Sessional Papers - 1905

PAPERS LAID BEFORE THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL OF HONGKONG 1905

Table of Contents

1. Assessment

Report on, for 1905-1906

2. Award By H. E. the Governor, in Claim of Messrs. Stephens and Howard

Award By H. E. the Governor, in Claim of Messrs. Stephens and Howard

3. Bacteriologist, Government

Report for 1904

4. Blue Book

Report on, for 1904

5. Botanical and afforestation

Report for 1904

6. Eastern Mail Service

Financial Minute and Correspondence Regarding

7. Education

Report for 1904

8. Estimates of Expenditure, 1906

Abstract Shewing Differences Between Estimates for 1905 and 1906

9. Estimates of Expenditure, 1906

Memorandum Explaining

10. Financial Returns

For 1904

11. Financial Statements

In Connection With Estimates for 1906

12. Fire Brigade

Report for 1904

13. Flushing System, City of Victoria

Report on

14. Gaol

Report for 1904

15. Harbour Master

Report for 1904

16. Insanitary Properties Resumptions

Report on, in Years 1894-1905

17. Jurors

List of, for 1905

18. Land Court, New Territories

Report on Work Done from 1900 to 1905

19. Legislative Council

Proceedings for 1905

20. Market Rents

Minute as to the Effect of

21. Medical

Report for 1904

22. Medical officer of Health

Report for 1904

23. New Territories

Report on the Land Court from 1900 to 1905

24. Observatory

Report for 1904

25. Pinus Massoniana

Correspondence in Connection With the Felling and Planting of

26. Plague

Report on Epidemic of, During 1904

27. Po Leung Kuk

Report for 1904

28. Police and Crime

Report for 1904

29. Post office

Report for 1904

30. Public Works

Report for 1904

31. Queen's College

Report for 1904

32. Queen's College

Report By Examiners of

33. Registrar General

Report for 1904

34. Sanitary

Report for 1904

35. Sanitary Condition of Hongkong

Report for 1904

36. Sanitary Surveyor

Report for 1904

37. Sanitation

Statements Regarding action Taken on

38. Slaughter-House Fees

Minute as to the Effect of

39. Subordinate Court Returns

For 1904

40. Supreme Court

Report and Returns By Registrar of, for 1904

41. Tung Wah Hospital

Report on

42. Veterinary Surgeon, Colonial

Report for 1904

43. Volunteer Corps, Hongkong

Report for 1904-1905

44. Widows and Orphans' Pension Fund

Report for 1904

 

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE ASSESSMENT FOR THE YEAR 1905-1906.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

ASSESSOR'S OFFICE, HONGKONG, 11th July, 1905.

No. 30

SIR,-I have the honour to submit my Report on the Assessment for the year 1905-1906.

2. By order of His Excellency The Governor in Council a new Valuation has been made of :-

The City of Victoria. The Hill District.

Kowloon Point.

Yaumati.

Hung Hom. Mongkoktṣui. Shaukiwan. Tai Hang.

The existing valuation of all other places being adopted for the ensuing year.

The City of Victoria.

The result of the new Valuation is that the Rateable Value of the City of Victoria shews an increase of $489,345 or 5.86 per cent., having risen from

$8,342,470 to $8,831,815.

The Hill District.

4. The Rateable Value of the Hill District is now $248,265 as compared with $230,205 last year, an increase of $18,060 or 7.84 per cent.

Kowloon Point.

5. The Rateable Value of Kowloon Point has increased from $370,650 to $415,035, an addition of $44,385, equivalent to 11.97 per cent.

Yaumati.

6. The re-valuation of Yaumati has resulted in a small decrease of 1.06 per cent. The Rateable Value being $250,470, against $253,160, a difference of $2,690.

0.26

Hung Hom.

7. There is a small increase in the Rateable Value of Hung Hom of $535 or per cent. The new Assessment being $200,245, as compared with $199,710 last year.

Mongkoktsui.

8. The Rateable Value of Mongkoktsui is now $133,060, against $123,510 last year, an increase of $9,550 or 7.73 per cent.

Shaukiwan.

9. The Rateable Value of Shaukiwan amounts to $49,122, as compared with $35,769 last year, an addition of $13,353 or 37.33 per cent.

Tai Hang.

10. The Rateable Value of Tai Hang has been increased from $7,485 to $12,275, a difference of $4,790 or 63.99 per cent.

Hongkong Villages.

11. The Rateable Value of the Hongkong Villages, i.e., all places on the Island not separately mentioned above is now $189,927, against $191,117 last year, a decrease of $1,190 or 0.62 per cent.

1905

}

:

:

670

Kowloon Villages.

12. The Rateable Value of the Kowloon Villages, i.e., the remainder of old Kowloon not separately referred to above is now $142,064, as compared with $136,445, an increase of $5,619 or 4.11 per cent.

The Whole Colony.

13. The Rateable Value of the whole Colony is now $10,472,278, as compared with $9,890,521 last year, an increase of $581,757, equivalent to 5.88 per cent.

New Kowloon.

14. There is an increase in the Rateable Value of Kowloon City and Sham- shui-po of $235 or 0.60 per cent., the present Assessment being $38,885, against $38,650 last year.

Interim Valuations.

15. During the period from 1st July, 1904, to 1st June, 1905, Interim Valuations have been made as follows:-

In the City of Victoria.

184 New and/or rebuilt tenements, rateable value,

$ 363,645

47 Tenements structurally altered,

.$ 104,580

Replacing Assessments amounting to

107,410

2,830

360,815

57 Assessments cancelled, tenements pulled down, or being in

other respects not rateable,.

51,300

$309,515

Increase in City of Victoria,

In the Rest of the Colony.

97 New and/or rebuilt tenements, rateable value,

$ 51,415

3 Tenements structurally altered,

Replacing Assessments amounting to..........

$ 9,400 12,525

3,125

48,290

50 Assessments cancelled, tenements pulled down, or being in

other respects not rateable,

25,351

Increase in the Rest of the Colony,

$ 22,939

In New Kowloon.

21 New tenements, rateable value,

1 Tenement structurally altered, Replacing an assessment of

7 Assessments cancelled, tenements pulled down,

Increase in New Kowloon

$ 1,060

$ 75 20

55

1,115 880

$ 235

The total number of tenements affected by Interim Valuations being 467.

·Vacant Tenements.

16. The number of reported vacant tenements in the City of Victoria inspected under section 35 of the Rating Ordinance averaged about 165 monthly, against 155 last year.

1

671

Tabular Statements.

17. The usual tabular statements giving comparisons of the Valuation for 1904-1905 and the new Valuation for 1905-1906 are attached.

Staff.

18. Mr. CHEUNG YUK-FAI and Mr. TAI TIN SHANG have discharged their duties to my satisfaction.

The Honourable,

L. A. M. JOHNSTON,

Colonial Treasurer.

I have, &c.

ARTHUR CHAPMAN,

Assessor.

Table A.

THE CITY OF VICTORIA.

DISTRICT.

Valuation, Valuation,

No.

Name.

1904-1905.1905-1906.

Increase. Decrease.

Per- centage.

$

%

10

1234

Kennedy Town,

168,415

186,540

18,125

Shektongtsui,

351,800

364,300

12,500

Saiyingpun,

1,933,655 | 2,066,430

132,775

...

Taipingshan,

700,140

693,365

6,775

Sheungwan,

1,077,560 1,110,270

32,710

Chungwan,

3,117,915 | 3,400,250

282,335

Hawan,

349,045

340,250

8,795

8

Wantsai,

404,175

411,880

7,705

9

Bowrington,

93,265

103,935

10,670

10

Sookonpoo,

146,500 154,595

8,095

$8,342,470 8,831,815 504,915

15,570

Deduct decrease,

15,570

Increase,

489,345

5.86

Table B.

THE HILL DISTRICT, SHAUKIWAN, TAI HANG AND HONGKONG VILLAGES.

District.

Valuation, Valuation, 1904-1905. 1905-1906.

Per-

Increase. Decrease.

centage.

The Hill District,

$ 230,205

$

$

$

이유

248,265 18,060

7.84

...

Shaukiwan,

35,769

49,122 13,353

37.33

Tai Hang,

7,485

12,275 4,790

63.99

Hongkong Villages,

191,117 189,927

1,190

0.62

$ 464,576 499,589 36,203

1,190

Deduct decrease,

1,190

Increase,

35,013

7.53

672

Table C.

KOWLOON POINT, YAUMATI, HUNGHOM, MONGKOKTSUI & KOWLOON VILLAGES.

!

Valuation, Valuation,

Per

District.

Increase. Decrease.

1904-1905.1905-1906.

centage.

$

$

$

%

Kowloon Point, .

370,650

415,035

44,385

11.97

Yaumati,

253,160

250,470

2,690

1.06

Hunghom,

199,710

200,245

535

0.26

Mongkoktsui,

123,510 133,060 9,550

7.73

Kowloon Villages,

136,445 142,064

5,619

4.11

1,083,475 1,140,874

60,089

2,690

Deduct decrease,

2,690

Increase,

57,399

5.29

District.

Table D.

THE COLONY OF HONGKONG.

Valuation, Valuation, 1904-1905. 1905-1906.

Per-

Increase.

centage.

$

.$

$

%

The City of Victoria,

Hill District and Hongkong Villages,

Kowloon Point and Kowloon Villages,

Total,

8,342,470 8,831,815 489,345 5.86

464,576 499,589 35,013

1,083,475 1,140,874 57,399

7.53

5.29

.$ 9,890,521 10,472,278 581,757- 5.88

District.

Kowloon City and Shamshui-po,

Table E.

NEW KOWLOON.

Valuation, Valuation, 1904-1905. 1905-1906.

Per-

Increase.

centage.

$

$

$

%

38,650

38,885

235

0.60

ARTHUR CHAPMAN,

Assessor.

-

673

Table F

ANNUAL RATES.

District.

Valuation,

Valuation,

Increase.

Decrease.

$

1904-1905. 1905-1906.

1,084,431.08 1,148,166.88 63,735.80

$

$

Victoria,

Hill District,.

24,717.80

26,659.52 1,941.72

Shaukiwan,

3,221.40

4,423.36 1,201.96

Tai Hang,

1,271.44

Hongkong Villages,

14,700.60

2,087.24

14,595.28

815.80

105.32

Kowloon Point,

44,696.24

50,842.12 6,145.88

Yaumati,

31,014.68 30,684.56,

330.12

Hung Hom,

24,462.24 24,531.68

69.44

Mongkoktsui,

15,130.88

16,300.48 1,169.60

Kowloon Villages,

10,431.04

10,885.08 454.04

:

Kowloon City and Samshui-po, New

Territory,

2,708.44

2,719.64

11.20

$1,256,785.84 1,331,895.84 | 75,545.14 435.44

Deduct Decrease,

Nett Increase,

435.44

75,110.00

L. A. M. JOHNSTON,

Treasurer.

HONGKONG.

No. 20

CLAIM OF MESSRS. HOWARD AND STEPHENS FOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY SUSTAINED BY THEM AS OWNERS OF MARINE LOT No. 184 THROUGH THE WORKS CARRIED OUT UNDER THE PRAYA RECLAMATION ORDINANCE No. 6 OF 1889.

Award of His Excellency Sir MATTHEW NATHAN, K.C.M.G.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

1. This claim was for an award by the Governor under Section 8 (6.) of "The Praya Reclamation Ordinance, 1889" of such a sum of money as in his absolute discretion he might think sufficient as and by way of compensation for any injury that the claimants, as owners of the former Marine Lot No. 184, may have sustained by the works carried out under the Ordinance.

2. The Lot which had an area of 32,481 Square Feet, and mean depth of 326′ 9′′, fronted for 100 feet on the 50-foot public road known as the Praya, which separated it from the harbour, and was otherwise bounded on the West and South by public roads and on the East by other Lots.

3. It was purchased by Mr. M. J. D. STEPHENS from the Hongkong Fire Insurance Company in September, 1884, for the sum of $65,000, and Godowns were erected on it to the value of about $36,000. In 1886 the claimants com- menced carrying on the business of Godown-keepers.

On the 10th May, 1889, "The Praya Reclamation Ordinance" was passed. This Ordinance contemplated the building of a sea-wall 260 feet in front of the existing Praya Wall opposite the claimants' Lot and devoting 25 feet of the land thereby reclaimed to a widening of the existing road, 160 feet to a new Marine Lot, and 75 feet to a new Praya Road.

In the latter part of 1891 and early part of 1892, a sea-wall 260 feet in length was constructed at right-angles to the line of the Praya about 40 feet to the East of the Eastern boundary of the claimants' Lot. This was the Western limit of the Reclamation Works as carried out till the year 1898. In April of that year work was commenced opposite the claimants' Lot, and at the end of that year or com- mencement of 1899 the conditions of the original Marine Lot became practically what they have since remained as regards accessibility from the sea.

4. On the 22nd November, 1898, Major-General W. BLACK awarded Messrs. THOMAS HOWARD and M. J. D. STEPHENS, lessees of Marine Lot No. 184, the sum of $15,000 as, and, by way of, compensation for the injury that they had sustained by the Praya Reclamation Works.

5. The claimants applied to the Supreme Court of Hongkong in its Original Jurisdiction to set aside this award, and their suit was dismissed on the 1st Decem- ber, 1900, generally on the grounds that the Court had no jurisdiction in the matter under the Praya Reclamation Ordinance. The Supreme Court subsequently refus- ed an application for special leave to appeal, and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in 1902 supported this refusal. A petition for full and fair com- pensation was presented to the King on the 22nd May, 1903, and on the 17th July of that year the claimants were notified that His Majesty had not been pleased to give any commands regarding their petition. As a result, however, of some further correspondence in the matter, Sir HENRY BLAKE, then Governor of Hongkong, offered the claimants an amount of $24,367.50, i.e., at the rate of 75 cents per

1905

576

Square Foot of Marine Lot No. 184 in respect of damage sustained on September 1st, 1898, owing to the reclamation in front of that Lot. This offer which took the place of Major-General BLACK's award of the 22nd November, 1898, was not accepted by the claimants and, after some further correspondence, the Secretary of State on the 9th August, 1904, ordered a further enquiry in a despatch addressed to me as then Governor of Hongkong in the following terms:-

"I request that you will make further enquiry into the matter and report to me whether or not, in your opinion, Messrs. HOWARD and STEPHENS are entitled to any, and if any, to what further com- pensation."

I accordingly held a public enquiry on the 3rd, 4th and 5th July, 1905, at which the claimants and the Colonial Government were represented by Counsel who cross-examined the Surveyors and other persons having knowledge of the value of property at Hongkong, whose statements in support of, or against the claim, were laid before me.

6. Copies of the Documents put in evidence by the claimants are annexed to this award as Appendix "A", of those put in by the Colonial Government as Appendix "B" and of the short-hand writer's notes on the verbal evidence as Appendix "C".

Reference was also made in the course of the hearing to various Sections of "The Praya Reclamation Ordinance, 1889," which is printed as No. 6 of 1889 in Volume I of the Revised Edition of the Ordinances; to the Record of Proceedings printed for the Privy Council for the hearing of the Appeal from the Supreme Court of Hongkong, and to the correspondence and statements printed with the Petition to the King of the 22nd May, 1903.

7. At the conclusion of the hearing, I put to the Chief Justice, who sat with me as Judicial Assessor, a series of questions bearing on the legal points involved in the case. These questions and His Honour's replies are set forth in Appendix "D".

8. The first point for decision is what was the value of Marine Lot No. 184 at the time it ceased to be a Marine Lot. According to the statement of claim this

value was $282,000.

.

(i.) This sum of $282,000 is practically the 3rd of the three valuations put in by the claimants as having been made by Messrs. LEIGH & ORANGE, on the 28th December, 1898, for the property as it was in 1895. It also corresponds approximately to the 2nd of those valuations. According to the Judicial Assessor's reply to the second and third of the questions addressed to him, if the system of capitalizing the net rentals obtained from the property be adopted, these valuations require corrections which, (together with an alteration in the rate of capitalization from 6% to 7% shown by the evidence to be necessary), reduce their amount to that of a valuation on this basis by Mr. DANBY, a witness for the Crown, viz., to $143,157. If this were held to be the value of the property and if Messrs. LEIGH & ORANGE'S valuation of the buildings on it, viz., $55,600, were taken, the

$143,157 – $55,600 value of the land per Square Foot in 1895 would be

= $2.70. 32,481

Messrs. LEIGH & ORANGE's first valuation, however, gave the value of the land at $5 per Square Foot. This valuation was, according to the evidence given by Mr. ORANGE, based on four facts. The first of these was a payment of $1,700 offered by the Government in November, 1887, on account of the land of which Mr. STEPHENS was actually given possession under the Crown Lease being 339

577

Square Feet short of the area mentioned in the Lease. This difference was owing to the encroachment of an adjoining Chinese owner, which existed at the time when Mr. STEPHENS purchased the property in September, 1884, for about $2 a foot, and the contention of the Crown was that the offer of $1,700 in November, 1887, was not evidence that the value of the property in 1887 was 23 times what it was in 1884, but that it was the price of peace offered on account of an error made by the Government Surveyor. The offer was rejected and eventually $5,000 was paid to Messrs. HOWARD and STEPHENS. It was not contended by the claimants

$5,000 that this payment showed the actual value of the land to be =$14.75, and I

339 am unable to consider that the original offer of the Government represented only the actual value of the land.

""

The second fact brought forward in favour of the valuation at $5 a Square Foot was that Section 8 of The Praya Reclamation Ordinance provided for the cost of the works including a "sum. not exceeding One hundred and Five thousand Dollars for the purchase of a portion of the land in course of reclamation opposite Marine Lots Nos. 95, 96, 97, 98 and 105. It was admitted by the Crown that the area of the land in question was about 21,000 Square Feet, so that the price to be paid for the reclaimed land amounted to $5 a Square Foot, but the Crown contended that this price was affected by the upsetting of an arrangement entered into two years previously with the owners of the property, on which previous arrangement reclamation had been commenced and by which their Godowns were to have been 40 feet deeper and 25 feet nearer the sea. This contention was supported by the fact that the most easterly of the Lots in question (No. 105) was sold in 1893 for $3.76 per Square Foot only. The Crown also contended that the position of the portion of land in course of reclamation, for which the sum of $105,000 was to be paid, being a quarter of a mile nearer the centre of the town was more valuable than Marine Lot No. 184. This contention was not disproved by any of the claimants' witnesses.

The third fact brought forward in favour of the valuation at $5 a Square Foot was that the Lot (then 32,820 Square Feet) had been sold in 1881 for $85,000, or at the rate of $2.59 per Square Foot. It was contended that this represented more closely the value of the Lot than the sale at its mortgage value in 1884. It was further contended that there had been a general rise in the value of property since 1881. The above fact and the contentions were not disproved by any evidence brought forward by the Crown.

In re-examination Mr. ORANGE stated that some Marine Lots were of double the value of the corresponding Inland Lots.

The fourth fact brought forward in favour of the valuation at $5 a Square Foot was that Messrs. LEIGH & ORANGE'S second and third valuations based on the capitalized value of the net rentals exceeded the combined value of the land and buildings as otherwise ascertained. These valuations resting, however, on incor- rect data, the argument in favour of the $5 per Square Foot value of the land in 1895 derived from them, may be neglected.

Messrs. LEIGH & ORANGE's statement, dated the 28th December, 1898, and Mr. ORANGE's evidence went to prove that in 1881 the land forming Marine Lot No. 184 was worth approximately $2.50 a foot and that there had been a rise in its value between that date and 1895.

(ii.) The only evidence as to the value of Marine Lot No. 184 at the time the reclamation in front of it was commenced, which can be derived from the Survey Report and Valuation of Messrs. PALMER & TURNER, dated the 19th September, 1899, put in by the claimants, is contained in the statement that they valued the

578

land in front of the Lot when reclaimed at $2.75 per Square Foot. It was not shewn that the reclamation was worth less per Square Foot than the value of the old Marine Lot in front of which it was created.

Mr. TURNER in cross-examination stated that he had valued the New Marine Lots Nos. 204, 205 and 186 in June, 1895, and June, 1896, at $3 per Square Foot. He further stated that Marine Lot No. 199 on which a small balance ($2,000) had still to be paid to the Praya Reclamation Fund was sold in 1898 at $3 a Square Foot. These Lots are in much the same relative position to the harbour and town as the former Marine Lot No. 184, except that they are very slightly nearer the centre of the City.

Messrs. PALMER & TURNER'S statement, dated the 19th September, 1899, toge- ther with Mr. TURNER's evidence, went to prove that the value of the land form- ing Marine Lot No. 184 in 1895 was about $3 per Square Foot, and very slightly

over that value in 1898.

(iii.) Messrs. DENISON, RAM & GIBBS' valuation per Square Foot of Marine Lot No. 184 at the time-1899 or thereabouts-" when the access to the sea was interrupted to such an extent as to render the property in question, and the buildings thereon, in great measure useless for the purposes of Godowns" is, according to Mr. RAM's statement of the 14th June, 1905, put in by the claimants, $4 a Square Foot.

The first fact on which this valuation is based was a valuation made by Mr. RAM in 1897 of Marine Lots Nos. 188 and 189 just a little further West of Mari- ne Lot 184. With regard to this he says:-"This property is very similar in character, having a frontage on good water and being also a corner Lot, with a frontage on three sides upon public streets and being also of the same area and covered with Godowns of the same character.” The valuation for this property was $3.25 per Square Foot.

The second fact brought forward in favour of the valuation of $4 a Square Foot was the sale in 1903 of Marine Lot No. 180 at a price slightly in excess of $7 per Square Foot.

In cross-examination Mr. RAM stated that the date of his valuation of Marine Lots Nos. 188 and 189 was the 15th December, 1897, and that there had been a general rise in value between the years 1897 to 1903.

Messrs. DENISON, RAM & GIBBS' statement, dated the 14th June, 1905, and Mr. RAM's evidence went to prove that the value of the land forming Marine Lot No. 184 on the 15th December, 1897, was about $3.25 per Square Foot and that subsequently the value rose.

1

Messrs. DENISON, RAM & GIBBS further submitted a valuation of the property deduced from the rents obtained from the ground floors of Godowns in the vicinity in 1899. This valuation which amounted to $184,184, and in any event would require various corrections, need not be considered in view of the Judicial Assessor's reply to the first of the questions put to him.

(iv.) Mr. W. DANBY in paragraph 9 of his statement, dated the 10th June, 1905, put in by the Crown, estimated that in 1895 the ground alone of Marine Lot No. 184 was worth $3 a Square Foot.

v.) Mr. A. SHELTON HOOPER in his statement, dated June, 1905, put in by the Crown, taking into consideration that Marine Lot No. 184 was a corner Lot having a frontage on Whitty Street, considered the land to have been of the value of $3 per Square Foot in 1895. He also made a valuation ($147,227) based on the rental of the property, but this, for the reasons given with regard to other valua- tions on this basis, may be neglected.

*

579

Taking into account the evidence that the value of Marine Lot No. 184 per Square Foot was in 1881 about $2.50, in 1895 about $3, and at the end of 1897 about $3.25, I am of opinion that on the 1st September, 1898, the value per Square Foot of the Lot as a Marine Lot was probably about and certainly did not exceed $3.50. I have taken the 1st September, 1898, as fairly representing the time when the status of the Lot changed from a Marine to an Inland Lot.

3

9. The next point for decision is what was the value of Marine Lot No. 84 immediately after it ceased to be a Marine Lot.

(i.) According to Messrs. LEIGH & ORANGE's valuation No. 4, embodied in their statement of the 28th December, 1898, put in by the claimants, the value per Square Foot at that date was $2.50. Mr.. ORANGE in his evidence stated that, when making this valuation he was influenced by his belief that the value of the land for the purposes of Godowns had gone in 1898, a belief since proved to be erroneous, and that the situation was too far West to be of value for residential purposes. He based his valuation on those he had made on the 2nd July, 1895, of land in two Lots between Nos. 198 and 184. These valuations were at the rate of $1.60 and $2.00 per Square Foot. Neither was a corner Lot, and the houses on them were not Godowns.

(ii.) According to Messrs. PALMER & TURNER'S statement of the 19th Septem- ber, 1899, put in by the claimants, the value of Marine Lot No. 184, after the recla- mation had been made in front of it was at the rate of $1.50 per Square Foot. Mr. TURNER in his evidence stated that this valuation was made by his partner on the basis of a previous valuation at $1.25 per Square Foot of a property on Inland Lot No. 801 in the Queen's Road (behind the Sailors' Home and 580 feet from the sea occupied by Chinese shops and a Vermilion Factory. He also stated that his valuation was based on the assumption that the property had ceased to be suitable for Godowns.

A

(iii.) Mr. RAM, one of the claimants' witnesses, in his evidence stated that, as an Inland Lot, Marine Lot No. 184 was worth not more than $2 or $2.50 per foot in 1899.

(iv.) Marine Lot No. 184 was actually sold for $110,000 on the 10th October, 1899.

According to Messrs. PALMER & TURNER'S valuation prepared for the claimants three weeks before this sale, the value of buildings was $45,000. If this were correct they received for the land the sum of $65,000, i.e., the same sum that they gave for it in 1884, ie., about $2 per Square Foot.

(v.) According to the statements of Messrs. DANBY and SHELTON HOOPER of June, 1905, put in by the Crown, the sale of October, 1899, was no criterion of the true value of the property, the small amount received being probably due to the depressed state of the property market. Seven months after this sale the property realized $140,000, and making the same deduction of $45,000 for the buildings, the value of the land was then $2.92 per Square Foot.

The temporary depreciation of the value of property in the vicinity of Marine Lot No. 184 about the time of the claimants' sale of that Lot is reasonably accounted for by the building of new Godowns in the vicinity. Mr. ORANGE in his evidence stated that his firm had completed new Godowns on the Lots in front of the former Marine Lots Nos. 204 and 205 somewhere about 1897 and subsequently Messrs. PALMER & TURNER completed those in front of the former Marine Lots Nos. 186 and 185. These Lots are those immediately East of Marine Lot No. 184.

*

.

580

On the whole, taking into consideration the reply of the Judicial Assessor to the 4th question put to him, I feel justified in neglecting Mr. TURNER's evidence as being based on only remotely relevant data, in accepting the higher value given by Mr. RAM, in treating the sales in October, 1899, and May, 1900, as evidence of the value of the property having, subject to temporary fluctuations as new properties came on the market, generally advanced subsequent to the 1st September, 1898, and after all in treating as the most correct valuation for this date that made by Messrs. LEIGH & ORANGE on the 28th December, 1898. This valuation was $2.50 per Square Foot..

10. The depreciation in the value of Marine Lot 184 on ceasing to be a Marine Lot on the 1st September, 1898, appears from the foregoing to have been at the rate of $3.50-$2.50 $1.00 per Square Foot. The total amount due for deprecia-

tion is thus $32,481.

Except in calculating the value of the Lot after conversion, no attention has been paid to the various valuations of the buildings on it--$55,600 according to Messrs. LEIGH & ORANGE, $45,000 according to Messrs. PALMER & TURNER, $60,000 according to Mr. RAM, and $50,000 according to Mr. DANBY and to Mr. SHELTON HOOPER. These buildings, which cost originally $36,000, were generally stated to have gone up in value owing to the increased cost of building operations in Victoria. As subsequent to the conversion of the Marine Lot into an Inland Lot they were used, and at the present day are used, as Godowns, there was practi- cally no difference in their value before and after the conversion.

11. In accordance with the reply of the Judicial Assessor to the 5th question put to him, the claimants are entitled to an amount of 10% on that of the deprecia- tion of Marine Lot No. 184 by reason of the alteration in its status, that is, to $3,248 in addition to the $32,481, arrived at in the last paragraph, or altogether to $35,729 against their claim for $172,000.

12. The claim for $25,142 for loss of rents from the 1st January, 1896, to the 10th October, 1899, has, in view of the reply of the Judicial Assessor to the 6th question put to him, to be next considered. The claimants put in three statements to prove damage done by. loss of depth of water at the Praya Wall in front of their Lot and consequent impaired access to it, and damage to their business from the time the reclamation work was first commenced to the time when it was carried in front of their Lot.

.

(i.) The first in date was Messrs. PALMER & TURNER'S of the 29th August, 1895, based on an inspection by Mr. PALMER made on the 19th of that month. It was to the effect that the foreshore was exposed in front of the Lot at L. W. O. S. T. for an average width of 24 feet, and that while some silting up might have occurred to the West of a former wharf in front of the Lot, (which had belonged to and had been removed by the owners of the Lot partly in 1892 and partly in 1895) owing to the obstacle formed by the stone filling under that wharf which had not been removed, any silting to the East.of that obstruction was due to the Reclamation Works. He was of opinion that these works would tend to produce such silting and that the "works themselves must also have caused a large amount of earth stuff to find its way into the sea and thus considerably accelerate the deposit on the foreshore."

Mr. TURNER in his evidence stated that he was unable to say whether before the commencement of the reclamation boats were able to get alongside the Praya at dead low tide.

581

(ii) Mr. LEIGH, whose report, dated the 1st May, 1896, was based on measurements and soundings taken on the 26th of the previous month, stated that in the eight years beween 1888 and 1896 a very considerable silting up had taken place which he attributed in the first place to the pressing out of the mud and silt by the depositing of the pierre perdue embankment of the Praya Wall. He made no reference to the effect on the sea bottom of the remains of the claimants' wharf, referred to in Messrs. PALMER & TURNER'S statement, nor to the fact that the filling in for the Praya Wall, which formed the Western limit of the reclamation till 1898, had been completed at the end of 1891 or commencement of 1892. Mr. LEIGH considered also that this wall acted as a groin causing silting to the West of it.

(iii.) Mr. DENISON, whose report, dated the 24th September, 1896, was based on measurements taken on the 11th and 18th April, 1896, stated that the average amount of silting up between 1888 and April, 1896, on one section through the foreshore was between five and six feet. He attributes this entirely to the Praya Wall constructed in 1891-1892 acting as a groin.

(iv.) The only other evidence put forward by the claimants in connection with the claim for damage on account of alteration of sea bottom between the 1st January, 1896, and the 10th October, 1899, was that contained in the following extract from the statement, dated the 14th June, by Mr. RAM:-

"This work was initiated in 1889 but the actual work of reclamation-so far as concerned Section I, in which district Marine Lot No. 184 is situated--was not in hand until some years later and it was not until 1899 or thereabouts--though there had, I believe, been some inter- ference at an earlier date--that the access to the sea was interrupted to such an extent as to render the property in question and the buildings thereon, in great measure useless for the purposes of Godowns, for which it had been bought and developed.”

(v.) For the Crown, Mr. DANBY, in paragraph 7 of his statement of the 10th June, 1905, referred to observations extending over the whole period of low Spring tides in March, 1896, which led him to report to Government that the Praya Reclamation Works up to that time had not injured the Godown business on Marine Lot 184 but had been of very great benefit to that business, enabling boats to be discharged along the old, when they were unable to make fast to the new, Praya Wall. To this statement Mr. DANBY adhered when cross-examined.

(vi.) It was supported by the evidence of Mr. BOULTON, the other witness for the Crown in this matter, who considered, in his statement of June 28th, 1905, that the Reclamation Works sheltered the landing place opposite Marine Lot No. 184 "from the prevailing winds, as well as from the prevailing current." Mr. BOULTON with a supplementary statement submitted a plan dated the 3rd March, 1896, which showed from surveys taken in October, 1889, August, 1892, August, 1894, July, 1895, and February, 1896, that the shoaling that took place within the period they covered was very slight and could not have affected the access of cargo-boats to the Praya opposite the Godowns. He further stated as follows:-

"After March, 1896, the causes which had produced the shoaling ceased to operate, and judging by my previous surveys I should say that there was no appreciable silting between March, 1896, and 1899."

(vii.) In addition to the foregoing evidence, the correspondence on the subject of damage done to Marine Lot No. 184 by the Praya Reclamation Works, which took place between the 4th November, 1891, and the 11th January, 1896, including the 25 letters from Mr. HOWARD comprised in it, has been considered.

582

The conclusion I have come to is that, as a result of the construction at the end of 1891 and commencement of 1892 of the right-angle branch of the sea-wall and as a result of the filling behind it, there was some alteration in the sea-bed opposite Marine Lot No. 184 and that this sea-bed may have been further affected by the demolition by the claimants of their wharf and the consequent dispersal of the stone filling under it. I am satisfied, however, that this alteration did not detrimentally affect the Godowns from which, according to Mr. HOWARD'S state- ment, the net rentals derived were greater in the years 1892 to 1895 (except for the one year 1893) than in any previous years, attaining in the year 1895, an amount which, according to Messrs. LEIGH & ORANGE's valuation No. 2, represented the Godowns being constantly full. No evidence was brought forward by the claimants to show that there was shoaling between the 1st January, 1896, and the 1st September, 1898, and I am of opinion that there was no such shoaling.

I accordingly disallow the claim for $25,142 for loss of rents subsequent to the 1st January, 1896, which I consider should never have been put forward.

13. The next item of the claim is for interest. The claimants are entitled to receive interest on $35,729 from the 1st September, 1898, to the date of payment of this award.

14. After fully discussing with the Legal Assessor his reply to the 7th ques- tion put to him, I have decided that the costs of the present proceedings and of the Petitions sent by the claimants to England should be given to them, but no costs on account of legal proceedings.

15. I therefore award to the claimants the sum of $35,729 with interest on it from the 1st September, 1898, together with the costs of the present proceedings and of the Petitions sent by the claimants to England. From this award the amount of $15,000 paid on the 29th August, 1903, with the interest that has acrued on it has to be deducted. His Honour the Chief Justice will give ins- tructions to the Registrar of the Supreme Court to tax the bill of costs in accord- ance with my finding with regard to it.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, Hongkong, 12th July, 1905.

M. NATHAN.

No.

Date.

583

APPENDIX A.

DOCUMENTS PUT IN BY THE CLAIMANTS.

HOWARD AND STEPHENS' Claim.

Copies of Claimants' Documents.

Page.

123

""

21st

1904.

23

"

6th July, 1904.

""

12th 16th

1904.

39

>>

1904.

""

""

7 28th

1904.

"

8

1st Aug., 1904.

"

9

9th

1904.

""

10

9th

1904.

11

15th

1904.

""

12

6th Oct., 1904.

13

6th

1904.

""

14

10th

"

1904.

Letter-Stephens to Colonial Secretary,

15

""

16 6th

1905.

"

17 12th

1905.

95

5th Sept., 1903. 16th Mar., 1904.

6th Jan., 1905.

A.-CORRESPONDENCE.

Letter-Howard to Secretary of State,

>>

Secretary of State to Howard, Howard to Secretary of State, Secretary of State to Howard, Howard to Secretary of State, Secretary of State to Howard, Howard to Secretary of State, Secretary of State to Howard,

to Governor,.

Howard to Secretary of State, Colonial Secretary to Stephens, Memo. enclosed in letter,

Howard's remarks on Memo. of 6th October, Letter-Colonial Secretary to Stephens,

10 12

14

14

15

15

17

17

18

20

20

21

21

22

23

23

24

18 18th

1905.

>>

Stephens to Colonial Secretary,

24

19

8th June, 1905.

Crown Solicitor to Stephens (re mode of procedure),

24

B.--STATEMENT OF CLAIM.

20

Detail of costs,

25

C.-VALUATIONS.

21

28th Dec., 1898.

Messrs. Leigh & Orange,

22

19th Sept., 1899.

|

Mr. Turner,

23

14th June, 1905.

Mr. Ram,...............

24

Schedule of Godown Rents, 1895 to 1899,

CC CC CO 19

27

30

30

32

D.-SUPPLEMENTARY DOCUMENTS.

25

7th Mar., 1857.

Extract from Government Gazette,

26

29th Aug., 1895.

Mr. Leigh's Report on Silting,

27

*

29th 1895.

28

24th Sept., 1896.

Messrs. Palmer & Turner's Report on Silting, Mr. Denison's Report on Silting,

33333

33

33

34

35

+

:

A 1.

584

A.

Sir KENELM E. DIGBY, K.C.B.,

Permanent Under Secretary of State,

Whitehall.

HONGKONG, September 5th, 1903.

SIR,-We have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your letter dated 17th July, 1903, addressed to Messrs. Trass and Taylor, the London Agents of Mr. Stephens informing them that His Majesty the King had not been pleased to give any commands regarding the petition presented to His Majesty by Messrs. Steph- ens and Howard in the matter of the Award of the Acting Governor of Hongkong for damages to our Hongkong Marine Lot No. 184 by the Praya Reclamation Works.

In view of a previous letter from the Home Secretary's Office, B.37068/6, under date 14th April, 1903, written by direction of the Secretary of State, we do not understand why His Majesty has not been pleased to give any commands regarding our Petition, inasmuch as that letter informed us that the Secretary of State had been in correspondence with the Colonial Department on the subject and that the case did not appear to be one for a " Petition of Right" as there was no matter for litigation between the Petitioners and the Crown, and the letter con- cluded as follows:-"It is, however, open to Messrs. Stephens and Howard to present a Petition to His Majesty asking for relief in the circumstances in which they are placed."

Those circumstances are that our Marine Lot held under Crown Lease was destroyed as a Marine Lot by the Praya Reclamation made in front of it for a public purpose, and the amount awarded by the Acting Governor of Hongkong was evidently by some mistake or accident (we were not heard in the matter) a totally inadequate award, but against which we had no legal remedy, as we learned after litigation extending over several years that His Majesty's Courts had no jurisdiction over an Executive Officer of the Government, and our remedy, as we understood from your Office letter of the 14th April last, was that of presenting a petition to His Majesty, which we did, praying for relief under the circumstances of our case set out in the Petition.

We naturally considered that the result of the correspondence between the Secretary of State and the Colonial Department was that the relief sought by our Petition would be granted as a matter of right and justice to us when asked for in the manner indicated.

The relief has not, however, yet been granted and no reason given for with- holding it, nor any information given to us whether the Award was arrived at after examination of the facts or not, and we can only come to the conclusion that further information has been requested from the Colonial Government to enable His Majesty's Ministers to decide what the measure of the relief shall be.

In that belief, and as the matter is of great importance, we desire to bring to your notice the salient points of this case so far as they affect us as His Majesty's 'Crown Lessees.

The case was decided against us on a point of law, and the facts have not been heard by the Courts.

1. The Governor, Sir William Des Voeux, who passed the Reclamation Ordinance, wrote to the Honourable C. P. Chater, in the Colonial Secretary's letter of 23rd June, 1888, as follows:-

"The Foreshore belongs to the Crown and to the Crown alone belongs the right of reclamation and of ownership in the land reclaimed, the only obligation attaching to the latter being that of com- pensating the frontage owner for the difference, if any, between the value of his Marine Lot and the value of the same land con- verted into an Inland Lot by the Reclamation in front of it." See Letter in Petition, Appendix 2.

3

58.5

2. The value of our Marine Lot No. 184 in the year 1895, before the Reclamation Works had been commenced in front of the Lot, was $282,000 the capitalised net rentals for the year 1895, with 10% added for compulsory sale, as stated by Messrs. Leigh & Orange, Civil Engineers. Land Surveyors, Architects and Valuers, and affirmed by them under Statutory Declaration. Appendix 6.

f

Both these gentlemen are well acquainted with the value of land and build- ings in the Colony, whether as Marine Lots or Inland Lots.

3. The value of the Lot, after the Reclamation Works had been brought in front of it, was $110,000, this being the amount for which it was sold on the 30th September, 1899, after every effort on our part to obtain the highest offer.

4. The difference between the two values is $172,000 and is not met by General Black's Award of $15,000.

5. Beyond the above, the Attorney General stated, before the Full Court, on the 30th March, 1898, that he would have no objection to Mr. Howard making such further claim as he could substantiate for intermediate damage caused by the alleged silting up of his foreshore during the period before the Reclamation Works actually reached the front of his premises.

6. This loss has been ascertained to be $25,142. (Appendix 7.)

7. Thus the losses upon what have been recognised as proper subjects of claim by Governor Des Voeux and the Attorney General amount to $197.142, and for this amount General Black, as Acting Governor, awarded only $15,000 and that too, without seeing, hearing, or giving us an opportunity of knowing upon what evidence he based his award.

8. Upon the conduct of General Black in this Award, Chief Justice Sir John Carrington remarked in his Judgment as follows:-

as follows:-"It was very properly admitted by the Attorney General that if the Governor is indeed an Arbitrator under the Ordinance, some of the things which are stated to have been done by the Acting Governor cannot be supported and that the Court will be justified in interfering in the exercise of its general jurisdiction over subordinate tribunals." And at the conclusion of his Judgment, said:"Although the legal right is taken away, yet it cannot but be a point of honor with the Governor to pay full regard to the moral right and where such a right is alleged, I have no hesitation in saying that the claimant ought to be allowed a full opportunity of setting forth the grounds on which his alleged right rests, and also of knowing and answering any facts and reasons which may be put forward in opposition to it."

9. With regard to the legality of the award, Mr. C. A. Cripps, K.C., M.P., and Mr. Morton W. Smith, our Counsel in the case, state:-"That the Acting Governor in deciding on the claim of your Petitioners under the said Ordinance was acting in a judicial capacity and was bound to decide on proper and legal grounds and not in an arbitrary manner and without hearing the case of your Petitioners or allowing them to know of and to answer the case made against them on behalf of the Government of the said Colony, and therefore on the admitted facts the Chief Justice should have set aside the Award."

10. This moral right was recognised by Her Majesty's Government as far back as 1857, in the case of the Bowring Praya Reclamation, where, in instructions to the Colonial Government, it is said: While, therefore, the rights of the Crown and the interests of the public require that the claim of the Crown to such lands should be firmly maintained, a sense of justice requires that the equitable claim of the Holders of the Original Marine Lots should be liberally considered." See Government Gazette, 7th March, 1857.

11. Possibly it is not known to His Majesty's present advisers that strenuous objections were made by ourselves, other Marine Lot Holders, and the local Press, to the Governor conferring upon himself by Ordinance an absolute discretion to give something or nothing to the Crown Lessee of a Marine Lot whose legal rights granted by Her late Majesty Queen Victoria had been taken away for a public purpose.

586

12. It is but right, however, to Governor Des Voeux to state that in his message to the Legislative Council on the 22nd of March, 1889, before the passing of the Reclamation Ordinance, he referred to the objections that had been made in the following words :-"It is needless to say that the Government has no desire to accord other than the fullest justice in respect of private rights; and though the provision in question has no doubt an arbitrary appearance, that aspect of it will probably disappear altogether from unprejudiced minds when the circumstances are fully considered." And at the Meeting of the Legislative Council on the 29th March, 1889, when two of the Members-Mr. Ryrie and Mr. Layton--spoke on behalf of ourselves and other Marine Lot Holders whose property would be affected, the Governor not only confirmed his promise that justice should be done, but intimated that he would not take upon himself the duty of deciding the amount of compensation without the assistance of experts and the advice of his Council.

·

13. That the promises of the Government made through Sir William Des Vœux, and upon which we relied, as we had a right to rely, on withdrawing our opposition to the compensation clause in the Ordinance, should be disregarded by an Acting Governor without explanation seems to us incredible and should be enquired into by His Majesty's advisers.

14. From any point of view it will hardly be held that we ought to suffer because of our implicit reliance on the promises made by the representatives of the Crown.

15. That the justice promised has not been accorded is manifest in the fact that the Government, since the Award, offered to allow us to come into the Reclamation Scheme on the terms laid down in the Reclamation Ordinance, the acceptance of which offer would have given us a sum of money far in excess of the Award of $15,000 although far short of the amount found due under the methods recognised by Governor Des Voeux and the Attorney General.

Mr. Howard will be in London soon after you receive this letter, and will call upon you to answer any question that may be thought essential for the further informatton of His Majesty's advisers.

A

A 2.

We have, &c.,

(Sd.) MATTHEW J. D. STEPHENS.

THOMAS HOWARD.

>>

7 CASTLE TERRACE,

COWES, ISLE OF WIGHT,

16th March, 1904.

THE UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE,

▬▬

COLONIAL OFFICE.

SIR, With reference to your communication to me under date of the 4th February last, No. 3745/1904, I have the honor to inform you that by the last mail from Hongkong I received from Mr. Stephens the copy of a despatch sent by the Secretary of State for the Colonies to Governor Sir H. Blake, dated the 21st October, 1903, stating he was not entirely satisfied that the compensation awarded to Mr. Stephens and myself may not have been inadequate, and requesting Sir H. Blake to investigate the whole matter afresh, and, if he is of opinion that sub- stantial justice demands it, to ask the Legislative Council to vote an additional

sum to us.

I also received a statement from the Colonial Authorities dated 9th February, 1904, shewing a calculation that 32,481 square feet at 75 cents per foot depreciation of Marine Lot No. 184 amounts to $24,367.50 and this is the amount proposed as compensation to us for damages sustained by the Reclamation in front of our Marine Lot.

587

2. This investigation, I submit, has not been properly carried out, and is incomplete because it does not show how depreciation has been arrived at, nor does it take into consideration the depreciation on the Buildings and the loss of intermediate rents as promised by the Attorney General before the Full Court on the 30th March, 1898.

3. As you are aware, Sir Henry Blake was not Governor of Hongkong on the 9th February, 1904, when this statement of depreciation was dated, and, had he been so, it is not likely that he would have proposed such an inadequate sum as compensation, secing that on the 21st August, 1899, during his regime, and after the award of $15,000 by the Acting Governor, Major-General Black, the Hongkong Government offered to allow us to come into the Reclamation Scheme and put us in the same position as if we had originally come in, the acceptance of which offer would have given us the new Reclamation which has recently sold for $133,500.

4. We did not accept this offer for the reason that the profit on the 15,200 feet of the reclaimed land would not cover the loss on the 32,481 feet of our old Lot and the buildings thereon, and Governor Des Voeux had promised that the Government would accord the fullest justice in respect of the private rights of dissentient Lot Holders, the admitted obligation of the Crown being to compensate for the difference in value of the Marine Lot and the same land converted into an Inland Lot by the Reclamation in front of it.

5. This view of what the Government would do was also held by the At- torney General, as will be seen from his statement before the Full Court on the 30th March, 1898, which reads as follows:-"Certainly at the present time the Government had never said it would not take into consideration and fairly and rightly, even if only morally bound, decide as to any damage which might have occurred to Mr. Howard's premises in consequence of the Reclamation Works. He further stated that he "would have no objection to his making such further claim as he could substantiate for intermediate damage (loss of rents) caused by the alleged silting up of his foreshore during the period before the Reclamation works actually reached the front of his premises.

6. Besides, we had before us the obiter dictum of Justice Fielding Clarke that "the greatest care should be exercised that no injury be inflicted without adequate compensation", and this was endorsed by Chief Justice Sir John Carrington, with the remark: "Although the legal right is taken away, yet it cannot but be a point of honour with the Governor to pay full regard to the moral right." We had also before us the instructions of Her late Majesty's Government to the Colonial Government in 1857 that, "a sense of justice requires that the equitable claim of the holders of the original Marine Lots should be liberally considered."

7. As the Hongkong Government has not shewn how the depreciation of 75 cents per foot has been arrived at, it remains for me to shew that it is not even an approximate value for depreciation, and to this end I will begin as far back as the 22nd November, 1887, when Governor Des Voeux, through the Colonial Secretary, wrote us that we would be paid the sum of $1,700 for 339 square feet of the land taken away from our Marine Lot No. 184, by order of the Court, which sum he is informed is a very full market value for the land in question. This gives a fract- ion of over $5 per foot.

8. Confirmatory of this valuation I may mention that on the 3rd May, 1888, we had an offer of $200,000 for Marine Lot 184, and as the buildings cost $36,000 the value of this land would be $164,000, which is a fraction over $5 per foot.

9. On the 19th September, 1899, when the Lot had been depreciated by the Reclamation in front of it, Messrs. Palmer & Turner, Architects and Surveyors, made a report and valuation for an intending purchaser, and gave the value of the land at $1.50 per foot. Thus the depreciation since Governor Des Voeux's valuation was $3.50 per foot.

10. On the 28th December, 1898, Messrs. Leigh & Orange, Architects and Surveyors, formerly in the Government Service, and well acquainted with the value of land and buildings in the Colony, whether as Marine Lots or as Inland

J

588

Lots, valued the property in three different ways, affirming their Valuation and Report under Statutory Declaration, and gave the value as a Marine Lot at $282,000 in the year 1895, and as an Inland Lot at $86,202 in the year 1899.

11. We were, however, fortunate enough to sell the property for the purpose. of a Soda Water Manufactory at $110,000 which being deducted from $282,000 leaves $172,000 as depreciation.

12. But the true test of depreciation is the actual sales of the new and old Marine Lots, and, as already stated, the New Lot, with an area of 15,200 feet sold for $133,500 and at this rate the old Lot with an area of 32,481 feet would have a value of $285,277 were it still a Marine Lot, to which add $55,000 the estimated value of the buildings thereon before depreciation, and we have a total value of $340,277, from which deduct the sale price of $110,000 and the result is a deficiency of $230,277 as against $24,367 found by the Hongkong Government.

13. From the above it will be seen that the Hongkong Government has sig- nally failed in its investigation as to depreciation and therefore, I would, with due submission, suggest that the practicable way pointed out by Her late Majesty's Government in 1857 to appoint assessors on the part of the Crown and the pro- prietors of the Marine Lot to assess the damage done to the original Marine Lot by the creation of a new Marine Lot in front of it be adopted.

·

14. But, with the documents in my possession, I think the matter could be settled in London if such a course would be approved by the Secretary of State for the Colonies.

15. Should it be deemed necessary to see me before taking a decision on the method to be adopted to arrive at a correct adjustment, I will attend any appoint- ment, that may be made but, if not necessary, I shall be glad to be informed of the course to be adopted.

I have, etc.,

(Sd.) THOMAS HOWARD.

A 3.

[9573/04.]

T. HOWARD, Esq.

DOWNING STREET,

21st March, 1904.

SIR,-In reply to your letter of the 16th instant, I am directed by Mr. Secretary Lyttelton to inform you that he has not yet received any cominunica- tion from the Officer Administering the Government of Hongkong on the subject of Marine Lot No. 184 and that it is impossible for him to discuss the matter until such a communication is received.

A 4.

I am, &c.,

(Sd). C. P. LUCAS.

7 CASTLE TERRACE, COWES, ISLE OF WIGHT, 6th July, 1904.

THE UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE,

COLONIAL OFFICE.

SIR, I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of yesterday's date, No. 23085 of 1904, informing me that Mr. Secretary Lyttelton has now received the Report of the Acting Governor of Hongkong with regard to our claim for further compensation in respect of Hongkong Marine Lot No. 184 and that, after full consideration he regrets that he cannot interfere further in the matter.

589

This result is so different from the "substantial justice" indicated in Mr. Secretary Lyttelton's instructions to Governor Sir Henry Blake under date 21st October, 1903, that I have to ask to be allowed to see the Report of the Acting Governor of Hongkong, in accordance with the dictum of Chief Justice Sir John Carrington in his Judgment of the 1st December, 1900, where it is stated as follows:-"Although the legal right is taken away, yet it cannot but be a point of honour with the Governor to pay full regard to the moral right. And where such a right is alleged, I have no hesitation in saying that the claimant ought to be allowed a full opportunity of setting forth the grounds on which his alleged right rests and also of knowing and answering any facts and reasons which may be put forward in opposition to it.".

As yet, I do not know the reasons that have been put forward against our claim which is based upon the admitted obligation of the Crown to compensate for the difference in value between the Lot as a Marine Lot and the value of the same land converted into an Inland Lot by the reclamation in front of it; and, until I do know them and have answered them, I confess my inability to under- stand how "full consideration" can have been given to the subject.

I have, &c.,

(Sd). THOS. HOWARD.

A 5. [23985/04.]

T. HOWARD, Esq.

DOWNING STREET,

12th July, 1904.

SIR,-I am directed by Mr. Secretary Lyttelton to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 6th instant in which you ask that you may be allowed to see the report of the Officer Administering the Government of Hongkong on the question of Hongkong Marine Lot No. 184.

2. The case being one in which you had no legal claim the amount of addi- tional compensation, if any, which should be awarded was a matter wholly within the discretion of the Colonial Government. In such a case it would be unusual to state all the considerations by which the Government has been guided, and Mr. Lyttelton fears that to do so in this instance would lead to prolonged correspondence without any useful result.

3. Mr. Lyttelton is satisfied that the sum now offered is adequate and equi- table and he regrets that he can take no further steps in this matter, which has received the fullest attention on both of the Government of Hongkong and of himself.

A 6.

I am, etc.,

(Sd). C. P. LUCAS.

7 CASTLE TERRACE,

COWES, ISLE OF WIGHT,

16th July, 1904.

THE UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE,

COLONIAL OFFICE.

SIR,-I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 12th instant, No. 23985 of 1904, in reply to my request to know the reasons put forward by the Hongkong Government in opposition to our claim for compensation in respect of Hongkong Marine Lot No. 184. In this reply you state that as we had no legal claim it would be unusual to state all the considerations by which the Government has been guided and that Mr. Secretary Lyttelton is satisfied that the sum now offered is adequate and equitable.

:

590

2. It is not necessary for me to discuss the matter of the legality of a claim for compensation when rights granted under a Crown Lease have been taken away; it is sufficient for me to know that the Governor and his legal advisers who passed the Reclamation Ordinance admitted the obligation of the Crown to compensate, and defined the measure of compensation to be the difference between the value of the Marine Lot and the value of the same land converted into an Inland Lot by the Reclamation in front of it, and promised that the Government would accord the fullest justice in respect of private rights, and that the Attorney General of Hongkong stated before the Full Court on the 30th March, 1898, that our claim would be fairly and rightly considered by the Government even if only morally bound, and that he would have no objection to me making a further claim for loss of rents during the period before the Reclamation Works actually reached the front of our premises.

3. As to Mr. Lyttelton being satisfied that the sum of $24,367 now offered is adequate and equitable, I can only regret that he did not state his reasons for being so satisfied, for it bears no comparison with $172,000, difference in value estimated by Messrs. Leigh & Orange, which estimate is now, according to the actual sales, found to be understated as pointed out in my letter to you of the 16th March last.

4. For the above reasons I am again compelled to ask the reasons put forward by the Hongkong Government against our claim or that the Secretary of State for the Colonies will agree to adopt the course pointed out by Her late Majesty's Government in 1857 and let assessors be appointed on behalf of the Crown and the proprietor of the Marine Lot to ascertain the amount that should be paid to us, for it is unfair that the settlement should be left to the caprice of one man or set of men interested on one side only who have no special knowledge of adjusting claims for compensation.

5. That we are entitled to know the reasons put forward by the Acting Governor of Hongkong against our claim is, according to Chief Justice Sir John Carrington, beyond doubt, and the necessity of knowing them is emphasized by the same authority in the following quotation :—

"It was very properly admitted by the Attorney General that if the Governor is indeed an arbitrator under the Ordinance, some of the things which are stated to have been done by the Acting Governor cannot be supported and the Court will be justified in interfering in the exercise of its general jurisdiction over subordinate tribunals."

6. That the Governor is an Arbitrator under the Ordinance is clear from the Award itself, which runs :-

"Under the powers conferred upon me by section 7 sub-section 6 of Ordinance 16 of 1889 I hereby award to Messrs. Thomas Howard and M. J. D. Stephens, lessees of Marine Lot No. 184 the sum of $15,000 as and by way of compensation for injury that they have sustained by the Praya Reclamation Works."

7. With regard to this Mr. C. A. Cripps, K.C., M.P., and Mr. Morton W. Smith say:-

"That the Acting Governor in deciding on the claim of your petitioners under the said Ordinance was acting in a judicial capacity and was bound to decide on proper and legal grounds and not in an arbitrary manner and without hearing the case of your petitioners or allowing them to know of, and to answer the case made against them on behalf of the Governor of the said Colony, and therefore on the admitted facts the said Chief Justice should have set aside the Award.”

8. This view is emphatically laid down by Lord Eldon in the following words :-

By the great principles of eternal justice which is prior to all these acts of sederunt regulations and proceedings of Court, it is impossible that an Award can stand where the arbitrator hears one party and refuses to hear the other."

591

9. As the matter now stands, the Hongkong Government has received into the Public Treasury the suin of $133,500, proceeds of sale of reclaimed land in front of our Marine Lot and $15,000, for the right to erect a pier in front thereof, amounting together to $148,500 out of which has been paid $32,897 for cost of reclaiming land, besides some interest thereon, and it is now proposed to pay us only $24,367 leaving without deducting interest, the sum of $91,236 to credit which I submit would have belonged to us or as a matter of right the land in question after paying cost of reclamation had we not believed proper compensation as defined by Governor Des Voeux would be awarded to us.

10. Thus, if such a settlement were allowed to stand we should not have re- ceived any compensation for our valuable Marine Lot, the $24,367 now awarded not covering loss of rents but an act of confiscation would have been perpetrated which no Minister of State of the present day would sanction knowingly.

I have, etc.,

(Sd).

THOS. HOWARD..

A 7.

25299/1904.

T. HOWARD, Esq.

of

DOWNING STREET,

28th July, 1904.

SIR,-I am directed by Mr. Secretary Lyttelton to acknowledge the receipt your letter of the 16th instant with regard to your claim for compensation in respect of Hongkong Marine Lot No. 184 and to say that the decision given by the Governor as arbitrator must conclude the matter.

2. To set out all the points in detail would only be to invite further argument and correspondence on the case. There must be finality in the matter and there- fore Mr. Lyttelton regrets that he cannot add anything to his former letter and must regard the correspondence as now closed.

A 8.

I

am, etc.,

(Sd).

H. BERTRAM COX.

i

THE UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE,

COLONIAL OFFICE.

7 CASTLE TERRACE, COWES, ISLE OF WIGHT,

1st August, 1904.

SIR, I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of letter, No. 25299/1904, under date 28th July written by Mr. 11. Bertram Cox, by direction of Mr. Secre- tary Lyttelton, informing me that the decision given by the Governor as arbitrator in the matter of compensation for our Marine Lot No. 184 must conclude the

matter.

2. To conclude the matter before compensation has been properly ascertained and paid, and to refuse my request to have it ascertained upon the principle laid down by Her late Majesty's Government in 1857, which principle is in accord with that of the Imperial Legislature of the present day, is not what I expected from the representative of His Majesty, the fountain of justice.

3. For the first time it is now admitted that the decision of the Governor was given as arbitrator, and Chief Justice Sir John Carrington has stated that the Attorney General of Hongkong very properly admitted that if the Governor is indeed an Arbitrator under the Ordinance, some of the things which are stated to have been done by the Acting Governor cannot be supported, and Mr. C. A. Cripps, K. C., has said that on the admitted facts, the Chief Justice should have set aside the Award.

1

1

592

4. The decision now under consideration has been arrived at under like con- ditions as the first, without hearing us, and Mr. Secretary Lyttelton refuses to state the reasons put forward against our claim.

5. This refusal compels me to bring to your notice the instructions to the Governor in the Charter of the Colony wherein he is commanded to do and execute all things that belong to his said office according to such laws as are now in force in the Colony, and as the laws in force provide for full and fair compensa- tion when rights granted in a Crown Lease have been taken away for a public purpose, and as the Award of $24,367 does not cover the loss of rents no compen- sation for difference in values between the Lot as a Marine Lot and when con- verted into an Inland Lot by the reclamation in front of it has been made, and therefore I submit that the Acting Governor has not only disregarded his instructions, but violated the laws in force in the Colony.

In order, however, to assist Mr. Secretary Lyttelton to settle the matter at issue without further reference, I would suggest that the proviso thought necessary by Her late Majesty's Government in 1857, be adopted, namely:-"In no case should more be claimable as assessed damages thau the amount realised by the sale of the new Lot."

7. The sale of the New Lot, as you are aware, realised $133,500.

8. Failing this assent it but remains for us to test the question of "ultra vires" of the Reclamation Ordinance, which according to a letter written by Charles S. Murdoch on the 14th December, 1901, under direction of the Secretary of State, ought to have been raised in the local Courts, and may possibly now be raised if such a step should be thought expedient.

9. We did not deem it expedient to raise the question as we implicitly believed that justice would be done in respect of private rights taken away for a public purpose.

10. I shall feel obliged if Mr. Secretary Lyttelton will let me know at an early date his decision in the matter in order that I may communicate with my partner, Mr. Stephens, in Hongkong, if need arise.

I have, &c.,

(Sd). THOS. HOWARD.

A 9.

[27223/1904.]

THOMAS HOWARD, Esq.

DOWNING STREET,

9th August, 1904.

SIR, I am directed by Mr. Secretary Lyttelten to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 1st of August, in which you make further representations with regard to your claim to compensation from the Hongkong Government. Mr. Lyttelton is unable to admit that the Acting Governor has either disregarded his instructions or violated the laws in force in the Colony, and I would call your at- tention to the words of Section 7, Sub-section VI, of the Praya Reclamation Ordinance, 1889, which expressly provides as follows:-"In case any lessee shall not signify his acceptance in the manner and within the time provided in sub- sections (II and III) of this section he shall have no claim to any compensation in respect of any depreciation of his Lot by reason of the said works, but the Governor may if he thinks fit award to him such a sum of money or such a Crown Lease of new land as he may in his absolute discretion think sufficient as and by way of compensation for any injury that such lessee may have sustained by the said works."

?

593

2. I am further to remind you that the question whether or not this Ordinance was ultra vires was dealt with in the proceedings taken in the case of Ryrie v. The Attorney General of Hongkong in the year 1890 before the Supreme Court of Hongkong and that Mr. Justice Clarke at the conclusion of his Judgment in that case stated that in his opinion the Praya Reclamation Ordinance was within the competency of the Legislature.

This case was cited in the proceedings taken by you in the Supreme Court of Hongkong and Chief Justice Carrington stated that he fully endorsed the language used by Mr. Justice Clarke upon this point. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, before whom the matter was brought, refused special leave to appeal and expressed the view that under the terms of the section above set out the decision of the Governor was final, he having an absolute discretion with which no Court of Law would interfere. Under these circumstances Mr. Lyttelton does not under- stand how you can assert that you did not deem it expedient to raise the question of the validity of the Ordinance in the local Courts as you implicitly believed that justice would be done in respect of private rights taken away for a public purpose, or how this question can now be raised in any further proceedings which may now be open to you.

3. Mr. Lyttelton, hwoever, has again gone most carefully into the question, being anxious to remove, if possible, any grievance which your firm may consider themselves entitled to feel and purely as a matter of grace and without prejudice to the strict legal rights in this matter as defined by the Ordinance and the Courts of Law, he has decided to refer the question to Sir Matthew Nathan, the newly appointed Governor of Hongkong, for enquiry whether any further compensation can justly be paid to you, having regard to all the circumstances of the case, and you will be at liberty to lay before him such further facts and documents in sup- port of your case as you may think proper. But you must distinctly understand that the matter being one which under the terms of the Ordinance is within the absolute discretion of the Governor, Mr. Lyttelton will be unable to entertain any proposals for modification of the decision at which the Governor after such further enquiry may arrive, and that such decision must be taken by you to be a final settlement of the matter.

A 10.

[Hongkong, No. 240.]

I am, &c.,

(Sd.)

C. P. LUCAS.

Governor Sir M. NATHAN, K.C.M.G.,

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

DOWNING STREET,

9th August, 1904.

SIR,-With reference to Mr. May's despatch No. 233 of the 30th of May last, I have the honour to transmit to you copies of further correspondence which has passed between Mr. Howard and this Department as to his claim for compensation in respect of Marine Lot 184.

;

:

594

2. I request that you will make further enquiry into the matter and report to me whether or not in your opinion Messrs. Howard and Stephens are entitled to any, and if any, to what further compensation.

A 11..

I have, &c.,

(Sd).

ALFRED LYTTELTON.

7. CASTLE TERRACE,

COWES, ISLE OF WIGHT,

15th August, 1904.

THE UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE,

COLONIAL Office.

SIR,-I have the honour to acknowledge receipt of your letter No. 27223/1904, dated the 9th instant, informing me that Mr. Secretary Lyttelton, being anxious to remove, if posible, any grievance which we may consider ourselves entitled to feel, has decided to refer the question to Sir Matthew Nathan, the newly appointed Governor of Hongkong, for enquiry whether any further compensation can justly be paid to us, having regard to all the circumstances of the case and that we will be at liberty to lay before him such further facts and documents in support of our case as we may think proper.

2. I appreciate this concession, and, all the more, for the reason that the enquiry is whether further compensation can justly be paid to us.

3. To facilitate this enquiry it may be well to call attention to the report of the proceedings of the Legislative Council on the 29th March, 1889, when Governor Des Voeux, in speaking of the discretion which he will be bound to exercise under the Ordinance, said:

"No Governor put in such a position would act on his own advice. In the first place he would ask the advice. of his Council, and that would preclude personal feeling even if he were disposed to exercise it. And the Council would not be justified in coming to a conclusion without the opinion of experts."

4. In the hope that the course now proposed will lead to a satisfactory settlement, it is not necessary for me to discuss further the other points in your letter.

I have etc.,

(Sd.) THOS. HOWARD.

A 12.

[C. O. D. 7689/04.]

M. J. D. STEPHENS, Esq.,

Solicitor.

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFIce,

HONGKONG, 6th October, 1904.

SIR,-With reference to the conversation which you had with His Excellency the Governor on the 27th ultimo, I am directed to forward a Memorandum in which have been summarised the claims made at various times by Mr. Howard and

595

yourself with regard to the losses you sustained in connection with the reclamation in front of your Marine Lot No. 184. I am to enquire whether you desire to add, for the consideration of His Excellency, any statement of these claims to those contained in the Petition of Right dated 13th September, 1901, and its Appendices, the Petition dated 13th May, 1903, and its Appendices, the letter from yourself and Mr. Howard addressed to Sir Kenelm Digby, dated 5th September, 1903, and Mr. Howard's letters of 16th March, 1904, 16th July, 1904, and 1st August, 1904, addressed to the Under Secretary of State.

A 13.

I have &c.,

(Sd.)

:

F. H. MAY,

Colonial Secretary.

His Excellency the Governor's Memorandum.

MEMORANDUM OF STATEMENTS OF LOSSES INCURRED IN CONNECTION WITH MARINE Lor No. 184.

1. In the Petition of Right presented on the 13th September, 1901, the loss suffered by Messrs. Stephens and Howard was stated to be $171,808, not including any consequential losses in connection with their business of lending money on goods, etc.

This loss was calculated as follows:-

Nett income from rentals received in year 1895-

capitalized at 6 % according to valuation made by Messrs. Leigh & Orange on 28th December, 1898,

.$256,666

Less sum received for land and buildings on 30th

September, 1899,

111,000

Loss in actual value of property,

146,666

Loss of Rents from 1st January, 1896, to 10th October, 1899, according to valuation made by Messrs. Leigh & Orange on 28th Decem- ber, 1898,

*

Total,

....

25,142

.$ 171,808

2. In the Petition presented on the 13th May, 1903, the loss suffered by Messrs. Stephens and Howard was stated to be upwards of $165,142, the estimate being based on the same date as that embodied in the previous Petition of Right.

3. In a letter addressed on the 5th September, 1903, by Messrs. Stephens and Howard to Sir Kenelm E. Digby "the losses upon what have been recognised as proper subjects of claim" are stated to be $197,142, this figure being arrived at in the same way as the amount given in the Petition of Right, but with an addition on account of compulsory sale of approximately 10% to the capitalized income from which the loss was deduced.

4. In paragraphs 8 and 9 of a letter addressed on the 16th March, 1904, by Mr. Howard to the Under Secretary of State for the Colonies, it was stated that on the 3rd May, 1888, an offer of $200,000 had been made for Marine Lot 184 on which the Buildings had cost $36,000, thus giving the value of the land before deprecia-

596

tion on account of the Reclamation as $164,000. It was further stated that Messrs. Palmer & Turner valued the land on the 19th September, 1899, after it had been depreciated by the reclamation in front of it at $1.50 per square foot ($48,721.50 for 32,481 square feet).

5. In paragraph 12 of the same letter the depreciation was put at $230,277 made up as follows:---

Value of former M. L. 184 (32,481 sq. feet) at rate

for which new M. L. 184 (15,200 sq. feet)

had been recently sold,...

Estimated value of Buildings,

Value of Property,

$ 285,277

.$ 55,000

.$340,277

Less Sale Price of Lot 184 on 30th September, 1899, $110,000

Depreciation,

$ 230,277

6. In paragraph 9 of a letter addressed on the 16th July, 1904, by Mr. Howard to the Under Secretary of State it was stated that the Hongkong Govern-

ment received for

New M. L. 184,

....

$ 133,500

And for the right to erect a pier in front of it, ......$ 15,000

or, altogether,

And had paid for its reclamation,

Obtaining thus a nett profit of

$ 148,500

$ 32,897

$115,603

less some interest on the money paid for reclamation, and it was suggested that this amount should have belonged as a matter of right to Messrs. Howard and Stephens.

7. In a letter addressed on the 1st August. 1904, by Mr. Howard to the Under Secretary of State he suggested that the following principle should be adopted

"In no case should more be claimed as assessed damages than the amount realized by the sale of the new Lot" and pointed out that the sale of the new Lot had realized $133,500.

A 15.

[7689/04/C.O.D.]

The Honourable F. H. MAY, C.M.G.,

Colonial Secretary,

Hongkong.

18, BANK BUILDINGS, HONGKONG, October 10th, 1904.

SIR, I have the honour to acknowledge receipt of your letter of the 6th instant, forwarding me a Memorandum summarising the Claims made by Mr. Howard and myself with regard to the losses sustained in connection with Reclama- tion in front of Marine Lot 184.

The claims and mode of arriving at them having been formulated by Mr. Howard personally, I find it necessary to submit the letter and Memorandum to him for the purpose of obtaining his remarks and statements in support, and by the mail leaving the 8th instant I forwarded him copy of your letter and Memorandum.

I have to ask the favour that the matter be allowed to stand over until I can hear from Mr. Howard in reply.

I have, &c.,

(Sd.)

MATTHEW J. D. STEPHENS.

A 16.

597

+

[7689/04/C.O.D.]

The Honourable F. H. MAY, C.M.G.,

Colonial Secretary, Hongkong.

18, BANK BUILDINGS, HONGKONG, January 6th, 1905.

SIR, I have by a recent Mail received from Mr. Howard a reply to my letter to him of the 7th October last forwarding to him copy of your letter of the 6th October, and I have the honour at the present time of replying to your letter.

Mr. Howard having made certain remarks on the Memorandum in accordance with your request, I append such remarks by way of statement in support of the claims as referred to in your letter under reply.

I propose, if required, to tender Mr. James Orange of the late firm of Messrs. Leigh & Orange in support of his Declaration and Valuation at $282,000, dated the 17th February, 1899.

I propose also, if required, to tender Mr. A. Turner of the late firm of Messrs. Palmer & Turner in support of their Valuation of Marine Lot No. 184 on the 19th September, 1899, at $94,000.

I propose also, if required, to tender in evidence a letter of Ho Tim to T. Ho- ward dated 3rd May, 1888, containing the offer of $200,000 and a proposed Agree- ment of Sale made in May, 1888, with Chan Yau-hok at $200,000.

I propose also, if required, to tender in evidence the books kept by Mr. Ho- ward showing the working account of the Godowns from the commencement in the year 1885 up to the year 1899.

1899. These accounts however have already been audited by the late Auditor Mr. Nicolle on behalf of the Government up to the month of July, 1898.

I have the honour to annex you the Statement of Claim as submitted on be- half of Mr. Howard and myself.

I have, &c,

(Sd.)

MATTHEW J. D. STEPHENS,

A 17.

REMARKS ON THE MEMORANDUM OF STATEMENTS OF LOSSES INCURRED IN CONNECTION WITH MARINE LOT No. 184 AND ANNEXED TO LETTER OF THE HONOURABLE THE COLONIAL SECRETARY, DATED THE 6TH OCTOBER, 1904.

1. This statement was made from Messrs. Leigh & Orange's Valuation, No. 3 in Valuation, but without adding the 10 per cent. for compulsory sale, and also from Mr. Howard's Statement of Claim for loss of rents. (Vide Appendix, Nos. VI and VII, pp. 32 to 36 of Petition to His Majesty the King dated the 22nd May, 1903).

2. The loss of $165,142 will be the same as No. 1 when the exact figures $146,666, are substituted for $140,000.

3. These losses are based upon Messrs. Leigh & Orange's Valuation of $282,000, as stated in their Summary (vide Appendix VII, p. 36 of Petition).

·

4. The offer of $200,000 was made by Ho Tim in a letter addressed to Mr. Howard dated the 3rd May, 1888, and at the same time wired to Mr. Stephens by Mr. Howard, in London. Subsequently in the month of May, 1888, before the depreciation there was an offer of $200,000 by A. Rumjahn, a Broker, the terms of such offer being embodied in an agreement which will be produced, but was not carried out. On September 19th, 1899, after the depreciation Messrs. Palmer & Turner, Surveyors, valued the Lot at $94,000 (vide their Valuation).

5. These figures were given by Mr. Howard for the purpose of shewing the inadequacy of the Hongkong Government's estimate of $24,367 for depreciation.

6. Proper compensation in respect of private rights had been promised both by Governor Des Voeux and the Attorney General, Mr. Goodman.

A 18.

*598

[C.O.D. 7689/04.]

M. J. D. STEPHENS, Esq.

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE,

HONGKONG, 12th January, 1905.

SIR,With reference to your letter of the 6th instant, on the subject of the claims made by Mr. Howard and yourself on account of losses sustained in con- nection with the reclamation in front of M. L. 184, I am now directed to inquire whether you wish to appear before the Governor by Counsel or in person or at all in support of the claim.

A 19.

I have, etc.,

(Sd.)

F. H. MAY,

Colonial Secretary.

18, BANK BUILDINGS,

HONGKONG, 18th January, 1905.

The Honourable

F. H. MAY, C.M.G.,

Colonial Secretary, Hongkong.

SIR, I have the honour to acknowledge receipt of your letter of the 12th instant, with reference to the claim of Mr. Howard and myself, and in reply to say unless His Excellency desires the Claimants to appear by Counsel it is not their intention to do so, but to appear in person by Mr. Stephens.

I have the honour also to enclose you a statement of the Law costs and other charges, $9,763.50, as included in the claim I sent you on the 6th instant.

I have, &c.,

(Sd.)

MATTHEW J. D. STEPHENS.

A 20.

CROWN SOLICITOR'S OFFICE,

HONGKONG, 8th June, 1905.

M. J. D. STEPHENS, Esq.

Re Howard and Stephens' Godowns.

DEAR SIR,-Confirmning my interview with you this morning, I beg to inform you that the following is the course of procedure which it is proposed to adopt on the hearing of your claim before His Excellency the Governor, sitting with the Chief Justice as Legal Assessor.

1. Your Counsel will open the case and read all the documents upon which you intend to rely, including all the valuations. Your Counsel will then tender your Valuers for cross-examination on behalf of the Crown.

2. Counsel for the Crown will then open the case for the Crown, and will similarly read all the documents upon which the Crown relies, and will tender the Valuers on behalf of the Crown for cross-examination by your Counsel. Counsel for the Crown will then sum up, and your Counsel will have the right of reply.

I do not think that it is necessary for the valuations and reports to be on oath.

*

case.

$599

I enclose a report by Mr. H. C. Nicolle (formerly Government Auditor) on the Books of the Godown business, which the Crown proposes to make part of its It will not be possible, however, to tender Mr. Nicolle for cross-examination, because, as you are aware, he, is now in Ceylon. It must be understood that copies of all the documents to be used by either side are to be supplied to the other side before the hearing commences. I hope to send you the further reports

and valuations before the end of the week.

:

Yours faithfully,

(Sd.)

F. B. L. BOWLEY,

Crown Solicitor.

{

B 21.

B.

STATEMENT of Claim of Messrs. Howard and Stephens for damage sustained by them by the conversion of their Marine Lot No. 184 into an Inland Lot by the Reclamation in front thereof, based upon the admitted obligation of the Crown to compensate for the difference in value between the Lot as a Marine Lot and as an Inland Lot, and for loss of rents during the period before the Reclamation Works were commenced in front of the premises, recognised by the Attorney General Mr. Goodman, as a proper subject for Claim.

Value of Marine Lot No. 184 in the year 1895 as declared to by Messrs. Leigh & Orange as shown by their Statutory Declaration dated the 17th February, 1899,

$282,000

Value as an Inland Lot, sold 10th October, 1899, ...$110,000

Difference in value

Loss of Rents from 1st January, 1896, to date of sale

10th October, 1899,

Interest on $197,142 from 10th October, 1899 to

date of payment of Claim.

Law Costs from 1896 including Taxed Costs paid Crown Solicitor, Costs of Appeal to Privy Council. Taxed Costs in London of Attorney General's solicitors, own costs, Survey fees and other payments for printing, etc., up to September, 1903,

Deduct $15,000 received from the Government on the 31st August, 1903, and interest thereon until date of payment of claim.

$172,000

$ 25,142

$197,142

.$9,763.50

December..23

600

LAW COSTS and other charges in claim for compensation for damage to Marine Lot No. 184, caused by the Reclamation in front thereof:-

1896.

January,....27 Fee to J. J. Francis, Q.C., for opinion as to time for claim, $ 50.00

March, ......16

2

June, July,.........16

Do. advising and drawing Petition,........ Afong, for Photographs of Foreshore,

J. J. Francis (Foreshore),

Do.

settling interrogatories,

100.00

9.00

200.00

100.00

1897.

February,...17 December, . 7

Palmer & Turner, Report and Plan of Foreshore,... Deacon & Hastings,

10.00

250.00

1898.

January, ...10

Deacon & Hastings, for Brief Mr. Francis...

500.00

...20

*

July,.. .21 August, ....23

>>

Do. Leigh & Orange, Consultations with Francis,... Denison, for Soundings, Tracings & Report,

2 days,

400.00

435.00

115.00

1899. January, 5 March, ......21 July,..... 5 October,....30 December,. 4

Leigh & Orange, Valuation of Marine Lot 184,...... Guedes, for printing Petition to Secretary of State, J. J. Francis, reference to General Black's Award,. Palmer & Turner, for copy of valuation M. L. 184,. J. J. Francis, to set aside Award,

250.00

24.00

100.00

10.00

150.00

1900. January, 6

J. J. Francis, drawing Petition,

150.00

...10

M. J. D. Stephens,

289.00

April,

.26

Deacon & Hastings,

731.38

June,

.14

Mr. Slade,

50.00

September.. 18

M. J. D. Stephens, Fee to Mr. Francis to 6th Sept.,

150.00

December, .18

Do.

do.

do..

550.00

1901. January,....21 March,

Crown Solicitor's Costs,

403.00

...25

M. J. D. Stephens, Costs of Petition to Secretary of

State,

130.00

Do.

to 21/1/01,

420.00

"

August,....27

J. J. Francis, drawing Petition of Right,.

300.00

October....

2

Noronha, printing Petition of Right,

225.00

1902.

March,

1

3

Trass & Encaer, Draft £10 for Fee to Mr. Cripps,... Court fees,..

109.14

50.00

:

.24

"

Fee to T. M. Phillips, Counsel,

300.00

April,

"

3

Crown Solicitor,

190.24

">

.17

.......17

September, 20

Trass and Encaer,.

197.16

Stephens & Thomson,

116.54

Trass & Encaer £200/0/0 at 1/8, d.=$2,335.35, Less returned £111/9/11 at 1/93, d. 1,263.00,

==

...

30

Stephens & Thomson,

1,072.35 322.00

1903. February,...19

Sutton Ommamy & Co., Taxed Costs of the Attorney General, the Respondent, Appeal to Privy Council, D/D in favour of the Hon. the Attorney General,....

September,. 7

M. J. D. Stephens,

Thomas Howard for 2 visits to London and expenses,

435.23

869.46

$9,763.50

€ 22.

601

C.

IN THE MATTER OF HONGKONG MARINE LOT No. 184

AND

THE PRAYA RECLAMATION ORDINANCE, 1889.

WE, Robert Kennaway Leigh of Victoria in the Colony of Hongkong, Civil Engineer, Land Surveyor and Valuator, and James Orange of the same place, Civil Engineer, Land Surveyor and Valuator, do solemnly and sincerely declare and say as follows, that is to say :-

And first I, the said Robert Kennaway Leigh for myself say :-

1. I am a Member of the Institution of Civil Engineers, London, and I was for three years an Assistant Engineer in the Public Works Department of Hong- kong and since that time I have for the past sixteen years been in private practice in Hongkong as a Civil Engineer, Land Surveyor and Valuator, and have had during such last mentioned sixteen years considerable experience in ascertaining and computing the value of lands and buildings in various parts of Hongkong and I believe myself well qualified to judge of the value of Marine Lot No. 184, Hongkong, hereinafter mentioned and of like property in the vicinity thereof.

And I, the said James Orange for myself say :-

2. I am a Member of the Institution of Civil Engineers, London, also a Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, also a Member of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London, and a Member of the Society of Architects, and I was for six and a half years an Assistant Engineer in the Public Works Department of Hongkong and Resident Engineer of the Tytam Water Works, Hongkong, and since that time I have for the past nine years been in private practice in Hongkong as a Civil Engineer, Land Surveyor and Valuator, and have had during such last mentioned nine years considerable experience in ascertaining and computing the value of lands and buildings in various parts of Hongkong and I believe myself well qualified to judge of the value of Marine Lot No. 184, Hongkong, hereinafter mentioned and of like property in the vicinity thereof.

And we the said Robert Kennaway Leigh and James Orange severally say :- 3. We have in pursuance of instructions received from Messrs. Stephens and Howard, the owners of the said Marine Lot 184. made a careful survey, estimates and valuations of the said Marine Lot 184, and in so doing we have taken into consideration the tenure and situation of the said Lot, the nature of the business for which the buildings erected thereon had been erected and used and what would be a fair price to be realised on a sale thereof both as a Marine Lot before the Praya Reclamation Ordinance, 1889, was carried into effect and as an Inland Lot now that the works of the Praya Reclamation are proceeding in front of the said Lot, and we have embodied our said Estimates and Valuations in our Report dated the 28th day of December, 1898, which Report is hereunto annexed marked "A."

4. We say that our said Report is a true and correct statement of the facts and figures therein given and set forth to the best of our knowledge information and belief.

And we severally make this solemn Declaration conscientiously believing the same to be true and by virtue of the provisions of "The Statutory Declaration Act, 1835."

SEVERALLY DECLARED by the said Robert Kennaway Leigh and James Orange at the Supreme Court House Victoria in Hongkong this Seventeenth day of February, 1899.

Before me,

The Seal of the -Supreme Court of Hongkong.

[L S.]

(Sd.) R. K. LEIGH.

(S.) J. ORANGE.

(Sd.) A. SETH,

Acting Registrar of the Supreme Court of

Hongkong, and a Commissioner

to Administer Oaths.

602

"A."

T. HOWARD, Esq.

HONGKONG, 28TH DECEMBER, 1898.

DEAR SIR,-In accordance with your instructions we have gone very care- fully into the question of the value of Marine Lot 184 first as a Marine Lot in 1895 before any interruption of your Godown business by the New Praya Reclamation Works and second as to the value to-day as an Inland Lot.

The Lot is held from the Crown under a Lease dated 13th September, 1884, for the term of 999 years from the 25th June, 1861, and is therefore practically a freehold subject only to the usual Crown Rent or ground tax.

It is situated on the Old Praya West and contains an area of 32,481 square feet and had a sea frontage of 100 feet. The whole area is covered with substantial two-storied Godowns (Warehouses), the ground floor being built of granite the first floor of brick and the roof tiled.

These Godowns were built in 1886 and are to-day in a first rate state of repair.

The net storage capacity of these Godowns after making allowance for walls, passage-way's, pillars, etc., is 15,000 tons.

The Wharf in front of the Lot was removed by Government in 1895 and since that date the Praya Reclamation Works have been proceeded with and the land in front is being reclaimed for a distance of 260 feet thus converting the area into an Inland Lot in a back street.

We have valued the property as it was in 1895 as a Marine Lot in three different ways and have been at considerable trouble to ascertain what is the real value to-day as an Inland Lot.

The following are our Valuations:--

Valuation No. 1.

Marine Lot 184.

As a Marine Lot in 1895 before the commencement of Praya Reclamation

Works.

Area 32,481 square feet at $5 per foot,

Buildings value,

Add 10 per cent. for compulsory purchase,

Total,

$162,405.00 55,600.00

21,800.00

$239.805.00

The above price per foot, we consider was about the value of land in the neighbourhood at the time.

Valuation No. 2. Marine Lot 184.

As a Marine Lot in 1895 before the commencement of Praya Reclamation..

Net capacity of Godowns for Cargo, 15,000 tons

Per unnum.

at 10 cents per ton per month,

Deductions :-

Crown Rent,.

Rates, ...

Fire Insurance,

Repairs,

Wages,

$

249.00

858.00

95.75

150.00 1,200.00

$18,000.00

$ 2,552.75

Net income,.

$ 15,447.25

Say,.....

$ 15,450.00

Capitalised at 6 per cent.-16 years' purchase, Add 10 per cent, compulsory purchase,

$257,500.00 25,750.00

Total,..............$283,250.00

.:

603

Valuation No. 3.

Marine Lot 184.

As a Marine Lot in 1895 before the commencement of Praya Reclamation.

Gross rentals received for the year ending 1895,

Deductions:-

$18,276.31

Crown Rent,

Rates,

Fire Insurance,

Repairs,

Wages, Charges,

Capitalised at 6%-16 years' purchase, Add 10 per cent. compulsory purchase,

$ 249.00

858.00

95.75

197.21

1,200.00 269.46

$ 2,869.42

Net income,.....

$ 15,406.89

Say,..

$ 15,400.00

$256,666.00

Valuation No. 4.

Value as an Inland Lot now.

Marine, Lot 184.

Area 32,481 square feet at $2.50 per foot, Estimated value of old materials in Godowns,.

25,666 00

Total,......$282,332.00

$81,202.00

5,000.00

$86,202.00

'

Total, say.......$86,000.00

The above gives our valuation of the property at the present time and we would point out that the Lot for Godown purposes has been completely ruined owing to the works of the Praya Reclamation and that being situated so far West and out of the Chinese residential districts we are of opinion that it would be many years before the property would pay to convert into Chinese houses and shops.

Summary.

It will be seen from Valuations 2 and 3 that the land of this particular Lot with the Godown business. was worth more than the $5 per square foot given in our Valuation (this value being about the price of land in the neighbourhood in 1895) and we are therefore of opinion that this property was worth $282,000.00

in 1895.

Yours faithfully,

(Sd.) LEIGH & ORANGE,

M.M. Inst. C.E.

The above is the report marked "A" referred to in the Statutory Declaration of

Robert Kennaway Leigh and James Orange.

Declared before me by the said Robert Kennaway Leigh and James Orange this

17th day of February, 1899.

(Sd.). A. SETH,

Acting Registrar and a Commissioner, etc.

C 23.

PALMER & TURNER,

Architects and Surveyors.

604

HONGKONG, September, 19th, 1899. ·

SURVEY REPORT AND VALUATION OF MARINE LOT

No. 184 AND RECLAMATION TO SAME.

The above Lot is situated on the Old Praya in the, Western District and contains a lease area of some 32.820 square feet the ground is covered by No. 262 and 263 Praya, which are good class well built stone and brick two storied Godowns.

Taking into consideration the reclamation in front of these buildings we value the original Lot at $1.50 per foot say $49,000.00, the Buildings we value at $45,000.00, making a total value of $94,000.00.

The reclamation belonging to this Lot will be some 15,200 square feet, and we value the land when reclaimed at say $2.75 per foot giving the total value of Reclamation at $41,800.00, to this add the value of Original Lot makes the total value of property One Hundred and Thirty-Five Thousand and Eight Hundred. Dollars, $135,800.00.

Hongkong, September 19th, 1899.

C 24.

DENISON, KAM & GIBBS,

(Sd). PALMER & TURNER, F.R.S.B.A,

Surveyors, etc.

Architects, Civil Engineers and Surveyors.

HONGKONG, 14th June, 1905.

M. J. D. STEPHENS, Esq.

Howard's Godowns—Marine Lot No. 184.

SIR,-In accordance with your instructions I have made an inspection of the above named property, with a view to reporting to you as to its value prior to the time when its access to the sea was interfered with by the works carried out under the Praya Reclamation Ordinance; which involved the construction of a new sea Wall; and the filling in of the then existing foreshore; and the consequent conversion of what had been Marine Lots into practically speaking Inland Lots.

This work was initiated in 1889 but the actual work of reclamation so far as concerned Section 1, in which district Marine Lot No. 184 is situated was not put in hand until some years later, and it was not until 1899 or thereabouts though there had been I believe interference at an earlier date that the access to the sea was interrupted to such an extent as to render the property in question, and the buildings thereon, in great measure useless for the purposes of godowns for which it had been bought and developed.

Somewhere about this date, as I understand, the Government made the Owners an offer of compensation for the injury that they had received, and almost immediately afterwards this award of $15,000.00 was declined.

It is at this date then, viz., 1899, that I will offer you an opinion as to the value of the property referred to.

At that time the lot had a frontage of about 100′ 0′′ upon what was then known as Praya West (now Des Voeux Road West) upon the North, a frontage of about 105′0′′ upon Queen's Road West upon the South, a frontage of about 340′6′′ upon Whitty Street upon the West, and measured about 313'0" upon the East side and contained an area of about 32,481 superficial feet. The Praya at that time was about 50′0′′ wide and the water of a depth that rendered it convenient for cargo boats to come alongside at almost all states of the tide. The lot was developed with two godowns, two-storys high-separated by a lane about 12' 0" wide-and covering an area of about 29,360 superficial feet. Judging from this condition to-day

!

605

should suppose that they were in good repair being as they are substantially built of brick and stone-the external walls being of ashlar masonry-well lighted and ventilated and conveniently arranged for storage. They were built I believe in 1887 and so would be not more than 12 years old at the time under review. In this district they would almost certainly require to have piled foundations, and taking all these circumstances into consideration I should place the value of the buildings at $60,000.

With regard to the value of the land I find that in 1897-when I probably had in my mind contemporary records which are not available now-I valued the land just a little further West, viz.. Marine Lots Nos. 188 and 189 R.P. at $3.25 per foot super. This property is very similar in character, having a frontage upon good water and being also a corner lot, with a frontage upon three sides upon Public Streets; and being almost of the same area, and covered with godowns of the same character. This estimate-I give it for what it is worth—was made two years previous to 1899, but four years later than this, i.e., in 1903, an actual sale of land in this immediate neighbourhood took place when a part- 18,000 superficial feet-of Marine Lot No. 180 was sold at a price slightly in excess of $7.00 per superficial foot.

A

In this case the godowns with which the site had been covered were burnt down and excepting the foundations-entirely destroyed; so that the price paid, viz., $126,350.00, practically represented the value of the land at that time. glance at the accompanying sketch plan will show that this lot also is very similar in character to those before mentioned, it is not however a corner lot and it is rather more remote from the centre of the town.

Having then an estimated value of Marine Lots Nos. 188, 189 of $3.25 in 1897 and an actual value of Marine Lot No. 180 of $7.00 in 1903 I think I shall not be erring on the side of over-estimation if I place the value of Marine Lot No. 184 at not less than $4.00 in 1899.

From these figures I arrive at a valuation of Marine Lot No. 184 as follows:-

Valuation No. 1.

32,481 feet super. of land at $4.00 Buildings,

...

.$129,924 ·

60,000

$189.924

In a case like the present however where the figures are upon the one hand, based upon prices that are not strictly contemporaneous with the period in question; or are upon the other hand, more or less a matter of personal opinion; it becomes very desirable to check the valuation obtained by calculations based upon the letting value of the buildings.

With this end in view I have made enquiries as to the actual rents of godowns clear of taxes in this neighbourhood and with similar water frontage in the year 1899 and have made a table which I attach hereto, together with a sketch plan.

Street No.

Lot No.

522 Des Voeux Road West. Marine Lot 189 R.P.

Area covered by Godowns.

Monthly Rents.

524

""

526

"

532

534

19

"

""

536

"

538

"3

540

544

546

*

>>>

40′0′′ × 225′0′′-9,000 ft. sq.

188

X

43′0′′ × 225′0′′=9,675

57 ""

$ 540.00

188

43′0′′ x 150′0′′-6,450

""

"

""

182

99

182

35

* * * * A

181

43′0′′ x 180'0" 7,740 43′0′′ × 225′0′′=9,675 143'0" x 45'0" 1,935

43′0′′ × 225′0′′=9,675

208.34

>>

""

""

""

275.00

""

270.00

>> ""

181

43′0′′ x 180′0′′=7,740,,

240.00

>>

180

43'0" x 180'0"=7,740

225.00

"

>>

179

43′0′′ x 180′0′′=7,740

240.00

"

""

179

43′0′′ × 180′0′′=7,740

240.00

""

85,110 ft. sq. $2,238.34

C 25.

:

606

From this it appears that the rents obtained from the ground floors of Godowns in this vicinity and having a total superficial area of 85,110 feet was $2,238.00 per month. Taking these figures as a guide we find that the Howard Godowns which cover an area of about 29,360 ft. super. should have brought in a monthly rental of $772.00 for the ground floor and (taking the value of the ground floor at half as much again as the upper floor) of $515.00 for the upper floor making the monthly rental for the whole building $1,287.00 or $15,444 : say $15,400.00 per annum. From this certain deductions have to be made, and capitalizing at 14 years' purchase a further valuation is arrived at as follows:-

Valuation No. II.

Gross Rental per annum,

$15,400.

Deduct Crown Rent,

$249.

Fire Insurance 14 per cent. upon $50,000,

625.

Repairs 1 per cent. upon $60,000,

600.

Empties 5 per cent. upon $15,400,

770.

$ 2,244.

$ 13,156.

14.

$184,184.

Taking a rough mean between these two valuations I place the value of M. L. No. 184 in the year 1899 at $187,000.00 in which calculation I have not taken into consideration any claim that it might be considered that the owners have for compensation for the conditions under which they had eventually to dispose of their property and which amounted practically to a forced sale. If this be added the amount of my valuation would be increased as follows:

Value of Marine Lot 184 in 1899, Add 10 per cent. for forced sale,

$187,000.00 18,700.00

I am, Sir,

Yours faithfully,

$205.700.00

(Sd.) EDWARD A. RAM., F.R.I.B. A.

Statement of Claim for Loss of Rents from the Godowns situated on Marine Lot No. 184, during the progress of the Works of the Praya Reclamation, from the 1st January, 1896, to the 10th October, 1899.

WORKING ACCOUNT.

Crown Rent.

Rates. Charges. Insurance, Wages.

Total

Repairs.

Gross Expenses. Rents.

Net Rents.

1895,

$249.00

$858.00 $269.46

$95.75

$1,200.00 $197.21

$2,869.42 $18,276.31 $15,406,89

1896,

249.00

1897,

249.00

858.00

858.00 237.40

236.68

1898,

249.00

858.00

191.97

1899,

193.06

667.33

101.45

90.50

12.99

71.37 1,200.00 246.75

90.50 1,200.00 39.44

1,200.00 71.84

732.00 54.55

2,862.52 12,451.22 9,588.70

2,673.62 12,954.40 10,280.78

2,661.31 11,507.03 8,845.72

1,761.38 6,069.67 4,308.29

(283 days).

$940.06 $3,241.33

$767.50 $265.36

$4,332.00 $ 412.58

$9,958.83 $42,982.32 | $33,023.49

STATEMENT OF CLAIM FOR Loss of Rents.

Net Rents for the year 1895 were $15,406.89 as above stated. Time from 1st January, 1896, to the sale and transfer of the Property on 10th October, 1899,

was 3 years and 283 days at $15,406.89 per annum, Deduct Net Rents received during that time as above stated,

Loss of Rents,

$58,166.28 33,023.49

$25,142.79

D 26.

607

D.

Extract from the Hongkong Government Gazette of 7th March, 1857.

GOVERNMENT NOTIFICATION.

Bowring Praya.

The instructions of Her Majesty's Government have been received as to the mode in which compensation (if any) shall be given for Damage, and the Rents settled for Lands not comprehended in the original Leases. They are to the following effect:-

"There is no doubt that Land recovered from the sea, whether artificially or naturally, belongs to the Crown and that the Crown is at liberty to dispose of it in the same manner as of any other land in the Colony. But it is also clear that the acquisition of such land by any other person than the owner of the Marine Lot behind it, would very much diminish the value of the Marine Lot, and in many cases render it useless for the purpose for which it was acquired. While therefore, the rights of the Crown and the interests of the public require that the claim of the Crown to such lands should be firmly maintained, a sense of justice requires that the equitable claim of the holders of the original Marine Lots should be liberally considered."

"The most practicable way of reconciling these interests, would be to appoint assessors on the part of the Crown and the proprietor of the Marine Lot, or, if it be preferred a jury, to assess the damage done to the original Marine Lot by the creation of a new Marine Lot in front of it. To put up the new Marine Lot to Auction, and to allow the proprietor of the original lot to acquire it at the highest price which may be bid for it, less the sum assessed as the damage done to the original lot. If, however, he should refuse to become the purchaser, then to pay to him out of the price of the new lot the sum assessed as damage."

"Some such arrangeinent would meet the justice of the case. It would of course require modification to meet the peculiar circumstances of individual cases, e.g., when the whole new land is not put up in a single lot. It would also be necessary to provide, that in no case should more be claimable as assessed damages than the amount realised by the sale of the new lot. But points of detail like these can best be settled by the local authorities on the spot. It is sufficient to indicate the general principle on which such cases may be dealt with."

D 27.

By order,

(Sd.). W. T. BRIDGES,

Acting Colonial Secretary.

Colonial Secretary's Office,

Victoria, Hongkong, 3rd March, 1857.

HOWARD versus THE CROWN.

ROBERT KENNEWAY LEIGH,

Civil Engineer,

Member Institute Civil Engineers.

Over 16 years as Engineer in the Colony of Hongkong.

First three years in the Surveyor General's Department assisted in conducting experiments to decide tidal currents in the harbour for sewer outfalls.

Result of these experiments with diagrams given in "Chadwick's Report on the Sanitary Condition of Hongkong ", Colonial Office, November, 1882.

Know the site well, and took measurements and soundings on the 27th April last.

Plan No. 1.

Is traced from a Survey in the Surveyor General's Department and shows the site as it was just prior to the filling in of the slipway in 1879 with the Praya Extension as built added on in red lines and the position of the sections shown on.

÷

608

Plan No. 2.

Shows in black three sections taken from the Government Map of Victoria dated 1867 which gives the soundings all along the City. It also shows in blue the same three sections traced from the Government Sections of the Praya Recla- mation and signed by J. M. Price, ciated 1st June, 1888, and further it shows in red the two sections taken by me on 27th April last.

The first two sets of sections show that in the 21 years between 1867 and 1888 the foreshore in the neighbourhood of plaintiffs' Lot increased very conside- rably in depth.

The last set of sections taken now show that in the 8 years between 1888 and 1896 a very considerable silting up has taken place to as much in some places as 7 feet, and there must be some cause for this sudden change.

The first cause I attribute to the pressing out of the mud and silt by depo- siting the pierre perdue embankment of the Praya wall.

That this displacement takes place is shown on all the Government sections of the New Praya, where the pierre perdue is shown as sinking over 20 feet into the bed of the harbour, and these sections were made after careful borings had been taken. This displaced material must be deposited elsewhere and is squeezed out on both sides.

1

Anyone putting their foot on a muddy road, and seeing how the mud is pressed out will at once be able to see on a very small scale what takes place when this immense mass of thousands of tons of pierre perdue is deposited on the sea bed close alongside the plaintiffs' foreshore, (within 50 feet) Govern- ment Section N

6 of the Praya Reclamation, which is the section where the Reclamation has been stopped shows no less than 250 cubic yards or over 300 tons of material displaced for every yard of sea wall. The length of the return wall is 90 yards and taking it at the same rate something like 22,500 cubic yards or 27,000 tons of material would be displaced, half of which would be forced outward on to plaintiffs' foreshore.

The Wharf being forced up is a proof of the very large mass of material that was being displaced

The next cause is owing to the groin formed by the square end of the Praya Reclamation (see Plan No. 1).

The diagrams attached to Chadwick's report showing the result of the float experiments shows that the flow of the tide at this point is very strong and parallel to the Praya wall, it is clear therefore that any projection into the harbour which stops the flow of the tide must act as a groin, the action and use of which is well known to every Engineer. Groins are used for the purpose of reclaiming land from the sea or rivers and are projections built out of stones, wood, piles or other suitable materials and the New Praya Reclamation stopping off at right-angles to the line of the flow of the tide forms a perfect groin; no better means for the natural reclamation of the foreshore at this point could have been constructed and this silting up will continue to go on so that in a few years the corner formed by this groin will be dry land.

D 28.

PALMER & TURNER,

(Sd.)

R. K. LEIGH.

1st May, 1895.

Architects and Surveyors.

J. HOWARD, Esq.

HONGKONG, August 29th, 1895.

Dear Sir,-As requested by you, we on the 19th instant inspected the Fore- shore in front of your Godowns situated on M. Lot No. 184 West Point.

Our inspection was made at low water ordinary Spring tide at 2.57 p.m. We found that the foreshore was exposed to view taking a line from the East Boundary of Godowns 23 feet, on the West Boundary 22 feet and some 26 feet in the centre of Godowns (see sketch plan attached). The foreshore consists on the West side

C

609.

of stone, sand and mud, in the centre of stone and sand (here there is a ridge of loose stones extending some distance outwards forming a barrier which we under- stand was the original filling under the old wharf which has recently been removed), and on the East side almost entirely of fine sand, the reclamation works commence about 40 feet from this boundary.

On the West of your Lot is a large drain running under Whitty Street also a nullah a little further West, both of which we should imagine would discharge a considerable amount of sand and mud after heavy rains.

