoption into another family, or received money for parting with the custody of any girl under the age of eighteen years for any purpose, the legal guardianship of such girl while within the Colony shall be vested in the Secretary for Chinese Affairs.

(2) If in any case it appears to the Secretary for Chinese Affairs that any girl under the age of eighteen years has not been properly treated by the person in whose custody she is, and that the girl is unwilling to remain in such custody, it shall be lawful for the Secretary for Chinese Affairs to call upon such person to produce proof to his satisfaction that such person is the legal guardian, and failing the production of such proof the legal guardianship of such girl while within the Colony shall be vested in the Secretary for Chinese Affairs.

(3) Where the legal guardianship of any girl is vested in the Secretary for Chinese Affairs by virtue of the provisions of this section, it shall be lawful for the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, subject to the provisions of section 10 of the Female Domestic Service Ordinance, 1923, to make any order regarding the custody and control of the girl which he may think desirable in her interests, and if he so think fit, to require any person in whose charge he shall place the girl to enter into a bond with one or more sureties to treat the girl well and to produce her before him whenever he shall so require.

Supreme Court Ordinance, No. 3 of 1873.

Section 5.-Such of the laws of England as existed when the Colony obtained a local legislature, that is to say, on the 5th day of April, 1843, shall be in force in the Colony, except so far as the said laws are inapplicable to the local circumstances of the Colony or of its inhabitants, and except so far as they have been modified by laws passed by the said legislature.

No. of Document

197

REPORT OF THE MUITSAI COMMITTEE.

Table of Contents.

Short Title.

Page

Report.

Terms of Reference

200

Procedure

204

Preliminary Observations

Questions and Answers

Conclusion

200

205

218

Appendix.

1

Letter of Reference

221

2

Letter from Colonial Secretary to Chairman

222

3

Letter from Chairman to Colonial Secretary

222

4

Extracts from Sir George Maxwell's Memorandum

223

5

The Slave Market News-July, 1934

226

6

Despatch from the Secretary of State to Governor of Hong

Kong-7th July, 1934

230

6a

Despatch from the Secretary of State to Governor of Hong

Kong-11th August, 1934

231

7

Letter from the British Commonwealth League to the Secre-

tary of State for the Colonies-28th June, 1934

231

8

Letter from the Secretary of State for the Colonies to the

British Commonwealth League-14th July, 1934

232

9

10

11

Letter from the British Commonwealth League to the Secre-

tary of State for the Colonies-24th July, 1934

Proclamation by Captain Elliott-2nd February, 1841

Extracts from Despatch from The Right Honourable The Earl of Kimberley to the Governor, Sir J. Pope Hennessy, K.C.M.G.-1st March, 1882

232

233

234

No. of Document

198

Table of Contents, Continued.

Short Title.

Page

12

Extracts from Correspondence respecting Child Adoption and Domestic Service among Chinese (including Mr. Russell's Report)

235

13

Section 32 of the Protection of Women and Girls Ordinance

No. 4 of 1897

258

14

Female Domestic Service Ordinance, 1923, and Regulations as

amended to June, 1935

258

15

Section 45a of The Offences Against the Persons Ordinance,

1865

266

16

Section 17 of The Juvenile Offenders Ordinance, 1932

267

17

Extracts from the introduction to a translation of Books IV and V of the Civil Code of the Republic of China. By The Hon. Foo Ping Sheung, LL.D.

269

18

Extracts from the Chinese Regulations for the emancipation of Slaves and "Muitsai of March 1st of the 16th year of the Republic (1927). (Copied from Report to League

of Nations on the Traffic in Women and Children in the East, 1933)

271

19

Extracts from Books IV and V of the Civil Code of the Re-

public of China

271

20

21

22

Extracts from League of Nations' Commission of Enquiry into the control of opium-smoking in the Far East containing a short description of the geographic, ethnographic, political and economic conditions of Hong Kong

Extracts from the "Report of the Committee of Experts on

Slavery

Extracts from "

Report on Ordinance No. 21 of 1929 the Attorney General to the Governor

66

272

274

by

276

23

List of Ordinances consulted by Committee

279

24

Memorandum on Government papers examined by the Com-

mittee

280

25

List of the more material Official Publications examined by the

Committee

281

26

List of the more material books examined by the Committee...

282

199

Copy.

HONG KONG, 6th September, 1935.

SIR,

In further reply to your letter of the 3rd December, 1934, we have the honour

to submit our report on the matters referred to us.

The Honourable

The COLONIAL SECRETARY,

Hong Kong.

We have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient servants,

(Sd.) F. H. LOSEBY,

Chairman.

(Sd.) TANG SHIU KIN.

(Sd.) J. M. WONG.

(Sd.) DOROTHY BRAZIER.

Sir George Maxwell's Memorandum.

Appendix No. 1,

Appointment of Committee. Appendix No. 1.

Slave Market News.

Appendix No. 6.

200

Terms of Reference.

Sir George Maxwell prepared for the ultimate use of the Per- manent Slavery Commission of the League of Nations, of which he is a member, a draft Memorandum upon the subject of Muitsai. The draft is divided into three parts dealing respectively with Muitsai in Malaya, Hong Kong and China. The part dealing with China was not submitted to the Committee.

The Committee was appointed by His Excellency the Governor of Hong Kong, Sir William Peel, K.C.M.G., primarily to consider and report upon suggestions made by Sir George Maxwell, contained in the Hong Kong section of the Memorandum. The relevant parts of the Memorandum are annexed to this report, the remainder, appearing. to be confidential, are excluded.

There has also been referred to the Committee a speech by Lieut. Commander H. L. Hazlewood, R.N., Retired, and resolutions passed by the British Commonwealth League. These deal with the adminis- tration of the Muitsai legislation in Hong Kong. The speech and resolutions as reprinted in an issue of the Slave Market News are annexed.

Subject matter of Enquiry.

The League of Nations' descrip- tion of Muitsai.

Preliminary Observations.

For over fifty years Muitsai, though not necessarily in that name, have engaged the attention of the Governments of Great Britain and Hong Kong. More recently, Muitsai have engaged the attention of the League of Nations and of both the Republican and Provincial Governments of China. Hong Kong passed legislation particularly for the protection of Muitsai as early as 1887. Legislation for their pro- tection has also been passed in Malaya.

It is not inappropriate to mention here that the first Ordinance passed in the Colony of Hong Kong purported to abolish slavery but was disallowed as unnecessary.

"The League of Nations' Commission of Enquiry into Traffic in Women and Children in the East" investigated the Muitsai system in eleven countries where the Chinese have made permanent settle- ment. The Commission discussed the question at length and described the system in the following terms:-

CC

CC

Muitsai.

"These are girls handed over by a poor family against a customary indemnity in money to a well-to-do family who will feed, clothe and house the child until she is of marriageable age, when husband will be found for her. In return, she works in the household. Her position, however, is better than that of a mere "household servant. She eats at the family table and is considered something between a servant and a modest member of the family. Her parents are supposed by custom to be allowed to visit her from time to time, in order to be at ease in their hearts as to the child's "fate.

C6

CC

<<

:

This custom, which prevails in South China, seems to have given rise to a certain amount of abuse, and persons in a position to judge hold somewhat divergent views regarding it. The ad- vocates of the Muitsai system point to the great advantage to a girl of poor family of growing up more or less in companionship "with the children of wealthier parents who, in the normal course of

CC

66

<

4

201

things, become fond of her, take an interest in her fate, sometimes send her to school with their own children and are able to provide a far better marriage for her than she would make from her own home. Others, however, point to cases of cruelty to these children " and to the danger that the male members of the family may believe themselves to have a right to tamper with the Muitsai girl and take advantage of her as soon as she reaches puberty, thus spoiling her chance of a good marriage."

This description of the Muitsai would not be generally accepted, nor does it agree with the documents containing the present Com- mittee's terms of reference, but it gives an outline of the problem that suffices for the purpose of these preliminary obervations.

indicates an

The Hong Kong Legislature has not attempted the task of defining The word a Muitsai. For practical purposes, she may be described as a Chinese Muitsai probably girl found in a Chinese family in some form of domestic servitude or existing state domestic bondage, although the bondage be without legal foundation. or condition. The Secretary for Chinese Affairs in Hong Kong and his advisers appear to adopt some such definition to determine whether a child brought to their notice is a Muitsai or not.

The sale of Chinese children was the subject of many speeches, memoranda and despatches. These were collected and published as a Command Paper in 1882.

Correspondence alleged existence

respecting the

of Chinese Slavery in Hong Kong 1882.

Appendix No. 11,

considered sales of children mere nullities

an enquiry.

In his concluding despatch, Lord Kimberley on the authority of Lord Kimberley the Law Officers of the Crown expressed the view that these sales were not criminal offences. They were mere nullities. Lord Kimberley reached the conclusion however that the condition of these children and orders was one of peril. He ordered an Enquiry in Hong Kong. Since Lord Appendix No. 11. Kimberley's Despatch, legislation has been passed in China giving Adopted girls adopted girls a definite status, and a share of the estate of their adopted have now a parents who die intestate.

status in China.

In the case of Chinese resident in Hong Kong, but domiciled in And in China, the Chinese status appears to prevail.

Hong Kong.

There can, however, be no doubt that the sale of a child as a Sale of girls Muitsai is and has always been void in Hong Kong.

as Muitsai void.

Appendix No. 12.

In 1883, Mr. Russell, then a Puisne Judge of Hong Kong, a cadet Russell P. J.

Report. officer, who had acted as Registrar General of Chinese for many years, presented a full report. This Report, with the subsequent corres- pondence, is annexed not only because of its great interest and thorough appreciation of the subject but also because it has apparently been almost overlooked. Its alleged non-existence has been made the basis of violent attacks on the Hong Kong Government.

of the Executive

The part of Mr. Russell's Report most material to this enquiry The clothing is his recommendation that the Executive should be given powers with power of to intervene for the protection of any of these children where neces- protection. sary. Colonel Stanley, the then Secretary of State, in discussions on this report stated that it was the duty of the Executive to take the widest powers, and that to prevent abuse of these powers the Execu- tive Officer should be associated with a Committee of Chinese gentle-

men.

Legislation gives effect to this policy.

The sale of children made criminal in

some cases.

Appendix No. 15.

Attacks in the House of

Commons.

The Female Domestic Service Ordinance, 1923.

Appendix No. 14.

The scheme of the Ordinance.

What is a Muitsai?

The importance of the guardian- ship of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs.

Little Legisla- tion necessary to supplement guardianship.

The powers and duties

of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs as guardian have not been officially dis- cussed.

202

Effect was given in 1887 by legislation to Mr. Russell's recom- mendation, with the result that to-day the legal guardianship of these girls is vested in the Secretary for Chinese Affairs who continues to associate himself in these matters with the Committee of the Po Leung Kuk, a Society of Chinese gentlemen founded in the eighties to assist the Hong Kong Government to suppress the then prevalent crime of kidnapping children.

In 1929, the sale of children under the age of 18 years for valuable consideration was made criminal, except on marriage or adoption. It may be added that prosecutions in bad cases are not uncommon and magistrates have given sentences as heavy as 12 months' imprison-

ment.

Since 1922 the House of Commons has frequently discussed the condition of children referred to as Muitsai. There seems, however, to have been considerable confusion in the meaning attached to the expression Muitsai, a confusion that seems to persist. In 1922 the Hong Kong Government was ordered to end the system within its territories.

On the instructions of the Secretary of State, who was

"' unable to defend the Muitsai System in the House of Commons ", the Female Domestic Service Ordinance was passed in 1923. This ordi- nance was amended in 1929 and is now in force. A copy of this ordinance, as amended, with the current regulations, is given in the Appendix.

In the main the Ordinance is designed to secure the registration of all Muitsai to prevent the taking of further Muitsai and to prevent the entry into the Colony of Muitsai from abroad.

Supplemental provisions provide for the inspection of Muitsai and the payment of wages.

The Ordinance does not define Muitsai. It places on any de- fendant prosecuted under the Ordinance the onus of satisfying the magistrate that the child is not a Muitsai. As a result of displacing the onus no reliable deduction can be made from the registrations made under the Ordinance.

The Committee have carefully examined all the relevant files of the Hong Kong Government and the works and articles on the subject brought to their notice. The importance, legal and otherwise, of vesting the guardianship of these children in the Secretary for Chinese Affairs does not appear to have been fully appreciated. Indeed, in some quarters, it has been wholly overlooked. This is seen most strikingly in the documents referred to the Committee.

It is impossible to avoid the conclusion that had the Secretary for Chinese Affairs exercised, unfettered, the powers and duties of a guardian, there was little need for supplementary legislation except such as was necessary to enable him to ascertain the identity of his wards, and to enforce his guardianship.

The Committee have failed to discover among the Government files any memorandum in which the powers and duties of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs as guardian are discussed. Further, the Com- mittee have been unable to find anywhere discussed, the inconsistency of entrusting to an Officer, who stands in loco parentis to the children, the execution of a policy of suppression by means of criminal pro- ceedings that may adversely affect the children.

203

the Muitsai

Before they attempt to answer the questions referred to them, Conflicting the Committee desire to point out that Lord Kimberley in 1882, and opinions, as to the League of Nations in 1931, were unable to reconcile the conflict- System. ing statements regarding Muitsai. People acquainted with the prac- Appendix Nos. 11 tical working of the system, fail to agree whether the system is harmful and 21. or not to the children. This question is not referred to the Com- mittee.

t

The Chinese Government, however, has legislated against the Muitsai System

abolished by system. Muitsai ought now to be called adopted daughters and law in China. treated as such.

Appendix No. 18.

China often in

Legislation by the Republic of China has been often in advance Legislation in of public opinion and has failed in consequence to prevail against advance of established custom. In South China and Hong Kong opposition to the custom. system is already strong and is increasing.

of too rapid

Many thoughtful Chinese, and most Europeans who have practical Chinese fears knowledge of the system, fear that a too rapid change, or a change suppression. without proper safeguards, may, without being of any real advantage to the body of children, do definite harm to others.

Nations suggests

The League of Nations also seems to deprecate the suppression League of of systems of servitude unless practical measures are taken before measures of suppression to prevent injury to the subjects of the system. This con- protection before. sideration applies with increasing force to a system governing un- married girls considered by the community to be definitely of inferior status.

Sir George Maxwell draws particular attention to the foregoing Danger in sup- view of the League of Nations.

pressing any form of servitude without proper safeguard.

give rise to

While the origin of the system of taking Muitsai by Chinese ladies Social condi- is obscure, there can be little doubt that until the closing years of tions which the nineteenth century the absolute right of the Head of a Chinese the system. Family to sell his children was unquestioned, and the sale of children was openly practised, with general approval. This was often the only means of preserving their lives and of maintaining the family.

There was nothing in the sale of children to offend the Chinese mind, because all transfers from one family to another by marriage or otherwise took the form of a sale.

In the past to Chinese

nothing offensive

in the idea of sales of children.

Untrue as

regards Chinese

The present generation of Chinese find the idea of selling children abhorrent. On marriage or adoption all reference to sale or money generally. is rigidly excluded.

this change. Appendix No. 17.

Dr. Sun Yat Sen and his associates thought that many of the major Reasons for difficulties of the Chinese had their origin in the older customs. These they set out to destroy. About the same time educated Chinese women began to demand sex equality. The first step towards securing this was the destruction of the idea that the head of the family could dis- pose of the women of the family at his will.

The importance of the demand for sex equality in relation to the The importance future of Muitsai cannot be over-emphasised.

of sex equality in relation to the Muitsai Problem.

The term should be abolished.

The term has been abolished in China.

Appendix No. 18.

Chinese members of the Com- mittee and the Muitsai system.

Appendix Nos. 23, 24, 25 and 26.

204

The Chinese members of the Committee are strongly of the opinion that, the continued use of the term Muitsai in relation to Chinese girls is harmful to those girls. It is now a term of abuse used by the younger members of the family and other children. The Chinese Government apparently realised this when it abolished the term Mui- tsai as an expression indicating a condition of servitude, and directed that Muitsai should be treated as daughters. The European members of the Committee agree with this view. They recall the importance placed on mere words even by the British Government. Births in England for example were not registered as taking place in a work- house (and if the Committee remember rightly) Parliament directed its efforts against other objectionable words.

The Chinese members of the Committee desire that emphasis should be laid on the fact that for years their efforts have been directed towards ending the Muitsai System which they consider is a bad system. Nor is anything in this report intended to convey the view that to any member of the Committee the perpetuation of the system is desirable.

The members of the Committee further wish emphasis to be laid on the fact that the Muitsai System is perishing. Chinese women object to the system as one indicating sex inferiority, or they prefer to employ servants who, if found unsatisfactory, can be dismissed. Employment is to-day more readily obtainable by girls either as servants or in factories than in the past, and girls themselves are asserting greater independence. On the other hand, poverty which tends to defy all efforts to destroy the system is as prevalent as ever. The absence of poor law leaves the poor without an effective alter- native to the Muitsai System.

Procedure.

To assist them in their task, the Committee asked for the appoint- ment of a Cadet Officer as Secretary. Mr. A. G. Clarke, a Cadet Officer attached to the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, was therefore instructed to assist the Committee and to produce to them any books, memoranda, reports, files and other papers.

Mr. C. E. R. Sanderson, a local Solicitor, who had recently ar- rived in the Colony, was appointed by the Committee as Secretary.

Through Mr. Clarke, a voluminous mass of books, reports, files, and newspaper cuttings reached the Committee. Everything relating to the subject and in the Government's possession in addition to every- thing specially asked for, so far as Mr. Clarke is aware, has been produced to the Committee.

A list of some of the more important documents examined by the Committee is given in the Appendix.

The Committee were asked to call experts as witnesses, but this was, for many reasons, considered unnecessary or impracticable.

The members of the Committee have had wide experience of many of the matters referred to them and without formally calling witnesses were in a position to consult freely with persons whom they might have formally called. Many of the leading authorities who have been consulted offered to give evidence if asked.

Many of the matters on which the Committee required information had already been fully discussed by experts, whose opinions were found in official files.

205

The papers relating to over 1,000 cases of poverty, cruelty or neglect to children had been considered by the Chairman, as the Executive officer of the Society for the Protection of Children respon- sible for Kowloon, and responsible for the action taken by the Society in nearly every case.

There are few sides of social work among the Chinese in which Mr. Tang Shiu Kin is not an active participant. Mr. Tang Shiu Kin is also freely consulted by the Hong Kong Government on many matters of this nature.

Mr. J. M. Wong is an ardent and active social reformer and a member of the Anti-Muitsai Society.

Miss D. Brazier is in charge of the Salvation Army Social Work in Hong Kong and has experience of the subject from an entirely different but possibly more important angle.

Every member of the Committee is on the Executive Council of the Hong Kong Society for the Protection of Children. Messrs. Tang Shiu Kin and J. M. Wong have frequently served on the Committee of the Po Leung Kuk.

These particulars are given to show that the Committee have many available resources without calling formal evidence.

The Committee have attempted to eliminate from their report anything not strictly relevant to the questions submitted to them. They venture an opinion that a précis of the material considered would prove of value to the advisers of the British and Hong Kong Govern- ments, and that an experienced officer should be detailed to this task.

The Committee desire to place on record their appreciation of the assistance given them by Mr. Sanderson, Mr. Clarke and Mr. Leung Thye Loon.

Mr. Sanderson has given considerable time to this subject, and has assisted the Committee in other ways.

Mr. Clarke has been untiring in his willingness to help the Com- mittee and without this willing assistance the Committee's task could not have been completed.

The Committee wishes to draw special attention to the assistance given them by Mr. Leung Thye Loon who has given up many evenings and holidays to the heavy task of typing for the Committee.

First Question.

FIRST There is nothing in the Ordinance to declare the age at which a woman ceases to be a Muitsai. If she marries she ceases to be a Muitsai. But if she does not marry she may apparently continue to be a Muitsai for an indefinite period although, under Section 11 of the Ordinance, she can apply to the Secretary for Chinese Affairs. who can make an order on her behalf.

<<

In Malaya the "Muitsai Ordinance, 1932" of the Straits Settle- ments, and the Muitsai Enactment, 1932" of the Federated Malay States, contain the following proviso to the statutory definition of a Muitsai :-

"Provided that any female domestic servant, the custody, "possession, control or guardianship of whom has been acquired

Appendix No. 14.

No foundation for this opinion.

Opinion widely held.

Correct view. Muitsai wards of Secretary for Chinese Affairs.

Demand for greater State assistance.

Policy of Government's protection.

The real question

"Should

Protection be

removed at 18?”

Protection most needed between 18 and 21.

Guardian ought

to have full discretion.

<<

206

in any such manner as aforesaid shall cease to be a Muitsai on attaining the age of eighteen years or on marriage, whichever shall first happen."

It is suggested that the Hong Kong Government might consider the advisability of amending its own definition by a similar proviso.'

Answer,

">

This question has caused the Committee considerable difficulty. Sir George Maxwell appears to be under the impression that the Female Domestic Service Ordinance, 1923, in some way, rendered lawful a condition of servitude otherwise unknown to Hong Kong Law.

The Committee are of the opinion that this impression is ground- less. A Muitsai is as free to leave her employer as any maidservant employed by the hour. The Muitsai has no status and is under no contract enforceable by law.

The Committee feel that as views contrary to their own are widely held, an authoritative opinion should be obtained and given the widest publicity for the guidance of all concerned.

In the opinion of the Committee, the correct interpretation of the law is that the Secretary for Chinese Affairs is Guardian of all Mui- tsai with powers possibly restricted. The Female Domestic Service Ordinance, so far as it concerns the relative rights and duties of the child and employer deals merely with matters of minor importance.

Public opinion to-day makes greater demands on the State re- garding the poor and unfortunate than at the time this policy of pro- tection was laid down. The small progress made in Hong Kong in this direction has been made since 1929. On such matters in the opinion of the Committee a more active and sympathetic yet well con- sidered policy is required of the Government.

The policy underlying the law seems to be that worked out be- tween 1879 and 1887, i.e., to provide these children with the pro- tection they need by reason of their condition, their years, and their sex,-experience showed that the children were in peril from both employer and parent. The Ordinances and Regulations have further protected the children from both.

The need for protection in general having been conceded and the possible effect of adopting Sir George Maxwell's suggestion being to remove that protection at the age of eighteen, it remains to be con-

sidered whether the protection becomes unnecessary at that age.

In the Committee's view a Muitsai, indeed any Chinese girl, is in greater need of parental control between the ages of eighteen and twenty-one than in her more tender years. If they are correct in their assumption that the Ordinances are merely beneficial to the Muitsai, the proposed alternation has no advantage but many disad- vantages. The Committee feel that at this age, the children do require a proper and suitable personal guardian. It may very well be that the best personal guardian at that period would be the employer, or it might be her father or mother. This could be ascertained only after an enquiry into each case. The Committee feel that the Official Guardian should have an absolute discretion to decide the best person to whom to entrust the child. This discretion should be preserved until the child reaches an age when the guardianship can be safely removed. The Common Law declares this age to be 21 years.

207

Second Question.

CC

QUESTION (2) SECONDLY: The Ordinance contains no provisions for the release of children whose parents are dead, unknown, or re- sident in some place so remote that restoration is an impossibility. It also fails to provide for relatives and friends making application on behalf of an orphan. If the law were amended so as to provide that any relative or friend might apply on behalf of a Muitsai for an enquiry into the circumstances of the girl's employment, and for such relief as may seem to be suitable' it would afford a measure of reason- able protection which, at present, does not exist."

Answer.

for Chinese

to have full

The Secretary for Chinese Affairs as guardian appears

as guardian appears to The Secretary have ample power to listen to anyone's representations regarding Affairs as the welfare of any one of his wards, Muitsai or not. Each member guardian appears of the Committee knows from personal experience that any person, power to listen society or body, who is interested in the welfare of a child can always to any applica- see the Secretary for Chinese Affairs and is assured of a sympathetic tion. hearing. If it seemed to him possible to improve the lot of a child, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs would use such powers as he possessed to that end.

the rights of

The Secretary for Chinese Affairs is fettered in dealing with Mui- Doubts as to tsai by a written opinion given by a former Attorney General which throws doubts upon the extent of his powers.

It is doubtful whether the functions of the Chinese Secretariat in relation to the Public are generally understood, and it seems not inappropriate to give a short explanation here.

for Chinese Affairs.

The function for Chinese

of the Secretariat

Affairs vis-à-vis the public.

Post.

The office of Secretary for Chinese Affairs is the Senior Cadet Senior Cadet post in the Colony and the holder is an official member of the Execu- tive and Legislative Councils; he must have an intimate knowledge of Chinese, both written and spoken, he must be persona grata with the Chinese community as he is the conduit pipe through which they usually approach the Government; he is the adviser to the Govern- ment in the multifarious matters affecting the Chinese of the Colony in their business, social and family lives.

of Chinese.

Among other duties which seem to have been thrust upon his Guide and friend department is the settlement of the private and family quarrels of the Chinese. These matters are referred to the Secretary for Chinese Affairs as a matter of course; equally, as a matter of course, he acts as arbitrator, or adviser, as the case may require. He has no power in this connection except the personal influence of his officers; and perhaps because of this the majority of such matters are settled ap- parently to everyone's satisfaction.

the Secretariat.

On the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, as one of the most important Organisation of members of the Government, rests the duty of enforcing the policy of the Government. The actual administration of the Muitsai Ordinance is carried out as a rule by one or more of the Junior Cadet Officers attached to the Secretariat.

The Committee feel that the popularity of the Secretariat for No difficulty in finding suitable Chinese Affairs as a forum selected by the Chinese for the settlement officer. of their own family quarrels, confirms the experience of the members of the Committee that the difficulty of finding suitable officer that Appendix No. 12.. Sir George Bowen in one of his despatches anticipated has usually been successfully overcome by the Hong Kong Government.

Whether altera-

tion of law

necessary.

Qualifications necessary for guardianship.

Appendix No. 12.

Guardian should be associated

with new Committee.

Sir George

208

In the opinion of the Committee, the law should be altered, if that is necessary, to remove any doubts of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs' right to make any suitable provision for any Muitsai regardless of the wishes of any employer or parent. There seems to be no difficulty in finding a suitable officer to perform the duties of guardian.

His qualifications are happily outlined by Sir George Bowen in a despatch to Colonel Stanley.

"The officer concerned must have a wide knowledge of the Chinese language and Chinese law and customs and, in addition, the moral qualities of patience and kindliness; to give publicity and security against human errors, he should associate himself with a com- mittee of Chinese gentlemen.'

""

The Government has two aims. The one is to suppress an old custom, the other to protect the children from the undesirable features of the custom. Because the policy of suppression may result in harm to individual children, the Government should minimise this as far as possible.

The Committee are of the opinion that the connection between the officer entrusted with the suppression of the system and the officer detailed to protect the children should be severed.

The Committee are of the opinion that the Government might consider the advisability of including in the Committee to assist the Official Guardian, both European and lady members.

This would possibly remove some of the ill-feeling that this difficult question has aroused in the British Press.

.

Third Question.

THIRDLY-It seems desirable for the purpose of efficient super- vision, to compile from the Register a table classifying the girls by ages and giving the numbers at each year of age. There have been no new Muitsai since 1923. An infant in arms at that date would be ten years old now. There can, therefore, be no Muitsai under the age of ten years and very probably few under the age of eleven or twelve years.

For the purposes of the law, Muitsai now falls into three classes, namely,

those between ten and fifteen years;

(ii) those between 15 and 18 years; and

(iii) those over 18 years.

Although, in many cases, a Muitsai's exact age is unknown, yet it is necessary for the purpose of the law to assign an age to her, and there can be no real difficulty in carrying out this suggestion for a more detailed classification.

It is further suggested that this statement should be included in the Governor's half-yearly despatches to the Secretary of State.

Answer.

The Committee understand there is no objection to Sir suggestion already George Maxwell's suggestion of classifying by ages and that, in future.

Maxwell's

complied with.

this will be carried out.

209

The Committee are unable to discern what practical advantage Returns of no would follow the publication of these Returns until a full and complete practical value. survey of the whole subject, and the historical, legal and sociological problems involved has been made. Until this is done, there is a danger that the statistics will mislead anyone not fully acquainted with Chinese customs, the conditions in Hong Kong and the local law and methods. No such survey has yet been undertaken so far as this Committee knows. The lack of reliable information was deplored by the League Appendix No. 21. of Nations' Slavery Convention.

Writers on Muitsai have found the subject to be so full of pitfalls Opinions of little that in the Committee's opinion nothing but a complete and accurate value until full survey can be of final value.

survey made.

Sir George Maxwell in this question has fallen into error. Part II Ordinance not of the Ordinance for practical purposes did not come into force until enforced until 1st December, 1929. The figures given require amendment accordingly.

1929,

with many

The Ordinances lack precision. For example, what is the position The Ordinances of a child who is an adopted daughter in China and who is brought fail to deal into Hong Kong? What is the position of a Muitsai not registered as problems. such? What is the position of a child adopted out of charity in infancy who is expected to do housework? The instances where the Ordi- nances are silent are too numerous to explore, and it is evident that statistics are of little value to show how far the Ordinances have achieved their object in suppressing the system.

The Ordinance provides in Part II Section 4 "No person shall Interpretation hereafter take into his employment any Muitsai.”

This may mean that Muitsai taken before 1923 were in a con- dition of lawful servitude which is perpetuated by registration. The Committee cannot accept this view.

The other view is that the taking of Muitsai is made a general offence after 1923; in this case, it is a false argument to ignore, as Sir George Maxwell does, possible breaches of the law.

The Committee cannot accept as accurate the statement "There have been no Muitsai since 1923". This statement is probably still inaccurate if 1923 is changed to 1934.

It is impossible to get accurate figures for two reasons. For the first reason the law itself is uncertain. For the second the Chinese custom of transferring girls from one family to another family for nurture, or adoption or because of necessity or some other reason- leaves no doubt that nothing less than a regular house-to-house inspection would give reliable figures.

Fourth Question.

FOURTHLY:"It is open to question whether the statutory mini- mum wages are adequate (see paragraph 56). The value of the Hong Kong dollar fluctuates with the price of silver. At present, the Hong Kong dollar is worth about two shillings. In Malaya, where the Straits Settlements dollar is worth two shillings and fourpence, the minimum statutory wages are two dollars a month for girls under the age of 15 years, and three dollars a month for girls over that age.

It is not possible for anyone unacquainted with local circumstances to express any opinion regarding suitable minimum wages, and I content myself with inviting attention to the matter."

of Ordinance.

To say that there have been

no Muitsai since 1923 wholly wrong.

Number of Muitsai unknown. registered

Committee think wages should be higher than

economic wages.

High wages little danger to children in good homes.

Guardian should have full powers.

Change of policy needed.

Wards of the Secretary for

Chinese Affairs should be treated as a class.

Difficulties diplomatic.

No new Muitsai to be brought into Colony.

210

Answer.

The Committee feel that wages are a vital factor. The Ordinance was designed in part to hasten the end of a system of cheap domestic service based on slavery, or something akin to slavery.

The Committee feel that the end of this particular aspect of the system would be hastened if the statutory wages were increased until they exceeded the current wages for the same class of service.

It will be apparent that, if a higher wages could be imposed and enforced, it would end the use of the Muitsai as a cheap domestic servant and would not harm the children who were being brought up from better motives.

Before this scheme could be enforced, it would be necessary to clothe the official guardian-with full powers to relieve the burden of wages in suitable cases.

The legal and social problems involved would be lessened if the policy of the Government were changed-not by recognition of the Muitsai System as Sir George Maxwell suggests, but by the recognition of the facts involved in the system.

For example the wards of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs could be ascertained more readily without division being required into Muitsai and non Muitsai. If the Secretary for Chinese Affairs (or Official Guardian) were required to ensure that the needs of each ward—their education, wages &c., were satisfied, the difficulties would no longer be legal, or political, but social and administrative.

Fifth Question.

FIFTHLY:"In a despatch dated the 7th January, 1932, the Gover- nor observed that some slight amendment to the law might be desirable to meet the case of bona fide travellers who are merely passing through the Colony. Strange as this may appear at first sight, it nevertheless requires careful and sympathetic investigation. It would clearly be wrong to prosecute a respectable Chinese citizen of one Chinese town who was passing through Hong Kong with a Muitsai as one of his domestic household on his way to some other Chinese town. On the other hand, the law should not fail to "recognise" a patent fact. It might be well to provide by an amendment to the Ordinance that in such cases a stay of a few weeks would not constitute an offence, and that a stay of a slightly longer period, if duly reported to the proper authority, would be permitted. If this were combined with a proviso that, nevertheless, the Muitsai (or any one on her behalf) would be at liberty to apply for protection to the Chinese Secretariat, or to the Police, and that the proper Government authority would have the fullest power of making any order that might seem desirable in the interests of the Muitsai, an anomalous situation would disappear and, in effect, a fuller measure of protection be afforded to the Muitsai passing through Hong Kong."

Answer.

