Sessional Papers - 1904

PAPERS LAID BEFORE THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL OF HONGKONG 1904

Table of Contents

1. Alcoholic Liquors

Report on Examination of Samples of

2. Assessment

Report on, for 1904-1905

3. Bacteriologist, Government

Report for 1903

4. Blake, Sir H. A. - Services as Govervor

Despatch from Secretary of State

5. Blue Book

Report on, for 1903

6. Botanical and afforestation

Report for 1903

7. Cattle Disease

Report on, By Drs. Hunter and Gibson

8. Chinese infantile Mortality

Report of Committee of inquiry

9. Education

Report for 1903

10. Estimates of Expenditure, 1905

Abstract Shewing Differences Between Estimates for 1904 and 1905

11. Estimates of Expenditure, 1905

Memorandum Explaining

12. Finance Committee

Report of Proceedings of the Finance Committee (1904)

13. Financial Returns

For 1903

14. Financial Statements

In Connection With Estimates for 1905

15. Fire Brigade

Report for 1903

16. Gaol

Report for 1903

17. Governor's Salary, increase to

Despatch from Secretary of State

18. Harbour Master

Report for 1903

19. Hung Tsun-Fuk Murder Case

Correspondence

20. Land Court, New Territory

Revised Estimate for 1904

21. Legislative Council

Proceedings for 1904

22. Marine Lot No. 184

Despatch from Secretary of State on Petition Re

23. Medical

Report for 1903

24. Medical officer of Health

Report for 1903

25. New Territory

Report on Survey of, By Mr. Newland

26. Observatory

Report for 1903

27. Pension Fund, Widows and Orphans

Report for 1903

28. Plague

Report on Epidemic of, in 1903

29. Plague

Government Bacteriologist's Report on

30. Po Leung Kuk

Report for 1903

31. Police and Crime

Report for 1903

32. Police force, increase to

Despatch from Secretary of State

33. Police Probationers

Despatch from Secretary of State

34. Post office

Report for 1903

35. Public Works

Report for 1903

36. Public Works Committee

Report of Proceedings of Public Works Committee (1904)

37. Queen's College

Report By Examiners of

38. Queen's College

Report for 1903

39. Registrar General

Report for 1903

40. Sanitary

Report for 1903

41. Sanitary Condition of Hongkong

Report for 1903

42. Sanitary Surveyor

Report for 1903

43. Sterling Salaries Scheme

Appointments included in

44. Subordinate Court Returns

For 1903

45. Supreme Court

Report and Returns By Registrar of, for 1903

46. Tropical Diseases Research

Despatch from Secretary of State

47. Tung Wa Hospital

Report on

48. Veterinary Surgeon, Colonial

Report for 1903

49. Violation of British Territory : Des Voeux Road Murder

Corresponence on

50. Volunteer Corps, Hongkong

Report for 1903-1904

51. Waterworks Scheme, Tytam Tuk

Despatch from Secretary of State

 

[ XLVI ]

Table showing the amounts of Chinese Liquors distilled in, imported into, sold in, and exported from Hongkong during 1897, by Chinese holders of Distillery Licences, and other particulars.

sell, export, and import Chinoso Liquors.] [It should be remembered that thoso Statistics refer only to the business done by Chinese holders of Distillery Licences. There are also 259 holders of Chine su

c.=culty.

Spirit Licences when

Lou-Pun-Ghau-

Amount of Chinese Liquor distilled,

895,930 c.

63,568 c.

1,979,831 c. cONSISTING OF :---

Total of Chinese

Liquor distilled and imported.

--Shoung-Ching-Chau -

--Sun-Ching-Chau-

1,979,831 c.

+

20,300 c.

12,986 c.

1,007,347

2,000,131 c.

Amount of Chinose Liquor imported,

20,300 c. of Len Phu Chun.

2,011,883 e. CONSISTING OF:-

Leu Pun Chan.

Sheung Ching Chau.

Sam Ching Chan.

Fa Chan.

Amount of Chinese Liquor sold for export and local consumption,

634,279 c.

17,894 c.

11,800 e.

457,668 c.

Other Lignor prepared by means of Leù Pân Chau or Fa Chan.

860,241 c.

Amount of Chinese Liquor

sold locally.

328,057 c. CONSISTING OF :—

Lon Pun

Sheung Sam

Fa

Ching

Mui

Muk

Ning

Shüt Li | No Mei

Ka l'i

Chau.

Ching

Ching

Chan.

Amount of Chinese Liquor

Chau.

Chau.

Mai

Chau.

Kwai

Chau.

Chan.

Chau.

Man Kan

Chan.

Kwa

Mun

Chang

Chan.

Chau,

Chau. Chau.

known to have beon ex- ported, .

Received

by places.

Total.

|201,760c. 10,096 c.|10,526 c. | 1,000 c.¦ 6,643 c.

371 c. 88,935 c.

1,144 c.

562 c.

1,330 c.

90 c.

150c. 150 c.

Australia received

British North Borneo ro-

ceived

150c.

8,154c.

100 c.

180 c.: 1,569 c.

13,747 c.

1,062 c.

966 c.

:

China received

|201,760 c. 8,146 c.

820 c.

100 c.

4,400 c.

...

...

...

Sandwich Islands received..

...

Japan received

1,800 c.

Philippino Islands received

150c.

202 c.

1,750 c.

180c.

Straits Settlements received

...

...

...

Peru received

960 c.

...

.....

United States of America received

660 c.

114c.

281 c.

90c.

35,100 c.]

1,001 c.

882 c.

382 c.

33,800 c.

787 c.

180c.

202 c.

150c.

150 c. | 26,128 c.

350 c.

215,126 c.

761c.

40,650 c.

1,832 c.

35,100 c.

960 c.

:

:.

162 c.

90c.

2,147 c.

2,011,885 c.

-

323,057 c.

Amount of Fa Chân used by distillers for making Vinegar,

201,260 r.

1,688,828 c.

;

37

NO. 1904

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE ASSESSMENT FOR THE YEAR 1904-1905.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

ASSESSOR'S OFFICE, HONGKONG, 18th July, 1904.

SIR, I have the honour to submit my Report on the Assessment for the year 1904-1905.

Theity of Victoria.

2. The result of the new Valuation is that the Rateable Value of the City of Victoria is, in the list which came into force on the 1st instant, $8,342,470, as compared with last year's (1903-1904) Assessment $7,427,100--an increase in Rateable Value of $915,370, equivalent to 12.32 per cent.

last

The Hill District.

3. The Rateable Value of the Hill District in now $230,205, against $199,910 year-an increase of $30,295 or 15.15 per cent.

Aberdeen,

4. The Rateable Value of Aberdeen is now $29,605, against $26,687 last year an increase of $2,918 or 10.93 per cent.

Hongkong Villages.

5. The Rateable Value of the Hongkong Villages has increased from $194,051 to $204,766--an addition of $10,715 or 5.52 per cent.-

Kowloon Point,

6. The Rateable Value of Kowloon Point (Tsimshatsui) is now $370,650, against $308,175-an increase of $62,475 or 20.27 per cent.

Yaumati.

7. The Rateable Value of Yaumati amounts to $253,160, compared with $232,245 last year-an increase of $20,915 or 9.00 per cent.

Hung Hom.

8. The Rateable Value of Hung Hom is $199,710, against $164,550-an increase of $35,160 or 21.36 per cent.

Kowloon Villages.

9. The Rateable Value of the Kowloon Villages, i.e., the remainder of old Kowloon, is now $259,955, as compared with $196,925 last year--an increase of $63,030 or 32.00 per cent.

The Whole Colony.

10. The Rateable Value of the whole Colony in now $9,890,521, as compared with last year's Assessment of $8,749,643—an increase of $1,140,878 or 13.03 per cent.

Interim Valuations.

11. During the period from 1st July, 1903, to 1st June, 1904, Interim Valuations have been made as follows :-

213 New and/or rebuilt tenements, rateable value,

In the City of Victoria.

40 Improved tenements, rateable value,.

Replacing Assessments amounting to,

$391,585

.$130,595 83,685

16,910

438,495

33,430

$ 405,065

80 Assessments cancelled, tenements pulled down, or being

in other respects not rateable,

Increase in City of Victoria,

510

In the Rest of the Colony.

316 New and/or rebuilt tenements, rateable value,

13 Improved tenements, rateable value,.

Replacing Assessments amounting to,...............

$126,690

$30,900

9,070

21,830

148,520

29 Assessments cancelled, tenements pulled down or being

in other respects not rateable,.

21,225

Increase in the Rest of the Colony,

$ 127,295

The total number of tenements affected by Interim Valuations being 691.

Vacant Tenements.

12. The number of reported vacant tenements in the City of Victoria inspected under Section 35 of the Rating Ordinance averaged about 155 monthly, against 165 last year.

Tabular Statements.

13. The usual tabular statements giving comparisons of the Valuation for 1903-1904 and the new Valuation for 1904-1905 are attached.

Staff.

14. Mr. CHEUNG YUK FAI and Mr. CHUNG LAI KAM have discharged their duties to my satisfaction, the latter was transferred to the Land Office on the 1st instant. Mr. TAI TIN SHANG has been appointed to fill the vacancy.

The Honourable,

L. A. M. JOHNSTON,

Colonial Treasurer.

I have, &c.,

ARTHUR CHAPMAN,

Assessor.

Table A.

THE CITY OF VICTORIA.

No.

District.

Valuation, Valuation, 1903-1904 | 1904-1905.

Increase.

Decrease. Percentage.

$

$

*

1

Kennedy Town,

134,335

168,415

34,080

2 Shek Tong Tsui,

314,290

351,800

37,510

3

Sai Ying Pun,

1,689,070

1 933,655

244,585

Tai Ping Shan,.......

621.940

700,140

78,200

5 Sheung Wan,

988,990

1,077,560

88,570

Chung, Wan,

2,731.990

3,117,915

385.925

Ha Wan,

331,325

349,045

17,720

Wan Tsai,.

381,345

401,175 22,830

9

Bowrington,

98,125

10.

Soo Kon Poo,

135,690

93,265 146,500 10,810

4,860

7,427,100 | 8,342,470

920,230

4,869

Deduct Decrease,

.$

4,860

Total Increase,....

915,370

12.82

1

511

Table B.

THE HILL DISTRICT, ABERDEEN AND HONGKONG VILLAGES.

District.

The Hill District,

Aberdeen,

Hongkong Villages,

Valuation, Valuation, 1903-1904. 1904-1905.

Increase. Percentage.

$

$

$

%

199,910

230,205

30,295

15.15

26,687

29,605

2,918

10.93

194,051

204,766

10,715

5.52

420,648

464,576 43,928

10.44

$

Table C.

KOWLOON POINT, YAUMATI, HUNG-HOM AND

KOWLOON VILLAGES.

District.

Valuation, Valuation, 1903-1904. 1904-1905.

Increase. Percentage.

$

$

$

%

Kowloon Point,

308,175 370,650

62,475

20.27

Yaumati,

232,245 253,160

20,915

9.00

Hung-hom,

Kowloon Villages,

164,550

199,710

35,160

21.36

196,925 259.955

63,030

32.00

ยัง

901,895 1,083,475 181,580

20.13

Table D.

THE COLONY OF HONGKONG.

District.

Valuation, Valuation, 1903-1904. 1904-1905.

Increase. Percentage.

The City of Victoria,

Hill District and Hongkong

$

$

$

7,427,100 8,342,470 915,370

%

12.32

Villages,

420,648 464,576

43,928

10.44

Kowloon Point and Kowloon

Villages,

901,895 1,083,475 181,580

20.13

S 8,749,6439,890,521 | 1,140,878

13.03

ARTHUR CHAI MAN,

Assessor.

512

MEMORANDUM BY THE COLONIAL TREASURER.

ANNUAL RATES.

Valuation,

1903-1904.

Valuation, 1904-1905.

Increase.

$ "'.

$

$ C.

Victoria.

965,376 12 1,084,431.08

119,054.96

Hill District,

21,461.48

24,717.80

3,256.32

Aberdeen.

2,402.36

2,665.00

262.64

Hongkong Villages,

15,621.44

16,528.44

907.00

Kowloon Point.

37,043.92

44,696.24

7,652.32

Yaumati,

28,451.00 31,014.68

2.563.68

Hung-hom,

20,157.96

24.462.24

4,304.28

Kowloon Villages,

18,122.44

25,561.92

7,439.48

$ 1,108,636.721,254,077.40

145,440.68

22nd July, 1904.

L. A. M. JOHNSTON,

Treasurer.

:

..

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE GOVERNMENT BACTERIOLOGIST, FOR THE YEAR 1903.

No.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

GOVERNMENT PUBLIC MORTUARY, 18th February, 1904.

SIR, I have the honour to forward my report for 1903.

24

1904

I have, &c.,

2

The Honourable

J. M. ATKINSON, M.B., &c.,

Principal Civil Medical Officer,

&C..

&C..

&c.,

WILLIAM HUNTER,

Government Bacteriologist.

T

GOVERNMENT PUBLIC MORTUARY,

HONGKONG, 18th February, 1904.

SIR, I have the honour to submit, for the information of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government, the following Report on the work done in the Bacteriological Sub-department during the year 1903.

During the past year, extensive alterations have been carried out at the Government Public Mortuary. New Mortuaries have been built with offices and servants' quarters attached. The whole compound has been constructed on the most modern lines, providing excellent accommodation for pathological work of any description. During the past year, the greater part of the work has been carried out at the Mortuary owing to the want of a Bacteriological Laboratory. It is hoped that this will soon be finished and that the accommodation and equip- ment there will be such as to allow of the most varied bacteriological research. The apparatus for the equipment of such a laboratory is at present stored at the Public Mortuary, so that with the erection of the building there need be no delay in starting research work.

Such bacteriological work requiring be done during the past year, has been done at the Mortuary. The temporary laboratory in the Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital was found to be inconvenient, and during the epidemic of Plugue would have interfered with the carrying out of the then somewhat arduous duties of the Officers in charge of that Institution.

My Laboratory Assistant, Dr. Ho Ko TSUN, resigned on the 17th January, 1903. His place was taken by Dr. LEE YIN Sze, one of the Bacteriological Assistants in charge of the routine examination of rats. I regret to say that Dr. CHAN FAI KWONG, one of the Bacteriological Assistants, died on the 31st of January, 1903. The cause of death was Acute Yellow Atrophy and in no way

connected with his duties.

In order to carry on the systematic examination of rats, it was found necessary to obtain the services. of two Senior Chinese Students from the Hongkong Coliege of Medicine.

Accordingly Mr. FUNG CHI MING and Mr. PETER QUINCEY were appointed on the 1st February, 1903, for a period of 8 months.

From the end of September, on the retirement of these gentlemen, the duties connected with the examination of rats has been done by my Laboratory Assistant, Dr. LEE YIN Sze.

Throughout the year the Sanitary Department have rendered most valuable assistance in regard to the cleansing of the Public Mortuary. During the year, 2,326 human bodies were examined at the Public Mortuary. These figur s represent a rather smaller number than duing 1902. This is accounted for by the establishment of a Mortuary in Kowloon and the absence of an epidemic of Cholera which swelled the figures during 1902.

}

:

262

During the past year a considerable amount of attention has been directed to pathological research, combined with bacteriological tests where necessary.

The question of the rarity of Enteric Fever amongst the Chinese is more apparent than real. The habit of the natives in leaving for their homes when prodromal signs of disease assert themselves has, in my opinion, much to do with the apparent rarity of the disease in Hongkong.

An interesting case of Sloughing Phagedana was examined at the Mortuary. The bacteriological examination of the case was negative.

Plague has been dealt with as shortly as possible, as it is proposed to deal with the subject in a special Report containing a resumé of research and experi- mental work done during 15.03.

Quite a number of cases of Liver Abscess has been met with and my results show the negative results obtained by bacteriological examination, the occurrence of the disease in children and in females, and the possibility of the presence of isolated small abscess foci in cases of so called large solitary abscess of the liver.

The subject of Endocarditis has been much in evidence during the past year. Six cases have been found and in one of these the Micrococcus Gonorrhea was the causal agent of the disease. The case has been gone into with care as these are by no means common at the present day.

The subject of Tuberculosis forms one of the most complete chapters in the Report.

The modes of infection have been discussed in the presence of cases.

It would appear from my results that Tuberculosis of the intestines in children is of the rarest possible occurrence.

The question of food as a factor of infection în Tuberculosis appears to me to be grossly exaggerated.

A

The etiology of Beri-beri still remains a dark chapter. An interesting find is the occurrence of the disease or something very similar in

101,056 rats have been examined bacteriologically. found to be infected with Plague.

young children. Of these, 3,744 were

A large number of other animals have been examined for Plague with positive results in many instances.

The question of the confusion of Fowl Cholera with Plague in the absence of a detailed examination arose. It is proposed to go more fully into the matter.

The results of 812 necropsies on children under 5 years of age are given and from my investigations, certain conclusions are drawn which I consider of great interest and importancé.

.

A

The condition of the Thymus gland and its relation to the condition of Marasmus and the general nutrition of the body is discussed with satisfactory results. The preparation of Small-pox Vaccine has been successfully prosecuted. 7,074 tubes were prepared during the year, an increase over 1902 of 3,422. great increase in the sale of lymph was noted during the year. Compared with 1902, there was an increase of 1,841 tubes, and a similar increase of $584 paid into the Bank. So far as I know the lymph has given satisfactory results and has been in demand not only in Hongkong but also in ports along the Coast.

A Cattle Disease was investigated during the year. A preliminary Report was published by Mr. GIBSON and myself, showing the disease to be a form of Septicæmia Hæmorrhagica and to have no connection with what is known as True Rinderpest. A considerable amount of ordinary routine bacteriological work has been done. In conclusion. I should like to express my sincere thanks to all who have helped me and rendered assistance and also to members of my staff who have performed their duties to my satisfaction.

:

I have, &c.,

WILLIAM HUNTER,

The Honourable

J. M. ATKINSON, M.B.,

Principal Civil Medical Officer,

etc., etc..

etc.

:

:

:

T

263

THE GOVERNMENT PUBLIC MORTUARY.

Total number of Post-Mortem Examinations held during the year 1903, 2,326.

The total number of Post-Mortem Examinations held has diminished by 490, compared with the Return of 1902. This decrease is accounted for mainly by the absence of an epidemic of Choler during 1903, and the arrangements made by the Government recently to have necropsies performed on cases of uncertified death in the Kowloon district.

Some idea as to the actual work requiring to be done daily at the Public Mortuary may be gathered from the following table :-

Month.

January,

February,

March,

April,

May,

June, July,

August, September, October, November, December.

Total,

No. of Bodies per month.

Average per diem.

163

176

6

213

6

355

12

474

15

240

144

154

5

117

132

77

81

2,326

This estimate is made counting 7 days in every week.

On several days during the month of May, when the epidemic of Plague was at its height, the daily average of bodies received into the Mortuary was 30.

RETURN OF CAUSES OF DEATH DURING 1903.

-Total General Diseases,

II-Local Diseases :-

Of the Nervous System,

送花

1.622

Circulatory System,

38

>>

Respiratory System,

265

Digestive System,

38

Urinary Systemu,

Generative System,

III.-Total Injuries,

IV. Total Decomposed Bodies,

-366

123

215

2,326

GENERAL DISEASES.

Small-pox,

22

Plague-

Bubonic Type,

:

529

Septicamie, Type,

339

Pneumonic Type,

42

Total Plague,

-917

Enteric Fever,

1

Cholera,

3

Diarrhoea (cause unknown),

69

Dysentery,

I

Beri-beri,

160

Malaria,

93

Sloughing Phagedæua,

1

Pyæmia,

I

Septicemia,

Carried forward,.

.1.274

264

>

Brought forward,

1,274

Tetanus,

Syphilis, Acquired,

Do., Congenital,

Acute General Tuberculosis,

Alcoholism,

Premature Birth,

Stillbirth,

Old Age,

Marasmatic Conditions,

Gangrene, Moist.

Opium Poisoning,

Carbolic Acid Poisoning,

Post-pharyngeal Cellulitis,

1

4

42

3

22

55

4

200

1

3

1

1

....

Total...

Skeletons,

1,613

9

I.—Of the Nervous System :

LOCAL DISEASES.

Acute Meningitis.... Tubercular Meningitis,. Internal Hydrocephalus, Apoplexy,..

Cerebral Concussion,

II.-Of the Circulatory System :--

Acute Fibrinous Pericarditis. Tubercular Pericarditis,

Aneurism of Heart,

Malignant Endocarditis,

Aortic Valvular Disease,

Mitral Valvular Disease,

2

1

5

Total........

12

Fatty Degeneration of Heart.

Aneurism of Aorta,

4

T

2

1

6

6

5

Total,...

38

III. Of the Respiratory System .

Acute Bronchitis,

Pneumatosis,

Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema, Acute Congestion of Lungs....

26

Circumscribed Gangrene of Lung,

Acute Broncho-Pneumonia,

96

Acute Fibrinous Pneumonia,

Tuberculosis of the Lungs,

Caseous Tuberculous Pneumonia.

Abscess of the Lung. Suppurative Pleuritis,

30

ཌ ོ༦༧༧

2

16

2

5

Total,

.265

IV. Of the Digestive System

Perforated Gastric Ulcer, Medullary Carcinoma of Pylorus, Strangulated Inguinal Hernia,.

Strangulated Internal Hernia,

1

1

1

3

Intestinal Obstruction,

1

Carried forward,...................

7

:

{.

:

Intussusception,

265

Brought forward,

Acute Membranous Enteritis, Acute Tubercular Enteritis,. Acute Gangrenous Appendicitis, Liver Abscess,

Carcinoma of Gall Bladder,

Acute Peritonitis,

Tubercular Peritonitis..

7.

2

2

2

5

3

1

8

Total,...

38

V.-Of the Urinary System:-

Acute Catarrhal Nephritis, Diffuse Chronic Nephritis, Genito-urinary Phthisis,

4

5

1

Total,........

10

VI. Of the Generative System

Abortion,

Septic Endometritis and Salpingitis, Malignant Adenoma of Uterus,

1.-General :-

1

1

1

Total,

3

INJURIES.

Burning,

Multiple Injuries,

Suffocation:-

2

2

(a.) From Submersion,

b.) From Gaseous Poisons, (c.) From Strangulation,

22

2

6

Privation,

28

Total,..

62

2.-Local:

Of the Head:-

Comminuted Fracture of Vault of Skull,

Fracture of the Base of Skull,

Gunshot Wound of Skull,

Of the Neck-

Cut Throat,

Of the Chest:-

Stab Wound of the Heart,.

Rupture of the Lung,

Wound of the Lung,

Gunshot Wound of Back,

7

12

2

Total,......

21

1

4

1

Total,

7

266

Of the Abdomen :--

General Contusion of Abdominal Viscera, Penetrating Gunshot Wound of Abdomen, Rupture of Diaphragm,

Rupture of Mesenteric Vessels, Fracture of the Pelvis,

Rupture of the Kidney..

Rupture of the Stomach,

Rupture of the Liver,

Fracture of the Spleen,

Total,.

I

1

1

1

2

1

1

2

22

32

NATIONALITY OF BODIES BROUGHT TO THE PUBLIC MORTUARY DURING

1903 :-

Chinese,

European,

Portuguese,..........

Indian,

Japanese,

Malay,.

Total,.........

2,288

17

12

5

3

1

2,326

:

RETURN OF CAUSES OF DEATH OF BODIES OF NATIONALITIES OTHER THAN

CHINESE

Europeans:-

Acute Alcoholism, Fracture of Skull,

Suicide by Shooting,

Drowning,

Bubonic Plague,... Aneurism of Aorta,

Septic Plague,.

Accidentally Shot,

Mitral Disease,

3

2

2

10 10 10 00 00

1

1

Cardiac Failure,

1

Total,......

17

Portuguese :-

Bubonic Plague,

6

Septic Plague,

Pneumonic Plague,

3

1

Gangenors Appendicitis,.

Carbolic Acid Poisoning,

Indian :-

Bubonic Plague,

Pneumonic Plague,

Gunshot Wound,

1

1

:

12

3

1

1

5

Οι

Japanese:-

Septic Plague,

1

Bronchitis,

1

Drowning,

1

Malay :--

00

3

Bubonic Plague,

1

:

267

PATHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION.

Small-pox.

A small epidemic occurred during the early part of the year. Twenty-two cases of the disease were examined at the Mortuary. Four cases were received in January; eight in February; five in March; three in April; and one in May and in August.

All the cases occurred in infants.

The type of the disease was severe.

The majority of the cases examined showed the hæmorrhagic and confluent type of the disease.

Enteric Fever.

Only one case of this disease has been met with during the past year. It occurred in a Chinese female aged about one year. The post-mortern lesions were severe with diffuse ulceration in the ileum. The Bacillus Typhosus was isolated in pure culture from the spleen. It is rather remarkable that in Hongkong so few cases of this disease are found post-mortem and further that such cases as are met with, cecur mostly in children. A case of Enteric Fever in an adult has only been found by me once during the past two years.

From mere post-mortem statistics alone one would be obliged to conclude that Typhoid Fever was a rare disease amongst the Chinese. My statistics for the past two years show a total of 5,142 post-mortem examinations performed, and amongst these only 8 cases of Enteric Fever. To explain this insusceptibility to Typhoid Fever amongst the Chinese, it has been suggested that the majority of the population contract the malady in infancy. Whether this is based upon clinical, pathological or bacteriological evidence, or upon all three, I cannot say, but in making such a diagnosis in infancy and childhood, clinical and pathological factors should always be supplemented by the determination of the presence of the causal agent-the Bacillus Typhosus-owing to the frequent great variation met with clinically and pathologically in Enteric Fever amongst children-this variation being the result of the state of development of various elements in the sinall intestine in young children.

If the disease occurred amongst the Chinese more particularly during infancy, then a much greater percentage of deaths from Enteric Fever in children, would be met with in the post-mortem room. As a matter of fact only 1 case of Enteric Fever in children has been found out of 812 post-mortem examinations performed on children under 5 years of age. In regard to the prevalence of Typhoid Fever amongst the Chinese in Hongkong, one fact must be borne in mind that Enteric Fever is a disease, insiduous in onset, and one which would allow the Chinese po- pulation, should they feel themselves gradually becoming a prey to some malady, to migrate to their own homes.

Cholera.

Three cases were brought to post-mortem examination during the past year. The characteristic micro-organism was isolated in each case, establishing the diagnosis.

Dysentery.

One case was met was during the year. Bacteriological attempts were made to isolate a causal agent, but the results were negative. From my own investiga- tions, coupled with the conclusions of other local medical gentlemen, it would appear that the bacteriology of Dysentery so called is by no means settled.

Sloughing Phagedæna.

This pathological condition was met with in an adult Chinese male aged about 30. The penis, scrotum, and adjacent parts of the thigh were covered with ulcers. These varied much in size, shape and depth. Many of them had apparently run together producing large areas of broken surface.

The ulcers on the penis had penetrated the corpus cavernosum deeply while those on the scrotum were more superficial. The inner side of the thigh and groin was covered with deep ulcers extending into the muscular tissue. The floor of the ulcers was covered with bluish unhealthy looking granulations which were bathed in foul smelling pus, and capped with a considerable quantity of necrotic tissue. The edges of the ulcers were irregular and undermined. The

268-

surrounding skin was bluish and indurated. Death evidently took place from exhaustion and sapræmia.

Acute Peritonitis.

Total number of cases examined, 8. In 6 of these the disease appeared to be primary. The other 2 were secondary to Abscess of the Liver.

The following is a tabular statement in regard to the primary cases :-

No. Sex.

1 F.

Age. 4 years.

M.

40

F.

30

""

4

F.

3

""

M.

17

23 4

6

MEE MN

M. 38

Bacteriology.

Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus

coli communis.

Streptococcus pyogenes. Same as No. 1.

Staphylococcus pyogenes and Bacillus

coli communis.

Bacillus coli communis.

Same as Nos. 1 and 3.

These results are in harmony with those obtained by other workers, as FLEXNER, whose valuable studies have added much to our knowledge regarding the somewhat complicated and obscure etiology of Acute Peritonitis. The micro- organisms setting up Acute Peritonitis either reach the peritoneum by way of the blood stream or the lymph channels. The question of micro-organisms invading the peritoneum through the intact intestinal wall has as yet to be settled.

years

Cerebral Hæmorrhage.

Number of cases, 5. All the cases occurred in adults varying from 18 to 58

of age. In each there was evidence of past syphilitic infection.

The heart was normal in all the cases.

In one of the cases, the extravasated blood had forced its way by a process of cleavage through the centrum ovale into the lateral ventricles. This form is usually known clinically by the name of Ingravescent Apoplexy.

Number of cases examined, 917.

Plague.

It is not intended to enter here into details as regards the pathology of Plague and the results which have been obtained during the past year. A considerable amount of research has been prosecuted in regard to this subject, especially from the point of view of mode of infection, aud further some interesting observations have been made as to the pathology of the disease.

Foods, insects, dust, clothing, etc. have been examined, and the results obtained have proved satisfactory.

It is proposed to prepare a special Report, dealing with the subject of Plague from various interesting points of view. The following types of the disease were met with during 1903-

Pestis Bubonica.

Right Femoral Bubo,

Left Femoral Bubo,

Right and Left Femoral Buboes..

Right Inguinal Bubo,

Left Inguinal Bubo,

Right and Left Inguinal Buboes,

Right Femoro-Inguinal Bubo,

Right Axillary Bubo,

Left Axillary Bubo,

Right Cervical Bubo,

Left Cervical Bubo,

156

153

4

26

18

1

2

73

58

18

16

Left Parotic Bubo,

2

Left Sub-Maxillary Bubo,

1

529

Pestis Septicæmica,

339

Pestis Pneumonica,

49

i

Total,

917

!

T

:

269

The frequency of the different types of the disease during the epidemic, may be expressed as follows:-

Pestis Bubonica,

Septicæmica,

.58%

.37% 5%

Pneumonica,

The following table is given to indicate the relative frequency of the different types of Plague during the epidemic :-

Month.

Bubonic.

Septicomic. Pneumonic

Total.

January,

2

2

4

February,

12

16

1

29

March,

34

63

4

101

April,

119

74

11

204

May,

243

102

12

357

June,

100

39

10

149

July,

14

22

2

38

August,

3

9

5

17

September,

3

4

7

October,

1

4

5.

November,

4

4

...

December,

1

1

2

Total,

529

339

49

917

i

The following conclusions seem warranted from the foregoing:

1. The bubonic type of the disease prevailed in frequency throughout the

epidemic.

2. The site of the buboes were subject to great variation.

3. The most frequent site for the buboes was the femoral region, with practi-

cally no preference for either side of the body.

4. Axillary, Inguinal and Cervical Buboes come next in consecutive frequency. 5. The septicæmic disease was prevalent throughout the whole year.

6. The pneumonic type was prevalent to any extent only during the height

of the epidemic.

7. All types of the disease were proportionately most prevalent during the

height of the epidemic, i.e., during the month of May.

So for as age is concerned, the post-mortem records show a similar condition of affairs to that met with in 1902.

Septicæmia.

Excluding cases of Plague, this was the cause of death in 6 cases.

All the cases occurred in children, mostly under the age of 10.

In 5 of the cases, the infection was due to Strepococcus pyogenes; the other to Streptoccoccus lanceolatus.

Pyæmia.

This accounted for one death, the condition being Staphylococcæmia. The body surface was covered with boils, especially the head and shoulders. From these Staphylococci were obtained. The internal examination of the body showed the presence of multiple abscesses in the lungs, spleen, kidneys and the brain. These abscesses were typical in appearance and from them Staphylococci were obtained.

Leprosy.

One case of the tubercular variety was examined during the year. cause of death was Malignant Malaria.

The

A

2

270

Aneurism.

Number of Cases Examined during the year, 1904-

No.

Sex.

Age.

Vessel.

Variety.

1

M.

56

Aorta asc. arch.

Saccular.

2 M.

50

Do. Transrense

Do.

Arch.

3

M.

40

Do.

Do.

Junction of

asc. and

transvarch.

4

M.

40

Dr.

Do.

asc. arch.

Remarks.

Marked arterio-sclerotic condition of vessels throughout the body. Rupture into pericardium, Mitral Stenosis.

Well marked signs of Syphilis.

Rupture into pericardium.

Do.

Do.

As a predisposing factor, in these cases, there may be mentioned "violent muscular exertion." The cases were amongst Chinese of the coolie class who in- variably have large hypertrophied hearts. As I mentioned in my Report for 1902, arterio-sclensis is very prevalent amongst the Chinese.

Its exact etiology

is not clear. Probably Syphilis has something to do with it.

In connection with this subject, it may be mentioned that course cirrhosis of the liver and interstitial Nephritis are frequently met with in the Public Mor- tuary.

Liver Abscess.

This has been the cause of death in 3 cases. Five cases of the condition were found during the past year. In 2, however, the immediate cause of death was Acute P'eritonitis following rupture of the abscess into the peritoneal cavity.

The details of the cases are as follows:

Case No. 1.-An unknown Chinese male, aged about 36. The liver was much enlarged and soft It was of a reddish brown colour, but over the right lobe the surface was marked by the presence of large greyish or yellowish spots.

The organ on incision presented the following appearance ---The right lobe was practically converted into one large solitary abscess containing chocolate col- oured and viscid pus. The amount of pus collected from this cavity was about 5 litres. The walls of this abscess were formed of hepatic tissue, but the latter, owing to the occurrence of changes, could scarcely be recogmsed as liver. The living walls of the abscess were rugged, consisting of necrotic hepatic tissue.

In the immediate surrounding, several small abcesses were found, each containing about 20 C.. of pus. These had no apparent connection with the large abscess cavity. Each of these small abscesses was separated from the large cavity by a zone of liver tissue. The pus in the sinall abscesses was of a similar nature to that found in the large cavity.

The pus was examined bacteriologically but no micro-organisms were found. All the other organs in the body were healthy, excepting the presence of interstitial Nephritis. No gall stones were found. There was no trace of Dysentery.

Case No. 2.-An unknown Chinese male, aged about 35. The right lobe of the liver contained a large solitary abscess, which almost wholly occupied the lobe. It had burst intra-peritoneally. About 4 litres of pus were obtained from the abscess cavity itself. The fluid was yellowish-green in colour and contained numerous solid and semi-solid pieces of necrosed liver tissue. The walls of the abscess had a honeycombed appearance. The remaining liver parenchyma was in condition of intercellular cirrhosis. The liver was firmly adherent to the lower diaphragmatic surface and over the side of the abscess the diaphragm was thickened to the extent of about 2 of an inch.

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:

:

3

:

271

Suppurative Peritonitis was present. The pus and necrosed material from the interior of the abscess were examined bacteriologically but with a negative result. From the peritareal cavity, however, pure cultures of Bacillus coli com- munis were obtained. There was no trace of Dysentery.

Case No. 3. This case is similar to the foregoing. It occurred in an unknown Chinese male, aged about 40 years. The abscess was right sided, occupy- ing practically the entire right lobe. Acute suppurative Peritonitis was: From the pus, Bacillus coli communis was obtained.

:

Chronic Dysentery was found in the large intestine.

present.

Case No. 4. This case is interesting as it occurred in a young child. An unknown Chinese female, aged about 3. ·

A large abscess was found in the right lobe, presenting the usual typical appearance. In addition to this, several small abscess cavities about the size of a pea, were found scattered throughout the remaining parenchyma of the liver.

No trace of Dysentery was present.

Acute Catarrhal Pneumonia was found in both lungs.

No micro-organisms were found in the pus or walls of any of the abscesses. Case No. 5. An unknown Chinese female, aged about 10.

Multiple small abscesses, very variable in size were scattered throughout the entire substance of the liver. These presented the appearances typical of abscess of the liver.

No micro-organisms were found in the pus or walls of the abscess.

There was no trace of Dysentery.

Right sided acute fibrinous Pneumonia was present.

Remarks.

These cases are brought forward owing to the several points of interest cou- nected with their pathology, and also from the lessons which may be drawn from them from a clinical and pathological point of view.

The etiology of so called liver or tropical abscess is by no means thoroughly understood.

The occurrence of an inflammation, e.g., Hepatitis, ending in the production of pus, must, in the light of modern views of inflammation, be put down to the action of micro-organisms. Yet when we examine the literature in regard to this subject. we become lost in our zeal to attribute the production of such an abscess to any of the micro-organisms so far described.

In all of the cases which have been examined by me, no micro-organism was isolated which could reasonably be brought into causal relationship with the disease.

In the cases which ended by the bursting of the abscess into the peritoneal cavity, micro-organisms of the colon group were always found, but these, judging from what is now known in regard to the abdominal cavity, must be regarded as secondary and not as exciting agents of the process under discussion.

Particular regard was paid to the examination of the walls of such abscesses, owing to the prevalence of opinion that protozoa have to do with the production of the disease, but in each case a negative result was obtained.

In one of my cases, No. 3, evidences of Dysentery were present, but micros- -copic examination for amoebae or bacteria was entirely negative.

In Cases Nos. 4 and 5, multiple small abscesses were found, but in neither case was any trace of Dysentery discoverable. This is rather important as, accord- ing to the general trend of opinion, large solitary abscesses occur idiopathically, while multiple small abscesses develop in conjunction with Dysentery.

It is evident, that although bacteriological examination was made of each of these cases recorded, absolutely no evidence could be obtained as to the exciting cause of the disorder The etiology, therefore, in each individual case is by no means obvious. The presence of interstitial nephritis and pericellular hepatic cirrhosis in

272

two of the cases is suggestive of diatetic errors. Little weight ought to be attach- ed to this fact owing to the extra-ordinary prevalence of cirrhotic conditions. of the internal organs, more particularly of the liver, spleen, and kidneys in Chinese, compared with the relative rareness of hepatic abscess.

An interesting point, also, is that two of these cases occurred in females one in a female child aged about 3 years, the other aged about 10 years. These cases are in direct opposition to the generally accepted facts in regard to the frequency of the occurrence of hepatic abscess in the different sexes and as regards age. As SCHEUBE has it "reports from all countries coincide in stating that the female sex enjoys remarkable immunity from liver abscess" and again “liver abscess rarely attacks children."

In my two cases, it will be noted that in the case of No. 4 acute catarrhal pneu- monia was present and was returned as the cause of death; in case No. 5, the cause of death was acute fibrinous pneumonia. It was only after a complete post- mortem examination had been performed that the existence of such a pathological condition in the liver was ascertained.

Whether the reports from different sources as to the occurrence of hepatic abscess in children of both sexes are founded on clinical observation alone or upon the results obtained by pathological investigation, I have found impossible to determine; but what is obvious from these cases is, that had no post-mortem examination been held, Cases Nos. 4 and 5 would have passed as death from a respiratory disease. In each of these cases, the appearance presented by the liver was typical. In neither was Dysentery present and the bacteriological exam- ination was negative.

Again, the distinction generally made in regard to the number of abscesses present, i.e., the solitary large abscess and the multiple small abscesses, would appear from my cases to be of little value. In case No. 1 a large solitary abscess was found, but sur- rounding this large cavity, were numerous small abscess foci. These appeared to the naked eye to have no connection with the larger focus. A similar state of affairs was observed in Case No. 4. In Case No. 5, where numerous abscesses were pre- sent, I found it difficult to determine which might be regarded as the large abscess and which the multiple small abscesses. It would appear that with careful post- mortem evidence at one's disposal, such a differentiation of hepatic abscess would in a great measure collapse.

Endocarditis.

From a perusal of the accompanying table it is evident that during the past year quite an interesting series of cases of acute endocarditis have come under my observation. Owing to the fact that within recent years a considerable amount of attention has been directed to this subject, particularly in regard to its bacteriology, special care was taken to examine each case with the hope of determining what micro-organisms were accountable for the production of the disease and also the extent and nature of the pathological changes produced by these micro-organisms. With one exception all the cases occurred in adults and as frequently amongst males as females. So far as the frequency with which the valves were affected it will be seen that the mitral was involved as often as the aortic and further the inflammatory process in several of the cases was not limited to the valves themselves but extended to the lining walls of the adjacent cavities.

It is unnecessary to sketch, further than is indicated in the table, the sequence of events which apparently took place in each case. The appearances resembled those fully described in any text-book on pathology.

With regard to the bacteriological investigation, however, there is much of interest. Amongst the six cases tabulated, appears one labelled as due to the Micro- coccus Gonorrhoea. A case of this nature must appeal to all those interesting themselves in infectious diseases. Further it is important in regard to the infective nature of the micro-organism itself. A few years ago the Micrococcus Gonorrhææ- was almost entirely associated with infective urethritis. To-day, however, with a more complete knowledge of the micro-organism and the effect which it may call forth in the human body, our ideas have altered considerably. litherto the gonococcus has been generally regarded as an organism which limits itself to mucous inembranes and only under exceptional circumstances penetrates into the deeper lying connective tissue structures. Many proofs, however, have been forthcoming establishing the possibility of the micro-organisms reaching the lymph channels or the blood vessels and thereby being transported to other parts of the body, and

/

273

capable of setting up metastatic disease. This being so, the gonococcus must be regarded in the same light as the staphlyococcus and other pyæmia producing micro- organisms. Its presence in the lymphatic apparatus has been shown by COLUMBINI (Rif: Med: 1898) and MYSING (Inang-Dissert. Kiel: 1900) and others, while its demonstration in the blood stream has been accomplished be several observers, notably WERTHEIM, THAYER and BLUMER, UNGER and PROSCHASKA.

Regarding, therefore, the gonococcus as one of the exciting agents of pyaemia, we find that just as in the case of other nicro-organisms, the gonococus in the production of disease, shows preference for certain parts of the body, e.g., the synorial membranes of joints, tendon sheaths, and the valvular apparatus of the

heart.

The affection of the heart by the gonococcus has been a subject of much discussion, more particularly in regard to the frequency of its occurrence. Since its demonstration by LENHARTZ (Munch. Med. Woch. 1897), THAYER and BLUMER (Berl. Klin. Woch. 1901) and UNGER (Berl. Klin. Woch. 1001), but few cases have been reported. Recently papers on this subject have been published by FINGER, LEYDEN, MICHELIS, CARAGEORGIADÉS and others amplifying the earlier investigations. In view of the small number of cases so far reported, I feel justified in putting my case on record and all the more so owing to the fact that the condition was only discovered post-mortem, in a perfectly fresh cadaver.

There is good reason to believe that the condition is one which is by no means rare. Its demonstration is difficult in many cases, but with the routine examination of the blood in all cases of Endocarditis ante-mortem as well as post- morten, cases due to the gonococcus ought to be brought to light in greater abundance. There is also reason to believe that many cases due to the Micro- coccus Gororrhæ run a benign course.

ENDOCARDITIS.

+

No. SEX. AGE. SEAT OF DISEASE.

BACTERIOLOGY.

· M.

1

Aortic valve with

year.

extension for

Micrococcus Janceolatus,

2

F. 20

years.

inch along surface of

endocardium.

Aortic valve pro-

cess limited

to valve.

3

M.

43 years.

Mitral valve on its

auricular surface

with extension

along the posterior.

wall of left amicle.

F.

38

Artico valve on its

years.

ventricular

і

aspect with

extension of the

process over the

endocardium.

Do.

Streptococcus pyogenes,

and

Micrococcus

lanceolatus,

Micrococcus Gonorrhææ.

REMARKS.

The affected region was studded with delicate excrescences which were greyish pink in colour and friable. Nu- merous petechiae were present over the left endocardium and generally over the visceral pericardium. No peri- carditis. Infarctions present is spleen and kidney.

There was evidence of old sclerotic changes in the valve affected. There was marked loss of substance. Con- siderable necrosis accompanied by the formation locally of secondary coagula. No Pericarditis but numerous petechiae were found over the left heart especially towards the base of the ventricle.

The process was warty OP verrucose, the vegetations being recent, friable, pinkish in colour. An easily detectable evagulum was present over the inflammatory granulations. Acute fibrinous pneumonia was also present.

The affected valve was studded with delicate granulations, more particularly along the line of maximum contact where there had been the greatest friction. These granu- lations were pin head in size, extremely soft, greyish pink in colour and translucent. In some parts the proliferation of tissue was more extensive and covering this was a considerable amount of necrotic tissue admixed with blood coagulum. The valve tissue itself was con- siderably thickened owing to the great amount of round celled infiltration and the activity of the connective tissue. The endocardium surrounding the principal focus of disease was opaque and in some places slightly rough. Opaque patches with slight thickening were found scattered over the left endocardium with localised thickenings of the chordæ tendineæ.

The other valves were normal. No pericarditis.

No. SEX. AGE. SEAT OF DISEASE.

274

ENDOCARDITIS,-Continued.

BACTERIOLOGY.

REMARKS.

The other organs especially the spleen and kidney were

deeply congested.

So far as the genital apparatus is concerned, the vagina was thickened and hard and its squamous surface rough and covered with patches of papillary thickenings of connective tissue. There was papillary erosion of the cervix uteri with the presence of a thin pyoid secretion. The endometrium was thickened and warty and the cavity practically in a condition of pyometra.

The micrococcus was recovered from the cardiac valves.

It was not definitely found in the genital apparatus but its pathological condition was diagnostic of the effects of gonorrhoea.

The woman was a Chinese prostitute.

Pathological appearances similar to Case No. 3.

10

M.

23

years.

Mitral valve.

Streptococcus pyogenes.

6

ŵ.

50

years.

Mitral valve with extension of opaque areas over the auricle.

Do.

Same as Case No. 5.

Tuberculosis.

Although an enormous amount of research has been prosecuted in regard to the interpretation of the lesions caused by the Tubercle Bacillus, it may be said that as yet the majority of the tissue manifestations of tubercular disease are wrapt in mystery. Speculation is rife as to the modes of infection, the proclivity of certain animal tissues to the disease, the apparent immunity of others and the apparent erratic spread of the infective process

It would appear from an examination of the most recent researches, however, that at last some light is to be thrown upon that most difficult problem, namely, the diffusion of the Tubercle Bacillus in the system.

With the advent of more perfect tinctorial methods, elaborated by WEIGERT SO long ago as 1877 and extended by EHRLICH, WECHSBERG and others, recent research has furnished us with a considerable literature in regard to this question, and fur- ther has opened up to us entirely fresh fields of investigation regarding the pro- bable avenues of general infection in Tuberculosis.

The portals by which the Bacillus Tuberculosis enters the body still remain a subject for the most varied discussion. Tonsillar infection, intestinal infection, respiratory infection, genital and urinary infection, as well as others, have all been advanced. The part played by each of these modes or others is difficult to gauge in the enormous field of tubercular pathology. As HABERSHON stated in the Con- gress on Tuberculosis in London in 1901, the forms of Tuberculosis and its man- ifestations in the body probably depend-first, upon the mode of entrance; second, upon the character of the invasion; and thirdly, upon the resisting power of the individual. These general principles as regards Tuberculosis are most important and to a certain extent are responsible for the peculiarity of the lesions subsequently produced. At the same time, it must be borne in mind that the lesions produced in the individual affected are influenced by three important factors relating to the causal agent itself, namely, the slow growth of the Tubercle Bacillus, its absence of the power of movement, and the severe effects which it produces at the seat of its colonization. Examples of this are numerous in tubercular pathology, e.g., the occurrence of localised nodular tubercles in the majority of organs and glands of the body. Such localised productions of tubercle, however, are unfortunately in the minority. What we have to explain is the occurrence of widespread Tuberculosis and that, given the infection, what are the avenues through which the Bacillus Tuber- culosis is enabled to call forth such ravages throughout the whole animal organism.

(

!

:

:

275

The original idea of KocH that such a spread was occasioned by wandering connective tissue cells has been greatly added to. Other channels of infection have been discovered and it is mainly through the prolonged investigation of these by BENDA and others that our ideas have been clarified as to the ways of Tuber- cular infection. The investigations bearing upon the great role played by epithetial channels, the lymphatic apparatus and the vascular system have opened up that complicated question of the distribution of Tuberculosis.

Since my arrival in the Colony, my attention has been directed to this subject, namely, the spread of the Tubercle Bacillus throughout the body. Excellent facilities have been available at the Public Mortuary, where a considerable number of cases of the various forms of Tuberculosis is constantly met with.

Mere mention of the frequent occurrence of Tuberculosis was made in my Annual Report for 1902. My observations at that time were fragmentary and it was considered advisable to withhold my remarks until a larger amount of material was at command.

Considerable fortune has attended my investigation as some excellent material was obtained.

My attention has been directed largely to the examination of the vascular system in all cases of Tuberculosis, because after the masterly presentment given by BENDA of the part played by the circulatory organs in the diffusion of the Bacillus Tuberculosis in the system, it appeared to me, in the presence of such an amount of pathological material that this abstruse question was deserving of further analysis. In addition to this, the other paths of infection have not been lost sight of and several cases, illustrative of these, have come under my notice, which in conjunction with others are worthy of publication.

The following cases, accompanied by remarks, are instructive cases of the mode of diffusion of the Bacillus Tuberculosis in the body and they shed light upon the clinical and pathological aspect of some of the forms of the disease.

Tubercular Pericarditis.-A Chinese male adult, about 35 years of age. The post-mortem examination was held within 12 hours after death. During life no history of the case was ascertainable. To external appearance the cadaver was that of a well built man whose general nourishment was fair. Post mortem lividity was well marked on dependent parts and rigor mortis was extreme.

The pericardial sac contained about 50 c.c. of blood stained fluid. The parietal layer of the pericardium was studded with a number of greyish white miliany nodules.

At certain points the right pleura was adherent and in this tissue similar nodules were found. These were larger and irregular and in certain instances caseating. The visceral layer of the pericardium was also the seat of a miliary eruption. These nodules were variable in size and some of them well in a state of caseation. The nodules extended into the cardiac muscle. A considerable amount. of granulation tissue was present. A sheet of fibrin covered the visceral pericardium. The heart, lungs and pleural cavities were normal. The bronchial and mediastinal glands were normal. The glands around the trachea and those situated in the anterior triangle of the neck, were enlarged and caseated. considerable quantity of soft newly formed tissue was found around the trachea. This tissue extended from the neck to the pericardial sac. On section, this granulation tissue was found to contain softened greyish-white nodules, many of which had broken down. The surrounding areas of tissue were normal.

The other body organs were normal.

A

Bacteriological examination showed the presence of Tubercle Bacilli in the newly formed tissue and also in the pericardium.

Four cases of this disease have been met with during the past two years. The mode of infection in these cases has been worked out as carefully as possible, and the following is a brief resumé:-

Full details in regard to the post-mortern appearances of Cases Nos. 2, 3 and 4, have not been given. The lesions present were of a nature very similar to that found in Case No. 1.

In case No. 1, the infection of the pericardium was traced to the tracheal lymphatic glands and those situated in the anterior triangle of the neck.

276

In cases Nos. 2 and 3, the infection was trace to the bronchial gland, and in the lungs evidences of tuberculosis were present.

In case No. 4 the lymphatic glands lying at the bifurcation of the trachea showed the presence of Tuberculosis.

These cases are interesting in the following respects. They show that by the careful dissection of the affected parts, some previous infection will be found and that tubercular Pericarditis as a spontaneous infection is of doubtful occurrence. ZENKER, BAUMLAR and SCHOTTELIUS and KAST have pointed out the relation existing between diseased cervical, mediastinal or bronchial lymphatic glands and the Pericarditis.

The lymphatic glands become affected with Tuberculosis in the first place; then by a process of extension the pericardium falls a prey tothe disease.

Tubercular Endocarditis. For many years, tubercular disease of the heart remained as a pathological entity. The existence of the condition has up until a few years ago been considered of the rarest possible occurrence. It was the discovery by WEIGERT in 1877 of such a condition in the heart that gave pathologists the famous clue to the question of general infection in tuberculosis. Since then the advent of more perfect staining methods ought to furnish a greater number of cases of tuberculosis of the heart in future.

There is no doubt that the vascular system forms one of the most important channels through which the general system becomes tubercular infected. Through the researches of RIEDER, PONFICK, LETULLE, PETIT, HANOT, BENDA, and others, tuber- culosis of the vascular systemn in all cases tubercular disease has been firmly established and in order to amplify their investigations, particular attention ought in a great measure to be directed to the careful study of vascular tuberculosis, the extent and method of spread of such a process and the interpretation of the results obtained. That general infection in tuberbulosis is not occasioned by the smaller blood vessels, as propounded by RIBBERT, has been almost settled by the elaborate researches of BENDA.

In tuberculosis, one of the most constant features of the disease during its development is the absolute obliteration of the blood vessels of a certain calibre in the neighbourhood of the diseased focus, tubercle bacilli are few in number in these situations. It is obvious then that these vessels are unable to occasion the spread of the pathogenic agent.

It is only when we come to the larger vessels that opportunity is given for the extensive spread of the disease, in vessels of a calibre which do not allow of complete obliteration in the presence of a tubercular focus.

To WEIGERT belongs the discovery of the presence of tubercular foci in the large vessels, a fact which gives us a most thorough explanation of the extra- ordinary widespread nature of tuberculosis throughout the whole body of the organism. The process here at work is the gradual extension of a tubercular nodule through the blood vessel wall and its subsequent discharge of the infective agent into the general blood stream. This result has been recently studied by BENDA who has shown that although this method of generalisation is common, yet it is not the one and only way. What he has demonstrated to perfection is that apart from the solution of continuity in the wall of the blood vessel (WEIGERT), it is possible to have an eruption of miliary tubercles in the blood vessel wall, i.e., in the tunica intima. The knowledge of the occurrence of such constitutes at present one of the most important advances in regard to the mode of spread of the B. Tuberculosis throughout the body. The occurrence of this condition in tuber- culosis would appear to be common enough but so far scarcely any confirmation of this has appeared.

The following is interesting:-

No history

A Chinese male alult, aged about 20, was examined post-mortem. of the case could be ascertained. The body had been "dumped". The external appearances of the cadaver were that of a well-developed man whose general con- dition of nutrition was poor. Post-mortem lividity and Vigor mortis were slightly marked. The pericardial sac contained a few ounces of yellowish and clear fluid. The walls of the sac were normal. The heart on being opened showed the pre- sence of endocarditis of the mitral valve. The other valves were normal. The diseased mitral valve showed numerous small vegetations about the size of a pin.

Az

277

These were situated on the auricular surface. They were mostly discrete, but in some instances several had apparently run together forming larger masses. . They were perfectly opaque. To touch they varied extremely; some were hard and nodular, while others were distinctly soft. In their immediate surrounding there were small points of superficial ulceration, and spreading from and under the dis- eased process was found considerable thickening due to hard, dense, connective tissue. On cutting these nodules, some were solid and fibrous but the majority were cheesy. Microscopic examination of these nodules was carried out and large num- bers of tubercle bacilli found. The auricles and ventricles appeared to be perfectly healthy. The heart muscle was pale and the organ generally anæmic. The organ weighed about 10 ounces. The coronary arteries were slit up but no trace of disease could be detected. The pulmonary arteries and veins were opened and showed the presence of ulceration and in some cases thrombosis. Tubercle bacilli were found in many of these foci. In both lungs there was old caseous tubercular pneumonia, with the development of a considerable amount of fibrous tissue. The disease in the lungs bad certainly lasted for some considerable time. In addition to the old caseous foci, there was an eruption of recent niliary tubercles scattered throughout both lungs —a typical acute iniliary tubercle of the lung. Extension of the old tubercular pneumonia along the lymphatics was also present. The lymphatics could be seen radiating from the caseous focus and were studded with minute grey nodules. These were so marked that they could be easily distinguished from the definite eruption of miliary tubercles throughout the pulmonary tissue. Several of the bronchial glands were caseous, others showed the presence of small tubercles commencing to break down centrally. Many of the other mediastinal glands contained miliary tubercles with caseation. The gastro-intestinal tract was normal to the naked eye. The mesenteric glands were enlarged and indurated. A few showed the presence of calcareous deposit in their interior. The liver was enlarged and weighed about 4 pounds. Its surface was smooth and anæmie and shining through the capsule, more particularly on its upper surface, could be seen numerous snall, round, greyish yellow nodules varying in size from a pin's head to a pea. These were incised. They showed caseation. On section, the organ was anæmic and throughout the parenchyma was an eruption of acute miliary tubercle. In other respects the organ presented the appearances usually met with in amyloid disease. The spleen weighed 10 ounces. Its capsule was thickened and contained miliary modules in which tubercle bacilli were found. On section, the organ was fibrous and pigmented and tubercles of varying size were scattered throughout its surface. Sinear preparations of this organ showed tubercle bacilli and malarial pigment. The kidneys were slightly increased in size and weight. Fibrous tissue was in excess throughout both organs and in addition several tubercles containing tubercle bacilli were found scattered throughout the parenchyma, more particularly in the medul Jary portion. Both the spleen and tlie kidneys were waxy, uodules of a tubercular nature were also found in the adrenals. The pancreas was cirrhotic but no tuber- cles were found. The genital organs were apparently normal. The brain with the exception of a tubercular nodule in the pons was normal to the naked eye: Careful examination was made of the vessels in order to determine the presence of tubercular disease. The aorta with the exception of atheroma and partial throm- bosis was normal.. As already mentioned the pulmonary vessels showed the presence of tubercular disease.

This case was interpreted as follows :-

-

There was a well marked caseous tubercular pneumonia with the formation of a considerable amount of reparitive tissue. At one particular period during the course of the disease, the tubercle bacilli had set up tubercular disease of the vessels, e.g., the pulmonary, and the heart with affection of the mitral valve. This extension of the process had led to the large numbers of tubercle bacilli in the blood stream, with the result that secondary to the chronic tubercle in the lung there were established throughout the body a superimposed tubercular infection in the shape of acute general miliary tuberculosis. This case which i have outlined is a splendid instance of the course of tubercular disease, and its method of extension. The condition of tuber- cular endocarditis and endoarteriitis will, if carefully looked for, be found to be a not infrequent complication in tuberculosis. There is much need, however, for further research in this direction. Few cases have as yet been reported and illustrations of the ways and means through which the tubercle bacillus finds its way into the innermost recesses of the animal body are urgently required.

!

278

Genito-Urinary Tuberculosis.

During the year 1903, one case of this form of tuberculosis was met with. This is rather suprising when one considers the frequency of tuberculosis amongst the Chinese. When dealing with this subject, no mention will be made of the presence of tubercular foci in the kidney itself. Such a condition has frequently been found in ordinary cases of acute miliary tuberculosis. In fact WALSHAM has demonstrated the presence of tubercle bacilli in the glomeruli of the kidney without any visible change in the vessels of the glomerulus or in the neighbouring tissues.