By reference to the plan it will be seen that the Reclamation Works extend outwards 260 feet at right-angles froin the Old Praya and as the end of works is only 40 feet from your East Boundary there is a regular pocket formed between these works and the stone barrier before mentioned, that there might have been a certain amount of silting up of the foreshore on the West side of the barrier we can. understand, but on the East side the whole foreshore being originally free the deposit would be naturally carried farther along or equally distributed along the whole front, but the Reclamation works have effectually stopped this distribution. And. it is our opinion that from the date of the commencement of these works that the foreshore would tend to silt up owing to the effect of the tide eddying in this particular spot and the works themselves must have also caused a large amount of earth stuff to find its way into the sea and thus considerably accelerate the deposit on the foreshore.

We are also of the opinion that any earth, etc. carried into this pocket would naturally be deposited close along the sea wall, and that there might be no perceptible difference in the depth of the water along the lines of the front of the new wall, while there was a very considerable decrease in depth along the old sea wall for some 20 or 30 feet out.

Hongkong, August 29th, 1895.

Yours faithfully,

(Sd.) PALMER & TURNER,

Surveyors, etc.

HONGKONG, 24th September, 1896.

D 29.

V. H. DEACON, Esq.

DEAR SIR, I have the honour to forward you the following report on the silting up of the foreshore in front of Marine Lot No. 184 Praya West.

In 1889 Mr. Price, then Surveyor General, lent me the plans and sections of the Praya Reclamation and I had copies made of them. One Section, a copy of which I send you, was taken at right-angles to the Praya Wall at a distance of about 65 feet east of the east side of Whitty Street.

On the 11th and 18th of April, 1896. I made sections of ground in front of Marine Lot No. 184 on four lines, all at right-angles to the Praya Wall at distance of 20, 50, 65 and 80 feet east of the east of Whitty Street, copies of which I send you made on transparent paper. The section at 65 feet is thus taken on the saine line as the one taken by the Government Surveyor in 1888.

The amount of silting up between 1888 when the Government section was taken and April, 1896, can be seen by placing the section taken by me over the Government section. The average amount of silting is between five and six feet.

The silting up, in my opinion, is caused by the stoppage of the tidal currents. by the Praya Reclamation and the formation of slack water in the bay formed by the end of the Reclamation and the Praya Wall, allowing the suspended matter in the water to settle, and preventing sand, etc., being washed along by the tide.

Yours faithfully,

(Sd.) A. DENISON.

.

No.

DATE.

610

APPENDIX B.

ROWN.

DOCUMENTS PUT IN BY THE CROWN.

Howard and Stephens' Claim.

DOCUMENTS FOR THE CROWN.

PAGE.

A.

1

11th July, 1898.

2

10th June, 1905.

i

3

June,

Mr. Nicolle's report on godown books, Valuation by Mr. W. Danby,

Qualifications of Mr. A. S. Hooper, Valuation by Mr. Hooper, ...

36

40

42

42

Comparative list of assessments,

44

June,

Statement by Mr. Boulton,..

45

7

June,

List of assessment: Mr. Chapman,

45

List of adjoining godowns: Mr. Chapman,

46

B.

9

10

A 1.

Supplementary Documents.

Supplement to Mr. A. S. Hooper's Report, Supplement to Mr. Boulton's Report,

47

47

Memorandum on the Accounts of Howard's Godowns from 1898 to 30th June, 1898.

Mr. Nicolle's Memo. of 11th July, 1898.

In accordance with the arrangements made in C.S.O. 1067/98, I went to Mr. Howard's Office at 2.30 on the 7th instant to inspect the books, and I also went there again on Saturday, the 9th instant.

Mr. Howard placed all the books at my disposal and had been courteous enough to prepare for me a statement of the working account from 1885 to 31st December, 1897. These I checked with the books and added the figures for 1st half-year 1898. A Statement marked “A” giving these figures is attached.

+

In addition to the figures given by Mr. Howard certain payments appeared in the books which I consider may fairly be charged as working expenses although this is a matter of opinion, as Mr. Howard evidently did not think they should be included.

These payments comprise

1. Payment to Mr. Howard for Management.

2. Gratuities to Servants.

3. Share of profit to Compradore.

As regards (1.) I think the cost of management is a fair charge against the working account. Mr. Stephens takes no part in the management and has to bear half the cost.

As regards (2.) these are New Year's gratuities, and I believe it is the customs in firms where such gratuities are paid to enter them as charges in the working account, in fact in the earlier years they figure in the books in the charges account but later they were shown under profit and loss.

As regards (3.) it will be observed that only two payments were made, viz., in 1895 and 1896 and these payments were on account of 1894 and 1895, the two record years. It appears that when Mr. Howard was going on leave late in 1893 he promised the Compradore that if he looked after the business well and that the receipts exceeded a certain sum he would get one-third of any excess, and it appears to me probable that the record receipts in 1895 may be due to this. Mr. Stephens, I understand, objected to any further payments of this nature being made.

A further investigation of the books and a comparison of cash receipts with the gross earnings shewed that some small sums had been written off as bad debts, and these have to be deducted from the gross rentals. Mr. Howard shewed me these sums in the books and agreed with me that they should be deducted.

611

I attach a Statement "B" showing the nett income as returned by Mr. Howard and the further deductions which, in my opinion, should be made. Certain small charges for repairs to the pier I have omitted from the statement, as the pier was emorved in 1895 and compensation has already been paid for it.

Law charges in connection with the case I have also excluded.

As regards the questions asked by the Colonial Secretary in his Minute of 4th July, 1898-

(1.) Yes, $270 per mensem.

(2.) A Statement marked "C" of the present wages paid is attached. The higher wages paid in the earlier years, Mr. Howard accounts for by his son having been employed, all the present employees are natives.

The Compradore who draws on $20 a month is said by Mr. Howard to have a large private business of his own.

(3.) The rates of Storage have not been altered for at least 8 years.

(4.) See Statements "A" and "B."

(5.) This information is not easily obtainable. Mr. Howard states that there have often been times when the Godowns were quite full. When I was there on the 9th instant they were more than half full.

Mr. Howard pointed out that the first complete year that the Godowns were in working order was 1887 and that the receipts fell off soon after the pier was removed. I do not know the exact date of the removal of the pier, but I attach a Statement D" of the monthly gross rentals for the years 1894 to 1897 inclusive.

The Director of Public Works in his Minute of 27th May, 1898, points out that the land sold in 1884 for $65,000 and Mr. Howard informed me that the Godowns cost $36,000, so that the total cost of the property would appear to have been $101,000.

The New Godowns on the Praya Extension I should think are responsible for a certain amount of the falling off in rents.

Hongkong, 11th July, 1898.

(Sd.) HILGROVE C. NICOLLE.

A further Statement "E" showing the agreement between the gross rentals and the cash receipts is attached.

(Sd.) H. C. N.

612

Statement “A.”-

WORKING ACCOUNT OF HOWARD'S GODOWNS FROM 1885 TO 30TH JUNE,

(PREPARED BY MR. HOWARD.)

1898.

YEAR.

CROWN RENT.

RATES. CHARGES.

INSUR- ANCE.

WAGES.

REPAIRS. TOTAL.

GROSS RENTALS.

NETT RENTALS.

$ C.

C.

$ c.

$ c.

$

C. $

1885,.

76.48

75.10

301.00

$ C.

452.58

$ C.

C.

$

1,373.73

921:15

1886,...

124.50 374.40 185.43

170.54

1,262.00

89.84

2,206.71

7,821.83

5,615,12

1887,...

249.00 816.40

253.18

135.20

1,716.00

24.75

3,194.53 | 14,212.05| 11,017.52

1888,..

249.00 871.00 345.19

97.70

1,327.00

77.90

2,967.79 16,157.18 | 13,189.39

1889..

249.00

858.00 252.94

77.42

994.00

15.80

1890,...

249.00

858.00 .258.03

97.70

1,017.00

30.44

1891,.....

249.00

858.00 225.60

82.42

1,020.00

184.00

1892,.

249.00 858.00 241.86

85.45.

1,031.00

1893,...

249.00 858.00 267.31

95.45

1,109.00

23.75

1894,.

249.00 858.00

363.11

95.45

1,111.00

93.48

1895..

249.00 858.00

269.46

95.75

1,200.00

197.21

2,447.16 16,472.46 14,025.30

2,510.17 | 15,323.12 | 12,812.95

2,619.02 15,102.42 | 12,483.40

2,465.31 | 16,516.19 | 14,050.88

2,602.51 14,494.89 | 11,892.38 ·

2,770.04 17,508.42 14,738.38

2,869.42 18,276.31 | 15,406.89

1896,....

249.00 858.00

237.40

71.37

1,200.00

246.75

2,862.52 12,451.22 9,588.70

1897,...

Volk

249.00 858.00 236.68

90.50

1,200.00

1898,..

249.00 429.00 98.26

600.00

39.44 2,673.62 12,954.40 10,280.78

61.13. 1,437.39 5,159.35 3,721.96

Statement "B."

WORKING ACCOUNT OF HOWARD'S GODOWNS FROM 1885 TO 30TH JUNE, 1898.

(PREPARED BY MR. NICOLLE.)

NETT REN-

YEAR.

TALS FROM

MANAGE-

GRATUITIES SHARE

ΤΟ

MENT.

|STATEMENT “ A.'

23

SERVANTS.

OF PROFIT- COMPRADORE.

BAD DEBTS

TOTAL.

WRITTEN OFF.

ACTUAL NETT INCOME.

$

C.

$

C.

C.

$ C.

+

C.

$

C.

$

C.

1885,

921.15

921.15.

1886,

5,615.12

200.00

200:00

5,415.12

1887,

11,017.52

2,400.00

2,400.00

8,617.52

1888,

13,189.39

2,890.00

2,890.00 10,299.39

1889,

14,025.30

3,240.00

95.00

400.95

1890,

12,812.95

3,240.00

100.00

:

:

3,735.95 10,289.35

139.42

3,479.42

9,333.53

1891,

12,483.40

3,240.00

3,240.00 9,243.40

1892,

14,050.88

3,240.00

3,240.00

10,810.88

1893,

11,892.38

2,430.00

75.00

2,505.00

9,387.38

1894,

14,738.38

4,050.00

4,050.00 10,688.38

1895,

15,406.89

3,240.00

55.00.

464.76

89.09

3,848.85 11,558.04

1896,

9,588.70

3,240.00

100.00

400.00

3,740.00

5,848.70

1897,

10,280.78

3,240.00

100.00

3,340.00

6,940.78

1898,

3,721.96

1,620.00

100.00

1,720.00

2,001.96

613

Statement "C."

MONTHLY WAGES LIST-HOWARD'S GODOWNS.

Compradore,

Book-keeper,

Do.

Assistant,

Fireman,

One Man,

Do..

Four Men, at $6,

Cook,

Total,

Statement "D."

$

20.00

15.00

5.00

12.00

10.00

8.00

24.00

6.00

$ 100.00

STATEMENT SHOWING GROSS MONTHLY RENTALS OF HOWARD'S GODOWNS FOR

EACH OF THE YEARS FROM 1894 TO 1897 INCLUSIVE.

1894.

1895.

1896.

1897.

$

C.

$

$

C.

$

C.

January,

1,366.29

1,562.89

861.65

1,190.25

February,

996.56

1,684.92

777.85

1,110.12

March,

1,602.94

899.79

1,416.47

768.24

April,

1,575.52

1,950.60

1,099.65

1,051.75

May,

2,213.85

1,780.08

1,293.69

1,041.44

June,

764.57

1,610.31

1,160.44

1,377.90

July,

1,151.33

1,371.37

1,210.26

1,370.95

August,

2,072.55

1,618.53

622.34

1,114.67

September,

1,436.34

1,742.13

625.37 ·

893.70

October,...

1,550.48

1,662.07

569.60

878.13

November,..

1,202.20

1,378.70

1,101.21

1,108.62

December...

1,575.79

1,014.92

1,711.69

1,048.63

1

17,508.42

18,276.31

12,451.22 12,951.40

Monthly Average,

$1,459

$1,523

$1,037

$1,079

*

614

Statement "E."

AGREEMENT BETWEEN GROSS RENTALS AND CASH RECEIVED HOWARD'S

GODOWNS, FROM 1885 TO 30TH JUNE, 1898.

Year.

1885.

1886,

:

...

1887,

1888,

1889,

1890,

1891,

...

1892,

1893,

1894,

1895,

1896,

1897,

1898,

Deduct―

1889,

Bad Debts,

1890,

1895,

Add-

.

1898,

Rents due 30th June, 1898,

....

Gross Rentals.

Cash Received.

$ (.

C.

1.373.73

1,165.07

7,821.83

6,740.51

14,212.05

14,209.75

16,157.18

16,054.03

16,472.46

16.402.53

15,323.12

15,233.82

15,102.42

15,562.69

...

16,516.19

16,716.93

14,494.89

13.311.36

17,508.42

15,805.37

18,276.31

19,396.46

12,451.22

12,908.18

12,954.40

13,014.42

5,159.35

5,323.78

$183,823.57

$181,844.90

C.

400.95

139.42

89.09

629.46

Deduct

1887,

Money advanced,

$ c. 799.54

1886,

514.68

Insurance Bonuses,

56.81

1886,

Cash advanced,....

36.44

1890,

Cash from Mr. Lasch,

50.00

A 2.

2,806.68

$184,651.58

1,457.47

$183,194.11

$183,194.11

Valuation by Mr. W. Danby.

Re Stephens and Howard's Godowns-Marine Lot 184.

HONGKONG, 10th, June 1905.

Report and Valuation on claim to compensation under the Praya Reclamation Ordinance, 1889, Section 8, Clause 6, for alleged injury sustained by Claimants as non-assenting Crown Lessees, by reason of the Reclamation being constructed in front of their Lot.

1. I have been well acquainted with this Lot for many years past, having first surveyed it on the 25th January, 1876, when I was in the. Public Works Department, for the purpose of a new Crown Lease, the then Crown Lessee having been found in the occupation of considerably more ground than he was entitled to.

2. The new Lease was, however, not issued till the 13th September, 1884, Mr. M. J. D. Stephens then being the Crown Lessee, he having purchased the Lot from the Hongkong and Whampoa Dock Company for $65,000 (or at the rate of about $2 per square foot). Mr. M. J. D. Stephens subsequently (1886) assigned an undivided moiety of the Lot to Mr. Thomas Howard for $32,500. The area of the Lot at the time of the issue of the new Lease was 32,820 square feet.

:

615

3. In 1884 Mr. Stephens was informed by a Surveyor in the Public Works Department that the adjoining owner, Cheong Ying Cheong, had encroached on his Lot, and Mr. Stephens required Cheong Ying Cheong to remove his wall, and, as the latter refused to do so, the former commenced to pull it down. Cheong Ying Cheong sued for an Injunction and damages and I was a witness for him, the Court decided that Mr. Stephens was wrong. Messrs. Howard and Stephens then made a claim against the Government in respect of 339 square feet, being the amount by which the actual area of the Lot was alleged to be less than the leased area. The Government had to admit that their Surveyor had made a mistake, and, in order to settle the claim, offered Messrs. Howard and Stephens a sum of $1,700 in November, 1887. This offer was, however, not accepted.

4. Shortly after the Claimants acquired the property, they erected two-storied Godowns thereon, which cost them :-

Godowns,

Marine Lot No. 184,

Total cost of property to Claimants,

$3.10 per square foot (including buildings).

.$ 36,000 65,000

$101,000

5. The Godowns were completed and in full working order by 1887. The net storage capacity of the Godowns (ie., when full) is about 15,000 Tons (of 40) cubic feet). The Godowns are fairly well built of granite, and are at the present time in what may be called a fair state of repair. In my opinion, their value at the present time as buildings is, say, $50,000. The increase in value is due to the fact that the cost of building has risen considerably since 1886.

6. On the 10th May, 1889, the Praya Reclamation Ordinance (No. 16 of 1889) was passed, for reclaiming a certain portion of foreshore from the sea. All existing Marine Lot Holders Laving property affected by the scheme had the privilege of joining in the project, on condition that they paid the Government the cost of Reclamation immediately opposite their respective properties. Messrs. Stephens and Howard did not consent to join in the movement.

In due course the Reclamation Works were commenced and practically completed by 1st January, 1836, up to a line corresponding with a prolongation of the East Boundary of Marine Lot No. 184, but no part of this Reclamation was opposite the Claimants, Lot

7. About January, 1896, Mr. Howard made a complaint to the Government, and asked for compensation. He alleged that, owing to the construction of the before mentioned Praya Reclamation, his trade as a Godown Keeper had been injured. The matter was referred to myself by the Government to report upon. After going very carefully into the matter, taking soundings, levels and other ob- servations, extending over the whole period of the Low Spring Tides of that Season (ie., March, 1896), and also personally visiting the site many times at the very Low Spring Tides, and occasionally taking photographs, showing large cargo boats moored and discharging flour within 15 to 18 feet off the Praya Wall during some of the extremely low tides, I reported that not only had Mr. Howard's business as a Godown Keeper not been injured by the adjoining Reclamation Works, and that no silting (as he alleged) had taken place in front of his Lot, but, on the contrary, I was able to prove that these Reclamation Works, up to that time, had been of very great benefit to him, I found (and proved by photo- graphs) that at Low Water Spring Tides, cargo boats of all sizes, and containing all kinds of cargo, came up, made fast to the Old Praya Wall, and discharged and shipped cargo when they were not able to lay alongside the New Praya Wall adjoining. This was proved by the previous year (1895) turning out to be Mr. Howard's record year. They therefore did not proceed with the case.

8. Mr. Nicolle, the Government Auditor, in his Report dated 11th July, 1898, Statement B, shews that the average net annual income derived from these Godowns from 1887 to the end of 1895 inclusive, that is, for 9 years, was $10,025 which sum capitalized at 7 % equals 14.28 years' purchase, or, $143,157, I there- fore value the property in 1895 at $143,157.

A

616

9. Basing the values of the property upon the Crown Lease area of 32,820 square feet, I estimate that in 1895 the value of the ground alone was $3 per square foot, equals $98,460. To this must be added the value of the Build- ings, which, as I have already stated, I consider to be $50,000.00, making a total of $148,460.

10. The actual Reclamation Works in front of the Claimants' property was not commenced till the 16th April, 1898, and, previous to that date, there were no obstructions of any kind preventing cargo boats approaching and making fast to the Old Praya Wall in front of Marine Lot No. 184 as of old. The Claimants sold their property on the 11th October, 1899, to the Humphreys Estate and Finance Company for $110,000 ($3.38 per square foot including buildings). I do not consider that this sale is a criterion of the true value of the property, and I think that the low price realised must have been due to the depressd state of the property market. This is shown by the fact that two months later the property sold for $120,000, five months after that for $140,000, and seven months after the last date for $146,000.

11. The Government Rate Books show that the annual rateable value of the property was assessed at $6,600 from 1888 to 1900 inclusive, and in 1901 it was increased to $10,800 and has since risen to $15,300. This shows that, in the opinion of the Assessor of Rates, there was no depreciation in the value of the property caused by the Praya Reclamation, and in this opinion I concur.

12. If the Claimants lost business, as alleged by them, from 1896 onwards, I am of opinion that such loss is probably attributable, in a considerable measure, to the opening in their immediate neighbourhood of many larger and better built and better arranged godowns, with modern appliances.

A 3.

(Sd.) WM. DANBY, M. Inst., C.E.

Qualifications of Mr. A. Shelton Hooper, as a Valuer.

I, Augustus Shelton Hooper, am Secretary to the Hongkong Land Invest- ment and Agency Company, Limited.

In July, 1886, I was appointed and sent out from England by the Secretary of State for the Colonies as Surveyor of Crown Lands and Valuer under the Municipal Rates Ordinance, 1875, Hongkong.

From my arrival in September, 1886, to 30th April, 1889, I devoted the whole of my time to valuations of property for Government purposes, more especially in connection with the annual assessments of same.

On the repeal of the Municipal Rates Ordinance in 1888, I was appointed Assessor under the Rating Ordinance, 1888. My duty during the three years I was Valuer and Assessor was to place such an annual value on each tenement which a tenant may reasonably be expected to pay for same, to enable me to do which, I personally inspected each tenement in the Colony and became conversant with its value. I valued every tenement in the Colony three times for Rating purposes.

On resigning my appointment as Assessor in 1889, 16 years ago, I was appointed Secretary to my present Company, whose business is to invest money on landed property here by way of Mortgage or purchase. All the investments are valued by me. Over $10,000,000 have been invested in Mortgages, and over $4,749,000 in purchases of property.

I know the Claimants' property in question. (M. L. 184) very well indeed, and it was one of the first properties I valued in the Colony for Rateable purposes.

A 4.

Valuation by Mr. A. Shelton Hooper.

Re Stephens and Howard's Godowns,-Marine Lot 184.

HONGKONG, June, 1905.

Report and Valuation on the Claim to Compensation under the Praya Reclamation Ordinance, Section 8, Clause 6, for the alleged injury sustained by the Claimants, as non-assenting Crown Lessees, by reason of the Reclamation being constructed in front of their Marine Lot.

:

3

617

1. The Claimants purchased their Lot in 1884 for $65,000 at the rate of about $2 per square foot, the area being 32,481 square feet.

2. Taking into consideration that Marine Lot 184 was a corner Lot, having a frontage to Whitty Street, I consider the land to have been of the value of $3 per square foot in 1895. The buildings cost $36,000 in 1885, and I think that an allowance of $50,000 for the buildings in 1895 would be liberal, having regard to the increased cost of building :-

Marine Lot 184-32,481 sq. ft. at $3 per sq. ft, Value of Buildings.

...

$97,443 50,000

$147,443

3. In order to arrive at a valuation based upon the rental of the property, it is necessary to remember that there is a great difference between the rent at which a Godown would let to a person who wished to carry on a Godown business there, and the annual income to be derived by a tenant from the storage of goods in Godown. The latter amount would of course include the profits derived by the tenant from his Godown business, and in valuing the Lot it is necessary to exclude such profits. After taking into consideration all the material I can gather on this subject, I have come to the conclusion that a fair gross yearly rental to be paid by a tenant of the Godowns in 1895 would have been $10,800. From this the usual charges for Crown Rent, Insurance and Repairs have to be made, leaving a nett rental of $10,305.25 which, capitalized at 7%, equals $147,227. The deductions are as follow:

Estimated Gross Annual Rental,

Less:-

.$10,800

Crown Rent,

Insurance, Repairs,

.$249.00

95.75 150.00

1

494.75

$10,305.25

4. I therefore consider that the value of the Marine Lot and the Buildings in 1895 was $147,443.

5. In April, 1898, the Government commenced to extend the Praya Recla- mation Works in front of the Claimants' Lot, and I am informed that in the Spring of 1899 access to the sea was entirely cut off, and the Lot practically converted into an Inland Lot.

6. On the 11th October, 1899, the Claimants sold their Lot for $110,000 which they allege to have been the value of the Lot as depreciated by loss of access. to the sea.

7. I do not, however, consider that this sale was a fair criterion of the value of the Lot. I think that the smallness of the amount realised must have been occasioned by the temporary depression in the property market at that time, owing, amongst other things, to the tightness of money. This theory is borne out by the fact that very shortly afterwards the property was re-sold at $120,000 and five months later at $140,000 and seven months after that at $146,000. I consider, therefore, that the Lot was not depreciated by the Reclamation Works although the class of business which could be carried on upon the Lot was changed.

8. I have compiled a schedule shewing the annual rateable values of this and a number of adjoining properties similarly affected by the Reclamation for a period of years extending from 1894 to 1901, and this schedule shews the highest total value was reached in 1896; that in the following year there was a drop of less than 0.6%, and this was confined to one property-Marine Lots 204 and 205—and from that date there was a progressive increase which still continues.

9. I am of opinion, therefore, that the Claimants would not have suffered any injury from the Reclamation Works had they not sold their property at an unfortunate moment and at an undervalue.

(Sd.) A. SHELTON HOOPER.

Z

:

A 5.

1

618

Comparative Statement of Annual Rateable Values of neighbouring Properties.

Annual Rateable Value.

No. of M. L.

Street. No.

Description.

1894-5. 1895-6. | 1896-7. 1897-8. 1898-9. | 1899-0. Í 1900-1.

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

219

Shop and Dwelling,

360

360

360

360

320

340

340

220

Godown,

200

200

200

200

280

300

300

221

200

200

200

200

280

300

300

222

180

180

180

180

280

300

300

223

180

180

180

180

280

. 300

300

198

224

300

300

320

320

390

400

720

225

300

300

320

320

390

400

""

720

Landing Pier,

...

...

226

Godown,

300

300

320

320

420

400

720

227

300

300

320

"3

320

455

420

720

228

300

300

320

320

420

420

720

""

229

420

420

420

420

420

420

720

230

420

420

420

420

420

420

720

231

420

420

420

400

420

420

720

232

420

420

420

>>

400

420

420

720

204

233

360

360

420

400

420

420

720

234

Flour over Passage,

85

85

120

120

120

130

240

235

Godown,

420

420

420

400

420

420

720

236

.

420

420

420

400

420

420

720

""

237

420

420

420

400

420

420

720.

Landing Pier,

...

238

Godown,

360

360

420

400

420

430

720

239

400

400

420

400

420

420

720

""

240

·400

400

420

400

4.20

420

.720

"

205

Praya West.

241

Flour over Passage,

120

120

120

130.

130

130

240

242

Godown,

420

420

420

400

420

420

720

243

360

360

420

""

400

420

420

720

244

390

390

420

400

420

420

720

>>

245

390.

390

420

400

420

420

720

33

246

420

420

420

420

420

455

720

247

420

420

420

420

420

455

720

"

A

248

420

420

420

420

420

455

"

720

249

420

420

420

420

420

455

720

186-

**

250

Flour over Passage,

120

120

120

120

120

130

420

251

Godown,

420

420

420

420

420

455

720

252

420

420

420

420

420

455

720

21

253

420

420

420

420

420

420

720

""

254

420

420

420

420

420

420

720

"

255

420

420

420

420

420

420

720

5

256

420

420

420

420

420

420

720

257

420

420

420

420

420

420

720.

>>

185

258

Flour over Passage,

120

120

120

120

120

145

240

Landing Pier,

...

...

259

Godown,

420

420

420

420

420

420

720

260

420

420

420

420

420

420

720

95

261

420

420

420

420

420

420

720

*"

262

3,300

3,600

184-

263

6,600

""

6,600

6,600

6,600

6,600

3,300 7,200

Pier,

190-1

266

264-5 Gas Works & Dwelling, 8,850 Godown,

8,850

8,850 8,850 8,850 8,850 8,850

267

8,400

188-9

""

8,400 10,800 10,800 10,800 10,800 10,800

268

""

Pier,

$38,815

38,815 41,630 41,380 42,435 42,765

57,430

17th May, 1905.

(Sd.)

A. SHELTON HOOPER.

619

A. 6.

Report of Mr. J. Boulton, A.M.I.C.E. on Messrs. Howard and Stephens' Claim for Compensation in respect of the

Reclamation Works in front of Marine Lot 184.

1. I have been Executive Engineer in the Public Works Department since 15th April, 1889, and, from that date up to the present time, have been engaged on the Reclamation Works. I have also twice been Acting Assistant Director of Public Works.

2. The Reclamation Works under the Reclamation Ordinance of 1889 were constructed in sections, of which Section I was the Westernmost. This extends from a point about 600 feet to the West of the Claimants' Lot to the Sailors' Home. Work on Section I was, at first, only undertaken in front of the Lots to the East of the Claimants' Lot, and this portion was completed at the end of.1895, and was finished off at the West end by a sloping wall opposite Marine Lot 185, carried out at right-angles to the Old Praya.

3. I consider that the effect of the carrying out of the Reclamation Works to the Eastward of the Claimants' Lot was on the whole beneficial to them. The Reclamation sheltered their landing place from the prevailing winds, as well as from the prevailing current, which appeared to set Westward along the Old Praya Wall and to carry silt from the Sai Ying Poon Nullah, and from the Beach (now covered by the Reclamation) which extended nearly all the way from the Nullah to Claimants' premises. The temporary West end of the Reclamation formed a sheltered landing place 250 feet in length, with ample space for stacking and packing goods, which was taken full advantage of by the Claimants' customers.

4. In April, 1898, work was commenced opposite the Claimants' Lot. The first portion of the work consisted of the depositing of a large quantity of pierre perdue along the line of the foundations of the New Praya Wall. This operation took a long time, and, while it was going on, access to the Praya immediately in front of the Claimants' Lot was kept open, a gap, 50 feet wide and 6 feet deep at low water of Spring Tides, being left opposite the Claimants' Lot. This gap was quite sufficient to give all necessary access for cargo boats to the Praya Wall at all states of the tide.

5. The work of depositing earth filling between the lines of the New and Old Praya Walls was commenced in June, 1898, but there cannot have been any appreciable interference with the access of cargo boats to the Praya Wall before the end of December, 1898.

6. I consider that there cannot have been any practical interference with the Claimants' business before the end of 1898.

(Sd.) J. F. BOULTON.

28th June, 1905.

A. 7.

Table of Assessments.

RE HOWARD AND STEPHENS' Godowns-MARINE LOT 184.

Table of Assessments, 1888 to 1905.

Year 1888-89, Assessment, $ 6,600 from 1st July, 1888.

1889-90.

""

21

$ 6,600

1889.

>>

""

1890-91,

""

$ 6,600

1890.

1891-92,

$ 6,600

1891.

29

""

1892-93,

$ 6,600

1892.

"

1893-94,

$ 6,600

1893.

1894-95.

29

$ 6,600

1894.

12

""

1895-96,

$6,600

1895.

"}

J

""

1896-97,

19

$ 6,600

1896.

"}

""

1897-98,

27

$ 6,600

1897.

"}

1898-99,

>>

$ 6,600

1898.

"7

""

1899-00,

""

$ 6,600

1899.

1900-01,

""

$10,800

1900.

""

1

1901-02,

""

**

$14,935

1901.

""

""

1902-03,

""

$14,935

1902.

""

""

1903-04,

""

$14,935

1903.

1904-05,

22

1905-06.

""

22

$13,200 $15,300

1904.

""

"

1905.

N.B.-There has been no important structural alterations during the above period.

(Sd.)

A. CHAPMAN,

Assessor.

A 8.

620

List of Godowns at the West End of Victoria on 1st January, 1890, and New Godowns opened between that date and April, 1899.

ALREADY ASSESSED ON 1ST JANUARY, 1890.

NEW GODOWNS OPENED AFTER 1ST JANUARY, 1890.

Date of First Assessment.

Marine Lot No.

Locality.

Marine Lot No.

Locality.

246 243

New Praya, Kennedy Town.

1st Feb., 1898.

""

(4 godowns)

1st July, 1898.

""

,, (2 godowns)

1st Jan., 1898.

264; 265 263 260, 261,

>5

""

1st June, 1895.

"

""

1st May, 1894.

262

""

>>

1st Nov., 1891.

260

Belchers Street.

261, 262

1st July, 1893.

126

Des Voeux Road West.

1st April, 1891.

177, 178 Des Voeux Road West,

(land used for storage) and Queen's Road West

177

&

(buildings front on

178

Queen's Road West).

179

Queen's Road West.

179

Do.

1st Nov., 1897.

180

Do.

180

Do.

181

Do.

181

Do.

1st July, 1893. 1st Oct., 1893.

182

Queen's Road West and

Des Voeux Road West.

}

182

183

Des Voeux Road West.

183

188, 189

184

Do. Do.

188, 189

184

185

Des Voeux Road West and

Hing Lung Lane West.

185

186

Des Voeux Road West,

Sai On Lane and Hing

186

Lung Lane East.

205

Des Voeux Road West and

Sai On Lane,

205

204

Do.

204

198

Des Voeux Road West,

Sai On Lane and On Ning Lane.

198

15th June, 1905.

New Reclamation.

186 204, 205

Connaught Road West.

Do.

198 R.P. 198 A.B.C.

Do.

1st May, 1898. 1st Aug., 1897: 1st Feb., 1899.

Do.

1st July, 1897.

273

95

Connaught Road West & Des Voeux Road West. Connaught Road West.

""

105

Do.

106

Do.

90 U.V.

Do.

(4 godowns) (2 godowns)

1st April, 1897.

and 1st Feb., 1899. 1st May, 1894.

1st Nov., 1894.

1st June, 1896. 1st April, 1896.

6

(Sd.)

. A. CHAPMAN,

Assessor.

B 9.

621

"A"

Supplement to Mr. A. Shelton Hooper's Report.

Howard and Stephens' Godowns.

I was acquainted with the Godowns on Marine Lot 183 before they were reduced in area.

I estimate that the cubic contents were about 728,850 cubic feet.

I see by the assessment that the assessment was $7,000 per annum from 1895 to 1898, then $6,600 from 1898 to 1899.

I estimate the cubic contents of Howard's Godowns at 1,081,789. The buildings are similar in plan and similarly situated.

If Howard's Godowns had been let at the same rate the rent would have been $10,389 for the period 1895 to 1898; $9,796 from 1898 to 1899.

This shows a slight depreciation of the property (Marine Lot 183) which cannot have been caused by the Reclamation as the access to the sea was not impeded.

The newly reclaimed Marine Lot 105 was sold in 1893 for $37,489.16 that works out at $3.76 per square foot.

B 10.

(Sd.) A. SHELTON HOOPER.

Supplement to Mr. Boulton's Report.

Howard nnd Stephens' Godown.

In 1887 the Hongkong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Company under- took to reclaim the foreshore opposite Marine Lots 95, 96, 97, 98 and 105; leaving the old Praya 50 feet wide they were to go out 250 feet from the old Praya Wall, and of the reclaimed area they were to have 200 feet for buildings and to give up the outside 50 feet for the New Praya.

When the 1889 scheme was adopted it was proposed that the Old Praya should be 65 feet wide and the New Praya 75 feet wide, so that the Godown Company had to give up a strip 15 feet wide along their inland frontage and a strip 25 feet wide along the sea frontage, thus reducing the depth of the Godowns and putting them 25 feet further from the sea.

After negotiation they agreed to accept $105,000 for the surrender of these strips.

The area surrendered was about 21,000 square feet, so that the price works out at about $5 a foot, but this is no criterion of the value of the lots.

These lots are also considerably nearer the centre of the Town, and therefore more valuable than Marine Lot 184.

As to silting up-

I surveyed the foreshore opposite Marine Lot 184 in October, 1889, August, 1892, August, 1894, July, 1895, and February, 1896. I produce a plan dated 3rd March, 1896, showing those surveys in detail. There was some slight shoaling from various causes, but nothing that would affect the access of the cargo boats to the Godowns, as the shoaling occurred where the water was deepest.

Ordinary cargo boats have a draught of 6 or 7 feet when fully laden.

After March, 1896, the causes which had produced the shoaling ceased to operate, and judging by my previous surveys I should say that there was no appreciable silting between March, 1896, and 1899.

(Sd.) J. F. BOULTON..

i

622

APPENDIX C.

TRANSCRIPT OF SHORTHAND WRITER'S NOTES.

3rd July, 1905.

Mr. Calthrop opens for the Claimants.

Mr. CALTHROP:-This is a matter that has already been before the various- Courts of this Colony, and also the Privy Council, and the reason for its now coming before Your Excellency and Your Lordship is, because, after the matter had been brought before the Secretary of State for the Colonies in England, Mr. Lyttelton considered that he was not thoroughly satisfied that the Petitioners had received adequate compensation, and it is now stated that the question to be considered is whether or not a further sum ought to be paid to the Claimants for the injury which they allege they have suffered through the making of the Praya. It is admitted now that the Petitioners have no legal right in the matter. They have, as Your Excellency is aware, appeared before the Courts and attempted to substantiate a legal right to damages, but, in that direction, were unsuccessful. The land in question became the property of Mr. Stephens in 1884.

He bought it from the Mortgagees, the Hongkong Fire Insurance Co., for the sum of $65,000. That sum was the amount which had been advanced by the Hongkong Fire Insurance Co., on this land as Mortgagees. The Mortgagors had bought the land in 1881. Mr. Stephens subsequently assigned a moiety to Mr. Howard. 1884 a new lease of this land was granted by the Crown, and it appeared that when this New Lease was granted by the Crown, there was a mistake made as to the area, in consequence of which mistake, I believe, after having started building on their land, they found they had encroached on the land of a neighbour- ing Lessee, and it turned out that the Crown had granted them more land than they had a right to do. In consequence of this, Mr. Howard and Mr. Stephens made a claim for the value of 339 sq. feet-the deficiency in area.

In

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL :-The question is whether the award made by Governor Black was or was not sufficient to cover all claims and demands made by the Claimants.

Mr. CALTHROP:-The amount of compensation allowed by the Government in connection with this 339 feet (and I suggest that they acted on the assumption that the land was worth $5 per square foot) was $1,700. This offer was made in 1887. I understand that Mr. Danby is going to be called. Mr. Danby says in his statement that in the year 1884 they gave us the 339 feet short, and in consequence they offered us $1,700, which works out at $5 per square foot, and he goes on to say (which is perfectly true) that we did not accept it. With regard to that action, I think the sum of $3,300 was paid in addition to the sum of $1,700. I suggest that when they made the offer to us of $1,700, that offer was made on the idea that the land was worth $5 per foot. In 1887 the Godowns were completed, and Mr. Howard took possession, and started in business as a Godown Keeper. In May, 1889, the Praya Reclamation Ordinance was passed. In 1888, there was a letter which was put in the Petition of 1903 at page 16. It is a letter from the then Colonial Secretary; it is on page 18, and in it he deals with the method of compensation. [Reads letter, starting from "the foreshore belongs to the Crown" down to "reclamation in front of it".] There the Gov- ernment state that they consider an Owner whose Lot, having been originally a Marine Lot, is turned into an Inland Lot, shall receive compensation, that com- pensation being the difference in value to himn brought about by the change. In à letter in that same Petition at page--

HIS EXCELLENCY:-Is it the difference in value to him?

Mr. CALTHROP:-The difference in value of the land. It makes no difference to him. There is no doubt that everybody knew that land having a sea-frontage would fetch a greater price per square foot than land that has not a sea-frontage, and it was well known that this land which was a Marine Lot would be worth less as an Inland Lot than it would be as a Marine Lot. In a letter written by Mr. Howard in 1892, and published in page 49 of the Appendix to the Petition,

623

he summarises his reasons.. Mr. Howard goes into the question and gives his reasons for not having joined in the Reclamation scheme. Had he joined, he would have been entitled to take up the land in front on certain terms. [Reads from letter in Petition.] In the last paragraph but one he says [reads from Petition again], and he contended that he was entitled at that time to come in under the Ordinance and ask His Excellency the Governor for compensation. In August, 1895, (I am still referring to the same book, page 60) complaints were made by Mr. Howard on account of the silting up, and he also enclosed a report on this silting up by Messrs. Palmer & Turner. In answer to that letter he was told that he had better wait until the Reclamation works were complete, and then send in his claim for compensation. In page 68--the Claim was sent in, in which he suggested at that time that the Government should take over the property, and he valued the land then at $282,459, and he puts the loss of rentals for 1896 and 1897 together at $10,944. On page 70-there is another letter from Mr. Howard--16th June 1898-addressed to the then Colonial Secretary, in which he complains again about silting, and in paragraph 4 he says [reads from letter in Petition.]

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL:-It may be well to mention that 6 years pre- viously the Praya Reclamation Ordinance had been passed, one section of which debars all Marine. Lot Owners from all claim to compensation. Therefore, in 1889, the right of which he speaks of having was taken from him.

Mr. CALTHROP :-As I have stated before, we admit that we have no legal or equitable right whatsoever. That has already been shewn by the litigation which has taken place between my Clients and the Crown, but it was recognised by the Ordinance that there was a moral right, see Section 6, Sub-section 7 [reads from Ordinance.]

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL:-There are two distinct classes of compensation.

Mr. CALTHROP:-The question whether the then Acting Governor's award was sufficient is the question which the Colonial Secretary has asked you to decide, and that does not deal with the question of legal right at all.

We come here asking for such a sum as you think we ought to receive for compensation for any injury, which the Petitioners may have sustained. It is perfectly true that, although there has been a suggestion by the Petitioners that they have not received the right amount, and, although this amount has been considered by the Secretary of State for the Colonies, they think there is still something to be said. Still, if Your Excellency should think that nothing more should be given to us, then I submit there is nothing further we can do in connection with this matter. page 81-General Black made his award. He said that he thought the sum of $15,000 was all they were entitled to for the loss they had incurred by the change of their Marine Lot into an Inland Lot, and also it was to include any sum they might have lost by the works during the progress of the works. I will now cone to the Petition of Right. The Petition was presented in 1899-

On

HIS EXCELLENCY:-Remember please that what we are now trying to arrive at is your opinion as to the loss incurred by Messrs. Howard and Stephens, and the data on which your opinion is formed.

Mr. CALTHROP-I was going on with the data on which we went in 1899, and that on which the Governor also went. In this Petition, in paragraph 8, the Claimants say [reads from l'etition]—

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL: Your Excellency must administer justice on recognised principles, otherwise we shall not know how to address the Court. I take it you will be guided by the regular principles of law in fixing the compensa- tion. Assuming General Black to have proceeded on a right principle, he has awarded sufficient or insufficient, but it does not mean Your Excellency is to depart from recognised principles in awarding.

Mr. CALTHROP :-I consider, however, that he did arrive—

624

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL I hold that the Ordinance says that the Governor shall not compensate for loss owing to the works. It was at a man's own option to come into the Works, and, if he did not come into the Works, then that was his own loss. [Refers to Chief Justice Carrington's Judgment.]

Mr. CALTHROP-I quite agree that on that Section we have no legal claim, but the Section I rely on is sub-section 6 [quotes Section.] I admit that we have no legal right; we merely rely upon the mercy of the Governor.

There was to be no appeal to any legal tribunal.

HIS EXCELLENCY :-What do you consider was the object of that?

Mr. CALTHROP:-It was to save time and trouble, and to have things as simple as possible. I am going to refer to the Petition of Right in Suit 94 of 1899 paragraph 8, [reads from Petition.] I will now read the answer of the Government [reads para. 5 of Answer.] This answer was filed on the 16th day of May, 1900. and I want to call Your Excelleny's attention to the basis on which they valued our loss at that time. They said, in answer to our Petition, that the land was only worth $2 per foot at the time, instead of $5, and then they went on to say that the whole together was only worth $101,000.

HIS. EXCELLENCY:-I see that you valued your own loss at the time at $90,000 for depreciation and that you value it now in the Statement of Claim at $172,000. The land with buildings thereon before the reclamation work were carried out was formerly valued at $200,000 and now is put at $282,000.

Mr. CALTHROP:-With the buildings thereon we admit a value of about $200,000.

HIS EXCELLENCY :-$172,000 instead of $90,000 is a considerable alteration.

Mr. CALTHROP :-That was based on the valuation which had been made.

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL:-That was based on what he thought the value was.

HIS EXCELLENCY:-Was the valuation of $200,000 made before or after the valuation of $282,000?

Mr. CALTHROP:-One is $225,000, and the other estimate is $280,000. In the evidence before Your Excellency, you will notice there is a great difference between the valuations; that valution of $282,000 was made by Messrs. Leigh & Orange. The other is simply a valuation made by Mr. Howard. He was estimating it on a monthly rental. He first states that he lost $25,000 on rent, and then goes on to say about the depreciation. There he valued it at $200,000, because he had an offer in the year 1888 of $200,000.

We are quite prepared to prove this offer, only the Crown have .objected strongly to our bringing in oral evidence. I was going to point out that in this estimate I admit there is a difference, but there is also a very great inconsistency with the estimate on which the Government had based the $15,000; I am refer- ring to paragraph 5. They there admit that we suffered some loss during the construction of the reclamation. They also go on to say that there has been depreciation in value, that the total value of the land is only $2 per square foot, and with the buildings about $101,000. If the Government at that time were correct in their estimate, it is quite clear that we lost nothing at all by the diminution, if I may call it, of the capital value of the property, but the only loss suffered was from the interference with our business while the works were going on. They paid us at that time $15,000, and, as I pointed out, we suffered no loss on the capital value. The $15,000 was offered to us while the Praya Reclamation Works were going on. I was going on to say that since then a further amount was offered to us on the basis that the square foot value of the land was only $2. If it had been $3, it seems to be perfectly clear that the sum they ought to have paid us, in addition, was another $1 on the foot, which would have been a sum of $32,800. Now, I refer again to the Report which has been made by Mr. Danby, and I should like to refer to paragraph 9. In paragraph 9, Mr. Danby on behalf

*

625

of the Crown says that [referring to Mr. Danby's Report] it is worth $3, and he bases his calculation on this basis that it is worth $3 per square foot and not $2 per square foot. At the same time, Mr. Danby had to consider the fact that the sum of $15,000 had already been paid, and he also had to consider the fact that $18,000 had been voted, making a sum of over $33,000. That sum corresponds almost exactly with the sum of $1 per square foot which is due to us. In their calculation nothing is laid down for depreciation during the years we were interfered with, and now Mr. Danby says, as you will see in paragraph 7, that we did not suffer any loss at all, and this interference, in fact, was rather a benefit to us. Now, we want to call your Excellency's attention that, here, the Crown had entirely neglected the basis on which their calculation was made. In 1900 the only reason they had for offering that $15,000 was because we had suffered a loss during the continuance of the work, but had not suffered anything through depreciation. That was on the basis of $2 per foot, and now they admit that it ought to be $3.

HIS EXCELLENCY:-Was the only basis they worked on loss during the work?

Mr. CALTHROP-They paid us $15,000; that could not have been for depreci- ation in the capital value. They say it was only worth $2 per foot; it brought $110,000. Now, they say it was worth $3 per foot. They ought to have paid us $32,800 more.than they paid at that time.

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL:-Governor Black's Award was long anterior to the date to which you have been referring.

Mr. CALTHROP:--It refers to the time when we were offered $15,000. Now Mr. Danby, says it is worth $3. At the same period-1895-he says it is worth $3 per square foot. So I say there is a loss to which we are entitled, and that is $18,000. Mr. Danby, as I am going to shew, says that those works which we complained about so much, were no injury to us, and he went on to say that they were rather a benefit. He says [reading from Mr. Danby's Report] and he does not offer anything at all for the loss sustained during that period. Now, Your Excellency, I would like to draw your attention to the Treasury Minute, and, in that minute, nothing was allowed us during that period of our loss.

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL :-Not because we believed your land was worth a dollar per foot more, but we offered it on Musso's claim; we did not offer it to you because we thought your land was worth any more.

Mr. CALTHROP :-I am only taking the statement which Mr. Danby makes now, and that is that the land was worth at that time $3 per square foot. Now, there is another matter which I am going to deal with, and that is the fact that there has been no alteration from the time that the Godowns were first rated until the time it ceased to be our property. It was always rated on the basis of $6,600. I am going to explain how it was. People are not in the habit of quarrelling, when their property is rated very much under its real value. It was rated in 1888 at $6,600, and very probably that is the right value to have placed on it at that date. Under the old Rating Ordinance of 1888, an owner of property, if he is an owner of Godowns, has only to fill in the tonnage capacity of his Godowns. We had no reason to complain that the Government undervalued it. All we had to do was to fill up the storage capacity. I was going to point out that it was very probably tightly rated in 1888, but there is very little doubt that as time went on the property became worth considerably more than $6,600. The old Ordinance reads [reads from Ordinance]. Of course when our Godowns first -opened, naturally enough, we did not make then the amount which we did later on.

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL:-There was no depreciation in the value of your Lot between the date of the Ordinance and 1899.

Mr. CALTHROP :-As a matter of fact, the value went up very much. J take--

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL:-The business went up very considerably.

.

What

F

626

Mr. CALTHROP:-The principle on which we ought to have been rated is this: we ought to find out what a hypothetical tenant would pay, and from that value we ought to have deducted the Crown Rent. The value of property was also going up and down it was going up chiefly. I may point out that the way in which it was rated was not on the rental value, but on the capacity.

:

HIS EXCELLENCY :-Was it always rated on that capacity?

Mr. CALTHROP :-After we left it they must have inade an investigation, not on the tonnage capacity, but on its letting capacity, which is the proper method. In our time the rental never appeared under the rental value.

There was never any rental value to appear. They simply filled in the tonnage capacity, and that always remained the same. How they came to the conclusion, I do not know, I only suggested that going on the rating value is utterly misleading, because it is unfair. I think anyone would say that the rental value was more than $6,600. As a matter of fact, it would probably be $10,000. It would be half-full all the year round. Tonnage capacity they take for all the year round.

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL :-We say that the land did not depreciate in value. It always remained the same..

Mr. CALTHROP :-There was one matter I was going to call Your Excellency's attention to, and it was where Mr. Howard refers to the basis on which compen- sation should be given, and that is where he refers to a former case of compensation, where it was held [reading from Petition-"In no case should we get more damages, etc.] In 1857 when there was another Reclamation Scheme-

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL:-The Reclamation Scheme of 1857 can have no bearing whatever on the Reclamation Scheme of 1889.

As I have said before, we

Mr. CALTHROP-I am not arguing a point of law. are not here with any legal right. We have already been told by the Colonial Secretary that we are not to take it as a legal right. We have got to take what- ever Your Excellency may choose to order. I was going to say that the new Lot was sold for $133,500, then the right for a pier was sold for $15,000, making a total of $148,000.

IIS EXCELLENCY:-- You have already been compensated for your pier, so that the matter of the pier would not come into this question.

Mr. CALTHROP :-We are only asking for compensation on the Lot itself. I was just pointing out that the whole thing was about $115,000 and—

HIS EXCELLENCY :-The Marine Lot Owners paid a certain amount for the Reclamation.

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL :----They made a clear profit over the affair.

Mr. CALTHROP :-Now, with regard to the evidence which I was going to put before Your Excellency, I do not know whether you wish ne to read it over.

HIS EXCELLENCY:-We will take the documentary evidence with which we have been supplied as read. I understand that in the first instance you are going to support your contention that the value of the lot before reclamation was $282,000 by the evidence of Messrs. Leigh & Orange?

Mr. CALTHROP:-I am going to take it where it ceased to be a Marine Lot. I am only going to call your attention to the valuation of Messrs. Leigh & Orange. They, at that time, thought the property would cease to be a Godown, and simply valued the Lot without the buildings.

Š

627

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL-What about this question of compulsory sale, referred to in Messrs. Leigh & Orange's Report?

Mr. CALTHROP:-The Claimants do not intend to put forth any claim for compulsion. We were not obliged to sell at the time.

The next report is by Mr. Leigh with regard to the silting up.

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL-I would draw Your Excellency's attention to the fact that in the Claimants' Statement of Clain filed herein, they make no mention whatever of silting, and, if they persist in going on with such claim, then it will be necessary for me to ask for an adjournment. We have some very voluminous. material on this matter. In this connection I would like to draw your attention to the Praya Reclamation Ordinance [reads from Praya Reclamation Ordinance.]

Mr. CALTHROP-I want to put in Mr. Leigh's evidence.

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL :-You made no claim for damages before 1896.

+

Mr. CALTHROP-I also want to put in the papers wherein we claim for silting- up. The interference to which we refer between the years 1895 and 1899 was the silting-up. With regard to Mr. Leigh's evidence, this is a report made; Mr. Leigh is not here now. It is referred to on page 70 of the Petition.

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL :-This matter I say is irrelevant.

-This matter I say is irrelevant. The Ordinance starts with a preamble that the whole Foreshore was silting up [reads from Ordin- ance.] Whatever the Claimants may have thought, I contend that they could have no possible claim for silting up.

HIS EXCELLENCY:-Why is the particular time of the silting up different to any other time?

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL :-There was no right after 1889. The right was absolutely extinguished in 1889.

HIS EXCELLENCY:-I am sitting here to inquire whether the Claimants did incur loss apart from their legal rights to compensation.

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL:-They could not lose. In 1889 an Ordinance is pass- ed which absolutely extinguishes their rights. Section 7 lays down-[reads from Ordinance.] Let us assume that Mr. Stephens had a right to land cargo on the wharf; at the expiration of the time mentioned, he had no right, but the Govern- ment permitted him to continue doing so as an act of grace, to which he had absolutely no right, either equitable or legal. And now he wants you to compensate him in 1896 for what was done in 1889.

Mr. CALTHROP-During the whole of that time we are supposed to have no right at all, we were paying Crown Rent on a Marine Lot. The Attorney General and Sir William Goodman must have taken a different view; if there was no legal, then there was certainly a moral right. In connection with this Report by Mr. Leigh, we cannot compel the attendance of a witness. This document has been in the possession of the Government since 1896. The Crown have got Mr. Danby who can criticise it as much as he likes.

Mr. CALTHROP :-We were going to put in Mr. Leigh's evidence, and then the next thing we have here is a Survey Report by Palmer & Turner, and one by Mr. Denision, dated 24th September, 1896.

[The Attorney General, for the Crown, objects to the admission of evidence relating to silting up.]

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL:-The Petitioners propose to give evidence in respect of loss caused them by certain silting up. This, I submit, arises out of a miscon- ception on their part of the rights of the Crown Lessee as against the Crown. The whole rights of the Petitioner depend upon the construction put upon the Crown Lease of Lot No. 184; you will find the counterpart of that Lease, on page 50 of the Privy Council Proceedings, Column A. Well, the first misconception is given expression to by the Petitioner in the Petition to the King at paragraph 4; the

628

Petition is dated 22nd May, 1903, and in paragraph 4 thereof [reads from Peti- tion.] When the Petitioner inserted that statement, he evidently had in his mind what we would call at law an "easement", that is to say he thought he had an easement to the Praya Front, or in other woads, a privilege pertaining to himself as the holder of the Marine Lot, to the exclusive use, I take it, of the Praya and the approaches thereto, whereas, Messrs. Howard and Stephens had no right whatever to the exclusive use of or access to the sea, but they had the usual right, which all the public have, namely, to use the Praya for the purpose of access to and from the Sea. Now, such an easement as they claim can only be acquired in two ways, that is to say, it must either be expressly stipulated in the Crown Leuses or implied from the fact of the sea being a boundary to their land. If you look at the Lease itself, you will find there is not granted a right of any kind whatsoever to use the Praya to land cargo. There is no express right given to Messrs. Howard and Stephens over anybody else, nor could they at any time have prevented me or anybody else from landing goods immediately opposite their Godowns, unless they had a Wharf under license from the Crown, but they had no claim on the fore- shore, nor had they any right or interest whatever, apart from the general public right. There is no express grant of an easement, and you can never have an easement except by express grant, or by a riparian right, which carries with it the absolute right to the use of the sea. There is nothing of the kind in the docu- ment, and if you will look at the thirteenth line from the bottom of that counter- part Lease, you will find that the boundary of the Leasehold is the Praya. Under the Crown Grant, he has no rights to the other side of the Praya, but, I concede, that he had in common with all Her Majesty's subjects the use of the Praya, but he had no right of access by which he could claim compensation any more than any other person in Hongkong; it is a common general right. I say, therefore, that this evidence as to silting up of the property of the King's foreshore, the King's highway, in front of Mr. Stephens' land, is absolutely irrelevant for the purpose of the Inquiry here to-day, because no one can get damages for the depri- vation of supposed rights. They must be actual rights.

They must be actual rights. Now this misconception is shared in by the Complainants and those who support them; I say that their evidence speaks of the Plaintiffs' sea, and refers to the foreshore as their foreshore. All the foreshore, unless it be taken out of the power of the Crown, belongs to the Crown [reads from Section 7 of the Ordinance, Revised Edition.] I submit that this Section certainly vested the foreshore in the Crown. This Section goes on to say [reads from Ordinance.] Seventeen years after that Ordinance was passed, we cannot take the evidence of Mr. Stephens as to silting up. These rights are absolutely extinguished. He is offering you the evidence of something which occurred to this property in 1895 or 1896, whereas an Ordinance was pas- sed 7 years before, which said he had no right. That clause distinctly declares that no claim to any compensation in respect of depreciation by reason of this work shall be entertained. The whole claim to the foreshore is absolutely imagi- nary. If the Government are to compensate the Lot-holders by reason of loss of access to the sea, they would strictly have to compensate everybody whether he is a front Lot-holder or not. The case of the Marine Lot Holder in Hongkong under the Leasehold, is not the same as the case of the Marine Lot Holder in Singapore. There it was held that a Lot folder had absolute right of access to the sea, because his boundary was the sea.

HIS EXCELLENCY:-If there were no rights, why should the Governor give compensation? The Claimants say that their property was depreciated by reason

of the silt.

page

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL:-As the Government is a paternal Government, and it does not like anyone to be hurt, it puts this clause in. Still, you may give a solatium; you may give what you think in your absolute discretion is reasonable; that which a Judge could not give. Clause 9 is explained by C. J. Carrington in his Judgment [reads from C. J. Carrington's Judgment, at bottom of 20.] In Carrington's Judgment, Your Lordship, these words appear-[reads from Judgment again.] Mr. Francis argued that there must have been power to give compensation for depreciation, or this language would not have been used- [reads from C. J. Carrington's Judgment, p. 21.] I wish here to call your

attention to the opening words of Section 9 [reads from Section 9 of the Ordinance. That shews that nobody is entitled to compensation for depreciation. The injury referred to in Sub-section 6 of Section 7 must mean loss other than bý

629

depreciation. It means that there may be causes for which a man may come ad miserecordiam, but it shews that there must be some special cause existing for consideration in their case, and a special cause cannot be compensation for depreciation. It is for them to say what this cause is. It cannot be depreciation, because the Ordinance says he is not to have it. It may cost him more to work his Godowns, and, while you do not give him any compensation for depreciation, you give him compensatiou for extra work, and, further, were the Governor to grant him compensation for depreciation, then the Governor would be doing that which is wrong, because the Ordinance says distinctly that he is not to do it. The Ordinance says-[reads from Ordinance.] It is not a case of compulsory sale. These people had an opportunity of coming into the Scheme and they would not do it. They say they have incurred heavy losses; their loss is, firstly, through their own action, and, secondly, by their want of judgment in selling the property for $110,000, which very shortly afterwards sold for $146,000. This Ordinance was for a mutual co-operative scheme, in which the Lot-holders took advantage by coming into the scheme. The property belongs to the man; if it depreciates in value he is entitled to be compensated for it. Therefore, the position was this in 1889, and any supposed right which Mr. Stephens had was declared by Section 6 of the Old Ordinance to be absolutely and entirely extin- guished. This silting did not take place until after that. I say that, even if this Ordinance was not passed, he could not get any damages unless the property belonged to him. He is not a riparian owner; his rights therefore properly are enclosed within the 4 corners of the boundary, and one of those is the sea. The Praya is a Portuguese word, which means "Road." The Assessor will bear me out in saying that this boundary was in existence years before his Lease was granted. Therefore, how can the Petitioners possibly claim to have any rights over the foreshore? I would refer you to 13 Appeal Cases, page 192. That was a case in the Privy Council, in which there was a Petition of Right against the Government of the Straits Settlements. It was held in that case that the Petitioner, by virtue of his tenement, had the same right of access to the sea as a riparian owner had in respect of a river-[reads from the Attorney General of the Straits Settlements v. Wemyss, 13, Appeal Cases, page 192.] These gentlemen are not in occupation of land adjoining the sea; they are in occupation of land adjoining the road. In arguing for them, Sir Horace Levy argued that as the land adjoined the sea with a frontage thereto, the Respondent had a private right of access to the

Sir Horace impressed this upon their Lordships.

sea.

HIS EXCELLENCY:-Was it in the power of the Government to give compensa- tion for depreciation through reclamation of the foreshore?

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL:-You certainly cannot give it for depreciation. and, if General Black did give it for depreciation, then I contend that he had done what he was told not to do by the Ordinance. Here, in the case of Attorney General, Straits Settlement, v. Wemyss, the point was that the owner had a private right of access. Lord Hobhouse in giving judgment says the land was bounded by the sea. In the present ease the Claimants' property was not bounded by the sea, but by the road. But, in Wemyss' case, because it was bounded by the sea, he had the right. If the Claimants could establish that they were riparian owners, then they would have the right of access which is accorded to riparian owners. Again, my learned friend would say that the right of access applied to Marine Lots, and not to given boundaries; but, when you give a general description, then they have no right whatever to land on the other side of the road. The quantum of Petitioners' legal rights is very important in estimat- ing the quantum of compensation if they have any legal right.

You cannot enforce the legal right to an equitable right. My point is that Stephens never had any right of access to the sea. They have not riparian rights. It is submitted that no case has been shewn by the Petitioners to substantiate their claim for compensation. I wish to say this that it is manifest these works were being done by the Government for the general assistance of the Public, and it bears upon this general question of the Reclamation Works. They referred yesterday to some letters written by the Colonial Secretary in 1888, stating that a certain principle of compensation had been laid down. I now hold that the Colonial Secretary's letter must be controlled by the Ordinance. The superior document controls the latter. Again, there is the fact that in October, 1903, the Government offered

some money.

630

I

Mr. CALTHROP:-I was

I was going to point out that what I understand.is to be barred is any legal or equitable right which can be enforced in a Court of law. was referring to page 21 in the record of the Privy Council Appeal. In the first place I would refer you to Section 8, Sub-section 6, namely [reads from Ordinance.] By that the right is wholly taken away, and there is substituted for it a chance of obtaining compensation from the Governor. In Sub-section 6 it refers to the whole matter, and then it goes on and deals with the question of foreshore. I think it refers to no legal compensation.

HIS LORDSHIP-There is no right of action for injuries caused by Public Works.

Mr. CALTHROP-Sub-section 6 says that the Governor may give compensation for any injury.

HIS LORDSHIP:-That is to the Marine Lot Holders.

For

Mr. CALTHROP-I mean any injury which he has been put to through the works. A person buying a Marine Lot, buys it not with the idea that the Government will cut off the access to the sea the following day. I think the whole 50 feet road which went along for the two miles belonged to the Government. instance, there was a large property sold in Kowloon recently, and it would never have been bought had the Government said to the Purchasers, "now we are going to cut you off."

HIS EXCELLENCY:-Your contention is that if compensation is to be awarded, it should be awarded under Sub-section 6.

HIS EXCELLENCY :-After consultation with the Legal Assessor, I have decided: that the Court must hear the evidence on the subject of silting.

[The Claimants' witnesses were then cross-examined.]

CROSS

CROSS EXAMINATION OF THE CLAIMANTS' WITNESSES.

3rd July, 1905.

First Witness-Mr. James Orange (of the Firm of Messrs. Leigh & Orange.)

!

Mr. POLLOCK (cross-examining on behalf of the Crown):-I see, Mr. Orange, you say in your Report that according to Valuation No. 1, you value the Lot, as a Marine Lot, in 1895, and before the Praya Reclamation Works, at $5 per foot?

A-Yes.

Q-First of all, how do you get $5 per foot?

A-I valued it in several ways; one fact that guided me a good deal was the value placed by the Government in 1887 on 339 square feet, which was resumed by the Government from this very Lot. For this 339 square feet $1,700 was offered by the Government, but was not accepted by Mr. Howard. Also in the Praya Reclamation Ordinance, the sum put aside for compensating the owners of Marine Lots 95, 96, 97, 98, and 105, was $105,000.

HIS EXCELLENCY:-Which are the numbers?

A--95, 96, 97, 98, and 105. [Witness points out on the Plan the Lots referred to, and explains that the numbers have since been altered.

Q-Would you mind, Mr. Orange, telling us what are the numbers of these Lots now?

A-I cannot say; they are now Inland Lots.

*

Q-Can you tell us the area resumed of these Lots?

631

A-I believe it was 21,000 square feet.

Q-On what basis did you value these Lots ?

A-On the statement of Mr. Howard, on affidavit, in his Petition to the Government.

"C

Q-Mr. Howard said it ought to be $5 ?

A-No. I think he said it was-

Q-To which Petition do you refer?

Mr. CALTHROP:-The Petition of Mr. Howard; Section 12.

Q-How does it begin?

Mr. CALTHROP (reading from Petition):-"Section 7 of the said Ordinance recites, inter alia, that it had been agreed that the cost of the said works should "include a sum not exceeding $5,000 for preliminary expenses, a sum not exceeding "$180,000 by way of compensation to owners of wharves and piers along the line "of the proposed reclamation, and a further sum not exceeding $105,000 for the "purchase of a portion of the land in course of reclamation opposite Marine Lots “Nos. 95, 96, 97, 98 and 105 near your Petitioners' Lot, being at the rate of $5 per square foot for the land required for the purpose of widening the Old Praya "from 50 feet to 75 feet.

16

""

Q-Mr. Orange, do you know, as a matter of fact, whether or not the area resumed of 95, 96, 97, 98 and 105 contained 21,000 square feet?

A-I do not know.

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL:-Then the whole structure tumbles to the ground.

(Witness continuing):-The Petition says at the rate of $5 per foot.

Q-You do not know as a matter of fact whether it was 21,000 square feet or not?

A-No. My third reason for valuing the Lot at $5 per foot was that it was sold in 1881 to a Chinese, for $80,000, and the Crown Lease area then was 32,820 square feet, which made an absolute value then of $2.53 per square foot. I did not consider it unreasonable that in the interval between 1881 and 1895 (nearly 14 years) the value should double. It has been a usual event in the Colony for land to double in value. With regard to the sale to Mr. Stephens, he got the land cheaply. How he got it so cheap, I think, was because it was a Mortgagee's sale. It was originally a slip

It was originally a slip and was known as McDonald's Slip. Mr. McDonald sold it for $75,000. It must have been before 1881 that that sale took place.

Q-Bought by an opposition business?

A-Yes. Then they sold it to Chinese, and then Mr. Stephens got it for $65,000. This shows the working out of the other Valuations 2 and 3.

Q-In arriving at Valuation 1, you were influenced by the fact that it was a Godown business?

A-The valuation is certainly influenced by what you can do with the land, and what you can put on it.

Q-Then you were influenced by the fact that it was a Godown business?

A-No. I was confirmed in my opinion.

Q-Do the valuations you arrive at on bases 2 and 3, in any way affect your valuation on 1 ?

.

-

632

A-No.

Q-It did not rest upon them?

A-They confirmed it.

Q-Your Valuation No. I wanted some confirmation ?

A-Certainly.

Q- -May I ask, did you make Valuation No. 1, or did Mr. Leigh?

A-We made it together.

Q-Who worked out the price?

A-I cannot say; probably we did it together. I have no recollection.

QDid you take into consideration the fact that these premises were used as godowns?

A-No. The valuation was on the basis of land only.

Q-This particular piece of land, or land generally?

A-The price of this particular land I would get by seeing what land along- side it was worth, and then I would look for a confirmation by the rate of rentals

Q-Do you mean by rentals coming in?

A-No; by seeing what the total valuation was, and deducting the value of the buildings from the value of the land.

Q-And you were influenced partly by the fact of the Government having offered to pay $5 per foot for this small bit of land; that was one of the ingredients?

A-One of the facts.

Q-Is not Lot 95 nearer the centre of the Town than 184?

A-Yes.

Q-How far; can you tell us?

A-About a quarter of a mile.

Q-95 is East of the Sailors' Home?

A-Just.

Q-And the other Lots were just by the Sailors' Home, adjoining 95 ?

A-95 adjoins the Sailors' Home.

-What about 96 and 97 ?

Q-

A-They also adjoin the Sailors' Home; they are all East of the Sailors'

Home.

Q-They are all East, roughly, a quarter of a mile of Marine Lot 184 ?

A-Yes.

Q-Would you put any different value on Marine Lot 184 as between taking the year 1895 and, say the end of the year 1898, the date of your Report? You remember when you made your Report, I think the filling-up was begun; access was not stopped at that time?

633

A-I think access was stopped. The Wharf, I see, was removed.

Q-Let us assume, for the sake of argument, that access had not been stopped at that time, will you make any difference between 1895 valuation, and the end of 1898 ?

A-I should say it was rather more. The general rule is a steady increase in the value of property.

-Does not property vary a great deal in value ?

A-It fluctuates a little, but, taking it altogether, there is generally a steady increase.

Q-As regards Valuation No. 4, what do you mean by Lot now"?

of

"value as an Inland

A-I suppose I considered it as an Inland Lot no longer used for Godowns.

Q―Did you consider that the value of the land as Godown land at the time your Report was gone?

A-I certainly did.

Q-At the time you made your Report in December, 1898, were not cargo boats still coming alongside the Praya in front of Marine Lot 184 ?

A-I do not know; I think so. I spoke with the knowledge that access was going to be stopped. I treated it as if it were already stopped.

Q-In view of that fact, your idea was that this property could not be used as Godown land any more, and that was what made you assess the value of build- ings as old materials ?

A-Yes.

Q-Otherwise you would have put a much higher value on the buildings hap you known they were going to be used as Godowns?

A-The actual value at that time was $55,620.

Q-At that time boats were still coming alongside in front of Lot 184; will you please tell us how did you arrive at your calculation of $2.50 per foot?

A-I see a note that we made a valuation for other properties quite close to the Lot in question, I believe Nos. 202 and 204; the present numbers of these Lots are, I think, 213 and 225.

Q-Can you tell the actual Lot numbers, and are they East of Lot 199?

A-No. They are not East of 199; 213 and 225 are the numbers. certain they are not East of 199.

Q-When did you make that valuation ?

A-July 2nd, 1895, and it seemed to me to suited this particular valuation as an Inland Lot. 225 are the numbers.

foot?

Q-What were they used as ?

A-As Godowns and a Chinese Store.

-What value did you place upon these?

I am

be just one of the cases that There were 2 houses; 213 and

A-One was valued at $1.60 and the other at $2.00 per square foot.

-You say that you went by that valuation in arriving at $2 per square

634

A-Yes. I had it actually in my mind. I have not the original report; it is in our letter-book.

Q-If one was $1.60 and the other $2.00, how did you come to put this a $2.50 ?

A-Because it has a longer frontage down Whitty Street.

Q-Were they Godowns?

A--No. They were Chinese houses. They were not fitted as Godowns, or. constructed as such. I think the houses are there now.

Q-They are really Chinese houses?

A-Yes.

Q-And how many storeys have they got?

A-Two; ground and first.

Q-They are still there?

A-I think so, though you will not find the same numbers.

Q-In your report you do not quote this reason for your valuation that you have just mentioned?

A-No; I gave my opinion without reasons.

Q-And you pointed out that the Lot for Godown purposes has been com- pletely ruined owing to the works of the Praya Reclamation; that was your honest belief, and, so far as you know, the honest belief of Mr. Leigh?

A-Yes.

Q-You also point out that owing to their being situated so far out West, their value for residential purposes is, for some years to come, spoiled ?

A-Yes.

Q-You looked upon it being so far West as a disadvantage?

A-Yes; from a residential point of view.

-As a matter of fact, you know that 184 is still used for Godowns?

A-Yes.

Q-And is it not a fact that a great many Godowns were erected in the neighbourhood of these Godowns in the year 1890? Is it not a fact that Godowns were opened in the neighbourhood in the year 1895 ?

A-I would not like to say to a year or two.

Q-Well, 1897 and 1898?

A—Well, yes, in 1897. 198, 204 and 205 were newly erected Godowns. We built 204 and 205.

Q-They were new Godowns?

A--Yes; I cannot say when they were finished, but I think somewhere about 1897.

Q-And what other Lot?

A-I think 186 was built upon afterwards.

Q-That was finished in 1898 ?

635

A-It was not built by my Firm, but by Palmer & Turner.

Q Are there any other Godowns you can tell us of that were built at that time?

1896.

A-I do not know when Mr. Sharp built.

It was either in 1894, 1895 or

Q-Don't you know of 179?

A- -179, 180 and 181, they were all Godowns. I do not know when they were finished.

Q-These Godowns are all on the Sea front?

A-Yes; all of them.

Q-186 is on the Old Praya?

A- No. The new Godowns are on the New Praya.

Q- 185-how about that?

A-That is on the New Praya.

Q-246-can you tell us anything about that?

Q-You must have known at the time you made this Report that a lot of Godowns had been recently opened up?

A-Yes.

Q-And you honestly believed that for Godown purposes, Lot 184 was use- less ?

A- Yes.

:

Q-And that was why you valued the Lot at $2.50 per foot?

A-Yes.

Q-I think that the Report on silting was made by Mr. Leigh?

A-Yes. I do not know about it.

Q-There is only one more question which I will put to you; it is a matter of principle. On your Valuations 2 and 3, should not the amount have been capi- talised at 6 per cent. instead of 7 per cent.?

You

A-It is quite a matter of opinion. Looking at the present state of the money market, I would probably make it 7 per cent. instead of 6 per cent. never know; I would perhaps make it 7 per cent.

Q-And

-And how did you work out your deductions; who gave you the figures?

A-I think they are Mr. Howard's figures.

Q-Is that so?

A-Yes.

Q-Don't you think wages

of $1,200 for the year is rather small wages to pay

for the carrying on of a Godown business?

A-Yes.

Q-You would not expect a Godown business to be carried on for $100 per month?

636

A-I did not take it as including Coolies.

Q-By wages you of course mean Coolies employed in and about Godowns?

A-Yes.

Q-You did not allow for skilled men to carry on the business?

A-No.

Q-Don't you know that Mr. Howard was getting $300 per month for managing this business?

A-I did not know that.

1

Q-I suppose these new Godowns that were put up would have more modern appliances than Mr. Howard's?

A-There is practically no difference. There is no machinery in any of the Godowns; they still have the same old wooden ladder.

Q-Don't they leave more space now for ventilation ?

A-Passing through a new Godown the other day, I saw every window shut. They don't like ventilation; Flour Godowns have all the windows shut.

Re-examination of Witness by Mr. Calthrop, Counsel for the Claimants:-

Q-When you made Valuations Nos. 1 and 4, was it not your opinion that, by conversion into an Inland Lot, the value of the land alone was depreciated 50 per cent. ?

A-Yes.

Q-Then land on the Praya, having a sea-frontage, is worth double the value of an Inland Lot?

A-Undoubtedly.

Q-With regard to the property that has been sold in 1881, you say it was sold for $80,000, but you know as a matter of fact that it was $85,000; I mean the Register shewed that ?

you ?

A-I do not know; I was not here. The date of the sale was 1881.

Q-Do you know that Mr. Stephens bought it from the Mortgagees?

A-I do not know.

Q-Assuming that it was bought on a Mortgagees' sale, would it influence

A-Yes, of course it would. The Mortgagees might have forced the sale.

Q--With regard to the value of the property in 1895 and 1898, assuming that it had still remained a Marine Lot, is it not your opinion that it would have been worth more ?

A-Probably.

Q-You assume that the $105,000, which you read to us from the Ordinance, was for 21,000 square feet, that is $5 per square foot?

637

A-Yes.

Q-I gather from that that this was a valuation not of land on the Old Praya, not of Lots 95, 96, 97, 98 and 105, but of land on the New Praya ?

A-I take it as a strip of land facing the Old Praya, on the North side of Des Voeux Road.

Q-The money was for the purchase of a portion of the land in course of reclamation ?

A-I think the original Lot shewn was wider here (pointing to plan) and they took off a strip.

[Report by Mr. Chatham handed in by the Crown and read by Mr. Orange.]

Q-Was not this $5 per foot paid partially as compensation for the Godown?

A-I do not know.

Q-What difference would you have made had you valued the property as a Godown under the Valuation 4 in 1898?

A-I could not say; I did not think that Godowns would exist.

Q-With regard to all the new Godowns in that neighbourhood, do you know that most of them have been built of the New Praya?

A-Yes; not all.

Q-Nearly everyone?

A-Yes; the bulk.

Q-And through losing the frontage, of course Mr. Howard's Godowns were not to be compared in value with those having water frontage ?

A-No.

Q-Valuing the property under 3, you would not allow anything for a man.

to carry on business?

A-No.

Q-What would you put down as the value?

A--What a purchaser would give.

HIS EXCELLENCY:-Would deduct for incidental expenses?

you

A-Yes, in some cases; for instance the Lift-boy and other incidentals like that. I would look at it in the light of a man who wanted to acquire a Godown business, that is, what a man would pay for it who required it for the purpose of storing cargo.

He would be getting good interest for his money.

Q-A man who was going to buy that land with the Godowns on it for the purpose of carrying on a Godown business, would he have been willing to pay $200,000 ?

A-Yes; in 1895.

Q-And you know that a person carrying on a Godown not only makes money on the storage of the goods, but also on lending money on the goods?

A-Some dr not all.

Q-And they reckon that in when they want to buy Godowns?

638

A-They very often do.

Q-In your opinion, Mr. Howard's Godowns were every bit as good and as convenient for Godowns as the newly built ones?

A-Yes.

HIS EXCELLENCY:-Are you endeavouring to explain Valuations 2 and 3 ?

Mr. CALTHROP:-About the money lent I do not know; I am just asking Mr. Orange for his opinion.

HIS EXCELLENCY:-Valuation No. 1 is based on the value of land; No. 2 on the maximum possible rent; and No. 3 on the maximum rent received.

A-There was a steady gradual increase; in 1893 the business was worth a great deal less than in 1888. 1894 and 1895 were much better.

Q-Is it not usual to take a maximum ?

A-One must judge whether a business is increasing or steady. I do not think it would be fair to take a period of 9 years with regard to an increasing business, but, where you see a steady increasing business, I think you generally take a year or the maximum capacity. It may be that it would better suit a man to let his Godown storage for goods, or another purpose, rather than for financial business. Supposing

Supposing a firm is going to run a Godown business, such as Jardine, Matheson, or some other Firm, then the Godown would certainly be rented on its capacity. I was never asked to make a valuation of profits. No one knows what the profits on his business are. By the net income is meant the net income from that property. 22,000 cubic feet is not the gross capacity. Probably 10 cents per ton was the proper price to pay at that time. It seemed to work in with the actual results of the earnings of the Godowns according to Mr. Howard's figures.

[Court adjourned at 5-20 p.m. until 2-30 p.m., 4th July].

4th July, 1905-2.30 p.m.

Second Witness-Mr. A. Turner (of the Firm of Palmer & Turner).

Mr. POLLOCK (cross-examining on behalf of the Crown):-Mr. Turner, in the beginning of the second paragraph of your Report you say-[reads from Report

Taking into consideration, &c." ]

66

at it.

A-Yes.

Q-You mean by that as put back by the Reclamation?

A-As put back by the Reclamation.

Q-How did you arrive at $1.50 per foot ?

A-This valuation was made by my partner, but I also know how we arrived

Q-Did you not arrive at that valuation yourself independently of Mr. Palmer?

A-No. It is his valuation; I discussed it with him.

What about the $1.50 per foot?

A-We valued the property immediately behind it at $1.25 should be slightly higher, so we placed a value of $1.50 upon it. the other Lot valued was 801.

but thought this The number of

Q-What was that property used as?

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A-There were some Chinese houses and a Vermilion Factory upon it.

Q-Any Godowns ?

A-There were no Godowns.

Q-Was that the only guide you went by ?

A-That was mainly the guide. We also valued some of the Lots a little further down-204 I think it was. It was East. They are a sort of Chinese houses used for storage purposes. We have been taking these houses on the assessed rentals and allowing for the building. This brought it out at about $1.50.

Q-You went by the Government Assessor's figures?

A-Yes; as regards 204. The assessed rentals were practically the rentals we were getting.

Q-They were Chinese houses used for storage purposes, but were not re- gular Godowns?

A-They were not Godowns at all.

Q-Now, Mr. Turner, supposing no reclamation had come about, what would you have valued it. at?

A-I should have valued it as a Marine Lot.

Q-No, I do not mean that; I mean how much per square foot?

*

A -We actually valued some others at $3, and therefore if you allow for the time of building, reclamation, etc., I think you could safely say $3.50; probably $4.

Q-What did you value them at ?

A-We valued them for Mortgage purposes, and valued them at $3 per square foot. 186 and 205; that was in June, 1895, and June, 1896.

HIS EXCELLENCY :-When the Reclamation was completed?

A-No; as they were then. The owners had to pay a small sum, something in the neighbourhood of $2,000, in connection with the Reclamation.

HIS EXCELLENCY:-And they had to pay that in addition to the valuation ?

A-Yes.

HIS EXCELLENCY:-What was the proportion of the $2,000.to the total value?

A-I cannot quite say. I know. that Marine Lot 199 was sold, and, in the conditions of sale, so much more had to be paid up; some $2,000 or $3,000. That was sold in 1898 at about $3 per square foot.

Q-It had been reclaimed ?

A-No; it was not finished, but about seven-eighths finished.

HIS EXCELLENCY:- What was the area of Lot 199 ?

A-I cannot tell you.-

Q-That was sold in 1898 at $3 per square foot?

A-Yes.

HIS EXCELLENCY:-The area was 25,600 square feet and cost, at $3, $76,800, so that the expenditure still to be incurred was a small proportion of the whole value?

640

A-Yes: I mean that the proportion still to be paid up was a small pro- portion.

Q-And roughly it worked out at about $3 per square foot?

A-Yes.

Q-In valuing Messrs. Howard and Stephens' Lot, taking into consideration the Reclamation in front of it, at $1.50, did you or not consider that the property as no longer situate on the Praya would thenceforward be useless as Godowns?

A-Yes, I did think so.

Q-As a matter of fact, the property (as we know) is now used as Godowns?

A-It is used as Godowns.

Q-Well, seeing that the property is still used as Godowns, would not the one real disadvantage be that after the Reclamation it was some distance from the sea?

A-Yes; there would be a distance of about 310 feet.

Q—Did you, yourself, or was it your partner, Mr. Palmer, who made the Report regarding the silting up?

A--Mr. Palmer made that Report, but I know about it too.

Q-It was his Report ?

A-That was actually his Report.

Q-And it was made in August, 1895 ?

A--Yes.

Q-Are you aware that the year 1895, from Mr. Howard's Returns, appears to be his (Mr. Howard's) record year ?

A-I am not aware of that.

}

Re-examination by Mr. Calthrop, on behalf of the Claimants:-

Q-Mr. Turner, with regard to this silting, you say you saw it yourself?

A-Yes; I did see it.

QYou saw it in 1896 ?

A-I saw it in 1896.

Q-And in 1897 ?

A-I will not be sure about 1397. I saw it shortly after Mr. Palmer's Re- port; that was in 1896.

Q-Did it affect the Godowns, do you think?

A-Certainaly it affected a portion of them.

At dead low tide the boats

could not get alongside the Praya; that was in 1895 and 1896.

Q-Did it get worse as the work progressed?

A-That I cannot say.

HIS EXCELLENCY:-Were the boats ever prevented from getting alongside before the Reclamation works were commenced?

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A-That I cannot say.

Mr. CALTHROP:-And you think this silting up must have affected the value of the property?

A-Certainly it did.

-Was there less interference as the work progressed?

A-I should say not.

Q-You say there was silting in front of the Godowns?

A-There was silting in front of the Godowns.

Q-And you consider that the Reclamation works were a benefit to the Go-

downs?

A-No, certainly not.

Q-Now in 1897, when this reclaimed land was sold for $3 per foot, if it had been land which had been thoroughly reclaimed for some time, you say it would be worth $3.50?

A-I should say $3.50. You have got to allow the ground time to settle.

HIS EXCELLENCY-(referring to Messrs. Palmer & Turner's Report) :—In your Report you valued the land when reclaimed at $2.75 ?

A-Yes. It would take certainly a year or two years for the land to settle. Old land already settled is certainly worth more. That $2.75 valuation was made for a man named Deacon who wanted to purchase the ground. It is usual to make a higher valuation when valuing on behalf of a seller, and lower valuations when valuing on behalf of a buyer.

Q-You know what this property sold for after the`Reclamation?

A-Yes.

Q Did you consider the price a fair one?

A-I thought that a very fair sale at the time.

Q-If that property had a Marine front at that time would it have sold for more?

A-Certainly it would.

Q-If it had been on the old Marine Front without the New Praya, what would it have been worth ?

A-I should say $3.50.

Q-What difference did you make between the valuation of land which is an Inland Lot and land which has a Marine Front?

A-I make $2 a foot.

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL:-You do not agree with Mr. Orange putting the value at $5?

A-I do not know about Mr. Orange's valuation.

Q. What value would you put upon the land itself as it is this present year?

A--We actually valued it during the last few weeks at $3.50 per foot, as it is now as an Inland Lot. In 1898 we valued it at $1.50, and in 1905 I valued it at $3.50.

Q-Do you know of a Godown further on-Sharp's Godown?

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642

A-Yes; that is a Marine Lot.

Q-Do you know what price that was sold at?

A-Something like $7 per foot.

Q-An Inland Lot is worth $3.50 per foot as compared with a Marine Lot sold in 1903 at $7 per foot?

A-Yes; that is a Lot on the Old Praya, as compared with a Lot on the new Praya.

Q-With regard to Sharp's Godowns: that $7 per foot, Mr. Turner, was for the land only, was it not?

A-$7 was for the land only. The Godowns had been burned down previously.

Third Witness-Mr. Alfred Ram (of the Firm of Denison, Ram & Gibbs). Mr. POLLOCK (cross-examining on behalf of the Crown):-Mr. RAM, have you got your Report before you?

A-Yes; I have it here.

Q-I see in the second paragraph of that Report, you say that access to the sea was interrupted to such an extent as to render the property in question and the buildings thereon, in a great measure, useless for the purpose of Godowns?

A-Yes.

Q-And more, no doubt, would have to be expended in coolie hire than otherwise?

A-Yes.

Q-Could

in Godowns?

you tell us from your experience how many coolies are employed

A-No; I cannot. Do you mean in the actual working?

A-Yes.

A-No; I could not tell you. I have not considered it.

Q-As a matter of fact, I take it that the property market in this Colony fluctuates a good deal.

A--Well, it generally rises. It does fluctuate, but the general tendency is to rise.

Q-Would land in 1903 have been worth more than in 1897, I mean land out West?

A-I should say so.

Q-Would there be any difference in the value of land between 1899 and and 1897 ?

A-I should think so. I have no knowledge of actual value, but I should say there was a gradual rise.

Q-Now, as regards your calculations based on the rents obtained from Godowns, would you not take into account the storage capacity, that is to say, cubic contents of a Godown rather than the superficial area?

the

643

A-There is not a very great deal of difference in the heights of most Godowns. It would perhaps be the most accurate way; the cubit contents would certainly be more reliable than the superficial area.

Q-I see you put in a plan which has been made by your Firm in connection with this question of Godowns?

A-Yes.

Q-Why did you leave out Marine Lot 183?

A-Well, I had no means of acquiring information with regard to it.

Q-Could you not find out from the Assessor's Office what 183 was let for?

A--Well, it would not have helped very much.

Q-I put it to you that 183 was let in 1899 and 1900 for $500 per month?

A-I have made no enquiries. I had opportunities of acquiring information with regard to the other properties which I did not have with regard to 183.

Q-Would you mind looking at 183 on the plan, do you not think that the value of Lot 183 being a corner Lot adjoining the street, would be a fair guide as to the value of Lot 184 ?

Lots

A-I agree that that would be a fair comparison.

Q-As regards the rental of the building on Lot 179, which is one of these you have left in, can you tell us how high it is? Is it as high as 29 feet?

A-I have built it, but I do not know how high it is. I should say it is not as high as 29 feet.

Q-And in Howard's Godown, the ground floor to the roof measures only 19 feet 7 inches. Do you know that?

A-I do not know, but I will refer to plan [refers to plan]. Well, I have got it down as 20 feet.

Q-Don't you find that the building on Lot 179, is 29 feet high?

A-I have not got any reference to this.

Q-Don't you think that if this were so, it would rather upset the superficial area calculation?

A-It might.

Q-Well, 183, as we have stated, was let in 1899 and 1900 to the Godown Company at $500 per month. We make out that the cubic contents of 183 was 728,850 feet, and that of Marine Lot 184, 1,081,789 cubic feet. Making a pro- portion sum of $500 per month that would make the rent of Howard's $8,509 a year?

A-That is so.

Q—$8,509 a year-you see your calculation comes out at $15,400?

A-Yes; that is based on various Godowns.

Q-As regards your Valuation No. 2, I think you bave taken from Mr. Howard's figures?

A-No. I did not.

Q-How did you get them?

your deductions

644

A-I know what the ground rent is; I take Fire Insurance and other charges at the usual rates.

Q-You allow nothing for expenses of management?

A-I did not know whether there were any.

Q- -You mean because Mr. Howard looked after the business himself?

A-I believe that he did so.

Q-Would that be the reason why you did not deduct expenses of

ment?

A-I do not think I should have made any deduction of that sort.

manager

Q-I see you say that "I place the value of Marine Lot 184 in the year 1899 at $187,000 in which calculation I have not taken into consideration any claim that it might be considered that the owners have for compensation for the condi- tions under which they had eventually to dispose of their property, and which amounted practically to a forced sale." You know, Mr. Ram, that they did sell for $110,000?

A-Yes.

Q-I understand in your opinion that that amounted practically to a forced sale?

A-I take it that the property was sold under the apprehension that the value of the Godown would be depreciated and that the owners would have to take that amount.

Q-You mean that the property was sold under the apprehension that after the Reclamation the Lot would be useless for the purpose of Godowns ?

A-Yes.

Q-You know that the property afterwards sold at a good deal higher than $110,000?

A-Yes.

Q-It was sold a year or so afterwards for $146,000 ?

A-I think it was.

Q-Well, don't you think that $146,000 would represent probably, what we might call, nearer the real value than $110,000 ?

A-Yes.

Q-It was sold 15 months after; that would be the beginning of 1901 ?

A---In the end of 1900 or the beginning of 1901. It was sold for $146,000.

Q-You say that would be more near the value of the property than $110,000 ?

A-More near the value placed by me on the property; my value was $187,000.

Q-You say that it was sold under the apprehension that it would not be very valuable for Godowns in future?

A-Yes; I think so.

Re-examination by Mr. Calthrop, on behalf of the Claimants:-

Q-Mr. Ram, you valued the property at $189,000 (which is nearly $190,000) as a Marine Lot in your first valuation ?

:

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645

A-Yes.

Q-Now, assuming it as an Inland Lot (ceased to be a Marine Lot) what would you have valued it at?

A-At that time ?

Q-In 1899.

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL:He must have valued it as an Inland Lot.

A-I valued it in 1899 as a Marine Lot, though it was an Inland Lot. In 1899 the obstruction from the Reclamation became serious.

Q-What difference would you put between an Inland Lot and a Marine Lot; is it worth more as an Inland Lot ?

A-No.

Q-What would the land as an Inland Lot be worth in 1899 ?

A-I should say not more that $2 or $2.50 per foot.

Q-And, as a Marine Lot, it would be worth $4 ?

A-I think so.

Q-At what would you have valued this Lot in 1903 without the Godowns?

A-Well, it depends upon whether it was sold after this Lot (pointing on the plan to Lot 180) or not. Lot 180 was sold at about $7 per foot.

Q-If 184 had remained a Marine Lot, I suppose it would have been worth as much as 180, which was sold at $7 per foot?

A-I should say it would be worth more, being a central Lot and nearer the Town.

Q-What size is this Lot 183, which Mr. Pollock refers to ?

A-I do not know anything about this particular Lot, but I fancy all these Lots are 100 x 225 feet. I think it has about 100 feet frontage [measuring on plan]. It is just over 100 feet on the plan.

Q-Is that a one-storied building?

A-Well, I am under the impression it is a two-storied building.

Q-You say there is no advantage in a Godown being as high as 29 feet ?

A-I do not think cargo is stored higher than 16 or 18 feet in any Godown. That is the utmost.

Q-So, no matter how high it is after 20 feet, it is no great advantage for cargo ?

A-No.

Q-So the advantage in taking the cubic contents is no greater than that king the superficial area ?

A-No; it is not usual to calculate it by the cubic contents.

Q-With regard to the value of land in this Colony, am I right in saying that the general tendency is for it to rise?

A-Yes; it has had a set-back once or twice, but the general tendency is to increase in value.

Q-And is a Godown in this particular locality, at the present time worth less than one on the sea-front ?

:

646

A-Yes; at the present time the Godown in question is removed 260 feet back from the sea.

Q-Did you know anything about the silting up?

A-I know little about it. My partner made the report in this connection, but I have very little personal recollection of it.

Q-Did you know anything about it two years after 1895 ?

A-I used to pass through the locality several times at that period, but never interested myself to any extent in the matter.

Q- Did you see any silting up ?

A-I did not take any particular notice, as I was not looking for evidence of it; I have no definite knowledge on the subject.

Mr. POLLOCK:-Are you prepared to say of your own personal knowledge that goods are never stored in Godowns above 18 or 19 feet?

A-I am not prepared to say.

Mr. POLLOCK-I think it is hardly likely that a practical man would instruct an Architect to build a Godown 29 feet high, if there was no advantage in having it erected above 18 or 19 feet?

A-I should say that goods are not stored more than 18 or 19 feet high.

Mr. POLLOCK:-Therefore there must be some object in building 29 feet high?

A-Presumably there is some advantage.

Mr. Pollock opens for the Crown.

4th July 1905.

MR. POLLOCK :-I am quoting a case, which Your Lordship, as Assessor, might look up. It is the Metropolitan Board of Works against Howard, 5 Times Law Reports. I will read it through [reads case through.] This, I submit, has some bearing upon the present case, and is the most recent case of this kind on record. Valuations 2 and 3 in Leigh & Orange's Report are practically beside the point.

They have valued according to the earning capacity of the Godowns, which we submit is a wrong principle to adopt.

[Court adjourned until 2 p.m., 5th July.]

5th July, 1905.

t,

MR. POLLOCK: I propose in opening on behalf of the Crown to submit taking the evidence which has been given on behalf of the Claimants, by itself they have failed in establishing their point, which is that General Black's Award of $15,000 was insufficient. I think that I shall be able to shew that, taking the evidence which has been given, and altogether excluding the evidence which can be sub- mitted on behalf of the Crown, the Claimants have failed in establishing their alleged rights, and that, as a matter of fact, they should be, what we would call in legal proceedings, non-suited, that is to say, it is unnecessary for this Tribunal to go into any evidence on behalf of the Crown, because the Claimants' case has broken down.

1

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647

I will deal first with the different valuations of the land, altogether apart from the buildings, made by the Claimants. The first valuation which I will deal with is the valuation by Mr. Orange. Mr. Orange says, or suggests, (because I shall show that he is an unreliable guide), the land was worth $5 per foot, prior to the Reclamation, and $2.50 per foot after the Reclamation. By Reclamation, I refer to the Reclamation in front of the Lot in question. Well, Mr. Ram suggests as a value prior to Reclamation $4 per square foot, and, as regards value after the Reclamation, I do not know that he gave us any definite informa- tion, but I think he is disposed to guide himself by what the land would have averaged in the Market, and, it is important in dealing with Mr. Ram's evidence, to consider the admission that he has made in his Report, namely, that he (Mr. Ram) considered the actual sale which was made by Messrs. Howard and Stephens as being forced. There is no doubt that Mr. Ram, both in his Report and evidence, spoke of the sale which took place in 1899 as being a sale at a forced price, and I think Mr. Ram agreed with me that the price at which this property was disposed of 15 months afterwards, namely, $146,000, would be more equivalent to the real value of the land.

Well, now to come to Mr. Turner. Mr. Turner, as regards the value of the Lot before Reclamation, gave us anything, I submit, between $3.00 to $3.50 per square foot. It will be remembered that his written Report deals with the value after reclamation, but I naturally asked him what he considered the value prior to Reclamation, and he referred us to some other Lot which he said had been partiy reclaimed, which he valued at $3 per square foot, and there might have to be some- thing added for completing the Reclamation, and I think he put an extra 50 cents on for that. Therefore, I think you can put Mr. Turner's value down at from $3 to $3.50 prior to Reclamation. Well, I think after these different values are put side by side, they will shew the very speculative nature of the evidence which has been given by the Claimants' experts in this case. There is a very wide margin between these different values, and I submit they are indulging to a great extent in speculation, and it must be borne in mind that these opinions are speculative, and that they cannot be taken as reliable with regard to the land, when we remember that each of these witnesses who have been called on behalf of the Claimants have arrived at the value of the land after Reclamation, on the erroneous basis that the land would be altogether useless, after Reclama- tion had taken place, for the purpose of Godowns. It therefore follows that we cannot accept what I might call for the sake of convenience, the post-reclamation valuations which have been put upon the property by the experts called on be- half of the Claimants. Obviously, those reports were made in the honest belief that the property would not be worth practically anything for Go- downs after the Reclamation Works had been completed, whereas, the evidence demonstrates the exact opposite, and the Members of this Tribunal have seen for themselves that these premises are used at the present day for Godowns. In other words, the Claimants' experts have valued the Lot with the Reclamation in front of it, as an Inland Lot, much too low. Now, to come to Mr. Orange's observations on these three different sets of values, I propose to analyse them separately in detail. Mr. Orange's valuation is $5 per foot prior to Reclamation. Well, as I pointed out, that does not agree with and is considerably higher than the valuation of the other experts-Messrs. Ram and Turner. Mr. Orange's theory is founded upon four theories, and I will deal with these theories in detail. The first value is based upon the theory that the Government offered a sum of $5 per square foot for 339 square feet in 1887. That offer, as my learned friend quite justly observed, was owing to the fact that the Government had made a mistake in grauting 339 feet of land to two different people. As a result of that mistake, there was a law suit between Messrs. Howard and Stephens and a neighbouring Marine Lot Holder, and Messrs. Howard and Stephens lost, and it was a matter of the Government paying a fancy price to Messrs Howard and Stephens, and, considering the circumstances under which the Government granted this amount, it was really not a matter of much importance whether they paid $3, $4, or $5, especially as the quantity of land was so small. So much for the first valuation which Mr. Orange brings forward to support his valuation of $5 per foot. The second theory is in connection with the Reclamation of certain Marine Lots, namely, Nos. 95, 96, 97, 98 and 105, which are mentioned specifically in the Praya Reclamation Ordinance. Our answer to that is that that is no real criterion of

648

value. As a matter of fact, the Government were practically asking a favour from the Godown Company. They were asking the Godown Company to alter their Lot for the purpose of a certain widening of the Praya Roadway, and the price, as a matter of fact, was an accommodation price; and there is another point to be considered in connection with this second theory, and that is, that all these Lots were nearer the centre of the Town than Marine Lot 184. It will be remem- bered that all these five Lots were East of the Sailors' Home.

HIS EXCELLENCY :— What is the exact nature of this arrangement between the Government and the Godown Company?

Mr. POLLOCK:-As I understand it, there was a widening of the Praya Road- way necessary, and the Godown Company were making a roadway in front of their land. The Government wanted the Godown Company to extend part of that Re- clamation. This is really the full explanation of the arrangement-[reads paper handed in by Crown.] My contention is that that was a special arrangement made with the Godown Company, and it is not unreasonable that, as the Government were practically asking a favour, they should be prepared to pay a greater price than they would have done under ordinary circumstances. My point is that it was a matter of favour to the Government, an l it certainly was worth the Government's while to pay a good round sun for the privilege, it being necessary to round up the whole Reclamation and make it uniform. Mr. Orange had not measured the Lots. It is simply a theory thrown out on the Reclamation Ordinance by the Claimants, and I would submit it is not for us to go into details with regard to this matter. It is really for the Claimants to prove their case.

*

Now, the third theory of Mr. Orange in justification of his basis of $5 before the Reclamation is that in 1881 the Lot sold for $80,000, ie., $2.53 per square foot, and Mr. Orange goes on to say I surmise that between 1881 and 1895 it must have doubled in value". It will have been noted that there was in 1884 the sale to Mr. Stephens for $65,000, that is to say, roughly, at $2 per foot.

The fourth basis which he puts forward to support his theory is very interes- ting. He goes on the erroneous basis of capitalising the Godown profits, and has, moreover, on his own admission, gone on the wrong basis of capitalising at 60% instead of 7%. Well then, Mr. Orange working on these false premises comes to certain figures, but not wauring to make a difference in his valuations, he surmises and brings them into line. Those are the four theories which Mr. Orange puts forward to support his valuation of $5, and I would submit that, when they are examined, it is not a satisfactory basis to go upon. His valuation, founded upon these erroneous premises, is higher than Mr. Ram's or Mr. Turner's.

Well then, to return to Mr. Ram's valuation, I would submit that the Musso rate of $3.25 which he mentions, would not be an unfair rate to take. The Musso premises were fairly near to Howard and Stephens' Godowns, and they were valued absolutely independently and, without any reference at all to this case, at the rate of $3.25 per square foot. It is quite true that Mr. Ram in his Report tries to make out that, probably between 1897 and 1899 there would be an appreciation which he puts at 75 cents, and therefore brings the valuation up to $4. I think I am right, however, in saying that Mr. Ram admitted that he had practically nothing to go upon as regards the difference between the land in 1897 and 1899, that is, he had nothing to justify his reasons for going on that basis.

Now, we pass on to Mr. Turner. It will be remembered that Mr. Turner valued a Lot at $3 per square foot, and he said he thought something ought to be added on, because that Lot was not quite completed. If we take a sort of average, we come to $3.25. Governor Black's Award was in 1898, that is to say, it was exact- ly a year after the Musso valuation. Now, if the Musso valuation be adopted, the sum will work out 32,481 square feet at $3.25 per square foot, I make it $105,563.25, or, to put it in round figures, say $105,600 for the land alone. Well, now, there is the question of buildings. We submit that $50,000 would be a fair sum to allow for the buildings. The valuations on the part of the Claimants' experts, as regards the buildings as well as in connection with the land, shew a good deal of discrepancy. Mr. Ram values at $60,000; Mr. Orange at $55,000, and Mr. Turner at $45,000. Well, I think it would not be an unfair rate to take the

{

649

buildings at $50,000. That, added to the value of the land, comes to $155,600, and, of course Your Excellency will see that I am discussing this by the light of the figures of the Claimants' experts. I do not want to go into the figures of Mr. Danby or Mr. Hooper, I am simply going by the Claimants' ex- perts' figures. We say that the value of the Lot after Reclamation was not $110,000, which Mr. Ram states frankly that he considers was a forced sale. We say that the figure for which it sold 15 months later, namely, $146,000 was more like the proper figure to have got for the Lot, and Mr. Ram admitted this. If you deduct $146,000 from $155,600. that leaves a balance of $9,600. I submit that that represents all that could be called a fair compensation, and, that being so, Governor Black's award was sufficient, and more than sufficient.