This question raises considerations beyond the competence of this Committee.

The British Government has stated its determination to end the Muitsai System in Hong Kong. In pursuance of that policy, no Muitsai may lawfully be brought into the Colony and no new Muitsai employed in the Colony.

211

Government could not

Unless and until the law is altered no new diplomatic problems Hong Kong arise. If, however, the British Government were to sanction an amend- ment to enable a Chinese gentleman to travel from Shanghai to Canton properly imply through Hong Kong accompanied by a Muitsai, this would be tantamount to an allegation in statutory form that Muitsai are still lawful in China. in China.

that Muitsai a lawful status

deprecate further

In view of the great difficulties of the Chinese Government in its Committee efforts to modernise its territories, at a period when its people are discussion. in the throes of a social revolution, the Committee feel that a dis- cussion by them of this question, at the present juncture, would be inadvisable.

Sixth Question.

SIXTHLY :-The Ordinance, as its title shows, relates only to "females", "Muitsai" (see paragraph 5 (1)) means "little sister"; and the Attorney General, when he introduced the Bill in the Legislative Council on the 28th December, 1922, was scornful of the people who made the "surprising mistake" of imagining that there were "boy Mui- tsai". On the other hand, Sir Cecil Clementi (see paragraph 4) drew a vivid picture of famine stricken parents begging passengers to accept as a gift the children who would otherwise starve. As boys are as liable as girls to starvation, it seems hardly credible that girls only should be offered. Certainly, Sir Cecil Clementi does not suggest it.

In this connexion, I may mention a personal incident. Some years ago, I was stationed in Penang (in the Straits Settlements). My eldest son was about three years old. One day his Cantonese amah (nurse) said to my wife that the boy had no one of his own age to play with in the house in the day-time, and suggested that I should buy a Chinese boy of his age as a playmate. Not noticing the surprise on my wife's face, the amah went on to say that sturdy, healthy boys cost no more than fifty or sixty dollars and that there were plenty of them on offer. When my wife came to me and asked whether such a thing was possible in a British Colony, I could only say that the Chinese Protectorate know all about it, and that the policy of the British Government was "Non-recognition". It is quite possible that there may be in Hong Kong some system, distinct from, but analogous to the Muitsai System, relating to the employment of small boys and youths who have been acquired by gift or sale.

Answer.

It is perhaps understandable that anyone with a super- ficial acquaintance with Chinese customs and Chinese "family life" should fall into error and confuse the sale of boys and the Muitsai System. Both are based on old custom.

China (and Hong Kong), unlike England, have no Poor Law System, and a Chinese mother would sell her child to save its life. The family being greater than the individual—the individual was, if the necessity arose, sacrificed by the Head of the family to the needs of the family. Girls being of little account to the family were sold first. Boys being essential to the family to maintain the chain of ancestor worship-were only parted with in the very last resort. These sales were not evidence of a lack of parental affection. The Chinese hold their children in as great affection as any race.

The Chinese are essentially an agricultural race and to a great extent till river mud. They are accustomed to periods of famine, floods, and other disasters, during which parents seek any and every means to save the lives of their children. These major disasters tend to preserve the custom of selling children. Poverty is another cause. The power of the Head of the Family e.g. the grandfather to sell his

212

grandchildren or an uncle his nieces causes children sometimes to be sold against their parents' wishes. But to save their child from star- vation, the parents often may have no other course but to sell it.

The answer to Sir George Maxwell's question is probably this: sons being as essential in the Chinese family as heirs in the English aristo- cracy (for much the same reason) are sold or given away only in times of great stress. Girls, on the contrary, may be a burden to a poor family. In the past, sooner or later, they would be sold in marriage. There was no reason, except parental affection, why the girls should not be parted with earlier. In some districts all girls go at a very early age to the family of their prospective husband and become members of that family.

There can to-day be nothing to keep a boy adopted into another family from running away unless he could be made to regard himself

as a son.

There seem to be two reasons, therefore, why there are no boy equivalents of the Muitsai. First, boys are only sold in the very last resort secondly, there is no tie by which they could be held by the purchaser in an inferior position. There may have been a sanction while slavery was lawful in China, but the revolution seems to have destroyed effectively that sanction which it is certain, never existed in Hong Kong.

In 1898, when the New Territories were added to Hong Kong, there were some 100 male slaves, many reported to be much better off finan- cially and otherwise than many of the free, but they were said to be all conscious of their social inferiority; it seems they have been absorbed into normal life.

The position of a girl, sold or pledged as a Muitsai, was quite different. In the first place, she was a member of a family and looked forward to eventual marriage; whereas, if she ran away, she would have no family. In the East, "a woman without a family' was synonymous with a harlot. She could only find a home with another woman of the same class. The present position is materially different. The Muitsai to-day is rarely a member of the family, she does not necessarily desire marriage, and she can live and earn her living outside a family without being classed as a harlot. To-day most girls whether living in a family or earning their own living, are inclined to despise the Muitsai as a girl who has been sold, the sale being the objectionable feature.

Again, while it might be difficult for a Chinese boy to make a living, if without family influence, he could and can always get a roof and enough food. This is still difficult for a girl. For her to get work is not easy; the laws against harbouring are severe and any one giving shelter or perhaps food to a strange girl would still risk a police visit which is something to be avoided at all costs. Finally, the employer of a Muitsai, properly taken, is still responsible to her parents for her safety and proper marriage. If she runs away, the employer must still raise the hue and cry in his own interests, or he may have to answer for his default, if not to the parent, yet to the Secretary for Chinese Affairs. A registered Muitsai who ran away would raise untold trouble for all concerned.

On the other hand, there seems to be no particular reason why, except for a dislike of a position of servitude and the abuse of other girls the majority of the Muitsai should run away. They are better off probably as Muitsai than with their parents. They have chances of a better marriage. Cases of serious physical cruelty are rare and are visited with a very heavy hand by the Magistrate, whenever discovered.

213

To-day, news of any Muitsai who is unhappy or ill-treated would soon become public, even if the child did not herself go to the Secretary for Chinese Affairs.

A Chinese boy would consider a position analogous to Muitsai intolerable because of the inferior position. The Committee find diffi- culty in believing that any Chinese boy, if old enough to run away, would tolerate such a position.

The Committee feel that the only problem arising out of the sale of boys is the well known risk of kidnapping for sale as adopted sons.

Seventh Question.

SEVENTHLY-I now come to what is really a psychological ques- tion. More than any other nation in the world, the Chinese believe in the sanctity of a contract. The word of a Chinese is his bond. Having been closely associated with Chinese for 35 years of Govern- ment service, I feel justified in expressing an opinion that this has a bearing on the Muitsai problem. I believe that many a decent minded Muitsai girl would not feel justified in seeking the relief of the law in order to escape from the consequences of a contract made between her parents and her employer. I am assuming, of course, that she had been well treated and had no real grievance. She would probably feel that she would bring public, and well-deserved, shame upon her parents and, to a lesser degree, shame upon herself and her employers. Deep in her mind would be the sense of primitive justice and of respect for a custom of immemorial age, in the midst of which she herself had grown up, and she would feel that, whatever the new exotic law might decree, nothing could alter the fact that she had been purchased for a sum of money. If she, or her parents, could pay that money back, she would say it would be a very different thing.

If I am correct in that belief, some enquiry by the Hong Kong Government may be desirable. The question that I would raise is this: "Is it desirable to provide by Rules under the Ordinance that, in addition to the statutory wages, every employer shall pay a specific sum monthly into a Savings Bank Account to the credit of each Mui- tsai The idea of a Savings Bank Account was put forward by Sir Reginald Stubbs in para. 7 (d) of his despatch of 10th June, 1922. He suggested, however, that the girls should receive nothing in cash. My suggestion is that they should have both monetary wages and a Savings Bank Account. If the girls had savings bank accounts, the system would stimulate thrift and would encourage the feeling of in- dependence. The girls would feel that, as soon as they had enough money in the bank, they could terminate their employment in an honourable manner. In any event, a Saving Bank Account makes a pleasant wedding dowry. The matter nevertheless requires careful consideration from all points of view. It is necessary to remember the British policy of "Non-Recognition." The British view, as set forth in the declaratory statement" (the charter of liberty) of the Ordinance is that the money transaction cannot be " recognized The Chinese attitude is that, whether it is " recognized or not, there it." is " ".

CC

""

It would be necessary to reconcile the two ideas by making it quite clear that the introduction of the Savings Bank system must not be taken to imply any weakening of the Government's attitude re- garding the declaratory statement"

Personally, I cannot help feeling that this Charter of Liberty (like many another one) has partially defeated its own object by overstating

214

its case.

If the Government had dared to face the facts; if it had recognized that Chinese custom and Chinese honour upheld the monetary transaction; and if it had (in the manner now suggested) helped the girls to build up Savings Bank Accounts, many a Muitsai, who now feels bound in honour to remain where she is, might by now have earned her independence. This could have been done and can still be done without, in any way, infringing the provision of Section 10 of the Ordinance, which is that any Muitsai may apply to be re- stored to her parents without any repayment. At the same time, I think it would be a mistake for the Hong Kong Government to allow the introduction of the Savings Bank system to be understood to be a measure, primarily designed to encourage Muitsai to make repay- It should be regarded as a measure to stimulate thrift and to encourage independence."

ments.

The Female Domestic Service Ordinance a Charter of Liberty?

Fraud not

unknown among the Chinese.

Repayment of loans by Government would lead to fraud.

Charitable relief should come from charitable organisations.

Savings Bank.

Chinese girl naturally thrifty. Difficult to know where to hide her money.

Answer.

The Committee are unable to understand the references to " a Charter of Liberty ". Neither the Female Domestic Service Ordi- nance 1923 as a whole, nor the declaration contained in Section 3 bears this character. The declaration in Section 3 is merely a new version in statutory form, of a proclamation issued in 1845, when the British Government disallowed the first Ordinance passed in the Colony, namely, one abolishing slavery and providing financial assist- ance to the slaves. This declaration in one form, or another, has been issued at regular intervals. The Secretary for Chinese Affairs exercised powers of protection as early as 1887.

The Committee cannot, unfortunately, agree that Chinese always regard their word as their bond. While they have a very high ap- preciation of commercial morality, this appreciation is not universal. In fact, one of the concerns of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, in the past at least, was the prevalence of the fraud known as

flying the white pigeon". This consists in the fraudulent selling of a girl as a Muitsai, concubine or wife by a confederate of the parent or husband. The latter then comes to Hong Kong to claim her return.

t

The Committee feel that the repayment of loans, or sale price, by the Government, or by the suggested method of making the em- ployer repay himself would lead only to fraud. On the other hand an official guardian with the normal powers and duties of a Guardian, might find many cases where a family had parted with a child in time of stress, and where in the child's interest, it would be desirable to return her to her parents and, at the same time, to repay the em- ployer. The Committee feel, however, that even in such a case it would be unwise to use Government money for this purpose. The funds of some charitable organisation should be relied on in such a

case.

The Committee feel that Sir George Maxwell's suggestion that the children be given a Savings Bank Account deserves serious consideration. The Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation operates such a bank on behalf of the Hong Kong Government and would, the Committee have no doubt be prepared to co-operate.

The Chinese girl is thrifty by nature-her real need is a place of security for her money. If she were given a Savings Bank Account and were encouraged to go to the Bank herself, she would have a place where she was known, a place to which she could go in time of need and she would have a link with the world outside her employer's house. In many cases the Savings Bank Account would go on increas- ing year after year and would give a feeling of financial independence. Possibly an account with a European Bank would create a feeling of

215

superiority in the girl. If the Hong Kong Government could arrange that the European in charge of this department should be capable of making friends with the girls still further benefit would flow from the scheme. There should be little difficulty in getting a suitable head of the department as the Bank officials are so trained. To find one with a knowledge of Chinese should not be impossible.

desirable.

The Committee agree that a Savings Bank Account would en- Savings Bank courage the independence of Muitsai although it is not needed for the Accounts very purpose of inculcating thrift. Later if the scheme proved a success all the known wards of the Official Guardian might be included. This would facilitate any system of registration.

Eighth Question.

EIGHTHLY :-The question of prostitution in connexion with the Muitsai system has been mentioned in paragraphs 5 (3), 6 (3), 8, 9, 10, 11 and 23 of this Memorandum. Sir Cecil Clementi in paragraph 9 of his despatch of the 16th May, 1929, to the Colonial Office referred to it at some length :-

"You say

" he wrote,

"that it is constantly alleged that Mui- tsai are a regular source of recruitment for "prostitution ", and you ask whether any further safeguard against this can be introduced " He continued as follows:-

"It is very necessary to state emphatically that the Muitsai system is not a regular source of recruitment for prostitution. The usual source of such recruitment is among poor families which, in times of distress, will sell female children to traffickers from whom they pass into the hands of women who train the children with the object of their becoming prostitutes. Muitsai are by training not suited for use as prostitutes. The sale of a

The sale of a girl to be a Muitsai has indeed the effect of protecting her from prostitution as her master and mistress retain her services for domestic purposes, and would guard her from the risks of ill-disposed persons. Muitsai are more closely attached to the family than hired servants, and they cannot so easily be decoyed away without enquiries being set on foot. As a rule, children who are acquired for training as prostitutes are not employed as domestic servants. They are generally taught to sing and to play Mah Jong and to act as entertainers at restaurants; and in China large numbers of these girls who are known as "guitar girls may be seen frequenting restaurants where they are called to amuse customers at dinner "

'Answer.

15

It will be seen from Sir George Maxwell's question that he ap- preciates the distinction between a child sold as a Muitsai, possibly to escape prostitution and a child sold for prostitution.

prostitution dealt

However, the present question has been dealt with adequately by Muitsai; the League of Nations' Commission which discussed the whole question with by League at length.

The following paragraph gives the views of that Commission (Page 40 of Commission's Report), which follows the description of a Muitsai quoted earlier in this report.

CC

(C

However that may be, information obtained by the Commis- sion definitely establishes the fact that the Muitsai System where it is carried out strictly in accordance with the customs above de- "scribed is not to be regarded as a source of supply for prostitution, "and cases of prostitutes who had been Muitsai of this kind are ex-

ceedingly rare."

of Nations' Commission,

216

The Commission noticed also (what is apparent to any enquirer) that the dividing line between girls brought up as Muitsai and girls trained by harlots to become prostitutes is clearly marked. Many critics of the Muitsai System in England lose sight of this distinction. The Commission dealt with the whole subject so fully from every aspect and in so many countries that an attempt to cover the same question generally. ground would be unnecessary even if this Committee were competent to deal with the subject adequately. Further, the League of Nations' Commission were able to discuss the question with officials and socio- logists in some eleven countries before arriving at their conclusions.

No need for Committee to discuss the

Muitsai System a possible protection against prostitution.

The British Commonwealth League and Muitsai.

Appendix No. 15.

There is one aspect of the subject, however, that seems to have been overlooked, namely, that the Muitsai System appears to protect the girls from prostitution rather than to drive them to it. A Chinese family in financial difficulties will sacrifice its daughter. Sale as a Muitsai or adopted daughter would be contemplated first. Only in the last resort might it be sold for prostitution. Most Muitsai contracts required that the child should be properly married and should not be sold as a prostitute.

Under present conditions when the sale of children to harlots is being vigorously suppressed, and the White Slave Traffic is being hampered by the Police of every country, the traffickers are seeking girls approaching the end of their teens. The Committee feel that they cannot dismiss the question without drawing attention to the danger which that would follow the careless exercise by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs of his powers. Muitsai deprived of the care of their mistresses by thoughtless official action might well become an easy prey to these traffickers in women and girls.

It is apparent to the Committee that the attitude and actions of the Hong Kong Government have often been misrepresented because the prudence necessary to protect Muitsai from this danger has been mistaken for encouragement of the Muitsai System.

Inspectors.

The attention of the Committee was drawn in their letter of appointment to the following resolution passed at the conference of the British Commonwealth League after being addressed by Lt. Commander Hazlewood, R.N. (retired).

"This Conference of the British Commonwealth League notes with concern the failure of the present laws and regulations to effect the abolition of the Muitsai System in Hong Kong. It calls upon the Government to legislate further:

1. For the registration of all girls already purchased, under

whatever name.

2. To prohibit the further purchase of girls for any purpose.

3.

To institute a far more comprehensive inspectorate to include more women inspectors, with a view to the ultimate release in fact as opposed to theory of all girls in the Colony who have been obtained by purchase "

The Committee is unacquainted with this League. It is said the Conference was attended by 45 women's societies, covering organized groups of many thousands of woman citizens, who feel very strongly on the matter of Muitsai.

The Committee feel that few people are competent to speak with authority on the matters dealt with in the resolution and the speech which preceded it. The statements made at the meeting cannot be accepted as authoritative.

217

It is wholly incorrect to say that there are no bonâ fide adoptions Misconceptions. of Chinese girls; if girls known to members of the Committee as adopted daughters are representative Muitsai, the system could be approved of without hesitation. The Statement that "the adoption of daughters is not a custom recognised in China" is due probably to the fact that writers on Chinese matters use the word " adoption in a specialised sense. The adoption of daughters in 1920 was prob- ably as common in China as in England at that date. In neither country did it confer any status; the law did not recognise the adop- tion. This is what these writers meant.

In China adoptions are recognised by law now. It is assumed Adoption of girls by the Committee that these adoptions would be recognised by the Hong lawful in China. Kong courts where the domicile is Chinese.

Appendix- Chinese Civil Code.

adopted daughters

The Committee agree that it is desirable to make compulsory the Compulsory registration of adopted daughters. This would effectively prevent the registration of present difficulty of distinguishing between Muitsai and adopted daugh- advocated. ters and the raising of false pleas on prosecutions in respect of un- registered girls.

registration not

To enforce registration is a different matter. As the Hong Kong Complete Government has frequently pointed out, to ensure complete regis- to be expected. tration, a house to house enquiry would be necessary.

This enquiry would have to be repeated at regular intervals. Such an enquiry is neither practicable nor politic. There seems no reason why such re- gistration should not be introduced, except that disputants in England might draw false conclusions from any published figures with the consequent danger that the real interests of the children would be endangered.

Extended registration would encourage genuine adoption. Adopt- Registration ed parents would then no longer fear prosecution for having unregister- would encourage ed Muitsai.

genuine adoption.

Sale of

While the Committee are of the opinion that the sale of girls, To prevent the for any purpose, is an undesirable practice, they doubt whether any hidren attempt to stop the practice could, for the present, be initiated by impracticable. the Hong Kong Government with any hope of success. Attempts to stop the practice, which are doomed to failure, are to be deprecated.

The Committee are of the opinion that a social revolution of this Revolution of magnitude is best achieved by indirect methods, such as propaganda, thought improvement of social conditions, child welfare work &c., &c.

necessary.

population in permanently resident there.

Hong Kong not

Few Chinese are domiciled in Hong Kong. The flow of the Chinese Chinese population between Hong Kong and the neighbouring provinces of China is considerable. The majority of Chinese in Hong Kong, whose stay is extended to years (and these are relatively few), still have their family houses and family tablets in their native villages.

See Appendix No. 20.

Legislation on

The facts seem to preclude vital legislation in Hong Kong on matters affecting the status of Chinese, unless legislation is based on matters affecting similar legislation in China.

The Committee are of opinion that the compulsory release of Muitsai in fact as opposed to theory is undesirable if the interest of the children is to be considered. Much harm might be done as the Muitsai so released would become an easy prey to the White Slave Traffickers. Even indiscriminate return to their parents is dangerous as girls so returned are at times resold outside the Colony.

status should follow Chinese Legislation.

To separate Muitsai and mistresses danger- ous to Muitsai.

Official Guardian should have adequate staff and funds.

Hong Kong suffering from financial depression.

Money require

for welfare work.

Committee fear British Govern- ment may be more concerned in Muitsai than children generally.

Relief from Military contributions.

218

The Committee have already expressed their opinion that the present system of guardianship should be changed in several direc- tions. This change will entail some change of policy. The new Official Guardian, in the opinion of the Committee, ought to be given adequate funds and adequate staff. The present inspectorate appears to carry out the present policy with reasonable efficiency.

The increase of the staff of inspectors involves the question of Finance.

Hong Kong is in the throes of a financial depression, which may be increased by further taxation.

Money is urgently needed in the Colony for social purposes, and in particular for infant welfare work in all its branches. The members of the Committee being all actively engaged in forwarding infant wel- fare work, which is in urgent need of finance, are perhaps prejudiced in favour of spending any available funds on trained nurses as in- spectors for work among the sick and starving children, and on the provision of medical and hospital relief, instead of on Muitsai who, at least, are assured sufficient food and clothing, and whose needs are watched by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs and his inspectors.

The Committee feel justified in expressing a hope that the urgent needs of the children of Hong Kong generally will not be lost sight of by the British Government and the British Public because of the Muitsai.

If the British Government would relieve that part of the revenue of the Colony spent on welfare work of the 25% tax (a precedent for this course exists) considerable impetus would be given to welfare work. From this work the Muitsai benefits. The Muitsai system has its roots in poverty.

Conclusions.

(1) The most urgent need is for a full Enquiry into the sale and adoption of Chinese girls, the legal, moral and social consequences, and the best method of avoiding the dangers likely to follow a hasten- ing by official action of the changes of thought and custom now taking place.

(2) An officer of the Hong Kong Government, of whom there are many competent for the task, should be released from all other duties, to make a preliminary and complete report of the whole sub- ject from the material available. This report should be fully docu- mented, the officer should be given a perfectly free hand and his report should be personal, not official, but he should be given every assistance by the Government and the Public.

(3) The safest, and least dangerous, method of dealing with the present situation would be to vest the guardianship of all the children (not excluding boys) sold, given away, or adopted, in an official guardian who should have the qualifications detailed by Sir George Bowen.

(4) Any limitations on the powers and duties of the Official Guardian, whether legal or political, should be removed. He should, however, be associated with a committee including, if possible, one European and one Chinese lady.

219

The Committee should be of a composition which would command the respect and confidence of the British Government and the British Public.

(5) The Official Guardian should be able to enforce his rights as guardian in a summary way, either in the Supreme Court, or before a Magistrate.

(6) The guardianship should last until the child is twenty-one.

(7) The Official Guardian would be expected to listen to any reasonable request, information or suggestion made to him; but any legal obligation to do so is to be deprecated.

(8) The Official Guardian should make full and well classified

returns.

(9) Muitsai, i.e., girls bought and used as domestic servants should be secured economic wages or higher. This should be by law (to benefit unregistered girls) but the discretionary powers of the Official Guardian should not be limited.

(10) An effort should be made to provide every ward of the Official Guardian with a Savings Bank Account and, if possible, the manager of the department should have the qualities necessary to achieve personal and friendly relations with the children.

(11) In suitable cases the Official Guardian should co-operate with the charitable organisations in the Colony to assist the reunion of families divided by hardship or great financial stress, but no public moneys should be spent by the Government in redeeming children.

(12) The Hong Kong Government should aid the movement towards the equality of Chinese women by every legitimate means. The University, the schools and the hospitals should be asked to co- operate.

(13) The true Muitsai System is a protection against and not a pathway to prostitution.

(14) The prevention of the sale of girls for prostitution is a distinct problem. The Muitsai System is not used for recruiting pros- titutes.

(15) There is no evidence of slavery among Chinese males.

(16) Even if it is necessary to increase the inspectorate of the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, the moneys needed for this purpose would be employed to better effect in welfare work among the poorer children.

(17) Welfare work would be assisted if moneys expended thereon were exempted from Military Contributions.

(18) If the Committee is correct in assuming that the aim of both the local and British Governments is to protect all girls whose parents have parted with them, it follows that the Hong Kong Government should take steps to ensure that each of these children is in safe and suitable custody. The Committee also hold the view that the Hong Kong Government should encourage the registration of each transfer before it is made, and should frown upon the parents who make transfers in Hong Kong without first consulting the Secretary for Chinese Affairs or other official guardian. The Committee are of the

220

opinion that, in this way, it might be possible to introduce some system of approved adoption analogous to that existing in England to-day.

The ultimate goal should be approval or disapproval of every proposed adoption or other transaction before its completion.

This course is compatible with Chinese custom because approval by the Head of the family and village elders in domestic matters is an essential part of the Chinese social system. Registration in the family records is likewise familiar to them in family matters. Thus there would be little violence to custom in requiring approval and regis- tration of transactions relating to girls. The English system could not be applied without modification to meet the conditions peculiar to Hong Kong and China.

221

Appendix No. 1.

Letter of Reference.

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE,

HONG KONG, 3rd December, 1934.

No. 1961/1910.

SIR,

Number and date should be quoted

in reference to this letter.

In continuation of my letters of even number dated 25th October and 21st Nov- ember 1934, I am directed to forward four copies of a despatch from the Secretary of State for the Colonies of 7th July 1934, together with two copies of the print which accompanied that despatch.

2. The Committee of which you have been appointed Chairman follows the sug- gestion made in paragraph 93 on page 17 of the print, and the eight proposals which immediately precede that paragraph will no doubt receive your careful attention.

3. The views of this Government have already been forwarded to the Secretary of State and I am to enclose for information four copies of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs' Memorandum in which these are embodied. It will of course be understood that the Committee enjoys the fullest right to express its disagreement upon any point. The Secretary of State had already been informed of the appointment of your Com- mittee at the time when the Memorandum was transmitted.

4. I am also to forward four copies of a subsequent despatch from the Secretary of State with enclosures. It is regretted that only one copy of the print "Slave Market News' is available and it is requested that this may be returned to this office in due course.

5. A reply to the Secretary of State has been sent as regards the despatch men- tioned in the last paragraph to the effect that there is no intention at present of increasing the staff of Inspectors, but adding that its contents will be brought to the notice of your Committee.

6.

You will no doubt now proceed with the calling of the necessary witnesses. It will be a convenience if two separate Reports may be submitted as indicated above, as their ultimate destinations in the United Kingdom will of course be separate.

I am, Sir,

F. H. LOSEBY, Esq.,

Messrs. Russ & Co.,

6, Des Voeux Road Central,

Hong Kong.

Your obedient servant,

R. A. C. NORTH,

p. Colonial Secretary.

222

Appendix No. 2.

Letter

Colonial Secretary to Chairman.

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE,

HONG KONG, 14th March, 1935.

No. 1961/1910.

SIR.

Number and date should be quoted

in reference to this letter.

With reference to my letter of even number dated 3rd December, 1934, I am directed to enquire whether your Committee sees any objection to the immediate in- troduction of amending legislation with a view to ensuring that any girl on attaining the age of eighteen shall automatically cease to be a Mui-tsai, in accordance with the first of Sir George Maxwell's suggestions contained in the print which accompanied my letter under reference.

I am, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

F. H. LOSEBY, Esq.,

Messrs. Russ & Co.,

6, Des Voeux Road Central, Hong Kong.

R. A. C. NORTH,

p. Colonial Secretary.

Appendix No. 3. Letter

Chairman to Colonial Secretary.

21st March, 1935.

THE HONOURABLE,

SIR,

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY.

I have the honour to reply to your letter of the 14th March, 1935 (No. 1961/1910), enquiring "whether the Committee sees any objection to the immediate introduction of amending legislation with a view to ensuring that any girl on attaining the age of eighteen shall automatically cease to be a Mui-tsai, in accordance with the first of Sir George Maxwell's suggestions."

The Committee considers that children between eighteen and twenty-one need the protection of the guardianship of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs at that period pro- bably more than during their earlier years. The Committee fears that the adoption of Sir George Maxwell's suggestion may have the effect of depriving these children of that guardianship. The powers and duties of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, as legal guardian of these children, have still to receive much further consideration. The Committee hopes that any immediate decision that might alter the position may be deferred for the present.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

F. H. LOSEBY,

Chairman.

MUI-TSAI COMMITTEE.

80.

223

Appendix No. 4.

Extracts from Sir GEORGE MAXWELL'S Memorandum.

After these general observations, I venture to make eight suggestions for an enquiry into the practical details of the present law.

81.

First. There is nothing in the Ordinance to declare the age at which a woman ceases to be a Mui-tsai. If she marries, she ceases to be a Muitsai. But if she does not marry, she may apparently continue to be a Mui-tsai for an indefinite period, although under Section 11 of the Ordinance, she can apply to the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, who can make an order on her behalf.

In Malaya, the "Mui-tsai Ordinance, 1932" of the Straits Settlements and the "Mui-tsai Enactment, 1932" of the Federated Malay States contain the following pro- viso to the statutory definition of a Mui-tsai :-

"Provided that any female domestic servant, the custody, possession, con- trol or guardianship of whom has been acquired in any such manner as aforesaid shall cease to be a mui-tsai on attaining the age of eighteen years or on marriage, whichever shall first happen"

It is suggested that the Hong Kong Government might consider the advisability of amending its own definition by a similar proviso.

82. Secondly.-The Ordinance contains no provisions for the release of children whose parents are dead, unknown, or resident in some place so remote that "restora- tion" is an impossibility. It also fails to provide for relatives and friends making application on behalf of an orphan. If the law were amended so as to provide that any relative or friend might apply on behalf of a Mui-tsai for an enquiry into the cir- cumstances of the girl's employment, and for "such relief as may seem to be suit- able" it would afford a measure of reasonable protection which, at present, does not exist.

83. Thirdly. It seems desirable, for the purpose of efficient supervision, to compile, from the Register, a table classifying the girls by ages, and giving the num- bers at each year of age. There have been no new Mui-tsai since 1923. An infant in arms at that date would be ten years old now. There can therefore be no Mui-tsai under the age of ten years, and very probably few under the age of eleven or twelve

years.

For the purpose of the law, Mui-tsai now fall into three classes, namely:-

(i) those between ten and fifteen years;

(ii) those between 15 and 18 years; and

(iii) those over 18 years..

Although, in many cases, a Mui-tsai's exact age is unknown, yet it is necessary, for the purpose of the law, to assign an age to her, and there can be no real difficulty in carrying out this suggestion for a more detailed classification.

It is further suggested that this statement should be included in the Governor's half-yearly despatches to the Secretary of State.

84. Fourthly. It is open to question whether the statutory minimum wages are adequate (see paragraph 56). The value of the Hong Kong dollar fluctuates with the price of silver. At present, the Hong Kong dollar is worth about one shilling and six- pence. In Malaya, where the Straits Settlements dollar is worth two shillings and fourpence, the minimum statutory wages are two dollars a month for girls under the age of 15 years, and three dollars a month for girls over that age. It is not possible. for anyone unacquainted with local circumstances to express any opinion regarding suitable minimum wages, and I content myself with inviting attention to the matter.

224

85. Fifthly. In a despatch dated the 7th January, 1932, the Governor observed that some slight amendment to the law might be desirable to meet the case of bonâ fide travellers who are merely passing through the Colony." Strange as this may appear at first sight, it nevertheless requires careful and sympathetic investiga- tion. It would clearly be wrong to prosecute a respectable Chinese citizen of one Chinese town who was passing through Hong Kong, with a Mui-tsai as one of his domestic household, on his way to some other Chinese town. On the other hand the law should not fail to "recognize" a patent fact. It might be well to provide by an amendment to the Ordinance that in such cases, a stay of a few weeks would not constitute an offence, and that a stay of a slightly longer period if duly reported to the proper authority, would be permitted. If this were combined with a proviso that, nevertheless, the Mui-tsai (or anyone on her behalf) would be at liberty to apply for protection to the Chinese Secretariat or to the Police, and that the proper Gov- ernment authority would have the fullest power of making any order that might seem desirable in the interests of the Mui-tsai, anomalous situation would disappear, and in effect, a fuller measure of protection be afforded to the Mui-tsai passing through Hong Kong.

86. Sixthly. The Ordinance, as its title shows, relates only to "females". "Mui-tsai" (see paragraph 5 (1)) means "little sister"; and the Attorney-General, when he introduced the Bill in the Legislative Council on the 28th December, 1922. was scornful of the people who made the "surprising mistake" of imagining that there were "boy" Mui-tsai.

Mui-tsai. On the other hand, Sir Cecil Clementi (see paragraph 4) drew a vivid picture of famine-stricken parents begging passengers to accept as a gift the children who would otherwise starve. As boys are as liable as girls to star- vation, it seems hardly credible that girls only should be offered. Certainly Sir Cecil Clementi does not suggest it.

87. In this connexion, I may mention a personal incident. Some years ago, I was stationed in Penang (in the Straits Settlements). My eldest son was about three years old. One day his Cantonese amah (nurse) said to my wife that the boy had no one of his own age to play with in the house in the day-time, and suggested that I should buy a Chinese boy of his age as a play-mate. Not noticing the sur- prise on my wife's face, the amah went on to say that sturdy, healthy boys cost no more than fifty or sixty dollars, and that there were plenty of them on offer. When my wife came to me and asked whether such a thing was possible in a British Colony, I could only say that the Chinese Protectorate knew all about it, and that the policy of the British Government was "Non-Recognition". It is quite possible that there may be in Hong Kong some system, distinct from, but analogous to the Mui-tsai system, relating to the employment of small boys and youths who have been acquired by gift or sale.