The question as to the occurrence and mode of production in these cases of genito-urinary tuberculosis is one of difficulty. If the tuberculosis is of renal origin then we may account for the condition by the pouring out from the blood of tubercle bacilli into the tubulus of excretion. But supposing the disease be primary in the lower parts of the tract, e.g., in the bladder or Epididymis, how are we to explain the spread of the discase to the kidney along channels and against the flow of their secretion?

The following case came under my notice a few months ago:-A Chinese adult, aged about 40. Tubercular foci were found in the Epididymis and body of the left testicle. Many of these had caseated, became secondarily infected and burst externally through the scrotum. The vas deferens was thickened and nodular and contained caseated nodules. The bladder was in a condition of early tuber- cular cystitis. Extending from here along the left ureter, the tubercular infection spread up to the left kidney, producing there extensive and typical tubercular disease. The condition on the right side was very interesting. The tubercular process had just commenced to involve the right ureter, and could be traced for about 1 inches upwards along its course. Beyond this point there was no trace of any pathological condition. Such a pathological discovery must be one of extremne variety as in all previous cases which I have had the opportunity of ex- amining, no clue was ever present to indicate the manner of extension of the disease.

BAUMGARTEN in 1901 endeavoured to refute the prevalent idea regarding the spread of the disease, that, given tuberculosis in the pelvis of the kidney the tubercle bacillus could travel down one ureter, infect the bladder, and all tissues and organs in the immediate surrounding, subsequently affecting and passing along the opposite ureter to the other kidney in which new tubercular foci are produced. BAUMGARTEN used as support for his argument, the non-motility of the tubercle bacillus and, as a result, the impossibility of the micro-organisms to travel along any canal or tube, e.g., the vas deferens or the ureter, contrary to the flow of the secretion. In drawing his conclusions, however, he apparently overlooked the new universally acknowledged physiological and experimentally proved fact that all muscular tubes are capable not only of peristaltic movement but also of anti-peris- toltic movement. And this is more particularly the case, should the lower end of such tubes be closed—a condition of affairs which could easily obtain in tubercular disease. This anti-peristaltic movement has been demonstrated in the case of the ureter but not so far as the vas deferens is concerned. When one considers these points it is a simple matter to understand the pathology of the condition. This case has been put on record as a pathological proof of the extension of the process and its gradual ascent from bladder to kidney.

VARIETIES OF TUBERCULOSIS IN CHILDREN UNDER 5 YEARS OF AGE.

Results of 812 Post-mortem Examinations.

1. Children under 2 years of age.

(1.) Acute Tuberculosis,

(2.) Caseons Tubercular Pneumonia,

5

11

(3.) Tubercular Enteritis,

Total, ................

18

279

II. Children over 2 and under 5 gears of age.

1. Acute Tuberculosis,...

(2.) Tubercular Pneumonia,

(3.) Tubercular Peritonitis,

Total,

27

11

2

40

:

5

1

:

!

When one considers the number of post-mortem examinations, it is rather surprising to find so few cases of tuberculosis amongst young children. By far the majority of the cases resolve themselves into acute generalised miliary tuber- culosis or tubercular pneumonia. In several of these cases an affection of the meninges was also found. What appears to be the most usual method of produc- tion in these cases, at least in those where the disease is disseminated throughout the body, is the primary affection of certain lymphatic glands in the mediastinum, especially the bronchial glauds. In young children I have repeatedly found the presence of caseating foci in these glands, the bacillary infection of the general system would appear to take place, as HAUSHALTER believes, through the lymphatic

system.

Further, only 2 cases of tubercular enteritis and a similar number of tuber- cular peritonitis have been found. So far as the cases of tubercular enteritis are -concerned, only one could be regarded as primary. The other case showed the sence of tubercular lesions in the lungs.

pre-

Such a result, obtained after the performance of over 800 post-mortems is of great interest from the point of view of invasion of tubercular infection through the small intestine. Up to the recent meeting of the British Congress on Tuberculosis in London, held in July, 1901. the opinion was widely diffused that the tubercle bacillus most frequently gained an entrance into the body through the tonsils and the lower part of the small intestine. Such were the conclusions arrived at by Drs. SYDNEY MARTIN and WOODHEAD, who conducted experiments on tuberculosis when engaged in the work of the Tuberculosis Commission in London. In their opinion, invasion of tubercle bacilli could take place without leaving any trace of a pathological condition in either of these situations. That such an invasion of bacteria can take place through the unbroken skin or mucous membrane is by no means an established pathological fact. On the other hand there is much reason to doubt the occurrence of such an infection under natural conditions.

Although the intestinal canal is the seat of election of a large number of diseases as dysentery, typhoid fever, cholera,' etc., yet the general result of all observations and experiments force the conclusion, that under healthy and natural conditions the intestinal canal resists the invasion of micro-organisms. From all sides, the danger attached to infection through the intestine in certain diseases' has been greatly exaggerated. The investigations of NOCARD and KAUFMANN, (Sem: Med. 1895), LEWIN (Beitr z. Inhalations therapie, 1865) and others, endea- vouring to show the sieve like structure of the intestine and the penetration of micro-organisms through its walls and their appearance in the thoracic duct have been completely refuted by searching investigations made by M. NEISSER (Zeit. f. Hyg. 1896) and OPITZ (Zeit. f. Hyg. 1898) who demonstrated that notwith- standing the alministration of large doses of micro-organisms to the intestine, the chyle and the mesenteric glands were always foun I sterile. This is all the more remarkable owing to the fact that there is no other part of the body which is so closely and permanently in contact with a rich bacterial flora.

When we come to look at the subject from the point of view of Tuberculosis, again we find the occurrence of primary infection of the intestine one of the rarest

occurrences.

The results of my post-mortem examinations show this, the occurrence of a single or about 0.1% of the total number of necropsies held.

These results of mine are not isolated, but are of the greatest importance in regard to the present day view of the paths of infection in tuberculosis and the possible. danger incurred through the agency of infected food. In the Charité in Berlin where an enormous number of post-mortem examinations are held, only fire cases of primary intestinal tuberculosis were found in 5 years. Again, BAGINSKI did not

find a single case amongst 933 autopsies, and BIEDERT only 16 times in 3,104 examinations, GROSSER in Tubingen only found 1 case in 1,407 autopsies on tubercular subjects.

:

:

:

:

280

The

Kocu himself who has performed innumerable necropsies, only remembers having seen 2 cases during his many years' practice. Again, 2 cases of tubercular peritonitis were met with during the past year. In both of these cases the inesenteric glands were enlarged and caseous, and at first sight the condition would have been diagnosed as Tabes Mesenterica or consumption of the bowels" -terms which are justly rapidly disappearing from medical nomenclature. intestinal mucous membrane in each case was normal. In one case the lungs and cervical glands showel tubercular foci. In the other a large tubercular and caseating axillary gland was found. In these cases no one would be justified in concluding the infection by way of the intestine. My results therefore are impor- tant from the standpoint that infection in tuberculosis is extremely rare through the. intestine and practically negligible from the point of view of prophylaxis.

The question as to the etiological significance of food in the production of tuberculosis is by no means settled but nevertheless it appears to me that the dan- yers attached to food have been greatly over-estimated. It may be argued that the food used by Chinese differs greatly from that of Western Nations, but that cannot have much weight when we bear in mind the great frequency of tuberculosis amongst Chinese and their methods of preparing and partaking of their diet.

One has only to look at the variety of primary intestinal and mesent eric tuber- culosis in Chinese children and even adults and compare it with the relative fre-- quency of other forms of tuberculosis, in order to estimate the exact position of affairs.

Beri-beri.

During the year, 160 post-mortem examinations have been made upon the bodies of persons dead from this disease. In by far the majority of cases, the dropsical form of the disease has been present. This form of the disease would appear to be the most frequent in Hongkong. This frequency of one particular form of the disease in different parts of the world has been noted repeatedly by others. Differences in different places in the same country are also met with and the malignant character of the disease may vary in different years.

Conditions of

·

The reasons for these variations are by no means obvious. weather exhibit practically no influence on the appearance of the disease, an aver- age of from 10 to 15 cases being brought to post-mortem in each month. The appearance of the disease therefore resembles that met with in Japan where beri- beri occurs throughout the year.

Almost all the cases occurred in males, the figures being males 151, females 9. This probably depends upon the difference in the manner of living amongst females. As regards age, the cases show that the disease is most prevalent during the working or wage-earning period of life.

Age. (- 1 year, 1-5 years,

19

5-10

10-20

20-30

30-40

40-50

77

Over 50

21

No. of Cases.

0

3

0

.14

.43

53

29

..18

Total,

160

These figures also bring out another point-the occurrence of cases of the disease between the ages of 1 to 5 years. Two of these cases occurred in males aged about 3 years, the third in a female aged about 4. Each presented the post-mortem appearances of a case of dropsical beri-beri. It is generally recognised that children are almost never attacked. The youngest patient which SCHEUBE had was 8 years of age. These 3 cases which I have included under beri-beri probably belong to the class of case met with by GRAHAM of Sumatra and HIROTA and MIURA of Tokyo, whether these cases are to be regarded as true cases of beri-beri, is a matter of dispute. The question of the etiology of beri-beri is quite obscure. That it is an infectious discase there seems to be little doubt: How the casual agent reaches the tissues of the body is unknown. My observations are in accord. with those of WRIGHT'S in the Federated Malay states.

281

I have frequently had the opportunity of examining the dead body an hour or two after death. In these cases, cultivations have been made from almost every tissue-fluid and solid, in the body, cultures were prepared on all kinds of media and probably from each case about 20-30 tubes would be inoculated and plate cultivations made. The results obtained agree in the main with those of PEKELHARING and WINKLER and others. At the same time, in no case could any micro-organism isolated be brought into casual relationship with the disease.

Further, nothing definite has been obtained from a bacteriological examination of the intestinal canal or of the cerebro-spinal fluid. Experimental research has been impossible so far owing to the want of accommodation. It is proposed to take up this and should the animals experimented with prove susceptible to the disease, some interesting facts ought to be ascertained in regard to the etiology of the disease.

REPORT ON THE EXAMINATION OF ANIMALS FOR PLAGUE AT THE Government PUBLIC MORTUARY FOR THE YEAR 1903.

I. RATS.-Total No. of Victoria Rats examined,

""

""

Kowloon

""

Total No. of Hongkong Rats examined,

Total No. of Victoria Rats found infected,

Kowloon

""

""

>"

""

""

""

54,747 46,309

..101,056

3,028

716

3,744

:

Total No. of Hongkong Rats found infected,.

Comparing these results with those of 1902, one finds that while there is a diminution by 16,783 of the total number of rats examined yet there is an increase of 1,729 in the number of those found infected.

There is little to add to the report given by me in 1902. A large number of live rats have been examined an I found suffering from plague. Many of these had plague in a chronic form. Fleas found on rats have been found infected with plague bacilli. These apparently do not bite the human species. On several occa- sions I have had these fleas on my hands but never experienced a bite. ASHBURTON THOMPSON Confirms the statements of BATTLEHNER, GAERTNER and others that the species of flea infesting rats does not infest man, but on the other hand have no re- pugnance for him. They will feed upon human blood if they be hungry. human flea is said to be cosmopolitan. So that there are two chances against the human subject being bitten by rat fleas, an important point to bear in mind when con-idering the role played by suctorial insects is the dissemination of`plague amongst the human race.

The

II. FOWLS.-The number of these examined is 121, and of this number 44 were returned as infected. Owing to the pressure of work during last year's epidemic of Plague, it was found impossible to proceed further in the examination of these fowls than the appearances presented by the microscope. Morphologically the bacteria would pass for the B. pestis but in the absence of more detailed examination the question at once arose as to the possibility of the disease being one of the forms of Septicemia avium. The organism of fowl cholera, although smaller in size, presents very much the appearance of the B. pestis morphologically. Fowl cholera is met with in Hongkong. I have met with several instances of it, The Bacterium avicidum is an organism which affects a large number of birds of different species calling forth in their bodies a typical Bacteriæmia, but so far has not been known to affect man to any great extent. The consumption of the carcases of fowls, ducks, etc., dead from this disease, however, frequently calls forth severe emesis and diarrhoea. The general consensus of opinion is that should a bird have succumbed to this disease, it ought, from a strictly sanitary point of view, to be destroyed and not used for diatetic purposes.

As I have already mentioned, the disease exists in Hongkong and therefore in China. Its prevalence and effects are so far unknown apart from reports from Chinese sources as to periodic outbreaks of some very fatal disease amongst their fowls. The question is worthy of investigation, and should opportunity present itself, I shall avail myself of it.

A

282

III.

DUCKS.-45 examined, 22 returned as infected.

IV.

PIGEONS. 9 examined, 2 returned as infected.

V.

OTHER BIRDS.-12 examined, 1 returned as infected.

remarks apply to these as to fowls.

The same

VI.

CATS.-18 examined, 3 found infected.

VII. RABBIT.-1 examined, negative.

VIII. DOG.-1 examined, negative.

TOTAL NUMBER OF POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS HELD ON CHILDREN UNDER

YEARS OF AGE DURING THE YEAR 1903,-812.

Number of Examinations of:-

Male Children,

...396 or

49%

Female Children,

...416

51 %

I.

Children sent from Convents comprise

...

26%

II. Children found "Dumped

III. Children sent from Houses,...

RETURN OF CAUSES OF DEATH.

"

73.26%

74%

I.—Under 2 years of age.

Marasmus,..

...166

Broncho-pneumonia,

56

Diarrhoea,

36

Plague, septic,

31

Inanition.

30

Croupous Pneumonia,

12

Acute Bronchitis,

12

Tubercular Pneumonia,

11

Malaria,.....

8

Atelectasis,

7

Small-pox,

Acute Tuberculosis,

4

Jaundice,

Plague, bubonic,

Plague, pneumonic,

Acute Pleurisy,

Exposure,

Acute Endocarditis, Tubercular Enteritis, Fracture of Skull,.

Acute Pericarditis,

4

4

3

3

2

1

1

1

1

Enteric Fever,

Intestinal Atrophy,

Rupture of Stomach,

Congenital Syphilis,

Bodies "Too Decomposed "

,

1

1

1

1

44

2

Number of Skeletons,

II-Over 2 years and under 5 years of age.

Plague, septic.

50

Broncho-pneumonia,.

Marasmus..

Acute Tuberculosis,

Malaria,..

10

35

27

27

Plague, bubonic,

Diarrhoea

Croupous Pneumonia,

Plague Pneumonia,

27

21

18

14

Small-pox,

11

Tubercular Pneumonia,

11.

Acute Bronchitis,

9

Inanition,

Beri-beri,.

ون ون

3

3

I

283

2 2 2

1

{

1

Acute Peritonitis, Streptococcæmia, Tubercular Peritonitis, Acute Pleurisy,...

Acute Pericarditis, Liver Abscess.

Hæmorrhagic Pneumonia, Pneumococcæmia,

Strangulation of Intestine, Starvation,..... Staphylo coccæmia, Acute Hydrocephalus, Acute Tetanus,.. Intussusception,

Acute Nephritis,

Congenital Syphilis, Drowning,

Bodies "Too Decomposed,"

Number of post-mortems held on :-

1.—Children under 2 weeks of age:-

Males, Females,

Total,..

2.- Children over 2 weeks and under 2 years :-

Males,

Females,

Total,..

3.-Children over 2 years and under 5 years:--

Males,

Females,

Total,..

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

46

42

49

91

.162

197

..359

.189

...173

..362

The following general conclusions have been drawn as the result of 812 post- mortem examinations on children under 5 years of age.

of age

(1) The post-mortem examinations on children under 5 years

comprise about 35% of the total number of neoropsies held. (2.) Male children ars as frequently brought for examination as female

children.

(3.) About one-fourth of the children examined come from the Convents. (4.) About twice as many females as inales come from the Convents.

5.) The largest number of children are found in the streets.

(6.) Children under 2 years of age die most frequently in a condition of

marasmus,

(7.) Children under 5 years of age, during 1903, died most frequently from

plague.

(8.) Plague figures largely as a cause of dead in children under 2 years of

age.

(9.) All types of plague are more common in children over 2

years of age. (10.) Pneumonic plague is relatively infrequent in children under 2 years of

age.

(11.) Broncho-pneumonia affects all ages, and excluding marasmus, is

accountable for the largest number of deaths under 5 years of age. (12.) Acute tuberculosis is uncommon in children under 2 years of age. (13.) Intestinal tuberculosis in children is of the rarest possible occurrence. (14.) My results appear to show that food as a medium of infection in tuber-

culosis is of little importance.

(15.) Liver abscess may be found in young children. (16.) It may also affect female children.

284

(17.) A pathological group of changes identical with Beri-beri may be met

with in children.

і

(18.) Enteric fever in young children is rare.

(19.) Malaria may be found in infants under 2 weeks of age.

(20.) Diarrhoea is a frequent cause of death in children. Its cause varies.

considerably.

(21.) There is good reason to believe PARROT's dictum that "vicious ingesta

constitute the most frequent and potent of all determining causes of infantile mortality."

During the past year attention has been directed to the condition of the ductless glands in regard to the possibility of a relation existing between them and the condition known as marasmus. The investigation so far has been occupied with the appearances presented by the thymus owing to the statements made within the last year or two by HERARD, FRIEDLEBEN and METTENHEIMER and quite recently by RUHRAH that this gland has some definite relation to the state of nutrition of the body.

but

Opinions vary as to the weight of the thymus at different periods of life, it may be stated in general terms that its weight at birth rarely exceeds 12-15 grammes in a well developed infant. From this time onwards the weight of the organ increases more or less rapidly, so that about the end of 18 months or 2 years, it reaches 20-30 grammes.

The following is a resume of my investigations in regard to the weight of the gland in cases diagnosed by me as a condition of marasmus and a comparison be- tween these and cases in which a well recognised cause of death was forthcoming.

I.-Infants up to 1 week old.

Normal Thymus.

No.

Sex.

1.

M.

Age. 5 days.

Weight.

Cause of Death.

13 grms.

2.

M.

3

3.

F.

2

";

>>

14

""

Syphilis. Sinall-pox. Pneumatosis.

4.

M.

7

">

13/

""

15

""

Rupture of Stomach.

Marasmatic Thymus.

No.

Sex.

1.

M.

Age. 7 days.

Weight. 2 grms.

2.

F.

7

""

3.

M.

7

2.

1

;"

25

4.

M.

3

3

27

11

II. Infants up to 2 weeks old.

Normal Thymus.

No.

Sex.

1.

M.

Age. 10 days.

Weight.

16 grms.

2.

M.

14

13

""

""

3.

M.

14

14

""

4.

M.

12

11

**

· Marasmatic Thymus.

Cause of Death.

Congestion of Lungs. Plague, septic.

Do.

Br. Pneumonia.

No.

Sex.

1.

M.

Age. 12 days.

Weight. 10 grms.

2.

M.

10

""

3.

M.

10

,,

4.

F.

9

5

8

""

"2

10 19

III.—Children up to 1 month old.

Normal Thymus.

No.

Sex.

Age.

Weight.

1.

F.

15 days.

16 grms.

2.

F.

20

20

3.

M.

1 month.

23

4.

F.

1.

18

""

12

Cause of Death.

Br. Pneumonia.

Plague pneumonia. Plague, septic. Acute Pleurisy.

:

-

No.

Sex.

1.

F...

285

Marasmatic Thymus.

Age.

19 days.

Weight.

10 grms.

2.

F.

16

12

21

3.

F.

3 weeks.

2

4.

F.

20 days.

4

IV. Children up to 1 year old.

Mormal Thymus.

No.

Sex.

Age.

Weight.

Cause of Death.

1.

M.

1 year.

25 grms.

2.

F.

9 months.

28

3.

F.

1 year.

20

""

4.

F.

1

25

97.

Marasmatic Thymus.

Age.

Plague, septic. Fracture of Skull. Small-pox. Malaria.

No.

Sex.

Weight.

1.

M.

8 months.

5 grms.

2.

M.

1 year.

3

-""

3.

F.

3 months.

4

4.

F.

1 year.

10

V. Children up to 5 years old.

Normal Thymus.

No.

Sex.

Age.

Weight.

1.

M.

2 years.

28 grms.

2.

M.

4

38

??

3.

F.

5

25

""

.

Marasmatic Thymus.

Cause of Death. Tuberculosis. Acute Tetanus. Malaria.

No.

Sex.

1.

F.

Age. 2 years.

Weight.

3 grms.

2.

F.

4

$

"

3.

M.

3

6

21

4.

M.

4

6

*1

The foregoing tables speak for themselves. The cases are taken at random from over a hundred cases of marasmus and other causes of death. The other organs of the body did not show a decrease in weight. In one case of tetanus there was no atrophy of the gland.

The Preparation and Output of Small-pox Vaccine for the

Number of Calves inoculated,

Expenditure in Calves,

No. of Tubes prepared,

Value of 1903 Lymph, No. of Tubes issued, Value Tubes of issued, No. of Tubes paid for,

Value of Tubes paid for,

year 1903.

30

.$ 200.

7,074 .$4,352.

5,361 .$1,847.50

2,485 .$ 899.50

The foregoing figures show a great increase in the work done over that of 1902.

1. An increase of 3,422 Tubes prepared.

2. An increase in the value of the Lymph by $2,892.

3. An increase in the number of Tubes issued by 745.

4. An increase of 1,841 in the number of Tubes paid for. 5. An increase of $584 paid into the Bank.

- 286

ISSUES OF VACCINE DURING 1903.

Vaccine paid for,

The Victoria Goal,

The Tung Wal Hospital,.

The Civil Hospital,

The New Territory,

The Sanitary Board,.

.2,485 Tubes.

.1,050

800 ""

612

100 27

24

5,361

During the past year a considerable amount of pure bacteriological work has been done.

No attempt was made to prepare the more complicated vaccines and sera, as it was felt that until the erection of the Bacteriological Institute, the manufacture of such would be attended by considerable risk. The erection of the institute is now only a matter of months and it is hoped that during the present year, the building will be finished and so equipped that research of any nature may be undertaken under the best of conditions.

The routine bacteriological work consisted mainly in the examination of material sent by medical men. I am glad to be able to state that not only have the medical men in Hongkong availed themselves of the laboratory but also those practising in neigbouring ports.

Repeatedly throughout the past year have iny services been requisitioned by medical gentlemen in Canton, Pakhoi, Amoy, Swatow, etc. I feel convinced that with the opening of the institute and the knowledge of the existence of such in the Far East, great progress will be made in regard to research, and with the co- operation of medical men in Hongkong and neighbouring ports much can be accom- plished along many lines of investigation.

During the past year 40 cases of suspected Typhoid fever have been examined by Widal's Test.

In several instances the spleen has been examined post-mortem for the Bacillus typhosus and on two occasions pure cultures of the organism were obtained.

Eight suspected cases of Diphtheria have been examined.

An interesting case of Anthrax with meningitis was examined bacteriologically. The Bacillus anthracis along with the pneumococcus was found. A full report of the case was sent to Dr. BELL, the Superintendent of the Government Civil Hospital. Several suspected cases of Cholera have been examined but with a negative

result.

Specimens of blood, sputum, etc. were forwarded to me from the Naval Authori- ties owing to the occurrence of suspicious pneumonia on board one of His Majesty's Battleships. The cases proved to be Plague.

Numbers of specimens of sputum have been examined during the year.

A large number of tumours have been examined. The work, however, could not be carried on systematically owing to the building operations at the Public Mortuary. I have to acknowledge my indebtedness to many medical gentlenen for forwarding specimenes of tumours and more particularly to Dr. MACLEAN GIBSON who has always let me have preparations of all tumours coming under his notice.

Tumours at the Public Mortuary are rarely inet with.

During the epidemic of plague last year, I was asked by the President of the Sanitary Board to enquire into the question of sterility of certain supplies of Plague Vaccine from Bombay. Ten samples were tested and three of them were found contaminated.

I am glad to state that in future the plague prophylactic will be prepared locally.

From the month of June onwards, I was engaged along with Mr. GIBSON, the Colonial Veterinary Surgeon, investigating a Cattle Disease which was preva- lent in the Colony. A preliminary Report has already been published. Further research into this disease is to be carried on during 1904, as to experimental infection, the modes of infection, the question of curative treatment, and the problem of prophylaxis against the disease.

A

No. 1904

HONGKONG.

SIR H. A. BLAKE'S SERVICES AS GOVERNOR.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

HONGKONG.

No. 18.

DOWNING STREET,

13th January, 1904.

SIR, I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch No. 543 of the 27th of November, forwarding extracts from the local press relating to the presentation of Addresses to Sir H. A. BLAKE on his departure from the Colony to assume the Government of Ceylon.

2. I have read these reports with great interest and have been much pleased to note the evidence which they afford of the esteem in which Sir. H. A. BLAKE is held by all classes of the community. I cordially agree with all that has been said as to the ability and success with which he has administered the Government of Hongkong.

3. The period of his administration has been marked by events of such im- portance to the well-being of the Colony, such as the hoisting of the British flag in the territory leased by China under the Agreement of the 8th of June, 1898, aud the inauguration of works for providing an additional and adequate water supply for the city of Victoria. It has also, unfortunately, been marked by serious out- breaks of bubonic plague and by no means the least part of the debt of gratitude which the Colony owes to its late Governor is due to the vigour and energy which he has displayed in the endeavour to check the mortality from this disease and to diminish, so far as possible, the danger of further outbreaks.

I have, &c.,

ALFRED LYTTELTON.

The Officer Administering the Government of

HONGKONG.

28

NO. 1904

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE BLUE BOOK FOR 1903.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

HONGKONG.

No. 202.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 12th May, 1904.

SIR, I have the honour to submit for your information the following general Report on the anuual Blue Book for the year 1903.

I. FINANCES.

The Revenue for the year exclusive of Land Sales amounted to $4,728,692.17, or $398,979.69 more than the previous year. Land Sales amounted to $510,165.71, or $61,195.51 more than in 1902. The total Revenue from all sources was there- fore $5,238,857.88, or $337.784.18 greater than in any previous year, and $305,562.88 more than the estimate. All the main sources of revenue show an excess over 1902 with the exception of Miscellaneous Receipts and Land Sales, and all items similarly show an excess of actual over estimated receipts with the ex- ception of Rent of Government Property, Miscellaneous Receipts, and the Water Account. Licences and Internal Revenue not otherwise specified show an excess of $187,836.09, while Fees of Court or Office, &c., and the Post Office yielded, over $50,000 and slightly under $30,000 respectively over the estimate.

The Expenditure for the year was $4,746,838.44 exclusive of Public Works Extraordinary; inclusive of that item it was $5,396,669.48, or $512,879.03 less than the total expenditure of 1902. Deducting from the actual expenditure for 1903 the total actual receipts, there was a deficit $157,811.60 on the actual work- ing of the year, though the surplus of Assets on December 31st amounted to $177,830.83 exclusive of arrears of Revenue.

(a.)-GENERAL REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.

The following is a brief abstract of Revenue and Expenditure for the years 1902 and 1903 :-

1902.

1903.

Increase.

Decrease.

$

$

$

$ (.

Light Dues,

66,106.52

74,960.00

8,853.48

Licences and Internal Revenue not

otherwise specified,

2,600,520.55 2,849,936.09

249,415.54

Fees of Court, &c.,

296,709.19 352,719.02

56,009.83

Post Office,

387,066.19

414,867.20

27,801.01

Rent of Government Property,

572,286.15

615,683.01

43,396.86

Interest,...

2,003:92

5,964.73

3,960.81

Miscellaneous,

233,070.49

178,602.00

54,468.49

Water Account,

171,949.47

235,960.12 64,010.65

Land Sales,

571,361.22

510,165.71

61,195,51

Total,...

4,901,073.70 | 5,238,857,88 453,448.18

115,664.00

Deduct Decrease.......

115,664.00

Nett Increase,

$337,784.18

The Right Honourable

ALFRED LYTTELTON,

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies,

&c.,

"

&c.,

&c.

1

344

TOTAL REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE FOR THE FIVE YEARS 1899-1903.

1899.

1900.

$

1901.

C.

$

Revenue, Expenditure,

3,610,143.25 4,202,587.40

4,213,893.224.901,073.70

3,162,792.363,628,447.13 4,111,722.49 5,909,548.515,396,669.48

1902.

1903.

$

ૐ (. 5,238,857.88

Surplus,

Deficit,

447,350.89 574,140.27 102,170.73

1,008,474.81 157,811.60

b.)-ASSETS AND LIABILITIES.

At the end of the year 1903, the Assets of the Colony amounted to $609,950.40, exclusive of arrears of revenue which with the sum just mentioned bring the total Assets up to $731,218.40 The total Liabilities were $672,661.86, so that the surplus of Assets over Liabilities amounted to $58,556.54.

(c.)-PUBLIC DEBT.

There is a public debt of £341,799. 15. 1 outstanding. The original debt was incurred in connection with the Praya Reclamation, the Central Market, and Water, Drainage and Sewerage Works.

Fund.

Interest at 3 is payable on the loan, which is being paid off by a Sinking

II. TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES,

AGRICULTURE AND LAND.

(a.) TRADE AND SHIPPING.

The following table shows the principal articles of export in the year 1903 in vessels of European contruction, compared with similar returns for 1902. The figures represent the tonnage :---

Articles.

1902.

1903.

Increase.

Decrease.

Beans,...

300

3,120

2,820

Bones,..

Coal,

1,040,906

1,186,686

145,780

Cotton Yarn and Cotton,

11,498

20,795

9,297

Flour,

107,826

120,430

12,604

Hemp,...

22,923

24,149

1,226

Kerosine (bulk),

54,461

40,607

......

13.854

(case),

60,400

82.960

22,560

Lead,

625

550

Liquid Fuel,

6,299

1,000

75 5,299

Opium,

4,871

4,997

126

Pitch,

1,900

1,900

Rattan,...

4,742

4,020

Rice,...

819,919

597,730

Sandalwood,.

5,374

4,713

722 222,189 661

Sulphur,

961

961

Sugar,..

268,268

229,946

38,322

Tea,...

25

1,746

1,721

Timber,.

75,023

64,400

10,623

General,

1,480,003

1,594,600

114,597

Total,

3,963,463 3,985,310

313,592

291,745

Transit,

2,372.397 2,874,950

502,553

Grand Total,

6,335,860

6,860,260

816,145

291,745

Nett...

524,400

*

345

The total tonnage entering and clearing during the year 1903 amounted to 24,039,862 tons, being an increase, compared with 1902, of 2,511,082 tons, and the same number in excess of any previous year.

There were 53,991 arrivals of 12,027,092 tons, and 54,009 departures of 12,012,770 tons.

Of British Ocean-going tonnage, 3,396,314 tons entered, and 3,382,121 tons cleared.

Of British River Steamers 2,237,249 tons entered, and 2,234,613 tons cleared.

Of Foreign Ocean-going tonnage, 3,667,871 tons entered, and 3,665,880 tons cleared.

Of Foreign River Steamers, 217,619 tons entered, and 216,744 tons cleared.

Of Steam Launches trading to ports outside the Colony 93,239 tons entered, and 93,239 tons cleared.

Of Junks in Foreign Trade, 1,347,001 tons entered, and 1,351,458 tons cleared.

Of Junks in Local Trade, 1,067,799 tons entered, and 1,068,715 tons cleared.

Thus---

British Ocean-going tonnage represented

River

River

59

Foreign Ocean-going

""

39

"

28.20%

18.60%

30.51%

1.81%

0.77%

11.22%

99

""

Local Trade

8.89%

100.00%

Steam Launches in Foreign Trade

Junks

95

A comparison between the years 1902 and 1903 is given in the following Table; Steam Launches are not included.

Comparative Shipping Return for the Years 1902 and 1903.

1902.

1903.

Increase.

Decrease.

Ships. Tonnage.Ships. Tounage.

Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage.

British,. Foreign,

Junks in Foreign

Trade,

Total,.

7,102 9,571,787 8,449|11,250,296 1,347 1.678,509 5,359 6.704.211 6,040| 7,768,115

| 36,245 3.238.239 31,766 2,698,459

681 1,063,904

4,179 539.780

48,706 | 19,514,2:7 46.255 21,716,870| 2,028 2,742,413′ 4,479 539.780

*

*

+

Junks in Lo al {50,743 1.819,329 58,2152,136,514 7.472|| 317,185

Trade,

Grand Total,... 99,449 | 21,333,566 104.470 23,853,384 9,500 3,059,598 4,479 | 539,780

NET,

1

5,021 2,519,818

* Including 17,210 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 637,052 tons.

† Including 25,582 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 932,078 tons.

For vessels under the British Flag, this Table shows as increase of 1,347 ships of 1,678,509 tons, an increase of 427 ships of 762,845 tons to Ocean-going, and an increase of 920 ships of 915,664 tons to River Trade.

The above increase in Ocean-going is principally due to the fact of some new lines having been established the China Commercial Steamship Company, the British India Steamers now visiting the port, the addition of some new steamers to local firms, and lastly to an increase of Coal imported from Australia in Steamers new to the Port.

346

The increase in River Trade is almost wholly due to the new Steamers Kinshan and Wing Chai being in the River Trade during the greater part of 1903 and to an increased number of sailings by the Hongkong, Canton and Macao Steam Boat Company, Limited.

Under Foreign Flags, the table shows an increase of 681 ships of 1,063,904 tons of which 328 ships of 821,216 tons are Ocean-going, the remainder 353 ships measuring 242,688 tons are River Steamers.

The increase in Ocean-going is made up principally by an increased number of Steamers calling at the Port in 1903 under the United States Flag and to the increased tonnage of some of the Pacific Mail Steamers, and to an increase under Chinese, Japanese and French Flags.

The increase in River Trade is made up by two French Steamers Sun Cheung and Kong Nam, the former being a new Steamer and the latter was transferred from the British Flag in July, 1903, also to the Chinese Steamers Chan Wai and Chan On whose running commenced in the first Quarter of 1903.

The actual number of ships of European construction (exclusive of River Steamers and Steam Launches) entering the Port during 1903, was 741, of which 344 were British, and 397 Foreign. These 741 ships entered 4,419 times, giving a total tonnage entered of 7,064,185 tons. Thus compared, with 1902, 23 more ships entered 372 more times, and gave a total tonnage increased by 779,927 tons.

STEAMERS.

Flag.

Ships.

No. of Times entered.

Total Tonnage.

British,

324

Austrian,

20

15

50

1902. 1903. | 1902. | 1903. 1902. 1903.

3311,7531,982 2,965,0303,368,788

42 125,929 106,944

Belgian,

1

3

3.624

Chinese,

17

14

135

172

163,396

222,164

Danish,

6

8

13

27

23,374 48,676

Dutch,.

11

23

21

26,464 34,575

French,

27

42

228

262

219,111 246,837

German,

123

126

939

937

1,360,524 1,345,567

Italian,.

4

14

12

Japanese,

56

69

409

467

Norwegian,

49

51

300

318

Portuguese,.

1

46

30

23,428 32,732 865,400,1,017,263 263,379 319,685

7,897 7,110

Russian,

11

9

16

19

32,046 30,781

Swedish,

4

4

15

31

14,325 26,093

United States,.

23

24

56

61 121,939 200,706

No Flag,

1

1.260

Total,

676.

709 4,000 4,383 6,215,866 7,009,181

During the year 1903, 14,489 vessels of European construction, of 19,018,411 tons (net Register), reported having carried 9,768,405 tons of Cargo, as follows:-

Import Cargo,.. Export

59

Transit

""

Bunker Coal shipped,

.3,985,310

2,245,119

2,874,950

663,026

$9,768,405

:

347

The principal features to be remarked in the reported Trade of the Port for 1903 are:

In Imports reported :----

Increases in Coal of 14.0°/

Decreases in Bulk Petroleum of 25.4°

Cotton of 80.8%.

95

Liquid Fuel

of 84.1%

""

Flour of 11.6°

Rice

of 27.1%.

""

Case Petroleum of 37.3%.

Sugar

of 14.3%

""

Timber

""

of 14.1%.

General of 7.7%

The net increase under this head amounts to 21,847 tons. In Exports, there is an increase reported of 24,252

In Transit Cargo

39

""

502,553

The total reported Import Trade of the Port for 1903 amounted to 24.819 vessels of 10,959,293 tons, carrying 7,392,320 tous of cargo, of which 4,517,370 tons were discharged at Hongkong. This does not include the number, tonnage, or cargo of Junks, or Steam Launches employed in Local Trade.

Similarly, the Export Trade froin the Port was represented by 24,966 vessels of 10,944,055 tons, carrying 3,034,683 tous Cargo, and shipping 675,891 tons of Bunker Coal.

Eighty-three thousand three hundred and eighty-four (83,384) Emigrants left Hongkong for various places during the year: of these, 55,681 were carried by British Ships and 27,703 by Foreign Ships; 140,551 were reported as having been brought to Hongkong from places to which they had emigrated, and of these, 107,166 were brought in British Ships and 33,385 by Foreign Ships.

The total Revenue collected by the Harbour Department during the year was $285.288.42, being an increase of $18,522.43 on the previous year:-

1. Light Dues,

2. Licences and Internal Revenue,

3. Fees of Court and Office,

.$ 74,960.00

55,475.50

154,852.92

Total,.

$285,288.42

(b.) INDUSTRIES.

The conditions of the Sugar industry in the Colony during 1903 were much more favourable than in the previous year, when a serious collapse in prices was experienced all over the world, rendering profitable working impossible. In con- trast to the wide range of prices during 1902, fluctuations were much more mod- erate, and with values at a low level the consumption of sugar showed a considerable advance, especially in the China market. This steadiness in prices may be at- tributed to the passing of the Brussels Sugar Convention in the Spring of 1902, under which European sugar bounties were abolished, and which came into oper- ation on the 1st September, 1903. The markets in Europe, however, were still overstocked as the result of enormous overproduction in previous years, so that the full effect of the abolition of bounties has not been felt, but when such stocks have been worked off the sugar trade generally will be relieved of a factor which has hitherto accentuated its necessarily speculative nature, and there is no reason why the local refineries should not share in the benefits likely to result therefrom.

The Cotton Spinning industry during the first half of 1903 was carried on under not unsatisfactory conditions although the recurrence of plague, by its indirect effect on the labour supply, interfered with production for several months From June onwards prices fluctuated violently owing to speculative operations, and at the end of the year had reached a figure which made profitable spinning impossible, prices for yarns not having responded to the advance in the prices of the raw material. The outlook for the industry at the end of 1903 was far from promising, and is not likely to improve until cotton be obtainable at a more reasonable figure. If the valleys of the New Territory could be utilised for cotton plantations, whereby the

#

:

348

raw material could be procured locally at permanent prices or at least at prices which could be approximately foretold, the industry would undoubtedly receive a much-needed impetus.

In other respects the outlook for industrial enterprise in Hongkong continues on the whole to be promising.

(c.) FISHERIES.

A considerable proportion of the boat-population of Hongkong supports itself by deep-sea fishing, in which pursuit a large number of junks are engaged. The villages of Aberdeen, Stanley, Shaukiwan and many others in the New Territory are largely dependent upon this industry for their prosperity. Fresh-water fish is largely imported from Canton and the West River.

(d.) FORESTRY, BOTANICAL SCIENCE AND AGRICULTURE.

Afforestation of the island and the New Territory has proceeded normally, the year being a favourable one as regards absence of typhoons and diminution of fires and forestry offences. The Colonial Herbarium was enriched during the year by several small but interesting collections from different parts of China, and was visited by botanists from Europe, America and Japan. The efforts of the Govern- ment to improve the eultivation of sugar-cane in the New Territory have been continued by the distribution of better varieties of cane among the farmers. The kinds introduced have grown well at the experimental estate at Castle Peak, and give a better percentage of sugar than any hitherto cultivated in this part of China.

The hilly character of the island and its comparative absence of fertilising soil have prevented agriculture from becoming an active source of industry in Hong- kong. The area of cultivated land in the island is only a little over 400 acres. The old dependency of British Kowloon, which is chiefly composed of level ground, contains almost the same amount of cultivated land. This, however, tends to diminish as buildings extend. The only part of the Colony where agricultural industries can be expected to thrive is the New Territory, including the large islands of Lantao and Lamma. Valleys intersected by extensive ranges of barren hills are utilised to the utmost extent by rice-plantations and other crops. The area of cultivated land in the New Territory (including the islands) may be roughly estimated at 90,000 acres, but much of this contains exceedingly poor soil and consists of minute holdings belonging to the poorest class of peasants.

(e.) LAND GRANTS AND GENERAL VALUE OF LAND.

Sales of Crown land amounted to over $510,000, which was considerably over the average amount received from such sales, though $60,000 less than the receipts for the previous year.

The survey of the New Territories has been completed and valuable maps of each sub-district are now in the possession of the Government.

Building land in the urban portion of the Colony and in the Peak district is limited in extent and steadily increasing in value. The natural consequence is that house-rents, especially on the higher levels, have advanced to an extent probably unknown in other British Colonies.

III.

LEGISLATION.

Twenty-four Ordinances were passed by the Legislature during 1903, of which ten were measures for the amendment or repeal of previous enactments. The most important measures of the year were the Public Health and Buildings Amend- ment and Consolidation Ordinance (No. 1 of 1903) and the Waterworks Ordinance (No. 16 of 1903). The latter repeals the Waterworks Consolidation Ordinance of 1902, which was referred to in the Blue Book Report for that year, and makes

The former was other provisions for economising the water-supply. doubtedly the most important measure which has been enacted for many years. It is hoped that the ultimate benefits which it may be expected to confer upon the health and well-being of the Colony will be far-reaching. Further reference to this measure will be found under the heading of Vital Statistics (b). parts of the Empire, an Ordinance was passed to declare a perpetual holiday on the anniversary of the birth of Her late Majesty Queen Victoria.

un-

As in other

\

IV.

349

EDUCATION.

The educational system of the Colony is still undergoing revision, and the results which may be expected from the changes cannot yet be judged with exact- ness. The demand among the Chinese for instruction in the English language continues to increase, and every effort is made to meet that demand and to render the methods of instruction as thorough as possible. All the Anglo-Chinese schools have their full complement of pupils, and Queen's College, the principal school in the Colony, is unfortunately obliged, through lack of accommodation, to refuse admittance to many applicants. A Sub-Committee of the Governing Body of that institution was appointed during the year to draw up a course of study for the Chinese classes in the College. The same course has been adopted in the Anglo- Chinese District Schools, and in most of the Anglo-Chinese and Vernacular Grant Schools.

One of the most important changes recommended by the Committee on Educa- tion which sat in 1902 was the substitution of a new Code for the then existing Grant-in-aid Code. The new Code was drafted early in the year under review and has met with general approval. It was decided not to bring it into universal opera- tion till January 1st, 1904, but schools were permitted, if they so desired, to adopt it from the 1st July, 1903. About one half of them elected to do so. The follow- ing are some of the points of difference which distinguish the new from the old Code:-

(a.) The Grants are paid upon the results of the Inspector's observation throughout the year, and not upon the success or otherwise of individual scholars at an Annual Examination.

(b.) The Code recognizes that schools employing a well educated Staff are worthy of special recognition by giving a higher rate of Grant, paid in sterling, to such schools. The Staff must, in order to meet the requirements of the Code in this respect, be partly composed of Europeans, or natives of very unusual qualifications.

(c.) The old Code gave Grants to schools giving a Chinese education ou the time-honoured Chinese lines, as well as to schools in which Portuguese or German was the medium of instruction. The pre- sent Code recognizes only modern Western methods of imparting instruction, and insists that either English or Chinese must be the medium of instruction: other languages may of course be studied as Class subjects.

The Kowloon School for European British subjects has now been open for nearly two years. The attendance during 1903 averaged 46-4 as compared with 39-3 in 1902, an increase of 18 per cent.

The District Schools were entirely re-organised at the beginning of the year. Special attention has been paid to the improvement of the Chinese Masters in their methods, especially in the method of teaching English.

Of the Anglo-Chinese Schools, three at least-the Roman Catholic Cathedral School, the Ellis Kadoorie School, and the St. Stephen's Anglo-Chinese School- have given evidence of a desire to attach greater importance than heretofore to the study of spoken English. The last-named is an encouraging example of a well- conducted school under Chinese Masters only.

The Vernacular Schools have on the whole greatly improved in the last two years. This improvement is most apparent in the schools which elected to come under the new Code at once, thus freeing themselves from a hard-and-fast line of study.

V. PUBLIC WORKS.

The principal public works in progress during the year were the new Law Courts, new Harbour Office, and extension of the Tytan Reservoir, the Kowloon Water-works, the provision of temporary pumping plant for water-supply purposes at Tytam Tuk and preliminary works there to ascertain the most favourable posi- tion for a large dam, the reconstruction of street gullies, large extensions of the cattle depôts, and the training of nullahs for the improvement of the sanitary con- dition of some of the residential districts. A substantial start was made with the

+

350

superstructure of the Law Courts and Harbour Office before the close of the year, and the extension of the Tytain Reservoir was nearly completed. The foundations of the main dam for the Kowloon Water-works, which is to be 90 feet in height above the level of the ground, were ready to receive concrete; a large covered service reservoir to contain two million gallons was well alvanced; and the pre- paration of a site for the filter-beds and the cutting of a tunnel for the main from the reservoir were in progress. In consequence of the inadequacy of the water supply to meet the growing demands of the City of Victoria and pending the construction of permanent works in the Tytan Tuk Valley for augmenting the supply, a temporary pumping engine capable of raising half a million gallons daily was erected there and the necessary main laid to the Tytam tunnel. A small dam to impound the ordinary flow of the stream during dry weather was also constructed. Trial works were in progress throughout the year in Tytam Tuk Inlet for the purpose of determining a suitable site for the construction of a damn to impound over 1,000 million gallons, but had not been concluded at the end of the year. The reconstruction of the street gullies throughout the City was undertaken principally on sanitary grounds, one object being to confine sewage to the sewers and exclude it from the storm-water drains. In consequence of the large exports of cattle from Hongkong to the Philippines considerable extensions of the depôts had to be under- taken. The accommodation provided is being increased from 480 to 1,241 head of cattle. Some extensive operations in the way of training the mountain streams were carried out, largely with a view to ridding residential areas of the anopheles mosquito.

The total amount expended on Public Works Extraordinary exclusive of the Praya Reclamation was $629,831, and on works annually recurrent $529,551.

VI. GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS.

(a.) HOSPITALS.

Government Hospitals consist of the Civil Hospital, to which is attached an isolated Maternity Hospital, the Victoria Hospital for Women and Children, Ken- nedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital, and the hulk Hygeia which is also used for

the treatment of infectious diseases.

The Civil Hospital contains 150 beds in 20 wards. 2,794 in-patients and 11,911 out-patients were treated during the year 1903. 346 cases of malarial fever were admitted as against 349 in 1902 and 787 in 1901. The Maternity Hospital contains 6 beds for Europeans and 4 for Asiatics. 62 confinements occurred during the year, without any death. The Victoria Hospital was opened towards the end of the year by Sir HENRY BLAKE. It is situated on the higher levels and is therefore better adapted for the treatment of children than the Civil Hospital. It contains 41 beds. Kennedy Town Hospital contains 26 beds in the main building. In 1903, 400 cases were treated, of which 301 were cases of Plague, 61 of Small-pox, and 2 of Cholera.

(b.) LUNATIC ASYLUM.

The Asylum is under the direction of the Superintendent of the Civil Hospital. European and Chinese patients are separated, the European portion containing 8 beds in separate wards and the Chinese portion 16 beds. 155 patients of all races were treated during 1903, and there were 12 deaths.

(c.) THE TUNG WA HOSPITAL.

This hospital is mainly supported by the voluntary subscriptions of Chinese, but receives an annual grant of $6,000 from the Government. A new wing was opened by Sir HENRY BLAKE in 1903. Only Chinese are treated in this institution, which takes the place of a poor-house and hospital for Chinese sick and destitute. Chinese as well as European methods of treatment are employed in accordance with the wishes expressed by the patients or their friends. The hospital is managed by a Committee of Chinese gentlemen annually elected, their appointment being sub- mitted to the Governor for confirmation.

:

351

OTHER GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS.

The Prison, Observatory, Post Office, Educational Establishments and other Government institutions are dealt with under separate heads.

VII. INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT.

Among institutions recognized and encouraged but not to any considerable extent supported by Government may be mentioned the Pó Leung Kuk, the College of Medicine for Chinese, and the City Hall. The Pó Leung Kuk is an institution presided over by the Registrar General and an annually-elected Committee of twelve Chinese gentlemen, for the protection of women and children. The inmates of the Home receive daily instruction in elementary subjects and are allowed to earn pocket-money by needle-work. During 1903 a total of 826 persons were admitted, of whom 632 were women, 134 young girls, and 60 small boys. Of these, 360 were restored to their parents or sent to charitable institutions in China, 24 were sent to missionary schools and convents. 22 were married, 15 adopted, and 409 allowed to leave. The Home is medically attended by one of the Colonial Sur- geons.

The Hongkong College of Medicine for Chinese was founded in 1887, for the

purpose of teaching surgery, medicine and obstetrics to Chinese. The govern ment of the College is vested in the Court, of which the Rector of the College, who has always been a Government official, is President. 78 students have been enrolled up to the end of 1903, and of these 19 have become qualified licentiates and have obtained various posts under Government and elsewhere. The institution is of great value in spreading a knowlege of Western medical science among the Chinese; and in addition to the employment of certain of the licentiates in the public service the senior students have frequently been made use of for various purposes during epidemics. A Government grant-in-aid of $2,50 is made to the College, to be used as honoraria to the lecturers.

The City Hall receives an annual grant of $1,200 from Government. It cou- tains a reference library and a museum.

VIII.—CRIMINAL AND POLICE.

The total of all cases reported to the Police was 11,251, as againt 10.421 in 1902, being an increase of 830 or 7.96 per cent. In the division of these cases into Serious and Minor Offences there appears an increase, as compared with 1902, of 863 cases or 21.58 per cent. in the former, and a decrease of 33 cases or .51 per cent. in the latter. The increase in crime was principally in respect of larceny. The Police Force is composed of a Captain Superintendent, a Deputy and 2 Assistant Superin- tendents, and three contingents of Europeans, Indians and Chinese. The European contingent consists of 133 men, the Chinese of 421, and the Indian of 367, making a grand total of 921 besides the superior officers already named and a staff of clerks and coolies. Of this Force, one Assistant Superintendent (who also acts as Police Magistrate) and 14 Europeans, 96 Indians and 43 Chinese were stationed in the New Territory during the greater part of the year. After September the number of Indians was reduced to 80

The number of prisoners admitted to Victoria Gaol under the sentences of the ordinary Courts was 7,144, besides 74 soldiers and sailors sentenced by Courts Mar- tial. The daily average number of prisoners confined in the Gaol was 653, the largest number on record. In 1902 the number was 576, and in 1901 it was 499. As a means of relieving the congested state of the Gaol pending the erection of a Convict Prison the Belilios Reformatory was fitted up as a temporary prison, and short-sentence prisoners are now located in that building. The remunerative labour carried on in the Gaol consists of printing and book-binding, carpentry, boot- making, knitting, painting and whitewashing, mat-making, oakum-picking, &c. The value of their earnings during the year amounted to $31,489.

:

352

IX. VITAL STATISTICS.

(a.) POPULATION.

The last Census was taken in January, 1901, when the population was found to be 283,975 exclusive of the Army and Navy. The estimated population at the beginning of the year under review (the naval and military forces being similarly excluded from the estimate) was 317,130, including 10,080 non-Chinese. This is exclusive of the New Territory, the population of which is probably slightly under 110,000. The military forces account for about 8,500 in addition. No reliable estimate can be given of the naval population, as it naturally varies within very wide limits. The total population of the Colony may therefore be estimated in round figures at 445,000 of all nationalities. The total number of births registered in the Colony was 1,034, and of deaths 6,185. This gives an annual birth-rate of 3.17 and a death-rate of 18.9 per 1,000 as compared with 3.8 and 21.7 in 1902. The excess of deaths over births is explained by the fact that thousands of Chinese families are represented in Hongkong by men only, there being a very large float- ing population of adult males. It should also be remembered that a large proportion of births among the Chinese remains unregistered, though steps are being taken to remedy this irregularity as far as possible.

(b.) PUBLIC HEALTH AND SAnitation.

Reference has already been made, under the heading of Legislation, to the very important Public Health and Buildings Ordinance passed early in the year under review. It is still too early to look for many immediate benefits arising from this ineasure, as many of its sections apply to houses to be hereafter erected, and others. such as the resumption of insanitary areas, the provision of open spaces in crowded districts, and the improvement of the internal construction of Chinese houses, are works which must necessarily be enforced gradually. It is gratifying to note that a large section of the Chinese is beginning to appreciate the advantages of improved sanitation and healthy surroundings, and shows an increasing willingness to co- operate with the Sanitary authorities in cleansing and disinfecting operations. Much credit for this tendency is due to the results of the successful experiment initiated and carried out by Sir HENRY BLAKE in the course of the summer, whereby the inhabit- ants of a typical district in the poorer part of the city were induced, by the exercise of tact and sympathy and judicious instruction, but without the pressure of official authority, to work out their own sanitary salvation. The system of establishing free bath-houses and washing tanks for the people of this district proved remarkably successful and is being largely extended.

In spite of the strenuous efforts of the medical and sanitary staffs to prevent a recurrence of plague, the number of deaths from this cause in 1903 was over the the average.

There were 1,415 cases of plague reported during the year, as com- pared with 572 in 1902. Of the total cases, 1,251 resulted in death. As usual, the greatest number of cases occurred in May and June. 60 cases of small-pox were notified, 10 of cholera, 44 of enteric fever, and 397 of beri-beri.

The gradual improvement of the sanitation of the Colony is shown by the fact that, in spite of the long death-roll from plague, the death-rate from all causes among both non-Chinese and Chinese shows a diminution. This is partly and in- directly due to the steady decline in the mortality from malarial fever, against which a crusade is being maintained in this Colony with conspicuous success.

(c.) CLIMATE.

The average inonthly temperature throughout the year was 71 5° F. as com- pared with 73-4° F. in 1902, and 713 F. during the ten preceding years. The maxiumm monthly temperature was attained in June, when it reached 82.0' F., and the minimuin monthly temperature was recorded in January, when it was 58.3° F. The highest recorded temperature during the year was 92-4° F. on July 31st, and the lowest 41.9° F. on February 3rd.

The returns from the Hongkong Observatory show that the total rainfall for the year was 93.65 inches as compared with an average of 77-86 inches during the past ten years. The wettest month was June, with 25-23 inches, the dryest December, with only 0.03 inch. The greatest amount of rain which fell on any

353

one day was 8.50 inches on the 28th June, while no rain fell on 230 days of the year. The relative humidity of the atmosphere throughout the year was 77 per cent. as compared with an average of 78 per cent. during the past 10 years. The average daily amount of sunshine was 4-7 hours being 42 per cent. of the possible

duration.

X.--POSTAL SERVICE.

The revenue derived from all sources of the postal service amounted to $414,867.20, an increase of $27,801.01 on that of the previous year. The sale of of stamps realised $373,877.73, or $19,927.74 more than was realised in 1902- All other branches of the service showed an increase over the returns for the pre. vious year.

Negotiations were entered into for the establishment of parcel-post services between this Colony and the United States of America and the Philippine Islands, and between this Colony and the Netherlands East Indies.

The transmission of letters to Europe via the Siberian route at the same rates of postage as for transmission viâ Suez, came into operation on the 13th October.

XI.-MILITARY FORCES AND EXPENDITURE.

(a.) REGULAR FORCES.

The following return shows the number and composition of the forces employed in the Colony during 1903:-

CORPS.

EUROPEANS.

INDIANS.

CHINESE.

TOTALS.

Officers.

Warrant

Officers.

N. C. O.'s

& Men.

Officers.

N. C. O.'s

General Staff,.

Garrison Staff,

Royal Garrison Artillery,

5

20

Hongkong Singapore Bn. R. G. A., 16

Royal Engineers,

13

Chinese S. M. M. Co. R. E.,.

1st Sherwood Foresters,..

31

3

Army Service Corps,

Royal Army Medical Corps,

A. O. Department and Corps, A. P. Department and Corps, Indian Sub-Medical Department, Educational Department,

Army Chaplains Department, 110th Mahratta L. I.,

93rd Burma Infantry,

114th Mahrattas,

11

9

12

:.

+

¡NN-N-

12:

534 10

172

744

7

42

51

& Men.

N. C. O.'s

& Men.

5

1

556

8

480

514

189

70

70

777

12

51

60

11

8

2

1

15

703

729

17

731

757

16

724

752

Totals,

140

15

1,576

56 2,638 70

4,495

(6.) COLONIAL CONTRIBUTION.

The Colony contributed $961,408.50 (being the statutory contribution of 20 per cent. of revenue, towards the cost of the maintenance of the regular forces in the Colony and Barrack Services.

"

354

(c.). VOLUNTEER CORPS

The total establishment of the Corps is 400 of all ranks. The strength in 1903 was 239, made up as follows:-Staff, 7; 2 Garrison Artillery companies, 203; 1 Engineer Company, 26; and a Band, 3.

The expenditure on the Volunteers, which is entirely borne by the Colony, was $37,965.58.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

Sir HENRY BLAKE, K.C.M.G., left the Colony for Ceylon on the 21st November, and I administered the Government from that date until the end of the year. Major-General Sir WILLIAM GASCOIGNE, K.C.M.G., who has commanded the troops for the last five years and who on two occasions (1900 and 1902) administered the Government of the Colony, relinquished his command in September, and was suc- ceeded by Major-General VILLIERS HATTON, C.B.

The figures already given at the beginning of this Report are evidence of the continued prosperity of this Port. The fluctuations of the silver-market and the par- tial commercial depression arising from the prospect of political disturbances in the Far East, have with other causes contributed to prevent the past year from being marked by special buouyancy of trade or steadiness in the stock market; but there is nothing to indicate that the trade interests and the wealth of this Colony have ceased to expand. But if the port is to preserve its predominant position as a great em- porium for shipping, there are many problems which demand early consideration and timely action, such as the increase of the accommodation in the Harbour for ocean-going steamers, the provision of more space for the housing of an ever increasing population, and the further development of the trade of the West River and its tributaries by the opening of new ports. Over-shadowing all these ques- tions, however, is the pressing necessity for the speedy construction of the railway between Hongkong and Canton, for which a concession was granted to a British syndicate many years ago by the Chinese Government. The development of rail- way enterprise in other parts of China has, in the opinion of the Government and the entire commercial community, rendered it of paramount importance to the prosperity of Hongkong that this Colony should be connected by railway with the capital of the Kwangtung Province, which is to be connected by a trunk line with the Yangtse Valley.

I have, &c.,

F. H. MAY.

Officer Administering the Government.

33 No. 1904

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT, FOR THE YEAR 1903.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

No. 18.

BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT,

HONGKONG, 11th April, 1904.