I would now ask the Court to turn to page 41 of the Claimants' documents, and there look at what Messrs. Howard and Stephens call their Statement of Claim. We, of course. have already dealt with the land and buildings, and the next item we come to is the claim for loss of Godown Rents. Now, I will state how we propose to deal with that. We submit that, as regards the silting, the evidence which has been adduced on behalf of the Claimants certainly does not show either conclusively, or even satisfactorily that this loss of Godown Rents was due to silting. The evidence on behalf of the Claimants was, I think, to a great extent theoretical evidence. They thought that there must be a certain sweep of the tide which would produce silt, and so on, but I must submit that it was a very unsteady basis for the Court to go upon, as shewing that silt had actually caused a loss of business. I put it to Mr. Orange, and I think that Mr. Orange admitted it, that really there has been a great increase in Godown compe- tition in this neighbourhood, and we submit that an increase in Godown competi- tion is a far more likely factor in the case than this question of alleged silting. Besides there is another point to be taken into consideration, and that is that the silting reports are dated some time between 1895 and April, 1896, and they purport to say that there has been serious and prejudicial silting there in front of the Lots. We find that 1895 was Mr. Howard's bumper year. It shews, we submit, that this alleged silting cannot have been serious at all, and that it had no effect on the business. So much for the question of fact. But I also submit as to the point of law on the authority of the case of the Metropolitan Board of Works against Howard, that actual loss of profit cannot be taken into account in assessing com- pensation. That is a decision of the House of Lords, and I submit that such compensation cannot be taken into account.

There is only one more item in the Statement of Claim, and I will dispose of it in a very few words; that is the claim for Law Costs from 1896 to 1903, amounting to $9,763.50. I think I can dismiss that in a sentence, by saying that the Claimants have no right to saddle the Hongkong Government, and the rate-` payers of this Colony, with the costs of their unsuccessful and uncalled for litigation They applied to the Court several times, and on each occasion they were defeated. They tried in all the local Courts, and then took it Home and were unsuccessful wherever their claim was tried.

With regard to the 10 per cent. allowance for compulsory purchase, I think Your Excellency's Legal Assessor will tell you that 10 per cent. has been allowed where there have been compulsory purchases under the Land Clauses Act, 1845. In this case, however, the Lot. was left in the possession of Messrs. Howard and Stephens, and therefore there was no compulsory purchase at all. The Reclamation was offered to Messrs. Howard and Stephens, but they would not come in; they have practically had two offers, one being made quite recently. Therefore, I submit, that as regards to the reclamation, you cannot say there was a compul- sory purchase. I think that all the cases at home in which 10 per cent. has been allowed are where land has been purchased compulsorily. I would submit that it is for the Claimants, if they can, to establish and to quote some precedent which would justify the granting to them of this 10 per cent. It is for them to shew, if they can, that the 10 per cent. would be awarded at Home. Un- doubtedly, as you have pointed out, this is a somewhat peculiar case. I would submit that the Claimants are not entitled to claim this 10 per cent. I do not think that my learned friend will be able to quote a case like this. Therefore, to bring my remarks to a conclusion, I would submit that I have shewn, taking in fact the evidence of the Claimants' experts, that the sum of $9,600, or say, $10,000 roughly, would

650

have been quite sufficient compensation to be paid to the Claimants, and General Black, in awarding $15,000 in 1898, allowed sufficient, perhaps rather more than sufficient. This, of course, is althogether apart from the arguments of the learned Attorney General that the Claimants are entitled to no compensation whatever. I submit that, even taking my learned friend's (Mr. Calthrop's) view as to the principle of compensation, I have succeeded in establishing in fact that Major General Black's Award was sufficient to cover any damage by injurious affection or in- jurious depreciation which the Claimants could legally claim in respect of. I would also submit that it would be ultra vires for His Excellency to go outside the principles of the law as to compensation. I would submit that compensation must be paid on a legal principle, and that compensation should be paid on just the same basis as if His Excellency were a Judge sitting in Court.

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL :-Our submission in fact is that, upon the evidence brought forward by the Claimants, the Award of General Black is sufficient.

[His Excellency decided to proceed with the evidence-the documents for the Crown were then put in and the Crown witnesses cross-examined.]

Cross-examination of the Witnesses for the Crown.

First Witness-Mr. William Danby.

Mr. CALTHROP (cross-examining on behalf of the Claimants):-Mr. Danby, were you acting for the Government in these proceedings in 1899 ?

A-Yes. I think I have represented the Government in all these procedings. Q-Have you seen Mr. Hooper's Report ?

A-I have not.

Q-Do you know that he values the gross rental at $10,800 in 1895?

A-No; I have not seen his papers.

Q-You value it in 1895 at rather over $10,000 ?

A-In 1895, no; I took the average of several years.

Q-It would have been more in 1895 ?

A-Yes; that was their record year.

Q-Then, taking the three years before 1895, say, 1892, 1893, 1894, and 1895, would not the gross rental be about $12,000?

A-I have not got my papers. [Leaves Court and returns with papers.] Yes. Q--In 1895 what do you consider would be a fair rental for a tenant to pay? A-I am not prepared to tell

you.

Q-What would a tenant be prepared to pay in 1895 if he was going to let the Godowns?

A-I do not know.

Q-You say that the value of the property in 1895 was $143,157 ?

A-On the net annual income for 9 years. I take that as a proof of the value of the property.

Q-You have known this property for a great number of years, have you not?

651

A-Yes.

Q-Have purposes?

you ever had anything to do with valuing the property for rating

A-Not for rating purposes.

Q-Have you ever had anything to do with valuing it for a prospective tenant?

A-Ten years ago, I had.

Q-Do you remember what a tenant would pay for that property then?

A-I know, but I forget the exact year. The amount was about $110,000; that was when Sir William Goodman was here.

Q-You know the property was bought in 1881 for $85,000?

A-I am quite aware of that.

Q-And it was not then quite the 32,000 square feet in area?

A-Yes; it was then 32,820 square feet. The Government Lease was pre- pared in 1877. I made the Lease and I made the Survey.

Q-At that time, the Purchaser paid $2.60 per foot?

A-$2.60 per foot, or $85,000 for the Lot.

Q-In 1884 it was sold by the Mortgagees, was it not?

A-A Chinaman paid $85,000 for that Lot in 1881, and he mortgaged that property to the Hongkong Fire Insurance Co. for $65,000.

Q-Who made the valuation at that time?

A-There was no valuation.

Q-The Hongkong Fire Insurance Co. advanced $65,000 on the Lot ?

A-Yes; in 1881. In 1884 they had to foreclose, and Stephens bought it for $65,000, and he in turn mortgaged it to the Hongkong Fire Insurance Co. for $60,000.

Q-What amount of margin do you allow as a rule in lending on Mortgage?

A-When I have this kind of valuation to make, I base my valuation as a rule on the income. I should consider that a property such as the Claimants' would be safe for Mortgage purposes for a Loan of $80,000.

Q-In 1884, it was a Lot with absolutely nothing on it at all?

A-I am aware of that.

Q-There were no profits then ?

A-No.

:

Q-Don't you think the Hongkong Fire Insurance Co. were on the safe side in granting this Mortgage to Mr. Stephens ?

A-The Hongkong Fire Insurance Co. are always on the safe side in granting their Mortgages.

Q-What do you think was the value of the property in 1888, that is, after the Godowns had been built?

1

652

A-I should put it down at $65,000 plus the cost of the Godowns. They were doing business in 1887.

Q-It had been bought in 1884, so they had been getting no profit until the Godown had been completed, and they had to pay interest on Mortgage, and now you say the only value then was the cost of the land, $65,000, and the cost of the Godowns $36,000; in other words, you say it was only worth $101,000 in 1888 ?

A-Yes; the profitable part of this business is the lending part. It is not the actual rent received on the storage of goods, but the interest they obtained on money lent by them on some of the goods stored.

Q-That is not included in rents derived. Now, what do you think anyone would have paid in 1888 for these Godowns?

can only tell you what Stephens and Howard

A I cannot tell you; I can actually made.

Q-Have you ever seen the Ordinance relating to Rating?

A-Yes.

Q-Do you know that it is the practice for the tenant of a Godown only to fill in the tonnage capacity of such Godown?

A-No.

Q-If a Godown Keeper only stated the tonnage capacity, and did not fill in the rent received; what then?

A-I only know that the owner has to send in an account of the rent receiv- ed at the end of every year.

Q-Now if a property cost $101,000, would not you think that a fair gross rental would be $7,000 per annum?

A-Yes.

Q-Would

A-Yes.

you consider less would be a fair rental, say $6,000 ?

Q-This property was rated as soon as the Godowns were completed?

A-Yes.

Q-At that time the rental was quite problematical, so that $7,000 was very good at that time. In 1888-at $6,600 it was properly rated, do you think?

A-Yes.

Q—Now, $6,600 being the rateable value in 1881, the capital value of the property was $101,000 ? -

A-In 1888 the nett annual income was $10,289, and in 1898 the value of that property based on the assessed rentals; that is $6,600 per annum, capitalised at 7% that was $85,300.

Q-If the rateable value was $6,600, and the capital value of the property was $101,000 in 1888, what would you say the value was in 1898?

A-It was just about the same.

Q-That is, say about 16 years' purchase on the assessed value?

A-I do not know,

Q-Now, in the third paragraph of your valuation, you will note you say there was a mistake with regard to a piece of land?

?

— 653

A-There was no mistake on the part of the Government.

Q-Don't you say the Government admitted they made a mistake?

A-No; I say they made an offer to settle a dispute.

Q-Did not Messrs. Howard and Stephens bring an action against the Government?

A-Yes.

Q-And the Government admitted that their Surveyor had made a mistake with regard to 339 square feet?

A-No.

Q-And they offered us $1,700?

A-As an act of

grace.

Q-What did they pay?

A-I do not know.

Q-Don't you remember what they paid?

A-I think Messrs. Howard and Stephens received $1,700 and then $3,300.

Q-In paragraph 7 of your report, you say that this reclamation was no loss to us, but that the carrying out of same in front of our Godown was a great bene- fit to us?

A-Yes.

Q-Then you say it would not be true for the Claimants to allege that they suffered any loss during the construction of the reclamation?

A-Yes.

Q-You know there were some proceedings taken in 1899 by Mr. Howard against the Government-the l'etition of Right?

A-I remember that.

Q--You were advising the Government with regard to that matter?

A-At that time I was; you are referring to General Black's Award?

A—No, I am referring to their Petition of Right.

A-I know nothing about that.

Q-Were you not employed by the Government ?

A-Yes; that is in 1896 and 1897.

Q-Were you employed in 1900 ?

A-No; I was not here in 1900.

Q-Do you know that in 1900 the Government admitted that the Claimants had suffered loss by this Reclamation?

A-Yes; I have read that.

Q-And you say it is wrong?

A-I say it is wrong.

Q-You say we suffered no loss at all?

1

i

654

A—Yes; on the contrary your clients derived great benefit from the Reclamation.

Q-You made your Report in March, 1896, as to the silting up?

A-I made two; one in 1896 and the other in 1898.

Q-You saw it during the whole of these

years?

A-I went down to view the locality at nearly every low Spring tide.

Q-You consider the Reclamation was a great benefit to Mr. Howard ?

A-Yes.

Q-It was always a benefit right up to 1899?

A-Yes; it was a great benefit.

Q Did you see Mr, Leigh's Report in 1895 ?

A-No.

Q-You say the value of the property in 1895 was about $3 per square foot ?

A-Yes; about $3 per square foot.

Q-And you say that an Inland Lot, which was worth $3 per foot as a Marine Lot in 1895, would be of the same value as a Marine Lot in 1898 ?

A-Yes; under the conditions.

Q-I mean that if we had been on the sea front in 1899, would the land have only been worth $3 per foot?

A-I should put it down at about that value.

Q--What difference do you generally estimate in that district between a Marine Lot and an Inland Lot?

A-I cannot say.

Q--You know a great deal about the value of land in Hongkong?

A-Yes.

Q-And is it not generally admitted that land on the sea front, such as this [pointing to Lot 95 on the Plan] is worth more than the land at the back?

A-Of course it is.

Q-How much?

A-It is worth double.

Q-I may assume then that land at the front is worth double the land at the back ?

A-Yes.

Q- You

A-Yes.

say

that 284 is worth double the value of 184 after the Reclamation?

Q--Now, were there many more Godowns built in that neighbourhood in 1895 ?

A-Yes.

Q-But most of these Godowns were built on the Reclaimed Praya ?

655

A-After 1895; yes.

-And they were nearer the Sea ?

A-Yes; now they are.

Q-And so it is more convenient to go to the Godowns that are right on the sea-front than to go to those at the back, and those on the sea-front are much more valuable ?

A-Yes.

-As to the sale of this property in 1899, do you know that the Govern- ment admit in their answer to the laimants' Petition of Right that they only valued it at $101,000 in 1899 ? If it was not worth more than $101,000 before the Reclamation, do you mean to say it was worth more after the Reclamation?

A-It has proved itself to be worth more.

-It is worth more as an Inland Lot than as a Marine Lot?.

A--No.

Q-Now, were not these Godowns of Mr. Howard's very good Godowns in- deed; as a matter of fact they were the largest of their kind at the time?

A-They were very fair Godowns.

-These newer Godowns, in what way are they superior?

The

A-They are built under the New Building Ordinance, and are therefore more up to date in every way; they are higher; they have better walls. Building Ordinance to which I refer is the Building Ordinance of 1889.

Mr. Pollock (re-examining on behalf of the Crown) :-

You say the property was sold for $85,000; to whom was it sold for that sum ?

A-A Chinaman.

Q-At that time was there any slipway there or anything of that sort ?

Q-There was one there originally, but at the time we speak of it was taken away, is that so?

A-Yes.

Q-The Dock Company had taken it away ?

A-Yes; the Dock Company had filled up where the Slip was.

Q-Were there any buildings on Lot 184 then?

A-Only one or two tumble-down sheds, a block of offices and a workshop.

Second Witness-A. Shelton Hooper.

Mr. CALTHROP (cross-examining on behalf of the Claimants):-Mr. Hooper, you were the first to value this property for rating purposes, were you not?

A-No. It was one of the first properties I valued.

I

656

Q-And that was in 1887 ?

A-Yes.

-When did you commence to value that property?

A-I commenced to value it in September, 1886.

Q-That was the first time it was valued at all?

A-I do not know.

Q-How did you come to value it at $6,600 ?

A-I do not know; that is my valuation. I commenced the valuation in September, 1886, and the valuation of the Colony took about 8 months.

Q-How did you arrive at the valuation of $6,600 ?

A-I, first of all, under the Municipal Rating Ordinance which was the Rating Ordinance then in force, sent out the Form A (in the Schedule to such Ordinance) to the owner of every tenement in the Colony, with the request that they would fill it in with the necessary particulars and return it; and Mr. Howard in due course had one of these forms sent to him. [Witness here explains the mode of filling up Form A.]

Q-In 1888 the Rating Ordinance came into force ?

A-It came into force in 1888; there was previously one in 1875.

-And under that you rated the property in question at $6,600 ?

A-I believe that is so.

Q-Now, you say that is the rateable value during all the time the Claimanst were in it?

A-As to that, I cannot say.

Q-Do you consider that it was the one value all the time?

A-I cannot say.

Q-I want to know what was the value of this property during those

years

?

A-Are you speaking of the marketable value during those times ?

Q-Referring to Assessments. You say in your report, Mr. Hooper, that the value of the property was $10,800 ?

A-Yes.

Q-That is to say, that is the amount a tenant would give if the landlord paid the Crown Rent, paid Insurance and kept the Godowns in repair?

A-Yes, provided the tenant had no beneficial interest in the property. I say that is a fair rent.

-You know this Rating Ordinance?

A—I do.

-You know what is the rateable value ?

A-A man would pay $10,800 per year.

Q-Then the rateable value in 1895 was $10,800? Had you been Assessor in 1895, is that the amount at which you would have rated this property ?

A-If I had been Assessor, I would have rated this property at $10,800.

Q-Then if we only paid $6,600 ?

A-You were under-rated.

657

Q-You are acquainted with the schedule; it has to be filled in by Mr. Howard, and all he had to do was to put in the capacity of the Godowns; is that not so?

A-Let me explain. I may say that I sketched this schedule myself. This is Form A [pointing to schedule to Ordinance] and the Assessor fills up column No. 1; he dates it and signs at the top, he fills out the number and name of the Street, the number and description of the Lot; and the Owner, or Keeper to whom this is addressed has to fill in the rent received, and also the distinguishing name of the tenement. He then has to give the name of the occupier and fill in the tonnage capacity. When I say rent received, I mean total rent received for the current year.

Q-That is all ?

A-That is all.

Q-All he had to fill in was the tonnage capacity; there was no rent paid ?

A-Yes.

Q-The Assessor filled it in year after year ?

A—Yes; but the Assessor is not bound to do so.

Q-And, according to your own showing, the rental in 1895 was $10,800 ?

.A—Yes.

Q-When you first assessed it at $6,600, what did you think was the capital value of the property ?

A-When I first assessed it in 1887, I did not go into the value except for the purpose of assessing the premises.

-How did you arrive at $6,600 ?

A-I do not know in this individual case, but the course mostly pursued by me was I took the rent in other cases where rent was being paid; I communicated with Mr. Howard, and told him what I considered 1 was going to rate the property at, and he asked me how I arrived at it. I told him I had taken the capacity of similar Godowns in the immediate neighbourhood, and the rates they were paying where rent was passing.

Q-Did you know that the property has been valued at $101,000 ?

A-No; the capital value of the property never came before me at all.

Q-You have a very great experience in valuing; can you not say what was the value of that property in 1887 ?

A-I cannot express an opinion.

Q-I will give you some data; the land cost $65,000 and the Godowns cost $36,000; the land was bought in 1884 and the Buildings were completed in 1887 ?

A-Cost has nothing whatever to do with value; they are totally distinct. I have known a property to cost so much to-day, and within 12 months it has been double the value.

Q-What is the general tendency of property here?

A-Progressive.

ན༔

=

:

658

Q-What is the difference in value between a Marine Lot and an Inland Lot? Now, between 1895 and 1905, what would be the difference in value per foot in that Lot without any building at all on it?

A-I should put the value of a Marine Lot in that neighbourhood, as being from $8 to $10 per foot.

Q-What would you say is the value of this property-Lot 184-supposing the Godowns were not there?

A-To-day it would be worth about $3 or $4 per foot.

Q-What would be the value of the reclaimed land in front?

A-About $8 per foot.

Q-A Marine Lot is worth double the value of an Inland Lot?

A-No; only in that particular neighbourhood. Musso's, for instance, I should say is worth $10 per foot at the present day, and Howard's 'Godowns are worth at the rate of $4 per foot at the present day. There is a special reason; you cannot build the same class of houses on Howard's property as you could on Musso's. Musso's land has been leased for the building of brothels.

Q-And if the Godown's were still on Musso's?

A-Then I say the value would be only about $5 per foot.

Q-In 1895 you say Howard's land was worth $147,000 ?

A-Yes.

Q-You valued it at $3 per square foot ?

A-Yes.

Mr. Pollock (re-examining on behalf of the Crown):-

Mr. Hooper, I see you value the Buildings at $50,000?

A-Yes.

Q-Can you tell us what they were insured for ex foundation?

A-They were insured in 1898 for $30,000, excluding foundations. It is the common custom of this Colony not to insure foundations.

Q-Would $50,000 be a fairly liberal value for these buildings?

A-Yes.

Third Witness-Mr. J. F. Boulton.

Mr. CALTHROP (cross-examining on behalf of the Claimaints):-When was your attention first called to the Reclamation in front of the Godowns, and when did

you make that plan? [pointing to Plan just handed in.]

A-Well, I began to collect the data for that in 1889, when I took the first

section.

Q-You were assisting the Government at that time, and were giving them information ?

A-I was simply collecting the information.

659

Q-Now, were you here in 1900?

A-I was here in the beginning of 1900.

Q—And did you make any report at that time to the Government?

A---I cannot say.

Q-Do you remember the action brought against the Government by Mr. Howard in 1899?

A-I do not remember that particular year.

Q-Don't you remember this action in 1899?

A-I remember something about it.

Q- You say that there was practically no interference with the Plaintiffs' business during that period. Do you say that still?

A-Yes; up to the beginning of 1899.

Q-You say it was rather beneficial than prejudicial to the Claimants to have these works going on before they came in front of their Godowns?

A-I should say they were beneficial.

Q-Then, when was the section nearest to Howard's Godown finished?

A-In 1895.

Q-Would this angle here [pointing to plan] cause silting up after 1895?

A-No; I do not think that it would cause silting up.

Q--Do you say that it would be a benefit to them?

A-Yes.

Q-When did you take this section?

A-The dates are on the Plans.

-The last section is taken in 1895?

A-No; on the 19th February, 1896.

Q-So you did not take any sections after that date?

A-No.

Fourth Witness--Mr. Arthur Chapman.

Mr. CALTHROP (cross-examining on behalf of the Claimants):- How long have you been Assessor?

A-Since 1889.

Q-How did you come to assess this property in 1889 at $6,600 ?

A-That assessment was not made by me; the first assessments made by me were in 1890 and 1891.

Q-How did you make it then?

A-By estimating what these Godowns would let at.

660

Q-And all Mr. Howard had to do was to fill in this schedule? [pointing to Form A of Schedule to Ordinance.]

A-Yes.

Q-There was no necessity for him to fill in the rental value?

A-No.

Q-And he would only have to fill in the tonnage capacity?

A-- Yes.

-The Godowns were always the same capacity?

A-Yes.

Q-He would not have to make any alteration year after year?

A--No.

-What was the rental value of this property in 1895 ?

A-I was not in the Colony. I was here in 1894.

Q-Did you know what it was that a tenant would have to pay ?

A-I could tell you according to my Assessment Book.

5

Q-You would be surprised to hear that it has been valued by two other experts in 1895 as being worth $10,800, and another as being worth $10,300?

·

·A—Mr. Howard was always complaining about over assessment right up to the time he sold the property, the reason he set forth being that the silting up prevented his cargo boats coming up. He complained that the Reclamation had an effect on his property.

1

Q-And as a matter of fact it did; did it not?

A-I did not press the assessment.

.

Q-If it was worth $10,800 we could not ask you to reduce it; we express that opinion now, and, if it was worth $10,800, it should have been rated accord- ingly?

A-Yes.

Q-Did you make any alterations in the assessments of Godowns in the neighbourhood?

A-I did make some alterations.

Q-They were based on rental?

A-Yes.

Q-So that when the owner is in occupation, you leave the assessment at the same figure?

A-Yes.

Q-

2—With regard to Marine Lot 183, is that an assessment on rental ?

A-183 was on rent, but, in two or three cases, the rent is slightly less than the assessment.

Q-But it was an assessment on rental?

A-Yes.

661

Summing up for the Crown.

Mr. POLLOCK: I do not think that I need add much now, because I have addressed you so recently pointing out what I submit is a true view of this case that, even taking my friend's view of this Tribunal having power to award com- pensation for damage through depreciation. Governor Black's Award is more than sufficient to cover the damage which has been sustained in this case. As Your Excellency pointed out just now, a good many of the figures which have been brought forward or produced by my friend have been so speculative that they do not afford any ground for this Tribunal to work on. I have already given you figures, shewing that the statements made by the experts who were called on behalf of the Claimants, in conjunction with the admissions made by such experts, have proved conclusively that their evidence is speculative, and cannot be accepted as a reliable guide for this Tribunal to work on. As Your Excellency will gather, the Claimants cannot shew that they have suffered any actual loss, because you will remember that the land cost Messrs. Stephens and Howard $65,000, the Buildings cost $36,000, which two sums added together make the sum of $101,000, and it is admitted on both sides that the sale effected by Mr. Stephens in 1899, namely, $110,000 was not a very good one, and the Claimants, as a matter of fact, made $9,000 on their outlay. Had they, however, held the land a little while longer, they would undoubtedly have realised considerably more. This is proved conclusively by the fact that some twelve or fifteen months afterwards this same block, was sold for $146,000. However at the time they sold for $110,000, they doubtless thought this figure a very good one, and I would sug- gest that they were misled by the very low valuation made only a month before by Messrs. Palmer & Turner. Messrs. Palmer & Turner valued the Lot in September, as put back from the sea, at only $1.50 per foot, which, I submit, is an abnormally low valuation. They valued the Lot and Buildings together at $94,000, and, in the following month, when Messrs. Howard and Stephens got the offer of $110,000, they may really have thought that they were getting $16,000 more for the land than Messrs. Palmer & Turner advised it was possible to get. Mr. Ram, one of the witnesses called on behalf of the Claimants, not only verbally but also in his Report, admitted that the price of $110,000 obtained - by the Claimants was a forced one, and he further admitted, when I put the question to him, that he honestly believed that the sum of $146,000 realised on the sale of this Lot in 1900 was much nearer the true value of the land than the sum of $110,000 obtained by the Claimants in October, 1899.

Referring to Mr. Chapman's List of the Godowns which have been erected in the neighbourhood of Howard's Godowns, I submit that, in view of this big com- petition which was taking place, it was only natural that Mr. Howard's business should not be as flourishing with increased competition as it was in the days when he had things all his own way, and this further goes to shew that Marine Lot 184 was not depreciated in value owing to the silting which they allege was caused by the Reclamation, but rather to the fact of increased competition with Godowns which in construction were much more modern than those of Mr. Howard, and which, as regards location, were much more central.

From the Table of Assessments put in by the Crown, you will see that only a year after the sale by the Claimants, the assessment was raised to $10,800 ̊; the following year it was raised to $14,935, and it continued so for the next few years; for 1905 and 1906 it stands at $15,300, and, similarly, the. Table annexed to Mr. Hooper's Report, shews a gradual increase in rateable value of Godowns affected by the Reclamation. I would submit that these figures shew that these Inland Lots did not suddenly drop 50%, because there was a Reclamation in front of them. The evidence of the experts called on behalf of the Claimants cannot carry very much weight on account of its speculative nature. It is specially marked in Messrs. Leigh & Orange's Report, after giving their Valuation No. 4, which was $2.50 [reads from Report by Messrs. Leigh & Orange.] This was said by Messrs. Leigh & Orange in December, 1898, just about a month after General Black's Award, and was probably given, I should think, with reference to that Award. He remarks (immediately after valuation No. 4) that the Lot had been completely ruined for Godown purposes and was too far West for Chinese residences and shops.

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Taking all these disadvantages (which have turned out to be erroneous) into- consideration, still Messrs. Leigh & Orange say that, after the Reclamation, and considering its value as an Inland Lot, they still put its value at $2.50. Had they known that it was going to be used for Godowns (as it is used to the present day), I have no hesitation in saying that they would have valued it at considerably over that figure. The statement that no real damage was done to this Lot is correct, and this enormous loss, which the Claimants allege they have suffered, is based on purely hypothetical grounds. Therefore, as I submitted to Your Excellency before, the Award which was given by General Black was sufficient to compensate the Claimants, and that they are not entitled to anything further at the hands of this Tribunal.

I would like to add one more remark, and that is that the Plan which has been put in by Mr. Boulton is entitled to far more consideration than the specula- tive evidence which has been put forth by the Claimants..

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL:--I desire once more to impress upon Your Excell ency the proposition I have already laid down, but I quote from the documents put. in by my learned friend-[reads Extract from p. 3 of Governor Des Voeux's Message to the Legislative Council on the Passing of the Praya Reclamation Ordinance, commencing 14th line from bottom.] Now, that is not mere speculation on my part, You will find by reference to page of Governor Des Voeux's Message-[reads. from Message again, page 5, para. 1.] It is very important in considering the moral right of the Claimants to remember that they had no rights of access, but only a common general right, which was enjoyed by everybody. All that they could be compensated for is the extra work entailed in the carriage of goods over the 260 feet which is the distance they have been put back from the sea front. Access to the sea was never cut off; there is now as much access to it as ever there was. You must admit that the Claimants have not attempted to shew anything but an alleged depreciation, which is amply denied by Mr. Danby. I submit that you are not compelled to give anything more to Messrs. Howard and Stephens. The reason of this Tribunal sitting here, I submit, is to say whether or no the Award of General Black was sufficient to meet all requirements of this case.

The

There is just one more word I would like to say, and it is with regard to a certain principle of compensation laid down by Mr. Frederick Stewart, Colonial Secretary, in 1888-[reads from 1903 Petition, p. 18.] That differs entirely from the principle of compensation to be pursued in the present case. principle stated by the Colonial Secretary was that compensation would be given for loss by depreciation. That principle is distinctly over-ruled in the Ordinance. I may say that this Government is in no way bound to add to the sun offered by General Black. In October, 1903, a further sum of $18,000 was offered, but that was simply on the basis of the Musso Award. We simply offered that sum with the object of buying peace. The Government made a very good. thing out of the Reclamation, and they were prepared to give Howard and Stephens just as much as they gave Musso. The Claimants refused to take it, and came into Court.

Summing up for the Claimants.

Mr. CALTHROP :-May it please Your Excellency,--

This case now resolves itself into a claim for damages. As to the claim for consequential damages I wish to call Your Excellency's attention to the Petition in the proceedings before the Court, and the Answer thereto (Suit 94 of 1899).. We claimed at that time the sum of $25,000, and we also went on to say that the value of the property was $200,000; that was in the Petition. The Answer is on page 5. In that Answer, at that time, they said the value of our property was only $101,000, but, at the same time, they said we lost something through diminution and they offered us $15,000, which I say is an admission that we suffered something considerable through diminution. Now they bring in Mr. Danby and Mr. Boulton,. and both say that we did not suffer any loss during those years. I may point out to Your Excellency, in regard to that, Mr. Danby's last Report was made in March, 1896, and the last date Mr. Boulton has on the Map which he sketched is February, 1896. The last claim was in 1895, 1896, 1897 and 1898, and they did not come here to give us any evidence of what happened after March, 1896. It is certainly perfectly true. that we base our claim to a very great extent upon what was said by the Colonial Secretary in his letter (on page 18 of the 1903 Petition), where

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he says we should be entitled to compensation fot the difference between a Marine Lot and an Inland Lot. It was not admitted by the Crown in 1900 that we had suffered any loss at all by our property being turned from a Marine Lot into an Inland Lot, in fact the Attorney General in 1900 denies that our property had been turned into an Inland Lot at all, and in the Answer he denies that the said Marine Lot has been converted into an Inland Lot. I think Your Excellency will say without hesitation that our property must now be an Inland Lot. But, what is the loss we have made by being turned from a Marine Lot into an Inland Lot? Our witnesses have come here and they have said that we have suffered a very considerable injury from this transformation; but it is not alone the difference in value. Mr. Danby came here, and he said it was worth $4 per square foot, but, as a Marine Lot, it was worth $8; that is to say, it depreciated 50% after being turned from a Marine Lot into an Inland Lot. The right basis, I submit, would be to take the difference in value of this property as a Marine Lot in 1899 and as an Inland Lot on the same date. The Crown witnesses say that the price we obtained, namely, $110,000, was a very low one, but, although we only got $110,000 in 1899, still the Attorney General told us that we ought to have been very glad to have got $110,000, and Mr. Turner said he thought it a very good price indeed. Mr. Turner made an entirely independent value, same being for a prospective purchaser. His valuation is $94,000, being the lowest made with the exception of that of Messrs. Leigh & Orange. They said they did not think at the time that it was worth anything as Godowns, so they only put the value of the Godowns as building material.

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL:-I would refer Your Excellency to paragraph 5 of the Petition, where it is stated-[reads from Petition.]

Mr. CALTHROP -The Crown say that it is not worth more than $2 per square foot, and, adding the value of the buildings at $36,000, they make the total value $101,000 exactly, and on that valuation of $2 per square foot they offer us $15,000. Now, Mr. Danby admits that it is worth $3 per square foot, so, if it had been a Marine Lot, it must have been worth very much more, and it shews that we are entitled to at least $1 more per square foot. I do not know if it is necessary for me to go into the question of rateable value, but it is quite clear from the Crown's own shewing that the property was not rated at its proper value. It was rated in 1887, before it started as a Godown, and, after that, the tonnage capacity.only was filled in. Mr. Hooper comes here to-day, and says it was worth a rental value of $10,800; having deducted the Crown Rent, Insurance, etc., he says he would make the rateable value about $10,300, that is to say, that the value on 16 years' purchase, on his own shewing, at the end of 1895, is worth over $160,000. In his valuation, he admits that the rateable value in 1895 would be $10,800, so that shews if it were $10,000, taking the 16 years' purchase (as that was apparently the way they would work it out in the Rating), it would come to $160,000. It cost in 1887 $101,000, and the rateable value then was put at $6,600, that is to say, it was 16 to 1. Therefore taking the rateable value at $10,800, the value of the Godowns could be taken at $160,000. I made a calculation on the capital value, and I divided that by the Assessor's value and, I think, it was admitted by the Crown Witnesses that $101,000 was, very fair value at the time, and, taking it at $100,000 at 7%, then, when you deduct the Crown Rent and Insurance, which would be about $400, that would bring it out at what the Assessor made it at that time, namely, $6,600.

Then as to the question which the Attorney General has referred to, whether we are entitled to claim on account of our access to the sea being cut off. I may point out that whatever legal right we may have, no person would pay the price that is demanded for a Marine Lot if he knew that his access to the sea was going to be cut off, and Mr. Danby in his evidence has admitted this. It is perfectly well known that the Praya is vested in the Crown, but I do not think the Crown are going to interfere and block us from the right in question. The whole question is whether the property, as a Marine Lot, is worth much more than as an Inland Lot. Then I think it is perfectly clear that after we sold our property all the property in the neighbourhood went up, so it is no real criterion. We have evidence to shew that at that time it was a very fair price for the property. We tried to sell it several times, and eventually succeeded in obtaining $110,000 for it, and we have been told that we were extremely fortunate in getting that price.

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APPENDIX D.

QUESTIONS PUT BY THE GOVERNOR TO THE JUDICIAL ASSESSOR AND HIS ANSWERS THERETO.

Question 1.-Should the capitalized value of the net rentals obtained from the property or the value of the land and of the buildings on it, as deduced from the evidence, be taken as the value of the property before the reclamation in front of it?

Answer. The value of the land and of the buildings on it, as deduced from the evidence, should be taken as the value of the property before the reclamation in front of it.

Question 2.-If the former, should the net annual rentals be taken :-

(1.) From what would have been received in any year on the assumption that the full storage capacity of the Godowns was utilized, as proposed in Messrs. Leigh & Orange's Valuation No. 2 of the 28th December, 1898; or

(2.) As what was received in the year 1895, as proposed in Messrs. Leigh & Orange's Valuation No. 3 of the 28th December, 1898; or

(3.) As the average of the receipts for the years 1887 to 1895, as proposed in Mr. W. Danby's statement, dated the 10th June, 1905; or

(4.) From the Valuation of the Assessor of Rates as given in the state-

ment of Mr. A. Chapman, dated the 15th June, 1905 ?

Answer.-Should, however, the capitalised value of the net rentals obtained from the property be taken as the value of the property, then the net annual rentals. should be taken as the average of the receipts for the years 1887 to 1895, as proposed in Mr. Danby's statement, dated the 10th June, 1905.

Question 3.-In the first three cases, dealt with in the last preceding paragraph, should the net rentals be arrived at by making the deductions from the gross rentals given by Mr. T. Howard, or by making in addition the deductions proposed by Mr. H. C. Nicolle in his statement dated the 11th July, 1898 ?

Answer. The net rental should be arrived at by making the deduction proposed by Mr. H. C. Nicolle in, his statement dated the 11th July, 1898.

Question 4.—Should the amount for which the property was sold by Messrs. Howard and Stephens on the 10th October, 1899, or the capitalized value of the property as deduced from subsequent assessments, or the value of the land and of the buildings on it, as deduced from the evidence, be taken as the value of the lot after the reclamation in front of it?

Answer. The value of the land and of the buildings on it, as deduced from the evidence, should be taken as the value of the property after the reclamation in front of it; the amount for which the property was sold by Messrs. Howard and Stephens on the 10th October, 1899, forming part of such evidence.

Question 5.--The statement of claim includes 10% of the full value of the pro- perty before the reclamation was carried out for "compulsory purchase." This claim was abandoned by the claimants' counsel at the hearing. Should it, or any

part of it, be taken into consideration in the award?

Answer.-I think that the claim of 10% was abandoned by the claimants'

counsel without due consideration; and, the case put by the Crown on this point

not being sufficiently strong, it would be unfair to deprive the claimants of this percentage, if they are otherwise entitled to it.

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I am of opinion that there was in this case a compulsory ejectment from the property under its then conditions, the property being thenceforward held under altered conditions.. There is in this a sufficient analogy to the ordinary case of compulsory ejectment from land, to warrant the usual 10 % being added. But this percentage should be calculated only on the subject matter of the compensa- tion, that is, on the altered value of the property: in other words, on the difference in value of the property as a Marine and as an Inland Lot.

.

Question 6. Should the damage, if any, done to the claimants' business by alterations to the sea bottom, if any, which may have resulted from the Praya Re- clamation Works, before these were carried in 1898 in front of the claimants' Lot, be considered an injury sustained by a lessee, as defined at the commencement of Section 8 of the Ordinance, for which compensation may be awarded under Section 8 (6), or as an injurious affecting of the property of a Marine Lot holder, against which claims are barred by Section 9 ?

Answer. The answer to this question depends on the proper construction of Art. 8 (6) of Ordinance No. 6 of 1889.

This Article provides that a lessee who does not signify his acceptance of the conditions laid down by the Ordinance "shall have no claim to any compensation in respect of any depreciation of his Lot by reason of the works". but that the Governor may, if he thinks fit, award him such a sum of money as he may in his absolute discretion think sufficient "as and by way of compensation for any injury that such lessee may have sustained by the works."

The use of the words "compensation for depreciation" in the first part of the sentence, and of the words "compensation for any injury" in the second part, raises a question of considerable difficulty.

""

The contention on the part of the Crown was that compensation for depre- ciation in value was absolutely taken away by the first part of the sentence. I do not think this can be so. For, by the latter part of the Article, the Governor in exercising his discretion as to awarding compensation, is to award such compensation for any injury". "Injury in the ordinary use of the word, includes both "depreciation in value" and consequential injury, such as loss of business directly resulting from the works. If the contention of the Crown were to be accepted, then the compensation to be given by the Governor would be for consequential injury only. I do not agree that this is the true construction of the clause. I am of opinion that the use of the word "injury" in the second part, as distinguished from "depreciation" in the first part, indicates that both forms of injury were to be taken into account, and compensation given both for depreciation in value and for consequential injury. What was taken away was not compensation for depreciation, but the claim" to such compensation: the assessment of the compensation being left to the absolute discretion of the Govern- or. The effect of the clause appears therefore to be this: that the general prin- ciples of compensation for disturbance of private rights for the public benefit are to apply, with the sole difference that the assessment of the compensation is put within the Governor's discretion. It is not for me to enquire why this was done; but a reason may be suggested. The work was undertaken by the Government for the benefit of a few lot-holders; and the sum which the Government would. have in hand for compensation purposes would be limited to the price realised by the sale of the reclamation in front of the refusing lessee's Lot. It may have been considered advisable to limit compensation to this sum: a principle which had in fact been adopted on a previous occasion. It remains to consider the effect of Art. 9 of the Ordinance. This Article excludes compensation "for depreciation or in- jurious affecting of the property" from all persons except as in the Ordinance provided. The lessee who does not signify his acceptance is provided for in the Ordinance. The Article applies therefore to damages alleged to have been suffered by other parties, but not by the claimants. I may however point to the use of the words "depreciation or injurious affecting "; the reference to both forms of injury seems to corroborate the view I take as to the meaning of the clause of Art. 8 already considered.

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As to the alleged injury to the claimants' business, the contention of the Crown was that the Marine Lot, being by the terms of the lease, bounded by the Praya and not by the foreshore, there was no right of access to the foreshore which could be called proprietary, and consequently, the silting, if it occurred, did not inter- fere with any existing right. The intention of the Crown in granting these Marine Lots for which a higher rent was asked, must have been to create Lots with access to the sea, as distinguished from Inland Lots without such access; and I think that for the purposes of the leases, the foreshore and the public road, the Praya," must be taken as one. In my opinion therefore the case falls within the principle given in "Cripps on Compensation" (4th Ed.) p. 128:- "If the physi- cal access from lands or premises to a public highway or navigable river, on which the lands or premises 'immediately abut,' is taken away or rendered less convenient, and the value of such lands or premises is depreciated thereby, the owner is sub- jected to an interference with his proprietary rights, and is entitled to compen-

6.

sation."

If the alleged loss of business in fact occurred, and can be legitimately attri- butable to the alleged silting, if that in fact occurred, this is a proper subject for compensation.

This being so, I answer Question 6 as follows-that the damage, if any, done to the claimants' business, by alterations if any, which may have resulted from the Praya Reclamation Works before these were carried in 1898 in front of the claimants' lot, should be considered an injury sustained by a lessee, as defined at the commencement of Art. 8 of the Ordinance, for which compensation may be awarded under Art. 8 (6).

Question 7.-The statement of claim includes an amount of $9,763.50 for law costs incurred between January 26th, 1896, and September 7th, 1903, in connection with the compilation of the original claim, petitions to the Secretary of State, the suit before the Supreme Court, dismissed with costs on the 1st December, 1900, the petition to the Privy Council for special leave to appeal, dismissed with costs in 1902, and the petition to the King, with regard to which in 1903 His Majesty had not been pleased to give any commands. In the event of the award now given being in excess of either that of General Black on the 22nd November, 1898, or of the offer of $24,367.50 made by the Government on the 9th February, 1904, and declined by the claimants, should these costs or any part of them or the costs of the present proceedings be given to the claimants ?

Answer. In the event of the award now being given being in excess of the offer of $24,367.50 made by the Government on the 9th February, 1904, and declined by the claimants, I am of opinion that the costs of the present proceed- ings should be given to the claimants.

The question whether the costs of any of the previous proceedings should be given to the claimants in the event of the award now to be given exceeding either General Black's award of $15,000, or the offer of the Government of $24,367.50, necessitates a careful analysis of those proceedings.

(a.) The suit in the Supreme Court-Howard and Stephens v. the Attorney General-was a petition to set aside General Black's award. An issue was directed in order to try the question whether the Court had jurisdiction. Judg- ment was given for the defendant with costs.

These proceedings having been wrongly conceived, the costs incurred cannot under any circumstances be given to the claimants.

(b.) An appeal was then presented to Her Majesty the Queen. The answer was that the petition should not have been presented, but that proceedings should be taken before the Supreme Court of Hongkong, if the petitioners were so advised.

(c.) There appears then to have been some further correspondence with the Government, with a view of endeavouring to induce it to increase, or at least to reconsider, the award. This proved unsuccessful; and should the award now to be given exceed General Black's award, the costs of this correspondence should be allowed.

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(d) An application was next made to the Supreme Court for special leave to appeal from the previous decision of the Court, the time for making the application having run out. This was dismissed with costs, on the ground that there had been laches in presenting the motion.

(e.) A further application was then made to the Court for leave to appeal from its refusal to grant special leave to appeal to the Privy Council.

This was granted.

(f.) The Judicial Committee dismissed this appeal, the refusal of the Supreme Court to grant special leave to appeal on the ground of laches being upheld.

In considering whether any of the costs of (d), (e) or (ƒ) should be allowed in the event of the award now to be given exceeding General Black's award, I have been much pressed by the consideration that had the Government yielded to the claimants' request to re-open the matter, none of the proceedings by way of appeal to the Privy Council would have been necessary; nor would they have been taken, having regard to the fact that the claimants had proposed an arbitration. I have also been pressed by the fact that in the judgments in the Supreme Court in (de) both Judges laid stress on the waste of time which had resulted from the corres- pondence with the Government. But the appeal to reverse this decision was dis- missed, the same view being taken of the laches in moving for leave to appeal as in the Court below.

The position as to the costs of all these proceedings is therefore this-The proceedings at law were wrongly conceived ab initio; and there can be no doubt that had the Judicial Committee heard the appeal on the merits, it would have been dismissed. But, on the other hand, had the Government agreed to the arbitration which was asked for, these erroneous proceedings would not have been 'taken. Whether the costs of these proceedings should be granted is, to a great extent, a matter of appreciation; and although the Courts do not have regard to the fact, an arbitrator may well take into consideration the largeness of the plain- tiffs' claim, and the proportion which the amount actually awarded bears to the amount paid into Court.

With regard to these costs, viz., of (d.), (e) and (ƒ), I limit my answer to this: that, equitably they may be given to the claimants.

(g.)-Lastly, a petition was presented to His Majesty the King, praying that further compensation should be granted. His Majesty in 1903 was not pleased to give any commands with regard to this petition.

Should the award now to be given exceed General Black's award, the costs incurred in connection with this petition should be allowed.

CHAMBERS,

• 10th July, 1905.

༧ ཆ

(Sd.) F. T. PIGGOTT,

Chief Justice.

1

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE GOVERNMENT BACTERIOLOGIST, FOR THE YEAR 1904.

No.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

BACTERIOLOGICAL SUB-DEPARTMENT,

10th February, 1905.

SIR,I have the honour to submit, for the information of His Excellency the Governor, the following Report on the work done in the Bacteriological Sub- Department during the year 1904.

The new Public Mortuary was completed during the early part of the year. It is equipped so that the most varied pathological research can be undertaken. The compound includes two large mortuaries, one research laboratory for the ex- amination of rats and other animals, and two small laboratories for research work.

The two mortuaries and research room for animals are constructed on the most modern principles. The floors are of concrete, so sloped and grooved, that all excrementitious fluid matter passes at once into deep side channels.

The walls are white tiled for six feet from the floor and all corners are roun- ded. The windows, doors, and ventilating flues are fitted with wire mosquito- proof gauze. Water and gas are supplied to each room. The post-mortem tables are of slate, and so constructed that they can be readily cleansed.

Each mortuary will accommodate about 16 bodies.

The two small laboratories are arranged so that naked eye and microscopic pathology may be undertaken.

The whole compound is concreted and rendered with cement. cleansed daily.

It is thoroughly

The Bacteriological Institute is nearing completion. It will be ready for the commencement of research work about the beginning of August or September.

During the past year, the routine examination of rats has been carried out by my Laboratory Assistant, Dr. LEE YIN SZE. This Officer has performed his routine duties to my satisfaction. Throughout the year the Sanitary Department has rendered valuable assistance in regard to the cleansing of the Public Mortuary. The Foreman, seconded from this department, to superintend the removal of all bodies of persons who have died from an infectious disease, has been attentive to his duties and kept the Mortuary compound thoroughly clean.

I am glad to say that no case of sickness has occurred amongst the members of

my staff during the year. All those engaged with me at the Public Mortuary are annually inoculated with plague vaccine. I also insist on their being vacci- nated, as they frequently come into close contact with cases of small-pox during the prevalence of this disease in the early part of each year.

During the year, 1,551 human bodies were examined at the Public Mortuary. Of these, no fewer than 1,026 were upon male subjects. This great difference between the number of males and females examined, does not obtain in the case of infants under one year of life. Out of 498 infants examined, 236 were males.

The number of decomposed bodies, sent to the Mortuary, has greatly diminished.

24

1905

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476

The ravages of tuberculosis in its various manifestations, still accounts for the lives of a very large number of Chinese of all ages. The Chinese appear to be extremely susceptible to tuberculosis. The following dictum, quoted by CLEMOW, is very true:-In China, tubercle may be regarded as the principal scourge of the rich class of nobles, while syphilis is the commonest disease among the middle classes, and leprosy among the outcasts.

KocH's theory of distinct species of tubercle still holds sway and is becom- ing supported by a considerable amount of favourable evidence.

In continuation of my researches into the subject, my observations lead to the conclusion, that pathologically there is little evidence of tubercular infection through the alimentary tract. If tubercle bacilli enter the system through this channel, they never leave evidence of having done so, in the intestine. My results bear this out thoroughly.

Quite recently, BEHRING has come forward with a most important announce- ment. It is almost as startling as that made by KoсH in 1901.

He concludes that tuberculosis is acquired in infancy when the intestinal mucous membrane is in a state of considerable permeability. The disease remains potential, until the environment or circumstances of the individual, enable the tubercle bacillus to grow and set up the active disease in its typical form. He quotes in support of his contention, the now well known post-mortem results of NAEGELI, who showed that evidence of active or latent tubercle could be demons- trated in the bodies of all persons over 30 years of age. Again 68% of the men of an Austrian regiment reacted to tuberculin. Again, it is known that acute generalised tuberculosis, tubercular meningitis, etc., are most frequently found in infants and children. Phthisis occurs most frequently during the working period of life. Intestinal tuberculosis is rare at any age.

Further, acute tuberculosis is usually a widespread blood infection. Phthisis is a direct infection through the respiratory passages, and is a more or less local disease of the lungs.

With the theories of KocH and BEHRING before us, therefore, we have:

1. Bovine tuberculosis communicated by food to infants and children. It may remain latent, or cause widespread tubercular infection of their bodies.

2. Human tuberculosis communicated from one adult to another by

contact. It sets up localised tuberculosis, e.g., phthisis.

The

Several interesting cases of poisoning came before my notice during the year. One or two deaths from opium poisoning occur regularly every year. number of these cases would appear to be gradually diminishing.

A case of sulphuric acid poisoning in a Frenchman is specially dealt with in the Report.

Three cases of poisoning, by what appeared to be datura, were found. In one only, could an alkaloid-similar to hyoscine-be isolated by the Government Analyst. Mercuric sulphide to the extent of 1-22 grains was also present. The vermilion, however, is a very insoluble substance, and being present in so small a quantity could not have caused death. I have no knowledge of the existence in the Colony of preparations containing vermilion and a mydriatic alkaloid.

Two cases of what I have termed intra hepatic obstructive jaundice, were found. In each case the substance of the liver was beset with soft cholesterin bile pigment calculi. These varied much in size. The largest stones were as big as a plum. They were situated in the biliary canals or in diverticula of the same.

A special report has been given upon a rare tumour of the supra-renal

}

capsule.

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477

In regard to Fatal Injuries, these figure largely as causes of death at the Public Mortuary.

Rupture of the spleen is again conspicuous as a cause of death.

Injuries to the liver would also appear to account for a considerable mortality.

The question of the mechanism of ruptures of the abdominal solid viscera is most interesting, and I propose to deal with the subject more or less fully in a subsequent annual report. During the latter part of the year, Dr. KоCH and I commenced a research into the etiology of beri beri. A special report on our

results will be issued.

A considerable number of tumours has also been examined. The majority of these were sent to me by local medical men.

312 cases of plague were examined during 1904. Pathologically the cases bore out the conclusions formulated by me in my Special Report on Epidemic and Epizootic Plague.

The relations, existing between rat and human plague, show the same char- acteristics as found in 1902 and 1903. Epizootic rat plague is followed by epide- mic plague within a week or a fortnight.

DANYSZ's virus is to be used in Hongkong for the destruction of rats. The same virus was used last year in France with colossal success.

The cause of the repeated excessive mortality amongst fowls in the Colony and neighbouring parts of China, has been found to be fowl cholera.

One of the principal chapters of this Report deals with the age incidence of pneumonia. It has been found that pneumonia is more frequently found in children than at any other succeeding equal period of life. Again, the mortality from pneumonia would appear to be largest during the first year of life.

Another part of the Report is devoted to the incidence of typhoid fever amongst the Chinese. The conclusion is drawn that the Chinese suffer from en- teric fever as frequently during adult as during infantile life.

The prevalence and peculiarities of infantile typhoid are also discussed.

The bacteriological examination of a Japanese disinfectant called "Disin- fectol" shows that this preparation is highly valuable as a germicidal agent. It is more effectual, but, at the same time, more expensive than Jeyes' Fluid. The preparation and distribution of vaccine lymph has been successfully prosecuted throughout the past year. The lymph has given universal satisfaction. Its only fault is its limited maintenance of virulence. Its activity would appear to be limit- ed to a period varying from 6 weeks to 2 months. On completion of the Bacteriolo- gical Institute, experiments will be made in regard to this question. New apparatus has been ordered from home and the lymph will be prepared according to the methods adopted in the Government Lymph Laboratories in London.

In con- clusion, I shall like to express my sincere thanks to all who have helped me and rendered valuable assistance.

The Honourable

J. M. ATKINSON, M.B., &c.,

Principal Civil Medical Officer,

&C.,

&c.,

I have, &c.,

&c.

WILLIAM HUNTER.

A

2.

478

THE PUBLIC MORTUARY.

1,551 Post-Mortem Examinations were held during the year 1904.

During the last three years, there has been a gradual diminution in the num- ber of necropsies conducted.

Total number of Autopsies in 1902

2,816.

Do. Do.

Do. Do.

in 1903

2,326.

in 1904

1,551.

This gradual diminution in the number of post-mortem examinations is due, in a great measure, to the absence of severe epidemic disease. During the past year, the prevalence of exotic disease was slight. The epidemic of plague was comparatively trifling; cholera, apart from a few scattered and mostly imported cases, never showed itself in epidemic form; and the death-rate from other infec- tious and non-infectious diseases, was, on the whole, somewhat lower than that obtained during the two preceding years.

The establishment of a Morgue in Kowloon has relieved the congestion in the Public Mortuary. This, from a scientific point of view, is a decided boon. With a smaller number of cadavers, much more attention can be devoted to each individual case and the presence or absence of pathological conditions more exactly determined.

Altogether 6,693 bodies have passed through my hands, since I assumed the duties of the Medical Officer in charge of the Mortuary, and in the presence of such a wealth of pathological material, I propose, in this Report, to draw certain con- clusions as to the incidence of disease from several points of view.

The following figures may also be of interest :-

Autopsies on Males during 1904,

Do. on Females during 1904,

Stated in percentages these figures mean:-

Males, Females,..

.1,026 525

66 per cent. ..34 19

Again, it has been stated, by several authorities, that much more frequently found "dumped" than male children. than male children. brought to the Mortuary.

female children are All these bodies are

The figures obtained during the past year are interesting from this standpoint.

Males under 1 year,

Females under 1 year,

236

.262

498

Total,

These figures speak for themselves.

RETURN OF CAUSES OF DEATH DURING 1904.

I.-Total General Diseases, .

II. Total Local Diseases:—

Of the Nervous System,

...1,063

8

Circulatory System,

42

Respiratory System,

206

Digestive System,

30

22

>>

Urinary System,

11

Generative System,

3

""

Ductless Glands,

III.-Total Injuries,

IV. Total Decomposed Bodies,

1

301

95

92

1,551

479

GENERAL DISEASES.

Small-pos,

28

Plague :-

Bubonic Type,

.175

Septicæmic Type,

Pneumonic Type,

.112 25

Total Plague,

.312

Enteric Fever,

47

Cholera,

Diarrhoea (cause unknown),

Dysentery,

35

69

·

1

Beri-beri,

Malaria,

.181

51

Stillbirth,

Marasmatic Conditions,

Septicæmia, Tetanus, Syphilis, Tuberculosis,

Alcoholism,

Premature Birth,

Opium Poisoning,

Poisoning? Datura,

Sulphuric Acid Poisoning,

Distomiasis,

Diffuse Cellulitis,

Hip Joint Disease,

4

1

.4

30

3

31

75

173

4.

3

1

1

2

1

Total,

.1,057

Skeletons,

6

1,063

LOCAL DISEASES.

1. Of the Nervous System

Tubercular Meningitis, Apoplexy,

Internal Hydrocephalus, Cerebral Concussion,

·

II.—Of the Circulatory System

Acute Fibrinous Pericarditis,

Total,

Tubercular Pericarditis,

Aneurism of Heart,

Aneurism of Aorta,

Acute Endocarditis,

Acute Myocarditis, Chronic Myocarditis, Aortic Valvular Disease, Mitral Valvular Disease, Abscess of Heart,

Fatty Degeneration of Heart, Embolism of Coronary Artery, Cardiac Syncope,

1

3

1

6

1

2

4

4

1

1.

3

2

....

1

6

1

10

Total,

42

:

III.-Of the Respiratory System:-

Acute Bronchitis, Chronic Bronchitis,. Pneumatosis,

Gangrene of Lung, Abscess of Lung,

480

Acute Catarrhal Pneumonia,

12

4

6

3

4

84

50

27

7

4

2

1.

1

1

Total,.....

.206

Acute Fibrinous Pneumonia.

Phthisis.

Cascous Tubercular Pneumonia,

Acute Pleurisy,

Endothelioma of Pleura,

Empyema.

Cancer of Lung,....

Pyopneumo thorax,

IV. Of the Digestive System:

1

2

1

2

Intestinal Obstruction, Intussusception, Gangrenous Appendicitis, Intestinal Tuberculosis, Strangulated Femoral Hernia, Strangulated Inguinal Hernia, Acute l'eritonitis,

Tubercalar Peritonitis, Acute Membranous Colitis,

Cancer of the Pylorus,

Primary Cancer of Liver,

Abscess of Liver,

Tabes Mesenterica,

Obstructive Jaundice :--

Extra Hepatic, Intra Hepatic,

....

1

7

2

4

1

1

I

2

2

N N

Total,

30

V.-Of the Urinary System :--

Acute Parenchymatous Nephritis, Acute Glomerulo-Nephritis, Chronic Intestinal Nephritis, Primary Intestinal Nephritis, Gangrenous Cystitis,

VI.Of the Generative System :-

Abortion,

Post-Partem Hæmorrhage,

Total,

11

2

1

Total,

3

VII-Of the Ductless Glands: --

Malignant Disease of Adrenal,

1

Total,.

1

I.-General:-

Burning,

Multiple Injuries,

Suffocation:-

481

INJURIES.

1

2

(a.) From Submersion,

(b.) From Gascous Poisons,

11

4

(c.) From Strangulation,

5

Privation,

22

Total,.

45

II.-Local:-

Of the Head:

Fracture of Vault of Skull,

10

Fracture of Base of Skull,

14

Gunshot Wound of Skull,

3

Total,.....

27

Of the Neck:-

Cut Throat,

Dislocation of Neck,

1

Total,..

3

Of the Chest:-

Fracture of Sternum,

1

Bullet Wound through Heart,

1

Wound of the Lung,.

1

Total,.

3

Of the Abdomen :-

Rupture of Spleen,

Rupture of Liver,

Stab Wound of Liver,

Puncture Wound of Intestine,

Rupture of Liver and Spleen, Rupture of Uterus,

Gunshot Wound of Abdomen,

Fracture of the Pelvis,

Total,.

6

5

1

1

1

1

1

1

17

NATIONALITY OF: BODIES BROUGHT TO THE PUBLIC

MORTUARY, DURING 1904.

Chinese,

European,

Indian, ....

Portuguese,

Japanese, Eurasian,

..1,525

13

7

2

2

Total,

1,551

482

RETURN OF CAUSES OF DEATH OF BODIES OF NATIONALITIES OTHER THAN CHINESE:-

Europeans:-

Cardiac Failure,

Fracture of Skull,

Acute Alcoholism,

Suicide by Shooting,

Poisoning by Sulphuric Acid,

Rupture of Liver and Spleen,

Indian :-

Gunshot Wound,

Suicide by Shooting,

Fracture of Skull,

General Tuberculosis,

Drowning,

Cardiac Failure,

4

4

2

1

Total,

13

2

1

1

1

1

Total,

7

Portuguese

Small-pox,

1

Typhoid Fever,

1

Total,

Japanese

Acute Bronchitis, Typhoid Fever,

1

Total,

Eurasian:-

Rupture of Spleen, Small-pox,

1

1

Total, ............

2

PATHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS.

ICAL

Small-pox.

As in past years, a slight epidemic of small-pox was prevalent during the early part of 1904. Twenty-eight cases of small-pox were examined in the Public Mortuary. Three cases were received in January; nine in March; eleven in April; three in May; one in June; and one in December.

The diagnosis is always made by corpse inspection. Little of any pathological significance is to be found by post-iñortem examination. Almost all the cases examined were those of children under 10 years of age.

Generally speaking the type of disease present was severe, most of the cases manifesting the hæmorrhagic variety of the disorder.

The annual recurrence of epidemic small-pox will continue in Hongkong until China recognises the importance of affording provision of the means for gen- eral vaccination and re-vaccination.

483

Small-pox is one of the commonest diseases in China, and its spread is said to be due largely to the practice of variolisation, which is still performed by in- serting a pledget of small-pox crusts into the nostrils.

Cholera.

35 cases of this exotic disease were brought to the Public Mortuary during the past year.

Almost all the cases of the disease occurred during the months May, June, and July. All the cases were typical, both pathologically and bacter- iologically.

Just as in the case of small-pox, cholera is endemic in Southern China. In Canton, this is especially true. The annually recurring outbreaks of the disease in Hongkong, are due to successive introductions of the infection from Canton and the surrounding country.

Diarrhoea.

This was returned as the cause of death in 69 cases. The majority of the cases occurred in infants, and usually the factors, at work in the production of the loose evacuations, could not be determined.

Similar to what obtains in Western countries, diarrhoeal troubles account for the death of a very large number of children in the first years of life in Hongkong. and surrounding districts.

With the present state of our knowledge in regard to diarrhoeal disorders, any attempt to bring so-called cholera infantum into relation with a definite cause or group of causes, must fall far short of scientific accuracy. In many instances, diarrhoea must simply be regarded as a symptom, occasioned by improper feeding, neglect, and innumerable other temporary and accidental causes. These, unquestionably, account for much of the heavy infantile mortality amongst the Chinese.

Dysentery.

Although

In one case only, dysentery was found to be the cause of death. this disease is rife in China, and common in Hongkong and Canton, it would not appear to figure largely as a cause of death. Post-mortem evidence of old and chronic dysentery, is frequently found, the individual having succumbed to some intercurrent infection.

So far I have been been unable to determine the varieties of dysentery met with in hongkong. Amoeba have been frequently found in the stools of cases of dysentery, and even in other pathological conditions of the intestine. There is accumulating a considerable amount of evidence to show that amabæ play the exciting part in the production of certain forms of this important disease. This variety amoebic dysentery-certainly exists in Hongkong. Again, it is doubtful if amœbæ are ever found in the normal intestine. The bulk of evidence is against the transient appearance of these protozoa in the normal intestine. As MUSGRAVE and CLEGG (Manila) have recently shown, amoeba are not harmless, and in the Orient, the presence of amoeba in the dejecta ought to be regarded as diagnostic of a pathological intestine and a sufficient guarantee for the com- mencement of therapeutic measures.

Beri-beri.

181 cases of the disease were examined during the past year. Towards the end of last year, an investigation into the cause of this disease was commenced by Dr. Koch and myself. Experiments of the most varied character have been made, the results of which are still incomplete. Dr. Koca and I intend to prepare a Special Report on the results of our various investigations.

484

Liver Abscess.

This has been the cause of death in one case, namely, that of an unknown Chinese Female, aged about 36. The liver was uniformly much enlarged, and shining through the capsule of both lobes were numerous yellow patches, variable in size, and boggy on palpation. On section of the organ, the liver substance was found beset by numerous small typical abscesses of the liver.

Streptococci were found in the pus and walls of the abscesses.

There was no trace of old or recent dysentery.

Remarks.-This case is interesting from the following points of view:--

1. It occurred in a Chinese Female.

2. There was no trace of Dysentery.

3. Streptococci were found in the abscesses

A micro-orga-

It is a difficult question to decide the etiology of such a case. nism was found, namely, the streptococcus, but, had this organism to do with the production of the pus, or was its presence there, a secondary matter.

There was

no dysentery, in fact the alimentary canal was normal to the naked eye. Since the publication of my annual Report for 1903, I have been unable to devote much time to this disease and its etiology, but I trust, that in the near future, I may be able to go more thoroughly into the question.

Anencephalia.

Two monsters of this variety were found during the past year.

Both children were stillborn. In both cases, the part of the head above the forehead appeared as if removed The supra-orbital ridges become therefore the topmost parts of the skull. They make the eyes stick out, and give the face a characteristic frog appearance. Only the merest traces of brain substance could be found..

In both cases, the condition was present without retro-flexion, the vertebral canal being open only in the upper cervical region. Other malformations did not co-exist. Both children were females.

Hernia Diaphragmatica.

In both

During the past year 2 cases of this anomaly have been found. cases the children were stillborn. The defect in the diaphragm was in the left side in each instance. Through this the whole stomach had passed, along with the omentum, part of the colon, and a considerable portion of the small intestine. The heart was displaced towards the right. The right lung was fully developed ; the left, however, was only about one-third its normal size, its development having obviously been arrested by the pressure produced by the abdominal organs in the left thorax. The serous membranes of the peritoneal and thoracic cavities were continuous through the hernial opening.

According to ARMHEIM, abont 400 cases of diaphragmatic hernia had been reported up to 1896. The condition is also found in animals. So far as the anatomical characters of condition go, the condition conforms to the general rules for such anomalies. They are not true hernias, in that there was no sac. Further, most authorities are agreed that the left side of the diaphragm is the seat of pre- dilection for such a condition, and to this rule my own cases form no exception.

Tumours.

During the past year a number of new growths have been examined. The majority of these have been sent to me for diagnosis by medical men in Hongkong and along the coast of China. A few cases, however, have been examined by me

!

485

personally in the post-mortem rooms of the Public Mortuary. The following is a list of the new growths which have been examined :-

I. Malignant New Growths.

1. Primary cancer of the liver. 2. Endothelioma of the pleura.

3. Primary scirrhus cancer of the mamma. 4. Cancer of the cervix uteri.

5. Colloid cancer of the stomach.

6. Mixed celled sarcoma of leg.

7. Epithelioma of the penis.

8. Malignant ovarian cystoma.

9. Malignant tumour of the adrenal.

II. Non-Malignant New Growths.

1. Fibroma (arm).

2. Lipoma (neck).

3. Chondroma (fibrons).

4. Myomata (nterus).

5. Papilloma (vulva).

6. Adenonata (breast, bladder).

7. Dermoid (ovary).

8. Mixed tumour of parotid.

:

Opinion is general that new growths are uncommon amongst the Chinese. At the Public Mortuary, I rarely come across many tumours and I understand the experience of those in charge of the local hospitals is similar. Our knowledge of the prevalence and distribution of new growths in China, and even in Asia is very limited. No accurate information is available. According to the writers in the Chinese Customs Medical Reports, huge sarcomatous tumours have been found, and, according to some medical men, the Chinese would appear to be more liable to malignant tumours than other Eastern races. Again, MAXWELL and others have reported on the prevalence of most of the forms of malignant disease in South China. They are of the opinion that there are many fewer cases than at home." However one must remember that, Chinese suffering from malignant new growths rarely enter hospital, preferring to die quietly in their native country. In this way, the majority of new growths in the native population tiever come before us. From what I have seen in the various hospitals for Chinese in Hongkong, I am inclined to the opinion, that malignant tumours are by no means uncommon, and if accurate statistics were available, the prevalence of malignant disease amongst the Chinese would not fall far short of that found in other countries. In the determination of the prevalence of cancer, racial proclivity is said to have a con- siderable share. Black races are said to enjoy a remarkable immunity, yellow races are more prone to suffer, and white races are the most liable to the develop- ment of such new growths. At the present time, however, when so much atten- tion is being paid to the geographical distribution of malignant disease and its causation, the evidence on this point is very conflicting. The antagonism, which is said to exist between malaria and cancer, bas little to recommend it.

A Case of Tumour of the Adrenal.

Tumours of this gland are not frequently met with, hence my reason for putting on record the present case. Long ago, VIRCHOW described hyperplasia of supra-renal capsule and designated these enlargements as struma suprarenalis." The classification of tumours of the adrenal presents many difficulties. Certain new growths reproduce the structure of the supra-renal capsule in a more or less typical manner. Others are described as adenomata and carcinomata, because of the arrangement of their cells, their cell morphology, and the presence of a definite stroma. At the present day, one generally adopts the nomenclature of BIRCH- HIRSCHFELD, namely, adrenal tumours (strictu sensu) and hyper nephromata.

The case which I report at present belongs to the first of these groups, namely, an adrenal tumour or new growth in the supra-renal capsule.

486

The following is the history of the case:-The body of an unknown male Chinese, aged about 30 years, was brought to the Public Mortuary for examination. It was that of a well-built man, of fair nourishment. Beyond the presence of well developed post-mortem lividity, nothing abnormal was found in the skin and subcutaneous tissues. There was no increase of pigmentation of the skin, such as found in cases of Addison's Disease. The pericardium was normal. The heart was pathological, the left ventricle being greatly hypertrophied with incompetence of the aortic and mitral valves. The aorta showed advanced atheroma and an atheroma- tous ulcer was situated about one inch beyond the aortic valve. The lungs, apart from hypostatic edema, were normal. The gastro-intestinal tract was also normal. The liver weighed 3 pounds and was in a condition of fine cirrhosis. pancreas and both kidneys were like wise cirrhotic.

The

The left hypochondriac region was occupied by a firm mass of apparently newly formed tissue. The left kidney was not involved in the mass. Ou careful dissection it was found that this tissue was in reality new growth, and had involved in its meshes, the tip of the left lobe of the liver, the tail of the pancreas, and the capsule of the spleen. The growth had evidently no tendency to down- ward extension and, as already mentioned, the left kidney was quite free. The upper extensions of the growth terminated in the diaphragm.

On palpation, the mass was hard and fibrous like. It was firmly adherent to all adjacent structures.

With difficulty, the contents of the left hypochondriac region were removed en masse, and the tumour more carefully examined.

On section, the cut surface of the new growth had a variegated appearance. Several dense bands of white fibrous tissue traversed the growth, apart from these, the tumour appeared to be made up of a delicate meshwork of connective tissue. The fibrous stands forming the meshes sprang from the stouter bands already mention- ed. In the dense bands of fibrous tissue vessels of considerable calibre were found. In the more delicate meshwork, there was evidence of extensive vascularisation. Enclosed by the fibres forming the delicate meshwork, were areas or islands of softer consistence and variable colour. On palpating these islands of tissue, some had a jelly-like consistence; others were soft and friable and appeared to be com- posed of degenerated tissue. The colour of these areas also varied.

Some were decidedly yellow; others of a reddish brown tint. To the naked eye, the islands of a reddish brown colour, appeared to be areas of softening with fatty degener- ation and hæmorrhagic infiltration.

The tumour was distinctly encapsulated by dense fibrous tissue. Although the liver, pancreas, and spleen were firmly bound to the mass of new growth, there was no evidence of invasion of these organs by the growth.

Each organ was simply sealed to the growth by the surrounding dense connective tissue.

ation.

Pieces of the new growth were preserved in spirit for microscopic examin-

The spleen was fibrous, and showed evidence of old malarial infection. The central nervous system was normal. There was slight hydrocephalus. Nothing of the nature of metastasis was found in the body.

Microscopic Examination of the Tumour.

The coarse bands were composed of extremely dense connective tissue with few nuclei. The capsule surrounding the growth was of similar construction. Leading from these bands were finer strands of connective tissue which formed a network. These were full of small vessels and capillaries. The bands of this delicate stroma enclosed the acini like spaces already referred to. These spaces varied extremely in size. They were filled with large, flat, polygonal cells. They were epithelial in character, varied much in size and contained yellow pigment. In some of the spaces, most perfectly developed cells were found. These resembled morphologically the type of cell found in the cortex of a normal supra-renal gland. Many of the cells were found to show active division, and the karyokinesis was of the regular and irregular type.

3

487

In some spaces, the cells showed evidence of degeneration This was mostly of a fatty nature. In other parts of the tumour, the spaces contained, in addition to the cells, blood-the result of small hæmorrhages from the surrounding vascular

stroma.

It is evident, therefore, that the variegated appearance of the cut surface of the tumour was owing to the presence of these islands of cells, their pigmentation and varying degrees of degeneration and to the occasional occurrence of small hæmorrhagic extravasations.

Remarks:-It is difficult to come to a conclusion as to the real pathologi- cal nature of this new growth. The youngest parts of the tumour contain cells which morphologically are similar to those found in the cortex of the supra-renal capsule. Their polygonal shape, their coutained pigment, and the method of form- ing a tissue, all tend towards such a conclusion.

No giant cells could be found in sections of the growth.

Again, the tumour did not present any of the characteristics described by MARCHAND and others, as occurring in growths from the medullary portion of the capsule.

Taking all the points before me into consideration, I conclude that, in this case, I am dealing with tumour of the adrenal, of progressive growth, and malig- nant characteristics, the cell type being closely allied to cortical supra-renal gland tissue.

Plague.

Number of cases examined-312.

During the past year, a special report was presented to the Government deal- ing with my researches into this disease, from an epidemic and epizootic point of view. The relations, existing between the different types of plague, were fully discussed, and, for a number of reasons, plague was regarded as a septica nic disease ab initio. The avenues of infection in plague were found to be chiefly the alimentary canal and the skin. Again, it is probable that many cases of plague occur through infected food. Plague bacilli have been found in the cheapest and most inferior quality of rice; rats fed with this rice contracte i the disease. Further, nutrient media prepared from rice form suitable soil for the growth of the B. pestis.. The spread of plague by insects can only be occasioned, indirectly by infect- ing food, etc.

.

I endeavoured as far as possible to show the relation existing between human and rat plague. Charts were prepared showing the incidence of epidemic and rat epizootic plague, and from then it is evident that some close relation exists be- tween the two varieties of the disease. Generally speaking, human plague appeared about a week to a fortnight later than rat plague. The appearance of a rat plague epizootic was proved conclusively to be followed by a plague epidemic.

The most important prophylactic plague measure is, in my opinion, a whole- sale destruction of the rats.

During the past year, much fewer cases of the disease have been examined.

The number of rats examined has also greatly diminished. This is disappoint- ing. It may be partly accounted for by the stricter measures adopted by the Sanitary Board for the collection of rats. It cannot be said that the rodent is be- coming scarce in Hongkong.

It is proposed to use Danysz's virus for the destruction of rats. During the early part of 1904, an attempt was made to prepare this virus with cultures of the organism which I brought with me from England, and some which I received from Professor SIMPSON. They were valueless, however, and it was found im- possible to recover their virulence.

Fresh strains of the virus have been ordered from Professor Roux of the Pasteur Institute in Paris, and it is hoped that results, similar to those obtained. in certain parts of France, will be had in Hongkong.

སྟྭ

488

The following types of the disease were met with during 1904 :-

Pestis Bubonica.

Left Femoral Bubo, Right Femoral Bubo, Right Axillary Bubo, Left Axillary Bubo, Right Inguinal Bubo, Left Inguinal Bubo, Right Cervical Bubo, Left Cervical Bubo,

Right Parotid Bubo,

Left Sub-maxillary Bubo,

Right Iliac Bubo,

Right and Left Femoral Buboes,

Right and Left Axillary Buboes,

55

51

21

20

8

6

3

1

1

1

1

Right Femoral and Left Axillary Buboes,.....................

Right and Left Femoral and two Cervical Buboes,

Pestis Septicæmica,.

}

Pestis Pneumonica,

Total,

1

1

.112

25

312

The frequency of the different types of the disease during the epidemic may be expressed as follows:-

Pestis Bubonica,

Septicæmica, Pneumonica,.

**

....

56%

36%

8%

From the foregoing table, it is evident that the largest number of bubonic types of the disease possessed only one bubo. Those of the femoral and axillary regions account for by far the largest number of cases. The buboes have no pre- ference for either side of the body.

In 4 cases more than one bubo was found. Of these, 3 cases showed double. buboes; one was a case of multiple bubo formation.

The presence of double and multiple buboes is of great interest in regard to the paths of infection of the disease. As I mentioned in my Special Report on Plague, buboes must be regarded as secondary, and in all probability are depend- ent upon the micro-organism itself, its virulence, and the individual disposition of the person or persons attacked. It is unlikely that an individual would be inoculated with the plague virus in both legs, and in this way have a right and a left femoral bubo. Again, how are we to explain the occurrence of several buboes? For instance, the presence of a right and left femoral bubo with two cervical buboes in addition, does not look like a question of skin infection.

It would appear, rather, that the plague virus possesses a marked affinity for lymphatic tissue, and that this tissue is one of the first to be affected in plague..

In no case during the past year have I found evidence of abrasion, minute wounds, etc., which would account for the formation of the bubo.

The following table indicates the relative frequency of the different types of plague during the epidemic:-

January, February,

March,

April, May,

June,

Month.

....

Bubonic.

Septicamic.

Pneumonic.

Total.

1

2

3

1

2

3

14

5

19

48

29

1

78

67

42

13

122

35.

27.

1

63

August,

4

6

2

12

September,...

5

1

2

October..

November,

1

1

December,

1

1

༢༥ ༢༥

2

· Total,

175

112

25

312

....

July,

60

$59

58

57

36

55

1.904.

54

53

52

·51

50

$49

48

47

46

45

44

43

41

40

39

38

37

36

35

34

33

324

31

30*

29

28

27

26

26

24

23

22

21

20

19

18

17.

16

15

14

13

12

·11

·10.

.9

8

6

5

4

2

1.

0

Huuan Plague,

Rat Plague,

613 20 27 3 10 17 24 2 9 16 23 30 6 13 20 27 4 11 18 25 1 8 15 22 29 6 13 20 27 3 10 17 24 31. 7 14 21 28 5 12 19 26 2 9 16.23 30 7 14 21 28

491

Epizootic Plague.

Plague in Rats.-Throughout the past year, the examination of rats, found dead, or caught alive, has been systematically carried out. 21,907 rats were sent for examination; of these, 993 were found plague infected. A general chart has been prepared giving the incidence of rat and human plague, and from it the following will be apparent :-

1. Rat plague is present to a greater or lesser extent throughout the

whole year.

2. It becomes epizootic about the beginning of April.

3. The epizootic reaches its maximum about the middle of June.

4. From this time onwards, the epizootic gradually abates, reaching its

lowest point about the end of October.

5. From the beginning of November, there is a tendency towards a

recrudescence of the epizootic.

6. Human plague becomes epidemic more or less suddenly about the middle of April, i.e., about 1 week or 10 days after the commence- ment of the epizootic.

7. The epidemic reaches its highest point about the same time as the

epizootic.

8. If the ascent of both curves be examined carefully, it will be seen that sudden rises in the epizootic are followed closely by exacer- bations of the epidemic.

9. After the epidemic has reached its maximum it quickly fades, leaving

the epizootic still much in evidence.

10. The tendency towards a recrudescence of rat plague, is marked by

the re-appearance of human plague.

In general, it may be said that the curve for 1904 follows closely those given in my Special Report on lague for 1902 and 1903.

The interval between the outbreak of rat plague in epizootic form, and human plague. in epidemic form, has been maintained. During the progressive march in severity of both forms of plague, the disease in the rat always leads the way.

As already mentioned, the rise in rat plague towards the end of the year, was accompanied by the re-appearence of human plague. From my experience of past years, I conclude that should this rise in rat plague be continued during the early part of 1905 we may reasonably expect an early recurrence of the disease in epi- demic form.

In addition to rats, a number of other animals, sick or found dead, have been examined for the presence or absence of plague.

82 Fowls,

...

57 Ducks,

2 Geese,

...

6 Cats,

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

All negative.

Do. Do.

2 returned as infected.

Negative.

Do.

1 Monkey,

1 Babbit,...

Outbreak of Disease in Fowls.

In Hongkong and the surrounding country, outbreaks of a deadly disease are frequently found amongst fowls. During the past year, several of these epi- zootics were brought to my notice, and I had an opportunity of investigating the subject bacteriologically. In a certain number of cases, some account of the course of the disease was ascertainable. The usual tale is as follows:-In some particular district hundreds of fowls have died in a week. On observation the remark is usually made that the fowls look quite healthy one hour and are dead the next. They become weak, and are attacked with violent spasms. Diarrhoea is also fre- quently present, and there is a viscid discharge from the beak and nostrils. The comb and toes become dark red in colour.

492

Many of the fowls were examined by me at the Public Mortuary. The following appearances were found. The beak was covered with a thick yellowish brown discharge. The lungs were congested, and the mucous membrane of the intestines was usually hæmorrhagic. The contents of the bowel were frothy and blood stained. The other organs were full of dark venous blood.

An organism could be isolated from all the body tissues. It was a small, non-motile bacillus, showing bipolar staining. It did not stain by GRAIN'S method, and could be grown easily on all ordinary culture melia. It was pathogenic for other birds, rabbits and mice, and killed guinea pigs if inoculated intraperitoneally.

This micro-organism was identified as the bacillus of fowl cholera. This disease would appear to be widely distributed through Southern China.

Distomatosis Hepaticum.

During the past year, this parasite-Distoma Sinense-has been found in 3 In one case, it was obviously the cause of death; in the other two, the in- dividuals had died of an intercurrent disorder. All the cases were in Chinese adults.

cases.

The general pathological appearances may be described as follows:-Chest, normal; peritoneum, nornial; the gastro-intestinal tract was normal as far as the commencement of the jejunum. From this part onwards, the mucous membrane of the gut was thickened and congested, with the presence of small erosions and hæmorrhages. Numerous characteristic eggs of the Distomum were found in the contents of the gut. The large intestine was normal. No worms were found in the intestinal canal. The liver was always enlarged and increased in weight. Its consistency was fibrous and it had a general anæmic appearance. On section, it was found to be cirrhotc. The biliary canals were much dilated and thickened and welling out from their cut ends was a thick, slimy, brownish fluid, containing myriads of the Distomata. The worms were present in thousands, forming embo- lic like masses in each biliary duct. To give one an idea of the number present in one of the cases, 3 bottles of a capacity of 80 C.C. were packed full of Distomata.. Parasites were also present in the gall bladder. In two of the cases, the parasites were found in the pancreas.

The kidneys, spleen, and other organs were normal. Nothing is known of the life history of this parasite. IJIMA, of Japan, has found the same worm in the

cat.

Probably the immature stages of the worm are passed in some fresh water

animal.

For many years, this Distoma was said to be innocuous, but with more definite information the prognosis is usually unfavourable.

In all cases of obscure hepatic disease in this part of the world, the examin- ation of the fœces for the characteristic eggs of this parasite, should never be neglected.

Sulphuric Acid Poisoning.

A Frenchman, aged 38, on board one of the steamers in the harbour, committed suicide by swallowing a quantity of sulphuric acid.

From the history of the case it is uncertain whether sulphuric acid or oil of vitriol was taken. Further, as the man was a drunkard, it is uncertain whether he mistook the oily fluid for alcoholic liquor. At the post-mortem examination dirty yellow-brownish stains were found about the angles of the mouth. The mucous membrane of the mouth itself was in an escharotic condition. The tongue was brown, leather-like and dry. The esophagus was in a condition similar to that of the mouth. The stomach was contracted. Its inner aspect showed a number of brownish black areas which were in reality eschars produced by prolonged contact with the poison. These were specially marked along the rug. The small intestine was swollen and deeply congested.

The other organs showed little of any interest.

!

493

Opium Poisoning.

This was the cause of death in 4 cases. In every instance, the diagnosis was confirmed by chemical examination of the internal organs by the Government Analys. In suspecting such a cause of death, one has to rely greatly upon the history of the case. The post-mortem appearances are not characteristic. There is great congestion of the abdominal viscera with ecchymosis in the mucous mem- brane of the stomach. The blood is fluid and very dark in colour. The meninges are engorged with blood. In general, the venous system is intensely congested. and the subjects die from asphyxiation. Too much weight must not be attached to the condition of the pupils in a case of opium poisoning. The pupils may be contracted, but they are sometimes dilated. The presence of opium about the mouth, nose and throat of a Chinese body must not lead one to immediately suspect opium poisoning. Such may be done by the friends of the dead person in order to con- ceal some other important disease.

The Age Incidence of Pneumonia, with special reference

to its relative frequency in Infants.

The occurrence of acute fibrinous pneumonia in infancy has been a recognised fact for many years. The relative frequency of the disease in infants has, how- ever, been variably estimated by different authorities. The majority of text books dealing with the subject, up to the present time, discuss the incidence of croupous pneumonia in infants in a brief manner. Usually the question is dismissed with the conclusion, that it is a rare disease. Thus HOLT (Disease of Infancy and Child- hood) concludes that croupous pneumonia is exceedingly rare in infants, but its incidence gradually increases after the first year of life, and reaches its maximum between the ages of three to five years. MORRILL, in his text-book, puts the max- imum incidence of acute fibrinous pneumonia in children between the ages of four and seven years. HENOCK (Trans. Syd, Soc. 1889) regards its frequency at a max- imum between the ages of six and twelve years; and HAWKINS (Pract. 1893) and ASHBY (Diseases of Children) regard the maximal incidence of croup us pneu- monia as occurring much later in life, probably between the age of fifteen and thirty years.

Thus we see that authorities on diseases of infants and children agree in one point, namely, the rarity of the occurrence of pneumonia in infants. As regards the period of maximal incidence of the disease, these experts have a considerable variance of opinion.

Other investigators have made more definite statements in regar to the age incidence of pneumonia. For instance, PFAUNDLER (Munch: Med: Woch. 1902) says: "That this form of pneumonia is exceedingly rare in infancy". RIVIERE (St. Barth. Hosp. Jour. 1902) concludes as follows: "This disease is uncommon during the first two years of life."

The obvious dedaction to be drawn from the investigations of so many emi- nent physicians, would be, that acute fibrinous pneumonia, unlike its sister disease of the lungs, namely, acute catarrhal pneumonia, is a disease only occasionally to be found in infants and not a disorder likely to cause much anxiety to the practi- tioner, his young patients, and their parents.

Within the past year or two, however, a certain amount of doubt has been thrown upon the results of the pure clinician as regards his views on the age inci- dence of croupous pneumonia. Evidence has been adduced as to the difficulty of diagnosis of cases of acute fibrinous pneumonia in infants. Again, statis ical proofs of the incidence of the disease cannot be drawn from clinical observation alone. They must, in all cases, be supplemented by careful post-mortem examination.

It would appear, therefore, that in order to settle the question, once and for all, resort must be made to actual examination of the lung tissues themselves. One must distrust more and more the evidence brought forward by complicated statistical compilations, founded upon clinical evidence only.

It is thoroughly well known that statistics may be made to prove anything. They only become of value when coupled with the truths ascertained by direct observation. Recently COUTTS (Edin: Med: Journal, 1902) and PEARSON (Lancet, 1903) have come forward with statements that croupous pneumonia is most frequent in the first two years of life.

*

:

494

This is a statement somewhat startling when compared with the results of other observers. It is founded, they state, upon combined clinical and pathologi- cal observation, which admits of but few fallacies.

Should this be true, our idea as to the age incidence of acute fibrinous pneu- monia must change. It will become important for the clinician to endeavour to recognise the disease and to clearly differentiate it from broncho-pneumonia. Such a distinction of these two diseases is also of importance as regards the prognosis of the case. Generally, acute fibrinous pneumonia in infancy has a good prognosis; acute catarrhal pneumonia has generally a bad prognosis.

In a recent paper by CLIVE RIVIERE (Lancet, 1903) the following conclusion is drawn: “Croupous pneumonia occurs in infants probably more frequently than in older children and that the mortality from this disease is greatest in the first years of life."

In consideration of the fact that this view, regarding the age incidence of acute fibrinous pneumonia, is new, requiring further investigation, I have thought it of importance to refer to the results of my own post-mortem examinations, so many of which are held upon infants and children.

That the experience to be gained of the frequency and occurrence of diseases of infants and children, is large, goes without saying, when one considers the average number of autopsies held at the Public Mortuary annually. During 1904, out of a total of 1,551 post-mortem examinations, no fewer than 498 au- topsies were held on infants under 1 year. Further, over 50 per cent. of the total number of examinations are conducted on children under 5 years of age. This high percentage of children examined has been maintained since I assumed charge of the Public Mortuary about 3 years ago. During the past 3 years, no fewer than 6,693 post-mortem examinations have been made, and about 60 per cent. of these have been performed on children under the age of five years.

It would appear that the real reason for the variable estimation of the relative frequency and mortality from croupons pueumonia during the early years of life, is that the majority of statisticians have taken their figures from cases diagnosed clinically.

Now, the diagnosis of croupous pneumonia during infancy is a task of consider- able magnitude-notoriously difficult in fact-in view of the frequency of that closely allied disorder, namely, acute catarrhal pneumonia. Again, in the distinction of those two diseases clinically, RIVIERE very properly points out that, a further element of fallacy must be intro lucel, owing to the frequency of broncho-pneu- monia with consolidation of lobar distribution-a pathological condition which vitiates the efforts of even expert stethoscopists to differentiate between acute fibrinous and acute catarrhal pneumonia.

As already mentioned, there are great opportunities of examining the dead bodies of infants and children in Hongkong. Indeed I believe them to be unique. During the past three years, no fewer than 2,000 children under five have been brought for examination.

years of

age

Again, out of 6,693 autopsies, 218 cases of acute fibrinous pneumonia were found.

The following is a resumé of my results as regards the age incidence of the disease:

Number of Cases.

Age.

In 1902.

In 1903.

In 1904.

0- 1

1- 5

30 19

26

12

20

7

5-10

7

4

2

10-20

8

5

7

20-30

9

30-40

5

40-50

7

9

Over 50

1

3

7762}

Total,.......

90

78

50

495

Conclusions:--

1. 30% of the total number of post-mortem examinations held, were

upon children under 5 years of age.

!!!

2. Croupous pneumonia was found to be the cause of death in 3% of the

total number of autopsies held.

3. Out of 218 cases of croupous pneumonia 50% were found in children under five years of age. Of these, 30% occurred in infants under the age of 1 year.

From these results, it becomes evident that acute fibrinous pneumonia is more frequently found in children than at any other succeeding equal period of life.

Again, the large percentage of cases of the disease found post-mortem in in- fants, is probably accounted for by the fact that the mortality from croupous pneu- monia is largest during the first year of life.

Enteric Fever amongst the Chinese with particular reference to its incidence in infancy and childhood.

Since the commencement of my pathological experience at the Public Mor- tuary, I have been on the outlook for cases of typhoid fever amongst the Chinese. My reason for doing so is, that, after a careful perusal of many Government Re- ports, the Chinese Maritime Customs Journals, the various Tropical Medical Journals, and Western periodicals, I am convinced that there exists great confu- sion of opinion in regard to the incidence of this disease in China. This condition of affairs would appear to be due mainly to the absence of carefully prepared records of the various diseases prevalent amongst the Chinese. It is proverbial, that in Chinese Hospitals, Europeanised or otherwise, records of the incidence of disease are conspicuous by their absence, or, if kept, are so imperfect, as to be of no real scientific value.

AS CANTLIE (Practit., 1904) points out, reliable statistics are rarely kept in Chinese Hospitals and there is more or less complete absence of accurate clinical observation.

In regard to the incidence of enteric fever amongst the Chinese, CANTLIE sums up as follows: "Typhoid is rare amongst the Chinese. Chinese children are liable to typhoid, even more so than European children."

This conclusion is based upon clinical observation of cases in Ilongkong, and in particular of patients treated in the Government Civil Hospital of Hongkong. I ain in perfect agreement with Dr. CANTLIE when he states that this Hospital is the only one from which accurate information can be obtained, but I doubt, if much knowledge in regard to the incidence of typhoid fever amongst the Chinese, -can be got from a Government Hospital, absolutely Occidental in its administration, and not likely, therefore, to entice the lay Chinese population to trust themselves to the efforts of Western medical science.

Hence I am of the opinion, that little weight must be attached to returns issued by this Institution, and conclusions deduced as to the prevalence of typhoid fever amongst the Chinese, from the annual reports of the Hongkong Medical Department, are bound to be misleading.

MAXWELL (Journal Tropical Med., 1903) is also of the opinion that the disease is uncommon amongst the Chinese. He stares plainly-without quoting reliable authority-that the disease is unknown in epidemic form.

CLEMOW, in his recent book on the geographical distribution of disease, notes the incidence of enteric fever very clearly. He states: "that enteric fever exists in China there can now be little doubt. Some doubt. as to the possibility of the natives contracting the disease seems to have existed until recently, because it is practically never possible to obtain a post-mortem examination of a Chinese patient, and observers have hesitated to diagnose the disease upon the clinical appearances only."

496

There is a considerable widespread belief in the theory that the Chinese race, like the natives of India, are immune to typhoid fever. The view tentatively put forward is that these races owe their apparent immunity to their suffering from unrecognised attacks of the disease in childhood. It is said that the blood of native Indians over the age of childhood has been repeatedly found to react to WIDAL'S Test. This evidence has, however, been questioned, and would not appear to obtain so far as Chinese are concerned.

I think there can be no doubt that the virus of typhoid fever is very widely spread throughout China. Europeans are attacked in all parts of the country.

It must be remembered that an enormous number of natives are not attended. by skilled observers, and it is therefore possible that large numbers of cases of, and deaths from, enteric fever occur, and are regarded as due to some other cause.

On considering carefully the grounds upon which various observers draw their conclusions as to the frequency of typhoid fever in young, and its rarity in adult Chinese, one finds that the foundation of such conclusions is not so scienti- fically secure, as it would appear at first sight.

At the outset, typhoid fever is, at all times, a difficult disease to diagnose In the tropics, it becomes even more difficult to diagnose, and in the absence of positive evidence of the presence of the exciting agent, or the agglutination reaction, many cases of fever-typhoid-like in course-are almost impossible to understand.

Further, it is difficult to get accurate records of their diseases from the Chinese themselves.

The sick rarely enter a hospital but to die, and, if possible they avoid hospitals administered according to Western principles. Should they enter a Chinese hos- pital, they are allowed to die peacefully, without much effort being made to estab- lish an accurate diagnosis. If they die, no post-mortem examination is made. Even in Chinese hospitals, superintended by European doctors deference is shown to the feelings of the Chinese, and a diagnosis is concocted by the rough and ready method of corpse inspection."

In Hongkong the estimation of the prevalence of typhoid amongst the Chi- nese population is, under ordinary circumstances, a inatter of great difficulty. This is mainly owing to the old Chinese custom of migrating to their own homes. in China, should they feel themselves gradually falling a prey to some malady.

There is little doubt that this occurs on an extensive scale amongst the sick Chinese, and is responsible for the vitiation of our results regarding the incidence of disease amongst this nation. Of all diseases, enteric fever, par excellence, affords the Chinaman every opportunity of reaching his native land, owing to its insiduous onset and prolonged incubation period.

Taking all these considerations into account and perusing the results of the enormous number of post-mortem examinations held at the Public Mortuary, I think it might be possible to ascertain some facts in regard to this disputed but most important epidemiological question.

During the years 1902 and 1903, few cases of enteric fever were examined at the Public Mortuary. Seven cases were met with during 1902, and one during

1903.

The following tabular statement is interesting as regards the age

In 1902.

0-1 year, 1- 5 years,

5-10 years,

10-20 years,

20-40 years,

In 1903, 1 case in infant under 1 year.

No cases.

4

17

1

0 ""

⇒ 2

""

incidence:-

-

·

497

At first sight, the table given for 1902 creates an impression in one's mind that even in the presence of so few cases, the disease is common during childhood, and more common amongst Chinese children than amongst Europeans of the However, if this table is to be interpreted correctly, one must bear in mind the disturbing factors which arise in estimating the incidence of the disease amongst the Chinese.

·

First of all, the number of children brought for post-mortem examination greatly exceeds that of adults.

Again, older children and adults promptly leave their dwellings in Hongkong and proceed" to the country

to the country" when premonitory symptoms of any disease appear.

The same argument applies to the cases of typhoid fever examined during 1904. During the past year, quite an appreciable number of cases were brought for post-mortem examination, and proved to be of considerable scientific interest. During 1904, no fewer than 47 cases of the disease were met with in the Public Mortuary. Each case was pathologically examined with care, and in a few cases the bacillus typhosus was isolated, thus rendering the diagnosis beyond dispute.

The following are the figures for 1904-

0- 1 year,

1- 5 years,

5-10 years,..

10-20 years,..

20-40 years,

16

14

2

I

14

Total,.

47

As will be seen, my experience of the disease in Hongkong is not a large one, but, owing to the fact that all the cases were diagnosed by post-mortem examina- tion, the results of the past year are of value in regard to the geographical dis- tribution and age incidence of this disease in the Far East. At first sight, the figures given for 1904 would appear to support the dictum that in China typhoid fever is a disease of infants and children. The figures are largest amongst children under 5 years of age.

However, it must be noted that during 1904-and this is the only year from which I can deduce any conclusion-the incidence of the disease reaches double figures between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The difference in the number of years of exposure to the infection during these two periods is considerable, but, from what has already been said earlier in this paper, this large incidence of the disease in children under 5 years of age, by no means proves the frequency of in- fantile typhoid.

In support of this contention, I bring forward the following:-

(1.) That 60 per cent. of the total number of post-mortem examinations held at the Public Mortuary are on children under 5 years of age.

If this point be taken into consideration, it is evident that more cases of typhoid fever will appear amongst children, and possibly lead to error in estim- ating the age incidence of the disease.

(2.) That during 1904 about 30 per cent. of the total number of cases of typhoid fever occurred in adults. This is important when one remembers that only 40 per cent. of the total number of post-mortem examinations are held on adults.

6.

""

(3.) That infants and children found sick or dying in Hongkong are taken to one of the Convents, or “dumped ". They are rarely taken into the country

(4.) Adults, finding insiduous disease creeping on them, return post haste to their homes in China.

(5.) The belief in Oriental immunity to typhoid during adult life is not sup- ported by my results.

·

498

(6.) In conclusion, I am inclined to the opinion that the Chinese suffer from enteric fever as frequently during adult as during infantile life, and were the customs of the people and the conditions of life regulated in a manner similar, to that obtained in the Occident, the incidence of this disease would differ but little froin that found in Western countries. In the latter, typhoid fever is also found in infants and children, but its incidence in the young is smothered up by large figures which mark the occurrence of the disease in adults.

The Occurrence of the Disease in Infancy and Childhood.

It was formerly generally believed that infants and children were not subject to typhoid fever. They were known to be liable to fever attended by gastric and intestinal symptoms, which was usually called "infautitle remittent fever." Since the researches of RILLIET in 1840, showing that the majority of cases of so- called remittent fever in children were really instances of enteric fever, a number of investigations have been made into this subject, notably by PROUSSEAU, GEB- HARDT, CURSCHMANN, HILDEBRAND, OSLER, and many others. The majority of writers on this subject have confirmed the view that infants and children are particularly susceptible to typhoid infection.

In view of the fact that a considerable number of cases of infantile typhoid is met with at the Public Mortuary, I feel bound to record the results of my investi- gations. I shall confine my remarks to the cases which occurred during the past year. 30 cases of the disease occurred in children under the age of 5 years, of which 16 were found in infants under 1 year, and 14 in infants between the ages of 1 and 5 years.

The following table gives details regarding the age incidence:—

0-2 months,

2-3 months,

3-6 m nths,

6 months-1 year,

1-2 years,

2-3 years,

3-4 years,

4-5 years,

Total,

1

2

4

7

6

4

5

1

30

'

One case was found in a child under 2 months old. I found it difficult to determine the age of this infant more definitely. The child was found "dumped”. The youngest case on record would appear to be that reported by GEBHARDT, in a child 3 weeks old. OSLER published an account of a case in an infant 5 days old, but this undoubtedly was an instance of " fœtal typhoid ".

The post-mortem appearances of the cases, which have come before me. arc those of early typhoid infection. As one would expect the lesions found in infants and children are less defined and characteristic than those met with in adults.

The peyers patches and solitary follicles were swollen and were in a condi- tion of medullary infiltration just before commencing ulceration. The preliminary general hyperaemia and swelling of the mucous membrane had, in the majority of cases, more or less disappeared. The intestinal patches were usually of a greyish red colour and to the touch were soft (plague molle). The mesenteric glands were swollen, greyish red, and on section the parenchyma bulged with cortical congest- ion. The spleen was enlarged, soft and friable, and full of dark fluid blood. enlargement of the spleen would appear to be more common than in adults.

The

Judging from the post-mortem appearances the cases met with in infants had a duration of about 10 to 14 days. Those found in older children varied from 14 days to 3 weeks.

Bacteriological examination of the liver and spleen in several of these cases was made. The bacillus typhosus was isolated without a great deal of difficulty and responded to the usual differential tests. In one case, a micro-organism was isolated which failed to correspond exactly with the classical B. typhosus. The

:

1

499

general post-mortem appearances were typical. The bacillus isolated was motile, non-sporing, non-gram staining, and could easily be cultivated. The cultures on agar, and gelatine were suggestive of the typhoid or the colon group of organisms. The usual tests were made with different nutrient media, with the following re- sult. The organism did not liquefy gelatine. It gave no indol reaction, and only coagulated milk after 14 days. It formed gas like the bacillus coli and gave a negative reaction with a strongly positive agglutinating serum from a typhoid fever patient.

I am inclined to believe that this micro-organism was closely allied to the para-typhoid group of bacilli. It is proposed, however, to enquire into the pre- sence of this organism in the Far East more deeply, as it may account for numbers of cases showing continued fever, yet giving a negative agglutination reaction when WIDAL'S Test is applied.

Again, the body of a child, aged a few days was brought to the Mortuary for post-mortem examination. The pathological appearances were those of early enteric fever. Bacteriological tests were applied and resulted in the isolation of a micro-organism from the liver and spleen which gave no indol reaction, did not coagulate milk and formed gas in a manner similar to the bacterium coli commune.

In conclusion, I wish to refer to the significance of so-called "ypho-malarial” fever. In China such a fever is apparently far from rare. Mention of its oceur- rence is frequently made by the Medical Officers in the Chinese Customs Service. I think there is a certain amount of evidence to show that such cases of continued and indefinite fever are in reality of the nature of undulant or so-called Mediterr- anean fever.

Bacteriological Investigations.

A considerable amount of pure bacteriological work has been done during the year.

No attempt has so far been made to prepare complicated vaccines and sera. Their manufacture at the Public Mortuary would be attended by considerable risk.