88 Seventhly.- -I now come to what is really a psychological question. More than any other nation in the world, the Chinese believe in the sanctity of a contract. The word of a Chinese is his bond. Having been closely associated with Chinese for 35 years of Government service, I feel justified in expressing an opinion that this has a bearing on the Mui-tsai problem. I believe that many a decent minded Mui- tsai girl would not feel justified in seeking the relief of the law in order to escape from the consequences of a contract made between her parents and her employer. I am assuming, of course, that she had been well-treated and had no real grievance. She would probably feel that she would bring public, and well-deserved, shame upon her parents, and, to a lesser degree, shame upon herself and her employers. Deep in her mind would be the sense of primitive justice, and of respect for a custom of immemorial age, in the midst of which she herself had grown up, and she would feel that whatever the new, exotic law might decree, nothing could alter the fact that she had been purchased for a sum of money. If she, or her parents, could pay that money back, she would say, it would be a very different thing.

89. If I am may be desirable. by Rules under the

correct in this belief, some enquiry by the Hong Kong Government The question that I would raise is this, "Is it desirable to provide Ordinance that, in addition to the statutory wages, every employ- er shall pay a specific sum monthly into a Savings Bank Account to the credit of

F

225

each Mui-tsai?" The idea of a Savings Bank Account was put forward by Sir Reginald Stubbs in paragraph 7 (d) of his despatch of 10th June, 1922. He sug- gested, however, that the girls should receive nothing in cash. My suggestion is that they should have both monetary wages and a savings bank account. If the girls had savings bank accounts, the system would stimulate thrift, and would encourage the feeling of independence. The girls would feel that as soon as they had enough money in the banks they could terminate their employment in an honourable man- ner. In any event, a savings bank account makes a pleasant wedding dowry. The matter nevertheless requires careful consideration from all points of view. It is necessary to remember the British policy of "Non-Recognition". The British view, as set forth in the "declaratory statement" (the Charter of Liberty) of the Ordin- ance, is that the money transaction cannot be "recognised". The Chinese attitude is that, whether it is "recognised" or not, there it "is".

It would be necessary to reconcile the two ideas by making it quite clear that the introduction of the savings-banks system must not be taken to imply any weaken- ing of the Government's attitude regarding the "declaratory statement”.

90. Personally, I cannot help feeling that this Charter of Liberty (like many another one) has partially defeated its own object by overstating its case. If the Government had dared to face the facts if it had recognized that Chinese custom and Chinese honour upheld the monetary transaction; and if it had (in the manner now suggested) helped the girls to build up savings-bank accounts, many a Mui-tsai who now feels bound in honour to remain where she is might by now have earned her independence. This could have been done-and can still be done without, in any way, infringing the provision of section 10 of the Ordinance, which is that any Mui-tsai may apply to be restored to her parents without any repayment. At the same time, I think it would be a mistake for the Hong Kong Government to allow the introduction of the savings-bank system to be understood to be a measure pri- marily designed to encourage Mui-tsai to make repayments. It should be regarded as a measure to stimulate thrift, and to encourage independence.

91. Eightly. The question of prostitution in connexion with the Mui-tsai system has been mentioned in paragraphs 5 (3), 6 (3), 8, 9, 10, 11 and 23 of this Memorandum. Sir Cecil Clementi, in paragraph 9 of his despatch of the 16th May, 1929, to the Colonial Office, referred to it at some length :-

"You say", he wrote, "that is is constantly alleged that Mui-tsai are a regular source of recruitment for "prostitution", and you ask whether any fur- ther safeguard against this can be introduced”.

He continued as follows:-

"It is very necessary to state emphatically that the Mui-tsai system is not a regular source of recruitment for prostitution. The usual source of such re- cruitment is among poor families, which in times of distress will sell female children to traffickers from whom they pass into the hands of women who train the children with the object of their becoming prostitutes. Mui-tsai are by train- ing not suited for use as prostitutes. The sale of a girl to be a Mui-tsai has indeed the effect of protecting her from prostitution, as her master and mistress retain her services for domestic purposes, and would guard her from the risks of ill-disposed persons. Mui-tsai are more closely attached to the family than hired servants, and they cannot so easily be decoyed away without enquiries being set on foot. As a rule, children who are acquired for training as pro- stitutes are not employed as domestic servants. They are generally taught to sing and to play Mah Jong, and to act as entertainers at restaurants; and in China, large numbers of these girls, who are known as "guitar girls" may be seen frequenting restaurants where they are called to amuse customers at dinner"

92. I may perhaps be permitted to say that my own personal experience in Malaya entirely corroborates the statements made by Sir Cecil Clementi. By the nature of the system, the Mui-tsai is, at the best, a member of the household, and, at the worst, a domestic drudge. As the first, she is protected by the family, and,

226

as the second, she is not sexually attractive. She has not the delicate hands and so- cial graces of the girl trained in the manner described by Sir Cecil Clementi. Never- theless, Sir Cecil Clementi's outspoken despatch after the lapse of years may well have been forgotten by now, and there is good reason to believe that public anxiety still persists upon the subject. An enquiry and public declaration upon it could not fail to do good. Inspector Fraser and his two Lady Chinese Assistant Inspectors have an intimate knowledge of the circumstances of the Mui-tsai, and their official records are complete.

93. I am fully persuaded that the Hong Kong Government sincerely desires to do everything that is possible to improve the welfare of the Mui-tsai during the period that must elapse before the system is completely abolished. In this belief, I suggest that the Governor appoint a local committee to consider and report upon the eight questions contained in paragraphs 81-91. I am emboldened to recommend that the committee comprises European and Chinese, men and women; and that it comprise neither enthusiasts nor experts. It would, naturally be ready to receive both as wit- nesses. If the Governor would appoint such a committee, and publish its report, the result might be to allay some public anxiety caused by imperfect knowledge of facts.

Appendix No. 5.

The Slave Market News July 1934

SLAVERY IN HONG KONG.

Address given by Lt.-Commander H. L. Haslewood, R. N. (Retd.), to the British

Commonwealth League, at their Annual Conference, 1934.

I beg to move the following resolution :-

The Conference of the British Commonwealth League notes with concern the failure of the present laws and regulations to effect the abolition of the Mui-tsai system in Hong Kong. It calls upon the Government to legislate further

1.—For the registration of all girls already purchased under whatever name;

2. To prohibit the further purchase of girls for any purpose;

3. To institute a far more comprehensive inspectorate, to include women in- spectors, with a view to the ultimate release in fact as opposed to theory, of all girls in the Colony who have been obtained by purchase.

I hope that with the time at my disposal I shall be able to deal with all the points raised in the resolution and show how important and desirable it is that such a resolution should be forwarded to the Authorities.

In considering the whole Mui-tsai question it must be remembered that the sale and purchase of girls in Hong Kong has always taken place under three headings :- 1.-By Deed of Sale; 2.-By Deed of Adoption; 3.-By Deed of Presentation.

All these documents have virtually the same wording and the vital clause appearing in all three is that a sum of money is handed over to the parents and guardians of a girl by the new owner.

In other words, in each case the girl is bought, and further, in practice, each girl thus bought becomes a Muitsai, in fact, whatever she may be called in name.

227

But when registration took place, only the acknowledged Mui-tsai obtained by a Deed of Sale were required to register at all and so all those acquired through Deeds of Adoption and Deed of Presentation slipped through.

Even the registration of the acknowledged Mui-tsai was most inadequately carried out and no real effort made by the Authorities. The Governor of Hong Kong him- self at the very time of registration announced in a public speech that he was not in favour of the measure. It is difficult to imagine anything more likely than this to make registration a farce in the eyes of the population.

It is common knowledge in Hong Kong that thousands of Mui-tsai remain un- registered, and it is one of these facts which it is almost impossible to prove, but which is obvious to anyone who makes even superficial observation.

And now to pass to the constructive side of the resolution. From what I have said I trust it will be agreed that it is essential that all future sales of girls, for whatever purpose, should be prohibited.

Some of those here to-day may not know that it is still legal to-day to buy and sell a girl in this British Colony of Hong Kong under certain conditions. Here is the law as supplied to me in a letter from the Colonial Office :-

45A.-"Every person who takes any part, or attempts to take any part in any transaction the object or one of the objects of which is to transfer or confer, wholly or partly, the possession. custody or control of any minor under the age of eighteen years for any valuable consideration shall be deemed to be guilty of an offence against this section, unless such person proves beyond reasonable doubt that the transaction was bonâ fide and solely for the purpose of a proposed marriage, or adoption, in accordance with Chinese custom."

Now Colonial Office officials themselves have stated that there are no bonâ fide adoptions of Chinese girls, and yet this law remains. Listen to what one of them has actually said :- "Amongst Chinese, adoption of boys is a recognised and widely practised custom, due to the necessity of always having a son to carry on the male line for the purpose of ancestor worship. But for this purpose daughters are useless and the adoption of daughters is not a custom recognised in China.

Again he says:-"Under such conditions, the use of the term "adopted daughter" is one of convenience, not of fact."

And so a girl is sold legally as an "adopted daughter" and of course becomes in fact a Mui-tsai.

No registration is required for this transaction. It is true that if called upon the owner is required to prove that she is treated as an adopted daughter and not as a Mui-tsai, but these unfortunate girls are seldom, if ever, heard of useless a parti- cularly objectionable case comes into Court,

From this I feel it will be readily seen how essential it is that not only should any further sales be prohibited, but also that all girls hitherto purchased, under whatever name, should be registered forthwith. Until is done the abolition of the whole system cannot possibly be carried out. And to do this there must be adequate inspection.

In 1929 the Government of Hong Kong made this very important announce- ment when they were opposing the introduction of registration :-"An army of In- spectors would be required with the widest power of entry and search".

Almost immediately after registration took place we were told, and are being repeatedly told in parliament and by the Hong Kong Government, that three in- spectors (the number ultimately appointed) are in every way adequate and the interests of the Mui-tsai fully preserved!

228

What possible reliance can be placed on such contradictory statements?

I understand that the Seconder of the resolution will deal with a cable recently received from Hong Kong indicating the possible appointment of further inspectors -a cable full of "ifs" and "mays".

Speaking generally, all I need say now is that inspection needs to be carried out in a totally different spirit and must include all types of purchased girls and not merely acknowledged Mui-tsai. The inspectors undoubtedly do their best, but their task is impossible, and it is not backed up by official zeal on the part of the Authorities.

And now I should like to give you a few extracts from a leading article in the South China Morning Post which, is one of the two leading morning papers in Hong Kong. This is from an issue of as recent a date as February 10th of this year :-

"If the Mui-tsai question continues to demand attention in London there must be a reason. The reason would appear to be that, notwithstanding the recent Hong Kong legislation, slavery still exists or is suspected to exist, with all or most of the old evils still attached to it.'

"How does one recognise a Mui-tsai? Admittedly, only by the dirty, neglected, over-worked look of her, betraying the fact that she can obviously have no parental care. In some cases she is discovered by the simple process of asking her whether or not she is a Mui-tsai".

"Giving the Government due credit for what it has done and for what is being done, we must nevertheless quarrel with the Under-Secretary's statement that he is satisfied that the existing system of registration and inspection is sufficient, and that it is being so worked as it existed before. Any who think that a Chinese population is so easily made to observe laws lives in a fool's paradise.

"The truth is that only a fraction of the Mui-tsai of Hong Kong have come under the official ægis. The traffic continues and the suppressive measures as yet amount to little more than a salving of conscience and a disarming of criticism. What is needed is a more positive programme of suppression. In addition to protection of the fortuitously and otherwise known Mui-tsai, it is necessary that the little slaves be sought out by the inspectors. It is necessary also that the wide open "adoption" loophole be closed. It is too easy to plead that a child has been adopted, and thus escape official surveillance adoptions also should be compulsorily registered. We cannot reasonably resent criticism until we have placed ourselves further beyond criticism's reach".

My time is coming to an end. Slavery exists in the British Crown Colony of Hong Kong to-day under the Mui-tsai and kindred systems. No Centenary Celebra- tions of the Abolition of Slavery in British Possession, however numerous, will alter the fact.

By giving the impression in these celebrations that slavery is abolished, the result as far as I can see has been to bind such slaves as the Mui-tsai more closely than ever in their bondage, for the simple reason that the only times either the Home or Hong Kong Government move at all is when pubilc opinion is aroused and shows its indignation in no uncertain manner.

Thus I hope and trust that this resolution will be accepted and passed with true sincerity and that those who are responsible for the continuance of this slavery will recognise that the matter is not going to be forgotten nor forgiven until every Mui- tsai regains her full freedom and our unhonoured pledges as a nation are honoured.

RESOLUTION SECONDED BY MISS ELBANOR FITZGERALD :

In the name of St. John's Social and Political Alliance, I whole-heartedly second the resolutions put before you by Commander Haslewood.

{

229

An announcement appeared in the Times of May 4th last, reading as follows:- Hong Kong, May 3rd.-The Government announce that more inspectors are to be appointed to supervise the numbers and treatment of the Mui-tsai.

The Government indicate that if it is found that any girls are being introduced into Hong Kong as adopted daughters, to become Mui-tsai, compulsory registration of all adopted children will be enforced.

EXPERIENCE has unfortunately taught us that re-assuring statements of this nature must be accepted with reservations. The announcement is a fine example of official vagueness. "More inspectors are to be appointed" we are told. What we want to know is how many more and when? One wonders if the "more" now promised means that the present three will be augmented to four. It is quite possible. Unless the number is considerably increased it is hopeless to think that adequate inspection can be carried out.

As we have already been told, the Governor of Hong Kong in 1929 stated that "an army of inspectors would be required with fullest powers of entry and search" to enforce registration. It was after this uncompromising statement that three in- spectors were appointed. The futility of such inspection was shown in a letter from the Colonial Office, written in August, 1933, stating that in June, 1932, 770 of the registered Mui-tsai had disappeared from their registered address. And further by a reply to a question in the House of Commons in February 1933, that the regis- tered number of Mui-tsai in the previous November was 3,017. It is a mockery to pretend that this army of three can properly inspect such numbers of little slaves in the power of those whose utmost cunning is exerted to evade inspection.

The second paragraph of the Times announcement can only move us to bitter laughter. "The Government indicate"-it says "that if it is found that girls are being introduced into Hong Kong as adopted daughters, to become Mui-tsai, com- pulsory registration of all adopted children will be enforced". It is perfectly well known that the term "adopted daughters" is but a subterfuge to hide Mui-tsai. For several years now the Alliance I represent has passed a resolution at its annual meeting and forwarded it to the Colonial Office, demanding the early registration and inspection of so-called adopted daughters in Hong Kong.

I suppose we must take it as a sign that our importunity is having some effect, when the Government indicate that they may do what we have been urging them to do for so long a time.

Mui-tsai-"the Little Sister'-it sounds so charming to the uninitiated and so sinister to those who know the evil thing it is. These children are not bought for playthings or for pets-they are purchased to work hard for their owners. The Slave Market News of January last reports a case of a kidnapped child of seven, who was made to cook pig-wash, and whose master beat her with a small bamboo on both legs because he said she took too much time in washing clothes. Picture an English child of seven trying to wash clothes and remember that the hands of a Chinese child of that age would be much smaller. The children are sold and bought and sold again. They pass from hand to hand like so much inanimate matter. And it is common knowledge that in frequent cases, when they are old enough they are sold once again, this time into brothels.

We are told that the girls can complain if they are ill-treated. That is as stupid as it is heartless. How can children of tender years in the power of pitiless owners complain, even if they understand that they have the right to do so?

The Governor of Hong Kong in 1929, already quoted, stated further that "very drastic powers would be required if registration were to be made effective and that such powers would be intensely unpopular.

"Intensely unpopular," here, I cannot help thinking, we have the key to all the official delay, shilly-shallying and prevarication. Other measures are equally un- popular, but they are enforced, nevertheless.

230

The unpleasant suspicion forces itself upon us that the half-hearted attitude of the Government in enforcing the regulations in this matter of Mui-tsai is probably explained by the fact that the victims are helpless children, and so their interests are sacrificed to counteract in some degree the hostility aroused by the rigid applica- tion of other unpopular powers.

But the children are not without friends, and these friends will not relax their efforts until, in the words of the resolution I am seconding: "all girls in Hong Kong who have been obtained by purchase will be released in fact, as opposed to theory".

Hong Kong.

No. 258.

Appendix No. 6.

Despatch from the Secretary of State to the Governor.

Downing Street,

7th July, 1934.

SIR,

I have the honour to transmit to you for your consideration copies of corres- pondence with Sir George Maxwell regarding the operation of the Mui-tsai system in Hong Kong and Malaya.

Sir George Maxwell is now the British member of a permanent Advisory Com- mittee of Experts on Slavery which has been set up by the League of Nations, arising out of the recommendations in paragraphs 71 to 77 of the 1932 Report of the earlier ad hos Committee of Experts, which formed the enclosure to my circular despatch of the 28th of November, 1932.

As explained in paragraph 1 of his letter of the 20th of April, the memoranda have been prepared by Sir George Maxwell for the information and consideration of his colleagues on the Advisory Committee, but before communicating the memoranda to his colleagues Sir George has considered it desirable to invite the observations of the Colonial Office and of the Governments concerned.

In this connection you should know that although Sir George Maxwell is the British member of the Committee, he is in no sense a representative of His Majesty's Government, and is therefore fully at liberty to express any personal views which he may hold. On the other hand it is open to His Majesty's Government to make any communication to the Committee which it may desire, and the Committee is bound to take notice of any such communication.

I have to request that you will give careful consideration to the suggestions in Sir George Maxwell's memorandum, and furnish me with your observations thereon as soon as possible.

GOVERNOR

Sir WILLIAM PEEL, K.C.M.G., K.B.E.,

I have, etc., (Sd.) P. CUNLIFFE-LISTER.

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

231

Appendix No. 6a.

Despatch from the Secretary of State to the Governor.

Hong Kong

No. 302.

Downing Street,

Fr. Br. Comm. League 28th June, 1934.

To ditto 14th July.

Fr. ditto 24th July.

SIR,

11th August, 1934.

I have the honour to forward, for your information, copies of correspondence with the Honorary Political Secretary of the British Commonwealth League.

2. It was reported in London newspapers of the 4th of May that additional Inspectors of Mui-tsai were to be appointed in Hong Kong, and I take this opportunity of enquiring what your intentions are in that matter.

GOVERNOR,

I have, etc.,

(Sd.) P. CUNLIFFE-LISTER.

Sir WILLIAM PEEL, K.C.M.G., K.B.E.,

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

Appendix No. 7.

Letter from the British Commonwealth League to the Secretary of State.

BRITISH COMMONWEALTH League,

17 Buckingham Street, Adelphi, London W.C. 2. June 28th, 1934.

THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR THE COLONIES,

Colonial Office,

DEAR SIR,

Downing Street,

S.W. 1.

At its Tenth Annual Conference, during the session of June 14th, 1934, the British Commonwealth League passed unanimously the following resolution.

"This Conference of the British Commonwealth League notes with concern the failure of the present laws and regulations to effect the abolition of the Mui-tsai system in Hong Kong. It calls upon the Government to legislate further:

1. For the registration of all girls already purchased, under whatever name. 2. To prohibit the further purchase of girls for any purpose.

3. To institute a far more comprehensive inspectorate to include more women inspectors, with a view to the ultimate release in fact as opposed to theory, of all girls in the Colony who have been obtained by purchase."

232

The Conference was attended by representatives of forty-five women's societies, thus covering the organised groups of many thousands of women citizens, who feel very strongly on the matter of Mut-tsai, and regret that such resolutions are still necessary. I am asked to draw you attention to this strong feeling, and to ask you to take the action necessary to carry out the terms of this Resolution.

Very truly yours, etc., (Sd.) M. CHAVE COLLISSON, Hon. Political Secretary.

Appendix No. 8.

Letter from the Secretary of State to the British Commonwealth League.

33737/34.

MADAM,

Downing Srteet,

14th July, 1934.

I am directed by Secretary Sir Philip Cunliffe-Lister to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 28th of June and to inform you that he has noted the Resolu- tion passed at the Annual Conference of the British Commonwealth League.

2. Sir P. Cunliffe-Lister has no doubt that the British Commonwealth League: has informed itself of the effort which the Government of Hong Kong has made and is making in the matter of the Mui-tsai system amongst the Chinese community in that Colony, and of the recent statements on the subject which he has made from time to time in the House of Commons; and he will be glad to consider any reliable. evidence in support of the suggestions in their Resolution of the 14th June which may be in the possession of the League.

THE HONORARY POLITICAL SECRETARY, British Commonwealth League.

I am, etc., (Sgd.)

Appendix No. 9.

Letter from the British Commonwealth League to the Secretary of State.

BRITISH COMMONWEALTH LEAGUE, 17, Buckingham Street, Adelphi, London, E.C. 2. 24th July, 1934.

The UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE,

Colonial Office,

S.W. 1.

SIR,

No. 33737/34.

I have to acknowledge with thanks your letter of the 14th July.

The Secretary of State for the Colonies is correct in assuming that the British Commonwealth League has informed itself of the efforts of the Government of Hong Kong and of official statements made by the Home Government.

233

The matter has had the careful attention of the League for many years, and its members have sifted evidence received from a variety of sources with due regard to its reliability, and in relation to the official statements.

The Resolution was consequently based on the sincere conviction that the efforts. so far made are inadequate to deal with the situation, and the constructive side of the Resolution makes quite clear the further efforts which we believe to be neces- sary to secure the position referred to in the last sentence of the Resolution.

I beg to enclose the current issue of the "Slave Market News", in which the speech of the proposer of the Resolution is quoted verbatim. This speech contains actual facts in regard to the general situation which cannot fail to arouse serious misgivings as to the adequacy of the steps so far taken to abolish the Mui-tsai system in fact as opposed to abolition on paper or in theory.

I beg to remain, etc., (Signed) M. CHAVE COLLISSON,

Hon. Political Secretary.

Appendix No. 10.

Proclamation by Captain Elliott.

2nd February, 1841.

By Charles Elliot, Esquire, a captain in the Royal Navy, Chief Superintendent of the Trade of British subjects in China, and holding full powers, under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to execute the office of Her Majesty's Commissioner, Procurator, and Plenipotentiary in China.

The island of Hongkong having been ceded to the British Crown under the seal of the Imperial Minister and High Commissioner Keshen, it has become necessary to provide for the Government thereof, pending Her Majesty's further pleasure.

By virtue of the authority, therefore, in me vested, all Her Majesty's rights, royalties, and privileges of all kinds whatever in and over the said island of Hong- kong whether to or over lands, harbours, property, or personal service, are hereby declared proclaimed, and to Her Majesty fully reserved.

And I do hereby declare and proclaim, that, pending Her Majesty's further pleasure, the government of the said island shall devolve upon, and be exercised by, the person filling the office of Chief Superintendent of the Trade of British subjects in China for the time being.

And I do hereby declare and proclaim, that, pending Her Majesty's further pleasure, the natives of the island of Hongkong and all natives of China thereto resorting, shall be governed according to the laws and customs of China, every de- scription of torture excepted.

And I do further declare and proclaim, that, pending Her Majesty's further pleasure, all offences committed in Hongkong by Her Majesty's subjects, or other persons than natives of the island or of China thereto resorting, shall fall under the cognizance of the Criminal and Admiralty Jurisdiction presently existing in China.

234

And I do further declare and proclaim, that, pending Her Majesty's further pleasure, such rules and regulations as may be necessary from time to time for the Government of Hongkong shall be issued under the hand and seal of the person filling the office of Chief Superintendent of the Trade of British subjects in China for the time being.

And I do further declare and proclaim, that pending Her Majesty's further pleasure, all British subjects and foreigners residing in, or resorting to, the island of Hongkong, shall enjoy full security and protection, according to the principles and practice of British law, so long as they shall continue to conform to the authority of His Majesty's government in and over the island of Hongkong, hereby duly constituted and proclaimed.

Given under my hand and seal of office, on board of Her Majesty's Ship Wellesley, at anchor in Hongkong Bay, this second day of February, in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-one.

God save the Queen.

(Signed) CHARLES ELLIOT.

NOTE. This proclamation has often been considered by the Courts as if it were a fact of the Law of the Colony, or in support of the theory that Chinese law and customs are in some instance part of the law of the Colony.

Doubts are frequently expressed as to the correctness of the views of the Courts in these matters.

Appendix No. 11.

Extracts from Despatch from the Right Hon. the Earl of Kimberley to the Governor, Sir J. Pope Hennessy, K.C.M.G.

Downing Street,

1st March, 1882.

SIR,

15. But if children bought for adoption do not become slaves it is still true that there is in Hongkong a certain and perhaps a considerable number of children who have been the subject of what purported to be transactions of sale. I cannot doubt that in the majority of these transactions the sellers have believed they have validly sold, and the buyers that they have validly bought that for which money has passed, and the children themselves can scarcely help believing that they are in bond to their possessors. Such a system evidently requires most careful consideration, especially if Dr. Eitel's opinion be accurate (p. 14) that there is cause to believe that the abuses naturally connected with it tend to encourage kidnapping.

16. I put aside for the present the question of brothel girls. Their condi- tion and the means by which the supply is kept up are well known, and I do not find that any additional light is thrown upon them by these papers. The Ordin- ance No. 2 of 1875 has already made the sale or purchase of any woman or child, or the bringing into the Colony of any woman or child sold or purchased for purposes of prostitution, or the receiving or harbouring of any

of any woman or child known to have been so sold, a misdemeanour. I have also directed you in my - Despatch of July 26, 1881, to register brothel houses, and facilitate inspection of them, so that the inmates may have full opportunities of appealing in cases of wrongful treatment, or of their detention against their will, and I shall at any time. be most ready to consider any practical measures for bettering the condition of this unfortunate class which your local knowledge or that of any other gentleman on the spot may device.

235

17. The questions arising out of the condition of adopted children, or of child- ren employed in the domestic service, are more perplexing. It may be that these children also are adequately protected by the law as it stands. If a mistress beats her servant girl, or a man ill-treats his adopted son, the law is doubtless strong enough to punish his offence; and any charge of kidnapping would equally be dealt with by the Courts. The so-called sales are nullities; they do not either give the supposed purchaser any rights over the liberty of the child, or deprive the parent of his right to the custody, if he chooses to reclaim the child by the proper legal process; or deprive the children of the right to appeal to the law for protection against ill-treatment, in whatever form such ill-treatment may be found; and it is, I apprehend, open to anyone who can establish a prima facie case to show that a child is improperly detained, to sue out a Writ of Habeas Corpus requiring the child to be brought before a proper Court.

18. Still I cannot avoid the conviction that the position of the children now under consideration is one of peril which may require safeguards. It would be possible to provide that entering into any agreement, written or oral, by which the right of possession of a child purported to pass for a valuable consideration, should be a misdemeanour; but this would probably brand and punish as offences many transactions, advantageous to the child, both immediately and in after-life, and it would not reach such transactions when effected, as appears frequently to be the case, in the Empire of China, the child being subsequently brought into the Colony. Another course would be to make all such transactions misdemeanours unless they confirmed to certain specified conditions prescribed so as to secure, as far as pos- sible, that they should be for the welfare of the child. A third course would be to require all children taken into adoption to be registered, and thereafter subject to visitation, such as is voluntarily undertaken in the case of what has been called the gutter-children" of this city, who have been conveyed by charitable agencies to the dominion of Canada and there apprenticed.

19. But I am checked in the consideration of these and other propositions by my uncertainty as to the facts of the system of child adoption and domestic service as it prevails in Hongkong, which are represented with the greatest diversity by those who approve and disapprove of the system." I desire, therefore, that you will institute a full and trustworthy inquiry into the facts, forwarding to me as soon as it can be completed a report thereon; and I request that in connexion with such report the question may be considered whether any, and if so what, measures should be taken to remove any of the evils that may be brought to light by the in- quiry.

20. I have to add that the draft of this Despatch was submitted to the law officers of the Crown, who have informed me that the statement of the law on the subject as contained in it is correct.

Sir J. POPE HENNESSY.

I have, &c., (Signed) KIMBERLEY.

Appendix No. 12.

Extracts from Correspondence respecting Child Adoption and Domestic Service among Chinese (Including Mr. Russell's Report).

Presented to the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government, on the 7th January, 1887.

1814 1883

(C.S.O. 18)

Report on Child Adoption and Domestic Service Among Hongkong Chinese.

HONGKONG, 18th July, 1886.

In the correspondence respecting the alleged "Existence of Chinese Slavery in Hongkong," presented to both Houses of Parliament, by command of Her Majesty,

236

in March, 1882, Lord Kimberley, after referring to certain safeguards for the pro- tection of children in Hongkong, in a despatch to the Governor, states :-"But I am "checked in the consideration of these and other propositions by my uncertainty as "to the facts of the system of child adoption and domestic service as it prevails in "Hongkong, which are represented with the greatest diversity by those who approve "and disapprove of the system. I desire therefore that you will institute a full and "trustworthy inquiry into the facts, forwarding to me, as soon as it can be completed, "a report thereon, and I request that in connexion with such report the question may "be considered whether any and if so what measures should be taken to remove any "of the evils that may be brought to light by the inquiry." (Command paper 3185 of 1882, page 123).

In illustration of the diversity of opinion which prevails as to the facts, Lord Kimberley points out that "Sir John Smale never heard of a case of purchase for adoption in the Colony," whilst Dr. Eitel spoke of the demand for young children under the system of adoption and domestic service as being large at an average price of $40, and that Mr. Francis stated that boys are bought and sold in Hongkong for adoption."

In reporting upon the facts of child adoption and domestic service it may be convenient to group what observations I have to make under four heads, as follows-

Child adoption as existing among Chinese at Hongkong, male and female; abuses connected therewith.

Where the parents or guardian volun- tarily part

with their children.

f i.

i.

ii. Domestic service amongst Chinese living in Hongkong,

confined to females only; abuses connected therewith.

iii. Kidnapping; as partly chargeable to the Chinese system of

adoption or service.

iv. Suggestions for the prevention of abuses growing out of child

adoption and domestic service.

I.

Adoption of male children in China is founded on the necessity of having a male representative to perform sacrificial ancestral rites. So much is it so that if a man dies without male representatives as sons, natural or adopted, a son may be adopted for him by his people. The origin and reason of the requirement will be found fully described in a Chinese petition addressed to the Governor and in Dr. Eitel's learned paper on "Domestic Servitude in relation to Slavery." These documents are published at pages 44-57 of the Blue-book already referred to. The rule among the Cantonese when adoption is decided upon is to seek a nearly related male agnate of a generation younger, generally a nephew. The father as a rule will give any of his boys but the eldest. The second son is the one usually selected. The principal members of the clan are notified of the fact of adoption. Among near relatives no money appears to pass and no "deed of sale" or "deed of gift" is made. If, how- ever, the relations are very poor, a small sum of money may be given to the parents, called "compensation money for the expense of rearing the child," and in that case, a "presentation card" or paper reciting the transaction is given to the adopting parents, but there is no "deed of sale" properly so-called, as in the case of strangers, as will presently appear.

If the head of the family desires to adopt a male child as a son and is unable to obtain a relation, he is apparently at liberty to adopt a stranger-in-blood, for whom, however, he almost invariably pays a price. The stranger may be of the same surname, although of a different clan-if so all the better. A "deed of sale" is almost invariably executed and given to the new parents. The surname and name are changed and the clan is notified of the fact. A stranger thus adopted becomes entitled to the same rights and privileges as one adopted from among relatives.

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Adopted sons, whether relatives or strangers, have equal rights with natural- born sons, and if after adoption a son is born to the adopting parents the adopted son loses none of his rights, but shares equally in the patrimony with the natural-born

Sons take equal shares, whether by the lawful wife or by a concubine.

son.

The Fokienese, Hakka and Chin Chew people in the Colony are apparently not so tied down to seeking male relations for adoption as are the Cantonese.

Adoption of female children as daughters.

The system is conducted in the same manner as the adoption of males; but com- paratively few female children are adopted. They have equal rights with natural- born daughters. They are provided with a dowry when married, but, like natural- born daughters, they have no other claim on the inheritance. The daughter takes nothing by an intestacy. Every woman is supposed to get married; on doing so she "leaves the family" and is absolutely in manu of the husband, even to a power of sale.

It is to be feared, however, that a very considerable number of female children are adopted from amongst strangers, (and therefore with a money payment,) with the intent that they should ultimately become prostitutes. These children are called "pocket-daughters." Their so-called mothers are called "pocket-mothers". They are taught Chinese music, and are regularly trained for the profession of courtezans. At an early age they are the victims of debauchees, who "deflower them in sly brothels," paying the

paying the "pocket-mother" a large price, and the girl is thus launched on a brothel career. These young girls are said to be brought from Canton or Macao at the age of 13 or 14 years, "and are deflowered according to bargain and as a "regular matter of business for large sums of money, which go to their owners, "frequently it would appear their own parents. The regular earnings of the girls "go to the same quarter, and the unfortunate creatures obviously form subjects of "speculation to regular traders in this kind of business who reside beyond our juris- "diction." (See Hongkong

(See Hongkong Contagious Diseases' Commission, 1879, page 45).