SIR,—I have the honour to submit, for the information of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government, the Annual Report on this Department for the year 1903.

STAFF.

The Department was administered by the Assistant Superintendent from the beginning of the year until the arrival of the Superintendent on May 4th.

The Superintendent was absent from September 30th to November 16th, on an official visit to Weihaiwei for the purpose of reporting upon the agricultural and forestry possibilities of that Dependency, during which period the Depɩrtinent was again in charge of the Assistant Superintendent.

The post of Chinese Head Forester left vacant by the death of YUNG CHING was filled by WONG SING PO.

BOTANIC GARDENS.

Management.-The Gardens have of late years become so crowded by Chinese visitors in fine weather that it was deemed advisable to restrict their use on cer- tain days in order to provide opportunities of visiting them in a less crowded state by those desirous of doing so for scientific or other purposes. Each of the two gardens were accordingly closed once a week during August. September and October. admission being granted only to visitors presenting their cards. 26 op- portunities were thus offered to the public of visiting the gardens under favourable conditions and 627 persons (of whom 334 were Europeans) availed themselves of them. The result is interesting as showing the small demand that there is at the present time for an uncrowded garden. The privileged entrance should per- haps be tried again from time to time to test the wishes of the community.

During the latter part of the year two gardeners were used as Park Keepers to encourage visitors to observe the Regulations of the Gardens. A marked improvement in the behaviour of the Chinese working men who visit the Gardens in large numbers has resulted from this plan, thus rendering the Gardens more attractive to other visitors.

Some amendments were made in the Regulations in August, by one of which visitors are now allowed to bring in their dogs on leash.

Improvements.-One of the points brought out by the occasional closing of the Gardens referred to above was the comparatively small use made of the New Gardens by visitors. This has probably been due in some measure to the small number of seats there and this defect was reinedied in the autumn by the addition of 30 new ones. The opportunity was taken of opening up the trees and shrubs in front of some of the seats in order to give good views of the harbour. seats were also placed in Glenealy Ravine.

Some

Horticulture.-Some of the chief attractions to visitors during the latter months of the year may be briefly summarized as follows. In August Eichornia speciosa flowered round the fountain. Its peculiar inflated leaf-stalks have long been a feature there, but this is the first time that its handsome mauve flowers have been seen. Throughout the same month the Chinese red variety of Amaran- thus produced fine patches of colour on the lower terrace.

476

September began with exceptionally heavy rain by which considerable havoc was wrought in the gardens, among other things interfering with the flowering of the large night-flowering Cereus (Cereus triangularis) which promised an unusual profusion of flowers.

In October the huge and unsightly flowers of Aristolochia Gigas attracted much attention and the beautiful Gordonia anomala produced its usual fine show of blossom.

November suffered from the early failure of the rains which practically ceased after the downpour of the 2nd week in September.

The feature of the New Gardens during December was the profuse and per- sistent flowering of a Bauhinia near the deer pen. The mysterious origin of the tree and its magnificent flowers at once arrest the interest. A tree of it was discovered between 20 and 30 years ago in the woods on Mount Davis from which it was introduced by its finder into the gardens of the Pokfulum Sanatorium and from there to the Botanic Gardens and to the Roman Catholic Cathedral at Can- ton.

No fruit has yet been observed on these trees; they are therefore probably not native here, but, so far, all efforts to identify them with any foreign species have failed.

In October the Superintendent took the opportunity offered by his journey to the north to pay a visit to Mr. W. H. WALLACE's beautiful garden at Amoy ; the information which that gentleman most kindly supplied as to the methods that have led to his remarkable success in certain branches of gardening should prove of much value.

OTHER GROUNDS.

Government House grounds.-These grounds were maintained as usual during the year.

Mountain Lodge grounds.-The terraces on the north, south and west sides of the house were turfed during the spring.

In the autumn extensive operations were commenced with a view to improv- ing the appearance of the valley below the house on the south-east. This valley had contained a vegetable garden drained by a straight central channel, and was unsightly from the windows of the house. The object was to restore to it the natural beauty that it must once have possessed. The bottom of the valley was cleared of rank growth, and evenly graded on both sides down to a stream follow- ing the base of the east slope. By the end of the year only the turfing and planting of shrubs and trees on the slopes remained to be done.

A foot path was also commenced through the natural thickets of Azalea and other shrubs that grow among the rocks on the west of the grounds.

The Colonial Cemetery.-The gardening operations in the Cemetery were taken over from the Public Works Department in December.

Grounds around the Government Offices.-These were also taken over from the Public Works Department in December.

Roadside plots.-There are 43 small plots of ground, laid out from time to time as rockeries or planted with ferns and shrubs, varying from a few square yards to an acre. These have been maintained during the year, and an additional rockery added at the junction of Peak and Robinson Roads.

Garden and Forest Nurseries.-Five nurseries are in use for gardening and forestry purposes outside the Botanic Gardens, viz., at Sookunpo and Kowloon for gardening and forestry, at North Point and Kang Hau for forestry alone, and at East Point for the cultivation of Bamboos. The lack of sufficient nursery accom- modation in connection with the Botanic Gardens and forthcoming gardening works in other parts of the town has necessitated the setting apart of some addi- tional ground between Garden Road and Albany Nullah for this purpose.

:

477

INTERCHANGE OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS.

The chief donors of plants were as follows, the donations being from Hong- kong unless otherwise stated:-

Acclimatization Association, South

California.

BIRDWOOD, Lt.-Col.

BLAKE, H.E. Sir HENRY, G.C.M.G.

Lady.

""

Botanic Gardens, Aburi.

Botanic Gardens, Kew.

,,

""

""

11

"1

21

Adelaide.

Bangalore. Calcutta.

Ceylon. Durban.

Jamaica.

""

>>

??

The donors of animals were :-

BOREHAM, C.-Musk Deer.

CHAPMAN, W. P.-Golden Phea-

sants.

RHODES, L.-Monkey.

Lagos. Saharanpur. Sierra Leone. Trinidad.

Conservator of Forests, Bengal.

GASCOIGNE, His Excellency Major-

General Sir William.

KOAZE, S.

MATHEW, Staff-Surgeon C. G. ROEBELIN, C. C., Bangkok.

State Gardens, Baroda.

SETH, Mrs. A.-Monkey. SHARP, Mrs. Monkey. TOMES, Mrs.-Cockatoo.

The chief recipients of plants and seeds were:-

Asile de la Sainte Enfance. ATKINSON, Dr. J. M.

BARTON, J.

BAYLY, Capt., H.M.S. "Talbot." BISHOP, F. E.

BLAKE, Lady.

Botanic Gardens, Calcutta.

""

>"

19

Ceylon.

Kew.

""

19

Lagos.

FUNG WA CHUEN.

GOMPERTZ, H. H. J.

Government Civil Hospital.

HALIFAX, E. R.

Italian Convent.

:

LAI KAM-TAI, Kam Tin, New Ter-

ritory.

LI PAK.

London Missionary Society.

MAN TAK-KUN, Santin, New Terri-

tory.

MAN A-KWONG, Santin, New Terri-

tory.

Montgomery, Miss, Kung-chow,

Hainan.

NICHI, T., Tokio, Japan.

ROEBELEN, C. C., Bangkok. Tai-O Police Station.

TANG CHAN-SHAN, Lung Yuk-tua. TANG HI-SHAN,

TANG YUNG-PING,

";

":

Tsim Sha Tsui Police Station.

TUNG AH-CHUN, Kam-tin, New

Territory.

Tung Wa Hospital.

WILLIAMS, J., Brisbane.

HERBARIUM.

The incorporation of a large collection of specimens from the Province of Yunnan, presented some years ago by Dr. HENRY, was commenced. The chief recent additions have been collections presented by the Director of Kew from Yunnan, Staff Surgeon C. G. MATHEW, R.N., of H. M. S. "Eclipse" from Weihai- wei, Korea and Japan, and by Dr. BARCHET of Shanghai, from Ningpo; some collections made in the Autumn by the Superintendent at Shanghai, Tsingtau, Weihaiwei, Chefoo and Peking.

A considerable amount of time was expended in numbering the whole Her- barium so that any sheet can now be found by the Chinese Assistants on the quotation of the number from the indices of the standard Floras of Hongkong and China. The specimens can now moreover be replaced with little fear of mistake. A specimen put away in its wrong place is practically lost in a Herbarium of any size so that the importance of this arrangement when working with partially trained Chinese assistants is obvious.

478

Specimens of plants, fruits and woods have been received for determination from Peking, Shanghai, Canton, Hainan and other parts of China. Specimens of Aeginetia indica prepared with great care for the purpose of exhibiting their parasitism were submitted for examination by His Excellency Sir HENRY BLAKE on several occasions during the summer. In four cases the haustoria were attached to grass roots, in the fifth to the root of a shrub.

Thie chief constributors of local specimens for preservation in the Herbarium were His Excellency and Lady BLAKE and Colonel BIRDWOOD.

In appendix A will be found a list prepared by Mr. TUTCHER of the year's additions to the Hongkong Flora.

LIBRARY.

All the books in the Library were poisoned and varnished during the year. Press number were placed on the books and corresponding ones on the shelves to facilitate their proper replacing by the Chinese Assistants.

The following works were presented

Index Florae Sinensis, Hemsley, (part), presented by the Director, Royal

Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Hooker's Icones Plantarum, 1868-1885, ditto.

Kew Handbook of Coniferae, 2nd Edition, ditto.

Icones Florae Japonicue, (part), presented by the Imperial University of

Tokyo.

New Chinese Plants, Dunn, presented by the Author.

Hooker's Icones Plantarum, (current parts), presented by Bentham Trustees. Natal Plants, Medley Wood, (current parts), presented by the Author.

The Genus Eucalyptus, Maiden, presented by the Author.

List of Plants collected in Aizu, Hayata, presented by the Author.

Die Bot. Institute der Hamburg, Voigt, presented by the Author.

Synopsis of the Genus Lonicera, Rehder, presented by Prof. C. S. SArgent. Deutsch-englisches Forstwörterbuch, Philipp, presented by the Her M. Hass. Technical Reports from the Imperial Institute, presented by His Excellency

Sir HENRY BLAKE.

The Cultivation of Bamboos in Japan, Satow, presented by the Author. Important Philippine Woods, Ahern, presented by the Author.

Le Collezioni di G. E. Rumpf, Martelli, presented by the Author. Calalogues and Reports, presented by Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.

Periodicals were received from the following establishments :-

Agricultural Departments of Cape Colony, Hawaii, Hanoi, London, Manila, Straits Settlements. United States, University of California, Victoria, West Indies, and Western Australia.

Office of the Reporter upon Economie Products to the Government of India. Agri-horticultural Society of Madras.

Botanic Gardens at Agra, Brussels, Calcutta, Ceylon, Jamaica, Kew, Lagos, Mysore, Natal, Saharanpur, St. Lucia, Straits Settlements, and Trinidad. Government Cinchona Plantation in Bengal.

Forestry Reports were received from India relating to Baluchistan, Bengal, the Central Provinces, Coorg, Dehra Dun (Forest School), Hyderabad, Madras, Punjab and from Manila.

To the donors of such works as have not been separately acknowledged our best thanks are now due.

479

The following periodicals and other works have been purchased:—

Gardeners' Chronicle, Journal of Botany, Revue des Cultures Coloniales,

Botanisches Centralblatt, Botanical Magazine, Geographical Journal.

Nicholl, Tropical Agriculture.

Massee, Textbook of Plant Diseases.

Jackson, Glossary of Botanic Terms.

Diels, Flora von Central China.

Maximowicz, Diagn. Plant. Nov. Asiat. iii-vi.

Bretschneider, History of European Discovery in China.

FORESTRY.

The time has now arrived for the Colony to profit to the full extent by the foresight of the Government of a former generation.

In the late seventies tree planting was seriously undertaken and from the year 1882 to 1885 the annual expenditure of $12,000 was expressly sanctioned for afforestation, and from 200,000 to 300,000 young Pines were planted each year. As the island became more completely covered with plantations, the operatious and annual votes gradually diminished, until the present time, when the planting of a few thousand trees can be covered by a small portion of the tree planting vote of $3,450. As a result of this policy there are now nearly 5,000 acres of Pine upon the Island and the oldest plantations, now between 25 and 30 years old, are ready to fell and replant.

The Pine plantations are of very various ages and sizes and much time has been devoted during the year to a careful examination of them and subsequently to delineating them on maps and schedules (cf. Appendices B and C) so that a systematic working plan can be drawn up to ensure as far as possible an uniform annual outturn of timber. The surface of the island has been divided for this purpose into seven main divisions, and each of these into six to eight blocks containing from fifty to two or three hundred acres of l'ine plantation each. The primary object of this preliminary inspection of the plantations was to obtain statistics upon which to found a working plan for the future, but the results have a further interest as showing what return the Government have for their outlay of former years.

Forest Offences.-Considering the fewness of the Forest Guards-5 in all-or one to each 1,000 acres of plantation, the number of trees stolen is small, only 427 during the year, and taken together with the 50 offenders brought to justice and convicted, reflects much credit on these Officers. For the distribution of the offences, cf. Appendix D.

Fires.-Only one serious fire occurred among the Government plantations. This was to the West of Tytam Tuk and extended over about 4 acres destroying 860 Pine trees. It was only by the promptness and energy of the Police that the fire was prevented from spreading to a much greater extent in that thickly planted district.

Clearing.—An unusual amount of the tinie of the Forestry staff has been occupied in clearing the ground for Public Works.

Planting. The planting was unusually limited in extent owing to the partial failure of the pine seedling crop. (cf. Appendix F.)

Protection.The fire-barriers were cleaned throughout and extended to protect new plantations near the Taipo Road in the New Territory.

VISITORS.

Dr HANS HALLIER paid a short visit to Ilongkong during the summer as part of the programme of a scientific mission to the East upon which he had been sent by the Hamburg Botanische Institute. Every assistance was given to him in carrying out his undertaking and a large collection of plants made by him in the Island was prepared and despatched for him by the Department. The Con- volvulacea in the Colonial Herbarium, were very kindly revised by Dr. HALLIER, who is regarded as the chief authority on the Order.

1

480

Mr. H. B. MORSE, of the Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs, one of the few botanists resident in China, visited the Herbarium.

Professor SARGENT of Harvard University spent some time in the Island in November and collected a large number of botanical specimens.

Mr. WILSON passed through on his way to Central and Western China where he is undertaking his second collecting journey for Messrs. VEITCH & Co. of Chelsea.

STREET TREES.

A complete Register of Street Trees was drawn up during the year showing the kind, size and position of each tree. It has already proved of much value

in the control of these trees.

The following is a short summary of its contents :-

Banyan (Ficus retusa),

Celtis sinensis,

Camphor (Cinnamomum Camphora),

Albizzia Lebbek,..

Other trees,

.1.170 trees.

248

181

102

310 11

Total,......2,011

An unusual large number of removals of such trees as can be transplanted, and destruction of others that will not bear moving, has been necessitated during the year to make room for the new Electric Tramway.

AGRICULTURE.

In February the crop of sugar-cane obtained from cuttings procured by the Government from the Straits Settlements and Honolulu was ready for cutting and distribution. 10,000 cuttings were offered to farmers in the New Territory without charge, and nine applicants were supplied with various quantities through the Police.

Mr. LI PAK's estate at Castle Peak. which takes the place of a Colonial Experimental Farm, produced 25 mow of these canes in 1901 besides 45 mow of Chinese varieties, and the percentages of sugar given below show the former to be a valuable improvement upon the canes hitherto grown in the Territory :-

:—

Honolulu,

Province Wellesley,

Chinese,

Weight of Cane. ....100 ...100 .100

Weight of Juice.

55.0

51.0

48.3

Weight of Sugar.

9.3

8.8

8.0

Some difficulties were encountered in bringing the sugar to a marketable condition; the prices obtained were not satisfactory and much below the best prices of Chinese sugar. As, however, the Castle Peak sugar from native canes was poorer in quality than that from foreign canes the fault was clearly in the manufacture and not in the new canes. The price in the local Chinese market is said to depend largely upon the reputation of the man who superintends the process of sugar-making, and an experienced man would probably be well worth his salary of $1.50 to $2.00 per diem.

The experiments in other vegetables and fruits have been energetically pur- sued by Mr. LI PAK during the year, and it is satisfactury to hear that the results, while of much value to the Colony, have not been unremunerative to the owner. The most suitable vegetables for market purposes have proved during the year to be Tomatoes, English Cabbage, Turnips, Globe Artichokes, and French Beans.

English potatoes should be profitable in land plentifully supplied with water.

These vegetables find a ready market because the introduction of better varieties and different cultivation has supplied a want that the old-fashioned methods could not meet. In the case of produce already grown in large quanti- ties in the Chinese nursery gardens and sold at very low prices, such as Chinese

*

481

Cabbage, Cauliflower, Chinese varieties of Turnip, Lettuce, Prickly Spinach, Leeks and Sweet Potatoes, there is no room for competition. As regards fruit, a quantity of Melons have been produced and have found a ready and profitable market in Hongkong. Guavas, Wampis and Papaws are too cheap to repay cultivation, but it is worth the consideration of capitalists whether the very cheapness of these and other fruits and also of some vegetables such as Green Peas does not offer oppor- tunities for a profitable tinning or preserving establishment in the Colony. A large amount of jams and tinned vegetables must be consumed annually in Hongkong and Manila and locally grown produce should easily compete with imported pre-

serves.

It is a matter for surprise that no l'ineapple canning factory has been set up hitherto in Hongkong, considering the large and increasing amount of this fruit produced here, and with the example of the success that has attended this industry in Singapore.

Pasture and fodder. The questions of cattle food has long been a difficult one and generally speaking the only cattle that are kept in the Colony are a few hundred cows at the English and Chinese Dairy Farms and those used for draught purposes in the Chinese villages.

In the English Dairy Farın Guinea Grass (Panicum maximum) has been used with rice straw, and silo has been tried. The Chinese village cattle have to find their own food as a rule along the sides of paddy fields and, in the summer, on the hills. It is naturally a matter of much interest to ascertain whether natural pasture or some substitute can be found to maintain herds of bullocks in the Colony. With the object of investigating this subject several expeditions were undertaken during the year to Lantao (this under special instruction) and other localities where elevated plateaux offered the possibility of permanent pasture. Out of the 52 square miles of Lantao 6 attain an altitude of 800 feet or more. The greater part of this high land consists of rock-strewn slopes surrounding the various peaks and their connecting ridges. The valleys that ascend into this region are mostly rugged mountain gorges densely clothed with native scrub, but here and there the advantages of a few acres of level ground and abundant water are shewn by the presence of a small hamlet and a few paddy fields.

A small number of cattle from these upland farms are driven out daily on to the neighbouring hill sides where they can obtain some scanty food among the scattered tufts of coarse grass.

For purposes of grazing the greater part of the high lands is useless, the growth of grass being coarse and thin. This is fully recognised by the villagers who try to improve the vegetation by periodical burnings. These however give little benefit and the enquirer is everywhere referred to the Ngong-ping, or “high plain" as the only "green grass" in the island.

The Ngong-ping is a plateau near Lantao Peak, which has long been used as a cattle pasture and upon which 40 or 50 head of cattle are left untended during the summer. It is too dry during the winter for grazing purposes. It is situated 2 miles south-west of Tung Chung Police Station and 3 miles east of that of Ty 6. It is an undulating plateau of about 300 acres covered with smooth green turf. Its altitude is about 1,200 ft. It is surrounded by high peaks, the highest-Lantao Peak (3.065 ft.)—-being to the south-east, and beyond these the country falls rapidly on all sides. Numerous rivulets rise on the hill sides and, after winding across the plain, plunge into rocky gorges towards the north-west and south-west.

The turf is almost entirely composed of one kind of grass-Ischaemum aristatum var. barbatum. This grass is nowhere recorded as one of economic importance, but closely allied species of the same genus are highly valued as fodder grasses in India. Like them it produces a close and luxuriant growth of soft and nearly smooth leaves. The manner in which it is eaten by the Chinese cattle proves it to be an excellent pasture grass under suitable conditions.

Two necessary conditions are probably the prevalence of cloud and therefore of moisture, and the presence of flat ground. The rarity of this combination will explain the fact that though the grass occurs occasionally throughout Hongkong and the New Territory, there is no record of pasture similar to that on the Ngong- ping in any other part of this district.

482

RAINFALL.

Particulars of the rainfall registered in the Botanic Gardens will be found in Appendix E.

REVENUE.

A summary of the Revenue of the Department is given in Appendix G.

I have, &c.,

S. T. DUNN,

Superintendent,

BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT.

Appendix A.

ADDITIONS TO THE HONGKONG FLORA.

Melodorum Oldhami, Hemsley.-Rather common in a ravine on the southern slope of Mt. Parker, flowering in March. First found by OLDHAM in Formosa, but not previously recorded from elsewhere.

Limacia sagittata, Oliver.-Collected in a shady ravine on the south of Mt. Parker in April and afterwards to the south of Slicko Gap. The species was described from specimens collected by Dr. A. HENRY at Ichang, but had not until now been found anywhere else. There is a single leaf in the Hongkong Her- barium with a label bearing the above name in Dr. HENRY'S handwriting, but Mr. FORD has queried the accuracy of the determination. The leaf is certainly different in shape from those on the plants collected by me, which are identical with the Ichang specimens.

Prunus japonica, Thunb.-Collected on the northern slope of Mt. Victoria near the Peak Rd., flowering in February. Found also by Col. BIRDWOOD in the New Territory. A native of various parts of China and Japan.

Kalancha laciniata, DC.--Found under cultivation in a Chinese garden at Sookunpo. Only previously collected in China by AnNDERSON in Yunnan, although figured in BRAAM's Icones Plantarum sponte China nascentium, published in 1821. According to BRETSCHNEIDER, BRAAM caine to China in 1758 and resided at Macao and Canton till 1773, when he returned to Holland. He came back to Canton some years later and accompanied the Dutch embassy to Peking in 1794. It would be interesting to know whether this species is really wild in the neighbour- hood of Canton or Macao. It is not likely to be found near Peking as it is a native of India, Java and Tropical Africa.

.

Apium leptophyllum, F. Muell.-Collected on roadsides in June. The first record for China.

Uncaria hispida, Haviland.-Two plants only, growing in a ravine south of Sheko Gap. Previously collected in Lantao but not recorded elsewhere from China.

Ardisia pusilla, A. DC.-Common in a deep ravine on the south side of Mt. Parker. Previously collected by Dr. B. C. HENRY near Lungmun, 100 miles east of Canton. A native of Japan.

Hygrophylla salicifolia var. assurgens, C. B. Clarke.-lu a swamp at Soo-

kunpo.

Herniaria hirsuta, Linn.-Collected by Col. BIRDWOOD in September. The first representative of the Order, Illecebraceae, found in Hongkong. A native of Europe.

Machilus macrophylla, Hemsley.-This magnificent species with leaves 9 to 10 inches long was found in a ravine on the southern slope of Mt. Parker where it was represented by several trees 20 feet high and many smaller specimens, flower- ing in March. Only previously recorded in Hupeh and Szechuen.

Asplenium rutafolium, Kunze.-Plentiful in a shady ravine on the south of Mt. Parker. The first record for the island.

483

Gymnogramme decurrens. Hook.-A crested variety was found in some quantity on Mt. Parker, and living specimens secured for the Gardens.

A

Aspidium basipinnatum, Baker.-Collected by Staff-Surgeon G. C. MATHEW, R.N., of H. M. S. "Eclipse," growing on the ledges of rocks on Mt. Nicholson. most interesting find as the species had only once been found before, viz., on the West River by Mr. FORD.

Polypodium difforme, Bl.-Found in a deep ravine on Mt. Parker by the same collector. The only previous record from China is Dr. A. HENRY'S from Hupeb.

Selaginella uncinata, Spring.-I cannot find that this plant has been record- ed for Hongkong although it is common on Mt. Victoria and Mt. Gough and to a less extent on Mt. Parker.

In addition to the above, over a dozen at present undetermined species have been found during the year in various parts of the island including two species of Camellia, a species of Zanthoxylum and probably a species of Chisocheton on Mt. Parker; a species of Cleidion, and a very interesting species of Alsophila, with simply pinnate fronds, in ravines south of Sheko Gap; also a very fine Oak, with leaves 10 inches long, on Mt. Nicholson. Much has been done in the past but this will give some idea of the work yet to be done in the island before our knowledge of its flora can be said to be complete.

W. J. TUTCHER.

Appendix B.

No.

FOREST DIVISION.

AGE CLASSES.

TOTAL.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5. Acres.

1.

Victoria,

50

330

180 570

2.

Wongneichung,

40

08

210

180

150

660

3.

Shaukiwan,

360 160

100

60

680

4. Tytam,

15

120

330

150

40

655

5. Stanley,

10

140

430

110

70

760

6. Aberdeen,

270 280

70

170

790

7. Pokfulam,

170

370 240

50 830

Total,

65

| 1,200 || 1,780 1,180

720 4.945

S. T. DUNN, Superintendent,

BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT.

Appendix C.

APPROXIMATE AREA OF PLANTATIONS, 1903.

No.

FOREST DIVISION.

BLOCK.

TOTAL.

B C D E F G

H Acres.

1 2 3 4

Victoria, ... Wongneichung, Shaukiwan, Tytam, 5❘ Stanley,

2

3

4

90 80 60 70 90 80100 140 120 80 80 80 70 90

70 140 100 60 140 170 100 130 1101230100; 120 130 90 160 150 110

...

570

660

680

75

745

760

6

Aberdeen,

7! Pokfulani,

190 170 80 90 140 100 200 140 220 140 110 130 270

I

770

1,210

Total,

910 910 740|830|810 | 660 460 75|5,395

S. T DUNN, Superintendent,

BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT.

484

Appendix D.

TREES STOLEN, 1903.

No.

FOREST DIVISION.

BLOCK.

A B

CD E F

1

Victoria,

2

Wongneichung,

81

12

8

TOTAL.

G Acres.

30 00

11

106

Shaukiwan,

1

25

5

11

42

4

Tytam,

38

40

5 Stanley,

85

3

88

6

Aberdeen, 7 Pokfulam,

9%

55 40 2

99

20

1

12

41

Total,

167 65 48 27 80

12

28

427

:

S. T. DUNN, Superintendent,

BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT.

Appendix E.

RAINFALL OBSERVATIONS MADE AT THE BOTANIC GARDENS DURING

1903. (ABOUT 300 FEET ABOVE SEA LEVEL.)

Date.

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June July. Augt. Sept. Oct. Nov,

Dec.

1,

2,

3,

4,

6,

7,

8,

9,

.07

10,

.26

11,

12,

.87

.02

.17

13,

.02

14,

.03

15,

16,

.02

17,

18.

.07

19,

.02

.06

20,

.04

21,

22,

23,

24,

.01

25,

.08

26,

27,

.07

28,

29,

.01

30,

1.08

377:;;;

.09 .03

.14

.01

.01

.04

.01

.04

.09

: :

:

:

.20

: : : : : :

3|ཙང།:::32:::722=ཛྱ :::ཌ༐ ིི ; : : : : :

.02 .84

.11 .03 1.45

.18

.29

.35

.29 2.25

.13

.38

.51

.27

.02

35

.57

.09 .06

.19

.39

2.70

1.27

1.44

.10 2.22

.04

.03

1.28 .28

3.54

.52

.26 .61

1.93

.05

.28

.47

.19

.14

1.17

.02

.13

3.15

2.92

.03

1.34

.06

.15 1.09

.74

.06

.01 .01

.63

.03

.92 1.79 .24 1.64

.22

1.03

.75

3.58 .88 3.39 1.11

15

.77

3.72

.51 .75 .33

.02

1.15

.58

.75

.02 .08 .22

.52

.34

.03

.38

1.85

.34

.02

.35 2.39

.16

.07 1.39

.02

.08

1.04 .02

.03

.03

3.83

11.85 1.02

.52

.88

.65 .03

.44

.02 .03

31,

Total,

1.61

.24 2.45 4.96 14.09 24.78 12.77 9.81 21.95 1.71 1.31

.03

Total inches for the Year=95.71. Observation made at 10 A.M.

J

S. T. Dunn, Superintendent,

BOTANICAL AND AFFOREstation DepARTMNNT.

485

Appendix F.

TREES PLANTED IN 1903.

January,

>>

February, March,

77

....

Date.

Place.

Jubilee Road.

Mount Davis.

""

Taipo Road.

""

Jubilee Road. Aberdeen.

"7

??

A

April,.

Tree.

Pine.

Number.

2,621

914

""

4,742

"

4,667

Camphor.

911

322

">

231

Yaumati.

155

Jubilee Road.

Eucalyptus.

316

Taipo Road.

Tristania.

983

Camphor.

177

Yaumati.

60

>>

Total,.....

16,099

S. S. DUNN,

Superintendent,

BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT.

Sale of plants,..

Appendix G.

RFVENUE FOR 1903.

Sale of forestry products,....................................... Loan of plants,

$1,055.06

990.52

266.00

Total,....

$2,311.58

S. T. DUNN,

Superintendent,

*

BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT.

No. 1904

42

:

:

i

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON A CATTLE DISEASE IN THE COLONY OF HONGKONG. (In continuation of Sessional Paper No. 40 of 1903).

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

GOVERNMENT PUBLIC MORTUARY,

HONGKONG, 5th September, 1904.

SIR, We have the honour to submit, for the information of His Excellency the Governor, a report in continuation of our preliminary report on Cattle Disease in the Colony of Hongkong dated 31st October, 1903.

Up to date, several further outbreaks of cattle disease have occurred, not only amongst native bred animals, but also in European cows.

Our attention was particularly directed to the occurrence of sickness amongst these European animals, in order to determine the exact nature of the disease, and the points of similarity or dissimilarity in its Etiology, with the condition of Hæmorrhagic Septicemia, so prevalent in Chinese bullocks.

+

The following is a short resumé of the outbreaks of cattle disease since the date of publication of our preliminary report.

I. OUTBREAK IN KENNEDY'S DAIRY.

Towards the end of November, 1903, from information received as to the existence of sickness amongst the herd of cattle in this dairy, one of us--the Colonial Veterinary Surgeon--visited the place and made a thorough inspection. The herd was composed of European cattle, either imported from Australia, or reared in the Colony.

There were 55 cattle in all. On the first visit to the Dairy, it was found that several of the animals had already succumbed to some form of disease. Many others were sick, but beyond a decided elevation of temperature varying from 103° F. to 105.5° F. little of a definite nature could be ascertained by clinical inspection.

The outbreak was at first confined to one part of the Dairy only. The neces- sary Sanitary Restrictions were made in order to prevent the spread of the disease.

Notwithstanding these endeavours, however, healthy cows belonging to adjoin- ing sheds of the Dairy fell sick, presenting clinical appearances identical with those primarily infected.

Ultimately over 90% of the cows became ill, and it was decided on preventive grounds to slaughter the whole herd. Bacteriological investigations on the lines indicated in our preliminary report were made.

This disease proved to be the same form of Hæmorrhagic Septicemia as already investigated.

II.—OUTBREAK IN KENNEDY TOWN CATTLE DEPOT.

During the month of February, 1904, a recrudescence of cattle disease occurred amongst the cattle housed in this Depôt.

The outbreak was not extensive. It was of the same nature as that described in our preliminary report, requiring therefore no further comment.

III. OUTBREAK IN LANTAO ISLAND, ETC.

In March, 1904, an outbreak of disease occurred amongst the herds of cattle on the neighbouring islands of Hongkong. These islands were visited by the Colonial Veterinary Surgeon. The extent and probable nature of the disease has already been reported. The disease appeared to be similar to that found in Hongkong, namely one of the forms of Hæmorrhagic Septicemia. Under the circumstances, however, a careful bacteriological examination was impossible. The total number of cattle affected during this outbreak is indefinite. Probably several hundred animals succumbed during the Epizootic.

:

638

IV.—OUTBREAK OF DISEASE IN THE CATTLE Depôt, KennEDY TOWN.

During the month of April, 1904, another outbreak of Hæmorrhagic Septicemia occurred in this Depôt. The outbreak was not extensive. The symptoms presented by the animals were identical with those described in our preliminary report, namely, an initial and persistent elevation of temperature, with subsequent characteristic diarrhoea.

Such post-mortem examinations as were made, showed nothing beyond what was repeatedly found by us in animals dead from such an Epizootic.

During the course of the outbreak an opportunity presented itself to ascertain whether the serum which the Manila Authorities have found efficacious as a pre- ventive of Rinderpest had any effect on the disease with which we had to deal. Mr. APCAR, a large exporter of cattle from Hongkong to the Philippines, brought back with him to Hongkong from the Serum Laboratories in Manila a large quantity of Anti-Rinderpest serum which had been prepared there. He was kind enough to hand this serum over to us for experimental purposes.

We made extensive use of the serum in doses varying from very large to very small amounts. The animals upon which it was tried were aged from under one year to old working oxen. Neither age of animal nor size of those had any effect and no reaction of any kind was obtained; the inoculated and un-inoculated died with equal facility.

"Virulent blood" and serum were also tried according to the "simultaneous method." The results, however, were of a most unsatisfactory nature. No method of inoculation appeared to have a beneficial action on the course of the disease. From our results, it would appear that cattle suffering from Hæmorrhagic Septicemia, -and this disease is symptomatically very closely allied to Rinderpest-are not benefited by the methods at present so strongly advocated for Rinderpest.

It is intended, however, to continue these experiments, in order to be able at some future date, to pronounce a definite opinion as to the true value of these fashionable lines of treatment. During the course of this Epizootic, one of the animals in the Depôt died suddenly. The bullock was to all appearance perfectly healthy. The temperature was normal on the date of its admittance to the cattle Depôt. Following the usual course in such cases blood films were prepared and fixed by heat. The carcase was forthwith cremated.

The carcase was forthwith cremated. Several hours later the blood films were stained. A surprising result was obtained. The films literally teemed with one of the forms of Trypanosoma. Further details in regard to this result will be given under a separate heading.

V. OUTBREAK No. 2 IN KENNEDY'S DAIRY.

During the past three months a disease of an indefinite nature occurred amongst the cattle in this Dairy.

The cattle in this establishment are of European extraction either born in Australia or bred in this Colony. The type of the disease was not acute and the mortality amongst the animals affected was practically nil.

A careful clinical inspection and observation of the affected cattle led us to conclude that in this outbreak we were dealing with a disease entirely different from Hæmorrhagic Septicemia. It was widespread amongst the animals.

The symptoms exhibited were briefly as follows:-

The temperature in the forenoon was normal and rose in the afternoon to 103.5° or 105°. In one or two cases a temperature of 107° was reached. Notwith- standing the high temperature no symptoms of disease beyond an accellerated pulse and respiration could be observed. The appetite remained good and in the earlier part of the disease the yield of milk was unaffected. As the disease progressed the animals lost flesh but in no case was there anything approaching emaciation. The yield of milk became less, and curiously enough with the morning low normal temperature the yield of milk was well maintained but the evening's milk was very sensibly diminished, e., during the elevation of temperature.

:

i

+

639

The milk from affected cows was withdrawn from distribution although no alteration in quality could be observed. This action, taken by the management on their own initiative and maintained by them throughout, is eminently worthy of commendation since the gain to their clients meant a very serious loss to them and it is an open question whether the milk in such a disease would be injurious to the health of the human beings consuming it, but be that as it may, the public were given the benefit of the doubt.

From the symptoms it was concluded that the disease must be of a malarial type and accordingly quinine was given in the usual doses recommended by text books. This was found to have no effect.

Phenacetin and other antipyretics were also tried, but no effect was produced, about this time the true character of the disease was ascertained and it was decided to try the effects of larger doses of quinine. Accordingly doses up to 2 ounces per day were given, and an improvement began to be noticeable. Ultimately all the animals recovered perfectly except one; this animal, however, did not die of the dis- ease but of an intercurrent attack of pneumonia. There have been one or two relapses since, but so far only one or two animals were affected. Their condition never became serious, and the former heroic doses of quinine have not been resorted

to.

As is usual in all cases of cattle sickness, blood films were prepared according to the common technique. These were fixed sometimes by alcohol or stained without previous fixation. The tinctorial methods used were the following :-- Methylene blue and eosin, fuchsin, polychrom methylene blue, and Leishman's modification of Romanowsky's method. A superficial microscopic examination of the films showed practically nothing.

There could be no question of a micro-oraganism like that found in Hæmor- rhagic Septicemia or of pronounced Trypanosomiasis. On careful examination, however, our attention became directed to the presence in many of the red blood corpuscles of small faintly coloured bodies resembling at first sight the plasmodia of malaria. Repeated examination of the films, and the daily preparation of other films has convinced us that these small bodies lying in the red blood corpuscles are nothing less than a Pyroplasma.

Further details in regard to our investigations of this blood parasite and its significance will be given under a subsequent heading. As has already been men- tioned during the course of our recent investigations into different outbreaks of cattle disease, two entirely new pathogenic agents have been discovered in the tissues of cattle housed in the Colony, namely, the Trypanosoma and the Pyro- plasma. The finding of these two blood parasites is of great moment and immensely complicates the routine research into the Etiology and treatment of a disease like Septicæmia. Not only so, but according to other investigators in the Southern States of America, Jamaica and Manila, these parasites constitute two of the greatest foes in cattle raising industry.

The following is a resumé of our researches into these parasites up to the date of writing.

The Trypanosoma. So far only one animal has been found suffering from Trypanosomiasis. As already mentioned, this animal was discovered to be infected with this parasite during an outbreak of cattle disease in the Kennedy Town Cattle Depôt in April, 1904.

At no time did this animal present any evidence of sickness. Its temperature was taken immediately on its admission to the Depôt and, being found normal, the animal was housed in one of the sheds containing healthy bullocks.

A few days later, however, the animal was found lying dead. No post-mor- tem examination was made, but, in order to assist in arriving at a diagnosis as to the cause of death, blood films were made from the ear.

These were stained according to the usual methods and Trypanosomata were found present in enormous numbers in each blood film. Huge masses of the parasite were found agglomerated together producing an appearance like that de- scribed by SIVORI and LECKER in American Surra. The individual parasites were large in size resembling those described by THEILER in the Cattle of South Africa.

640

Unfortunately the animal was cremated before microscopic examination showed the nature of the disease. No chance was given to prosecute the study of the malady any further. It has been found advisable to cremate animals as shortly after death as possible, as decomposition sets in very rapidly in this climate and it is highly inadvisable to have such carcases in the vicinity of cattle depôts and a slaughter- house.

Had it not been for the systematic microscopic examination of the blood of all cattle found dead in the Depôt, this important result would undoubtedly have been missed. Should time permit in the future, it is our intention to undertake a more or less systematic examination of the blood of the live cattle in the different Depôts of the Colony and determine as far as possible the extent of possible Trypanosomi- asis existent. Judging from the results of other investigators, especially of those working in Manila, the most satisfactory conclusions will be obtained by the use of experimental methods. The employment of European bred cattle and of ordinary Laboratory animals for experimental purposes will undoubtedly assist us in deter- mining the extent of such a disease amongst our herds in the Colony.

Guinea pigs, rats, mice, horses, etc., are said to be immune to cattle Trypanoso- miasis. Calves, according to THEILER, are very susceptible. At the same time this single case is, in our opinion, a sufficient guarantee of the existence of the disease in our midst and the experience of American workers in Manila to where hundreds of cattle are exported from Hongkong, adds considerable weight to our convictions. Like the result obtained in the Philippines, our conclusions will probably have to be gauged by animal experimentation. Cattle Trypanosomiasis is a disease which may be either acute or chronic. Different infections are apparently influenced by a varying virulence of the parasite. There would appear to be little doubt that occasionally the disease may run an epizootic course with a high mortality, whereas in other outbreaks the disease, may be more of a chronic nature, the animals becoming gradually emaciated with an intermittent temperature. The mortality in these chronic cases is low.

The facts bearing upon the variations in the acuteness of the disease are by no means well known. The scientific facts regarding Trypanosomatic and allied diseases are as yet few, rendering the expression of an opinion as to the significance of the disease a question of extreme difficulty; however, this much may be said that the presence of Trypanosomiasis in cattle in Hongkong is an additional factor of grave import in any attempt at making cattle breeding in the New Territory a lucrative industry. Since the commencement of our researches into cattle diseases in the Colony we have constantly borne in mind that probably in Chinese cattle Rinderpest represented not one disease but a group of diseases.

Indeed we have been able to find few instances of typical Rinderpest as classi- cally described in books. That such a disease exists in China there would appear to be no doubt, but that true Rinderpest is the commonest manifestation of sickness amongst the cattle in this Colony is by no means obvious.

In our preliminary report we distinguished true Rinderpest from a disease known as Hæmorrhagic Septicæmia. The latter would appear to represent a group of diseases much alike in etiology, symptomatology and pathology. Our observations in this respect have been amply confirmed by the workers in the Biological Laboratory in Manila where the same complex diseases are frequently encountered.

At the time of publication of our preliminary report we were inclined to think that, in all probability, this Hæmorrhagic Septicemia was the commonest cause of disease amongst cattle in Hongkong. It appears to be the factor at work in the production of these epizootic outbreaks which occur from time to time. Again, it appeared obvious that to deal with the disease effectively, some method of preven- tive inoculation would require to be prepared. During the past year a considerable literature has sprung up around the subject of Rinderpest and Hæmorrhagic Sep- ticæmia. The researches of South African and Philippine investigators have shown that during the course of immunisation of cattle against so-called Rinder- pest, other diseases asserted themselves, the cause of which appeared to be traceable to the results of inoculation of "virulent blood."

It has been generally found that the inoculation of "virulent blood" into native bred cattle is followed by mild reactions of a non-lethal nature. Similar

641

inoculations of "virulent blood" into European or American cattle, were frequent- ly followed by disastrous results. Many of these animals die, and on performing a necropsy none of the lesions characteristic of Rinderpest, or Hæmorrhagic Septi- cæmia were found. Again, obscure diseases have appeared amongst Australian cattle in the Philippine Islands. These cattle were said to have come from a perfectly healthy and excellent cattle breeding district. On their arrival in Manila disease asserted itself almost at once. It was then found that native bred Chinese cattle are naturally immune to those obscure diseases, whereas, as already mentioned, American or European bred cattle contract these diseases naturally.

The injection of blood from a Chinese bullock into an American or European ox would also appear to induce these diseases. All these points are of the greatest moment for cattle raising industry in this Colony.

Native cattleppear to be immune to these obscure diseases. Nothing can be found microscopically in their blood, yet the injection of such blood into foreign bred animals at once induces diseases in the latter.

These obscure diseases are, so far as our present knowledge carries us, two—- Trypanosomiasis, and, what has also been found in Hongkong, Pyroplasmosis, or so-called Texan Fever. This condition was first found by us in the cows belonging to Kennedy's Dairy Farm. Full details of the outbreak of sickness amongst these animals have already been given under a saparate heading in an earlier part of the report. The repeated microscopical examination of blood films prepared from the affected animals showed the presence in the red blood corpuscles of round oval or pear shaped bodies. They varied much in size, and in fresh preparations showed amoeboid movement, By careful and repeated examination of the blood, there would exist no doubt as to their nature. We were certainly dealing with a form

of Pyroplasma.

Time has not permitted us to go into details regarding the life history of such intra-corpuscular plasmodia, but with another favourable opportunity, attempts will be made, as far as possible, to study the developmental stages and mode of convey- ance of such parasites to the blood of cattle.

.

The experience of those working in Manila, is that true Texas Fever exists in the Philippine Islands and that a tick the intermediate host of the parasite of Aus- tralian Pyroplasmosis is present in these Islands (JOBLING & WOOLLEY). Ticks are common on the cattle housed in the various depôts in Hongkong: so far, however, our investigations in regard to these parasites are incomplete. Owing to the fact that two new diseases have been introduced into our research, it is proposed to investigate these thoroughly, previous to undertaking prophylactic and curative measures either against Rinderpest or Hæmorrhagic Septicemia. With the admix- ture of these diseases, factors of so great a disturbing nature would be introduced into our investigations that little or no hope could be held out for success along the lines of serum therapeutics. The condition of affairs has become much more complicated. Trypanosomiasis and Pyroplasmosis are diseases of signal import- ance in regard to successful cattle breeding.

.

Taking up the subject of Hæmorrhagic Septicemia at this point, there remains to be mentioned several interesting pathological conditions which have been found in this disease since the date of publication of our preliminary report. The lesions, which may be set up by the Bacillus Septicemia Hæmorrhagicæ are many. There is scarcely an organ or tissue of the body, which, in a typical example of the disease, does not show pronounced pathological changes. The majority of these are constant. Others, however, vary in degree according to the severity and duration of the disorder. Such a generalised condition of affairs in the affected animals one might expect. The disease is of an intensely or septicæmic or septicopyæmic nature. Many of the typical lesions found in the disease have already been dealt with in our previous report. In that report,. a full description of the condition of the majority of the internal organs was tabulated and described. It is therefore unnecessary for us to recapitulate, the pathology of the intestines, stomach, lymphatic glands, etc. We would, however, direct attention to the condition met with in the lungs. The pathological lesions found in these organs in this disease would appear to vary extremely. The viru- lence of the exciting agent, the duration of the disease, etc., are factors which appear to produce very variable morbid conditions of the lungs. In regard to this ques-

642

;

:

tion, we note the publication of a research into Hæmorrhagic Septicæmia in animals, by WOOLLEY of Manila. Our experience in Hongkong fits in closely with the results of this Pathologist.

In general, the lungs, if affected during the course of the disease, present lesions suggestive of Broncho-pneumonia with occasional abscess formation. Changes in the pleura are by no means constant, but small hæmorrhages into the membrane may be found. Occasionally the pleura is found thickened and covered with a fibrinous exudate. The thickening is usually the result of oedema: This dema is of a gelatinous nature and infiltrates the pleural and sub-pleural tissues as well as the surrounding mediastinal connective tissue.

The lungs only partially collapse; they are frequently emphysematous. In the majority of instances, these are practically all the changes found.

In others, however, areas of consolidated lung tissue may be felt. These are represented by nodules like those found in acute catarrhal pneumonia. Again, larger areas of consolidation may be met with giving the lungs the appearance of hepatized tissue similar to the condition found in acute fibrinous pneumonia. Section of these lungs gives the following appearances:-

The small areas of consolidation appear as soft frog-spawn like masses, like that found in typical Broncho-pneumonia.

The large areas are dark red or greyish in colour, producing often a marbled appearance. Similar to the condition found in red and grey hepatisation of acute fibrinous pneumonia. A still more advanced pathological condition may be found in these organs. Section of the lungs may show the presence of multiple abscesses. These vary much in size and shape and their contents are of a greenish yellow, gelatinous and puriform nature. Such a condition of lung would appear to be occasioned in chronic cases of the disease only. The abscesses are embedded in strong bands of connective tissue, producing an intensely fibrous condition of the lung. Such strands of fibrous tissue are usually soft, swollen and infiltrated with gelatinous cedema.

This condition at the height of its development produces a characteristic honey-combed appearance of the lung. The microscopic examination of the puriform material shows the presence of numerous bi-polar shaped bacteria which on further cultivation have proved to be the B. Septicæmiæ Hæmorrhagicæ. So far as our experience goes, changes in the skin are rare. BOLLINGER'S Exanthe- matic type of the disease has not been observed. Joint lesions are also rare.

In conclusion it may be as well to draw attention to the possibilities of the establishment of a cattle breeding industry in the Colony. At first sight the pro- secution of such an industry would appear to be an easy matter. Land area for this purpose is infinite, the question of sufficient pasture might be overcome. European cattle appear to thrive, under certain conditions, in some districts of the Colony, and such an industry is, from many points of view, important for a Colony like Hongkong.

However, before making up our minds as to the establishment of such an industry, questions of great importance must be faced. Questions regarding the possibility of a sudden decimation of large herds of cattle from so-called Rinderpest must, in the light of past experience, be carefully considered before such an under- takmg is decided upon.

In our preliminary report, we drew attention to the fact that in the disease known as Hæmorrhagic Septicemia one had to deal with a factor of no small significance, should such a project become an accomplished fact. In our present report one finds the condition of affairs in regard to disease more complicated than

ever.

Not only have we now to face so-called Rinderpest and Hæmorrhagic Septi- cæmia, but other obscure diseases, the effects of which, under certain circumstances- render the successful prosecution of a cattle breeding industry a hazardous under, taking.

643

In the Philippine Islands the question of a cattle industry was raised immedi- ately after the administration of those Islands by the American Government. The industry was commenced almost at once. Instead of proving an expected success, the scheme soon became beset with a complexity of difficulties. These, for the most part, resolved themselves into the occurrence of frequent widespread and sudden outbreaks of disease amongst the breeding herds occasioning great mortality and almost a failure of the industry. Since then the subject of cattle disease in Manila has been undergoing a searching investigation. The results of this research are becoming more and more complicated and have reached a point opposite our own experience, namely, that there exists in this part of the world a group of complex and obscure diseases hitherto grouped together under the heading "Rinderpest." The most significant diseases so far isolated are true Rinderpest, Hæmorrhagic Septicemia, Pyroplasmosis and Trypanosomiasis. Doubtless there exist a number

of others.

The symptoms and physical signs of these diseases are by no means always obvious and the mortality from them may be very great. Attempts have been made to import good stocks and to improve the grade of native bred animals so that material of a high order might be at disposal for slaughter, food and dairy purposes. So far the results of such attempts have not been favoured with the much desired

success.

In Hongkong the question must be looked at from the same point of view. In our opinion, it would be premature to speculate as to the result of commencing such an industry at present. Before doing so it would be as well to sift the question of cattle disease to the bottom. There can exist no doubt that the factor of disease is one of the greatest with which the industry will have to contend.

That cattle breeding in the Colony will become an established fact, in the future we see no reason to doubt, but before this end is attained much has yet to be accomplished along the lines of scientific research.

We have, &c.,

WILLIAM HUNTER.

ADAM GIBSON.

The Honourable

J. M. ATKINSON, M.B.,

Principal Civil Medical Officer.

HONGKONG.

1

No. 1904

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE APPOINTED BY HIS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR TO INQUIRE INTO THE CAUSES OF CHINESE INFANTILE MORTALITY IN THE COLONY.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

1. The Committee have held many meetings and have inspected the French and Italian Convents where most of the infantile deaths under one month occur.

2. This question of the Chinese infantile mortality has been often before the Government, the earliest obtainable records dating as far back as 1886 when the Hon. A. P. MACEWEN raised the question in the Legislative Council. The outcome of this was a most elaborate report from the late Secretary to the Sanitary Board (Mr. HUGH MACCALLUM) dealing with the whole question and locating this very largely to the two Convents. He has further clearly shown that this large death- rate was due not to any intrinsic defects existing in these two institutions, but to the large numbers of moribund children dumped at the doors of these Convents. Again, from reports obtained from the late Colonial Surgeon, Dr. AYRES, as well as from Drs. GERLACH and HARTIGAN, who attended the two Convents, the bulk of deaths under one month were attributed to the disease known as Trismus nascen- tium. It was also proved in these papers that the percentage of deaths in these Convents of children over one year, was not greater than that occurring in similar Foundling Institutions in Europe. With these conclusions the tee generally agrees.

present Commit-

3. In 1896 the Medical Officer of Health, in his report to the Sanitary Board (C.S.O. 327 of 1896), discussed the infantile mortality in the Convents and chiefly the French Convent which has by far the largest admissions and deaths. He says that he has little fault to find with the sanitary condition of the institution, but attributes the large mortality to the condition of the infants themselves.

He further recommended the registration of "Chinese Midwives" and so called Chinese Doctors" practising in this Colony. The result of this report was a large volume of correspondence and an attempt to introduce a Bill for this purpose, but which being found unworkable, on the showing of the Attorney General at the time, was dropped. In this correspondence we have evidence that the chief causes of infantile deaths registered were Trismus and Convulsive diseases.

66

4. In 1901 (C.S.O. 1367 of 1901) the Annual Report of Medical Officer of Health for 1900, again brought up the whole question of Chinese infantile mortality and of the unreliability of the registration of births and deaths. This led to another volume of correspondence in which the Medical Officer of Health endeavoured to introduce a Bill to amend the Births and Deaths Registration Ordinance of 1896, giving him powers to order a post-mortem in every case where the death was not duly certified. Owing however to strong opposition from the Chinese this Bill was also dropped. The Medical Officer of Health further recommended that a small fee be paid to the midwives for every birth reported by them and in order to verify these the services of female visitors should be obtained to investigate the accuracy of these registrations, while the Committee of the Sanitary Board who were inquiring into the question, recommended that a fee of 50 cents be paid to either parent on the notification of the birth being made within one month.

5. In his report for 1902 the Medical Officer of Health says with regard to the infant death-rate being so high, that this means either that the Chinese infant death-rate is enormous or that a considerable number of births under one month remains unregistered, or perhaps that a number of infants are brought into the Colony from the mainland and die here. With regard to the latter part of this statement, these children were thought to be brought here for traffic to Singapore, and it called forth a letter from the Registrar General's Office dated 14th June, 1901, in C.S.O. 1895 on the subject, but on enquiry it was found that the officer who examines the women and children had always refused to allow women accom- panied by children evidently not their own to proceed South. In 1902 this officer from the Harbour Department reported that no suspicious case of this kind had come before him, so that this supposed traffic had evidently been stopped. Under

2

these circumstances this cannot be taken as a cause of the disproportion of the births and deaths. On this subject the Committee are of opinion that a very large number of births under one month remains unregistered, perhaps amounting to between one-third and half the total number. The chief cause of this non-registra- tion is the national training or ideas of the Chinese community, for it is well known that in China, registration of males alone is carried out in the Ancestral Temples and then only after they are one month old. This idea is practised in this Colony too and accounts for the disproportion between births and deaths which had been so repeatedly drawn attention to by the Medical Officer of Health in his various reports.

6. The returns supplied by the Acting Medical Officer of Health from July 1902, to June, 1903, (Enclosure A.) show that the greater number of infantile deaths under the heading of "Infantile Convulsive Diseases," occurs in the two Convents. Of the total 1,073 infantile deaths in the Colony of children under one year, we find 495 were from Tetanus, Trismus and Convulsions, i.e., 46.1 per cent. Of this latter figure (495) the French Convent supplies 370 or 74.7 per cent. In this Convent during the above period there were 1,392 admissions and 1,271 deaths equal to 91.3 per cent. of deaths to admissions; of these deaths we have 277 or 21.8 per cent. due to Trismus and Tetanus.

In the Italian Convent we have 341 admissions to 168 deaths, i.e., 49 per cent. ; of these deaths again we have 25 or 14.8 per cent. due to Trismus.

7. The returns given by the Government Bacteriologist of autopsies per- formed by him during the same period as above, namely July, 1902, to June, 1903, are important. (Enclosure B.) The most prominent point brought out by his return is that of all the autopsies performed by him 22 per cent. are on children under 2 weeks while 53 per cent. of the whole come from the two Convents with a preponderance of females over males of 65 per cent. to 35 per cent. respectively in these institutions. It is also significant that of all these autopsies, in no case has Dr. HUNTER, been able to find the Tetanus Bacillus even in deaths under two weeks. In these cases examination of the cord showed "hoards of micro-organisms but not the Bacillus tetani. The largest number of deaths, as revealed by Post-mortem are grouped by Dr. HUNTER under the title of "Marasmus"; this accounts for 205 cases out of 606 under 2 years, equal to 33 per cent.

8. Analysis of returns from the two Convents:-(Enclosure C.)

French Convent,

Italian Convent,

Admissions. ...1,392 341

Deaths. 1,271

Per cent.

91.3

168

49.0

Trismus and

Deaths.

Tetanus.

Per cent.

Causes--French Convent,

..1,271

277

21.8

Italian Convent,

162

25

14.8

Sexes-French Convent:--

Admissions—Males, ...{

under one month 207 or 15′ 6 one to 12 months 129 9. 3

""

per cent.

under one month 253

Females,

""

one to 12 months 355

18.18 21. 9

"}

""

38. 4

>"

48. 7

""

Deaths-Males, .........under one week 491

Females, ......under one week 620

9. From the above figures it will be seen that the percentage of deaths to admissions is much higher in the French than the Italian Convent. So also the pro- portion of Trismus cases is much higher, being 14.8 and 21.8 respectively. This is accounted for by the sources from which these Convents draw their cases. The French Convent draws largely from the lowest classes in Wanchai and out-lying districts, Kowloon, and the boat population, while the Italian Convent supply is mostly from the City of Victoria and a better class of the Chinese population.

3

10. The cycle of the rise and fall of admissions and deaths is almost identical in both Convents for the various months of the year. The rise begins in the month of April, continues rising steadily to its maximum in August, then declines to its minimum between January and March. The curve is therefore seasonal, rising and falling with the temperature.

11. Causes of the Chinese infantile mortality :-

(a.) Trismus.--This is the commonest cause of deaths of children under 2 weeks of age in the two Convents. The Sisters of the two Convents are very familiar with this disease and are always able to recognise the condition on admission of the child. The great bulk of these cases are in children who are left at the Convent door in a dying condition and often die within 24 hours to 3 days. The Lady Superioress of the Italian Convent informed us that no cases of Trismus recover. The Chinese themselves recognise the disease and call it "So Hau" or Lock Jaw(); they further look upon it as a hopeless. disease and as soon as it is recognised the infant is carried off to one or other of the Convents and dumped at the door or handed in to avoid the burial expenses and further trouble and especially as Chinese children under one month old are not recognised as such in their genealogical tree. The symptoms of this disease are as follows, from the 3rd to the 5th day after birth the infant gives up sucking and its cry becomes a muffled and feeble one. On the 6th or 7th day their jaws become clenched together and no food can be given by the mouth owing to rigidity of the masseters. Soon after this waves of convulsive spasms, with slight frothing at the mouth, pass over the child on any movement or touching. This passes on to general rigidity of the body, so that the child can almost be rolled about like a ball. Death soon follows these symptoms. Clinically therefore this disease among Chinese children is indistinguishable from Trismus which has so classically been described in the reports of the Rotunda Hospital where the disease once assumed epidemic proportions. Dr. HUNTER reports that bacteriologically he has been un- able to isolate the tetanus bacillus in these cases but as his post-mortems are probably all after the 8th or 9th day, it is possible that the growth of the "hoards of micro-organisms," may have attenuated and des- troyed the tetanus bacillus but only after it has done its damage. Far- ther it is possible that these tetanic convulsions may be produced by one or other of these "hoards of micro-organisms" themselves. This is a point which may yet have to be solved.