During January, 1904, considerable quantities of DANYsz's Virus were prepared. It was distributed by the Sanitary Authorities through the City. No increased death-rate amongst rats was observed. Having been given a fair trial, the manu- facture of the virus was discontinued. It was obvious that the strains of the virus, with which I had been working, had lost their virulence and resisted all attempts to modify this. They were got from England and South Africa and had been a long time outside the body of a rat or other animal.

Fresh strains of this virus have been ordered from France where signal success, in the destruction of rats, has been attained by Danysz, Roux, and others.

The examination of over 30 samples of water has been made during the year. Two disinfectant solutions were examined by me, at the request of the Presid- ent of the Sanitary Board.

Their names are:-(1) Odamine.

(2) Disinfectol.

Odamine. This disinfectant solution-manufactured in England-was ex- amined bacteriologically in order to test its power of killing the B. pestis.

The following result was obtained :-

(1.) According to LOEFFLER'S method:

.

1% of Odamine in saline solution killed the B. pestis in 10 minutes.

2% Do.,

5%

Do.,

do., do.,

(2.) According to BEHRING'S method:

do.

in 5 minutes.

do.

in 5 minutes.

0.2% of Odamine will not kill the B. pestis with certainty in 24

hours.

1% of Odamine kills the organism in 4 minutes.

5

5% of Odamine kills the organism in 3 minutes.

500

The following conclusions were drawn :-

(1.) Odamine as a disinfectant is not so effectual as Lysol in killing the

plague bacillus.

(2.) The disinfectant power of Odamine is somewhat weaker than that of

Jeyes' Fluid.

The general results of my experiments showed that no advantage was to be gained by the wholesale use of Odamine. It was found to be less effectual as a germicide than Jeyes' Fluid which is generally employed in Hongkong as a disin- fectant and deodorant.

Disinfectol. This is a Japanese product and prepared by the Formosan Gov- ernment. It is a thick fluid of dark brown colour. It has a pleasant smell. It mixed easily with water forming a milky coloured fluid. It is strongly alkaline in reaction.

In examining this preparation the usual bacteriological technique was em- ployed. Solutions of different strengths of Disinfectol were prepared and brought into contact with living micro-organisms growing on solid and liquid nutrient media.

The following is a resumé of my results :-

TABLE NO. 1.

Tests on Solid Media.

"

1

Bacillus

Strength of

Solution.

Staphylo

Coccus.

Bacillus Bacillus Typhosus.

Coli.

Anthracis (Sporing.)

Bacillus Pestis.

1

5%

30' +

5' +

5' +

5 days +

25′ 0

6' 0

10′ 0

1 week 0

5' + 6' 0

1%

15' +

3' +

5' +

20 0

5' 0

6' 0

Do. Do.

l'+ 2' 0

5%

10' +

1' +

1' +

3 days +

30′′ +

12′ 0

2' 0

1.' 30" 0

4 days 0

1' 0

10%

1' +

2' 0

30′′ +

10

Mcment +24 hours +

Moment +

1' 0 48 hours 0

30" 0

+ -Alive.

0 Dead.

TABLE No. II.

Tests on Fluid Media.

Strength of Solution.

Bacillus Typhosus.

Bacillus

Pestis.

%

5' +

5'. 30" 0

3' + 4' 0·

1%

2' +

3' 0

30" + 1' 0

5%

30" +

Moment +

1' 0

30"

$

501

From these results I drew the following conclusions :

(1.) The germicidal action of Disinfectol is a strong one.

(2.) Lysol and Disinfectol rank closely together as disinfectants.

(3.) Disinfectol is a better disinfectant and antiseptic than Jeyes' Fluid and other preparations of a similar composition.

The blood serum of a large number of suspected cases of enteric fever has been examined by WIDAL'S Test. In the majority of instances, the serum was obtained from patients in the Government Civil Hospital. The results would not appear to be so satisfactory as those obtained at home. Many cases which have been submitted to this test have given a negative result in equal parts of typhoid culture and blood serum. Obviously these could not be typhoid fever, yet the appearances presented clinically are typical of the disease.

An explanation of these discrepancies is as yet not forthcoming. I am con- vinced that many of the cases of continued fever have nothing to do with the specific typhoid bacillus.

It would appear that a number of medical men still decry the value of the agglutination test in typhoid fever. Such a test, like the majority of others, is not infallible, and a point of interest, to those apparently in ignorance, is the fact that specific agglutinins may persist in the blood serum for many years after an attack of the actual disease. It is a well recognised fact that occasionally positive reactions are obtained in very different diseases to typhoid fever, e.g., gonorrhoea, small-pox, etc., but should surprise be the result of the examination, it usually shows defective enquiry on the part of the clinician into the past history of his case.

On several occasions, pure cultures of the typhoid bacillus have been obtained from the spleen post-mortem.

A few swabs from the throat have been examined for the presence of the B. Diphtheria. Positive results have occasionally been obtained, both the long and short variety of the organism being present.

Diphtheria, though undoubtedly met with, is a rare disease in China. It would appear to be more commonly found in the northern parts of the country. Writers on the subject of Diphtheria state that the disease is more intense and fatal in natives than in European residents.

During the year, short report on cattle disease was published by Mr. GIBSON, the Colonial Veterinary Surgeon, and myself. In it we drew attention to the existence of two new diseases amongst the cattle in Hongkong, namely, Trypano- somiasis and Pyroplasmosis. Further, we noted the inadvisability of encouraging the establishment of cattle raising industries in the Colony, until something more definite is known in regard to the diseases likely to seriously interfere with such an undertaking, and the methods of their prevention.

An outbreak of disease in goats occurred during the past summer, and was investigated bacteriologically. It appeared to be one of the forms of hæmorrhagic septicæmia.

The diagnosis of anthrax in cattle has also been established on several occa- sions.

The Bacteriological Examination of Water.

During 1904, a number of samples of water were sent to me for bacteriological examination. No sample of water was examined and reported upon, unless the sample sent was stored in a sterilised bottle and forwarded within a couple of hours to the Laboratory. Further, every sample on being forwarded was packed in ice. The usual methods of quantitative and qualitative bacteriological examina- tion were employed. The determination of the number of micro-organisms in the water examined, was carried out, according to the German and American practice of estimating the number of colonies of bacteria at the end of forty-eight hours.

:

.

502

In samples of suspected polluted water, spicific organisms were isolated as far. as possible. In pronouncing upon the character of a potable water, the following arbitrary standard was established :-

(1.) Water containing less than 300 colonies of micro-organisms per

cubic centimetre is a good and potable water.

(2) Water containing from 300 to 1,000 colonies of micro-organisms per cubic centimetre is open to suspicion, and if used for potable purposes, ought to be filtered.

(3.) Water containing over 1,000 colonies of micro-organisms in 1 cubic centimetre is presumably contaminated by sewage or surface drain-

age.

A judicial interpretation of the sanitary quality of water is a matter of extreme difficulty. . No absolute standards of purity can be established which shall rigidly separate the good from the bad. The factors involved in sanitary` water analysis are so complex and the evidence so indirect that the process of reasoning much resembles au intricate question in medical diagnosis Any stan lar which is devised, as to the purity of a water, must be applied with great caution, and I trust that the limits of range set up by me are not stated in ton conservative a fashion. During the past year. I have had ample opportunity of comparing the results of my bacteriological examinations with those furnished by chemical, tests.

On estimating the delicacy and exactness of each method, I have drawn up the following summary of the position which the chemical and the bacteriological methods of examination at present occupy in their bearing upon the detection of pollution in water and water supplies.

The view that the chemical composition of water always has a direct relation to the number of micro-organisms, receives little support, unfortunately, from a large number of experiments which have been made.

Frequently a large number of micro-organisms is associated with an excess of solid matter. But the same chemical conditions may exist when the number of micro-organisms has been reduced to a vanishing point.

:

Again, water with little or no solid matter may contain a large number of micro-organisms, and the same chemical conditions may be present when these organisms are practically rendered non-existent.

In concluding from the standpoint of our knowledge at the present time, there is little doubt that, for the detection of actual sewage contamination, bacteriological methods are much more delicate and definite than chemical analysis.

It has, in fact, been shown that a recent contamination of a-water supply by sewage can easily be detected by bacteriological measures, even when the pollution is so slight as one part per million-a microscopic degree of pollution, which it is very

doubtful if chemical methods would be able to derect. At any rate chemical analysis would not be able to detect the pollution to such an extent as to allow of an exact diagnosis.

To take a broad view of the value of both methods of examination of water, the following may be said:

Chemical analysis may be of value when an exact quantitative estimation is required. Bacteriological examination should be definitely qualitative.

The two methods ought to go hand in hand.

One must bear in mind that the purification of water by filtration through sand is essentially a biological process. The purifying efficiency of a filtering bed, from a disease point of view, can only be ascertained by resorting to bacterio- logical methods of examination.

Micro-organisms, and not chemical substances, are, after all, the real materies

morbi.

Though the presence of chemical substances may indicate impurity, it does not follow that it is of a specifically dangerous kind.

.

503

Relapsing Fever.

During the past year, a number of microscopic slides were forwarded to me by Dr. HILL of Pakhoi for diagnosis. On examining these with the ordinary tinctorial methods, I found them teeming with the Spirillum Obercieri, i.e., the exciting agent of relapsing fever. Dr. HILL had also found them but wished

his diagnosis confirmed.

This disease is known to exist in North China. I do not know of any cases having been found in Hongkong unless those imported from India or North China.

There is good reason to believe that the disease does not so far exist in Hong- kong.

The disease is mentioned as being the most common form of fever at Teng- chow-fu. In 1877 it was epidemic at Tientsin, and in former years has raged in North China, Pekin, Swatow, and the surrounding country. It is also common amongst the Chinese in Sumatra, and experts there say that the disease was originally introduced from Swatow (GRAHAM, Jour. Trop. Med., 1901).

}

The factors determining the spread of this disease are as yet imperfectly un- derstood.

Recent work on protozoology, however, is interesting in this respect, that it throws a considerable possibility of the spirillum of relapsing fever being con- veyed from man to man by some form of mosquito.

As a matter of fact there has always been a considerable amount of doubt as to the real nature of this spirillum. For want of something better, it has been classed with the bacterial spirilla. It differs, however, from all of these, in being pointed at both ends, and in its flexibility, and it cannot be cultivated.

The recent researches of SCHAUDIUN, however, leave little doubt that the spirillum obermeieri is a protozoan parasite. It is probably a phase in the life of a Trypanosoma and is spread broadcast by some suctorial insect-most likely a form of culex mosquito.

Should cases of relapsing fever present themselves in Hongkong, it is propo- sed to carry on a research along the lines indicated by SCHAUDIUN. With a certain degree of care in such a research there ought not to be any great obstacle in the way

of satisfactorily proving the insectiverous spread of the exciting agent of this disease, in a manner similar to that of malaria, filiariasis, etc.

Malta Fever.

There is every reason to believe that Malta or Undulant fever has a much wider geographical distribution than is generally supposed. Beyond Europe the disease is certainly known in different parts of Asia. There has been frequent note made of the existence of the disease in Bombay, the Punjab, and in Simla.

In China the evidence for the presence of the disense is of the same nature. MANSON states that he has probably seen cases in Hongkong, and WRIGHT, DURAND, and others, have described cases of continued fever in persons from Hongkong, in which the blood gave a serum reaction with the bacterium melitensis.

Again, the fever would appear to be endemic in the Philippine Islands. Quite a number of authentic cases have occurred in Manila. With all this evi- dence before us, it is only just to admit, that in all probability, we have the disease with us in Hongkong, but, that in the absence of definite symptoms and the omission to apply the serum reaction, such cases of continued and indefinite fever, remain undiagnosed or classified as typhoid fever, septicænia, acute tuberculo- sis, or other vague febrile disorder.

504

The Vaccine Institute.

During the year 1904, the preparation and output of small-pox vaccine was efficiently maintained. The following figures show the extent of the work done during the year :-

1. Number of Calves inoculated,

2. Expenditure in Calves,

3. Number of Tubes prepared,

4. Value of 1904 Lymph,

5. Number of Tubes issued,

6. Value of Tubes issued,

7. Tubes issued free of charge,

17

$100

5,284

$2,642

6,893

$2,215.50

4,709

8. Value of Tubes issued free of charge,

·

$1,442.00

2,184

$773.50

9. Tubes paid for,

10. Value of Tubes paid for,

These figures show the following increase in the value of the work done dur- ing 1904 :-

(1.) The number of Calves inoculated has been diminished by over 40%. (2.) The expenditure in Calves has been diminished by 50%.

(3.) The number of Tubes issued has been increased by 1,532 over that of 1903.

(4.) An increase in value of the Tubes issued by $368.

Out of the 17 Calves inoculated, one died. The cause of death of this animal was a form of septicemia, common in Hongkong.

It is a matter of common experience that for the preparation of small-pox vaccine, buffalo calves give the most uniform results. The lymph and adjacent granulation tissue have to be collected about the end of the fourth day. On an average about 400 tubes per calf are obtained.

Indian and Chinese calves have also been experimented with, in view of the fact that these animals can be more readily obtained for the preparation of the virus, and at a lower price. My expectations, however, have not been realised. Indian calves occasionally yield a plentiful supply of lymph. The results are inconstant. Chinese calves do not give good results; frequently no reaction whatever is obtained after thorough vaccination. Buffalo calf vaccine produces but a slight reaction in Indian and Chinese calves, and vice versa. One strain of vaccine may be converted into the other, but the strongest, most constant, and longest yield of lymph is generally obtainable by the regular use of buffaloes.

Considerable care has been taken to keep np the efficiency of the vaccine. It would appear that vaccine prepared in Hongkong, only retains its virulence for one month or six weeks.

Generally speaking, the vaccine has given satisfaction to all who have used it.

Issues of Vaccine during 1904.

Vaccine paid for,

The Victoria Gaol,

The Tung Wah Hospital,

The Civil Hospital,

The Alice Memorial Hospital,

The New Territory,

The Sanitary Department,

The Infectious Diseases Hospital,

Total,

2,184

1,500

1,500

1,300

248

110.

21

30

6,893

On the completion of the Bacteriological Institute, it is proposed to prepare all the vaccine there. There will be ample accommodation for the calves, and a room will be set apart for the manufacture of the lymph. A complete set of appa- ratus, similar to that used in the Lister Institute, in London, has been ordered from England. The use of these apparatus will greatly facilitate the manufacture of the vaccine, and insure, as far as possible, the intimate mixing of the lymph and glycerine, and a uniform consistence of the fluid. Again, the use of this new process will obviate the introduction of so large a number of extraneous mucro- organisms which constantly reach the vaccine when prepared by hand.

14

:

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE BLUE BOOK FOR 1904.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

No. 146.

HONGKONG.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 2nd June, 1905.

No. 22

1905

SIR,-I have the honour to submit for your information the following general Report on the annual Blue Book for the year 1904.

L-FINANCES.

The Revenue for the year, exclusive of Land Sales, amounted to $6,322,949.35, or $1.594,257.18 more than the previous year. Land Sales amounted to $486,098.64, or $24,067.07 less than in 1903. The total revenue from all sources was therefore $6,809,047.99, or $1,570,190.11 greater than in any previous year, and $200,739.99 more than the estimate. All the main sources of revenue show an excess over 1903 with the exception of Post Office, Miscellaneous Receipts, Water Account and Land Sales, and all items similarly show an excess of actual over estimated receipts, with the exception of Post Office, Miscellaneous Receipts and the Water Account.* Licences and Internal Revenue not otherwise specified show an excess of $283,757.78, while Fees of Court or Office, &c., and Rent of Government Property yielded over $25,000 and slightly under $6,000 respectively over the estimate.

The Expenditure for the year was $4,993,421.18 exclusive of Public Works Extraordinary; inclusive of that item it was $6,376,235.30, or $979,565.82 more than the total expenditure of 1903. Deducting from the actual expenditure for 1904 the total actual receipts, there was a surplus of $432,812.69 on the actual working of the year.

(a.)--GENERAL REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.

The following is a brief abstract of Revenue and Expenditure for the years

1903 and 1904-

Revenue.

1903.

1904.

Increase.

Decrease.

$

$

Light Dues,

74,960.00

72,330.16

2,629.84

Licences and Internal Revenue not

otherwise specified,

Fees of Court, &c.,

2,849,936.09 4,509,162.78 1,659,226.69 352,719.02 403.854.60 51,135.58

Post Office,

414,867.20

408,458.92

6.408.28

Rent of Government Property,

615,683.01

688,321.41

72,638.40

Interest,......

5.964.73

7.813.43

1,848.70

Miscellaneous,

178,602.00

167,059.66

11.542.34

Water Account.

235,960.12

65,948.39

170.011.73

Land Sales,

510,165.71 486,098.64

24,067.07

Total.....

5,238,857.88: 6,809,047.99 1.784,849.37

214,659.26

Deduct Decrease.............. 214,659.26

Nett Increase.

$1,570,190.11

* This account was formerly credited with 2 of the rates levied in those Districts which are supplied with filtered water.

The Right Honourable

ALFRED LYTTELTON,

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies,

&e..

&c..

$c.

!

j

i

Non-effective Charges,. General Administration, Law and Order, Public Health,

Public Instruction,

Public Works,

Defence,

430

Expenditure.

1903.

$

1904.

(.

$ C.

372,154.46

391,893.89

951,837.14 900,784.82

Increase.

Decrease.

:

$

C.

19,739.43

51,052.32

866,206.38 855,506.25

10,700.13

685,206.11

647,926.69

37,279.42

132,619.74

155,189.34

22.569.60

1,369,532.14

2,129,900.58

760,368.44

999,374.08

1,314,773.16

315,399.08

Total.

5,396,669.486,376,235.30 | 1,098,337.12

118,771.30

Deduct Decrease,

Nett Increase,

118,771.30

$979,565.82

The following shows the total revenue and expenditure for the five years 1900-1904 :—

Revenue, Expenditure,

Surplus,

Deficit,

1900.

$

1901.

1902.

1903.

1904.

('.

$

$ (.

4,202,587.40 4,213.893.22 4,901,073.70 5,238,857.88 | 6,809,047.99 3,628,447.134,111,722.49 5,909,548.515,396,669.486,376,235.30

574,140.27 -102;170.73

432,812.69

1,008,474.81 157,811.60

(b.) ASSETS AND LIABILITIES.

At the end of the year 1904, the assets of the Colony amounted to $1,445,381.80, exclusive of arrears of revenue which with the sum just mentioned bring the total assets up to $1,651,470.98. The total liabilities were $1,147,658.97, so that the surplus of assets over liabilities amounted to $503,812.01.

(c.)-PUBLIC DEBT.

There is a public debt of £341,799 15s. Id. outstanding. The original debt was incurred in connection with the Praya Reclamation, the Central Market, and Water, Drainage and Sewerage Works.

Interest at 3 per cent. is payable on the loan, which is being paid off by a Sinking Fund now amounting to £34,375.7.6.

431

II. TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES,

AGRICULTURE AND LAND.

(a.) TRADE AND SHIPPING.

The

The following Table shows the principal articles of import in the year 1904 in vessels of European construction, compared with similar returns for 1903. figures represent the tonnage :-

Articles.

1903.

1904.

Increase.

Decrease.

Beans,...

3,120

750

2.370

Bones,..

400

400

-Coal, :

1,186,686

1,152,454

34,232

Cotton Yarn and Cotton,

20,795

19,350

1,445

Flour,

120,430

115,921

4,509

Hemp,..

24,149

19,382.

4,767

Kerosine (bulk),

40,607

56,965

16,358

(case),

82,960

100,692

17,732

Lead,

550

3,563

3,013

Opium,

4,997

2,955

2,042

Liquid Fuel,

1,000

9,727

8,727

Rattan,

4,020

5.080

1,060

Rice,.

597.730

823.339

225,609

Sandalwood,.

4,713

3,300

1.413

Sulphur,

961

187

774

Sugar

229,946

205,696

24,250

Tea,.

1,746

1,746

Timber.

64,400

66,200

1,800

General,

1,594,600

1,564,678

29.922

Total,

3,983,410

4,150,639

274,699

107,470

Transit,

2,874,950

3,151,926

276,976

Grand Total,

6,858,360

7,302,565

551,675

107,470

Nett,.

111,205

The total tonnage entering and clearing during the year 1904 amounted to 24,754,042 tons, being an increase, compared with 1903, of 714,180 tons, and the same number in excess of any previous year.

There were 58,093 Arrivals of 12,388,892 tons, and 5,099 departures of 12,365,150 tons.

Of British Ocean-going tonnage, 3,862,802 tons entered and 3,845,932 tons cleared.

Of British River Steamers, 2,849,896 tons entered and 2,847,464 tons cleared. Of Foreign Ocean-going tonnage, 2,679,908 tons entered and 2,670,939 tons cleared.

Of Foreign River Steamers, 235,144 tons entered and 235,227 tons cleared. Of Steam Launches trading to ports outside the Colony, 52,892 tons entered and 52,892 tons cleared.

Of Junks in Foreign trade, 1,524,874 tons entered and 1,547,396 tons cleared. Of Júnks in Local trade, 1,183,376 tons entered and 1,165,300 tons cleared. Thus:

British Ocean-going tonnage represented,.

River

""

Foreign Ocean-going

River

19

Steam Launches in Foreign traile

Junks

Local trade

:1

**

Per cent.

31.2

23.1

21.3

1.9

0.5

12.5

13

9.5

100.0

!

432

A comparison between. the years 1903 and 1904 is given in the following Table Steam Launches are not included :-

;

1903.

1904.

Increase.

Decrease.

British,.. Foreign,

Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage.

8,449 11,250,296 |10,190 | 13,406,094 | 1,741 2,155,798| 6.040 7,768,115 | 4,732|| 5,821,218

Junks in Foreign 31,766 2,698,459 36,251 3,072,270 4,485||| 373,811|

Trade,

1,308 1,946,897

Total,...... 46,255 | 21,716,870 51.173|22,299,582|| 6,226|2,529,609 1,308 1,946,897

Junks in Local

Trade,

*

+

+

58,215 2,136,514|62,965.||2,348,676 | 4,750| 212,162

Grand Total,... 104,470 | 23,853,384 |114,138 | 24,648,258 |10,976 2,741,771 1,308 1,946,897

NET,

9,668 794,874

* Including 17,210 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 637,052 tons.

† Including 32,424 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 1,176,625 tons.

For vessels under the British Flag, this Table shows a total increase of 1,741 ships of 2,155,798 tons, viz., an increase of 352 ships of 930,300 tons to Ocean- going, and an increase of 1,389 ships of 1,225,498 tons to River Trade.

The above increase in Ocean-going trade is principally due to a large influx of colliers and other tramp steamers in ballast, attracted to the Far East by the War.

The increase in River Trade is due to 10 new vessels having started to ply during the year.

Under Foreign Flags, the Table shows a decrease of 1,308 ships of 1,946,897 tons of which 159 ships are River Steamers. The River Steamers tonnage, however, shows an increase of 36,008 tons, giving a net decrease in Foreign Ocean shipping of 1,149 ships of 1,910,889 tons.

This decrease is due to:

(1.) The disappearance of all Russian and almost all Japanese ships-

from the run since the War began.

(2.) The transfer of a large number of small German and Norwegian

vessels to the Japanese Coast Trade.

(3.) A considerable decrease in numbers (but increase in tonnage) of

vessels under United States of America colours.

The decrease in numbers of Foreign River Steamers is due to the smaller number of individual vessels plying, while the increased tonnage is accounted for by their larger size.

The actual number of ships of European construction (exclusive of River Steamers and Steam Launches) entering the port during 1904 was 860, of which 498 were British and 362 Foreign. These 860 ships entered 3,981 times, giving a total tonnage entered of 6,509,919 tons. Thus compared with 1903, 119 more ships entered 38 times less and with a total tonnage decreased by 499,262 tons.

རྩྭ་

433

STEAMERS.

No. of Times

Ships.

entered.

Total Tonnage.

Flag.

1903. | 1904.

British,

331

1903. 1904. 1903. 1904.

4981,9822,151 3.368,7883,843,355

Austrian,

15

13

42

Belgian,

32 1

106,944 102,349

Chinese,

14

172

180 222,164

2,047 241,085

Danish,

27

13

48,676 26.817

Dutch..

11

21: 44

French.

42

36

262

238

34,575 246,837 234.977

84.379

German.

126 147

937

861 1.345,567 1,268.835

Italian...

12

20 32,732

38.212

Japanese,

69

467

51 1.017.263

114.951

Norwegian,

51

318

253

319,685

276,211

Portuguese..

30

7,110:

12.167

Russian,

19

30.781

14,578

Spanish,

6,017

Swedish,

31

12

26,093

8.582

United States,

61

64

200,706

232,857

No Flag.

1.260

2.500

Total,

709 859 4.3833,981 7,009,181 6,509,919

SAILING VESSELS.

Ships.

No. of Times entered.

Total Tonnage.

Flag.

1903. 1904. 1903. 1904.

1903.

1904.

British,

13

14

11

27,525

19.447

Dutch.

1

84

French,

German, Italian...

NXN

7,194

3.411

2.045

47

...

994

Japanese,

120

Norwegian,

འ།

1.498

3.651

Sarawak,

1

2,676

1.338

Swedish,

1.271

United States.. No Flag,

11.177

2.867

1498

919

Total,

32

25

داد

26 55.004 32,791

During the year 1904, 14,922 vessels of European construction, of 19,227,312 tons (nett register), reported having carried 10,572,844 tons of cargo, as follows:--

Import cargo,

Export

Transit

Bunker coal shipped,

Tons.

4,150,639

2,605,861

3,151,926

664,418

10,572,844

In Imports there is au increase reported of 167,229 tons.

In Exports there is an increase reported of 360,742 tons.

In Transit Cargo there is an increase reported of 276,976 tons.

"

1.

L

434

The total reported Import Trade of the Port for 1904 amounted to 26,588 vessels of 11,205,516 tons, carrying 7,889,978 tons of cargo, of which 4,738,052 tons were discharged at Hongkong. This does not include the number, tonnage, or cargo of Junks or Steam Launches employed in Local Trade..

Similarly, the Export Trade from the Port was represented by 26,639 vessels of 11,199,850 tons, carrying 3,436,726 tons of cargo, and shipping 670,811 tons

of bunker coal.

Seventy-six thousand three hundred and four (76,304) Emigrants left Hong- kong for various places during the year; of these, 52,496. were carried by British Ships and 23,808 by Foreign Ships; 149,195 were reported as having been brought to Hongkong from places to which they had emigrate 1, and of these, 121,735 were brought in British Ships and 27,460 by Foreign Ships.

The total Revenue collected by the Harbour Department during the year was $300,933.95, being an increase of $15,645.53 on the previous year :—

1. Light Dues, .

2. Licences and Internal Revenue,

3. Fees of Court and Office,

$ 72,330.16 62.418.00 166,185.79

Total,

.$300,933.95

(b.) INDUSTRIES.

For the first ten months of 1904 the Cotton Spinning industry suffered severely from the abnormally high price of Raw Cotton, and during the whole of that period short-time was resorted to. From November onwards a good demand was experienced for Yarn and full-time again adopted, but it was not until the middle of December that, as a result of large crops of Cotton in the chief producing countries, the cost of the raw material declined to a figure that permitted of spin- ning being carried on at a profit. At the end of 1904 the outlook for the industry was encouraging, and, provided the price of Cotton keeps at a reasonable level, the result of the working for 1905 is expected to be highly satisfactory.

The Sugar industry in the Colony during 1904 resulted in large profits to the two local refineries. Owing to the scarcity of supplies in consequence of the large deficiency in the European Beet Crop, prices gradually advanced throughout the year, without checking demand; the quantity of refined Sugar consumed in China largely exceeding that of any previous year, while there was also a good demand

from other markets.

41 Steam-launches and other vessels with an aggregate tonnage of 7,290 were built during the year.

The other large industries in the Colony connected with repairing aud docking ships and the manufacture of cement and rope, are in a prosperous condition.

(c.) FISHERIES.

A considerable proportion of the boat-population of Hongkong supports itself by deep-sea fishing, in which pursuit a large number of junks are engaged. The villages of Aberdeen, Stanley, Shankiwan, and many others in the New Territory are largely dependent upon this industry for their prosperity. Fresh-water fish is imported from Canton and the West River.

Rules for the regulation, control, and licensing of Oyster Fisheries in the New Territories were made during the year.

(d.) FORESTRY, BOTANICAL SCIENCE AND AGRICULTURE.

111,198 trees were planted in Hongkong during the year including 105.645 pine and 1,978 camphor trees. It was proprosed at the commencement of the year to introduce a scheme for felling and re-planting pine forests on the block system with a twenty-five years rotation. But as the scheme was looked upon

435

with ill-favour by the public and as the opinion was expressed in well-informed quarters that a longer period of rotation was preferable, it was decided to suspend felling operations while the advice of the Indian Government was obtained. A scheme of issuing Forestry Licences in the New Territories was initiated in the hope of inducing the Chinese to adopt more economical methods in dealing with the considerable plantations of pine trees formed before the cession of the Terri- tories, and with the object of tempting them to take up fresh areas of waste lands for further planting. The small area available for rice cultivation and the unfer- tility of the soil combine to prevent agriculture from becoming a prominent indus- try in the Colony. The low-lying land in the New Territories is probably utilized to nearly the fullest extent possible, and it is therefore from the profitable cultiva- tion of the steep hill slopes that any increase in the productiveness of the Territo- ries may be derived. In this connection the cultivation of pine apple, and experiments that are being made with sisal hemp are of much interest.

(e.) LAND GRANTS AND GENERAL VALUE OF LAND.

The amount received from sales of Crown land was over $486,000, being some $24,000 less than the receipts for the previous year.

Building land in the urban portion of the Colony and in the Peak District is limited in extent and steadily increasing in value. The natural consequence is that house-rents, especially on the higher levels, have advanced to an extent probably unknown in other British Colonies.

III.

LEGISLATION.

Sixteen Ordinances were passed during 1904, of which six were measures for the amendment of existing Ordinances. The most important measure was the Sugar Convention Ordinance (No. 14 of 1904) giving effect to Article VIII of the Brussels Sugar Convention, 1902. By the Hill District Reservation Ordinance (No 4) a residential area is preserved at the Peak.

The Opium Monopoly was further protected by an Ordinance (No. 10) controlling the importa- tion and sale of compounds of opium. By the Pilots Ordinance (No. 3) provision was made for the examination and licensing of Pilots, who must be British sub- jects.

IV.-EDUCATION.

The number of Government and Grant Schools including Queen's College, is 81, of which 23 are Upper Grade Schools in which at least part of the staff is European, and 58 are Lower Grade Schools, under purely native management. Broadly speaking the Upper Grade Schools teach in English, and the Lower Grade Schools teach in the Vernacular.

The total number of Scholars in average attendance at Government and Grant Schools was 4,970. Of these, 1,665 were in Government and 3,305 in Grant Schools; 2,906 Scholars received instruction in English, and 2,064 in the Vernacular. The proportion of boys to girls was 3,236 to 1,734, or a little less than two to one.

A small Anglo-Chinese School was opened at Un Long in the New Territory early in 1904; and arrangements were made to open a new School for children of British parentage at Caroline Hill, East Point. The Kowloon School for children of similar parentage, opened in 1902, has had an average attendance of 54.8 as against 46.4 in 1903.

The new Code for Grant Schools has been in force during the year, and has worked very satisfactorily.

It was decided to introduce the study of Hygiene into all Government and Grant Schools and a suitable text book was prepared.

The Revenue derived from School Fees was $36,251.50. The Expenditure was $151,589, being 2.32% of the total expenditure of the Colony.

436

V.-PUBLIC WORKS.

The principal public works in progress during the year were the Tytam Tuk Water-Works (1st Section) commenced in March and consisting of a Storage Reservoir with a capacity of 194 million gallons, 2 sets of Engines and Pumps capable of lifting 1 million gallons a day each with 18" pipe line; the construction of a new 20-foot road to accommodate the mains of the Tytam Tuk Water-Works and improve the road communications of the Island; the Kowloon Water-Works, previously described, on which good progress was made; the New Law Courts, Harbour Office, Western Market, Bacteriological Institute, Disinfecting Station at Kowloon, Gunpowder Depôt at Green Island; the further extension of the Cattle Depôr, and the foundations for the New Post Office and Government Offices. A commencement was made with Quarters for Officers at Taipo, and a Public School at Yaumati. Another Bath-house for both sexes in the western part of the Town was completed. An area in Kau U Fong, Victoria, recommended by the Sanitary Experts for resumption, was purchased by the Government at a cost of over $220,000. Good progress was made with the scheme of 100-foot thoroughfares in Kowloon, the road through the King's Park being completed and portions of several lots resumed for the extension of Robinson Road northwards. About $40,000 was spent on Nullah Training in the Colony and $20,000 on the re-construction of street gullies to improve the City drainage system. A beginning was made towards improving the lighting of the Harbour approaches by arranging for the transfer of the 1st order light at Cape D'Aguilar to a new Tower on Green Island. Reclamation was undertaken at Tai-kok-tsui, in conjunction with a private owner, by which that locality will be much improved. New Rifle Ranges near Kowloon were constructed by the Military Authorities at the expense of the Colony. The laying of a heavy specially wound cable for telephonic purpose across the Harbour was successfully undertaken during the year. The work of laying Rider-Mains was also commenced.

The total amount expended on Public Works Extraordinary, exclusive of the Praya East Reclamation and Rider-Mains, was $1,264,351.30 and on works- annually recurrent $532,751.85.

VI.-GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS.

(a.) HOSPITALS.

Government Hospitals consist of the Civil Hospital to which is attached an isolated Maternity Hospital, the Victoria Hospital for Women and Children, the Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital, and the hulk "Hygeia" used mainly for the treatment of small-pox.

The Civil Hospital contains 150 beds in 19 wards. 2,585 in-patients and 13,106, out-patients were treated during the year 1904. 223 cases of malarial fever were admitted as against 346 in 1903 and 349 in 1902. The Maternity Hospital contains 4 beds for Europeans and 4 for Asiatics. 61 confinements occurred during the year with 2 deaths. The Victoria Hospital, opened in Novem- ber, 1903, by Sir HENRY BLAKE, is situated at the Peak and contains 41 beds.. During 1904, 111 patients were under treatment. Kennedy Town Hospital con- tains 26 beds in the main building. In 1904, 87 cases were treated, of which 78- were plague and 5 cholera. On the

On the "Hygeia" 40 cases were treated, of which 32 were small-pox.

(b.) LUNATIC ASYLUM.

The Asylum is under the direction of the Superintendent of the Government Civil Hospital. European and Chinese patients are separate, the European portion containing 8 beds in separate wards and the Chinese portion 16 beds. 166 patients of all races were treated during 1904, and there were 13 deaths.

(c.) THE TUNG WA HOSPITAL.

This Hospital, opened in 1872, is mainly supported by the voluntary subscrip- tions of Chinese, but receives an annual grant of $6,000 from the Government. Only Chinese are treated in this institution which takes the place of a poor-house-

}

437

and hospital for Chinese sick and destitute, and is administered by an annually- elected body of 15 Chinese directors. Chinese as well as European methods of treatment are employed in accordance with the wishes expressed by the patients or their friends. The Hospital is managed by a Committee of Chinese gentlemen annually elected, their appointment being submitted to the Governor for confirm- ation. The financial position of the Hospital was improved during the year and its title to its investments in land was secured by Ordinance.

OTHER GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS.

The Prison, Observatory, Post Office, Educational Establishments and other Government institutions are dealt with under separate heads.

VII. INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT.

Among institutions recognised and encouraged but not to any considerable extent supported by Government may be mentioned the Pó Leung Kuk, the College of Medicine for Chinese, and the City Hall.

The Pó Leung Kuk is an institution, incorporated in 1893, presided over by the Registrar-General and an annually-elected Committee of 12 Chinese gentlemen, for the protection of women and children. The inmates of the Home receive daily instruction in elementary subjects and are allowed to earn pocket-money by needle-work. During 1904, a total of 676 persons were admitted. Of these, 287 were released after enquiry, 38 were released under bond, 138 were placed in charge of their husbands, parents or relations, 8 were placed in charge of the Japanese Consul, 76 were sent to charitable institutions in China, 15 were sent to School, Convent or Refuge, 11 were adopted, 29 were married and 2 died. In con- sequence of an epidemic of beri-beri during the summer the women's quarters were vacated and the inmates temporarily distributed between the Tung Wa Hospital and the Italian Convent.

The Hongkong College of Medicine for Chinese was founded in 1887, for the purpose of teaching surgery, medicine, and obstetrics to Chinese. The govern- inent of the College is vested in the Court, of which the Rector of the College, who has always been a Government official, is President. Eighty-seven students have been enrolled up to the end of 1904, and of these 19 have become qualified. licentiates and have obtained various posts under Government and elsewhere. The institution is of great value in spreading a knowledge of Western medical science among the Chinese; and in addition to the employment of certain of the licentiates in the public service, the senior students have frequently been made use of for various purposes during epidemics. A Government grant-in-aid of $2,500 is made to the College, to be used as honoraria to the lecturers.

The City Hall receives an annual Grant of $1,200 from Government. It contains a Reference Library and Museum.

VIII. CRIMINAL AND POLICE.

A

The total of all cases reported to the Police was 11,812, an increase of 560 or 4.97 per cent. over those reported in 1903. In the division of these cases into serious and minor offences there is a decrease in the former as compared with the previous year from 4,862 to 3,532, that is of over 27 per cent., occurring in every nature of crime with the exception of offences against women and girls.

The number of serious offences reported was 334 below the average of the quinquennial period commencing with the year 1900.

The number of minor offences reported shows an increase of 1,890 over the number for 1903, mainly in offences against the Prepared Opium Ordinance due to a considerable rise in the price of opium and consequent surreptitious manu- facture and smuggling of the drug, and in offences against the Sanitary Bye-laws, which were more stringently enforced as the Public became better acquainted with the provisions of the Public Health and Buildings Ordinance of the previous

year.

438

The number of minor offences reporte: was 1,640 over the average of the quinquennial period.

The total number of persons committed to Victoria Gaol was 7,464, as com- pared with 7,273 in 1903, but of these only 4,027 were committed for criminal offences, against 4,644 in 1903. Of committals for non-criminal offences there were 439 more under the Prepared Opium Ordinance and 133 more for infringe- ment of Sanitary Bye-laws.

The daily average of prisoners confined in the Gaol was 726, the highest previous average being 653 in 1903. The percentage of prisoners to population, according to the daily average of the former and the estimated number of the latter, was .201 as compared with 189, the average percentage for the last ten years. The Prison discipline was satisfactory, the average of punishments per prisoner being 1.1, as compared with 2.34 in 1903 and 3.42 in 1902. The continued overcrowding of the Gaol emphasises the necessity for the proposed new Convict Prison, and the question of a fresh site has for some time past been under consideration.

The remunerative labour carried on in the Gaol consists of printing, book- binding, washing, carpentry, boot-making, net-making, painting and whitewashing, mat-making, tailoring, oakum-picking, etc., the value of the work done being $47,938.13.

The total strength of the Police Force for 1904 was Europeans 133, Indians 375, Chinese 485, making a total of 993, as compared with 921 in 1993 exclusive in each case of the four Superior Officers and a staff of clerks and coolies. Of this Force an Assistant Superintendent, who also acted as Magistrate, and 20 Europeans, 81 Indians and 43 Chinese were stationed in the New Territory during the greater part of the year.

The force of District Watchinen to which the Government contributes $2,000 per annum was well supported by the Chinese during the year and its strength increased by 13 to a total of 95.

IX.-VITAL STATISTICS.

(a.) POPULATION.

The population of the Colony according to the Census taken in 1897 was 248,880 and according to the Census of 1901 it was 283,975 exclusive of New Kowloon and the Army and Navy Establishments. The estimated population at the middle of the year under review, was 361,206, as follows:-

Non-Chinese Civil Community.....

10,181

Hongkong,

206,304

Chinese Population,

Old Kowloon.

65,072

New Kowloon (approximate),. Floating Population,.....

20,000

50,930

342,306

Army, Navy,

4,359

4,360

8,719

Total,.........

361,206

New Kowloon was brought under the jurisdiction of the Sanitary Board in 1904, and its estimated population has accordingly been included. The population of the remainder of the New Territories according to the census of 1901 was 85,011 making when added to the present estimate a grand total of 446,217.

The total strength of the British Fleet on the China Station was estimated at 10,067, as compared with 8,905 in the previous year. At the Census taken in 1901 the actual number of members of the Navy present in the Colony was 5,597 and the estimated average number resident in Hongkong during 1904 is put at 4,360.

439

The total number of births registered in the Colony was 1,205, and of deaths 6,118. This gives an annual birth-rate, of 3.3 and a death-rate of 16.94 per 1,000, as compared with 3.2 and 18.9 in 1903. The death-rates both in the Chinese and non-Chinese sections of the community were lower than any recorded in the last 15 years. The excess of deaths over births is explained by the fact that thousands of Chinese families are represented in Hongkong by men only, there being a very large floating population of adult males, and that many of the Chinese in case of illness return to their own country. It should also be re- membered that a large proportion of births among the Chinese remains unregistered, though steps are being taken to remedy this irregularity as far as possible.

(b.) PUBLIC HEALTH AND SANITATION.

It is satisfactory to note that during the year under review a better acquain- tance on the part of the Chinese with the requirements of the Public Health and Buildings Ordinance of 1903 has resulted in a marked decrease in the opposition, especially with regard to the cleansing and disinfection of houses, that at first did much to impede its successful operation.

The houses that are in course of erection in accordance with the provisions of this Ordinance show considerable improvement on the existing type of house as regards adequate lighting and ventilation. The question of overcrowding is still an urgent one, the number of persons per acre in the built over area of the Central Districts having increased from 562 in 1902 to 608 in 1904.

It was hoped that the Electric Tramway, opened early in the year, would cause the coolie classes to move to the outskirts of the City, but it has rather had the opposite effect, the tendency being for labourers to come into the centre of the City to live and to take advantage of the cheap fares to go out to their work.

Under the Insanitary Properties Resumption scheme an area of 24,898 square feet has been resumed in one of the most densely populated areas of the City for the purpose of forming a wide street through the existing block of houses, and a further open space has been given to the public by the opening of Blake Park in the Western Taipingshan District.

There were 495 deaths from plague; this was 756 less than in 1903 and except for the years 1895 and 1897 the lowest mortality since the first outbreak of the disease in 1894. Respiratory diseases accounted for 1,394 deaths among the Chinese, or 23.7 of the total number of Chinese deaths. The deaths from beri-beri were high, totalling 735 for the year. The result of the measures adopted for the prevention of malaria is seen in the continuous reduction in the number of deaths from this disease from 574 in 1901 to 301 in 1904.

(c.) CLIMATE.

The

The average monthly temperature throughout the year was 71.6° F. as com- pared with 71.5° F. in 1903 and 72.0° F. during the ten preceding years. maximum monthly temperature was attained in August, when it reached 86.0° F., and the minimum monthly temperature was recorded in January, when it was 55.4° F. The highest recorded temperature during the year was 91.1° F. on the 26th June, and the lowest 44.5° F. on December 24th.

The total rainfall for the year was 80.41 inches as compared with an average of 77.33 inches during the past ten years. The wettest month was August, with 27.64 inches, the dryest, January, with only 0.12 inch. The greatest amount of rain which fell on any one day was 11.135 inches on the 25th August, while no rain fell on 137 days of the year. The relative humidity of the atmosphere through- out the year was 7.7 per cent., as compared with an average of 77 per cent. during the past 10 years.

The average daily amount of sunshine was 5.2 hours being 46 per cent. of the possible duration.

X-POSTAL SERVICE.

The total Receipts paid into the Treasury in 1904 by the Postal Department amounted to $532,742.94 from which sum $124,282 was transferred to other heads of General Revenue under which fees and duties are paid in stamps, which are now sold exclusively by the Post Office, leaving the sum of $408,418.92 as

J

440

Revenue of the Postal Service. The net profit of the Postal Department after deducting $316,756.56 as Expenditure, amounted to $91,702.36 being an increase of $11,012.56 more than that realized in 1903.

Books containing 1, 2 and 4-cent stamps to the value of $1 were available from the beginning of the year and were purchased to the number of 3,040. A direct exchange of money orders with the Transvaal Post Office was arranged. British Postal Orders are now cashed in Hongkong and the British Postal Agencies in China.

The Parcel Post Convention concluded with the United States of America came into force at the beginning of the year.

All branches continue to show an increase over the return for the previous year.

XI-MILITARY FORCES AND EXPENDITURE.

(a.) REGULAR FORCES.

The following return shows the number and composition of the Forces employed in the Colony during 1904-

CORPS.

EUROPEANS.

INDIANS.

CHINESE.

TOTALS.

Officers.

Warrant

Officers.

N, C. O.'s

& Men.

Native

Officers.

·W. O.,

N. C. O.'s

& Men,

N. C.O.'s

& Men.

General Staff,

Garrison Staff,

10

5

5

3

. 3

Royal Garrison Artillery,

Hongkong-Singapore Bn. R. G. A.,

Royal Engineers,

Chinese S. M. M. Co., R. E.,

1st Sherwood Foresters...

E: 85:

17

625

642

10

9

389

415

13

196

209

69

69

11

446

457

Army Service Corps,

4

20

24

Royal Army Medical Corps,

10

41

51

A. O. Department and Corps,

7

31

38

A. P. Department and Corps,

93rd Burma Infantry,

114th Mahrattas,

110th Mahratta L. I.,

2nd Royal West Kent Regiment,...

50 00 00 00 A

8

11

...

14

698

720

14 690

712

14

689

711

1

47

48

Totals.

105

1,426

49

2,466

69

4,115

(b.) COLONIAL CONTRIBUTION.

The Colony contributed $1,270,741.03 (being the statutory contribution of 20 per cent. of revenue) towards the cost of the maintenance of the Regular Forces in the Colony and Barrack Services.

(c.) VOLUNTEER CORPS.

The total establishment of the Cors is 426, of all ranks. The strength on the 31st December, 1904, was 272, made up as follows:-Staff, 8; two Garrison Artillery Companies, 202; one Engineer Company, 32; Band 3; Troop 27.

A small mounted Corps was formed in the latter part of the year under the designation of the Hongkong Volunteers Troop, for purposes of scouting and to act as orderlies in time of war.

An association called the Hongkong Volunteer Reserve Association was also formed. Members who must be over 35 years of age are required to make themselves proficient in rifle shooting and undertake to enrol themselves under the Volunteer Ordinance in the event of hostilities. The Association numbered ninety- six members at the close of the year.

ia

441

The expenditure on the Volunteers, which is entirely borne by the Colony, was $44,032.13.

XII.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

The outbreak of war between Russia and Japan on the 8th February was not without effect on the shipping trade of Hongkong. The percentage of British to total tonnage entering and clearing which had fallen continuously from 75 to 59 in the previous 10 years. rose to 70 in 1904 owing to causes already given in this report. The war brought in its train various questions, involving recourse to the law courts of the Colony, relating to its effect on charter parties and to the refusal of duty by seamen on ships carrying contraband. Speculation in blockade run- ning resulted in some heavy losses to the Chinese and there was tightness of money at the end of the year. After the naval action at Chemulpo on the 9th February some Russian wounded were treated in the Hongkong Hospitals pending removal to Europe and the attention paid to them was duly recognized by the Russian Government. Later 4 Officers and 61 men from a Russian torpedo boat destroyer, who had taken refuge at Weihaiwei, were transferred to Hongkong and arrangements for.their maintenance here made in consultation with the Russian Consul.

An attempt was made in the latter half of the year to start the shipment to South Africa via Hongkong of indentured labourers recruited in the Kwang Si and Kwang Tung Provinces on similar conditions as regards terms of engagement and arrangements for transport to those embodied in the Convention for shipment of labourers to South Africa from the Treaty Ports, which was signed in London on the 13th May, 1904. An agreement was made by the Acting Consul General at Canton with the Viceroy of the Two Kwang for despatching to Hongkong labour- ers recruited at Wuchow by the Chinese officials. The class of recruits obtained in this manner was not satisfactory nor were the numbers obtainable from the two Provinces, in the face of opposition from persons interested in recruiting for other countries, sufficient to justify the maintenance of the depôt here. The attempt was therefore abandoned after 1,746 labourers had been despatched.

A rebellion in Kwang Si, which died down towards the end of the year, enabled Hongkong to render a service to China by rigorously maintaining restric- tions on the export of arms and ammunition from the Colony.

The construction of a railway from Canton to the frontier of the territory under British jurisdiction, for which the British and China Corporation had made a preliminary agreement with the Chinese Government on the 28th March, 1899, formed the subject of discussion in London with the Directors of the Corporation with a view to an arrangement being made for working this railway with one to be constructed from the frontier of the New Territories to the sea at British Kow- loon. The strong feeling of the Government and of the entire commercial com- munity of the Colony as to the importance of the complete undertaking to the prosperity of Hongkong was expressed in the Rert on the Blue Book for 1903.

During the year the work of the New Territories Land Court, established in 1900, and subsequently reconstituted, was completed. 354,277 separate lots had been demarcated and their ownership determined at a cost of $143,615. Appro- priate titles to these lots have since been issued.

The rice crops in the New Territories were good, and an increase in the number of houses in nearly all the villages evidenced increased prosperity. The peasants appeared to appreciate the greater security they derived from adequate police protection and showed willingness to assist in improving road communica-

ations.

Building activity in old Kowloon and Yaumati gives hope that in time the considerable available area on the mainland south of the hills will furnish relief to the congested districts of Victoria. This relief will probably be accelerated when the proposed railway is in hand.

442

On the Island satisfactory progress was made on the two large docks under construction by the Admiralty and by Messrs. BUTTERFIELD & SWIRE, The 3' 6" electric Tramway from Kennedy Town through Victoria to Shau-ki-wan village (94 miles of route) was opened to traffic and in spite of fares that are high for China is largely used by Chinese of all classes.

Generally the year was a healthy one marked by steady development but not characterized by any event of great importance.

The Government was administered by Mr. F. H. MAY, C.M.G., from the com- mencement of the

year until

my arrival on the 29th July.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient, humble Servant,

M.. NATHAN,

Governor.

:

No. 1.

HONGKONG

REPORT ON THE BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT, FOR THE YEAR 1904.

No. 8.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT, HONGKONG, 24th March, 1905.

SIR, I have the honour to submit, for the information of His Excellency the Governor, the Annual Report on this Department for the year 1904.

STAFF.

The Department was administered by the Superintendent throughout the year. The Assistant Superintendent, Mr. W. J. TUTCHER, went home on a well- earned year's leave on the 29th of March. During the four or five weeks in the Autumn that the Superintendent was obliged to be absent from the office on various services in the New Territory, the First Clerk, Mr. WONG LUN-I, was left in charge of the Department and discharged a difficult task with considerable tact.

Mr. TUTCHER while in England has been elected a Fellow of the Linnean Society, an honour upon which he is much to be congratulated.

BOTANIC GARDENS.

Water Supply.-The water service of the Gardens was greatly improved during the year by the substitution of an uniform system of 3" pipes for the previous irregular one. A considerable saving in labour and expense will be effected in consequence of this work, and the inconvenience to visitors necessitated by gardeners filling watering-cans from the fountain will be avoided.

Military and Naval Bands.-The fine band of the Royal West Kent Regiment played in the Gardens three times during the winter.

Dr. KRUGER's kindness in securing a performance of the band of the German Flagship S.M. gr. kr. "Fuerst Bismarck was also much appreciated.

Ornaments.-Two small field guns were kindly presented to the Gardens by H. E. the General Officer Commanding and have been placed one on each side of Sir ARTHUR KENNEDY'S statue.

Square Bamboos.--(Phyllostachys quadrangularis, Rendle). In consequence of a request from Sir ERNEST SATOW that this Department would endeavour to obtain and acclimatize the Square Bamboo with a view to providing specimens for the Calcutta Botanic Gardens, Mr. MORTIMORE, British Consul at Wenchow, was approached and asked to send a few clumps to Hongkong. Mr. MORTIMORE most kindly undertook to do so, and in March a box of them was received in good condition. The clumps were at once planted in various situations and all are doing well.

The bamboo grows on the Island at Wenchow upon which the British Consulate is situated. This is a new record of the species for the Province of Chekiang and connects the two previously known habitats in Kiangsu and Fokien.

Rainfall.-Details of daily rainfall throughout the year will be found in Appendix E. The most remarkable falls occurred at the ends of June and July respectively.

Exchanges.-The chief recipients of plants and seeds were :-

Sir THOMAS ACLAND (England), Lady BLAKE (Ceylon), Botanic Gardens of Adelaide, Brisbane, Calcutta, Capetown, Ceylon, Christchurch (N. Z.), Durban, Jamaica, Kew, Lagos, Melbourne, Saharanpur, Sierra Leone, Singapore and Sydney, Hon. A. W. BREWIN, Com- modore DICKEN, Capt. FITZWILLIAMS, Dr. FRANCESCHI (California), Forestry Bureau (Manila), Government Civil Hospital, H. H.

:

1

-154

GOMPERTZ, Rev. G. GUSSMANN, Dr. HASS (Tsingtau), E. R. HALIFAX, Capt. HODGINS, E. HUTCHINGS, Mrs. IRVING, Capt. LIGHT, LI PAK, Police Stations at Aberdeen, Cheung Chow, Shatin, Tai O, and Tung Chung, Dr. A. PROSCHOWSKY (France), C. ROEBELEN (Siam), Mrs. SHARP, Mrs. SLADE, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Inspector A. WATSON, and Victoria Gaol.

The chief donors of plants were as follows :-

Lady BLAKE (Ceylon), Botanic Gardens of Durban, Kew, Saharanpur, Singapore, Sydney and Trinidad, Mrs. EHMER, Forestry Bureau (Manila), Harvard University, U. S. A., Dr. HASS. Tsingtau), H. E. Major-General V. HATTON, Capt. HODGINS, Capt. LIGHT, Rev. L. MARIE, S. W. MOORE, R. H. MORTIMORE (Ningpo), Messrs. JARDINE, MATHESON & Co., W. B. PRICE (California, Mrs. SHARP, Mrs. SETH, Mrs. SLADE, J. GRANT SMITH, South California Acclima- tization Association, Prof. Sargent (U. S. A.), C. ROEBELEN ( Siam), W. H. WALLACE (Amoy), E. L. WOODIN (Sandakan).

OTHER GROUNDS.

Protestant Cemetery.-Gardening operations were carried out by the Foreman, and two resident gardeners during the year. Much damage was done to the flower borders by wild deer and it will probably be necessary to fence the Cemetery when funds admit.

Blake Garden.-The resumed area in Taipingshan district had been modelled as a garden, turfed and partially planted before the end of the year. When the operations accompanying the spring planting have been carried out it will be possible to admit the public, but the garden will not of course assume a finished appearance for some time.

King's Park, Kowloon.-Work upon the valley at the south-west corner of this area was entered upon at the beginning of the year with the object of com- bining accommodation for games with a certain amount of landscape effect, owing however to the great demand for flat ground for games this scheme had to be abandoned and every foot levelled to accommodate them. When the funds provided in the Estimates of this Department were expended an extended scheme of draining and levelling was begun by the Public Works Department.

Roadside Rockeries and Ornamental Plots.-These were maintained as usual during the year. Agaves were planted round Rockeries Nos. 19, 20 and 31 (which are near chair-stands) to keep the chair coolies from walking on the plants.

West End Park. This area was taken in hand and thoroughly tidied up during the autumn and its appearance is now further improved by the removal of the large heap of builders' rubbish that had been shot over from the road. The contractor who threw this rubbish on to public land was compelled to remove it himself and the great extra expense incurred should be a warning to contractors meditating similar incursions.

Mountain Lodge. The remodelling of the valley below the house on the south-east was completed and the slopes turfed before the spring. The planting of the sides of the valley with flowering shrubs was commenced. The footpath round the rocky peak to the west of the house was completed, being about half a mile long and opening up a very picturesque but otherwise inaccessible part of the grounds.

Victoria Hospital. A small grant for improving the surroundings of the new building was spent in levelling and turfing the space at the west end for tennis, and in planting shrubs on the newly made banks, and creepers on the walls. live fence of bamboo was made between the tennis ground and the road.

A

East Point Bamboo Nursery.-It has become more and more difficult of recent years to keep this unfenced nursery tidy. During May a high bamboo fence was constructed round it which will be an advantage to the nursery itself and to the neighbourhood.

A list is appended (Appendix A.) of the various Gardens, Parks, Rockeries, etc., for which the Department is solely or conjointly responsible.

;

155

HERBARIUM.

The arrears of work in the Herbarium have gradually been overtaken with the help of the two Chinese Herbarium Assistants appointed at the commencement of the year.

Their appointment has been amply justified. The generous policy of the Government towards this scientific adjunct of the Department is already bearing fruit and it is evident that with the collections now flowing in from all parts of China the Colonial Herbarium will soon assume the place which it ought to occupy with regard to the flora of the country. The mere fact that it is the only public Herbarium in China, and that the flora of China is probably now receiving more attention from European and American botanists than any other part of the world, warrants it a carreer of usefulness. Sir JOSEPH HOOKER once described Hongkong as "the key of the botanical position as regards the Chinese Empire" (Vide Memorandum, 1. 2. 78), and perhaps this point may be now said to be captured, for while individual enterprise has done much to supply information and material to the botanical establishments of Kew, Paris, Berlin and St. Petersburg no part of China is so well represented in any Herbarium as is Kwang- tung and especially the neighborhood of Hongkong in the great Herbarium of Kew. Such assistance as this establishment can give to Kew is its most important national work, but it is also becoming more and more a centre of botanical enter- prise in the far east. A recognition of this is already being shown by the increasing number of requests for botanical information from different parts of China. than 600 specimens have been examined and determined for correspondents from other ports during the year. The Chinese Assistants have shown remarkable aptitude in dealing with this kind of work.

:

More

All local specimens preserved in the Herbarium if of sufficient interest receive separate consecutive numbers to insure accuracy of reference and the progress of the numbering is some guide to the annual increase of the collection. At the ends of the last three years the numbers have reached-1902, No. 700; 1903, No. 1091; 1904, No. 1750.

One of the chief difficulties in keeping the collections in good order is the great dampness of the summer months. The Herbarium has to be artificially. dried during this period. Formerly a wood stove was used, but the riskiness of this method with so valuable a collection is now recognized and a gas stove has been substituted. This has the additional advantage of being usable during the night and thus avoiding the excessive heat of a stove in working hours during the summer. Even this source of heat has been some anxiety during the recent vagaries of the gas supply.

Besides the collections made by the Department specimens have been received from other establishments as follows:-

Arnold Arboretum, 25 (Chinese); Botanical Department, Manila, 188 (Philippines); Forestry Department, Tsingtau, 90 (Shantung). Duplicates have been despatched as follows: to Kew, all the most interesting specimens collected in the last two years per Mr. TUTCHER.

Arnold Arboretum, 128; Botanical Department, Manila, 316; Museum de Paris, 67; Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, 23; Parks and Open Spaces, Shanghai, 94; British Museum, 52; St. Petersburg, 17; Tokyo University, Japan, 21; and Prof MARTELLI, 2.

BOTANICAL INVESTIGATIONS.

Ginkgo biloba, L. (Salisburia adiantifolia, Sm.).-In the Index Flora Sinenis, ii. 547, Dr. MASTERS quotes Mrs. BISHOP as saying that she had met with several fine specimens of Ginkgo in the magnificent forests which surround the sources of the Great Gold River and the smaller Min in Szechuen. Sir ERNEST SATOW once told me that he doubted the indigenous status of this tree in China and he recently sent me a letter from Mr. HOSIE supporting his view, with regard particularly to Szechuen. Mr. HOSIE states that it is common in that Province but only as a cultivated tree, the seeds being a general article of commerce through- out most parts of China. Mr. E H. WILSON, too, during his extensive botanical· explorations in West China, did not meet with it in a wild state. In view of these opinions it is probably safer at present to omit the Ginkgo from the Chinese indigenous flora. The fact probably is, as SOLMS-LAUBACH has pointed out, that the Ginkgo has long outlived its natural age in the flora of the earth and has only been preserved from extinction by the care of the Chinese priests.

...

L

156

The tree is without near relations in our extant flora and when Mr. ARCHIBALD LITTLE described to me in 1903 a most remarkable tree, like Ginkgo, which he had seen near Chengtu, I begged him, if again in that neighbourhood, to revisit the spot and secure details for investigation. Accordingly when Mr. and Mrs. LITTLE were near Chengtu in April of last year they most kindly made a detour of 140 li, took several photographs of the tree and sent them to Hongkong with an interest- ing description. The tree proved to be, not a variety, but a very old specimen of of the true Ginkgo, covered with the peculiar outgrowths to which the species is subject in old age. The outgrowths take the form of cylinders varying from a few inches to several feet in length and about 4 inches thick, pendant from the trunk and lower branches. Enquiry was made from Professor MATSUMARA of Tokyo as to the occurrence of similar trees in Japan and he most courteously sent me a copy of FuGu's paper on the subject in which the occurrence and origin of the outgrowths are described in detail. They are considered to be merely malformations and are commonly met with on old trees in Japan. The above instance, however, is the only one of which I am aware in China.

Flora of South East Kwantung.-In July and August, 1903, a Chinese collector was sent to explore Sze-tse Shan, a mountain in Kwantung Province 70 miles to the west of Hongkong and near the city of Sanning, and to make collections of plants there and in the surrounding country. Sze-tse Shan, like many of the mountains in South Kwantung, is densely covered in most parts with Bamboo. It has much the same flora as Tai-mo Shan. The mountains to the west of Sanning are well wooded on their lower slopes, but have grassy tops. At the foot of these hills, near the village of Ng Sap, are some hot springs. All these localities were visited and an interesting collection of plants brought back, containing a new genus of Rubiacea and several new species. Not the least interesting of the discoveries was that of a second locality for Symplocos urceolaris, Hance, and for Randia densiflora, Benth. The former was only once collected before on the West River in 1876, the latter was identified as a Chinese plant only from Hongkong.

Flora of Hunan.-Captain LIGHT of the 114th Mahrattas, on his return from a trip in Hunan in September, brought to the Herbarium a number of speci- mens of plants which he had hastily gathered en route. It well illustrates the present state of our knowledge of the flora of China when we find that out of these plants, 3 proved to be new to China, 24 new to Hunan, and 3 new to Fokien. Capt. LIGHT is to be congratulated on having made this valuable collection in spite of having no adequate collecting outfit; the specimens were pressed and brought home in a book about 6" x 4". In order that zeal of this kind might be better utilized in future for the benefit of science, an assurance was sent to Head Quarters and appeared in Orders-that any military officer intending to visit the interior and wishing to be provided with collecting outfit could be so accommodated on application to this Department.

Flora of North-East Kicantung.-In September and October three Chinese collectors were dispatched to Hoi Fung, about 100 miles up the coast, with instruc- tions to proceed inland to the Lien Fa Mountains, to explore these and then, crossing them, to make collections on the further side round the sources of the Han. They succeeded in carrying out this program and brought back an interest- ing collection. Among the most important discoveries was that of Manglietia fordiana, Hemsl., only previously known as a single tree in Hongkong and that in a precarious state owing to its failure to propagate itself or to admit of artificial propagation. The tree was found in fruit and seeds were brought back, some of which were sent to Kew. The collection is not completely worked out, but enough has been done to show that the flora of these mountains is an extension of that of the Lo Fou Mountains, well known from the labours of SAMPSOM, FABER, and FORD. A large number of the interesting species discovered there by these collectors are repeated in Lien Fa Shan. The numbers for this collection in the Colonial Herbarium are from 1535-1684 and 1825-1894.

Examination of the Constituents of Natural Forest in Hongkong.-The largest natural wood left by our Chinese predecessors is near Little Hongkong Village. About 500 acres of the hillsides above the village are densely covered with wild trees having an average height of about 20 feet and containing individuals up to 40 and 50 feet high. With a view to sampling the botanical constitution of the wood, an acre was marked out and all the trees over 9 inches in girth measured and identified.

157

The result was as follows:-

Name.

Garcinia multiflora, Champ.,

Av. Height. Av. Girth.

Number.

Feet.

Inches.

3

7

29

Sterculia lanceolata, Cav.,

24

11

19

Grewia Microcos, L.,..

4

9.

18

Nephelium Longana, Cambess,

8

10

24

Turpinia pomifera, D. C.,......

1

5

10

Poupartia Fordii, Hemsk.,

18

12

19

Eugenia millettiana, Hemsl.,

4

11

22

Eugenia sp.,

3

10

16

Pavetta indica, L.,

1

13

18

Ardisia pentagona, A. D. C.,

2

8

18

Cinnamomum Burmanni, Bl.,

2

18

20

Litsea sebifera, Pers.,

Helicia erratica, Hook. f.,

1

8

12

1

10

17

Aquilaria grandiflora, Benth.,

31

13

26

Bischoffia javanica, Bl.,

2

8

12

10

8

18

18

12

19

1

8

22

Antidesma Bunius, Spreng., Aporosa leptostachya, Benth., Ficus chlorocarpa, Benth., ..

Flora of Hongkong and New Territory.-A three days' exploration of Cape D'Aguilar made in June resulted in the discovery of the followings plants:-

Millettia pachycarpa, Benth., growing in great profusion over rocks in the ravines. New to South-East China. This record extends the known range of the species about 14 degrees to the east.

Webera attenuat, Hook. f.-A rediscovery and addition to the Herbarium. The only locality for the shrub in China, viz., Hongkong Happy Valley, had long

been lost.

Symplocos neriifolia, S. & Z.-New to the Colony.

Callicarpa longifolia, Lam.-New to the Colony.

Piper Hance, Maxim:-A new record for the Colony. The plant had, however, been found eight years ago in the same place by BODINIER and was in the Colonial Herbarium but under the wrong name.

The tree was apparently

Ficus infectoria, Roxb.-New to South China. quite wild in a rocky ravine. There are planted trees in the town on the other side of the Island.

Other new plants brought to light during the year were:-

Ranunculus pensylvanicus, L.-On stony slopes North of Victoria Gap. New to Hongkong.

Grewia asiatica, L.-New to China. Probably introduced from India where it is much cultivated. Colonel BIRDWOOD..

Zanthoxylum ovalifolium, Wight.-Mt. Parker S. New to Hongkong.

Zanthoxylum myriacanthum, Wall.-(fide Mr. TUTCHER writing from Kew.) Sha Lo Tung, New Territory. New to China.

Rubus hexagynus, Roxb.-(compared by Mr. TUTCHER at Kew.) Sai Kung. Mrs. BIRDWOOD. New to China.

Memecylon nigrescens, H. & K.-(compared by Mr. TUTCHER at Kew.) Happy Valley woods. A rare and interesting tree only previously known at

Macao.

Cleidion javanicum, Bl.-(fide Mr. TUTCHER writing from Kew.) Ravine S. of Sheko Gap. New to China.

Ficus altissima.-Bl. (fide Mr. TUTCHER after comparison at Kew.) New to Hongkong.

Enanthe benghalensis, Benth.-Ravine on the Pokfulam Road. New to the Colony.

158

Randia leucocarpa, Champ.-Happy Valley woods. An interesting redisco- very, for its one known habitat in the world (on Hongkong Peak) had long been lost.

Symplocos crataegoides, Hance.-Kowloon. New to the Colony. Colonel BIRDWOOD.

kong.

Calamintha gracilis, Benth.-Common in the Peak district. New to Hong-

Chenopodium ambrosioides, L.-New to China. Becoming a common weed in Hongkong.

Helicia erratica, Hook. f.-In the Little Hongkong woods. New to the Colony.

Quercus Eyrei, Champ.-Mr. TuTCHER discovered the fruit of Champion's tree in the Happy Valley woods in March. The fruit proves it to be not an Oak at all, but a Castanopsis. The new name which this discovery necessitates is purposely left to be published in some more widely circulated work.

Quercus polystachya, Wall.-Mr. TUTCHER Writing from Kew tells me that an unnamed plant in the Herbarium (Nos. 981 and 2,032) proves to be this species. It has been collected on Mt. Nicholson and above Wanchai. New to the Colony.

Myrica rubra, S. & Z.-Tytam. Not previously found in the Island for forty years.

Aspidium aculeatum, Sw.-Mt. Nicholson. New to South-East China. Dr. MATHEW.

Mr. TUTCHER has devoted a considerable amount of his leave to work in the Kew Herbarium, and, besides the information contributed as above, he is describing a new genus and 7 new species of plants from the Hongkong Herbarium in a forthcoming number of the Linnean Journal.

LIBRARY.

The following periodicals and other works have been purchased :-

Botanical Magazine,

Botanisches Centralblatt,

Gardener's Chronicle,

Geographical Journal,

Journal of Botany,

Revue des Cultures Coloniales,

-

Acta Horti Petropolitani, Vols. XI-XXII.

Maximowicz.-Diagnoses des Plantes Nov. Asiatiques, fasc. 1, 2 & 7. Journal of the Linnean Society (Botany) Vols. I—XXXIII & Index

(bound in 32 vols.)

Franchet Plantae Delavayanae, Parts 1-III.

Index Kewensis. Fasciculus I-III.

Some of the above works were difficult to obtain and if it had not been for the kindness for Dr. F. N. WILLIAMS of Brentford many of them could not have been secured at all. Our warmest thanks are due to Dr. WILLIAMS for the trouble which he has taken in searching for and ordering the books.

Periodicals were presented by the following establishments :-

Agricultural Departments of Calcutta, Cape Colony, Jamaica, London, Manila, Straits Settlements, United States, University of Califor- nia, Victoria, Western Australia, and West Indies.

Botanic Gardens of British Guiana, Calcutta, Ceylon, Gold Coast, Jamaica, Kew, Natal, Saharanpur, St. Lucia, Tobago, Straits Settlements and Trinidad.

Forestry Reports were received from India relating to Bengal, Baluchis- tan, Central Provinces, Coorg, Madras Presidency, Oudh, Assam and Punjab, and from Cape of Good Hope, Manila, and Straits Settlements.

159

The following works were also presented:-

Schlich's Manual of Forestry, Vol. II, presented by Secretary of State

for India.

Catalogues and Reports presented by the Pharmaceutical Society of Great

Britain.

.

To the donors of such works as have not been separately acknowledged our best thanks are now due.

FORESTRY.

.

Felling and replanting on the basis of a 25-year rotation were commenced this year.

The question of what is the best rotation for Pinus massoniana in Hong- kong is, however, still open to doubt; experts differ on the point and H. E. the Governor has decided that no more felling shall take place until the results of this year's operations have been calculated and the whole question put before an inde- pendent authority.

The heavy work of replanting was well in hand before the end of this year. A commencement was also made in afforesting the bare sandy hills behind Kowloon with 50,000 pine seedlings. In Appendices B, C and D will be found particulars of the kinds and localities of trees planted, and the positions of trees stolen.

Forestry Licences in the New Territory. When the New Territory was taken over by the British in 1899 there were about as many large pine trees growing in the district as there are small ones now. The Chinese, being afraid that their new masters would confiscate the trees, began to cut them down wholesale: From the accounts which have been collected there must have been something like eight million disposed of in this way, a course which has been ere now, no doubt, bitterly repented; for as a matter of fact the only restriction enforced by the Police was with regard to the cutting down of large wild trees' and Fung Shui trees round the villages. The confidence of the tree farmers towards English rule having become gradually re-established and safety from encroachments by neighbouring owners being further secured by the presence of the Police, re-afforestation soon began. The scheme of defining and registering the plantations was therefore received in general with great readiness by the far mers who came forward when called on and paid their licence fees. The scheme was designed to encourage the farmers to re-afforest by giving them secure tenure of the trees, to secure re-sowing of felled areas and to provide a proper demarcation of the ground in case of disputes. The Superintendent, accompanied by the newly appointed Licensing Clerk, visited about 80% of the plantations between August and December, issuing about 300 licences and collecting $5,700.00 in licence fees. The fees were at the rate of 10 cents per acre so that the total acreage licensed is about 57,000 acres. In several cases disputes arose in consequence of the wrong persons having come forward and secured licences for plantations to which they had no right; the proper owners in spite of repeated notices and warnings failing to present themselves until they found the licensee cutting down their trees. The rules published in the Government Gazette (24th February), by which the assistance of the Land Court is provided, will, it is hoped,. obviate many of these difficulties in future. The rules have been framed with great care and apparently provide for all contingencies, but time alone can show how far the objects aimed at will be realized.

China New Year Shrub. (Enkianthus quinqueflorus.)-This shrub, which is one of the most beautiful of all our rich shrub-flora has yearly been becoming more and more scarce on the hills in consequence of the amount that has been cut by the Chinese at each New Year to sell for decorations. If the cutting had been judicious little harm would have been done, but in consequence of the ruthless destruction of whole shrubs the species was, at any rate in this Island, on its way to extinction, an eventuality which would suit the Chinese as little as the other nature-loving residents. An effort was therefore made at the proper time to protect our hills and, although there appears to have been a plentiful supply of the shrub in the market, the greater part of it must have come from Canton for very little cutting took place in Hong- kong and the New Territory.

1.60

Aleurites cordata.-The flourishing plantation of young Tung Yau trees at Kang Hau Nursery was further increased by a thousand plants raised from seed obtained from the interior.

Cassia.-Twelve forlorn Cassia trees (Cinnamomum Cassia), possibly the last of the large numbers planted out on the hills in former years, were rescued from a valley near Aberdeen, where they had been almost killed by the repeated stripping off of their valuable bark by the Chinese, and transplanted into the Government Nusery at Sookunpo.

Clearing.-A large amount of time of the forestry staff has again been occupied in clearing trees on Crown land for the construction of water-works and roads.

Pollard Pine-trees. During the Forestry Licence rounds a system of cultiva- ting the local Pine (Pinus massoniana) was met with at Lung Ko Tan, which is, so far as can be ascertained, unique. In this method the same advantages are aimed at as by the well known European system of pollarding. But the pollarding of coniferous trees seems to be unknown in Europe. The exact method employed with the Pines here is as follows: At 10 years old when the tree is about 12 feet high the top half is cut off. After 5 years more the lower branches are cut off. Shoots soon appear from the cut parts and these are cut every 5 years together with the upper remaining internode this tree produces annual whorles of branches-until, after 20 to 25 years, the whole is used up. This method is not used in any other part of the New Territory. The Hakka families who practise it believe that they came from Wei Chou in North-East Kwantung about 150 years ago.

VISITORS.

The chief visitors to the establishment were: Dr. MATHEW of H. M. S. Eclipse, Col. BIRDWOOD and Capt. LIGHT, who each did a good deal of work in the Herbarium; Herr MALTE HASS, Head of the Forestry Department at Tsingtau, to see the pine plantations and the organization of the Department; Dr. HALLIER, of Hamburg; Mr. E. D. MERRILL, Head of the Botanical Department in Manila, to use the Herbarium and Library.

STREET TREES.

In connection with the new Tramway, 17 Banyans were transplated near Causeway Bay and in Arsenal Street.

Forty-five Albizzia and 28 Celtis were planted in the West part of Des Voeux Road. In fine weather in summer this road is one of the most mercilessly hot and glaring spots in the town. It will be greatly benefitted by the freshness and shade

of these trees.

AGRICULTURE.

Cattle food.-In cooperation with the Colonial Veterinary Surgeon, some experiments were made with a view to ascertain whether any of the common evergreen trees of the district could provide sustenance for cattle during the winter season. Six kinds of leaves were tried-Ficus retusa, Quercus salicina, Quercus fissa, Bambusa sp., Hibiscus sp., Sterculia lanceolata.

Sterculia lanceolata. The first four were probably too hard and dry, and the Bamboo leaves proved injurious; the Sterculia leaves were, however, readily eaten and might in conjuction with rice-straw prove a serviceable food.

Castle Peak Estate.-A large consignment of Pineapple suckers, which were kindly sent by request from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore, were divided between the Castle Peak Estate and the Government Nursery at Sookunpo. This is a better variety than any that we had previously and when the stock has multi- plied sufficiently it can be distributed to the Chinese farmers.

Exhibition of Colonial-grown Fruits in London.-The facilities offered by the Royal Horticultural Society to Colonial fruit-growers and fruit-tinners for exhibit- ing at their Exhibition in London in December, were duly advertized by the Government in Hongkong and advantage was taken of them by one or more Chinese merchants. Among the tinned fruits sent were Litchis, Wampees, Longans, Carambolas, Plums, Peaches and Pears.

161

Adoption of European methods by Chinese-Advice was sought on several occasions by Hongkong merchants as to the supply of chemical fertilizers, etc., to farmers in the interior. European gardening tools are also said to be in request.

Sisal Hemp Continues to do well. It is on poor stony ground and might, if sucessful, provide a valuable new industry for the New Territory farmers and at the same time utilize ground that is now of little value.

Cotton.-Arrangements were made for commencing experiments on Cotton- growing at the commencement of the rains. Great interest attaches to these trials and every effort will be made to render them a success. The first crops will not be gathered until next Autumn when the result will be calculated and fully reported.

Agricultural Census. In order to forestall the demand for information upon the agricultural industries of the New Territory, which is sure to occur as measures are adopted to improve and augment them, officers of the Department have been employed, as often as other duties allowed, in taking an agricultural census of the various districts. The information is entered on special printed forms one for each village.

About 500 of these are now filed in the Office. The aggregates for the districts now completed are tabulated in Appendix F.

REVENUE.

Particulars of the Revenue collected by the Department during the year are given in Appendix G.

I have, &c.,

S. T. DUNN,

Superintendent,

BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTation DeparTMENT.

The Honourable COLONIAL SECRETARY.

APPENDIX A.

LAND UNDER COMPLETE OR PARTIAL MANAGEMENT

OF BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTION DEPARTMENT.

1. Botanic Gardens.

2. Blake Garden.

3. Peak Garden, (site).

4. King's Park, Kowloon.

5. West End Park.

6. Government House Grounds.

7. Mountain Lodge Grounds.

8. Government Offices Grounds.

9. Colonial Cemetery.

10. Sookunpo Government Nursery. 11. Kang Hau Forest Nursery. 12. Sookunpo Bamboo Nursery. 13. North Point Tree Nursery.

14. Kowloon Nursery.

15. Albany Nursery.

16. Rockery in Garden Road.

17. Do. (upper) in Albert Road.

18. Do. (lower) .do.

19.

Do. (upper) in Peak Road.

20. Do. (lower) do..

21.

Do. (upper) at St. Joseph's Church.

22. Do. (lower)

do.

Do. in Glenealy Road, below Robinson Road.

below first bend.

below second bend.

23.

24.

Do.

25.

Do.

do. do.

26. Do.

do..

below third end.

27.

Do.

do.

below Cathedral.

28.

Do.

do.

lower part, W.

29.

Do.

do.

do., E.

162

30. At junction of Seymour and Robinson Road.

31. Over Garden tank at junction of Bowen and Garden Roads. 32. Plot above Garden Cottages.

33. Do. in front of S. Joseph's Church, Garden Road.

34. Bank in Bridges St.-

35. Do. opposite main entrance to Government House Grounds.

Do. between Garden Road and Albert Road.

36.

37. Do. between Upper and Lower Albert Roads.

38. Do. south of Lower Albert Road, opposite Government Offices. 39. Do. south of Volunteer Parade Ground.

40. Do. Lower Albert Road, opposite Volunteer Parade Ground. 41. Do. between Albany Road and Upper Albert Road. 42. Do. on north boundary of New Garden, Caine Road.

43. Do. between Wyndham Street and Lower Albert Road.

44. Do. on north side of Government House Grounds.

45. Do. between Lower Albert Road and Ice House Street.

46. Do. on south side of Battery Path.

47. Do. on north side of Battery Path.

48. Do. east of Garden Road Nullah, between Kennedy Rd. & Macdonnell Rd. 49. Do. east of Garden Road Nullah, between Macdonnell Rd. and Bowen Rd.' 50. Do. above Bowen Road at junction of Bowen and Garden Roads.

51. Do. west of Glenealy Nullah below Robinson Road Bridge.

52. Do. west of Garden Road Nullah between Garden Cottage and Bowen

Road Bridge.

53. Do. between Tramway and Garden Road Nullah, below Kennedy Road.

S. T. DUNN,

Superintendent,

BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTIOn Department.

Date.

March,

April,

""

""

29

97

May,

""

APPENDIX B.

TREES PLANTED IN 1904.

Place.

.Pokfulam,

..Pine,........

Des Voeux Road, ....Albizzia,

27

Tytam, Military Road,

Tree.

Number.

15,283

to

....Celtis,

28

..Pine,..

32,534

4,250

""

..Camphor,

38

.Miscellaneous,

125

""

""

Victoria Hospital,

.Taipo Road,

Plantation Road, ...Camphor,

Bamboo,

2,042

1,335

.Pine,.

53,578

Tytam,

""

.Kennedy Town, ..

30 1,840

70

Total,.................... 111,198

S. T. DUNN,

· Superintendent,

BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPATMENT.

1.63

Appendix C.

BLOCKS PLANTED WITH PINE, 1903-1904.

No.

FOREST DIVISION.

BLOCK.

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

1. Victoria,

2 Wongneichong,

3 Shaukiwan,

4 Tytam,

5 Stanley,

6 Aberdeen,

7 Pokfulam,

·

New Territory,

Total,.....

4,250

...

15,283

:

TOTAL.

Acres.

...

32,534

...

32,534 4,250

...

...

...

....

15,283

52,067

S. T. DUNN,

Superintendent,

BOTANICAL AND ÅFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT.

Appendix D.

PINE TREES STOLEN.

No.

FOREST DIVISION.

BLOCK.

TOTAL.

A

B

CD E F

GAcres.

7

1 Victoria,

2 Wongneichong,

3

Shaukiwan,

4 Tytam,

5 Stanley,

6 Aberdeen,

Pokfulam,...

Kowloon,

Total,..

30

8

20

...

2

2

32

90

82

13

185

7 84

91

194

40

40

18:

8

55.

15

6

29

10

5

5

249

83

123

471

:

1,185

S. T. DUNN,

Superintendent,

BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT.

164

Appendix E.

RAINFALL OBSERVATIONS MADE AT THE BOTANIC GARDENS DURING

1904. (ABOUT 300 FEET ABOVE SEA LEVEL.).

Date.

Jan.

Feb. Mar. Apr.

Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

1,

2.63 .02 .02

.02

2,

3,

.16

.02

4,

.02 .02

5,

6.

.08

7.

9.

.01

10.

11,

.02

12,

13,

14,

.14

15,

.01

16,

.89

17,

18,

19,

20.

21.

.01. .01

22,

..01

23.

24,

25,

26,

27,

28,

29,

30.

31,

: : 48 : 888488 : ಹ ಸ : : : : : : : :

2.00 2.04 4.07 1.47

...

.85

1.00 .02

.53

.01

.02

.20

.02

.30

.32

.01

.14

.33

.09

.02

1.02

1.40

.05

.06

.85 .74

.02

2.20

.25

.03

.40

.34

.13

.12

.43

.36

...

.15 .02

.02

.01

.24

.02

.57 .03

.54 .21 .17

.56 .01

.18

.29

.04

228282 28

.02

1.75

.0.9

2.37

.01

.01

.21

2.55 1.00

.01

.07

1.07

.63

.03

2.80

.39

.14

:

.06

.64

.14

.04

.57

.28

.73

.09

.05

.01

.46

.03

.13

.67

.86

1.01

.02

.45

.91

.01

..01

.77

:

.93

.38

.17

...

.38

.04

.14

.02

.06

.07

.02

.03

.26

.05

2.35 .20

.04

3.90 .24

.02 .03.

.02

.27

7.90 .12

.04

.13

.01

.56

.28

.06

.22

1.29

.05

.38

2.26

4.53 .02

.01

.10 .02

...

.29

.72

7.74

..31

.02

...

.86 .05

.16

Total,.

.15 .19 4.33

2.11

8.41

22.86 10.24 24.89 11.33

2.90

.23

.23

Total inches for the Year=87.97. Observation made at 10 a.m.

S. T. DUNN, Superintendent,

BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT.

:

165

Appendix F.

AGRICULTURAL CENSUS.

DISTRICT.

PRODUCT.

Taipo.

Sha Tin.

San Tin.

Au Tau.

Rice,

mows.

71,060

3,927

1,359

1

11,652

Rice Straw,

pcls. 5,121

1,951

16,154

Sugar Cane,

mows.

6

21

32

252

Sweet Potato,

999

459

134

1,479

Taro,

171

167

16

253

39

Green Cabbage,

79

45

101

59

""

Turnip,

124

97

2

109

"

Peanuts,

19

46

188

""

Long Bean,

12

Pineapple,

111

300

...

13

Hemp,

13

35

35

...

Litchi,

117

Mango,

Pear,

""

"1

trees.

....

234

...

...

250

328

75

1,670

Persimmon,

Guava,

...

""

Pine trees,.

""

Small fuel,

328,710 pels. 1,527,739

267,559 434,380

...

4,960

447,810

61,440 1,067,430

S. T. DUNN,

Superintendent,

BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT.

Appendix G.

REVENUE FOR 1904.

Sale of Forestry Products,.

Sale of Plants,....

Loan of Plants,

Forestry Licences in New Territory,

$ 18,208.34 736.94 492.16 5,764.00

Total,............

$ 25,201.44

:

S. T. DUNN,

Superintendent,

BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT.

HONGKONG.

FINANCIAL MINUTE No. 13.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

No. 18

1905

EASTERN MAIL SERVICE.

.

On the 7th November, 1896, the Secretary of State forwarded for Sir WILLIAM ROBINSON'S Consideration and report a copy of a letter from the Treasury dated the 30th October of that year showing the principles which it was proposed to adopt for the apportionment between the different contributory Governments of the subsidy to be paid to the Peninsular and Oriental Company for the Eastern Mail Service for seven years from the 1st February, 1898.

2. These principles were as follows:-

(1.) Ascertain the number of miles traversed annually upon each section

of the service.

(2.) Ascertain the cost of each section by dividing the subsidy in pro-

portion to the annual mileage of each section.

(3.) Charge one half of the cost of each section to the United Kingdom and divide the other half between India, Ceylon, Straits Settlements, Hongkong and the United Kingdom, respectively; India and the Colonies being charged proportionately according to the number of letters sent and received by them and the United Kingdom being debited with the letters which it exchanges with other places (such as Egypt, Dutch East Indies, Japan, Zanzibar, East Coast of Africa, etc.)

(4.) Divide incidental expenses in the same proportion as the cost of the

service.

5.) Divide amounts received for sea postage on Foreign Closed Mails between the contributing parties in the proportion which each bears of the cost of the service.

3. The Acting Postmaster General, Hongkong, calculated, as far as he was able to do so with the incomplete information available, that on the foregoing principles the annual payment of the Colony would be £15,264 less £3,368 received for sea postage or £11,896. This meant an addition of £5,896 per annum to the sum of £6,000 per annum at which the subsidy had stood since 1883.

4. The despatch with the Acting Postmaster General's calculations was for- warded to the Chamber of Commerce for their views, and on the 5th June, 1897, the Chamber made an emphatic protest against the basis on which the Colony's share of the subsidy was proposed to be calculated. They considered that as postal rates within the Union were fixed without reference to the distance over which mail matter was carried, payments for this carriage should also be irrespective of distance, that a British mail service was not so necessary to the Colony as to justify a payment for it which was deemed excessive, and that the lower speed at which the mail was carried from India Eastward compared with that at which it was carried to India should be taken into account in calculating the Colony's con- tribution. The Chamber further grouped the subsidy with the Military contribu- tion as both devoted to Imperial interests and forming a heavy tax on the inhabit- ants of the Colony.

5. The Acting Postmaster General's report to the effect that the adoption of the Treasury's proposals would involve an increased payment to the Colony of approximately £5,896 per annum and the Chamber's views were submitted by Sir WILLIAM ROBINSON to the Secretary of State in a despatch, dated the 30th of June,

:

174

1897, in which he pressed the arguments against a mileage basis of calculation and in favour of the speed of transit over the various sections being taken into con- ideration in apportioning the contribution, and further urged the burden on the Colony involved by increases in gold payments with a falling value of silver.

6. In July, 1898, the questions at issue between the Postmaster General and the Secretary of State for India as to the proportion of the cost of the Eastern Mail service to be charged to the Government of India were submitted to the arbitration of the EARL OF MORLEY. The case of the Post Office dated the 22nd of July, 1898, is printed as Appendix I to this Minute. It embodied the same principle in its 23rd paragraph as the proposals of the Treasury letter of the 30th October, 1896. The total amount of the subsidy for the Indian and Eastern service was taken as £245,000, a further sum of £85,000 being taken to be the share to be paid for the Australian service.

7. Lord MORLEY's award dated November 8th, 1898, is printed as Appendix II. to this Minute. It adopts the principles above referred to subject to (a.) the desirability when the contract expired of separate contracts being entered into for the Indian and Eastern and for the Australian services; (b.) India only paying transit rates and not towards the subsidy on the sections between Colombo and Shanghai; (c.) the net receipts of the two countries on account of mails being pooled and equally divided between them; and (d.) India bearing the whole expense of sea-sorting on the Bombay Line.

8. Clause (c.) of Lord MORLEY's award subsequently formed the subject of the correspondence which is printed as Appendix III to this Minute.

9. A full expression of the views of the Governors of Hongkong and Sing- apore upon the question of accepting the application of Lord MORLEY'S award to the Eastern Service was invited by Mr. CHAMBERLAIN on the 13th July, 1900, and Sir HENRY BLAKE again consulted the Chamber of Commerce who on the 11th of September of that year simply desired to reiterate and emphasise the remarks made in their former letter. They considered that the loss of Revenue due to the adoption of the penny postage rate throughout the Empire, which had been forced on Hongkong by the Imperial Government furnished "another strong argument why this Colony should not be called upon to make good the losses on correspond- ence passing through it to the Chinese Treaty Ports.

10. Sir HENRY BLAKE in despatches dated the 10th of August and the 14th September, 1900, objected to accepting Lord MORLEY's awards on the grounds that—

(a.) The sum of £85,000 proposed to be regarded as the cost of the Australian service was too small. (It was below the amount which would have been arrived at by adopting the same mileage basis as proposed for the Eastern Colonies.)

(b.) The section Hongkong-Shanghai should not be taken into con- sideration in the apportionment. "The comparatively small value to this Colony of the mail matter from the North, combined with the threatened increased cost and the fact that owing to the number of steamers running to and from the Northern Ports this Colony is quite independent of the P. & O. Company's steamers, would justify the contention that the subsidised mail service should not be carried beyond Hongkong."

(c.) The pooling and equal division of net receipts on account of mails

was not applicable to the Colony.

(d.) The mileage basis for the apportionment of the subsidy was unfair.

Sir HENRY BLAKE further objected to the number of letters apart from printed matter being taken as a criterion of the general value of the service to the com- munity and to the choice of the year 1901 for statistics as a basis for payment by the Colony, the mails to Hongkong and the North being abnormal in that year by reason of the disturbances in China.

11. The division of cost between the United Kingdom, India and the Eastern Colonies in accordance with the principles embodied in Lord MORLEY's award was worked out by the Imperial Post Office. The result is printed in Appendix IV to this Minute and shows with regard to Hongkong an annual payment of £13,131

175

for "cost of sections" and after making certain deductions, which are detailed, a total annual contribution of £12,893.

12. During the years 1901-1904 the Colonial Office carried on a lengthy correspondence with the Imperial Post Office and the Treasury with a view to getting these departments to agree to an apportionment of the subsidy on lines that would be acceptable to the three Eastern Colonies. No agreement having been arrived at, Mr. LYTTELTON informed Mr. MAY on the 20th May last that the question was to be submitted to the arbitration of Lord BALFOUR OF BURLEIGH, for whose consideration statements were prepared by the Imperial Post Office and by the Colonial Office, the Colonies concerned being consulted in the preparation of the case for the Eastern Colonies.

13. The case for the Eastern Colonies dated the 12th October, 1904, is printed as Appendix V to this Minute, that of the Imperial Post Office dated the 22nd October, 1904, as Appendix VI.

14. Appendix. VII is the rejoinder of the Imperial Post Office dated the 7th November, 1904, and Appendix VIII the Colonial Office reply to that rejoinder. This reply was prescribed verbally to Lord BALFOUR OF BURLEIGH on the 21st November, 1904.

15. On that date and on the 19th December, 1904, the Arbitrator heard Mr. G. W. JOHNSON of the Colonial Office and Mr. C. A. KING of the Post Office on behalf of their respective departments.

16. His award dated the 21st December, 1904, is printed as Appendix IX to this Minute. It will be seen, as regards the annual payments in respect of the cost of sections no principle which would be thoroughly logical could be arrived at and that these have been fixed arbitrarily, while the principles laid down in Lord MORLEY'S award as to sea-sorting and incidental expenses have been applied but under deduction of the respective shares of extra receipts on Foreign Closed Mails and one half excess collected in the United Kingdom. The "cost of sections" for Hongkong was fixed at £11,500 against £13,131 according to the principle of Lord MORLEY'S award applied to India and the Eastern Colonies only and against £9,605 proposed by the Colonial Office applying Lord MORLEY's award also to Australia and taking speed into calculation.

The financial effect of the award as far as annual contribution in respect of the P. & O. ending the 31st January, 1905, this amounts to

Hongkong is concerned is a total Service of £12,170 for the 7 years £85,190.

17. The Secretary of State's despatch No. 26 of the 10th February, 1905, communicating the award, which is printed as Appendix X to this Minute, explains that for the 3 years ending the 31st January, 1898, for which the contract with the P. & O. Company has been extended with an addition of £10,000 per annum to the subsidy, the total annual contribution of Hongkong is respect of the P. & 0. Service will be £12,529.

18. It also explains that the arrears for the 7 years ending the 31st January, 1905, due from the Post Office of Hongkong to the Imperial Post Office in accord- ance with an account, which it encloses, amount to £18,933, of which sum about £15,680 is actually due in consequence of the award (i.e., £2,240 per aunum for seven years).

19. The Secretary of State asks that the sum of £18,933 may be paid as soon as convenient after March 31st, 1905. Of this sum a refund of some £3,753 will be made to the Colony when certain accounts are brought down to date.

20. The Governor accordingly recommends the Council to vote a sum of £18,933 for payment of arrears to the Imperial Post Office on account of the P. & O. Company's Mail Service.

176

APPENDIX I.

THE CASE OF THE IMPERIAL POST OFFICE TO BE SUBMITTED

TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THE EARL OF MORLEY.

1. Under a contract for the Eastern Mail Service, working to and from Brindisi, which came into operation on the 1st February 1888, the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company received an annual subsidy of 265,0007.

2. And, in accordance with the desire of the Australian Colonies for a weekly Mail Service, contracts, to run from 1st February 1888, were concluded by the Imperial Government with the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company for a fortnightly service from London viâ Brindisi and with the Orient Steam Navigation Company for a similar service viâ Naples, the two companies together thus providing a regular weekly service by direct steamers. each Company received a subsidy of 85,0007. per annum.

3. All three contracts expired on 31st January 1898.

For these services

4. In response to the invitation of tenders for the respective services from 1st. February 1898,. the Orient Company offered to continue their portion of the Australian Service at a higher speed for the same subsidy of 85,000%.

5. The Peninsular and Oriental Company, who declined to tender for one service without the other, offered to continue the Eastern Mail Service and their portion of the Australian Service at higher rates of speed for each Service for a total subsidy of 330,000l.-as against 350,000l., the total under their two expiring

contracts.

6. The acceptance of these tenders was recommended by a Committee of which the Right Honourable W. L. Jackson was chairman, and on which India was represented.

7. The total subsidy of 330,000l. asked by the Peninsular and Oriental Com- pany was taken by Mr. JACKSON's Committee as representing 85,000l. for the Australian Service and 245,0007. for the Eastern Service-an apportionment based on the fact that the Orient Company offered a corresponding Australian Service for 85,000l. and that the expiring contract of the Peninsular and Oriental Company for the separate Australian Service was also for that amount. The Indian Post Office, however, was disposed to think that a larger sum should be assigned to the Australian Service; and, at its request, the Peninsular and Oriental Company were asked to say what part of the subsidy of 330,000l. was assigned to the Australian Service and how the balance was sub-divided among the sections of the Eastern Service. In reply the Directors stated that it would be impossible to separate the sections as desired, but that they had always had in view that they should obtain. the sum of 85,000l. for the Australian portion of the work, and that out of the total subsidy the sum of 245,000/. was for the Eastern Mail Service.

8. The Australian Post Offices, on the other hand, argued that the Australian Service provided by the Peninsular and Oriental Company should be credited with some portion of the reduction of 20,000l. effected in the combined cost of that Company's services. But this argument was met by the Imperial Post Office with the considerations already referred to, and the point was not pressed.

9. The cost of the Eastern Mail Service has accordingly been taken at 245,000l., and the benefit of the whole reduction of 20,000l. effected under the new contract for both Eastern and Australian Services is thus secured to the Eastern Mail Service. A further advantage to it is secured by the fact that the subsidy under the new contract covers the conveyance of parcels-a service which formerly gave rise to additional expense to India, &c.

177

10. As to the method of division of cost, the principle upon which the cost of the Eastern Mail Service has been divided rests upon the fact that the Service is organised for commercial and political reasons, as well as for postal reasons, and that the intercourse promoted by it is a matter of equal interest to the Mother Country and to the Dependencies with which communication is maintained. It has accordingly been held that the revenues of the United Kingdom and of the several British Possessions benefited by the Service should contribute in equal proportions to any expenditure in the common interest which has the encourage- ment of intercourse for its object..

11. Up to the year 1866 the Service was regarded as one for the mutual benefit of the United Kingdom and India only, the extension to China &c. being looked upon as conferring equal advantages upon British and upon Indian trade. While this view prevailed the net cost of the whole Service was divided equally between the United Kingdom and India.

12. In 1866 a Select Committee of the House of Commons was appointed to consider the subject of mail communications with India and the East, and the outcome of the Committee's inquiry (so far as division of cost was concerned) was a recognition of the fact that circumstances had modified the relative value to the United Kingdom and India of the Mail Service with the farther East, and a recommendation that India should no longer be considered as interested to the extent of one-half of the cost of the China &c. sections of the Service.

13. An equal division of the whole cost being no longer equitable, it became necessary to divide the cost of the Service into sections, and to find a basis for determining the new apportionment.

14. Of the three considerations-commercial, political, postal-for which expenditure was incurred, only the postal element could be conveniently expressed in figures. And among the classes of matter making up the mails, it was held that the Letter, which differs from other classes of postal matter in that it represents a presumably equal interest whether it be sent or received, was the best practical index of the general value of the Service to a community, so far as that value could be gauged by a purely postal test. Experience has proved the soundness of this view, as opposed to an apportionment based on the gross weight of mails, or on the "value" of the mails-whether determined by the standard of postage collections or by that of the recognised rates of payment made by one country to another for sea transit. As regards gross weight carried, it is noticeable that the volume of mails has no influence on the cost of the Service, for subsidies have diminished while mails have increased; and as regards postage collections and rates of payment for transit successive reductions have continually disturbed the ratio between the different classes of mail matter.

15. Starting with the principle that the interest of the Mother Country is equal to the sum of all the other interests in a Service maintained for mutual benefit, one half of the cost of each section was assigned to the United Kingdom. The other half was assessed proportionately according to the number of letters sent and received by India and other places for the benefit of which the Service was main- tained, India being charged only with the percentage represented by the proportion which her letters bore to the total number of letters proper to the section.

1

16. The principles of apportionment laid down after the Parliamentary inquiry of 1866 were reconsidered ten years later by Lord Halifax, in connection with his arbitration upon certain points of difference which had arisen between the Indian and Imperial Post Offices, and these principles were confirmed by his award. Lord Halifax considered that the Eastern Service should continue to be treated as a whole on account of the numerous advantages gained thereby.

Apart from the general advantages of the single contract system in giving a cheaper service and a better fleet of ships than separate contracts for each section, India has derived considerable benefit from her correspondence being associated with other correspondence: for instance, it is owing to the aggregate bulk of mail matter carried by the special trains across the Continent of Europe that France and Italy have been induced by the Imperial Post Office to reduce the rates for this transit. The rate per kilogramme of letters thus carried has been reduced from 25 francs 52 centimes, to 4 franes.

*

£40,000 19,900

700

£60,600

178

17. Until the 1874-80 Contract the respective shares of cost were ascertained by means of a voluminous account prepared annually by the Imperial Post Office and audited by the India Office. The preparation and audit of this account entailed considerable labour and expense, and Lord Halifax considered that the decisions which he had given would enable the Imperial Post Office to make out an account for 1874-75, and that then it would be a simple calculation to ascertain what per- centage of the whole cost of the Mail Service for that year was chargeable to India. That percentage of the cost, in every subsequent year to the end of the contract, he decided should be paid by India. When this contract terminated, it was proposed that India should make a contribution of a fixed annual sum for the term of the next contract. To this India agreed, and the arrangement came into operation

with the contract of 1880-88.

18. A copy of the account prepared by the Imperial Post Office and audited by the India Office after the Award is annexed, marked." A.”

19. From the 1st February 1888, the subsidy for the Eastern Mail Service was reduced from 360,000l. to 265,000l., although a marked increase of speed was, at the instance of India, secured for the Indian mails.

20. There was some discussion as to whether the proportion of subsidy assignable to the increase of speed should not be taken into account in apportioning the cost of the service, because the colonies of Ceylon, Straits Settlements, and Hongkong, which had become contributors during the previous contracts, were not benefited in the same degree as India by the increased speed. The Indian Govern- ment urged, however, that to "graft the element of speed" upon an apportionment hitherto based on a calculation of simple mileage would constitute a departure from the system approved by the award of Lord Halifax. The matter was fully dicussed by representatives of the Treasury, the India Office, and the Post Office, with the result that Mr. Goschen (then Chancellor of the Exchequer) agreed to a compro- mise under which the Indian share of the subsidy was fixed at 40,000l. a year for the whole term of the contract, without prejudice to the claims of either party; but at that time a certain portion of the postage collected in India was also paid over towards the cost of the service.