II.

Domestic Service amongst Chinese.

The most careful inquiry shews that no male children are bought and sold here as slaves or servants, and confirms the statements in the Blue-book that "Boys are sold to be sons not slaves" and "that no such thing as a slave boy exists in Hong- kong." It might too with truth have been added "nor in Canton." By Chinese custom and usage, for the purpose of domestic service Chinese female children are often pledged with a power of redemption, but more frequently purchased out and out from poor parents. The price varies considerably. I have known of a young child being bought at Macao for a dollar. A "deed of sale,

A "deed of sale," or a "deed of gift" as it is more frequently called, is given to the purchaser. This "deed of gift" of course is a mere euphemism. It is a bill of sale, and purports to sell and convey a title with a warranty. Money is given as the consideration for the control of the services of the child, in most cases "for ever without redemption." The purchaser has a power of re-sale, although some dispute it. It is certainly exercised amongst the Chinese in the mainland, and occasionally in Hongkong. Their books have a common form of re-sale. (See appendix for a number of forms).

It is not within the scope of this Memorandum to discuss the question how far children of poor Chinese benefit by the existence of their custom of sale, or how far infanticide is checked thereby. That has been done elsewhere, and was the subject of debate in the House of Lords. (Hansard, vol. 253, page 398, of 21st June, 1880). But it is certain that the parents give for money and by deed or other written in- strument a complete power over their child, and purport to divest themselves of all control over its future. They make certain stipulations such as that when the girl grows up she shall be married. The Chinese Officials recognise these bargains of pledge and sale as binding, even, it appears, where the child has been previously stolen provided the purchaser has complied with the custom in getting a deed with

238

the go-between as witness and agent. They would restore a runaway purchased ser- vant to the vendee, as will be seen from the correspondence enclosed in a despatch to the Secretary of State in the time of Sir RICHARD MACDONNELL. (See 337 of 29th She July, 1867). In that case, a girl was the purchased servant of a Mandarin. was nearly 19 years. She came to Hongkong because she had been beaten, and the British Consul at the request of the Mandarins asked that she might be sent back, as the master had a "property" in her. The Governor very emphatically refused to recognise any such subject of property in this Colony, and said that as the girl was guilty of no crime, and wished to stay in Hongkong, he would not give her up.

The Canton authorities also demanded in 1869 the rendition of a girl 21 years of age and her father on the ground that the girl's father and grand-mother had be- trothed her in infancy. The girl was born in Hongkong. The father-a Chinese domiciled here and the daughter refused to carry out the engagement, because the intended husband was reputed to be a leper. The Canton authorities claimed her as "belonging" to the intended husband and his family. It is needless to say that the girl was allowed to exercise her own free will (see Governor MacDonnell's despatches to Secretary of State 790 of 1869 and 855 of 1870). The Governor very clearly laid down the principles which Englishmen maintain as to "holding property in persons" and what would be the conduct of the Government of Hongkong vis-a-vis China in such cases; and no chance has ever since been lost of bringing out the difference between our law and theirs, and of pointing out the uncompromising requirements of the English race on questions of personal liberty. The obligations cast by Chinese custom upon the purchasers of servants are only enforced by social sanction. They do not seem to be enforced by any positive law. It is said that good masters and good mistresses never sell their purchased servants as prostitutes nor sell them at all unless when compelled to do so by poverty, and then they sell them to good people. This would seem to admit the power to sell as prostitutes. By Ordinance No. 2 of 1875 any person who purchases or sells in the Colony for prostitution any woman or female child or brings into the Colony any woman or female child purchased or sold out of the Colony for the purposes of prostitution, or harbours or receives them knowing them to have been purchased or sold for such purpose, is liable to two years' hard labour, and on a second conviction the offender, if a male, may be flogged. In- deed, the provisions of this Ordinance for the protection of women and children are of the strictest nature. It was introduced in 1873 and amended in its present form (see Appendix L).

In Hongkong, transactions of pawning and sale of girls as domestic servants have taken place both before and since British Government was established here, and no doubt will take place to some extent in spite of all our efforts; for the system is a recognised institution among some 250 millions of people, and as long as the Colony, part of which is on the mainland of China, is peopled by Chinese, cases of buying and selling girls for purposes of domestic service, with some of the abuses inherent in the system, must necessarily occur. It is obviously impossible to get the Chinese public mind to see any great wrong in an institution which their books shew But it will be seen from the Blue- to have existed almost from time immemorial.

book already cited that the respectable Chinese here are most anxious to put down sales for prostitution. They think, however, that the advantages of their system. of adoption and child service much outweigh the evils attendant on it, and I take it from Lord Kimberley's speech in the House of Lords, 21st June 1880, and his pub- lished despatches, that Her Majesty's Government is satisfied that if there were pro- per guarantees against the abuses connected with the Chinese methods of adoption and of domestic service, the mere fact of a money payment would not be sufficient reason for proceeding otherwise than gradually against these systems, which are the natural concomitants of Chinese patriarchalism. There are signs, however, amongst the Chinese of what Sir Henry Maine calls "the movement from Status to Contract" and "the ideas of which the race is capable" shew themselves to be different from what they were when the eminent author of "Ancient Law" published that work. But, as already observed, no opportunity is lost

no opportunity is lost by the Officials of the Colony in proclaiming the rights of the Chinese here, the freedom of the sub- ject, man, woman and child. It is emphatically impressed upon the inhabitants, that the payment of money for a child confers no title, which English Officers will re-

239

cognise. Again and again has it been pointed out by the Judges of the Supreme Court, by the Magistrates, and Police Officers, that no valid claim can be set up to the custody of any person because of a money payment, and the grown up perman- ent residents of the Colony and its frequenters thoroughly know our laws on this point. Frequently, at the Police Courts and the Police Stations and at the Registrar General's office claims of right by purchase have been set aside accompanied by a strong admonition. If there was a breach of criminal law there has always been punishment; and although in the course of time, not far distant it is hoped, the knowledge of English laws and customs will permeate the neighbouring province and no claim by right of purchase will be thought of here, nevertheless, as Lord Kim- berley remarks, the position of the children now under consideration is one_of peril, which may require safeguards," (par. 18, page 123 printed papers). For undoubtedly there are children bought as servants, who are brought up by abandoned women with the ultimate object of prostitution either here or at the Straits Settle- ments. The American market is now no longer open: Young girls, brought up with the idea that they are the property of their "pocket-mothers" or mistresses (and that they are so the "pocket-mothers" and mistresses inculcate with much assiduity), cannot be expected to make much fight for liberty or virtue even if they all knew their rights. As a matter of fact the loyalty of these girls to their "pocket-mothers" or mistresses is such that often when they seek to be registered as prostitutes and are closely catechised as to their freedom, they will break into tears and protest that not only are they willing to become prostitutes but that it is their wish in order to provide for their mother or father or some near relations. The notion of duty of a Chinese daughter, natural-born or adopted, is that she must prostitute herself if the person in loco parentis indicates that it is expected. of her. Frequent reports have shown how difficult it is to get these girls to help themselves; and that although they knew they can claim their freedom, as a rule they feel that to do so would be dishonest to the women who had bought them at Canton and placed them in brothels. In recent years, however, an improvement has been apparent. The trouble that the Government has taken to explain the position of these unfort- unate women has not been in vain. In every room in every Chinese registered brothel in the Colony a printed notice is exhibited explaining that the girls are free, and that if they have been deceived, pledged, or sold they can always get their liberty at once. Every registered woman gets one of these papers. Their visitors see and read these papers to them, and some man who perhaps fancies one of these girls for a con- cubine tells her that she has only to go with him. He easily persuades her to leave; often abandons her afterwards, or perhaps he may induce her to go to the Straits Settlements ostensibly as his wife and sell her into a brothel there. But that many more of these women now leave the brothels than formerly without paying up their mistresses what they owe, or letting the pocket-mother know their intentions is un- questionable. The consequence is that the brothel keepers find that to advance money on a girl on a promise of brothel service is an unsafe security, and before long I believe no such advances will be made in Hongkong, a result greatly to be desired.

III.

Kidnapping partly chargeable to the Chinese systems of

Adoption and Domestic Service.

I have shewn in the foregoing paragraphs how by a fraud upon the parents the Chinese system of purchasing female children for adoption and domestic service is abused. My remarks have been directed to the training up of girls for prostitution and selling them into "brothel slavery" when the parents had voluntarily parted with their offspring in order to be daughters and servants, "to be provided with husbands when they came to woman-hood"; but there is yet another evil which the Chinese themselves admit their custom encourages. I refer to kidnapping. In China that crime is a capital offence. A kidnapper loses his head very promptly if caught and convicted on the other side of our boundary. In Hongkong the crime was found to be so common that in 1868 a law was passed which enabled the Supreme Court to flog

240

in addition to other punishments. That law had a very wonderful effect. It did not apply of course to women, and hence female child-stealers were more common than males.

Children are stolen (1°) to be ransomed.

(2°) to be sold.

When a child is missing the parents advertise in the public thoroughfares and offer rewards, and the person who has stolen the child or a confederate pretends to find the child and obtains the reward, or, what is more frequent when the children (whether males or females) are stolen from Canton or the country, the children are sold to be adopted sons or domestic servants. There are generally four or five per- sons engaged in this transaction. The child-stealer manages to get three or four old women to find out somebody who wants to buy a son or daughter or servant. The child has been carefully taught to call its kidnapper "mother" or "aunt"; or "father" or "uncle," if a man. The intending purchaser sees the child and in- quires how it comes to be sold. The go-between and other women vouch that it is owing to the poverty of the parents, and the child when questioned will repeat per- haps that its father is dead, and that the person offering it for sale is the mother. Grief at parting with the child is easily assumed to keep up appearances. A bill of sale is made out, the money is paid, and the kidnapper goes away with the proceeds. The old women who are invariably called in to help in the transaction get a dollar or two, and the purchaser, who may have bought the child according to Chinese custom in all good faith, finds himself in the hands of the Chinese Mandarins or, if in Hong- kong, at the Police Court. There is this difference, however, in the action taken before the different authorities. In China the child's parents cannot get back the child until the purchaser has been refunded what he has paid (I assume that the formal documents have passed); whereas in the English Court the purchaser is very lucky if he can prove that he believed he got the child from its legal custodians. case occurred in the beginning of this year, Wong a Hoi's case. in reference to a kidnapped or decoyed girl who was taken to Canton from here and sold for $65. A man who recommended the seller was also security as go-between. This Government applied to the British Consul to get the girl back. I gave a letter addressed to the Consul to a witness and the mother of the girl. An official from the Nam Hoi Magis- trate's Yamen went to the people who had the girl. The guarantor had to pay up the money and the girl was sent down here through the Consul. The Chinese authori- ties, I was informed, through the Po Leung Kuk, made the guarantor pay up before taking away the child. The fact therefore that the Chinese systems of adoption and service thus recognise money payments would seem to render Hongkong a desirable market, seeing moreover that the punishment here for kidnapping compared with that of China is of the mildest nature; and hence that crime would appear, at least to some extent, to be fostered and encourages by such systems being permitted here. There are checks and considerations, however, which counteract the evil, as will presently appear.

IV.

A

Suggestions for the better prevention of abuses arising from the Chinese systems of Child Adoption and Domestic Service; checks already existing.

The abuses arising from the Chinese system of child adoption and purchased service are therefore :-

1°. Fraud in causing females to be reared and pawned or sold as prostitutes when the parents parted voluntarily with their children for adoption or service.

2. Kidnapping of male and female children because they can be sold for con-

siderable sums of money.

I have tried to find out what is the number of children, male and female, in the Colony who are adopted sons and daughters and also the number of purchased ser-

241

vants, but although I have applied to many well-informed Chinese to give an ap- proximate number I cannot get them even to form a conjecture, and the Registrar General has been unable to get any approximation either. In the absence of a census it would be impossible to form a notion of their number and the Chinese say that even a census would not be reliable, for the respectable Chinese do not like to speak of their adopted children. They prefer that the adopted children should think that they are natural-born, and obviously the disreputable people would strive to keep from the knowledge of the authorities the nature of the relation existing be- tween themselves and female children who are being reared for an improper life. Therefore any estimates of the number which have been put forward by the various writers on this subject must be regarded as purely conjectural.

Although I have pointed out that Hongkong might be reckoned a suitable place for the operations of the kidnapping fraternity, nevertheless the checks now in force have made it an undesirable resort for them. The Government has been fully alive to the abuses connected with the system. The Imperial Act 24 and 25 Vict. C. 100 is in force here. In 1873, an Ordinance was passed for protection of women and children, and in 1875 it was found necessary to amend it-see Appendix. In addi- tion to these stringent laws the following existing safeguards are to be noted:-

1°. Increased knowledge on the part of the people of late years.

The per- manent residents know that they have no claim on a child which has been stolen and which they have purchased either for adoption or service under the belief that it was sold by its parents, and they also know the difficulty. in escaping from the penalties provided by the law against harbouring or receiving or buying or selling knowing the child to have been kidnapped. They also know that by English law the fact of money having been paid to a parent of itself gives no claim to the possession of the child even as against the parent who had received the money.

2o. Rewards are given by the Government for the detection of kidnappers, and

by the "Chinese Society for the protection of women and children."

3°. The system of photographing for purposes of identification in order to pre- vent personation of registered prostitutes and women and children who pass the Emigration office, and the promulgation of the fact that such a system exists.

4°. Every registered prostitute gets a paper in Chinese telling her of her free- dom and every room in every brothel has a notice affixed like the one annexed. (See Appendix).

The frequency with which steamers leave the Colony for Singapore and Penang led to much kidnapping of both young girls and women and children. Children were easily passed as those of Chinese returning to Singapore. Girls too and women were said to be personated before the Emigration Officer. Others who had been de- coyed were said to be put on board the steamer when the vessel was about to start. Other frauds of substitution were frequently reported. Having found the system of photographs very successful in preventing personation in the registered brothels the Government, on my recommendation last year adopted the same system with refer- ence to women and children about to emigrate. The system with intending emig- rants is as follows: A woman or child takes each two photographs to the Emigration Officer. He enquires as to their freedom. If they are passed one photograph is stamped, the name inscribed on it, and it is numbered. It is given to the emigrant. Duplicates are filed at the office and are preserved for three months. Any one who loses a child, wife, or sister can go to the Emigration Office and inspect the Albums. If the missing one is on board a telegram is generally sent to the Singapore Govern- ment asking that inquiries should be made. By an arrangement with this Govern- ment the Straits Government requires every woman and child to produce the stamped photograph, and the officer there would immediately detect the person presenting a wrong one. The Po Leung Kuk write on the 13th September, 1882, (See Re- gistrar General's letter of the 19th submitting a translation):-"We are of opinion that since its adoption (i.e., photographing brothel inmates) the number of young

242

people who are inveigled into the Colony or brought for the purposes of prostitution has gradually decreased." The Society highly approved of the extention to emigrants of the photographing system and made some suggestions which are adopt- ed. I also append returns of the number of cases of kidnapping, including illegal detention of women and children, and sales of women for prostitution and emigra- tion for the last 10 years. From these returns it appear that fewer persons have been convicted in 1882 than in any year since 1874 although the population has increased 25 per cent. Since then, and compared with 1880 the number of per- sons convicted of those crimes is as 29 is to 68; a very marked change. The number of persons convicted up to June 30th this year is only 4, and one extra- dition case to Singapore, and no case has been grave enough to send to Supreme Court. This result must be considered satisfactory.

In paragraph 18 page 123 of the Blue-book cited above Lord Kimberley partially discusses three different suggested remedies. His first suggestion is to make it a misdemeanour to purport to pass a child for money in the Colony. The objections to that change in the Criminal law His Lordship himself pointed out. I think they are almost fatal and that our present Criminal law goes as far as a general regard for liberty will permit. His Lordship's third scheme, namely, registration of adopted children, had been thought of and already suggested; but there are in my opinion insuperable objections to that plan. The best informed Chinese think so too; for it will be remembered that money always passes when strangers-in-blood are adopted, as well as in cases of domestic service. The regis- tration of such a transaction at a Government office would be at once construed as giving a good title in virtue of the money payment and it would be used against a child seeking its freedom. Frequently Chinese will come to the Registrar General's office and ask to have a transaction of sale into adoption witnessed with a view of having the fact recorded that a certain amount of money was advanced or paid. This is to preserve evidence in case a claim is made for the child. The danger therefore is that the Government would be compromised by countenancing in any way a transaction where money was paid for a child. I think, a modification of Lord Kimberley's second suggestion would be practicable, as it is based on the universal custom of giving security which prevails in China. It would work smoothly and probably accomplish much good. At all events it might be tried as an experi-

ment.

The scheme which I suggest is that power should be given to the Registrar General to summon before him suspicious persons who had "pocket-daughters" or female domestic servants, and in his discretion to call upon them to find reasonable security for their bona fides towards such children. The Registrar General should associate with himself say three or four members of the Po Leung Kuk—the Chinese society for the protection of women and children-who would advise him as a Consulting Committee. He should also have power to summon before him all women of disreputable character who kept girls between the ages of 8 and 16 inclusive by virtue of adoption or of purchase for domestic service. He should have power to require the attendance of the girls at his office before himself and the consulting Chinese Committee. He should be able also to summon persons as witnesses who could give information about either the children or their so-called owners. The girl could be instructed in her rights in cases of suspicion and shewn how she could be protected; and the woman put under a rule of bail to produce the girl when required. There should also be a power of appeal in a summary way to a Judge in Chambers against any order of the Registrar General, and the Registrar General should be empowered to apply to a Judge for a writ of Habeas Corpus with the view of taking away any child from the custody of persons who had no right to keep it, and whose retention of it militated against the child's in- terests. The Judge of course would be governed by the principles of English law and make such order as the best interests of the child demanded. The knowledge of the existence of such a power and its occasional exercise would, in my opinion, be most useful, and the leading Chinese whom I have consulted think it is the only practical method yet suggested which whilst not interfering with the respectable and settled population would be a very powerful aid towards suppressing the Tso Chu

243

fa nurseries for rearing up young girls for immoral purposes. The names of the consulting Chinese Committee should be approved by the Governor. The Com- mittee would have no executive power. Their function would be purely consultive. By way of further precaution, and for the better promulgation of our law of liberty, I think there might also be erected in some of the public thoroughfares on the borders of our territory on the mainland and near some of the Chinese wharves stone tablets with inscriptions to the effect that in British territory no such thing as slavery existed, and that all transactions of purchase and sale of children were null and void. Similar tablets might be placed at the Temples and Theatres and other places of public resort. The Chinese promulgate edicts by proclamation and have engraved on stone what they want to be permanent. I would suggest also that notice boards should be put up permanently in the River Steamers pointing out that every woman and child had a right to personal freedom and that no money bargain could be valid on English soil. On the steamers plying between Canton and here, and Macao and this port, and in the passenger steamers to the Straits Settlements such notices are posted up by the Emigration Officer warning people who go before him that they are free to refuse to go on board if they wish, and that they can complain to the officers on the ships or at Singapore. A more general statement of the rights of all persons might be prepared and painted on white boards. With these precautions in addition to those now in force, and a continued vigilant care on the part of all Judicial and Executive officers to promptly attend to all cases where there is any suspicion against the liberty of the subject, the abuses arising from the system of domestic service and adoption will be all but put a stop to, whilst the views of the Chinese-who are the bulk of the population-will be met, and their customs and usages maintained, (so far as is consistent with perfect freedom of the subject) as was promised them when Hongkong was erected into a Colony and they were invited to settle here.

To Recapitulate.

CC

or

1. It is shewn that child adoption in China and among the Chinese in Hong- kong is always accompanied by the payment of money and a deed of gift bill of sale when the adopted are strangers-in-blood; and that even money passes in the case of relatives if the parents of the adopted child are poor or not nearly re- lated to the adopting parents.

2°. It is shewn that male children are not bought and sold as servants in Hongkong nor in the Canton province, but that female children are disposed of for money by their parents according to Chinese usage and custom, and that the Chinese authorities recognise such sales as binding if executed with due formalities, whilst Hongkong treats all such transactions as null and void, giving no rights and conferring no title.

3°. It is shewn that the abuses arising from the Chinese system of money passing in the case of adoption and domestic service are:-

1°. Kidnapping to some extent.

2o. Brothel bondage; and that female children who are voluntarily parted with by their parents for daughters and servants may be sold as prostitutes by disreputable persons.

4°. It is shewn that claims set up by Chinese to ownership on the ground of purchase have been promptly set aside in Hongkong and the claimants punished for any assault or offence committed against the person claimed-and that no op- portunity has been lost of proclaiming the freedom of the subject.

5°. It has been shewn that the laws have been amended from time to time to the utmost limit to protect women and girls and children against forced or fraudulent emigration or sales for purposes of prostitution, (see Ordinance 2 of 1875, annexed)..

244

6°. It has been shewn that the supervision of brothels, the instructing the regis- tered women as to their rights, and the system of photographing registered pro- stitutes and women and children who intend to emigrate have done much good and that there has been an enormous reduction in the kidnapping cases and selling women for prostitution since the introduction of those measures, convictions being 29 persons in 1882 as against 68 in a former year, and only 4 up to the present date.

7°. It has been shewn that there are fatal objections to the registration of children purchased for adoption or domestic service, and it is suggested that the Registrar General and a Chinese Conimittee should investigate cases of a suspicious nature with power to call upon " pocket-mothers to give security for their bonâ fides towards " pocket-daughters ; also that the Registrar General should be able to apply to a Judge in Chambers for a writ of Habeas Corpus with the view of taking away from improper custodians a purchased child. It is also suggested that stone tablets stating the law of freedom on English soil should be erected in places of public resort.

J. RUSSELL.

Appendix to Report on Child Adoption and Domestic Service amongst the Hongkong Chinese.

A.-Form of transfer of a son for adoption, taken from "Book of Domestic

Rites."

B.-Letter of Instructions to an adopted son, stating how he was adopted.

C.-Deed of Sale, in the case of the adoption of a Stranger-in-blood.

D.-Bill of Sale where a boy was decoyed from Canton and sold in Kaulung. The Hawker's case, see page 33 of Blue-book C. 3185 of 1882, (two women sentenced to 18 months each).

E.-Deed of Sale of a daughter as a Servant, from "Book of Domestic Rites."

F.-Endorsement of Re-sale of a Servant, from "Book of Domestic Rites."

G.-Deed mortgaging a Daughter as a Servant.

H.-Deed of Sale of a Daughter as Servant, where same girl is transferred to an-

other, endorsement on the same paper.

I.—“Presentation Card" of a Daughter to be a Servant (Money passes, and the

term present is of course only a fiction).

J.-Bill of Sale put forward by a Claimant for a child.

K.-Sale of a grown-up daughter as a concubine from Sir T. Wade's Documen-

tary Series.

L.-Ordinance 6 of 1873, with statement of objects and reasons.

M.-Ordinance 2 of 1875, with statement amended.

{

N.-Notices to Registered Prostitutes, of their freedom on British soil however

they may have got there.

O.-Emigration Officer's Notices of photographs required to prevent personation of

Women and Children, who have duly passed for Emigration.

245

P.-Return of Kidnapping cases in Hong Kong from 1872 to June 30th, 1883, in-

cluding sales of women for prostitutes.

Q.-Return of Kidnapping cases in Hong Kong from January, 1883, to July, 1883.

including sales of women for prostitutes.

R. Notices on Steamers with view to prevent kidnapping into or from Hong-

kong.

A

Form from the Vol. 12 of " Ka-lai-tai-tsun " or Complete Set of

Domestic Rites "

TRANSFER OF A SON FOR ADOPTION.

This agreement is drawn up by

clan who has a second son

aged

a junior member of the years. A senior mem-

ber of the clan, being in want of posterity, selects (this son) to be his son. I

and my wife

do hereby give our consent to our second son going over to his family to be brought up by his wife in order to continue his family line. I have, this day, in conjunction with my wife, received dollars for nursing my son, who will this day enter the family, and will obey the directions of the senior member and his wife. When he has attained to manhood, he will be married, and his offspring will for ever be considered the des- cendants of the senior member. The family inheritance is not to be squandered nor wasted in profligacy by him, and no others are to usurp the same under my pretext whatsoever. This is agreed to by both parties. In future, I will neither go back on my word, nor instigate (the son) to rebel, nor to leave (the family of the senior member) with abundance after he came to it empty handed, nor will I de- part from what has been agreed on. But my desire is that he may have a continuous line of descendants. In proof whereof, this agreement is draw up.

Dated

Signed

Transferer of the son.

Signed

Nearest relatives.

Signed

Go-between.

Signed

Witness to the adoption.

Signed

Wife of the Transferor.

Signed

Elder brother of the son.

Form from Vol. 12 of the

<<

246

C

Ka-lai-tai-tsun Domestic Rites ".

دو

or

Complete Set of

DEED OF SALE OF A SERVANT.

and wife

3

the parties executing this deed who is at present

hour of

day of

moon.

of sale of a daughter, have a daughter named years of age, having been born. at She has not yet been betrothed to any one. Being poor, and finding it hard to earn our livelihood, and wishing to sell our daughter we have been introduced, through the agency of the go-between

who undertakes to purchase her. The price, which is dollars, has been paid to us this day,

to

,

and will be taken to our home to meet our wants. On the same day, the daugh- ter will go over to the house (of the purchaser), who will be at liberty to change her name, use her as a servant, and to betroth her when she is grown-up. If she should abscond, we the said

will co-operate (with the purchaser) in making search for her, and deliver her back (to the purchaser if found). If anything un- foreseen should happen to her, such will be held to be the will of Heaven. This is agreed to by both parties. The sum given above is the exact amount paid. This is not a case of giving her up as a set-off against a debt. In future, we cannot avail of any pretext to go back on our words, or redeem her. As a proof (of the transaction), this deed of sale is executed, and handed over (to the purchaser).

Dated

F

Signed

The party executing this deed of sale of a daughter.

Signed

Witness to payment and go-between.

Signed

Wife who has taken part in the sale and received the money.

Form from Vol. 12 of the " Ka-lai-tai-tsun

or

Complete Set of

Domestic Rites "

I

DEED OF RE-SALE OF A SERVANT GIRL.

have this

to

day of

moon of

year,

through the instrumentality of the go-between

re-sold this servant girl named

as a servant, for the sum of

taels, standard weight, as agreed upon in the presence of the three parties. I have, this day, in the presence of the go-between, personally received the money, and the servant girl is to go forthwith to the house (of the purchaser). The family of will be at liberty to change her name, and use her as a servant.

An additional proof.

This should be endorsed on back of the first deed of sale.

Form from the

247

G

Ka-lai-tai-tsun Vol. 12.

>

DEED PLEDGING A SERVANT.

and his wife deed pledging a daughter named hour of

day of

to

2

aged

the parties executing this

years, born at moon, who has not yet been betrothed. Being poor and not having enough for our daily wants, and being desirous of pledging our daughter, we have been introduced, through the agency of the go-between who undertakes to take her on pledge. The prin- cipal advanced on this day for the pledge is

taels in dollars, and interest is fixed at candareens

per tael

per mensem.

On the same date, (the daughter) will enter the house (of the person who is going to take her on pledge), and

mace will be paid for her maintenance every month. If the principal and interest due are not repaid in the course of a year, (the daughter) will be considered as sold, and cannot be redeemed. In proof hereof, this deed is executed, and handed over (to the person taking the daughter on pledge).

Dated

Signed

Mortgagor.

Signed

Witness to payment and go- between.

Signed

Wife who is a party to the pledging.

H

Deed of Sale of a Female Servant with power of redemption— endorsement of re-sale.

¿

and aged

This deed of permanent sale of a daughter is executed by Being poor, and in need of money to meet my wants, and having consulted my wife, I wish to offer for sale this daughter of mine named years, that I may meet my wants with the money paid for her.

At first my nearest relatives and neighbours were invited to purchase her, but they would not undertake to do so. She is afterwards, through the agency of the go-between,

introduced to

who undertakes to purchase her, and the price is fixed in the presence of three parties at 35 dollars. On this day, the deed is executed, the purchase completed, and the money paid to me the said who will take it home with his wife to meet his wants. After is at liberty to bring her up, and use her as a servant. When she is grown up,

will marry her to a proper person.

If anything unforeseen should happen to her, this will be held as the will of Heaven. But if there should be anything doubtful about her antecedents, this will be settled

the sale.

248

satisfactorily by

of

in conjunction with the go-between, it is no concern If I, the said

become rich, I shall be at liberty

to redeem her, on payment of a small sum for her subsistence per month (in ad- dition to the amount paid for her). This is agreed upon in the presence of three parties, and I shall not go back on my word. Lest a verbal agreement to held as insufficient evidence, this deed of sale of the daughter is expressly executed, and given to

as proof.

1. Sold a daughter named

hour of

2. Received from

aged

years and born at

of

moon.

the sum of

dollars weighing 7

mace 2 candareens each as price of a servant girl.

Dated 24th day of 3rd moon of the 11th year of Tung-Chi, (1872).

(Signed)

the party executing this deed of selling a

daughter.

's Finger mark (the wife of the above named

person).

's Finger mark (go-between and witness to

payment).

NOTE.The above translation is that of a document produced by a leading Chinese gentleman. The names are left out, but otherwise it is the copy of a deed held by him of a purchased girl. She was first sold under this deed at Macao, and then transferred to his family as per endorsement annexed in 1876. She is to be married next month to his valet, and will have a place of her own. The girl is absolutely free.

J.R.

Endorsement of re-sale of Servant on deed of 24th day of 3rd moon of the 4th year of Tung-Chi (1872).

This servant together with the (original) deed has this 20th day of the 1st moon of the 2nd year of Kwong Su (1876) been resold to

for the sum of 125 dollars in full weight and under the same conditions as specified in the said deed. This instrument, which is expressly made at the bottom of the deed, is given

to

as a proof.

Signed

The party making an instru- ment at the bottom of the original deed.

Finger-mark, go-between.

249

I

Presenting a Girl for money to be reared and employed as a Servant, with power of redemption.

in

This card of presentation is executed by

District, and wife

them. She is named

to

of

Village

who have a daughter born to Being poor, and finding it hard to earn our livelihood, and having consulted together, we wish to present this daughter of ours as a servant, who is good enough to pay us the sum of 40 dollars as a compensation for our trouble connected with her birth and rearing. When this girl arrives at womanhood,

will be at liberty to give her in marriage. If any accident should befall her, this will be held to be the will of Heaven, and we shall have no right to avail ourselves of the opportunity to extort money. If we should go back on our word, we must refund the money ($40), and besides pay to

one dollar and fifty cents for her sub- sistence per month, before the daughter can be taken back by us. We will not gainsay our word. This girl is really the daughter of the husband and wife who give her as a present, and has nothing to do with outsiders. This card of presenta- tion is executed and given as proof.

Dated the 8th day of the 8th moon of the 7th year of Kwong Su (30th September,

1881).

Signed

The party executing this card of presentation.

.'s

Finger mark, wife.

Signed

Witness.

CC

"

NOTE. The above translation is that of a document brought by the person who has the child. Of course this card of presentation is mere cover for sale. The child is well cared for and is perfectly free.

J.R.

I,

J

Translation of a bill of sale put forward by a Claimant at the Registrar

General's Office, Hongkong, 1882. The names are left out.

native of the Pi Sha of the Tung Kun District do clearly draw up this bond regarding the sale of my daughter. I, being in need of money and having consulted my wife, am willing to sell my second daughter to another family to act as a servant girl, and I have fixed the prices at thirty-two dollars exactly. Her name is

and she is six years old. She was born on the 2nd day of 2nd moon at Shan, time (6 a.m. to 8 a.m.). She was taken by the go-between

to the Shiu family for inspection, who were pleased with her, and at once offered a current price of thirty-two dollars exactly for her services as a servant girl. The said family and myself, having thoroughly understood and mutually agreed to the conditions of the bargain, have appointed a day for its

250

completion. My wife and myself have personally received thirty-two dollars exactly for the sale of the daughter. None of the dollars are broken and they are all of full weight. This bargain was publicly made. The girl was not given up in order to settle a claim nor was she abducted. In case of there being any uncertainty about the origin of the girl, the matter must be settled by the said father

and the go-between

The purchasers have nothing to do with this. I declare that I must take back the girl and return the money received for her if she is found to have been already betrothed or is suffering from leprosy. As re- gards other accidents which may befall her in future, we must all submit to the will of Heaven. We cannot avail of this opportunity to extort money. When she grows to maturity and is married to another family, her father and mother should be notified of it so that they might communicate with her. The masters are at liberty to re-sell her to another family for disobedience. There can be no impedi- ment to this. After the sale, the father and mother cannot have frequent inter- course with her without reason. The masters can give her any other name they please. Both parties have understood and agreed to this in the presence of the go- A bond, regarding the sale of the daughter, is drawn up on the same day and handed to the purchasers as a proof.

tween.