(b.) Marasmus.-Under this heading the largest number of post-mortem returns are made of children over 2 weeks. This disease heads Dr. HUNTER'S list with a total of 205 out of 606 post-mortems in children under two years, i.e., 33.8 per cent. Apart from hereditary conditions, the causes of this group of diseases are chiefly assignable to conditions of mal-nutrition and defective assimilation. These conditions may be traced a step farther and would have their origin in many causes. Want of cleanliness and over-crowding in Chinese dwellings are undoubtedly largely responsible for these. The crass ignorance and utter disregard of all hygienic principles among the lower classes of Chinese, the improper dieting of infants amounting to indirect starvation, and the system of "baby farming" as practised at the Convents, all contribute important factors in the Chinese infantile mortality. At the French Convent from a very early age the children are given out ostensibly to "wet nurses" or foster-mothers who are never medically examined. A number of these women are in the constant employ of the French Convent and over whom there is no proper supervision, many of these nurses do not give the children their milk, but instead rice which they have chewed themselves, and also rice cakes. Among the poorer classes children at birth are never even washed, but simply wiped with a coarse Chinese paper and dressed; often as not this paper and under-clothing has been lying on the floor prior to use. It is a very common sight to see children

4

only a few weeks old being given a mouthful of rice or any other food that the parents may be eating at the time. Thus the children get food which they are quite unable to digest and assimilate giving rise to a train of symptoms of a convulsive nature grouped under the generic term Marasmus.

(c.) Chest affections as Bronchitis, Broncho Pneumonia and Tubercular disease of the lungs as well as the bowels account for 148 post-mortems or 24.4 per cent.

(d.) Diarrhoea and other bowel affections are also prominent with 81 cases or 13.3 per cent. Improper dieting must account for most of these cases.

(e.) Convulsions at the teething period and arising from worms must account for many deaths. As soon as Chinese children can creep, they move about on hands and feet on the floors or streets and pick up earth on their fingers only to be applied to their mouths. This and the imperfectly cooked vegetables are fertile sources of worms. The Chinese recognise this class of convulsive disease under the name of "Kap King"

In considering this question of Chinese infantile mortality and in making up statistics, one important factor must be borne in mind, namely, that a large majority, possibly one-third to half of the children dying within one month, have not had their births registered, for as previously stated, Chinese children are not entered in the "family tree" until they are one month old. Similarly Chinese female child- ren are not entered in the ancestral temple. Before a Chinese child is one month old, it is not even considered as such and is not given a name. For these reasons the high death-rate is more apparent than real. The Medical Officer of Health in his report for 1902 gives the infantile death-rate at 796 per 1,000 after allowing for all deaths under one month as unregistered. We have shown above that there is still a very large number of births unregistered in the Colony, therefore the fig- ures given by the Medical Officer of Health must be considered as very much over the mark. Further if these figures are compared with the infantile death-rate in Calcutta given at 748.6 per 1,000 (vide C.S.O. 2331) it will be seen that our death-rate is not relatively as bad as is apparent at first sight.

12.

RECOMMENDATION AS TO PREVENTIVE MEASURES.

(1.) The Committee are unable to recommend many practical and im- mediate measures, inasmuch as from what has been shown through- out this report the first and greatest remedial measure is one which involves the better education of the Chinese, especially the lower classes, to convince them of the necessity of proper sanitary procedure both personal involving cleanliness, as well as in their own households. It has also been shown in this report that the bulk of the deaths occur from diseases which are distinctly traceable to want of cleanliness and ignorance of the fundamental principles involved in the rearing of infants. This state of affairs, therefore, can only be remedied by the better education of the Chinese through gener- ations. We may point out that, to a partial extent, the means of slightly remedying this mortality is available by the fact that the Chinese women may be admitted for their confinement into the Nethersole Hospital, but they are apparently unwilling to avail themselves of this, preferring to be delivered by their own untrained so-called midwives at their own houses. There are four beds in the maternity Hospital attached to the Government Civil Hospital, which are available for free Chinese cases if there are not paying patients in the ward. The addition of the new wing to the Nethersole Hospital will soon give the Chinese additional opportunities to avail themselves of the benefits of a Lying-in Hospital where a Lady Doctor will shortly be in charge. Another remedial measure would be the establishment of a free maternity charity whereby poor people could be attended in their own houses.

£1

5

(2.) In order to encourage the registration of births under one month old, the Committee recommend that a bonus of $2 be given to any mother, midwife or person present at the birth of any child and who shall register the same within one month. In order to carry out this recommendation, the Births and Deaths Registration Ordinance, No. 16 of 1896, Section 9 (a), will have to be altered to include this clause. In C. S. O. 1367 of 1901 the Medical Officer of Health recommended that a fee of 50 cents should be paid the midwives, but it was never carried into effect. This small sum, however, we consider inadequate to give sufficient inducement for the early registration within one month after birth. In order to verify the accuracy of the midwives' registration, we recommend the employment of female visitors, either Portuguese or Chinese, who shall visit each case for this purpose. On the registration being verified, then the bonus of $2 shall be handed to the person reporting. It seems more likely that the fee of $2 will be an inducement than the paltry sum of 50 cents.

(3.) The Convents should be required to register at the Registrar General's Office every admission that occurs in their respective institu- tions, together with the death certificate when such occurs of each individual case.

(4.) As the children from the Convents are at a very early age housed out to foster mothers, these mothers should also be registered either at the Convent or at the Registrar General's Office. Further these foster mothers should be medically examined before they are accept- ed by the Convents; at present this is not done.

(5.) That every Police Station should keep a register of births and deaths in order that the midwives may not have to travel long distances to register the births. At present this register is only kept in certain stations. The bonus of $2 may be given by the officer in charge of these stations, to the person registering such birth after verification of the same.

Hongkong, 30th November, 1903.

J. M. ATKINSON.

HO KAI.

G. P. JORDAN.

W. W. PEARSE.

G. M. HARSTON.

WILLIAM HUNTER.

·

·

6

Enclrsure A.

TETANUS, TRISMUS AND CONVULSIONS.

Deaths from "Infantile Convulsive Diseases," July, 1902, to June, 1903.

la Ste. Enfance.

Italian Convent.

4

Asile de

July,

55

45

August,

74

63

September,

45

38

October,

44

34

November,

36

20

December,

44

24

January,

24

8

February,

21

17

March,

38

33

April,

43

32

May,

28

24

June,

43

36

30 1 2 10ONN CO TH SO ON

5

2

495

370

31

401

401

94

Of 495 deaths from Infantile Convulsive Diseases, 401 were registered as occur- ing at the Convents and of these 370 at the French Convent; 94 only occurred elsewhere

Total deaths under 1 year, July, 1902, to June, 1903-1,073.

Total under 1 month=485

Total over 1 month and under 12 months = 588.

Enclosure B.

GOVERNMENT PUBLIC MORTUary,

Hongkong, 31st August, 1903.

SIR,-I have the honour, as a Member of the Committee appointed by His Excellency the Governor to enquire into the great infantile mortality in Hongkong, to submit my report.

2. A considerable number of post mortems on infants and children are held by me annually. In fact about 22 per cent. of the total number of autopsies held at the Government Public Mortuary are on children under 2

years of

age.

3. Over 53 per cent. of the necropsies held are on the bodies of children sent from the French and Italian Convents.

4. The remainder are in the majority of cases found in the streets, foreshores or water in and around Hongkong. These account for about 45 per cent. of the total number of cases.

5. In regard to sex, there is little difference so far as the total number of cases examined is concerned. The males accounting for 42 per cent., the females for 58 per cent.

6. On the other hand the cases sent from the French and Italian Convents show a great preponderance of females over males-65 per cent. and 35 per cent. respectively.

..

:

7

7. The practice of dumping is carried out as frequently with male as with female children.

8. Of the 45 per cent. of bodies dumped or found in the streets, etc., only 4 per cent. are under 2 weeks of age, while 96 per cent. are over 2 weeks and under 2 years of age.

9. Children under 2 weeks of age only account for 22 per cent. of the total number of autopsies.

10. Children over 2 weeks of age and under 2 years of age account for 78 per cent. of the number of post-mortem examinations.

11. With Convent children there is little difference in regard to age. The largest number is over 2 weeks of age.

12. The largest number of deaths is grouped under the arbitrary title of "Marasmus"-a term employed to include a gradual and premature degeneration of the tissues, excited by a host of different agents. It is a term used to include the conditions met with in prematurely born infants about the 26-31 week, in children of full term with profuse hæmorrhage soon after birth, in congenital syphilis, after the acute specific infectious diseases, and possibly after Sclerma neonatorum. During the infant's further existence, it frequently asserts itself through defective nourishment or disturbances in intestinal assimilation.

The largest number of cases occurs after the age of 2 weeks.

In those occurring earlier, the root of the umbilical cord has been frequently examined. Hoards of mico-organisms are found. In no case has the B. tetani been isolated.

13. The other diseases most frequently met with are Broncho-pneumonia, Diarrhoea, Plague, Inanition and Tubercular Infections, and the lesions determining the diagnosis here occurred most frequently in children over 2 weeks of age.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

The Honourable

J. M. ATKINSON, M.B.,

Principal Civil Medical Officer,

&c., &c.,

&c.

WILLIAM HUNTER.

the

8

Total Number of Post-Mortems held on children under 2 years of age during year 1st July, 1902, to 30th June, 1903-

606.

Return of Causes of Death.

Marasmus,

205

Broncho-Pneumonia,

81

Diarrhoea,

79

Plague Septic,

23

Inanition,

21

Acute Tuberculosis,

16

Croupous Pneumonia,

15

Tubercular Br. Pneumonia,

14

Malaria,

13

Acute Bronchitis,

13

Pleurisy,

7

Small-pox,.

5

Atelectasis,

Plague-Bubonic,

Acute Endocarditis,

Exposure,

Acute Nephritis,

Acute Ulcerative Enteritis,..

Tabes Mesenterica,

Acute Congestion of Lung, Acute Pericarditis,

Rupture of Spleen,

Fracture of Skull,

Congenital Syphilis,

Enteric Fever,

4

3

3

3

2

NNNN

1

1

1

1

1

Plague-Pneumonic,

Number of Bodies too decomposed for examination :-86.

Number of Post-Mortems held on :--

Male Children,

253 or

42 per cent.

....

Female Children,...

353 or 58

per cent.

Number of Post-Mortems held on :--

Children under 2 weeks of age,

131 or

22 per cent.

Males,

52 or

40 per cent.

Females,

79 or

60 per cent.

Children over 2 weeks and under 2 years of age, ...475 or

78 per cent

Males,

201 or

42 per cent.

Females,

274 or 58 per cent.

Males, Females,

Number of Post-Mortems hell on Children

sent from the French and

Italian Convents:-

113 or

35 per cent. 206 or 65 per cent.

Total

319

...

Of the Total Number of Post-Mortems held, those performed on Children sent from the Convents comprise 53 per cent. of the total number.

Post-Mortems on Convent Children :-

Under 2 weeks of age,

Males,

Females,

Over 2 weeks and under 2 years of age,.

Males,

Females,

122

48

74

197

65

132

༨.

66

9

Post-Mortems held on Children

found or dumped in streets, foreshores, water, etc.”:--

Under 2 weeks,.

12

Males,

5

Females,

7

Over 2 weeks and under 2 years of age,

.268

...

Males,

141

Females,

127

Total,...

....280

Decomposed Bodies of Children

Under 2 weeks of age,

Over 2 weeks and under 2 years of age,

Under 2 weeks of age,

Marasmus in Children :-

Over 2 weeks and under 2 years of age,

....

14

72

71

134

Broncho-Pneumonia in Children :---

Under 2 weeks of age,

9

Over 2 weeks and under 2 years of age,

72

Diarrhoea in Children :-

Under 2 weeks of age,

15

Over 2 weeks and under 2 years of age,

64

Inanition in Children :-

Under 2 weeks of age,

5

Male,

1

Females,

4

Males,

Females,

Over 2 weeks and under 2 years of age,

Croupous Pneumonia in Children :-

Under 2 weeks of age,

Over 2 weeks and under 2 years of age,

Acute Bronchitis in Children :

Under 2 weeks of age,

Over 2 weeks and under 2 years of age,

16

5

11

2

13

4

9

Plague Septicaemia in Children :-

Under 2 weeks of age,

3

Over 2 weeks and under 2 years of age,

20

Acute Tuberculosis in Children :-

Under 2 weeks of age,

0

Over 2 weeks and under 2 years of age,

16

Under 2 weeks of age,

....

Tubercular Br. Pneumonia in Children :-

Over 2 weeks and under 2 years of age,

0

14

Malaria in Children :-

Under 2 weeks of age,

Over 2 weeks and under 2 years of age,

0

13

The remaining cases have not been classified owing to their number.

WILLIAM HUNTER.

.

2 months,

1

F.

2

F.

6

""

3

M. 1 year,

+ M. 8 days,

Italian Convent,

10

JULY, 1902.

Found, Kun Chung,

59

Kokwawan,

Italian Convent,

French Convent,

Do..

Do.,

Fd. Shing Wong Street,

Queen's Road West,

Italian Convent,

Fd. Tsin Iu Lane,

Shaukiwan Road,

Italian Convent,

5

M.

10

"

6

M.

""

7 F. 10

""

8

M. 1 month,

9

M. 1

""

""

10

F.

21 days,

11

M.

3 months,

|

12 F.

1 year,

""

13

F.

15 days,

14

F.

4 months,

15 F.

2

""

16

M. 1 month,

17

M. 2 months,

33

18 M. 2

19 F. 6

99

20 M. 2

""

21 F. 6 22 M.

>>

13 days,

23 F. S

24

25

""

M. 2 months, F.3

26 M. 6

27 M. 1 day, 28 F. 6 months, 29 F. 4 30 M. 1

M.

1 year,

31 F. 1

"

32 M. 6 months,

1 week,

1 year,

8 months.

Do.,

Fd. outside French Convent,

39

Des Voeux Road West, Bridges Street, Hill Road,

Italian Convent,

Do..

Fd. Causeway Bay, Italian Convent,

Fd. Causeway Bay,

| Italian Convent,

Fd. Wellington Barracks,

""

""

Des Voeux Road, Belchers Street, Praya, East,

Italian Convent, Fd. Canton Wharf,

99

Foreshore, Kowloon, French Convent,

Do.,

Fd. Battery Street, Italian Convent, Fd. Kun Chung,

Station Street, Staunton Street, Hunghom,

33 M. 34 F. 35

F.

36 M. 1 year,

37

F. 3 months,

""

38

M. 2

""

39

M. 1 year,

"

40

M. 4 months,

""

41

F. 4

42

M. 1 year,

43

F. 7 days,

44

F.2 months,

45

M. 1 month,

First Street.

59

Sutherland Street, Bridges Street, Foreshore, Kowloon,

Italian Convent.

Fd. Queen's Road Central.

Br. Pneumonia. Decomposed.

Do.

Croup. Pneumonia. Decomposed. Diarrhoea.

Do.

Decomposed. Diarrhoea.

Br. Pneumonia. Marasmus.

Decomposed. Marasmus. Diarrhoea.

Br. Pneumonia. Diarrhoea,

Br. Pneumonia. Decomposed. Br. Pneumonia. Croup. Pneumonia. Br. Pneumonia. Marasmus. Decomposed. Acute Bronchitis. Br. Pneumonia.

Do.

Exposure.

Diarrhoea.

Do.

Acute Nephritis. Decomposed.

Do. Br. Pneumonia. Marasmus.

Croup. Pneumonia. Diarrhoea. Br. Pneumonia. Decomposed.

Do. Diarrhoea. Plague, Septic. Decomposed. Diarrhoea. Plague, Septic. Marasmus.

AUGUST, 1902.

159 Wellington Street,

Italian Convent, Fd. Police Basin,

46 47

M. 2 months,

M. 10 days,

48 M. 1 year, 49

M. 4 months,

""

33

>>

50 F. 6 51 M. 1 year,

52 M. 1

F. | 2 months, F. 14 years,

53

54

55

56

57

M. 6 days,

M. 1 year,

M. 8 months,

58 F.2

**

53

Third Street,

Temple Street,

Blackhead's Point, Jardine's Gate, Mongkok,

Italian Convent, Fd. Sham Shui Po,

Queen's Road East,

Italian Convent, Fd. Second Street,

Praya Reclamation, Yaumati,

59

M. 1 year,

*

60

F. 1

""

>>

61

M. 1

"

25

62 F. 1

""

63

M. 6 months,

""

22

64 M. 7 days, 65 F. 28

66

F. 6 months,

Shaukiwan Road, Station Street, Belchers Street, Fuk Luk Lane,

Italian Convent,

Fd. Praya East,

Tuberc. Br. Pneumonia. Br. Pneumonia.

Decomposed. Rupture of Spleen. Decomposed.

Do.

Croup. Pneumonia. Decomposed. Diarrhoea. Decomposed. Diarrhoea. Marasmus. Decomposed.

Do.

Br. Pneumonia.

Ac. Ulcer. Enteritis. Decomposed.

Do. Decomposed. Diarrhoea.

Br. Pneumonia.

+

11

AUGUST, 1902,—Continued.

67 F. 5 days, 68 F. 7

">

Italian Convent,

Do.,

69

M. 2 months,

Fd. Eastern Street,

Diarrhoea.

Do.

Do.

70 M. 1 year, 71 F. 1

""

""

72

F. 9 days,

73 M. 8

>>

74

M. 1 year,

75

M.

13 days,

76 F. 12

""

77 F. 6

French Convent,

גל

78 M. M.

10

Yee Wo Street,

Morrison Hill,

Italian Convent,

Do.,

Fd. Staunton Street,

Italian Convent,

Do.,

Do.,

Do.

Br. Pneumonia.

Diarrhoea.

Do.

Do. Marasmus.

79

M. 1 year,

Fd. Kai Lun Lane,

80 F. 1

""

"">

81 F. 1

55

82

F. 1 day,

""

83 F.

4 days,

84

F. 8 months,

Do.,

Area Tai Ping Shan,

Des Voeux Road Central,

D'Aguilar Street,

Italian Convent,

Do.

Do.

Diarrhoea. Malaria.

Decomposed.

Do.

Do.

Diarrhoea.

Acute Tuberculosis.

85 F.

6 days,

French Convent,

86 F. 7

Do.,

""

87

M. 6

Do.,

""

88

F. 15

Do.,

Marasinus.

Do.

Do.

Do.

89

M.

M. 50

Italian Convent,

""

90

F.

3 months,

Do.,

91 F.

13 days,

92

4 months,

93 M. 6

""

94

F. 1 month,

95

F. 1 year,

96

F. 11 days,

French Convent,

97 F. 10

98 F. 1 year,

99 F. 1

""

100

M. 9 days,

Do.,

Fd. Shing Wong Street,

Tai Wong Street, Cement Works, East Point,

Do.,

Fd. Des Voeux Road,

Italian Convent,

Do.,

Diarrhoea.

Exposure. Pleurisy.

Br. Pneumonia.

Pleurisy.

Decomposed.

Do. Marasmus. Br. Pneumonia. Decomposed. Diarrhoea.

Marasmus.

103 M. 10

10 days,

105 F. 106 M. 5

Do.,

SEPTEMBER, 1902.

Fd. Bonham Road,

101

F.

4 months,

Italian Convent,

102

M.

10 days,

French Convent,

104

F.

6 months,

French Convent,

Do.,

Do.,

Do.,

Do..

"

6 months,

Fd. Des Voeux Road West,

Italian Convent,

""

Fd. Yaumati,

107 F. 12 108 F. 5 109 F. 10 110 F. 111 M. 4 112 M. 3 113

""

F. 10 days, 114 M. 1 year, M. 14 F. 7 days,

115

116

117 F. 5

118

""

"

M. 1 month, 119 F. 6 months,

F. 6

""

F. 6 days,

M. 6 months,

Fd. Canton Wharf,

99

in Harbour,

Italian Convent, French Convent,

Do., Fd. Naval Yard,

Hollywood Road,

Italian Convent,

Do.,

Fd. Praya East,

""

opposite Gas Works, Queen's Road West, French Convent,

Do.,

120

121

122

M. 1 year,

123

M. 1

22

124

F. 1 month,

125 M. 1 year,

126

127

M. 1 year,

128

F. 1

53

""

129

M. 1

59

130

M. 20 days,

131

M. 14 years,

132

M. 10 days,

French Convent,

Fd. Eastern Street,

Tai Kok Tsui, Seymour Road, French Convent, Italian Convent,

Br. Pneumonia. Decomposed. Marasmus. Malaria.

Br. Pueumonia. Decomposed.

Do.

Diarrhoea.

Br. Pneumonia.

Do. Diarrhoea. Decomposed.

Acute Bronchitis. Decomposed.

Acute Tuberculosis. Diarrhoea.

Croup. Pneumonia. Decomposed. Pleurisy.

Acute Tuberculosis. Diarrhoea.

Acute Tuberculosis. Br. Pneumonia. Croup. Pneumonia. Malaria.

Br. Pneumonia. Diarrhoea.

Br. Pneumonia. Marasmus.

Diarrhoea.

Acute Tuberculosis. Marasmus.

133

M.

134 F. 6

12

SEPTEMBER 1902,-Continued.

6 months, Fd. Connaught Road,

135 F. 9

""

23

136 F. 19 days, 137 M. 7 138 F. 1 month, 139 M. 1 year, 140 M. 1

141 M. 9 days,

142 F. 10

""

""

143 M. 25 144 F. 5 145 F. 1 year, 146 F. 1

147 M. 1

""

148

F. 20 days,

149 M. 1 year,

F. 2 months,

150

"

Causeway Bay,

Po Yan Street,

Italian Convent,

Do.,

Fd. Yaumati,

""

27

Second Street,

Foreshore Hunghom,

Italian Convent,

French Convent,

Do.,

Do..

Fd. Caine Road,

22

Hunghom Bay, Causeway Bay,

Italian Convent, Fd. Mong Kok,

Diarrhoea. Decomposed.

Gen. Tuberculosis. Marasmus. Diarrhoea.

Br. Pneumonia. Decomposed.

Do. Marasmus.

Acute Bronchitis. Br. Pneumonia. Decomposed. Marasmus.

Br. Pneumonia. Decomposed. Marasmus.

Do.

Morrison Hill,

Pleurisy.

151

F. 10 days, 152 F. 13 years, 153 M. 1 154 M. 14 155 F. 8 days,

156 M. 20 157 F. 10 158 F. 15 159 M. 25 160 M. 10 161 F. 9 162 F. 1 163 M. 1

""

35

OCTOBER, 1902.

Italian Convent,

Do.,

Fd. Kennedy Road, Chuk On Lane,

Italian Convent,

French Convent,

59

Do.,

Do..

Do.,

Do.,

"

3

"

year,

""

164

F. 10 days, 165 F. 5

""

""

166 F. 1 year, 167 F. 1 years, 168 M. 4 days, 169 F. 37 170 F. 1 years, 171 M. 1 year, 172 M. 1 years, 173 M. 6 days, 174 M. 6 175 F. 1 year, 176

M. 9 days, 177 F. 6 178 M. 1 year, 179 F. 2 months, 180 F. 5

""

""

>>

181 M. 15 mths., 182 F. 4 days, 183 F. 4 184 M. 1 year, 185 F. 7 months, 186 M. 1 year, 187 F. 1 188 F. 8 months, 189 M. 1 year,

190 F. 1

"

Italian Convent,

Fd. Kun Cheung,

Tsin In Lane,

French Convent,

Do., Do.,

Italian Convent,

Do.. Do.,

Fd. Station Street,

"

Blackhead's Point, First Street, Eastern Street, French Convent, Fd. Tung Man Lane, Italian Convent,

Do.,

Fd. Nullah Lane,

""

Hill Road, Yaumati,

Do.,

French Convent,

Do.,

Fd. Mat Tai Wai, Italian Convent, Fd. Hill Road,

>>

""

22

Morrison Hill Road, Po Tan Street,

Des Voeux Road West,

French Convent,

191 M. 6 months, | Italian Convent,

192 F. 8

193 M. 3

""

194 F. 7 days, 195 F. 8 months, 196 F. 10 197 F. 4 198 F. 3

Fd. Queen's Road East, French Convent,

Do.,

Fd. 113 Queen's Road East,

French Convent,

Do.,

**

""

""

Fd. Cement Works,

Acute Bronchitis. Tabes Mesenterica. Br. Pneumonia. Malaria. Diarrhoea. Marasmus. Decomposed. Marasmus.

Acute Follic. Enteritis. Br. Pneumonia. Diarrhoea. Decomposed. Malaria. Marasmus.

Do.

Br. Pneumonia. Malaria. Marasmus.

Croup. Pneumonia. Acute Endocarditis. Br. Pneumonia.

Do. Marasmus. Do. Decomposed. Marasmus.

Do. Diarrhoea. Decomposed.

Tub. Br. Pneumonia. Diarrhoea.

Marasmus.

Do.

Do.

Acute Cong. of Lung. Malaria. Decomposed. Diarrhoea. Decomposed. Marasmus.

Do.

Br. Pneumonia.

Do. Marasmus.

Do.

Br. Pneumonia.

Marasmus.

Decomposed.

:

2

13

Mag

OCTOBER, 1902,-Continued.

199 F. 1 month, 200 M. 1 day, 201 M. 1 year, 202 F. 8 days, 203 F. 3 months, 204 F. 2

"

1 month,

205 M. 1 year, 206 M. 1 207 F. 208 F. 2 months, 209 F. 1 month, 210 M. 1 year, 211 F. 1 moths., 212 F. 1 month, 213 M. 1 year, 214 M. 3 weeks, 215 F. 1 week, 216 M. 1 month, 217 F. 4 months, 218 F. 1 year, 219

M. 6 months, 220 M. 2 weeks, 221 F. 10 moths., 222 M. 1 year,

Fd. Shaukiwan,

""

99

Second Street, Harbour,

Italian Convent, French Convent,

Do., Fd. Prava East,

Station Street,

Italian Convent,

French Convent,

Do.,

Fd. Queen's Road West, Italian Convent,

Do.,

Fd. Shing Wong Street, French Convent,

Do., Do.,

Do.,

Fd. Recreation Ground, Hospital Road, Italian Convent, French Convent, Fd. Hollywood Road,

Diarrhoea. Decomposed. Do.

Marasmus.

Do. Diarrhoea.

Acute Endocarditis. Acute Nephritis. Marasmus.

Do. Diarrhoea. Marasmus.

Diarrhoea.

Do.

Do.

Marasmus.

Decomposed.

Diarrhoea. Marasmus. Br. Pneumonia. Decomposed. Marasmus.

Acute Pericarditis. Marasmus.

NOVEMBER, 1902.

223

M.

6 months, | Italian Convent,

224 F. 225

12 days,

Do.,

F.

6 months, Fd. Yaumati,

226 M. 1 month,

227

F. 3 mths.,

228 M. 1 year, 229 F. 1 month, 230 F. 6 weeks, 231 F. 1 year, 232 M. 3 months, 233 M. 8 days, 234 M. 3 months, 235 M. 1 year, 236 F. 7 months, 237 F. 7

238 F. 9

""

239 M. 4

""

676769

☺ ☺

240 F. 15 days,

241 F. 242

F.

243 M.

244 F.

245 F. 9

246 F. 1 year,

247 F. 15 mths., 248 F. 1 year,

Chung Ching Street,

Italian Convent,

Fd. Belchers Street, French Convent,

Do.,

Fd. Foreshore, Naval Yard,

Kan Loong Tong, Italian Convent, Fd. Morrison Hill,

Kowloon City Road, Italian Convent,

Do.. French Convent,

Do.,

Italian Convent,

French Convent,

Causeway Bay,

Do.,

Do.,

Do.,

Italian Convent,

Do.,

2"

Do.,

Do.,

Do.,

249

M. 1 month,

Fd. Whitty Street,

250

M. 1 year,

251

F. 1 year,

252

M. 3 months,

French Convent,

253

F. 3

Do.,

""

254

M. 1 year,

Italian Convent,

255

F. 1 year,

256

F. 3 months,

257 M. 2 258 M. 3

"

259

M. 1 year,

260

261

F. 1 year,

M. 4 years,

262 F. 6 months,

Do.,

French Convent,

Do.,

Fd. Circular Path, Yaumati,

""

French Convent, Italian Convent,

Do.,

Acute Bronchitis. Br. Pneumonia.

Marasmus.

Diarrhoea.

Marasmus.

Diarrhoea.

Marasmus.

Do. Decomposed.

Do. Marasinus. Decomposed.

Do. Diarrhoea. Br. Pneumonia. Marasmus.

Do. Decomposed. Marasmus.

Do. Decomposed. Marasmus.

Do.

Diarrhoea.

Tub, Br. Pneumonia.

Diarrhoea.

Marasmus. Decomposed. Marasmus.

Br. Pneumonia. Diarrhoea.

Marasmus. Cong. Syphilis. Malaria. Marasmus.

Do.

Decomposed.

Tub. Br. Pneumonia. Marasmus.

Do.

263 F. 3 264 M. 6

Do.,

Do.

""

French Convent,

Malaria.

""

265 M. 2 months, 266 F. 1 year, 267 M. 6 months,

M. 1 year, M. 1

""

14

NOVEMBER 1902,-Continued.

French Convent,

Do..

Italian Convent,

Fd. Connaught Road West,

""

Hunghom, Gilman Street, Italian Convent, French Convent,

268 269 270 M. 271 F. 272 F. 8 months, 273 M. 3 weeks, 274 M. 3 months,

""

3 months,

2 weeks,

275 F. 1 week, 276 F. 1 year, 277 F. 1 month, 278 F. 1

:

Do., Do.,

Italian Convent,

Fd. Wing Lok Street,

French Convent,

Do.,

279 M.

9 days,

Italian Convent,

Do.,

Marasmus.

Acute Tuberculosis. Marasmus.

Br. Pneumonia. Acute Tuberculosis. Marasmus.

Do.

Acute Tuberculosis. Marasmus.

Do.

Do.

Malaria.

Marasmus.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

280 F. 11

""

281 F. 1 year, 282 M. 1 month, 283 F. 1 year, 284 M. 5 months, 285 F. 1 year, 286 M. 8 days, 287 M. 6 months, 288 M. 2 weeks, 289 F. 9 days, 290 M. 1 month, 291 F. 1 292 M. 1 year, 293 M. 3 months,

22

Do., French Convent, Fd. Mong Kok,

"3

""

Holland Street, High Street, Italian Convent, French Convent, Italian Convent,

Do., Fd. Po Yan Street,

Shaukiwan Road, French Convent,

Do..

Decomposed. Marasmus.

Do.

Do.

Croup. Pneumonia. Marasmus.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Br. Pneumonia.

Marasmus.

29

294 F. 3 months, 295 F. 1 month, 296 M. 1 year, 297. F. 1 298 F. 6 weeks, 299 M. 1 month, 300 F. 6 weeks, 301 M. 1 month, 302 M. 2 months, 303 F. 2 304 F. 1 week, 305 M. 2 months, 306 M. 1 month,

307

308

""

F. 2 weeks, F. 9 days,

309 M. 6

""

310 F. 1 year, 311 M. 1 month, 312 F. 2 weeks, 313 M. 1 month,

F. 1

""

DECEMBER, 1902.

Fd. Chung Ching Street,

Italian Convent,

French Convent,

Fd. Morrison Hill,

Italian Convent,

French Convent,

Do.,

Fd. Queen's Road West, French Convent,

Do., Italian Convent, French Convent,

Do., Italian Convent,

Do.,

Do.,

Fd. First Street,

""

Connaught Road,

French Convent,

Do.,

Fd. Des Voeux Road,

F. 6 weeks, | Italian Convent,

F. 1 year,

314 315

316

317 M. 1

""

318

F. 6 months,

319

F. 20 days,

320

M. 1 year,

321

M. 3 months,

>>

322 F. 10 323 F. 1 month, 324 M. 6 weeks,

325 M. 1 month,

326 M. 1 year, 327 M. 1

328 M. 6 months,

F.3

329

>>

330

F.

1 year,

Do.,

F. Stonecutters' Island, Fd. Bonham Road, Italian Convent,

Fd. in Harbour,

""

Robinson Road, Pokfulam Road,

French Convent,

Do.,

Do.,

Fd. Shing Wong Street,

""

Yaumati, Morrison Hill, Italian Convent,

""

French Convent,

Marasmus.

Acute Tuberculosis.

Diarrhoea.

Do. Marasmus.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Diarhoea.

Marasmus.

Diarhoea.

Marasmus.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Br. Pneumonia.

Marasmus.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Diarrhoea.

Br. Pneumonia.

Decomposed. Diarrhoea. Marasmus. Decomposed. Diarrhoea.

Do. Marasmus. Br. Pneumonia. Marasmus.

Do. Diarrhoea. Decomposed. Br. Pneumonia. Acute Tuberculosis.

331

15

DECEMBER, 1902,-Continued.

1 month, | Fd. Kowloon,

33

F. 332 M. 1 333 M. 6 weeks, 334 M. 5 months, 335 M. 6

336 F. 1 year, 337 F. 2 weeks, 338 M. 7 days,

339 F. 2 weeks,

French Convent,

Do.,

Fd. Shing Wong Street,

""

Praya East,

Yaumati,

Italian Convent,

Marasmus.

Do.

Do.

Tabes Mesenterica.

Decomposed. Marasmus.

Do.

Diarrhoea.

Do.,

French Convent,

Marasmus.

1 month,

Do.,

Do.

Do.,

Inanition.

Italian Convent,

Do.

Do.,

340 F. 341 F. 2 months, 342 F. 16 days, 343 F. 1 years, 344 M. 1 year, 345 F. 1

55

346 F. 2 months, 347 M. 3 348 M. 9 days, 349 M. 1 month, 350 F. 6 months, 351 F. 2 days, 352 F. 3 months, 353 M. 1 year, 354 M. 1 355 F. 7 356 F. 3 357 F. 9

32

days,

""

358 F. 1 year,

Fd. Kowloon, French Convent,

Do., Do.,

Italian Convent,

Do.,

Fd. First Street, Italian Convent, French Convent, Fd. Praya East,

""

Connaught Road,

Italian Convent,

Do.,

Do..

Fd. Yaumati,

Pleurisy.

Malaria.

Acute Tuberculosis. Acute Bronchitis. Br. Pneumonia. Marasmus.

Acute Bronchitis.

Do. Marasmus.

Do.

Acute Bronchitis. Tub. Br. Pneumonia.

Marasmus.

Acute Bronchitis.

Marasmus.

Do.

JANUARY, 1903.

359

2 months,

M. 1 week, 360 F. 1 year, 361 M. 4 months, 362 F. 1 month, 363 F. 364 M. 8 days, 365 F. 1 year, 366 F. 2 months, 367 M. 1 month,

368 F. 6 weeks,

M.

2 months,

F. 6

369 370 371 F.

372 F. 373 374

375

376

377

M.

F.

>"

1 month, 8 months,

10 days,

6 weeks,

M. 5 months,

F.4

M.2

""

378 F. 6 weeks, 379 M. 1 month, 380 F. 1

""

Fd. Kennedy Road,

Stonecutters' Island, Kowloon,

99

French Convent,

Do.,

Italian Convent,

Fd. Queen's Road West, French Convent,

Do., Do.,

Fd. Hospital Road,

""

Wing Lok Lane, Italian Convent, French Convent, Italian Convent, French Convent,

Do..

Fd. Kowloon City,

Praya Reclamation,

French Convent,

Marasmus. Br. Pneumonia. Decomposed. Marasmus.

Do.

Do.

Small-pox.

Pleurisy.

Marasmus.

Inanition. Bronchitis.

Br. Pneumonia. Marasmus. Croup. Pneumonia. Marasmus. Br. Pneumonia. Diarrhoea.

Do.

Br. Pneumonia. Marasmus.

Do.

Do.

Do.,

Do.,

33

381 F. 2 months,

Do.,

382 F. 6 weeks,

Do.,

383 F. 6 months,

Do.,

384 M. 1 year, 385 F.

F. 1 month,

Do.,

Italian Convent,

386

387

F. 1 year, F. 1 years, 388 M. 3 months,

French Convent,

Inanition. Diarrhoea.

Br. Pneumonia.

Do. Do.

Croup. Pneumonia.

Do.,

Do.,

Do.

Diarrhoea.

389 F. 2 390 F. 8

Do.,

Marasmus.

>>

Fd. Hok Un Kok,

Diarrhoea.

""

391 M. 2

Shaukiwan,

Br. Pneumonia.

""

Do..

392 M. 1 month,

French Convent,

M. 6 months, | Fd. Polo Ground,

393

394

F. 1 year,

396 F. 2 months,

395 F. 1

Stonecutters' Island,

French Convent,

Br. Pneumonia.

Diarrhoea.

Do.

Diarrhoea.

Marasmus.

3 months,

""

days,

397 M. 398 F. 1 month, 399 F. 14 mths., 400 F. 13 days, 401 F. 1 year, 402 F. 8 weeks, 403 M. 1 year, 404 M. 1 405 F. 3 406 F. 4 407 F. 1 year, 408 M. 1 409 F. 3 months, 410 M. 9 days, 411 F. 1 week, 412 M. 1 month, 413 F. 9 months,

M. 1 year, F. 8 months,

23

"3

414 415

416 F. 5

""

417 F. 4

418 F. 3

419

16

JANUARY, 1903,-Continued.

French Convent, Italian Convent,

Do.. Fd. Hunghom,

99

Kowloon Road, French Convent, Fd. Polo Ground, Italian Convent,

Do., Do.,

Fd. Kowloon Road,

""

""

Wharf, Kowloon, Morrison Hill,

Italian Convent, French Convent, Fd. Bridges Street,

Stanley Road,

Marasmus.

Br. Pneumonia. Marasmus,

Abelectasis.

Acute Tuberculosis. Diarrhoea.

Decomposed.

Acute Endocarditis. Atelectasis.

Marasmus.

Br. Pneumonia.

Tub. Br. Pneumonia. Marasmus.

Do. Inanition.

Fd. Reclamation Street North, Croup. Pneumonia.

French Convent,

Do.,

Italian Convent,

Do.

Decomposed.

Small-pox.

Br. Pneumonia.

Diarrhoea.

M. 5 days, 420 M. 6 421 F. 1 month, 422 F. 3 months, 423 M. 4 days, 424 F. 2 months, 425 F. 1 month, 426 F. 3 days, 427 F. 8 months, 428 F. 1 year, 429 F. 4 moths., 430 F. 6 days, 431 M. 1 year, 432 M. 1

433

F. 3 months,

Fd. Reclamation Street North, Marasmus.

Italian Convent,

French Convent,

Do.,

French Convent,

Do.,

Do.,

Do.,

Italian Convent, French Convent,

Fd. Stonecutters' Island, Italian Convent,

Do.,

Fd. Connaught Road,

""

Po Hing Fong, French Convent,

Do.

Do.

Br. Pneumonia.

Marasmus.

Do.

Acute Tuberculosis.

Inanition.

Do.

Br. Pneumonia. Decomposed. Marasmus.

Do. Decomposed. Diarrhoea.

Croup. Pneumonia.

FEBRUARY, 1903.

""

2 Staveley Street,

Italian Convent, French Convent,

Do.,

434

F. 6 weeks, 435 M. 1 year, 436 F. 1

Fd. Aberdeen,

""

437 F. 1

95

438 M. 6 days,

439

440

F. 1 year,

441

F.

2 months,

442

F.

1 month,

F. 11 years,

Fd. Gilman Street,

""

Kowloon City Road, Italian Convent,

Marasmus.

Acute Cong. of Lungs. Tub. Br. Pneumonia.

Do.

Marasmus.

Tub. Br. Pneumonia. Br. Pueumonia. Marasmus.

Do.

443 F. 5 days,

3 days,

444 F. 445 F. 6

"2

446 M. 7 447 F. 1 year, 448 F. 5 days,

Do.,

French Convent,

Do.,

Do.,

Do.,

Fd. Hospital Road,

French Convent,

Inanition,

Marasmus.

Atelectasis.

Marasmus.

Br. Pneumonia.

Do.

449 M. 1 week,

Do.,

450 M. 3 months,

Do.,

451 M. 1 month,

Do.,

452 F. 6 days,

Do.,

Do.,

453 F. 10

Do.,

454 F. 2 months, 455 M. 1 month, 456 F. 1 week, 457

2 months, 458 M. 1 month,

6 months,

Fd. Des Voeux Road, French Convent, Fd. Staunton Street, Italian Convent, Fd. Third Street,

""

459 460

F.

F.

461

M.

1 year, 3 months,

""

462

M.

10 days,

Station Street North, Albert Road,

Italian Convent,

Inanition.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Marasmus. Br. Pneumonia. Inanition.

Br. Pneumonia. Fracture of Skull. Marasmus.

Do.

Br. Pneumonia.

Do. Marasmus.

17

FEBRUARY, 1903,-Continued.

463

F. 6 months, Fd. Yaumati,

Diarrhoea.

464

F.6

""

Causeway Bay,

465

F.3

Italian Convent,

Decomposed. Pericarditis.

""

Do.,

Marasmus.

467 M. 1

Diarrhoea.

466 M. 12 days,

1 year, 468 M. 1 month, 469 M.1

1 year, 470 F. 1 week, 471 M. 3 months. 472 M. 1 year, 473 F. 2 weeks, 474 F. 1 year, 475 476 M. 477 F. 1 week, 478 F. 1 month,

1 month,

French Convent,

Fd. Bonham Road,

Po Hing Fong, French Convent,

""

Fd. Conduit Road West,

Circular Path, French Convent, Fd. Albert Road,

Italian Convent,

M.

2 months,

French Convent,

Do.,

Do.,

479 M. 6 days, 480 F. 1 year, 481 M. 1 month, 482 F. 1 year, 483 F. 6 months,

Do.,

Fd. Caroline Hill Road, Reclamation Street,

French Convent, Fd. Mong Kok Tsui,

Wyndham Street, Pokfulam Road, French Convent, Fd. Bonham Road.

484

M.3

""

485

F. 6

""

486

F.3

""

487

M. 6

35

488

M. 1 year,

489

F. 4 months,

490 F. 1 year,

Fd. Morrison Hill,

491

M. 1

French Convent,

""

Rifle Range, Kowloon,

Italian Convent,

Exposure.

Diarrhoea.

Marasmus.

Do.

Acute Tuberculosis. Br. Pneumonia. Small-pox.

Diarrhoea.

Tub. Br. Pneumonia. Marasmus.

Do.

Do.

Enteric Fever. Marasmus.

Pleurisy. Marasmus. Plague, Septic. Br. Pneumonia.

Do. Marasinus. Diarrhoea.

Br. Pneumonia. Croup. Pneumonia. Acute Tuberculosis.

492

F. 2 years, 493 M. 4 months, 494 F. 1 month, 495 M. 1 week, 496 M. 6 days, 497 F. 5

""

French Convent,

Do., Italian Convent, French Convent,

Do..

Do.,

Do.,

Do.,

MARCH, 1903.

Marasmus.

Acute Bronchitis. Marasmus.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

498 M. 10

รร

499 M. 6

"

500

F. 1 year,

501

F.

3 months,

502

M.

1 month,

503

F.

10 days,

504

M. 6 months,

505

M. 6

506

M. 6

52

507

M. 8 months,

508 F. 6 days,

509

510

511

512

M. 10

99

M. 15,

F. 1 years, M. 10 days,

513 F. 1 year, 514 F. 1

""

M. 5 months,

Fd. Rifle Range,

""

Hunghom,

French Convent,

Do.,

Fd. Bonham Road,

Austin Road,

Naval Yard Extension.

Fd. Po Hing Fong, French Convent,

Do., Italian Convent,

Fd. Queen's Road East, Italian Convent, Fd. Second Street,

"Connaught Road, French Convent, Fd. New Street,

Kun Cheong, Italian Convent,

515

516

M.2

517

F. 1 month,

""

518

F.

2 months,

519

M. 3

520

F. 13 days,

""

521 M. 1 year, 522 F. 1 523 F. 5 months, 524 F.3

Fd. Leighton Hill Road, Italian Convent,

Fd. Des Voeux Road West,

High Street,

Italian Convent, Fd. Mong Kok,

525

M. 4

""

99

Kun Chung,

Do.

Decomposed. Plague, Septic. Marasmus. Plague, Septic. Decomposed. Marasmus.

Diarrhoea. Small-pox. Marasmus. Plague, Septic. Br. Pneumonia. Plague, Septic. Marasmus. Inanition. Br. Pneumonia. Plague, Septic.

Do. Marasmus. Plague, Septic.

Do. Marasmus.

Plague, Bubonic. Marasmus.

Inanition. Plague, Septic. Marasmus,

- 18.

APRIL, 1903.

526 M. 2 mths., 527 F. 1 year, 528 F. 2 months,

99

""

529 F. 4 530

F. 10 days, 531 F. 20 532 F. 40 mths., 533 M. 1 year, 534 M.1

""

""

535 F. 8 days, 536 F. 1 year, 537 M. 6 months, 538 F. 6 539 F. 2 540 M. 1 day, 541 M. 3 months, 542

F. 12 days,

Italian Convent,

Marasmus.

Fd. Queen's Road East,

Inanition.

""

Do., Yaumati,

""

Italian Convent,

Do., Do.,

Fd. Kowloon Tong,

""

Po Hing Fong, Italian Convent, Fd. Third Street, Fd. Connaught Road,

Queen's Road East, Third Street, Italian Convent, Fd. Third Street,

""

""

39

39

""

""

""

543 M. 15 544 M. 1 year, 545 F. 3 months,

546 F. 6

""

547 F. 3

""

35

""

548 F. 3

549 F. 1 year, 550 F. 10 days,

551

F. 1 years,

12 552 M. 5 months, 553 M. 2

وو

Aberdeen,

in Harbour,

Kun Chung,

Li Sing Street, Leighton Hill,

10 Tai Wo Street,

in Harbour,

Italian Convent,

Do., Fd. in Harbour,

Morrison Hill,

11 Fuk Suk Lane,

Third Street,

25

""

554 F. 1 month, 555 F. 6 days, 556

""

""

F. 1 year,

Austin Road,

"

Shaukiwan Road,

Marasmus. Decomposed.

Do.

Plague, Pneumonci. Inanition.

Croup. Pneumonia. Marasmus.

Do.

Tub. Br. Pneumonia. Br. Pneumonia. Decomposed. Marasmus.

Atelectasis.

Inanition. Marasmus. Decomposed. Small-pox. Plague, Septic.

Do.

Do.

Decomposed. Plague, Septic.

Do. Decomposed. Marasmus. Decomposed. Marasmus.

Do. Decomposed.

MAY, 1903.

Italian Convent, Fd. Des Voeux Road,

557 F. 6 weeks, 558 F. 2 559

F. 3 months, 560 M. 1 year,

""

""

561

M. 1 month,

""

>>

562 F. 1 year, 563 F. 4 months, 564 M. 6

""

""

565

F. 2

""

""

566

F. 1 year,

567

F. 10 days,

568 M. 1 year, 569 F. 6 months, 570 F. 6

F. 10 days,

M. 1 year,

Coffee Plantation, Wing Fung Street, Belchers Street, Kowloon City Road, 16 Square Street, Queen's Road East, Kowloon,

Ladder Street,

Italian Convent,

Fd. Hunghom,

Queen's Road Central,

Queen's Road East,

Kau Loong Tong,

Italian Convent,

Fd. Causeway Bay,

Rifle Range, Queen's Road East, Pokfulam Road, Queen's Road West, Tai Ping Shan,

Kennedy Street,

Tub. Br. Pneumonia. Marasmus. Plague, Septic. Acute Bronchitis. Plague, Septic. Inanition. Malaria.

Marasmus.

Do. Decomposed. Marasmus. Decomposed.

Br. Pneumonia. Diarrhoea.

Marasmus.

Do. Decomposed. Plague, Septic. Marasmus. Do.

Br. Pneumonia. Diarrhoea.

Do.

Br. Pheumonia. Marasmus. Plague, Septic.

19

>>

">

571

M. 1 year,

""

572

573

574

F. 1

""

""

575

F. 8 months,

99

576 M. 3

99

577 F. 2 578

""

99

F. 1 year, 579 F. 1 580 M. 1 month,

37

""

Kaw U Lane,

""

581

M. 10 mths.,

Tsim Sha Tsui,

""

582

F. 1 year,

""

Centre Street,

JUNE, 1903.

586

583 M. 3 months, 584 M. 3 585 F. 1

F.

Fd. East Point Battery,

Decomposed.

Des Voeux Road, West, Diarrhoea.

""

year,

Italian Convent,

6 days,

Do..

587

M. 1 year,

Fd. Water Street,

Marasmus.

Do. Decomposed.

:

588 F. 4 months, 589 M. 1 year, 590 M. 6 months, 591 F. 1

1 year, 592 F. 1 593 F. 1 594 F. 1 month, 595 F. 6 days, 596 M. 2 months,

27

""

597 M. 1 year,

598 F. 1

599 F. 1

多多

وو

600 M. 2 months,

601 F. 1 year, 602 F. 6 months, 603 M. 1 year, 604 M. 1 605 M. 1 month, 606 F. 5 months,

"

19

JUNE, 1903,—Continued.

Italian Convent, Fd. Old Bailey.

"

Canton Wharf, Belchers Street,

Fd. Praya, Kennedy Town,

Connaught Road,

19

18 Wing Shing Street, Italian Convent, Fd. Chancery Lane,

""

Queen's Road West,

Do. East,

Italian Convent,

Fd. in Harbour,

"

""

""

""

"S

161 Market Street, Praya East,

Kwok Ying Fong,

118 Wellington Street, Second Street,

Italian Convent,

Marasmus.

Do.

Br. Pneumonia. Plague, Septic. Plague, Bubonic. Marasmus.

Br. Pneumonia. Marasmus.

Do.

Malaria.

Plague, Septic. Tub. Br. Pneumonia. Decomposed. Diarrhoea.

Plague, Bubonic. Marasmus. Decomposed.

Mal-nutrition.

Tub. Br. Pneumonia.

WILLIAM HUNTER.

Enclosure C.

ITALIAN CONVENT.

Admissions.

Deaths.

July, 1902. August, 1902. Sept., 1902.

Oct., 1902.

Nov., 1902.

Dec., 1902.

Jan., 1903.

Feb., 1903. March, 1903. April, 1903. May, 1903. June, 1903.

Admissions.

Deaths.

Admissions.

Deaths.

Admissions.

Deaths.

Admissions.

Deaths.

Admissions.

Deaths.

Admissions.

Deaths.

Admissions.

Deaths.

Admissions.

Deaths.

Admissions.

Deaths.

Admissions.

Deaths.

Admissions.

Deaths.

24

32

21

...

2

...

1

26 14 28 33

Trismus, 4

Tetanus,

...

31 12

1

...

1

...

2

...

:

34 21

...

2

:

:

37

Trismus,

Tetanus, 36

46

...

:

...

28

...

19

:

:

...

33 17 23

2

...

FRENCH CONVENT.

15

...

:

9

1

19

...

6

30

12

15

3

:

3

:

:

2

1

:

:

23

...

10

...

23

...

The total number of admissions is 341.

The total number of deaths is 168.

Only those under 5 years are included, a few whose ages are not mentioned are omitted

...

1

23

:

:

Co

...

1

21

...

17

30

20

!

21

Asile de la Sainte Enfance.-1902-1903.

July,

..1902.

August, ...1902.

September, 1902.

October, ...1902.

November, 1902.

December, 1902.

January,...1903.

February, 1903.

March,..

.1903.

April, ..............1903.

May, ......1903.

June,

1903.

Males, q. q. j.

1 to 4 months,

1 to 2 years, 3, 4, 5,

20 25

2523+

28 12 18 18 19 12

6 16

9 12

5 to 12

12

9 3

4

""

13 13 11

14

4 9

6

6 4

54 65

60

41

2=

12122

96364

13 11

6 10

5 2 4 11 12

Co

757

24

9

5

17 21 16

10 9 13 1

35 47 36 45 43 51 53 62

Total,

Females, q. q. j.

21

1 to 4 months,

21

5 to 12

13 12

322

39 25 29

29

14

24

13 19

18

5

>>

1 to 2 years, 3, 4, 5,

74

8

6 18

10

3

40202

16 13 22

16

15

19

8

4129

16 14 11 13

20

19 17

11 3 3

13

13 9

12 10 12

13 18 16

5

12

15

20 16

"3

Total,

66 96 55 75

51

52

62

42

62

77 85 77

Grand Total,

120 161115 116 86

99

98 87105128|138 139

1,392 ADMISSIONS.

Deaths, Males:-

Same day, Within 3 days,

7

18 15 7

22 30 36

35

After 7

5

7

NOOD N

∞∞

9

6 9 4

5

210

5

9988

6 10

18 17 28 10 16 18

7 10 6 7 8

4155

16 24 35 24

11

8

18

14

8 6

""

Total,

50 58 54

35 33 46

30 44 41

45 54 62

Deaths, Females:-

Same day, Within 3 days,

7

17 12 5 15

11 39 31

15 16

>>

After 7

19

Total,

13 18

56 85 49

58

8 RENG

26 15 24

10 5

2#62

5

8

18

13 21

13 32 32 27 21 20

8 11 11 8 9 9

2200

24

12 16 12

17

$

14 12 18 13

63 44

47

51

40 59 73 79

73

Grand Total,

106 | 143 | 103 | 98

77

93 81

84100 118 | 133 | 135

1,271 DEATHS.

22

Deaths registered in the French and Italian Convents from 1st January, 1880, to 30th September, 1886.

FRENCH CONVENT.

Months.

1881 1882

1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 Total.

Aver- Temperature.

age. Min. Max. Mean.

January,

85 53 61 72 76 59 58 464

February,

76 42 37

84

March,

70 47 61

66 58 59 60

April,

78 49 42

69 76 61 50

May,

40 56 49

67 79 72 74

June,

74 82 80

134 78

July,

$2 77 76

104 77 106

August,

47

74 112

98 82 78 98

September,

75

89 100

96 102 71 79

October,

79

74 93

87 79 111

November,

68

75 85

112 89 66

December,

78 87

71 86 76 67

GRENJTAJAONG

66

46 70

60

72 38

415

60

43

70 60

52

407

58

76 64

425

61

$4 71

437

$7

78

56 74

578

82

99

621

76 92 85

589

77 92 82

612

76 90 81

523

87

70

495

82

465

77

77 8469 77 63

Total,

852 805 867 1,067 939 879 622 6,031

ITALIAN CONVENT.

January,

43 52

39

50

34 24 30

272

39

46

70

60

February,

49 47 14

14

29

30 31

214 30

43

70

60

March,

44 28 37

42

26

32 36

245 35

55

76 64

April,

25 26 27

36 41 34 49

238

34

84 71

May, June, July,

51 48 43

50

33 42 62

329

47 64 87

78

64 36

62

54

38

66 55

875

53 73 91

82

68

58

66

74 68 77

69

480

68 76

85

August,

62 41

76

67 40 59

66

411

58

82

September,

56

64

58

59 57 35 48

377 54

76

81

October, November, December,

45 60 41

54 60

53 51

52

68 44

36 37 52

42 43

蛋炒麵

54

314 52 70

55

77

37

45

305 51 255 42 54 77

58 84

69

63

Total,

596 548 567 610 513 535 446 3,815

Total for both Convents 1,448; 1,352; 1,677; 1,452; 1,414; 1,068 ; 9,846.

No.

!

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS, FOR THE YEAR 1903.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, HONGKONG, 29th February, 1904.

SIR,-I have the honour to report to the Government upon the Education Department for the year 1903.

STAFF.

Mr. W. H. WILLIAMS took up his appointment as Head Master of the Saiying- pun District School in January.

Mr. C. CURWEN was appointed Headmaster of the Yaumati District School in March.

Miss COLCUTT resigned her appointment of Second Mistress at the Kowloon School in May. After several changes Mrs. HATWELL was appointed in July.

THE COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION.

Many steps have been taken during the year under review to give effect to the general recommendations of the Committee on Education.

A Sub-Committee of the Governing Body of Queen's College was appointed to draw up a course of study for the Chinese Classes in the College. The same course has been adopted in the Anglo-Chinese District Schools; and in most of the Anglo- Chinese and Vernacular Grant Schools a similar course is now being followed. Further reference to this course is made under "Graut Schools" below.

A Committee was appointed to consider the possibility of holding regular examinations for the senior Classes in History and Geography under the auspices of the Oxford Local Delegacy. The report of this Committee is now in the hands of the Government.

The Committee on Education drew attention to the difficulties attendant on the co-education of young English-speaking children with Chinese boys who are be- ginning the study of English. The Chinese boys are usually older by several years, and often older for their ages, than the English-speaking children; a course of instruction calculated to develop infant minds is quite unsuitable for them; they need to spend most of their school time in the acquisition of English, especially Colloquial, and also to spend some time on improving their knowledge of Written Chinese. The difficulties in the way of teaching the two classes of children together are obviously great. The subject was fully discussed during the year, and finally the following dictum of the late Governor Sir HENRY BLAKE received the approval of the Secretary of State for the Colonies:-

"In my opinion the difficulty may be surmounted by arranging that Chinese boys shall not be taught English in the same Class as non-Chinese boys, until it is found that they have acquired a sufficient know- ledge of English to understand the teaching given to the Class in that language. This will prevent the English boys being retarded, without violating the principle that education shall be given equal- ly and indiscriminately to all races."

THE GRANT CODE.

One of the most important changes recommended by the Committee on Educa- tion was the substitution of a new Code for the then existing Grant-in-Aid Code. Accordingly the present Grant Code was drafted at the beginning of the year. I met the Managers of the schools several times, and discussed its provisions fully with them. I am indebted to their criticisms for several beneficial amendments.

15 1904

=

114

In its final form the draft Code was circulated among Managers and met with general approval. It came into force on the 1st January, 1904; but Managers who cared to do so were permitted to bring their schools under it from the 1st July, 1903, and about one half of them, including the Managers of St. Joseph's, the Italian Convent, the Diocesan School for Girls, and most of the London Missionary Society's schools and the American Baptist Mission's schools, elected to do so.

The following are some of the points of difference which distinguish the existing Code from the old Code:-

(a.) The Grants are paid upon the results of the Inspector's observation throughout the year, and not upon the success or otherwise of individual scholars at an Annual Examination.

(b.) The Code recognizes that schools employing a well educated Staff are worthy of special recognition, by giving a higher rate of Grant, paid in sterling, to such schools. The Staff must, in order to meet the requirements of the Code in this respect, be partly composed of Europeans, or natives of very unusual qualifications.

(c.) The old Code gave Grants to schools giving a Chinese education on the time-honoured Chinese lines, as well as to schools in which Portuguese or German was the medium of instruction. The present Code recognizes only modern Western methods of im- parting instruction, and insists that either English or Chinese must be the medium of instruction: other languages may of course be studied as Class subjects.

GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS.

KOWLOON SCHOOL.