21. On 1st January 1891 the rate of Letter Postage between the United Kingdom and India was reduced from 5d. to 2d. Up to that time an inland rate of 1d. per ounce letter had been assigned to each side for inland service, and the balance of the collection, less the cost of the transit by special trains through France and Italy, had been treated as sea postage. This sea post- age was collected and retained by the United Kingdom on the outward Mails, and India collected it on the homeward Mails, and paid it over to the United Kingdom. The Indian contribution, therefore, represented 40,0007. plus the amount of sea postage collected in India.

22. Out of a collection of 2d. no margin was available for sea postage, and the Indian Government proposed that the division of receipts should be discontinued in favour of the Postal Union system under which, between two countries exchanging mails, no accounting for postage collections takes place but each country retains all the postage which it receives, whether prepaid upon outward correspondence or collected on the delivery of unpaid or insufficiently paid inward correspondence; and, in lieu of the contribution of sea postage which disappeared in this process, India offered to increase her main contribution by a lump sum of 19,9007. a year. This offer was accepted; and the Indian contribution was further increased by 7007. in connection with an application of the same principles to newspapers and book-packets when the postage on these was reduced to the uniform rate of d. per 2 ounces on the 1st January 1892. India continued to make a contribution of 60,6007. up to the termination of the contract on 31st January 1898.

23. The Imperial Post Office proposes that the subsidy of 245,000l., applicable to the Eastern Mail Service under the new Contract, should be apportioned in accordance with the principles which have governed the apportion- ment since 1866, the procedure being as follows:-

179

(A.) Divide the service into the following sections, corresponding to the See tabular principal points of call :-

Brindisi and Port Said.

Port Said and Aden.

statement annexed, marked “B.,

Column 1.

Aden and Bombay.. Aden and Colombo.

Colombo and Singapore.

Singapore and Hongkong.

Hongkong and Shanghai.

3 and 4.

(B.) Ascertain the number of miles traversed annually upon each section of Columns 2, the service by multiplying the length of each section by the number of voyages performed annually.

(C.) Ascertain the cost of each section by dividing the subsidy in proportion Column 5. to the annual mileage of the section.

(D.) Charge one half the cost of each section to the United Kingdom.

Columns 6

and 7.

(E.) Divide the other half of the cost of each section proportionately, charg- Columns 8 ing India, Ceylon, Straits Settlements, and Hongkong according to the number of to 17. letters sent and received by them, and charging the United Kingdom with the letters which it sends to and receives from other places-such as Egypt, Dutch East Indies, Siam, Japan, Zanzibar, East Coast of Africa, &c. The number of letters being ascertained from the latest weights procurable, and the average num- ber per pound weight being ascertained by means of special returns agreed upon by each office, as on previous occasions.

[It is because India is provided with a weekly mail service, and Ceylon, &c. only with a fortnightly mail service, that the sections, Brindisi-Port Said, and Port Said-Aden, over which the Indian Mails are annually conveyed 104 times and the Ceylon, &c. mails 52 times, have to be subdivided in order to ascertain the re- spective charges assignable. One moiety (a) of the cost of each of these sections is and would still be apportioned to the 52 sailings provided exclusively for Indian correspondence, and the other moiety () is and would still be apportioned to the 52 sailings provided for the combined services.]

F.) Divide incidental expenses, which are chiefly incurred in connexion with the conveyance of the mails between the United Kingdom and Brindisi, in the same proportions as the cost of the service.

(G.) Deduct the extra receipts of the service (i.e., sums received for sea conveyance of foreign closed mails) sharing the amount between the contributing parties in the proportion which each bears of the cost of the service.

24. The Imperial Post Office further proposes--

(1.) That each Administration contributing its full share of the cost assessed as above indicated, shall make no further payment in respect of mails despatched by it over the service, and shall be credited with a proportionate share of the amount of any penalties inflicted upon the Packet Company in respect of the Eastern Mail Service; and

(2.) That when the principles are decided by the Arbitrator, an account shall be prepared by the Imperial Post Office and audited by the India Office, the amounts thus ascertained to be payable by India, &c., to the end of the present contract.

General Post Office, London,

22nd July, 1898.

S. WALPOLE.

3

180

"A

£ 109,662

2,277

The INDIAN GOVERNMENT in ACCOUNT with the IMPERIAL GOVERNMENT in respect of MAIL PACKET SERVICE and SEA POSTAGE for the year ended 31st March 1875.

To the Indian proportion of the cost of the Packet Service for the year ended 31st March 1875 (as per Statement "a" annexed)

Less: The Indian share of the balance of Penalties incurred over Premiums earned

-

+

By the Indian share of the Sea Postage for the year ended 31st March 1875

Balance due to India on

£

54,412

the account for the year to 31st March 1874

£ 5,230

107,385

Less: Balance due to the United Kingdom on the account for the year to 31st March 1873-

727

To the Indian proportion of the Inci-

dental Expenses for the year -

4,503

4,197

Cash received from the India Office, viz.:-26th

June 1874

15,000

24th Sept. 1874

15,000

20th March 1875

16,497

46,497

Balance in favour of the Imperial

Government

6,170

£ 111,582

£ 111,582

STATEMENT "a.”—Showing the Percentage of the Cost of the INDIA, CHINA, and JAPAN MAIL SERVICES payable by the INDIAN GOVERNMENT for the Year ended 31st March 1875, and every subsequent Year to the end of the present Contract with the PENINSULAR AND ORIENTAL STEAM PACKET COMPANY. This Statement has been prepared in accordance with the decisions given by Viscount HALIFAX, G.C.B., on the 25th February

1876.

"Division of Cost.

Sectional Lines.

Cost of Sectional Lines calculated according to the Mileage of each Section.

Percentage chargeable to

Amount chargeable to

United Kingdom.

India.

United Kingdom.

India.

J

Mileage.

Mediterranean

392,704

£

141,242

Per cent. Per cent.

70

£

£

30

98,862

42,380

Suez and Bombay -

309,088

111,168 50

50

55,584

55,581

Suez and Galle

178,984

64,375 100

64,375

Bombay and Galle-

47,372

17,038

42.15

57.85

7,182

9,856

Galle and Singapore

Singapore and Hongkong

82,888

29,812 97.03

2.97

28,926

886

}

74,724

26.876 98.55

1.45 26,486

390

Hongkong and Shanghai

Hongkong and Yokohama

129,480 46,569 98.78

1.22 46,003

566

1,215,240

437,080

74.91

25.09

327,418

109,662

General Post Office, London,

16th February, 1877.

:

"B

EASTERN MAIL SERVICE.

Tabular Statement showing the method of division of Cost.

Number

Length

Cost

of

Annual

Section of the Service.

of

Section.

Voyages

per

annum.

Mileage

of

Section.

Certain places in respect of which United Kingdom. the Cost is borne by the United Kingdom.

India.

Amount payable by

Ceylon.

Straits

Settlements.

Hongkong,

Percent-

age.

(1.).

(2.).

(3.)

(4.)

(5.) (6.)

Amount.

(7.)

Percent-

age.

(8.)

Amount.

Percent-

age.

Amount.

Percent-

aye.

Amount.

Percent-

age.

Percent-

Amount.

Amount.

age.

-----(9.) (10.) (11.) (12.)

(13.) (14.) (15.)

(16.) (17.)

Miles.

No. Miles.

£

1%

£

Brindisi and Port Said :-

Subsection A

930

52

Subsection B

930

52-

223

48,260

16,231

50

8,116

48,369

16,231

50

8,115

Port Said and Aden :-

Subsection A

1,395

52 72,540

24,341

50

12,171

Subsection B

1,395

52

72,540

24,341.

50

12,170

Aden and Bombay

1,66-1

104| 173,056

58,089

50 29,045

Aden and Colombo

2,093

32|108,836 36,530

50* 18,265

Colombo and Singapore

1,659

Singapore and Hong Kong

1,437

Hong Kong and Shanghai

870

52

52 86,269 52 74,724 25,088 45,240 15,190

28,959

50 14,479

50 12,544

50 7,595

729,924 | 245,000

50122,500

%=

Add incidental

expenses

Gross amount

payable

Deduct share of extra receipts (Sea Postage on Foreign Closed Mails)

Net amount

payable

%=

181

་་

MY LORDS,

182

Appendix II.

LORD MORLEY'S AWARD.

31 Prince's Gardens, S. W.

8th November 1898.

1. In accordance with the request contained in your Lordship's letter of 20th July, I have enquired into the questions at issue between the Postmaster General and the Secretary of State for India as to the proportion of the cost of the Eastern Mail Service to be charged to the Government of India.

2. The case of the Post Office and the case of the Indian Government, which were forwarded to me on 27th July, are annexed to this award.

3. I have had several interviews with Mr. J. J. Cardin, C.B., representing the Post Office, and Mr. H. M. Kisch, the Postmaster General of Bengal, who have argued the cases of their respective Governments before me.

4. Since Lord Halifax's award in 1876 circumstances have considerably changed, and on the occasion of each subsequent contract the Indian Government has raised questions of importance which have never been definitely settled. Dur- ing the two contracts, from 1880 to the present time, the Indian contribution to the Mail Service has been fixed by a series of compromises, the details of which are given in the two cases. It was, therefore, necessary for me to go very fully into the principles which have regulated the apportionment of the cost of the Service between the two countries.

.

5. On the conclusion of a new contract with the Peninsular and Oriental Com- pany for the conveyance of the Eastern and Australian Mails for seven years from 1st February 1898, the Post Office made the following proposals:-

(a.) That of the total subsidy of 330,000l., 85,000l. should be regarded as applicable to the Australian Service, leaving 245,000l. to be taken as the cost of the Indian and Eastern Service.

(b.) That each country should retain its own collection of postage as they

have done since 1891.

(c.) That the cost of each of the seven sections into which the Mail route is divided, should be ascertained by dividing the subsidy in propor- tion to the annual mileage of each section. That one half the cost of the section should be charged to the United Kingdom, the other half should be paid by India and the various Colonies interested, in proportion to the number of letters sent and received by them, the United Kingdom paying for any letters which it exchanges with

other countries.

That the incidental expenses should be divided in the same pro- portions as the cost of the service, and that the amounts received for sea-postage on foreign mails should be divided between the contri- buting countries in the proportion which each bears of the cost of the Service. In the main principles this is the mode in which the apportionment has been hitherto adjusted.

6. The Indian Government objects to these proposals on the following grounds:

(a.) That the amount (85,0007.) appropriated to the Australian Service

is too small.

(b.) That India should not be charged with any portion of the loss

accruing on the sections between Colombo and Shanghai.

(c.) That, if each Administration retains its postal collection, the share of the subsidy charged to India is too large, having regard to the fact that the mails from England to India are far heavier than the mails · from India to England.

The discrepancy between the homeward and outward traffic in letters is not very great; but England sends to India about six times as many newspapers, circulars, &c., as she receives. The follow- ing figures for the year 1896-97 were given to me:-

.

183

From the United Kingdom.

From India and Aden.

:

Letters and postcards

Newspapers, circulars, &c.,

lbs. 96,300

1,561,200

lbs.

83,800

259,400

The result, it is argued, is that the United Kingdom makes more use of the Service than India, and also that the United Kingdom has the advantage of the larger collection of postage, whereas India has to bear the expense of distributing the heavier mails.

7. To meet this case, the Indian Government suggests that a new principle should be adopted. viz., that the Postal Union rules should be applied to the sea-transit, as if it were provided by a foreign Government, and that Postal Union rates should be charged on all mails to the sending country.

46

As an alternative scheme it is stated in the Indian case (page XIII.) that India would be prepared to return to the arrangement for the pooling of postage and sea-postage which was in force from 1857 to 1891."

8. The Post Office, on the other hand, states that if the principles of Lord Halifax's settlement are re-opened, there are various claims which can be equitably raised against India which have not thus far been pressed, e.g.-

a.) The cost of extra speed on the Bombay Line;

b.) The cost of sea-sorting (7,5007.), which, it is alleged, was established

at the instance and for the benefit of India.

9. After a careful consideration of the two cases, and of the arguments used in support of them, I have arrived at the following conclusions:-

(a.) That, as regards the Australian Service, the arrangement proposed by the Post Office should be adopted during the continuance of the contract, and that 85,000l. should be appropriated to that Service. When the present contract expires, it appears to me that it would be desirable to enter into separate contracts for the two Services.- (b.) That, as regards the sections between Colombo and Shanghai, India should not continue to be made liable for any loss which may be incurred on these sections, but that she should pay transit rates for any use she may make of this portion of the mail route, the receipts from such transit rates being credited to the sections. (c.) That the postage collected in the two countries, and the receipts from other administrations for land and sea transit on mails sent over the line should be pooled, and the balance of the united collections, after deducting the cost of continental transit and rates paid to other countries, should be equally divided.

(d.) That, subject to the above-mentioned conditions, the apportionment of the subsidy, 245,000l., should be regulated in accordance with the principles laid down in paragraphs 23 and 24 of the case of the Post Office (now embodied in paragraphs 26 and 27 of the present case), with this exception, that the Indian Government should bear the whole expense of sea-sorting on the Bom' ay line, which, by Article 35 of the contract, is fixed at 7,500.

Under this article the Postmaster-General may give notice to the Company that he no longer requires provision to be made for sea-sorting, and may deduct 7,5007. from the subsidy. I under- stand that he would be willing to give this notice if the Indian Government desires him to do so.

(e.) That an account should be prepared by the Imperial Post Office and audited by the India Office, and that the amounts thus ascertained shall be payable by the contributing countries to the end of the

contract.

The Lords Commissioners' of

Her Majesty's Treasury..

I have the honour to be,

My Lords,

Your obedient Servant,

(Signed) MORLEY.

ཝཱ

184

Appendix III.

COPY OF CORRESPONDENCE EXCHANGED BETWEEN THE TREASURY, THE INDIA OFFICE, AND THE POST OFFICE RESPECTING THE INTERPRETATION OF CLAUSE (c.)

192/1900. MY LORD,

OF LORD MORLEY'S AWARD.

Treasury Chambers,

5th February 1900.

I am directed by the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury to say that they regret to learn that a difference of opinion has arisen between the Post Office and India Office as to the exact interpretation to be placed on Clause (c.) of paragraph 9 of the award given by you in the arbitration upon the questions at issue between those Departments respecting the apportionment of the cost of the Eastern Mail Service.

The point upon which difference of opinion has arisen is set out in the letter from the India Office to this Department of the 2nd instant, of which a copy

enclosed.

is

Extracts from the correspondence which has passed between the Post Office and the India Office are also enclosed.

In the opinion of My Lords the Postmaster General has correctly interpreted your Lordship's intention to have been not to limit the pooling to the postage collected in each country on correspondence for delivery in the other, but to decide that from the amounts received by the Indian and Imperial Post Offices on all mails in respect of which India is charged in the apportionment of cost, according to the principles laid down in Clause (d) of the award there should be deducted the payments made by each Post Office for Continental or other transit, and that the balance should be equally divided between the two Governments.

My Lords are very reluctant to trouble your Lordship again with the matter, but in view of the doubts entertained by the Secretary of State for India in Council My Lords feel that they cannot refuse to refer the point at issue to your Lordship, as they are unable to accept the alternative proposals put forward by the India Office.

They would accordingly be much obliged to your Lordship if you would say whether the interpretation of the Postmaster General or that adopted by the India Office as to the meaning of Clause (c.) of paragraph 9 of your award is correct.

The Earl of Morley,

House of Lords.

I am,

My Lord,

Your obedient Servant,

(Signed) E. W. HAMILTON.

(1st Enclosure.)

F. 6251.

India Office, Whitehall, London, S.W., 2nd January 1900.

SIR,-With reference to your letter, No. 16,834/98, of the 18th November 1898, I am directed by the Secretary of State for India in Council to address you regarding a question which has arisen in connection with Lord Morley's award in the arbitration between the Imperial Post Office and the Government of India.

2. Since the receipt of your letter, several communications have passed between the British Post Office and this Office, regarding the steps to give effect to the award; and Her Majesty's Postmaster General and the Secretary of State are, it is believed, in agreement on all points except one. That point is the meaning to be

185

attached to the words "the postage collected in the two countries," in Clause (c.) of paragraph 9 of the award, which runs as follows:-"(c.) That the postage "collected in the two countries, and the receipts from other administrations for "land and sea transit on mails sent over the line should be pooled, and the balance "of the united collections, after deducting the cost of continental transit and rates "paid to other countries, should be equally divided."

3. The meaning attached by the Secretary of State in Council to the words "the postage collected in the two countries" is "the postage collected in the two "countries on mails posted in either country for delivery in the other"; and this interpretation is held for the following reasons:-

(1) It accords with paragraph 6 (c.) of the preamble to the award, in which the mails from the United Kingdom to India are contrasted with those from India to the United Kingdom;

(2) It accords with the second clause of paragraph 7 of the preamble which refers to the arrangement for pooling in force from 1857 to 1891, as the pooling of entire postage (excluding only out-of-pocket expenses for continental transit) as distinguished from the portion called sea postage, was limited to mails between the two countries; (3) It accords with the statistical statements regarding the pooling system which were put before the Arbitrator by the representative of the British Post Office (through the representative of the Treasury); for those statements appeared to show, were understood at the time to show, and did, it is believed, actually show, only the collections of each country on correspondence for delivery in the other country. (4) The words are necessarily subject to limitation by the context and spirit of the award, for, otherwise, the pooling of postage would cover all postage-inland and foreign-collected in the two countries, or at least all postage collected in the two countries on mails sent over the line, and neither of these interpretations, although favoura- ble to India, is suggested by the British Post Office, or was, it is thought, intended.

(5) The limitation given by the interpretation of this Office not only accords with the context of the award, but is in itself equitable, for the pooling of postage (as distinguished from the portion of postage called sea postage) is, it is thought, rightly applicable only to articles in respect of which the two countries (the United Kingdom and India) share all the services-inland (despatch and delivery) as well as transit-i.e., articles exchanged between the two countries.

4. The interpretation placed by Her Majesty's Postmaster General on Clause (c.) of the award is given in the following words in Sir George Murray's letter, No. 32929, of the 15th May 1899:-

"The clause is understood as deciding that, from the amounts received by the Indian and Imperial Post Offices on all mails, in respect of which India is charged in the apportionment of cost, according to the principles laid down in Clause (d.) of the award, there should be deducted the payments made by each Post Office for continental or other transit, and that the balance should be equally divided between the two Governments.'

11

5. For this unequal limitation and alteration of the words of Clause (c.) there would seem to be no justification in the wording of the award, in past practice, under the pooling system, or in equity. Clause (c.), which relates to the revenue derived from the Service, makes no reference to Clause (d.), which (together with Clauses (a.) and (b.), relates to the apportionment of the gross subsidy. The prac- tical effect of the Postmaster General's interpretation would be that India would divide equally with the United Kingdom not only the postage on mails between the two countries, in respect of which the two countries share all services (inland and transit), but also both the inland and the sea postage on mails for Aden, Egypt, Continental, Europe, and other places, although in respect of all these mails the United Kingdom contributes to only the sea service, and not to any of the inland services of collection, sorting, inland transit, despatch, and delivery, to meet which part of the postage is paid and required. On the other hand, owing to the insertion in the Postmaster General's interpretation, of the words "in respect of which India is charged," the United Kingdom would not divide with India the postage on any articles for which India does not perform half of the inland services.

186

6. The Secretary of State is aware that, in the course of the arbitration pro- ceedings, the British representative urged that India should not obtain the carriage of her despatches to the Continent of Europe in return for only an increased charge in the subsidy account, in respect of those mails. On the other hand, the Indian representative urged that the unequal services obtained by the several contributors from the non-contract extensions of the mail lines should be provided for. Neither of these matters is mentioned in the award, but the Secretary of State, accepting the award in its entirety, understands that these and all other matters, not otherwise provided for, are treated by the Arbitrator as set off against each other, and cover- ed by the accepted principle of paragraph 24 (1) (now 27 (1)) of the British case.

7. In discussing the steps to be taken to give effect to the award, and its application to the details of so complicated a subject as the account in connection with the charges and profits of the P. & O. Company's service, a number of questions necessarily arose besides the one which forms the subject of this letter. On all these questions a friendly understanding has been established between Her Majesty's Postmaster General and the Secretary of State in accordance with the principles of the award; and, as there is only one point on which there is any difference of opinion, the Secretary of State now suggests, as a settlement of that point, that, in respect of foreign mails from India for countries other than the United Kingdom, passing over the line Bombay-Brindisi, India should, according to the principle of the old system of pooling, divide equally with the United Kingdom sea postage at the usual (Union) rates on the quantities actually sent, the pooling of entire postage being then restricted to mails between the two coun- tries. Lord George Hamilton hopes that this suggestion will save any further trouble regarding the interpretation of Clause (c.), either now or hereafter when the account is prepared.

8. In the event of their Lordships being unable to accept either the Secretary of State's interpretation of Clause (c.) of the award, or the proposal in the preceding paragraph of this letter, Lord George Hamilton can only suggest that the question be referred to Lord Morley. The Secretary of State would ask that, in that case, a copy of this letter be forwarded to Lord Morley, and that a copy of the letter of reference, and any communication that may be submitted to Lord Morley in support of the contention of the British Post Office, may at the same time be forwarded to this Office.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

The Secretary

to the Treasury.

(Signed)

HORACE WALPOLE.

(2nd Enclosure.)

(a) Extract from Post Office Letter to India Office, dated 28th July 1899.

The exception taken by the Secretary of State to the construction placed by the Post Office upon Clause (c.) of the award may perhaps be removed if the follow- ing points are considered :

(1) Such pooling as formerly obtained was abandoned at the instance of India; and the re-introduction of pooling formed no part of the Post Office case presented to the Arbitrator.

(2) Lord Morley, however, favoured pooling; and, from the wording of the award and the fact that he brought land transit rates within its scope, it is clear that he contemplated a wider application of the pooling principle than that in force from 1857 to 1891.

(3) The United Kingdom, which bears in the first instance an equal share of cost with each contributor, has to pool with that contributor the receipts on all mails which determine the particular proportion of cost assignable. It cannot share with India the receipts on mails exchanged with Ceylon, the Straits Settlements, or Hongkong; and it is presumed the Secretary of State does not hold that the receipts on mails exchanged between the

187

United Kingdom and places in respect of which the charges in the assess- ment are made exclusively against the United Kingdom should be divid- ed with contributors who are relieved from any charge in respect of such mails. Sea postage received by the United Kingdom on purely foreign mails which do not enter into the division of cost account, will of course be shared with all the contributors.

(b.) Extract from India Office Letter to Post Office, dated 24th August 1899.

It is not denied that, as regards receipts from other Administrations, the award gives in some respects a wider application than heretofore of the pooling principle; but, as regards the pooling of postage, the Secretary of State sees no reason to doubt that he has correctly understood the Arbitrator's words. Any wider interpretation, if applied uniformly, as it must be, to the mails in both direc- tions, would, it is thought, be less favourable to the British Post Office, and, from the remarks in Clause 3 of paragraph 3 of your letter, this would seem also to be the view of your Office.

(c.) Extract from Post Office Letter to India Office, dated 28th November 1899.

The Postmaster General has again scrupulously examined Clause (c.) of the award of Lord Morley, but without being able to arrive at any other view than that already set forth in letters from the Post Office. Indeed, the points brought for- ward in your communication had not been lost sight of when those letters were written.

·The Postmaster General greatly regrets that the friendly understanding which he has established with the Secretary of State does not cover the whole ground. But for the circumstance that an exchange of views on the subject of Clause (c.) of the award has, as a matter of fact, already occupied much time, he would have thought that the meaning of the clause admitted of no possible doubt; and he scarcely thinks that the solution of the question raised at the India Office can be facilitated by any further observations on his part. He would therefore suggest that the point at issue should be referred to the Lords of the Treasury.

3200/1900.

MY LORD DUKE,

Treasury Chambers,

27th February, 1900.

With reference to the letter from this Department of the 5th instant (192/1900), I am directed by the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury to forward herewith, for your Grace's information, a copy of a letter from the Earl of Morley interpreting Clause (c.) paragraph 9 of his award on the apportionment of the receipts of the Indian Mail Service as between India and the United Kingdom.

The Postmaster General.

I am,

My Lord Duke,

Your obedient Servant,

(Signed)

E. W. HAMILTON.

192/1900.

SIR,

House of Lords,

15th February, 1900.

I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of February 5th relating to the difference of opinion which has arisen between the Post Office and the India Office as to the interpretation of Clause (c.) paragraph 9 of the award given by me upon questions at issue between these Departments respecting the apportionment of the cost of the Eastern Mail Service.

In reply I have to state that the interpretation of the Postmaster General is, in my opinion, the correct interpretation of the paragraph in question.

I have the honour to be,

Your obedient Servant,

The Secretary of the Treasury.

(Signed) MORLEY.

1

Section of the Service.

Length

of

Section.

No. of

Voyages

per

Annum.

Annual

Postage

India.

Mileage. Gross.

credited

to Sections!

Net.

under

Clause B.

Per-

Per-

of Award.

Appendix IV.

DIVISION OF COST in accordance with the principles embodied in the AWARD of LORD MORLEY.

COST OF SECTIONS.

Less Sea

AMOUNT PAYABLE BY

Straits

Ceylon.

Settlements.

Per-

Per-

Certain Places in respect of

is borne by the United Kingdom.

Per-

centage. A mount. centage. A mount. centage. A mount. centage. Amount. centage. A mount. centage. Amount.

Hongkong.

United Kingdom. which the Cost

Per-

Miles.

No. Miles.

£

£

£

£

£

£

£

£

£

Brindisi and

Subsection A.

930

52

48,360 15,668

15,668

7,105

62

7,834

667

Port Said,

Subsection B.

930

52

48,360 15,668

15,668

5,672

618

363

403

7,834

778

Port Said

Subsection A.

1,395

52 72,540 23,497

23,497

11,417

99

11,749

232

and Aden,

Subsection B.

1,395

52 72,540 23,496

23,496

8,488

919

539

594

11,748

1,208

Aden and Bombay,..

1,664

104

173,056 56,074

52

56,022

28,011

28,011

Aden and Colombo,

2,093

52

108,836 35,262

32

35,230

5,096

2,993

3,289

17,615

6,237

Colombo and Singapore,.

1,673

52

86,996 28,191

439

27,752

3,555

3,437

13,876

6,884

Singapore and Hongkong,... Hongkong and Shanghai,

1,440

853

52

1....

52 74,880 24,265 386 23,879 44,356 14,379 174 14,205

5,408

11,939

6,532

14,205

Total Annual Mileage,.

729,924

53.02 | 124,811 9.57 22,538

Cost of Sections,

Cost of Sea Sorting,

Subsidy to P. & O. Co.,

236,500

8,500

245,000

1,083 235,417 25.78

60,693 2.82

6,633

3.23

7,611

5.58

13,131

62.59 | 147,349

7,500

500

500

Add:-Share of Incidental Expenses (3,806.),....

25.78

981 2.82

69,174

107

3.23

123

5.58

213

62.59 2,382

6,740

8,234

13,844

149,731

3,331 2.82

365 3.23

417 5.58

721 62.59

8,087

63,843

6,513

6,375

320

7,817

98

13,123

230

£141,644

£59,330

£6,055

£7,719

£12,893

GROSS AMOUNT payable,

Deduct: Share of Extra Receipts (12,9217.) for Sea Postage on Foreign Closed Mails,...... 25-78

NET AMOUNT payable,.......

POOLING ACCOUNT :-Allow one-half of excess collected in the United Kingdom,

General Post Office,

30th June 1903.

ANNUAL CONTRIBUTION,

C. A. KING,

Comptroller and Accountant General.

188

189

Appendix V.

CASE OF THE EASTERN COLONIES.

The cost of the Eastern and Australian Mail Service by the packets of the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company is £330,000 a year for seven years from the 1st February, 1898. Towards this cost the Colony of Ceylon has hitherto contributed £1,400 a year, besides paying about £3,300 a year at Postal Union transit rates for all its mails sent over the system. Of this last amount a portion is paid in respect of mails sent over the Singapore-China and Australian sections, and will in any case continue to be paid; and for the purpose of the present argument only the sum paid in respect of the mails sent westwards need be considered, as will appear below, and this sum has been on the average about £2,500 a year. Similarly Hongkong has contributed £6,000 and about £3,000 for sea postage at transit rates, while the Straits Settlements has made an inclusive contribution of £ 6,000 a year. In addition each Colony bas paid sea postage for the carriage of parcels, and the amounts paid on this account were in 1901: Ceylon about £125, Straits about £175 and Hongkong about £480. Thus the total annual contributions from these Colonies have amounted to: Ceylon £ 4,025, Straits £ 6,175 and Hongkong £ 9,480.

• 2. The Treasury and Imperial Post Office having from the first contended that the contributions of India and the Eastern Colonies were insufficient, the question as between the Imperial Government and the Government of India was submitted to the arbitration of Lord Morley; India has accepted that award, but the Eastern Colonies, which were not invited to take part in the arbitration and had no opportunity of stating their case or of being heard by the arbitrator, object to the proposal of the Treasury to extend to them without qualification the principles of apportionment laid down by Lord Morley as between His Majesty's Government and the Government of India.

4. The Imperial Post Office proposed in their case as submitted to Lord Morley (the full text of which is given in Appendix A.) that £85,000 of the total subsidy should be regarded as the cost of the Australian section and (para. 23):

"that the subsidy of £245,000 applicable to the Eastern Mail Service should be apportioned in accordance with the principles which have governed the apportionment since 1866, the procedure being as follows:-

66

*

*

*

*

(A) Divide the service into the following sections, corresponding to the principal points of call :-

Brindisi and Port Said.

Port Said and Aden. Aden and Bombay. Aden and Colombo. Colombo and Singapore. Singapore and Hongkong. Hongkong and Shanghai.

(B) Ascertain the number of miles traversed annually upon each section of the service by multiplying the length of each section by the number of voyages performed annually.

"(C) Ascertain the cost of each section by dividing the subsidy in proportion to the annual mileage of the section.

"(D) Charge one half the cost of each section to the United Kingdom.

66

(E) Divide the other half of the cost of each section proportionately, charging India, Ceylon, Straits Settlements, and Hongkong according to the number of letters sent and received by them, and charging the United Kingdom with the letters which it sends to and receives from other places-such as Egypt, Dutch East Indies, Siam, Japan, Zanzibar, East Coast of Africa, &c. The number of letters being ascertained from the latest weights procurable, and the average number per pound weight being ascertained by means of special returns agreed upon by each office, as on previous occasions.

"[It is because India is provided with a weekly mail service, and Ceylon, &c., only with a fortnightly mail service, that the sections, Brindisi-Port Said, and Port Said-Aden, over which the Indian mails are annually conveyed 104 times, and the Ceylon, &c., mails 52 times, have to be subdivided in order to ascertain the respective charges assignable. One moiety (a) of the cost of each of these sections is and would still be apportioned to the 52 sailings provided exclusively for Indian correspondence, and the other moiety (b) is and would still be apportioned to the 52 sailings provided for the combined services.]

.46

190

(F) Divide incidental expenses, which are chiefly incurred in connection with the conveyance of the mails between the United Kingdom and Brindisi, in the same proportions as the cost of the service.

66

(G) Deduct the extra receipts of the service (ie., sums received for sea con- veyance of foreign closed mails) sharing the amount between the contributing parties in the proportion which each bears of the cost of the service.

"24. The Imperial Post Office further proposes

"(1) That each Administration contributing its full share of the cost assessed as above indicated, shall make no further payment in respect of mails despatched by it over the service, and shall be credited with a proportionate share of the amount of any penalties inflicted upon the Packet Company in respect of the Eastern Mail Service; and

<<

(2) That when the principles are decided by the Arbitrator, an account shall be prepared by the Imperial Post Office and audited by the India Office, the amounts thus ascertained to be payable by India, &c., to the end of the present contract."

5. Lord Morley's Award (the full text of which is given in Appendix B.) was to the following effect :-

(a) That, as regards the Australian Service, the arrangement proposed by the Post Office should be adopted during the continuance of the contract, and that £85,000 should be appropriated to that service. When the present contract expires, it appears to me that it would be desirable to enter into separate contracts for the two services. (b) That, as regards the sections between Colombo and Shanghai, India should not continue to be made liable for any loss which may be incurred on these sections, but that she should pay transit rates for any use she may make of this portion of the mail route, the receipt from such transit rates being credited to the sections.

(c) That the postage collected in the two countries, and the receipts from other Administrations for land and sea transit on mails sent over the line should be pooled, and the balance of the united collect- ions, after deducting the cost of continental transit and rates paid to other countries, should be equally divided.

(d) That, subject to the above-mentioned conditions, the apportionment of the subsidy, £245,000, should be regulated in accordance with the principles laid down in paragraphs 23 and 24 of the case of the Post Office, with this exception, that the Indian Government should bear the whole expense of sea sorting on the Bombay line, which, by Article 35 of the contract, is fixed at £7,500. Under this article the Postmaster-General may give notice to the Com- pany that he no longer requires provision to be made for sea sort- ing, and may deduct £7,500 from the subsidy. I understand that he would be willing to give this notice if the Indian Government desires him to do so.

(e) That an account should be prepared by the Imperial Post Office, and audited by the India Office, and that the amounts thus as- certained shall be payable by the contributing countries to the end of the contract.

6. Appendix C shows how the award works out if applied to India and the Eastern Colonies on the basis of the statistics of 1901, the middle year of the contract, with the result that the contributions would be: India, £59,330; Ceylon, £6,055; Straits, £7,719; and Hongkong, £12,893.

7. If the Colonies agree to the proposal that the principles of Lord Morley's Award should be extended to them, it is understood that they would be relieved from the payments for parcels, referred to in paragraph 1 above, and that the receipts for parcels in the various countries would be pooled in the manner des- cribed in Appendix D.

8. The Secretary of State for the Colonies is not prepared to agree, without qualification, to the extension of the principles of Lord Morley's Award to the Eastern Colonies, as he maintains that their case is different from and their interest in some measure in conflict with those of India, but he has agreed to the matter being submitted to arbitration on the understanding that the Colonies are not to

191

be prejudiced by the assumption that £85,000 is the proper amount to be assessed to the Australian portion of the contract, or that India's share is fairly assessed under Lord Morley's Award. In other words, the question to be decided is what proportion of the total subsidy of £330,000 the Eastern Colonies may fairly be called upon to pay, and not what is their fair share of the £185,670, which is the balance after deducting £85,000, assumed to be the cost of the Australian section, and £59,330 assessed to India under Lord Morley's Award.

9. It has been further agreed with the Treasury that the result of the arbi- tration shall be applied to the three Colonies as from the beginning of the present contract (1st of February, 1898).

10. It might be objected that the assessment according to annual mileage (see paragraph 23 (C) of Post Office case) is at variance with the practice of the Postal Union, which provides a fixed maximum transit rate for each group of articles, carried by sea over any distance exceeding 1,500 miles, and that it is particularly hard on the more distant Colonies; but the Secretary of State, on behalf of the Colonies, would not press this objection if this mode of assessment is uniformly applied over the whole service, and if some allowance is made for the extra speed of the Indian section of the service.

11. It is contended that as the tender of, and contract with, the Peninsular and Oriental Company was for the combined Indian and Eastern and Australian Mail Service, and not a sectional tender and contract, whatever principles of apportionment may be adopted should be applied throughout, and not limited to the Indian and Eastern sections. The share of the subsidy payable by the United Kingdom and Australia towards the Australian section has, however, been fixed at £85,000 without any regard to the mileage principle. This sum has been taken because it is the amount paid to the Orient Company for its Australian Service, but it is submitted that the cost of the Australian section should be calculated according to the mileage principle, if that principle is to be applied to the rest of the Service. If this were done the division of the cost of the subsidy into sections would work out as shown in the first five columns of Appendix F.

12. Adopting these revised figures for the cost of the various sections, the liabilities of the United Kingdom and Australia in respect of Australian corres- pondence, if calculated according to the number of letters exchanged, on the principles of Lord Morley's award amount to £113,813 (see Appendix E), instead of £85,000, the amount referred to above.

13. As to this sum of £113,813 it will be seen that the cost of carrying the outward and homeward Australian mails over the Brindisi-Colombo sections works out at £36,010, and over the Colombo-Adelaide section at £77,803, but if the latter amount is deducted from £85,000, the sum assumed by the General Post Office for the whole service to and from Australia, there remains a balance of £7,197 only towards paying the cost of the Brindisi-Colombo sections. Of the deficiency of £28,813 one half falls on the United Kingdom and the other half on India, the Eastern Colonies, and "certain places in respect of which the cost is borne by the United Kingdom." Appendix F shows the figures for India and the Eastern Colonies corrected by relieving them of the above-mentioned excess charge, viz., India £57,200, Ceylon £2,538, Straits £5,797, and Hongkong £10,973.

14. Turning now to the question of speed. The average speed of the Peninsular and Oriental service between Brindisi and Bombay is about 14-5 knots, between Aden and Adelaide about 13.7 knots, and between Colombo and Shanghai about 12.6 knots. The Eastern Colonies contend that for a slower service they should not be charged the same rate per mile as India is charged for a service of 14.5 knots. The rate of speed is undoubtedly the chief factor con- sidered by contractors in estimating the cost of different services, and logically it should be equally considered in apportioning the subsidy. It would appear from paragraph 8 (a) of Lord Morley's award that the additional cost of the extra speed on the Bombay line was put forward by the General Post Office as an argument. in favour of imposing a larger share of the subsidy on India, and, similarly, it is fair to argue that the slower speed on the Aden-Shanghai sections entitles the Eastern Colonies to a material reduction on the share of the cost assigned to them in Appendix F.

192

15. It has been ascertained from the Admiralty that the approximate relative cost of coal used in steaming at 14.5, 137, and 12-6 knots is 131, 117, and 100. Coal being the largest item of expenditure, it is submitted that the case of the Eastern Colonies is not overstated if the relative cost per mile over the Brindisi- Bombay sections, the Aden-Adelaide sections, and the Colombo-Shanghai sections, is estimated at 128, 115, and 100. The cost of the various sections, corrected on this basis, works out as shown in the fifth 'column of Appendix G, (where the ratios 109, 98, and 85 have been taken instead of the equivalent ratios 128, 115, and 100, so as to make the total cost come to the same figure as before, £321,500). The remaining columns of Appendix G give the approximate share of the subsidy which should be paid by the various Colonies and India, when difference in speed is thus taken into account, viz., India, £62,420; Ceylon, £2,625; Straits Settle- ments, £5,345; Hongkong, £9,607; and Australia about £54,000.

16. In Appendices F and G the items "Incidental Expense" and "Re- ceipts from Foreign Closed Mails" have been increased by figures supplied by the Imperial Post Office, so as to include the Australian section, and have been distributed according to the general apportionment of the subsidy in the same way as in Appendix C. It is, however, contended that the sea postage received in respect of foreign closed mails should more properly be credited to the sections over which the foreign mails travel, as in the case of the analogous receipts. referred to in paragraph (b) of Lord Morley's award, instead of being divided in the saine proportion as the subsidy. See paragraph 23 (G) of Imperial Post Office case (Appendix A).

17. The Colonial Office does not possess (1) the statistics necessary for mak; ing the last mentioned adjustment; nor (2) those required for making the correct- ions of the figures in the sixth column of Appendices F and G, referred to in foot- notes to Appendix F; nor (3) those relating to parcels, referred to in paragraph 7 above, which would involve further credits to the Eastern Colonies in the Pool- ing Account.

18. Subject to the corrections in respect of the three points referred to in last paragraph, the figures given in Appendix G show that a fair contribution from Hongkong would be only slightly in excess of the amount hitherto paid, viz., £9,480, while Ceylon and the Straits Settlements have been paying each year since the commencement of the contract about £1,400 and £830 in excess of their fair contribution.

19. The contract with the Peninsular and Oriental Company has been extend- ed for three years from the 1st February, 1905, the subsidy being increased from £330,000 to £340,000 in return for an acceleration of 24 hours on the service. As this acceleration will be gained by increased speed on the Brindisi-Bombay section, the present speed being retained on the other sections, the arguments in paragraphs 14 and 15 above will apply more forcibly to the apportionment of the increased subsidy of £340,000, and it is contended that during the extended con- tract the contributions of the three Eastern Colonies should only be increased beyond the figures shown in Appendix G by about 3 per cent., i.e., the ratio of the increase to the original subsidy.

Colonial Office,

October 12, 1904.

Appendix A.

The Case of the Imperial Post Office to be submitted to the Right Honou- rable the Earl of Morley.*

Lord Morley's Award. †

Appendix B.

Appendix C.

Division of cost in accordance with the principles embodied in the Award of Lord Morley.‡

* Sec Appendix I of Minute.

+ See Appendix II of Minute.

See Appendix IV of Minute.

Section.

ď

193

Appendix D.

EASTERN MAIL SERVICE.

DIVISION OF SEA-POSTAGE ON PARCELS.

By agreement with India, Parcel mails conveyed by P. & O). services were not introduced into the assessment of cost based on Lord Morley's Award, but were the subject of a separate settlement in the monthly accounts.

As between the United Kingdom and India the sea-postage on parcels (ie., the proportion of the postage collections assigned to the sea service) is allotted on the following lines in harmony with the general tenour of the Award :-

(1) On parcels exchanged between India on the one hand and the United Kingdom, the Continent of Europe or Egypt on the other, the sea- postage is divided equally.

(2) On parcels despatched by India eastward (¿.e., over sections of the Service for which India is not assessed as regards letter mails) the whole sea-postage is accounted for by India.

(3) On purely foreign parcels (e.g., those exchanged between Italy and Egypt) the sea-postage is regarded as an extra receipt of which India receives the same proportion (25.78 per cent.) as of the extra receipts which are dealt with in the assessment.

If the Eastern Colonies accept the application of the principles of the Morley Award to the division of the cost of the Service, it is proposed to make with them a similar arrangement as regards the Parcel sea-postage corresponding to that fall- ing under divisions (1) and (3). The parallel is not precisely applicable to divi-. sion (2), but the amount involved is very small, and there would be no difficulty in coming to an agreement.

General Post Office,

10th May, 1904.

Appendix. E.

(Sd.) C. A. KING.

COST OF BRINDISI-ADELAIDE SERVICE.

Actual number of letters and

postcards brought into com- putation of Appendix C.

Estimated number of Austra-

lian letters and postcards.

Total.

Approximate percentage of Australian letters and cards.

post-

Per cent.

47

Per cent.

Brindisi and Port Said (Subsection B),

7,686,329 3,530,000 11,216,329

31

5,008

69

Port Said and Aden

(Subsection B), ... 7,432,806

3,530,000 10,962,806 |

32

7,752

68.

Aden and Colombo,.... 1,974,278 | 3,530,000

5,504,278

64

23,250

36

Colombo and Adelaide,

Total.....

3,530,000 3,530,000

100

77,803

113,813

NOTE. The figures in the third column are arrived at in the following manner : —

In the Annual Report of the Postmaster-General for the year 1894-5 (p. 49 of C. 7852) the total number of letters and postcards to and from Australasian is given as 5,506,900. In recent reports the estimated weight instead of the number of such letters is given, and it appears that the weight of Australasia letters rose from 182,510 lbs. in 1896 to 234,000 lbs. in 1901, or an increase of over 28-2 per cent. It may fairly be assumed that the number of letters approximately increased by the same percentage, which would make the Australasian letters for 1901 about 7.060,000. Assuming that one-half of these letters are carried by the Orient mail there remains 3,530,000 as the number carried by the P. & O. mail.

Cost of Australian Service.

and Balance percentage to be dis- tributed over India, Ceylon, "Certain places, &c.," in Straits, Hongkong,

same

proportions as

Appendix C.

in

1

Appendix F.

EASTERN AND AUSTRALIAN MAIL SERVICE.

DIVISION OF COST in accordance with the principles embodied in the AWARD of LORD MORLEY.

Cost of Sections.

Amount payable by

Length

Section of the Service.

of

Section.

No. of

Voyages

Less Sca

Straits

Annual

Postage

per

Annum.

Mileage.

credited to (Approxi-

Ceylon. Settle:

India.

Austra- Hong-

kong. lia.

United

Gross.

Fections

mate)

ments.

King-

dom.

under

Net.

Clause B.

of Award.

Amount. Amount. Amount. Amount. Amount. Amount.

Certain Places in respect of which the Cost is borne

by the United Kingdom.

194

Amount.

Miles.

No.

Miles.

Brindisi and Port Said

Subsection A.

930

52

48,360

16,155

16,000

7,250

70..

8,000

680

Subsection B.

930

52

48,360

16,156

16,000

3,980 440

260

290 2,480

8,000

550

Port Said and Aden

Subsection A.

1,395

52

72,540

24,225

24,000

11,650

110

12,000

240

Subsection B.

1,395

52

72,540

24,225

24,000

5,950 650

370

340 3,840

12,000

850

Aden and Bombay

1,664

104

173,056

57,774

52

58,000 29,000

29,000

Aden and Colombo Colombo and Singapore Singapore and Hongkong Hongkong and Shanghai. Colombo and Adelaide..

2,093

52

108,836

36,329

32.

36,000

1,850

1,080

1,190 11,620

18,000

2,260

1,673

52

86,996

29,031

439

28,500

3,660

3,560

14,250

7,060

1,440

52

74,880

24,981

386

25,000

5,660

12,500

6,840

853

52

4,479

52

22

44,356

14,821

174

15,000

15,000

232,908

77,803

1,917

76,000

38,000

38,000

166,750

18,480

Cost of Sections

321,500

3,000

318,500

57,830 2,940

5,550 11,010 55,940

185,230

Cost of Sea Sorting

Subsidy to P. & O. Co.

8,500

7,500

500

500

330,000

65,330 2,940

6,050 11,510 55,940

185,230

Add:-Share of Incidental Expenses (£6,090 †)

1,105

56

* 106

210

1,070

3,543

GROSS AMOUNT payable.

66,435

Deduct-Share of Extra Receipts (£15,000 ) for Sea Postage on Foreign Closed Mails

2,722

2,996

138

6,156

261

11,720

517

57,010 188,773

2,635

8,727

NET AMOUNT payable.. POOLING ACCOUNT: Allow one-half of excess collected in the United Kingdom

63,713 2,858

6,513 320

5,895

98

11,203

230

54,375

180,016

ANNUAL CONTRIBUTION

57,200 2,538

5,797

10,973

* This figure is a rough estimate, but the correct figure would not materially affect the shares of the Eastern Colonies. This figure includes the incidental expenses assigned by G.P.O. to Australian section.

This is the approximate amount from foreign closed mails, including the Australian section. These figures require some correction by including receipts from Australian mails.

Appendix G.

EASTERN AND AUSTRALIAN MAIL SERVICE (taken speed into consideration). DIVISION OF COST in accordance with the principles embodied in the AWARD of LORD MORLEY.

Cost of Sections (Corrected

195

for speed).

Amount payable by

Cost of

Sections as Approxi- Correction

Section of the Service.

given in

mate

in respect

Appendix

speed.

of speed.

Approxi-

F.

mate

Gross.

Less Sea

Postage credited to

Sections

Straits

Approxi-

India. Ceylon. Settle- kong. lia.

Hong- Austra-

under

mate

Net.

ments.

United

King-

dom.

Certain Places in respect of which the Cost is borne

by the United

Kingdom.

Clause B

of Award.

Amount. Amount. Amount. Amount. Amount. Amount.

Amount.

£

Knots.

Per cent.

Subsection A.

16,155

14.5

+

9

Brindisi and Port Said

Subsection B.

16,156

14.5

9

Subsection A.

24,225

14.5

a a a

£

17,620

£

£

:

£

£

£

£

£

£

£

17,620

7,980

80

8,810

750

17,620

17,620 4,380

490

290

320

2,730

8,810

600

Port Said and Aden

26,420

26,420

12,820

120

www.tw

13,210

270

Subsection B.

24,225

14.5

26,420

26,420 6,550

710

410

380 4,230

13,210

930

Aden and Bombay

57,774

14.5

62,990

52

62,940 31,470

31,470

Aden and Colombo

36,329

13.7

35,620

32

35,590

1,830

1,070

1,175

11,490

17,795

2,230

Colombo and Singapore- Singapore and Hongkong Hongkong and Shanghai.. Colombo and Adelaide.

29,031

12.6

15

24,690

439*

24,250

3,115

3,000

12,125

6,010

24,981

12:6

15

21,250

386*

20,860

4,730

10,430

5,700

14,821

12.6

15

12,610

174*

12,440

6,220

6,220

77,803

13.7

2

76,260

1,917*

74,340

37,170

37,170

159,250

22,710

Cost of Sections

321,500

3,000

318,500 63,200

3,030 5,085

9,605 55,620

181,960

Cost of Sea Sorting

Subsidy to P. & O.

8,500

330,000

7,500

500

500

70,700

3,030 5,585

10,105 55,620

181,960

Add :—Share of Incidental Expenses (£6,090*).

1,208

58

97

183 1,063

3,481

GROSS AMOUNT payable

71,908

Deduct-Shure of Extra Receipts (£15,000*) for Sea Postage on Foreign Closed Mails

2,975

.3,088

143

5,682

239

10,288 56,683 451 2,618

185,441

8,574

NET AMOUNT payable. l'OOLING ACCOUNT: -Allow one-half of excess collected in the United Kingdom

68,933

6,513

2,945

320

5,443

98

9,837

230

54,065

176,867

ANNUAL CONTRIBUTION

£62,420

2,625

5,345

9,607

* See Notes to Appendix F.

;

196

Appendix VI.

THE CASE OF THE IMPERIAL POST OFFICE TO BE

SUBMITTED TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE

LORD BALFOUR OF BURLEIGH.

1. Under a contract for the Eastern Mail Service, working to and from Brin- disi, which came into operation on the 1st February 1888, the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company received an annual subsidy of 265,0007.

2. And, in accordance with the desire of the Australian Colonies for a weekly Mail Service, contracts, to run' from 1st February 1888, were concluded by the Imperial Government with the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company for a fortnightly service from London viâ Brindisi, and with the Orient Steam Navigation Company for a similar service viâ Naples, the two companies together thus providing a regular weekly service by direct steamers. For these services each company received a subsidy of 85,000l. per annum.

3. All three contracts expired on 31st January 1898.

4. In response to the invitation of tenders for the respective services from 1st February 1898, the Orient Company offered to continue their portion of the Australian Service at a higher speed for the same subsidy of 85,0007.

5. The Peninsular and Oriental Company, who declined to tender for one service without the other, offered to continue the Eastern Mail Service and their portion of the Australian Service at higher rates of speed for each Service for a total subsidy of 330,0007., as against 350,000l., the total under their two expiring

contracts.

6. The acceptance of these tenders was recommended by a committee, of which the Right Honourable W. L. Jackson was chairman, and on which the Colonial Office was represented.

7. The total subsidy of 330,000l. asked by the Peninsular and Oriental Company was taken by Mr. Jackson's Committee as representing 85,000l. for the Australian Service and 245,0007. for the Eastern Service, an apportionment based on the fact that the Orient Company offered a corresponding Australian Service for 85,000l., and that the expiring contract of the Peninsular and Oriental Company for the separate Australian Service was also for that amount. The Indian Post Office, however, was disposed to think that a larger sum should be assigned to the Australian Service; and at its request, the Peninsular and Oriental Company were asked to say what part of the subsidy of 330,000l. was assigned to the Australian Service, and how the balance was subdivided among the sections of the Eastern Service. In reply the Directors stated that it would be impossible to separate the sections as desired, but that they had always had in view that they should obtain the sum of 85,000. for the Australian portion of the work, and that out of the total subsidy the sum of 245,0007. was for the Eastern Mail Service.

8. The Australian Post Offices, on the other hand, argued that the Australian Service provided by the Peninsular and Oriental Company should be credited with some portion of the reduction of 20,0001. effected in the combined cost of that Company's services. But this argument was met by the Imperial Post Office with the considerations already referred to, and the point was not pressed.

9. The cost of the Eastern Mail Service has accordingly been taken at 245,000l., and the benefit of the whole reduction of 20,000l. effected under the new contract for both Eastern and Australian Services is thus secured to the Eastern Mail Service. A further advantage to it is secured by the fact that the subsidy under the new contract covers the conveyance of parcels-a service which formerly gave rise to additional expense.

10. As to the method of division of cost, the principle upon which the cost of the Eastern Mail Service has been divided rests upon the fact that the Service is organised for commercial and political reasons, as well as for postal reasons, and that the intercourse promoted by it is a matter of equal interest to the Mother

1

197

It has

Country and to the Dependencies with which communication is maintained. accordingly been held that the revenues of the United Kingdom and of the several British Possessions benefited by the Service should contribute in equal proportions to any expenditure in the common interest which has the encouragement of inter- course for its object.

11. Up to the year 1866 the Service was regarded as one for the mutual bene- fit of the United Kingdom and India only, the extension to China, &c. being looked upon as conferring equal advantages upon British and upon Indian trade. While this view prevailed the net cost of the whole Service was divided equally between the United Kingdom and India.

12. In 1866 a Select Committee of the House of Commons was appointed to consider the subject of mail communications with India and the East, and the outcome of the Committee's inquiry (so far as division of cost was concerned) was a recognition of the fact that circumstances had modified the relative value to the United Kingdom and India of the Mail Service with the farther East, and a recom- mendation that India should no longer be considered as interested to the extent of one half of the cost of the China, &c. sections of the Service.

13. An equal division of the whole cost being no longer equitable it became necessary to divide the cost of the Service into sections, and to find a basis for determining the new apportionment.

14. Of the three considerations-commercial, political, postal-for which expenditure was incurred, only the postal element could be conveniently expressed in figures. And among the classes of matter making up the mails, it was held that the Letter, which differs from other classes of postal matter in that it repre- sents a presumably equal interest whether it be sent or received, was the best prac- tical index of the general value of the Service to a community, so far as that value could be gauged by a purely postal test. Experience has proved the soundness of this view, as opposed to an apportionment based on the gross weight of mails, or on the "value" of the mails-whether determined by the standard of postage collections or by that of the recognised rates of payment made by one country to another for sea transit. As regards gross weight carried, it is noticeable that the volume of mails has no influence on the cost of the Service, for subsidies have diminished while mails have increased; and as regards postage collections and rates of payment for transit successive reductions have continually disturbed the ratio between the different classes of mail matter.

15. Starting with the principle that the interest of the Mother Country is equal to the sum of all the other interests in a Service maintained for mutual benefit, one half of the cost of each section was assigned to the United Kingdom. The other half was assessed proportionately according to the number of letters sent and received by India and other places for the benefit of which the Service was maintained, each contributor being charged only with the percentage represented by the proportion which its letters bore to the total numbers of letters proper to the section.

16. The principles of apportionment laid down after the Parliamentary inquiry of 1866 were reconsidered ten years later by Lord Halifax, in connection with his arbitration upon certain points of difference which had arisen between the Indian and Imperial Post Offices, and these principles were confirmed by his award. Lord Halifax considered that the Eastern Service should continue to be treated as a whole on account of the numerous advant- ages gained thereby. Apart from the general advantages of the single contract system in giving a cheaper Service and a better fleet of ships than separate contracts for each section, India and the Eastern Colonies have derived con- siderable benefit from their correspondence being associated with other corres- pondence for instance, it is owing to the aggregate bulk of mail matter carried by the special trains across the Continent of Europe that France and Italy have been induced by the Imperial Post Office to reduce the rates for this transit. The rate per kilogramme of letters thus carried has been reduced from 25 francs 52 cen- times to 3 francs 70 centimes.

1

198

17. Until the 1880-88 contract India was the only contributor which bore a proportionate share of the loss on the Service, though in common with India the Eastern Colonies paid over to the United Kingdom the portion of their postage collections proper to the sea Service.

18. Out of the higher rates of postage then prevailing a delivery rate of 1d. per oz. was credited to India and the Eastern Colonies on each outward letter. They on the other hand deducted from their postage collections a similar rate on each homeward letter and paid over the balance to the Imperial Post Office, which after defraying the cost of transit by special trains through France and Italy, and assigning 1d. per oz. to its own inland Service, applied the remainder towards the reduction of the loss on the sea Service.

19. In 1874 the Government of the Straits Settlements complained that its rates of postage to the United Kingdom were unduly high as compared with those of India. The Imperial Post Office replied that India contributed about 60,0007. a year towards the loss on the Service, whereas the Straits Settlements contributed nothing, and therefore had no equitable claim to a reduction of postage which would augment the Imperial loss.

20. The Earl of Carnarvon, then Secretary of State for the Colonies, there- upon suggested that in the commercial interests of the Straits Settlements a reduction of postage should be conceded, and that in return "the charge occasioned "by their Mail Service should be divided between the Imperial and Colonial "Governments." His Lordship further suggested that the Governments of Cey- lon and Hongkong should be invited to consider the matter from this point of

*

view.

21. Lord Carnarvon's suggestions did not result in a definite arrangement, but when in 1877 postage rates were reduced on the entry of the Eastern Colonies into the Postal Union, it was made a condition that they should bear one half of the additional loss thus thrown on the Imperial exchequer.

22. The question of direct contributions towards the loss on the Service thus remained in abeyance, but in 1879 the Treasury revived it in view of a new contract. An assessment of the cost of the new Service was made by the Imperial Post Office on the lines approved by Lord Halifax, and the liabilities of the Eastern Colonies were found to be as follows:-

COLONY.

Ceylon,

Straits Settlements,

Hongkong,

GROSS SHARE OF Cost.

LESS COLONIAL

SHARE OF

NET SHARE OF COST.

SEA POSTAGE.

£ 2,721

£

£

1,321

1,400

7,071 -

1,071

6,000

13,771

1,071

12,700

23. The Earl of Kimberley, while agreeing in principle with his predecessor that the Eastern Colonies should share the burden with India and the United Kingdom, expressed the opinion that neither Hongkong nor the Straits Settle- ments should be called upon to pay more than Ceylon, "the wealthiest and most populous colony." Eventually his Lordship proposed a payment of 2,500l. by each of the three Colonies, but this was not approved by the Treasury.

24. A settlement as regards the 1880-88 contract was come to in 1884, when it was arranged that Ceylon should contribute 1,4001. and sea postage in accord ance with the result of the assessment; that a contribution of 6,000l. and sea postage (in lieu of 12,7001. and sea postage) should be accepted from Hongkong, and that the Straits Settlements should contribute 6,000l. in complete settlement of all postage accounts with the United Kingdom-that is to say, without handing over in addition the sea postage which had been allowed for in the assessment..

25. The compromise thus arrived at was allowed to stand throughout the term of the succeeding contract, 1888-98.

199

26. In regard to the present contract, which came into operation in 1898, certain differences as to the method in which the cost should be apportioned arose between the Imperial and Indian Post Offices. The Indian point of view was to some extent shared by the Eastern Colonies, and the points at issue were submitted in 1891 to the arbitration of the Earl of Morley.

The Imperial Post Office proposed a division of the subsidy based on the principles settled by the award of Lord Halifax in 1876, to be applied as fol- lows:

(A.) Divide the Service into the following sections, corresponding to the principal points of call:-

Brindisi and Port Said.

Port Said and Aden.

Aden and Bombay.

Aden and Colombo.

Colombo and Singapore.

Singapore and Hongkong.

Hongkong and Shanghai.

(B.) Ascertain the number of miles traversed annually upon each section of the Service by multiplying the length of each section by the number of voyages performed annually.

(C.) Ascertain the cost of each section by dividing the subsidy in proportion to the annual mileage of the section.

(D.) Charge one half the cost of each section to the United Kingdom.

(E.) Divide the other half of the cost of each section proportionately, charg- ing India, Ceylon, Straits Settlements, and Hongkong according to the number of letters sent and received by them, and charging the United Kingdom with the letters which it sends to and receives from other places such as Egypt, Dutch East Indies, Siam, Japan, Zanzibar, East Coast of Africa, &c. The number of letters being ascertained from the latest weights procurable, and the average num- ber per pound weight being ascertained by means of special returns agreed upon by each office, as on previous occasions.

[It is because India is provided with a weekly mail service, and Ceylon, &c. only with a fortnightly mail service, that the sections, Brindisi-Port Said, and Port Said-Aden, over which the Indian Mails are annually conveyed 104 times and the Ceylon, &c. mails 52 times, have to be subdivided in order to ascertain the respective charges assignable. One moiety (a) of the cost of each of these sections is and would still be apportioned to the 52 sailings provided exclusively for Indian correspondence, and the other moiety (b) is and would still be apportioned to the 52 sailings provided for the combined services.]

F.) Divide incidental expenses, which are chiefly incurred in connection with the conveyance of the mails between the United Kingdom and Brindisi, in the same proportions as the cost of the Service.

(G.) Deduct the extra receipts of the Service (ie., sums received for sea conveyance of foreign closed mails) sharing the amount between the contributing parties in the porportion which each bears of the cost of the Service.

27. The Imperial Post Office further proposed

:

(1) That each administration contributing its full share of the cost assessed as above indicated should make no further payment in respect of mails despatched by it over the Service, and should be credited with a proportionate share of the amount of any penalties inflicted upon the Packet Company in respect of the Eastern Mail Service; and

(2) That when the principles had been decided by the arbitrator, an account, subject to audit, should be prepared by the Imperial Post Office, and that the amounts thus ascertained should be payable to the end of the present contract.

1

Appendix A,

Appendix B.

Appendix C.

200

28. Lord Morley's award-a copy of which is appended to the present case- while confirming generally the procedure outlined above, introduced some new features:-

(1) India was practically relieved of all liability in respect of sections

eastward of Colombo (paragraph 9, clause (b) of award).

(2) To provide for any disparity between the volume of outward and homeward mails, the pooling of postage receipts was instituted (clause (c)).

(3) The United Kingdom was relieved of all liability for the cost of sea

sorting (clause (d)).

29. A question having been raised by the India Office as to the interpretation of clause (c) of the award, the point was referred to Lord Morley, who decided in favour of the interpretation adopted by the Imperial Post Office. The correspond- ence relating to this question is also appended.

30. The annexed account shows the division of the cost of the Service under the current contract, and the pooling of the receipts, in accordance with the prin- ciples embodied in Lord Morley's award. In applying the new rulings to the three Colonies, care has been taken that the relief accorded under clause (b) to any con- tributor should not have the effect of increasing the liabilities of any other contributor. The additional burden has, in each case, been assumed by the United Kingdom.

31. The Indian contribution thus arrived at (59,3307.) has been accepted and paid by the India Office as from 1st February 1898, the date of commencement of the contract, and it is agreed that the contributions of the Eastern Colonies, to be settled by the present arbitration, shall be payable as from the same date. A con- tribution in full would, of course, entitle Ceylon and Hongkong to be relieved of the payment of the sea postage-hitherto credited to the United Kingdom through the postage accounts, and estimated at 2,500l. and 3,000l. a year respectively-as from the date at which the new contributions begin.

32. The Imperial Post Office submits that the principles of Lord Morley's. award should be regarded as applicable to the whole Service. As shown in Appen- dix C., the application of these principles in the case of the Eastern Colonies would result in an inclusive annual payment of 6,0557. by Ceylon, 7,7197. by the Straits Settlements, and 12,8937. by Hongkong.

General Post Office, London,

22nd October, 1904.

(Sd.) H. BABINGTON SMITH.

Appendix A.

Lord Morley's award. *

Appendix B.

Copy of correspondence exchanged between the Treasury, the India Office and the Post Office respecting the interpretation of clause (c.) of Lord Morley's award. †

Appendix C.

Division of cost in accordance with the principles embodied in the award of Lord Morley. ‡

* See Appendix II of this Minute.

""

III IV

"

$1

"

29

"

+

201

Appendix VII.

REJOINDER OF THE IMPERIAL POST OFFICE TO THE CASE OF THE EASTERN COLONIES, SUBMITTED TO THE RIGHT

HONOURABLE LORD BALFOUR OF BURLEIGH.

INCLUSION OF AUSTRALIAN SERVICE IN THE ASSESSMENT.

QUOTATION FROM THE COLONIAL OFFICE CASE.

11. It is contended that as the tender of, and contract with, the Peninsular and Oriental Company was for the com- bined Indian and Eastern and Austra- lian Mail Service, and not a sectional tender and contract, whatever principles of apportionment may be adopted should be applied throughout, and not limited to the Indian and Eastern sections. The share of the subsidy payable by the United Kingdom and Australia towards the Australian section has, however, been fixed at 85,000l. without any regard to the mileage principle. This sum has been taken because it is the amount paid to the Orient Company for its Australian Service, but it is submitted that the cost of the Australian section should be calculated according to the mileage prin- ciple, if that principle is to be applied to the rest of the service. If this were done If this were done the division of the cost of the subsidy into sections would work out as shown in the first five columns of Appendix F.

:

REJOINDER OF THE POST OFFICE.

On reference to paragraphs 1 to 9 of the Case of the Imperial Post Office it will be seen that the share of the subsidy proper to the Australian section has been taken at 85,000l., not merely because that is the amount now paid to the Orient Company under its contem- porary contract for the Australian service, but also because that was the amount paid to each of the two Packet Com- panies (P. and O., and Orient) for the same service under contracts which expired in 1898, and which were abso- lutely distinct from the Indian and Eastern Mail Service contract.

It is incontrovertible that so long as there were two contracts with the P. and . Company, the cost of the Eastern and Australian services was 265,000%. and 85,000l. respectively, and that when the P. and O. contracts were combined, the Orient Company continued to perform the Australian service at the old rate of subsidy. By combining the P. and O. services under one contract a reduction of the subsidy by 20,0007. was effected, but in view of the failure to obtain any reduction in the Orient contract, the saving on the P. and O. service was wholly allocated to the Eastern service

-au arrangement which did not pass without criticism from the Australian Colonies.

Reference to the Directors of the P. and O. Company produced the response (al- ready quoted in paragraph 7 of the case of the Imperial Post Office) that it would be impossible to separate the sections as desired, but that the Directors had always had in view that they should obtain the sum of 85,000l. for the Australian por- tion of the work, and that, out of the total subsidy, the sum of 245,000l. was for the Eastern Mail Service.

If as contended by the Colonial Office the Australian Colonies should be assessed on the same lines as India and the Estern Colonies, then the Australian Colonies might well claim that Ceylon should bear her share of the loss on the Orient Company's service, instead of merely paying Postal Union Rates of sea transit.

202

HIGHER SPEED PROVIDED. IN CONTRACT ON THE INDIAN LINE.

QUOTATION FROM THE COLONIAL OFFICE CASE.

14. Turning now to the question of speed. The

average speed of the P. and O. service between Brindisi and Bombay is about 14.5 knots, between Aden and Adelaide about 13.7 knots, and between Colombo and Shanghai about 12-6 knots. The Eastern Colonies contend that for a slower service they should not be charged the same rate per mile as India is charged for a service of 145 knots. The rate of speed is undoubtedly the chief factor considered by contractors in estimating the cost of different services, and logically it should be equally considered in appor- tioning the subsidy. It would appear from paragraph 8 (a) of Lord Morley's award that the additional cost of the extra speed on the Bombay line was put forward by the General Post Office as an argument in favour of imposing a larger share of the subsidy on India, and simi- larly, it is fair to argue that the slower speed on the Aden-Shanghai sections entitles the Eastern Colonies to a material reduction on the share of the cost assigned to them in Appendix F.

REJOINDER OF THE POST OFFICE.

The comparison of the different rates of speed is misleading. The average Con- tract rate of speed for the whole extent of the Indian route is compared with an estimated rate of speed over selected portions of the. Eastern and Australian routes, thus veiling the fact that the Eastern Colonies benefit not only by the high speed, about 17 knots, in the Me- diterranean, but also by the compara- tively high speed at which their mails are conveyed between Aden and Colombo. If like things are to be compared with like, the data for the Admiralty estimate of the relative cost of coal on the three mail routes should be, not 145, 13 7, and 12-6, but 14.5, 140, and 13.3 knots.

The considerations which weighed with the Directors of the P. and (). Company in tendering for their present contract are already on record. In their letter to the Post Office of 25th Septem- ber 1896 they wrote: "It is a fact which must be well known to your Department that it is passenger traffic which mainly pays for speed," and the Annual Statement of Accounts of the Company shows that more than one- third of their gross income of 3,100,0001. in 1903 was derived from passengers.

In further confirmation of the view bere presented that the prime factor in determining the amount of the subsidy is not the Contract rates of speed, it may be noted that the actual average speed is considerably in ex- cess of the Contract rates on all the lines. The actual average steaming speed per hour to and from the differ- ent ports during six months of 1901 (the middle year of the Contract), and of 1904, was as follows:-

Brindisi and Bombay.........15.7

1901.

1904.

15.4

Colombo.........15'6

Singapore......14*5

15.7

14.8

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Hongkong......141 14.4 Adelaide.........148

15.1

Six months in each of the two years were selected in order to avoid the com- plication of the monsoon allowances; but taking the whole year, 1901, and the year ended September, 1904, the average time saved per voyage (including the mon- soon periods) was:-

Indian Line

1901. Hours. Min.

19 32

1904. Hours. Min.

17 24

China Line....... 28 50

34 52

·

15. It has been ascertained from the Admiralty that the approximate relative cost of coal used in steaming at 145, 13.7 and 12.6 knots is 131, 117, and 100. Coal being the largest item of expendi- ture, it is submitted that the case of the Eastern Colonies is not overstated if the relative cost per mile over the Brindisi- Bombay sections, the Aden-Adelaide sections, and the Colombo-Shanghai sec- tions, is estimated at 128, 115, and 100. The cost of the various sections, correct- ed on this basis, works out as shown in the fifth column of Appendix G (where the ratios 109, 98, and 85 have been taken instead of the equivalent ratios 128, 115, and 100, so as to make the total cost come to the same figure, as be- fore, 321,5007.). The remaining columns of Appendix G give the approximate share of the subsidy which should be paid by the various Colonies and India, when difference in speed is thus taken into account, viz., India, 62.4207.; Ceylon, 2,6251.; Straits Settlements, 5,3457.; Hongkong, 9,6071.; and Aus- and Aus- tralia about 54,0007.

:

203

The ratios 131, 117, and 100 furnish- ed by the Admiralty are understood to be based on the general formula that on any ship the cousumption of coal for steaming at various rates is proportion- ate to the square of the several speeds. If the assessment were to be based ou these figures. it would be necessary to inquire whether the formula is accurate when applied to the particular ships and the particular rates of speed in question; but apart from this, it is to be noted that the Colonial Office has applied the ratios as if coal were substantially the only item of expense in the maintenance of a fleet. The Company's Statement of Accounts for 1903 shows their expendi- ture on coal to have been 634.0007. out of a total of 3,100,000l. including 520,0007. for Interest on Capital, Reserve Account and Surplus.

But even this expenditure of 634,0007. needs discounting to the extent of at least 10 per cent., to allow for the cost of coal consumed on board for purposes other than that of speed, e.g., electric lightings, heating, ventilation, refrigera- tion, &c., &c. The expense for coal consumed for propulsion is therefore 10 per cent. less than 634,0007. or 570,0007 and 570,0002, is only about 18 per cent. of the Company's expenditure as shown above. The ratios in excess of the mi- nimum of 100 need therefore to be re- duced by 82 per cent., and the result is a reduction of the higher ratios from 131, 117, and 100, to 106, 103, and 100.

But there is also an actual economy to the Company from the increased speed in respect of the pay of commanders, officers, and crews, and of the provisioning of the passengers, commanders, officers, and crews. These items of expense amount to 627,000%., and in order to arrive at an equitable result there should be a mate- rial reduction in the amended ratios (106, 103, and 100).

in

A further correction must be applied any attempt to arrive at the cost of Indian and Eastern Services on a basis other than that of mileage. Coal suppli- ed to the Colombo-Shanghai steamers in- curs higher expense for freight, and as these steamers do not come home their coal must be carried to them. It is stated that the cost of Welsh steam coal at Hongkong is at present 38s. per ton, as compared with 14s. in England. If the steamers on the Eastern section use Japanese coal the price would not be so high, but that coal is stated to be 25 per cent. inferior to Welsh coal in steam power.

In these circumstances the Imperial Post Office submits that the Contract rates of speed should not be taken into

کا

204

account in apportioning the cost of the Service; and it is to be inferred from the award of Lord Morley in 1898, that his Lordship concurred in this view.

TREATMENT OF RECEIPTS FROM FOREIGN CLOSED MAILS.

QUOTATION FROM THE COLONIAL

OFFICE CASE.

16. In Appendices F and G, the items "Incidental Expenses" and "Receipts from Foreign Closed Mails" have been increased by figures supplied by the Im- perial Post Office, so as to include the Australian section, and have been distri- buted according to the general appor-. tionment of the subsidy in the same way as Appendix C. It is, however, contended that the sea postage received in respect of foreign closed mails should more properly be credited to the sections over which the foreign mails travel, as in the case of the analogous receipts re- ferred to in paragraph (b) of Lord Mor- ley's award, instead of being divided in the same proportion as the subsidy.

REJOINDER OF THE POST OFFICE.

As a matter of principle there is no objection to the suggestion of the Colo- nial Office. The Post Office abandoned the practice because it involved a large amount of clerical work without appre- ciable difference to the result.

ACCELERATION UNDER THE THREE YEARS EXTENSION OF THE CONTRACT.

QUOTATION FROM THE COLONIAL OFFICE CASE.

19. The Contract with the P. & 0. Company has been extended for three years from the 1st February 1905, the subsidy being increased from 330,000l. to 340,0007. in return for an acceleration of 24 hours on the service. As this acceleration will be gained by increased speed on the Brindisi-Bombay section, the present speed being retained on the other sections, the arguments in paragraphs 14 and 15 above will apply inore forcibly to the apportionment of the increased subsidy of 340,0007., and it is contended that during the extended contract the contributions of the three Eastern Colonies should only be in- creased beyond the figures shown in Appendix G. by about 3 per cent., i.e., the ratio of the increase to the original subsidy.

REJOINDER OF THE POST OFFICE.

The acceleration will be gained not merely on the Brindisi-Bombay section but on the Brindisi-Colombo section; thus all places benefit alike.

APPENDICES F. AND G.

"Division of cost in accordance with the principles embodied in the award of Lord Morley."

REJOINDER OF THE POST OFFICE.

As Lord Morley decided that the Australian service should not be brought into the assessment, the head- ings of these Appendices should ap- parently be amplified by the addition of the words "except as regards para- graph 9 (a) of the Award."

205

GENERAL.

If the general lines of Lord Morley's Award be disturbed, the Imperial Post Office submits (1) that the relief accorded to India under paragraph 9 (6) of the Award should not be extended to Colonies so intimately concerned in regular communication with China as Hongkong and the Straits Settlements, and (2) that Ceylon should be assessed with her share of the. loss in respect of her mails conveyed by packets of the Orient Company.

General Post Office, London,

7th November, 1904.

H. BABINGTON SMITH.

Appendix VIII.

REPLY TO POST OFFICE REJOINDER.

The purport of this reply was presented verbally to Lord Balfour of Burleigh on 21st November 1904.)

INCLUSION OF AUSTRALIAN SERVICE IN THE ASSESSMENT.

The facts appear to be as stated by G. P. O., but the Eastern Colonies under Paras. 1, 2 the old contracts had never accepted the G. P. O.'s proposals for apportioning the and 3.

cost.

The view that £85,000 is not a fair estimate of the Australian share of the subsidy receives confirmation from the annexed copy of a letter from the Orient Steam Navigation Company which has been communicated to the Colonial Office since the above was written and from which it appears that that Company had decided that £85,000 was not a sufficient subsidy for their service and had asked for £150,000 a year on the expiration of the present contract claiming that that sum calculated on a mileage basis is equivalent to the subsidy received by the P. and O. Company.

A comparatively smaller sum for the Australian mails was in all probability originally asked for by the P. and (). Company because there was a competing line. Practically there was no competition for the combined Indian and China

mail.

If the Colonial Office contention, that Australia should be assessed on the Para. 4. same lines as India and the Eastern Colonies, is accepted, the Colonial Office would not object to the suggestion that Ceylon should bear. her share of the loss on the Orient Company's service calculated as in Lord Morley's award, in lieu of paying sea postage on mails sent from Colombo to England.

N.B.-This would cease on 31st January 1905, as the Orient Company's contract has not been continued beyond that date.

QUESTION OF SPEED.

.

The calculations in Appendix G. did not "veil the fact that the Eastern Para. 1. Colonies benefit" by a higher speed over the earlier sections of the service, but charged each of the Eastern Colonies its share of the extra cost of those sections, assumed to be due to extra speed, and thus with strict mathematical accuracy compared like things with like.

The letter here quoted does not affect the argument that the greater speed on Para. 2. the earlier sections as compared with the later can only be obtained by a greater consumption of coal. The fact that the Company has obtained an increase of £10,000 a year on the extended contract in return for increased speed, illustrates the point.

Paras. 4 & 5.

Para. 6.

Para. 7.

Last

paragraph.

206

This argument in these paragraphs is somewhat misleading. We are not concerned with the gross cost of the service to the Company but with the cost of the service to the Government, viz. :-the amount of the subsidy, which is about one-ninth of the Company's total receipts. As practically the only condition im- posed on the Company by the Contract was regularity and a certain minimum speed, it is fair to argue that the subsidy is intended to meet the addition to the cost of the already existing service, caused by the requirements of the Contract in the matter of speed.

There is practically no economy to the Company in respect of the pay of Commanders &c., unless the increased speed is so great that a less number of steamers could effect the same number of voyages, since the officers and the grea- ter part of the crew at any rate are presumably paid all the year round and not merely for the period of the voyages.

As regards provisions the Company doubtless considers this item in fixing the passengers' fares, which are not fixed in the Contract and are altered from time to time.

The figures quoted as to the relative cost of Welsh steam coal appear to be somewhat exaggerated, as it is understood that the approximate rate when the ordinary cost of coal at the London Docks is about 20s., is about 35s. 6d. at Hong- kong. It is, however, of course true that the price of coal on the Eastern section is materially higher than on the sections to Bombay, but over against this may be set the fact that the depreciation and insurance of the much smaller steaners on the Shanghai-Colombo section of the service are much less than those incurred in connection with the larger steamers used on the earlier sections.

In any case, the fact remains that the Straits and Hongkong have to put up with a slower service and smaller boats between Colombo and Shanghai than are provided from Europe to Bombay and Colombo; and it is submitted that if an equally slow service were provided to Bombay the saving to the Company would be considerable, and the Colonial Office still contends that this saving is approxi- mately represented by the ratios adopted in paragraph 15 of the Colonial Office case.

FOREIGN CLOSED MAILS.

As the Post Office do not object in principle to the suggestion made in the Colonial Office case, it is hoped that the concession will be allowed.

EXTENDED CONTRACT.

If the allowance for speed claimed in Appendix G. to the Colonial Office case is not granted to the extent there claimed, it is contended that the whole of the extra £10,000 should be added to the cost of the sections up to Colombo, a some- what larger proportion being added to the sections to Bombay than to that be- tween Aden and Colombo, and that nothing should be added to the sections between Colombo and Shanghai since there is no appreciable reduction in the contract time between Colombo and Shanghai.

As to (1) the trade of the Straits with China is about th of its total trade while the Indian trade is nearly as great-th, so that the argument does not apply, at any rate, to the Straits Settlements.

Hongkong is of course more closely associated with China but practically the whole of the Hongkong trade is an entrepot trade and the Colonial revenues derive no direct benefit from the enormous passing trade since there are no Customs duties, and when, a few years ago, an attempt was made to raise a slightly increas- ed revenue from shipping and harbour dues, the English Ship-owners led by the P. & 0). Company made such representations to the Colonial Office that the pro- posal was abandoned.

Regular communication between Shanghai and Hongkong is not solely dependent upon the P. & ().

(2) This point has already been dealt with.

(Sd) GEORGE W. JOHNSON.

19th November, 1904.

SIR,

207

Appendix IX.

AWARD OF THE ARBITRATOR

IN THE MATTER OF THE

CONTRIBUTIONS OF CEYLON, THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS, AND HONGKONG.

LORD BALFOUR OF BURLEIGH TO TREASURY.

December 21st, 1904.

Adverting to the letters which I received from the Treasury in March and April of this year, and of date October 27th, with relative enclosures, and to the letter of November 14th, with enclosure, of which the reference number is given above, I have now to say that I have carefully considered all the documents referred to, and on the 21st ultimo, and again on the 19th instant, I had the advantage of having interviews with Mr. Johnson of the Colonial Office, and Mr. King of the Post Office.

2. I note with satisfaction that in no case is the accuracy of the facts and figures laid before me the subject of any difference of opinion.

3. The question submitted to me concerns the division of the subsidy of £330,000 paid to the Peninsular and Oriental Company for the postal service to Australia, India, and the Eastern Colonies. Of this sum £85,000 has been taken as representing the Australian service, the apportionment being based on the fact that the Orient Company offered a corresponding Australian service for £85,000, and that the contract with the Peninsular and Oriental Company for the separate Australian service was also for that amount. The Indian Post Office, however, challenged this division, "and at its request the Peninsular and Oriental Company were asked to say what part of the subsidy of £330,000 was assigned to the. Australian service, and how the balance was sub-divided among the sections of the Eastern service. In reply, the Directors stated that it would be impossible to separate the sections as desired, but that they had always had in view that they should obtain the sum of £85,000 for the Australian portion of the work, and that out of the total subsidy the sum of £215,000 was for the Eastern Mail Service." (Post Office Case, paragraph 7.)

4. This matter was referred to the Earl of Morley, and his award was given in the following terms:-

"After a careful consideration of the two cases, and of the arguments used in support of them, I have arrived at the following conclusions :-

"(a) That, as regards the Australian service, the arrangement proposed by the Post Office should be adopted during the continuance of the contract, and that £85,000 should be appropriated to that service. When the present contract expires, it appears to me that it would be desirable to enter into separate contracts for the two services. (b) That, as regards the sections between Colombo and Shanghai, India should not continue to be made liable for any loss which may be incurred on these sections, but that she should pay transit rates for any use she may make of this portion of the mail route, the receipts from such transit rates being credited to the sections. "(c) That the postage collected in the two countries, and the receipts from other administrations for land and sea transit on mails sent over the line should be pooled, and the balance of the united collections after deducting the cost of continental transit and rates paid to other countries, should be equally divided.

of the

(d) That, subject to the above-mentioned conditions, the apportion- ment of the subsidy, £245,000, should be regulated in accordance with the principles laid down in paragraphs 23 and 24 of the case of the Post Office (now embodied in paragraphs 26 an present case), with this exception that the Indian should bear the whole expense of sea-sorting on the which, by Article 35 of the contract, is fixed at £7,

ment

line,

208

Under this Article the Postmaster-General may give notice to. the Company that he no longer requires provision to be made for sea-sorting, and may deduct £7,500 from the subsidy. I under- stand that he would be willing to give this notice if the Indian Government desires him to do so.

"(e) That an account should be prepared by the Imperial, Post Office and audited by the India Office, and that the amounts thus ascer- tained shall be payable by the contributing countries to the end of the contract."

5. The result of this award has been to assess to India a sum of £59,330, and the question submitted to me is what proportion of the balance should be paid respectively by the Imperial Post Office and the Eastern Colonies.

6. The figures stand thus: The total subsidy under the existing contract is £330,000; the share placed to the account of the Australian service is £ 85,000, leaving a balance of £245,000, from which sum, after deducting the sum of £59,330 assessed to India, there remains a balance of £185,670, which falls to be found between the Imperial Post Office and the Eastern Colonies.

7. The Secretary of State for the Colonies (paragraph 8 of the Colonial case), states that he is not prepared to agree without qualification to the extension of the principles of Lord Morley's award to the Eastern Colonies, as he maintains that their case is different from, and their interest in some measure in conflict with those of India, and he states that the matter is submitted to arbitration on the under- standing that the Colonies are not to be prejudiced by the assumption that £85,000 is the proper amount to be assessed to the Australian portion of the contract, or that India's share is fairly assessed under Lord Morley's award; while the Post Office (paragraph 32 of their case) "submits that the principles of Lord Morley's award should be regarded as applicable to the whole service. As shown in Appendix C. the application of these principles in the case of the Eastern Colonies would result in a total annual payment of £6,055 by Ceylon, £7,719 by the Straits Settlements, and £12,893 by Hongkong." Taking only the cost of the sections as shown in the same table gives the following figures :

Ceylon £6,633, Straits Settlements £7,611, Hongkong £13,131.

8. Other calculations worked out, in figures are shown in Appendix F. and Appendix G. of the Statement put before me on behalf of the Eastern Colonies. Appendix F. is based on a division in accordance with the principles embodied in the award of Lord Morley, but including Australia; Appendix G. in accordance with the same principles, but with a different calculation of the question of speed, which is taken specially into consideration, as explained in paragraphs 14 and 15 of their statement.

9. It will be convenient, for purposes of reference, to put these three figures in the form of a table :-

India.

Ceylon.

Straits Settlements.

Hongkong.

Appendix F... Appendix G. General Post Office.

£ 57,830

£

£

£

2,940

5,550

11,010

63,200

3,030

5,085

9,605

60,693

6,633

7,611

13,131

10. To some extent the questions submitted to me have arisen out of certain new features and methods of calculation introduced by Lord Morley's award:

1. India, was practically relieved of all liability in respect of sections

eastward of Colombo.

2 To provide for any disparity between the volume of outward and homeward mails, the pooling of postage receipts was instituted.

he United Kingdom was relieved of all liability for the cost of sea-

rting.

VA

209

Number 2 was, however, simply a renewal of principles affirmed on a former occasion by Lord Halifax (G.P.O. case, paragraph 16).

11. The difficulty of deciding the question submitted to me arises in no small degree from the fact that, while the Colonial Office does not accept the justice of the principles by which the Australian contribution of £85,000 and the Indian contribution of £59,330 have been fixed, yet neither of these sums is open to argu- ment before me, and it is obviously no part of my duty to express any opinion.

12. The Australian contribution has been settled on grounds only applicable to that particular part of the case, while the contribution of India has been mainly decided by an apportionment of cost in accordance with the volume of the traffic; it is thus not possible, in the position in which I am placed, to come to a decision which will apply the same principles all round in each case.

13. Tested by the principles applied to India under Lord Morley's award, the Australian contribution would be obviously much too small, and it is not surpris- ing, under these circumstances, that the Eastern Colonies should demur to the justice of the principles adopted, although it seems to me that, in the argument of the Colonial Office, insufficient weight is given to the fact that the Australian service is subject to competition between two powerful companies, and is, there- fore, likely to be done for them at lowest margin of cost, whereas the service to the Eastern Colonies is more or less the subject of a monopoly.

14. It is obvious that I must assume that the Australian contribution is fixed, and that the contribution of India is also settled, even although the Eastern Colo- nies were not represented before Lord Morley.

15. The difficulty involved was, however, clearly present to his mind because (paragraph 9, sub-section (a), of his award) he says that when the present con- tract expires" It appears to me that it would be desirable to enter into separate contracts for the two services."

16. Under the circumstances as they are put before me, I am not surprised that the suggestion should have been made to endeavour to find a principle of apportionment by the cost incurred, but it is obvious that the only source from which an accurate division of cost can have been obtained is from the Peninsular and Oriental Company itself. As I have already pointed out, the Company has professed its inability to undertake the task, and it is obvious that if they cannot do it, no one else can make the attempt.

17. The Colonial Office have suggested taking into consideration the ques- tion of speed, but for the same reason that it is not possible for me to ascertain the cost of the whole service, I do not feel able to arrive at the cost of one rate of speed as compared with another, and I think that any one who reads carefully the suggestion of the Colonial Office with the rejoinder of the Post Office on this point will come to the same conclusion which I have done, that it is not possible to make any fair apportionment based on the principle of speed, and I, therefore, reject, as a basis for consi leration, the figures in Appendix G. of the case of the Eastern Colonies, but it does not follow, and I do not intend it to be understood as my opinion, that such questions as that of speed, size of boats employed, and other similar considerations, should be left altogether out of sight.

·

Mr. Johnson urged strongly upon me that the Secretary of State only agreed to the matter being submitted to arbitration on the distinct condition "that the Colonies are not to be prejudiced by the assumption that £85,000 is the proper amount to be assessed to the Australian portion of the contract or that India's share is fairly assessed under Lord Morley's award," and that the Treasury did not demur to this. He therefore urged that the only fair way to arrive at a settle- ment of the portion of the subsidy to be paid by the three Eastern Colonies is to find some uniform system and to see how it would work out if applied to India and Australia. He represented that if this were done on the basis set forth in Appendix F. of their case, that it should not be taken as judging the cases of India and Australia, or to saying that under existing circumstances Australia is let off too easily. I am not able to concur in this view; I am afraid that the inference would certainly be drawn that, in my opinion, Appendix F. is the true method of calculation. It seems to me impossible to accept any basis of a general nature without the opportunity being given to every interest affected to appear

¿

and state its case.

210

But there is enough in the presumption that such a basis of general application as that afforded by Appendix F. to make me hesitate to say that the United Kingdom should bear the whole loss, which it would have to bear if this contention of the Colonial Office were given effect to.

18. The figure suggested for Ceylon by the Post Office is £6,633, as against £2,940, so that in that case the difference is £3,693.

In the case of the Straits Settlements the figure suggested is £7,611, as against £5,550, the difference being £2,061.

In the case of Hongkong the figure suggested is £13,131, as against £11,010, the difference being £2,121.

19. I am afraid I am not able to suggest any principle which would be thoroughly logical, having regard to all difficulties of the case, and I am, therefore, reduced to suggesting that an arbitrary figure should be taken as a basis for settle-

ment.

20. It will be seen that the difference between the two suggestions is greater in the case of Ceylon than in that of either of the other Colonies; relatively to the respective amounts involved it is very much greater, but there is a special point in connection with Ceylon which is mentioned at the conclusion of the rejoinder of the Post Office.

21. The figures which I suggest should be taken:-

That Ceylon should pay an annual sum of £4,700, The Straits Settlements an annual sum of £6,600, Hongkong an annual sum of £11,500,

in respect of the cost of sections, and that the principles laid down in Lord Mor- ley's award as to sea sorting and incidental expenses should be applied as at pre- sent, but under deduction of the respective shares of extra receipts on Foreign Closed Mails and one half excess collected in the United Kingdom.

1

In order that the precise financial effect of this might be actually shown, and with the object of securing that there shall not be any room for difference of opi- nion hereafter on minor points, I append a statement showing in figures how effect should be given to my award.

This statement has been compiled for me by Mr. Johnson and Mr. King, and it is my intention that it should be taken as my award, and that the detailed figures should be shown to the Colonial Office if they desire.

The only matter not dealt with in this statement is that of the parcels which should be accounted for in detail, and should be dealt with as shown in Appendix D. of the Colonial Office case.

22. I think the sum of £10,000 by which the subsidy will be increased on the commencement of the new contract should, after deducting the proportion payable by India, be met by an apportionment on similar principles.

I think it right to say I owe much to the ability and care with which Mr. Johnson and Mr. King have put the cases of their offices before me, and to add that I have greatly appreciated the trouble they have taken to make my duty as little difficult as was possible.

To the Secretary

of the Treasury.

I am &c.,

BALFOUR OF BURLEIGH.

*

211

EASTERN MAIL SERVICE.

Division of Cost in accordance with the principles embodied in the Award of

Lord Balfour of Burleigh.

Payable by-

Ceylon.

Straits Settlements.

Hongkong.

Amount.

Percentage of Total Cost.

Percentage

Percentage

Amount. of Total Amount. of Total

Cost.

Cost.

£

£

24

Cost of Section as Settled by para-

graph 21 of Award,

4,700

2.00

6,600 2.80

11,500

4.88

Cost of Sea Sorting,

500.

500

Incidental Expenses (£3,806)

shared rateably on basis of Total Cost of Sections,

76

2.00

106

2.80

186

4.88

Gross Contribution payable,

4,776

7,206

12,186

DeductExtra Receipts (£12,921)

shared as above,

258

2.00

362

2.80

631

4.83

Net Contribution payable,... 4,518

6,844

11,555

Pooling Account:-Allow one-half of excess collected in the United King- dom,

320

98

230

4,198

6,746

11,325

Annual Contribution,.........

Add:-For Sea Postage at Postal Union Rates on Colonial Mails charged in the Division of Cost against the United Kingdom-which would be payable in any case, viz. :-

(a.) On mails from Ceylon, &c., to places east & south (e.g., Singapore, China, Australia),

V.

§ 1 of Colonial Office Case. (b.) On mails from Hongkong Agencies in China (prepaid in Hongkong

postage

stamps)........

(c.) Collected by the Colonies

from Foreign Countries, &c.,

on behalf of the United Kingdom...

966

183

153

65

600

56

61

180

Total Annual Contribution in respect of P. & O. Service.

5,220

6,990

12,170

December 21, 1904.

B. OF B.

Appendix X.

COLONIAL OFFICE DESPATCH TO GOVERNOR SIR M. NATHAN.

No. 26.

DOWNING STREET,

10th February, 1905.

SIR,-With reference to my confidential despatch of December 22nd and to previous correspondence, which need no longer be regarded as confidential, I have the honour to forward to you 12 copies of the award given by the Arbitrator in the matter of the contributions payable by the Eastern Colonies towards the cost of the Peninsular and Oriental mail service.**

* Appendix VII.

212

2. You will observe that the effect of the award is to increase the amount of the contribution in respect of the cost of sections payable by Hongkong for the period of the original contract to £11,500 a year, the total amount to be paid as shewn in the appendix to the Arbitrator's award being £12,170 a year, subject to adjustment in respect to parcels in the manner shewn in Appendix D to the Colonial Office case.

3. I enclose a statement, dated 7th February 1905, which shews that for the three years of the renewed contract a further yearly sum of £359 will be payable. This additional amount is liable to be refunded in the event of the contract being further renewed until 31st January 1910, as provided for in Clause 3 of the sup- plementary Agreement, enclosed in my despatch No. 257 of the 31st of August last, and a further refund will be due to the Colony in the event of the contract being extended to 1912.

4. I enclose also a further statement shewing the amount of arrears due from Hongkong in respect of the seven years ending on January 31st last. This state- ment shews the arrears as amounting to £18,933 but this amount really includes some arrears due under the arrangements previously in force, since you will observe that some of the figures in the statement are not brought down later than 1902 or October 1904. The additional sum actually due in consequence of the Award would appear to be about £15,680.

5. It is desired to include this sum in the Packet Service Estimates for 1905- 1906 and I have therefore to request that you will arrange for the amount due to be paid to the General Post Office as soon as convenient after March 31st next but not before that date.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient, humble servant,

(Sd.) ALFRED LYTTELTON.

(Enclosure.)

From the 1st February, 1905, the cost of the Peninsular and Oriental Com- pany's Contract Services is increased from £330,000 to £340,000, or, excluding the cost of Sea Sorting (£8,500), from £321,500 to £331,500 a year, i.e., by £10,000 a year.

As the Subsidy of £330,000 was apportioned in the ratios of £236,500 to the India and China Service, exclusive of £8,500 for Sea Sorting, and £85,000 to the Australian Service;

and as both Services benefit equally by the increased speed, it is submitted that the extra cost of £10,000 should be shared thus 321,500: 236,500:: 10,000 £7,356 India and China Service.

321,500: 85,000::10,000

£2,644 Australian Service and that of the share falling to the India and China Service the Eastern Colonies should contribute as follows:

Ceylon,

Straits Settlements, Hongkong,

£

2.00% of £7,356

147

2.80% do.

206

4.88% do.

359

The revised contributions, as from 1st February 1905, would therefore be

Contribution from 1st February 1905.

Present Contribution.

Ceylon, .... .£ 5.220+147

Straits Settlements,

6,990 + 206

Hongkong,

12,170+359

General Post Office,

7th February, 1905.

£ 5,367

7,196

12,529

(Sd.) CHARLES A. KING,

Comptroller and Accountant General.

213

EASTERN MAIL SERVICE.

Adjustment of accounts between the Imperial Post Office and the Post Office of Hongkong under the award of Lord Balfour of Burleigh, relating to the P. and O. Contract for the seven years from 1st February 1898 to 31st January 1905.

Gross amount of Colonial Contribution,-including

sea postage on other than Parcel Mails, (£12,170 × 7),

Deduct:-

1. Provisional Contributions (£6,000 × 7), ..........£ 42,000

2. Sea postage, on other than Parcel Mails, already

accounted for :-

**

(a.) In monthly net Weight Accounts from 1st February 1898 to 31st October 1904, (6.) In Postal Union Statistical Accounts from

1st February 1898 to 31st December 1902, *.

3. Colonial Share of sea postage on Parcel Mails for

the 7 years, estimated as per Appendix D. of the Colonial Office case,

14,686

6,400

£85,190

3,103

4. Colonial Share of Penalties incurred by P. and O.

Company 4.88% of £1,400,

68

....

66,257

Balance due to Imperial Post Office.

£18,933

General Post Office, London,

10th, January, 1905.

(Sd.) CHARLES A. KING,

Comptroller and Accountant General.

*. Any sums provisionally credited to the Imperial Post Office in subsequent Accounts will be refunded direct to the Post Office concerned.

Q

{

į

No. 1905

26

?

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS, FOR THE YEAR 1904.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, HONGKONG, 9th March, 1905.

SI,I have the honour to report to the Government on the Education Department for the year 1904.

STAFF.

Appointments.-Mrs. MAIN to be Headmistress of the Kowloon School. from 20th November, 1904.

Mrs. MURRAY to be Second Mistress of the Kowloon School, from 5th December, 1904.

Miss HEANG to be Junior Assistant at the Belilios Public School, from 19th April, 1904.

Mrs. WHITEHEAD to be Mistress of the Indian School, from 1st January, 1905.

Resignations. Mrs. JAMES, Headmistress of the Kowloon School, from 19th November, 1904.

Mrs. HATWELL, Mistress Indian School, from 31st December, 1904.

Miss VANSTONE, Junior Assistant Belilios Public School, from 18th April, 1904.

Leave. Mrs. TUTCHER, First Assistant Belilios Public School, from 30th March, 1904.

There have also been several changes in the Chinese staff of the District Schools.

REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.

Excluding $500 paid by Mr. ARCULLI towards the cost of the Indian School as explained below, the Revenue collected by the Department amounts to $7,177.50. Details are given in Appendix A. A comparative statement of the revenue collected during recent years is given in Appendix B. It has increased from $922 in 1900 to $7,177.50 in the year under review, or nearly eight-fold.

The Expenditure on Education, including Queen's College, for the year was $151,589, being 2.32 per cent. of the estimated Expenditure. A statement shewing this ratio for recent years is given in Appendix C.

NUMBER AND CLASSIFICATION OF SCHOOLS

AND SCHOLRAS.

The number of Schools (Government and Grant) including Queen's College, is 81, of which 23 are Upper Grade Schools and 58 are Lower Grade Schools. An Upper Grade School means one in which at least part of the Staff is European. Lower Grade Schools are those under purely native management. Broadly speak- ing the Upper Grade Schools teach in English, and the Lower Grade Schools teach in the Vernacular. There are, however, a few exceptions, details of which can be seen in the Grant List (Appendix E.).

522

The following Table shews the number of Schools managed by Government and the various educational bodies, divided into Upper and Lower Grade Schools, with the number of scholars in average attendance:----

Managing Body.

Upper Grade.

Lower Grade.

Total.

Schools. Scholars. Schools. Scholars. Schools. Scholars.

Education Department,

Queen's College,..

6

424

1

1,000

10

5

241

11

665

1

1,000

American Board Mission,

:

1

78

1

78

Basel Mission,...............

4

159

4

159

Church Missionary Society,

5

332

15

580

20

912

London Missionary Society,

1

.37

18

605

19

642

Berlin Foundling House,

34

1

34

Rhenish Mission,

46

1

46

Roman Catholic Missions,..

391

730

17

1,121

Wesleyan Mission,

5

127

5

127

Secular (Ellis Kadoorie School),

1

186

1

186

23

2,404

58

2,566

81

4,970

Thus, by far the most important educational bodies, after the Government, are the Church Missionary Society, and the various Roman Catholic Missions con- sidered as one. Further details are given in Appendices A. (Government Schools) and E. (Grant Schools).

In Appendix F. are shewn graphically the fluctuations in numbers of the scholars of the Colony during recent years. The calculations on which these figures are based require some explanation. The number of scholars in the Government and Grant Schools are calculated from the average attendance. Now the average attendance in Hongkong Schools compared with the numbers on the rolls is very low, partly owing to the annual plague epidemic, which seriously depletes the schools during certain months of the year, and partly because the Chinese scholars are constantly withdrawn by their parents to attend social and religious functions at their homes on the mainland. The severity of the plague in 1896 and 1901 is reflected in the serious drop in the attendances for those years.

actual state of affairs is calculation, than would The scholars of Hong-

Nevertheless a more accurate reproduction of the obtained by making the average attendance the basis of have been arrived at, had the total enrolment been used. kong, in the Vernacular Schools especially, consider it desirable to change their schools with great frequency; and consequently a considerable proportion of them appear on the rolls of two or more schools in the same year. The greater regularity in the curves of the Government and Grant Schools during the past few years must be ascribed in some degree to the greater strictness of the method of checking the attendances.

The slight decrease in the number of scholars in Government and Grant Vernacular Schools is mainly due to the closing of Government Vernacular Schools at Saiyingpun and Wantsai. As, however, the Chinese Written Language is now taught in all the Anglo-Chinese Government and Grant Schools, the number of scholars receiving instruction in it has really increased.