Signed

Go-between

Signed

10th day of 9th moon of the 13th Year of Tung Chi.

(Herewith Finger-mark).

The party making this Bond.

<<

66

66

$6

(c

K

From Sir Thomas Wade's Documentary Series of the "Tsz-urh-chi

SALE OF A DAUGHTER TO BE A CONCUBINE.

Ng Fung-ming, the party signing this deed of sale being in great poverty, has, through the agency of To I, sold his own daughter, Ng Ut-chan, aged seven- teen, to U-lo-ye, for a concubine. It having been agreed in the presence of the agent that the price to be paid for her should be six hundred taels, (about £200) and this sum having been paid in full in the presence of the agent, the purchaser is free, from the time of the sale, to take away the seller's daughter, namely Ng Ut-chan: nor will the seller or the seller's wife gainsay his right. These parties also agree once for all that they will never more hold intercourse with her, or visit her. If she infringe the regulations of U-lo-ye's household, he will be "free as head of the family to correct her; it will not be in her father's power to interfere. If she fall sick or die young, (it will be held to be) the will of "Heaven. For any intrigue or fraud (on the part of her parents), the agent To I will be responsible. This deed of sale is expressly executed last hereafter there should be no evidence of the sale. Signed with the finger mark of Ng Fung-ming and Ting his wife, being the parties executing the deed and by the agent To I."

NOTE. This woman would be called among foreigners the 2nd, 3rd, or 4th wife of Mr. U. The so-called 2nd, 3rd, and 4th wives are concubines and nothing else. A Chinaman has only one wife properly so-called. She often pro- cures the concubine for her husband; but the children are regarded as having equal rights with those of the "number one wife."

tr

J.R.

251

L

No. 6 of 1873.

An Ordinance enacted by the Governor of Hongkong, with the Advice of the Legis- lative Council thereof, for the better Protection of Chinese Women and Female Children, and for the Repression of certain Abuses in relation to Chinese Emigration.

M

No. 2 of 1875.

An Ordinance enacted by the Governor of Hongkong, with the Advice of the Legis- lative Council thereof, for the better Protection of Chinese Women and Female Children, and for the Repression of certain Abuses in relation to Chinese Emigration.

N

Without reference to nationality, all persons resid- ing on British Territory are free agents.

They cannot be under the restraint of others.

Women, if any of you have been kidnapped, pur- chased, seduced, deceived, or pledged for money, or have been compelled to swear before entering the brothels that you will act as prostitutes, which you now object to do, understand clearly that such compulsion is illegal, and that you are at liberty to come personally to this office, or to go to any police station and report the matter at any time you please. Your grievance will be at once attended to. If you want to leave the brothel, and make up your mind to go to a protector, abandoning prostitution, the Government will certainly let you do what you please, and will not allow you to be detained against your will. Be all of you then very watchful! Be not deceived by brothel-keepers! serve this notice.

Registrar General's Office,

June, 1882.

Ob-

O

The Emigration Officer gives notice that for the better protection of Emigrants, it is hereby notified that on and after the 1st proximo, women and children who are taken before him for the purpose of emigrating should be provided with one (sub- sequently altered to two ") photograph each.

If the woman or child is passed, the one (subsequently altered to "two") photograph will be stamped and given back to the Emigrant. The Emigrant will show this photograph to the proper Officer on board the vessel before departure, and again to the Protector of Chinese or proper Officer on the Emigrant's arrival at Port of destination.

Hongkong, 21st August, 1882.

(Signed) H. C. THOMSETT, R.N.,

Emigration Officer, &.

No. 189.

252

Governor Sir G. F. Bowen, G.C.M.G., to Secretary of State

for the Colonies.

Enclosure 1.

See (2).

Enclosure 2.

MY LORD,

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, Hongkong, 15th August, 1883.

In my despatch, No. 79, of the 22nd May ultimo, I stated that I had found that, before my arrival in this Colony, the Officer lately administering the Government (Mr. March) had entrusted Mr. Justice Russell (then Registrar General and Protector of the Chinese), with the duty of preparing the report on "the system of Child adoption and Domestic Service as it exists at Hongkong," for which Lord Kimberley had called in his despatch, No. 40, of the 18th March, 1882.

2. Mr. Russell's subsequent promotion to the Bench of the Supreme Court and the pressure of his official duties necessarily delayed the completion of the Report. But he has now placed it in my hands, and I have great pleasure in transmitting herewith printed copies of it.

*

14. With regard to Mr. Russell's practical suggestions for further exertions in the same direction, they meet with the hearty concur- rence of the present Registrar General and Protector of the Chinese, (Mr. Stewart). They have also been approved by myself and by the Executive Council; and I propose to take the necessary measures for carrying them into execution, subject to Your Lordship's sanction.

15. In conclusion, I would repeat the remarks made in a previous despatch to the effect that the English in Hongkong are in an utterly different position from that held by the English in India. In the latter country, we succeeded to the rule of great nations and countries which had already long before our arrival, attained to a high degree of civilized organization, and whose laws and institutions we were bound to respect and maintain, so far as they were not repugnant to humanity and to the imperial policy of England. But the island of Hongkong on the contrary, when annexed to the British Empire in 1843, was merely a barren rock, uninhabited save by a handful of fishermen and pirates. The Chinese Merchants and others who have since voluntarily sought the protection of the English flag are not, with few exceptions, native born, or naturalized British subjects, nor permanent residents in this dependency. The Chinese like the English and other Europeans, come here for a time, to make money, hoping to return ultimately to their native homes. They must be taught as I recently, with all courtesy, informed an influential deputation of the Chinese community, that if they deliberately choose for their own purposes, to dwell on British territory, they must, while entitled to the protection of the English laws, learn to obey those laws.

The Right Honourable

THE EARL OF DERBY,

&c., &c., &c.

I have, &c.,

(Signed) G. F. BOWEN.

i

253

(C.S.O. 2152/1883).

Registrar General to Colonial Secretary.

No. 73.

REGISTRAR GENERAL'S OFFICE,

Hongkong, 31st August, 1883.

SIR,

I have the honour to inform you that it was reported to me, last week, that Wong A-Ho, keeper of Registered Brothel No. 80, had a number of young girls in her private house, No. 233 Hollywood Road, right opposite the brothel. I ac- cordingly sent one of the Inspectors under the "Contagious Diseases Ordinances" to the house to ask that the children might be brought to see me. He returned with 17, of whom 14 were girls and 3 were boys.

2. Following the course recommended by Mr. Justice Russell in his recent re- port on Child Adoption and Domestic Service, I requested Mr. Leung A-On and Mr. Chan Kwan-I, of the Society for the Protection of Women and Children, to sit with me in investigating the case. They were good enough to attend at once, and the result was that we were unanimously of opinion that 11 of the girls, ranging in age from 16 to 7, whom Wang A-Ho claimed, had come into her possession by purchase. The other three girls were claimed by servants in the brothel as their own children, and we had no proof that this was not the case.

3. At the close of the investigation I ordered Wang A-Ho to find security in $500 for each of the eleven girls that she claimed; and the claimants of the other three security in $200 each. I also directed that the photographs of all the 14 should be brought to me in the course of this week, and I am able to report that that has now been done. I have also directed that the girls shall be brought to this office once a quarter, in order that I may see how they are being treated, and have an opportunity of repeating to them that in this Colony no one can under any circumstances arising out of Adoption or Service deprive them of their personal liberty.

4. I have acted in this matter in my capacity as Protector of Chinese, and probably the urgency of the case sufficiently justifies the course I have taken. I think, however, that it would be well to have legislative authority for such pro- ceedings, and I am at present sketching out a draft of an Ordinance to invest the Registrar General with all necessary powers, and to give persons who may consider themselves aggrieved the right of appeal from his decisions.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your most obedient servant, FREDERICK STEWART,

Registrar General.

THE HONOURABLE W. H. MARSH, C.M.G.,

Colonial Secretary,

&c., &c., &c.

1

(C.S.O. 2257/1883).

No. 83.

254

Registrar General to Colonial Secretary.

SIR,

See (2).

Enclosure

REGISTRAR GENERAL'S OFFICE, Hongkong, 13th September, 1883.

With reference to Mr. Justice Russell's Report of the 18th July last, on Child Adoption and Domestic Service among Hongkong Chinese, (page 8), and to my letter, No. 73, of the 31st ultimo, (C.S.O. No. 2152) regarding the 14th young girls found in No. 233 Hollywood Road. I have the honour to enclose, for the consideration of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government, a draft Ordi- nance conferring on the Registrar General the powers with which I think he should be invested in order to carry out effectually the scheme suggested by Mr. Russell.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

FREDERICK STEWART, Registrar General.

ENCLOSURE 3.

Report by the Attorney General.

The proposed measure provides that the Registrar General may summon before him any person whom he reasonably suspects of having in his custody any adopted daughter or female servant between the age of 6 and 16 with a view of disposing of her as a prostitute. There is no definition of what should constitute reasonable grounds of suspicion, and I think the provision confers too much arbitrary power to be exercised without the safeguard of publicity by the Registrar General.

The measure provides for the summoning of the kind of persons above mentioned and for calling upon them to give reasonable security against the pawning or selling of the child, but it does not say what shall be done with the person or the child if the security is not forthcoming, and indeed it is difficult to see what could be done in such

case.

Section 3 appears to give a very extraordinary power to the Registrar General to interfere with the domestic affairs of the Chinese population and a kind of power which could not possibly be efficiently exercised by a Government department especi- ally as nothing is provided touching what is to be done with a child who has been set free under the provisions of the section.

Section 4 is objectionable as giving the judges duties and powers which are in no proper sense of the word judicial.

May 18th, 1885.

EDWARD O'MALLEY.

i

[

Hongkong.

No. 51.

255

Secretary of State to Governor Sir G. F. Bowen, G.C.M.G.,

Hongkong.

SIR,

DOWNING STREET, 12th September, 1885.

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch, No. 243, of the 26th of May last, submitting for my consideration a Bill "for the prevention of abuses connected with Child Adoption and Domestic Service," together with a Report by the Attorney General, objecting to the proposed measure on various grounds and suggest- ing that the existing laws on the subject afford sufficient protection.

2. In the absence of further and more convincing arguments than those at pre- sent before me, I am not prepared to sanction the abandonment of the proposed Ordinance; and I should be glad, if possible, to ascertain the views of some of the leading Chinese in the Colony and of the Po Leung Kuk in regard to the Bill.

3. The draft Ordinance embodies the suggestions made by Mr. Rusell in his Report of 18th July, 1883, (pp. 8 and 9), which were apparently not opposed by the leading Chinese, and were supported by yourself and your Executive Council (as re- ported in your despatch, No. 189, of 13th August, 1883), and were approved by my predecessor. I am not in possession of any information, which would lead me to suppose that circumstances have altered since 1883, so as to render an Ordinance of this kind less necessary or less desirable.

4. The general objection that the Ordinance will put arbitrary powers in the hands of the Registrar General is a serious one; but it may probably be met by mak- ing some amendments in the draft.

5. Taking the specific objections which the Attorney General raises in order: (1) "There is no definition of what should constitute reasonable grounds of

suspicion."

It would not be impossible to formulate some sort of definition, and before proceeding with the Bill perhaps you will call upon the Attorney General to draw up such a definition, to be embodied in Section 1.

(2) "I think the provision confers too much arbitrary power to be exercised with- out the safeguard of publicity by the Registrar General'. I would suggest for your consideration that the required safeguard might perhaps be ob- tained by providing in the Ordinance some means for adopting the proposal made by Mr. Russell in the Report, above referred to, that certain members of the Chinese Society for the Protection of Women and Children should be associated with the Registrar General as a Consulting Committee.

GOVERNOR SIR G. F. BOWEN, G.C.M.G.,

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

(3) "It does not say what shall be done with the person or the child if the.

security is not forthcoming, and indeed it is difficult to see what could be done in such case.

""

But it appears to me that in that case the child could be taken away from the person, with whom she is living, under the provisions of Section 3.

(4) In regard to the objection that this Section 3 involves too great interference "with the domestic affairs of the Chinese population," I am of opinion that this might be met by the association with the Registrar General of some

6.

256

members of the Chinese Society for the Protection of Women and Children, as above suggested. Such Association would at the same time solve the difficulty as to "what is to be done with a child who has been set free under the provisions of this section," for the rules of the Society expressly pro- vide for the care and disposition of such children.

With regard to the Attorney General's objection to the provisions of Section 4, I am not of opinion that it is of sufficient weight to prevent this section being enact- ed as part of the Bill.

7. Evils of the kind dealt with in this draft Ordinance should, in my opinion, be opposed by giving strong powers to the Executive; and the abuse of such powers may be prevented by giving the greatest possible publicity to what is done. The desired publicity would to some extent be obtained by associating the Chinese Committee with the Registrar General; and the latter might also be required to make periodical re- ports to the Governor of all action taken under the Ordinance, which reports might, if thought desirable, be published.

I have, &c.,

(Signed) FRED. STANLEY.

· A BILL.

ENTITLED.

An Ordinance for the better protection of young Girls.

Whereas it is expedient to prevent adopted children and female servants being brought up in the Colony for the purpose of prostitution: Be it enatced by the Gov- ernor of Hong Kong, with the advice of the Legislative Council thereof as follows:-

1. On any complaint being made to the Registrar General that any female child between the ages of six and sixteen years is in the custody or under the control of any person in the Colony with the view being trained or disposed of as a prostitute, it shall be lawful for the Registrar General to summon before him such custodian re- quiring at the same time the production of the said child, and to make full inquiry into the said complaint.

2. The Registrar General may associate with him in the said inquiry or two or more Chinese Justices of the Peace or such other Chinese persons as may from time to time be designated by the Governor, and if after due inquiry he is satisfied that the child is being trained as a prostitute, or that it is the intention of the custodian thereof to dispose of the said child as a prostitute, it shall be lawful for the said Registrar General to make an order for the proper custody of the said child, or if the said Registrar General should think fit to leave the said child with the said custodian, and he may require the later to furnish such security in such an amount, with such sureties as he shall deem fit for the proper care and bringing up of the said child:

The Registrar General may also call upon the said party to furnish him with a photograph of the said child.

3. If any person who has received such notice shall not appear, and produce the said child, and shall not satisfactorily account for such default the Registrar Gen- eral may sentence the party so making default to a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars, and in default of payment may order that the said party be imprisoned with or without hard labour for any period not exceeding six months.

257

4. Whenever the Registrar General shall have reason to believe that any female child under the age of sixteen years has been purchased and brought into the Colony for the purpose of emigration, it shall be lawful for the Registrar General to summon before him the custodian of the said child as provided for by section 1 of this Ordin- ance, and to deal with the case and make such order for the proper custody of the child as the circumstances of the case may require, and in case the said party shall refuse or neglect to obey the said summons, he shall be liable to the penalties mention- ed in section 3.

5. It shall be lawful for the Registrar General by notice in writing under his hand, to summon before him any person who he believes can give information respect- ing any such female child, or its treatment by its adopted parents, custodian or em- ployer, and any person disobeying such notice, and not giving satisfactory reason for such default shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding two hundred dollars or in de- fault thereof to imprisonment with or without hard labour for any period not exceed- ing three months.

6. Whenever the Registrar General shall have reason to believe that

any female child between the ages of six and sixteen years is in the custody, power or posssesion of any person who has no legal right to such custody, and that it is prejudical to the interests, and liberty of such child that she should continue in the custody of such person, it shall be lawful for the Registrar General to make application to a Judge in chambers for a writ of Habeas Corpus.

On the return of the said writ the said Judge shall make such order respecting the custody, education, and bringing up of the said child, and on such condition as he shall deem best in the interest of the said child.

7. Any person aggrieved, or affected by any order or certificate of the Registrar General under this Ordinance may within one week from the date of such order, or certificate, appeal in a summary way to a Judge in chambers against any such order or certificate.

The said appellant shall give notice in writing to the Registrar General of his in- tention to appeal and the said Registrar General shall forthwith transmit to the said Judge the notes of any evidence taken by him, and the reasons for his decision.

The said Judge may upon the receipt of the notes and reasons confirm the said order or certificate, amend or annul the same, or may refer the matter back to the said Registrar General for further evidence, or may order the attendance of the par- ties before him, and may thereupon make such order as the justice of the case may require.

8. In any case where it shall be made to appear to the Registrar General that any person having furnished security under this Ordinance is not faithfully carrying out or performing the same, it shall be lawful for the Registrar General to call upon the said preson and the sureties to shew cause why the said recognizance should not beestreated, and if on hearing the said parties or in their absence if they do not ap- pear, the Registrar General be of opinion that the said bond has not been duly and faithfully performed, or that any of its conditions have not been fulfilled, he shall cer- tify the same to one of the Judges of the Supreme Court, and on written application made to that effect the said Judge may order the said bond to be estreated, or may make such other order as to him shall appear just, and if the said

hond be estreated the said Judge shall order that execution do issue forthwith thereon, provided always that it shall be competent for the said Judge before making any order on the said application to require the appearance before him of the parties to the said bond.

9. In any action which may hereafter be entered for the recovery of any sum due on any bond or recognizance which before the coming into operation of this Ordi- nance has been entered into before the Registrar General with respect to the custody, maintenance or giving in marriage of any female child, it shall not be necessary for the plaintiff in such action to allege or to prove that any consideration was given for

258

the said bond or recognizance, and it shall not be competent for the said defendant to allege in defence that the Registrar General has no authority or power to require such bond from him, or that consideration was given for the same.

10. It shall be lawful for the Governor in Council to make and when made to alter, amend, or revoke all Rules and Regulations necessary for the efficient working of this Ordinance.

11. The said Rules may provide for the presence at all enquiries to be hold by the Registrar General under this Ordinance, of any two or more Chinese Justices of the Peace, they shall also regulate the mode of holding such inquiries and whether the same shall be held in public, or in presence only of the parties interested.

12. The forms contained in the Schedule to this Ordinance shall be the forms to be used when required under this Ordinance.

SCHEDULES.

Appendix No. 13.

Section 32 of the Protection of Women and Girls Ordinance No. 4 of 1897.

PART II.

Powers of Secretary for Chinese Affairs.

32. No parent or person acting in the place of a parent who has voluntarily parted with a girl for the purpose of adoption into another family, or who has re- ceived money for parting with the custody of such girl for any purpose, shall be deemed to be entitled as of right to the custody of such girl as her parent or as the person acting in the place of her parent, and the legal guardianship of such girl shall be vested in the Secretary for Chinese Affairs who may take such action as he thinks best to secure her welfare, and he may require any person in whose charge he shall place the girl to enter into a bond with one or more sureties to treat the girl well and to produce her before him whenever he shall so require.

In case it shall be proved to his satisfaction that any girl has not been treated properly by the person in whose charge she is and that she is unwilling to continue to remain in his charge, it shall be lawful for the Secretary for Chinese Affairs to call upon such person to produce proof to his satisfaction that he is the legal guardian of the girl, and failing the production of such proof the Secretary for Chinese Affairs shall be deemed to be her legal guardian.

Appendix No. 14.

Female Domestic Service Ordinance 1923 and Regulations as Amended to June 1935.

*

259

No. 1 of 1923.

An Ordinance to regulate certain forms of female domestic service.

PART I

(15th February, 1923.)

(Originally No. 1 of 1923. Law Reg. Ord., 1924,

No. 22 of 1929.)

1. This Ordinance may be cited as the Female Domestic Service Short title. Ordinance, 1923.

2. Whereas certain persons have erroneously supposed that the Declaratory payment of money to the parent or guardian or employer of a female clause. child, such payment purporting to be in return for the transfer of certain parental rights, may confer certain rights of property in the child and certain rights of retaining possession, custody, and control of the child as against the child's parent or guardian, and as against the child herself, it is hereby declared and enacted that no such pay- ment can confer any such rights whatsoever upon the person making such payment or upon any other person.

3. In this Ordinance,

(a)

"Muitsai" includes-

every female domestic servant whose employer for the time being shall have made, directly or indirectly, within or without the Colony, any payment to any person for the purpose of securing the services of such female as a domestic servant;

(ii) every female domestic servant whose employer for the time being shall, within or without the Colony, have acquired the custody, possession or control of such female from, or upon the death of, any former employer who made any such payment as aforesaid.

(b) "Prescribed " means prescribed by regulations made upon this Ordinance.

Interpretation.

tsai.

4. No

PART II.

No person shall hereafter take into the employment any Mui- No Muitsai to be

engaged hereafter. No unregistered Muitsai to be

Colony.

4A. No person shall hereafter bring or cause to be brought any brought into the Muitsai into the Colony unless such Muitsai has previously been in the Colony and has been registered under this Ordinance.

(1.11.29).

5. No person shall hereafter take into his employment any female No female domestic servant under the age of ten years.

domestic servant

under ten to be engaged hereafter.

6.—(1) No employer of a Muitsai shall over-work or ill-treat Treatment of such Muitsai, or subject such Muitsai to any punishment to which such Muitsai. employer might not reasonably subject his own daughter.

(2) Every employer of a Muitsai shall provide such Muitsai with sufficient food and clothing of a reasonable kind, and, in case of illness, with such medical attendance as such employer might reasonably have been expected to provide for his own daughter.

(ss. 7 and 8 rec. No. 22 of 1929.)

No Muitsai to be transferred here- after from one employer to

another except on

death of the former employer.

(1.11.29).

Restoration to

parent of guardian.

Right to apply to

the Secretary for Chinese Affairs.

(1.11.29).

260

9.-(1) No Muitsai shall hereafter be transferred from one em- ployer to another : Provided that upon the death of the employer of any Muitsai it shall be lawful for the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, subject to the provisions of section 10, to make any order which he may think fit regarding the transfer of such Muitsai to a new em- ployer.

(2) Every person who after the 14th day of February, 1923, shall become the actual employer of the Muitsai by reason of the death of the former employer of such Muitsai, or for any other reason, shall report such fact in the prescribed manner within one week after he shall have become the actual employer of such Muitsai.

10. Any Muitsai who wishes to be restored to the custody of her parent or natural guardian, and any Muitsai under the age of eighteen years whose parent or natural guardian wishes such Muitsai to be restored to his custody, shall, without any payment whatsoever, be restored to such custody unless the Secretary for Chinese Affairs shall see some grave objection in the interest of such Muitsai to such

restoration.

11. Every Muitsai shall, as hitherto, have the right to apply to the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, and upon any such application it shall be lawful for the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, subject to the provisions of section 10, to make any order which he may think fit regarding the custody, control, employment and conditions of employ- ment of the applicant.

Regulations.

Registration.

*

PART III.

12. (1) It shall be lawful for the Governor in Council to make regulations for the following purposes:-

(a) the registration of Muitsai and the keeping of such registers up to date;

(b) the remuneration of Muitsai;

(c) the inspection and control of Muitsai and former Muitsai; and (d) generally for the purpose of carrying out the policy of this Ordinance.

(2) All regulations made under this Ordinance shall be laid on the table of the Legislative Council at the first meeting thereof held after the publication in the Gazette of the making of such regulations, and if a resolution is passed at the first meeting of the Legislative Council held after such regulations have been laid on the table of the said Council resolving that any such regulation shall be rescinded,. or amended in any manner whatsoever, the said regulation shall, with- out prejudice to anything done thereunder, be deemed to be rescinded, or amended, as the case may be, as from the date of publication in the Gazette of the passing of such resolution.

13.-(1) Every person who at the coming into operation of this Part shall have a Muitsai in his employment in the Colony shall re- gister such Muitsai in the prescriber manner within six months after the coming into operation of this Part.

*As amended by Law Rev. Ordinance, 1924. (1.11.29).—As amended by No. 22 of 1929.

261

(2) No person shall without lawful authority or excuse have in (1.11.29). his employment, custody or control any unregistered Muitsai.

(3) It shall be lawful for the Secretary for Chinese Affairs in his absolute discretion to refuse to register any particular Muitsai and to remove any particular Muitsai from the register.

14. Subject to the period allowed for registration, and subject to No person to have the provisions of section 9, no person shall have in his employment an aritsai in his

an unregistered unregistered Muitsai.

15. Subject to the period allowed for registration, and subject to the provisions of section 9, no person shall have in his employment any female domestic servant under the age of ten years unless such servant is a registered Muitsai.

employment.

No person to have in his employment any female domestic servant under ten, except a registered Muitsai,

16. Every Muitsai of or over the age of ten years shall be entitled Remuneration of to such wages for her services as shall be prescribed.

Muitsai.

17. This Part shall not come into operation until such date as Coming into may be fixed by proclamation of the Governor in Council.

Operation of Part III. (1.12.29).

PART IV.

18.-(1) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), every General penalty. person who contravenes any of the provisions of section 6 shall upon (1.11.29). summary conviction be liable to a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars and to imprisonment for any term not exceeding six months.

(2) In every prosecution under section 6 the magistrate shall find whether the acts or omissions proved, if any, amounted to gross cruelty, and if in his opinion they amounted to gross cruelty the offender shall not be given the option of paying a fine but shall be sentenced to imprisonment for any term not exceeding one year.

(3) Every person who contravenes any of the provisions of this Ordinance other than those of section 6, and every person who con- travenes any regulation made under this Ordinance, shall upon sum- mary conviction be liable to a fine not exceeding two hundred and fifty dollars.

19. No prosecution under this Ordinance shall be commenced Consent. without the consent of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs.

20. In any prosecution under section 6 it shall be lawful for Frocedure. the magistrate to convict of common assault if he finds that an assault (1.11.29). was committed but does not find that the girl in question was a Mui- tsai.

21. In every prosecution under this Ordinance it shall until the Onus. contrary is proved be presumed that the girl in question was a Mui- (1.11.29). tsai in the employment of the accused at the time of the alleged offence, and this onus shall not be deemed to be discharged by mere proof that the girl was described in any transaction by some term other than Muitsai.

*As amended by Law Rev. Ordinance, 1924. (1.11.29).-As amended by No. 22 of 1929.

(1.12.29). In operation by Froclamation No. 2 of 1929.

.

Age.

(1.11.29).

Saving. (1.11.29).

262

22. In every prosecution under this Ordinance, whether evidence be called on the question of age or not, any girl who appears to the magistrate to be of or under or over any particular age shall, unless the contrary is proved, be deemed for the purposes of such prosecution to be of or under or over such age as the case may be.

23. Nothing in this Ordinance shall affect any right of guardian- ship already vested in the Secretary for Chinese Affairs by virtue of the provisions of the Protection of Women and Girls Ordinance, 1897, or hereafter vested in him by virtue of the provisions of the Protection. of Women and Girls Ordinance, 1897, as amended by the Protection of Women and Girls Amendment Ordinance, 1929: Provided that in Ordinance No. 21 exercising any such right of guardianship the Secretary for Chinese Affairs shall comply with the provisions of section 10 of this Ordinance.

Ordinance No. 4 of 1897.

of 1929,

Admissibility of register, etc.

(1.11.29).

24. (1) In any proceedings whatsoever, whether under this Ordinance or not, the following shall be admissible in evidence upon production:

(a) any register, or any part of any register which appears to be kept under this Ordinance;

(b) any extract from any such register purporting to be certified as correct by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs or Assistant to the Secretary for Chinese Affairs.

(c) any photograph or finger prints which appear to have been taken for the purpose of any such register.

(2) If any such photograph appears to have a serial number, and if the said serial number occurs in some part of any such register as apparently assigned to some particular Muitsai, it shall, until the contrary is proved, be assumed that the photograph in question is the photograph of the Muitsai indicated by the said serial number.

(3) If any such finger prints appear to have a serial number, and if the said serial number appears in some part of any such register as apparently assigned to some particular Muitsai, it shall, until the contrary is proved, be assumed that the finger prints in question are the finger prints of the Muitsai indicated by the said serial number.

(s. 12.)

Regulations.

*(1st Dec., 1929.)

G.N. No. 568 of 1929.

G.N. No. 273 of 1930.

G.N. No. 519 of 1930.

G.N. No. 550 of 1931.

G.N. No. 424 of 1935.

(9.5.30).

Registration.

1. Registration may be effected at the office of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, or at the office of the District Officer at Tai Po, or at any police station, or at the Tung Wa Hospital, or at the Kwong Wa Hospital. The register shall be kept by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs.

(1.11.29). As amended by No. 22 of 1929.

*Published in the Gazette of 8th November, 1929, as G.N. No. 568. (9.5.30). As amended by G.N. No. 273 of 1930.

263

2. The particulars required on registration shall be those specified in Appendix A, so far as they can reasonably be ascertained, and the finger prints of the Muitsai shall be recorded in the register.

3. The registration form, when filled up, shall be read by or to the employer, or shall be interpreted to him if he is unable to read or understand English sufficiently well, and shall be signed by the employer.

4. As soon as may be after registration, identification tickets, in English and Chinese, for the purpose of facilitating future refer- ence shall be given to the employer and to the Muitsai, and the said tickets shall be carefully preserved by them and shall be produced by them on the occasion of any subsequent application or report. The ticket given to the employer and to the Muitsai shall be in the form given in Appendix B.

5.-(1) The employer shall make and sign a report upon :- (a) the death of the Muitsai;

(b) the disappearance of the Muitsai;

(c) any intended removal of the Muitsai from the Colony whether

temporarily or permanently;

(d) any change whether temporary or permanent in the address

at which the Muitsai or the employer resides;

(e) the intended marriage of the Muitsai.

(2) Any such report may be made at the office of the Secretary (22.8.30). for Chinese Affairs, or at the office of the District Officer at Tai Po, or at any police station, or at the Tung Wa Hospital, or at the Kwong Wah Hospital, provided that if no identification ticket is produced any such report must be made at the office of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs.

Change in actual employer, owing to death, etc.

6. Any report as to the change in the actual employer of a Muitsai, by reason, may be made at the office of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, or at the office of the District Officer at Tai Po, or at any police station. The Muitsai must be produced on any such report.1

Remuneration of Muitsai.

7. Every Muitsai of or over the age of 10 years and under the age of 15 years shall be entitled to wages at the rate of one dollar per month, and every Muitsai of or over the age of 15 years shall be entitled to wages at the rate of one dollar and fifty cents per month."

1

See also section 9 (2) of Ordinance No. 1 of 1923, which reads as follows :- 9 (2) Every person who after the 14th day of February, 1923, shall become the actual employer of a Muitsai by reason of the death of the former employer of such Muitsai, or for any other reason, shall report such fact in the prescribed manner within one week after he shall have become the actual employer of such Muitsai.

(22.8.30).-As amended by G.N. No. 519 of 1930.

2

See also section 6 (2) of Ordinance No. 1 of 1923, which reads as follows :— 6 (2) Every employer of a Muitsai shall provide such Muitsai with sufficient food and clothing of a reasonable kind, and, in case of illness, with such medical attendance as such employer might reasonably have been expected to provide for his own daughter.

(4.9.31).—As amended by G.N. No. 550 of 1931.

264

Production of Muitsai.

8. The employer of any Muitsai shall produce such Muitsai, whenever called upon by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs to do so, at any place and time specified by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs.

(4.9.31).

(4.9.31).

(4.9.31).

(4.9.31).

(4.9.31).

(4.9.31).

Inspectors, &c., of Muitsai.

9. The inspection and control of Muitsai shall be carried out and undertaken by officers appointed by the Governor to be Inspectors of Muitsai.

10. The powers of every such inspector shall be as follows:-

(a) to enter, during the daytime, the domestic and other premises of the employer of any Muitsai for the purpose of ascertaining parti- culars of the services performed by and of the condition and treatment of any such Muitsai.

(b) to enter, at any time of the day or night, any premises what- soever in which such inspector has reasonable cause to suspect or believe that any Muitsai is concealed, or detained, or overworked, or ill-treated, or ill-conditioned, or misused, or uncared for, or is in need of protection, care or succour, or medical or other attention or assistance.

(c) to interrogate any Muitsai or suspected Muitsai, and if he con- sider that the circumstances so required, to cause her to be medically examined.

(d) to take any Muitsai or suspected Muitsai to the office of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs for the purposes of investigation and inquiry.

(e) to require any person, whether the employer or not, to give and provide all reasonable facilities, information and assistance to any such inspector in the carrying out of his duties and powers.

11. Every person shall comply with all reasonable requirements of any such inspectors.

12. These regulations shall be sufficient authority for the exercise by any such inspector of his powers under these regulations; no warrant shall be necessary or required, but upon the request of the owner or occupier of any premises entered, or of any person of whom he shall make any requirement, he shall produce his appointment if so requested.

13. In the exercise of any of such powers an inspector may be accompanied by not more than three persons approved in writing in that behalf by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs.

14. The foregoing regulations 9-13 in no way supersede or over- ride any power or authority of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, or of any other officer or authority.

A:

(4.9.31). As amended by G.N. No. 550 of 1931.

265

Appendix A.

Registration Form.

ORDINANCE No. 1 OF 1923.

Serial number.

Date of registration.