The Kowloon School for European British subjects has now been open for nearly two years. The attendance during 1903 averaged 46.4 as compared with 39.3 in 1902, an increase of 18 per cent. The greatest number of scholars present on one day was 58. Mr. JAMES in his report complains with reason of the irregularity of attendance. This irregularity seems inherent in the schools of the Colony, and is much to be regretted. The revenue collected under Fees amounted to $1,854.50 as against $924 in 1902 (8 months).

#

During the first six months of the year I visited the School every fortnight, and less frequently during the latter half of the year. As regards discipline and organization, I have nothing to say but praise. I think it would be hard to find anywhere a brighter or better ordered school. As regards the curriculum, I am not yet prepared to give a final opinion. It will be another year or two before the results of the very solid and practical course of study are fully seen. I should add that I have made no suggestions as to the curriculum which Mr. JAMES has not adopted. I shall report more fully on the school work at the end of the school- year in July.

The following extracts are from the Headmaster's Report:-

Admissions.

"During the year 22 new pupils were admitted, while the same number of old pupils left. This means that in the course of 12 months 41 per cent. of the personnel of the school was changed-a strong proof of the shifting nature of the population from which the school draws its pupils.

Attendances.

The maximum monthly average attendance was 54, and the minimum 37.7 English children in the tropics are naturally more often absent through illness than would be the case at home; for this I have always made due and sympathetic allowance. But when, in addition to this, pupils absent themselves for pic-nies and parties to an extent that would not be tolerated at any Public School in England, it seems hopeless to expect that they should by anything like so far advanced as children of equal ages in England.

115

Health.

During the earlier months of the year the school was visited by epidemics. of measles, whooping-cough and chicken-pox, which, owing to the precautions that had to be adopte against infection, sadly reduced the attendance. In all matters appertaining to the health and sanitation of the school, I have been guided by the kind advice of Dr. SWAN.

Holidays.

Our original holiday scheme provided for two months at midsummer, and one week between the summer and winter terms-the idea being to devote the maximum of cold-weather time to work. The late Governor Sir H. A. BLAKE decided however that for the future the holidays should consist of six weeks in the summer, three weeks at Christmas, and two weeks at Easter.

Games:

Organized school games I regret to say we have none, owing to the fact that we have no playground worthy of the name. A piece of ground smaller than an ordinary class-room permits of neither cricket nor football-games which at home are so largely respon- sible for that healthy tone called the public school spirit.' Last winter I got up some paper-chases, but soon discontinued them owing to the disapproval of the parents.

New Features.

E

The following new features were introduced in the course of the year:-

(a.) Towards the close of the year a Committee was appointed

by the late Governor to consider the question of religious instruction. This Committee recommended that Biblical instruction should form part of the school curriculum. Scripture history will therefore form part of next year's syllabus.

(b.) The celebration of Empire Day.-The school met at the usual time, and after listening to an address from the Head- master, sang the national anthem and was then given a whole holiday.

(c.) The national anthem is regularly sung by the whole school

before dismissal on the last day of each week.

(d.) The school is drilled by a military Drill Instructor once a

week.

(e.) A dancing-class is held on Saturdays.

(f.) The infants have been taught paper-folding, which will be followed by clay-modelling, as soon as the necessary ma- terials arrive from England.

(9.) Practical chemistry and brush-work are being taught in the

Fourth Forin.

h.) The addition to the Staff of a pupil-teacher."

THE BELILIOS PUBLIC SCHOOL

I drew attention last year to a falling off in the number of attendances, which I attributed partly to the doubling of the fees charged in the latter half of 1901 and partly to the competition of other schools. This falling off is best shewn by the following table which eliminates the violent fluctuations of the summer months when attendances are mainly regulated by the severity or mildness of the plague.

Average Number of Scholars enrolled. ·

1900,

1901,

1902,

1903,

Fecs doubled.

{ Jan - April,

169

Sept.-Dec.

...173

Jan -April,

....163

Sept.-Dec.

..120*

Jan.-April,

..119

Sept.-Dec.,

Jan-April, Sept.-Dec

.101† ....117 ..107

† Kowloou School open.

;

- 116

Though the decrease in numbers appears to have stopped, it has only done so owing to a new demand which the school is satisfying for the time being. In 1900 4% of the scholars were Indian boys under eleven years of age in the Preparatory School. In 1903 they had increased to over 9. At least another 11 % are Eurasian or Asiatic boys other than Chinese. There appears to be need of a school for these boys; and I am glad to report that temporary arrangements have been made, through the liberality of a member of the Indian community, by which a Grant School will at once be opened for them.

As I pointed out last year, in the Chinese Division of the Belilios Public School there are 240 girls who are getting an education in their Written Language without any supervision whatever from the Mistresses of the English School. By drafting out the Indian boys it should now be possible to free one Mistress at least to look after them.

I examined the English School at the end of the year. The work was very well done in the Upper and Lower School, but it did not appear to me that enough work had been got through in the course of the year. The work of the school was however considerably disorganized by the temporary absence of the Second Mistress who had to fill a vacancy for some months at the Kowloon School.

6

In the Preparatory School there were (a very few) English speaking Infants'; many Indian boys who come knowing nothing; young Chinese boys; young Chinese girls; Chinese girls of 15 or 17 who having completed their Chinese education were beginning to study English; and Portuguese or other girls of about the same age also knowing no English. It is impossible to form satisfactory Classes out of such a medley. I can only hope that the steps I have taken will reduce the Preparatory School to a completer state of organization.

The Chinese girls have, under Miss BATEMAN, made nevertheless remarkable progress with their English. They write very well indeed; and the fact that they will at the end of a year's study speak out loud in Class to a stranger is proof to my mind of great pains spent in overcoming their almost invincible diffidence. They do not speak as well as boys in the District Schools who have been learning just as long. I have not yet had experience enough of the new system, to say whether this is inevitable or not.

THE DISTRICT SCHOOLS.

These schools were entirely re-organized at the beginning of the year. Special attention has been paid to the improvement of the Chinese Masters in the method of their teaching, especially in the method of teaching English.

Normal Class.

A Normal Class has already done much to improve their knowledge of the science of teaching. They have met every Saturday and have given lessons in turn to a Class, which lessons have been followed, after the dismissal of the Class, by discussions upon the matter and treatment, and have been subjected to criticism. The Chinese Masters have shown themselves willing and quick to learn: and this is the more satisfactory since, if a knowledge of English is to spread rapidly, we shall have to depend upon Chinese Masters for the instruction of the Lowest Standards.

Fees.

The fees paid by the scholars have gradually been raised, till now $2 a month is paid by new boys, and $1 a month by the scholars already in attendance. At Yaumati fees were charged from the middle of the year only. The total of fees collected was $1,507.50, compared with $152.50 in 1902, and nil in 1901.

Attendances.

The schools have been throughout the year about as full as the Staff would warrant. Attendances have as usual been extremely irregular. The average number in attendance at the three schools combined was 265 (Saiyingpun 95, Yaumati 74, Wantsai 96).

Books and Apparatus.

The schools were well equipped during the year with books and apparatus ordered from England: but as these did not arrive till the latter part of the year, and as some time was inevitably taken up with arranging the curriculum according- ly, the schools upon their reconstructed basis can hardly he said to have been working for more than six months.

L

i

117

Inspection.

At my latest inspection I took especial pains to discover how far the new method had succeeded in improving the teaching of English. I must say that used as I have been to the difficulty of extracting other replies than "yes

yes" and "no," even from boys who have been under instruction for several years, the change for the better was most promising. T make this clear I give the following notes, taken down at the time, of an attempt made at conversation with 5 boys selected at random from a Class; none of these boys had attended school for more than ten months:

"I live at Elgin Street. I am ten years old. I have been 9 months at school. We learn reading. We learn poetry. We learn pictures. Pictures of pigs. Yes, I have seen a pig, Sir. I see a pig at Kowloon. He is looking for food. It eats oatmeal and flour. The dog eats beef. It eats bones. It find the bone in the ground. Boys eat apple-rice-lichee Boys drink tea-wine -water. Girls drink the same. A girl is a woman-a young woman. I have two sisters."

Boys of the same standing were told to write descriptions of a picture of dogs hanging on the wall, which had doubtless been already the subject of some such exercise. I give some of the results. It is noticeable that they are not all the same, which argues that the child is beginning to think in English, and is not merely reproducing sentences learned by heart.

67

That is a bull-dog, Sir.'

"That kind is called the bull-dog."

66

66

No, Sir, it is not a big dog, Sir.'

The bull-dog has short legs and an ugly face.”

"A bull-dog is looks like a tiger."

"The bull-dog is good for keeping watch."

In Elementary Geography an important change has been effected, and the same beginners shewed, especially at Yaumati, a good knowledge of the topography of Hongkong. The course now followed is certainly the right one, which is, to proceed from the known to the unknown, from the school to the street, the city, the Colony, the Canton Province.

The Arithmetic done by the first year boys was good. The first four rules were offered for examination, and at Saiyingpun the compound rules with English money as well. I consider that to be too much.

I have dwelt upon the work done by the lowest Classes, because they best illus- trate the new methods. But considering the not very satisfactory nature of their early training, I have good reason to be satisfied with the progress made by the boys in the highest Classes. Composition, generally speaking, was weak, except at Yaumati where some very good work was done. Geography was very good at Saiyingpun in the highest Class, and passable at the other two schools. beginning of History and Algebra has been made at Saiyingpun. As regards Colloquial English the senior boys are suffering from the effects of having hitherto been taught through their eyes instead of through their ears and eyes: but at any rate they now talk courageously.

A

The Chinese composition was. generally speaking, bad. It might possibly be considered fair at Saiyingpun. To remedy this the Government has consented to abolish the Vernacular Schools connected with the Anglo-Chinese Schools, and to employ the Masters as Vernacular Masters in the Anglo-Chinese Schools. By some means or other this serious shortcoming must be made good during the current year

Apart from this the schools have made an excellent beginning.

GRANT SCHOOLS.

The Grant Code was adopted by some schools at the beginning of July, but I am not yet able to report definitely as to its effect. The Italian Convent and one or two other Roman Catholic Schools drew up what appear to be very sound courses of study under the provisions of the Code, and will, I feel sure, be materially improved by them. Unfortunately the necessity of holding the winter examina- tions in the schools which decided not to come under the Code at once, prevented me from continuing to examine the proposed courses of study of those that did come under it.

NUMBER OF SCHOLARS IN THE SCHOOLS OF THE COLONY.

118

Of the Anglo-Chinese Schools, three at least-the Roman Catholic Cathedral School, the Ellis Kadoorie School, and the St. Stephen's Anglo-Chinese School- have given evidence of a desire to attach due importance to the study of spoken English. The last is an encouraging example of a well-conducted school under Chinese Masters only. It has greatly improved in the last two years.

The Vernacular Schools have on the whole greatly improved in the last two years. This improvement is naturally most easily detected in those which elected to come under the new Code at once, and which were thus freed from a hard-and-fast course of study. The schools under the management of the Rev. H. R. WELLS of the London Mission shew great promise. Instead of the nursery classics-the Three Character, and the Thousand Character-which were learned by heart with- out any idea of their meaning, a regular course of illustrated Chinese Readers has been adopted, and the change has proved exceedingly popular. These readers are the means of teaching not only the characters and their meanings, but also the simple lessons which are usually found in English Readers. Local Geography is taught throughout the schools, and not only (as hitherto) to the senior scholars. Mental Arithmetic is, in at least one Girl School of the Wesleyan Mission, being taught to every Class with great success.

STATISTICS.

AVERAGE ATTENDANCE.

The following table shows the number of scholars in average attendance, com- pared with the figures for 1901. This method of calculation under-estimates the number in receipt of education, but reckoning by the total enrolment errs still more on the side of exaggeration.

(Reckoned by the Average Attendance. The figures in brackets are those for 1901.)

English Schools.

Anglo-Chinese Schools,

GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS.

'03

30.

(10.)

('01)

Vernacular Schools.

'03

('01)

Total.

80.

(10.)

(1)

1 Kowloon School,

མི

(1)

1 Belilios Public School,...........................

(110)

(1)

1 Queen's College,

940

(168)

(4)

3 Anglo-Chinese District Schools,

265

(287)

(7)

6 Vernacular District Schools, ...

271

(266)

(14) 12

141

(110)

1,205 (1,181)

271

(266)

1,617 (1,557)

GRANT SCHOOLS.

(13)

9 English Schools,

892

(836)

...

8 Anglo-Chinese Schools,.

760

(435)

3,542 (3,197)

1,890 (1,926)

(57) 53 Vernacular Schools,... (8)

(79) 70

(?)

PRIVATE SCHOOLS.

English Private Schools,

(12) 23 Anglo-Chinese Schools, (95) 84 Vernacular Schools,..

(107) 107

(199) 189

1,033

(9F6)

663

(526)

2,926 (2,983)

2,263 (2,457)

2,628 (2,142)

4,424 (4,649)

8,085 (7,737)

I

119

The most noticeable feature is the increase of scholars in Anglo-Chinese Schools, and the corresponding though slighter decrease in the numbers of the Vernacular Schools. One Anglo-Chinese District School was closed at the beginning of the year.

The scholars in the English Schools have also increased largely, more so than the figures show, as I have omitted the figures for four Portuguese Schools which have just been closed.

The figures under the head Private Schools are interesting as they show that the Chinese themselves are inclined to spend more time and money on learning English, and less on learning Chinese.

I have, &c.,

EDWARD A. IRVING,

Inspector of Schools.

The Honourable A. M. THOMSON,

Acting Colonial Secretary.

No. 40

1904

HONGKONG.

ABSTRACT SHEWING DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE ESTIMATES OF EXPENDITURE FOR 1904 AND 1905.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

INCREASE.

DECREASE.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS :---

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS :—

. Stipulated Increments,

16,617

Reduction of Salary on New Appointments, $

10,911

Increase of Salary,

22,596

Abolition of Posts,..

6,105

New Posts,.

70,228

Exchange Compensation,

4,523

Posts formerly paid for out of "Other

6,192

New Appointments on Sterling Salary,.

3,376

Charges,"

Less 3 Passed Cadets,

7,200

Exchange Compensation,

6,105

Land Court Establishment..

8,604

Acceptance of Sterling Salary; New

538

Salary previously overestimated,

114

Appointments on Sterling Salary,

Allowances,

852

Posts for whole instead of part of year,.

1,526

Other Charges,

75,407

Posts transferred to Permanent Establish-

Public Works, Recurrent,

110,200

920

ment,

Allowances,

4,953

Other Items,

30

Other Charges,..

89,834

Special Expenditure (Post Office),.

15,000

Pensions,

31,618

Ecclesiastical,

1,400

Charitable Allowances,

160

Transport,.

..

7,000

Miscellaneous Services,

7,353

Military Expenditure-Contribution to

47,165

Imperial Government,

Total Increase,

329,235

Total Decrease,..

$

227,292

Deduct Decrease,

227,292

Total Increase exclusive of P.W. Extraordinary, Public Works, Extraordinary,

101,943

541,900

TOTAL INCREASE inclusive of P.W. Extra-

$

€A

643,843

ordinary,

.

HONGKONG.

MEMORANDUM TO EXPLAIN ESTIMATES OF EXPENDITURE FOR 1905.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

No.

39

1904

Note.-1s. 8d., as for 1904, has been taken throughout these Estimates as the rate of conversion for sterling salaries and as the basis for payment of exchange compensation.

PENSIONS.

POLICE.

Deduct Pensions ceased.-The deductions are the outcome of protracted correspondence with the Indian Government.

GOVERNOR.

OTHER CHARGES.

New Furniture.-It is not anticipated that more than $4,000 will be spent in 1904 and the unexpended moiety is provided for 1905 to meet such requirements of Government House and Mountain Lodge as may not have been satisfied before the end of 1904.

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE.

4 Passed Cadets. Included in these is Mr. R. F. JOHNSTON who has been seconded temporarily as Secretary to Government at Weihaiwei, but is paid by that Government. Two Passed Cadets on dollar salaries have received substantive appointments. Subject to approval of the Secretary of State, one Passed Cadet, on sterling salary, has been appointed to the post of Assistant Secretary, Sanitary Board. There is reduction therefore of 3 Passed Cadets.

AUDIT DEPARTMENT.

In the absence of any reason for providing the sums required at a special rate of exchange, the rate adopted for the whole of the Estimates has been adopted now for the first time for this Department for the sake of uniformity, and the sterling sums required have accordingly been converted at 1s. 8d.

POST OFFICE.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Agencies in China-Shanghai.

Junior Mail man. This new post was approved on the recommendation of the Postmaster at Shanghai who stated that the growth of business necessitated the appointment of an assistant to the mail man already on the Estimates, who, unaided, was overworked.

Postmen. The Postmaster reported that the growth of the European residen- tial district, the increased bulk of inward mails, and the increased frequency of their arrival required the appointment of two additional Postmen.

Canton.

Postmen. For some time past 3 Postmen have proved insufficient to cope with the delivery of letters over such a wide area as is comprised in the City and suburbs, Honam, Fati, etc., and the additional Postman was appointed in January last, being for 1904 paid out of savings.

Amoy.

Postmen.-A third Postman had been employed and paid $3 a month out of Incidentals. It is now necessary to provide for his services permanently and to give him $5 a month, $3 being insufficient for a suitable man. The additional

f

516

Postman at $8 a month is also engaged as Sorter in the sub-office on the side of the Harbour opposite to the Agency. His services are absolutely necessary. These additions were approved in February and are being paid for out of savings for the current year.

OTHER CHARGES. Carriage of Mails.

Transit Charges.-The increase under this head is principally due to the Pacific Mail Steamship Company and the Steamship Companies represented by it demanding an increase in the amount hitherto paid to them for the conveyance of mails to the United States, and to the extension of the Parcel Post to that country.

The total is made up as follows:-

United Kingdom,..

Other Countries,

Conveyance of United States Mails to Manila

and Manila Mails to United States.

Parcel Post,

£5,593

2,230

945

25

£8,793 @ 1/8 $105,516

$7,505

747

8,252

...

8,775

2,457

$125,000

Canton Mails-

Hongkong, Canton and Macao Steam-

Boat Company,

China Navigation Company,

Pacific Mail Steam-ship Company for convey- ance of Hongkong Mails, etc., to San Francisco, etc., 45 trips at $195 a trip, For increase in correspondence to United King-

dom, etc.,

SPECIAL EXPENDITURE.

Purchase of Steam-launch.-The Government Marine Surveyor reported the Post Office Launch "Courier" to be unseaworthy. She was fifteen years old and only able to make 6 knots. Her original cost was $5,250. She was sold by ten- der for $2,000 and a launch has been hired for the present at $120 a month.

OBSERVATORY.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Coolie Wages.-Owing to the impossibility of retaining the services of coolies at the former rates they have been raised one from $9 and two from $8 a month to $10 and $9 respectively.

BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Gardens, Forestry.-The items under these heads have been re-arranged and better classified.

OTHER CHARGES.

Draining King's Park.-No further expenditure under this head required at

present.

Forestry, New Territory.-This item has been increased by $5,000, the sum of $8,000 being held to be a suitable annual expenditure for the present for beginning a more comprehensive scheme of afforestation in the New Territory which is rendered possible by the impending completion of the operations of the Land Court in investigating and settling titles. The arrangements contemplated are expected to yield a fair revenue in due course.

* Refunds on account of these Mails are paid in as Revenue.

*

517

Maintenance of Gardens and Grounds.-The increase in this item is made

up as follows:---

Transferred from gardening operations in Cemetery,......

Increase considered necessary for Cemetery,

Transferred from Maintenance of Government Office Grounds, Maintenance of Peak Garden (C.O.D. 141 of 1904),..

$ 800

200

100

100

Maintenance of Taipingshan Garden (C.O.D. 231 of 1903),... 500

$1,700

LAND REGISTRY OFFICE.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Clerk and Translator.-The salary of the holder of the office is at present $720, but he is expected to pass in 1905 as 2nd Class Translator when he will come on the scale provided.

Temporary Clerk.-This Clerk has hitherto been paid $1 a day out of lapsing salaries, but is now shown on the Estimates. It is possible that further clerical assistance may be permanently required for New Territory work.

NEW TERRITORIES.

2 Copying Clerks.-These posts have been placed in Class VIII of the classifi- cation scheme and made permanent, but the holders come on the scale at $300, the figure at which they were appointed.

Coolies for Land Bailiffs.-Are required to carry maps, etc., for field work.

OTHER CHARGES.

Incidental Expenses.-Previous provision insufficient to meet increased wants due to increases of staff, electric lighting formerly paid for by Supreme Court. uniforms for messengers, and new furniture required.

ATTORNEY GENERAL AND CROWN SOLICITOR.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Crown Solicitor's Clerk.-On the resignation of this Clerk recently, the Crown Solicitor requested that the Clerk's salary might be added to the item Expenses of Crown Solicitor's staff as no special work devolved upon this Clerk all the clerical work being divided between the various clerks employed by the Crown Solicitor, and this was approved.

LAND COURT, NEW TERRITORY.

Provision was only made for six months of 1904, but it became necessary to supplement this as the work of settling claims could not be completed by the 30th of June. A revised Estimate was laid before Council involving an excess of $7,746.80 over the original estimate and a further Supplementary Vote was taken later for $4,524 for the Staff required from the 1st June to the 31st of December, 1904, in connection with the work of Land Settlement, as apart from the investigation of claims, in New Kowloon and the New Territory. A vote was also taken for half of Mr. CLEMENTI's salary for six months from July to December to admit of the officer acting in Mr. CLEMENTI'S substantive post of Assistant Registrar General drawing half salary while Mr. CLEMENTI was seconded to the Land Court. Other clerical assistance may still be required for 1904.

The work of hearing and deciding claims will be completed by the end of the year, and the Land Court consequently disappears from the 1905 Estimates.

·

518

EDUCATION.

INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.

OTHER CHARGES.

Principal Grants under New Grant Code (C.O.D. 185 of 1903).--The increase is due to the full effects of the increased grants under the new Code being felt for the first time in 1905 and is made up as follows:

English Schools, Class I.

1,400 Scholars at 30/- ($18),

Class II.

400 Scholars at $7.

Vernacular Schools, Class I.

2,500 Scholars at $7,

$

.25,200

2,800

17,500

$45,500

QUEEN'S COLLEGE.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Second Master's Allowance for Knowledge of Chinese.-Exchange Compensa- tion is drawn on this allowance, which in Mr. MAY's the only such case is a personal allowance and is not on the same footing as the language allowances drawn by other officers. $180 was first inserted in the Estimates for 1893 as a personal allowance to this Officer.

Gymnastic Instructor.--On the recommendation of the Head Master a non- commissioned officer's services are to be obtained to give the necessary instruction when the new appliances arrive and the rate of remuneration is that fixed by the Military Authorities, namely, $1 per hour.

MEDICAL DEPARTMENTS.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS. Civil Hospital.

Messengers.-A Coolie at $96 has become necessary for the Laboratory where a private coolie is at present employed on Government business.

Lunatic Asylums. Kennedy Town Hospital. Maternity Hospital. Cook. It has been found impossible to get and keep good cooks at $9 a month for these posts in consequence of general rise of wages of Chinese servants.

OTHER CHARGES. Civil Hospital.

Metallurgical Furnace for Laboratory.-The present apparatus can only be used for ores and minerals in single quantities and the increased and increasing work requires more expeditious methods. The one provided for will take 10 or more samples at a time.

POLICE.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

6 Telephone Clerks.-An additional Clerk was appointed in 1903 and paid from lapsing salaries. His services were necessary as complaints were made by the Sanitary Department at the delay and difficulty in communicating with the District Sanitary Offices through the Government Telephone Exchange.

European Force: Sergeants and Constables.-The differences between the amounts provided in 1904 and required in 1905 are caused only by stipulated increments falling due, and to the number of Sergeants or Lance Sergeants or Con-

:

519

stables on dollar pay having been promoted in consequence of vacancies due partly to promotions of their predecessors some of whose salaries were fixed in Sterling or in Dollars or vice versâ. There is no increase in the Establishment.

17 Boatmen.-It has proved impossible to secure and retain men for $8 a month and it was necessary in April last to raise their pay to $9.

OTHER CHARGES.

Incidentals Expenses.-The reduction of $444 represents $72 Allowance to Boatmen at Cheung Chow now shown separately under Personal Emoluments, and $372 for wages of Coolies as explained in Mr. MAY's despatch No. 206 of 16th May, 1904, and approved by the Secretary of State in despatch No. 198 of 27th June.

Rent of Police Stations.—The increase is $240 for rent of house to accom- modate the increased Chinese Detective Staff, but may not be required when the additional storey for the Central Station is completed or if there is room in the temporary accommodation provided during such addition: and $50 for taxes on house next to No. 2 Police Station.

VICTORIA GAOL.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

6 Temporary Guards.-Owing to crowding of Gaol two Store rooms had to be converted into Dormitories to accommodate prisoners and these extra Guards were added to the Staff in consequence. They are provided for next year in anticipation of similar crowding.

4 Cooks at $96.-The increase of $1 a month to 2 cooks was found to be necessary, $7 a month being insufficient.

SANITARY DEPARTMENT.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Watchman, Kwai Chung.-This is the revival of an appointment which existed up to 1900. It has been found necessary so as to ensure that the refuse from the dust boats is taken to the appointed place on shore and not deposited in the sea between Hongkong and Cheung Sha Wan.

Sanitary Inspector acting as Overseer to Cemeteries.-It was recommended by the Sanitary Board that this Overseer should be accorded this altered status and the salary attaching to it on condition that he devotes his whole time to the work. At present he is also Cathedral Verger, a position he will relinquish.

3 Sextons, Sai Yu Shek Cemetery and Rent Allowance.-This staff is necessary but was everlooked by the Sanitary Department when the Cemetery was selected in May, 1903. Their wages have been paid this year out of lapsing salaries.

Engineers and Attendants for Bath-houses.-They are required for the Bath- houses in Cross Street and Pound Lane and for the supervision of the Disinfecting Tanks erected as a result of the plague experiment of Sir HENRY BLAKE in 1903. Their wages have this year been paid out of "Coolie Labour" not having been estimated for.

OTHER CHARGES.

Cemetery Incidental Expenses.-The increase is provided to meet cost of lay- ing out Sai Yu Shek Cemetery declared a burial place by Government Notification of 22nd May, 1903, and cost of putting existing cemeteries in better order. vote may be reconsidered for 1906.

The

Incidental Expenses.-The reduction in round figures represents the sums of which the item has been relieved by separate provision being made.

}

Latrine at Wanchai Gap Road.-A ventilating shaft with electric exhaust fan was installed to obviate complaints from the public, which had been frequent, of disagreeable smells in the vicinity of the latrine.

>

520

PLAGUE.

Bath-houses, Coal, etc.-Maintenance charges incidental to the establishment of bath-houses in various parts of the City. Owing to an oversight they were not previously estimated for and have been met out of "Disinfecting Tanks-Coolie Hire" during 1904.

COOLIE LABOUR AND DISINFECTANTS.

Incidental Expenses.-The first of these items has been relieved by separate provision and a further decrease on both has been found possible.

CHARITABLE ALLOWANCES.

Grant to Society of Saint Vincent de Paul.-It has for years past been cus- tomary to grant $100 at Christmas time for the provision of comforts and goods to the Society. This sum is now placed on the Estimates, that course being more regular.

Grant to LAM KAM CHUK.-She is the widow of CHÖNG Mo Kwai who died as the result of an assault by a Chinese Constable. The woman, who is 37 years old, has two children, is very poor, and has no relative capable of supporting her.

TRANSPORT.

Passage Allowance to Officers.-For many years past this vote has been far too small to meet the demands upon it and $10,000 is still only a modest estimate.

MISCELLANEOUS SERVICES.

District Watchmen Grant, $2,000.-The District Watchmen Fund was in receipt of an annual grant of $2,000 up to 1893 when the state of the Fund did not warrant its continuance but a promise was made to renew the grant whenever the Fund required assistance. The grant was restored for 3 years beginning with 1902, but is continued for 1905, although the Fund is in a good position at present, because a considerable expenditure is anticipated for accommodation at Wanchai and Saiyingpun and also in connection with a scheme for raising the District Watch- men's wages to the same rates as for the Chinese Police with the object of attracting better men. See Governor's despatch No. 166 of 1904 as to constitution, &c., of Force.

PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS. Engineering Staff.

Junior Draughtsman.-This provision is inserted for an experiment in the employment of a Queen's College Boy (Chinese) on the routine work of tracing, inking in plans, etc., in the Drawing Office. The boy selected is being tried for six months from July without pay. If he proves useful he will come on to the scale provided.

CROWN LANDS AND SURVEYS.

Land Bailiff-The scale of salary in the Sterling Salary Scheme is £260 rising to £300, but in Mr. MAY's despatch No. 252 of 11th June the scale now provided was proposed for an additional Bailiff and as the duties of the two Bailiffs are identical both must be on the same scale, and on the recommendation of the Director of Public Works the scale for a first class Overseer has been adopted as suitable.

DREDGER.

Engineer, Foreman.--The small increases provided are granted under the authority of the Secretary of State, despatch No. 48 of the 16th February, 1900. The instructions issued in consequence of that despatch have up to the present been overlooked in the Public Works Department as regards these two men.

521

PUBLIC WORKS ANNUALLY RECURRENT.

1

These estimates have been re-arranged in order to eliminate all charges not strictly coming under the head "annually recurrent" and for clearness have been grouped under the natural divisions to which the items belong. "Extensions of Gas Lighting" and "Forming and Kerbing Streets" although undertaken annually are not recurrent matters such work being in respect of different localities each year. The miscellaneous items for Drainage, Water-works and other works more properly belong to the Extraordinary Votes and have been transferred accordingly. The nature of the works charged against these items can readily be seen from the Annual Report of the Director of Public Works,

There being no longer a separate Water Account, the Public Works Annually Recurrent now comprises all maintenance charges, including Waterworks, charge- able to General Revenue.

Maintenance of Buildings.-$500 separately provided in former Estimates is now properly included herein and the increase of $1,500 is for the maintenance of new buildings now completed.

Maintenance of Telegraphs.-The increases are to cover the cost of further work of replacing wooden by iron poles and the maintenance of additional lines.

Maintenance of Public Cemetery.-This item it is difficult to estimate for owing to the liability to landslips on the terraces which cannot be wholly prevented nor foreseen with certainty.

Maintenance of Sewers and Nullahs.--Increased lengths of Sewers and Nullahs have had to be provided for as well as for the extra cost involved in the night cleansing of sewers along the new Electric Tramway route. The sum formerly voted has proved inadequate.

Maintenance of City and Hill District Waterworks.-The increase is to meet the cost of pumping in the Tytam Tuk Valley it being hoped that the large pum- ping engines may be got to work before the end of the year 1905.

Miscellaneous Services.-This head embraces many small but very necessary services always cropping up during the year which cannot with advantage be separately shown, and the provision made, which is not large, obviates the necessity for frequent supplementary votes; a close watch is kept on this and items of any importance are not generally charged against it without previous authority. The increase is based on past expenditure.

PUBLIC WORKS EXTRAORDINARY.

1. The original estimate of $40,000 was made before all the requirements were known.

2. Approved by C.O.D. 448 of 17th December, 1903.

Disinfecting Station, Kowloon.

3. See the Memorandum on the Estimated Expenditure for 1904. A further addition to the cost of this work was caused by the addition of an office for the Assistant Medical Officer of Health and Inspectors. See Mr. Mar's despatch No. 289 of 13th July, 1904.

4. Government Civil Hospital, Staff Quarters.-$24,000 was placed on the 1901 Estimates in accordance with Mr. CHAMBERLAIN's despatch No. 280 of 15th August, 1900, but the work was never begun. The promise to the Nursing Institute to erect quarters for its two Nurses was redeemed by the grant of $12,000, and the Nursing Institution is now making its own arrangements for housing its 2 Sisters. Additional accommodation for the Civil Hospital Sisters and Probationers is still required. It is met for the present by renting an adjacent house. The Public Works Committee recommended this work on 19th July, 1904.

5. Approved by C.O.D. 395 of 3rd November, 1903. See Memorandum on 1904 Estimates.

522

6. First came on the Estimates in 1901 and plans of the superstructure, begun this year, were forwarded with 1904 Estimates.

7. The superstructure was commenced in 1903 and is making good progress. 8. The Village of Mong-kok-tsui in Kowloon has grown so rapidly that a Market there is a necessity.

9. Plans of Western Market were forwarded last year.

10. The C. O. Telegram of 16th September, 1903, authorised this work. The foundations should be completed in March next year when it is hoped that the superstructure will be rapidly proceeded with.

11. Post Office, Shanghai.-The necessity of improving the very old Post Office building at Shanghai and rendering it suited to cope with increased business was again brought to notice at the end of last year and the plans submitted were through H. B. M. Consul General referred to and approved by the Surveyor to His Majesty's Office of Works. The Postmaster General when recently in Shang- hai satisfied himself of the desirability of the proposed improvements. Plans will be forwarded with the Estimates.

L

12. Prison.-It has been impossible for various reasons to proceed with this work during the current year.

13. It is proposed to build one Latrine and four Urinals in the City of Victoria next year.

14. See Memorandum on 1904 Estimates.

15. See Memorandum on 1904 Estimates.

16. In 1901 $30,000 was placed on the Estimates for beginning new Head- quarters in the Happy Valley. The total estimated cost was then $60,000 to $68,000. Nothing was done, in view of other urgent works. Similar provision appeared on 1902 Estimates, but the work was not proceeded with. The present provision is- intended to supplement an accumulated balance of some $14,000 in the funds of the Volunteers. The whole sum will be devoted to re-building the Volunteer Headquarters on the existing site which is very conveniently situated.

17. This is one of the works recommended by Mr. CHADWICK in 1902. Vide despatch 199 of 13th May, 1902. Some further gullies still require

reconstruction.

18. The training of Nullahs is steadily proceeding in view of the importance of such work in preventing malaria.

19.

20. Transferred from Recurrent as being more appropriately grouped under Extraordinary. 19 and 21 have been increased in view of probable requirements.

21.

25.

31.)

22. Approved by C.O.D. 122 of 22nd April, 1904.

23. It is anticipated that the smaller vote will suffice.

24. The expenditure this year has unavoidably exceeded the $200,000 to which it was intended to limit it. It is proposed to spend $150,000 next year to maintain the average.

26. To carry out the system of roads sanctioned in C. O. Telegram of 28th October, 1903.

30. The original scheme was approved by C.O.D. 437 of 1901 and the additional cost is involved by the proposals to increase height of dam, etc.,. sanctioned by C.O. Telegram of 17th June, 1904.

32. The vote is to complete the work on the Peak Water Supply. The re- construction of No. 2 Tank has not yet been begun.

33. The vote is to cover cost of dam at No. 4 site of Mr. COOPER's scheme sanctioned in C.O. Telegram of 1st January, 1904.

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE,

Hongkong, 12th September, 1904.

F. H. MAY,

Colonial Secretary.

HONGKONG.

FINANCIAL RETURNS FOR THE YEAR

Laid before the Legislative Council by Comn His Excellency the Officer Administering the G

HONGKONG.

STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURE

Receipts.

Nett Balance, 1st January, 1903,

HEADS OF REVENUE.

1. Light Dues,

2. Licences and Internal Revenue, not

otherwise specified,

3. Fees of Court or Office, Payments for specific purposes and Reimbur- sements in aid,

4. Post Office,

5. Rent of Government Property,

6. Interest,

7. Miscellaneous Receipts,

8. Water Account,

Amount Estimated.

Actual Receipts.

More than Less than Estimated.

Estimated.

C.

$

·C.

C.

146,086.81-

$

C.

C.

12,960.00

62,000.00

74,960.00

2,662,100.00 2,849,936.09

187,836.09

299,355.00 352,719.02 53,364.02

385,000.00 414,867.20 29,867.20

656,350.00

615,683.01

600.00

5,964.73

5,364.73

267,890.00178,602.00

250,000.00 235,960.12

TOTAL, exclusive of Land Sales,... 4,583,295.00| 4,728,692.17

9. Land Sales,

350,000.00 510,165.71

289,392.04

160,165.71

Total Revenue,..

4,933,295.00 5,238,857.88

More than Estimated,

មឺន

C.

C.

Payments.

Nett Balance (over paid) 1st Ja

HEADS OF EXPENDITUR

Charge on account of Publie 1 Pensions,

Governor and Legislature,

Colonial Secretary's Departme Audit Department, Treasury,.

Post Office,

Registrar General's Departme: Harbour Master's Department. Light-houses,

40,666.99 Observatory,

+

Botanical and Afforestation De Legal Departments.

Land Court, New Territory,..

89,288.00 Ecclesiastical,

Education,

14,039.88 Medical Departments,

Bacteriological Department, Magistracy,

Police,

143,994.87 Sanitary Department,.

Charitable Allowances,

449,557.75 143,994.87 143,994.87

305,562.88

Transport,

Miscellaneous Services, Military Expenditure, Public Works Department, Public Works Recurrent,

Deposits Available,

550,000.00

Deposits Available, (Subsidiary Coin),

3,290,000.00

Deposits Not Available,

484,273.00

Crown Agents,

3,715,587.36

Crown Agents Advance,

532,883.23

Advance Account,

Family Remittance,

Subsidiary Coin,

Public Works Extraordinary,.

Total Expenditu

Less than Estima

330,155.09

32,685.30

2.850.000.00

Deposits Available, (Subsidiary

Deposits Available,

Deposits Not Available,

No. 20

1904

HONGKONG.

IAL RETURNS FOR

FOR THE

THE YEAR 1903.

e the Legislative Council by Command of y the Officer Administering the Government.

HONGKONG.

THE TOTAL RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURE IN THE YEAR 1903.

fore than Less than

Estimated.

Estimated.

C.

C.

Payments.

Nett Balance (over paid) 1st Jan., 1903,

HEADS OF EXPENDITURE

Amount Estimated.

Actual

Payments.

More than Estimated.

Less than Estimated.

C.

12,960.00

187,836.09

C.

$

C.

56

C.

$

c.

C.

Charge on account of Public Debt, Pensions,

185,000.00

178,190.81

6,809.19

187,400.00

213,703.08

Governor and Legislature,

82,312.04

83,470.99

26,303.08 1,158.95

Colonial Secretary's Department,

84,634.75 74,147.56

Audit Department,

16,472.45

15,149.23

10,487.19 1,323.22

Treasury,.

47,631.00

48,875.79

1,244.79

...

53,364.02

Post Office,

307,815.13

334,177.40

26,362.27

Registrar General's Department,

33,229.00

35,150.21

1,921.21

29,867.20

Harbour Master's Department, Light-houses,

120,265.00

123,373.51

3,108.51

41,379.00

35,563.01

40,666.99 Observatory, .

23,608.00

22,780.97

Botanical and Afforestation Dept.,

33,070.05

31,924.04

5,815.99 827.03 1,146.01

5,361.73

Legal Departments,

135,505.80

137,622.27

2,116.47

Land Court, New Territory,

39,498.00

39,539.51

1,041.51

89,288.00

Ecclesiastical,

2,400.00

2,000.00

400.00

Education,

148,152.19

130,619.74

17,532.45

14,039.88

Medical Departments,

228,868.81

212,135.88

16,732.93

Bacteriological Department,

19,391.31

12,039.26

7,352.05

Magistracy,

37,340.00

38,046.30

706.30

Police,

659,795.12

650,998.30

8,796.82

289,392.04 143,994.87 Sanitary Department,.

479,667.00

429,106.93

50,560.07

Charitable Allowances,

5,260.00

3,558.00

1,702.00

160,165.71

Transport,

3,000.00

14,848.84

11,848.84

Miscellaneous Services, Military Expenditure,

127,819.00

160,741.63

32,922.63

970,638.08 999,374.08 28,736.00

449,557.75 143,994.87 143,994.87

Public Works Department, Public Works Recurrent,

213,849.50 190,121.12

23,728.38

481,500.00 529,579.98 48,079.98

305,562.88

Public Works Extraordinary,

4,714,501.23 4,746,833.44 185,550.54 153,213.33

931,100.00 649,831.04

281,268,96

Total Expenditure, |-5,645,601:23 5,396,669.48 185,550:54

434,482.29

185,550.5+

Less than Estimated,

$

248,931.75

Deposits Available, (Subsidiary Coin),

Deposits Available, Deposits Not Available,.

Crown Avents.

2,850,000.00

550,000.00

472,717.99

3.711.028.32

1. Light Dues,

2. Licences and Internal Revenue, not

otherwise specified,

3. Fees of Court or Office, Payments for specific purposes and Reimbur- sements in aid,

62,000.00 74,960.00 12,960.00

2,662,100.00 2,849,936.09 187,836.09

299,355.00 352,719.02

53,364.02

4. Post Office,

385,000.00 414,867.20 29,867.20

5. Rent of Government Property,

656,350.00

615.683.01

6. Interest,

600.00

7. Miscellaneous Receipts,

267,890.00

5,964.73

178,602.00

5,364.73

8. Water Account,

250,000.00 235,960.12

TOTAL, exclusive of Land Sales,... 4,583,295.00 4,728,692.17

9. Land Sales,

289,392.04

350,000.00 510,165.71

160,165.71

Charge on account of Public De Pensions,

Governor and Legislature, Colonial Secretary's Department Audit Department, Treasury,...

Post Office.

Registrar General's Department. Harbour Master's Department, Light-houses,

40,666.99 Observatory,

Botanical and Afforestation Dep Legal Departments,

Land Court, New Territory, ....

89,288.00 Ecclesiastical,

Education,

14,039.88 Medical Departments,

Bacteriological Department, Magistracy,

Police,

143,994.87 Sanitary Department,.

Charitable Allowances,

Transport,

Miscellaneous Services,

Military Expenditure, Public Works Department, Public Works Recurrent,

Total Revenue,.

4,933,295.00 5,238,857.88

449,557.75

143,994.87

More than Estimated,

$

143,994.87

305,562.88

Deposits Available,

550,000.00

Deposits Available, (Subsidiary Coin),

3,290,000.00

Deposits Not Available,

484,273.00

Crown Agents,

3,715,587.36

Crown Agents Advance,

532,883.23

Advance Account,

$30,155.09

Family Remittance,

Subsidiary Coin,

Money Order,

Suspense House Service,

Exchange,

32,685.30

2,850,000.00

189,240.63

34,447.07

25,495.74

Total,...

17,273,625.30

Total Receipts, with opening Balance,

$ 17,419.712.11

Hongkong, 17th March, 1904.

Public Works Extraordinary,

Total Expenditu

Less than Estim

Deposits Available, (Subsidiar Deposits Available, Deposits Not Available, Crown Agents,

1.

Crown Agents Advance, Crown Agents Bills in transit, Advance Account,

Family Remittance,

Subsidiary Coin,

Money Order,

Suspense House Service, Suspense,

Total Payments,

Nett Balance 31st Dee.

53,364.02

0

29,867.20

12,960.00

187,836.09

Charge on account of Public Debt, Pensions,

Governor and Legislature,

Colonial Secretary's Department,

Audit Department, Treasury,

Post Office,

Registrar General's Department,

Harbour Master's Department,

185,000.00 178,190.81 187,400.00 213,703.08 82,312.04 83,470.99 84,634.75! 74,147.56

6,809.19

26,303.08

1,158.95

16,472.45

15,149.23

10,487.19 1,323.22

47,631.00 48,875.79

1,244.79

307,815.13

334,177.40

26,362.27

33,229.00

35,150.21

1,921.21

120,265.00

123,373.51

3,108.51

Light-houses,

41,379.00

35,563.01

1

40,666.99 Observatory,.

23,608,00

22,780.97

Botanical and Afforestation Dept.,

83,070.05

31,924.04

5,815.99 827.03 1,146.01

3

5,364.73

Legal Departments,

135,505.80

137,622.27

2,116.47

Land Court, New Territory,

39,498.00

39,539.51

1,041.51

*

10

89,288.00 Ecclesiastical,

2,400.00

2,000.00

Education,

148,152.19

130,619.74

2

14,039.88 Medical Departments,

228,868.81

212,135.88

Bacteriological Department,

19,391.31

12,039.26

400.00 17,532.45 16,732.93 7,352.05

Magistracy,

37,340.00

38,046.30

706.30

Police,

659,795.12

650,998.30

7

289,392.04

143,994.87 Sanitary Department,.

479,667.00

429,106.93

8,796.82 50,560.07

160,165.71

8

449,557.75 143,994.87

B

20

305,562.88

Charitable Allowances,

Transport,

Military Expenditure,

Public Works Department,

143,994.87 Public Works Recurrent,

5,260.00

3,558.00

1,702.00

3,000.00

14,843.84

11,848.84

Miscellaneous Services,

127,819.00

160,741.63

32,922.63

970,638.08

999,374.08

28,736.00!

213,849.50 190,121.12

23,728.38

481,500.00 529,579.98 48,079.98

0

Public Works Extraordinary,

4,714,501.23 4,746,833.44 185,550.54 153,213.33

931,100.00 649,831.04

281,268,96

Total Expenditure; 5,645,601,235,396,669.48

Less than Estimated,

Deposits Available, (Subsidiary Coin),

2,850,000.00

Deposits Available,

550,000.00

Deposits Not Available,

472,717.99

Crown Agents,

3,711,028.32

Crown Agents Advance,

698,975.69

Crown Agents Bills in transit,

120,000.00

Advance Account,

322,411.16

Family Remittance,

56,886.07

Subsidiary Coin,

2,850,000.00

Money Order,

190,234.94

Suspense House Service,

21,685.25

Suspense,

1,272.38

Total Payments,.....

Nett Balance 31st Dec., 1903,

17,241,881.28

177,830.83

Total,

$17,419,712.11

185,550:54

434,182.29

185,550.54

L. A. M. JOHNSTON,

Acting Treasurer.

248,931.75

{

213

Statement of Funded Public Debt or Loans borrowed for Fixed Periods outstanding on the 31st December, 1903, and of the Accumulated Sinking Funds at the same date.

Designation of Debt

or Loan.

Legal Authority.

Amount Outstanding.

Hongkong 3% In- Ordinances 1 & 2 £341,799.15.1

scribed Stock.

of 1893.

Hongkong, 10th March, 1904.

SINKING FUNDS.

Amount of Stock, &c.

Cost Price.

Market Value.

s. d.

South Australia, 34% Stock,

1,104.19. 0

Sterling.

New Zealand, 3401

2,468. 3. 2

Western A'tralia, 3

1,877.11. 2

Trinidad,

Gold Coast.

Brit. Guiana,

Queensland,

3

Cape of G. Hope, 3

о

Natal,

Victoria,

33%

"

Advance, Lagos

Government Loan,

Advance-

Sierra Leone,

3,479.11.10

5.13. 5.

£29.652.17.10

5.13. 5

£28,510.14. 5 £

5.13. 5

26.693.14. 2

L. A. M. JOHNSTON,

Acting Treasurer.

5,000. 0. 0 5,000. 0° 0 2,000. 0. 0 1.784.18.1! 1,763.18.10 168. 1. 6 5,000. 0. 0

£

1,196. 3. 2

(101) 1.208. 2. 5

2.459. 9. 4 (102) 2.508.13. 1 1.814.18. 4 (87) 1,578,19. 7 4,746.15. O (92) 4.367. 0. 2 4,480.11. 6 (89) 3.987.14. B 1,932.17. 3(91) 1,758.1S, A 1,762. 9.10 (87) 1,533. 7. + 1.736. 4. 5 (88) 1.527.17. 6 161.11.10 (90 ) 145, S. S 4,734. 8. 6 (97) 4,592. 7.10

3,479.11.10

3.479.11.10

s. d.

£

s, d.

171,940.30

160,000.00

47,697.64

STATEMENT OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES,

ON THE 31ST DECEMBER, 1903.

ASSETS.

Balance in Bank,

Deposit in England at call,

Subsidiary Coins,

Advances,

Suspense House Service,.

Profit, Money Order Office,..

2,580.21 Money Order Remittances,

12,000.00 Transit Charges, General Post Office...................

LIABILITIES.

C.

215,732.25 | Military Contribution,

29,079.43

Deposits not available,..

443,026.38

Refund of Taxes,

4,400.00

Officers' Remittances,

261 98

16,156.39

7,000.00

Total Assets,*

Balance,

609,950.40 | Civil Pensions,

22,000.00

62,711.46 Police Pensions,

15,000.00

Public Works,...............

81,814.99

Miscellaneous,...

16,021.27

Balance overdrawn, Crown Agents,

37,901.42

| 672,661.86

TOTAL LIABILITIES, .... $

672,661.86

* Not including Arrears of Revenue amounting to $121,268.00.

L. A. M. JOHNSTON,

Acting Treasurer.

Hongkong, 11th March, 1904.

214

Summary of Advances and Repayments of Advances for the Year ended 31st December, 1903.

Names.

Balances

1st January, 1903.

Advances during the

year.

Total.

Repayments of Advances during the year.

Balances

011

31st Dec., 1903.

$

Money Order,

43,144.46

248,695.75

291,540.21

Government of Singapore,

516.50

2,271.75

Supreme Court,

100.00

2,788.25 100.00

261,512.99

(4) 2,975.14 2,178.10

27,352.08

610.15 100.00

Captain Superintendent of Police..

25.00

Praya Reclamatión,

700.00 4,501.31

725.00

700.00

25.00

4,501.31

4,501.31

Crown Solicitor,

200.00

200.00

200.00

Sanitary Department,

2,500.00

Postmaster General,

20.00

10,722.78

2,500.00 10,742.78

2,500.00 10,742.78

Treasury,

500.00

500.00

Public Works Department,

5,500.00

5,500.00

500.00 5,500.00

Private Street Improvements,

2,502.26

2,502.26

2,906.53 Cr. Balance,

í.

H. B. Lethbridge,

14.89

159.96

174.85

155.52

J. R. Crook,.

156.12

160.49

156.12

404.27

14.36

1

(1)

0.60

191.10

Ada Robertson,

204.26

290.74

495.00

(5) 303.90

1,179.37

Weihaiwei Account,

1,180.13

1.180.13

1 (2)

0.76

R. A. V. Savage,..

T. H. Martin,

82.86 82.86

82.86

82.86

82.86

82.86

E. Schafer,

62.75

62.75

62.75

L. E. Brett,

W. L. Tett,

1,251.43

1,251.43

1,251.43

139.90

139.90

139.90

Sir H. Blake,

3,571.43

3,571.43

3,571.43

B. Tanner,

900.00

900.00

900.00

H. C. Nicolle,

154.55

154.55

154.55

Passage of Kindall and Wife,

346.87

346.87

240.00

106.87

A. C. Langley,

165.71

165.71

165.71

J. A. McKay,

100.00

100.00

100.00

Passage of Angus,

588.80

588.80

588.80

Passage of Lauder,

588.80

588.80

588.80

Colonial Secretary's Department,

25.00

25.00

25.00

Bacteriological Department,

60.00

60.00

60.00

Dr. Keyt,

307.14

307.14

307.14

District Watchmen's Fund,

5,000.00

5,000.00

5,000.00

Margaret Duncan,

144.51

144.51

35.94

(6) 108.57

770.81

Jane Wildey,

991.42

439.87

1,431.29

...

(7) 660.48

Furniture for Government Pavilion,

W. H. Williams,

1,000.00 142.66

1,000.00

200.00

142.66

120.00

800.00 22.66

J. W. Hanson,.........

184.62

184.62

184.62

B. E. Hanson, Passage Allowance,

Main Roads in Kowloon, Purchase of Portion of ì

Kowloon Inland Lot 1087,.

(3)

500.00 4.25

504.25

504.25

2,500.00

2,500.00

2,500.00

J. D. Ball,

H. Garrod,

Electric Tramway Company,

M. T. Edwards,

construction of main thoroughfare,

Praya East Reclamation,

F. Allen,

E. C. Lewis,....

553.31

553.31

55.00

498.31

108.78

108.78

108.78

132.14

132.14

132.14

133.68

133.68

35.00

98.68

Resumption of Kowloon Inland Lot 1012-15 for

24,000.00

24,000.00

24,000.00

13,112.59 183.40 435.58

13,112.59

183.40 435.58

13,112.59 183.40

435.58

59,484.05 322,416.77

381.900.82 334,203.18

48,101.91

(1) Profit in Exchange,...$0.60

(4) Loss in Exchange,...$2,975.14

Less Credit,

404.27

(2)

0.76

(5)

303.90

1

(3)

4.25

(6)

108.57

"3

(7)

660.48

47,697.64

"

$5.61

$4,048.09

Hongkong, 14th March, 1904.

L. A. M. JOHNSTON,

Acting Treasurer.

3

:

i

215

Summary of Deposits and Refunds of Deposits for the year ended 31st December, 1903.

Names.

Balances on

Deposits

1st January, received dur- 1908. ing the year.

Total.

Balance ou

Deposits repaid during | 31st Decem-

the year.

ber, 1903.

Intestate Estate,

Sikh Police Fund,

Police Fine Fund,

Chinese Recreation Ground,

Estate of deceased Policemen,

Tender Deposit,

Post Office Fine Fund, Suitors' Fund,

Widows and Orphans' Fund,

Custom Duties on Parcels,

Praya Reclamation Fund,

Sale of Land,

Medical Department Fine Fund,

Miscellaneous,

Board of Trade,

Gaol Library,

.

. 3,668.20

Market Caretakers' Securities,

Sanitary Department Fine Fund,

Hongkong, 14th March, 1904.

5

*

咲き

$

1,40°.01

58.05

1,461.06

65.14

4,576.00

4,576.00

1,460.00

1,395.92 5,116.00

404.50

1,467.94

1,872.44

1.082.70

789.74

1,359.82

5,028.02

508.27

4,519.75

197.42 2,700.00 256.00

197.42

197.42

37,575.00

40,275.00

38,190.00

81.87

132,499.69

275,993.49

337.87 408,493.18

66.84

2,085.00 271.53

290,341.64

118,151.54

132,388.81

34,807.00

167,195.8i

4,033.35

163,162.46

1,367.05

2,966.62

4.333.67

3,049.77

132,402.99

91,841.02

224,244.01

79,035.29

300.00

87.51 €

3,300.00

3,600.00

3,200.00

19,027.46

90.85 30,886.03

178.36 49,913.49

5.00

48,779.18

1,283.90 145,208.72 400.00 173.36 1,134.31

88.83

2,879.52

2,968.35

2,901.31

67.04

103.90

103.90

.103.90

900.00

900.00

900.00

65.79

65.79

65.79

431,471.37

484,273.00

915,744.37

........

472,717.99

443,026.38

L. A. M. JOHNSTON,

Acting Treasurer.

PRAYA RECLAMATION FUND.

STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURE TO 31ST DECEMBER, 1903.

Total

Estimated

1890.

1891.

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

1896.

1897.

1898.

1899.

1900.

1901.

1902.

1903. Expenditure. Cost.

Balance

to be spent.

Palance

spent

in Excess

of the

Estimated

Cost,

Pricate Marine Lot Holders.

$

Section No. 1,*.

7,128 +1

Do. No. 2,

55,887.63

46,753.18

33.245.99

1o. No. 3,

6,051.44

Do.

No. 4.

3,113.67

Do. No. 5.

5,004.19

Do. No. 6.

7,870.47

Do. No. 7.

42,019,54 43,791.64| 24,984.84 14,086.90| 24,596.23 | 29,091.12. 32,355.42 29,025.13| 16,322.59 31,256,52 | 29,976.01

63.3:8.02

35,455.12 6.202.29 5,754.83

34,580.26 49,612.81 11,705.77 10,903.57 6,548.41 2,343.63 2,205.13 2,658.99 2.135.99 48,599.71 65,661 55 | 112,573.89 | 33,075.47| 31,593.99; 36,697.68 43,961.02| 25,030.76 14,247.88 4,206.01 3,892.45 4,663.93 3,909.14

1,822.21 7,019.62 7,063.89 55,691.67 6,377.75 31,946.66 28,704.10 7,998.26 39,144.85 11,964.17

6,552.99 2,745.75 1,545.07

9,187.60 11,215.46 3,428.36 8,670.52| 63,670.23 62.780,32 14,169.36 15.581.31 49,058.88 58,331.35 12,793.76 5,230.11 3,094.12

14,630.92| 27,669 30 21,788 35 31,817.59| 77,925.38

434,710.58

428,260.67

11.449.91

262,240.42

251,176 20

11,064.22

484,164.02

459,878.56

25,213.64

211,690 65

227,392.11

15,701.46

325,215.57

329,686.00

4470,43

5,666.04| 53,029.15 57,374.26 29,767.10 | 50,382.14 52,327.67 52,553.60 67,275.01 | 35,341.07 47,505.71 22,053.48 523,451.92 9,600.81 51,701.26 12,423.70

44,519.27| 27,309.82 | -27,919.28† 7,630.77 3,516.38 5,422.41 3,049,55

523.788.60

336.68

308,938.27

316,268.44

7,330.17

106,850.19 204,450.45 332,908.10 111,032.85 240,561.81 272,503.71228,333.44 233,308.93 198,358,66 205,164.46 | 134,060.12

80,449.13

99,483.42 65,763.36 | 2,500,112.33 | 2,530,950.58 53.052.38 22,514.13

216

Government.

Section No. 4.

Do. No. 5,

Do. No. 6,

Do. No. 7.

443.53 1,260.26 814.38 303.87 233.81

1,003.11! 774.39

1.418.47 2 520.24 4,213.30 2,119.82 544.73 637.44 755.45 1,400.02 32,304.19 | 48,472.28 | 111,086.04 12,473.23| 10,156.55 5,709.57

5,661.37

3.290.36 9.727.49 5.464.26 4,678.83 1,406.59

11,741.06

1,697.95 16,858.62 18,515.52 | ‡ 3,430.13 2,811.06 1,036.00 1,541.61 3,337.25 1,094.88 | 5,888.25 8.925.85 6,747.30 4,585.20 12,954.74 3,393.29 8,005.03 2,178.41 2,827.40 2,818.70 2.900.13

1.107.12

442.73

1,135.21

258.49

€75 91

3,253 24

2,746.98

35.098.39

38.734.40

3,641.01

65,422.02

67,194.90

1,772 88

41,877.01

258.026.57

46,818.00

4,940.96

259.218.77

6,192.20

Total,

34,921.64

53,206.92 | 118,679:42 | 14,324.94 11,802.19 | 18,171.01 36,819.23 28,536.42 9,761.28 24,486,58 16,589.97

11,322.38 | 11,225.37

6,944.62

395,419.02 411,966.07 16,547.05

Grand Total,.$

71.83 | 257,657,37 451,487.52|128,357.79|252,364.00|290,674.72 | 265,152.67|261,845,35|| 208,119.91|229,651,04|150,650.09| 91,771,51 | 110,708.79 72,707.98 2,895,831.35|2,942,916,65

69,599,43 | 22,514.13

Hongkong, 16th March, 1904.