The curves shewing the numbers of scholars in English and Vernacular Schools not in receipt of aid from Government, are based on enquiries made by the attend- ance officer, and cannot be considered as at all accurate. The Vernacular Private Schools are increasing in numbers, and some of them are now much more efficient than were the Government and Grant Vernacular Schools of a few years ago, so rapidly is reform in education spreading. The private English Schools are in some cases also very efficient. They include a school under the Church Missionary Society for the wealthier Chinese students, as well as one for European children, with an enrolment of over 40, recently opened on the Peak,

523

The proportion of girls to boys is shewn below:-

Boys,

Girls,

In Government

In Grant

Schools, including

Total.

Schools.

Queen's College.

1,378

1,858

3,236

287

1,447

1,734

1,665

3,305

4,970

Thus the ratio of girls to boys is rather more than 1 to 2.

Appendix F. further shews the number of scholars in English and Vernacular Schools under Government to be:-

English Schools,..

Vernacular Schools,

2,906

..2,064

4,970

Reckoning the average attendance to be 80% of the total enrolment it may be estimated that about 6,200 scholars have attended Government and Grant .Schools during the year.

Appendix F. also gives an estimate of the scholars in private Schools :—

English Schools, Vernacular Schools,

980 ..2,540

3,520

Thus the total number of scholars in receipt of education in the Colony may be reckoned as between 9,500 and 10,000, of whom about two-thirds are in schools supported in one way or another by the Government.

If the figures for 1895 in Appendix F. are accurate, it appears that 10 years ago there were 5,000 scholars in average attendance at Government and Grant Schools, and that the numbers now are about the same with this difference, how- ever, then ths but now ths of the scholars are learning English. The value of the education given has very greatly increased, both in English and Vernacular Schools. Reports on' the work of the schools are given in Appendix D. I add a few comments of a more general character, with extracts from the reports on the principal Government Schools.

GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS.

KOWLOON BRITISH SCHOOL.

The school has been unfortunate in losing the services of Mrs. JAMES, who resigned towards the close of the year on account of ill-health. Mrs. JAMES has taught in the school since its opening, and its success is due in no small degree to her energy and skilful teaching.

In other respects the year has been a prosperous one. The average attend- ance was 54.8, as against 46.4 in 1903, and 39.3 in 1902, though this increase is only in part due to the increase of scholars. It is partly due to the improved regularity in attendance (88% of the total enrolment as against 84% in 1903).

Fees amounting to $1,952.50 were collected, as against $1,849.50 in 1903.

:

524

The following extracts are from the Annual Report of the Headmaster

*

*

"Health.―The general health of the School was excellent throughout 1904. "Only on one occasion was a child suspected of suffering from an infectious "disease.

66

66

Scripture Teaching.-The teaching of Scripture History, coupled with the reading of the Lord's Prayer after roll call each morning, was instituted this

year.

"School Building.-The roof received a good deal of attention from the Pu- "blic Works Department; but a recent shower of rain clearly demonstrated the "fact that it is not yet rain-proof. In all other respects the School buildings and "furniture are in very good condition.

"Games.-Permission to use the wood behind the School as a play-ground "has been granted.

"Holidays.-The new holiday scheme, ordained by Sir HENRY BLAKE, was "adopted at the beginning of the year, and, so far as I can gather, has given com-

'plete satisfaction to the parents.

66

Empire Day. Empire Day was observed in the usual way. An Address was delivered by the Headmaster in the big school-room, which had been decorated "with flags for the occasion. The prizes, which had been provided by some kind "friends of the School, were then given away. After this, God save the King' "was sung, and the pupils were given a holiday. A short account of the cele- bration was printed, and copies were forwarded to those schools in all parts of "the Empire with which, under the auspices of the Empire League, we are in

"communication.

66

"Children's Play.-Early in the year. Mrs. JAMES organized a children's play at the school. The proceeds of the two performances ($277) were forwarded to "a Children's Hospital in London.

"School Magazine.-I had hoped to bring out at Christmas a School Magazine "giving the school history during the year and containing, in addition, contri- "butions from the pens of several distinguished people. Its publication has been "delayed, owing to pressure of Government printing work at the Victoria aol.

66

Syllabus. At the end of the present term, ¿.e., at Easter, which will also be "the end of the school year, I intend to hold an exhaustive examination in all the "subjects that appear in the 1904-1905 Kowloon School syllabus. I shall then "send you a report containing my impressions as to the amount and quality of the "work that has been accomplished here in the course of the school year."

BELILIOS PUBLIC SCHOOL FOR GIRLS-ENGLISH DIVISION.

I have again to draw attention to the decreasing numbers at the school. Things are not quite as bad as they look, because 16 Indian boys, who would last year have swelled the attendance, have, as explained elsewhere, been drafted out of the school. The following return shews the diminution in attendance. It does not give the figures for the summer months as they are largely affected by the prevalence or otherwise of plague :

Average Number of Scholars enrolled.

Jan.-April,

1900,

Sept.-Dec.,

Jan.-April,

1901,

Sept.-Dec.,

Jan.-April,

1902,....

Sept.-Dec.,

Jan.-April,

1903,

Sept -Dec.,

1904,

Jau.-April, Sept.-Dec.,

* Fees doubled.

† Kowloon School open.

..169

...173

.163

...120 *

..119

.101 † .117

.107

103 1 84

16 Indian boys drafted out of the School,

i

:

525

The numbers in the non-English-speaking Lower School keep up well (see Appendix D. subhead Belilios Public School); but those in the upper classes continue to diminish. The teaching in these upper classes is well up to the average; and I can only conclude that they are not filled, because they are not wanted, except by a small minority of parents, who cannot find elsewhere educa- tional establishments, where their own creed is taught. The school is rapidly tending to become exclusively an Anglo-Chinese School for girls.

Appendix A. shews that the cost to Government of each scholar in this School is very heavy, bring $117.38 per unit of average attendance.

The arrangemant described in paragraph 5 of Mrs. BATEMAN's report below is an experiment, and I am by no means certain whether it should be continued. My object in allowing it was to enable the senior girls to obtain a broader surface of contact with Western civilisation than was possible in the Chinese Division.

(6

The following extracts are from the report of the Headmistress:-

“Attendance.—1. The attendance has, on the whole, been very regular, some pupils, living as far away as Kowloon and Wantsai, having made the full num- "ber-206-while several have only been absent one or two days throughout "the school year.

CC

CC

66

Changes in the School.-2. At the beginning of the year a new arrangement "of the Infant Department was made Till that time, all beginners, no matter "what their age or nationality, were admitted to the Infant School, and one saw English children of 6 and 7 learning with Chinese of 17 and 18 years of age. By the new arrangement all the English-speaking infants were formed into a class with Miss WINNIE BATEMAN as their teacher. All the non-English-speaking pupils were placed under the care of Miss ADA BATEMAN with Miss VANSTONE to "assist her. Later a minor change was made by drafting all the Indian boys "attending the school to form the nucleus of a school for Indians. They occupy

at present one of the class-rooms on the top floor.

66

66

"3. The number of Chinese girls learning English has increased under the present arrangement from 32 to 69. The number entered on the roll for the "year being 98.

"4. The number of English Infants under Miss WINNIE BATEMAN has also 6. increased. When the class was formed it numbered 16 and the number on the "roll in December was 32. It is certainly easier, as well as more pleasant to "teach pupils all speaking the same language, whether that language be Chinese "or English.

"5. The two highest classes in the Chinese Division come up every morning "for 2 hours to take lessons in English with Miss BATEMAN'S pupils. The girls "are shy and awkward when they first come, but they soon overcome this and to "judge by their faces, enjoy their English lessons.

"6. In the Senior Division Class I, representing Standard VII, are young for such advanced work, their ages averaging 14 years only. But by diligence and "co-operation with my efforts they have overcome many difficulties, and it has "been a great pleasure to work with them. They have all worked very well, and "those who have obtained prizes have done so by gaining a few marks only more "than their less successful classmates.

66

"School Grant.-An increase was made in the amount granted by Govern- ment to the school, and we were thus able to send home an order for several ap- pliances that were badly needed. The rooms, with the new pictures and maps on the walls, look much brighter, and the lessons, with the pictures to illustrate "them, are much more attractive in the eyes of the juniors. There is still a want "unsupplied, and that is, suitable readers for those learning to speak English. "The ordinary readers are either altogether too childish in their ideas or else too "advanced in language. It is surprising the long and difficult words that are used "in English children's story books."

·

526

BELILIOS PUBLIC SCHOOL-CHINESE DIVISION.

Mr. Họ KAN-PO, who has been Headmaster of the School for twelve years, retired on pension at the end of the year under review. The fact that he, with the assistance of two Chinese mistresses of no great ability, maintained good discipline and gave a fair elementary education to nearly 300 girls, reflects great credit on his methods. Nevertheless, it is only natural that in such circumstances the instruction should have been limited to a study of the Chinese Written Language, and a very little arithmetic and geography. If the school is to attempt to awaken more fully the intelligence of its scholars and widen their mental horizon, the staff will need to be greatly strengthened. Happily it is now easy to find Vernacular masters of broad views, and possessed of considerable ability as teachers. I think the time is approaching when a small fee might reasonably be required from the scholars.

THE INDIAN SCHOOL.

At the beginning of the year, the Indian boys in the Belilios Public School · were drafted into a separate school under an English mistress. It has been housed in an empty class-room, an arrangement to which there has hitherto been little objection, as the scholars have not exceeded 10 or 11 years of age. It is now, however, highly desirable that the school should be removed elsewhere. Pro- perly developed it seems likely to prove a success, and should in time be able to prepare Indian boys for the Upper School at Queen's College. The needs of the Indian community were recognized by the Committee on Education, and they have become somewhat more pressing, now that the Chinese Written Language fills a considerable place in the curriculum of the lower classes at the College. It would: be a logical and popular step if Urdu were made a subject in the Indian School. That it was possible to open this school last year, was due to the liberality of Mr. ARCULLI who has subscribed $50 a month towards its cost.

THE DISTRICT SCHOOLS.

Saiyingpun School. The average attendance shews a serious falling off, being only 69 as against 95 in 1903. I have endeavoured to ascertain the reasons. One seems certainly to be the number of changes in the Chinese staff. Chinese boys readily attach themselves to a master, and often do not care to remain at school under other tuition. One Chinese master died of plague during the year, and two resigned. Another possible cause has been that the Headmaster has spent a larger proportion of his time on the three highest Standards, than may have seemed fair to the boys in the lower Standards, who pay a larger fee ($2 a month) than that charged in neighbouring schools where the staff is wholly Chinese: it may seem to them that having paid for European instruction they should get more of it. It is questionable whether the circumstances of the school justify a Standard VI or VII.

The new play-ground was completed during the year; it is greatly appre- ciated.

The Normal Class at Saiyingpan has been continued during the year, and some of the Chinese masters have benefited greatly. Others do not seem to' improve. In addition, Mr. WILLIAMS has throughout the year given weekly a course of geography lessons to the masters of the District Schools, and to any others who cared to attend; and his course, which has been most interesting, was greatly appreciated, though only one master from an outside school (Mr. TANG of St. Stephen's) competed successfully in the examination for certificates held at the end of the year. Certificates were also given to Messrs. CHAN CHIU-UN and KUNG HON of Saiyingpun School, and to Mr. NG FUNG CHAU of Yaumati School.

Yaumati School-The foundations of the new building were laid during the year, and it is hoped that the School will be ready for occupation towards the close of 1905. The site and design are all that can be desired. With the increasing demand for a good English education, there seems reason to hope that the Yau- mati School will in time become a very important institution. If this is to be so, the need of a strong European staff is apparent.

1

527

The average attendance during 1904 was 85, as compared with 74 during 1903, and the fees collected $1,219.50, against $308. No inore rapid increase in numbers can be hoped for, while the school is lodged in its present temporary and unsuitable quarters. On this subject the master, Mr. CURWEN, writes:-

"The present buildings are altogether unsuitable for a school. At times the "rooms have been unbearable, on account of the intense heat and the foul smells "which have penetrated from the Chinese cook-shop in the basement. During "the early part of the year much annoyance was caused by a boiler-maker's shop, "which commenced operations opposite. This was removed after a time.”

Wantsai School. The average attendance was 115 in 1904; 96 in 1903. The fees collected were $1,591.50, as against $612. The last column of Appendix 4. shews that the cost to Government of each scholar is only $19. There are no other schools of the same class in the neighbourhood: were the staff increased so that 150 scholars or more could be conveniently taught, there would, I believe, be no difficulty in finding the numbers. As things are, the lower Standards are apt to be overcrowded. The new Lower Grade District School, which was opened at Tang-lung-chau early this year, will perhaps relieve this overcrowding to some extent. The Headmaster, Mr. YOUNG HEE, points out that the desks and forms are in a very dilapidated condition, rendered so by long years of use.

Ven Long District School. The circumstances of this school are interesting, first, because it is the first opened in the New Territory with the support of the Government; and, secondly, because it is the first Lower Grade Anglo-Chinese School opened under Government; since the report of the Committee on Education. This second point is considered under the heading "New Schools" below.

Appendix 4. shews that the cost of each scholar to Government has been high for a school of this nature, $58; and had it been opened at the beginning of the year instead of on the 1st April as it actually was, it would have been still higher. The total cost, however, was not great, being under $1,000. Situated as it is in a not easily accessible part of the New Territory, it was thought necessary to pay the master the comparatively high salary of $100 a month. Nor was it thought desirable to charge fees during the first months of it existence. A monthly fee of 50 cents is being charged from the beginning of 1905.

Aberdeen, Tang-lung-chau and Sheko Vernacular Schools.-The first two were closed at the end of the year, to be superseded by the new Lower Grade Anglo-Chinese Schools at those places. If these prove successful, a similar change may be advantageous at Sheko, where a small Vernacular School of no great educational value has been provided by Government for many years.

NEW SCHOOLS.

Victoria British School.-In the Spring of the year, it was made known that if the European community considered the time were ripe to open a British School on the Hongkong side, corresponding to the Kowloon School, it would be well to petition the Government, and shew the existence of a general feeling in that direction. The formation of such a school had been recommended by the Com- mittee on Education. No steps were taken at that time by the parents concerned; and I therefore asked for no increase in the Estimates under this heading.

I was therefore pleasantly surprised, when towards the end of August a petition was sent in, pointing out the urgent need of such a school. His Excel- Jency the Governor approved the scheme. Sanction froin home was obtained. The existing school on Caroline Hill was evicted. Furniture was ordered, and a staff engaged. On completion of the structural improvements, the school will be opened on March 20th, within seven months of the receipt of the petition.

It has been laid down that girls over twelve years of age shall not be admitted; and that similarly at the Kowloon School boys shall not be retained nor admittel after that age.

The School curriculum cannot be decided on until the number and ages of the scholars are known.

528

Tang-lung-chau and Aberdeen.-Sanction has been obtained during the year under review for replacing the Vernacular Schools at these places by Lower Grade Anglo-Chinese Schools. In recommending this change I wrote:-

"It is now quite certain that Chinese masters, when under English super- "vision, can teach the rudiments of English in accordance with modern methods; "and I now propose to open two Lower Grade Anglo-Chinese Schools, giving in- "struction up to Standard III-one at Tang-lung-chau and one at Aberdeen. "The people of these neigbourhoods are poor, and can hardly afford to keep their "children at school more than three years. In that time it is proposed to teach "them how to speak English, to write a simple letter in English and Chinese, "simple arithmetic, a good deal of general information, good manners.

There are "Government buildings available, the one at Aberdeen being lent at present to the "Church Missionary Society. I propose to put one master on a salary of $600 "at each school.

"Furniture and incidental expenses would amount to $100 at each school."

As a fact, it is necessary to hire a room for the Tang-lung-chau school to make room for the Victoria School. Still the cost of the two schools combined is not likely to exceed about $1,600, against which fees should be obtained amounting to perhaps $300 or $400, the cost per scholar being about $20.

GRANT SCHOOLS.

English Schools, Non-Chinese. There is nothing in particular to report under this heading. The schools have for the most part readily adopted the changes necessary to bring them under the new Code. The two Diocesan Schools, St. Joseph's, the Italian and French Convents and St. Mary's are the most important of this class. A large proportion of the boys at the Diocesan School and St. Joseph's are Chinese. They are being taught the Written Language; and that is the most important change that has taken place in the curriculum during the year.

St. Mary's at Kowloon was put on the Annual Grant List in the course of the year, and has not yet been reported on.

Some of these schools are still rather old-fashioned in their methods. Taken as a whole I believe them to be up to the standard of similar schools at Home. They differ from the other classes of schools next described, in that they do not require much special modification to suit them to our peculiar local needs.

English Schools, Chinese.--The most important are the Ellis Kadoorie aud the Roman Catholic Cathedral Schools.

The instruction in schools of this class has been completely revolutionised under the new Code. The changes that have taken place have been so fully described in various reports, that it is not necessary to treat them at length here. It is sufficient to recall that eighteen months ago these schools earned Grants on an examination of the scholars, which ignored their ability to speak English and write Chinese. The improvement already effected is great but there is plenty of room for more. All the same it is satisfactory to note that the changes which seemed advantageous in theory, have proved so in practice, to the satisfaction of the masters and scholars alike.

Vernacular Schools. Of these Schools the Committee on Education wrote as follows, at the beginning of the year 1902-(pages 4 and 6 of their Report):-

C

Beginning with the Trimetrical and Thousand Character and certain other "Classics which are learned by heart, the scholars are taught first to read and then "to write the characters. Subsequently they learn their meanings, first as isolated "characters and afterwards in their context. Unfortunately they nearly all leave "school before getting as far as this, that is to say, unable to read. The Vernacu- "lar Grant Schools are left, with few exceptions, so far as secular instruction is concerned, to the charge of the Chinese teachers, who do not appear as a class to "be sufficiently impressed with the necessity of maintaining their schools in dis- "cipline, cleanliness and order; while the children, provided as they are with a

66

66

((

529

"free education at the hands of the Government, remain to all appearances desti- tute of any conception of the obligations they are under. Geography is taught (very badly) in the Fourth Standard, where many of the scholars were at the last "examination ignorant that Hongkong was a British Colony: a number hazarded "the opinion that it belonged to Russia. Most of them, as well as some of the "teachers, seemed unaware that the Chinese expression meaning "red-headed man "as applied to Englishmen is resented by them."

""

That description was at the time by no means too strongly expressed. To-day, it would be ridiculously untrue. as must be clear from the reports upon the individual schools in Appendix D. Adhering to my opinion that the number of Vernacular Schools should not be largely increased, so long as the demand for English education remains unsatisfied, I am bound to say that the masters and mistresses of the Vernacular Schools, under the active advice of some of the managers, have in a very short time effected changes, which are as satisfac- tory as they are striking.

What has been accomplished could not have been accomplished had the awakening of teachers been upon the hands of the managers and the Department alone. But fortunately a spirit of enlightenment is rapidly affecting Chinese education. Translations of English and Japanese books are being made every day at Shanghai and elsewhere; the number of progressive Chinese is daily increasing. Among the Vernacular Schools of the Colony under purely native management are some, where the curriculum and methods of teaching are very creditable better indeed than in the great majority of our Lower Grade Schools of a few years ago.

The change in our methods has taken place in time, though only just in time, and it cannot now be said that we need learn from China how to conduct schools on Western methods.

GENERAL.

Needlework. This subject is still examined on the old system in all Grant Schools. At an annual examination a piece of hemining is done by every girl, and the results having been examined by a competent person, the schools are thereupon graded accordingly. To anyone acquainted with the creations of such schools as the French or Italian Convents the test must seem absolutely fantastic, and the verdict can have little significance; but a real inspection and serious criticism in the case of the majority of the smaller schools is a matter of some urgency. Needlework is not a compulsory subject in all the girls' schools, as it certainly ought to be.

Sanitation.-The very moderate requirements of the Code in the matter of floor space have in several instances not been complied with. I think it would be fair and advisable in future years to deduct from the average attendance of each month the number by which it exceeded the maximum sanctioned for the School.

A Reader on hygiene was published by the Government towards the close of the

year. It is to be made a compulsory study in all Government and Grant Schools in Standards III and above.

Honourable F. H. MAY, C.M.G.,

Colonial Secretary.

I have, &c.,

EDWARD A. IRVING,

Inspector of Schools.

DESCRIPTION.

Appendix A.

GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS.

SCHOOL STATISTICS.

530

Number of

Number

Standards,

Maximum

Rate

of

No.

Name and Nature.

Classes

School

or

Monthly

Enrolment.

Average

Gross

of

Attendance.

Cost.

Fees.

Fees

Collected.

Forms.

Days.

Net Cost

to

Government.

Cost to Govt. per Scholar reckoning by

Average Attendance.

C.

C.

1 Kowloon British School. Children of European British parentage. Boys under thirteen, and Girls,....

5 including

the Infant

201

66

55

2.00 to 5.00

6,655.21

1,952.50

4,702.71

85.50

School.

2

Belilios Public School. English. Boys under twelve, and Girls...

206

117

85

0.50 to 1.50

10,265.55

1,278.50

9,978.05

117.38

3 Saiyingpun Anglo-Chinese School. Boys,

4

Yaumati

Do.

Boys,

5 Wantsai

Do.

Boys,

Uen Long

Do.

Boys,

7

Indian School. English. Boys,

8 Belilios Public School. Vernacular. Girls,

9 Tang-lung-chau. Boys,.

10

Pokfulam.

Do.

4.

11 Sheko.

Do.

7O62N7N4 co

210

111

69

1.00 to 2.00

4,927.11

934.00

3,993.11

57.87

198

111

85

Do.

5,159.41

1,219.50

3,939.91

46.35

198

149

115

Do.

3,785.67

1,591.50

2,194.17

19.08

144/

24

17

Free.

981.70

981.70

57.75

206

26

16

0.50 to 1.50

300.00*

201.50

98.50

6.15

259

233

175

Free.

1,212.00

1,212.00

6.92

237

21

15

Do.

120.00

120.00

8.00

240

16

14

Do.

120.00

120.00

8.57

233

24

19

Do.

108.00

108.00

5.63

898

665

$33,634.65

$7,177.50

$27,448.15

* After deducting the contribution of $50 a month made by Mr. ARGULLI,

.

531

Appendix B.

REVENUE OF THE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT,

(SCHOOL FEES) 1900-1904.

Name of School.

1900.

1901.

1902.

1903.

1904.

Belilios Public

School,..

Kowloon School,

Saiyingpun School,

Yaumati School,

Wantsai School,

School for

Indians,

C.

922.00 1,132.50

...

$

C.

$

C.

$ C.

$

C.

1,452.50

1,604.00 1,278.50

924.00

1,849.50

1,952.50

118.50

587.50

934.00

3.50

308.00 1,219.50

34.00

612.00

1,591.50

201.50

*A

922.00 1.132.50 2,532.50

4,961.00 7,177.50

Appendix C.

PROPORTION OF THE TOTAL EXPENDITURE OF THE COLONY

Year.

BORNE BY EDUCATION.

(includes Queen's College.)

Expenditure Expenditure Per cent.

of the Colony.on Education.

$3

$

1895

2,972,373

60,140

2.05

1896

2,474,910

76.511

3.09

1897

2,641,410

72,984

2.76

1898

2,841,805

72,420

2.54

1899 3,162,792

75,152

2.37

1900

3,628,447

79,994

2.20

1901 4.111,722

86,946

2.11

1902 5,909,549

92,356

1.56

1903 5,396,669

130,620

2.42

1904 6,531,349

151,589

2.32

532

Appendix D.

DETAILED REPORTS ON SCHOOLS.

A.

GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS.

B.

GRANT SCHOOLS.

[NOTE.--The numbers in A. and B. correspond with

those in Appendices A. and E. respectively.]

GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS.

(1).-Kowloon British School.

Staff.-B. JAMES, M. A., and 3 Mistresses.

The

Discipline and Organization. With few exceptions the scholars are under twelve years old, so that the bulk of the work is of an elementary nature. general tone and discipline continue to be excellent.

Sanitation.--Very satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 288 scholars.

Apparatus. Very satisfactory.

English.The children are as a whole well up to the standard of elementary schools at Home.

Reading. Particularly good.

Handwriting. Neat, but somewhat laboured more insistence should be laid in the lower Forms on making the children join their letters. Great pains are taken with Composition in the higher Forms. The constant correspondence with scholars in other schools in England, Canada and elsewhere, conducted through the instrumentality of the League of Empire, is evidently of great value in culti- vating the ability to describe circumstances and events vividly and with accuracy.

General Intelligence.--Papers are set weekly, and these are also well adapted to the same end, as the subject matter is such as appeals readily to the minds of the scholars. At an inspection during the recent visit of the King of Portugal to England, I was pleased and amused to find that a junior Form not only were aware of the fact, but insisted particularly on his resemblance to a certain citizen of the Colony.

Science and Chemistry. The properties of the commoner elements were taught with the aid of the usual apparatus during the greater part of the year to the two highest Forms. On Mrs. JAMES' resignation these lessons had to be dis- continued. Some kind of scientific teaching is undoubtedly desirable: but it is not easy to draw up a syllabus suited to the conditions of the school. The plan now to be tried is to use the handbook on hygiene, recently issued by the Government, as a basis of instruction. It appears to me that the object lessons usually taught to little children might also be so given as to have their bearing on the subject. The purpose of object lessons is often forgotten. It is not so much to teach a number of isolated facts, as the cultivation of the observation at an age when it is naturally extremely vivid. King's Park, a rat, a water tap, are (for instance) objects of interest to childish minds; but their study may also be made a direct preparation for lessons in the higher Forms on the maintenance of health, precautions against disease, and water supply.

533

Drawing. This is a new subject, and it is being regularly taught. It is in natural sequence to the crayon work in the lowest classes of the Infant School, where that, as well as similar Kindergarten subjects, is taught with a view to train, the eye as well as the hand, and the hand to other movements than the somewhat cramping one of penmanship. It is for this reason that I recommend that the "free-arm system of drawing (ie., from the shoulder without any support for the elbow) should be given a trial. I have scen it followed with great

success in schools at Home.

Geography.—The subject is well taught throughout the School. Map-draw- ing is a weak feature in the upper Forms.

History. The course followed is in its general features that prescribed by the Committee on History and Geography. As however the great majority of the scholars are withdrawn from the School before the age of 16, it is necessary to begin this four years' course at least two years earlier than was contemplated- by the Committee; and thus, as the text books prescribed for the first two years' work would be altogether beyond the comprehension of the scholars, the facts bave to be put before them in a more easily assimilated form. The Headmaster has attempted to do so by making the biographies of famous men the centres round which the desired information is grouped. And this method which has been now tried for two years has proved very successful.

Arithmetic.—The Arithmetic is well up to the standard of schools at Home. In the upper Forms the work is neat and accurate, but slow. Time is wasted in fair copying the questions, and the processes might be shortened in many instances, e.g., where a number of 3d. pieces were first reduced to pence and then divided by 12 to find their value in shillings.

Musical Drill.-Well done. I observe that some of the performers in the back rows do not put as much energy into it as they might.

(2).-Belilios Public School.

Staff.-E. A. BATEMAN (Headmistress) and 3. Assistant Mistresses.

Discipline and Organization.-Important changes in organization have taken place during the year. In last year's report I drew attention to the difficulties consequent on the various ages, races, and wants of the scholars. To remedy the somewhat chaotic classification which had arisen in consequence, I recom- mended, early in the current year, a re-organization of the School in the following manner. In the first place, the Indian and other non-Chinese but non-English speaking boys were segregated in a class by themselves, as described under the heading "Indian School" below. Of the remaining children, those not qualified to be placed in the 3 senior classes were divided into two groups-English-speaking and non-English-speaking. The foriner, and very much the smaller group, was put under Miss W. BATEMAN; the latter, which now composes considerably more than half the School, continued as before under the charge of Miss A. BATEMAN, aided by the second junior assistant teacher. This group of non-English speaking girls may for convenience be called the Lower School, and is described below under that name. The general discipline of the School is very good, especially in the upper classes under Mrs. BATEMAN. There has been a marked improvement in the standard of manners prevailing among the Chinese girls during the year.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 728 scholars.

Apparatus. Maps, pictures and the ordinary appliances of modern teaching have been badly needed. But the school is now much better equipped than it was

a year ago.

LOWER SCHOOL.

English. As I pointed out in my last year's report, the system employed by Miss BATEMAN is very effective in teaching the scholars to compose readily in English. As an instance, a girl of 10 who had been under instruction only 9 months wrote 70 or 80 words in description of a dog, full of mistakes of course, but in a good hand, employing a vocabulary and phrases which proved that she

534

really was beginning to have an insight into the language. For the first year or so Readers are not used, but the girls write out the main points of simple subjects discussed in class, and so a great deal of useful information is almost uncon- sciously absorbed. ·

Geography.-The newly introduced local maps have been studied: but they were not particularly well understood.

Arithmetic.-This subject is also taught to a great extent as a conversation lesson: the real meaning of the processes of multiplication, division, &c., was un- derstood in a way which is far from common with beginners.

UPPER SCHOOL, INCLUDING THE PREPARATORY ENGLISH-SPEAKING CLASS.

The girls with few exceptions are not more than 14 or 15 years of age; and the work done in Class I corresponds roughly with that of Standard VI in other schools of the same class.

History.-Questions were put to Class I on Magna Carta, the Repeal of the Corn Laws and the Postal System, among others. The girls had evidently been taught the right things in the right way and their knowledge of the subject so far as it goes is valuable. While I think that the present Readers are a great improve- ment on the books formerly employed, it is necessary to point out that enough dates must be learned to give a definite shape to the scholars' conception of the sequence of events. Class III had an intelligent recollection of the stories related in their History Reader; they were able to give a vivid picture of Trafalgar; but were extremely vague as to whether the battle took place 10, 100, or 1,000 years

ago.

Geography.-Map-drawing shews a considerable improvement as compared with last year, and the subject seems to have been well taught. The papers shew neatness as a rule, and were generally well expressed. Many girls forget to put the number of their class at the head of their papers. The working in both History and Geography is slow, owing partly to an unnecessary habit of making rough copies, as well as to the too frequent use of the ruler.

English.-Spelling and Composition are very satisfactory. Handwriting on the whole has improved, though it is still not all that could be desired.

Arithmetic.-Satisfactory in the result. But in many cases, it is impossible to follow the process by which the result is arrived at. All the work not done men- tally should be shewn, no fair copying should be necessary, and the use of slates should be absolutely prohibited.

Drill.-The Drill Instructor informs me that the drill done is as good as he has seen in any School at home or abroad.

(3).-Saiyingpun Anglo-Chinese School. Boys.

Staff.-W. H. WILLIAMS and 5 Chinese Masters.

Discipline and Organization.-This School has been very unfortunate in the loss of several of its Chinese masters during the year with the consequent changes, and in a sense it is unfortunate that nearly all the boys in the two highest Standards left to get work during the year, so that at the Annual Examination I was unable to test the work done by these Standards to much purpose. But the impression left in my mind is that seven Standards are more than can be conveniently man- aged by the existing Staff, and that it would be better if time now given to Standard VII by the English master, were shared more equally with the lower Standards. The discipline is very well maintained.

Sanitation. The condition of the School has been immensely improved by the construction of a play-ground and by the new offices. At my last visit I noticed that the boys' desks were not kept as clean as they should be.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 234 scholars.

·Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

¿

.

535

English.The old difficulty of getting Chinese boys to talk, having quite dis- appeared, the next thing is to get them to talk grammar. There is room for improvement in this respect, but the methods employed in the lowest Standards leave little to be desired and merely need to be amplified. Great credit is due to the Chinese master in charge. The boys do not recite distinctly enough.

Composition. The Composition in the lower Standards is very satisfactory, and is good in Standard V. The few boys presented in Standards VI and VII do not shew any proportionate improvement.

Geography.The local Geography was well learned in the lower Standards. In Standards V and VII the same course-Asia-was studied and there was no appreciable difference in the written work done by them. After holding a written examination the impression left in my mind was that of well-prepared notes learned too much by heart and reproduced by boys whose knowledge of English is still hardly equal to the task. They had had excellent material, but too much of it it also appeared to be rather too difficult. At the same time most of the answers given were considerably above what is usually expected from Standard V. Sketch maps were poor, with few exceptions.

History.-I looked through the notes given, which were complete, but appeared rather too detailed. I did not set a paper for the reason that the boys had only been taken in Greek History as far as the period prior to the Persian Invasion, and it would not have been possible to set the broad questions to which alone valuable replies could have been expected. In teaching a period of History, I strongly recommend the concentric method. The main outlines of the period should first be given, the main dates can conveniently be arranged, shewn graphi- cally on lined paper, the different countries to which reference is made being repre- sented by parallel columns. On revision, more dates and less important events can be filled in.

Mathematics.-The Arithmetic is well done, though not noticeably better than at the other two District Schools, as might perhaps have been expected from the much longer time devoted to mathematics. It was strange to find that a com- pound division sum which might have been done by reduction to half crowns was done in every case by reduction to pence. In several instances the answer (a number of pounds) was given as the same number of pence, shewing that com- mon sense had not been enlisted.

Algebra. Has been taught in the highest Standards, which as has already been explained had melted away before the examination.. I cannot but regret that so much pains spent on this subject should thus in a sense have been wasted.

ing.

(4).—Yaumati Anglo-Chinese School.

Staff.-W. CURWEN (Headmaster) and 3 Assistant Chinese Masters. Discipline and Organization.-Very satisfactory.

Sanitation.-As good as can be expected, considering the nature of the build-

Floor space.-Sufficient for 156 scholars.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

English.The study of.colloquial English continues to shew good results. Lists of about 200 verbs have been prepared, from which the lower Standards have been taught to make sentences, illustrating them by appropriate actions. The system might well be extended so as to include the use of the future and past tenses of these verbs. I believe if this were done the number of grammatical inistakes made in the compositions of the higher Standards would be materially -diminished. Spelling and handwriting are good. Standard II might be more practised in reproducing very easy stories told them.

Geography.The local Geography, and that of the Canton Province were very well known. Mr. CURWEN has taken his boys for walks and taught them to use their eyes. I strongly commend this method. The papers done on Asia by the bigher Standards were by no means good.

.

:

536

History. Standards III to VI have in six months gone roughly through the first year's course prescribed by the Committee on History and Geography. I was pleased with the answers to a written paper on Greece and the early civilisations, and still more with an oral examination which I held. The subject has been taught with great discrimination. Considering the newness of the subject, the results in Standard III seem distinctly promising.

Arithmetic. In the lower Standards it would be better if the black-board were used less, and sums were given out orally. Otherwise the results were good. Slates should not be used for work in this or any other subject above Standard III. When they are used they should be cleaned with a sponge or a piece of cloth. I attach much importance to making the Arithmetic taught such as will be of the greatest practical use to the scholar in after life. A great deal that appears in old- fashioned Arithmetic books can be dispensed with, e.g., the boys should be taught to work long Compound Interest sums by means of tables. They should, wherever it is practicable to do so, be taught to get approximate answers by short methods. There is a large field for improvement in this respect, e.g., in a long simplification sum set at examination the answer could have been seen at a glance to be less than 2. In many cases it was worked out as 60 odd.

Chinese.-Composition in the higher Standards was well done. The Readers were not known at all well. This seems to have been due to an attempt to push

the boys through them too fast.

The Chinese classes have hitherto been formed without reference to the position : of the scholars in the English School. In future, however, a system of pari passu examinations will be insisted on, and a minimum knowledge of Chinese made a condition before promotion is granted.

:

(5). Wantsai Anglo-Chinese School.

Staff.-YOUNG HEE (Headmaster) and 5 Assistant Chinese Masters.

Discipline and Organization.-Very good masters' notes on lessons should be kept in a suitable book, the alternate pages being left blank for notes respecting any improvements which may suggest theinselves after the lesson has been delivered. This will save much trouble, and be a great help in future years.

Sanitation.--Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 302 scholars..

Apparatus. Satisfactory.

English.The good beginning of teaching colloquial English in the junior Standards, which was made last year, has been well continued. Object lessons, reading lessons and the study of local Geography are all turned to this end. In consequence English Composition has greatly improved and is now very good in Standard V.

Geography.—Local Geography has been well taught. There is room for im- provement in the work done by the higher Standards. It is a pity that more advantage has not been taken of the course in Geopraphy given to masters during the year by Mr. WILLIAMS at the Normal School. Map-drawing was weak.

History.-Pains have been taken, but the results were not as good as there is every reason to hope they may soon be, when the proper method of teaching the subject is better understood.

Arithmetic. The general remarks made upon the Yaumati School apply equally to the Wantsai School. The working was accurate and neat.

Chinese. Composition is very good in the upper Standards. The Readers

have been intelligently taught and are well understood.

(6).-Uen Long Anglo-Chinese School. Staff.-One Chinese Master.

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Discipline and Organization.-This School was opened on 1st May During the year under review no fees have been charged: but a monthly fee of 50 cents will be charged in future. The master, Mr. PUN UE-SAM, has shewn much dili- gence and intelligence.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 25 scholars.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

English-Colloquial.-The boys have made a very good beginning. Their pronunciation is excellent.

What may be called "Colloquial Grammar' has

received considerable attention.

Writing. The boys write a good hand.

77

Arithmetic-In 7 months the first 3 rules have been thoroughly mastered. I have requested the master to put the boys through the rudiments of practical mensuration next year, the work to be done in the field.

Chinese.--Will be begun next year.

(7).—Indian School, Belilios Public School.

Staff.-C. W. WHITEHEAD.

Discipline and Organization.-Good.

Sanitation.--Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 92 scholars.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

English. The boys have made good progress in colloquial, reading and writing.

Arithmetic.-Good. •

(8).-Belilios Public School. Chinese Division, Girls.

Staff-One Chinese Master and 3 Chinese Mistresses.

Discipline and Organization.-This School, with an average attendance of 174.70 and seven Standards, has for its staff only the Chinese master, Mr. Ho KAN- PO, and 3 female teachers. It follows necessarily that the organization is rather defective. That so much has been done under purely Chinese management and in difficult circumstances, reflects much credit upon the master, who, I regret to

has now retired upon a pension.

say,

Sanitation.-Fair. Requires some attention.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 364 scholars.

Apparatus.-A good deal is needed. Little or nothing has been spent for

many years on apparatus.

Chinese. The Chinese Composition in Standard VII reached a high standard, and the subject was well taught throughout the School. The usual method of writing Chinese, i.e., from the top of the page to the bottom should not be de- parted from. Reading was good though there was a tendency to learn the explan- ation by heart in the lower Standards.

Arithmetic. Not more than the 4 simple rules are taught, which is much less than is done in Grant Schools of the same nature. Easy problems were as usual found to be beyond the scholars. The mechanical processes of addition, multipli- cation, &c., were correctly performed.

Geography. The map of Hongkong was fairly well known in the lower Standards. In Standard V the Canton Province had not been studied to great advantage. Standards VI and VII do not study this subject, but go up to Miss BATEMAN'S class instead.

538

GRANT SCHOOLS.

(1).-Roman Catholic Mission-St. Joseph's College.

Discipline and Organization.-There are so many classes of boys, including Portuguese, Chinese, Indians, Filipinos and Spanish, that it must always be a matter of difficulty to draw up a satisfactory syllabus. As English is not the native tongue of so many of the boys, promotion through the School should be made to depend more upon a sound knowledge of colloquial and written English. The boys in class VI failed badly in both Composition and Grammar, and it may be supposed that their comparative failure in Arithmetic was due to their not under- standing the wording of the sums.

Another weak point in the organization of the School is that the Chinese boys receive no instruction in their own language. This is a serious matter in the lower Standards, where more than 20 per cent. of the boys are Chinese. Discipline is excellent throughout the School.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory. Sometimes I have noticed that the windows and doors of the class rooms are kept tight shut and that the rooms have become "stuffy" in consequence.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 652 scholars.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

English-Composition and Grammar.-At the midsummer test examination Standard IV shewed up only about 50 words on an average. At least twice as much should have been done. It was consequently hard to test the Compositions, but they seemed very good, though handwriting is poor. In Standard V two boys did very good papers, one paper was fair, and four were worthless. Standard VI two papers were poor, and six worthless. In Standard VII two papers were excellent, and three were good, and one worthless.

In

Reading.-Was generally good. In Standard II the meaning is not suffici- ently explained. In Standard III the boys must be made to speak louder.

M

Chinese. Although this subject is not taught, I held a test examination of the Chinese boys. Thirty-nine boys were presented, of whom the majority were unable to read even colloquial Chinese intelligently. They were also required to write an essay or a letter on a simple subject. Very few made any attempt to do this, though two boys acquitted themselves with credit.

Geography-Taught in the old-fashioned way by definitions in Standard II, but very intelligently in Standard III, and is well taught in the Upper School.

Mathematics-Arithmetic.-Seemed taught with great success in the lower classes especially in Standard IV where all the boys examined obtained full marks- a remarkable achievement. In Standard VII verv good work was done also, which makes the poor work done in V and VI the harder to understand. In this and most other Schools the boys waste time by fair copying the questions before proceeding to answer them.

Algebra. An intelligent beginning was made in Standard IV. Standard V was weak; many papers examined shewed carelessness as to signs. This weak- ness also appeared in Standard VI, which otherwise was good. The work done by Standard VII is excellent.

(2).-Roman Catholic Mission-Italian Convent.

Discipline and Organization.-There has been a most praiseworthby attempt made by the staff of this School to re-model the teaching in accordance with modern ideas. This attempt has been most successful in the lower Standards. It will be seen below that the higher Standards are not equally satisfactory, but they can only be expected to improve gradually until they are filled by scholars who have had a better grounding. I do not think that the best results can be obtained in the higher Standards unless more English teachers are employed.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

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539

{

Floor space.-Sufficient for 537 scholars.

Apparatus. Satisfactory.

English--Composition.-Very good in Standard IV but shewed an unaccount- able falling off in Standard V. Standards VI and VII were good and might have been considered very good, but for the work of two or three girls in each. More attention should be given to the subject matter. Ideas should be arranged. A simple style should be cultivated, and high sounding, meaningless phrases avoided. It must be borne in mind that a large proportion of the girls do not speak English as their native tongue; and it is therefore desirable that conversation in English should be encouraged as far as possible. Reading was good and the subject matter well understood in the lower Standards. Tire recitations which are a prominent feature in the School work are only fair. More distinctness of utterance is wanted. The subject should always be well within the comprehension of the scholar.

Object lessons. In the lower Standards these were very well taught. Geography. The local Geography taught to the lower Standards was well known. The subject was, however, generally weak in the upper Standards.

d

History. This subject is also not so well taught in the upper Standards as in the lower, where in the form of story-telling the information is imparted in a manner well suited to the intelligence of the scholars. But I think that too much work is being put upon Standard I where this subject had better be dropped.

Arithmetic.-Is taught up to decimals in Standard III. Mental Arithmetic, a new subject, was well done. Except in Standard V where very good work was done, the work of the Upper School was not altogether satisfactory. A somewhat less ambitious syllabus is probably desirable.

Kindergarten work has been successfully introduced in the Infant School.

(3).—Roman Catholic Mission-French Convent.

Discipline and Organization.-Discipline seems lax.

I left one Class to do a

paper under the charge of a teacher and returned to find the girls in open colla- boration. Girls should be taught to reply to questions without giggling. The spirit of the New Code does not seem to have sufficiently infused itself.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 173 scholars.

The essays in Standard V was

Apparatus. Requires modernizing in some particulars. English-Composition and Grammar.-Fair on the whole. Standard VI were weak both as regards grammar and matter. good except as regards handwriting. Standards II and III were weak both in writing and spelling, though a good beginning seems to have been made in Standard I. Reading.-In the lowest Standard not enough attention is paid to correctness of pronunciation and distinctness of utterance. On the other hand great attention is paid to useful realing. Two good series of Readers on domestic economy and kindred subjects are in use in the School.

Geography. No attempt seems to have been made to modernize the teaching of this subject in the junior classes. For instance, in Standard III, I was told that Africa was a "compact mass" by a child who had no notion of what a compact mass was. In Standard IV the Geography of England was not known in an intelligent

way.

Arithmetic.In Standard I the girls should be taught to write down a simple addition sum from dictation. This subject is weak throughout the School.

(4).-Roman Catholic Mission--Victoria English School. Discipline and Organization.-Very good. This was one of the Schools which under the old Code had a Portuguese side, now closed. It is satisfactory to report that the attendance has not been materially, diminished.

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540

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 72 scholars..

English-Colloquial-It is to be borne in mind that nearly all the children speak English as a foreign language. The teachers fully recognize that practice in colloquial English is essential. Composition.-Good.

Arithmetic. Very well taught.

{

Geography.-A weak subject. Local Geography should be taught in the lawer Standards.

(5).—Roman Catholic Mission-Bridges Street.

Discipline and Organization.-Very good. Considering the class of children attending, the results obtained are satisfactory.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space. Sufficient for 236 scholars. Apparatus.Satisfactory.

English.-Reading is hurried, and the ends of words are clipped. The Reader "Christian Brothers" is too difficult and generally unsuitable. Great pains have been taken to teach colloquial by means of pictures. Composition is good.

Geography.The map of Hongkong was thoroughly understood and known. Arithmetic.-Good.

(6).-Roman Catholic Mission-Sacred Heart. Discipline and Organization.-Very good.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 110 scholars.

Apparatus. Satisfactory.

English-Reading and Colloquial.--Very good. This is only to be expected, as the children are boarders, and are made to talk English among themselves.

Writing. Good.

stood.

Geography.-The local maps were not correct and were naturally misunder-

Arithmetic.--Good.

(7)-Church Missionary Society-Diocesan School for Girls. Discipline and Organization.-Good. The girls seem on the whole to be pla- ced in rather higher Standards than their attainments warrant.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for $0 scholars. Apparatus. Satisfactory.

English.-Reading is well taught. The weak point is that the girls are not sufficiently practised in reading in a loud voice and are often inaudible in conse- quence. Writing, Composition and Grammar.-Good on the whole. In the higher Standards the essays written seemed rather lacking in matter considering the appa- rent ages of their authors. Special attention should be paid to punctuation. Margins should be left, and ink and not pencil should be used.

Geography.—This subject was well taught in Standard II. In Standards III and IV the selection of facts to be taught did not seem very judicious. Note- books were neatly kept and the map-drawing was very good.

Arithmetic Standards I-III were examined orally, and seemed well taught, but higher Standards failed badly in writtern papers set them.

Musical Drill has been introduced with considerable success.

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541

1

(8).-Diocesan School for Boys.

Staff.-G. PIERCEY (Headmaster), 3 English Assistant Masters, 2 English Mistresses, 2 Chinese Masters.

Discipline and Organization.-Very good. The requirements of the Code have been carefully carried out. The boys are well mannered and attentive, and the instruction is well imparted.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 588 scholars.

Apparatus. Has been considerably increased during the past year, and is now all that can be required.

English.-A large proportion of the boys are boarders, and many are English- speaking, so that the usual difficulty experienced in getting the Chinese boys to speak English does not seem to occur, and special colloquial classes do not seem needed. In the lower Forms the boys read in a loud voice, but the pronunciation of the Chinese boys leaves much to be desired. Composition in the higher Forms is good, though Form VII was not so strong as last year. The essays might have

been neater.

Geography.-In Form II the old tendency was seen, of relying too much on definitions learned by heart, and the map of the Island was by no means well understood. The subject was very well taught in all the other lower Forms. The teaching in the upper Forms is very sound; and their map-drawing is ex- cellent.

History. Not nearly so strong a subject. To the higher Forms, I set paper which included questions set on the work done in previous years. as I see no use in studying the subject on the water-tight compartment principle. On the whole I obtained fair results: but general tendencies should rec ive more atten- tion. A question on, the philanthropic movement in the 18th and 19th centuries obtained no replies worth mentioning. Great ignorance was displayed also as to the date of acquisition of our Colonies. It is noteworthy that of 21 boys presented for the Oxford Local Examination, 100 per cent. passed in Geography and 44 per cent. in History.

Shorthand.-Form VII has made a very small beginning of the subject.

Book-keeping.-Fair. The explanation of current business terms was satis- factory. No boy succeeded in working out a correct balance-sheet. Assets and Liabilities should be summarized before entering them into the balance-sheet.

Arithmetic and Algebra.--Mental Arithmetic is being taught in all the lower Forms; but more attention might be paid to the subject, especially to fractions. Such a question as "What is the fifth part of 20" made boys hesitate even in Form V. In the upper Forms the Algebra was good throughout, but the Arith-

31-2 × 2.45 × 23.8 metic in Form V was weak. In a long decimal sum e.g.,

1.92 it is possible and advisable to guess an approximation of the answer (ie., to treat 31×2×24). If this had been done mentally, many inistakes in the position

it as

2

of the decimal point in the answer would have been avoided. In Forms VI and VII it was satisfactory to note that in working a long sum in multiplication of decimals the boys start with the integers, as this shows that they have grasped the principle of approximating. Graphs were not well done. The principle of graphs would be better understood, if the results of statistics and observations were graphed, and then the same principle were applied in the case of algebraic functions. It is difficult for boys to recognize that there is a connection between Geometry and Algebra, between lines and figures.

Euclid.-Forms VI and VII did fairly. Form V was distinctly weak, the failure being apparently due to the fact that Euclid's proofs have been studied without any preliminary knowledge of practical geometry. Even in Form VI and VII much more experimental work is advisable. Though most boys attempted Prop. i 47 none succeeded in making a square equal in area to the sum of 2 squares.

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:

542

Chinese.-In conformity with the suggestions of the Officer Administering the Government, Chinese is now taught daily to the Chinese boys in the lower Forms. But unfortunately the new method was not adopted till after the Summer term. Considering this, the progress made is satisfactory. I think it is a mistake to teach two volumes of the Reader at the same time to a Form. Nor do I see why the composition of simple sentences should not be begun in the first year.

(10).—Roman Catholic Mission-Cathedral School.

Discipline and Organization.-The organization is weak. The Headmaster should be personally acquainted with the work that is going on in the lower Stand- ards, and that all the more since one at least of the Chinese masters is by no means well qualified for his position.

The discipline of the School has considerably improved. But it is necessary to say that boys should address the Inspector as Sir'.

C

The requirements of the Code had not at the end of the School year been_ful- filled in one important particular, the proper teaching of the Chinese Written Lan- guage. Attention had previously been drawn to this weak point more than once.

Sanitation. Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 558 scholars.

Apparatus.—Insufficient. Reading-sheets in particular are needed.

English-Colloquial.-By the end of the School year some improvement was noticeable but the subject is very weak throughout the School. Reading.-Pro- nunciation is good; but the old fault of making boys read what has not been properly explained to them is perpetuated in the lower Standards. The "Christian Brothers" Reader is old-fashioned and unsuitable. Composition.-Very weak throughout the School.

Arithmetic.-Fair. The upper Standards fail to do easy problems, through their ignorance of English. They should be made to practise them more.

Geography.--My recommendation, that local Geography should be taught in the lower Standards, has been ignored. General Geography is well taught in the highest Standards.

(11).-Ellis Kadoorie School.

Discipline and Organization.-The School is well organized with good pro- vision for teaching the Chinese language. If however a minimum standard of pro- ficiency in Chinese were fixed for each class, it would obviate the inconvenience caused by some boys in each class having to study Chinese while the rest are doing other subjects. At my first visit this year I found that the time-table was not being strictly adhered to.

Sanitation.-Fairly satisfactory. Some of the rooms are dark.

Floor space.-Owing to the nature of the building, lack of fresh air is impossible.

English-Colloquial.-Sufficient attention is not being paid to colloquial, though a fair beginning has been made. Proper coloured sheets of pictures are almost a necessity, and should be provided: in the highest Class but two I could not get the boys to talk at all., Better results were obtained in the lower Classes.

The top Class talked well and fluently. Writing, Composition and Grammar.-Composition was fair in the top Class. In many instances good work was spoiled by careless- ness. In the lower Classes it was as good as could be expected from boys who do not practise talking English sufficiently.

Arithmetic.-A very strong subject: some time is wasted in examination by copying out the questions. Sufficient pains are not always taken to read through and understand the questions before answering them.

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543

Geography. The weakest subject. The Geography of the Island should be begun in Class VI. It is not begun till Class IV, where the master attempted to teach it without a map. The top Class did very badly, and seemed to take very little interest in the subject. They knew a good deal about the seat of war: but not a boy attempted to answer a simple question about railways in China.

Chinese.-Well taught, with satisfactory results.

(12).—Church Missionary Society-Fairlea.

Discipline and Organization.-Another year it will be necessary to prepare a syllabus for each class, as at present it is not very easy to discover what the dif- ferent degrees of attainment are. The drill is fair. Discipline might be better. I noticed several instances of copying.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 55 scholars.

Apparatus.-Reading-sheets, more local maps and more modern Readers are

needed.

English-Colloquial.-The upper girls speak nicely though somewhat inaudibly. The lowest Class were very weak in this respect. The teaching of colloquial in the two lowest Classes requires to be modernized. If the girls had been encouraged to talk more, very much better results might have been attained, as great pains have evidently been taken with their pronunciation, which is remarkably pure. Read- ing.-Good. Composition.--Very promising among the senior girls.

Arithmetic. Very weak. Advanced Arithmetic is not required; but it is necessary that the girls should be able to apply the rules they have learned to simple problems, such as might occur in every-day life.

History. The leading facts connected with the early civilisations have been studied in the highest Class, with very encouraging results. The subject has evidently been taught intelligently and skilfully.

Geography.-Commercial Geography has been studied to good purpose in Class I. In the lower Classes the map of Hongkong has not been made a vehicle for teaching English as it might have been.

Needlework.--Very good.

(13) —Roman Catholic Mission-St. Francis.

Discipline and Organization.-This School has not had a European Staff during the whole year, and is therefore only eligible to a grant under section 34 (i.) of the Code.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 184 scholars.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

Arithmetic.-Fair.

Reading. Pronunciation poor.

Writing -Fair.

Object Lessons.-Taught with some intelligence.

Needlework.-Good.

1

(14)-Church Missionary Society-St. Stephen's.

Discipline and Organization.-This is by far the largest of the Anglo-Chinese Schools under Chinese masters alone, and considered as such it is in a very credit- able condition. The conduct of the boys is good, and the standard of discipline a high one. That I have not been able to report the School as thoroughly efficient

:

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544

within the meaning of § 36 of the Code is due to some rather obvious weak points in the teaching of the lower Standards as remarked on below. It is not due to the failure of the higher Standards in History and Geography, because I do not think that Schools coming under § 34 (i.) can very well be expected to have a Staff capable of teaching these subjects to the higher Standards in the broad way in which alone they can be taught to any useful purpose.

Sanitation.— Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 233 scholars.

Apparatus.-The maps require renewal. Reading-sheets and local maps are badly needed.

English-Colloquial.-A great improvement has taken place in the methods of teaching. But there is still room for inuch more. No actual colloquial lessons appear in the time-table, and many orders such as "look at your books" are still be- ing given in Chinese to boys who have been studying English for 4 years and more. Lessons from reading-sheets in the lower Standards are much to be desired. Nevertheless Standard I were able to answer simple questions in English; and Standard V were quite willing to try and converse. Reading.-Great pains have been taken to correct the pronunciation. The pictures and subject matter are well understood. I was, however, surprised to find the time-honoured heresy per- petuated, of giving a reading lesson to-day and explaining what it was all about to- morrow. Composition was very fair in Standard V. Original composition does not seem to be sufficiently practised in the lower Standards. It should be attempted even in Standard I.

Chinese. Chinese Composition has been taught regularly throughout the year with satisfactory results: the senior boys have a useful knowledge of the written characters. Standard I was, however, very weak in its Reader. I cannot help thinking that it must have been neglected to give time for the memorisation of the classics. Translation from English to Chinese and vice versâ does no good to beginners, and should be dropped, and English Composition substituted therefor, as recommended above.

Geography.It is the more surprising that this subject should be begun in the old-fashioned manner, seeing that the headmaster has, during the current year, undertaken the task of translating the Geography lectures given at the Normal School into Chinese. It is typical of this style of teaching, which begins with the memorisation of Geography Definitions, that Standard III knew something about the South American Republics, but nothing about Chinese emigration to to the Transvaal. In the upper Standards the Geography of the world in outline and of the British Empire, had been taught with much pains.

History. A period of English History had been begun in the higher Stan- dards. But it had not been studied to any practical purpose.

Mathematics.-The Arithmetic is neatly and on the whole correctly done. Algebra has been taken, up to the removal of brackets. It is perhaps doubtful whether the subject is worth pursuing if it cannot be more fully studied. Pro- bably some thing of the elements of practical geometry would give more useful results.

(15).—Church Missionary Society-No. 37 Hollywood Road. Discipline and Organization.-Discipline and drill good. The requirements of the Code have not been fulfilled in several respects. The time-table is not strictly adhered to.

This school is reported as "inefficient."

Sanitation.-A very dark room.

Overcrowded at times.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 36 scholars.

Apparatus.-Wall pictures and maps are badly wanted.

English. The old-fashioned methods are still in force. The teacher does not talk enough English to the boys, nor make them reply. He relies upon transla- tions too much. The boys, however, read fairly, and seem to understand what they have read.

545

Geography.--Bad. "The world" is still taught in the old way. The local maps were quite misunderstood by the boys.

Arithmetic.-Good.

Chinese.---The requirements of the Code have been overlooked and none is

taught.

(16).-Church Missionary Society-West Point.

Discipline and Organization.-The requirements of the Code in the matter of roll-calling were at my last visit still not complied with. The boys obey orders smartly, and are well mannered.

Sanitation.—I have had to complain of the School not being kept clean. An improvement in this respect was noticeable on my last visit.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 66 scholars.

Apparatus.-More local maps and wall pictures are wanted.

English-Colloquial. The teacher has made a praiseworthy attempt to follow the new method with good results. But too much trust is placed on a hand-book of English and Chinese sentences. Pronunciation good on the whole.

Reading. The teacher does not make the general meaning of a new lesson sufficiently clear, before proceeding to explain it in detail. He does not question his boys enough.

Writing.-Good.

Chinese. This was not taught in Code hours as it should have been. Proper Readers should be adopted another year.

Geography. More attention should be paid to local Geography and plan- drawing.

Arithmetic. The boys work in exercise books quickly and neatly. They fail to answer very easy problems; and much more attention should be paid to this.

*

.

(17).-Berlin Foundling House.

Discipline and Organization.-The European teacher does not exercise supervision over the native teacher, which is a very serious shortcoming. The discipline is only fair. The girls are almost inaudible and do not stand up when addressed. My standing instructions on the general working of Schools do not appear to have been carefully studied. No syllabus has been yet submitted.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space.--Sufficient for 102 scholars.

Apparatus.-More maps are needed.

Chinese. The Readers have been taught very intelligently and are well understood. Romanized writing is very thoroughly taught. Chinese Composition is bad. Even in Standard VI the baldest colloquialisms are employed.

Geography. Physical Geography has been very well taught throughout the School by the European teacher, and really useful results have been attained. General Geography has been left to the Chinese teacher and has been taught with very little intelligence in the higher Standards. The map-drawing in Standard V was particularly bad. The local maps have been much better taught.

Arithmetic.-Well taught by the European teacher. But my recommendation to drop sums involving English money has been disregarded.

Needlework.-Not taken.

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546

(18). Church Missionary Society, "Fairlea."

Discipline and Organization.-Very good.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 136 scholars.

Apparatus. More local maps needed.

Chinese. Very fair, with the exception of a few girls in Standard IV. The new system has been adopted with great thoroughness.

Geography.-Very good, though a more elaborate syllabus might be worked through next year.

F

Arithmetic. The rules are very well taught, but the girls have little idea of applying them.

Needlework.Good.

Muscial Drill-Singing.-Have been taught with great success.

(19). Church Missionary Society-Victoria Home and Orph- anage, Kowloon.

Discipline and Organization.-As there has been regular European instruction in sewing and physical drill, this School becomes qualified for a grant under section 35 (ii) of the Code. The discipline is very good; but insufficient attention has been paid to the requirements of the Code in the matter of keeping particulars of

routine.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor space. -Sufficient for 145 scholars.

Apparatus. More local maps needed. Otherwise satisfactory.

Chinese. Very good, both in Reading and Composition.

Geography. Not very intelligently taught, and the requirements of my Circular on the subject have not received sufficient attention.

Arithmetic. Very good, especially in the solving of problems.

Musical Drill.-Considering that this subject has been taught only since the adoption of the new Code, and considering the reluctance of Chinese girls to take part in such exercises, a very promising beginning has been made.

Needlework.-Not taken.

(20) -London Missionary Society-Training Home for Girls. Discipline and Organization.-Very good, except that the girls will not speak out loud, nor the Chinese teachers either. This, I am told, is because Standards IV, VI and VII have to use a common class room. Before the School can again qualify for the maximum grant, these defects will have to be remedied. Other- wise this School is very well organized. Much care has been taken in preparing suitable courses of instruction. The girls are very well mannered. I note that they have been taken to see the museum, and, generally speaking, a great deal has been done to awaken their intelligence.

Apparatus.Satisfactory.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 56 scholars.

Chinese.-Good, especially in the upper Standards.

Geography.-Physical, very good; Political, very good. Map-drawing excel- lent. It is a pity the girls are not taught to use paints.

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547

History. A praiseworthy attempt has been made to master the very great difficulties met in teaching this subject to Chinese in the Vernacular.

Mental

Drawing.-Free hand drawing has been begun with encouraging results. Arithmetic.-Very good; the work is done quickly and correctly. Arithmetic is also well done. The figures in the lower Standards might be improved.

Needlework. Very good.

(21).-Roman Catholic Mission-Italian Convent.

Discipline and Organization.-Good, with the serious exception that the teachers have not sufficiently impressed the need of honesty during examination on the girls. Had it not been for this, I should have recommended the maximum grant.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 127 scholars.

Chinese. Very good.

Geography-Excellent.

Arithmetic.Good.

Needlework. Very good.

(22).-Roman Catholic Mission, Bridges Street.

Discipline and Organization.-Very good.

Sanitation. The School was seriously overcrowded at times.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 51 scholars.

Apparatus. Satisfactory.

Chinese. Very good.

Arithmetic.-Very good.

Geography.-Fair.

Needlework.—Very good.

(23).-Roman Catholic Mission-Sacred Heart.

Discipline and Organization.-Very good.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 78 scholars.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

Chinese. Very good.

Geography. Very good.

Arithmetic.-Very good.

Needlework.-Fair.

(24).-Roman Catholic Mission-Holy Infancy.

Discipline and Organization.- Poor.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 92 scholars.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

Chinese.-Fair.

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548

i

Geography.-Poor. Arithmetic.-Fair.

Needlework. Very good.

(25).—Roman Catholic Mission, Hunghom. Discipline and Organization.—Poor.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 72 scholars.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

Chinese.-Fair. Standard I bad.

Geography.-Good.

Arithmetic.-Poor.

Needlework.-Good.

(26).-Roman Catholic Mission, Yaumati.

Discipline and Organization.-Poor.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 81 scholars.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

Chinese.--Fair.

Arithmetic.-Good.

Geography.-Fair.

(27).—Roman Catholic Mission, Shaukiwan.

Discipline and Organization.-Good. The expression passes uncor- rected by the teacher.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 118 scholars

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

Chinese. Very good.

Arithmetic.-Good.

Geography.-Very good.

Needlework.—Very good.

(28).—Roman Catholic Mission-Aberdeen School.

Discipline and Organization.-Good.

Sanitation.—The School though clean is dark. It is not well situated.

space.-Sufficient for 38 scholars.

Floor space.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

Chinese.-Very good.

Arithmetic.-Very good.

Geography.-Very good.

Needlework.-Not taken.

(29).-London Missionary Society, Second Street.

Discipline and Organization:-Very good.

Sanitation.-The School building is satisfactory, considering the class of

School: but it was very often overcrowded to a serious extent.

Apparatus.--Satisfactory.

רי

549

Floor space.-Sufficient for 74 scholars.

Chinese. Very good. The reader does not seem very suitable. Arithmetic. Very weak.

.

Geography.-Weak, though the seat of the war was well known. The expression passes uncorrected by the teacher.

History.-The Reader is quite unsuitable.

(30).—London Missionary Society, Square Street. Discipline and Organization.-Fair. Girls quite inaudible at times. Sanitation. Satisfactory. Overcrowding at times.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 39 scholars.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

Chinese.-Fair. Writing very poor in Standard I. Explanation weak. Arithmetic. Good in Standard III, but weak in lower Standards. Geography.-Very poor; not even the flags of countries known. Needlework.-Not taken.

(31).—London Missionary Society, Shek-tong-tsui. Discipline and Organization.-Weak.

Sanitation.-The School-room is sometimes untidy. Floor space.-Sufficient for 40 scholars.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

Chinese.-Writing including Composition weak throughout. The scholars have been pushed on too fast with their Reader.

Arithmetic.-Figures are badly formed. There was a remarkable inequality in the work done by boys of the same Standard. As a whole the subject was weak.

Geography. The local maps and the flags of countries well known.

(32).-London Missionary Society, Shek-tong-tsui.

Discipline and Organization.-Very weak, though some improvement was noticeable towards the end of the School year. The girls must be taught to stand up when addressed, and reply audibly and without giggling. The teacher seems

to find it difficult to maintain order.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 44 scholars.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

Chinese.-Fair. Some girls in Standard I had not Readers.

Arithmetic.-Tables well known in lower Standards. But Standard IV broke down completely over subtraction and multiplication sums.

Geography.-The map of Hongkong was not at all well understood by Stand-

ard 11.

Needlework.-Fair.

(33).-London Missionary Society, Queen's Road, East.

Discipline and Organization.-A very well managed School. The syllabus drawn up in each subject gives evidence of much thought and hard work. Drill very good. Girls must speak louder.

Sanitation.-The School is badly situated, being opposite a boiler factory. It should be moved to a less noisy quarter.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 51 scholars.

I

:

:

Apparatus. Very satisfactory.

Chinese.-Very good.

550

Arithmetic. Very good, both mental and paper work.

Geography.-Good.

Needlework.- Good.

(34).-London Missionary Society, Yaumati.

Discipline and Organization.-- Discipline is somewhat lax, in spite of the fact that European drill is taught. Copying from each other was too frequent during examination.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 51 scholars.

Apparatus. Satisfactory.

Arithmetic. Very good. Figures badly formed in the lower Standards. Geography.-Fair; well taught in the upper Standards.

(35).-London Missionary Society, D'Aguilar Street. Discipline and Organization.-Shewed much improvement towards the end of the year.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 43 scholars. Chinese. Very bad, but improving.

Arithmetic. Very bad, but improving. Geography.-Very bad.

Needlework.-Fair.

(36).—London Missionary Society-Wantsai Chapel.

Discipline and Organization.-Were very bad, but have latterly shewed some improvement.

year.

Sanitation.—Sufficient attention is not paid to cleanliness.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 96 scholars.

Apparatus.-The necessary Readers were not provided until late in the School

Chinese. Very good.

-

Arithmetic. -Poor.

Geography.-Bad.

(37).-London Missionary Society-Hospital Chapel.

Discipline and Organization.-Fair and improving.

Sanitation.-The room is very dark, and occasionally overcrowded.

stop the teaching of an overflow class in the basement.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 71 scholars.

Apparatus. Satisfactory.

Chinese.-Good,

Arithmetic.-Poor.

Geography.-Good.

I had to

:

=

- 551

(38).-London Missionary Society, Yaumati. Discipline and Organization.—Poor. Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space.--Sufficient for 37 scholars.

Apparatus. Satisfactory.

Chinese.-Fair.

Arithmetic.-Good.

Geography.- Fair.

Needlework.-Not taken.

(39).—London Missionary Society, Hunghom.

Discipline and Organization.-The routine books are well kept. The drill is poor. General intelligence was not of a high order.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 50 scholars. Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

Chinese.-Good.

Geography.-Poor. Plans of School-room fair. Arithmetic.--Poor.

(40).-London Missionary Society, Queen's Road West. Discipline and Organization.-An irregularity detected in the keeping of the roll alone prevents me from classing this School as thoroughly efficient.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 40 scholars.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

Chinese. Very good..

Arithmetic.-Very good.

(41).-London Missionary Society, Shaukiwan.

Discipline and Organization.-A grave irregularity was discovered in the attendance roll, and a deduction of 5 per cent. was made in consequence. This has also been considered when making recommendations as to the amount of the grant: except for this, the discipline and organization were good.

Sanitation.-The School-room is badly situated and very hard to keep clean. Floor space.-Sufficient for 40 scholars.

Apparatus. Satisfactory.

Chinese. Very good in lower Standards. Poor in Standard IV.

Geography.-Good. General intelligence high.

Arithmetic.-Very good, especially mental Arithmetic in lower Standards.

(42).-London Mission-Tung-lung-chau, No. 1.

Discipline and Organization.-This School is kept very clean. There is some- times a bad smell coming from the ground floor. Slightly overcrowded at times.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 65 scholars.

Apparatus.----Satisfactory.

Chinese. Very good, except Standard IV in which Composition is poor. Geography.Good. A high standard of intelligence.

Arithmetic.-Very good.

-

552

(43).-London Mission-Tung-lung-chau, No. 2.

Sanitation. Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 80 scholars.

With an average attendance of less than 5, this School is obviously unnecessary within the meaning of the Code, section 24, and I therefore have to report that it is inefficient under section 29 (i).

(44).-London Missionary Society, Aberdeen Street.

Discipline and Organization.-Very satisfactory. The girls are well discipli- ned and have good manners.

Sanitation. The School is kept very.clean.. The room is rather dark. Floor space.-Sufficient for 59 scholars.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

Chinese. The amount got through in the year is too little. There was a tendency to learn the Readers by heart. Standards, but was poor in Standard IV.

Geography.-Fair.

Writing was well begun in the lower

Arithmetic. The lower Standards did very well. Not nearly enough atten- tion paid to Problems in Standard IV.

Needlework.Good.

(45).-London Mission-Tang-lung-chau. Discipline and Organization.—Good.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space.

Sufficient for 45 scholars.

Apparatus.-Two good blackboards are needed.

Chinese.-Not enough read in Standard III, and that little not well taught.

Results in lower Standards somewhat better.

Writing bad.

Geography.-Taught very unintelligently.

Arithmetic.Good.

Needlework.Good.

(46).—London Mission, Wantsai Chapel.

Discipline and Organization.-This School has suffered during the year from causes which lay outside the teacher's power of remedy.

the discipline and organization were good.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory..

Floor space.-Sufficient for 81 scholars.

Apparatus. Another blackboard required.

Under the circumstances

Chinese.-Poor. Not enough done. Standard I have not been taught suffi-

ciently to understand what they write.

Geography. Not taught very intelligently.

Arithmetic.-Fair.

Needlework.-Bad.

(47).- American Board Mission, Bridges Street.

Discipline and Organization.-Good.

Sanitation. The building is a good one, but has been seriously overcrowded.

Floor space-Sufficient for 79 scholars.

Apparatus.--More maps wanted.

Arithmetic.--Fair.

Reading and Explanation.-Good. Composition.--Poor.

"

553

(48).—Basel Mission, Sham-shui-po.

Discipline and Organization.-As boys and girls are admitted to this School and taught in separate rooms, a second teacher is a necessity. Discipline is weak.

Sanitation.-Not altogether satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 146 scholars.

Apparatus. Another blackboard and more local maps are needed. Chinese. Not enough has been done to represent a year's work. Geography. Satisfactory; except as regards plan-drawing. Arithmetic.-Fair. Mental Arithmetic should be more practised. Needlework.-Not taken.

(49).-Basel Mission, Shaukiwan.

Discipline and Organization.-Satisfactory. A creditable attempt has been made to teach the boys European drill.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 87 scholars.

Apparatus.-More maps required.

Chinese.-More should have been read in the year.

Geography. The teacher evidently does not understand clearly how this sub- ject should be taught.

Arithmetic.-Satisfactory, considering the class of boys.

(50).-Basel Mission, To-kwa-wan.

Discipline and Organization.-Shewed considerable improvement by the end of the year.

Apparatus.-More local maps needed.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 127 scholars. Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Chinese.-Fair.

Geography. Good. It was a pleasure to find that places which were known on the School map were identified in the view which the school commands.

Arithmetic.-Fair. More might have been done.

›ì).—Basel Mission, West Point.

Discipline and Organization.-Discipline bad. Copying at examination very prevalent. The requirements of the Code have been neglected in many instances. Sanitation.-The School is not kept sufficiently clean, and the manners of the girls lack refinement.

Floor space.--Sufficient for 167 scholars.

Apparatus. More maps required; the blackboards want mending.

Chinese.—All the Standards have been reading the 2nd Reader, so that it is not possible to judge the progress made in the higher Standards. The work of Standards I and II was fair.

Geography. The subject is not taught with a view to local requirements. Arithmetic.-Good in upper Standards.

Needlework.-Not taken.

554

(52).---Church Missionary Society, To-kwa-wan.

Discipline and Organization.-It seems very doubtful if the numbers in this School justifiy its retention on the Annual Grant List, and it is necessary to report it as inefficient." The requirements of the Code have not been carried out in several important particulars.

77

Sanitation.--Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 66 scholars.

Apparatus.--There are no maps. .

Chinese.--Bad. Three children out of five examined seemed to have learned next to nothing.

Arithmetic.--Bad.

Needlework.--Not taught.

(53).—Church Missionary Society, No. 218 Hollywood Road

Discipline and Organization.-The requirements of the Code in respect of the keeping of a log-book have not been fulfilled in spite of repeated reminders.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 66 scholars.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

Chinese.--Standard III have very little idea of the meaning of what they read. Composition in Standard IV very good.

Geography. A good beginning has been made.

Arithmetic.-Backward in lower Standards as compared with most other

Schools.

(54). — Church Missionary Society, Hunghom.

Discipline and Organization.-Fair. The time-table is not always strictly adhered to, and the teacher should be ready for a visit from the Inspector of Schools at any time within. Code hours.

Sanitation. Satisfactory, but somewhat overcrowded at times. Floor space.-Sufficient for 40 scholars.

Apparatus.-Local maps needed.

Chinese. Fair.

Geography. Not well taught. Plans of School-room well done. Arithmetic.-Bad.

Needlework.Not taken.

(55).—Church Missionary Society, Lyndhurst Terrace.

Discipline and Organization.-Fair and improving.

Sanitation.-Good, except for serious overcrowding at times.

·Floor space. Sufficient for 39 scholars.

Apparatus.-Good.

Chinese.-Fair.

Geography.-Fair in lower Standards.

Standard IV poor.

Arithmetic.- Lower Standards good. Standard IV fair.

Needlework.-Good.

#

*

555

(56).—Church Missionary Society, Hollywood Road.

Discipline and Organization.-Bad. My criticisms have not received suffi- cient attention, Girls should stand when addressed. The teacher should not en- tertain visitors during School hours. The roll is not properly kept.

Sanitation.-Fair.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 32 scholars.

Apparatus. Another blackboard and more maps are required. All the children should have Readers.

Chinese.-Fair. But in Standard III the explanation of what is read does not accompany, but lags behind, the reading.

Arithmetic.-Bad. Standard III does not know the multiplication table. Needlework.-Fair.

(57).—Church Missionary Society, Saiyingpun, Praya.

Discipline and Organization --Poor. The requirements of the Code have been neglected in many instances. The teacher does not seem keen about her work. All the scholars except three or four are in the two lowest Standards.

Apparatus.-More local maps are needed, many of the scholars were not pro- vided with Readers.

Sanitation.Good.

Floor space-Sufficient for 49 scholars.

Chinese.-Poor.. A good Composition was done in Standard IV.

Geography.-Poor.

Arithmetic.-Fair.

Needlework.-Bad.

(58).-Church Missionary Society, Yaumati.

Discipline and Organization. -The Manager has not entered his visits in the log-book as required by the Code. The boys are smart and well mannered. Sanitation.--Very satisfactory, except for overcrowding at times. Floor space.- -Sufficient for 59 scholars.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory. Local maps are needed.

Chinese.--Very good..

Geography.--Bad. The old-fashioned plan of teaching was followed for the greater part of the year.

Arithmetic.--Very good. Standard IV has been taught the beginning of practical mensuration and shews much intelligence.

(59).-Church Missionary Society, Yaumati.

Discipline and Organization.--The School has been closed several times, and the staff changed, without notification. Drill good, and girls well mannered.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor

space. -Sufficient for 64 scholars. Apparatus.-Local maps are needed.

Chinese-Not enough has been done in the year, but the method of teaching

is good.

Geography.-Not taught intelligently, but plans of School-room were well

dra wn.

Arithmetic. -Very good. Needlework.Not taken.

556

(60) Church Missionary Society, No. 232 Hollywood Road.

Discipline and Organization.-Discipline very good.

Sanitation.Good.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 62 scholars.

Apparatus.-Good. There are plenty of coloured pictures, which give the room a cheerful appearance.

;

Chinese.-Good.

Geography.Good. Considerable general intelligence shewn.

Arithmetic.-Bad. The multiplication table not all well known in Standard III. This is partly accounted for by the fact that the subject was not taught last year.

Needlework.-Fair.

(61).—Church Missionary Society, Pokfulam Road.

Discipline and Organization.-Fair. Sanitation.Good. A noisy neighbourhood.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 39 scholars.

Apparatus.-More local maps are needed.

Chinese.-Chinese Composition well taught. But not much intelligence shewn by Standard II as to the meaning of their Reader.

Geography.-Shewed a considerable improvement, but not satisfactory.

Arithmetic.- Fair. Mental Arithmetic weak. Standard II should know more of the multiplication table.

Needlework.Good.

(62).—Church Missionary Society, Shaukiwan.

Discipline and Organization.-Good on the whole. The girls are remarkable for speaking audibly.

Sanitation.-lhe School is kept fairly clean; but the same can hardly be said of the scholars, and certainly not of their books.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 41 scholars.

Apparatus. More maps required.

Chinese.-Considerable improvement shewn towards the end of the year : Standard IV should practise letter-writing.

Geography.-Poor.

Arithemetic.-Very weak in Standard IV.

Needlework.-Fair.

(63).-Church Missionary Society, Stanley.

The log-

Discipline and Organization.A great improvement on last year. book was, however, not forthcoming. The School should do well next year.

Sanitation. Satisfactory.

Floor space. Sufficient for 89 scholars. Apparatus.-Local maps needed.

Chinese.-Explanation poor, but teacher has evidently taken pains. Writing fair. Geography.This subject cannot be taught unless the teacher is supplied

with maps.

Arithmetic.-Good in Standard II. But the teacher of Standard I appears to have taught simple addition incorrectly. It would be well if the Headmistress exercised more supervision in this direction.

Needlework.-Not taken.

-

557

(64).-Rhenish Mission, West Point.

Discipline and Organization.-Greatly improved towards the close of the

Boys well mannered and intelligent. Log-book and roll well kept.

Sanitation.-Good. But the School was overcrowded at times.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 62 scholars.

Apparatus.-Fair, more maps wanted.

year.

Chinese.-Explanation and Reading very good. Composition fair. Geography.-Very good. Standard IV shoved an intelligent knowledge of the duties of the chief officials of the Colony, and of local Geography.

Arithmetic.-Good in lower Standards.

Bad in Standard IV.

clean.

(65).-Wesleyan Mission, Hollywood Road.

Discipline and Organization.-Poor.

:

Sanitation. Not satisfactory. The School was crowded and not kept very

Floor space.-Sufficient for 23 scholars.

Apparatus. Satisfactory.

Chinese.-Fair.

Geography.-Poor.

Arithmetic.-Fair.

(66).—Wesleyan Mission, No. 9 Stanley Street.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 25 scholars.

This School was opened in April, it was a failure, and at my suggestion and with the consent of the Manager it was closed on November 15th.

(67).-Wesleyan Mission, Queen's Road, East.

Discipline and Organization.-The School shewed considerable improvement late in the year and should do better next year. The boys are smart and well mannered. More attention should be paid to the instructions of the Inspector.

Sanitation.-Fair. The building is not very suitable for a School. Floor space.--Sufficient for 32 scholars.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

Chinese.--Readers well known. Composition poor.

Geography.-Intelligently taught.

Arithmetic.-A weak subject.

(68).-Wesleyan Mission, Elgin Street.

Discipline and Organization.-Not satisfactory. The books and registers re- quired by the Code were not properly kept. The girls often do not stand up when spoken to. Discipline generally speaking was lax. Cribbing was common.

Sanitation.-Good. Occasional overcrowding.

*

;

2

..

-

:

558

Floor space.-Sufficient for 42 scholars.

Apparatus. More maps required.

Chinese. Not enough done and that badly taught.

Geography. Poor.

Arithmetic.-Backward.

Needlework.-Very good.

(69).-Wesleyan Mission, Hollywood Road.

Discipline and Organization.-Discipline poor. The girls giggle more than is necessary and copying is too frequent. The roll is not kept regularly.

Sanitation.-The School is airy, bright and clean.

Floor space.-Sufficient for 55 scholars.

Apparatus. More maps wanted.

Chinese.-Composition in Standard IV fair. Readers well understood and

known.

Geography.-Fair in lower Standards. Bad in Standard IV, where the Geo- graphy of China seems to have been taught without any intelligence.

Arithmetic.-Good.

Needlework.Good.

*

DESCRIPTION

Appendix E.

ANNUAL GRANT LIST, 190

SCHOOL STATISTICS

Number of

No.

Name and Nature.

Mission.

Standards, Classes or Forms.

Number of Maximum

School Monthly

Principa

Average

Rate.

Attendance.!

Days. Enrolment.

£

S.

6729) CTIA CO N-

8

2

3

St. Joseph's College, (B.) Italian Convent, (G.)

French Convent, (G.)

*

Victoria English School, (M.)

Bridges Street, (G.) *

Sacred Heart, (G.) *

Diocesan School, (G.)

*

Diocesan School, (B.) * * St. Mary's, (G.) †

ENGLISH SCHOOLS

Upper Grade (Code Sec. 34 ii.)

Non-Chinese.

R. C. M.

">

""

*

""

39

99

C. M. S.

776 00 00 N

214

288

201

235

215

68

4

219

38

26.7

30-

247.

30,- 370 10 187.54

281 6 46.77 25/- 58 9

40

246

35

22.26

33 7

3

2031

33

27.02

40 10

"

7

189

54

44.53

66 15 1

7

242

221

188.

282 0

""

R. C. M.

59.61

972

849.43

10

Cathedral School, (B.)

**

11

12

Ellis Kadoorie School, (B.) Fairlea, (G.)

*

R. C. M. Secular.

*

*

C. M. S.

13

St. Francis,

14

15

16

456

*

St. Stephen's Anglo Chinese, (B.) * *

* *

*

*

Hollywood Road, (B.) West Point, (B.)

Berlin Foundling House, (G.)

17

18

Fairlea, (G.) *

**

19

Victoria Home & Orphange, (G.)

20 Training Home for Girls, (G.) **

663

Chinese.

224

199

143.14

25-

240

308

185.85

30/-

2011

28

22.17

"}

535

351.16

Lower Grade (Code Sec. 34 i.)

Non-Chinese.

R. C. M.

2034

25

14.63 $6

25

14.63

C. M. S.

22

77

Chinese.

00 00 01

1745

241

171.1

$7

184

42

3

1671

59

29.94 48.97

756

342

250.01

178186 278156 33 52

VERNACULAR

SCHOOL:

Upper Grade (Code Sec. 35 ii.)

* *

B. F. H.

C. M. S.

L. M. S.

0345

6

269

40

34.37 15/- 25 16

215

43

34.32

17,6 30 9

227

51

42.53

37

3

212

40

36.72

20'-

36 1443

174

147.94

ф путала

And An

Appendix E.

NNUAL GRANT LIST, 1904.

SCHOOL STATISTICS

GRANT

Grant in

Principal Grant.

aid of

Total

REMARKS.

Tumber of

Number of Maximum

Standards, Classes

or Forms.

School Days.

Monthly Enrolment.

Average Attendance.

Rate.

£

S. d.

ENGLISH

SCHOOLS

Upper Grade (Code Sec. 34 ii.)

Non-Chinese.

$

Rent.

$

7764KND

214

288

247.

201

235

187.54

30- 370 10

281

""

215

68

46.77

25/-

58

219

38

26.7

30

40

0690

0

4,136

4,136

2

3,140

3,140

"Thoroughly efficient."

653

653

447

240

687

3

246

35

22.26

33

9

373

373

3

2031

33

27.02

40 10 7

452

452

"

189

54

44.53

66 15 10

745

320

1,065

""

242

221

188.

282 0 0

3,076

3,076

64

"Thoroughly efficient.”

59.61

972

849.43

13,582

063

A

Chinese.

224

199

240

308

2013

28

143.14 25|- 185.85 30/-

22.17

178 186

1,997

1,997

278156

3,112

3,112

33 52

363

363

"}

535

351.16

5,472

Lower Grade (Code Sec. 34 i.)

Non-Chinese.

203

25

14.63

25

14.63

$6

Chinese.

10 30 00

5

1744

241

171.1

184

42

29.94

3

1673

59

48.97

342

250.01

756

88

88

88

1,197

1,197

150

208

358

"Inefficient."

294

160

454

2,009

ERNACULAR SCHOOLS

Upper Grade (Code Sec. 35 ii.)

269

215

40 43

34.37. 15/- 34.32

25

15

281

281

17,6 30 9

332

332

227 212

51

42.53

37

4

406

406

""

40

36.72 20/-

36

14 4

401

401

"Thoroughly efficient."

174

147.94

1,420

17

18

19

20

Berlin Foundling House, (G.)

Fairlea, (G.)

*

*

Victoria Home & Orphange, (G.) Training Home for Girls, (G.)

VERNACULAR SCHOU

Upper Grade (Code Sec. 35 ii.)

*

*

B. F. H.

6

269

40

34.37

15/- 25

1

C. M. S.

3

215

43

34.32

17/6

30

**

4

227

51

42.53

37

**

L. M. S.

7

212

40

36.72

20/-

361

174

147.94

Lower Grade (Code Sec. 35 i.)

21

Italian Convent, (G.)

*

R. C. M.

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

Aberdeen, (M.)

Bridges Street, (G.) Sacred Heart, (G.) Holy Infancy, (M.) * Hunghom, (G.) *

Yaumati, (G.) Shaukiwan, (G.)

**

*

,,

""

""

*

10 00 00 1 CO CT

5

275

76

65.51 $7

246

65

43.19

3

253

58

32.94

4

255

67

54.91

3

268

69

51.23

271

61

37 51

2

259

51

23.12

,,

2

272

52

39.34

29

30

Second Street, (B.) Square Street, (G.)

L. M. S.

4

206

86

62.79

*

227

46

26.34

,,

31.

32

33

34

35

Shektongtsui, (B.)

Do. (G.)

*

Queen's Road East, (G.) Yaumati, (B.)

D'Aguilar Street, (G.)

241

33

22.91

"3

221

35

15.06

"

217

55

41.76

*

200

35

34.65

*

4

230

31

25.47

36

Wantsai Chapel, (B.)

**

234

79

55 24

101-10 CO

6

""

37

Hospital Chapel, (B.)

*

220

75

63.81

""

"

38

Yaumati, (G.)

39

40

41

42

*

Hunghom, (B.) *

**

Queen's Road West, (B.)

Shaukiwan, (B.) * *

Tanglungchau, No. 1 (B.)

220

35

23.57

""

77

2055

18

11.80

226

61

41.34

214

61

43.56

*

*

2341

67

49.27

43

Do.

No. 2 (B.)

**

*

1

219

9

4.45

44

Aberdeen Street, (G.)

*

4

215

52

32.24

45

Tanglungchau, (G.) *

*

213

39

25.9

46

Wautsai Chapel, (G.)

*

*

218

36

26.

*

47

Bridges Street, (B.)

*

A. B. M.

222

111

77.59

48

Shamshuipo, (B.)

*

*

B. M.

3

233

GO

50.74

49

Shaukiwan, (B.)

* *

226

54

36.42.

""

50

Tokwawan, (B.)

* *

205

43

30.50

""

51

High Street, West Point, (G.)

*

*

240

65

41.34

52

Tokwawan, (G.)

*

C. M. S.

228

13

5.06

53

Hollywood Road, (B.) *

247

58

34.08

""

54

Hunghom, (G.) * *

3

224

45

23.80

55

Lyndhurst Terrace, (G.)

4

233

53

35.89

99

56

Hollywood Road, (G.)

"

57

Saiyingpun, Praya, (G.) * *

58

Yaumati, (B.) * *

59

Do. (G.) * *

""

60

61

Pokfulam Road, (G.)

62

63

64

West Point, (B.)

65

Hollywood Road, (G.)

Shaukiwan, (G.)

Stanley, (M.)

*

* *

* *

Hollywood Road, (B.) *

*

">

* *

""

""

R. M. S. W. M.

66

Stanley Street, (B.)

* *

67

Queen's Road East, (B.)

*

""

68

Elgin Street, (G.) *`*

""

69

Hollywood Road, (G.) * *

FOTOFFWANA 00 05 00 IA 1A 001

260

39

25.86

252

31

20.29

206

69

48.16

218

43

25.60

FIO CO 10 CO 10

21-6

233

62

39.34

251

31

16.35

258

37

27.61

2405

51

26.05

2283

72

46.47

239

30

24.09

167

14

8.64

240

31

27.13

5

228

48

31.24

227

56

38.52

*10 10 10

39

2,468

1,691.93

4,516

3,305.15

Note.-R. C. M. = Roman Catholic Mission.

C. M. S.

B. F. H.

L. M. S.

A. B. M. B. M. R. M. S.

W. M.

=

Church Missionary Society. Berlin Foundling House.

London Missionary Society. American Board Mission.

= Basel Mission.

=

Rhenish Missionary Society. = Wesleyan Mission.

**

Boys.

B. = G. = Girls.

M.

*

Mixed.

= School year ends 30,6,0

"

>>

31/127

""

30/6/0

ERNACULAR

SCHOOLS

Upper Grade (Code Sec. 35 ii.)

6347

269

40

34.37. 15/-

25 15

215

43

34.32

17/6

30 9

हीम

281

281

332

332

1

227

51

42.53

37

406

406

212

40

36.72 20/-

36 14

401

.401

"Thoroughly efficient."

174

147.94

1,420

Lower Grade (Code Sec. 35 i.)

DICO AIAIA 10 10 00 00 JA WA OR

5

275

76

65.51

$7

459

459

"Thoroughly efficient."

4

246

65

43.19

302

302

Do.

253

58

32.94

231

231

Do.

255

67

54.91

329

329

264

69

51.23

307

271

61

37 51

259

51

23.12

272

52

39.34

206

86

62.79

227

46

26.34

**NOTO

307

225

225

162

162

236

44

280

440

80

520

158

124

282

241

33

22.91

137

108

245

221

35

15.06

90

112

202

217

55

41.76

376

88

464

"Thoroughly efficient."

200

35

34.65

243

55

298

4

230

31

25.47

5

127

136

263

4

234

79

5524

6

315

315

4

220

75

60.81

365

365

3

220

35

23.57

141

29

170

3

2053

18

11.80

71

ā

226

61

41.34

4

214

61

43.56

4

234

67

49.27

1

219

9

4.15

6

30 19 On do do do d0 00 00 12

4

215

52

32.24

*ION 100

71

289-

111

400

248

49

297

345

345

22

22

"Inefficient."

193

142

335

3

213

39

25.9

155

155

"

218

36

26.

3

222

111

77.59

3

233

60

50.74

"

3

226

54

36.42.

3

2054

43

30.50

240

65

41.34

228

13

5.06

247

58

34.08

224

45

23.80

4

233

53

35.89

3

260

39

25.86

AFRA PROC1O 1O 1O

156 466

156

466

304

304

217

217

183.

183

248

248

25

25

"Inefficient.”

205

244

449

119

119

215

164

379

129

148

277

4

252

31

20.29

101

128

229.

206

69

48.16

-

337

337

218

43

25.60

154

154

5

3302142 — 10 10 TH

233

62

39.34

236

236

251

31

16.35

98

112-

210

2581

37

27.61

166

166

2405

51

26.05

130

130

2283

72

46.47

$25

194

519

239

30

24.09

120

128

248

1

167

14

8.64

27

103

130

"Inefficient."

5

240

31

27.13

228

48

31.24

227

56

38.52

230106

165

128

293

156

160

316

231

251

482

2,468

1,691.93

13,317

4,516

3,305.15

32,122

3,766

35,888

B. = Boys.

G.

=

Girls.

*

M.

*

Mixed.

School year ends 30,6,04. Grants (when in sterling) paid at the rate of 1s. 91⁄2d.

*

""

t

>>

"

17

31/12/04. 30/6/05.

""

وو

of 1s. 10d.

Number of Scholars (Average Attendance).

3,100

3,000

2,900

2,800

2,700.

2,600

2,500

2,400

2,300

2,200

Appendix F.

CHART.

1895.

1896. 1897. 1898.

1899. 1900. 1901. 1902. 1903. 1904.

2906

2540

2,100

.2,000

1,900

2064

1,800

1,700

1,600

1,500

1,400

1,300

1,200

1,100

1,000

900

800

700

600

500

Red Line

Black Line

Dotted Red Line

Government and Aided Schools, English (with Queen's College).

-Government and Aided Schools, Vernacular.

Private Schools, English.

Dotted Black Line

Private Schools, Vernacular.

3

980

HONGKONG.

No. 34

ABSTRACT SHEWING DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE ESTIMATES OF EXPENDITURE FOR 1905 AND 1906.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

1905

INCREASE.

DECREASE.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS :—

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS :--

New Posts,..............

$

63,663

Abolition of Posts,

32,964

Stipulated Increments,

17,479

Reduction on New Appointments,

7,859

Increase of Salary,

11,881

Exchange Compensation,

7,940

Increase due to posts being placed in the

Allowances,

5,125

Grading Scheme (including stipulated

Other Items,

2,332

increments),

·

6,805

Other Charges,

108,004

Exchange Compensation,

5,057

Special Expenditure, Post Office,

15,000

New Appointment on Sterling Salary,

360

Miscellaneous Services,.

19,916

Posts formerly paid for out of Other

Military Contribution,

43

Charges,.

576

Allowances,

4,045

Other Items,

4,254

Other Charges,

160,550

Specal Expenditure, Harbour Master's De-

partment,

15,400

Pensions,

15,676

Public Works, Recurrent,.

28,700

Total Increase,

$ 334,446

Total Decrease exclusive of P. W. Extra-

ordinary.....

Public Works, Extraordinary,

Deduct Increase,

TOTAL DECREASE inclusive of P. W.

Extraordinary,

$ 199,183 253,500

$ 452,683 334,446

118,237

:

3

HONGKONG.

No. 33

MEMORANDUM ON THE ESTIMATES OF EXPENDITURE FOR 1906.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor,

1905

Note.-18. 8d., as for 1905, has been taken throughout these Estimates as the rate of conversion for sterling salaries, and as the basis for payment of exchange compensation.

REGISTRAR GENERAL'S DEPARTMENT.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Extra Chinese Writer (Temporary:)—The holder of this temporary appoint- ment is Mr. LAU TSZ PENG who was originally engaged as Expert in New Territory Land Cases. After the closing of the Land Court he was employed in this Office on $75 a month, the equivalent of his former salary, as an understudy to Mr. Au, the First Chinese Writer, who contemplates retirement some time next year. As the date of the latter's resignation has not been definitely fixed, salaries for these two posts are provided for the whole.

year.

Interpretation Sub-Department.—All the Interpreters who have passed the prescribed examination have been placed in the Grading Scheme as from 1st January, 1906, it being the intention gradually to bring all the posts in the Inter- pretation Sub-Department into this scheme. There are at present thirteen 3rd Class and two 2nd Class Interpreters who have so qualified, and the increase involved in 1996 by these changes is $1,737.

Translator.-The salary for the 1st Grade of the Grading Scheme has been inserted. The present incumbent who is on the temporary establishment is receiving $90 a month, and the higher salary will not be drawn unless he has passed the prescribed examination, or until a properly qualified man has been appointed.

AUDIT DEPARTMENT.

In order to secure uniformity throughout the Estimates the rate taken for this Department for the conversion of sterling into dollars is 1s. 8d., instead of 1s. 10d. as adopted by the Exchequer and Audit Department.

TREASURY.

A.-Treasurer's Office.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

2 Clerks, Grade V.-These are departmentally styled the 9th and 10th Clerks. The latter is a new post, created for checking the large number of counterfoil-books in use in all departments, and for general assistance in the Office. Both these clerks were given the maximum of the grade which is equivalent to the salaries of clerks doing similar work in other departments, as there has been difficulty in getting competent men for less.

=

1

696

Assistant Collector of Villages Rates.-This clerk will be given his first incre- ment on the 1st January, 1906, as his initial pay-$240-is too low.

OTHER CHARGES.

Incidental Expenses, Lighting.—In the former Estimates these 2 items were amalgamated in the vote "Incidental Expenses" which was much under-estimated for the last 3 years.

The charges for lighting is now shown as a separate item, and

an increase of $60 is made in "Incidental Expenses."

B.-Office of Assessor of Rates.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Clerk to Assessor placed in Class VI, as he has been reported as a good Inter- preter and Translator, and deserving of an increase of salary.

Interpreter, I. D. 3rd Class.-Vide remarks on Interpretation Sub-Department under Registrar General's Departinent.

POST OFFICE.

A.-Hongkong Post Office.

OTHER CHARGES.

Mail Bags & Parcel Post Receptacles.--Until recently bags belonging to other Administrations have been used for forwarding mails in contravention of the rules of the Postal Convention.

B.- Postal Agencies in China.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Shanghai.

2 Marine Officers.-The original proposal as approved in C. O. Telegram of 20th April, 1905, was to place these two officers in Grade III, giving them $1,080 and $960 per annum respectively. Since then, the 2nd Marine Officer has resign-. ed, and it has been found necessary to allow the 1st Marine Officer to draw the maximum of the scale, and the successor to the 2nd Marine Officer to begin at $1,080 in order to obtain a suitable officer.

3 Shroff's, Grade VI.-Provision is made for an additional Shroff for assisting the Compradore at the Stamp Counter, as owing to the increased sale of stamps, the Compradore has to spend too much of his time at the stamp window.

Canton.

1st Assistant has been placed in Grade VI, his present pay --$360 per annum being inadequate when compared with that of men employed on similar work at the French and Chinese Post Offices.

4 Postmen-Owing to the general rise in wages of men of this class, the wages of the Senior Postman have been increased from $108 to $120 per annum, and of the other 3 postmen from $84 to $96 per annum.

Sampan Man. --The Consul-General has now abandoned his share. in the use of the sampan, and the whole wages of the sampan man-$84 per annum-have consequently to be born by the Agency.

1

3

697

Foochow.

Post Office Agent and Assistants.—The salaries of these officers have been increased in order to bring them to the level of those employed in similar capacities in other Agencies. It will be noted that the Assistants are merely put on an in- cremental scale, but do not get any increase next year.

Hoihow.

2 Postmen.-Provision for an additional postman at $72 per annum is made on the recommendation of His Britannic Majesty's Consul at the port. The one postman there is at present entrusted with the sale of stamps and also has to carry all the mails, &c.

Liu Kuny Tau.

2 Assistants. 4 Postmen and 2 Couriers.-The additional expenditure now provided for has this year been paid by the Agent out of the $2,400 allowed to him.

OTHER CHARGES.

Shanghai.

Travelling Expenses of Marine Officers.-The increase of $1,550 is for pro- viding passages for the Marine Officers who have to leave Shanghai earlier than hitherto owing to the accelerated service under the new contract with the P. &. O. S. N. Co. These Officers have formerly travelled free of charge by the P. & O. Steamers which now arrive here a day too late to connect with the outward English Mail..

Liu Kung Tau.

!

Incidental Expenses.-See explanation under "Personal Emoluments."

.

HARBOUR MASTER'S DEPARTMENT,

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

A. -- Harbour Office.

House Allowance to Boarding Officers has been increased from $420 to $720 per annum, the former sum being considered inadequate compensation for free quarters to which these officers are entitled under the terms of their original appointment.

B.--Mercantile Marine Office.

Allowance to First Clerk for Overtime.-The services of this clerk are often required on board steamers for the engagement or discharge of crews, for which the Government collects a fee. It is considered fair to remunerate him for such service when rendered out of office hours.

D.-Marine Surveyor's Office.

Messenger. --- This man has been 17 years in the office, and has done his work satisfactorily. The increase is personal to himself only.

G-Lighthouses.

2 Assistants for Cap-Sui Mun Light. The new Light recently fixed requires better supervision than the present Lamp Trimmer can give. It is therefore proposed to replace him by 2 Chinese Assistant-keepers.

698

Harbour Office-Special Expenditure.

Fairway Lights and Buoys.-This apparatus which was designed by Trinity House is required for the better lighting of the fairway leading to the Western Entrance to the Harbour.

JUDICIAL AND LEGAL DEPARTMENTS.

A.-Supreme Court.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Interpreter, I. D. 3rd Class, appointed to understudy the present interpre- ters, so that his services may be available when an interpreter goes upon leave or retires.

OTHER CHARGES.

Law Reports, Contribution towards printing, &c.—There are at present no authorised reports of judgments and arguments in important cases. A sum of $2,100 is therefore provided for the following expenses:-

Editing Law Reports,

Printing Do.

Shorthand Writer,

$600

$600

$900

B.-Magistracy.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

2nd to 5th Clerks, Shroff and Ushers-Opportunity was taken of the vacancy. simultaneously, of the posts of 2nd and 3rd Clerks and Shroff, occasioned by retirement and dismissals, to introduce the Grading Scheme into the Department en bloc. These changes in salaries together with the abolition of the allowance of $288 to the Coroner's Clerk and Interpreter whose duties are distributed among the Clerical Staff, effect a saving of $263 in 1906.

Chinese and Hindustani Interpreter.-This Interpreter, through lack of know- ledge of the Chinese character, has not passed the examination prescribed in the Interpretation Scheme. He speaks 2 Chinese Dialects besides Hindustani, and is reported to be a good Interpreter. It is proposed to give him $1,200, the maxi- mum of a 2nd class Interpreter.

2 Messengers at $96.-It is no longer possible to get reliable men at $84 owing to the general rise in wages of the coolie class. It is proposed to increase the pay of these 2 messengers to $96 each per annum.