Name of Muitsai in English and Chinese.

Address at which Muitsai resides.

Age of Muitsai (1).

Name of father of Muitsai in English and Chinese.

Name of mother of Muitsai in English and Chinese.

Native place of Muitsai.

Name of employer in English and Chinese.

Address at which employer resides (2).

Occupation of employer.

When Muitsai first employed by present employer.

Interpreted by

Signature of employer.

(1) The date of birth must be given if known. If only the age is given it should be stated whether it is given according to Chinese or English reckoning.

(2) To be given only if different from the address of the Muitsai.

Name of employer

Name of Muitsai

Serial No.

Appendix B.

Identification Ticket.

ORDINANCE NO. 1 OF 1923.

NOTE. According to the law of Hong Kong, children cannot be bought or sold, and the payment of money cannot confer any rights whatsoever of property or possession over any child.

266 -

Appendix No. 15.

Insertion of New

section 45A in Ordinance No. 2 of 1865.

Section 45(a) of the Offences Against the Person Ordinance, 1865.

3. The following section is inserted in the Offences Against the Person Ordinance, 1865, immediately after section 45:-

Certain transactions with regard to minors prohibited.

45A.-(1) Every person who takes any part, or attempts to take any part, in any transaction the object or one of the objects of which is to transfer or confer, wholly or partly, the possession, custody or control of any minor under the age of eighteen years for any valuable consideration shall be deemed to be guilty of an offence against this section, unless such person proves beyond reasonable doubt that the trans- action was bona fide and solely for the purpose of a proposed marriage, or adoption, in accordance with Chinese custom.

(2) Every person shall be deemed to be guilty of an offence against this section who without lawful authority or excuse harbours or has in his possession, custody or control any minor under the age of eighteen years, if any person has, within or without the Colony, purported to transfer or confer the possession, custody or control, wholly or partly of such minor for valuable consideration after the 6th day of September, 1929.

(3) It shall be lawful for a magistrate to find the age of any minor brought before him with respect to whom an offence against this section is alleged, whether evidence of age be given or not.

(4) It shall be no defence to a charge under this section that the minor consented to the transaction, or that the minor received the consideration or any part thereof, or that the accused believed or had reasonable ground to believe that the minor was not under the age of eighteen years.

(5) Every person who is guilty of an offence against this section shall upon summary conviction be liable to a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars and to imprisonment for any term not exceeding one year.

(6) Nothing in this section shall be construed as recog- nising in any way whatsoever the possibility, that rights of possession, custody or control over any person can be trans- ferred or conferred for valuable consideration for any pur- pose.

(7) No prosecution under this section shall be instituted without the consent of the Attorney General: Provided that such consent shall not be necessary for the arrest of any person suspected of having committed an offence against this

section.

267

Appendix No. 16.

Section 17 of the Juvenile Offenders Ordinance, 1932.

17.-(1) Any person may bring before a juvenile court any person apparently under the age of sixteen years who-

(a) is found begging or receiving alms (whether or not there is any pretence of singing, playing, performing, offering anything for sale, or otherwise), or being in any street, premises, or place for the purpose of so begging or receiving alms; or

(b) is found wandering and not having any home or settled place of abode, or visible means of subsistence, or is found wandering and having no parent or guardian, or a parent or guardian who does not exercise proper guardianship; or

(c) is found destitute, either being an orphan, or having both parents or his surviving parent, or in the case of an illegitimate child his mother, under- going imprisonment; or

(d) is found destitute and having no parent within the Colony; or

(e) is the daughter, whether legitimate or illegitimate, of a father who has been convicted of an offence under Section 5 or Section 6 of the Protection of Women and Girls Ordinance, 1897, or Section 2 of the Punishment of Incest Ordinance, 1916; or

(f) frequents the company of any reputed thief, or common or reputed pro-

stitute; or

(g) is lodging or residing in a house or the part of a house used by any pro- stitute for the purposes of prostitution, or is otherwise living in circum- stances calculated to cause, encourage, or favour the seduction or prostitu- tion of the child; or

(h) is in the custody, charge or care of any person who has within the preced- ing twelve months been convicted of any offence under Section 26A of the Offences Against the Person Ordinance, 1865; or has at any time been convicted of an offence under Section 45A of the said Ordinance, as enacted by Section 3 of the Offences Against the Person Amendment Ordinance, 1929; or

(i) is brought into the Colony for the purpose of prostitution or has been brought into the Colony from any other place by reason of her having been sent to such other place for the purpose of prostitution; or

() is found in any circumstances which are, in the opinion of the Court, likely

to lead to any injury to the health or morals of such person.

And the court before which a person is brought as coming within one of these descriptions, if satisfied on enquiry of that fact, may order the child or young person to be taken out of the custody, charge, or care of any person, and to be com- mitted to the care of a relative of the child or young person or some other fit person or institution (including an Industrial or Reformatory School) named by the court (such relative or other person or institution being willing to undertake such care), until the child or young person attains the age of eighteen years, or for any shorter period, and may in addition to such order make an order that the child or young person be placed under the supervision of a probation officer, and the court may of its own motion, or on the application of any person, from time to time, by order renew, vary or revoke any such order.

Provided that a child or young person shall not be treated as coming within the description contained in paragraph (f) the only common or reputed prostitute whose

268

company the child frequents is the mother of the child or young person, and she exercises proper guardianship and due care to protect the child or young person from contamination.

(2) Every order made under this section shall be in writing, and any such order may be made by the court in the absence of the child or young person; and the consent of any person or institution to undertake the care of the child or young person in pursuance of any such order shall be proved in such manner as the court may think sufficient to bind that person or institution.

(3)-(i) Any person or institution to whose care a child or young person is committed under this section shall, whilst the order is in force, have the like control over the child or young person as the parent and shall be responsible for his main- tenance, and the child or young person shall continue in the care of such person or institution, notwithstanding that he is claimed by his parent or any other person, and if any person—

(a) knowingly assists or induces, directly or indirectly, a child or young person to escape from the person or institution to whose care he is so committed;

or

(b) knowingly harbours, conceals, or prevents from returning to such person or institution, a child or young person who has so escaped or knowingly assists in so doing; he shall be liable upon summary conviction to a fine not exceeding two hundred and fifty dollars, or to imprisonment, for any term not exceeding six months.

(ii) Any court having power so to commit a child or young person shall have power to make orders on the parent or other person liable to maintain the child or young person to contribute to his maintenance during such period as aforesaid such sums as the court shall think fit, and may from time to time vary such orders.

(iii) Any such order may be made on the complaint or application of the person or institution to whose care the child is for the time being committed or on the complaint or the application of the Inspector General of Police and either at the time when the order for committal of the child or young person is made, or sub- sequently, and the sums contributed by the parent or such other person shall be paid to such person or institution as the court may name, and be applied for the maintenance of the child or young person or towards the cost of conducting the institution as the case may be.

(iv) Where any parent or other person has been ordered under this section to contribute to the maintenance of a child or young person, he shall give notice of of any change of address to the Inspector General of Police and if he fails to do so without reasonable excuse, he shall be liable upon summary conviction to a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars.

(v) The Governor may at any time in his discretion discharge a child or young person from the care of any person or institution to whose care he is committed in pursuance of this section, either absolutely or on such conditions as the Governor approves, and may, if he thinks fit, by Order in Council make rules in relation to children or young persons so committed to the care of any person or institution, and to the duties of and remuneration of such persons or institutions with respect to such children or young persons.

(4) The parent or guardian of a child or young person who by his neglect to exercise due control shall conduce to the child or young person being found in any of the circumstances specified in paragraph (a) of sub-section (1) of this section shall be guilty of an offence under this Ordinance and shall be liable upon summary conviction to a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars and in default of payment to imprisonment for any term not exceeding one month.

269

Appendix No. 17.

Extract from the Introduction to a Translation of Books IV. and V.

of the Civil Code of the of the Republic of China.

By the Hon. Foo Ping-sheung, LL.D.

As shown in our Introduction to the translation of Books, I, II and III,* the traditional Chinese legislation, in contract to the individualistic and centralistic legislations of the Occident, was centred on the family. At the bottom of our social organization was the clan consisting of a certain number of families generally bearing the same name and descending or presumed to have descended from a common ancestor. The family, rather than the individuals who form it, was considered as the elementary cell, the fundamental constituent group of society.

In order to turn China into a real State, in the modern sense of the word, Dr. Sun Yat Sen thought it necessary to substitute for the primitive notion of unity of clan or family, the notion of unity of the population formed by these clans or families. The particular interest of the isolated groups had to yield to the general interest of the nation. To put into practice this new ideal and to enable the citizens to-to make use of their personal abilities to the best interest of their country, it was imperative that the excessive grip of the old family ties over the individual should be loosened.

Apart from this theoretically sound reasoning in favour of a transformation of the old traditional regime of the Chinese family, there are other reasons of a purely practical character, inspired by a high sense of equity.

For some time past Chinese statesmen have been deploring the primitive economic conditions under which most of their countrymen are living, and they have traced the origin of this unhappy state of affairs to the "parasitism" engendered by the clan organisation. The bond between members of the same clan has been so strong under the old system that tradition usually imposes on a certain member the burden to support those who are unable or simply unwilling to work for their livelihood. He has thus around him a train of dependents whom he must feed out of the produce of his land if he is an agriculturist. If he is engaged in trade or industry, he must take them as assistants or employees. If he is an official, he has to procure positions for them. The system prevents the free development of the individual virtues of the best part of the population, and encourages idleness among the worst elements. The community is consequently burdened with a large proportion of useless, idle and unproductive persons.

Another regrettable feature of the family system based on ancestral worship is the unjust discrimination between man and woman. The woman being incom- petent to exercise ancestral worship and being excluded from succession to it was, as a consequence, also excluded from succession to property. Her position in the family was not so much that of a person sui juris as that of a sort of "appendage" to the man. On the other hand, the necessity of having male descendants for ancestral worship led to the creation, and later on to the legalization, of concubinage to which the husband was allowed to resort when he had no male issue from his legiti- mate wife.

The provisions of the new Civil Code, applying the principles adopted by the Central Political Council, have introduced, on the above-mentioned points, the neces- sary alterations or extenuations.

First of all, ancestral worship is no more regulated by law. The Code does not abolish it but ignores it, and thereby deprives this old custom of legal sanction. The system of agnatic succession to property consequently disappears. Sons and daughters are treated on the same footing and they share in equal parts the inherit- ance of their parents (Art. 1138).

}

270

*Furthermore, the system of compulsory portions provided in the code will amply guard against the practice of exclusion of daughters from inheritance through exheredation by will.

دو

While the system of the house is preserved, the duty of the head is limited to the maintenance of those members who have no means of livelihood and who are incapable of earning a living. The parasitism to which we have alluded is thus restricted within the normal limits of the duty of maintance sanctioned by most Western legislations. At the same time, the persons, towards whom the head has now less obligations, are correspondingly freed of the authority which he had exer- cise over them.

The

Betrothal and marriage are no longer agreements to units families, but contracts entered into by the parties themselves of their own accord (Art. 972, 997). sole restrictions imposed upon the future spouses are age (Art. 973 and 980) and · consent of their statutory agents (Art. 981) when they marry before attaining majority. The paternal power, formerly very extensive is now reduced to reason- able proportions. The expression "paternal power

paternal power". itself disappears in the new wording of the Code which refers only to the right and duty of the parents to protect, educate and maintain their children ". (Art. 1084).

The enfranchisement of the woman, who is now placed on the same footing as the man, involves the disappearance of concubindage and calls for equality with man in the matter of conjugal fidelity. Illegitimate relation of one of the spouses, with a third person, gives to the other spouse the right to apply for a judicial divorce (Art. 1052).

To prevent innocent creatures from bearing the consequences of the weakness of human nature, very liberal provisions have been adopted on the subject of natural -filiation. As regards the woman, issues which she may have even out of wedlock are, by the very fact of their birth, held as her legitimate descendants (Art. 1065). On the side of the man, children born out of wedlock are deemed legitimate as soon as he marries their mother (Art. 1064), or expressly recognizes them, or simply maintains them during their childhood (Art. 1065). An action by the mother for recognition of paternity by the natural father is admitted (Art. 1067).

So long as the woman had in the family only a subordinate position, with no right to inherit property, she would bring to the matrimonial union no other property than her marriage outfit and sometimes a small dowry. Now that she has the right to inherit she may have her own property and it is found necessary to have a matri- monial regime which would protect her interests. After reviewing the outstand- ing-legislations on the subject, the Political Council has selected the Swiss system as most suitable for China. In this system, the union of property is the statutory regime of the spouses who have made no contract for the holding of property. In making a marriage contract, they have the choice between a community of property regime, a unity of property regime, and the separation of property regime (Arts. 1004-1005). In the statutory regime, the community regime and the unity of pro- perty regime the wife keeps as her separate property, subject to her exclusive management, the articles which are intended for her personal use, or which are essential for her occupation, the remunerations which she requires by her labour, and the gifts which the donor has given her to be kept separate (Art. 1013).

271

Appendix No. 18.

Extract from the Chinese Regulations for the Emancipation of Slaves and "Mui-tṣai”’ of March 1st of the 16th Year of the Republic (1927).

(Copied from Report to League of Nations on the Traffic in Women and Children in the East, 1933).

1. The mayors and magistrates of all cities and districts shall make careful en- quiries as to the condition of slaves and Mui-tsai in their respective localities and report to the Provincial Government and the Commissioner of Civil Administration. The magistrates shall send in their reports within three months and the mayors within two months.

4. From the date of the publication of these regulations, no girls shall be bought, sold or pledged as Mui-tsai, and all agreements for such purposes shall be null and void.

5. All existing Mui-tsai at the time of the enforcement of these regulations shall no longer be called Mui-tsai, but shall be called "adopted daughters". All agreements or presentation deeds in respect of their purchase and sale shall be sent to the nearest police station for cancellation and registration in a register specially provided for the purpose.

6. No adopted daughter shall be ill-treated. They shall be sent to school dur- ing the age of 12 to 16, and shall not be married later than 23, but may be allowed remain single if they choose..

7. No adopted daughters shall be forced to become concubines.

8. Adequate clothing, board and lodging shall be provided for adopted daughters according to the circumstances (of their adopted parents).

9. Each district magistrate and mayor should, after considering the local con- ditions, take steps to establish poor girls' homes or female industrial schools.

10. After the publication of these regulations, if any person is proved by the "Kai-fong" or neighbours or discovered by the police to have beaten or maltreated his adopted daughter, the magistrate, mayor or officer in charge of any police station concerned shall send the girl to a poor girls' home or a female industrial school to be brought up. The person who ill-treated the girl shall be fined as a warning. When anybody who has been fined for maltreating his adopted daughter is found to have maltreated her again, a greater fine or other punishment will be imposed.

11. Anybody who commits any breach of Regulations 3, 4 and 7 shall be punish- ed according to the law, and anybody who violates Regulations 2, 5, 6 and 8 shall be fined according to the offence.

12. These Regulations shall be enforced from the date of publication.

Appendix No. 19.

Extracts from Books IV and V of the Civil Code of the Republic of China.

Article 1072.-Where a person adopts the child of another as his own child, the adopter is called adoptive father or adoptive mother and the person adopted is called adopted son or adopted daughter.

272

Article 1073. The adopter must be at least twenty years older than the person to be adopted.

Article 1074.-Where a married person adopts a child, he must do so jointly with his spouse.

Article 1077. The relation between an adopted child and his adoptive parents, is the same as that between a legitimate child and his parents unless it is otherwise provided for by law.

Article 1078. An adopted child assumes the surname of the adopter.

Article 1079.-Adoption must be effected in writing, unless the person to be adopted has been brought up as a child of the adopter since infancy.

Article 1080.-The relation between an adopted child and his adoptive parents may be terminated by mutual agreement of the parties.

The termination mentioned in the preceding paragraph must be done in writing.

Article 1142. The order of succession for an adopted child is the same as for a legitimate child.

The successional portion of an adopted child is one-half of that of a legitimate child, but, in case the adoptive parents have no lineal descendant by blood for their heir, his successional portion is the same as that of a legitimate child.

Appendix No. 20.

Extract from League of Nations' Commission of Enquiry into the Control of Opium-smoking in the Far East.

REPORT TO THE COUNCIL.

VI. HONGKONG. A Short Description of the Geographic, Ethnographic, Political and

Economic Conditions.

The British Crown Colony of Hong Kong, with a leased territory, the so-called New Territories, jointly administered with the Colony, is geographically a part of China, being situated in or along the mouth of the West River. Hong Kong may be said to form the lower extremity of the left bank of the West River estuary; at the head of this estuary is the city of Canton, and on a peninsula at its mouth stands the Portuguese colony of Macao. The distance from Hong Kong to Canton is only about 83 miles by water and 112 miles by rail. The island of Hong Kong was ceded by China to Great Britain in 1842. Further territory on the Kowloon peninsula was ceded in 1860 and additional parts of the peninsula, with outlying islands, were leased from China for 90 years in 1898. The total area of the Colony and the leased terri- tories amount to about 374 square miles. The number of islands belonging to Hong Kong is about 60. The centre of Hong Kong is the city of Victoria on the Island of Hong Kong. On the opposite side of the harbour on the mainland is the town of Kowloon. Outside these two places there are no towns in the Colony, but only a few fishing villages.

Hong Kong, which here is taken to include the Colony proper as well as the leased territories, is situated between 22°9′ and 22°17′ N. lat., and thus lies just within the northern limits of the tropics.

!

:

273

As Hong Kong is geographically a part of China, the population is entirely Chinese, with a small percentage of Europeans, Americans and Asiatics other than Chinese. There are not, and cannot be, any accurate statistics of the population of Hong Kong, owing to the fact that there is a constant stream of people travelling be- tween Hong Kong and the Chinese mainland, numbering thousands daily. At times of civil unrest in Canton and the Kwangtung province, large numbers of Chinese take up temporary residence in Hong Kong for the purpose of ensuring protection for their persons and property. It is estimated that the population numbers almost 1,000,000 whereof about 550,000 live in the City of Victoria and about 270,000 in the town of Kowloon, while over 100,000 live on boats in or about the harbour and the rest in the villages.

The administration of the Colony is in the hands of a Governor appointed by the Imperial Government. He is aided by an Executive Council composed of the General Officer commanding the troops, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, the Treasurer, the Director of Public Works and three unofficial members. There is also a Legislative Council presided over by the Governor and composed of the same officials, members of the Executive Council, plus the Captain Superintendent of Police, the Harbour Master and the Directors of Medical and Sanitary Services. There are eight unofficial members of the Legislative Council, six of whom, including three Chinese, are nominated by the Crown. Of the other two members, one is nominated by the Chamber of Commerce and one by the Justices of the Peace.

Hong Kong, at the time of its coming into the possession of Great Britain, was practically an uninhabited barren territory. It is largely mountainous, with a few valleys in between. There is no agriculture worth mentioning. The main industries are shipping, trade, manufacture and fishing.

In spite of the insignificant size of its territory, Hong Kong is of very great com- mercial importance, due to its geographical position at the gates of the very rich South China and to the security it offers to trade and industry. Most of the trade to and from South China passes through Hong Kong. It has also a very important position as a part of transhipment between various countries in the Far East, from Japan in the north to Malaya, the Netherlands Indies, and even British India in the south, and also to and from the Philippine Islands and Australia. The value of the total trade of Hong Kong now stands at about 150 million pounds sterling annually, of which 128,000,000 consists of trade with other countries in Asia, the principal being China, French Indo-China, Japan, the Netherland Indies and Siam. The largest non-Asiatic countries that trade with Hong Kong are Great Britain, the United States and Germany.

Practically all trade with Hong Kong is sea-borne, and in consequence, the amount of shipping in the port is very large. In 1928, the total shipping entering and clearing from the Colony amounted to 300,316 vessels, with a total tonnage of 44,883,765 tons, the majority of which (about 37,640,000 tons) was engaged in for- eign trade. The number of native junks, launches, etc., occupied in local trade runs to very high figures. Hong Kong is also an important port of call for the shipping on the Chinese rivers and on the coast.

The fact that Hong Kong is a free port has also fostered a considerable industry in the Colony. The most important branches of the manufacturing industry are sugar refining, cement manufacture, ginger preserving, cotton spinning and weaving, and ship-building. In addition, there are innumerable small Chinese workshops.

Surrounded as it is by the sea, most of Hong Kong's communications are by water. Excellent motor-roads exist on the island of Hong Kong as well as in the Kowloon peninsula. Hong Kong is connected with Canton by a railway, and by a regular steamship service.

274

Appendix No. 21.

Extract from the "Report of the Committee of Experts on Slavery" Provided for by the Assembly Resolution of September 25th, 1931 (League of Nations).

45. While in Africa, by reason partly of the fact of the cessation of famines and partly of the improvement in the economic situation of the native peoples, parents no longer need to have recourse to the sale of the children in order to pro- vide them with the means of subsistence, is it the same in China?

On this point, the material supplied or forwarded to the Committee has not enabled the latter to ascertain the exact situation. While it is certain that a large number of children, sepecially females-who, if they are not really adopted, are known as "Mui-tsai"--are placed by their parents with other persons, generally in return for a money payment to the parents and the obligation to support the child, the nature of the contract and the rights which it confers on the person with whom the children are placed are not very clear. Some regard it as a real sale of the child. The lot of such children, they add, is particularly wretched, since apart from being neglected and overworked, which alone entails the cruellest bodily suffering, they are often, it would appear, victims of the depraved instincts of their employers, or of persons with whom the latter bring them into contact, and sometimes also of acts of revolting cruelty.

Although the information to hand is to the effect that there is no ill-treatment of the numerous "Mui-tsai" at Hong Kong-at any rate as a general practice-on the part of the well-to-do Chinese population of Hong Kong in whose service they are, the Government of Hong Kong in February 1929 enacted an ordinance which prohibits the engagement of female servants for the use of whose service payment has been made to another person and likewise the employment as paid servant of any person of the female sex under ten years of age. As regards contracts concluded previous- ly, the order, inter alias, accords "Mui-tsai" the right to return, should they wish, to their parents, without the latter being obliged to refund the sum paid by the person to whom the "Mui-tsai" was entrusted. There are other provisions designed to en- sure the good treatment of "Mui-tsai" during their period of service.

As regards China, these assertions, to the effect that a "Mui-tsai" is a female child who has been sold and who is as a rule ill-treated, were contested by the Chinese delegate in the Sixth Committee of the League Assembly in September 1931. This distinguished authority stated:

"Traffic in vhildren does not exist in China, and indeed could not exist there in view of the Chinese traditions of filial piety and the well-known readiness of Chinese mothers to adopt other children in cases of disaster”.

The documents supplied or transmitted by the British Government tend to con- firm this statement. There are said to be no sales of children, but children are placed in service, on payment, it is true, of a sum of money to the parents, though the main object is to ensure the child the means of subsistence, which the parents can- not give it. The child is regarded rather as a member of the family in which she is placed; in any case, though obliged to give her services, she occupies in the house a position superior to that of the paid servants. According to the same authority, "Mui-tsai" are rarely ill-treated, as the Chinese love children. Further, the Chinese Courts, it is stated, inflict severe penalties on persons guilty of ill-treating children, and such persons lose all standing in public opinion.

One is led to wonder whether this difference of opinion is not due to a misunder- standing. May it not be the case that, side by side with the "Mui-tsai'' system, there is a clandestine traffic in young girls in China, as in other countries, for purposes of prostitution? May not the explanation be found in the fact that the parents who live at a distance from the centres of population believe, when they hand over their

275

daughters with or without payment to persons who present themselves saying that they are in a position to place the children in circumstance which are for their ad- vantage that they are providing them with honourable means of livelihood? It is possible and the information supplied by one expert confirms this opinion-that these intermediaries abuse the confidence placed in them and hand over the young girls to disorderly houses in return for money. As a general rule, the go-between justify the possession of young girls by representing them to be adopted daughters.

47. As regards China, assuming that the "Mui-tsai" system is open to the serious criticism directed against it, legislation such as the Canton Government's Edict of 1927 will certainly not put an end to it, for the edict simply prohibits the sale, purchase and pledging of children. It is, however, far from certain that, under Chinese law, a "Mui-tsai" is a child who has been bought in the strict sense of the term. The persons concerned can, as a rule, claim that the purpose of the con- tract is not to transfer the right of ownership over the child, and that, in con- sequence, they are not liable to the penalties laid down in the edict, but that the purpose is rather to transfer the rights of paternal authority over the child and to. enable the person receiving the child to make use of such services as the latter can render. Legislation embodying the provisions of the Hong Kong Order would un- doubtedly be far more efficacious. Again, one can hardly anticipate the complete disappearance of the "Mui-tsai" system, unless economic conditions in China become such that parents are not obliged to hand over their children to others in order to ensure them the means of livelihood. It is necessary also to reckon with Chinese public opinion, which sees nothing reprehensible in the "Mui-tsai" system that has been practised for centuries.

CHAPTER V.

Practices Restrictive on the Liberty of the Person.

(b) Enslavement of children disguised as adoption.

51. Adoption is a current practice in the Far East and Oceania, but appears to be less common in Africa. Apart from the objects of adoption, as practised in western countries, it sometimes has religious objects as well. Sometimes also, it is an ex- pression of politeness between families or a tribute to the adopting family by the family of the adopted child. Under these adoption contracts, the treatment accord- ed to the adopted child differs but little or not at all from that accorded to the child- ren of the person adopting the child.

A French report points out, however, that recourse is sometimes had in Annam to adoption in cancellation of a debt to the parents of the adopted child.

52. It is alleged that, in China, adoption is frequently deprived of its true char- acter in such a way as to amount to real enslavement, involving the conditions of existence to which paragraph 45 of this report refers for the adopted children. The Committee is not in a position either to contest or to confirm these assertions. It may be that these allegations confuse the practice of adoption and the system of "Mui- tsai" and the traffic in children described in paragraph 45 of this report, in which the accusations brought against the system of "Mui-tsai" and the denials with which they are met are set forth,

སྐ

Par. 1.

Par. 2.

Par. 6.

276

Appendix No. 22.

Extracts from "Report" on Ordinance No. 21 of 1929 by the Attorney General to the Governor.

I have examined the accompanying Ordinance instituted an Ordin- ance to amend the Protection of Women and Girls Ordinance, 1897, and I am of opinion that the Ordinance is one which is not contrary to the Governor's instructions.

This Ordinance makes various alterations in the Protection of Women and Girls Ordinance, 1897, Ordinance No. 4 of 1897, some with a view to strengthening the hands of the authorities in dealing with the elusive and persistent evil of the traffic in women and girls, and some in order to get rid of certain inconsistencies of apparent in- consistencies in the former statutory law.

Section 32 of the Protection of Women and Girls Ordinance, 1897, Ordinance No. 4 of 1897, had a curious history in the five Women and Girls Ordinances enacted between 1889, the year in which the section first occurred, and 1897. The section began its career innocently enough as section 6 of Ordinance No. 9 of 1887. That section provided that whenever the Registrar General had reason to believe that any girl between six and sixteen was in the custody of any person who had no legal right to such custody, and that it was prejudicial to the interests of such child that she should continue in such custody, he might apply to a judge in chambers for a writ of habeas corpus, and that on the return of that writ the judge might make such order respecting the custody, etc., of the girl as he should deem best in the interests of the girl. In order to give the judge full power to act in the best interests of the girl, the section went on to provide that in dealing with such cases no parent who had voluntarily parted with the child for the purpose of adoption or who had received money for parting with the custody of the child for any other purpose should be deemed to be entered as of right to the custody of the child. This section was repeated in exactly the same terms as Section 23 of Ordinance No. 19 of 1889. Curiously enough, the section failed to appear in the consolidating Women and Girls Protection Ordinance, 1890, Ordinance No. 11 of 1890. In the following year an amending Ordinance was introduced, and it was explained that the object of the bill was twofold, i.e., to make certain amendments suggested by the Secretary of State, and to correct some oversights or omissions was the omission of the old Section 23 of Ordinance No. 19 of 1889. In the amending Ordinance of 1891, however, Ordinance No. 14 of 1891, it appeared in a very different form from the old form. Section 4 of Ordinance No. 14 of 1891 does not contain a word about the in- terests of the girl or about any application for a writ of habeas corpus nor does it contain any provision for the exercise of any discretion by the Registrar General. It lays down baldly that no parent who has voluntarily parted with a girl between six and sixteen for the purpose of adoption into another family, or who has received money for parting with the custody of the girl for any other purpose, shall be deemed to be entitled as of right to the custody of the girl. The surprising thing is that this new section was definitely put forward as intended to deal with the "evil" known as flying the pigeon. This is a well known form of fraud in which a woman or girl is osten- sibly sold," generally for purposes of marriage, and in which the woman or girl runs back to her fellow conspirator after the purchase money has been paid. Not a word was said in the Legislative Council about the omission from the old form of the section which I have

277

referred to above. The section was repeated in the same form in the consolidating Protection of Women and Girls Ordinance, 1897, Ordinance No. 4 of 1897, and the Objects and Reasons contained the following surprising paragraph:---

Section 24 (the section in question) is a reproduction "of Ordinance 14 of 1891, Section 4, and prevents parents, after selling their children and spending the money, from claiming them back even when adopted by the purchaser."

<<

In 1910 the interests of the girl and the discretion of the Registrar General reappeared, and the section was enacted by Ordinance No. 15 of 1910 in what is now practically the form in which it appeared later in Ordinance No. 4 of 1897. That form, however, was not quite satisfactory, especially in view of the provisions of the Female Domestic Service Ordinance, 1923, Ordinance No. 1 of 1923. Section 5 of this Ordinance therefore substitutes a new form of the section.

In the first place, the section in Ordinance No. 4 of 1897 negatived Par. 7. in undesirably wide terms the right of a parent to the custody of the girl where the parent had parted with the girl for the purposes of adoption into another family, or had received money for parting with the custody of the girl for any purpose. The new Section 32 does not expressly negative any right on the part of the parent, but merely vests the guardianship of the girl in such a case in the Secretary for Chinese Affairs. It empowers the Secretary for Chinese Affairs as legal guardian to make any order regarding the custody of the girl which he may think desirable in her interests, subject to one qualifica- tion which is referred to below. In making any such order the Secre- tary for Chinese Affairs would no doubt give full weight to the natural and moral claim of the parent to the custody of the girl. Thus, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs will still have the full rights of a legal guardian, but there will be no provision to suggest that the natural claims of the parent have been extinguished. Further, there will be nothing to suggest that the parent could not successfully assert a claim as against a third party to the custody of the girl if the Secretary for Chinese Affairs were not to exercise his legal right of guardianship.

In the second place the former section appeared to give the Par. 8. Secretary for Chinese Affairs the full and unfettered right of a legal guardian. Section 10 of Ordinance No. 1 of 1923, however, con- siderably limits his right to refuse to restore a girl who is a Mui-tsai to the custody of her parent or natural guardian. There was a dis- tinct conflict here between the two Ordinances. No doubt the later Ordinance would prevail, but it is advisable to make that position quite clear. Accordingly, the new Section 32 provides that the rights of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs as legal guardian shall be subject to the provisions of Section 10 of Ordinance No. 1 of 1923. That section provides that any Mui-tsai who wishes to be restored to the custody of her parent or natural guardian, and any Mui-tsai under eighteen. whose parent or natural guardian wishes such Mui-tsai to be restored to his or her custody, shall be restored to such custody unless the Secretary for Chinese Affairs sees some grave objection in the interest of such Mui tsai to such restoration.

In the third place, it might have been argued that the declaratory Far. 9. clause of Ordinance No. 1 of 1923, i.e., Section negatived the right of guardianship conferred on the Secretary for Chinese Affairs by Section 32 of Ordinance No. 4 of 1897. Reasons are given in the report on the Female

the Female Domestic Service Amendment Ordinance, Ordinance No. 22 of 1929, for suggesting that the conflict here was only apparent, but it has been thought better to make the matter quite

Par. 11.

278

clear, and this has been done by means of a new Section 23 which the above Ordinance inserts in Ordinance No. 1 of 1923. That new section provides that nothing in Ordinance No. 1 of 1923 is to affect any right of guardianship vested in the Secretary for Chinese Affairs under Ordinance No. 4 of 1897, or to be vested in him under Ordi- nance No. 4 of 1897 as amended by this Ordinance.

In my opinion this is an Ordinance to which His Excellency the Governor may properly assent in the name of His Majesty and on His behalf.

No. 1 of 1844.

No.

3 of 1873.

No. 9 of 1887.

279

Appendix No. 23.

List of Ordinances consulted by Committee.

ORDINANCES.

TITLE.

To define the law relating to Slavery in

Hong Kong.

Supreme Court Ordinance, 1873.

Part (if any)

included in

Appendix.

Sec.

For the better protection of young girls.

The Bill.

No. 19 of 1889.

No. 11 of 1890.

No. 4 of 1897. Formerly No. 9.

No. 1 of 1923.

The Protection of Women and Girls Or-

dinance, 1889.