*This includes Marine Lots Nos. 184, 188, 189 R., which belong to the Government.

Expenditure, Less Transfers,

$21,242.23

36,958.53

Expenditure, Less Transfers,

..$ 8,486,01

9,858.96

Cr. Balance,....

$15,716.30

Cr. Balance.

$ 1,372.95

L. A. M. JOHNSTON,

Acting Treasurer.

دیگر

HONGKONG.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH ESTIMATES 1905.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

STATEMENT OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES,

ON THE 31ST DECEMBER, 1903.

ASSETS.

Balance in Bank,

C.

No. 38

1904

C.

LIABILITIES.

215,732.25 Military Contribution,

29,079.43

Deposit in England at call,

171,940.30 Deposits not available,.

443,026.38

Subsidiary Coins,

Advances,

Suspense House Service......

Profit, Money Order Office,..

Total Assets,*

Balance,

160,000.00

Refund of Taxes,

4,400.00

47,697.64 Officers' Remittances,

261.98

2,580.21 Money Order Remittances,

16,156.39

12,000.00 Transit Charges, General Post Office,......

7,000.00

609,950.40 Civil Pensions,

22,000.00

62,711.46

Police Pensions,

15,000.00

Public Works,.

81,814.99

Miscellaneous...

16,021.27

Balance overdrawn, Crown Agents,

37,901.42

Hongkong, 11th March, 1904.

672,661.86

TOTAL LIABILITIES,......

672,661.86

* Not including Arrears of Revenue amounting to $121,268.00.

L. A. M. JOHNSTON,

Treasurer.

514

ESTIMATED BALANCE OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES ON 1ST DECEMBER, 1904.

Ordinary Revenue, 1904,

Land Sales,

Ordinary Expenditure, 1904,

Public Works Extraordinary,

Estimated Arrears, 1904,

Balance of Liabilities, 1903,

Balance of Assets on 31st December, 1904,

.$6,263,391.00 500,000.00

-$6,763,391.00

.$5,091,701.00 1,534,344.00

6,626,045.00

Credit Balance,....

. 137,346.00

$133,000.00 62,711.00

$

70,289.00

207,635.00

Hongkong, 5th September, 1904.

Dr.

ESTIMATED LOAN ACCOUNT, 1904.

To Inscribed Stock Loan at 32% interest,

to be paid off on the 15th April, 1943, £341,799.15.1 By Sinking Fund,

LOAN ACCOUNT, 1903.

To Inscribed Stock Loan at 34% interest,

to be paid off on the 15th April, 1943, £341,799.15.1

1943,

By Sinking Fund,

Hongkong, 5th September, 1904.

і

L. A. M. JOHNSTON,

Treasurer.

Cr.

£32,834.11.0

£28,524.0.0

L. A. M. JOHNSTON,

Treasurer.

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE ACTING SUPERINTENDENT OF FIRE BRIGADE,

FOR THE YEAR 1903,

No. 12

1904

AT.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

FIRE BRIGADE DEPARTMENT,

HONGKONG, 30th January, 1904.

SIR,--I have the honour to submit the following report on the Government Fire Brigade, for the year 1903.

2. There were 49 Fires and 55 Incipient Fires during the year, as against 76 and 95 in 1902. The Brigade turned out 60 times during the year.

The estimated damage caused by Fires was $248,000 and by Incipient Fires $2,704.

3. There was only an intermittent supply of water in the mains. from 1st January to 6th May, and from 21st December to 31st December, during which period sea water was used as much as possible in order to save the fresh water.

4. One serious Fire occurred, during the period of intermittent water supply, on 4th April at No. 271, Queen's Road West, where five houses were wholly des- troyed, and the total damage was estimated at $20,000 most of which was covered by insurance.

5. Three Fires occurred in the Harbour during the year.

6. A case of attempted arson was discovered at No. 205, Queen's Road West on the morning of the 18th April by P.C. 262, WONG Ü, who raised an alarm and with the assistance of the occupants of the ground floor extinguished the Fire before much damage was done. The master of the tailor's shop on the 1st floor and his wife were prosecuted for arson. The two defendants were found guilty and sen- tenced to seven years' and six months' imprisonment with hard labour respectively at the Criminal Sessions.

7. I attach a list of places where Fire Despatch Boxes are kept and of private telephones to which the Police have access in the event of a Fire. I also enclose a copy of a report by the Engineer on the state of the Fire Engines, which are all in good order.

8. A Fire Escape arrived from England on the 17th November and is stationed at West Point.

9. The conduct of the Brigade has been good.

10. The Superintendent of the Brigade, Mr. BADELEY, left for England on leave on 18th March, since when I acted for him. Mr. WODEHOUSE acted as Assistant Superintendent up to 30th November and Mr. HALLIFAX from the 1st December.

Chief Inspector BAKER, was appointed 2nd Assistant Superintendent on the 18th April in succession to Chief Inspector MACKIE, who retired on pension.

I regret to record the death of Mr. ROBERTSON, the Assistant Engineer, which took place on the 25th July. He was a very useful officer, and his death occasioned a great loss to the Brigade.

Sergeant MCSWAYED acted as Assistant Engineer up to 15th September, and Sergeant McDONALD since that date.

86

11. It has been suggested by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government that there should be an annual competition. This should give a zest to the drills and tend towards smartness and efficiency.

12. An Assistant Engineer, with practical Fire Brigade experience, is expected from England this year.

This appointment should be of great advantage to the Brigade.

13. A new Fire Brigade Station is much to be desired. The present one is too small for the increased requirements, and its position in a busy thoroughfare, hampers the home drills and causes obstruction. A new and convenient site has been suggested, but will not be available for some time.

14. Ordinance No. 1 of 1903, Section 149, necessitates the provision of Fire Escape for all new houses (and for previously existing buildings in three years) for every storey more than forty feet from the ground.

The Honourable

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY.

I have, &c.,

F. W. LYONS,

Acting Superintendent, Fire Brigade.

List of Places where Fire Brigade Despatch Boxes are kept.

1 Box. No. 1 Police Station.

3 Boxes. Engine House at No. 2 Police

Station.

1 Box. Naval Dock Yard.

1

Clock Tower.

39

1

Government Offices.

11

1}

1

??

1

1

1

"7

1

27

1

"}

1

""

Government House.

2 Boxes. No. 7 Police Station.

1 Box. Bonham Strand West, at West

1

1

1

No. 7, Queen's Garden, Royal 1

Engineers' Mess.

Central Police Station.

Wellington Street at Lyndhurst

Terrace.

Government Civil Hospital.

Staunton Street at Sing Wong

Street.

Water Lane at Queen's Road

Central.

17

End.

Gas House, West Point.

Fat Hing Street, at Queen's

Road West.

Ko Shing Theatre.

Government Lunatic Asylum.

2 Boxes. Nam Pak Hong Fire Station,

Man Mo Temple.

2 Boxes. No. 5 Police Station.

.1 Box.

1 Box.

1

1

Kennedy Town Hospital. Collinson Street.

No. 463, Queen's Road West.

in

List of Telephones to which the Police can have access to communicate with Central Station in the event of a Fire breaking out.

Hongkong and China Gas Company, East

and West Point, from 7 A.M. to 9 P.M. Tung Wá Hospital, Po Yan Street. Man On Insurance Office, Queen's Road,

West.

Clock Tower.

Hongkong Hotel, Praya Central. Royal Naval Yard, Queen's Road East. Mr. J. KENNEDY's, Causeway Bay. Electric Light Company, Queen's Road

East.

Fire Alarms.

Harbour Master's Office at Wing Lok Street. Hollywood Road at Queen's Road West. Wilmer Street at Des Voeux Road West.

87

(Enclosure.)

HONGKONG, 20th January, 1904.

SIR, I have the honour to forward the Annual Report on the state of the Government Fire Engines, for the Year ending 31st December, 1903.

STEAMER No. 1.

Floating Fire Engine (by Shand & Mason).

This Engine has been 6 years in service, and was docked in August, 1903, for regular annual overhaul.

The hull, machinery and boiler are all in good order and condition.

STEAMER NO. 2.

Land Engine (by Shand & Mason).

This Engine has been 25 years in service (boiler 6 years old). It has been regularly used and tested at drill for drivers and fires, was overhauled in October, and is now in good order and condition.

STEAMER No. 3.

Land Engine (by Shand & Mason).

This Engine has been 21 years in service, was regularly used and tested at drill for drivers, was thoroughly overhauled during the year, and is now in good order and condition.

STEAMER NO. 4.

Land Engine (by Shand & Mason).

This Engine has been 22 years in service, was regularly used and tested at drill for drivers, overhauled in October, and is now in good order and condition.

STEAMER No. 5.

Land Engine (by Shand & Mason).

This Engine has been 17 years in service, was regularly used and tested at drill for drivers during the year, overhauled in October, and is now in good order and condition.

All the Manual and Gear, Hose, Reels, Ladders and Supply Carts, have been kept in repair and are now in good order and condition.

I have, &c.,

D. MACDONALD, Engineer, Fire Brigade.

FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1903.

NO. OF BUILDINGS DESTROYED.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

--- 88 --

Overheating of flue, Unknown,.

Overheating of flue, Accident,

Overheating of chimney,. Unknown,

Supposed to have been caused by some coolies smoking.

Not insured.

Part of cargo was insured.

The matsheds were the property of the Government.

Not insured.

Do.

Damage covered by insurance.

Not insured.

Do.

Damage covered by insurance.

Do.

Do.

Damage mostly covered by insurance. Damage partly covered by insurance. The dead body of a Chinese male, age about 18, was found charred on the 1st floor.

Damage covered by insurance.

Do.

Extinguished by the crew and Dock employees.

Insured.

Do.

Not insured.

Insured.

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE:

DAMAGE.

Wholly. Partly.

1 January

9

2.45 p.m.

House No. 26 Sai Kung Road, Kowloon City,

4

:

$ 10,000.00

Accident,

20

""

9.25 a.m.

On board Passage Boat (S. 275 H.) in Victoria Harbour,.

9,500.00-

Unknown,.

Co

24

3 p.m.

A matshed in Des Voeux Road,

matsheds

1,200.00

Do.

28

5 a.m.

House No. 6, Shan Ki Wan East,

1

100.00

Accident,

5 February 5

6

9.20 p.m.

House No. 64, Sai Tan, Kowloon City,

1

80.00

Do.

""

8

12.45 p.m.

House No. 371, Queen's Road Central,

1,500.00

Do.

7

14

""

1a.m.

House No. 27, Gage Street,

400.00

""

23

10.30 p.m.

House No. 14, Wang Street, Kowloon City,

1

1

300.00

9

25

2 a.m.

House No. 7, Tung Loi Lane,

1

5,000.00

Do,

10 March

11

2 p.m.

House No. 326, Des Voeux Road,

500.00

11

31

8 p.m.

House No. 3, On Tai Lane,

12,000.00

12 April

4

2.52 a.m.

Honse No. 271, Queen's Road West,

20,000.00

Unknown,

13

5

"

11.20 p.m.

House No. 19, Circular Pathway,

I

7,000.00

Accident,

14

15

16

456

33

18

""

20

782

8.40 a.m.

1.10 a.m.

""

3.30 p.m.

On board S. S. Olympia in Victoria Harbour, House No. 324, Queen's Road Central, ...... On board S. S. Hyades in Hunghom Dock,

15,000.00

Unknown,

}

20,000.00

Accident,

3,000.00

Unknown,

17

21

""

1.50 a.m.

House No. 12, Fat Hing Street,

3

6,000.00

Do.

18

21

8.30 a.m.

House No. 1, Belcher Street,

1

500.00

>>

19

28

11 a.m.

""

20 May

6|

12.50 a.m.

House No. 19, Ha Wo Tsai Village, Sha Tin, House No. 94, Bonham Strand East,

1

100.00

8,000.00

Carried forward,

120,180.00

FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1903,-Continued.

NO. OF BUILDINGS DESTROYED.

- 89-

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

Wholly. Partly.

Brought forward,

$ 120,180.00

May

9

8.30 p.m.

21

A matshed at Kennedy Town near the Plague Hospital,

3 matsheds 1 matshed

5,000.00

Accident,

22

"3

10 11.45 p.m.

23

24

25

13

2.10 a.m.

House No. 127, Connaught Road Central, ... House No. 11a, Aberden Street,

1

1

12,000.00

Unknown,

1

300.00

Do.

...

19

33

2.15 a.m.

House No. 208, Queen's Road West,...

1

200.00

Do.

21

12.40 a.m.

House No. 38, Second Street,

1

1,300.00

""

26

June

2

1.40 a.m.

House No. 10, Circular Pathway,

I

200.00

Unknown,

...

27

1.20 a.m.

House No. 9, Hillier Street,....

1

14,000.00

28

2 a.m.

>>

29

5 p.m.

A large matshed on Korn Hill, Quarry Bay, 1 matshed A large matshed on Harleck Road, between Victoria Gap and Green Mount,

200.00

1 matshed

400.00

30

9

2.15 p.m.

31

10

3.20 a.m.

A matshed in the Ship Yard at Quarry Bay, 2 matsheds House No. 103, Jervois Street,

500.00

Accident,

1

1,000.00

...

""

32

10

4 p.m.

A large matshed in the Ship Yard at Quarry Bay,

1 matshed

300.00

Overheating some of charcoal

chatties,

Overheating of a drying stove, Upsetting of a Kerosine lamp,]

Carelessness while smoking,

Overheating of a drying stove,

Accident,

¡A large timber yard was burnt. Dam- age partly covered by insurance. Insured. One boy burned to death. Not insured.

Do.

Do.

· Do.

Not insured.

Insured.

Not insured.

Insured.

Not insured.

Insured.

33

12

"

2 p.m.

A matshed in the Ship Yard at Quarry Bay,

2

34 July

28

7.20 p.m.

House No. 32, Gough Street,

12

600.00

Do.

Do.

...

...

2,000.00

Unknown,

Insured.

35 August 9

5.45 p.m.

House No. 80A, Queen's Road West,

1

1,000.00

Do.

36 September 2

5.15 p.m.

House No. 4, Yu Hing Lane,

1

1,200.00

Unknown,

Do.

37

""

23

12.15 p.m.

A boat-building matshed at Cheung Sha Wan, 4 matsheds

2,000.00

Do.

Not insured.

:

38

October

7

6.10 p.m.

House No. 1, Lung On Street,

1

250.00

...

Sparks from a chimney,

Do.

39*

25

3.30 a.m.

A matshed at Cheung Sha Wan,

1 matshed

400.00

Unknown,

Do.

40

31

8.30a.m. A stack of grass on the foreshore at Hung-

Hom West,

3 Brass

stacks

:

:.

300.00

Do.

Do.

Carried forward,

CA

163,330.00

FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1903—Continued.

NO. OF BUILDINGS DESTROYED.

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

Wholly. Partly.

·

41

November 5

7 a.m.

Brought forward,

On board the Trading Junk "Kwong Mun'

in Victoria Harbour,.

$163,330.00

17,000,00

Unknown,

42

""

22

11.45 p.m.

House No. 10, Sai On Lane,

50,000.00

Do.

43

23

7.30 p.m.

House No. 391, Chung Chow,

100.00

Do.

...

44

""

23

|

11.15 p.m.

House No. 132, Queen's Road East,

3

9,000.00

Accident,

45

December 4

11.30 p.m.

House No. 3, Wyndham Street,

...

60.00

Do.

46

25

6

1.15 a.m.

Police Station at Kowloon City,.

1.

350.00

Do.

47

9

2.45 p.m.

A matshed at Kowloon Tong,

matsheds

160.00

Do

48

10

>>

11 a.m.

House No. 197, Hollywood Road,

1

49

22

1.10 a.m.

House No. 47, Kramer Street, Tai Kok Tsui,'

4

2,000.00

6,000.00

Unknown,

Do.

""

i

Y

F

Total,

$248,000.00

Not insured.

Insured.

Not insured.

Insured.

Do.

Not insured.

Do.

Insured.

Do.

REMARKS.

F. W. LYONS,

Acting Superintendent, Fire Brigade.

-- 90 --

!

کچھ

No.

DATE.

TIME.

7

INCIPIENT FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1903.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

123

1 January 7

12.15 a.m.

Central Police Station,

$ 100.00

Unknown,

13

,,

8 p.m.

House No. 189, Queen's Road, Central,

30.00

Do.

""

17

12.05 a.m.

On board Cargo Boat No. 238, in Victoria

Harbour,

Triffing.

Accident,

""

18

20

8.20 p.m.

House No. 8, Queen's Road Central,

Do.

Do.

6.15 p.m.

Coal house at Yau Ma Ti Police Station,

5.00

Exploding of bombs,

24

5.15 a.m.

24

>>

9 p.m.

House No. 26, Temple Street, Yau Ma Ti, A grass stack at Hung Hom West,

4.00

Accident,

15.00

Do.

31

12.30 a.m.

House No. 51, Praya East,

2.00

Do.

9 February 3

3.30 p.m.

House No. 1, First Street,

12.00

Do.

10

3

""

9 p.m.

Hillside above Ty Tam Reservoir,

Grass on fire,

11

5

4

p.m.

Hillside West of Ty Tam Tuk Village,

Do.

...

12

5

7.40 p.m.

Hillside above Ty Tam Tuk Village,

Do.

13

8

10.05 p.m.

House No. 10, Mercer Street,

Accident,

14

13

""

2 p.m.

House No. 27, Gage Street,

15

>>

28

12.30 p.m.

House No. 206, Hollywood Road,

16 March

17

23

3.30 p.m.

House No. 14, Sai Wo Lane,

27

12.35 a.m.

House No. 375, Queen's Road Central,

200.00

Unknown,.

Chimney on fire,

Do.

Overheating of flue,!..

Extinguished by men in the Barracks. Extinguished by Firemen from No. 5 Station.

Extinguished by boat people. Extinguished by the occupants. Extinguished by Police.

Put out by Police and inmates. Put out by Police and fokis. Put out by Police and inmates. Put out by inmates.

Burnt itself out.

About 400 trees were damaged. Burnt itself out.

Put out by Police and inmates.

Put out by Police.

Put out by Police and inmates.

Do.

Do.

""

18

30.

5.30 p.m.

House No. 9, Gage Street,

200.00

Do.

21

2 222*

19 April

18

4 p.m.

House No. 205, Queen's Road West,

20

20

8.21 p.m.

House No. 57, Wellington Street,

23

* * *

22

2.40 a.m.

""

23 10.20 p.m.

27 12.30 a.m.

House No. 67, Battery Street, Yau Ma Ti, Chy Loong Bakery, No. 111, Wanchai Road, House No. 366, Queen's Road West,

20.00

1,000.00

""

5.00 Attempted arson,

Upsetting of a kerosine lamp,

Unknown,

Overheating of an oven,

4.00 Accident,

Do.

Put out by Police and inmates. One man and a woman were convicted at the Criminal Sessions of the Supreme Court.

Put out by Police and inmates.

Put out by Firemen from Yau Ma Ti. Extinguished by Firemen.

Put out by Police and inmates.

Carried forward,

$1,597.00

--- 91 -—

.

CAUSE.

INCIPIENT FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1903,-Continued.

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DAMAGE.

REMARKS.

02

2 —

Brought forward,

$

1,597.00

24 May

5 12.10 a.m.

House No. 112, Queen's Road West,

5.00

Accident,

25

6

3.15 a.m.

House No. 111, Wanchai Road,

70.00

26

21

"

4.30 p.m.

American Match Factory, No. 26, Des Voeux Road,

100.00

27 June

15

4.50 p.m.

House No. 38, Second Street,

28

16

11.30 p.m.

House No. 28, Eastern Street,

29 July

6

10.30 a.m.

Some matting on the vacant ground in front of the Harbour Office,

30

""

8

11.30 p.m.

On board Steam Launch "Mit Sui" in Victoria Harbour,

Trifling.

31

""

21

11.45 p.m.

House No. 9, Shui Hing Lane,

32

24

""

8.30 p.m.

House No. 218, Hollywood Road,

33 August

7

10 p.m.

34

22

""

7.20 p.m.

House No. 254, Des Voeux Road Central, House No. 199, Winglok Street,

Trifling

Do.

35

30

"

9.10 p.m.

House No. 30, Lan Kwai Fong,

36 September 9

2 p.m.

House No. 166, Queen's Road West,

37

10

""

9 p.m.

House Nos. 1 & 2, Mountain View,

38

24

??

6.25 p.m.

House No. 142, Hollywood Road,

39

28

10.10 p.m.

House No. 39, Nullah Lane,

40

October 12

3.15 p.m.

House No. 51, Wellington Street,

41

""

15

12.35 p.m.

House No. 288, Des Voeux Road,

Trifling.

Do.

42

19

7.30 a.m.

"}

43

44

45 November 2

""

25

Midnight.

House No. 64, Queen's Road Central, Godown No. 99, Praya East,

...

Chimney on fire,

25.00

Overheating of coal,

31

6.15 a.m.

House No. 3, New Street,

Chimney on fire,

""

11 a.m.

House No. 77, Wellington Street,

Do.

Overheating of an oven,

Overheating of matches,

Unknown,

700.00 | Overheating of tea and medicine,

Unknown,.

Some of the woodwork of bunker being ignited from heat of the boiler, Upsetting of a kerosine lamp, Do.

Overheating of flue,

Exploding of a kerosine lamp, Chimney on fire,

Do.

$ 30.00 Overheating of flue,

2.00

Upsetting of a kerosine lamp, Do.

Unknown,

Put out by the inmates.

Put out by Police and Firemen.

Put out by Police and occupants.

Put out by the inmates.

{

Do.

Put out by the Police with the assistance of bystanders.

Put out by Police and crew. Put out by Police and occupants. Do.

Put out by the inmates. Put by inmates and Police. Put out by inmates and Police. Put out by inmates and Firemen. Put out by occupants and Police.

Do.

Put out by Police and District Watchmen. Put out by Police and inmates.

Do.

Put out by the inmates.

Put out by Police and Fire Brigade. Put out by Police.

Do.

46

4

""

8.39 p.m.

On board Steam Launch

Wing Fuk" in

Carried forward,

2,529.00

}

INCIPIENT FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1903,-Continued.

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

Brought forward,

2,529.00

Victoria Harbour,

10.00

Unknown,

47 November 9

5.50 p.m.

House No. 14, Chinese Street,

48

15

"}

5 p.m.

House No. 3, New Market Street,

130.00

49

16

"

2.45 p.m.

House No. 1, Hollywood Road,

50

25

9.55 p.m.

House No. 32, Queen's Road West,

Do.

51 December 4

5 p.m.

House No. 127, Wellington Street,

20.00

Unknown,

52

4

6 p.m.

House No. 146, Peel Street,

Chimney on fire,

53

4

93

11 p.m.

House No. 12, Graham Street,

Do.

54

16

""

8 p.m.

House No. 12, Shau Ki Wan,

10.00 | Accident,

55

27

""

4 p.m.

Hillside east of Paper Mills,

Grass on fire,

Exploding of a kerosine lamp, Accident,

5.00 Chimney on fire,

Put out by Firemen of the Brigade. Put out by inmates.

Put out by inmates and watchmen. Put out by the inmates.

Put out by inmates and Police.

Put out by inmates and Firemen. Put out by Police.

Put out by inmates.

Put out by Police and inmates.

Put out Police and hired coolies.

Total,

$2,704.00

F. W. LYONS,

Acting Superintendent of Fire Brigade.

— 93 —

10

NO. 1904

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE ACTING SUPERINTENDENT OF VICTORIA GAOL, FOR THE YEAR 1903,

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

VICTORIA GAOL, 30th January, 1904.

SIR,I have the honour to submit, for the information of the Officer Adminis- tering the Government, the report on the Victoria Gaol, for the year 1903.

2. The number of prisoners admitted to the Gaol under sentences of the Ordinary Courts was 7,144, besides 74 soldiers and sailors sentenced by Court Martial. There were also 55 persons imprisoned for debt, making a total of 7,273 — an increase on the previous year of 1,285.

3. The corresponding numbers for the preceding year were respectively :

Convicted by the Ordinary Courts,

Court Martial...

Debtors,

Total including 760 old offenders,........

..5,786 149

53

.5.988

4. The following statement shows the number of prisoners received into Gaol under sentence of imprisonment with or without the option of a fine, and the num- ber of those who obtained their release by paying the fine after admission into prison:-

Imprisonment in default of payment of fine.

Year. Total.

Imprisonment without the option of a fine.

Served the

Total.

Paid full fine.

Paid part

Imprisonment.

fine.

1903 6,227

2,794

3,433

2,237

607

589

5. The number of prisoners committed to Gaol for offences not of a criminal nature was 2,500 made up as follows:

Committed under the Prepared Opium Ordinance,

747

55

Market Arms

294

4

""

"2

Vehicle

97

**

""

99

59

""

Sanitary Bye-laws,

140

"

""

99

Harbour Regulations,

78

for Drunkenness,

76

""

"

99

Trespassing,

45

""

Disorderly Conduct,

607

**

99

Gambling,

351

3

Contempt of Court,

17

Destitutes,

44

Total,......

.2,500

64

The percentage of all offenders to the total number of admissions was 15.92, as compared with 11.30 for the year 1902. This shews an increase in the number of recidivists- of whom 877 had one previous conviction, 178 had two, and 103 had three. An improved and up-to-date system of identification to be inaugurated this year will probably indicate a greater number of re-convictions.

6. There were 16 deaths and 2 executions during the year, and 41 prisoners were released on medical grounds.

7. There were 79 juveniles admitted to the Goal during the year, 50 of whom were sentenced to 48 or 24 hours detention and to be whipped or to be whipped and discharged, and the remainder to various terms of imprisonment.

8. There were 1,530 punishments for breaches of Prison discipline being an average of 2.1 per prisoner, as compared with 1,971 with an average per prisoner of 3.42 for the preceding year There were 8 cases in which corporal punishment was awarded during the year, 5 of which were (with the birch rod) sentenced by the Assistant Superintendent alone, and 3 (with the cat-o'-nine-tails) sentenced by the same officer in conjunction with a Justice of the Peace. Notwithstanding the overcrowded state of the Gaol during the year, the averge number of reports has been the lowest on record and speaks well for the maintenance of discipline throughout the Prison.

9. The following Table shows the number of convicts confined in the Gaol on the 31st December, for the past six years:--

1898, 1899,

....

1900,

1901,

1902,

1903,

55

96

141

180

215

245

10. The following figures show the daily average number of prisoners confined in the Gaol during the past ten years:-

1894,

1895,

1896,

1897,

1898,

1899,

1900,

1901,

1902, 1903,

455

472

514

462

511

432

486

499

576

653

11. It will be observed that there has been an absolute increase during the year under report, the numbers being higher than any previous year, consequently the Gaol has been very much overcrowded. As a mean of relieving the congested state of the Gaol pending the erection of a Convict Prison, the Belilios Reformatory was fitted up as a temporary prison, and short sentence prisoners are now located in that building.

12. The following descriptions of labour are carried on:--

Printing.

Book-binding.

Carpentering.

Tinsmithing.

Bootmaking.

Knitting.

Painting and Whitewashing. Mat-making.

Washing.

Oakum-picking.

65

13. The appliances in case of fire are sufficient and in good order.

14. The discipline of the Gaol has been steadily maintained. The conduct of the staff has been good.

15. Mr. F. J. BADELEY, Superintendent of Victoria Gaol, proceeded to England in March, when I assumed the duties of Superintendent of the Gaol.

16. Dr. J. C. THOMSON left the Colony on leave in September, and was succeeded by Dr. W. V. M. Kоch as Medical Officer to the Gaol.

17. Mr. R. H. CRAIG, the Assistant Superintendent, went on leave to Europe on the 9th of December. Mr. C. D. MELBOURNE took over the duties from him.

I append the usual returns.

I have, &c.,

F. W. LYONS,

Acting Superintendent.

The Honourable

The COLONIAL SECRETARY.

VICTORIA GAOL.

Return showing the Expenditure and Income for the Year 1903.

Expenditure.

Amount.

Income.

Amount.

$

C.

Pay and Allowances of Officers, in-

75,327.56

Earnings of prisoners,

31,488.61

cluding uniforms, &c.,.....

Victualling of prisoners,..

18,623.69

Paid by Military for subsistence of

Military prisoners,

972,90

Fuel, light, soap and dry earth,

niture, material for remunera- tive industry, &c.,

8,180.66

Paid by Navy for subsistence of

1,069.20

Clothing of prisoners, bedding, fur-

Naval prisoners,

6,007.69 Debtors' subsistence,

439.75

Consulate subsistence,

Waste food sold,..

45.00

Forfeiture,.

121.18

Actual cost of prisoners' maintenance, 74,002.96

Total,

$108,139.60

Total,

Average Annual Cost per prisoner, $113.33.

108,139.60

66

(A.)

Return of Reports for talking, idling, short oakum-picking, &c., for the years

1899, 1900, 1901, 1902 and 1903.

1899.

1900.

MONTH.

Daily average Daily average

1901. Daily average

1902.

Daily average

number in Prison, 434.

number in Prison, 486.

number in

number in

Prison, 499.

Prison, 576.

1903. Daily average number in Prison, 653.

January,

60

58

164

117

89

February,

73

97

126

76

80

March,

95

82

127

113

103

April,

192

73

214

134

87

August,

May, June, July,

September,

69

90

224

63

82

134

90

124

88

77

65

138

162

105

100

100

163

166

92

88

121

159

140

114

108

127

158

90

October,

November,

December,

Total,

1.284

1,413

1,819

1,234

1,180

201

162

133

163

135

156

101

142

127

54

98

161

(B.)

Return of Offences reported of Prisoners fighting with or assaulting each other, or officers,

for the years 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902, and 1903.

MONTH.

1899. Daily average number in Prison, 434.

1900. Daily average number in Prison, 486.

1901.

Daily average

1902. Daily average

1903. Daily average

number in

number in

number in

Prison, 499. | Prison, 576.

Prison, 653.

January, February,

1

1

5

LO

3

4

1

12

March,

5

4

7

...

April, May, June, July, August,

3

Ι

10

6

2

2254

3

3

1

11

8

3

2

4

6

1

September,..

October,

November,

December,

6720

437

1

7

1

3

1

7

24 NO CO LO

00 00 00 =>

4.

2

6

3

5

Total,

45

43

28

64

56

}

67

(C.)

Return of Offences of Prisoners having Tobacco, for the years 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902, and 1903.

MONTH,

1900.

1899. Daily average Daily average

number in Prison, 486.

number in

Prison, 434.

1901.

Daily average number in Prison, 499.

1902.

Daily average number in Prison, 576.

1903. Daily average number in Prison, 653.

......

January, February, March,

April,

....

May, June,

9

July,

10

August,

6

September,

5

October,

7

November,

1

December,

4

2

HOZ →

4

5

3

1

7

4

4

CTN NIIN N∞ — 00 00

122

3

3

1

2

2

1

2

1

1

2

3

1

HANN NO

1

1

1

4

2

...

2

4

2

5

3

3

1

3

N

Total,.

60

19

24

22

12

(D.)

Abstract of Industrial Labour, Victoria Gaol, for

OAKUM.

the

year 1903.

Dr.

1903. To Stock on hand, 1st Ja-

Cr.

1903. By Oakum sold during the

nuary,

$1,100.00

""

Cost of Paper Stuff pur- chased during the year,...

year,.. Stock on hand, 31st De-

$4,690.67

"

3,408.01

cember,

627.00

Profit,..........

809.66

Total,. .$ 5,317.67

COIR.

Total,...

5,317.67

1903. To stock on hand, 1st Ja-

99

nuary,

Cost of Material pur-

1903.

$ 435.74

the year,

By Matting, &c., sold during

Articles made for Gaol

$2,892.85

""

chased during the year,...

Profit.....

1,379.80

use,

164.91

Stock on hand, 31st De-

""

1,724.44

cember,

482.22

Total,.... ...$ 3,539.98

Total,

$

3,539.98

Dr.

1903. To Stock on hand, 1st Ja-

68

NET-MAKING.

nuary,

$ 8.36

59

Cost of Material pur-

chased during the year,

17.50

Profit,

44.86

Total,.

70.72

1903. By Nets and Nettings sold

Cr.

and repaired,

$ 58.74

"

Stock on hand, 31st

December,..

11.98

Total,..

70.72

TAILORING.

1903. To Stock on hand, 1st Ja-

1903. By Articles sold and repaired,

$ 59.44

*

nuary,

$ 385.15

""

Cost of Material pur-

Work done for Gaol,......

35

2,291.93

chased during the year,

1,850.57

د,

Profit,..

311.21

Stock on hand, 31st De- cember,

195.56

Total,... $ 2,546.93

Total,........... .$ 2,546.93

PRINTING AND BOOK-BINDING.

1903. To Stock on hand, 1st Ja-

nuary,

Cost of Material and Ma-

chinery purchased during

91

the year...

Profit,....

By Articles sold and repaired, $23,587.50

35

1903.

$8,530.73

4,938.00

55

19,574.27

Book-binding,

Stock on hand, 31st De- cember,

4,029.00

5,426.50

Total,..... .$ 33,043.00

1903. To Stock on hand, 1st Jan-

"

uary,

Cost of Material purchased

during the year,

Profit,...

WASHING.

Total,.........$ 33,043.00

1903. By Washing done for Prison, Government Civil Hos- pital and Police Officers at 2 cents per piece, Washing Prisoners' Cloth- ing at 2 cents per piece, Stock on hand, 31st De-

$ 16.57

1,825.92

8,191.37

""

"

cember,

$4,503.86

5,020.00

10.00

Total,.........$ .9,533.86

Total,.........S

9,533.86

L

Dr.

1903.

To Stock on hand, 1st Jan-

uary,

Cost of Material purcha-

sed during the year,

69

RATTAN WORK.

$

Cr.

1903. By Articles sold during the

0 55

year,

$$$$

10.77

Articles made for Gaol-

""

19.29

use,

20.84

16.64

Stock on hand, 31st De-

cember,

4.87

Profit.

Total,......$

36.48

TIN-SMITHING.

1903. To Stock on hand, 1st Jan-

uary,

Cost of Material purcha-

sed during the year,

$

2.40

...

55.49

121.87

Profit,.

Total,. ...$

180.76

Total,......$

36.48

1903. By Work done for outside,... $ 27.70

99

Work done for Gaol,...........

148.43

Stock on hand, 31st De-

cember,

4.63

Total,. .S

180.76

uary,

"

1903. To Stock on hand, 1st Jan-

during the year,

S 58.69

Cost of Material purchased

CARPENTRY.

1903. By Articles sold and repaired

during the year,

59

Work done for Gaol,

$ 120.99 410.97

304.02

99

232.61

Stock on hand, 31st De-

cember,

63.36

Profit,

Total,

$

595.32

Total,......$

595.32

1903.

To Stock on hand, 1st Jan-

uary,

$

2.70

Cost of Material purchased

during the year,

37.25

GRASS-MATTING.

1903. By Matting sold during the

year,

Matting and Mats made

for Gaol during the year,

i

9.48

62.48

Profit,

32.76

Stock on hand. 31st De

comber,

0.75

Total,...... .S

72.71

Total,

$

72.71

1903. To Stock on hand, 1st Jan-

""

uary,

Cost of Material purchased

during the year,

Profit,

SHOE-MAKING.

1903.

$ 165.66

35

1,383.58

429.67

32

Total,........

1,978.91

By Work for which cash

was received, Boots and Shoes made for Police and Gaol Depart- ments during the year,. Repairs during the year,. Stock on hand, 31st De-

cember,

"

S 20.33

1,568.00 229.65

160.93

Total,......$

1,978.91

1903. Oakum,

Coir, Net-making, Tailoring, Washing,.. Rattan,

Tin-smithing,

Carpentering,

Grass-matting,

Shoe-making,

Printing,

Total,.

Europeans,

Indians,

70

RECAPITULATION.

$ 809.66

1,724.44 44.86

311.21

8,191.37

16.64

121.87

232.61

32.76

429.67

19,574.27

$31,489.36

1903. By Surplus,

$31,489.36

Total,......$ 31,489.36

Table showing the Number of Casualties in the Gaol Staff during the

year 1903.

Establish- ment.

Resigned volun- tarily.

Services

Total Num-

Pen- sioned.

Died. dispensed

with.

Dis- missed.

ber of

Casualties.

35

59

~ 4

2

1

2

...

1

4

G+

co cr

5

9

This does not include the Superintendent, Assistant Superintendent or Clerical Staff.

Return showing the Employment of Prisoners and the Value of their Labour.

Daily Average Number of

Value

Prisoners.

of

Description of Employment.

Total.

Males. Females. Total.

Prison Labour.

SUNDAYS, CHRISTMAS DAY AND GOOD FRIDAY,----

$ c.

Cooks,

12

77.66

Cleaners,

10

59.40

Non-Productive,

630

653

Debtors, Remands, On punishment, Sick,. Crank, shot, shot and stone,.

61

61

253

253

IN MANUFACTURES,-

Book-binding,

29

29

1,352.85

Printing,

43

43

2,005.95

Printing, Labourers,..

12

12

373.20

Knitting,

2

2

28.60

...

Oakum Picking,

86

7

93

531.96

Coir Matting,

28

28

800.80

Grass Matting,

2

2

17.16

...

Shoe-making,

9

9

308.88

Tailoring,

11

6

17

729.30

Net-making, string-making and ship's fen-

der-making,

6

85.80

IN BUILDING,-

Bricklaying,

1

1

42.90

Painting,

Carpentering and Fitting,

IN SERVICE OF THE PRISON,

10

10

457.60

1

1

28.60

Laundry,

37

7

44

1,887.60

Cooking,

13

13

569.40

...

Cleaning,

22

2

24

686.40

Hospital Cleaners,..

White-washing,.............

ID BU

3

3

85.80

2

2

57.20

...

Total,....

629

24

653

10,187.06

Date.

Table showing the Number of

Floggings awarded.

1903.

FLOGGING RETURN.

Table showing the Number of Strokes

awarded in each case.

Average Number of Pri-

soners in Gaol.

By Assistant Super-

intendent only.

By Assistant Super-

intendent

and

Visiting Justice.

By Judge.

a

By Magistrate.

Total.

6

8

10 12 15

18

20

24

Total.

awarded by Prison Au- thorities.

Total Number of Floggings

Total Number of Floggings

awarded by Courts.

Total.

January,

February,

March,..

April,

652

632

1

10

...

597

1

...

....

623

May,

618

1

June,

556

...

July,

599

::

1

∞0 20.00 to 06:

9

13

9

1

6

1

1.5

1

9

7

72 LO CO O O

2

:

August,

649

1

3

1

17

22

14

1

1

aNGUNN

9

13

9

6

15

9

...

22

September,

735

4

5

9

2 1

2

4

:

October,

828

2

November,

687

...

December,

656

அகம

12

14

12

:

14

...

14

1

3

1

5

8

2

Co

3

:

:

4 14

3 8

...

Total,...

5

00

35

92

135

3 3 9 71

1

1

36

11

135

Prison Offences for which Floggings were inflicted.

Personal Vio-

lence to an

Wilfully

creating

Repeated

Refusals

Officer

a

to

of the Prison. Disturbance. Labour.

Total. Birch. Cat.

Birch. Cat.

Birch. Cat.

...

127

...

:

...

N

...

1

...

1

1

1

...

...

...

...

...

2

2

...

...

...

...

KOM

71

No. 1904

4

HONGKONG.

GOVERNOR'S SALARY: INCREASE.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

HONGKONG.

No. 436.

DOWNING STREET.

8th December, 1903.

SIR,—I have recently had under my consideration the question of the amount of salary paid to the Governors of first class Crown Colonies, and I have come to the conclusion that the emoluments received by the Governors of Ceylon, the Straits Settlements and Hongkong are not sufficient to allow of their supporting the dig- nity of their position, as it should be supported, without supplementing their official salary from private income.

2. I am sure that your Legislative Council will see the matter in the same light, and I have therefore to request that you will invite the Council to vote an in- crease to the Governor's salary, from the 1st of January, 1904, from five thousand pounds to six thousand pounds a year of which sum one thousand two hundred pounds should be regarded as an entertainment allowance to be drawn in full by the Officer Administering the Government in the Governor's absence on full or half pay leave.

I have, &c.,

ALFRED LYTTELTON.

THE OFFICER ADMINISTERING THE GOVERNMENT OF

HONGKONG.

23

No. 1904

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE ACTING HARBOUR MASTER, FOR THE YEAR 1903.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

No. 70.

HARBOUR DEPARTMENT, HONGKONG, 18th February, 1904,

SIR, I have the honour to forward the Annual Report for this Department for the year ending 31st December, 1903.

I. Number, Tonnage, Crews, and Cargoes of Vessels entered.

II. Number, Tonnage, Crews, and Cargoes of Vessels cleared.

III. Number, Tonnage, Crews, and Cargoes of Vessels entered at each

Port.

IV. Number, Tonnage, Crews, and Cargoes of Vessels cleared at each

Port.

V. Number, Tonnage, and Crews of Vessels of each Nation entered. VI. Number, Tonnage, and Crews of Vessels of each Nation cleared. VII. Junks entered from China and Macao.

VIII. Junks cleared for China and Macao.

IX. Total number of Junks entered at each Port.

X. Total number of Junks cleared at each Port.

XI. Junks (Local Trade) entered.

XII. Junks (Local Trade) cleared.

XIII. Summary of Arrivals and Departures of all vessels.

XIV. Licensed Steam Launches entered.

XV. Licensed Steam Launches cleared.

XVI. Vessels registered.

XVII. Vessels struck off the Register.

XVIII. Chinese Passenger Ships cleared by the Emigration Officer (Summary).

XIX. Vessels bringing Chinese Passengers to Hongkong from places out of

China (Summary).

XX. Marine Magistrate's Court.

XXI. Diagram of Tonnage of Vessels entered.

XXII. Statement of Revenue collected.

XXIII. Return of work performed by the Governmnet Marine Surveyor.

XXIV. Return from Import and Export (Opium) Office.

SHIPPING.

1. The total tonnage entering and clearing during the year 1903 amounted to 24,039,862 tons, being an increase, compared with 1902, of 2,511,082 tons, and the same number in excess of any previous year.

There were 53,991 arrivals of 12,027,092 tons, and 54,009 departures of 12,012,770 tons.

Of British Ocean-going tonnage, 3,396,314 tons entered, and 3,382,121 tons cleared.

Of British River Steamers 2,237,249 tons entered, and 2,234,613 tons cleared.

Of Foreign Ocean-going tonnage, 3,667,871 tons entered, and 3,665,880 tons cleared.

I

1

232

Of Foreign River Steamers, 217,619 tons entered, and 216,744 tons cleared.

Of Steam Launches trading to ports outside the Colony 93,239 tons entered, and 93,239 tons cleared.

Of Junks in Foreign Trade, 1,347,001 tons entered, and 1,351,458 tons cleared.

Of Junks in Local Trade, 1,067,799 tons entered, and 1,068,715 tons cleared.

Thus-

British Ocean-going tonnage represented

River

">

River

Foreign Ocean-going

"

39

99

""

28.20%

18.60%

30.51%

1.81%

0.77%

11.22%

"

""

Local Trade

8.89%

100.00%

Steam Launches in Foreign Trade Junks

"

2. Seven thousand two hundred and fifteen (7,215) Steamers, 36 Sailing Vessels, 1,765 Steam Launches, and 15,803 Junks in Foreign Trade, entered during the year, giving a daily average of 68, as against 71.2 in 1902.

For European constructed vessels the daily average would be 19.9 as against

17.1 in 1902.

3. A comparison between the years 1902 and 1903 is given in the following Table; Steam Launches are not included.

Comparative Shipping Return for the Years 1902 and 1903.

1902.

1903.

Increase.

Decrease.

Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage.

7,102 9,571,787 8,449|11,250,296| 1,347 1,678,509 6.704.2116,040 7,768,115 681 1,063,904 3.238.239 31,766 | 2,698,459

British,. Foreign,

5.359

Junks in Foreign

36.245

Trade,

Total,

Junks in Local

Trade,

4,479 539.780

.48,706 | 19,514.287 46.255 | 21,716.870 2,028 2,742,413 4,479 539,780

+

50.743 1,819,329 58,215 2,136,514 7.472 317.385

Grand Total,... 99,449 | 21,333,566|104,470|23.853.384|| 9,500 3,059,5981 4,479 539,780

*

NET,

5,021 2.519,818

Including 17,210 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 637.052 tons.

Including 25,582 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 932,078 tons.

4. For vessels under the British Flag, this Table shows as increase of 1,347 ships of 1,678,509 tons, an increase of 427 ships of 762,845 tons to Ocean-going, and an increase of 920 ships of 915,664 tons to River Trade.

The above increase in Ocean-going is principally due to the fact of some new lines having been established-the China Commercial Steamship Company, the British India Steamers now visiting the port, the addition of some new steaners to local firms, and lastly to an increase of Coal imported from Australia in Steamers new to the Port.

The increase in River Trade is almost wholly due to the new Steamers Kinshan and Wing Chai being in the River Trade during the greater part of 1903 and to an increased number of sailings by the Hongkong, Canton and Macao Steam Boat Company, Limited.

Under Foreign Flags, the table shows an increase of 681 ships of 1,063,904 tons of which 328 ships of 821.216 tons are Ocean-going, the remainder 353 ships measuring 242,688 tons are River Steamers.

1

233

The increase in Ocean-going is made up principally by an increased number of Steamers calling at the Port in 1903 under the U. S. Flag and to the increased tonnage of some of the Pacific Mail Steamers, and to an increase under Chinese, Japanese and French Flags.

The increase in River Trade is made up by two French Steamers San Cheung and Kong Nam, the former being a new Steamer and the latter was transferred from the British Flag in July, 1903, also to the Chinese Steamers Chan Wai and Chan On whose running commenced in the first Quarter of 1903.

5. The actual number of ships of European construction (exclusive of River Steamers and Steam Launches) entering the Port during 1903, was 741, of which 344 were British, and 397 Foreign. These 741 ships entered 4,419 times, giving a total tonnage entered of 7,064,185 tons. Thus compared, with 1902, 23 more ships entered 372 more times, and gave a total tonnage increased by 779,927 tons.

STEAMERS.

Flag.

Ships.

No. of Times

entered.

Total Tonnage.

1902. 1903. | 1902. 1903. 1902. 1903.

British, Austrian,

324

331 1,753 1,982 2,965,030 3,368,788

20

15

50

42

125,929 106,944

Belgian,

1

3

3,624 d..

Chinese,

17

14

135

172

163,396 222,164

Danish.

6

8

13

27

23,374 48,676

Dutch,.

8

11

23

21

26,464 34,575

French,

27

42

228

262

219,111 246,837

German,

123

126

939

937 1,360,5241,345,567

Italian,...

4

3

14

12

23,428 32.732

Japanese,

56

69

409

467

865,400 1,017,263

Norwegian,

49

51

300

318

263,379 319,685

Portuguese,

3

I

46

30

7,897

7,110

Russian,

11

9

16

19

32.046

30,781

Swedish,

4

15

31 14.325 26,093

United States,.

23

56

No Flag,

61 2

:

121,939 200,706 1.260

Total,

676

709 4,000 4,383 6,215,866 7,009,181

SAILING VESSELS.

Ships.

No. of Times entered.

Total Tonnage.

Flag.

1902. 1903. 1902. 1903.

1902.

1903.

British, French, German,

Italian....

Japanese,.

Norwegian,

Sarawak,

1

Swedish.

United States,.

9

No Flag,

26

13

28

14

45.411

27.525

7.194

N

2,978

2,045

:

:

HNN

1

غیرہ

K NO LO

212

120

1.418

1.498

1,338

2,676

1.

1.271

9 17.040

11.177

1

1.498

Total,....

42

32

47

36

68,392 55.004

234

6. The 344 British vessels carried 2,679 British Officers and 24 Foreign Officers as follows:-

British,

Norwegian,

Dutch,.

German,

United States,

.2,679 3

1

2

18

Total,..............................

2,703

Thus the proportion of Foreign Officers in British ships was 0.89% comprising four nationalities, an increase of 0.11% with a decrease of ships.

The 397 Foreign ships carried 2,882 Officers, of whom 267 were British, borne as follows:-

In Japanese

Chinese

ships,

United States

""

""

French

95

39

Dutch

99

99

;"

Belgian

Total,

.139

97

16

7

4

4

..267

The proportion of British Officers in Foreign Ships was, therefore, 9.3% distributed among six nationalities; a decrease of 1.4% with an increase of ships.

Of the Crews of British Vessels

16.6% were British

0.5% Other Europeans.

99

82.9%

""

Asiatics.

Of the Crews of Foreign Vessels-

1.2 were British.

о

22.3% 76.5%

Other Europeans. Asiatics.

""

This shows a slight increase of Asiatics in British and Foreign Vessels, with a slight falling off in the proportion of Europeans.

TRADE.

7. The returns under this heading is gathered from the Masters of Vessels, and, in some cases, from the Agents concerned, and must be looked upon as but approxi- mate and, it may be, misleading. It is much to be regretted that Masters and Agents do not render more accurate returns.

The principal features to be remarked in the reported Trade of the Port for 1903 are:-

In Imports reported:-

Increases in Coal of 14.0%.

Decreases in Bulk Petroleum of 25.4.

29

Cotton of 80.8%

""

Flour of 11.6%

Case Petroleum of 37.3%.

General of 7.7%

""

"

Liquid Fuel

of 84.1%

Rice

of 27.1%.

Sugar

of 14.3%

Timber

of 14.1%.

59

The net increase under this head amounts to 21,847 tons.

In Exports, there is an increase reported of 24,252 In Transit Cargo

502,553

33

¿

:

235

8. The total reported Import Trade of the Port for 1903 amounted to 24,819 vessels of 10,959,293 tons, carrying 7,392,320 tons of cargo, of which 4,517,370 tons were discharged at Hongkong. This does not include the number, tonnage, or cargo of Junks, or Steam Launches employed in Local Trade.

Corgo.

Country.

Ships.

Tons.

Discharged. In transit.

CLASS I.

Canada,

24

68.807

10.749

Continent of Europe,

137

254.396

143,851

225,350

Great Britain,

166

506,686

234,419

592,898

Mauritius,

3

3,357

2,250

United States of America,

154

511,668

233,774

117,066

CLASS II.

484

1,344,914

625,043 935,314

Australia and New Zealand,.

52 103,267

71,530

26,741

India and Straits Settlements,

250

613,212

407,716

467,954

Japan,....

449

1,036,061

974.380

343,557

Java and Indian Archipelago,

163

259,959

313,202

60,494

North Pacific,

5

1,994

2,260

Russia-in-Asia,

2

5,309

143

CLASS III.

921

2,019,802 1,769,088

898,889

North Borneo,

43

65,058

68,337

6,509

Coast of China,

1,651

2,194,805

287,075

905,844

Cochin-China,

195

214,297

244,255

48,870

Formosa,

112

88,230

30,034

Philippine Islands,

319

504,707

70,832

8,825

Hainan and Gulf of Tonkin,

351

253,499

237,080

62,899

Siam,

308

358,098

353,248

4,000

Kiaochow,

3,883

1,000

3,600

Weihai wei,

4

9,465

500

200

Macao,

30

7,427

2,027

CLASS IV.

3,014 | 3,699,469 | 1,294,388

1,040,747

River Steamers,-Canton, Macao and West

River,

2,832 | 2,454,868 296,791

CLASS V.

Steam-launches trading to Ports outside the

Colony,.....

1.765

93.239

15,288

CLASS VI.

Junks in Foreign Trade,

15,803 1,347,001 516,772

Total,..

|

24,819 10,959,293 4,517,370 2,874,950

236

Similarly, the Export Trade from the Port was represented by 24,966 vessels of 10,944,055 tons, carrying 3,034,683 tons Cargo, and shipping 675,891 tons of Bunker Coal.

Country.

Cargo.

Ships.

Tons.

Shipped. Bunker Coal.

CLASS I.

Canada,

21

60,000

19,944

Continent of Europe,

47

73,529

14,235

3,690

Great Britain,

60

198,434

61,045

1,275

Mauritius,

4

4,559

1,650

3,500

South America,

87

290,838

177,477

1,940

United States of America,

2

3,270

2,200

CLASS II.

221

630,630

276,551

10,405 ·

Australia and New Zealand,.

34

52,906

18,340

4,080

India and Straits Settlements,

Japan,

Java and Indian Archipelago,

North Pacific,

338

900,818

319,415

89,387

509

1,146,464

293,131

53,002

43

69,716

9,720

10,725

8

9,515

4,402

990

Russia-in-Asia,

10

11,206

10,150

1,760

CLASS III.

942 2,190,625

655,158

159,944

North Borneo,

31

41,292

9,325

9,871

Coast of China,

1,916

2,728,792

531,653

235,883

Cochin China,

208

257,821

65,486

44,232

Formosa.

36

33.792

31,440

420

Philippine Islands,

310

561,179

255,084

79.291

Hainan and Gulf of Tonkin,

472

338,944

179,458

47,364

Siam,

253

289,857

40,460

35,468

Kiaochow,

6

10,350

3,400

1,465

Weihaiwei,

7

15,394

2,900

840

Macao,

10

3,325

548

90

CLASS IV.

3,249 | 4,226,746 1,119,754

454,924

River Stermers,-Canton, Macao and West

River,.....

2,8262,451,357

193,656

37,753

CLASS V.

Steam-launches trading to Ports outside the

Colony,

1,765

93,239 22,198

12,865

CLASS. VI.

Junks in Foreign Trade,

15,963 1,351,458 767,366

Total,.....

24,966 10,944,055 3,034,683

675,891

?

9. During the year 1903, 14,489 vessels of European construction, of 19.018,411 tons (net Register), reported having carried 9,768,405 tons of Cargo, as follows:-

Import Cargo,.......

Export

""

Transit

""

Bunker Coal shipped,

.3,985,310

.2,245,119

.2,874,950

663,026

9,768,405

:

:

.

:

237

The total number of tons carried, was, therefore, 51.3% of the total net register tonnage (or 65.4% exclusive of River Steamers), and was apportioned as follows:-

Imports --

British ships,

1,899,212

...2,086,098

-3,985,310

Foreign do.,

Exports-

British ships,

.1,243,987

Foreign do.,

.1,001,132

-2,245,119

Transit-

British ships,

.1,551,536

Foreign do.,

.1,323,414

-2,874,950

Bunker Coal-

British ships,

288,293

Foreign do.,

374,733

663,026

Grand Total,.....

..9,768,405

Trade of the Port of Hongkong for the Year 1903.

TONS.

Passengers.

No. of Ships.

Dis- charged.

Shipped.

In Transit.

Bunker Coal Shipped.

Total.

Registered Tonnage.

Emi- grants.

Arrived.

Departed.

British Ocean-going,

Foreign Ocean-going,

British River Steamers,

Foreign River Steamers,...

55,094 62,307

3,986 1,657,515 | 1,112,638 | 1,551,536

4,845 2,031,004 938,825 1,323,414

4,463 241,697 131,349

1,195

256,923 4,578,612 6,778,431 152,637

368,350 4,661,593 7,333,752 100,012

90.369 55,681

72,978 27,703

31,370 404,416 4,471,862

6,383 123,784 434,363

800,512

757.523

$3,057

81,231

Total,......

14,489 | 3,985,310 | 2,245,119 | 2,874,950

663,026 | 9,768,405 | 19,018,411 1,136,227

1,002,104 83,384

Steam-launches trading to || ports outside the Colony,

3,530

15,288 22,198

12,865 50,351 186,478

46,529

46,941

Total,..

18.019 4,000,598 2,267,317 | 2,874,950

675,891 | 9,818,756

19,204,889 1,182,756 1,049,045 83.384

Junks trading to ports out-

side the Colony,

{ 31,766 516,772 767,366

1,284,138 2,698,459

49,269

50,736

Total Foreign Trade,

49.785 4,517,370 | 3,031,683 | 2,874,950

Steam - launches

plying within waters of the Colony,*

Junks, Local Trade,.

Total Local Trade,

288,072

58,215 235,180 50,456

346,287

235,180 50,456

675,891 11,102,894 21,903,348 1,232.025 1,099,781 $3,384

23,936 23.936 8,488,306 4,529,975 4,530,666

285.636 2,136,514

79,318

84,941

23,936

309,572 | 10,624,820

4,609,293 4,615,607 83,384

Grand Total,...... 396,072 | 4,752,550 | 3,085,139 | 2,874,950

699,827 11,412,466 32,528,168 5,841,318 5,715,588 83,384

* The figures under the heading "Steam-launches plying within the waters of the Colony" are incomplete. The Star Ferry Company stating that since 1901, owing to the amount of work entailed, they have had to discontinue keeping a record of the passengers carried by their launches, and also number of trips.

238

#

IMPORTS.

EUROPEAN CONSTRUCTED VESSELS.

1902.

1903.

Increase.

Decrease.

No.

Steamers,

4,000

Tonnage. No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage.

6,215,866|4,383 | 7,009,181 383 793,315

River Steamers,...... 2,192

Sailing Vessels,

47

1,871,726 2,832 2,454,868

63,392 36 55,004

640 583,142

11

13,388

Total,...... 6,239 8,155,984|7,251 | 9,519,0531,023 | 1,376,457 11

13,388

Nett,

1,012 1,363,069

Imported tons,

3,963,463

3,985,310

As follows:-

Articles.

1902.

1903.

Increase.

Decrease.

Beans,...

300

3,120

2,820

Bones..

Coal.

1,040,906

1,186,686

145.780

Cotton Yarn and Cotton,

11,498

20,795

9,297

Flour,

107,826

120,430

12,604

Hemp,.

22,923

24,149

1,226

Kerosine (bulk),

54,461

40,607

13.854

(case),

60,400

82,960

22,560

Lead,

625

550

Liquid Fuel,

6,299

1,000

75 3.299-

Opium.

4,871

4,997

Pitch,

Rattan,

1,900

126 1,900

4,742

4.020

Rice,

819,919

597,730

Sandalwood,.

5,374

4,713

722 222,189 661

Sulphur,

961

961

Sugar,....

268,268

229.946

38,322

Tea......

25

1,746

1,721

Timber..

75,023

64.400*

10,623

General,

1,480,003

1,594,600

114,597

Total,

3,963,463 3,985,310

313,592

291,745

Transit,

2,372,397

2,874,950

502,553

Grand Total,

6,335,860

6,860,260

816,145

291,745

Nett,.

524,400

:

239

EXPORTS.

1902.

1903.

Increase.

· Decrease.

No.

Tonnage. No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage. No.

Tonnage

Steamers,

River Steamers, Sailing Vessels,.....

|3,986 6,181,294 4,372 6,988,667 2,193 1,876,147 2,826 | 2,451,357

43

386 807,373

...