Interpreter, I. D. 3rd Class.-Vide remarks on similar post under Supreme.

Court.

D.-Land Registry Office.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Clerk and Translator.-Though the present incumbent of the post is drawing $720 per annum, $960 is placed on the Estimates, as it is expected that by 1906 he will have passed the prescribed examination.

Clerk for New Territory work in Hongkong.-The maximum pay of the pre- sent scale having been reached, this clerk is placed in Class VII as approved in C. O. D. No. 196 of 27th May, 1903.

699

Temporary Copying Clerk.-The appointment of this clerk at $180. per annum has been approved in C. O. D. No. 74 of 19th April, 1905. As this salary is too small for a clerk, it has been raised to $300 per annum which is the rate at which other clerks doing the same work are paid.

OTHER CHARGES.

Travelling Allowances.-An allowance of $360 per annum is provided for each of the 2 Land Bailiffs, and $192 for one of the Punti and Hakka Interpreters, as they have much travelling to do, and the Land Bailiffs at Hongkong and the Interpreter to the Police Magistrate in the New Territories are receiving allowan- ces of the same amounts.

:

POLICE AND PRISON DEPARTMENTS.

A.- Police.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

3 Chinese Sergeant-Interpreters, I.D. 3rd Class.-Vide remarks on Interpre- tation Sub-Department under Registrar General's Department.

Sergeant-Major, Chinese Force.-It is desirable that the present Chinese Barrack Sergeant should receive the rank and pay of a Sergeant-Major, his duties being similar to those of the Indian Sergeants-Major.

B-Fire Brigade.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

2 Stokers at $180.-The pay of the second class stokers has been raised from $156 to $180 per annum as from 1st January, 1906, as they rank with 1st Class Chinese Firemen whose pay is $180.

Floating Engine.-(a). It is considered that the European Police Officer in charge of the floater should have the rank and allowance of an Engine Driver, instead of those of an Assistant Engine Driver.

(b). The pay of the 2 seamen has been increased from $120 to $156 per annum, as their work on the floater is practically that of firemen whose pay ranges from $156 to $180 a year.

C.-Prison.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Clerk and Storekeeper.-The salary of this officer has been increased to $1,632, the pay of a 1st Class Police Inspector, in consideration of his long and faithful service.

Chief Warder, 2nd Class.-The Principal Warder in charge of the Branch Prison (Reformatory) is discharging duties more responsible than those of the other Principal Warders. It is proposed to give him the rank of 2nd Class Chief Warder with a salary of $1,440 to $1,680. by $48 annually, the year 1905 during which he has been in charge of the Branch Prison counting for purpose of incre-

ments.

MEDICAL DEPARTMENTS.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

B.-Hospitals and Asylums.

Allowance to. Wardmasters for Knowledge of Chinese.-It is considered desir- able to extend to this Department, the allowance for knowledge of Chinese, which is now accorded to the Police and Sanitary Departments.

700

6 Nurses and 2 Amahs. The pay of the senior amah who has nearly 13 years' service has been increased from $144 to $180 per annum. Her pay is at present the same as that of a newly joined amah,

C_Institutes.

· Assistant Bacteriologist. On the recommendation of the Government Bacterio- logist a European Assistant on £360 to £420 by £30 triennially will take the place of the three Chinese Assistants who cannot be got to take a real interest in their work. It is hoped that greater efficiency in research work will be thus secured, and that the risk of contamination in the preparation of sera will be minimized.

!

Clerk, Grade V.-Hitherto the work of keeping books and checking stores has been done by the Bacteriologist with the assistance of the Accountant of the Civil Hospital. It is considered necessary to appoint a special clerk for this work.

General. The various items have been re-cast and re-arranged, but the total estimated expenditure for this sub-department shows a decrease of $3 as com- pared with that for 1905.

OTHER CHARGES.

B.-Hospitals and Asylums.

Medicine and Surgical Appliances, Civil Hospital. -$5,000 is added to this vote for 1906 in order to provide a sufficient reserve stock.

SANITARY DEPARTMENT.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Clerk, $ 180, has been placed in Class VII, as his duties are similar to those of the other two clerks in that Class.

Messengers.—It is no longer possible to engage messengers at $84. Their wages have consequently been re-cast as follows:-

1 Messenger at $96 raised to $108 per annum.

8 Messengers at $84

1 Messenger at $72

raised to $96 per annum.

Clerk and Draughtsman, Surveyor's Office, $480, has been placed in Class VII, with first increment.

8 Interpreters to Sanitary Inspectors, I. D. 3rd Class.- Vide remarks on Inter- pretation Sub-Department under Registrar General's Department.

Telephone Clerks.-There are seven telephone clerks at $420 per annum each. As satisfactory men cannot be got at this salary it is proposed to promote five to Class VII, and to keep one on his present salary on the temporary staff.

Sextons' wages of 3 at Mt. Davis, 1 at Mt. Caroline, 1 at Ma Tau Wai, and 2 at Happy Valley raised from $84 to $96 owing to general rise in wages among the coolie class. See Messengers above

Foreman Scavenger, Scavengers and Night Watchmen, Old Markets. This staff has been reorganized at a saving of $864.

New Western Market, New Mong Kok Tsui Market.

}

-Staff has been provided for these markets at a total cost of $2,688. It is anticipated that the market rents will exceed this sum,

:

_701

OTHER CHARGES.

Cemetery Expenses, Disintermerit of Dead Bodies.--Exhumation has hitherto been undertaken by the Tung Wah Hospital who have been paid by Government out of an open vote. It is proposed to place this work in future under the control of the Sanitary Department, and a special vote for the expenditure has been added accordingly.

Watering Streets.-Arrangement has been made with the Electric Tramway Company whereby the Sanitary Board undertake the watering of the Tramway tracks, the Company repaying the Government for the work. The additional expense involved by this arrangement is estimated at $1,000 a year.

EDUCATION.

A.- Department of Inspector of Schools.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Sub-Inspector for Girls' Schools.-A lady with a knowledge of Colloquial Chinese is to be engaged to explain educational methods to Teachers in the Vernacu- lar Girls' Schools.

Sub-Inspector for Vernacular Schools.-It is desirable that a better qualified man should be substituted for the Chinese Teacher to the Inspector of Schools, to assist him in examining the work of the higher Vernacular Standards.

2 Messengers. An additional messenger at $96 is required on account of increasing office work.

Belilios Public School, English Division. Mrs. BATEMAN, Head Mistress, will retire on 20th May, 1906, and it is proposed to revise the salaries, and appointments as follows:-

Head Mistress-$2,160 to $2,700 by $180 biennially + Exchange Com-

pensation.

Assistant Mistress-$1,680 to $2,040 by $120 biennially, commencing on

$1,800+ Exchange Compensation.

Second Assistant Mistress-$1,380 to $1,860 by $240 triennially + Ex-

change Compensation. Post to be abolished.

Three Junior Assistants instead of two-$240 to $420 by $60 annually.

Chinese Division.-Formerly included with English Division. It is proposed to re-organize this division, and the Inspector of Schools is of the opinion that with the small increase involved ($828 in 1906) it can be made thoroughly efficient. It is proposed to charge a monthly school fee of 25 cents which should produce a revenue of some $350,

ances.

Wantsai School -Third Assistant Master required owing to increased attend-

Anglo-Indian School.-Owing to the increase in the number of pupils it is considered desirable to replace the present English Mistress by a capable Indian Teacher and a Chinese Assistant.

Tai Po Anglo-Chinese School.—A new school is needed in this populous district.

GENERAL.

The Grading Scheme has been introduced, and examination grants and quar- ters' allowances have been abolished.

702

OTHER CHARGES.

Belilios Public School, Chinese Division. -Expenditure necessary owing to re-organization of the division.

Anglo-Indian School. This school was temporarily housed in the Belilios Public School, and has now separate quarters.

B.Queen's College.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Chinese Staff.-The Chinese Assistant Masters, Clerk, Pupil Teachers and Vernacular Masters have been placed in the Grading Scheme for 1906, it being deemed equitable and desirable to do so in view of the introduction of the Scheme in the Department of the Inspector of Schools.

The pay of the 5 Vernacular Masters is $360 each per annum. As this rate is considered too low to attract suitable men, it is proposed to place them in Grade V in 1906.

OTHER CHARGES.

Laboratory.-This item is needed for a course of Chemistry and Physics proposed to be established in the College. It will, however, not be drawn on unless there is a sufficient number of pupils to form a class.

Electric Fans, Maintenance.—It is considered desirable to provide fans for the European Staff during the hot weather.

MISCELLANEOUS SERVICES.

Grant to District Watchmen's Fund continued for another year owing to certain extraordinary expenditure to be incurred in alteration and enlargement of quarters.

PUBLIC WORKS.

A.-Public Works Department.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Temporary Land Surveyor.-A temporary Land Surveyor at $200 per men- sem was engaged in January last, because of the large amount of work outstanding in the Land and Survey Branch. His services will be retained in 1906 as the work of the Branch is greatly increased by the great additional area of land to be dealt with. A salary of £250 to £300 by £25 triennially has been inserted.

Head-Storekeeper has been placed in Grade IV of the Grading Scheme with the first increment as from 1st January, 1906. He has received no increase in his salary since his appointment in 1899, while his work has increased considerably.

Overseer, £210.-Required in connexion with the Tytam Tuk Water-works, as it is considered desirable to have European control over the Chinese Engine- drivers, and other employés for a work of such magnitude.

Assistant Foremen.-Owing to the great amount of work in progress it is necessary to augment this establishment. Two more assistant foremen have been added, and the salaries of the whole staff have been re-cast as follows:

10 at $480 to $600 by $60 biennially.

8 at $360 to $480 by $60 biennially.

*

The total increase involved is $1,200.

..

703

6 Turncocks at $120 each.-Required for the working of the Rider Main

System.

Engine-driver-$540,

3 Assistant Engine-drivers at $144, . Linesman-$120,

Watchman, ...$300

4 Coolies,

7 Do.,

$222 $384 3 Turncocks, .$153

This staff is required for the Tytam

Tuk Water-works.

These men are required for the maintenance of the New Kowloon Water-works for 6 months. The watchman and 4 coolies are for the Storage Reservoir Bungalow, the 7 coolies for the Filter Beds, and the 3 turncocks for the Distribution System.

Dredger.-(a.) The present salary of the Dredging Master is $960 per an- num, which, with Exchange Compensation, is equivalent to £144. The post is now put on a sterling basis-£140 to £170 by £10 biennially, starting at £150 on 1st January, 1906.

(b.) The salary of the Engineer has been increased from $216 to $240 with 2 biennial increments of $60. His services cannot be retained at the present salary, and a capable successor could not be engaged at less than $240.

24 Survey Coolies. The increased amount of survey work necessitates the engagement of 5 more coolies. The wages of the whole staff have been re-cast as follows:-

8 at $108, 8 at $98, and 8 at $90 each, involving a total increase of $624.

OTHER CHARGES.

Conveyance Allowance to 10 Overseers, $1,800.-In this amount is included. an allowance of $180 per annum to an overseer for the upkeep of a pony which he uses for proceeding to outlying districts in connexion with his duties. The allow- ance is granted for such time only as the pony is kept for the purpose.

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE,

Hongkong,

1905.

T. SERCOMBE SMITH,

Colonial Secretary.

!

Receipts..

HONGKONG.

FINANCIAL RETURNS FOR THE YEAR 19

Laid before the Legislative Council by Comn

His Excellency the Governor.

HONGKONG.

STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURE

Amount Estimated.

Actual Receipts.

More than Less than Estimated.

Estimated.

C.

$ 177,830.83

C.

C.

C.

Payments.

Nett Balance, 1st January, 1904,

HEADS OF REVENUE.

1. Light Dues,

2. Licences and Internal Revenue, not

otherwise specified,

3. Fees of Court or Office, Payments for specific purposes and Reimbur- sements in aid,

4. Post Office,

5. Rent of Government Property,

6. Interest,

7. Miscellaneous Receipts,

Account,

. 70,000.00

c.

C.

$

C.

2,330.16

$35

C.

72,330.16

283,757.78

4,225,405.00 4,509,162.78

378,273.00 403,854.60 25,581,60

475,000.00 408,458.92

614,200.00 688,321.41 74,121.41

2,000.00 7,813.43 5,813.43

193,430.00-167,059,66.

250,000.00

65,948,39

Nett Balance (overpaid) 1st Ja

HEADS OF EXPENDITUR

Charge on account of Public Pensions,

Governor and Legislature,.... Colonial Secretary's Departm Audit Department,...

Treasury,.

Post Office,

Registrar General's Departm

66,541.08 Harbour Master's Departmen

Light-houses, ..:

Observatory, .

Botanical and Afforestation I Legal Departments,

Land Court, New Territory, -

26,370.34 Ecclesiastical,

Educations

184,051,61 Medical Departments,

Magistracy,

Police,

Sanitary Department,.

276,963.03| Charitable Allowances,

TOTAL, exclusive of Land Sales,... 6,208,308.00 6,322,949.35

9. Land Sales,

?

400,000.00 ,486,098.64

391,604.387

-86,098.64

Total Revenue,.

6,608,308.00 | 6,809,047.99

477,703.02 276,963.03 276,963.03

More than Estimated,

200,739.09

Transport,

Miscellaneous Services, Military Expenditure,

Public Works Department,. Public Works Recurrent,

T

Public Works Extraordinary.

Deposits Available, (Subsidiary Coin),

2,735,120.00

Total Expend

Deposits Available,

400,000.00

Deposits Not Available,

588,619.37

Less than Est

Crown Agents,

4,016,302.61

Crown Agents' Advance,

1,262,062.12

Crown Agents Bills outstanding,

260,000.00

Deposits Available, (Subsidia Deposits Available,

Advance Account,

304,018.76

Deposits Not Available,......

No. 1905

12

HONGKONG.

NCIAL RETURNS FOR THE YEAR 1904,

fore the Legislative Council by Command of

His Excellency the Governor,

HONGKONG.

ING THE TOTAL RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURE IN THE YEAR 1904.

".

More than Less than

Estimated.

$

C.

Estimated.

C.

Payments.

Amount Estimated.

Actual

Payments.

More than Estimated.

Less than Estimated.

33

c.

16

$

2,330.16

78 283,757.78

C.

C.

Nett Balance (overpaid) 1st Jan., 1904,

HEADS OF EXPENDITURE.

Charge on account of Public Debt, Pensions,

$

C.

f

C.

C.

C.

185,000.00

172,107.45

12,892.55

189,000.00

200,047.01

11,047.01

Governor and Legislature,

81,574.00 74,225.81

Colonial Secretary's Department,

86,192.00 63,253.35

7,348.19 22,938.65

Audit Department,..

16,579.00 11,813.13

4,765.87

Treasury,

49,098.00

51,229.21

2,131.21

10

25,581,60

Post Office,

348,241.00

316,756.56

31,484.44

Registrar General's Department,

35,606.00

31,339.71

4,266.29

92

66,541.08 Harbour Master's Department,

121,408.00

111,714.90

9,693.10

Light-houses, ...

41,414.00

35,237.00

6,177.00

11

74,121.41

Observatory,.

23,608.00 21,937.15

1,670.85

Botanical and Afforestation Dept..

46,763.00

49,688.98

2,925.98

13

5,813.43

Legal Departments,

151,893.00

143,294.61

8,598.39

Land Court, New Territory,

9,554.00

21,612.59

12,058.59

36

26,370.34

Ecclesiastical,

2.400.00

3,600.00

1,200.00

39

35

391,604.38

34 86,098.64

Education

184,051,61 Medical departments,

Magistracy,

Police,

Sanitary Department,

276,963.03| Charitable Allowances,

Trausport,

Miscellaneous Services, Military Expenditure,

Public Works Department, Public Works Recurrent,

164,979.00

151,589.34

13,389.66

240,743.00

211,732.68

39,398.00-

38,486.48

692,338.00

652,112.57

497,522.00

386,505.03

29,010.32

911.52 40,225.43 101,016.97

5,260.00

4,697.56

562.44.

8,000.00 15,997.12

154,854.00

162,583.32-

12,997.12 7,729.32

1,345,227.00

1,314,773.16

245,598.00

214,334.61

30,453.84 31,263.39

490,700.00

532,751 85

42,031.85

99

477,703.02 276,963.03

276,963.03

$

200,739.09

90

30

37

از

10

Total,

Public Works Extraordinary,

92,141.08 356,668.90

5,257,949.00 4,998,421.18

1,273,400.00 1,382,814.12 109,414.12

Total Expenditure,

6,531,349.00 6,376,235.30

201,555.20 356,668.90 201,555.20

Less than Estimated.

$:

155,113.70

Deposits Available, (Subsidiary 'Coin), Deposits Available,

2,575,120.00 400,000.00

1. Light Dues,

2. Licences and Internal Revenue, not

otherwise specified,

3. Fees of Court or Office, Payments for specific purposes and Reimbur- sements in aid,

4. Post Office,

5. Rent of Government Property,

6. Interest,

7. Miscellaneous Receipts,

8. Water Account,

70,000.00

72,330.16

2,330.16

4,225,405.00 | 4,509,162.78 283,757.78

378,273.00 403,854.60 25,581.60

475,000.00 408,458.92

614,200.00 688,321.41 74,121.41

2,000.00 7,813.43 5,813.43

193,430.00 167,059.66

250,000.00

65.948.39

26,370.34

184,051,61

Charge on account of Public Pensions,

Governor and Legislature,. Colonial Secretary's Departu Audit Department,

Treasury,

Post Office,

Registrar General's Departm

66,541.08 Harbour Master's Departme

4

Light-houses,

Observatory,

Botanical and Afforestation Legal Departments,

Land Court, New Territory: Ecclesiastical,

Education

Medical Departments, Magistracy,

Police,

Sanitary Department, Charitable Allowances, Transport,

...

Miscellaneous Services, Military Expenditure, Public Works Department, Public Works, Recurrent,

TOTAL, exclusive of Land Sales,... 6,208,308.00 6,322,949.35 391,604.38

276,963.03

9. Land Sales,

400,000.00 .486,098.64 86,098.64

Total Revenue,.

6,608,308.00 |· 6,809,047.99

More than Estimated,

$

Deposits Available, (Subsidiary Coin),

2,735,120.00

Deposits Available,

400,000.00

Deposits Not Available,

588,619.37

Crown Agents,

4,016,302.61

Crown Agents' Advance,

1,262,062.12

Crown Agents' Bills outstanding,

260,000.00

Advance Account,

304,018.76

Family Remittance,

.34,266:58

Subsidiary Coin,

2,575,147.55

Money Order,

183,140.71

Suspense House Service,

29,957.23

Exchange,

10,158.15

477,703.02 276,963.03

276,963.03

200,739.09

Public Works Extraordinar

Total Exper

Less than E

Deposits Available, (Subsid Deposits Available, Deposits Not Available,

own Agents,

Crown Agents' Bills outsta Advance Account,

Family Remittance, Subsidiary Coin, Money Order,

Suspense House Service,

Total,.......

19,207,841.07

Total Payments,.........................

Nett Balance 31st I

Total Receipts, with opening Balance, $19,385.671.90

Hongkong, 23rd March, 1905.

3

2,330.16

Charge on account of Public Debt,. Pensions,

185,000.00

172,107.45

12,892.55

189,000.00

200,047.01

11,047.01

Governor and Legislature,

81,574 00

74,225.81

3 283,757.78

25,581.60

Colonial Secretary's Department,

86,192.00

63,253.35

7,348.19 22,938.65

Audit Department,

16,579.00

11,813.13

1,765.87

Treasury,..

49,098.00

51,229.21

2,131.21

Post Office,

348,241.00

316,756.56

31,484.44

Registrar General's Department,

35,606.00

31,339.71

4,266.29

>

66,541.08

Harbour Master's Department,

121,408.00

111,714.90

9,693.10

Light-houses,

41,414.00

35,237.00

6,177.00

74,121.41

Observatory,

23,608.00 21,937.15

1,670.85

Botanical and Afforestation Dept..

46,763.00

49,688.98

2,925.98

3

5,813.43

Legal Departments,

151,893.00

143,294.61

8,598.39

Land Court, New Territory,

9,554.00

21,612.59

12,058.59

26,370.34

Ecclesiastical,

2,400.00

3,600.00

1,200.00

Education

164,979.00

151,589.34

184,051,61

13,389.66

Medical Departments,

240,743.00

211,722.68

Magistracy,

39,398.00-

38,486.48

Police, ................

692,338.00

652,112.57

Sanitary Department,..

487,522.00

386,505.03

5

86,098.64

391,604.38 276,963.03 Charitable Allowances,

Transport,

Miscellaneous Services, Military Expenditure, Public Works Department,' Public Works Recurrent,

8,000.00 15,997.12

1,345,227.00 1,314,773.16

5,260.00

4,697.56

29,010.32 911.52 40,225.43 101,016.97

562.44.

12,997.12

154,854.00

162,583.32

7,729.32

30,453.84

245,598.00

214,334.61

31,263.39

490,700.00

532,751 8.5

42,051.85

J

477,703.02 276,963.03

276,963.03

ZA

200,739.09

Total,

Public Works Extraordinary,

5,257,949.00 4,993,421.18

1,273,400.00 1,382,814.12

92,141.08 356,668.90

109,414.12

Total Expenditure,.

6,531,349.00| 6,376,235.30.

201,555.20

356,668.90 201,555.20

Less than Estimated,

$

155,113.70

Deposits Available, (Subsidiary Coin),

Deposits Available,

Deposits Not Available,

own Agents,

Crown Agents' Bills outstanding,

2,575,120.00

400,000.00

434,836.88

4,010,214,00

1,090,782.61

Advance Account,

Family Remittance,

Subsidiary Coin,

Money Order,

Suspense House Service,

367,260.62

55,727.95

3,566,621.84

166,016.01

28,599.50

Total Payments,....

19,071,414.21

Nett Balance 31st Dec., 1994, .

314,257.69

Total,

..$19,385,671.90

L. A. M. JOHNSTON,

Treasurer.

169

STATEMENT OF ASSETS

LIABILITIES.

AND

ON THE 31ST DECEMBER, 1904.

$

C.

LIABILITIES,

ASSETS.

C.

Crown Agents' Drafts in Transit,

Military Contribution,

260,000.00

Balance in Bank,

326,413.17

22,928.27. Subsidiary Coins in Transit,

991,473.79

Deposits not available,.................

596,808.87 Advances,

111,272.36

Refund of Rates,

5,350.00

Suspense House Service,..

1,222.48

Officers' Remittances,

359.37

Profit, Money Order Office,.....

15,000.00

Money Order Remittances,

33,489.00

Transit Charges, General Post Office,.

16,500.00

Civil Pensions,

22,600.00

Police Pensions,

15,700.00

Public Works,

145,896.17

Miscellaneous,

15,871.81

Balance overdrawn, Crown Agents,

12,155.48

Total Liabilities,

1,147,658.97

Balance,

297,722.83

Total,...$ 1,445,381.80

Total Assets,*

$1,445,381.80

* Not including Arrears of Revenue amounting to $206,083.18.

L. A. M. JOHNSTON,

Treasurer,

Treasury, Hongkong, 30th March, 1905.

Balances

on

1st January, 1904.

170

Summary of Advances and Repayments of Advances for the Year ended 31st December, 1904.

Names.

Repayments of Advances during the year.

Balances

On

31st Dec., 1904. ›

Advances during

Total.

the

year.

$

$

$

Money Order,

( 256,290.15

27,352.08

(1) 802.69

284,444.92

255,495.85

28,949.07

Government of Singapore,

610.15.

1,946.47

Supreme Court,

100.00

2,556.62 100.00

1,786.55

770.07

Captain Superintendent of Police,.

25.00

740.00

765.00

740.00

Praya Reclamation,..

4,501.31

2,336.90

6,838.21

4,501.31

Crown Solicitor,

1,100.00

1,100.00

183.75

100.00

25.00 2,336.90 916.25

Sanitary Department,

1,000.00

1,000.00

Treasury,

500.00

500.00

H. K. Phelips,·

591.60

591.60

Public Works Department,

8,000.00

8,000.00

Private Street Improvements,

1,709.72

1,709.72

1,000.00

500.00

8,000.00 593.37

...

591.60

1,116.35

H. B. Lethbridge,

159.77

14.36

146.63

160.99

(3) 1.22

J. R. Crook

12.58 Cr.Bal. 12.58

Ada Robertson, W. & O. Pensiou,

269.84

269.84

{ (4)

122.85

65.45

(4) 81.54

H. J. Gidley,...

218.18

218.18

Jane Wildey, W. & O. Pension,

20.00

185.70

198.18

408.33

408.33

99.03

(5) 123.60

E. A. Carvalho,

537.81

537.81

537.81

Weihaiwei Account,.

6,649,34

6,649.34

6,649.34

Ceylon Government,

443.66

515.52

515.52

53.40

(6) 18.46

Passage of Kindall and Wife,

106.87

(2) 0.01

106.83

106.88

Furniture for Government Pavilion,.

800.00

800.00

200.00

600.00

W. H. Williams,

22.66

22.66

22.66

J. D. Ball,

498.31

.498.31

498.31

H. Garrod,

108.78

108.78

108.78

Electric Tramway Company,

132.14

132.14

132.14

Praya East Reclamation,

13,112.59

27,679.03

40,791.62

125.90

40,665.72

J. M. Seymour, W. & O. Pension,

180.44

180.44

180.44

Post Office,..

538.80

538.80

538.80

Colonial Secretary's Department,

25.00

25.00

25.00

Money Order,

10,000.00

10,000.00

10,000.00

M. T. Edwards,

Mrs. Kent,

M. Earner,

98.68

33.39

132.07

132.07

512.00

512.00

$12.00

124.60

124.60

124.60

F. Allen,

E. C. Lewis,

G. E. Thomas,

183.40 435.58

...

183.40

183 40

435.58

220.00

215.58

267.14

267.14

156.00

111.14

M. J. Wood, W. & O). Pénsion,...

63.75

129.59

129.59

18.41

(7) 47.43

Rider Main Scheme,

D. Wood,.......

Transvaal Government,

24,120.51 500.87 15,827.15

24,120.31

500.87 15.827.15

Inspector of Schools,

Queensland Government,

A. Dixon, W. & O. Pension,.

Mauritius Government,

J. W. Ironside,

F. A. Gidley, W. & O. Pension,

M. Waters,

D. McKenzie,

Gold Coast Government,

Bombay Government,.

M. Moore, W. & 0. Pension,..

12.00

12.00

648.97

648.97

408.69

408.68

9.49 350.00 9,272.73

12.00

637.11

ì (8) 11.86

184.07

150.87 6,554.42

24,111.02

99.56

(9) 125.05

237.11

:

502.43

502.13

246.92

(10) 18.40

650.82

650.82

650.82

51.05

169.24

169.24

85.44

(11) 32.75

86.05

86.05

561.75

561.75

· 86.05 561.75

22.20

22.20

21.82 (12) 0.38

12.80

12.80

12.80

14.65

121.89

121.89

98.09

(13) 9.15

Li Hong Mi,

W. Orchar,

401.14

401.11

80.00

321.14

44.78 Cr.Bal. 44,78

F. W. Clark,

763.64

763.64

75.00

688.64

48,101.91

368,063.32

416,165.23

304,892.87

111,329.72

Less Credit,...$

57.36

$ 111,272.36

(1) Profit in Exchange...$802.69

(2)

2

(3) Loss in Exchange $ 0.01 (+)

1.22

81.54

123.60

$802.70

"

ད་

18.46

47.43

(8)

11.86

(9)

125.05

;

(10)

18.10

(11)

32.75

19

(12)

0.38

+

(13)

9.15

15

$469.84

Treasury, Hongkong, 16th March, 1905.

L. A. M. JOHNSTON,

Treasurer.

171

Summary of Deposits and Refunds of Deposits for the year ended 31st December, 1984.

Names.

Balances on 1st January, 1904.

Deposits received dur- ing the year.

Total.

Deposits

Balance on

repaid during 31st Decem-

the year.

ber, 1904.

$

$

Intestate Estate,

1,395.92

243.26

1,639.18

Sikh Police Fund,

3,116.00

3,116.00

2,550.00

1,639.18

566.00

Police Fine Fund,

789.74

1,279.64

2,069.38

1,662.28

407.10

Chinese Recreation Ground,

4,519.75

1,328.07

5,847.82

571.21

5,276.61

Estate of deceased Policemen,

197.42

197.42

197.42

Tender Deposit,

2,085.00

14,350.00

16,435.00

10,165.00

Post Office Fine Fund,

271.53

29.08

Suitors' Fund,

118,151.54

463,973.41

300.61 582,124.95

5.00

6,270.00 295.61

346,724.47

235,400.48

Widows' and Orphans' Fund,

163,162.46

38,351.40

201,513.86

4,988.11

196,525.75

Custom Duties on Parcels,

1,283.90

3,040.46

4,324.36

3,244.28

1.080.08

Medical Department Fine Fund,

Praya Reclamation Fund,

Sale of Land Deposit,

Sanitary Department Fine Fund,

145,208.72

23,222.18

168,430.90

38,990.27

129,440.63

400.00

1,850.00

2,250.00

2,150.00

100.00

173.36

75.65

249.01

249.01

65.79

39.61

105.43

66.80

38.63

Market Caretakers Securities,

900.00

20.00

920.00

Hongkong Volunteers Corps Fund, Miscellaneous,

34,915.69

34,915.69

1,134.31

1,415.00

2,549.31

· 900.00 18,133.37

765.00

20.00

16,782.32

1,784.31

Board of Trade,

Gaol Library,

67.04 103.90

1,682.89

1,749.93

1,721.09

28.84

103.90

103.90

House Service Deposit,

Sugar Convention,

603.00 2,200.00

603.00

603.00

2,200.00

2,200.00

*A

443,026.38 588,619.37 1,031,645.75

434,836.88 596,808.87

Hongkong, 16th March, 1905.

L. A. M. JOHNSTON, Treasurer.

Statement of Funded Public Debt or Loans borrowed for Fixed Periods outstanding on the

31st De ember, 1904, and of the Accumulated Sinking Funds at the same date.

Designation of Debt or Loan.

Legal

Amount Authority. Outstanding.

L'ongkong 31% In- Ordinances 1&2 £341,799.15.1

scribed Stock.

Sterling.

of 1893.

SINKING FUNDS.

Amount of Stock, &c.

Cost. Price.

Market Value.

South Australia, 31% Stock. New Zealand,

Do.. Western A'tralia, 3

3

*

Trinidad,

3

5:

Do.,

""

Gold Coast,

Brit. Guiana

£ s. d.

1,104.19. 0 2.468. 3. 2 327.15. 3 2,100. 0. 0 5.000. 0. 0 4,000. 0. 0 5.000. 0. 0

£

s. d.

£

s. d.

""

30

2,000. 0. 0

"

Queensland,

3

"

Cape of G. Hope, 3

2,000. 0.0 2,000. 0. 0

Natal,

Victoria,

Sierra Leone,

3300

200. 0. 0 5,000. 0. 0 3,174.10. 1

£34,375. 7. 6

1.196. 3. 2 2,459. 9. 4 295. 2. 8

(981) 2,431. 2. 8 (89) 291.14.2

2,010. 2.10 |(85) 1,785. 0. 0 4,746.15. 0 |(90) 4,500. 0. 0 4.082.12. 0 (105) 4,200. 0. 0 4,480.11. 6 (85) 4.250. 0. 0 1,932.17. 3 ( 89 ) 1,780. 0. 0 1,948. 5.10 ( 85 ) 1,700. 0. 0 1,941. 1. 0 (871) 1,750. 0, 0 189.19. 5 (881) 177. 0. 0 4.734. S. 6 (961) 4,825. 0. 0 3,056.11. 3(99) 3,142.15. 2

£33,073.19. 9 £ 31,909.18. 6

L. A. M. JOHNSTON,

(97) 1.077. 6. 6

Treasury, Hongkong, 30th March, 1905.

Treasurer.

}

PRAYA RECLAMATION FUND.

STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURE TO 31ST DECEMBER, 1904.

Adjustment of Expen-

Balance

spent

1-90.

1891.

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

1896.

1897.

1898.

1899.

1900.

1901.

1902.

1903.

diture up to 31st December, 1904.

Total

Expenditure.

Estimated

Cost.

Balance

available.

in Excess

of

Additions. Deductions

Estimated

Cost.

Private Marine

· Lot Holders.

Section No. 1,*

Do. No. 2,

Do. No. 3,

Do. No. 4,

Do. No. 5,

Do. No. 6,

Do. No. 7,

3,113.67 6,552.99 7,019.62 5;004.19 9,187.60 14,215:46 7,876.47 14,630.92|· 27,669.30 21,7×8.35 31,817.53 77,925.38

**

7,128.41 42,019.54| 43,791.64| 24,984.84 46,758.18 63,318.02 14,086.90 24,596.23 29,091.12 32,355.42| 29,025.13| 16,322.59 31,256.52 55,887.63 34,580.26 49,612.81 | 35,455.12 36,245.99 6,202.29 5,754.83 11,705.77 | 10,903.57 6,548.41 2,343.63 2,205.13. 6 051.14 65,631.55 112,573.89 | 33,075.47, 31,593.99 36,697,68 48,599.71 43,961.02 25,030.76 14,247.88 4,206.01 3,892 45. 1. 1,822.21 7,063.88 55,601,67 | 39,144.85 | 11,964.17| 31,946.66| 28,704.10 7,998.26 6,377.75 3,428.36 14,169.36 8,670.52 63,670.23 62,780.32 49,058.88 58,331.35| 15,581.31 12,793.76 5,666.01| 53,029.15 57,374.26 | 29,767.10 50,382.14 52,327.67 52,553.60 67,275.01| 35,311.07| 9,600.81 51,701.26 44,519.27 27,309.82 27,919.28 12,423.70 7,630.77 | 3,516.38

3,909.14 1,791.69 21,920.74

29,976.01 31,316.36 28,256,13 437,770.81 2,658.99 2,135.99 630.25 9.954.36 4,663.93

423,260.67

14,510.14

252,916.31

251,176 20

1,740.11

414,035.87

2,745.75

1,545.07 5,203.77 253.62 5,230.11 3,094.12 | 19,819:21 47,505.71| 22,053,48| 37,966.13 | 15,995.72 5,422.41 3,049 55| 19,531.62 | 15,753.05

459,378.56 216,640.80 227,392.11 10,751.31

45,342.69.

345,034.78 329,686.00

15 348.78

515,122.33 523,788.60

21,633.73

!

32,433.11 316,238.44

12,164.67

105,850.19 204,450.45 332,808.10|111,032.85 240,561.81 | 272,503.71 | 228,333.44 233,308.93 198,358.66 205,164.46 | 134,060.12 | 80,449.13 99,483,42 | 65,763.36 116,259.03 92,135.65 |2,540,254.01 | 2,530,950:58

56,094.00

65,397.43

Gocerument.

Section No. 4, '

Do. No. 5,

Do. No. 6,

413.53

233.81

511.73

Do. No. 7,

814.38 1,260.26 303.87 9,727.49 5,464.26 3,290.36 5,661.37 4,678.83 1,406.59 1,107.42 442.73 258.19 1,130.16 1,418.47 2,520.21 4,213.30 1,003.11 774.39 1,697.95 16,858.62 18,515.52 11,741.06 3,430.13 2,811.06 1,135.21 €75.91 214.09 19,406.64

755.45 1,400.02 2,119.82 637.44 1,036.00 1,541.61 3,337.25 1,094.88 5,888.25 8,925.85 4,585.20 6,747.30 3,263.24 7,321.91 32,304.19 48,472.28 |111,086.04|12,473.23| 10,156.55 5,709.57 12,954.74 3,393.29 3,005.03 2,178.41 2,827.40 2,818.70 | 2,900.13 2,716.98 897.12 11,156.16

36,223.55 38,734.40

2,510.85

47,602.42 67,194.90 | 19,592.48 49,198.95 46,818.03 242,767.53 259,218.77 16,451.24

2,380.95

Total,

172

375,792.45 411,966.07 38,554.57 2,380.95

34,921.64 | 53,205.92 | 118,679.42 | 14,324.94 11,802.19 18,171.01 36,819.23 28,536.42 9,761.28 24,486,58 | 16,589.97 11,322.38 11,225.37 6,944.62 9,563.28 30,562.80 Grand Total,.$141,771.83 257,657.37 451,487.52||128,357.79 252,364.00 290,674.72 265,152.67 261,845.35 208,119.94 229,651.04 150,650.09 | 91,771.51 110,708.79 72,707.98 125,822.31 122,696.45 2,916,046.46|2,942,916.65 | 94,648,57

* This includes Marine Lots Nos. 184, 188, 189 R. P., which belong to the Government.

67,778.38

Hongkong, 30th March, 1905.

L. A. M. JoHNSTON,

Treasurer.

HONGKONG.

No. 90%

35

1905

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH ESTIMATES FOR 1906.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

STATEMENT OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES, ON THE 31ST DECEMBER, 1904.

LIABILITIES.

$

C.

ASSETS.

C.

Crown Agents' Drafts in Transit,

260,000.00

Balance in Bank,

326,413.17

Military Contribution,

22,928.27

Subsidiary Coins in Transit,

991,473.79

Deposits not available,......................

596,808.87

Advances,

111,272.36

Refund of Rates,

5,350 00

Suspense House Service,.....

1,222.48

Officers' Reinittances,

359.37

Profit, Money Order Office,.......

15,000.00

Money Order Remittances,

33,489.00

Transit Charges, General Post Office,.

16,500.00

Civil Pensions,

22,600.00

Police Pensious,

15,700.00

Public Works,

145,896.17

Miscellaneous,

15,871.81

Balance overdrawn, Crown Agents,

12,155.48

Total Liabilities,

1,147,658.97

Balance,

207,722.83

Total,.....$1,445,381.80

Total Assets,*

$1,445,381.80

* Not including Arrears of Revenue amounting to $206,089.18.

Treasury, Hongkong, 21st August, 1905.

L. A. M. JOHNSTON, Treasurer.

(P. T. 0.

1

:

__708

ESTIMATED BALANCE OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES ON 31sг DECEMBER, 1905.

Ordinary Revenue, 1905, Land Sales,

....

Ordinary Expenditure, 1905, Public Works Extraordinary,

..$6,680,100.00 400,000.00

.$ 5,385,660.00 1,773,200.00

-$,7,080,100.00

-$7,158,860.00

Debit Balance,

Balance of Assets, 1904,

Estimated Arrears, 1905,

Treasury, Hongkong, 2nd September, 1905.

Dr.

To Inscribed Stock Loan at 34% interest,

$ 297,722.83 113,000.00

Balance of Assets on 31st December, 1905,

LOAN ACCOUNT 1904.

.$ 78,760.00

$410,722.83

.$331,962.83

L. A. M. JOHNSTON,

Treasurer.

Cr.

to be paid off on the 15th April, 1943,.. £ 341,799.15.1 By Sinking Fund,

..£

33,073.19.9

ESTIMATED LOAN ACCOUNT 1905.

To Inscribed Stock Loan at 33% interest,

to be paid off on the 15th April, 1943,...£ 341,799.15.1 By Sinking Fund,

£

37,535. 9.1

L. A. M. JOHNSTON,

Treasurer.

Treasury, Hongkong, 21st August, 1905.

A

No. 1905

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF FIRE BRIGADE, FOR THE YEAR 1904.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

FIRE BRIGADE DEPARTMENT, HONGKONG, 10th February, 1905.

SIR, I have the honour to submit the following report on the Government Fire Brigade, for the year 1904.

2. There were 57 Fires and 64 Incipient Fires during the year, as against 49 and 55 in 1903. The Brigade turned out 63 times during the year.

The estimated damage caused by Fires was $761,736.00 and by Incipient Fires $743.00.

3. There was an intermittent supply of water in the mains from 1st January to 3rd July, during which period sea water was used as much as possible in order to save the fresh, water.

4. One serious Fire occurred during the period of intermittent water supply, on 25th February, at No. 444 Des Voeux Road West, where six houses were wholly or partly destroyed, and the total damage was estimated at $62,000, part of which was covered by insurance.

5. Five Fires occurred in the Harbour during the year.

6. Two cases of attempted arson were discovered, one at No. 45 Gough Street on the morning of the 20th March by District Watchman No. 41 who raised an alarm and with the assistance of the occupants of the first floor extinguished the fire before much damage was done. The two men were prosecuted for arson, they were convicted at the Criminal Sessions of the Supreme Court and sentenced to seven years' imprisonment with hard labour. The other was at No. 123 Wellington Street on 8th September when an employé of the Restaurant on the 2nd floor set fire to some furniture. He was convicted at the Criminal Sessions and sentenced to 12 months' imprisonment with hard labour.

7. Two large fires took place at the Kowloon Godowns.

On 10th April at 2.50 p.m. fire broke out in Godown No. 22 of the Hongkong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Company followed almost immediately by several explosions. The Brigade with No. 3 Engine and the Floater were soon at the scene of the fire and also the Engines from the Torpedo Depôt and the Godowns, but owing to the inflammable nature of the goods stored in the Godown and the explosions that took place, the fire spread rapidly to Godowns Nos. 21 and 23. The explosions were caused by the bursting of large iron cylinders containing carbonic acid

gas. The damage is estimated at $100,000, which was covered by insurance.

The second fire took place on 29th April at 12.05 a.m. in Godown No. 9 in which a large quantity of hazardous goods were stored. The Brigade and also the Engines from the Torpedo Depôt and Godowns were turned out promptly, but owing to the inflammable nature of the goods the godown was completely gutted. The damage, which is covered by insurance, is estimated at $80,000.

This fire was caused by fumes of arrack coming in contact with a lighted gas lamp, and the first fire probably originated in the same manner.

8. I attach a list of places where Fire Despatch Boxes are kept and of private telephones to which the Police have access in the event of a fire. I also enclose a copy of a report by the Engineer on the state of Fire Engines, which are all in good

order.

1

72

9. The conduct of the Brigade has been good.

10. I returned from leave on 18th March, and the Deputy Superintendent (Captain LYONS) left for England on leave on 2nd March, and during his absence Mr. HALLIFAX acted for him.

11. Mr. LANE was appointed Assistant Engineer and Station Officer and arrived in the Colony on 19th March.

The Hon. THE COLONIAL SECRETARY.

I have, &c.,

F. J. BADELEY, Superintendent, Fire Brigade.

List of Places where Fire Brigade Despatch Boxes are kept.

1 Box. No. 1 Police Station.

2 Boxes. Engine House at No. 2 Police 1

Station.

1 Box.

Naval Dock Yard.

Government Offices.

1

1

1

1

""

""

1

""

1

1

59

99

1

JA

Ι

Clock Tower.

Government House.

2 Boxes. No. 7 Police Station.

box.

1

"

1

1

""

""

1

1

"3

No. 7, Queen's Garden, Royal | 1

Engineers' Mess.

Central Police Station.

Wellington Street at Lyndhurst 3 Boxes.

Terrace.

Government Civil Hospital.

1 Box.

1

1

Staunton Street at Sing Wong1

Street.

Water Lane at Queen's Road

Bonham Strand West, at West

End.

Gas House, West Point.

Fat Hing Street, at Queen's

Road West.

Ko Shing Theatre.

Government Lunatic Asylum. Nam Pak Hong Fire Station Man Mo Temple.

No. 5 Police Station. Kennedy Town Hospital. Collinson Street West.

No. 463, Queen's Road West. Police Matshed, Connaught

Road.

Central.

List of Telephones to which the Police can have access to communicate with Central Station in the event of a Fire breaking out.

Hongkong and China Gas Company, East and West Point, from 7 A.M. to 9 P.M. Tung Wá Hospital, Po Yan Street. Man On Insurance Office, Queen's Road

West.

Clock Tower.

Hongkong Hotel, Des Voeux Road Central. Royal Naval Yard, Queen's Road East. Mr. J. KENNEDY's, Causeway Bay. Electric Light Company, Queen's Road

East.

Fire Alarms.

Harbour Master's Office at Wing Lok Street. Hollywood Road at Queen's Road West. Wilmer Street at Des Voeux Road West.

HONGKONG, 9th February, 1905.

SIR,I have the houour to forward the annual report on the state of the Government Fire Engines, for the year ending 31st December, 1904.

STEAMER NO. 1.

FLOATING FIRE ENGINE.

Engines and Pumps by Shand & Mason.

This Engine has been 7 years in service; and was docked and thoroughly over- hauled in August, 1904, by the Hongkong and Whampoa Dock Company. The Hull, Machinery and Boiler are all in good working order.

:

73

STEAMER No. 2.

Land Engine by Shand & Mason.

This Engine has been 26 years in service (Boiler 7 years old). It has been regularly used and tested at Drill for Drivers and Fire, was overhauled at regular intervals during the year, and is now in good working order.

STEAMER NO. 3.

Land Engine by Shand & Mason.

This Engine has been 22 years in service, was regularly used and tested at monthly Drill for Drivers. Boiler was retubed in May last, machinery thoroughly overhauled, and is now in good working order.

STEAMER No. 4.

Land Engine by Shand & Mason.

This Engine has been 23 years in service, regularly used and tested at Drill for Drivers and Fires. New Firebox and shell plate fitted to Boiler in April, all thoroughly overhauled, and now in good order and condition.

STEAMER No. 5.

Land Engine by Shand & Mason.

This Engine has been 18 years in service, it was regularly used and tested at Drill for Drivers and Fires during the year, overhauled at regular intervals, and is now in good working order. The Firebox of this Boiler is getting thin, and I would recommend that a new one be purchased from the makers to replace the old one during the year.

All the Manual Engines and Gear, Hose, Reels, and Supply Carts, have been kept in repair, and are now in good order and condition.

I have, &c.,

D. MACDONALD, Engineer, Fire Brigade.

No. DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

$

FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1904.

NO. OF BUILDINGS DESTROYED.

Wholly. Partly.

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

74

1 January

2.

567

1.50 a.m.

6

3.10 a.m.

12

5.40 p.m.

22 | 1.50 a.m.

""

23

""

24 12.10 a.m.

">

26 10.45 a.m.

>>

30 11.55 a.m.

9 p.m.

8 February 5

9

12 March

13

9.48 p.m.

House No. 98, Queen's Road Central,

Fore Peak of S.S. Prima in Victoria Har- bour,

House No. 13, Seymour Road,

House No. 314, Des Voeux Road Central,....

House No. 31, Cochrane Street,..

A matshed at Gas Works, West Point, House No. 264, Des Voeux Road Central,... House No. 74, Bonham Strand Central,. House No. 352, Queen's Road Central, House No. 95, Jervois Street,.....

·

House No. 444, Des Voeux Road West,. House No. 128, Kramer Street at Tai Kok Tsui,

Honse No. 37, Jervois Street,....

20

10

24

""

11

25

""

9

12.15 a.m.

2.45 a.m.

1 a.m.

17 11.45 a.m.

14

19

3.55 a.m.

House No. 236, Queen's Road West,

>>

15 April

2

1.45 a.m.

16

6 11.50 p.m.

17.

>>

3.30 a.m.

1

...

1

$14,000

3,400

23,000

Sparks from a lighted torch,... [the ship's riding light, Dropping and exploding of Unknown,

Damage partly covered by insurance. Not insured.

Damage covered by insurance.

...

20,000

Careless use of matches, or fire by workmen in the Store,...

1

2,456

Unknown,

Damage covered by insurance. Damage covered by insurance.

500

Unknown,

Damage covered by insurance.

30,000

Unknown,.

Damage covered by insurance.

1

1.

40,000

Unknown,

Damage covered by insurance.

1

23,500

Unknown,

Damage fully covered by insurance.

2,500

...

2

62,000

N

500

Unknown,...

1

3,400

1

22,000

Arson,

18

19

""

House No. 115, Des Voeux Road, Kowloon, On board S.S. Holstein in Victoria Habour,

House No. 138, Wellington Street,.. Godown No. 22, Kowloon,

..10

2.50 p.m.

1,300

...

2,659

1

1

.....

1,400

Arson,

100,000

of arrack,

14 11.05 p.m.

House No. 288, Queen's Road Central,

1

3

20,300

Unknown,....

Overheating of a drying stove, Damage covered by insurance.

Unknown,..

Carelessness of carpenters and workmen on the 1st floor,

Sparks from a furnace,

Carelessness of some steve- dore's coolies,

Unknown. Probably fumes

Damage partly covered by insurance.

Damage covered by insurance.

Damage covered by insurance. Damage covered by insurance. Four men were arrested and discharged. Damage covered by insurance.

One man was arrested and discharged by the Magistrate.

Damage covered by insurance. Damage partly covered by insurance.

Carried forward.

$372,915

FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1904, Continued.

No. OF BUILDINGS DESTROYED.

75

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

Wholly. Partly.

Brought forward,

$372,915

20 April

20

1.25 a.m.

Houso No. 210, Queen's Road Central,

1

1

35,000

Unknown,

21

24

1.05 a.m.

House No. 165, Wing Lok Street,

1

1

40,000

Unknown,

""

22

|

29 12.05 a.m.

Godown No. 9, Kowloon,

1

80,000

Accident,

23

..

23

30

6 a.m.

On board S.S. Sung Kiang lying off Quarry Bay,

50,000

Unknown,.

24 May

4

4.27 a.m.

House No. 37, Bonham Strand West,

1

6,300

Unknown,

25

9

2.50 a.m.

House No. 36, Connaught Road West,

2

17,500

Unknown,

26

20

""

27

20

6.50 a.m.

9.50 p.m.

House No. 185, Queen's Road West,... House No. 109, Queen's Road Central,

I

2,000

Unknown,.

1

2,000

of arrack,

28

30

9 p.m.

29 June

2

30

31

""

32 July

22

55

2.40 p.m.

9.40 a.m.

House No. 2, Lewis Square, Kowloon City, Star Ferry Co's. Wharf, Connaught Road Central,

House No. 41, Bonham Strand East,.

150

:.

Unknown,

...

:

2,800

Accident,

Accident. Ignition of fumes

Damage covered by insurance. Damage covered by insurance. Damage covered by insurance.

Damage covered by insurance. Damage partly covered by insurance. Damage partly covered by insurance.

Damage covered by insurance. Not insured.

Not insured.

2

10,000

Unknown,

24

11.10 p.m.

A matshed in Temple St., Yau Ma Ti,

4 matsheds.

100

Unknown,

Damage partly covered by insurance. Not insured.

8

2.50 a.m.

House No. 67, Station Street North, Yau Ma Ti,

1

1,200

:

Exploding of a kerosine lamp, Damage covered by insurance.

33

8

55

4.20 a.m.

House No. 51, Bonham Strand East,.

1

7,000

Unknown,

Damage covered by insurance.

34 Sept.

35 ""

36 October

25

1.50 p.m.

House No. 45, First Street

1

...

1,500

Accident,

Not insured.

26 10.30 p.m.

On board S.S. Sai Ning lying off Causeway Bay,

18,030

Accident,

Cargo covered by insurance.

11 a.m.

A matshed near the Disinfecting Station below Caine Road,

1 matshed.

100

Accident,

Not insured.

37

13

""

7.15 p.m.

A matshed at Kau Loong Tong,

3 matsheds.

1,000

Unknown,

Not insured.

38

20

7.10 p.m.

House No. 71, Bonham Strand East,

1

300

Unknown,

Damage covered by insurance.

39 November 9

8 p.m.

40

16

""

2 p.m.

On board S.S. Wo Sang in Victoria Harbour, A cow shed at Tung Tau Village, K'loon City, 2 sheds.

6,000

1,050

Careless use of lighted matches, Damage to ship about $1,000, covered

Unknown,

Not insured.

[by insurance.

Carried forward,

$655,245

FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1904,---Continued.

NO. OF BUILDINGS DESTBOYED.

REMARKS.

Not insured.

Not insured.

Not insured.

Not insured.

Damage covered by insurance. Damage covered by insurance.

Not insured.

Damage covered by insurance. Damage covered by insurance. Damage covered by insurance.

Only damage to iron moulding shed covered by insurance.

Damage covered by insurance.

Not insured.

Not insured.

Not insured.

Damage partly covered by insurance.

......

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

Wholly. Partly.

41 Nov.

16

3.30 p.m.

42

16

7.45 p.m.

A matshed at Sham Shui Po,

Brought forward..

A matshed at Wong-Nei-Cheong Village, {

2 houses.

1 matshed.

$655,245

40 matsheds.

3,740

Accident,

130

Unknown,

43

21

""

5 p.m.

House, No. 22, Sha Tin,..

40

Unknown,

...

44

22

6.45 p.m.

A matshed on the Arsenal Extension,

3 matsheds.

387

Accident,

45

23

""

3.40 p.m.

House No. 3, Cheung Kan Lane,

2

3

70,000

Unknown,

46

24

6.30 p.m.

47

29

48 Dec.

49

9

มง

50

|

""

53

283

51

52

,,

10

10

22

""

54

25

""

8.30 p.m.

55

26

6.45 p.m.

56

57

༅༅

""

3 3 3

30

2 a.m.

4 a.m.

6.20 p.m.

2.10 a.m.

9 10.15 p.m.

1 p.m.

8.45 p.m.

House No. 594, Sheung Shui Wai, New

Territory

}

House No. 323, Des Voeux Road West, House No. 325, Des Voeux Road West,.. On board 9.S. Indravelli at Kowloon Docks, Matsheds occupied by the 110th Mahrattas Light Infantry at Kowloon,....

House No. 108, Bonham Strand East, Licensed Fishing Boat No. 14012н at An Pui Tong Village, Kat O, Ük A matshed at Su Uk Village in Cheung

Sha Wan,

A matshed back of Sha Tin Police Station, House No. 16, Wing Kat Street,

House No. 42, Stanley Street,....

250

Falling of a kerosine lamp,

...

N

N

270

Unknown,

350

Accident,

...

250

Unknown,

500

Unknown,

24 matsheds.

Iron Toulding

1 shed.

11,760

Unknown,

1

5,000

...

Falling of a kerosine lamp,

...

64-

Unknown,

...

2 matsheds.

300

Unknown,

300

Unknown,

1

13,000

Accident,

.....

31 | 12.30 a.m.

A matshed at Shek Sha Po, Lan Tau,

6 matsheds.

150

Unknown,

:

$761,736

· F. J. BADELEY,

Superintendent of Fire Brigade.

76

No.

DATE.

TIME.

INCIPIENT FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1904.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

77

1 | January

1

3.30 p.m.

A stack of grass at Mong Kok Tsui,

$

20.00

Unknown,

2

17

"}

6 a.m.

On board Steam-Launch Cheung Yik at Yau- ma-ti Ferry Wharf,

15.00

bunkers,

17.

7 p.m.

House No. 15, Hollywood Road,.

20.00

4

""

19

23

5.45 p.m.

House No. 227, Queen's Road West,

Chimney on fire,

8.20 p.m.

House No. 27, Hollywood Road,

30.00

Chimney on fire,

6 February 10

12.15 a.m.

Boilermakers' Store-room at Kowloon Docks,

Unknown,

10

4 p.m.

Hillside between Lyemun Barracks and Stan- ley Road,....

Grass on fire,.

13

99.

4.20 p.m.

House No. 42, Lower Lascar Row,

Accident,

11.30 a.m.

10

15

29

3 p.m. |

Hillside between Stanley and Wong-ma-kok,.... Hillside at Sham Wan,...

Grass on fire,.

Grass on fire,..

11

16

""

3.50 a.m.

House No. 14, Staunton Street,.

...

12

17

6 a.m.

House No. 31, Daguilar Street,.

13

17

9.45 a.m.

House No. 32, Square Street,

14

18

>>

11 p.m.

Hillside between Ty Tam Tuk and Shau-ki-

wan,

15.

22

6 a.m.

Hillside at Tai Tam Tuk,

16

22

9

"5

p.m.

Hillside above Tai Tam Tuk Village,

17 March

4

1.50 a.m.

House No. 80A, Queen's Road West,

18

5

""

9.45 p.m.

House No. 53, Elgin Road,

19

· 19

""

2.30 p.m.

House No. 1, Shau-ki-wan Road,

20

235

20

3.45 a.m.

House No. 45, Gough Street,

21

21

""

10 p.m.

House No. 5, Mountain View,.

25.00

22

25

9 p.m.

House No. 198, Queen's Road West,

...

Attempted arson,

23

""

30

11.30 a.m.

House No. 110, Queen's Road West,

Accident,

Accident,

Accident,

Grass on fire,.

Grass on fire,.

Grass on fire,

150.00

Unknown,

2.00

Unknown,

10.00

A bucket of boiling tar caught fire, Attempted arson, .....................

Overheating of the flue,

...

Capsizing of a lamp,

Heat of furnace igniting firewood in the

Unknown,

Extinguished by Police.

Extinguished by Police and crew. Extinguished by Police.

Extinguished by Firemen.

Do.

Extinguished by Dock Company's staff.

Put out by Police and coolies. Extinguished by inmates.

Extinguished by Police and coolies.

Do.

Extinguished by Police and inmates. Extinguished by occupants.

Extinguished by occupants and Police.

Put out by Police and hired coolies. Put out by Police.

Put out by Police and coolies.

Put out by Police.

Put out by occupants.

Put out by workmen.

Two men were convicted at the Criminal Ses- sions of the Supreme Court and sentenced to 7 years' imprisonment with hard labour. Put out by occupants.

Do.

Do.

Carried forward,......$

272.00

No.

DATE.

TIME.

INCIPIENT FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1904,-Continued.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

78

24 April

7

6.15 p.m.

Brough forward, House No. 11, Old Bailey Street,

$ 272.00

25

20

7 p.m.

House No. 31, Pokfulam Road,

60.00

Exploding of a kerosine lamp, Unknown,

26

30

2 a.m.

House No. 31, Pokfulam Road,

10.00

Attempted arson,

""

27 May

28

29

30

""

4

4.30 p.m.

Boiler House of the new Power Station, Bow- rington,

250.00

Accident,

5.50 p.m.

House No. 101, Queen's Road Central,

Trifling.

Chimney on fire,

""

9

8.55 p.m.

House No. 59, Des Voeux Road Central,

14

""

6.30 p.m.

House No. 10, Tit Hong Lane,

10.00

Falling of a kerosine lamp, Overheating of flue,

·

31

22 10.05 p.m.

House No. 121, Wanchai Road,

32

26

""

10 p.m.

House No. 36, Elgin Street,

33 June

16

2.30 a.m.

House No. 24, Albany Street,

34

16

وو

7 p.m.

House No. 3, Ko Shing Street,

35 July

5

11 p.m.

Honse No. 34, Centre Street,.

36

37

38

11

10.30 a.m.

House No. 4, East Street,

15.00

Unknown,

· 2.00

Accident,

9.00

Accident,

وو

18

""

5.40 p.m.

House No. 100, Queen's Road East,

19

1.30 a.m.

House No. 3, Ship Street,

39

21

""

9.50 p.m.

House No. 49, Pottinger Street,

90.00

41

40 August 20 23

42 September 8

4.30 p.m.

House No. 29, New Street,

.....

1 a.m.

7.30 p.m.

House No. 172, Wellington Street,. House No. 123, Wellington Street,.

4.00

Accident,

43

17

2.40 a.m.

House No. 25, Pottinger Street,

44

33

1.15 a.m.

House No. 8, Tai Ping-shan Street,

Trifling.

Do.

""

Upsetting of a kerosine lamp, Accident,

45

46 October

29

99.

8.43 p.m.

House No. 48, Stanley Street,.

...

Chimney on fire,

1

4.15 a.m.

House No. 11, Eastern Street,...

5.00

Attempted arson,

47

""

15 11.40 a.m.

Gas Company's Coal Godown at West Point,

5.00

Unknown,

Exploding of a kerosine lamp, Capsizing of a kerosine lamp, Unknown,

Exploding of a kerosine lamp, Exploding of a kerosine lamp, Upsetting of a kerosine lamp, Unknown,

Attempted arson,

Put out by Police and occupants.. Put out by Firemen and neighbours. Put out by Police.

Put out by Firemen and workinen. Put out by Police.

Put out by occupants.

Put out by Police and occupants. Extinguished by Police.

Extinguished by Police and occupants. Put out by occupants. Put out by occupants. Put out by Police.

Extinguished by the occupants. Extinguished by the occupants. Extinguished by the occupants. Put out by occupants and Brigade. Put out by occupants.

Put out by occupants and Firemen.

One man was arrested and convicted at the Criminal Sessions of the Supreme Court

and sentened to 12 months' Hard Lahour. Put out by Police and occupants. Put out by Police and occupants. Put out by neighbours.

Put out by Police and occupants.

Put out by European employés of the Company.

Carried forward,.

732.00

No.

DATE.

TIME.

INCIPIENT FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1904,-Continued.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

Brought forward,..

732.00

48 October 2011.30 p.m. 49 27

7 p.m.

House No. 292, Queen's Road West, House No. 51, Square Street,

1.00

50 November 6

10 a.m.

House No. 22, Wellington Street,

...

Breaking of a kerosine lamp, Upsetting of a kerosine lamp, Burning of joss sticks,

51

11

""

6.50 p.m.

House No. 25, Lower Castle Road,

Unknown,

52

12

7.30 p.m.

Chung Hing Theatre,

Accident,

53

20

4.30 p.m.

On the hillside back of Royal Artillery Officers' Mess, Bowen Road,

Grass on fire,...

54

21

House No. 128, Winglok Street,

Accident,

55

**

27 1.15 p.m. House No. 94, Connaught Road West,

5.00

Accident,

56

December 4 [10.30 a.m.

House No. 99, Station St. South, Yau-ma-ti,...]

5.00

Accident,

57

·99

512.55 a.m.

House No. 2, Cheung Kau Lane,

Unknown,

58

""

9.04 p.m.

House No. 15c, Wellington Street,

...

Accident,

59

"5

8.20 p.m.

House No. 15, Ship Street,

Accident,

60

""

Matshed No. 135, Wong-nei-chung,

Accident,

61

12

""

6.30 a.m.

House No. 302, Queen's Road Central,

Accident,

62

15

''

9 p.m.

House No. 4, I Yip Lane,'

Accident,

63

21

4.50 a.m.

64

26

House No. 12, Staunton Street,

3.30 p.m. | Hillside, east of Paper Mill near Stanley Road,

Unknown,

Grass on fire,

TOTAL,.

$ 743.00

REMARKS.

Put out by Police and occupants. Put out by Police and occupants. Put out by occupants.

Put out by Police and occupants, Put out by Police.

Put out by Police.

Put out by Police and occupants.

Extinguished by occupants before the arrival of Brigade.

Put out by Police and occupants.

Burnt itself out.

Put out by occupants.

Put out by occupants.

Put out by neighbours.

Put out Police and occupants.

Put out by Police and a District Watchman.

Put out by Police and occupants.-

Put out by Police and coolies..

F. J. BADELEY,

Superintendent of Fire Brigade.

79

No.

31

1905

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE EXISTING FLUSHING SYSTEM IN THE CITY OF VICTORIA AND PROPOSED SITES FOR NEW TANKS.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

DRAINAGE BRANCH, PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT,

HONGKONG, 21st June, 1905.

1. I herewith forward you a list of the existing Flushing Tanks in the City of Victoria, showing the state of the sewers flushed by them at the time of their inspection with other particulars (vide Appendix A.).

2. A general Plan is also attached with the positions of the Flushing Tanks marked on.

3. The flat gradients placed on the list are those that do not give a velocity of 23 feet per second when the pipe is half full. These gradients have been obtained from sections, in this office, of some of the sewers.

4. The whole of the Flushing Tanks have been measured, and their capacities and the sizes of the syphons have been revised.

5. The special points to be drawn attention to in the present flushing system are as follows :-

a.) That the deposit that takes place in the sewers is chiefly sand and not sewage matter as mentioned by Mr. CHADWICK in his Report dated 10th April, 1902, para. 66.

(b) That the automatic syphons now in existence are useless for flushing the sand deposits in the Low Level sewers on account of their small capacity, the long distance most of them are situated from where the flush is required to be effective, and if worked automatically they will not flush the Low Level sewers at the proper time, (ie., when the tides are low). I am of opinion that they may still be of some use in keeping down the smells arising during the dry season of the year, from the scum which is fre- quently left on the internal surfaces of sewers if not flushed.

(c.) That a deterrent effect on the flushing of the existing sewers is caused by the presence of roots of trees, the flatness of some of the gradients of the Low Level sewers, inverted syphons, and the overflow plates at the outfalls.

6. In the case of (a.) I have found from experience here as well as elsewhere that it is very difficult to remove a sand deposit, which has been allowed to settle, and packs very closely. The tendency of the flush of water is to run over the top of the sand and leave it in the same position, except in the immediate neighbour- hood of the tank.

7. The first object should therefore be to eliminate the sand or prevent it from entering the sewers, and for this reason I think that the new type of gully should be extended to the High Level Districts from where I believe the greater part of the sand is brought down.

:

676

8. If these gullies are then properly cleaned out at frequent intervals by well organized scavenging gangs, a great deal of the silting of the Low Level sewers will have been stopped.

9. In tide-locked sewers it is impossible to prevent the sand from depositing during the time the outfalls are covered, and it is in consequence of this that there is so much difficulty in removing the sand, which, had it not settled, could easily be kept moving.

10. In the case of (b.) the largest capacity of any of the existing Flushing Tanks is 575 gallons, excluding the large tank in Garden Road, which is comparatively new, and forms a part of the proposed scheme of Flushing Tanks.

11. If Mr. CHADWICK's rule for ascertaining the volume of water required for flushing is taken (see para. 8 of his Report of the 13th May, 1902), all these tanks are inadequate in capacity.

12. In suggesting positions for new tanks, their capacity has been calculated on Mr. CHADWICK's rule and their positions have been fixed, as far as is possible, so that the greatest effect may be produced.

13. In the case of (c.) it is necessary that iron pipes should be substituted in place of stoneware, where the roots of trees cause trouble. In some cases the gradients of existing sewers could be greatly improved, which probably on account of being extended in short lengths at different periods, have not been laid with a uniform gradient. The following are the simplest and least costly lengths to re-lay :

T

1. Des Voeux Road West between Wing Lok Street and Queen's Street. 2. Bonham Strand West between Des Voeux Road West and Bonham

Strand.

3. Queen's Road West between Mercer Street and Wellington Street.

14. The other lengths which might be improved, but which would prove more costly and probably affect the levels of existing house connections, are the following:-

1. Des Vœux Road West between Sands Street and Holland Street.

2. Des Voeux Road West between Queen's Road West outfall and Water

Street.

3. Des Voeux Road Central between Ice House Street and Jackson Road.

4. Praya East between Heard Street and Wanchai Road.

5. Wanchai Road between Praya East and near Cross Street.

6. Jardine's Bazaar between St. George Street and Soo-kun-poo Market.

These are all along the Tramway except the last.

15. There is also a length of sewer along Connaught Road Central between Morrison Street and Wing Lok Street that has sunk and requires re-laying.

16. The following inverted syphons, where possible, should be removed and the pipes carried straight through the nullah culvert. No trouble has been expe- rienced with pipes passing through large culverts, where the level of the pipe is well above the invert of the culvert, and the sectional area can be maintained by widening out the culvert at this point:

1. Inverted syphon under nullah junction of Des Voeux Road West and

Hill Street.

2.

Do.

in Caine Road, Peel Street and Shelley Street.

:

677

3. Inverted syphon junction of Queen's Road Central and Peel Street

4.

Do.

5.

Do.

under nullah.

under nullah junction of Des Voeux Road Central

and Jubilee Street.

under nullan junction of Praya East and Tsing Kai

Lane.

}

16. Where overflow plates are fixed at the outfalls into the Harbour, they have a tendency to reduce the efficiency of a flush on account of the discharge pipe carried out into the Harbour being of a less diameter than the sewer; the water then has to back up to the level of the overflow plate, which is fixed well above the sewer and in consequence the sewer does not have a free discharge and the outlet is covered. I would suggest that this plate be either removed or that a moveable plate be inserted that could be lifted up when flushing is taking place.

EFFECT OF THE FLUSHING OF THE SEWERS BY THE GARDEN ROAD TANK.

17. A Flushing Tank has already been constructed in Garden Road below the Volunteer Headquarters, the capacity of which is 6,200 gallons and it has now been in operation for nearly 18 months.

18. Tests were made in February and April, 1904, as to the increase given to the velocity in the sewers compared with their normal flow, and it was found that the velocity approximately doubled when the sewers were being flushed (see Report dated April 25th, 1904). Since then flushing has been carried on regularly and it is found that though these sewers require less attention and cleaning than formerly, yet there is still a little deposit that settles in the portion between Queen Victoria Street and Ice House Street in Des Voeux Road, and along the Praya East and Queen's Road Central between Ship Street and Wellington Barracks. The former I attribute partly, to the overflow plates at the outfall, and to the effect of the flush being less the further away from the Tank that the sewer is, and that the flush in passing through a small pipe into a larger one, the depth of flow in the latter is reduced.

19. The portion in Queen's Road Central and Praya East is chiefly caused by the very flat gradient of the 12" pipe sewer between Wellington Barracks and Arsenal store-yard which is 1 in 655. This could be greatly improved by re-laying this portion as far as Arsenal Street, a distance of 276 lineal yards which would then give the sewer a gradient of 1 in 375. I am informed that. this section is very rocky, but I cannot ascertain that there is any other obstacle in the way.

SITES FOR ADDITIONAL FLUSHING TANKS.

20. In proposing sites for additional Flushing Tanks, I presume that in view of the Garden Road Tank being supplied from the Albany Nullah, that Mr. CHAD- WICK'S suggestion that the Low Level sewers might be flushed with sea water (see paras. 68 and 70, Mr. CHADWICK'S Report, 10th April, 1902), has been abandoned.

21. I believe that there is ample water to be obtained from the nullahs and other sources without depleting them for their own cleansing, and the expense of pumping sea water would be very great compared with gravitating water from nullahs &c., to the Flushing Tanks.

22. The proposed sites are marked with a red circle on the attached plan and details are given in an attached list (Appendix B.).

+

:

678

23. The proposed sites are as follows:-

No. 1 Tank.-Situated in Garden Road near the Volunteer Headquarters. Constructed in 1903 and has been working since the beginning of 1904.

No. 2 Tank. Proposed to be constructed over the nullah at the junction of Water Street and Battery Road. It will flush the Low Level sewers in Des Voeux Road West, west of French Street. No. 3 Tank. It is proposed to make some slight alterations to the existing Cowper's Tank at the junction of Centre Street and Bon- ham Road, and though the distance from the Low Level sewers is great, the approach gradients are steep. The outflow from this Tank must be carefully regulated or the manhole covers may be burst open, and the house connections in the Lower Levels flooded by the backing up of the water in the sewers with slacker gradients. This Tank will flush the Low Level sewers in Des Voeux Road West and Queen's Road West.

No. 4 Tank.-Proposed to be constructed in the Blake Gardens adjoining Station Street, and will flush the Low Level sewers in Wing Lok Street, Morrison Street, Connaught Road West, Bonham Strand West, Hillier Street, &c.

No. 5 Tank.-Proposed to be constructed either at the junction of Holly- wood Road and Pottinger Street or on the triangular piece at the junction of Wyndham Street and Arbuthnot Road, and will flush the Low Level sewers in Queen's Road Central and Des Vœux Road Central.

No. 6 Tank.-Proposed to be constructed at the top of Stone Nullah Lane and will flush the Low Level sewers in Queen's Road East, Ship Street, Wanchai Road and Praya East, &c.

24. The proposed Tanks will flush those Low Level sewers that are at present most liable to silting. It may be necessary to make additions to this list in the future especially if the Praya East reclamation scheme is carried out.

25. An estimate of the probable cost of each Tank is given in the attached list, (Appendix B.) the total of which amounts to $10,670 excluding No. 1 Tank which is built.

26. I have not made any estimates of the cost of re-laying any of the lengths of sewers mentioned in this report, nor any alterations to inverted syphons, &c.

27. The details of the Tanks have not been worked out until the suggested sites have met with your approval.

The Honourable the Director of Public Works.

H. T. JACKMAN.

APPENDIX A.

City of Victoria, Hongkong.

PARTICULARS OF EXISTING FLUSHING SYSTEM.

Sewers flushed by Tank.

679

Flushing

Size of

Source

Tank.

Auto-

of

Situation.

matic

Water

Capa-

Syphon

No.

city.

Flusher.

Supply. Size.

Flatest

Gradients.

Guls.

Inch.

1 400 Junction of Davis Street and Forbes Street.

Water

9" Pipe

Main.

9" Pipe. 240

General State of Sewers flushed.

Street.

Davis Street,

Clear.

N

480 Smithfield near Cattle De-

Nullah.

pôt.

9" Pipe

9

Smithfield,.

Chater Street,

>>

North Street,.

245 Junction of Holland Street and Des Voeux Road

4

mila

Water

West.

9

55

4 245 Junction of Whitty Street and Queen's Road West.

Water

Main.

12

""

Main. 12

9" Pipe.

15

9

""

340 440

Inverted

Syphon 480 1

440

Des Voeux Road West,.. E. and W. of Holland St., North Street,....

Whitty Street,

Des Voeux Road West,

Queen's Road West, Hill Road,

>Clear.

Clear.

There is a deposit in these sewers flushed by this Tank more especially in Des Voeux Road West.

Remarks.

This sewer has occasionally been choked, owing to the excreta of the cattle from the Slaughter-houses being pushed down the drain in large quantities. Dise valve at the Outfall.

Disc valve junction of Smithfield & Forbes Street. Disc valve at the Outfall.

Dise valve at the Outfall.

Disc valve junction of Whitty Street and Queen's Road West. Disc valve at the Outfall. Inverted Syphon under Nullah junction Des Voeux Road West and Hill Road.

Connaught Road West,

Slight deposit in sewer.

Bonham Road,

Dise valve at Outfall.

Clear.

12

12

9" Pipe.

25

Hill Road,

Queen's Road West,

Des Voeux Road West,.

First Street,

Centre Street,

Des Voeux Road West, Eastern Street,

Slight deposit in sewer.

Clear.

Bad deposit in sewers.

Disc valve at junction of Des Voeux Road West and Eastern Street. Outfall on an average choked once a week. Disc valve at junction of Queen's Road West and Centre Street.

9

>>

5

10

575 Connaught Road West near French Street.

6

Water

9" Pipe.

Main.

6

335 | Bonham Road near I. L. 754.

6

Nullah. 127 Pipe..

9

""

210 First Street opposite No. 6.

4

-N

Water

Main. 9

12

15

·

Flushing

Tank.

PARTICULARS OF EXISTING FLUSHING SYSTEM,-Continued.

Size of

Source

Auto-

of

Situation.

matic

Water

Sewers flushed by Tank.

General State of Sewers flushed.

Street.

Capa-

No. city.

Flusher.

Gals.

8

180 Rutter Street near Tung Hing Theatre.

Inch.

Water

9′′ Pipe.

Syphon Supply. Size.

Flatest

Gradients.

Po Yan Street,

44

Main.

9

""

9

"

12

,,

9

325 Bonham Road near Nether- sole Hospital.

6

Water

Main.

10

180 Robinson Road near I. L.

41

اسم

719.

New Street,

Queen's Road West,.

Clear.

9

...

Queen's Street,

Des Voeux Road West,...

9" Pipe.

12

Bonham Road,

"

9

Hill Road,

Clear.

33

12

""

12

""

Water

Main.

6′′ Pipe.

Robinson Road,..

9

""

6

Queen's Road West,

Des Voeux Road West,....

Lower Richmond Road,.

Oaklands Path,

""

9

Park Road,

Clear.

""

9

""

Bonham Road,

12

9

""

12

""

12

57

11

225 Robinson Road near I. L. 704.

4

Water

Main. 6

6′′ Pipe.j

Castle Road,

""

6

9

115

12

225 Robinson Road near I. L.

723.

12

9

>>

""

Remarks.

Disc valve at junction of Des Voeux Road West and Wing Lok Street.

Disc valve at Outfall. Bonham Road Sewer troubled with roots from No. 2 Tank to Pokfulum Road.

Disc valve at Outfall. Bonham Road Sewer troubled with roots from No. 2 Tank to Pokfulum Road.

Hill Road,

Queen's Road West,

Des Voeux Road West,...

Robinson Road,.

Seymour Road,

Bonham Road,.

Hill Road,...

Queen's Road West,

......

Slight deposit in sewers.

Disc valve at Outfall.

Des Voeux Road West,..

Robinson Road,

Shelley Street,.

Clear.

Slight deposit in sewers.

Clear.

Valve on Inverted Syphon at the junction of Shelley Street and Caine Road used as a wash-out to syphon. Disc valve at Outfall. Bonham Road Sewer troubled with roots from No. 2 Tank to Pokfu- lum Road.

...

""

12

""

12

""

43

Water 6′′ Pipe. Main. 6

Mosque Street,

""

6

6

OOTHOà a

Shelley Street,

>>

Peel Street,

""

4" C. I.

4

6

9′′ Pipe.

Inverted Peel Street,

"" ""

Syphon.

Caine Road,

Caine Road,

Bonham Road,

...

680

12

12

12

NNON

...

...

Hill Road,

>>

Bonham Street,

Queen's Road West,

Des Voeux Road West,... S

""

13

250 Junction of Peel Street and Caino Road.

Inch.

Water

6" Pipe.

Caine Road,...

43

Main.

""

"

A

Elgin Terrace,

Pechili Terrace,

""

Elgin Street,

A

Hollywood Road,

€40

Bonham Strand West, ...`

Possession Street,

9

12

33

""

""

"}

18 ""

وو

Wing Lok Street,

Morrison Street,

Connaught Road West,...... Shelley Street,

18

>>

21

21

9

6

"}

Graham Street,

9

9

""

""

Aberdeen Street,

Wellington Street, Queen's Road West,

Clear.

Slight deposit in sewers.

Clear.

Deposit in sewers more especially in Morrison Street and Connaught Road West.

Clear,

Disc valve at Outfall. Disc valve junction of Queen's Road Central and Welling- ton Street. Disc valve junction of Hillier Street and Wing Lok Street. Sewer sunk in places along Connaught Road West. Disc valve junction of Jervois Street and Mercer Street.

15

Hillier Street,

18

""

21

""

Deposit in sewers.

6

Bonham Strand,

>>

A

Jervois Street,

""

9

Mercer Street,

""

Burd Street,

9

,,

Gough Street,

Clear.

14

225 Robinson Road above

Water

6 Pipe.

Mosque Street,

St. Joseph's College.

4/1/2

Main.

6

وو

Shelley Street,

6

...

6

4 C. L.

Inverted

Syphon. Peel Street,.

Peel Street, Shelley Street, Caine Road,

› Clear.

>>

ཨེ ཨ ེ ལ

12

12

""

""

""

Caine Road,

Hill Road,

Bonham Road,

Queen's Road West,

:

...

Des Voeux Road West,.

681

Valve on Inverted Syphon at the junction of Shelley Street and Caine Road, used as a wash-out to Syphon. Disc valve at Outfall. Bonham Road Sewer troubled with roots from No. 2 Tank to Pokfulum Road.

Slight deposit in sewers.

}

PARTICULARS OF EXISTING FLUSHING SYSTEM,-Continued.

Sewer flushed by Tank.

General State of Sewers flushed.

Flatest

Street.

Flushing

Tank.

Size of

Auto-

Source

of

Situation.

matic

Water

l'apa-

Syphon

No.

city.

Gals.

Flusher.

Supply. Size. Gradients.

Inch.

15

245 Peak Road between I. L. 1146 and I. L. 1093.

4 3/2

Water

9" Pipe.

Main.

9

9

9

12

188

18

""

16

·

215 Opposite 34, Pottinger

Street, near Stanley

Street.

17

360 Junction of Caine Road and Arbuthnot Road.

Peak Road,

Garden Road,

320

Queen's Road Central,

Jackson Road,

Clear.

Des Voeux Road Central,Slight deposit in sewers. Queen Victoria Street,

Remarks.

Dise valve junction Garden Road and Queen's Road Central.

6

Water

6′′ Pipe.

Pottinger Street,

Main.

9

A

Stanley Street,

6

Cochrane Street,

33

Gutzlaff Street,..

9

Graham Street,

9

Inverted

Syphon

Queen's Road Central,

9

"

12

Inverted

Syphon.

Wing Wo Street,

Clear.

Des Voeux Road Central,. Deposit in sewers. Queen Victoria Street,

D'Aguilar Street,

Clear.

Disc valve junction Wing Wo Street and

· Queen's Road Central.

Disc valve junction Stanley Street and Pottinger Street.

Disc valve junction Ice House Street and Queen's Road Central.

Inverted Syphon junction of Queen's Road Central and Peel Street.

Inverted Syphon junction of Des Vœux Road Central and Jubilee Street.

18

39

18

>>

12

Ice House Street,

""

6

Water

Main.

9" Pipe.

Arbuthnot Road,

""

Hollywood Road,

Clear.

Aberdeen Street,

""

Wellington Street,

>>

Queen's Road West,

9

15.

18

21

...

Hillier Street,

""

""

"3

Bonham Strand,

Slight deposit in sewers.

9

>>

Jervois Street,

">

މވީ

Cleverley Street,

Mercer Street,

Burd Street,

682

Disc valve at Outfall.

Dise valve junction of Queen's Road West and Wellington Street.

Disc valve junction of Hillier Street and Wing Lok Street.

Disc valve junction of Jervois Street and Mercer Street.

і

9"

""

9

33

12

18

9

18

12

21

NN

21

""

10

""

""

""

25

240

...

380

Gough Street,

Possession Street,

Bonham Strand West, Wing Lok Street,

Des Voeux Road West,... Morrison Street, Connaught Road West,

Clear.

Deposit in sewers

more

especially in Morrison Street, Wing Lok St., and Connaught Road West.

Inch.

18 275

Wyndham Street near St. Paul's College.

6

Nullah.

9" Pipe.

Wyndham Street,

9

Wellington Street,

""

A

Clear.

9

D'Aguilar Street,

""

9

Queen's Road Central,

9

12

18

18

***

15

19

180

Macdonnell Road, west of Peak Tramway.

4호

Water

Main. 9

6′′ Pipe.

""

9

...

وو

9

Kennedy Road,.

Queen's Road Central,

Clear.

...

9

""

12

""

320

""

18

""

Disc valve junction of Ice House Street and Wyndham Street.

Disc valve junction of Ice House Street and Queen's Road Central.

Ice House Street,

Des Voeux Road Central,

Queen Victoria Street, .

Macdonnell Road,

Garden Road,

Jackson Road,

Des Voeux Road Central,

Queen Victoria Street,

Macdonnell Road,

Calder Path,

Slight deposit in sewers.

Slight deposit in sewers.

Disc valve junction of Garden Road and Queen's Road Central.

Disc valve junction of Garden Road and Queen's Road Central.

20

180 Macdonnell Road, east of Peak Tramway.

4/1/ Water

Main. 6

9

9

9

9

12

18

18

bonanON∞∞

6" Pipe.

>>

Kennedy Road,

""

Garden Road,

...

""

""

""

""

""

21

245 Garden Road, opposite I. L.

4 1/2

-IN

580.

Water

Main. 9

9′′ Pipe.

""

9

""

12

""

18

Clear.

683

320

Queen's Road Central, Jackson Road,

} Des Voeux Road Central,

Queen Victoria Street, ...

Garden Road,

Queen's Road Central, Jackson Road, ...

Des Voeux Road Central,

Queen Victoria Street, ...

Slight deposit in sewers.

Clear.

Slight deposit in sewers.

Disc valve junction of Garden Road and Queen's Road Central.

18

"

...

Flushing

Size of

Sewer flushed by Tank.

PARTICULARS OF EXISTING FLUSHING SYSTEM,-Continued.

Source

Tank.

No. city.

Gals.

Auto-

of

Situation.

matic

General State of Sewers flushed.

Water

Capa-

Syphon

Flatest

Flusher.

Supply. Size.

Street.

Gradients.

22

300

Kennedy Road near I. L. 1379 and I. L. 1390.

Inch.

Water

9" Pipe.

432

Main.

9

Kennedy Road,

Garden Road,

"3

9

""

Remarks.

Disc valve junction of Garden Road and Queen's Road Central.

684

Clear.

Queen's Road, Central,...

18

*9

12 "'"

18

""

""

Jackson Road,

320

Des Voeux Road, Central,

Slight deposit in sewers.

Queen Victoria Street,

23

215 Junction Chater Road and Murray Road.

6

Water

9′′ Pipe.

Chater Road,

Outfall requires clearing twice a week.

Main.

9

Wardley Street,.

""

9

Clear.

""

Connaught Road Central,

12

9

>>

Murray Road,

7

24

60 How Fung Lane end of Ship Street.

4/1/20

Water

6" Pipe.

How Fung Lane,

Disc valve at Outfall.

Clear.

Main. 9

Ship Street,

"3

25

75 Opposite 79 Stone Nullah

4/

Water

6" Pipe.

Stone Nullah Lane,

Clear.

Lane.

Main.

aaaa

Queen's Road East,

39

Ship Street,

Albany Street,

Bad Deposit in sewers.

""

Spring Gardens,

Disc valve at Ship Street Outfall. Disc valve at Heard Street Outfall. Inverted Syphon junction of Praya East and Tsing Kai Lane requires constant attention.

>>

Inverted Syphon. Praya East,

26

300

Stone Nullah Lane near Lung On Street.

4/1/20

Water

9" Pipe.

Main.

9

Stone Nullah Lane,

Clear.

a a

Wanchai Road,

""

246

46

| ( Syphon

Inverted Praya East,

Deposit in sewers.

Disc valve at Outfall, Ship Street. Disc valve at Outfall, Heard Street. Inverted Syphon junction Praya East and Tsing Kai Lane.

27

305 Bowrington Canal East op-

43

posite I. L. 746.

28

250

Junction of Matheson

Street & Bridge Street.

29

250

Race Course, Wong-nei- cheong.

Water 9" Pipe

Main. 9

Bowrington East,

Disc valve at Outfall.

Clear.

Praya, East,

ہنے

4/1/20

Water

Main. У

9

6" Pipe.

Disc valve at Outfall.

Matheson Street,

Clear.

""

Percival Street,

""

43

Water 9" Pipe. Main. 6

9

àoaa

Off Wong-nei-cheong Rd.,

Disc valve at Outfall.

""

Matheson Street,

Clear.

""

Percival Street,

""

Inch.

30

290

Jardine's Bazaar,

6

Water

9" Pipe. 231

Main.

9

...

Jardine's Bazaar, Praya East,

Disc valve at Outfall.

Deposit in sewers.

31

290

Yee Wo Street,

6

Water

9′′ Pipe.

Yee Wo Street,

Disc valve at Outfall.

...

Main. 9

...

""

9

""

Great George Street, Praya East,

Deposit in sewers.

32

250

Wong-nei-cheong, near F. L. 52.

4호

Water

9′′ Pipe.

Main. 6 >>

Off Wong-nei-cheong Rd.,

Disc valve at Outfall.

Matheson Street,

Clear.

...

Percival Street,

">

33

75

Shaukiwan Road,

4}

Nullah.

9" Pipe.

Shaukiwan Road,

Slight deposits.

Disc valve at Outfall.

34 215

Rear of No. 7 Po Hing Fong.

4

Nullah.

9" Pipe.

...

9

...

Po Hing Fong, Po Yan Street,

Disc valve at junction of Des Voeux Road West and Wing Lok Street.

9

...

""

...

9

12

""

380

New Street,

Queen's Road West,

Queen's Street, ...

Des Voeux Road West,...

[Note. The lengths of sewers mentioned in this list are these which are flushed by the Flushing Tanks or might be by inserting dise valves, to divert the flow from one length into another.]

Clear.

-685

APPENDIX B.

City of Victoria, Hongkong.

PROPOSED ADDITIONAL TANKS TO FLUSHING SYSTEM.

Remarks.

This Tank was constructed in the latter end of 1903 and has been working since that time. The Tank formed a part of the proposed additions to the Flushing System. Inverted syphon taken out at the junc- tion of Des Voeux Road Central and Pedder Street.

$1,650.00

This Tank will flush the Des Voeux Road sewer east and west of Water Street. It is proposed to take out the syphon under the Shek-tong-tsui Nullah.

It is proposed to put Cowper's Tank in repair.

Flushing

Tank.

Sewers flushed.

Type

Supply

Situation.

of

of Water

Capa.

Flusher.

from

No. city.

Gals.

Size.

Flatest

Gradients.

Estimated

cost of

Tank, &c.

Street.

Inch.

6,200 Garden Road near Volun- teer Headquarters.

Dise.

Valve.

Albany Nullah. 9′′ Pipe.

9

...

Garden Road,

Queen's Road Central,

12

1 in 320

>>

Des Voeux Road Central,.

18.

18

Queen Victoria Street, ......

""

12

1 in 655

Queen's Road Central,

Cost with

connections,

$3,847.64.

"3

12

1 in 360

Arsenal Street,

>>

12

1 in 360

Praya East,

9

Jackson Road,

24,000 Junction of Water Street and Battery Road.

Dise

Valve.

Water Street

Nullah.

9" Pipe.

Water Street,

9

35

12

} 480 410, 340

Des Voeux Road West,

$1,650.00

""

15

1 in 440

>>

15

French Street,

...

""

34,000 | Cowper's Tank.

Junction of Centre Street and Bonham Road.

Disc

Valve.

Oatlands Park

Nullah.

9" Pipe.

Centre Street,

12

15

15

9

12

15

20002 O

...

1 in 445

::

...

""

}

Des Voeux Road West,

...

French Street,

""

...

Queen's Road West,

""

''

...

""

...

}

4 8,000 Blake Gardens adjoining Station Street.

Disc

Valve.

Tank supplying

9′′ Pipe.|

Blake Gardens

(Subsoil Water). 9

aaaaaa

""

""

""

9

""

""

Eastern Street,

Taipingshan Street, East Street,

Taiping Lane,

West Street,

Upper Station Street,

Pound Lane,

Possession Street,

...

""

This Tank will be capable of flushing a

large number of sewers by the intro- duction of disc valves.

686

:

12

18

9

""

...

""

""

18

>>

21

""

21

>>

9

1 in 240

"3

12

1 in 380

"}

A

Possession Street,

...

...

::

Hollywood Road, Wing Lok Street, Morrison Street,

Connaught Road West, Bonham Strand West,

Des Voeux Road West,... Upper Lascar Row, Lascar Row,

Queen's Road, West,.. Bonham Strand,

Hillier Street,

Square Street, Ladder Street, Jervois Street,

9.

12

9

""

""

""

...

15

>>

18

21

""

9

,,

...

9

وو

""

""

5 6,000 Junction of Pottinger

Disc Street and Hollywood valve. Road.

Storm-water

9′′ Pipe.

drain in

9

Hollywood Rd.

9

రా రా

,,

9

"3

A

15

""

18

21

6

55

...

1 in 230

...

Cleverley Street,

$2,640.00

It is proposed to fix the following disc valves:-

Junction of Taiping Lane and Taiping- shan Street.

Junction of East Street and Taiping- shan Street.

Junction of West Street and Taiping- shan.

Junction of Upper Station Street and Taipingshan.

Junction of Bonham Strand West and Possession Street.

Junction of East Street and Holly- wood Road.

Junction of East Street and Lascar Row.

Junction of Jervois Street and Mor-

rison Street.

Junction of Jervois Street and Clever- ley Street,

Pottinger Street,

Wellington Street,

Queen's Road West,

...

Hillier Street,

Bonham Strand,

Jervois Street,

Mercer Street,

Burd Street, Stanley Street, Cochrane Street, Gutzlaff Street,

Graham Street,

Queen's Road Central, Wing Wo Street,

Des Voeux Road Central,.

Man Wa Lane,

Queen Victoria Street, D'Aguilar Street, Ice House Street,

...

> $2,365.00

This Tank will be capable of flushing a lagre number of sewers by the use of disc valves in the following places :-- Junction Pottinger Street and Well- ington Street.

Junction Pottinger Street and Stanley Street.

Junction Cochrane Street and Stanley Street.

Junction Gutzlaff Street and Stanley Street.

Junction Wing Wo Street and Des Voeux Road Central.

Junction Cross Street and Wing Lok Street.

Junction Wellington Street & Queen's Road West.

Junction Jervois Street and Bonham Strand.

Junction Jervois Street and Mercer Street.

Junction Burd Street and Mercer Street.

12

9

18

12

aaaaaoaaaang24642

""

""

...

""

...

,,

...

""

""

""

""

""

...

29

}

...

9

...

>>

""

687

PROPOSED ADDITIONAL TANKS TO FLUSHING SYSTEM,-Continued.

Remarks.

This Tank will do away with two small tanks in Stone Nullah Lane and will flush the sewers in a very dirty coal depôt district.

Disc valves will be required at :-

Junction of Queen's Road East and Albany Street.

Junction of Queen's Road East and Spring Garden Lane.

Junction of Wanchai Road and Tsing Kai Lane.

Junction of Wanchai Road and Praya East.

Flushing

Tank.

Sewers flushed.

Type

Supply

Situation.

of

Capa-

Flusher.

of Water

from

Size.

No. city.

Flatest

Gradients.

Estimated

cost of

Tank, &c.

Street.

Gals.

6 | 4,000

Stone Nullah Lane near Lung On Street.

Disc

valve.

Stone Nullah Lane Nullah

6′′ Pipe.

9

9

>>

9

6

6

6

""

""

Stone Nullah Lane,

...

Queen's Road East,

Albany Street,

***

Spring Garden Lane,

1 in 240

Ship Street,

$2,365.00

Praya East,

Wanchai Road,

...

""

Tsing Kai Lane,

Cross Street,

688

No. 1905

8

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF VICTORIA GAOL, FOR THE YEAR 1904.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

A

PRISON DEPARTMENT, HONGKONG, 31st January, 1905.

SIR, I have the honour to submit, for the information of His Excellency the Governor, the following report on the Victoria Gaol and the Branch Prison (Belilios Reformatory) for the year 1904.

2. The number of prisoners committed to prison under sentence from the Ordinary Courts was 7,305, besides 95 soldiers and sailors sentenced by Courts Martial. There were 64 prisoners admitted for debt, making a total of 7,464.. The corresponding numbers for the preceding year were as follows:--

Convicted by the Ordinary Courts, Convicted by Courts Martial, Debtors,....

Total,...

7,144

74

55

7,273

There was thus an increase of 191 in 1904 on the total number for the previous year. The number of prisoners convicted from the New Territories was 80.

3. The following table shows the number of convicts confined in the Victoria Gaol on the 31st December, for the past ten years:-

Year.

No. of Convicts.

Percentage to Estimated

Year.

No. of Convicts.

Population.

Percentage to Estimated Population.

1895

46

·018

1900

141

*053

1896

40

•016

1901

180

*059

1897

51

*020

1902

215

*068

1898

55

•021

1903

245

075

1899

96

*037

1904

243

·067

"

19

""

**

4. The number of prisoners admitted to prison for offences not of a criminal nature was 3,278 made up as follows:

}

Convicted under the Opium Ordinance,

Gambling Market

99

....

1,186

218

257

Arms

14

>>

""

Vehicle

109

"}

39.

"

وو.

Sanitary Bye-laws,

273

22

""

""

Harbour Regulations,

240

J

for Drunkenness,

111

99

Trespassing,

40

""

""

Disorderly Conduct,

229

29

19

Vagrancy,

100

>>

Contempt of Court,

6

""

Assault,

188

"}

Obstruction,

102

""

>>

Cutting trees,.

30

Fighting,

55

""

Mendicancy,

11

Total,

.3.278

98

5. The following table shows the number of convicted prisoners committed to prison without the option of a fine and in default of payment of fine:-

Imprisonment without the option of fine.

2,997

Imprisonment in default of payment of fine.

Served the imprisonment.

Paid full

fine.

1,846

855

Total.

Paid part

fine.

873

6,571

6. Seventeen deaths occurred during the year and one birth. (in Female

Prison).

7. There were no executions during the year.

8. Fifty juveniles were admitted during the year, 34 of whom were sentenced to be detained 48 hours and to be whipped, the remainder were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment.

9. There were 798 punishments for breach of prison discipline during the year, as compared with 1,530 for the preceding year. There were three cases in which corporal punishment was awarded, two of which were (with the birch rod) sentenced by the Assistant Superintendent alone, and one with the cat-o'-nine-tails by the same officer in conjunction with a Justice of the Peace. (See Appendices I to IV.)

10. The percentage of prisoners admitted to prison with previous convictions recorded against them to the total number of admission, was 12.26, as compared with 15.92 for the year 1903.

11. The following table shows the daily average number of prisoners under- going imprisonment during the past ten years with the percentage to the estimated population of the Colony of Hongkong:

Year.

Estimated popula- tion of Hongkong.

Daily average number of

Percentage.

prisoners.

1895

248,498

472

*189

1896

239,419

514

•214

1897

248,710

462

•185

1898

254,400

511

•200

1899

259,312

432

•166

1900

262,678

486

•185

1901

300,660

499

•165

1902

311,824

576

•184

1903

325,631

653

•200

1904

361,206

726

•201

12. Owing to the overcrowded state of the Victoria Gaol it was again neces- sary, on account of the inadequate cell accommodation, to locate as many as three hundred prisoners in the corridors. The store rooms over the Hospital had also to be used as association wards during the greater part of the year.

13. For 241 days during the year the daily population of the Victoria Gaol varied between 600 and 834 prisoners, and on 96 days of that period the numbers

were over 700.

14. The daily average of prisoners in the Branch Prison was 74 during the year under review.

My

*

:

99

15. From Appendix V, which shows the expenditure and income of the Gaol for the year, it will be seen that the average cost per prisoner was $104.77, compared with $108.92 for 1903. The principal item towards reducing this cost was the prisoners' earnings amounting to $33,507.79, the corresponding sum in 1903 having been $31,488.61. Appendix VI shows how the amount of $33,507.79, was made up from the various industries and was the difference between the value of articles manufactured or work done ($53,449.84) and the expenditure of materials ($19,942.05). The sum of $53,449.84 comprised amounts of $5,512.01 which has been or will be paid into the Bank and $47,938.13 for work done for the Gaol and Government Departments which if it had not been carried out by the prisoners would have had to be paid for to contractors. Appendix VII gives details with regard to the former sum, and Appendices VIII and IX with regard to the latter amount. Appendix X shows the average daily employment of all prisoners and the value of their labour. Appendix XI shows the basis on which the value is calcutated.

16. All minor repairs to the prison have been carried out by prison labour.

17. Appendix XII shows the number of casualties in the staff, exclusive of the clerical establishment, during the year. The conduct of the staff has been good.

18. I returned from leave of absence on 18th March, from which date I resumed charge of the prison. I introduced the system of identification by finger impressions in the Victoria Gaol immediately on my return and now all criminals have their finger prints taken on admission to prison.

19. Mr. R. H. A. CRAIG, the Assistant Superintendent, resumed the immedi- ate charge of the prison on his return to the Colony on the 8th December. Mr. CRAIG took up the study of the Finger Print system at New Scotland Yard while on leave.

The Honourable F. H. MAY, C.M.G.,

Colonial Secretary.

I have, &c.,

F. J. BADELEY,

Superintendent.

e

Date.

Average Number of Pri-

soners in Goal.

:

Appendix I.

RETURN OF OFFENCES PUNISHED BY FLOGGING IN THE YEAR 1904.

Table showing the Number of Floggings' awarded.

Table showing the Number of Strokes awarded in each case.

By Prison Authorities.

By Assistant

Superinten-

dent only.

By Assistant Superintend- ent & a Justice

of the Peace.

By Courts.

Total.

By Judge. By Magistrate.

4

CO

6

8 10 12 20

21

24

Total.

January,

681

3

12

15

February,

681

3

11

14

...

1

...

March,

635

1

13

14

...

3

I∞

2

1

10 42

5

4

8

...

...

1 3 ∞

April,

663

4

4

...

...

...

...

:

May,

690

1

...

1

7

June,

729

2

...

...

July,

761

10

13

...

August, ...

822

8

8

4

...

...

September,

847

4

...

...

October,

813

5

5

...

...

...

November,

714

4

4

...

...

...

...

...

December,

671

1

4

8

13

...

4

2

4

1

1

2

3

1

5

4

...

2

7

1

...

...

...

...

3

15

3

14

14

4

7

2

...

10

13

...

8

4

5

·4

4

13

...

...

Total,.

8,707

2

1

21

79

· 103

1

8

4

23

44

1

1

21

103

· 100

101

Appendix II.

Return of Offences reported of Prisoners fighting with or assaulting each other, or Officers, for the years 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903 and 1904.

1900.

1901.

MONTH,

Daily average Daily average

1902. Daily average

number in

Prison, 486.

number in Prison, 499.

number in Prison, 576.

1903.

1904.

number in

Daily average Daily average

number in

Prison, 653. | Prison, 725.

January, February,

1

5

March,...

7

2010:

3

April,

10

5

May,

3

4

June,

3

11

July,

3

2

August,

6

1

September,

6

1

October,

7

November,

1

1

December,

3

7

2426 30 LO

2

5

Total,..

43

28

64

56

24

24

}

Appendix III.

Return of Offences of Prisoners having Tobacco, for the years 1900, 1901,

MONTH.

1902, 1903, and 1904.

Daily average Daily average Daily average

1904.

Daily average

1900.

1901.

1902.

1903. Daily average

number in Prison, 486.

number in Prison, 499.

number in Prison, 576.

number in Prison, 653.

number in Prison, 725.

3

1

2

2

1

3

2

1.

1

1

1

1

2

1

...

4

2

5

3

3

1

2

4842N

5

January,

Î

February,

March,

4

April,

1

May,

2

June,

July,

2

August,

September,

October,

November,

December,

2

∞ - NN − − ∞ ∞ ∞ — CO co

Total,

19

24

223

12

24

102

Appendix IV.

Return of Reports for talking, idling, short oakum picking, &c., for the years

1900, 1901, 1902, 1903 and 1904.

1900.

1901.

1902.

1903.

1904.

MONTH.