The Women and Girls Protection Or-

nance, 1890.

The Protection of Women and Girls Or- Sec. 32 as amend-

dinance, 1897.

Amended by No. 21 of 1929.

ed.

To regulate certain forms of Domestic The whole Ordi-

Servants.

Amended by No. 22 of 1929.

No. 13 of 1929.

An Ordinance to amend the Offences

against the Person Ordinance, 1865.

No. 1 of 1932.

No. 1 of 1901.

No. 15 of 1908.

Section 5.

No. 41 of 1912.

Section 9 (8).

nance as amend- ed.

Regulations as amended.

Sec. 3 adding a new Section 45a to the principal Ordinance.

An Ordinance to make provision for Sec. 17.

Proceedings in reference to Juvenile Offenders.

An Ordinance to settle the Defence Con-

tribution of the Colony.

Widows and Orphans Pensions Ordinance,

1908.

Contributions to be exempt from Military

Contribution.

Boycott Prevention Ordinance, 1912.

Special Rate not assessable for Military

Contribution.

280

Appendix No. 24.

Memo. on Government Papers examined by the Committee.

M

The Committee consulted numerous files of papers from various departments of the Hong Kong Government.

An attempt was made to compile a list of the material contents of these files but the task was abandoned.

The files seem to cover every subject however indirectly connected with the en- quiry, between 1883 and the present date. Every material document or a sufficient extract seems to be included in the files.

281

Appendix No. 25.

List of the More Material Official Publications examined by the Committee.

Date.

1882.

1887.

1931.

1929.

Short Title.

Great Britain

No.

Correspondence on alleged existence of

Chinese Slavery in Hong Kong.

Presented to both Houses of Parlia- C. 3185

ment by Command.

Hong Kong

Correspondence respecting Child Adoption

and Domestic Service among Chi-

nese.

Presented to the Legislative Council No. 1/87.

by Command.

League of Nations Report of the Committee of Experts on Slavery to the League of Nations. N.B. This is the more important of a file of Publications dealing with the League of Nations' enquiries into Slavery.

Hong Kong

VI. B. Slavery

1932 VI. B. 1

Expert opinion given by Dr. S. W. Tso, No. 12/1929.

O.B.E., LL.D., in a Mui-tsai Case

tried before the Hong Kong Police Magistrate.

Hong Kong

1935.

Trade Commission's Report.

No. 3/1935.

Hong Kong

1932.

Report on the Census of 1931.

League of Nations

1933.

Various

Report to the Council by Commission on

Opium.

League of Nations

Report to the Council by the Commission IV. Social 1932

of Enquiry into Traffic in Women and IV. 8. Children in the East.

Hong Kong

Reports by the Secretary for Chinese

Affairs.

1934.

Hong Kong

Medical and Sanitary Report for 1933.

Hong Kong

Various.

Hong Kong Hansard.

Date.

1898.

282

Appendix No. 26.

List of the More Material Books examined by the Committee.

1907-1917.

Title.

Author.

The History of the Law and Courts of Norton Kyshe.

Hong Kong.

Laws of England.

(Titles, Conflict of Laws-Infants-

Statutes.

Trade and Trade Unions (Slave

Lord Halsbury.

Trade).)

4th Edition

Conflict of Laws-Chapter XIX. (Status).

Dicey.

1927.

1929.

Slavery.

Lady Simon.

1930.

Child Slavery in Hong Kong. The Mui-tsai System in Hongkong.

1931.

Lieut. Commander

and Mrs. H. L. Hazlewood.

Translation of The Civil Code of China Translation by

Books I to V.

Chinese Family and Commercial Law.

1921.

1928.

The Law of Adoption.

1933.

The Law as to Children.

various authors.

Jamieson.

W. Clarke Hall.

Bullock.

ť

G.

147

REPORT

ON THE

R.

CONSTRUCTION

OF THE

FIRST SECTION

OF THE

No. 1935

6

SHING MUN VALLEY WATERWORKS

SCHEME

BY

W. WOODWARD, B. Sc. (Eng.), A. M. Inst. C. E.

PRINTED BY NORONHA & CO.,

GOVERNMENT PRINTERS,

HONG KONG.

.

149

HONG KONG.

REPORT ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE FIRST SECTION OF THE

SHING MUN VALLEY WATERWORKS SCHEME,

BY W. WOODWARD, B.Sc. (ENG.), A.M.INST.C.E., CHARTERED CIVIL ENGINEER.

ORIGIN OF SCHEME.

Investigations of the Shing Mun Valley as a source of water supply were com- menced in 1921, and a short Report outlining the original proposals was made in 1922 by Mr. R. M. Henderson, M. Inst.C.E., M.I.Mech. E., M. Inst.W.E., Exe- cutive Engineer in Charge of Waterworks. This was followed by further Reports from Mr. Henderson in 1922, 1923 and 1924, the last of which was embodied in Sessional Paper No. 4/1929 and received the approval of the Secretary of State for the Colonies in May, 1924, when authority was given to proceed with the construction of the First Section of the Scheme.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF FIRST SECTION OF THE SCHEME.

The first section of the scheme was designed to deal with the collection, filtration and carriage to Kowloon and Hong Kong of an intermittent gravitational supply of water from the Shing Mun Valley, the amount varying, according to the season of the year, from about 2 to 10 million gallons a day.

The raw stream water is intercepted by means of an intake dam across the river, whence it flows by gravity through the Temporary and North Conduits, the North Tunnel, South Conduit and South Tunnel, and discharge into the Reception Reservoir.

The Reception Reservoir has a very important own function on this section of the scheme. In addition to collecting water from its catchment area, its capacity enables it to be used to regulate the varying discharge of the Shing Mun River. Raw water is normally drawn off from this Reservoir to the Rapid Gravity Filtration plant situated immediately below, whence, after filtration, it passes into the Shek Lai Pui Service Reservoir adjoining the filters. Any raw water surplus to require- ments and the capacity of these filters is automatically diverted to the new Bye- wash Reservoir situated in the adjacent Lai Chi Kok valley.

The Byewash Reservoir, which was subsequently included in this section of the scheme, is thus also of great value, as, in addition to increasing the storage of raw water, it is so situated as to be able to collect not only the waters of its own catchment area but the flood waters of both the Kowloon Waterworks Catch- ment areas and the Reception Reservoir, waters which would otherwise run to waste.

The Shek Lai Pui Service Reservoir forms the main storage of filtered water from the scheme. The water is drawn off by means of a 24" Trunk main from this reservoir to Kowloon Point, whence it is carried to Hong Kong by the first Cross Harbour Pipe from which it is passed into a 24′′ Trunk main in Hong Kong, which discharges into the Service Reservoir in the Botanical Gardens.

150

Between Shek Lai Pui Service Reservoir and Kowloon Point connections from the 24′′ Trunk main have been made to Pipers Hill and Yaumati Hill Service Reservoirs, and also directly to the Kowloon Distribution system, the object being to augment the filtered water supply from the Kowloon Waterworks at times when the capacity of its filtration plant is insufficient and when surplus water is avail- able from the Shing Mun Valley Scheme, thereby giving greater flexibility of dis- tribution of the water collected from both sources. For emergency purposes, a direct connection has also been made between the 24" Trunk main Hong Kong and the Hong Kong Distribution system in Queen's Road Central. Water from the Gardens Service Reservoir is normally drawn off by means of an 18′′ main which connects with the Hong Kong City Distribution system.

LIST OF WORKS CARRIED OUT.

The works have been carried out generally in accordance with the original proposals, modifications and extensions being made as required.

The following is a list of the works comprised in the completed scheme :—

1. Preliminary Works.

2. Resumptions.

3. Access Road from Tsun Wan to Pineapple Pass.

4.

Intake Dam across the Shing Mun River and Temporary Conduit in

Shing Mun Valley.

5. North Conduit in Shing Mun Valley.

6. North Tunnel under Smugglers Ridge, South Tunnel under Golden Hill

and South Conduit connecting them.

7.

Reception Reservoir in Lower Shek Lai Pui Valley.

8. Rapid Gravity Filtration Plant (1st Section).

9. Shek Lai Pui Service Reservoir.

10.

24" Trunk Main Kowloon.

11. Pipers Hill Service Reservoir.

12. Cross Harbour Pipe.

13. 24" Trunk and 18" Distribution Mains in Hong Kong.

14.

Gardens Service Reservoir.

15. Byewash Reservoir.

ALTERATIONS TO ORIGINAL PROPOSALS.

The following were the main alterations to the original proposals:

The capacity of Shek Lai Pui Service Reservoir was increased from 5 to 11.41 million gallons; the diameter of the Cross Harbour Pipe was reduced from 24′′ to 12.265"; the line of the 24" Trunk Main Hong Kong was changed, and the top water level of the Gardens Service Reservoir was altered from 280.00 to 240.25 above ordnance datum.

In addition to these changes the Byewash Reservoir, situated below Kowloon Reservoir, and the 18" Distribution Main from the Gardens Service Reservoir were included in this Section of the Scheme.

CONSTRUCTION.

Preliminary Works.

Preliminary investigation work was commenced in 1921. This consisted mainly of extensive surveys in the Shing Mun Valley and other areas included in the scheme and explorations of foundations.

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Resumptions.

This scheme necessitated the removal of all villages, and the resumption of all cultivated land, in the Shing Mun Valley above the site of the Gorge Dam. The villagers were compensated partly in cash and partly by the provision of new ac- commodation at other places in the New Territories.

Access Road Tsun Wan to Pineapple Pass.

This road was constructed to provide access to the Shing Mun Valley, both for the construction and subsequent maintenance of the new works.

Work was commenced in 1923 and was completed early in 1926. The road commences near the 8th mile-stone on the Castle Peak Road and terminates at Pine- apple Pass. It has a length of 1.92 miles, a minimum width of 16 feet, a gradient of 1 in 16 for the first mile and slightly flatter grades thereafter, a short length near its upper terminus being 1 in 17.

The work generally consisted of cutting away the hillside at spurs and tipping to form the roadway on embankment at re-entrants, and was partly in soft and partly in rock excavation.

A few retaining walls were constructed where required, and a reinforced con- crete beam and slab type bridge of 20 foot span was provided to carry the roadway over the stream near Wa Li Hop Village.

The roadway was surfaced with tar macadam for its whole length, a founda- tion of lime and cement concrete being provided where necessary.

The removal of 56,000 cubic yards of soft and 6,440 cubic yards of rock excavation was involved in the construction of the road.

Intake Dam and Temporary Conduit.

These works, which were commenced in 1925 and completed in 1926, are of a temporary nature only, their main function being to intercept the water of the Shing Mun River at the required elevation and pass it into the North Conduit until the No. 2 or Gorge Dam, which is to be provided in a subsequent section of this scheme, is constructed. They will then be no longer required and will, in fact, be submerged.

The Intake Dam, which is situated across the main stream, intercepts water and diverts it into the temporary conduit, whence the water flows into the North Con- duit..

The dam, which has been founded on solid rock, contains 594 cubic yards of cement concrete with displacers. It has a maximum length of 115′ 6′′ at an elevation of 525.00 A.O.D., and a maximum height of 34' above foundations and 26' above stream bed. It is provided with an overflow 50' wide x 10' deep, the cill of which is at an elevation of 515.00 A.O.D. The draw off to the temporary conduit is controlled by means of a 24" penstock, and a gauge basin with a V. notch has been constructed to measure the amount of water supplied to the Conduit.

An automatic recorder, to measure the flood discharge of the river, has been installed and housed at a site adjoining the gauge basin.

The conduit has been constructed of lime and cement concrete lined with cement mortar. It has a gradient of 1 in 272, a length of 6,030' and a capacity of 10 million gallons per day.

The line of the conduit generally conforms to the contour of the ground, but short lengths of reinforced cement concrete box type aqueducts, supported on piers, were utilized to carry the water across small depressions. Overflows have been constructed at all stream crossings to divert to the main stream any water in excess of the capacity of the conduit.

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Subsidiary Intakes, to intercept small streams en route, together with sand- straps fitted with washout pipes, have also been constructed, and a pathway for in- spection and maintenance purposes has been provided alongside the conduit for its whole length.

North Conduit.

The North Conduit which, under this section of the scheme, receives the dis- charge of the Temporary Conduit but will ultimately receive the draw off from the Gorge Dam, hitherto designated No. 2 Dam, forms part of the permanent works and discharges into the North Tunnel.

Construction was commenced in February and completed in December, 1925.

This conduit has been constructed of cement concrete throughout. It has a gradient of 1 in 1930, a length of 2,900 feet, and a capacity of 20 million gallons of water per day. Construction was somewhat difficult, due to the ground consist- ing largely of loose rock and the side slopes being steep, which necessitated several small retaining walls. In all other respects it is similar to the Temporary

Conduit.

North Tunnel, South Conduit and South Tunnel.

These three items were carried out under one Contract. Preliminary Surveys, drawings and contract documents were prepared during 1924. The Contract was let in November of that year and completed in December, 1926. It was entrusted to the British firm of Sir Wm. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., who installed modern plant and employed a large European staff for the work.

Owing to the difficult nature of the access to the sites of the works the Con- tractors erected overhead cableways for the transport of materials. One of these was provided from a loading station near the 7th mile-stone on the Castle Peak Road to an unloading station at the required elevation near the South Conduit and an- other cableway from a loading station near the 5th mile-stone on the Taipo Road to an unloading station near the South end of the South Tunnel.

By April, 1925, the Contractors had completed the erection of plant and housing accommodation.

North Tunnel.

Work on the North Tunnel under Smugglers Ridge, which receives the dis- charge of the North Conduit and passes it into the South Conduit, was commenced on the South face in April, 1925, and on the North face in December, 1925, the two headings meeting on August 9th, 1926, at a point 1,871 feet from the South end. The work was finally completed in December, 1926.

The rock throughout was generally of good quality granite, with occasional intrusions of shale, soft clay and running sand, which caused some difficulty, parti- cularly in the depositing of the concrete of the necessary arched roof lining.

The invert and sidewalls are lined throughout with 1.2.4 cement concrete. The invert has a minimum thickness of 6", the upper 3" of which is graded smooth with fine concrete. The sidewalls vary from 6′′ to 12′′ thick, according to the nature of the ground.

The roof is unlined except for 11 separate short sections aggregating 362 feet in length, in which concrete of a similar quality varying from 6" to 12′′ thick was used. In one bad section, however, it was necessary to pack in rubble to a height of 20 feet, this being subsequently grouted solid.

The tunnel portals were finished in granite ashlar.

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Particulars of the tunnel are as follows:-Length 2,034 lineal feet; gradient 1 in 2,700; width at invert 7′ 0′′; width 4′ 0′′ above invert 9′ 0′′; maximum height 7' 6"; radius of invert 12′ 6"; radius of arch 4.65 feet; capacity 40 million gallons per day.

The approach cut to the North face, the lining and capacity of which are similar to those of the tunnels, has a length of about 140 feet between the end of the North Conduit and the tunnel portal.

South Conduit.

The South Conduit, which connects the North and South Tunnels, was com- menced early in 1925 and completed early in 1926. It has been constructed of cement concrete throughout, has a gradient of 1 in 1600, a length of 2,000 feet, and a capacity of 40 million gallons per day. In all other respects it is similar to the North Conduit.

A 2-span reinforced concrete bridge was constructed to carry the conduit and foot path across the stream from Smugglers Pass.

South Tunnel.

Work on the South Tunnel under Golden Hill, which receives the discharge from the South Conduit and passes it through the outlet cut and gauge basin into the Reception Reservoir, was commenced on the North face in February, 1925, and on the South face in April, 1925, the two headings meeting on July 4th, 1926, at a point 2,350 feet from the North end. The work was finally completed in Decem- ber, 1926.

The rock throughout was granite of a very good quality and no lining to the side walls or roof was necessary.

The invert is lined throughout in a manner similar to that adopted for the North Tunnel.

The tunnel portals have been finished in granite ashlar.

The tunnel is of the same dimensions and capacity as the North Tunnel and has a gradient of 1 in 2300 and a length of 4,654 feet.

The outlet cut to the Reception Reservoir, which has dimensions and lining similar to the tunnels, is 245 feet long and terminates at a gauge basin construct- ed of granite ashlar on a cement concrete foundation. The gauge basin is provided with a gauge to pass 40 million gallons per day, the cill level being 483.00 A.O.D.

Reception Reservoir.

This Reservoir, in addition to providing further storage, is designed to regulate the supply of raw water from the Shing Mun Valley which discharges directly into

it.

Work was commenced in December, 1924, and completed in December, 1926, the works being somewhat delayed by labour troubles. The Reservoir has a capacity of 33.15 million gallons, a direct drainage area of 96 acres, an area of 93 acres at a top water level of 480.00 A.O.D., and comprises a Draw-off Dam and Valve House, an Overflow Dam and Overflow Channel.

The Draw-off Dam, situated at the South end of the Reservoir, has an overall length of 228 feet, and a maximum height of 48 feet from foundation to path level, the latter being at 482.50 A.O.D.

The dam is of the gravity type constructed of mass concrete, and is composed of 4 to 1 cement concrete, faced on the up-stream side above 466.25 A.O.D. with coursed granite ashlar blocks and backed with 8 to 1 displacer cement concrete on the downstream side, the latter being faced with coursed granite rubble.

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The draw-off arrangements,

arrangements, which are designed to deal with the ultimate capacity of the Shing Mun Valley Scheme, are in duplicate and consist of two 18′′ diameter stand-pipes to each of which are connected two 18" diameter draw-off pipes each controlled by an 18′′ Penstock and a 15′′ Sluice Valve, one at 465.00 and the other at 472.00 A.O.D. The draw-offs are accommodated in a Valve Well surmounted by a Valve House from which they are controlled. An 18′′ wash- out pipe has been provided at 450.00 A.O.D.

The quantities of materials used in the construction of the dam and Valve Tower include 1,380 cubic yards of 4 to 1 cement concrete, 967 cubic yards of 8 to 1 cement concrete, 111 cubic yards of lime concrete, 218 cubic yards of ashlar masonry and 172 cubic yards of rubble masonry.

The Overflow Dam, situated in a gap at the Eastern end of the Reservoir, diverts the overflow into the Overflow Channel, which discharges into the Byewash Reservoir.

This dam has a total length of 87 feet, a maximum height of 16 feet from foundation to cope level-the latter at an elevation of 483.00 A.O.D.-and an over- flow 40 feet wide by 3 feet deep. It is faced on both sides with granite ashlar masonry having a hearting of 8 to 1 cement concrete.

In order to supply the Kowloon Filters with Shing Mun water which would be- come available on the completion of the Shing Mun Tunnels and the Reception Re- servoir, an 18" draw-off pipe controlled by an 18" penstock valve was provided in this overflow dam and a Temporary 18" main was laid thence to the Kowloon Filters.

In January, 1927, Shing Mun water was first brought into use through this connecting main, whence, after filtration at the Kowloon Filters, it was passed into the Kowloon supply. The main was removed 4 years later on the completion of the Byewash Reservoir as it was then no longer necessary.

Immediately below the Overflow Dam a water cushion and masonry gauge wall containing a 2′ 6′′ V. gauge were constructed, the latter being subsequently removed.

The Overflow Channel, which commences immediately below the gauge wall, was originally constructed down the hill side until a good rock bottom was encounter- ed. It was approximately 12′ 0′′ wide by 4′ 6′′ deep and was 265 feet long. The invert was of 8 to 1 cement concrete stepped to suit the slope, and the sidewalls were con- structed of similar concrete surmounted by a granite ashlar cope. Slight altera- tions to this work were necessitated by the construction of the Byewash Reservoir into which the overflow channel now discharges.

Filtration Plant and Erection.

This installation, situated adjacent to the Reception Reservoir, from which it is supplied, comprises the first section of the plant to deal with the filtration of the ultimate capacity of the Shing Mun Valley Scheme and consists of a battery of eight Paterson Rapid Gravity Filters, having a capacity of 5 million gallons per day, together with a chemical house which contains the plant and equipment for the treat- ment of a daily supply of 10 million gallons. Provision has been made in this installa- tion for the necessary connections for the addition of a similar battery of eight filters when the filtering capacity of the plant will be increased to 10 million gallons per day.

A contract for the supply and erection of the chemical and mechanical apparatus was let through the Crown Agents to the Paterson Engineering Company in Eng- land at the end of 1925, but delivery in Hong Kong was not completed until the end of 1927.

In May, 1927, a contract for the erection of the buildings and structures was prepared locally and let on June 29th, 1927. This work, together with the erec- tion of the mechanical plant, was satisfactorily completed and tested by the end of 1928, and the plant was brought into service on June 10th, 1929.

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Shek Lai Pui Service Reservoir.

This service reservoir, which is supplied from the adjoining Rapid Gravity Filtration Plant, is designed to regulate the supply of filtered water for distribution to Hong Kong and Kowloon.

A contract for its construction was let on September 14th, 1928, and by the end of July, 1930, construction was sufficiently advanced to allow the Eastern half of the reservoir to be brought into use. The whole reservoir was completed by the end of 1930.

The Reservoir, which was originally intended to store 5 million gallons, was increased to a capacity of 11.41 million gallons, and has a T.W.L. of 443.00 A.O.D., the average depth of water when full being 18′ 0′′.

The Reservoir is generally rectangular in shape, having the North-west and North-east corners cut off. The maximum inside dimensions are 432′ 0′′ × 270′ 0′′. A division wall 12′ 0′′ high divides it into two compartments, either of which may be supplied or drawn from independently.

The inlet conduit from the filtration plant discharges into a control house, from which water can be passed into either half of the reservoir, and in which pro- vision has been made to deal with the supply from future extensions of the filtration plant.

Two separate 24" diameter draw-off pipes, controlled by penstock valves, dis- charge into a wet well from which water can be drawn off into a 24" diameter trunk main, controlled by a similar valve. Provision has been made in the wet well for the control of two future trunk mains.

An overflow and means for washing out the Reservoir have been provided.

Access to the site of the Reservoir and Filtration Plant is effected by means of an access road from the Taipo Road, which was constructed under the contract for the Bye-wash Reservoir.

The main and division walls of the Reservoir, which have bitumen expansion joints, are constructed of cement concrete generally of gravity section but reduced in thickness where the nature of the ground was suitable. The invert is of cement concrete 9′′ thick with bitumen expansion joints. The roof, which is of the rein- forced cement concrete slab and beam type, is supported on reinforced cement concrete piers and is covered with turfed earth filling 12" thick.

The following are a few particulars of the works:-Area of roof 110,000 square feet; number of piers 522; length of main walls 1,276 feet; length of divi- sion wall 285 feet; concrete in walls, 4,620 cubic yards; concrete in invert, 2,700 cubic yards; concrete in roof, 2,000 cubic yards.

24" Trunk Main Kowloon.

This main forms the principal artery for the delivery of filtered water from the Shing Mun Valley to the several points of distribution in Kowloon and to the Harbour Pipe Line for a supply to Hong Kong.

Pipes, valves and specials were obtained through the Crown Agents for the Colonies, and delivery in the Colony was completed by the end of 1926.

A commencement was made with the laying of the main in May, 1927, and the work was completed by the end of February, 1930, when a connection was made with the Cross Harbour Pipe.

The upper section of the work, which is in difficult country, required two rein- forced concrete bridges to carry the main across the Shek Lai Pui and Lai Chi Kok Streams. This section was completed on June 10th, 1929, thus enabling the first

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supply of filtered water from the Shek Lai Pui Rapid Gravity Filters to be delivered into the already completed Pipers Hill Service Reservoir, whence it was discharged into the Kowloon distribution system by a 12′′ C.I. connecting main. The lower section of the work from Wong Uk to the Railway Point follows the line of Castle Peak and Nathan Roads.

Some delays occurred in the laying of this main, due to the realignment of the Castle Peak Road. Difficulties were encontered in the crossings of nullahs and in the avoidance of other services.

Connections from this main to the Kowloon distribution system have been made at Pipers Hill Service Reservoir, Prince Edward Road, Waterloo Road (for Yau- mati Hill Service Reservoir) and at Salisbury Road.

Two automatic recorders and self closing valves have been installed on the pipe line, one 560 feet distant from Shek Lai Pui Service Reservoir and the other at the Railway at Kowloon Point.

The pipes used for this main are of mild steel 1/4′′ and 5/16′′ thick, for the upper and lower sections respectively, having a bitumen or concrete lining and an outside wrapping of hessian cloth and bitumen. The joints are of yarn with lead rings caulked in cold.

The section under the Railway, about 300 feet long, is of heavier metal, 3/8′′ thick, the joints being welded and the whole pipe line encased in concrete.

The length of the pipe line from Shek Lai Pui Reservoir to its junction with the Cross Harbour Pipe at the Railway is 24,034 feet.

Pipers Hill Service Reservoir.

This Reservoir, whilst giving additional storage of filtered water for the Kow- loon and Lai Chi Kok Water Boat supplies, is so situated as to be capable of receiving filtered water from either the Shek Lai Pui Rapid Gravity or Kowloon Slow Sand filters.

The contract for construction was let in September, 1924, and the Reservoir was completed, satisfactorily tested and brought into use by the end of 1925.

The Reservoir has a capacity of 1-547 million gallons, a T.W.L. of 275.00 A.O.D. and a depth, when full, of 18′ 3′′. It is trapezoidal in shape, being 152′ 0′′ long with an average width of 91′0′′. A division wall 13′ 6′′

A division wall 13′ 6′′ high divides it into two compartments, from either of which water may be drawn off independently by means of 18" connections controlled by 12" Sluice Valves.

By means of 15′′ connections from the 24′′ trunk main from Shek Lai Pui Service Reservoir and from the supply main from Kowloon Filters, water is discharg- ed into a double compartment gauge basin whence it can be passed into either half of the Reservoir.

An overflow and means for washing out the Reservoir have been provided.

The Reservoir was constructed throughout of cement concrete, the main and division walls, which have bitumen expansion joints, being of gravity section but reduced in thickness where the nature of the ground permitted.

The invert is of concrete 12′′ thick and also has bitumen expansion joints.

The roof, which is of jack arching carried on reinforced concrete beams and supported on reinforced concrete piers, is of concrete and is covered with turfed earth filling 12′′ thick.

The total amount of concrete in this work is 3,614 cubic yards.

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Cross Harbour Pipe Line.

This work forms the very valuable connecting link between Kowloon and Hong Kong which enables water from the mainland to be supplied to Hong Kong.

Investigations were commenced in 1924, when a survey was made of the con- tour and nature of the harbour bed on a line between Nathan Road, Kowloon, and Jackson Road, Hong Kong.

The information obtained from 15 borings and 56 prickings was correlated, and submitted in 1925, through the Crown Agents for the Colonies, to Consulting Engineers in England who prepared a scheme for laying two 18" Cast Iron mains across the harbour. Contract documents were prepared by the Consulting Engineers and tenders were called for from Contractors in England. Owing, however, to the serious trade disorganization then prevailing in Hong Kong and South China the work was postponed, and it was not continued until the beginning of 1929 when Mr. Henderson was deputed to proceed to England to place personally before the Colonial Office and Consulting Engineers a scheme prepared by him. In May, 1929, the Consulting Engineers approved of Mr. Henderson's scheme, with slight modifica- tions, and orders for the necessary pipe work and specials were placed in England on June 28th, 1929. Delivery of these commenced in Hong Kong on September 18th, 1929.

During this period arrangements involving the preparation of the harbour bed and the casting of heavy concrete anchor blocks were proceeded with in Hong Kong and on Mr. Henderson's return to the Colony in September preparations were made for laying the pipes and the construction of a pipe assembly yard for the fabrication of short pipes into 100 feet lengths. The Contract for laying was signed on October 8th, 1929, and a commencement was made with the welding of 100 foot lengths on October 13th.

Although all possible arrangements for laying the pipe were completed by October 23rd, the actual laying was not commenced until December 17th, 1929, owing to the late arrival of Ball and Socket Joints from England.

The laying of the submarine section was completed on February 17th, 1930, having taken 57 working days.

The connections between the submarine and land sections were completed on February 23rd, 1930, and from that date to March 31st, when the pipe line was officially opened, major protective works and general testing of the pipe line were carried out. Further protective works were found necessary during the period of maintenance of the contract, and these were completed by the end of May, 1930.

The operations of jointing the pipes on the harbour bed were carried out by two Northern Chinese divers, supplied by the laying contractor, under the super- vision of the Government diver.

The position of the Hong Kong terminal of the pipe line was changed from Jackson Road to Queen's Pier, and the line of the harbour pipe was altered ac- cordingly. This obviated the necessity of building a new pier at Jackson Road.

The pipe line consists of lap welded steel pipes, 12.265′′ internal diameter and 7/16′′ thick, in random lengths of 18′ to 22', having tapered spigots and sockets 8" long and welded joints.

The inside and outside of the pipes are coated with bitumen, the outside being doubly wrapped with hessian impregnated with bitumastic solution.

Lengths of about 100' were fabricated at the Pipe Assembly Yard, situated on the sea wall near Arsenal Street, and consisted generally of spigot and socket pipes with welded joints, the ends of the 100 foot lengths being fitted with male and female

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Albion loose flanges of Cast Steel. These long lengths were bolted together on the harbour bed by divers, a rubber packing 1/4" thick being inserted between the two flanges and the joint secured by ten 1" diameter steel bolts.

Flanged steel ball and socket joints of two kinds, having an angular deflection in any direction of 18° and 25 from centre line, were used to provide for any change of line and gradient of the pipe line and were spaced generally at intervals of 300 feet.

Expansion joints of the Vulcan type, having a travel of 10", were used about every 600' to provide for expansion and contraction of the pipe line.

To prevent lateral movement of the pipe line pairs of concrete piles 12′′ square were driven opposite every ball and socket joint lying at a depth not exceeding 35 feet. Below this depth concrete anchor blocks weighing 17 tons in air and of special shape were used for a similar purpose.

The bed of the harbour on the line of the pipe consisted generally of hard sand, shell and occasional boulders, but at the ends of the line for distances of 800 feet from the seawall at Kowloon and 400 feet from Queen's Pier the harbour bed consisted of mud. This was dredged to a depth of 4 feet and was replaced by a rubble mound 9 feet wide, on the top of which the pipe was laid.

At the Kowloon end a 12" Sluice Valve, 6" washout and an air cock were fixed, whilst at Queen's Pier an air cock, a 12′′ reflux valve, a 12" washout and a 12′′ Sluice Valve were provided.

As the 24′′ Trunk main, Hong Kong, and the Gardens Service Reservoir were not completed when the Harbour Pipe became available for use, water was first passed into the Hong Kong distribution system at the junction of Wardley Street and Queen's Road. On the completion of these two items of the scheme water was discharged into the Gardens Service Reservoir on April 11th, 1933, the delivery re- corded fulfilling all expectations.

Under test the pipe line proved extremely satisfactory, only an infinitestimal amount of leakage being recorded.

The length of the pipe line from the seawall at Kowloon to the seawall at Hong Kong is 5,914 feet. The number of sections is 62; Albion loose flange joints, 66; ball and socket joints, 23; concrete anchor blocks, 15; and pairs of anchor piles, 15.

The best rate of laying over a period of 9 days was 178 lineal feet per day.

24′′ TRUNK AND 18′′ DISTRIBUTION MAINS, HONG KONG.

24′′ Trunk Main.

The 24" Trunk Main receives the discharge from the Cross Harbour Pipe and delivers the water into the Gardens Service Reservoir.

The route to the Gardens was originally intended to follow Jackson Road, Queen's Road and Garden Road, but owing to the change in the location of the Hong Kong terminal of the Cross Harbour Pipe, a more direct route was adopted from Queen's Pier via Wardley Street, Queen's Road to near the foot of Ice House Street, and thence across the Crown land behind the property on the East side of Ice House Street direct to the Gardens Service Reservoir.

The laying of the length of 800 lineal feet from Queen's Pier to Queen's Road, where a connection was made to the City distribution system, was completed by the end of 1929, enabling water from Kowloon, through the Cross Harbour Pipe, to be utilized on completion of the latter in February, 1930.

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The remaining section from Queen's Road to the Gardens Service Reservoir was completed in December, 1932, and was first utilized to pass water into the Gardens Service Reservoir on April 11th, 1933.

The main has a total length of 2,310 lineal feet and is of mild steel 24′′ diameter by " thick, the joints and other characteristics being similar to the 24" trunk main in Kowloon.

18" Distribution Main.

This main enables the water stored in the Gardens Service Reservoir to be passed into the City Distribution system. It is of Cast Iron 18′′ in diameter and 1,268 feet in length.

The main is connected to the draw-off pipes of the Gardens Service Reservoir and follows a direct line to the top of Zetland Street, the whole length of which it traverses before it connects to the City distribution system in Queen's Road.

Work was commenced on the laying of this main in August, 1932, and was completed during the following December.

GARDENS SERVICE RESERVOIR.

This Service Reservoir receives from the 24′′ trunk main, Hong Kong, the Shing Mun water brought over from the mainland by the Cross Harbour Pipe.