633 575,210

Total,

62,573 40

6,222 8,120,0147,238 9,499,358 1,019

59,334

3

3,239

1,382,583

3

3,239

Nett,..... 1,016 1,379,344

Exported tons,

2,220,867

2,245,119

Strs.

Bunker Coal.

Strs.

Bunker

Coal.

Strs.

Bunker Coal.

Strs.

Bunker Coal.

Steamers,

River Steamers,.

3,986 2,193

613,113 4,372

625,273 386

12,160

28.6272,826

37,753 633

9,126

Total,...... 6,179

641,740 7,198

663,026 1,019

21,286

Nett,...

1,019

21,286

1902,

1903,

Year.

RIVER TRADE.

Imports, Erports and Passengers.

Imports.

Exports.

Passengers.

223,608

144,304

1,296,602

296,791

193,656

1,722.335

IMPORTS.

Foreign Trade, Local Trade,

Junks.

15,803 measuring 1,347,001 tons.

29,172

Total,......... 44,975

1,067,799

2,414,800

Imported, 751,952 tons as under :---

Tea,..

Fire Crackers,

Oil, Vegetable,..

Rice,..

Cattle, (6,224),.

Swine, (24,711),

Earth and Stones,

General,

1,786 tons.

3,691

23

357

598

"

1,152

>>

1,463

193,229 549,676

*

Total......... 751,952

.

240

EXPORTS.

Junks.

C

Foreign Trade, Local Trade,

15,963 measuring 1,351,458 tons. 29.043

""

1,068,715

སའ

2,420,173

Total.......... 45,006

Exported, 817,822 tons as under:-

Kerosine, (830,355 cases),

Rice and Paddy,

Earth and Stones,

General,

29,655 tons.

270,589

156,011

"

361,567

Total,..... 817,822

*

PASSENGERS.

1902.

1903. Increase. Decrease.

British vessels, Arrivals, ....

Do.,

Departures,.

Do.,

Emigrants,

152,122

94,244 90,369

42,778 55,681 12,903

152,637

515

3,875

Total,..

289,144 298,687 13,418

3,875

Nett,.

9,543

Foreign vessels, Arrivals, ..

Do.,

Departures,.

99,116

76,835 72,978

100,012 896

3,857

Do.,

Emigrants,

28,933 27,703

1,230

Total,.

204,884 200,693

896

5,087

Nett,...

4,191

River steamers, Arrivals,

Do.,

Departures,

668,167

628,435 838,757 210,322

883,578 215,411

Total, 1,296,602 1,722,335 425,733

| |

Nett,...... 425,733

Junks foreign trade, Arrivals,

Do.,

55,083 49,269

Departures, 52,553 50,736

5,814

1,817

Total,......... 107,636 100,005

7,631

Nett,.

7,631

P

241

PASSENGERS,-- Continued.

1902.

1903.

Increase. Decrease.

Total Arrivals,

974,488 1,185,496 211,008

i

Total Departures,....

852,067 1,052,840 200,773

1,826,555 2,238,336 |411,781

Total Emigrants,

71,711

83,384 11,673

Total,... 1,898,266 2,321,720 423,454

Diff. of Arrivals and Dep., 122,421

Do., Emigrants,

132,656

71,711 83,384

Remainder + or

+ 50,710 + 49,272

Junks local trade, Arrivals,

Do., Departures,

76,840 79,318 2.478

77,137 84,941

7,804

Total..........

153,977 164,259 10,282

Nett,....

10,282

REVENUE.

11. The total Revenue collected by the Harbour Department during the year was $285,288.42, being an increase of $18,522.43 on the previous year:-

1. Light Dues,

....$ 74,960.00

2. Licences and Internal Revenue,

3. Fees of Court and Office,

..

55,475.50

154,852.92

Total,..

$285,288.42

STEAM LAUNCHES.

12. On the 31st December, there were 242 Steam Launches employed in the Harbour; of these, 98 were licensed for the conveyance of passengers, 121 were pri- vately owned, 17 were the property of the Colonial Government, and 6 belonged to the Imperial Government in charge of the Military Authorities.

Three Masters' Certificates were suspended for three months, and one Master was cautioned.

Four hundred and seventy-five (475) engagements, and Four hundred and thirty-eight (438) discharges of Masters and Engineers were made from 1st January to 31st December.

Fourteen (14) Steam Launches were permitted to carry arms, &c., for their protection against pirates; of these, thirteen were previously permitted, and one. during this year.

1

W

:

242

EMIGRATION.

13. Eighty-three thousand three hundred and eighty-four (83,384) Emigrants- left Hongkong for various places during the year: of these, 55,681 were carried by British Ships and 27,703 by Foreign Ships; 140,551 were reported as having been brought to Hongkong from places to which they had emigrated, and of these, 107,166 were brought in British Ships and 33,385 by Foreign Ships.

Returns Nos. XVIII and XIX will give the details of this branch of the Department.

REGISTRY OF SHIPPING.

14. During the year, 8 ships were registered under the provisions of the Impe- rial Act, and 7 certificates were cancelled.-

MARINE MAGISTRATE'S COURT.

15. Seventeen (17) cases were heard in the Marine Magistrate's Court; refusal of duty on board ship and breach of Harbour Regulations were the principal offences.

EXAMINATION OF MASTERS, MATES AND ENGINEERS.

(Under Section 4 of Ordinance No. 36 of 1899.)

16. The following table will show the number of candidates examined for Certifi- cates of Competency, distinguishing those who were successful and those who failed:-

Grade.

Passed.

Failed.

Master, First Mate,

Only Mate,..

Second Mate,..

21

16

6

kiwa

Total,

43

11

First Class Engineer, Second Class Engineer,

24

8

46

12

30

.Total,...

70

20

MARINE COURTS.

(Under Section 19 of Ordinance No. 36 of 1899.)

17. No Marine Court has been held during the year.

SUNDAY CARGO-WORKING.

(Ordinance No. 6 of 1891.)

18. During the year, 336 permits were issued under the provisions of the Ordinance. Of these, 105 were not availed of owing to its being found unnecessary for the ship to work cargo on the Sunday, and the fee paid for the permit was refunded in each case, and 22 permits were issued, free of charge, to Mail Steamers, the privilege ceased on the 22nd July, 1903.

The revenue collected under this heading was $34,800; this was $9,375 less. than in 1902.

243

The revenue collected each year since the Ordinance came into force is as follows:-

1892,

1893,

1894,

1895,

1896,

1897,

1898,

1899,

1900.

1901,

1902,

1903,

SEAMEN.

$ 4,800

7,900

13,375

11,600

7,575

11,850

25,925

21,825

43,550

44,800

44,175

34,800

19. Nineteen thousand eight hundred and sixty (19,860) Seamen were shipped and twenty-three thousand two hundred and sixty-five (23,265) discharged at the Mercantile Marine Office and on board ships during the year.

>>

One hundred and fifty-eight (158) "Distressed Seamen were received during the year.

Of these, 55 were sent to the United Kingdom, 3 to Sydney, 1 to Cal- cutta, 2 to Singapore, 2 to Moji, 3 obtained employment on shore, 3 at Canton, 1 went as passenger to San Francisco, 1 to the United Kingdom, 2 to Singapore, 2 joined the Chinese Customs, 1 Japanese Wrestler's Company, 1 taken charge of by the German Consul, 1 departed to Canton, 1 died at the Government Civil Hos- pital, 1 at the Sailors' Home, 3 remained at the Government Civil Hospital, 1 at the Sailors' Home, and 74 obtained employment.

Two thousand six hundred and one dollars ($2,601.00) were expended by the Harbour Master on behalf of the Board of Trade in the relief of these Distressed Seamen.

MARINE SURVEYOR'S SUB-DEPARTMENT.

20. Return No. XXIII gives a report of the work performed by this Sub- Department during the year 1903.

During the year, 190 vessels were surveyed for Passenger Certificate and Bottom Inspection, and 111 were surveyed for Emigration, an increase of 15 and 18 respec- tively on the previous year, which was the highest on record.

Owing to the Kowloon and Cosmopolitan Docks being blocked at different times by vessels undergoing extensive repairs, twenty-nine of the surveys for passenger certificate took place at Aberdeen Dock involving considerable loss of time and extra expense in hiring an outside launch.

The Kinshan of 2,861 gross tons, and the Ying King of 1,088 gross tons were built under inspection, the former being the largest steel and the latter the largest wooden vessel ever constructed in the Colony.

I would beg to point out that owing to the increase of the work and the greater distance apart of the building yards and slips an additional launch is urgently required.

LIGHT-HOUSES.

21. The amount of Light Dues collected is as follows:-

Class of Vessels.

Rate. No. of per ton. Ships.

Tonnage.

Total Fees collected.

Ocean Vessels,

1 cent 4,435| 7,012,128

night,

River Steamers (Day Boats),

Steam Launches,

River Steamers, (Night boats), Launches plying exclusively to Macao and West River, by

Launches plying exclusively to Macao and West River, by day,

1

249 1,707

7,012,128 9,398 1,388,738

$ 70,121.28

C.

93.98 4,629.67

1/1/148

621

Free.

1,125

34,466 1,066,130

115.07

Free.

895

49,375

Total,...

9,032 | 9,560,235 | 74,960.00

244

Telegraphic and telephonic communication has been kept up with the Gap Rock, Cape d'Aguilar and Waglan Island during the year,

From Gap Rock Station, 892 vessels have been reported as passing, and in addition 181 messages were received and 3,769 sent, including the daily weather report for the Observatory. Owing to telegraphic communication being interrupted 20 vessels were not reported.

Forty-six hours and fifty minutes of fog were reported from Gap Rock during the year, and the fog signal gun was fired 357 times. On no occasion was the relief delayed by the rough sea.

From Cape d'Aguilar Station 1,987 vessels were reported, and in addition 1,886 messages were seut and 26 received.

.

From Waglan Island Station, 1,952 vessels were reported, and in addition 55 messages were sent and 69 received. Owing to the telephonic communication being interrupted, 192 vessels were not reported.

Two hundred and eighteen hours and forty-eight minutes of fog were reported from Waglan Island during the year, and the fog signal gun was fired 2,260 times On no occasion was the relief delayed by the rough sea.

GOVERNMENT GUNPOWDER DEPOT.

22. During the year 1903 there has been stored in the Government Gunpowde Depôt, Stonecutters' Island:-

No.

of Cases.

Approximate Weight:

lbs.

Gunpowder, privately owned,

6.655

155,915

Do.. Government owned,

Cartridges, privately owned,

Do., Government owned,

Explosive Compounds, privately owned,

2,292

127,346

2,780

621,925

17

4,700

52

7.103

Do..

Government owned,

456

65.122

Non-explosives, privately owned,

4

600

Do..

Government owned,

Total,.

12,286

982.711

During the same period there has been delivered out of the Depôt:----

No.

Approximate

of Cases.

Weight.

lbs.

For Sale in the Colony :-

Gunpowder, privately owned.

224

5,745

Cartridges, privately owned,

88

20,975

Explosive Compounds, privately owned,..

10

1,150

Non-explosives, privately owned,

For Export:-

Gunpowder, privately owned,

612

Cartridges, privately owned.

1,172

20,615 255,325

Explosive Compounds, privately owned,....... Non-explosives, privately owned,

4

600

Total,.....

2,110

304,410

}

245

On the 31st December, 1903, there remained as follows:

No.

of Cases.

Approximate Weight.

lbs.

Gunpowder, privately owned,

Do., Government owned,

5,819

129,555

2,146

108.502

Cartridges, privately owned,

1,520

345,625

Do., Government owned,

19

1:900

Explosive Compounds, privately owned,

42

5.953

Do.,

Government owned,

334

49,952

Non-explosives, privately owned,

Do., Government owned,

Total,....

9,880

641,487

NEW TERRITORY.

(Fifth year of British Administration.)

23. The Station at the Island of Cheung Chau was opened in September, the one at Tai O, in the Island of Lantao, in October, 1899, that at Tai Po in Mirs Bay, on board the Police Steam Launch, in January, 1900, that in Deep Bay, on board the Police Steam Launch, in November, 1901, and that at Sai Kung in April, 1902.

From 1st January to 31st December, 1903-8,674 Licences, Clearances, Permits, &c. were issued at Cheung Chau, 3,157 at Tai O, 3,817 at Tai Po, 4,202 at Deep Bay, and 4,021 at Sai Kung.

The Revenue collected by this Department from the New Territory during 1903 was $15,718.75.

GENERAL.

24. Captain RUMSEY having left the Colony for good, it devolves upon me to father this Report, which deals with a period during three quarters of which he was in charge of the Harbour, I may, perhaps, be permitted to express my own personal regret at, and my sense of the loss the Colony has incurred through, his departure.

(ii.) The building of the much-needed new Harbour Office has now been com- menced, and it is to be hoped that the work will be pushed on as quickly as possible, as the work of the Department is seriouly hampered by the restricted view of the Harbour from the Office. But it is scarcely probable that the new Office can be opened much before another two years have passed.

(iii.) During the year arrangements have been made to light Cap-shui-mun, and this light will, I trust, be established before this Report appears in print. There would seem to be little prospect, however, of immediate improvement in the light- ing of the Eastern and Western approaches to the Harbour, by the shifting of Cape D'Aguilar Light to Green Island, and the Green Island Light to Cape Collin- son, as approved in 1900, owing to the greater necessity for other Public Works, which are absorbing all the available funds. It is to le hoped that it will be possible to carry out these greatly needed improvements before long, Green Island light being so inefficient in its present position, and Cape D'Aguilar light having been lying idle for over seven years now. This latter light cost the Government £2,914 about thirty years ago, and is in as good condition now as it was when it was first lit in 1874.

(iv.) The size of vessels trading to and from the Colony continues to increase, as well as their numbers, and the problem as to where to put them is becoming very serious. The deep water area of the Harbour is small, and, owing to constant reclamations and silting up of certain parts of the Harbour, this area is continually contracting. Something will have to be done in the near future to provide accom- modation for the shipping, and the question is "What"?

:

:

246

(v.) It is probable that the shipping of the Port will continue to increase, both in numbers and size, so that any measures that may be decided upon will have to take the future into account, and not only the immediate future, either. Dredging is extremely slow and expensive work, and any scheme which bases its entire hopes on this alone, is, in my opinion, doomed to failure, not only on account of the slowness of the work, but because of the probable uselessness of it, for it is reason- able to believe that, as those parts of the Harbour which stand in need of dredging have been, and are still being, silted up, so they will continue to be in the future, and unless a prohibitive (as to cost) number of dredgers be employed, and be kept employed, very little. if any, impression will be made on the depth of the water. And the work will be endless, as it will have to be kept going indefinitely.

(vi.) So far as I am aware, no other plan (than that of dredging) for providing deep water accommodation, has hitherto been suggested, except that contained in a scheme of Harbour Improvement formulated and submitted to Government by me in January, 1902. which provided, inter alia, for the deepening, by natural means, of the water West of the Kowloon Peninsula and inside Sulphur Channel. This scheme I am not now permitted to publish. It would cost a considerable sum of money, money which, however, once spent, would be spent once and for all, and would give us many things besides an increased deep water anchorage, including the vexed question of communications, dealt with by Captain RUMSEY in his report

for 1901.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS (OPIUM) OFFICE.

25. The return shows that during the year the amount of Opium reported. was as follow:-

Imported,

Exported,

Through Cargo reported but not

landed,..

1902. 1903. Increase. Decrease. Chests. Chests. Chests. Chests.

43,781 | 46,034 2,253

43,3481

46,551

3,202

13,483 16,442 2,959

Seventeen thousand eight hundred and seventy-nine (17,879) Permits were issued from this Office during the year, being an increase of 3,558 as compared with 1902.

A daily memo. of exports to Chinese ports was, during the year, supplied to the Commissioner of Imperial Maritimne Customs, and a daily memo. of exports to. Macao was supplied to the Superintendent of Raw Opium Department of Macao.

Surprise visits were paid to 108 godowns during the year.

I have, &c.,

BASIL TAYLOR,

The Honourable A. M. THOMSON,

&c.,

Acting Colonial Secretary,

&.,

&c.

Acting Harbour Master, &e..

Seringa tak

I-NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, and CARGOES of

WITH CARGOES.

BRITISH.

IN BALLAST,

TOTAL

COUNTRIES WHENCE ARRIVED.

argoes.

Vessels.

Tons.

rews.

Vessels.

Tons.

Vessels.

Tons.

Dis- char ed Transit.

Australia and New Zealand,

40

74.214 2,722

65,561 22.053

40

British North Borneo,...

Canada.

Coast of China,.

Cochin-China,

25

43,360 1,276

46,5411 1,290

24

68.847 4.382| 10,749

1,896,2,561,921 95,824 365,438 403,307

267,245, 13.205

Continen of Europe,

Formosa,

Great Britain,

India and Straits Settlements,

Japan,...

Java and other Islands in the Indian Archipelago,.

Kiauchow,

Macao.

57,779 2,818 83,505 7,400 11.284 168

740 20,55 19,0.2 1.647 7.280 148 424,279,105 208,753 490,696) 159) 347,095 16.111 239.434 271,378) 204 475,58712,576 385.080 198.96- 105 190,413 6,692 212,092 51,794

913 577.82133,304

501

690

38

4

27

2081

160

5,967 125

74,214 2.722 23 43,20 1,276

24

68.807 4,382

2,2272,829.166 109,029

58,469 2,856 11,284 163

30 21.043 1.807 113, 424.271 9,105) 159 317,095 16,1.1 207 481.554 12 701 105 190,413 6.69%)

48,355

336 .65

915 578,160 33,369

Mauritius,

:

North Pacific,

Philippine Islands,

Ports in Hainan and Gulf of Tonquin,

Russia in Asia....

Siam,

United States of America,

162 208,640 10,847

50,875

6,200

28

16

13,699 719

25,886

G

37.897; 1,569 1,070 119 2,155 55

190 246,537, 12,416)

14

18.877 738

6,700

70 214,023

5,043

Wei-hui-wei,.......

1,062

68

146,722 500

2,000 75,700 200

8.403 131

14,769

2,155 55 14) 18,877 738 70 214,023 5.043 9,465 199

838

TOTAL...

3,951 5,307,768 201,040 1,899,212|1,551,536

378 325.794 15,467 4,2295,633,562 219.507||/

II-NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, and CARGOI

WITH CARGOES.

BRITISH.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

COUNTRIES TO WHICH DEPARTED.

Shippel.

Shipped.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Cargoes.

Bunker Vessels.

Cal.

Tons. Crews.

Bunker Cal.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Cargoes!!

Bunker Ve

Curl.

Australia & New Zealand,

15

27,007 1,104

14.970 2.510

British North Borneo,

8:

13.152

637! 4,949 2,705

24

2,646 5,013 152

49

17

29,053 1,153

14,970

2,510

600

12

789 18,165

4,949

3,305!

Canada,

21

60,000 3,813; 19,944;

21

Coast of China,

Cochin-China,

Continent of Europe,

1

Formosa,.....

Great Britain,

Japan,

31 29,319 9261

India and Straits Settlements,.

Java and other Islands in the Indian

Archipel go,

400 6.440 54.645 48 154.110 3.887 161 404,733 15.164 213.180 155 361,446 9,727 118.067|

13 28,062 855

2,266 3,018.863 116,886 477.069 126,887

12 14,610 637 10,013 2,770

1,930

79 100,249 4.639] 58,178 1,690|

4,790 4,617

60,000 3,813) 19,944

2,345 3,119,112 121,525 477.069 131.677 13

59

72,788 2,327

10.013

7,387

301

1

1,930 30

400

120 1,275

25 39,010 23,062

31

29,319 9261

6,440

120

2,198 28 55,148|| 1,077)

49 156,308 3.915

54,645

1.275

76 131,709 2643

1.485

5,020

3,860

14

22.993

631

2,805

51,055 1,486]

Kiauchow,

Macao,

914 610,496 38.883 27,741

7678

186 459,88116,241 213,180| 3,476

231 493,155 12,370|| 118,067|

27

914 610,496 33,883 27.741 7,673

42,486

24.547

5,020)

6.065

Mauritius,

North Pacific,

2

Philippine Islands,

151) 4,056 202 298,752 14,077||| 200,092

1,900

::

2

52,726 14

33,812

Port Arthur,

Ports in Hainan & G. of Tonquin,

201

Russia-in-Asia,.

1

Siam,

35

13.906 808 26 2,158 34,272 1,056|

6 081

400

1,827 11

175

300

625 2,080

14,791 605 1,640

4.030 83 200

4.056 151 1,900 216 332,564 14,702 200,092| 51,806

ان

26.697 1,413 6,081

3,467

1

37

2.158 38.302 1,39!

26

175

400

500

South America,

United States of America, Wei-hai-wei,

33

93.701 2,824 8,176 15,394

860;

33:

344

2.900

840

13701 2,824| 80,176; 15,394 314

2.900

860 840

TOTAL...

3,9455,185,967 205,835 1,243,987 266.600, 275 430,767. 12,222

21.693 4,220,5,616,734 219,057|1.243.987 288.29315,

:

247

-NUMBER, TONNAGE, Crews, and Cangoes of Vessels ENTERED at Ports in the Colony of Hongkong from each Country for the Year ending

BRITISH.

IN BALLAST.

ΤΟΤΑΙ

WITH CARGOES.

FOREIGN.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

argoes.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews. Vessels. Tons. Crews.

ed fransit.

Dis- chared. Transit.

Vessels.

Tons.rews.

Dis- charged. Transit.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons.

1. Ws.

Dis-

charged Tra

י

561

541

22.053 1,290

40

749

74,214 2.722 65 564 23 43,20 1,276| 46,541| 24 68.807 4,382 10,749

22,053

1,290

25

12

29,053 1,177

5,966 4,688

12

20 21,798 909 21,796 5,219

201

29,053 1,177 21,798

5 966!

909 21,796

***

438 408,397

505 7,400

38

267,245 13.205 2,2272,829.166 109,029 365,433 403,307

690

53,469 2,856||||| 83,505

740 20,55

11.284 163

740

7,400 20,550

280

2031

160

773 490,696

134 271,378

180 198.96-

5,967

125

392 51,794

30 21.043 1.807 7.280 113 424.271 9,105 203,753 490,696 159 347,095 16,1 1 239,434| 271.378 207|| 481.554 12 701 385.080 198.968, 105 190,413, 6.692| 212,092, 51.794

81

12.9611,792,713 195,880 673,143 502,537 4.865 801,774 67,134 17.826 2,594.487 263 914 673,143 50

144 155.828 8,957 160,750 41,470 131 242,157 6,161 143,111 204,800,

65.799 4,165 22,754

955

31

144 155,828 8,957 160,750 41 133 243,112 6,192 143,111) 20

1,388

51

82

67.187 4.216, 22.754

23

82 415 2,895 30,666 102,202 90 261,596 8,703 168.282 198,576 241 552,867 14,291 589,300 144,589

23

1.521

18 2,140 30

91

82.415 2,395 30 666 10: 266.117 8,720, 163.282190

242, 551,507, 14.321 589,300, 14:

58

69,546 2,377 101,110,

8,700

53,

69,546 2,377, 101.110

1

3,883 53;

1,000

3,600

3,833 53 1.000,

3581

336

65

915

578,160 33,369| 48,353

799

78,999 15,236

31.019.

314

16,528 3,424 1,113

95,527; 18,650

31,019

3

3,357 112

2.250

3

3,357 112

2,250

3

1,404 66

2,260

375

6,200

28

37.897; 1,569

191

246,537, 12,416

386

6

1,070 119 2.155 55

14,769

838

50,875 25,886

6,200

80

189,599 6,851 19.957

2,625

49

327

00

2,000 75,700

14

00

200

8.403 131

2,155 55 18,877 738 6,700 70 214,023 5.043 146.722

4 9,465 199

236,889 10.938 211.194

3,154 44

62,899

590 C8,570 2,134 1,841 62

54!

5

1,991

120

2.260,

129

258,170 8,985

19 957

329

238,730 11,000 211,194

143

2,000

294 839,22113,638 346,548

2,000

75,700

84 297,645 10,312 87,052 4',366

84

31 3,154 44

294 339,21 13,638 346,548,

297.645) 10,312, 87,052

500)

200

.121,551,536 378 325.794 15,467 4,229 5,633,562 219,507 1,899,212 1,551,536 15,3534,430,423 302,270 2,618,158 1,393,414 5,237 895,308 72,938 20,590|5,325,731 375,208 2,618,158 1,32

II. NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, and Cargoes of Vessels CLEARED in the Colony of Hongkong for each Country for the Year ending 31st

ISH.

LAST.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

FOREIGN.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Crews.

Banker Cal.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews,

Shipped.

Cargoes.

Shipped.

Shipped

Bunker Vessels.

Corl.

Tons. Crews.

Cargoes.

Bunker Coul

Vessels.

Tous. Crews.

Bunker Coal.

Vessels.

Tons. Cres

Cargoes.

| Bunker

Coal.

Vessels

49

17

162

600.

21

4.639 1,690

28 1,077

2 643 1.485

631

2,805

29,653 1,153 12 18,165 789 60,000 3,813 4,790 2,345 3,119,112 121,525

59 4,617

72,788 2,327 I 1.930 30 400 31 29,319 926 6,440 49 156,308 3.915| 54,645 1,275 186 459,88116,241 213,180 3,476

281 493,155 12,370|||| 118,067|

27 51,055 1,486

46

14,970 2,510 16 21,613 732 3,370 1,570 1 1,640 22

4.949 3,305 14: 16,468 774 4.370 5,516

6,659 173 19,944 477.069 131.677 13,495 2,420,894 235,583 960.932 123,758 4,645 369,475 41,922 10.013 7,387 94 125,378||| 7,280| 55,473 26,595 55 59,655 1,905|

71,599 1,045 13,835 3,690

5

19

17 23,253 754 3,370 1,570 1,050

23,127 947 4,376

6 566

22,009 18,140 2,790,369 277,505 960,932 145,767 15,76 10,250 149 185,033 9,185 55,473 36.845

46 71,599 1,045)

2

100

13,855

3,690

47

120

4,473 285

25,000

300

42,126 1,220†

42,486

142

5,020

24.547 6,665

6,400 428,645 12,516 106,235| 180 464,569 12,743|| 175,064

10

10,905 352 4,700 10,350 220

10 44,726 25.251 3,210

12,292 281 98 188,740 4,363

6 7,756

220

2,175, 3,204

2501

5! 4,473 258 25,000 11 42,126 1,220) 6.400 152 440,937 12,797||||106,235 278 653,30 17,106) 175,064

16 18,661

300

31

51

46,901

30:

28,455

33.

572

4,700

4,060

24

3,400

1,465

914 610,496 33,883|| 27.741

7,673

904

92.101|16,392Į

49.679]

1.362

177

4

625

2,080

605 1,640 31

216 332,56414,702 200,092|

4.056 151 1,900

51,806

4,559 218 4.344 82 218,461 7,492

1.650

3 500

:

183

2,502

690

54.992

23,190

12

1,115 10,154

16,093 1,701!

60 475

6 10,350 220 3,400 1,465 112 1,081 108,194 18,093

49,679,

1,474 1,81

3001 1,295

4: 4,559 218 6 5,459 243 94 228,615, 7,967;

1.650

3,500

2,502 54,992

990

24 185

28

.

26.697 1,413| 6,081

3,467

1

2.158 26

175!

83

200

37

38,302 1,139

400

500

366 227,219 10,523 8.431 274 114 131,309 4,954|

178,377

35,797

75

10,150

1,495

40.060]

30,103

72

1.332 23

2,200

33

13 701 2,824|

80,176; 15,394 314 2,000

860

52, 194,140 7.788

97,301

1.080

83,028 2,726 617 28 66,246 2,553 1,938 24 2.997 40

8,100 90 4,865

441 810,247 13,249 9 9.048 302 216 197.555 8,507

173,377||||| 43,897|

10.150

381

1.585

40,060

34,968

17:

54

3,270 47 197,137: 7,828 97,301

2,200

1,080

8:

840

...

12,222

21,693 4,220,5,616,734 219,057 1,243.987||| 288.293|15,5854,498,916 320,5971,790,696 333,298 5,161 828,405|56,493,

54,300 20,740 5,327,321 377,000 1,790,696 387,598|19,531

1

from each Countr for the Year ending 31st December, 1903.

EIGN.

.LLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

TOTAL.

IN 'ALLAST.

TOTAL.

Cargoes.

Cargoes

Cargoes.

ns.

Crews. Vessels.

Tons.

1 WS.

Dis- charged Transit.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Dis- chared Transit.

Tons. Vessels.

Tons. rews. Vessels.

Crews.

Dis- charged

Transit.

1

12 20

955

31

..388

51

82

23

29,053 1,177. 5.966 4,688 21,798 909 21,796

1,774 67,134 17,826 2,594.487) 263 014 678,143

144 155,828 8,957| 160,750| 133) 243,112 6,192 143,111 22.751 67.187 4.216, 82.415 2,395′ 30 666

52

6.509

..521

18

91 266.117 8,726, 168,282

2,140

30

242 551,507 14.321 539,300

53

69,546 2,377, 101.110

8,700

3,833 53 1.000,

3,600

1

5,528

3,424 1,113

95,527 18,660

31,019

3.883 5s 1,712 656,823 48,510

102.202| 166 506.686 11,500 234.419 592.898, 196,576 249 611.691 24,819; 407.716_467.954. 144,539 445 1,027,954 26,867 974.380 343.557, 163 259,559 9,069 313,202 60.494 1.000 3.600 79,372

103,267 3,899 71,530, 26.741 5,219 43. 65,058 2,185 68,337

24 68,807 4,382| 10,749

52 103,267 3,899 71,530 26,741

4 65,058 2.183 68.337 6,509 24 68.807 4.382 10.749

502,537 14,857 4,345.634 291,701 1,038,581 905.844 5,196 1,069,019 80.339 20,9535.423,653 372,041,938.581 905.844

41.470 194 213,607 11,775 244,255||||| 48,870)| 201,800| 135 258.441 6,329 143,851) 225,350,

30.034

103 81,8 5,812

38 195 214,297,11,818! 244.255 48.870 137 254,396 6,360 143,851| 225.350 112 88.230. 6.023 30.034 166 506,686, 11.500 234.419 592,898 250 613.212 24.837 407,716 467,954 449 1,036,051 27,022 974.380 343,557 163 259,959 9.069 8,883 53

690

955

3

8,419

2.1

1.521 8,107

18 155

813,202

60,400

1,000

3.694

316

16.864 3.469 2,028

673,687 52,029

79,872

3

3,357 112

2,250

31

3,357 1:2

2.250

3

3,357 112

2,250

-590 3,571 2,131

54

5

1,991 120

2.260,

3

1,404 66

2,260

129

258,170 8,935

19 9571

2,425

242 598,239 17,693

70,832

,841 62

329

3

238,730 11,000 211,194

3,154 44

62 899

343|| 250,588 11,657|| 237,080

8.825 62,899

143

294 339,2-1 13,638, 316,548,

2,000

1. 3,154 41 308 358,098 14.376

363,248

143 4.000

590 77 106,468 3.703 2,911 181 2,155

54

5

1,994 120

2,260

319

504.707 21,401 70.832 8,825

351

55

21 5,309 99!

253.499 11,838 237,080

62.899

143

308

358,098 14,37€ 353.248

4,000

84 297.645, 10,312, 87,052 41,388)

154 511,668 15,355 233,77}

1 1,062 68

500

117.066 200

154

511,668 15,355

233,774 117,066

8,403

131

9,465 199

500

200

,,308 72,938 20,590|5,325,7 375,208 2,618,158 1,323,414 13,2049,788,191 506,310 4,517,370 2.874,950 5,615 1,221,102 88,405 24,819 10,959,293 591,715 4,517,370 2.874,950

ach Country for the Year ending 31st December, 1903.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

TOTAL.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Shipped

Cargoes.'

>hipped.

Shipped.

Bunker

Bunker Vessels. Tons.

Coal.

Crews

Cargoes.

Bunker Vessels.

Coal.

Tons. 'rews. Coal,

Vessels.

Tous. Crews.

Cargoes.

hunker Coal.

ŏ

17 23,253 754 3,370 19 23,127 947 4,376

1,570 31 6 566! 22

11

5 4,473, 258 25,000 42.126 1,220| 6.400

50

19 18,140 2,790,369 277,505 960,982 149 185,033 9,185 55,473

46 71,599 1,045 13,855 3,690 300

48.620 1,836 18,340 4 080 3 4,286 71 29.620 1,411

9.625 8,221

11,672 325 21 60,000 3,813 19,944 145,767 15,761 5,439,757 352,469 1,438,001 250,645 4,724 469,724 46,561 36.845 106 139,988| 7,917) 65,486 29,365 102 117,833 3,595

47 73.529 1,075, 14.235 3,690 36 33.792 1,211|

420

34

1,650

31

31.440

59 196,236 5,107||

61,045

1,275

14

001

152 440.937 12,797 106,235

278 653,309 17,106] 175.064

16 18,661 572 4,700

10,350 2201

3,400 2 1,081 108,194 18,093) 49,679,

4,559 218

1,650 5,459 243 2,502

46,901

303 833,378 27,680| 319,415

28,455

335 826.015 22,470, 293.131

4,060

23 38,967 1.207

9.7201

2.198 28 83.736 35 67.440 1,358 48.313 174 320,449 7,006|

7,070 20 30,749

851

26,799 20,485 5,909,481 399,030 1,438,001 277,444 14,867 208 257,821 11,512 65,486 44,232 47 73,529 1.075 14,235 3,690 36 33,792 1,211

60 198,434 5.135 61,045

52,900) 1,907) 41.292 1,736 9,3251 9,871 21 60,000 3.813 19,944

18.340 4,080

31,440

420

1,275

5,651

338 900,818 29 038

319 415

89,387

4,689 3.655

51

94 228.615. 7,967;

54,992

00

30

441 310,247 13,249 173,377

9.048 302

10.150

35

216 197.555 8,507 40,060

2 3,270

471

2,200

54 197,137: 7,828

97,301

1,465 6 10,350 220 1,474 1,818 702,597 50,275| 3,500 4 4,559 218 1,650

990

8,400 334 4,402 24 485

284 517.21321,569||| 255,084|

43,8971 386||||241,125 11,331|| 179,458|

1.585

9 10,589 300 10.150 34,968

179 165,581 6,010| 40,460 1.332 23 2,200 1,080 85 287,84110.612|| 177,477| 15,394 344 2,900

3,400

1,465

77,420

9.035

177 16,098 1.701

69,716 2,058 10.350

220 112 1,995 718,690 51,970

509 1,146,464 29.476 293,131)

43

53.002

9,720

10,725

3,400 1.465

77,420

9.147

3,500

4,559, 218

1,650

3,500

690

1. 1,115 60

75.916

26

43,966 1,100}

300 3,375

8

9.515 394 4,402

990

310 561,179 22,669 255,084

79,291

37,624

86

97,819 3,331

9,740

1,670

617 28

90

472 338,944 14.662 179,458, 10 11,206 328 10,150

47,364

1,760

30,403

74

1,940 840

9,9971

70.276 2,636| 1,938 24 40

5,065

253 235,857 8,646

40,460

35.468

87

3.270 47 290 838 10.652 177,477 15,394 344 2,900

2,200

1,940

840

30 20,746 5,327,821 377,000 1,790,696 387,598 19,530 9,684,883 527,432 3,034,683 599,898 5,436 1,259,172 68.715 75,993 24,966 10,944,055 598,147 8,034,683 675,891

1

NAMES

OF PORTS.

Aberdeen,

Cheung Chaú,.

Deep Bay,

Hunghom,

Sai Kung,.

Sham Shui-po,

Shaukiwán,.

Stanley,.

Tai 0, Tai Po, Victoria,

III. TOTAL NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, AND

WITH CARGOES.

BRITISH.

IN BALLAST,

TOTAL.

W

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

Vls.

Tons. Crews. Vls. Tons. Crews.

Vis. Tons.

Dis- charged.

Transit.

Dis- charged.

Transit.

299

8.42

244 3,47

3,851,5,307,768|204 040|1,899,212 1,551,536

Total,..

3,851 5,307,768 204,0401,899.2121,551,536|

}

NAMES

OF PORTS.

Aberdeen,

Cheung Chaú,........

Deep Bay,

Hunghom,

Sai Kung,

Sham Shui-po,

Shaukiwán,.

Stanley,.

Tai 0,

Tai Po, Victoria,

54:3 9,85

21

35

1,999 178,24

362 5.67

23|

हए

76, 3,24

378 325,794 15.467 4,229 5,633,562 219,507 1,699,212 1,551,536|11,786|4,220,35

378 325,794 15.467 4,229 5,633,562 219,507 1.899.212 1.551.53615,3534,430,42

!

IV.—TOTAL NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, AŅI

WITH CARGOES.

BRITISH.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Shipped.

Shipped.

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

Vis.

Tons. Crews

Cargoes.

Bunker Coal.

Bunker Coal.

Tis. Tons. Crews.

Vls.

Bunker

Cargoes.

Coal.

4:

9

23

1,85 29

+

Total,

3,945 5,185,967 206,835 1,243,987 266,600 275 430,76712,222|

3,945 5,185,967|206,835|1,243,987| 266,600 275 430,767 12,222

21,693 4,220 5,616,734 219,057 1,243,987

288,293 12,97

21,693 4,2205,616,734 219,057 1,243,987 288,293) 15,57

j

248

OTAL NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, AND CARGOES OF VESSELS ENTERED AT EACH PORT IN THE COLONY OF I

FOREIGN.

TOTAJ.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Cargors.

Vls. Tons. Crews.

Vis.

Tons. Crews.

Vis.

Tons. Crews. VIS.

Tons. Crews.

Vls.

T

Dis- charged.

Transit.

Dis- | charged.

Transit.

Dis- charged.

Transit.

299

244

8.424 1,842) 3,735 3,472 1,439| 2,568

131 42

419 89 312 465 2741 286!

8,843 1,931 2,735 3,937 1,713, 2,568

299

244

543

9,854 2,662

7,850

112

2,870 679

21

354 112

1,999

231 76.

178,245 19,869 302 5,670 1,872 3,556 807 146 3,244 591

166; 141,927

22

17

655 24

12,724 3,341

7,850

543

132

3701 1,288

4

14

66 521

1,291|| 160,78213,135 3,29

5,946 1,009 494 24. 27 130 96

376 129 338,977 33,004||| 141,927 11,616 2,881) 3,556

166

211

3,999

362

873 170 370 3,762 7211 1,288

23

76

4,229 5,633,562 219,5071,899,212 1,551,536| 11,7864,220,353 273,737 2,456,698 1,323,414

4,2205,633,562 219,507 1,899.212 1.551,536 15,353|4,430,423 302,270 2,618,158 1.323,414 5,237

3,626| 724,267 57,681|15,412 4,944.620 331,318,2,456,698 1,323,414|

895,308) 72,938 20,590 5,325,731 375,208 2,618,1581 323,414

15.637 9,

19,204 9,

OTAL NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, AND CARGOES OF VESSELS CLEARED AT EACH PORT IN THE COLONY OF

FOREIGN.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Shipped.

Shipped.

Shipped.

Bunker

Tis. Tons. Crews.

Vis.

Tons. ¡Crews.

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

Coal.

Cargoes.

Bunker Coal.

Cargoes.

Bunker Coal.

Bunker Coal.

Vls. Tons. Crews.

Cargoes.

I un

Coa

49

1,101 287

97

1,821 701

486 1,063

198

3,111 1,022

247

4,212 1,309

486

193

2,094 932

290

3,915 1,653

1,063

233

5

11,176 2,116

922

150 413

7,889 314

45

14

640 43

6,727 1,4241 4,917

64 25

41 1,853 208,025 18,978 108,639

297 18 52 2,178

2

16 153 81 1,538 127,233 15,100

429

6,012 1,939

662

12,739 3,363

4,917

21

217 1061

41

3,391

335,258 34,078

168,639

250)|

4,706 1,303

547

15,882 3,421 7,889

7

381 251

25

960

175

314

36

1,652 2741

88

3,830

6×7

640

45

14!

43

221,693 4,220 5,616,734 219,057 1,243,987 288,293 12,979 4,266,857 296,489 1,606,064 333,298 2,494 683,406 35,815

21,693 4,2205,616,734 219,057 1,243,987 288,293 15,585 4.498,916 320,597 1,790,696 333,298 5,161 828,405 56,493

54,800, 15,473 4,950,263,332,304,1,606,664 387

54,300, 20,7465,327,321 377,090 1,790,696 387

IN THE COLONY OF HONGKONG, IN THE YEAR 1903.

WITH CARGGES.

TOTAL.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Vls.

Tons.

Crews.

VIS

Dis- arged.

Transit.

Dis- charged.

Tons. Crews.

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

Transit.

Dis- charged.

Transit.

2,735

299

8,4241

1,842

3,785

137

419

312.

8,843

1,931

3,735

2,568

244

2,472

1,439

2,56

42:

465

274

280

3,927 1,7:3

2,568

7,850

543

9.854

2,662)

7,850

112

2,870

679

(55

12,724

341

7,850

166

211

3541

112

160

3

22

17:

24.

376

129

166

141,927

1,999)

178,945

19,869

141,927

1,291

160,732

13,135

3.290

888,977

33,004)

141,027

3,556

362

5,670

1,872)

3,556

132

5,946

1,009,

494

11,616

2,881

3,556

370

23

1,268

76

807 3,244

146

370

4

66

591

1,288

14

521

24 130

27

90

¥733 3,765!

170 721

370

1,288

456,698|1,323,414]

15.037 9,528,121| 477,777

4,355,910 2,874,950

355,910

4,004 1,050,061

73,48 73,048

19,641 10,578,182 550,825 4.355,910 2,874,950

318,158|1 323,414 19,204

9,738.191 506,310| 4.517.370 2.874,950

5,615 1,221,102'

28 407

24.819 10.959.2931 504,715) 4517,3702.874,950

i

IN THE COLONY OF HONGKONG, IN THE YEAR 1903.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

TOTAL.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Shipped.

Shipped.

Shipped.

Tons. Crews.

VIS.

Tons. Crews,

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

I unker

Cargoes. Coal.

Cargoes.

Bunker Coal.

Bunker Coal.

VIS.

Tons. Crews.

Cargoe s

Bunker Coal.

4,212 1,309

486

3,915 1,658

1,063

49 97

1,101 287 486; 1,821 701 1,063

198

3,111 1,022

2471

4,212 1,309

4861

103

2,094 9321

290

3,915 1,633 1,063

12,739 3,363|

4,917

233

217 106

41

D

1,424 25

4,917

41

335,258 34,078

15,882 3,421

960 175.

687

168,639 7,889

314

18

3,8301

45

14

6400

43

45

14

314 640

43

6,727 64 1,853| 208,025|18,978, 168,639 2971 11,176 2,116 7,889 922 150 52 2,178[ 413!

16

153 81 1,538 127,233| 15,160,

250

4,700 1,305

38 36! 1,652 274

,950,263 332,304,1,600,664 387,598 16,9249,452,824503,324 2,850,661| 599,898| 2,7691,114,173 48,036! 75.993 19,693 10,566,997 551,361 2,850,661 675,891

,327,321 377,090 1,790,696 387,598 19,530 9,684,883 527,432 3,034,093 599,898 5,4361,259,172 68,715 75,993 24,966/10,944,055 596,147 3,034,683 675,891

429

6,012 1,939

662j

12,739 3,363|

4,9:7

21

217 106

411

3.391

335,258|34,078|| 168.639

:5

547 25

15,882 3,421| 7,889

960 175

314

88

3,830 687 45 141

640

431

.

249

V.-NUMBER, TONNAGE and CREWS of Vessels of each Nation ENTERED at Ports in the Colony of Hongkong in the Year 1903.

ENTERED.

NATIONALITY

OF

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

VESSELS.

Vessels.

Tous.

Crews. Vessels. Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons.

Crews.

American,

104

209,484

8,197

10

7,503

317

114

216,987 8,514

Austrian,

32

82,227 1,943

10

24,717

461

42

106,944 2,404

British,

3,851

5,307,768 | 204,040

378

325,794

15,467

4,229

5,633,562 |219,507

Chinese,

306

194,305 14,603

39

60,639

3,364

345

254,914 17,967

Chinese Junks,

10,941

885,764126,542

4,862

461,237

57,665

15,803

1,347,001 | 184,207

Danish,

23

44,333

828

4

4,343

125

27

48,676

953

Dutch,

20

33,340

1,072

1

1,235

45

21

34,575

1,117

French,

572

417,918

28,201

13

5,642

359

585

423,560

28,560

German,

794

1,182,872

41,306

144

164,740 į

5,438

938

1,347,612

46,744

Italian,

12

32,732

1,179

12

32,732

1,179

Japanese,

440

968,774

33,541

28

48,609

1,436

468

1,017,383

34,977

Norwegian,

Portuguese,

Russian,

215

216,285

6,869

104

104,898

3,253

319

321,183 10,122

89

16,368 1,360

948

90

93

17,316

1,450

16

28,324

506

2,457

77

19

30,781

583

Sarawak,

4

2,676

61

1

2,676

61

Swedish,.

No Flag,

Steam-lanuches trading to ports outside the Colony,

TOTAL,.

25

21,946

1,058

113

5,418

210

32

27,364

1,268

2,758

60

3

2,758

60

93,075 } 1,760

35,004

10

5

164

38

1,765

93,239 35,042

19,204 9,738,191 506,310

5,615 1,221,102

88.405

24,819 10,959,293 | 594,715

VI.-NUMBER, TONNAGE and CREWS of Vessels of each Nation CLEARED at Ports in the Colony of

Hongkong in the Year 1903.

CLEARED.

NATIONALITY

OF VESSELS.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Vessels.

Tous. Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

American,

Austrian,

British,

104 212,059 8,231 39 105,549 2,363 3,945 | 5,185,967|206,835

11

3

8,193 1,854

357

115

220,252 8,588

65

42

107,403 2,428

275

430,767

12,222

4,220 | 5,616,734 |219,057

Chinese,

324 226,454 16,805

19

27,063

1,090

343

253,517 17,895

Chinese Junks,

11,312

1,116,314 | 148,625

4,651

235,144

37,550

15,963

1,351,458 186,175

Danish,

17

35,156

601

10

13,520

352

27

48,676

953

Dutch,

18

28,801

959

4

6,976

219

22

35,777

1,178

French, German,

Italian,

567 407,199 27,940

17

15,372

564

584

422,571

28,504

752

1,136,561

38,983

184

205,695

7,719

936

1,342,256

46,602

13

33,526

1,233

13

33,526

1,233

Japanese,

390

858,228

31,107

79

163,555

3,989

469

1,021,783

35,096

Norwegian,

Portuguese,

191

186,950

6,226

122

128,645 3,710

313

315,595

9,936

80

13,752

1,278

12

3,402

152

92

17,154

1,430

Russian,

13

24,203

428

6

6,578

155

19

30,781

583

Sarawak,

2,007

45

3

2,007

45

Swedish,.

No Flag,

ports outside the Colony,

TOTAL,....

26

21,694 1,068

5

4,972

159

31

26,666

1,227

9

4,660

175

9

4,660

175

Steam-launches trading to

1,739

92,470 34,850

26

769

192

1,765

93,239 35,042

19,530 9,684,883 527,432 5,436 1,259,172 68,715

24,966 10,944,055 596,147

250

VII. Total Number, Tonnage, Crews, Passengers and Cargo of Junks ENTERED at each Port in the Colony

of Hongkong, (exclusive of Local Trade), during the Year ending 31st December, 1903.

TOTAL.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

Ves- sels.

Tous. Crews. Passen- Discharged.

gers.

Cargo Ves- Tons. sels.

Tons. Crews.

Passen- Ves- gers. sels.

Tons. Crews.

Crews. Passen.

Cargo

Discharged.

gers.

Tons.

Aberdeen,

299

Cheung Cháu,

244

8,427 1,842| 3,472 1,439

664

3,735: 13 2,568 42

419 465 274

89

312

8,843 1,93]

3,735

240

286

3,937 1,713

904

2,568

Deep Bay,

Hunghom,.

543

9,854 2,662

I

7,850

Sai Kung

21

354 112

Shani Shui-po,

1,999 | 178,245 19,869

108

166 141,927 1,291

112 3

2,870

679

655

12,724 3,341,

1

7,850

22 160,732 13,135,

17

241

376 129

166

210

3,290

338,977| 33,004|

318

Shaukiwán,

362

5,670 1,872

3,556 132

5,946

1,009

494

11,616 2,881|

141,927 3,556

Stanley,.

23

807 146

Tai 0,

76

Tai Po,

Victoria,

3,244

7,374 675,694 98,009 33,609

Total,... 10,941 885,764 126,542 34,738

591 356

370 1,288

4

66

24

.27

873 170

370

14

521 130

24

90

3,765 721

380

1,288

355,312 3,251

290,196 42,308 14,057 10,625 965,890140,317 47,666 355,312

516,772 4,862 461,237 57,665 14,531 15,803|1,347,001 184,207 49,269 516,772

VIII.-Total Number, Tonnage, Crews, Passengers and Cargo of Junks CLEARED at each Port in the Colony of Hongkong, (exclusive of Local Trade), during the Year ending 31st December, 1903.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

'T'OTAL.

Ves- sels.

Tons. Crews.

Passen- Cargo Ves-

gers.

sels.

Shipped. Tons.

Tons. Crews.

Ves- Passen-

gers. sels.

Tons. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Cargo

Shipped. Tons.

Aberdeen,

49

1,101 287

Cheung Cháu,

97

1,821 701) 414

486 198 1,063

193

3,111 1,022 2,094

247

4,212 1,309

486

932

517

290.

3,915 1,633

931

1,063

Deep Bay,

Hungbom,....

233

6,727

1,424

1

4,917

429

6,012

1,939

662

12,739 3,363

Ι

4,917

Sai Kung,

5

Sham Shui-po, 1,853

64 208,025 18,978

25

21

Shaukiwán,

297

11,176 2,116

41 168,639 7,889

16

153

81

21.

217 106

-

1

41

1,538

127,23315,100

42

3,391

335,258 34,078

63

168,639

250

4,706 1,305|

2

547

15,882 3,421;

7,889

Stanley,....

18

922

150

314

7

Tai 0,

52

2,178

413

199

640

36

38 1.652

25

25

960 175

314

274

216

$8

3,830

687

415

640

Tai Po,

2

45

14

43

2

45

14.

43

Victoria,

8,706

884,255124,517| 45,315 | 583,334 1,984

90,145 16,872

4,008 10,690 974,400 141,389 49,323 583,334

Total,... 11,312 1,116,314 148,625 45,951

767,366 4,651 235,144 37,550 4,785 | 15,9631,351,458186,175 50,736 767,366

IX.-Total Number, Tonnage, Crews, Passengers and Cargo of Junks ENTERED at Ports in the Colony of Hongkong, from Ports on the Coast of China, and Macao, during the Year ending 31st December, 1903.

CARGO.

Ves- sels.

Tons. Crews Passen-

geis

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

East Coast,. San On Dis- trict, West River, &c., West Coast,

Cargo Ves- Discharged.

Tons. sels.

2,139 99,249 14,745 699 82,578 362

Macao,

81

Passen- Ves-

gers. sels.

34,155 2,762| 148 2,501 133,404 17,507

8,133 726,457 101,829 33,659 | 406,687 3,955 401,111 | 49,541| 14,137 12,088′1,127,568 151,370

264 13,505 2,358 299 10,165 240 11,261 2,155 195

24,766, 4,513

405 46,553 7,610.

17,342 305 14,710 3,207

61.263, 10,817

Total,... 10,941 885,764 126,542 34,738 516,772 4,862 461,237 57,665| 14,531 | 15,803 1,347,001 184,207

Tons. Crews.

Tons Crews

l'assen-

gers.

Cargo

Discharged. Tons.

504

847 82,578

47,796 406,687

494 10,165

51

710

132 17,342

49,269 516,772

1

:

251

X.—Total Number, Tonnage, Crens, Passengers and Cargo of Junks CLEARED at Ports in the Colony of

Hongkong, for Ports on the Coast of China, and Macao, during the Year ending 31st December, 1903.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Ves- sels.

Tons. Crews

Cargo Passen-

Shipped. gers.

Ves- Tons. sels

Tous. Crews.

Passen- Ves- gers. sels.

Tons. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Cargo

Shipped. Tons.

East Coast,.

1,083

San On Dis-

trict, West

9,279

53,046 8,027

977,375 127,242 45,481

River, &c.,

West Coast,

416

29,004 3,945

Macao,

29,822 1,300 60,257 8,416

675,023|| 2,917| 146,758|25,676||

20,416 271 16,171 2,060

534 56,889 9,411

42,105 163 11,958 1,398

Total,... 11,3121,116,314148,625 45,951 767,366| 4,651 | 235,144 37,550

178

289 2,383 113,303 16,443

467

29,822

192

4,132 | 12,196 1,124,133 152,918 19,613 675,023

460 20,416

100

268

687 45,175 6,005

96 697 68,847, 10,809

42,10.5

4,785 |15,9631,351,458 186,175 50,736 767,366

196

XI.-Return of Junks (Local Trade) ENTERED at each Port in the Colony of Hongkong, during the Year ending 31st December, 1903.

CARGO.

BALLAST

TOTAL

Ves- sels.

Tons. Crews. Passen-

gers.

Cargo Ves- Discharged.

Tons. sels.

Crews

Tons. Crews. Passen- Ves- gers. sels.

Tons. Crews.

Crews. Passen-

gers.

Cargo Discharged Tons.

Aberdeen,.....

143

7,591 1,452

Cheung Cháu,

78

1,075

419

127

5,699 556

23 32

1,006 251

166

8,597

1,703

1,092

166

95

110

2,167

585

222

5,699 556

Deep Bay,......

Hunghom,...

185

1,625

690

Sai Kung,

11

195

61

Sham Shui-po,

169 5,359

1,139

23

Shaukiwán, Stanley,.

118

4,649

935

1,234 148 86 13 3,013 336 2,197 76

5,345

1,198

333

6,970

1,888

1,234

96 15,574 4,058

56

24

291

117

86

3,027

129

505

20,933

4,166

152

3,013

606

194

8,687

1,541

2,197

7

137

41

41

3

54

16

10

191

57

41

Tai (),

Tai Po,

Victoria,

10

382

781

14

183

10

382

78

14

183

45

14

15

2

45

14

15

9,818

7,982 285,414 93,020

Total,... 8,705 | 306,472|97,849 9,982

222,156 19,836 734,122 166,978 69,112 27,818 1,019,536 259,998 78,930 222,156

235,180 20,467 761,327 172,298 69,336 29,172 1,067,799 270.147 79,318 | 235,180

XII.—Return of Junks (Local Trade) CLEARED at each Port in the Colony of Hongkong, during the Year ending 31st December, 1903.

CARGO

BALLAST

TOTAL.

Ves- sels.

Tous. Crews. Passen- Shipped.

gers

Cargo Ves- Tons. sels.

Tons Crews. Passen- Ves- gers sels.

Tons. Crews, Passen-

Cargo

Shipped.

gers.

Tons.

Aberdeen,

64 2,092 505

905

Cheung Cháu, 58 1,457

431

127

749

167 48

11,138 | 1,820

624

...

226

100

231 13,230 2,325 106 2,081 657

905

227

749

Deep Bay,......

Hunghom.......

121

3,422

892

2,276

205

3,532

974

326 6,954

1,866

2,276

Sai Kung,

25

430

130

223

2

21

10

27

451

140

223

Sham Shui-po,

239

16,832

1,982

67

12,376

165

7,819

1,114

404

24,651

3,096

67

12,376

Shaukiwán,

60

1,890

431

924

69

2,340

500

00

3

129

4,230

913

924

6

Stanley,.

Tai 0, Tai Po, Victoria,

Total,... 6,151 217,520 55,451 82,518

47

26

30

7

57

26

12

104

52

30

222

44)

81

4

200

341

6

10

422

78

81

5,573 191,128 51,010 82,324

32,892 22,225 825,464 |208.682

50,456 22,892 | 851,195 213 380′

2,314 27,798 1,016,592 259,692 84,638

32,892

2,423 (29,043 (1,068,715 |268,837 84,941 | 50,456

FOREIGN TARADE.

252

XIII SUMMARY.

NO. OF VESSLES.

TONS.

CREWS.

British ships entered with Cargoes,

in Ballast,......

Do.

do.

3,851

5,307,768

204,040

378

325,794

15,467

Total,....................

4,229

5,633,562

219,507

British ships cleared with Cargoes,

3,945

5.185,967

206,835

Do.

do. in Ballast,...

275

430,767

12.222

Total,.......

4,220

5,616,734

219,057

Total British ships entered aud cleured,

8,449

11,250,296

438,664

Foreign ships entered with Cargoes,

Do.

do. in Ballast,

2,652

3,451,584

140,724

370

433,907

15,235

Total,.......

8,022

3,885,491

155,959

Foreign ships cleared with Cargoes,

Do.

2,534

3,290,132

137,122

do. in Ballast,

484

592,492

18,751

Total,...

3,018

3,882,624

155,873

Total Foreign ships entered and cleared,

6,040

7,768,115

311,832

Steam-launches entered with Cargoes,

Do.

do. in Ballast,

1,760

5

93,015 164

35,004

38

Total,....

1,765

93,239

35,042

Steam-launches cleared with Cargoes,

1,739

92,470

34,850

Do.

do. in Ballast,

26

769

192

ì

Total,.......

1,769

93,239

35,042

Total Steam-launches entered and cleared,

3,530

186,478

70,084

Junks entered with Cargoes,

Do. do. in Ballast,

10,941

885,764

126,542

4,862

461,237

57,665

A

Total,.....

15,803

1,347,001

184,207

Junks cleared with Cargoes,

Do. do. in Ballast,

11,312

1,116.314

148,625

4,651

235,144

37,550

Total,.......

15,963

1,351,458

186,175

Total Junks, entered and cleared,

31,766

2,698,459

370,382

Total of all Vessels entered,

Total of all Vessels cleared,

24,819 10,959,293 24,966 10,944,055

594,715

596,147

Total of all Vessis in Foreign Tradc entered and cleared,

49,785

21,903,348

1,190,862

LOCAL TRADE.

Total Junks entered,

Do.

cleared,

29,172 1,067,799 29,043

270,147

1,068,715

268,837

Total of all Vessels in Local Trade entered and cleared,

58,215

2,136,514

538,984

Total of all Vessels in Foreign Trade entered and cleared,

Do. all do. Local Trade, entered and cleared,

Grand total of all Vessels entered and cleared,

49,785 21,903,348 58,215

108,000 24,039,862

1,190,862

2,136,514

538,984

1,729,846

XIV.—RETURN of LICENSED STEAM-LAUNCHES Entered in the COLONY of HONGKONG during the Year ending 31st December, 1903.