Daily average Daily average

number in Prison, 486.

number in Prison, 499.

Daily average Daily average number in number in Prison, 576. | Prison, 653.

Daily avreage

number in

Prison, 725.

January,

58

164

117

89

49

February,

97

126

76

80

38

March,..

82

127

113

103

61

April,

73

214

134

87

33

May,

90

224

63

82

56

June,

90

124

88

77

42

:

July,

138

162

105

100

44

August,

163

166

92

88

40

September,

159

140

114

108

44

October,

201

162

133

163

48

November,

135

156

101

142

30

December,

127

54

98

161

55

Total,......

1,413

1,819

1,234

1,280

540

Appendix V.

Return showing Expenditure and Income for the Year 1904.

Expenditure.

Amount.

Income.

Amount.

C.

Pay and Allowances of Officers, in-

76,397.71

cluding uniforms, &c.,

Victualling of prisoners,

21,605.41

Value of Earnings of prisoners, Paid by Military for subsistence of

Military prisoners,

$ 33,507.79

C.

1,617.30

Fuel, light, soap and dry earth,

9,158.12

Paid by Navy for subsistence of

1,473.30

Clothing of prisoners, bedding, fur-

niture, &c.,......

}

6,090.24

Naval prisoners,

Debtors' subsistence,

529.50

Waste food sold,

58.75

Actual cost of prisoners' maintenance,] 76,064.84

Total,.......... $ 113,251.48

Total,$ 113,251.48

Average Annual Cost per prisoner, $104.77.

1

.

i

Appendix VI.

RETURN SHOWING VALUE OF INDUSTRIAL LABOUR, FOR THE YEAR 1904.

1

Value of Stock on band on

January 1st,

1904.

2

Value of

Material

purchased.

3

4

5

6

Value of Arti-[Value of Arti-Value of Stock cles manufac- cles manufac- on hand on

7

Total Dr.

tured or work

done for

payment.

tured or work done for Gaol

December 31st,

Total Cr.

1904.

and other

Nature of Industry.

Departments.

8

Value of

Earnings

(Difference between Col-

umins 7 & 3).

$

C.

$

C.

$

C.

$

C.

Oakum,.

627.00

2,132.46

2,759.46

983.35

$P C.

-2,463.75

C.

$

C.

3,447.13

687.67

Coir,

482.22

1,339.13

1,821.35

2,510.09

206-70

419.01

3,135.80

1,314.45

Net-making,

11.98

63.91

75.89

387.34

20.91

408.25

332.36

Tailoring,

195.56

2,850.25

3,045.81

253.72

2,983.44

151.38

3,388.54

342.73

Rattan-work,

4.87

27.70

32.57

20.88

23.64

6.82

51.34

18.77

Tin-smelting,

4.63

148.53

153.16

64.82

245.47

10.26

320.55

167.39

Carpentry,

63.36

543.64

607.00

540.38

345.22

213.36

1,098.96

491 96

Grass-matting,

7.75

100.50

101.25

6.80

141.46

3.00

151,26

50.01

Shoe-making,

160.93

2,830.61

2,991.54

407.98

2,616.80

335.10

3,359.88

868.34

Laundry,...

10.00

1,226.18

1,236.18

12,823.26

17.00

12,840.26

11,604.08

Printing and Bookbinding

5,426.50

7,177.29

12,603.79

336.32

28,552.14

1,845.36

30,733.82

18,130.03

Totals,

6,987.80

18,440.20 25,428.00

5,511.71

47,938.13

5,485.95

58,935.79 33,507.79

103

*

:

:

104

Appendix VII.

Return showing value of articles manufactured or work done for which payment has been

received or for which accounts have been rendered during the

year 1904.

DEPARTMENT.

DESCRIPTION OF ARTICLE.

AMOUNT.

TOTAL.

$

cts.

cts.

Oakum,

By 5,930 lbs. Oakum @ 10 cents per fb, Picking Oakum for Naval Yard,

593

358

58

00

12

Making sword matting,....

32

26

983

38

Coir,

Mats sold 1,950 lbs. @ 20 cents,

390

""

repaired,

2

Matting sold 10,586 tbs. @ 20 cents, ...

2,117

Net-making,

32 Tennis nets at a

$6.64 each,

146

""

7 Boundary nets

54 sq. ft. @ 2 cts.

238

Repairs &c.,

2

28: **8

00.

87

22

2,510

09

08

62

64

387

34

Tailoring,

Articles made & repairs for Gaol Officers,

253

72

253

72

Rattan Work,

47 Chairs rattanned,

16

"

Various,

Tinsmithing,

Articles made,

63

""

repaired,

1

Carpentering,

Articles made,

516

""

Grass-matting,

""

Shoemaking,

repaired,

49 lbs. mats and matting @ 12 cents, Repairs,

4 pairs canvas boots @ $2.60,

24

LO

5

:

Printing and Book-

binding,

6

80

10

40

leather

4.50,

31

50

""

""

6

"

canvas shoes

2.45,

14 70

leather shoes

3.50,

3

50

""

""

12

childrens' shoes

2.00,

24

00

1

""

99

white 1.00,

4

00

88

""

Repairs,

,, Printing...

Bookbinding,

319

8999

69 77

266

233

10

88

407

98

55

336

32

5,511

71

233 88982888

12

76

20

88

49

64

82

35

03

540

38

Paid into Bank during 1904 which sum includes $94.14 for work executed in 1903,

Value of work executed during 1904 for

which payment was deferred to 1905,...

5,350

38

255

77

105

Appendix VIII.

Return showing the value of articles manufactured or work done on account of the Gaol and other Departments during the year 1904.

Coir.

Industry.

Value.

Department.

Remarks.

$5 C.

Gaol,

Police, Gaol,

108 00 9870

Mats, matting and brushes.

at 20 cents. per

lb.

2.983 44

Tailoring,

Rattan work,

Grass-matting

Clothing & repairs & Bed- ding for Gaol at fixed scale.

23 64 Various. Cost of materal

245 47

17

247 91

.་

Police,

97 31

141 46

Shoemaking,

Fire B

Sanitary

Laundry,

Gaol,

5,634

Government

80

plus per centage. Varions. Fixed scale. Various. Partly fixed scale partly cost of material plus percentage.

Mats and matting at 12 cents per lb. and repairs. Boots & shoes made and repaired at fixed scale of prices.

Officers 266,180 pieces

cents.

63 Prisoners-281,731 pieces

at 2 cents.

Civil Hospital, 1,865 04 Prisoners 93,252 pieces

at 2 cents.

Printing & Bookbind,

See Appendix

IX, 28,552 14

$47,93813

106

Appendix IX.

Return showing the value of work performed in the Printing Department on account of the Gaol and other Departments during the year 1904.

Department.

Number of Forms printed.

Number of Books

bound.

Printing.

Book- binding.

Total.

C.

Government House,.

2,588

2

27.40

C. 1.30

C.

Colonial Secretary's Office,.

19,962

173

808.60

85.70

28.70 894.30

Registar General's Office,

134,978

1,016

1,284.00

178.20

1,562.20

Public Works Department,.

139,642

849

1,210.50.

332.55

1,543.05

Harbour Departinent,

287,572

1,197

3,283.00

300.94

3,583.94

Treasury,

208,990

1,183

1,397.50

185.50

1,582

Sanitary Board,

424,408

2,835

3,844.20

417.60

General Post Office,

868,897

2,237

5,475.90

442

Police Department,

338,645

3,050

2,859.30

Magistracy,

78,035

268

823.00

Government Civil Hospital,..

126,550

297

Supreme Court,

29,073

143

Land Court,

107,563

Land Office,

29,150

Botan. & Aforestn. Department,.

18.10

.20

1,272.20

288.50

41.00

176.65

Queen's College,.

Bacteriological Department,.

Prison Department,

Education Department

Audit Department, ́

Stamp Office,

Assessor's Office,.

1.00

14.40

48.50

46.50

295.00

67.00

3.20

70.20

26

125.50

24.40

149.90

2

33.00

1.50

34.50

00

14

305.50

5.00

310.50

15,187

23

'115.00

34.00

149.00

Magistracy, Tai Po,

7,075

83

69.50

47.50

117.00

Health Officer's Office,

1,750

15:00

15.00

Observatory,

23,500

133.50

133.50

Attorney General's Office;

.30

30

2.00

6.00

8.00

Crown Solicitor's Office,.

1,250

9.50

9.50

Hongkong Volunteer Corps,

2,112

2

26.00

3.50

29.50

2,999,710

13,976

24,924.45

3,627.69

28,552.14

:

107

Appendix X.

Return showing the Employment of Prisoners and the Value of their Labour

during the year 1904.

Daily Average Number of Prisoners.

Value

Description of Employment..

of Prison

Males.

Females. Total. Labour.

SUNDAYS, CHRISTMAS DAY AND GOOD FRIDAY,—

C.

Cooking,

Cleaning,

Non-Productive,

595

22893

10

64.80

10

1

::

59.40

35

651

Debtors, Remands, On punishment, Sick, Crank, shot, shot and stone,

136

3398

60

136

89998

60

IN MANUFACTURES,-

Book-binding,

39

Printing,

39

Printing, Labourers,.....

12

5883

39

1,819.34

39

1,819.34

12

373.20

Knitting,

Oakum Picking,

...

144

10

NO

2

2

28.60

154

880.88

Coir Matting,

Grass Matting,

Shoe-making,

34

34

972.40

3

3

25.74

18

18

617.76

Bricklaying,

Painting,

Tailoring,

Net-making, string-making and ship's fender-making,

IN BUILDING,

Carpentering and Fitting,

In Service oF THE PRISON,-

14

10

24

1,029.60

15

...

15

214.50

1

13

13

2

**2

1

42.90 594.88

57.20

Laundry,

Cooking,

Cleaning,

Hospital Cleaners,

White-washing,

47

12

59

2,531.10

10

10.

373.20

23

2

25

715.00

3

3

85.80

2

2

57.20

615

36

338

651

12,362.84

Appendix XI.

Return showing the Basis upon which the Value of Earnings of

Prisoners is calculated.

IN MANUFACTORIES.

Bookbinding,

RATE.

......

.15 cents per diem,

Printing,

Printer's labourers,

Knitting,

Oakum picking,

15

"

.10

5

2

Coir matting,

.10

Grass matting,.

3

"2

Shoemaking,

.12

""

Tailoring,

..15

""

Net making, string, & fender making, 5

29

IN BUILDING,

Bricklaying,

15

"

Carpentering and Fitting,, Painting,

.16

..10

24

IN SERVICE OF THE PRISON.

Laundry,

Cooking,

Cleaning,

Hospital cleaner,

Whitewashing,

15

""

.12

"1

.10

""

..10

..10

">

Note-These rates are inclusive of lodging, board and clothing.

Establish-

ment.

Resigned

voluntarily.

108.

Appendix XII.

Return showing the number of Casualties in the Gaol Staff during the

year 1904.

-Pensioned.

Europeans,

Indians,.....

34

3

65

I

2

5

5

9

This does not include the Superintendent, Assistant Superintendent or Cleri-

cal Staff.

Died.

Trans-

1

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE HABBOUR MASTER, FOR THE YEAR 1904.

23

No. 1905

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

HARBOUR DEPARTMENT,

HONGKONG, 23rd March, 1905..

SIR, I have the honour to forward the Annual Report for this Department for the year ending 31st December, 1904.

I. Number, Tonnage, Crews and Cargoes of Vessels entered.

H. Number, Tonnage, Crews and Cargoes of Vessels cleared.

III. Number, Tonnage, Crews and Cargoes of Vessels entered at each

Port.

IV. Number, Tonnage, Crews and Cargoes of Vessels cleared at each

Port.

V. Number, Tonnage, and Crews of Vessels of each Nation entered. VI. Number, Tonnage, and Crews of Vessels of each Nation cleared. VII. Junks entered from China and Macao.

VIII. Junks cleared for China and Macao.

IX. Total number of Junks entered at cach Port.

X. Total number of Junks cleared at each Port.

XI. Junks (Local Trade) entered.

XII. Junks (Local Trade) cleared.

XIII. Summary of Arrivals and Departures of all Vessels.

XIV. Licensed Steam Launches entered.

XV. Licensed Steam Launches cleared.

XVI. Vessels registered.

XVII. Vessels struck off the Register.

XVIII. Chinese Passenger Ships cleared by the Emigration Officer

(Summary.)

XIX. Vessels bringing Chinese Passengers to Hongkong from places out

of China (Summary).

XX. Marine Magistrate's Court.

XXI. Diagram of Tonnage of Vessels entered.

XXII. Stateinent of Revenue collected.

XXIII. Return of Work performed by the Government Marine Surveyor. XXIV. Return from Import and Export (Opium) Office.

SHIPPING.

1. The total Tonnage entering and clearing during the year 1904, exclusive of Steam Launches in Local Trade, amounted to 24,754,042 tons, being an increase, compared with 1903, of 714,180 tons, and the highest tonnage yet recorded.

There were 58,093 arrivals of 12,388,892 tons, and 58,099 departures of 12,365,150 tons.

Of British Ocean vessels, 2,162 ships of 3,862,802 tons entered, and 2,156 ships of 3,845,932 tons cleared.

Of British River Steamers, 2.937 ships of 2,849,896 tons entered and 2,935 ships of 2,847,464 tons cleared."

C

1

444

Of Foreign Ocean Vessels, 1,845 ships of 2,679,908 tons entered and 1,851 ships of 2,670,939 tons cleared.

Of Foreign River Steamers, 517 ships of 235,144 tons entered and 519 ships of 235,227 tons cleared.

Of Steam Launches in Foreign Trade 1,027, of 52,892 tons entered and 1,027 of 52,892 tons cleared.

Of Junks in Foregin Trade, 18,100 of 1,524,874 tons entered and 18,151 of 1,547,396 tons cleared.

Of Junks in Local Trade, 31,505 of 1,183,376 tons entered and 31,460 of 1,165,300 tons cleared.

Thus:-

British Ocean Tonnage represented

Foreign British River

Foreign

""

:)

31.2%

21.3%

""

"

""

23.1%

31

1.9%

.5%

??

Local

11

;)

12.5%

9.5%

100.0%

Steam Launches in Foreign trade

Junks

:9

2. 7,435 Steamers, 26 Sailing vessels, 1,027 Steam Launches, and 18,100 Juuks in Foreign Trade, entering during the year, giving a daily average of 70, as against 68 in 1903.

For vessels of European construction, exclusive of Steam Launches, the daily average was 20.36 against 19.9 in 1903.

3. A comparison between the years 1903 and 1904 is given in the following Table:-

Comparative Shipping Return for the Years 1903 and 1904.

1903.

1904.

Increase.

Decrease.

British,.. Foreign,

Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tounage. Ships. Tonnage.

8,449 11,250,296 |10,190 13,406,094| 1,741 2,155,798| 6,040 7,768,115 4,732|| 5,821,218

1,308 1,946,897

Junks in Foreign

Trade,

31,766

2.698.459 36,251| 3,072,270 | 4,485

373,811

Total,

46,255 21,716,870 51.173 22.299.582|| 6,2262,529,609 1,308 | 1,946,897

Junks in Local

Trade,

*

*

58,215 2,136,514 62,965 2,348,676 4,750 212,162

Grand Total,... 101,470 23,853,384 114,138 24,648,258 10,976 2,741,771 1,308 1,946,897

NET,

9,668 794,874

* Including 17,210 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 637,052 tons.

† Including 32,424 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 1,176,625 tons.

For vessels under the British Flag, this Table shows an increase of 1,741 ships of 2,155,798 tons, of which 1,389 Ships of 1,225,498 tone are River Steam-

ers.

The remainder, 352 ships of 930,300 tons, are a net increase in British Ocean vessels, due to a large influx of Colliers and other Tramp Steamers in ballast, attracted to the Far East by the War.

The increase in River Steamers is due to the fact that 10 new vessels started to ply during the year.

In vessels under Foreign flags, there is a decrease of 1,305 ships of 1,946,897 tons, of which 159 ships are River Steainers. The River Steamer tonnage, how- ever, shows an increase of 36,00 tons, giving a net decrease in Foreign Ocean shipping of 1,149 ships of 1,910,889 tons.

445

www.m

This decrease is due to:-

(i) The disappearance of all Russians and almost all Japanese ships from

the run since the war began.

(ii) A large number of small German and Norwegian vessels being

transferred to the Japanese Coast Trade.

(iii) A considerable decrease in numbers (but increase in tonnage) of

vessels under U.S.A. colours.

The decrease in numbers of Foreign River Steamers is due to the smaller number of individual vessels plying, while the increased tonnage is accounted for by the larger size of those left.

5. The actual number of ships of European construction (exclusive of River Steamers and Steam Launches) entering during 1904 was 885, being 509 British, and 376 Foreign.

These 885 ships entered 4,007 times, and gave a total tonnage of 6,543,710 Thus, compared with 1903, 144 more ships entered 12 times less, and with a total tonnage decreased by 466,471 tons.

tons.

STEAMERS.

Ships.

No. of Times entered.

Total Tonnage.

Flag.

1903. 1904. | 1903. | 1904.

1903. 1904.

British,

331

498

1,9822,151 3,368,788 3,843,355

• Austrian,

15

13

42

Belgian,

1

32 1

106,944 102,349

2,047

Chinese,

14

15

172

180

222,164 241,085

Danish,

8

4

27

13

48,676 26,817

Dutch,

11

9

21

44

34,575 84,379

French,

42

36

262

238

246,837 234,977

German,

126

147

937

861 1,345,567 1,268,835

Italian,...

3

6

12

Japanese,.

69

30

467

20 32,732 38,212 51 1,017,263 114,951

Norwegian,

51

60

318 253 319,685

276,211

Portuguese,.

1

4 30

53

Russian,

9

Spanish,

Swedish,

*4

524

19

7.110 30,781

12.167

14,578

2

6,017

United States,.

24

24

No Flag,

1

1

:ཙལ

31

12

26,093 8,582

61

64

200,706| 232,857

2

1

1,260

2,500

Total,

709 859 4,383 3,981 7,009,181 6,509,919

SAILING VESSELS.

Ships.

No. of Times entered.

Total Tonnage.

Flag.

1903. | 1904. 1903. | 1904.

1903.

1904.

British,

13

11

14

11

Dutch,

1

French,

4

German,

Italian,. Japanese,

212

41

4

1.

1

2

212

7,194

27,525 19,447 84 3,444

2,045

47

994

1

1

120

Norwegian,

1

Sarawak,

1

NA

2

1

NN

1.498

3,651

2.676

1,338

Swedish,

1

1,271

...

United States.....

9

4

4

11,177

No Flag,

1

1

1

1,498

2.867

919

Total,

32

25

36

26

55,004

32,791

1

་;

446

6. The 509 British vessels carried 3,786 British Officers and 51 Foreign Officers, as follows:-

British, Dutch,

Norwegian,

United States, French,

Swedish,

Total,

3,786 2

2

45

1

1

.3,837

Thus, the proportion of Foreign Officers in British ships was 1.07 per cent. comprising five nationalities. An increase of 0.18 per cent., with an increase of ships.

The 376 Foreign ships carried 2,764 Officers, of which 183 were British, borne as follows:-

In Chinese Ships,

United States,.

""

Japanese,

French,

""

Belgian,

Total,

98

18

60

3

4

183

The proportion of British Officers in Foreign ships was, therefore, 6.62 per cent., distributed among five nationalities. A decrease of 2.68 per cent. with a decrease of ships.

CREWS.

IN BRITISH VESSELS.

IN FOREIGN VESSELS.

17.8% were British.

Other European. Asiatic.

71.3%

Asiatic.

""

1.9%

81.2%

1.8° were British.

26.9% Other European.

This shows a slight increase of British and Other European in British vessels and Other European in Foreign vessels, with a slight falling off in the proportion of Asiatic.

TRADE.

7. Once more it is necessary to call attention to the want of accuracy in the returns under this heading. There being no Custom House in the Colony, it is impossible for accurate returns to be compiled, but the information given by the Officers and Agents of ships might with advantage be of a fuller and more detailed description. It is true that I am empowered to call for copies of manifests of cargo imported, but, so long as the favourite and comprehensive term "Case of Merchandise" continues to be employed, such manifest will not help us much, while to deal with the various weights and measures of the cases, &c., as entered in the manifests, would require a very much larger staff than we now possess. it is, the returns are compiled by the Assistant Harbour Master, from information given by the Officers of the ships, or, in some cases the Agents. It frequently happens that the Officer giving the information is ignorant of the existence on board of certain items which it is imperative should be reported, e.g., Dangerous Goods.

As

This being so, I do not consider it necessary to say more on this subject than that, from these perfunctory reports, it appears that:

""

12.

360,742

""

16.0%

Import Cargo has increased by 167,229 tons, or 4.2% Export Transit Cargo has increased by 276,976 tons, or 9.6% Bunker Coal shipped decreased

10,065, 1.6%

""

447

8. The total reported Import Trade of the Port for 1904 amounted to 26,588 vessels of 11,205,516 tons, carrying 7,889,978 tons of cargo, of which 4,738,052 tous were discharged at Hongkong. This does not include the number, tonnage, or cargo of Junks, or Steam Launches employed in Local Trade.

Cargo.

Canada,...

Country.

CLASS I.

Continent of Europe,.

Great Britain,

Mauritius,

United States of America,

CLASS II.

Australia and New Zealand,

India and Straits Settlements, Japan,

Java and Indian Archipelago, North & South Pacific, Russia-in-Asia,..

CLASS III.

North Borneo,

Coast of China,

Cochin-China,

...

Formosa,

Philippine Islands,

Hainan and Gulf of Tonkin,

Siam,....

Kiaochow,

Weihai wei,

Macao,

Ships.

Tons.

Discharged. In Transit.

25 74,024 15,062

500

113

260

352,335 94,506 323,409 739,253 320,546 950,856

1

131

1,329 2,000

478,291

286,378 147,649

530 1,645,232 718,492 1,422,414

45 85,050 55,283 33,165 232 542,597 322,326 378,892 393 1,213,452 986,803 487,470 137 230,298 294,443 116,725

3 1,024 690

19,273 10,500 16,987

...

819 2,091,694 1,670,045 1,033,239

36 59,754 73,430 1,100 1,421 1,585,760 344,026 567,250

201

218,685 304,163' 56,330 101 87,406 22,306 248 311,008 77,015 331 229,006 218,287

285

305,738 513,725

...

13,788

53,005 4,800

...

35

8,427 2,616

...

2,658| 2,805,784 1,555,568 696,273

CLASS IV.

River Steamers,-Canton, Macao and West River,

3,454 3,085,040 206,534

CLASS V.

Steam-Launches trading to Ports outside the Colony,.

CLASS VI.

Junks in Foreign Trade,

1,027

52,892 7,060

18,100 1,524,874 580,353

Total.............

26,588 11,205,5164,738,052 3,151,926

05,5164,

1

448

Similarly, the Export Trade from the Port was represented by 26,639 vessels of 11,199,850 tons, carrying 3,436,726 tons of Cargo, and shipping 670,811 ton's of Bunker Coal.

Cargo.

Country.

Ships.

Tons.

Shipped. Coal.

Bunker

CLASS I.

Canada,

Continent of Europe,

28

80,449 13,539

...

13

39,543

12,650

2,334

Great Britain,

39

120,905

29.610

2,940

Mauritius,

3

3,155

1,550

2,400

North America,...

1

1,391

...

200

South Africa,

3

10,075

1,300

South America,

6

10,736 4,826

3,000

United States of America,.

60

225,096

133,970

7,880

153

491,350 197,445

18,754

CLASS II.

Australia and.New Zealand,..

35 67,604

21,200

3,650

India and Straits Settlements,

359

892,064

328,661

73,394

Japan, ...

Java and Indian Archipelago,

North Pacific,

Russia-in-Asia,

South Pacific,

475

1,069,093

503,883

64,167

70

145,495

28,803

18,708

539

503

160

4

9,764

.300

1,250

5

8,700

895

925

949 2,193,259 884,245 162,254

CLASS III.

North Borneo,

7,366

Coast of China,

1,810 2,648,975

701 899,376 237,966

905

Cochin-China,

218

243,595

49,708

53,382

Formosa,

45

18.187

17,301

5,432

Hainan and Gulf of Tonkin,

389

265,188

104,855

39,548

Kiaochow,

1,756

3,000

495

Macao,

7

8,416

2,605

50

Philippine Islands,

257

431,867

200,426

56,282

Port Arthur,

2

5,630

600

Siam,

166

197,418

37,865

39,355

Weihaiwei,

2

3,864

1,800

185

CLASS IV.

2,905 3,832,262 1,317,637 434,200

River Steamers,-Canton, Macao and West River,.... 3,454 3,082,691 206,534 49,210

CLASS V.

Steam-Launches trading to Ports outside the Colony,.. 1,027 52,892 8,610 6,393

CLASS VI.

Junks in Foreign Trade,

18,151 1,547,396 822,255

Total,..

26,639 11,199,850 3,436,726 670,811

449

9. During the year 1904, 14,922 vessels of European construction of 19,227,312 tons (net register), reported having carried 10,572,844 tons of Cargo as follows:

*

Import Cargo.

Export

Transit

19.

4,150,639 tons.

·

2,605,861

3,151,926

""

Bunker Coal shipped

664,418 ,,

10,572,844 tons.

The total number of tons carried was, therefore, 54.4% of the total net register tonnage, (or 76.7% exclusive of River Steamers), and was apportioned as follows:-

Imports.

British Ships,

Foreign Ships,.

2,399,704

1,750,935

4,150,639

Exports.

British Ships,

1,579,051

Foreign Ships,.

1,026,810

2,605,861

Transit.

British Ships,

2,105,696

Foreign Ships..

1,046,230

3,151,926

Bunker Coal.

British Ships,

Foreign Ships,...

332,310- 332,108

664,418

Grand Total,

10,572,844

Trade of the Port of Hongkong for the Year 1904.

TONS.

Passengers.

Emi-

No. of Ships.

Dis-

charged.

Shipped.

In Transit.

Bunker Coal shipped.

Total.

Register ed Arrived.

Tonnage.

grants.

Departed.

British Ocean-going, Foreign Ocean-going, British River Steamers, Foreign River Steamers,

Total,.......

Steam-Launches trading to Ports outside the Colony,

Total,...

5,872

4,318 2,153,172 1.415.673 2,105,696 3,696 1,708,251 983.651 1,046,230

246.632 163.378

289,317

5,963,858

7,708,734

325,891

4,059,026

5,350,847

197,844 91,352

113,741

64,239

51,390 24,914

42,993 152,903

5,697,360

1,092,564

1,040,250

...

1,036

47,684

43,156

6,217 97,057 470,371

46,027

52,745

...

14,922 | 4,150,639 2.605,861 | 3,151,926

664,418 10,572,84419,227,312

1,427,787

1,269,975 76,301

2,054 20,323 21,658

16,976 4,170,692 | 2,627,519 | 3,151,926

Junks trading to Ports out-

side the Colony,

36.251

580,353

$22,255

...

53.227 4,751,315 | 3,449,774 | 3,151,926

6,393 48,374 105,784

670,811 10,621,218 19,333,096 1,434,847

1,402,608 3,072,270 43,192

670,811 12,023,826 | 22,405,366

7,060

8,610

1,278,585 76,301

42,155

1,478,039 1,320,740 76,304

Total Foreign Trade,

Steam-Launches

plying

within waters of the Colony,

307,502

Junks, Local Trade,..............

62,965 340,087 45,361

Total Local Trade.

370,467

340,087 45,361

Grand Total....... 423,694 | 5,091,402 | 3,495,135 3.151,926

25,401 25,401 8,808,714 385,448 2,318,676

25,401 410,849 | 11,157,420

696,212 12,484,675 | 33,562,786

4,435.105 79,066

4,435,072 79,508

4.514,171

4,514,580

5,992,210

5,855,320 76,304

450

IMPORTS.

EUROPEAN CONSTRUCTED VESSELS.

1903.

1901.

Increase.

Decrease.

No.

Tonnage. No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage.

No. Tonnage.

Steamers,

4,383 7,009,181 3,981 6,509,919

402

499,262

River Steamers,...... 2,832 2,454,868 3,454 3,085,040

| |

662 630,172

Sailing Vessels, ...... 36

55,004 26 32,791

10

22,213

Total,..... 7,251 9,519,053 7,461 9,627,750

|

662

630,172 412

321,475

Nett,

210

108,697

Imported tons,

3,985,310

4,150,639

As follows:-

Articles.

1903.

1904.

Increase.

Decrease.

Beans,...

3,120

750

2,370

Bones...

400

400

Coal,.

1,186,686

1,152,454

34,232

Cotton Yarn and Cotton,

20,795

19,350

1,445

Flour,

120,430

115,921

1,509

Hemp,..

24,149

19,382

4,767

Kerosine (bulk),

40,607

56,965

16,358

""

(case),

82,960

100,692

17,732

1

Lead, Opium,

Liquid Fuel,

Rattan,

Sandalwood,.

550

3,563

3,013

4,997

2,955

2,042

1,000

9,727

8,727

4,020

5,080

1,060

Rice,....

597,730

823,339

225,609

Sulphur,

Sugar,..

Tea,....

Timber...

4,713 961 229,946 1,746

· 64,400

3,300

1,413

187 205,696

774

24,250

1,746

General,

1,594,600

66,200 1,564,678

1,800

29,922

Total,

3,983,410

4,150,639

274,699

107.470

Transit,

2,874,950

3,151,926

276,976

Grand Total,

6,858,360

K

7,302,565

551,675

107,470

Nett,.

144,205

"

1903.

451

EXPORTS.

1904.

Increase.

:

"Decrease.

No. Tonnage.

No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage.

Steamers,

River Steamers,. Sailing Vessels,.

4,372 6,988,667

2,826 2,451,357 59,334

|

3,454 |

3,454 | 3,082,691 40

24 33,036

3,983 6,483,835

389 504,832

628

631,334

...

16 26,298

Total,

7,238 9,499,358 7,461 9,599,592

628

631,334 405 531,130

Nett,

223

100,204

Exported tons,

2,245,119

2,695,861

Strs.

Bunker Coal.

Strs.

Bunker

Coal.

Strs.

Bunker Coal.

Bunker

Strs.

Coal.

Steamers,

River Steamers,

4,372 2,826

625,273 3,983 37,753 3,454

615,208

49,210 628

389

10,065

11,457

Total,... 7,198

663,026 | 7,437

664,418

628

11,457 389 10,065

Nett,......

239

1,392

1903,

1904,

Year.

RIVER TRADE.

Imports, Exports and Passengers.

Imports.

Exports.

Passengers.

296,791

193,656

1,722,335

294,216

206,534

2,231,586

IMPORTS.

Junks.

Foreign Trade, Local Trade,

""

18,100 measuring 1,524,874 tons. 31,505

1,183,376

Total,

49,605

2,708,250

Imported, 920,440 tons as under :-

Tea,

Fire Crackers,

Oil, Vegetable,

Rice,

Cattle, (12,118),

Swine, (39,487),

Earth and Stones,...

General,

1,679 tons. 2,743

755 22 1,004

""

29

2,151

2,438

""

.288,511

.621,159

**

Total,

920,440

:-

:

EXPORTS.

Junks.

452

Foreign Trade, Local Trade,

18,151 measuring 1,547,396 tons.

31,460

1,165,300

""

Total,

49,611

2,712,696

""

*

Exported, 867,616 tons as under :-

Kerosine (1,051,456 cases), Rice and Paddy,

37,552 tons.

Earth and Stones,

.296,894 .180,153

>>

General,

...353,017

Total,

....867,616

PASSENGERS.

1903.

1904.

Increase. Decrease.

British Vessels, Arrivals,... 152,637 197,844 45,207

Do., Departures,. 90,369 112,741 22,372

Do.,

Emigrants,

55,681 51,390

4,291

Total,..

298,687 361,975 67,579

4,291

Nett...

63,288

Foreign Vessels, Arrivals,.. 100,012

91,352

8,660

Do.,

Departures,.

72,978 64,239

8.739

Do.,

Emigrants, . 27,703

24,914

2,789

Total,........

200,693

180,505

20,188

Nett,..

20,188

River Steamers, Arrivals, ..

Do.,

Departures,.

883,578 1,138,591 255,013

838,757 1,092,995 254,238

Total..

1,722,335 2,231,586 509,251

Nett,.

509,251

Junks Foreign Trade, Arrivals,

49,269 43,192

6,077

Do.,

Departures, 50,736 42,155

8,581

Total,......

100,005 85,347

14,658

Nett,.

14,658

i

;

453

PASSENGERS,--Continued.

1903.

1904. Increase. Decrease.

Total Arrivals,

1,185,496 1,470,979 | 285,483

Total Departures,.....

1,052,840 1,312,130 259,290

2,238,336 2,783,109544,773

Total Emigrants,

83,384

76,304

7,080

Total,...

2,321,720 | 2,859,413 | 544,773.

7,080

Nett,...... 537,693

Diff. of Arrivals and Dep.,

132,656

158,849

Do., Emigrants,

83,384 76,304

Remainder + or

+ 49,272 + 82,545

Junks Local Trade, Ar-

79,318

79,066

252

rivals,

....

Do.,

Departures,

84,941

79,508

5,433

Total,.....

·

164,259

158,574

5.685

Nett,

5,685

REVENUE.

11. The total Revenue collected by the Harbour Department during the year was $300,933.95, being an increase of $15,645.53 on the previous year:—

1. Light Dues,

2. Licences and Internal Revenue,

3. Fees of Court and Office,

$72,330.16

62,418.00

166,185.79

Total,

...

$300,933.95

STEAM LAUNCHES,

12. On the 31st December, there were 262 Steam Launches employed in the Harbour, of these, 106 were license for the conveyance of passengers, 184 were privataly owned, 16 were the property of the Colonial Government, and 6 belonged to the Imperial Government in charge of Military Authorities.

Seventeen Master's Certificates were suspended, 7 for one month, 3 for six weeks, 3 for two months, 3 for three months, and 1 for six months; 2 Engineer's Certificates were suspended for 1 and 6 months respectively. Three Masters were cautioned.

Four hundred and forty-three (143) engagements, and four hundred an fifty-six (456) discharges of Masters and Engineers were made from 1st January, to 31st December.

Fourteen (14) Steam Launches were permitted to carry arms, &c.. for their protection against pirates; of these, twelve were previously permitted, and two during this year.

1

454

EMIGRATION.

13. Seventy-six thousand three hundred and four (76,304) Emigrants left Hongkong for various places during the year, of these, 52,496 were carried by British Ships and 23,808 by Foreign Ships; 149,195 were reported as having been brought to Hongkong from places to which they had emigrated, and of these, 121,735 were brought in British Ships and 27,460 by Foreign Ships.

Under a Convention between the United Kingdom and China dated 13th May, 1904, indentured Chinese Emigrants are being transported to South Africa. A Depôt has been formed at Lai-chi-kok and a Deputy Emigration Officer appointed for its supervision.

Returns Nos. XVII and XIX will give the details of this branch of the Department.

REGISTRY OF SHIPPING.

14. During the year, 44 ships were registered under the provisions of the Imperial Act, and 4 Certificates were cancelled.

MARINE MAGISTRATE'S Court.

15. Fifty-six (56) cases were heard in the Marine Magistrate's Court: refu- sal of duty on board ship and breach of Harbour Regulations were the principal

offences.

In connection with the above, the Assistant Harbour Master has been placed in charge of the Water Police as a tentative measure, which is having good results.

EXAMINATION OF MASTERS, MATES AND ENGINEERS.

(Under Section 4 of Ordinance No. 10 of 1899.)

16. The following Table will shew the number of Candidates examined for Certificates of Competency, distinguishing those who were successful and those- who failed:-

Grade.

Passed.

Failed.

Master,

23

Master, River Steamer,

1

First Mate,

17

Only Mate,.....

1.

Second Mate...

8

31523

3

Mate, River Steamer,

1

Total...

51

14

First Class Engineer,

32

4

4

Second Class Engineer,

41

7

Total,.....

73

11

EXAMINATION OF PILOTS.

(Ordinance No. 3 of 1904.)

17. Examinations for the duties of Pilots have been instituted under Ordin- ance No. 3 of 1904. The number of Licences issued will be governed by the need of the Port, the pilotage of which is not compulsory.

MARINE COURTS.

(Under Section 19 of Ordinance No. 10 of 1899.)

18. No Marine Court has been held during the year.

A

455

SUNDAY CARGO-WORKING.

(Ordinance No. 1 of 1899.)

19. During the year, 308 permits were issued under the provisions of the Ordinance. Of these, 78 were not availed of owing to its being found unnecessary for the ship to work cargo on Sunday, and the fee paid for the permit was refund- ed in each case.

The revenue collected under this heading was $37,625; this was $2,825 more than in 1903.

The revenue collected each year since the Ordinance came into force is as follows:-

$ 4,800 7,900

1892. 1893,

3

1894.

1895,

1896....

1897.

1898.

1899.

1900,.

1901

1902.

1903,

1904,

SEAMEN.

13,375

11,600

7,57-5

11,850

25,925

21,825

43.550

44,800

44,175

34,800

37,625

20. Twenty-one thousand eight hundred and thirty (21.830) Seamen were shipped and twenty-five thousand two hundred and ninety-two (25,292) discharged at the Mercantile Marine Office and on board ships during the year.

""

Four hundred and sixty-seven (467) "Distressed Seamen were received during the year. Of these, 159 were sent to the United Kingdom, 13 to Sydney, 2 to Vancouver, 77 to Calcutta, 2 to Singapore, 1 went as passenger to Port Said, 3 to Calcutta, 28 to United Kingdom, 8 to Singapore, 2 to Manila, 1 to San Francisco, 1 to Haiphong, I to Shanghai, 1 to Japan, 29 to Canton, 1 obtained employment on shore, 3 joined the Canton Customs, 3 Lappa Customs, 4 taken charge of by the United States Consul, 1 by the French Consul, 2 disappeared, 2 died at the Government Civil Hospital, 1 at the Lunatic Asylum, 8 remained at. the Government Civil Hospital, 1 at the Tung Wah Hospital, 35 at the Sailors" Home, and 78 obtained employment.

Seven thousand two hundred and eighty-four dollars and forty-two cents ($7,284.42) were expended by the Harbour Master on hehalf of the Board of Trade, in the relief of these distressed Seamen.

MARINE SURVEYOR'S SUB-DEPARTMENT.

21. Return No. XXIII gives a report of the work performed by this Sub- Department during the

year 1904.

During the year, 196 vessels were surveyed for Passenger Certificates and Bottom Inspection and 125 were surveyed for Emigration, being an increase of 6 and 14 respectively on the previous year which was then the highest on record. The increased number of Emigration surveys is almost entirely accounted for by the opening up of Emigration to South Africa, 13 Vessels-all British-of 65,255 gross tons having been surveyed and measured for that trade alone.

The number of visits paid to different vessels, docks, building yards, boiler shops, &c., in connection with survey work amounts to 2,140.

Two hundred and three (203) Licences were granted to Steam Launches during the year, 45 new Boilers were built to Board of Trade rules, under super- vision 3 minor inspections were made, 5 Foreign vessels were measured, 35 vessels

456

were measured for tonnage for British Registry. Steam Launches were completed during the year. examined of whom 73 were successful and 11 failed. examined of whom 90 passed and 14 failed.

126 Surveys on Government 82 European Engineers were 104 Chinese Engineers were

Owing to the Kowloon and Cosmopolitan Docks being blocked at different times by vessels undergoing extensive repairs, 31 of the surveys for Passenger Certificates took place at the Aberdeen Dock, involving considerable loss of time and extra expense in hiring an outside launch. I would respectfully point out that owing to the increase in work and the greater distance apart of the building yards and shops an additional launch is urgently needed.

LIGHTHOUSES.

22. The amount of Light Dues collected is as follows:--

Total Fees colleced.

Class of Vessels.

Rate. No. of per ton. Ships.

Tonnage.

$

Ocean Vessels,

Steam Launches,

1 cent 4,109

6,565,562 | 65,655.62

1

River Steamers, (Night boats), Launches plying exclusively to Macao and West River, by night, ...

River Steamers (Day Boats), Launches plying exclusively to Macao and West River, by day, ...

358 2,305 | 1,935,576

14,105

141.05

6,452.52

Fre

434

Free.

1,149

24,246 1,149,464

80.97

Free. 235

14,541

Total,..

8,590 9,703,494 | 72,330.16

Telegraphic and telephonic communication has been kept up with Gap Rock, Cape D'Aguilar and Waglan Island during the year.

From Gap Rock Station 1,012 vessels have been reported as passing, and in addition 241 messages were received and 3,500 sent including weather reports for the Observatory. Owing to telegraphic communication being interrupted, 32 vessels were not reported.

Twenty-five hours and fifty minutes of fog were reported from Gap Rock during the year, and the fog signal gun was fired 169 times. On no occasion was the relief delayed by the rough sea.

From Cape D'Aguilar Station 1,570 vessels were reported, and in addition 1,159 messages were sent and 32 received. Owing to the telephonic communic- ation being interrupted, 306 vessels were not reported.

From Waglan Island Station 1,347 vessels were reported, and in addition 80 messages were sent and 66 received. Owing to the telephonic communication being interrupted, 442 vessels were not reported.

One hundred and fourteen hours and thirty-six minutes of fog were reported from Waglan Island during the year, and the fog signal gun was fired 1,194 times. On no occasion was the relief delayed by the rough sea.

The lighting of Cap-shui-mun Pass has been inaugurated during the year, and arrangements are being made to improve the lighting of the Harbour.

457

GOVERNMENT GUNPOWDER DEPÔT.

23. During the year 1904 there has been stored in the Government Gun- powder Depôt, Stonecutters' Island :-

No..

of Cases.

Approximate Weight.

lbs.

Gunpowder, privately owned,

6,630

149,915

Do., Government owned,

5,050

305,085

Cartridges, privately owned,

3,079

612,600

Do., Government owned,

49

4,900

Explosive Compounds, privately owned,

5,295

273,878

Do., Non-explosives, privately owned,

Government owned,

1,886

125,056

53

6,425

Do..

Government owned,

Total,..

22,042 1,477,859

During the same period there has been delivered out of the Depôt :-

No.

of Cases.

Approximate Weight.

lbs.

For Sale in the Colony :---

Gunpowder, privately owned,

928

24.870

Cartridges, privately owned,

62

16,125

Explosive Compounds, privately owned,.......

214

13.875

Non-explosives, privately owned,

For Export:-

Gunpowder, privately owned,

5,481

113,180

Cartridges, privately owned,

1,027

199,875

Explosive Compounds, privately owned.... Non-explosives, privately owned,

4,350

220.600

31

3,975

Total,.

12,093

592,500

On the 31st December, 1904, there remained as follows :—

No.

of Cases.

Approximate Weight.

lbs.

Gunpowder, privately owned,

221

11,865

Do., Government owned,

Cartridges, privately owned,

Do., Government owned,

Explosive Compounds, privately owned,

Do..

Non-explosives, privately owned,

976

77,608

1,990

396.660.

20

2,000

731

39,403

Government owned,

1,529

75,058

22

2,450

Do.,

Government owned,

Total,..

5,489

604,984

.

NEW TERRITORY.

(Sixth Year of the British Administration).

24. The Station at the Island of Cheung Chau was opened in September, the one at Tai O in the Island of Lantau, in October of 1899, that at Tai Po in Mirs Bay, on board the Police Steam Launch in November, 1901, and that at Sai Kung in April, 1902.

From 1st January to 31st December, 1904, 9,350 Licences, Clearances, Per- mits, &c., were issued at Cheung Chau, 4,518 at Tai 0, 4,400 at Tai Po, 4,775 at Deep Bay and 3,185 at Sai Kung.

:

458

The revenue collected by this Department from the New Territory during 1904 was $16,391.25.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS (OPIUM) OFFICE.

25. The return shows that during the year the amount of Opium reported. was as follows :

1903.

1904.

Increase

Decrease

Chests.

Chests.

Chests.

Chests.

Imported,

46,034

45,936

98

Exported,

46,551

43,858

2,693

Through Cargo reported but not landed,.

16,442

14,587

1,855

Eighteen thousand one hundred and two (18.102) permits were issued from this Office during the year, being an increase of 223 as compared with 1903.

A daily memo. of Exports to Chinese ports was, during the year, supplied to the Commissioner of Imperial Maritime Customs, and a daily meino. of Exports to Macao was supplied to the Superintendent of Raw Opium Department of Macao.

Surprise visits were paid to 88 godowns during the year.

In order to give effect to Article VIII of the Brussels Sugar Convention, 1902, it has been deemed expedient to prohibit the importation of bounty fed sugar into the Colony. For the purpose of issuing Certificates of Origin, the Superintendent of Imports and Exports has been appointed Fiscal Authority for this Colony, and regulations have been framed dealing with the import and export of sugar under the new conditions.

I have, &c.,

L. BARNES-LAWRENCE, Captain, R.N., Harbour Master, &c.

The Honourable The COLONIAL SECRETARY.

"4

t

י

1.-NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, and CARGOES of Vesse

BRITISH.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

COUNTRIES WHENCE ARRIVED.

argoes.

Ca

Vessels.

Tous.

Crews.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Dis-

charged Transit.

Dis- charge

·Australia and New Zealand,

British North Borneo,..

Canada,

Coast of China,.

Cochin-China,

Continent of Europe,

Formosa,

Great Britain,

40

74,231 2,711 52,841

27,331

40

74,231 2,711 52.34

20

537 42,150

44,850

1,100

20

537 42,150

44,85

25

74,024 4,526 15,062

2,714 2,864,364 263,777 826,666 332,415 84 107,972 4,846 167,813, 26,750

5001

251

324 332,073 17,591 1,284 148

4,932 105 20,817 1,616

9,480

Philippine Islands,

Russia in Asia,...

Siam,

South Africa,

South America,

India and Singapore,

Japan,......

Java and other Islands in the Indian Archipelago,.

Macao,

Mauritius,

North America,

North and South Pacific,

Ports in Hainan and Gulf of Tonquin,

717

65

27 228 670,790) 12,549 292,884 859,444 210 487,673 21,338 275.248 364,792| 278 701,086 15,608 674,781 278,716

79 142,195 4,409 192,149,

567,017| 28,390||

1.329 2,5.7 78

6,975

6,950

4,196 288 4,373 81

166)

10. 23,504.

479

72,216

54,755

141

25

74,024 4,526 15,00

3,038 3,196,437 281,368 326,6€

85 109,256 4,994 157,81

4,932 105

3

32 25,013 1.904 6,97 230 675,163 12,630 292,8 213 494,623 21,504) 275,24 288 724,590 16,087 674,7

79 142,195 4,405 192.14 718 067,158 28,415

54,75

2,000

1,329 65

2,00

5,050

13,081 347

15,598

425

5,05

179 227,816 12.644

61,388

3,900

19

23.067 1,151

198 250,983, 13,795)

61,38

8,708

372

18,174

5,117:

210

10

:

9.265

112

9,600

9,087

1,542

31

4

18,825! 10,807

5821

18.17

143

9,60

21

24.831

1,532)

39,050

140:

22

24,471 1,354; 39,05

1

2,874

79

13

28,526

582

10. 31,400

661

2,247 39

JOO

2,247

39

1. 10

United States of America,

TOTAL...

76) 232,266 5,160 170,805 99,962

76; 232 256, 5,160 170,80

4,7146,268,604 380,293 2,399,704 2,105,696 385 444.094 21,121 5,099 6,712,598 401,414 2,399,70

II. NUMBER, Tonnage, Crews, and Cargoes of

WITH CARGOES.

BRITISH,

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

COUNTRIES TO WHICH DEPARTED.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Shipped.

Cargo s.

Bunker Vessels.

Coal.

Tons. Crews.

Bunker C al.

Vessels. Tons. Crews.

Shipped.

Cargoes.

Bunker Vessels.

Coal.

Australia & New Zealand,

21

35,413 1,392

British North i orneo,

}

1,644.

82

Canada.

28

80,449. 2,681

21,200 669 13,539

1,450 390

8:

Coast of China,

3,2538,760,370 140,027 898.777, 131,098

20,852 256

2,829

62 108,258 2.537)

1,520

46

29 2

28

Cochin-China,

24

Continent of Europe,

2

5,835

Formosa,..

8.

7.742

19,983. $1,476 1,256!

2,300 153 460 2,360

4,706 280

91,465 3,497

10,232 15,963

2,970 SC;245 1,646 21,200

890 128 669 3,973

13,539 80,449 2.681| 3,315 3,868,628 142,564 94 122,941 4,753

2

2

698,777, 141,325| 13,293 2

19.98320,669]

67

2

5.835

153

2,300

2801

11

530

3:

Great Britain,

35

110,558, 3.229| 29,210

2,340

India and Singapore,..................

191

451,505 14 444 288,207

27,355

Japan,

224 558,018 14,446|| 260,189)

38,876

Java and other Islands in the Indian

21

42,963 1,443

19,407

6.248

3,346 193 3 6,547 106 52 110,958 2,003 54 122,451 2.186 23 58,277 934

- 570

111

11,088

653

2,360

1,100

28

600 6,847

38 117,105 3.335

29.210

2,940

15

5 533

5,530

243 562,463 16,447 233,207|| 34,202| 278 680,469 16,632 260,189

44 101,240 2,677|

105

19,407

Archipelago,

Kiauchow,

Macao,

696 566,492 24.497

29,810

7935

141

19

697 565,033 24.516

38.909 11,778

29.810 7,93 1,072

153

17

Mauritius,

North Pacific,.

:

::

North America..

1,391,

28

2001

1.391

28

Philippine Islands,

209. 828,690,14,029||||185,788,

49.612

12,145.

210

1,060

213 340,835 14,249 185,788

Port Arthur,

Ports in Hainan & G. of Tonquin,

12

6,852

481

1,249

1,085

20;

26,707 1,267

2.640

Russia-in-Asia..

Sian.

16

20.8651 879

4,530,

8,280

7:

South Africa,

2.

6,585 135

1,300

9,993: 289 1,170 3,490

38.559 1,748

30,858 1,168

200 50,672

1,249 3.725

33

804

4 5301

4,450

88

South America,

2. 8,358

72

2,500!

2,971

74 37

10,075 209:

1,300

South Pacific,

1

2.833

30

United States of America, Wei-hai-wei,

77.506) 2,201

8,864

93

40 51,193 1,800

4.916

430 185

5,162

350 6,800

30

6.329 109 7.748 108! $2,668 2,271;

2,500

*3.000

40

350

2

3,864

93

51;193) 1,600

7,230

30,

185

TOTAL,..............

4.777 6.108.409' 222,068'1,579,051 273.495

314 589,987 13,802!

68.815 5,091 6,693,896 235,870|1,579,05|| 332 310 15,222 8.

459

1.-NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, and CARGOES of Vessels ENTERED at Ports in the Colony of Hongkong from each Country for the Ye

JARGOES.

BRITISH.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL..

WITH CARGOES.

FOREIGN.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

¿ws,

argoes.

Dis-

Car ocs.

Cargoes.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Dis-

Vessels.

Tons.rews.

526 15,062

char ed Transit.

,711 52,841 27,334

537 44,850 1,100

3,777 326,666 332,415

,846, 167,813, 26,750 105

charged. Transit.

Dis- charged. Transit

Vessels.

Tons. ¡Crews Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

cl

40

74,231 2,711

500

52,341 27,334 20 42,150 537 44,850 1,100. 500,

5

16

10,819 460 2,942 5,831 17,604 722 28,580

10,819 460

16 17,604 722

15,062

824 332,073 17,591 1,284 148

85 109,250 4,994 157,813

9,480

G16: 6,975

549 292,884 859,444

31 4,932 105

25 74,024 4,526 3,038 3,196,437 281,368 326,666 352,415 13,038 1,621,061 173,211 704.697 214,835 5,905

26,750, 113 106.145 4,052 146,350 29,580

9,480 105 342,633 11,514

3,284 100,

94,506 313,929

694,358 73,365 18,943 2,315,419 246,576;

4,770 230 110 347,403 11,744

116 109,429 4,152

338 275.248 364,792

608 674,781 278,716 409 192,149, 72,216)

390 54,755

G5 2,000

4,196 288 4.373 81 6,950 166 23,504. 479

32 25,013 1.904 6,975

69 62,893 2,714

15,331

69 62,393 2,714

141

25

78 5.030

13,081 347

230 675,163 12,630 292,884 859,444 213 494,623 21,504 275,248 364,792 288 724,590 16,087 674,781) 278,716) 79 142,195 4.409 192.149 72,216 718 567,158 28,415 54,755 1,329 65 2,000 15,598 425 5,050

30

64,090 1,018

27,662 91,412

30

64,090 1,018|

18

44,174 1,472| 47.078 14,100

3,800 112

19

103

480,265 15,398 312,022 208,754

56

$7,191 2,678 102,294

44,509

931

96,806) 15,086)

18,394'

388

8,597 113 912 40 30,114 4,704

47.974 1,584 105 488,862 15,511

58 88,103 2,718 1 1,319 126,920, 19,790

1,024 941

690

3

1,024 91

644

61.388

3,900

19:

23.167 1,15

198

250,983, 13,795)

372 18,174

5,117:

210

10

13,825! 5821

112

9,600 9,087

1,542

31

4

10,807) 143

61,388 18,174

9,600 9,087

3,900

36

50,708 1,894 15,627

317

212,542 10,867). 200,113

9.888 14 53,005

4. 6,595 140

900!

7,900

532

89,050

79

39;

13 100

140 28,526

22

22

24,471 1,354

39,050

262

280,659 12,813 474,675

4,800

9,317

529 50 2,839 175 1,871 32 G08 33

60,025 2,423.

$21,

215,181 11,042 2

263

10

31,400 661

2,247

13

1 1,065) 36

700

39

100

1

749

16

214

160 170,805 99,962

76 232 266, 5,160 170,805

99,962

54 243,093 8,671, 115,573 47,687

2,932 56

8,466; 172 281,267 12,846

1,065 36

749. 16

55 246.025 8,727

293 2,399,704 2,105,(96| 385 444.094 21,121| 5,099,6,712,598 401,414|2,399,704 2,105,696| 15,1623,729,416 262,856 2,338,348 1,046,230 6,327| 763,402 79,489 21,489 4,492,818 312,3452,

i

II.—NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, and CARGOES of Vessels CLEARED in the Colony of Hongkong for each Country for the Year eno

FOREIGN.

BRITISH.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Tons. Crews.

Bunker

Vessels. C al.

Tons. Crews.

Shipped.

Cargoes.

Shipped.

Shipped

122,451 2.186

58,277 934

3.346 193 6,547 106

110,958 2,003

5 533

6,530

141

19

20,852 250 1,520

2,829 46

108,258 2.537) 10,232 91,465 3,497 15,963

570 600 6,847

29

66,245 1,648 2 3,973 128 28 80,449 2,681| 8,315 3,868,628 142,564

94 122,941 4,753

4 7,361 113 31 2,007; 441

698,777, 141,325 13,293 2,318,019 207,726 1,154,029 102,579 5,871| 459,253′ 53,917 19.983. 20,669 67 67,655 3,070 29,725 22,530 57 52,999 1,948)

2,300

280 11 33,708 609 10,350 2,054 2,260 1,100 28 276 1,383 14,941 3,325

3,800 113 400 105; 309,818| 8,391| 95,454 £6,432 11 153 310,845 7,829 243,694 20,568 44

17 27,041 947 9,396 4,885

1,756 52 7,933 1,072 108,590 17,402 3,155 145 539 31

2 5.835 153 11 11,088 653 38 117,105 3,335 29,210 2,940 243 562,463 16,447 233,207 84,202 278 680,469 16,632 260,189 38.909 44 101,240 2,377 19,407 11,778

697||| 565,C33 24.516 29.810

Bunker Vessels. Tons. Crews.

Coal.

21,200 2,970 669 390 13,539

Car, des.

Bunker Coal.

Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Bunker Coal.

Vessels. Tons. Crews.

R

Cargoes,

8.998 65

2. 1,386 54

32

680 $15

...

6,823 220 1,007

11,859 178 5 3,393 98

40,940 19,164 2,777,272 261,643 1,154,029 1 10,183) 124 126,654 5,018 29.725 11 33,708 609 10.350

32

:

34

I

19,783 358 2,760 77,779 1,619 4,690. 17,214 297

2,045

116

3,000 56,764

495

840

201

20,247 1,740

7,009 1,603 14,941

3,800 113 329,601 8,749) 95,454

197 388,624 9,448 243,694 26 44,255 1.244 9,396

1,756 52 1,273 128,837 19,142

400

3,000

56,764

1,550

2.400

503

160

1

3,155! 145

539

1,550

503

12,145, 210

1,060

26,707; 1,267 2.640

9,998: 289 1,170 3,490 74

38.559 1.748

1.391 213 340,835 14,249 185,788

32

1,249

28

200 50,672

33 75,494 2,129 14.638

2 5.630 125

3,570

15.538 379 2,040

44

91.032 2.508 14,038

COO)

3,725

304

173,766 11,415 103,606|

3 8,651 124

300

30,858, 1,168' 4 530

4,450

96,635 8,907]

33,335

30,516 800 18,525

53

1

57,863 1,907 5,307

1,113 27 69,925 2,485 16,380

450

30,075 209

1,300

5.630 125

357 231,629, 13,322 103,606|

4. 9.764: 151

143 166,560 6,392

:

300 38,835

2.971 4.916

37

:

6.329 109:

2,500

3,000!

3

5,162

350元 6,800

7.748 108

40

350

2

30

82,668 2,271| 51,193)

2; 3.864

93 1,800

7,2301 185

4,407 110 952 83 30, 142,428, 4,460

2.326

4,407 110 2,826

835

575

952

83

800

82,777!

650

30 142,428 4,460|

82,777

589.987; 13;802 68.815' 5,091 6,693,896 235,870|1,579,051| 332.310′ 15,2223,698,549 270,170|1,857.675| 252,699|

6,326 807,905 65,054

85,802 21,548 4,500.454| 335,2241.857,675|

h Country for the Year ending 31st December, 1904.

29.580

230

110 347,403 11,744|

94,506 313.929

69

62,393 2.714

15,331

30

27.662 112 19 47,974 1,584 47,078

64,090 1,018

91,412

113 40

14,100 105 488,862 15,511 312,022 208,754

58

44,509 88,103 2,718 102.294 704 1,819 126,920 19,790

48.394

94.506) 323,409 96 83,210 4,330 22.306 258 734.880 13,567 320,546 950.856 228 531.847 22,810|| 322.326|| 378,892 3811,181,351 31,006 986.803 487,470 135 229,386 7,087 294,443 116,725 1,648 663 823 43,476 103,149

1 1.329 1 2,517 78

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

TOTAL.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Ws. Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Dis-

Transit charged

Dis- charged

Transit.

Dis- charged

Transit.

10,819 460 2.942 5,831

16 17,604 722 28,580

85.050 3,171 55,283 33.165 36 59,754 1,259 73,430 1.100 25 74,024 4,526 15,062

500

365 18,943 2,315,419 246,570 704,697 214,835 15,752 4,485.425 436,988 1,031,363 567,250 100 116 109,429 4,152 146,350)|

197 214,117 8.898 304,163 108 847,565, 11,619

56,330

85,050 3,171| 55,283 33,165 59,754 1,259 73.430

45

1,100

1,026,431 90,956

4,568 248 4,770 230

4.196 288

4,373 10,750

81 278

32,10

25 74,024 4,526į 15,062 21,981 5,511,856 527,944 1,031,363 201218,685 9,146 304.163| 113 352,335 11,849 94,506 101 87,406|| 4,518|||||| 22,306| 260 739,253 13,648 320,546 232 542,597 23.088 322,326 378.892 592 393 1,213,452 31,598 986,803 487,470 - 912 40 137 230,298 7.127; 294,443 116,725 30,255 4,729 2,037 694,078 48,205 103,149

540

567.250

56,330

323,409

950,856

65

2,000

1

5,050

13.081 347

529 50

94 690 1,024 60,025 2,423 15,627

175 32

321

215,181 11,042 200,113

33

263

8,466 281,267 12,846 474,675

172

900

9,888 58,005 7,900

1,024 94 216 278,524 14,538|| 323 221,050.1.239 218.287

6901

77,015|

13.788

32.484 1,680|

248

1.329 65 15.598 425

1,024 311,008) 16,218|

2,000

5,050

94

690

77.015

13,788

53,005

7,956

385

331

229.006 11,624 218,287

53,005

7 15,860 252

10,500

16,987

3,413 63

9

-4,800

283304,990 14,145 513,725|

4,800

748

55

285

19,273 305,738 14,200 518,725|

315 10,500|

16,987

4,800

1,065

36

749

16

700 214

2

3.939 115!

2,996 55

718 314

28,526

582

11 -32,465 697

713

2

55 2,996)

314

56

47,687

55 246.025 8,727 115,573

130 475,359 13,831 286,378 147,649

2,932 56 131 478,291 13,887 286,378 147.649

_489) 21,489|4,432,818 312,345 2,338.348 1,046,230 13,8769,998,020 643,149 4,738,052 3,151,926 6.7121,207,496 100,610 26,588 11,205,516 743,759 4,738,052 3,151.926

untry for the Year ending 31st December, 1904.

TOTAL.

WITH ARGOES.

TOTAL.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Shipped

Shipped.

Shipped.

Bunker

Tons. Crews Cargoes.

Bunker Vessels. Tons. Crews.

Cargoes.

( Dài.

Bunker vessels.

Coal.

Tons. Crews.

Coal. Vessels.

Tons.

Crews Car.oes.

Bunker Coal

178 YL

32

2,054

4 332]

3,800

113

...

329,601 8,749

39,192

25,258!

23 39,411 1,457 680

21,200 2.130 11,359

3 3.030 136

701 3,393

905 515

28 80.449 2,681| 13,589 2,777,272 261,6431,154,029 143,519 16,546 6,078,389 347,753 1,852,806 126,654 5,018 29,725 32,713 91 99,181 4,326| 49,708

33,708 609 10,350

14,94!! 7,009 1,608

400 95,454

388,624 9,448 243,694

12 4

27,236

233,672 5,983 127

13

I

39,543

36

44,255 1.244, 9,896

1,756

·52

3,000

128,837 19,142]

56,764

3,155 539

145

31

1.550 503

6,930 495 840 2,400! 160)

2

762

12,650 8,018 1,843 17,301 3,855 36 114,358 3,342| 29,610 2,340 296 761,323 22,835 328,661| 63,787 377 868,86322,275-503.883 53,944 38 79,004 2,390) 28.803 11,133

62 1,756

495 1,768 674,082 41,899

8,775 202

2,334

28,193 369 90 4.336

567,511 56,454 144,464 5,445

413 10,169

6.547 106

1,520

35

7

51,172 26,146

1.577

(7,604 1,826Į 21,200 3,650 905 7.366 226 701 28 80,449 2.681 13.539 |22,4796,645,900 404,207 1,852,806 284,844

218 243,595| 9,771'

49,708 52,382.

13

39,543)

762

12,650

2,334

45

18,187 2,256

17,301

5,432

6002

39 120,905 3,448

29,610

2,940

63 130.741 2,361|

9,607

98 200,230 3,805

10,223

32i

3,000 86,574

75,491 1,231

20,368 1.759

7,575

2

359 892,064 25,196 328.661| 4751,069,093 26.080 503,883

1,756 1,970 694,470, 43,658

73,394

64,167

70 145,495 3,621|| 28,803

18,708

1

52 3,000 495

3'

3,155

145

1,550

2.400

3

3,155

1.

539

31

503

160

1:

1.391

28

200

539, 1,391

31 28

86,574 145 1,550 503

8,775

2.400

160

200

91.032

5.630

***

2.508'

231,629, 13,322, 103,606|

14,038

5 610

53,182

125

600 35,823

2. 5,680円

125

600

31,601

9,764 166,560 6,892

151

300 33,835

1,250 84,905

3

124

300

800

21,805

4,407 952

110 83

2,326

855

575

5 3

3,000 575

142,428 4,460|

82,777

650

1,800

1,080 185

242 104,184 16,168|||200,426|

316 180,618 11,896 104,855]

8,651 104 117.500 4,786 37,865 2 6,585 135 1,300

182 7,765

4,826 3.785 113 895

58 219,934 6,661 138,970

21

93 3,864

185

34,506.454 335,2241.857.675 838,501|19,999|9,801,958 492,238 3,436,726 326,194 6,6401,397.892 78.856 144,617 26,659 11,199,850 571,094 3,436,726' 670,811

15

27,683

589

4

3,100

:

731

84,570 3,174

1,113

27

62

79,918 2,774

7,947:

450 17,550

3,490 74

257 431,867 16,757 200,426;

125 5,630 389 265,188 15.070

4

151 9,764 166 197,418 7,560 3 10.075 209

56,282

600

104,855

39,548

300 37.865

1,250 39.355

1,300

2,971

371

4,915: 5,162

78

350

701

6,800

10,736 8.700 60 225.096 6.731 93 3,864

219 191

4,826 895

3,000

925

133.970'

1,800

7,880

NAMES

OF PORTS.

Aberdeen,

Cheung Chaú,.

Deep Bay,

Hunghom,

Sai Kung,. Sham Shui-po, Shaukiwán, Stanley,.

Tai 0,

Tai Po, Victoria,

III. TOTAL NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, AND C

WITH CARGOES.

BRITISH.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

VIS.

Tons. Crews.

| Dis-

charged.

Vls.

Tous. Crews. Vls. Tons.

Crews.

V is.

Tons. [Cre

Transit.

Dis- dha ged.

Transit.

Total,.

4,714 6,268,64 380,293 2,399,704 2,105.696

4,714 6,268,604 380,293 2,399,704 2,105,696|

NAMES

OF PORTS.

235

9,167 1,

243

4,085) 1,:

904

21,467 4,

24

360

2,166 218,647 21,1

429

6,947 2,4

19,

83

613 } 2,267

385 444,694 21.121| 5,099|6,712,498 401,414 2,399,704 2,105,696 11,0593.470,863 230,1 385 444,094 21.121 5,0996,712,698 401.414 2,399,704 2,105,696|15,162 3,729,416 262,8

IV.—TOTAL NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, AND CA

WITH CARGOES.

BRITISH.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Shipped.

Shipped.

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

Bunker

Bunker Coal.

Vls. Tons. Crews.

Vls. Ton

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Coal.

Bunker Coal.

:

98, 70'

Aberdeen, Cheung Chaú,.

Deep Bay, Hunghom,

Sai Kung,

Sham Shui-po, Shaukiwán,..

Stanley,

Tai 0, Tai Po, Victoria,

540 18,7

9

1,956 208,2

275 9,8

19

5

33

1,4

4,7776,103,409|222,068|1,579,051| 278,495

314 589,987 13,802

58,815 5,0916,693,396 235,870 1,579,051

332,316 12,222 3,452,%

Total,

4,777 6,103,409|222,668|1,579,051| 273,495 314 589,987 13,802 58,815 5,0916,693,396 235,870 1,579,051

332,310|15,222 3,698.5

I

460

NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, AND CARGOES OF VESSELS ENTERED AT EACH PORT IN THE COLONY OF HONGI

FOREIGN.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

*ons.

Crews.

V ls.

Tons. Crews.

Vls.

Tons. Crews. Vls.

Tons. Crews.

VIs.

Tons.

C

Dis- dha ged.

Transit.

Dis- charged.

Transit.

Dis- charged.

Transit.

235

9,167 1,821| 4,790

71

243

4,085 1 1,308 2,967

55

3.548 698 306 1,158 337 298

12,715 2,519

4,790

235

9,167

5,243 1,645|

2,9671

2431

4,085

904 24 2,166 213,647 21,194 420 6,947 2,490

19.

613 125 83 2,267 531

21,467 4,964

15,537

213

360 121

188 167,559 4,423 292 902

17

7,150 1,561 1,117 28,617 6,525,

9

6 25

369 127 1,789 195,014 16,717 3,955 408,661 37,911 111 4,761 906 540 11,708 3,396 17 616 114 36 1,229 239 644 124 100 2,911 655

15,537

904

21.467

188

24

360

167,559

2,166

213,647

4,423

429

6,947

202,

19

613

902

83

2,267

15,773 9,739,467|

712.698 401,414 2,399,704 2,105,696 11,0593.470,863 230,302 2,141,690 1,046,230 4,053 550,502 59,026 15,112 4,021,365 289,328 2,141,690 1,046,230

712,698 401.414 2,399,704 2,105,696 15,1623,729,416 262,856 2,338,348 1,046,230 6,327|| 763,402 79,489 21,489 4,492,818 342,345 2,338,348 1,046,230, 19,876 9,998,020|| (

UMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, AND CARGOES OF VESSELS CLEARED AT EACH PORT IN THE COLONY Of Hongi

FOREIGN.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Shipped.

Shipped.

Shipped.

Vis. Tous. Crews.

Vls. Tons. Crews.

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

Cargoes.

Bunker Coal.

Cargoes.

Bunker Coal.

Bunker Coal.

Vls. Tons. Crews.

Vls.

Cargoes.

Lunker Coal.

986

98 5,514 975 2,333 70 1,747 512 1,091

165

234

4,663 1,137| 3,769 1,119

263 304

10,177 2,112 2,333 5,516 1,631 1,091

!

540

18,735 3,538

13,757

612

275 19 33 1,466

9

.84 38

291 1,956 208,278 19,072 146,610 9,882 2,269 5,748

570 133 223

137 450

12,130 3,377|

96 2,023 212,09719,226|

316 12

1,152

30,865 6,915|||||13,757

54

39

17 3,979 420,375 38,298 146,619

189, 77

29

1,95

56

6,079 1,701

553

68 1,225 360

591

15,961; 3,964 5,7481

27

31

1,123 201

137

39

2,691 583

450

5,091 6,693,396,235,870|1,579,051| 332,310|12,222 3,452,273|243,4161,687,520 252,699 2,900

5,091 6,693,396 235,870|1,579,051 332,310|15,222 3,698.549 270,170 1,857,675 252,699 6,326

507,293 38,027

85,802 15,122 4,019,566 281,443 1,687,520 338,501| 16,99

807,905 65,054

85,802 21,5484,506,454 335,2241,857,675 538,501|19,99

1

T IN THE COLONY OF HONGKONG, IN THE YEAR 1904.

WITH CARGOES.

TOTAL.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

VIS.

Tons. Crews.

Vis.

Dis- charged.

Transit.

Dis- charged.

Tons. Crews. Vls.

Tous. Crews.

Transit.

Dis-

Transit.

charged.

4,790 2,967

15,537

188

167,559

...

235 2431

9,167 1,821

4,790

71

3,548

698

306

12,715 2,519

4,790

4,085

1,308

2,967

55

[1,158)

337

298

5,243

1,645

2,967

904 24

21,467

4,964

15,537

213

7,150

1,561

1,117

28,617

6,525

15,537

360

121

188

9

G

25

369

127

188

2,166

213,647

21,194

167,559

1,789

195,014

16,717

3,955

408,661

37,911

167,559

4,423.

420

6,947

2,490.

4,423

4,761

906,

540

11,708

3,390

4,423

2921

19

613

125

292

17

616

114

36

1,229

239

292

902

831

2,267

531

902

17

644

124

100!

2,911

655

902

2,141,690 1,046,230 15,773

9,739,467 610,595 4,541,394 3,151,926

4,438

994,596 80,147|

20,211| 10,734,063 690,742 4,541,394 3,151,926

52,338,348|1,046,230) 19,876 9,998,020 643,149 4,738,052 3,151,920

6,712

1,207,496|| 100,610|

26,588 11,205,516 743,759 4,738,052 3,151,926

T IN THE COLONY OF HONGKONG, IN THE YEAR 1904.

TOTAL.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Shipped.

Shipped.

Shipped.

J.

Tons. Crews.

Vis. Tons. Crews,

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

Bunker

: Bunker

Bunker

•Coal.

Vis.

Tons. Crews.

Cargoes. Coal.

Cargoes. Coal.

Cargoes.

Bunker Coal.

10,177 2,112 2,335

98

04

5,516 1,631 1,091

85

152

30,865 6,915

13,757

540

17

180 77

29 )79||| 420,375 38,298 146,610 91 15,961 3,964' 5,748

1,123 201

31

187

891 2,691 683

450

2,514 975 2,333. 70 1,747 512 1,091

29

18,735 3,538 13,757 9

84 38. 1,956 208,278 19,072 146,610 275 9,882 2,203 5,748

19

570 133 33 1,466 223

137 4501

12,130: 3,377 96 39 2,023| 212,097 19,226

1 22 4,019,566 281,443 1,687,520 338,5:1 16,999,9,555,682 465,484 3.266,571 526,194 3,2141,157,280 51,829

484,506,454 335,224 1,857,675 538,501 19,999 9,801.958 492,238 3,436,726 526,194 .6,6401,397,892 78,856

180! 77

3.979420,375 38,298 146,610

15,961 3,964 5,748

31 1,123 201

89 2,691 583

137

450

144.617 20,213 10,712,962 517,813 3,266,571 670,811

144,617 26,639 11,199,850 571,094 3.436,726 670,811

165

4,663 1,137

263

234

3,709 1,119

304

10,177 2,112) 2,333) 5,516 1,631 1,091

612

1,152

30,865 6,915 13,757

8

17

29

316 6,079, 1,701

12

553 68: 561 1,225 360

591

:

461

V.-NUMBER, TONNAGE and CREWS of Vessels of each Nation ENTERED at Ports in the Colony of Hongkong in the Year 1904.

ENTERED.

NATIONALITY

OF

WITH CARGoes.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

VESSELS.

Vessels. Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Vessels.

Tons.

Crews.

American,

86

230,349

7,304

10

7,275

325

78

237,624

7,629

Austrian,

32

102,349

1,936

32

102,349

1,936

Belgian,

1

2,047

28

1

2,047

28

British,

4,714

6,268,601380,293

385

444,094

21,121

5,099 | 6,712,698 | 401,414

Chinese,

343

247,262 19,090

19

25.717

1,361

362

272,979 20,451

Chinese Junks,

12,021

950,276 | 137,337

6,079.

574,598

71,865

18,100

1,524,874

209,202

Danish.

9

24,333

309

2,484

225

13

26,817

534

Dutch,

43

83,673 2,614

790

74

45

84,463 2,688

French,

174

419,22821,598

10

7,421

367

484

426,649

21,965

German,

802

1,216,244 42,176

60

52,638 :

2,415

862

1,268,882

44,591

Italian,

19

38,612

1,393

594

90

22

39,206

1,483

Japanese,

49

110,543

3,519

4,408

145

51

114,951

3,664

Norwegian,

202

205,142

5,971

53

74,720

1,701

255

279,862

7,672

Portuguese,

130

24,350

1,809

939

121

134

25,289

1,930

Russian,

3

9,553

170

3,025

74

5

14,578

244

Sarawak,

2

1,338

32

2

1,338

32

Spanish...

2

6,017

73

2

6,017

73

Swedish,.

9

7,164

280

No Flag,

10.00

3

1,418

91

12

8,582

371

2

3,419

49

2

3,419

49

Steam-launches trading to

953

ports outside the Colony,

50,936 17,217

74

1,956

586

1,027

52,892 17,803

TOTAL,......

19,876 9,998,020 643,149 6,712

1,207,496 100,610

26,588 11,205,516 743,759

VI-NUMBER, TONNAGE and CREWS of Vessels of each Nation CLEARED at Ports in the Colony of

.

Hongkong in the Year 1904.

CLEARED.

NATIONALITY

OF

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

VESSELS.

Vessels.

British,

4,777

6,103,409

6,103,409 222,068

Austrian,

28

Tons. Crews. Vessels.

91,068 1,953

Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

314

3

589,987 7,426

13,802 89

5,091

6,693,396

6,693,396 235,870

31

Belgian,

}

2,047.

28

1

Chinese,

362 207,955

18,912

· 3

Chinese Junks,

12,270 | 1,194,358

1,194,358

159,396

5,881

3,574 353,038

183

49,145

365 18,151

98,494 2,042

2,047 274,529 19,095

28

1,547,369 208,541

Danish,

12

25,659

515

1.

1,158

22

13

26,817

537

Dutch,

37

76,697

2,357

7

7,682

296

44

84,379

2,653

French,

448

376,987

15,669

30

42,345

906

478

419,332

16,575

German,

649

1,014,886

31,685

219

260,912

10,453

868

1,275,798

42,138

Italian,

20

38,876

1,563

2

330

63

22

39,206

1,626

Japanese,

46

103,507

4,249

6

11,708

384

52

115,215

4,633

Norwegian,

177

174,991

5,143

82

106,367

2,432

259

281,358

7,575

Portuguese,

134

25,289

2,527

134

25,289

2,527

Russian,

11,424

157

1

3,154

Sarawak,

3

2,007-

22

42

5

14,578

199

77

3

2,007

77

Spanish,

2

6,017

73

:

2

6,017

73

Swedish,..

11

7,884

United States,.

65

225,987

325 8,373

No Flag,

1

Steam-launches trading to

955

919

50,998

8

17,237

72

206 2

1,396

62

323

13

9,280

387

8

3,203

1.88

73 229,190

8,561

1,711

146

7

2,630

154

1,894

566

1.027

52,892

17,803

ports outside the Colony,

TOTAL,...

19,999 9,801,958 492,238

6,640 | 1,397,892

78,856 26,639 11,199,850 571,094

462

VII.—Total Number, Tonnage, Crews, Passengers and Cargo of Junks ENTERED at each Port in the Colony of Hongkong, (exclusive of Local Trade), during the Year ending 31st December, 1904.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Ves-

Tons. Crews.

Crews. Passen-

sels.

gers.

Cargo

Ves- Discharged.

Tons. sels.

Tons. Crews.

l'assen-

gers.

Ves-

Tous. Crews.

sels.

Passen- Discharged.

Cargo

gers.

Tons.

Aberdeen,..

235

9,167 1,821

4,790 71

3,548 698

306

12,715 2,519

4,790

Cheung Cháu,

243

4,085 1,308

2,967 55

1,158 337

298

5,243 1,645

2,967

Deep Bay,

Hunghon,..

904

21,467

4,964

104

Sai Kung

24

360 121

Sham Shui-po,

2,166

213,647 21,194

63

15,537 188 167,559 1,789

213 1

7,150 1,561

9

17

1,117

28.617 6,525

12.

15,537

28

369 127

188

Shaukiwán,

429

6,947 2,490

Stanley,...

19

613 125

Tai 0,

83

2,267

531

10

4,423 111

292 17 902

17

195,014 16,717 4,761; 908

75 3,955 408,661 37,911|

540

138

187,559

11,708 3.396

4,423

616 114

36.

644 124

2

100

1,229 239 2,911 655

292

12

902

Tai Po,

Victoria,

7,918 691,723104,783||| 27,300

383,695 3,805

Total,... 12,021 950,276|137,337 27,477

361,698 51,402 15,621 | 11,723|1,053,421|156,185 42,921 | 333,695

580,353 6,079 574,598 71,865 15,715 18,100 1,524,874203,202 43,192 580,353

VIII.—Total Number, Tonnage, Crews, Passengers and Cargo of Junks CLEARED at each Port in the Colony of Hongkong, (exclusive of Local Trade), during the Year ending 31st December, 1904.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Yes- sels.

Tons. Crews.

l'assen- gers.

Cargo Ves- Shipped.

Tons. sels.

Tons. Crews.

Passen- Ves-

gers.

sels.

Tons. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Cargo Shipped. Tons.

Aberdeen,.

Cheung Cháu, 70

Deep Bay,......

Hunghom,...... 540 Sai Kung,

253

98 5,514 975 1,747 512

2,333 165 4,663 1,137

263

10,177 2,112

1,091 234

3,769 1,119

304

5,516 1,631

2,333 1,091

9

18,735 3,538

84

41

38

Sham Shui-po, 1,956

208,278 19,072

163

Shaukiwán,

275

9,882 2,263

50

Stanley,

19

570

133

137

Tai 0,

33

1,466

223

12

450

12 56

13,757 612 12,130

29

96 146,610 | 2,023 212,09719,226| 5,748 316 6,079 1,701

553

6 1,225

3,377

129

39

23

1,152 17 3,979

30,865 6,915

170

13,757

180 420,375 38,298

7E

29

186

146,610

591j 15,961 3,964

50

5,748

31

1,123 201

137

360

89. 2,691 583

12.

450

Tai l'o,

Victoria,

9,270 948,082132,642 36,155 | 652,100 2,455 112,426 | 22,118

5,582 11,7251,060,508,154,760 41,737 | 652,100

Total,... 12,270 1,194,353 159,396 36,421

822,255 5,881 353,038 49,145 5,734 | 18,151 1,547,396 208,541, 42,155 | 822,255

IX.-Total Number, Tonnage, Crews, Passengers and Cargo of Junks ENTERED at Ports in the Colony of Hongkong, from Ports on the Coast of China, and Macao, during the Year ending 31st December, 1904.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Ves- sels.

2,657 125,121 18,676

Tons. Crews.

l'assen- Cargo Ves-

Discharged. gers.

Tons. sels.

Tons. Crews.

Passen-Ves- gers. sels.

Tons

rews. Passen-

Cargo

258/

91,907 927 87,698 8,191

36

gers.

3,584 212,819 26,867 294 91,907

Discharged. Tons.

East Coast,.

San On Dis-

trict, West

River, &c., West Coast,

Macao,

8,444 731,611 103,878 27,193 437,624 4,593 445,998 57,445 15,671 13,037 1,177,609 163,323, 42,864 437,624

} 305

615

478 34,439, 4,898'

22

16,011

8 1,001 100,007, 14,114

12

34,811

43.192 580,335

23,166 3,313, 22 16,011 173 11,273 1,5851

70,378 9,470

4 34,811 386 29,629 4,644

Total,... 12,021 950,276,137,337: 27,477 580,353|| 6,079 574,598|71,865 15,715 | 18,100 1,524,874 209,202

:

463

X.—Total Number, Tonnage, Crews, Passengers and Cargo of Junks CLEARED at Ports in the Colony of

Hongkong, for Ports on the Coast of China, and Macao, during the Year ending 31st December, 1904.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Ves- sels.

Tous. Crews

Passen- Cargo Ves-

gers. Tons. sels

Shipped.

Tons. Crews.

East Coast,.. San On Dis-

1,715 112,122 14,464

87

80,646| 1,944| 112,460 14,915

trict, West

9,410 976,367,129,455|||| 36,238

River, &c., West Coast,

360

26,894 3,862

56

18,753 210 11,655 1,914

Macao,

755

78,975 11,615

Total,... 12,270|1,194,358 159,396 36,421

40

55,060 201 20,247 1,740

l'assen- Ves- gers. sels.

3,659 224,582 29,379

667,796 3,526 208,676 30,576 5,643 12,966|1,185,043 160,031

570 38,549 5,776

956 99,222 13 355

Tous. Crews.

| Passen-

gers.

Cargo

Shipped. Tons.

:

88

175 80,646

41,881 667,796

56 18,753

43

822,255 5,881 | 353,038 | 49,145 5,734 18,151 1,547,396 208,541

55,060

42,155 822,255

XI.—Return of Junks (Local Trade) ENTERED at each Port in the Colony of Hongkong, during the Year ending 31st December, 1904.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Ves- sels.

T'ons.

Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Aberdeen,

101 5,218 981

Cheung Cháu,

38

872

268

Cargo Ves- Discharged.

Tons. sels.

3,122 42

382

Tons. Crews. Passen-

gers.

Yes-

Tous. Crews.

Passen-

Cargo Discharged

sels.

gers.

Tons.

1,732

414

143

6,950 1,395,

3,122

39

706

252

77

1,578

510

Deep Bay,

Hunghom,......

6

127

33

37

134

6,356

1,317

140

6,483

1,350

10

Sai Kung,

11

162

49

:

79

8

117

36

19

279

85

:

Sham Shui-po, 119

20,124

1,111

9,680

45.

3,969

356

12

164

24,093

Shaukiwán,

108

4,370

871

1,969

94

4,942

770

202

9,312

1,467 1,641

Stanley,..

131

231

34

68

18

7

199

41

46

18

23

5

179

45

9

225

63

382

37

79

18

9,680

1,969

34

23

Tai 0, Tai Po,

Victoria,

10,816 402,777|119,225 12,742

Total,... 11,207| 433,827|122,569 12,750

324,761 19,928 731,480 168,791 66,304 30,744 1,134,257 288,016 79,046 | 324,761

*340,087 20,298 749,549 171,999 66,316 31,505 1,183.376 294.568 79,066 | 340,087

XII-Return of Junks (Local Trade) CLEARED at each Port in the Colony of Hongkong, during the Year ending 31st December, 1904.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Ves- sels.

Tous.

Passen - Crews.

gers.

Cargo

Ves-- Shipped.

Tons. sels.

Tons. Crews

Passen-

gers.

Ves- sels.

Tons. Crews. Passen-

Cargo Slapped.

gers.

Tons

Aberdeen,

66

1,947 532

966 120

7,548 | 1,270

Cheung Cháu,

36

676

216

281

35

630

23-1

186 9,490 1,802 71 1,306 450

966

281

Deep Bay,

Hunghom,......

38

1,261 343

9

583

67

2,976

617

105

4,237 960,

583

Sai Kung,.

19 .314

97

4

157

8

153

33

27

467

135

157

Sham Shui-po,

91 8,887 635

10

5,031

46

3,218

398

137

12,105

1,033;

15

5,034

Shaukiwán, ...

60 2,041

405

1,118

91

3,016

697:

151

5,057

1,102

1,118

Stanley,

7

230

50

147

5

74.

29

12

304

79.

147

Tai 0,

6

122

30

61

14

324 105

20

446 135

61

Tai Po,

Victoria,

Total,... 6,378 224,242 56,207|| 76,035

6,055 | 208,761 | 53,899 76,012

37,014 24,696 923,124 234,563

45,36125,082 | 941,058 |237,951

3,468 30,751 1,131,888 238,462 79,480

37,014

3,473 31,460 1,165,300 |294,158 79,508

45,361

464

XIII. SUMMARY.

FOREIGN TRADE.

No. of VESSELS.

Tons.

CREWS.

British Ships entered with Cargoes,

Do.

do. in ballast,

4,714 385

6,268,604.

380,293

444,094

21.121

:

TOTAL,.....

5,099

6,712,698

401,414

British Ships cleared with Cargoes,

Do.

4,777

6,103,409

222,068

do. in ballast,

314

589.987

13,802

TOTAL,....

5,091

6,693,396

235,870

Foreign Ships entered with Cargoes,

2,188

2,728,204

108,302

Do.

do. in ballast,

174

186,848

7,038

TOTAL,....

2,362

2,915,052

115,340

Foreign Ships cleared with Cargoes,

Do.

do. in ballast,

1,997

2,453,193

93,537

373

452,973

15,343

TOTAL,...

2,370

2,906,166

108,880

Steam-Launches entered with Cargoes,

Do.

do. in ballast,

953

74

50,936 1,956

17,217

586

TOTAL......

1,027

52,892

17,803

Steam-Launches cleared with Cargoes,

Do.

955

50,998

17,237

dó. in ballast,..

72

1,894

566

TOTAL,......

1,027

52,892

17,803

Junks entered with Cargoes,

12,021

950,276

137,337

Do.

in ballast,..

6,079

574,598

71,865

TOTAL,

18,100

1,524,874

209,202

Junks cleared with Cargoes,

12,270

1,194,358

159,396

Di).

in ballast,

5,881

353,038

49,145

TOTAL,...

18,151 1,547,396

208,541

TOTAL of all vessels entered,

TOTAL of all vessels cleared,

26,588 26,639

11,205,516 11,199,850

743,759

571,094

TOTAL of all vessels in Foreign Trade entered and Į

cleared,

53,227 22,405,366 1,314,853

LOCAL TRADE.

TOTAL Junks entered,

Do.

cleared,

31,505 1,183,376

31,460 1,165,300

294,568

294,158

TOTAL, Local Trade, entered and cleared,.

62,965, 2,348,676

588,726

TOTAL, FOREIGN TRADE, entered and cleared,.

TOTAL, LOCAL TRADE, entered and cleared,

53,227

22,405,366 1,314,853

62,965 2,348,676 588,726

GRAND TOTAL,

116,192.

24,754,042 1,903,579

XIV.-RETURN of LICENSED STEAM-LAUNCHES Entered in the COLONY of HONGKONG during the Year ending 31st December, 1904.

TOWING.

NOT TOWING.

TOTAL.

PLACES.

Cargo

Cargo

Vessels. Tonnage. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Discharged Vessels. Tonnage. Crews. in tons.

Passen-

gers.

Discharged Vessels. Tonnage. Crews. in tons.

Passen-

gers.

Cargo

Discharged

in tons,

Within the Waters of the Colony,

*

66,122 1,737,183 496,081

87,629 2,667,189 681,391 4,435,105

158,751 4,404,372 1,177,472 4,435,105

Total,..

66,122 1,737,183 496,081

87,629 2,667,189, 681,391 4,485,105)

153,751 4,404,372 1,177,472 4,435,105

Outside the Waters of the Colony

Sam Shui,

Kong Mun,

Kam Chuk,

438

24,938 9,175

11,912

2,980

438 24,938

9,175

11,912

2,980

Wu Chow,

Macao...

Other Places,

Total,.....

172

38

46

2,519, 728

169

1,846

51

234

13,058 4,622

69

1,784

548

235

3,170 10,441 2,692 5,072

1,073.

1,161

2,691

234 13,088 304* 12,225

766

169,

1,846

4,622

3,170

1,073

3,240]

5,072

1,161

74

1,956

586

953

50,936 17,217 20,323

7,060 1,027 52,892

17,803 20,323

7,060

i

Grand Total,.

66,196 1,739,139 496,667

,125|| 88,582 2,718,125 698,608 4,455,428

7,060 154,778 4,457,264 1,195,2754,455,428

7,060

*The figures under the heading "Steam-launches plying within the Waters of the Colony are incomplete: the "Star" Ferry Company stating that since 1901, "owing to the amount of work entailed" they have had to discontinue keeping a record of the passengers carried by their launches, and also number of trips.

465

XV.—RETURN of LICENSED STEAM-LAUNCHES Cleared in the COLONY of HONGKONG during the year ending 31st December, 1904.

"

NOT TOWING.

TOTAL.

Cargo

Vessels. Tonnage. Crews.

Passen- Shipped Vessels. Tonnage. Crews.

gers,

in tons.

Passen-

gers.

Cargo Bunker Shipped Coal in tons. in tons.

Vessels. Tonnage. Crews.

Passeu-

gers.

Cargo Bunker Shipped Coal in tons. in tons.

TOWING.

Within the Waters of the Colony,

66,122 1,737,188 496,081,

87,629 2,667,189 681,391|4,435,072

25,401 153,7514,404,372 1,177,472 4,435,072

25,401

Total,....

66,122 1,737,183 496,081

87,629 2,667,189 681,3914,435,072

25,401 153,7514,404,372 1,177,472 4,435,072|

25,401

PLACES.

Outside the Waters of the Colony

Sam Shui,

Kong Mun,

Kam Chuk,

:.

:.

:

466

438 24,938 9,175!

12,466 3,984 2,891|

4381

24,938

9,175

12,466 3,984). 2,891

46

2,519

728

234

13,038

4,622

3,944

237

10,503

2,7121

5,100

148 2,216 719 1,144 501 1,266|| 2,282|

51 2,691 234 13,038 304 12,225

766 4,622 3,944 1,144| 501 3,240 5,100 1,266| 2,282

148 2,216 719

955

50,998

17,237

21,658| 8,610| 6,393] 1,027

52,892 17,803 21,658 8,610 6,393

8,610 31,79

698,628 88,584 2,718,187 698,628 4,456,730 8,610 31,794 154,7784,457,264 1,195,2754,456,730 8,610 31,794 31,794 154,7784,457,2641,195,275 4,456,730 8,610 31,794

* The figures under the heading "Steam-launchies plying within the waters of the Colony" are incomplete: the "Star" Ferry Company stating that since 1901, "owing to the amount of work entailed" they have had to discontinue keeping a record of the passengers carried by their launches, and also number of trips.

Wu Chow,

Macao,...... Other Places,

1721

38

67

1,722

528,

Total,.

72

1,894

566

Grand Total,

66,194 1,739,077 496,647]

467

XVI.—RETURN of VESSELS REGISTERED at the Port of Hongkong, during the Year 1904.

Official Regis-

Name of Vessel.

Number.

tered Tonnage.

Horse Power.

Rig.

Built of

Where built and when.!

Remarks.

Canton River, ...(str.),

112,002 408 155

None

Steel Paisley, 1897.

Ying King,

116,031

779

45

Wood Hunghom, H'kong, 1903.

Kwong Tung,

116,032

417

91

Steel

Hongkong, 1904.

Hong Kong,

109,864

413

40

Wood

Hongkong, 1901.

Foo Kwong, San Cheung,

116,033

96

34

Schooner

Hongkong, 1903.

Since sold to Foreigners.

109,870 770

66

None

Hongkong, 1902.

Chun Kong,

116,034 297 29

Schooner

Hongkong, 1902.

Sau Ui,

110,035

195

33

None

""

Steel

Hongkong, 1904.

Lin Tan,

116,036

655

86

Hongkong, 1904.

Dorothy,

116,037

42

Lorcha.

Wood

Hongkong, 1901.

Shun Lee,

(str.), 116,038

380

56

None

Hongkong, 1904.

Wing Hang,

109,863

278

42

Schooner

""

Hongkong, 1901.

Kong Nam,

107,028

402

48

None

Hunghom, British Kloon, 1858.!

59

Maharaja,

Shahzada,

81,268

1,046 223

Schooner Iron

Belfast, 1879.

Since lost, near Katasi,

78,848.

1,046

206

Belfast, 1879.

99

""

[Japan.

Tow, Tug,

116,039

31

375

None

,,

Wood Hongkong, 1894.

116,040

21

28

""

39

>>

Hongkong, 1898.

Tai Yat,

""

116,041

366

Steel Hongkong, 1892.

Tai Ye,

116,042

366

""

""

Hongkong, 1892.

Tai Sam,

116,043 376

Hongkong, 1893.

Tai Sze,

116,044

376

""

59

Hongkong, 1893.

Tai Ng,

116,045

376

"

Hongkong, 1893.`

Tai Luk,

116,046

376

"

Hongkong, 1893.-

Tai Tsat,

116,047

876

""

">

Hongkong, 1893.

Tai Pat,

116,048

,876

"

""

Hongkong, 1893.

Tai Kow, Tai Sup, Kingling,

116,049

132

55

Wood

Hongkong, 1899.

116,050

132

Hongkong, 1899.

.(str.), 116,051 2,831

340

Steel

Hongkong, 1904.

Chan Ou,

72.815

1,289

85

99

>>

Shanghai, 1890.

Dai On,

72.859

475

"

5

Shanghai, 1898.

Chin On,

72,872

472

""

Shanghai, 1899.

Tai On,

72,896

612

Shanghai, 1900.

""

Ping Ou, Chan Wai, Derwent,

72.879

512

Shanghai, 1900.

...(str.), 116,052

176

26

Schooner

Wood

Hongkong, 1903.

"

$1,603

1,562

308

Iron

19

Sunderland, 1879.

Ping Ou,

116,053

97

28

""

""

Wood

Hongkong, 1902.

Aquilo,

116,054

173

None

Steel

Hongkong, 1899.

Africus,

116,055

173

"?

25

Hongkong, 1899.

Zephyr,

116,056

173

""

Hongkong, 1899.

Euroclydon,

116,057

183

Belfast, 1900.

""

""

Notus,

116,058

333

"

>"

Hongkong, 1884.

Boreas,

116,059

333

99

"

Hongkong, 1884.

Eurus,

116,060

333

51

>>

Hongkong, 1884.

Auster,

120,971

404

99

"

Hongkong, 1897.

;

468

XVII.—RETURN of REGISTRIES of VESSELS Cancelled at the Port of Hongkong, during the Year 1904.

Name of Vessel.

Official Number.

Regis- Date of tered Regis- Tonnage. try.

Horse Power.!

Rig.

Built of

Where built and when.

Reason of Cancellation.

Kiang Yang, (str.), 95,856

ΤΟ 1891

35 Schooner

Wood Yaumati, H'kong, 1891. Lost 1902, Registry closed [1904.

Frame,

19,498

140 1894

74

None

Iron

South Shields, 1857.. Sold to Foreigners.

Foo Kwong,

116,033

96 1904

34 Schooner

Wood Hongkong, 1903.

Sold to Foreigners.

1

Maharaja,

$1,268

1,046

1904

223 Schooner

Iron

Belfast, 1879.

Lost.

XVIII.—SUMMARY of CHINESE EMIGRATION from HONGKONG to Ports other than in China,

during the Year ending 31st December, 1904.

BRITISH VESSELS.

FOREIGN VESSELS.

GRAND TOTAL.

WHITHER BOUND.

Adults.

Children.

Adults. children.

Adults.

Children.

Total.

Total.

Total.

M.

F.

M. F.

M. F. M. F.

M.

F.

M. F.

To Batavia,

28

:8

28

""

Callao, Peru,

339

1

""

Durban, British South Africa (Hired),

1.746

""

Honolulu, Sandwich Islands,

74

""

Japan Ports,

201

340 1,746 76 210

339

340

1,746

1,746.

205 169, 10

+

209

279

285

187 370

18

397

Mauritius,

95*

28

44

1 1,027

954

28

44

1

1,027

:)

Mexico,

3,992

"

San Francisco, U.S.A.,

53 12

4,045

3,992

53

4,045

Straits Settlements,

843

860 1,942 16 25 5 1,988 2,785 34,349 5,969||| 1,520 710 42,548 16,635 2,630 627| 287 20,179,50,984 8,599 2,147

21

37

2,848

997

62,727

Vancouver, British Columbia,

59

Tacoma, U.S.A.,

Victoria, British Columbia,

TOTAL PASSENGERS,.

2,169 463

39

171

2,208, 463

18:

1

172 171 2,169 18 481

172

39

2,208

481

44,176 5,983 1,627 710 52,490 20,122 2,684 705 297 23,803 64,298 8,667 2,332 1,007) 76,304

S

Total Passengers by British Vessels,

Total Passengers by Foreign Vessels,

Excess of Passengers by British Vessels, .

24,054 3,299 922

44,176 5,983 1,627 710 52,496

20,122 2,684 705 297! 23,808.

413 28,689

469

XIX. SUMMARY of CHINESE IMMIGRATION to HONGKONG from Ports other than China, during the Year ending 31st December, 1904.

BRITISH VESSELS.

FOREIGN VESSELS.

GRAND TOTAL.

WHERE FROM.

Adults.

Children.

Adults. Children.

Adults.

Children.

Total.

Total.

Total.

M. F. JL.

F.

M. E M. I

M.

F

M. | F

From Bangkok, Siam,

3,197 14 17

""

Callao, Peru,

343 14 22

A

3,226 15 394

3,197

14

17

3,228

343

14

22 15

391

M

Durban, British South Africa,

218

218

218

218

"

Honolulu, Sandwich Islands,

150

153 938 40 32

19 1,029

1.088

41

34 19

1,182

"

Java & Sumatra,.

53

53 1,068

1.068

1.121

1,121

"

Japan Ports,

85

85

205

205

290

290

وو

Mauritius,..

200

200

200

200

Melbourne,

538

538

538

538

"

New South Wales,

683)

692

683

692

"

Seattle, U.S.A.,

New Zealand Ports,

Queensland Ports,....

San Francisco, U.S.A.,.

South Australian Ports,

101

101

101

101

477

477

477

477

2,718 42

20 13 2,793 4,352. 118

538

82

70 4,622

7,070 160

102 83

7,415

538

142

142

538 142

:

538

142

"

Straits Settlements,

·106,494 3,900 | 1,159 | 570|112,123 15,775 303 114

"

Tacoma, U.S.A.,..........

80

80 112

69 16,261 122,269 1,203 1,273

115 192

639 128,384

195

#

Tasmania,

8

8

"

Vancouver, British Columbia,

3,610

11

8

Victoria, British Columbia,..

441

2 3,631 441

8 3,610 441

8

3,631

411

TOTAL PASSENGERS,

1

..155,998 3,950 1,194 | 587121,735 26,528 490′ 269 173 27,460 142,526 | 4,446 | 1.463 760 149,195

115,998 |3,956 |1.194 587 121,735

26.528 490 269 173! 27,460

89,470 3,466 925 414 94,275

Total Passengers by British Vessels,.

Total Passengers by Foreign Vessels,

Excess of Passengers by British Vessels,

*470

XX.-RETURN of MARINE CASES tried at the Marine Magistrate's Court, during the Year 1904.

DEFENDANTS HOW DISPOSED OF.

NATURE OF CHARGE.

2

:

:..

:

10

:

:

:.

:

:

:

:

1

20

:

1

8

70*

:

:

:.

:

:

...

...

:

[100

255

I

50

17

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

25

:

...

168

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:..

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

Assault,

Arrival without reporting,

:

Absent from ship without leave,

Carrying excess of passengers (Steamer),

Disobeying the lawful orders of the

Harbour Master,

Drunkenness,

Fail to report the damage affecting seaworthiness or efficiency sustained by the vessel,

Harbour Regulation, Breach of (Junks),.

Neglect of Duty,

Obstructions of Fairways,

Plying the launch without a certificated

Master (Steam-launch),

2

4

O

1 1

1

13. 29

1

1

1 1

3

1 1

Ι 5

1

C

10

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

:

Rules of the Road, Failed to observe

(Steamer and Steam-launch),

10 10

Refusal of duty,

17 107

:

2

:

SH

:

Refusing to let his boat for hire,

Throwing ashes and rubbish into Har-

bour,

1 1

N

Total,......

56 170

1

:

:

2

:

52

:

:

:

4

47

8

:

1

51

5

53

:

:

1

6

52 696

8.300.000

8.200,000

8.100.000

8.000.000

7 000,000

7.800,000

7.700.000

7 600,000

7.500,000

7 +90 000

7.300.000

- 200.000

7.