Work was commenced in September, 1931, and was sufficiently completed to allow the Reservoir to be brought into use on April 11th, 1933. The whole work, including the restoration and improvements of the Gardens, was completed in December, 1933.

The original site chosen for this reservoir was in the New Gardens on the West side of Albany Road and at a top water level of 280.00 A.O.D., but the site was changed to its present position in the old Gardens and the top water level was re- duced to 240.25 A.O.D.

The reservoir has a capacity of 4.957 million gallons and an average depth of water when full of 16′ 6′′. It is rectangular in shape, being 276′ 0′′ long by 180′ 0′′ wide. A division wall 10′ 3′′ high divides the reservoir into two compartments, which may be supplied or drawn from independently.

The 24′′ diameter Trunk main discharges into a Gauge Basin in the Inlet Control House, whence the water is directed into either half of the reservoir, as required, by means of two 24" Penstock valves.

An automatic recorder measures the amount of water entering and an indicator measures the height of water in the reservoir.

Two independent 18" diameter draw off pipes, one from each compartment of the reservoir and controlled by 15" Sluice Valves, discharge into the 18" Distribution Main to the City.

The main and division walls, which have bitumen expansion joints, are con- structed of cement concrete, generally of gravity section but reduced in thickness. where the nature of the ground was suitable.

The foundations of the North wall and portions of the East and West walls were piled with reinforced concrete piles.

The invert is of cement concrete, 9′′ thick, having bitumen expansion joints.

The roof, which is of the reinforced cement concrete beam and slab type, is supported on reinforced cement concrete piers and is covered with turfed earth fill- ing 24′′ thick.

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The construction of this reservoir necessitated some alteration to the original Gardens, which had two terraces at levels of 239.00 and 229.00 A.O.D. These have now been replaced by one terrace at 244.00 A.O.D. thus providing a larger level area.

The old fountain on the upper terrace was demolished and replaced by a new one in the centre of the new terrace.

The work necessitated alterations to the existing approach steps and paths at the site of the reservoir. A new flight of granite steps was constructed on the East side and a new entrance to the Gardens from Albany Road was made on the West side.

Other new features included granite seats on the East and North sides, a shelter and two drinking fountains on the West side, gardener's stores, raised terraces and a water tank on the South side and lavatory and latrine accommodation on the East side.

The following are a few particulars of the work :-Area of roof, 49,680 square feet; number of piers, 251; length of main walls, 904 feet; length of division wall, 180 feet; concrete in walls, 3,697 cubic yards; concrete in invert, 1,280 cubic yards; concrete in roof, 1,156 cubic yards; concrete piles, 1,430 lineal feet.

BYEWASH RESERVOIR.

The Byewash Reservoir, which was subsequently included in this section of the Scheme, provides a very economical and inexpensive increase in the water supply

of Kowloon.

Due to its geographical situation with respect to the existing Kowloon water supply, to which it is directly connected, the necessity for providing Trunk and Distribution Mains, Filtration Plants and Service Reservoirs was eliminated, thereby enabling the additional supply provided by the Reservoir to be utilized at a relatively small cost, the construction of a dam, with its contingent works, being the only fea- ture required.

The Reservoir also forms a valuable connecting link between the Shing Mun Valley and the Kowloon Waterworks Schemes, as it automatically collects not only the water from its own catchment area but flood-water which passes over the Over- flows of the Kowloon and Reception Reservoirs, that from the Kowloon Reservoir discharging directly into the Byewash Reservoir and that from the Reception Re- servoir being collected by a short diversion channel.

A controlled supply may also be drawn from the Reception Reservoir when the latter is not overflowing.

The Reservoir, which is formed by a dam at its South-western end, is situated in the Lai Chi Kok Valley, about 700 yards down stream from the existing Kowloon Dam. Its location in this valley considerably facilitated vehicular access from Taipo Road to the Shek Lai Pui Filters and Service Reservoir, as the structure of the dam was utilized to carry the Access Road over the Lai Chi Kok Stream by means of a roadway on the top of the dam, which considerably reduced the gradients and the length and cost of the Access Road.

Preliminary investigations were made and tentative plans prepared in 1925, but sanction to proceed with the work was not obtained until early in 1929. Designs were then completed and the contract was signed on June 11th, 1929.

Work commenced shortly afterwards but progress was rather slow owing to deeper foundations being necessary and to a series of labour and other troubles. However, by the end of 1930 the construction level of the dam had reached an elevation of 65 feet above stream bed, at which level impounding of water com- menced. Water was first drawn off for supply purposes on January 14th, 1931, by connecting the new 18" drawn-off to the existing supply main from Kowloon Dam to the Kowloon Filters.

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The dam was completed in May and the contingent works in August, 1931. The Reservoir filled for the first time during the summer, and overflowed on August 11th, 1931.

The Reservoir has a direct catchment area of 90 acres, a capacity of 185.5 million gallons, and an area of 15 acres at a top water level of 380.00 A.O.D.

Mechanical equipment was installed by the Contractors for the construction. Materials, except stone which was available at the site, were transported by road to an unloading station near the East end of the dam and were carried over the valley to the mixing station by an overhead cableway. Sand and cement were deposited directly by cableway into storage bins above a concrete mixer of one cubic yard capacity, whilst aggregate was delivered to a similar storage bin by bucket elevator.

The mixed concrete for deposition in the dam was hoisted inside a steel tower and discharged into a steel shute suspended from a cable across the valley.

The dam, which has a length of 347 feet at top water level, is of the gravity type constructed of mass cement concrete and is composed of 5 to 1 cement con- crete, faced on the upstream side above 285 A.O.D. with smooth faced concrete blocks and backed with displacer concrete varying from 6 to 1 to 8 to 1 according to elevation. The concrete backing is faced on the downstream side with concrete blocks representing rock faced ashlar masonry.

The height of the roadway over the dam, which is at an elevation of 387.00 A.O.D., is 143′ 6′′ from deepest foundation level and 118′ 0′′ from stream bed level.

Four draw-offs, 18" in diameter and controlled by 18" Penstock and 15" Sluice Valves, are provided at levels of 300, 320, 340 and 360 A.O.D. They are connected to an 18′′ diameter standpipe accommodated in a valve well surmounted by a valve house from which the valves are operated.

An 18" diameter washout pipe controlled in a similar manner from the valve house has been provided at a level of 270 A.O.D.

An 18" diameter connection between the new standpipe and the supply main from Kowloon Dam to the Kowloon Filters is carried across the South-East flood water channel of the dam on a reinforced concrete skew arch bridge of 42′ 0′′ span.

The overflow, which consists of 16 openings 12′ 0′′ long by 3′ 6′′ deep, dis- charges into floodwater channels on either side of the stream, from which a water cushion, provided in the stream bed at the toe of the dam, collects the flood- water and discharges it into the old stream course.

The roadway over the dam is surfaced with fine cement concrete and is sur- mounted on both sides by a pilaster and balustrade parapet of cement concrete.

A diversion channel, having a length of 516 feet, an average width of 12′ 6′′ and a depth of 4′ 3′′, and stepped to suit the ground, collects the overflow or draw off from the Reception Reservoir and diverts it into the Byewash Reservoir. It is constructed of cement concrete, the invert being 9′′ thick. The side walls, which have a batter of 8 to 1, are of similar materials.

The Access Road is 10′ 0′′ wide throughout, the section from Taipo Road to the dam being 1,300 feet long and having a down grade of 1 in 11.63. Across the dam it is level and from there to Shek Lai Pui Filters it is on an average uphill grade of 1 in 9.34 for a length of 700 feet followed by an average down grade of 1 in 44.6 for a length of 535 feet.

The road has been constructed partly in cutting and partly on embankments and retaining walls. It is surfaced with tar macadam on a foundation of lime and cement concrete and is channelled where necessary.

162

A total of 29,300 cubic yards of concrete, including 14,100 concrete blocks, were used in the work.

COST.

The cost of the first section of the Shing Mun Scheme was $4,136,765.59, which, after allowing for the alterations to the details of the scheme and the addition of the Byewash Reservoir and administration charges, compares very favourably with the original approximate estimated cost given in Sessional Paper No. 4/1929.

The costs of the various parts of the work, together with the annual expendi- tures, are shown in Appendix "A" attached.

وو

Α

Appendix B gives general information regarding the construction of the separate parts of the work, and the attached plan shows the general layout of the first section of the scheme.

All pipe work, valves, machinery and reinforcement were supplied through the Crown Agents for the Colonies, and all except the reinforcement were laid or erected departmentally.

Trench work for pipe laying was carried out under the Annual Maintenance Contracts, and road surfacing was reinstated departmentally.

ADMINISTRATION.

The 1st Section of the Scheme was carried out continuously from 1923 to 1933, but, as already explained, the programme of construction was seriously cur- tailed during the years 1926 to 1929.

The works were administered at intervals from 1923 to 1932, under the direction of the Hon. Mr. H. T. Creasy, C.B.E., M.Inst.C.E., Director of Public Works, by Mr. R. M. Henderson, M.Inst.Č.E., M.I.Mech. E., M.Inst.W.E., Mr. A. B. Purves, M.Inst.C.E., and Mr. W. Woodward, B.Sc. (Eng.), A.M.Inst.C.E., assisted by Mr. C. W. E. Bishop, B.Sc. (Eng.), A.M.Inst.C.E., A.M.Inst. W.E., Mr. R. W. Skel- ton, A.R.S.M., A.I.M.M., and Mr. D. G. Strachan, A.M.Inst.C.E. From 1932 to their completion in 1933 the works were administered, under the direction of the Hon. Mr. R. M. Henderson, Director of Public Works, by Mr. W. Woodward, assisted by Mr. C. W. E. Bishop.

W. WOODWARD, B.SC., (ENG.), A.M.INST.C.E.,

Chartered Civil Engineer,

1

Engineer in Charge of Waterworks Construction Office, Public Works Department.

HONG KONG, April 26th, 1935.

Work.

Contract No.

Appen

GENERAL INFORMATION

Contracto

Access Road

Intake Dam and Temporary Conduit

{ 32/1923 134/1923

Chung Sing.

27/1923

Ng Wah.

North Conduit

27/1923

Ng Wah.

Tunnels and South Conduit

29/1924

Sir Wm. Armstrong Whitw

Reception Reservoir

56/1924

Trollope & Colls.

Rapid Gravity Filtration Plant

44/1927

Yee Lee & Co.

Shek Lai Pui Service Reservoir

60/1928

24" Trunk Main, Kowloon

H.K.E.P.D. & C. Co.

Waterworks Annual Mainte

Pipers Hill Service Reservoir

Cross Harbour Pipe

44/1924

Ng Wah.

64/1929

24′′ Trunk Main and 18" Distribution Main, Hong Kong...

Netherlands Harbour Work

Waterworks Annual Mainte

Gardens Service Reservoir

Byewash Reservoir

40/1931

54/1932

Yee Lee & Co.

36/1929

H.K.E.P.D. & C. Co.

*Cost of laying.

Work.

Contract No.

Appendix "B.”

GENERAL INFORMATION REGARDING CONSTRUCTION.

Contractor.

Date commenced.

[ 32/1923

34/1923 j

Chung Sing.

17.7.23

ad Temporary Conduit

27/1923

Ng Wah.

20.2.25

27/1923

Ng Wah.

20.2.25

outh Conduit

29/1924

Sir Wm. Armstrong Whitworth & Co.

25.11.24

ervoir

56/1924

Trollope & Colls.

3.12.24

Filtration Plant

44/1927

Yee Lee & Co.

29.6.27

jervice Reservoir

60/1928

H.K.E.P.D. & C. Co.

14.9.28

Kowloon

Waterworks Annual Maintenance Contractors.

1925

vice Reservoir

44/1924

Ng Wah.

6.9.24

Pipe

64/1929

Netherlands Harbour Works.

8.10.29

and 18′′ Distribution Main, Hong Kong...

Waterworks Annual Maintenance Contractors.

1929

40/1931

15.9.31

: Reservoir

54/1932

Yee Lee & Co.

14.1.33

voir

36/1929

H.K.E.P.D. & C. Co.

13.6.29

*Cost of laying.

†Included i

endix "B.”

Date commenced.

Date completed.

Amount

of Contract.

Cost of Materials, &c.

Total.

N REGARDING CONSTRUCTION.

ctor.

$

$

164

17.7.23

1.492.62

31.4.26

118,468.19

3,877.60

123,838.41

20.2.25

31.1.26

70,385.50

2,884.13

73,269.63

20.2.25

31.1.26

71,768.57

259.50

72,028.07

itworth & Co.

25.11.24

12.26

1,052,344.35

21,299.78

1,073,644.13

3.12.24

12.26

156,094.01

8,179.87

164,273.88

29.6.27

12.28

52,601.38

153,788.89

206,390.27

14.9.28

31.12.30

262,110.75

28,338.56

300,449.31

ntenance Contractors.

1925

1930

*147,314.27

318,390.26

465,704.53

6.9.24

31.10.25

129,012.45

7,687.52

136,699.97

orks.

8.10.29

23.2.30

39,436.00

190,536:29

229,972.29

intenance Contractors.

1929

1932

*22,489.57

22,489.57

15.9.31

16.3.33

184,534.11

14.1.33

12.7.33

16,795.00

38,974.64

240,303.75

13.6.29

31.5.31

486,638.81

31,985.08

518,623.89

Included in 24" Kowloon.

|

គ.

Works.

1923.

1924.

1925.

1. Preliminary Works

2. Resumptions

3.

Access Road

4. Intake Dam and Temporary Conduit

5.

North Conduit

6.

Tunnels and South Conduit

7. Reception Reservoir

8.

Rapid Gravity Filtration Plant

9.

Shek Lai Pui Service Reservoir

10.

24′′ Trunk Main, Kowloon

11.

Pipers Hill Service Reservoir

12.

Cross Harbour Pipe Line

13.

14.

Gardens Service Reservoir

24′′ Trunk and 18" Distribution Mains, Hong Kong...

15. Byewash Reservoir

16.

Administration

Annual totals

SHING M

STATEMENT

$

$

CA

6,846.82

4,369.52

24,864.71

9,715.15

44,143.45

44,145.46

24

54,770.52

18

67,231.30

4

449,908.44

599

99,271.64

57

60.00

5,517.06

306

19.737.69

110,716.31 58.65

6

1.

$16,561.97

$68,250.66

$856,044.09

$1,022,.

!

Appendix "A."

SHING MUN VALLEY SCHEME-FIRST SECTION.

STATEMENT SHOWING ANNUAL AND TOTAL EXPENDITURES.

1923.

1924.

1925.

1926.

1927.

1928.

1929.

$

€9

$

$

$

€A

$

€A

6,846.82

4,369.52

24,364.71

2,849.39

9,715.15

44,143.45

44,145.46

24,341.73

7,969.19 100.00

146,949.10

54,770.52

18,499.11

67,231.30

4.796.77

449,908.44

599,911.72

23,823.97

99,271.64

57,848.77

7,153.47

60.00

115,634.35

48,842.45

35,511.34

127,155.27

19,737.69

5,517.06 110,716.31 58.65

306,822.83

13,314.28

32,407.50

52,061.13

6,245.97

1,185.76

9,235.05

166,552.74

ng...

211.50 30,829.09

$16,561.97

$68,250.66

$856,044.09 $1,022,502.05

$159,926.07

$98,554.19

$559,270.17

ION.

RES.

€A

1929.

1930.

1931.

1932.

1933.

$

$

.19 0.00

146,949.10

216,534.47 1,392.62

30,183.22

$

Total Expenditure.

CA

11,216.34

428,850.08 123,838.41

73,269.63

72,028.07 1,073,644.13

163

..45

164,273.88

35,511.34

6,342.13

206,390.27

127,155.27

146,032.95

27,261.09

300,449.31

.50

52,061.13

55,581.73

465,704.53

136,699.97

.05

166,552.74

52,228.78

711.31

229,972.29

211.50 30,829.09

32.890.38

21,179.55 148,502.50

1,310.02

22,489.57

59,199.37

240,303.75

269,911.73

217,883.07

518,623.89

63,135.64

5,875.83

69,011.47

.19

$559,270.17

$748,024.41

$308,429.07

$232,817.69

$66,385.22

Total cost of Works

$4,136,765.59

1000

2000

1500

2000

TAI MOSHAN

3130

2500-

2500

2500

2000

HONG KONG

کننده

. 1500

2000

2000

11500

2408 ACRES

1000

INTAKE DAM

TSUNG WAN

C500

100

CID

332 AC

INTAKE

DA

PINEAPPLE

134

AC.

TEMPORARY

CONDUIT

1000

SITE OF GORGE (UNDER CON

NORTH

65 AC.

SMUGGLERS RIDGE,

SOUTH

45

AC.

CONDUIT

GOLDEN

ندالة

44

SHIN

NORTH TUNI SMUGGLERS PASS

BOAD

PEAK

1000

2000

1500

HONG KONG I

KONG WATER

WATER WORK

1500

SHING

2000

LEAD

GRASSY HILL

2000

C.

11500

2408 ACRES

332 ACRES

INTAKE DAM

1000

INTAKE DAM

NEEDLE HILL

PINEAPPLE PAS

134

AC.

TEMPORARY

CONDUIT

1000

SITE OF GORGE DAM

(UNDER CONSTRUCTION)

NORTH CONDUIT

65 AC.

SMUGGLERS RIDGE

45

SOUTH

AC.

CONDUIT

GOLDEN.

1000

SHING

NORTH TUNNEL

MUGGLERS

PASS

MUN

RIVER

.500.

1500

1000

500

100

44 ACRES

100

AADEC

1000

کرانا تم

1000

ぐご

ER WORKS

SY HILL

SHING MUN VALLEY SCHEME

FIRST SECTION

Shing Mun Valley Scheme. First Section shown in Red

Existing works shown in Yellow.

AVER

.500.

1500

نے

1000

1000

100

1000

100

SHA TIN

/STATION YARD

500

1000,

+

HUNG HUZ

SLAND

(0001")

TSUNG WAN

100

GIN

DRINKERS

BAY

C500

ROAD

PEAK

INTAKE

PINEAPPLE PA

134

AC.

TEMPORARY

CONDUIT

SITE OF GOF

(UNDER C

J

NORT

65

AC.

SMUGGLERS RIDGE

SOUTH

CONDUIT

45

AC.

GOLDEN

نحط له

NORTH SMUGGLERS PASS

St

SOUTH

TUNNEL

44

ACRES

73

ACRES

37 ACRES

96 A 96 ACRES

11405 ACRE: SHEK LI PULR

T. W. L. 64

116. 10 MILL

RECEPTION RESERVOIR

T.W.L. 480

3315 MILL.GALL

RAPID GRAVITY FILTERS

SHEK POI SERVICE RESERVOIR

T.WOL. 449

11.41 M.GALL

RIPERS HALE

SERVICE RESERVOIR

T.W. 274.50

508 MILL GALL

LAI CHI KOK

ACRES

30 ACRES

BY!

FILTER BEDS

PIPERS HILL

WONGUK

གས

SHAM

CASTLE

INTAKE DAM

PINEAPPLE PAŠS

1134

AC.

TEMPORARY

CONDUIT

1000

SITE OF GORGE DAM

(UNDER CONSTRUCTION)

NORTH CONDUI”

UIT

65 AC.

SMUGGLERS RIDGE

SHING

NORTH TUNNEL

SMUGGLERS

PASS

MUN

RIVER

SOUTH

CONDUIT

500

45

AC.

GOLDEN-

HILD

44

ACRES

1000

73

ACRES

SOUTH

TUNNEY

#37 \ACRES

1405 ACRES

ESERVOIR

SHEK LI PUI RESERV

T. W. L. 645

116. 10 MILL GALL

.300.

100

SRECEPTION RESERVOIR

T.W.L. 480

3315 MILL.GALL

RAPID GRAVITY FILTERS

¿POI SERVICE RESERVOIR

T.WEL. 443

11. 41 MIEL. GALL

96

6

ACRES

RIPERS HALE.

SERVICE RESERVOIR

T.W. 274.50

508 MILL CALL

LAI CHI KOK

ACRES

KOWLOON RÈSREVOIR

T. W. L. 448

352 MILL GALL

30

ACRES

BYEWASH RESERVOIR

·T.W.L. 380

5/50 MILL.GALL

500

FILTER BEDS

PIPERS HILL

WONGUK

*** ** ** 1

-- the

+

SHAM SHUI PO

100

CATCHWATER

375 ACRES

BEACON HILL!!

1000

4 TRUNK MAIN

UNNEL

PRINCE EDWARI

IVER

500

100

100

100

SHA TIN

/STATION YARD

CATCHWATER

371/ACRES

REVOIR

375 ACRES

BEACON HILLI

R

000

TRUNK MAIN

100

500

TUNNEL

بریز

PRINCE EDWARD ROAD

1002

100

500

500

1000.

سا

ון

#

KOWLOON

BAY

HUNG HUZ

SLAND

GIN

100

DRINKERS

BAY

ROAD

45

AC.

1

SOUTH

CONDUIT

GOLDEN

HILL

500

SOUTH

TUNNEY

RECEPTION RESERVOIR

T.W.L. 480

3315 MILL.GALL

RAPID GRAVITY FILTERS

SHEK LEPOI SERVICE RESERVOIR

T.WL. 443

11. 41 MEA.GALL

?

44 ACRES

11405 AC

73

SHEK LI PL T.W.L

ACRES

116. 10 Mi

37 \ACRES

96 ACRES

A CRE

RIPERS HATE.

SERVICE RESERVOIR

T.W. 274.50

STONECUTTERS

ISLAND

508 MILL GALL

LAI CHI KOK

ACRES

/ACI

FILTER

BEDS

PIPERS HILL

WONGUK

SH

KERS

CASI

500

CONDUIT

SOUTH

TUNNEL

AC.

GOLDEN

THILD

44 ACRES

1000

73

405 ACRES

SHEK LI PUI RESERVOIR

T. W. L. 645

116. 10 MILL GALL

100

RECEPTION RESERVOIR

T.W.L. 480

3315 MILL.GALL

RAPID GRAVITY FILTERS

SHEK LLPOI SERVICE BESERVOIR

T.WL. 443/

11. 41 M.GALL

1

STONECUTTERS

ISLAND

ACRES

37 CRES

96 ACRES

KOWLOON RÈSREVOIR

ACRES

T. W. L. 448

352 MILL GALL

30

RIPERS HILE.

SERVICE RESERVOIR

T.W. 274.50

508 MILL GALL

LAI CHI KOK

CATCHWATER

375 ACRES

BEACON HILL!!

#

ACRES

PIPERS. BYEWASH RESERVOIR

FILTER

HILL

BEDS

·T.W.L. 389

50 MILL.GALL

500

MILL.

1000

WONGUK

it

JL

1

SHAM SHUÌ

PQ_

24" TRUNK MAIN

MAI

MONG KOK TSUI

TYPHOON

ANCHORAGE

1600

TUNNEL

PRI

KO

00000

18"

-YAUM

T.W. 5.43

YAUMATI

1001

GASCOIGNE

300

100

CATCHWATE

371/ACRES

ESREVOIR

375 ACRES

BEACON HILL!!

1002

OIR

TRUNK MAIN

K TSUI

00000

بریز

PRINCE EDWARD ROAD

KOWLOON

OON

ORAGE

10000 10000 30000

YAUMATI

1000

18"

-YAUMATI SERVICE RESERVOIR

T.W.L. 215

5.433 MILL GALL

000

ASCOIGNE

ROAD

HUMG HOM

ROAD

ΥΤΟΝ

RAILWAY

100

100

500

1000.

KOWLOON

BAY

ISLAND

500

STONECUTTERS

ISLAND

}

V

T

R

WEST POINT

10002

400

18" DISTRIBUTION MAIN

1000

GARDENS SERVICE RESERVOIR ST.W.L. (240 25 4. 957 MILL. GALL/

1000

SCALE 2

500

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

60

STONECUTTERS ISLAND

MONG KOK TSUI

30000

}

T

R

V

WEST POINT

18" DISTRIBUTION MAIN

GARDENS SERVICE RESERVOIR

T.W.L. (240125 4.957 MILL. GALL/

KOWLOO

TYPHOON ANCHORAGE

70000 0000 30000 C

18"

YAUMATI SER'

T.W. 215

5.433 MILL

4

YAUMATI

COIGNE

TSIM SHA TSTU

YOR

ROAD

KOWLOON

CANTON

RAILWAY

LIMIT OF MAN OF WAR ANCHORAG

12” HARBOUR PIPE LINE

_b..

1000

Оос

NAVAL

YARD

TRUNK MAIN,

100

HONG

H

1000

SCALE 2/2 INCHES = 1 MILE

*..

}

EAS

KON

0 500 1000

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

10000

11000

12000

: TSUI

30000!

KOWLOON

OON

DRAGE

10000 1000

OOC 1000

18"

YAUMATI SERVICE RESERVOIR

T.W.L. 215

5.433

MILL GALL

YAUMATI

TSIM SHA TSU

JOUR PIPE LINE_____

VAL

ARD

NK MAIN

ONG

100

1000

CHES

-

1 MILE

8000

GASCOIGNE

CHATHAM

KOWLOON

ROAD

CANT

ROAD

HUMG HOM

RAILWAY

E

LIMIT OF MAN OF WAR ANCHORAGE

a

4

4

R

R

U

B

500

KELLET 1.

EAST POINT'

KONG

NORTH POINT

500

500

1000

9000

10000

11000

12000

13000

14000

15000 FT

WATER

WORKS

CONSTRUCTION OFFICE

P.

W.

:

}

SCALE: 8 INCHES = 1 MILE.

REFERENCES.

WIDE STREAM.........

! NARROW..

PATH

XAQUADUCT

TUNNEL...

CULTIVATED AREA__.

VILLAGE HOUSE

SHEUNG KWALCHUNG

B1

CCESS ROAD

B2

B

B.

WO LI HOP

B3

B2

EUROPEAN

QUARTERS

COOLIE LINE

COOLIE

LINE

PINEAPPLE PASS DAM

M

H

PINEAPPL

e

COOLIE LINE

COOLIE LINE

EUROPEAN

QUARTERS

کے

H

PINEAPPLE PASS DAM

E

H

PINEAPPLE

PASS

SHING MUN

N

GORGE DAM

K

P.W.D.

DAM

SHING MUN

SHING

MUN

HO PUI

M

REFERENCES.

WIDE STREAM.

! NARROW.—---

PATH...

AQUADUCT.

TUNNEL..

22

CULTIVATED AREA..

VILLAGE HOUSE

SHEUNG KWALCHUNG

FROM

TSUN

WAN

ΤΟ LAI

CHI

KOK

X =

B,

00

ESS ROAD

B2

B3

WO LI HOP

Bammy

B2

EUROPEAN

QUARTERS

COOLIE LINE

COOLIE.

LINE

F

H

LE PASS DAM

PINEAPPL

IT)

E

2IN CIRCLE

(440 YDS.)

3IN CIRCLE

(660 YDS.)

B2

COOLIE LINE

EUROPEAN- QUARTERS

COOLIE

LINE

E

<<

2IN CIRCLE

(440 YDS.)

لا

3IN CIRCLE

(660 YDS.)

PASS

H

PINEAPPLE

4 SS

PA

SMUGGLERS

RIDGE.

(880 YDS.)

4IN CIRCLE /

SHING MUN

N

GORGE DAN

M

SHING MUN

M

SHING

MUN

135

HONG KONG.

No. 1935

4

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE TO

COMMITTEE TO CONSIDER THE FORMATION OF A TRAVEL ASSOCIATION AND TO MAKE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TOURIST TRAFFIC IN HONG KONG.

(C.S.O. 5/1/5971/34).

SANITARY DEPARTMENT, HONG KONG, 10th April, 1935.

THE HONOURABLE

SIR,

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY,

HONG KONG.

We, the Committee appointed to consider the formation of a Travel Association and generally to make recommendations regarding the steps to be taken to encourage and develop the tourist traffic and to provide amenities for visitors to the Colony, have the honour to submit our report as follows:-

1. We agree that the formation of a Travel Association is desirable and suggest that it should be called "The Hong Kong Travel Association".

2. The purpose of the Association should be to make known in various parts of the world the attractions of Hong Kong in order to encourage visitors to come to the Colony and to arrange facilities for their amusement and recreation while in the Colony. In order to give stability to the organisation, we consider it desirable that the Association should be incorporated by Ordinance.

3. The public of Hong Kong should be invited to subscribe to the funds of the Association. In particular those likely to profit from an increase in the number of visitors to the Colony, namely, Hotels, Merchants, Departmental Stores, Local Trans- portation Companies, Garages, Banks and Shipping Companies, should be invited to make donations, and a guarantee to continue these donations for at least three years is desirable.

4. We recommend that the Government should subscribe to the funds of the Association dollar for dollar, an equal sum to that obtained from the general public but not less than $25,000 per annum for the next three years.

5. We consider that the task of advertising Hong Kong should be approached from two sides. An effort should be made to popularise Hong Kong among the peoples of the neighbouring countries and among those who are already in the Far East. For Chinese, in both South and North China, Hong Kong offers excellent facilities for sea bathing in the summer; and for Europeans and other western people already in the Far East, Hong Kong is an ideal resort in winter for a short holiday. A Newspaper campaign in the press of neighbouring countries seems to

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us to offer the best way to reach the people we have in view. A direct advertisement appearing in the leading newspapers of Japan, Korea, Peking, Tientsin, Shanghai, Canton, Hanoi, Haiphong, Saigon, Manila, Sarawak, Sandakan, Bangkok, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Batavia, Soerabaja, and possibly Rangoon and Colombo together with descriptive articles and photographs of Hong Kong would, we believe, stimulate enquiries and eventually bring additional visitors to the Colony.

The other side is to interest the globetrotter, the tourist, and those who embark on a pleasure cruise, and persuade them to spend a greater part of their time in Hong Kong. For this purpose a brochure and posters, setting out the beauties and attractions of Hong Kong should be prepared and distributed in Great Britain and Europe generally, throughout America, South Africa and Australia. Shipping companies, organisers of pleasure cruises and various Travel Agencies should be approached to bring Hong Kong to the notice of their clientele. In time to come the brochure might become an annual booklet and a monthly pamphlet could be added showing current and pending events of interest, additions and revisions. Ad- vertising should also be undertaken at some of the leading Tourist Centres abroad.

6. The next object of the Association should be to provide better facilities for recreation and amusement available for a visitor to the Colony. The various private clubs in the Colony, especially for golf and tennis should be approached and asked to give facilities for the introduction of temporary visitors. Dressing accommoda- tion should be made available at various beaches to enable visitors to have a swim. Maps should be prepared showing particularly the paths available for walking, and signposts should be erected for guidance and to enable visitors to locate places of interest. The question of the provision of competent guides for visitors should be thoroughly investigated by the Association. We consider further that the provision of an Aquarium would add greatly to the attractions of Hong Kong.

7. The Association should enter into correspendence and make close contact with Travel Associations in other parts of the world.

8. While action can be taken on the lines we have proposed without the direct employment of whole time staff, other than possibly a competent stenographer, we consider that it is very desirable if funds are forthcoming that a whole time officer be engaged as a publicity agent. The right type of man capable of writing interest- ing articles which newspapers, magazines, &c. would accept, and capable of organis- ing effective publicity will not be easy to find. An adequate salary must be offered. to attract a suitable man.

9. An Information Bureau where visitors can receive first hand and up-to-date information regarding the Colony, impending events and facilities for recreation would be useful adjuncts to the Association. It would obviously follow on the appoint- ment of a whole time officer and may be possible even before that appointment can be made.

10. The Urban Council, when formed, will, no doubt, be of great assistance to the Association.

11. We have not attempted to prepare a full estimate of all the expenditure likely to be incurred by the Association. We foresee the necessity for adequate funds to cover the rent of suitable premises, which should be located centrally and easily accessible to the travelling public, and the salaries of full time employees, in addition to the actual cost of advertising and the production of a brochure, &c. Some expenditure on broadcasting from Far Eastern Stations may be desirable and in this respect we note with pleasure that experimental transmissions are being made from Z.B.W. on short wave. Nothing could be more effective in bringing Hong Kong to the notice of peoples in other lands than a powerful short wave broad-

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casting station. The manufacture and exhibition of cinema films of Hong Kong and of Chinese life in Hong Kong would also be effective propaganda. We have had this expenditure in mind, however, in recommending the grant from Govern- ment mentioned in paragraph 4 as we consider an income of at least $50,000 to $60,000 per annum is essential if the Association is to make a proper start. Additional funds will be necessary to continue the work adequately.

We have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient servants,

W. J. CARRIE (Chairman).

G. C. PELHAM.

R. D. WALKER.

C. G. S. MACKIE.

M. K. Lo.

J. H. TAGGART.

CHAN FU CHEUNG.

B. WYLIE.

N. J. PERRIN.

O. EAGER.

G. COSTELLO.

MARK CHAN HARR.

T. B. WILSON.