TOWING.

NOT TOWING.

TOTAL.

PLACES.

Cargo

Cargo

Vessels. Tonnage. Crews.

Passen- Discharged Vessels. Tonnage. Crews.

gers.

Passen-

gers.

in tons.

Discharged Vessels. [Tonnage. Crews. in tons.

Passen-

gers,

Cargo

Discharged

in tons.

Within the Waters of the Colony,

*

55,555 1,577,519 412,457

69,493 2,092,975 541,737 3,835,180

125,048 (3,670,494 954,1943,835,186

Total,.

55,555 1,577,519) 412,457

69,493 (2,092,975 541,737 3,835,186

125,048 3,670,494 954,194,3,835,186

Within the Local Trade Limits,

Total,..

Outside the Local Trade Limits,-

Sam Shui,

Kong Mun,

Kam Chuk,

Wn Chow,

Macao

Other Places,

:

18,988 573,659 154,647

694,789

18,988

573,659 154,647 694,789

18,988.

573,659 154,647

694,789

18,988

573,659 154,647 694,789

253

1,193

65,277 25,882

38,948

9,906

1,193 65,277 25,882 38,948

9,906

22

31

1,697 558

135

1,604

316

17,636 6,307

3,506

3,441

142

31

220

8,465 2,257

3,940

837

32 1,719 316 17,636

224 8,607

565

135

1,604

6,307

3,506

3,441

2,288

3,940

337

Total,.

Grand Total,..

55,560 1,577,683 412,495

5

164

38

1,760

93,075 35,004 46,529

15,288 1,765 98,239

35,042 46,529

15,288

90,241 2,759,709 731,388 [4,576,504||

15,283145,801 4,337,392 1,143,883 4,576,504

15,288

*The figures under the heading "Steam-launches plying within the Waters of the Colony are incomplete: the "Star" Ferry Company stating that since 1901, "owing to the amount of work entailed" they have had to discontinue keeping a record of the passengers carried by their launches, and also number of trips.

PLACES.

XV.-RETURN of LICENSED STEAM-LAUNCHES Cleared in the COLONY of Hongkong during the year ending 31st December, 1903.

TOWING.

NOT TOWING.

TOTAL.

Cargo

Vessels. Tonnage. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Shipped Vessels. Tonnage. Crews.

in tons.

Cargo Bunker Passen- Shipped Coal gers. in tons.in tons.

Vessels. Tonnage. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Cargo Bunker Shipped Coal in tons, in tons.

Within the Waters of the Colony,

*

55,555 1,577,519 412,457

69,493 2,092,975 541,7373,835,767|

17,064 125,048 3,670,494 954,194 3,835,767

17,064

Total,...

55,555 1,577,519 412,547

69,493 2,092,975 541,737 3,835,767

17,064 125,048, 3,670,494 954,194 3,835,767

17,064

Within the Local Trade Limits,

Total,....

Outside the Local Trade Limits,

Sam Shui,

:

18,988 573,659 154,647 694,899

6,872

18,988 578,659 154,647 694,899

...

6,872

18,988 573,659 154,647 694,899

6,872 18,988 573,659 154,647 694,899

6,872

Kong Mun,

Kam Chuk,

:

1,193

65,277 25,882 38,639 15,464 9,823

1,193 65,277 25,882

38,639 15,464 9,823

Wu Chow,

Macao,....

Other Places,

Total,.

Grand Total,.

55,581 1,578,288 412,649|

1

22

25

717

185

31

316

199

1,697 558 17,636 6,307 7,860 2,103

122 2,371 443 4,226 3,976 628 3,954 387 1,971

32 1,719 316 17,636 224 8,607

656

6,307

122 2,371 4,226 3,976 628

443

2,288

3,954 387 1,971

26

769

192

1,739

92,470

34,850

46,941 22,198 12,865

1,765 93,239 35,042

46,941 22,198 12,865

4,576,607 36,801 90,220 2,759,104 731,2344,576,607 22,198 36,801)

145,801 4,337,392 1,143,883 4,576,607 22,198 36,801

* The figures under the heading "Steam-launches plying Within the waters of the Colony " are incomplete: the "Star" Ferry Company stating that since 1901, "owing to the amount of work entailed" they have had to discontinue keeping a record of the passengers carried by their launches, and also number of trips.

254

255

XVI.-RETURN of VESSELS REGISTERED at the Fort of Hongkong, during the Year 1903.

Name of Vessel.

Official Number.

Regis- tered Tonnage.

Horse Power.

Rig.

Built of

Where built and when.

Remarks.

San Cheung, ....(str.),

109,870 770

66

None

Wood Hongkong, 1902.

Since sold to Foreigners.

*Wing Chai,......(str.),

109,871

548

88

None

Wood Hongkong, 1902.

Kinshan, .........(str.), 109,872

1,818

286

None

Steel Hongkong, 1903.

Swift,...(str.), 109,873

|

195

180

Schooner Composite Blackwall, London, 1879.

Formerly, H.M.S. “Swift.” [Since sold to Foreigners.

Tak Hing,.....(str.), 109,874

395

48

Laertes,.....(str.),

81,318

Teucer,............(str.),

97,797

1,596

1,340 300

450

Robert Cooke, ...(str), | 109,875

218 125

None

Schooner Iron Cartsdyke, Renfrew, 1879.

Schooner Steel Geenock, 1890.

None Steel Hongkong, 1902.

Wood Hongkong, 1903.

XVII-RETURN of REGISTRIES of VESSELS Cancelled at the Port of Hongkong, during the Year 1903.

Name of Vessel.

Number.

Official Regis- Date of tered Regis- Tonnage. try.

Horse Power.

Rig.

Built of

Where built and when.

Reason of Cancellation.

Formosa, (str.), ... 88,840

Kong Nam, (str.),. 107,028

Diamante, (str.),..., 107,030

Hattie E. Smith,... 109,861

Louise J. Kenney, 109,862

San Cheung, (str.), 109,870

Swift, (str.),

109,873

674 1,886 200

402 1,898 48

1,255 1,899 256

141 1,901

215 1,901

770 1,903 66

195 1,903 180

Schooner

None

Schooner

Schooner

Schooner Wood Essex Mass. U.S.A., Transferred to Sydney,

[1888,

[N.S.W. None Wood Hongkong, 1902, Sold to Foreigners.

Schooner Composite Blackwall, London, Sold to Foreigners.

[1879,

Iron Newcastle on Tyne, Sold to Foreigners. [1885, Wood Hongkong, 1898,

Sold to Foreigners.

Steel Aberdeen, 1899, Sold to Foreigners.

Wood Newbury Port, Sold to Foreigners.

[N.S.A., 1869,

XVIII.—SUMMARY of CHINESE EMIGRATION from HONGKONG to Ports other than in China, during the Year ending 31st December, 1903,

BRITISH VESSELS.

FOREIGN VESSELS.

GRAND TOTAL.

WHITHER BOUND.

Adults.

Children.

Adults. Children.

Adults.

Children.

Total.

Total.

Total.

M.

F.

M. F.

M. F. M. F.

M. F

M.

F.

For Bangkok, Siam,

114

-1141 114

114

"7

Honolulu, Sandwich Islands,

Japan Ports,

75

$7

85

Q =

91

3071

3

3161 394

407

89

268

271 353

3

360

Mauritius,

1,425 25

39

4 1,49

21

Maxico,

2,490

16

2,508

1,425 25 2,490

39

⚫ 1,493

2,508

步步

14

:

""

Seattle, U.S.A.,..........

""

Straits Settlements,

Tacoma, U.S.A.,

99

Vancouver, British Columbia,.

>>

Victoria, British Columbia,

TOTAL PASSENGERS,.

Portland, Oregon,

San Francisco, U.S.A.,

42

1

43

42

1,455

17

30

1,504 2,850|

18

57

2 2,927 4,305

35

87

43 4,431

87

87) 87

36,698 6,216 1,703 714 45,331 14,689 2,379 669 31918,056 51,387 8,595 2,372 1,033

4,535 1,520

34 17

409

4,569) 1,546 3,992

30

417 409 4,535 4,022 5,521

8

341

47

87

63,387

417

4,569

5,568

83,384

46,921 6,239 1,804 717 55,681 24,141 2,428 808 32627,70371,062 8,667 2,612 1,043

Total Passengers by British Vessels,

Total Passengers by Foreign Vessels,

Excess of Passengers by British Vessels,

46,921 6,239 1,804) 717 55,681

24,141) 2,428. 808 326 27,703

22,780 3,811 996 391 27,978

1

;

256

XIX.-SUMMARY of CHINESE IMMIGRATION to HONGKONG from Ports other than China, during the Year ending 31st December, 1903.

BRITISH VESSELS.

FOREIGN VESSELS.

GRAND TOTAL.

WHERE FROM.

Adults.

Children.

Adults. Children.

Adults,

Children.

Total.

Total.

Total.

M. F. M. F

ME M.

M.

F.

M. F.

From Bangkok, Siam...

181

181

1,987

1,988

2,168

2,169

2:

Honolulu, Sandwich Islands,

333

3331

681 7 15 13

716

1,014

15

13

1,049

**

Java & Sumatra,

348

·00

364

348

364

**

Mauritius,

1,290

1,290

1,290

1,290-

Melbourne,

449

459

45

45

491

501

New South Wales...

517

525

116

122

633

647

New Zealand Ports,

99

99

99

99

Portland, Oregon,

231

23

23

23.

Queensland Ports,.....

416

416

27

27

443

443

San Francisco, U.S.A.,..

2,727

39

21

Seattle. U.S.A.,

251 1

12 2,799 4,143 80 63 30 4,316 1 253

6,870

119

84

12

7,115

251

253

South Australian Ports,

131

Straits Settlements,

92,590, 4,249 |1,420

Tacoma. U.S.A.,

12

Tasmania,

Vancouver, British Columbia,

Victoria, British Columbia,...

11

1311 736 98,995 22,404 678 291| 115 23,488

12 150 1

5 156 11

131

131

114,994 |4,927 |1,711

851 122,483

162

168

11

11

2,573

2 2,587

2,573

2,587

5951

595 596 14

7 620 1,191

14

1,215

TOTAL PASSENGERS,

100,657 4,306 | 1,452

751|107,166) 32,038 790 384 173 33,385 132,695 | 5,096 | 1,836

924 140,551

Total Passengers by British Vessels,.

Total Passengers by Foreign Vessels,

Excess of Passengers by British Vessels,

|100,657 | 4,306 1.452 751| 107,166

32,038 790 384 173 33,385

68,619 3,516 1,0GS: 578 7.3781

DEFENDANTS HOW DISPOSED OF.

XX. RETURN of MARINE CASES tried at the MARINE MAGISTRATE'S COURT, during the Year 1903.

NATURE OF CHARGE.

No. of Defendants.

No. of Cases.

Absent from ship without leave,

1

1

Assault,

N

1

1

Disobeying the lawful orders of the

Harbour Master,

Neglect to Register engagement and discharge of Master and Engineer (Steam-launch),

Refusal of duty,

Rules of the Road, Failed to observe

(Steam-launch),

:

:

9

17

14

Total,..

17

CO

:

:

25

25

14

:

:

:

1

:

:

:

1

Amount of Fines.

:

:

~

:

:

:

:

:

:

Co

13

6

$16

TONS.

11,000,000

10,000,000

9,900,000

9,800,000

9,700,000

9,600,000

9,500,000

9,400,000

9,300,000

9,200,000

9,100,000

9,000,000

8,900,000

8,800,000

8,700,000

.8,600,000

8,500,000

-8,400,000

8,300,000

8,200,000

8,100,000

8,000,000

7,900,000

7,800,000

7,700,000

7,600,000

7,500,000

7,400.000

7,300,000

7.200.000

7,100,000

7.000.000

6.900,000

6.800.000

6.700.000

1867.

1868.

1869.

1870.

XXI-D

XXI-DIAGRAM of Tonnage entered

RED LINE represents British Shipping BLUE LINE represents Foreign Shippin GREEN LINE represents British and F YELLOW LINE represents Junk Tonna VIOLET LINE represents Steam-launch

THICK BLACK LINE represents entire

1871.

1872.

1873.

1874.

1875.

1876.

1877.

1878.

1879.

1880.

1881.

1882.

1870.

1871.

1872.

1873.

1874.

1875.

1876.

1877.

1878.

1879.

1880.

1881.

1882.

1883.

1884.

1885.

1886.

1887.

1888.

í

XI-DIAGRAM of Tonnage entered at Hongkong, from 1867 to 1903 1

RED LINE represents British Shipping Tonnage only.

BLUE LINE represents Foreign Shipping Tonnage only.

GREEN LINE represents British and Foreign Shipping Tonnage. YELLOW LINE represents Junk Tonnage only, excluding Local Trade.

VIOLET LINE represents Steam-launch Tonnage only, excluding Local Trade. THICK BLACK LINE represents entire Trade in British and Foreign Ships, Ju

1889.

1890.

1891.

1892.

1893.

1890.

...

1867 to 1903 inclusive

Trade.

g Local Trade.

Foreign Ships, Junks and Steam-launches,

1891.

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

1896.

1897.

1898.

1899.

1900.

1901.

1902.

1903.

TONS.

11,000,000

10,000,000

9,900,000

9,800,000

9,700,000

9,600,000

9,500,000

9,400,000

9,300,000

9,200,000

9,100,000

9,000,000

8,900,000

8,800,000

8,700,000

8,600,000

8,500,000

8,400,000

8,300,000

8,200,000

8,100,000

8,000,000

7,900,000

7,800,000

7.700,000

7,600,000

7,500,000

7:400,000

7,300,000

7,200,000

7,100,000

7,000,000

6.900.000

8,000,000

7,900,000

7,800,000

7.700.000

7,600,000

7.500.000

7.400 000

7,300,000

7,200.000

7,100,000

7,000,000

6,900,000

6,800.000

6.700,000

6,600,000

6,500,000

6,400,000

6,300,000

6,200,000

6,100,000

6,000,000

5,900,000

5,800,000

5,700,000

5,600,000

5,400,000

5,300,000

5,200,000

5,100,000

5,000,000

4,900,000

+,800,000

4.700,000

4,600,000

4,500,000

4,400,000

4:395,000

+,200,000

4,100,000

+,000,000

3,900,000

3,800,000

3.700 000

3,600,000

3:500,000

3,400,000

3.300,000

3,200,000

3,100,000

3,000,000

2.900,000

2,800,000

1

8,000,000

7,900,000

7,800.000

7.700,000

7,600,000

7,500,000

7:400,000

7,300,000

7,200,000

7,100,000

7,000,000

6,900,000

6,800,000

6,700,000

6,600,000

6,500,000

6,400,000

6,300,000

6,200,000

6,100,000

6,000,000

5,900,000

5,800,000

5:700,000

5,600,000

5:500,000

5,400,000

5,300,000

5,200,000

5,100,000

5,000,000

4,900,000

4.800,000

4,700,000

4,600.000

4,500,000

4,400,000.

4,300,000

4,200,000

4,100,000

4,000,000

3,900,000

3,800,000

3,700,000

3,600,000

3,500,000

3,400,000

3,300,000

3,200,000

3,100,000

3,000,000

2,900,000

2,800,000

3,900,000

3,800,000

3,700 000

3,600,000

3.500.000

3,400,000

3.300,000

3,200,000

3,100,000

3,000,000

2,900,000

2,800,000

2,700,000

BLACK

2,600,000

2,500,000

2,400,000

2,300,000

2,200,000

2,100,000

2,000,000

1,900,000

1,800,000

1,700,000

1,600,000

1,500,000

1,400,000

YELLOW

1,300,000

GREEN

1,200,000

1,100,000

1,000,000

900,000

RED

800,000

700,000

600,000

BLUE

500,000

400,000

300,000

200,000

100,000

90.000

VIOLET

80,000

3,900,000

3,800,000

3,700,000

3.600,000

3.500.000

3.400,000

3.300.000

3.200.000

3,100,000

3,000,000

2,900,000

2,800,000

2,700,000

2,600,000

2,500,000

2,400,000

2,300,000

2,200,000

2,100,000.

2,000,000

1,900,000

1,800,000

1,700,000

1,600,000

1,500,000

1,400,000

1,300,000

1,200,000

1,100,000

1,000,000

900,000

800,000

700,000

600,000

500,000

400,000

300,000

200,000

100,000

90,000

80,000

.

*

259

XXII.-STATEMENT of the REVENUE collected in the Harbour Department, during the Year 1903.

Head of Receipt.

Amount.

New Territory,..............

1. Light Dues, Ordinance 36 of 1899,

2. Licences and Internal Revenue not otherwise specified

Chinese Passenger Ship Licences, Ordinance 1 of 1889,.. Emigration Broker's Licences, Ordinance 1 of 1889, Fines,

Fishing Stake and Station Licences, Ordinance 36 of 1899, Fishing Stake and Station Licences, Ordinance 36 of 1899 from the

Junk Licences &c., Ordinance 36 of 1899,

$

74,960.00

ets.

1,200.00

1,200.00

16.00

203.00

1,951.00

35,186.75

Junk Licences &c., Ordinance 36 of 1899, from the New Territory, Steam-launch Licences &c., Ordinance 36 of 1899,

13,532.50 2.186.25

3. Fees of Court and Office, Payments for specific purposes and Reimburse-

ments-in-Aid :-

Cargo-boat Certificates, Ordinance 36 of 1899,

36 of 1899,

Engagement and Discharge of Seamen, Ordinance 36 of 1899, Engagement of Masters and Engineers of Steam-launches, Ordinance

36 of 1899,

Examination of Masters, and Engineers of Steam-launches, Ordinance

Examination of Masters, Mates, and Engineers, Ordinance 36 of 1899, Gunpowder, Storage of, Ordinance 36 of 1889, . Medical Examination of Emigrants, Ordinance 1 of 1889, Printed Forms, Sale of Harbour Regulations, Tide Tables &c., Private Moorings and Buoys, Rent of, Ordinance 36 of 1899, Registry Fees (Merchant Shipping Act), Ordinance 36 of 1899, Steam-launches, Surveyor's Certificates, Ordinance 36 of 1899,. Survey of Steam-ships &c, Ordinance 36 of 1899, Sunday Cargo Working Permits, Ordinance 6 of 1891,

Total,....

2,404.00 24,002.60

237.50

277.50

2,305.00

22.410.20

27,224.25

209.50

3,330.00

699.00

2,745.00

34,208.37

34,800.00

285,288.42

Years.

Remarks.

XXIII.—RETURN of WORK performed by the GOVERNMENT MARINE Surveyor's DeparTMENT.

Passenger Certificate and

Inspection of Bottom.

Emigration.

Tonnage for

Registration.

British. Tonnage

Foreign Vessels. Certificate for

Inspection of

Crew Space,

Lights and

Markings.

Minor Inspec- tion.

Survey of Licen-

Steam-launches. sed Passenger

Survey of Boilers under

Construction.

Inspection of Government

Launches.

Examination of Engineers.

Examination of

neers for Steam- Chinese Engi-

launches.

Estimated Total Number of Visits in connection with fore- going Inspection.

1893,

136

1894,

124

1895,

102

1896,

142

1897,

158

1898,

164

1899,

144

1900,

151

1901,

157

1902,

175

#3# ོ ོ ོ ོ ོ

74 62

17

64

68

ོཔ་༔;

79

24

83

10

61

10

83

92

93

1903,

190

111

0 10 1 10 20 00 00 0372

1

94

20

19

64

25

1,659

2

116

11

28

54

18

1,364

98

18

34

57

24

1,452

3

97

20

37

77

66

1,409

109

41

35

96

51

1,631

121

61

26

72

48

1,729

134

62

27

57

78

1,602

187

73

47

99

124

1,834

217

36

102

88

118

2,031

210

25

126

109

76

1,768

184

126

$5

72

2,107

XXIV-IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF OPIUM.

IMPORTS.

MALWA. chests.

PATNA. BENARES. PERSIAN.

TURKISH.

chests.

chests.

1902,

7,781

23,207.

1903,

8,679

22,253

8,723 8,468

chests. 4,062 6,5211

chests.

CHINESE. chests.

TOTAL.

chests.

8

...

43,781

19

94

46,034

Increase,.

897

2,459

11

94

3,462

Decrease,

954

255

:

;

1,209

260

EXPORTS.

MALWA.

PATNA.

BENARES. PERSIAN.

TURKISH.

CHINESE.

TOTAL.

chests.

chests.

chests.

chests.

chests.

chests.

chests.

1902,

7,313

22,274

8,671

5,088

2

43,348

1903,

8,004

22,287

8,718

6,928

20

94

46,551

Increase, Decrease,

691

513

47

1,839

18

94

3,2021

Through Cargo reported in Manifests but not landed {

( 1902,.

1903,...

13,483 chests. 16,442 "9

Increase,

2,959 chests.

NUMBER OF PERMITS, &c., ISSUED.

1902.

1903.

Increase.

Decrease.

Landing Permits,

320

322

2

Removal Permits,

7,079

8,710

1,631

Exports Permits,

6,922

8,847

Memo. of Exports to the Commissioner of Chinese Customs, Memo. of Exports to the Superintendent of Raw Opium Depart-

ment, Macao,.

526

554

1,925 28

چیر

293

297

SUMMARY OF EXPORTS, 1903.

Malwa. Patna. Benares. Persian. Turkish. Chinese. chests. chests. chests. chests. chests. chests.

Total. chests.

Total in Piculs.

By Steamers to Amoy,

38

74

Apia,

1,806 1

1,398

1

3,317 1

Canton,

742

6,134

942

74

7,8921

3,727.95.0 1.20.0 9,309.55.0

Chefoo,

3

25

Foochow,...

1,326

662

334

1,512

28 3,834

33.60.0

4,071.00.0

Haiphong,

9

3

12

13.80.0

Hankow,

17

53

70

80.60.0

Hoihow,

156

2

ลง

158

189.60.0

Kingston,

1

1.00.0

:

Kwong Chow Wau,

1,650

10

Londou,

Macao,....

4,255

53

204

1,664

1,994.65.0

9

9

9.00.0

4,312

5,173.60.0

Mauritius,

7.20.0

Merida,

1

6

7.15.0

Newchwang,

1

1.20.0

New York,

Pakhoi,

96

5

:

:

9 101

9.22.5

121.20.0

Panama,

Philippine Islands,.

2

ཎྞཱ།

8

8

9.60.0

507

753

265

1,527

Sainan,

1

1

Sandakan,

1

7

8

1,785.62.5

1.20.0

8.17.5

:

Shanghai,

3,101

Straits Settlements,

6,575 34

3,605

169

21

3

2,104

13,471 2,142

15,511.22.5 2,202.00.0

Suez,

Swatow,

2,402

1,717

600

608

73

1 5,400

1.02.5

5,878.60.0

Taipeh,

Tansui,

25 309

...

566

762

25 1,637

30.00.0

1,831.05.0

Tientsin,

1

1

1.20.0

Vancouver,

18

18

21.60.0

Victoria B. C.,

62

62

74.40.0

Wei-hai-wei,

2

Wuchow,....

7

By Junks to various adjacent Ports in China,

3701/

433

72.2

7

9

10.40.0

9

10.80.0

3

8081

895.57.5

Total,......

8,004 22,787 8,717

6,928

20

94

46,550

53,024.00.0

The information in Column 8 above is on the following assumption

Patna and Benares, per chest,..............

Malwa, Turkish and Chinese, per chest, Persian, per chest,

4.

*

1.20 piculs. 1.00 19

1.02.5

"

36

NO. 1904

HONGKONG.

VIOLATION OF BRITISH TERRITORY: DES VOEUX ROAD MURDER, 1903. (HUNG TSUN-FUK CASE.)

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

I.

(From Governor Sir Henry Blake to the Secretary of State.)

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 18th June, 1903.

SIR,- With reference to my Despatch of 30th April,* I have the honour to transmit a copy of a Memorandum* giving an epitome of the information and evidence in the possession of the Government. There is reason to believe that HUNG TSUN KWEI was a prominent member of the conspiracy of which the Chinese Authorities received the first intimation from this Government. This man left Hongkong on the 31st March. A reward had been offered for his capture, dead or alive, and for the purpose of obtaining this reward a Cantonese bad character named CHEUNG CHO TING appears to have conceived the crime of enticing to Hongkong a friend in Canton, who bore a likeness to HUNG TSUN KWEI the conspirator, and there murdering him and returning the body to Canton as that of HUNG TSUN KWEI and claiming the reward. The Memorandum shows the manner in which this scheme was carried out. The action of the Chinese Gunboat leaves no doubt that by some authority the Gunboat was engaged on the service of conveying a kidnapped prisoner, or a murdered body from Hongkong, and there is evidence of the direct complicity of Admiral Ho in the violation of British territory.

I have, &c.,

HENRY A. BLAKE,

Governor, &c.

II.

(From the Officer Administering the Government to His Majesty's Minister, Peking.)

GOVERNMENT HOUSE,

HONGKONG, 20th April, 1904.

SIR,--With reference to Your Excellency's letter of the 1st of January and to previous correspondence,* I have the honour to inform you that the murderer of the victim whose body was substituted for that of HUNG TSUN-FUK has been duly brought to trial at Canton.

2. His Majesty's Consul General there has communicated to me a memoran- dum of conditions of settlement of this case signed by the Viceroy's Foreign Secretary and himself, and I have the honour to inform Your Excellency that these terins are acceptable to this Government.

I have, &c.,

* Not printed,

F. H. MAY,

Officer Administering the Government.

No. 138.

-.506

III.

(From His Majesty's Acting Consul General, Canton, to

the Acting Colonial Secretary.)

HIS MAJESTY'S CONSULATE GENERAL, CANTON, 5th May, 1904.

SIR,-With reference to my Despatch No. 120 of April 18th* on the HUNG TSUN-FUK case, I have the honour to inform you that CHANG C'HO-T'ING was executed yesterday in the presence of two members of the Staff of this Consulate General. I enclose a copy of Mr. Vice-Consul GILES' report on the subject.

I also enclose a translation* of a Despatch received from the Viceroy, in which His Excellency apologises for the infringement of Hongkong territory, and thanks the Hongkong Government for the assistance given in the investigation of the whole case.

I replied to this Despatch yesterday in the terms of enclosure 3.*

I have, &c.,

C. W. CAMPBELL,

Acting Consul General.

(Enclosure to No. 138 of the 5th May, 1904. From Mr. B. Giles to Mr. C. W. Campbell, C.M.G.).

HIS MAJESTY'S CONSULATE GENERAL,

CANTON, 4th May, 1904.

SIR, With reference to the case of the murder of HUNG TSUN-FUK by CHANG C'HO-T'ING in Hongkong, I have the honour to report that, in accordance with your instructions, I proceeded this afternoon to the execution ground to be present at the execution of CHANG C'HO-T'ING by the Native Authorities. On arriving at the place Mr. MAJOR, who accompanied me, identified the criminal, who was then immediately beheaded in our presence.

;

I have, &c.,

BERTRAM GILES,

Vice-Consul.

IV.

(From the Acting Colonial Secretary to His Majesty's Acting Consul General, Canton.)

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE,

HONGKONG, 10th May, 1904.

SIR,-I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter No. 138 of the 5th instant, in which you state that CHANG C'HO-T'ING was executed on the 4th instant, and enclosing a translation of a letter from the Viceroy of the Two Kwangs in which he apologises for the violation of British Sovereignty committed at the instigation of Chinese Officials in connection with the case of HUNG TSUN- FUK. I am to request you to be so good as to inform the Viceroy that this Govern- ment accepts his expressions of regret at the circumstance. His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government felt satisfied that when the facts were made known to His Excellency the Viceroy, he would use every effort to bring the offenders to justice, and expects in due course to receive an assurance that the other persons implicated in the outrage have also undergone suitable punishment.

I have, &c.,

A. M. THOMSON, Acting Colonial Secretary.

* Not printed.

No. 157.

507

V.

(From His Majesty's Acting Consul General, Canton, to the

Acting Colonial Secretary.

HIS MAJESTY'S CONSULATE GENERAL,

CANTON, 27th May, 1904.

SIR,--With reference to your letter of May 10th the contents of which I communicated to the Viceroy as requested, I have the honour to enclose, for the information of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government of Hong- kong, a copy and translation of a Despatch received yesterday.

The Imperial Decree therein enclosed appears to me to be satisfactory, and I propose to inform the Viceroy that as soon as I receive His Excellency's assurance that the punish- ments stated have been carried out the HUNG TSUN-FUK case will be considered closed.

I have, &c.,

C. W. CAMPBELL,

Acting Consul General.

(Enclosure to No. 157 of the 27th May, 1904. Translation of a Despatch from Viceroy Ts'en to Mr. Campbell.)

SIR,With reference to the case of HUNG TSUN-FUK, I have the honour to inform you that I memorialised the Throne, praying that all the officials who had been implicated in the affair should be dealt with, each according to his deserts. On the 17th of May last I received an Imperial Edict, copy of which I herewith transmit for your information.

I have, &c.,

(Viceroy's Seal.)

Copy of Imperial Edict.

With reference to the Memorial of Viceroy Ts'EN, praying for the punishment of the spy who compassed the death of the man he had deceived, thereby violating the territory of Hongkong and received a reward under false pretences; and that of the officials who connived at his offence; we hereby decree that Ho WEI-TSUNG, Senior Lieutenant in charge of the 4th Battalion of the 1st Division of the Pro- vincial Admiral's troops; LIN SHAN, Senior Lieutenant in charge of the 4th Battalion of the 4th Division under the command of the Colonel stationed at Ch'ih-hsi; FANG HSING-KUO, SU T'ING-CHEN and LIU CHIN-YUEH, Senior Sub- Lieutenants, and the deceased Sergeant CHU CH'ANG are to be cashiered. CH'ANG-CH'ING, Admiral for the Province of Kuang-tung, who was guilty of neglect of duty, is to be removed from his post as a warning to others. For the rest, the matter is to be dealt with as suggested by the Viceroy.

No. 185.

VI.

(From His Majesty's Acting Consul General, Canton, to

the Acting Colonial Secretary).

Ho

HIS MAJESTY'S CONSULATE GENERAL, CANTON, 20th June, 1904.

SIR,-With reference to my letter No. 157 of May 27th. I have the honour to enclose a copy and translation of a Despatch from the Viceroy, in which His Excellency states that Admiral Ho has been removed, and that the minor officials concerned in the HUNG TSUN-FUK case have been dismissed.

I have informed the Viceroy that the case may now be considered closed.

I have, &c.,

C. M. CAMPBELL,

Acting Consul General.

*

(No. IV.)

† Not printed.

508

(Enclosure to No. 185 of the 20th June, 1904. From

Viceroy Ts'en to Mr. Campbell).

(Translation.)

16th June, 1904.

SIR, With reference to the HUNG TSUN-FUK case, I have the honour to acknowledge receipt of your Despatch of the 5th instant stating that you had communicated the contents of my Despatch on the subject to the Government of Hongkong, who had replied that when all the terms of settlement mentioned in the Imperial Edict had been duly carried out, the case might then be considered as definitely closed.

I was on the point of drafting a reply to you, when a communication on the subject came to hand from the Wai Wu Pu. The Wai Wu Pu therein informed me that, having received from the Grand Council a copy of the Imperial Edict issued in answer to the memorial presented by me detailing the circumstances of the case and asking for the punishment of those implicated, they forwarded the same, to- gether with a copy of my original memorial to the British Minister, who had expressed his acknowledgments for such a very satisfactory settlement.

When the Imperial Edict above referred to was telegraphed to me, I immedi- ately sent copies to the various officials concerned for their guidance, as well as one to you for your information. Since then Admiral Ho CHANG-CH'ING has been removed from his post; and the vacancies caused by the dismissal of the other officers implicated have been filled by temporary substitutes. The terms of settle- ment have thus been carried out in full; and I would therefore ask you to inform the Governor of Hongkong accordingly.

I have, &c.,

(Viceroy's Seal.)

instant

**

VII.

(From the Acting Colonial Secretary to His Majesty's Acting

Consul General, Cantom.)

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE, HONGKONG, 25th June, 1904.

SIR,-I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 20th, enclosing copy of Despatch from the Viceroy of the Two Kwangs stating that Admiral Ho had been removed from office and that the minor officials conerned in the HUNG case had been dismissed. You added that you had in- formed the Viceroy that the case may now be considered closed.

On behalf of this Government, I am to thank you for the valuable assistance rendered by you in connection with this case.

I have, &c.,

*

(No.. VL)

A. M. THONSON,

Acting Colonial Secretary.

HONGKONG.

LAND COURT, NEW TERRITORY.

REVISED ESTIMATE, 1904.

No. 1904

17

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

Approved Estimate, 1904, (Six Months).

Revised Estimate, 1904.

Not required.

Amount to be voted.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

$

en

SA

$

President,

3,000

Do., Exchange Compensation,.

2,400

161.29 114.51

2,838.71 2.285.49

Registrar,

600

1,200

600

Do., Exchange Compensation,

480

960

480

2 Demarcation Officers, at $1,500 each,

1,875

* 1,875

Do.,

Exchange Compensation,

1,500

1,500

First Clerk and Interpreter, ($720 to $1,200 by $60

biennially), I. D. 2nd class,

900

720

180

First Clerk, Tai Po Branch, I. D. 2nd class,

390

390

Registrar's Interpreter, ($720 to $1,200 by $60 bien-

nially), I.D. 2nd class,

780

780

Assistant Clerk,

840

840

Do.,

210

420

210

Copying Clerk,

420

420

Do.,

240

240

4

Do.,

at $180 each,

720

720

Claims Room Clerk,

300

300

Head Demurcator,

120

240

120

2 Demarcators, at $180 each,

180

360

180

Demarcator,

180

180

Office Messenger,

54

108

54

2 Senior Process Servers, at $120 each,

240

240

2 Junior

Do.,

at $108 each,

216

216

4 Coolies, at $96 each,

270

384

114

Employed in Tai Po.

4 Process Servers, at $108 each, 4 Copping Clerks, at $300 each, Demarcator,

432

1,200

180

432 1,200

180

نیم

Total Personal Emoluments,.

8,604

13,790.80

5,694.20

10,881

OTHER CHARGES.

Incidentals, (Hongkong),

Do., (Tai Po),

Launch and Sampan Hire,...

Office Furniture,....

Temporary Clerical Assistance,

President,

150

1,000

850

800

300

200

300

100

200

200

:

750

750

240

240

Member,

480

480

Travelling Allowance for Registrar,

210

480

240

First Clerk,.

60

60

Second Clerk,

60

60

Total Other Charges,......................

Total Personal Emoluments,.

Total Land Court, New Territory,

950

8,604

3,510 13,790.80

360

2,920

5,694.20

10,881

9,554

17,300.80

6,054.20

13,801

[Excess over original Estimate, $7,746.80.]

* Two only required to 31st March, when services of one will be dispensed with.

X

5

NO. 1904

HONGKONG.

MARINE LOT No. 184.-MESSRS. STEPHENS AND HOWARD'S PETITION.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

HONGKONG.

No. 380.

DOWNING STREET,

21st October, 1903.

SIR, With reference to my despatch No. 262 of the 16th of July last,* relative to a petition presented to His Majesty the KING by Messrs. STEPHENS and HOWARD, I have the honour to forward copy of a letter dated 5th September* addressed by them to the Secretary of State for the Home Department.

2. As you have already been informed, His Majesty was not pleased to give directions with regard to the petition, and Messrs. STEPHENS and HOWARD were so informed.

any

3. Mr. HOWARD has, however, since on two occasions in a personal interview with the Legal Assistant Under Secretary to this Department represented that great injustice has been done to him by the entire inadequacy of the sum awarded to his firm and has contended that they were entitled to rely on the promise of Sir G. DES VEUX in his message to the Legislative Council of the 22nd of March, 1889, that the fullest justice would be done in respect of private rights, a promise which Mr. HOWARD alleges has not in this case been fulfilled.

4. On consideration of the petition and of your despatch No. 59 of the 15th of March, 1899,* I am not entirely satisfied that the compensation awarded to Messrs. STEPHENS and HOWARD may not have been inadequate, but it is obvious that such a question can only be decided in the light of local knowledge and experience.

5. I therefore request that you will be good enough to investigate the whole matter afresh, and, if you are of opinion that substantial justice demands it, to ask the Legislative Council to vote an additional sum to the Petitioners, to be paid to them merely as a matter of grace but not of right.

Governor

Sir H. A. BLAKE, G.C.M.G.,

&c.,

I have, &c.,

ALFRED LYTTELTON.

&c..

&c..

* Not printed.

No. 1904

32

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE PRINCIPAL CIVIL MEDICAL OFFICER, FOR THE YEAR 1903.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

GOVERNMENT CIVIL MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, HONGKONG, 30th March, 1904.

SIR, -I have the honour to submit, for the information of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government, the following Report on the working of the Medical Department for the year 1903.

MEDICAL STAFF.

Dr. J. BELL returned from leave in March and took over the duties of Superintendent of the Government Civil Hospital. Dr. J. C. THOMSON left for a year's leave in September.

Dr. E. A. R. LAING proceeded on short leave to Japan in May, returning in July. Dr. W. V. M. KocH arrived in the Colony for the service of this depart- ment in May, he having been transferred here from the Medical Department of the Colony of Trinidad.

POLICE.

The admissions to the Hospital show a decrease of 179, the number being 759 as compared with 938 in 1902. The strength of the Force was 921 as against 881 in 1902.

This diminution is mainly due to the fact that dengue was not so prevalent as

in 1902.

There were five deaths as compared with two in 1902, and twenty were invalided as against twelve in the previous year.

The number admitted suffering from malarial fever was 167 as against 176 in 1902, and 407 in 1901, there is no doubt that this disease is much less prevalent amongst the Police than in former years.

Table I gives the sick rate and the mortality rate in the different sectious of the l'olice for the last ten years.

Table II gives the admissions and deaths in the Government Civil Hospital during each month of the year 1903.

Table III gives the admissions to the Hospital from the Police for malarial fever from each station during 1903.

The following table gives the total admissions to Hospital and deaths in the Force for the last ten years :---

Year.

Admissions.

Deaths.

1894,

...505

15

1895..

...466

8

1896.

.588

14

1897,

.526

7

1898.

.488

19

1899,

.692

16

1900,.

..920

4

1901,

.937

1902,...

.938

1903,...

...759

TROOPS.

This was a much healthier year for the Troops as shewn by the decrease in the number of admissions to Hospital and by the fewer number of deaths. Especially marked is the diminution in the number of cases of malarial fever admitted to

L/

406

hospital as shown by the following figures kindly supplied to me by Colonel WEBB, a result undoubtedly due to the extensive training of nullahs and other anti-malarial measures which have been carried on in the neighbourhood of the Barracks by the Military Authorities.

Return shewing the number of Admissions for Malarial Fevers to the Military Hospitals during the years 1902 and 1903.

Year.

Annual

Average Admissions.

Ratio

Remarks.

Strength.

per 1.000.

Europeans,

1902

1,381

1,523

1,102.8

Asiatics,

2.741

1,443

526.5

Europeans,

1903

1,220

937

768.0

Asiatics,

2,568

1,223

476.2

Decrease 1903: Europeans, 568 or 334.8 per 1,000 of strength.

Asiatics, 220 or 50.3

The average rate of sickness was less in both European and Indian Troops. The rate of mortality was lower amongst the European but higher amongst the Indians than in the previous year.

The following table shows the rate of Sickness and Mortality of the Troops serving in Hongkong during the years 1902 and 1903:—

YEAR.

AVERAGE STRENGTH.

ADMISSIONS INTO HOSPITAL.

DEATHS.

AVERAGE DAILY RATE OF SICKNESS.

White. Black. Total. White. Black. Total. White. Black. Total. White. Black. Total.

RATE OF MORTALITY PER 1,000 OF THE STRENGTH.

White.

Black.

1902, 13,81 2,748 4,129 2,994| 3,346 6,340

1903, 1,220 2,568 3,788|| 1,996 2,719 4,715

19

12

20

*19 38

32

181.7: 132 263.7

112.89 116.82 229.7

13.77

6.91

9.8

7.8

W. F. WEBB, R.A.M.C., P. M. O., H. M. Troops, South China.

The disease causing the greatest number of deaths were as follows:- malarial fever eight, dysentery three, pneumonia three, enteric fever two, heart disease two. There were also two deaths from gunshot wounds and one from opium poisoning.

GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL,

Attached is a very full and interesting report by the Superintendent on the working of the institution during the year.

He refers to the need of a new operating theatre.

There is no doubt that the question of constructing an entirely new Hospital, arranged in accordance with the best modern practice, will have to be seriously considered in the near future.

The present buildings are old and cost a considerable sum of money yearly in repairs.

Amongst our requirements are:-

(1.) Increased office and store accommodation.

(2.) A hospital laundry.

(3.) Increased accommodation for private patients.

(4.) An operating theatre detached from the hospital proper but con-

nected with it by a covered passage.

In my reports as Superintendent of the hospital for the years 1892 and 1893 and later, I have referred to this, and I would again suggest the reserving of a site for a new hospital.

* In Hongkong.

407

It will be seen from the report that there was a decrease of 314 in the number of in-patients as compared with 1902, this was accounted for by the fact that for part of the year two of the wards were closed for repairs, and also there were 299 fewer admissions from dengue.

The number of in-patients shows a slight increase.

The rate of mortality was somewhat higher, viz., 5.08 per cent. as compared with 4.5 per cent. in 1902.

The following table gives the mortality rate for the past ten years:—

Year.

1894,

1895.

1896,

1897

1898

1899.

1900.

1901,

1902.

1903,

Rate of Mortality, Per Cent.

...5.14

4.99

5.50

..4.86

..5.36

4.16

.5.16

.....5.18

....4.50

......5.08

It is satisfactory to note that the diminution in the number of admissions from malarial fevers is maintained, the number for last year being 346 as compared with 349 in 1902, and 787 in 1901.

The type most usually met with is the malignant, the next in frequency is the tertian, the quartan being the least frequent.

With regard to typhoid fever our experience tends to confirm that of Sir PATRICK MANSON, that it is a much more serious disease in the tropics than at home. A modification of Ross' method of preparing blood films was adopted by Dr. BELL for the microscopic examination of blood for the detection of plague bacilli. By its means many mild cases of plague were diagnosed and cases were detected in an earlier stage.

The microscopic examination of blood for plague, however, should only be used as a confirmatory test and aid to diagnosis; any doubtful cases should be referred to the Government Bacteriologist (Dr. HUNTER) for culture experiment.

As far as our present experience of plague goes one would not be justified in treating patients suffering from this disease elsewhere than in an isolated room or hospital ward.

Judging by Dr. THOMSON'S report the treatment of this disease by large doses of carbolic acid-twelve grains every two hours-given internally, seems to offer the best chance of recovery.

Phthisis is very prevalent here and if we believe in the infectivity of tubercle' bacilli the reason is not far to seek, as the Chinese, especially from my experience Eurasians, are very subject to this disease. It is particularly those whose occupa- tion is of a sedentary nature, such as clerks, who are attacked.

Many interesting facts are stated concerning dysentery. Undoubtedly there are many varieties of this disease; indeed it is possible that there are several diseases included under the name dysentery. I anticipate great assistance in the research into this and other tropical diseases when the Bacteriological laboratory, the plans of which have been approved, is in working order.

Attached to this report are the usual tables, and in an appendix are given the notes of several cases of interest which have occurred in the Government Civil Hospital during the year.

LUNATIC ASYLUMS.

Tables IX and X give the admissions and deaths during the year, also the diseases from which the patients were suffering.

As Dr. LAING's report shows there were 35 more admissions than in the previous year, causing considerable overcrowding. Should this continue the question of enlarging the present Asylum, or building an entirely new one, will have to be seriously considered.

408

MATERNITY HOSPITAL.

Table VII gives the admissions during each month of the year. In all there were 31 Europeans and 37 Asiaties, as against 29 Europeans, one Indian, and 37 Chinese in 1902.

VICTORIA HOSPITAL FOR WOMEN AND CHILDREN.

This hospital, which has been built by the public of Hongkong in memory of of Her late Most Gracious Majesty Queen VICTORIA, was opened by His Excellency Sir HENRY BLAKE, G.C.M.G., on November 7th.

It was then formally handed over to the Government by the Hon. Sir C. P. CHATER, C.M.G., on behalf of the Jubilee Committee.

It is situated on the Barker Road some 800 feet above the sea level, and provides accommodation for thirty-three women and eight children. A much needed want is thus supplied, as the Government Civil Hospital has only one general ward for women of all nationalities and one private ward.

On the ground floor there are four private wards, a dispensary, an office and children's ward; on the first floor there are two general wards--one for Europeans and one for Asiatics-each containing twelve beds. It remains to be seen whether the Chinese will avail themselves of the benefits of this hospital as they seem to have an objection to living on the higher levels. On the first floor there is also a small isolation ward and an operating theatre.

In addition to the hospital there are quarters for a Resident Doctor and for the Nursing staff, these being connected with the main building by a covered passage.

There is no doubt that this Hospital will prove a boon to the yearly increasing number of Government servants and residents who have to reside in the overcrowd- ed lower part of the town.

VICTORIA GAOL.

The following table gives the number of admissions to the Gaol and the daily average number of prisoners during the past ten years:-

Prisoners admitted

to the Gaol.

Year.

Daily Average No.

of Prisoners.

1894,

..3,913

455

1895,

..5,014

472

1896,

.5,582

514

1897,

..5,076

462

1898.

..5,427

511

1899,

..4,789

434

1900,

.5,432

486

1901,

..5.077

499

1902,

..5.988

576

1903,

........7.273

653

From Dr. Koca's report it will be seen that there has been and is consider- able overcrowding at the Gaol.

From the 16th May to the 4th June, there was a sharp outbreak of plague in the Gaol; during this time 15 cases occurred.

A Committee was appointed by His Excellency the Governor to enquire into this outbreak, and a report has been submitted. In their opinion overcrowding was an important factor in the causation of this outbreak.

On the 30th May, 100 short sentence prisoners were released by order of H. E. the Governor; taking seven days from this date as the limit of the period of incubation, no more cases developed after the release of these prisoners.

With a view to relieving the overcrowding as far as possible, the Belilios Reformatory has been utilised as a temporary auxiliary prison; but the evil,. though diminished thereby, has not yet been removed.

TUNG WAI HOSPITAL.

The number of admissions was 119 less than in 1902.

1

409

The proportion of those under European treatment was much larger than in 1902, the figures for the last three years being

I ear.

1901, 1902,

1903,

European Treatment. .30.4 ..31.9. ....53.6

Chinese Treatment.

69.6 per cent.

68.1

""

46.3

وف

An out-patient department has been established where Chinese can be treated by European methods.

Arrangements were made this year for the treatment in the hospital of patients suffering from venereal disease, a much needed requirement as the hospital accommodation for such is very limited.

On March 26th His Excellency the Governor Sir HENRY BLAKE opened the New Wing, which supplies 76 more beds.

PUBLIC MORTUARY AND VACCINE INSTITUTE.

The mortuary is being entirely rebuilt. Much has been done during the year, in addition to the new mortuary buildings, pathological laboratories have been erected for the examination of rats, &c., and there are suitable offices and servants' quarters attached.

Dr. HUNTER'S Annual Report on the work done in the Bacteriological Sub- department has appeared separately in the Government Gazette.

It is a valuable scientific report showing evidence of much useful work having been accomplished.

The subject of Tuberculosis is particularly interesting and has been most thoroughly investigated and the results found especially with reference to the moot question of intestinal infection are of great importance. The reason why tuber- culosis is so rare amongst children may be because Chinese children do not as a rule drink milk.

The etiology of liver abscess requires much further clucidation as Dr. HUNTER'S conclusions show.

With regard to Plague further light has been thrown on the possible sources- of infection, the fact that food such as rice has been found infected with plague bacilli and that fowls, ducks &c. have been found to have died from this disease proves that infection by food may be much more common is this diseare than is generally supposed.

Then again the results of the post-mortem examinations of children under five years of age throws light on the high infantile Chinese mortality which prevails here.

An investigation has also been commenced into an epidemic disease which has affected cattle: this appears to be a form of Hæmorrhagic Septicemia.

Owing to the want of a properly equipped Laboratory the greater part of the work has been carried out at the Public Mortuary.

The plans for a Bacteriological Laboratory have been finally approved; and it is to be hoped that before the next annual report appears it will have been erected.

The combination of bacteriological research with the pathological material afforded at the Public Mortuary presents opportunities second to none for the investigation of many tropical diseases, such as beri-beri, dysentery, &c., the etiology of which is as yet obscure.

KENNEDY TOWN INFECTIOUS HOSPITALS.

During the year, 348 patients were admitted, 15 being cases of small-pox, 301 of plague, 2 cholera, and 20 under observation.

Of the 301 plague cases, 176 died, showing a mortality of 58.5 per cent. This is the lowest in the history of the hospital.

From Dr. THOMSON's report it will be seen that the most successful treatment was that of the internal administration of carbolic acid in 12-grain doses given every two hours.

.

410

Dr. JEU HAWK acted as Resident Medical Officer during the time plague was prevalent.

The Hospital Hulk "Hygeia" was moored off Kennedy Town Hospital from 2nd February to the 5th August and used for the treatment of small-pox cases.

The new Plague, branch of the Tung Wah Hospital was opened by His Excellency Sir HENRY BLAKE on June 6th. It contains 7 wards and supplies accommodation for 64 patients. Sixty-two patients were treated there, and it was closed on July 21st. This hospital was built entirely with funds raised by the Chinese in connexion with the Tung Wah and it is intended that the patients can be treated by the native doctors or by European methods according to their choice, but the hospital is under the sanitary supervision of the Medical Officers of Health.

VACCINATIONS.

The following were performed during the year:

Government Civil Hospital,

Victoria Gaol,

Alice Memorial Hospital,

Tung Wah:-

Victoria,

Aberdeen,

Stanley,

Shaukiwan,

Kowloon,

453

2,887

321

.1,591

24

51

29

28

5,048

ANTI-MALARIAL MEASURES.

These have been continued during the year more especially in the Western District.

The neighbourhood of Magazine Gap as also the district at the Peak between Mount Gough and "The Falls" have been dealt with.

NEW TERRITORY.

Mr. Ho NAI Hop having resigned the post of Chinese Medical Officer to the New Territory, Mr. LAU LAI was transferred to Tai Po from the Government Dispensary at Wan-chai and took over the duties of the office from the 8th Jan- uary, 1903. He regularly visited the outstations including the Leper settlement at Ău-tau, 150 visits being paid during the year.

The total number of out-patients treated was 2,196 as compared with 1,749 in 1902, an increase of 447.

Malarial Fevers.-There was a considerable increase in the number of patients treated suffering from this class of diseases, the numbers being 525 as against 275 in 1902, a clear proof that the inhabitants are beginning to realise the benefits of western treatment.

The Police have suffered somewhat more from fever than in the previous year although there is still a marked decrease in the number of cases as compared with 1901.

Plague.-An Indian Policeman from Sha Tau Kok was sent in to hospital suffering from plague; eleven other cases of plague occurred during the year; these are referred to in the report of the Medical Officer of Health.

Small-pox.-There was no epidemic this year such as occurred in 1902. Only one case was reported, that of a Chinese boy at Tong To Chan in the Sha Tau Kok district. He made a good recovery.

Vaccinations.-516 were vaccinated as compared with 336 in 1902, 216 chil- dren were vaccinated by Mr. LAU LAI, the remaining 300 by three Chinese local Vaccinators whom the Government supplied with calf lymph.

Cholera.-No cases occurred during the year. There was however an outbreak of summer diarrhoea at UN LOONG, in the Au Tau district, between twenty and thirty children dying of this disease after from two to three days' illness.

411

Dr. BARNETT visited the neighbourhood and investigated this outbreak. As he found that the water was polluted, the wells have been reconstructed so as to prevent this in future.

Attached are reports of:-

1. The Superintendent of the Government Civil Hospital.

2. The Medical Officer in charge of the Lunatic Asylums.

3. The Medical Officer in charge of the Infectious Diseases Hospitals.

4. The Medical Officer in charge of the Victoria Gaol.

5. The Inspecting Medical Officer of the Tung Wah Hospital.

6. The Report by Dr. THOMSON on plague cases treated in Kennedy

Town Hospital up to July 6th, 1903.

7. The Report of the Government Analyst.

I have, &c.,

J. M. ATKINSON, M.B. (London), D.P.H. (Camb.), &c.,

Principal Civil Medical Officer.

The Honourable

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY.

Report of the Superintendent of the Government Civil Hospital.

GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL,

HONGKONG, 7th January, 1904.

SIR,-I have the honour to submit herewith the annual report on the work done in the Government Civil and Maternity Hospitals during the year 1903 with the usual statistical tables.

MEDICAL STAFF.

I returned from leave in March and took over charge as Superintendent, this post having been revived.

Dr. LAING, Assistant Superintendent, proceeded on leave to Japan in May and was succeeded by Dr. KocH who joined the department from the Colonial Service of Trinidad. Dr. LAING returned in July.

NURSING STAFF.

Sister LAZENBY resigned in February. Sister DEWAR arrived from home and joined in April. Sisters LEE and SCHAFER arrived in May. Sister MILLING- TON left on home leave in June. Sister SCHAFER was granted special leave to Japan in July owing to an attack of plague. Sister WATSON was, I regret to

invalided in August. Sister MAKER proceeded on home leave in October. Sister ABRAHAMS arrived in November but at once resigned and left in December.

say,

Sister BARR returned from home leave in December but jcined Victoria Hospital as Senior Sister in charge.

Wardmaster CookE joined from the Police in June.

Wardmaster RICHMOND resigned in September and was succeeded by Ward- master MULROONEY from the Royal Artillery.

Wardınaster MCFARLANE, transferred from the Asylum for duty here, was dismissed in December.

I regret to say there has been a good deal of sickness amongst the nursing staff during the past year due to dysentery, malaria, dengue fever and plague.

During the plague epidemic the Nursing Sisters all took their turn of duty at Kennedy Town Hospital but fortunately only one contracted the disease.

412

DISPENSARY STAFF.

I regret to report the death of Mr. UI CHU, Apothecary's Assistant, from phthisis in September. He was always reliable, steady and obliging and his death was much regretted. Mr. LI MUN was promoted in his place and in turn was succeeded by Mr. TONG HOK LING as Third Apothecary's Assistant.

CLERICAL STAFF.

Mr. SUN UN PAN, 1st Assistant Clerk, was appointed Temporary Clerk in January. Mr. YEUNG MAN YUK was appointed 1st Assistant Clerk in February in succession to Mr. SUN UN PAN.

Mr. SUN UN PAN died on 6th June.

Mr. YEUNG MAM YUK was appointed Temporary Clerk vice SUN UN PAN. Mr. CHAN TAK CHIU was appointed 1st Assistant Clerk in June vice YEUNG MAM YUK.

Mr. IP HIN SING, Clerk, was dismissed in June.

Mr. YEUNG MAM YUK, Temporary Clerk, was appointed Clerk vice IP HIN SING.

Mr. LEONG A KIM was appointed Temporary Clerk in July vice YEUNG MAM YUK.

BUILDINGS.

The buildings are all in a fair state of repair. The roofs leaked badly in the rainy season but I am glad to say this important matter has been taken in hand by the Public Works Department and we have every prospect of soon having a thoroughly watertight roof.

I trust in the near future we will have a new and modern operating theatre as this is much required and if built would give us two extra private wards which we also need as the few we have, are full most of the year.

I also hope some day to see all the lavatories properly tiled as it is very difficult to keep them clean in their present condition. This might be done little by little so as not to involve too great an outlay in one year but I sincerely hope a commencement will soon be made.

The electric light and fans have on the whole worked well and needless to say have much improved the wards. When, however, they do go wrong the want of a duplicate system in the shape of gas is much felt and I should much like to see this addition made.

POLICE.

There were 759 admissions as against 938 in 1902, the strength being 921 as- against 881. This marked diminution is almost entirely due to the smaller num- ber of cases of dengue fever-62 as against 217.

There were 20 Europeans, 48 Indians, and 109 less Chinese admitted as compared with last year.

Table I. gives the sick and mortality rate in percentage of strength for the last ten years.

The following Table gives the admissions and total deaths from the various sections of the Force during the last ten years :-

EUROPEANS.

INDIANS.

CHINESE.

TOTAL ADMISSIONS.

DEATHS.

1894

127

244

134

505

15

1895

90

254

116

466

8

1896

94

370

124

588

14

1897

99

320

107

526

7

1898

87

279

122

488

19

1899

117

421

154

692

16

1900

183

522

215

920

4

1901

202

521

214

937

1902

150

479

307

936

2

1903

130

431

198

759

Total,

1,279

3,841

1,691

6,817

98

:

413

There were 5 deaths as compared with 2 in 1902. Two were Indians and 3 Chinese. Causes of death were Tuberculosis, Pneumonia, Phthisis, Cirrhosis of Liver and Septicæmia.

There were 20 cases of invaliding-1 European, 12 Indians and 7 Chinese- the diseases for which they were invalided being injury to the foot necessitating amputation of the toes, Phthisis (11), Pleurisy (1), Rheumatism (2), Cardiac Disease (1), Beri-beri (3), Tuberculosis (1).

Malaria-167 admissions as against 176 in 1902, or 18.13 per cent. of the force were attacked as against 19.06 per cent. last year, a slight decrease. Of those who sufferred 14.15 per cent. were Europeans, 32.94 Indians, and 10.22 Chinese.

The New Territory has not shown such a marked improvement as the following table of admissions compared to strength shows:--

1901.

1902.

1903.

Sha Tau Kok,

30.7

nil.

15.38

Ping Shan,.

64.2

7.1

45.45

Sai Kung,

28.5

16.6

16.6

San Tin,..

25.0

nil.

nil.

Tai Po,......

70.0

50.0

33.3

Sha Tin,.

25.0

mil.

12.5

Tai 0,...

10.0

10.0

11.1

Au Tau,

121.4

7.6

61.5

Sheung Shui,

63.6

20.0

9.0

The only stations showing a decrease are Tai Po and Sheung Shui, whilst most of the others show an increase. These figures are fairly accurate though there is a slight, error. We find that the prophylactic use of quinine and still more so the dosing the men receive at the station before coming in upsets the blood diagnosis. In some cases it is two or three days before the parasite is found and in others they do not recur and so the case, presumably malaria, goes down under "Febricula.' The average number of days each inan spent in hospital for this disease was 7.9.

Phthisis.-13 cases were under treatment with 1 death. Of these 9 were Indians and 4 Chinese or 2.60 per cent. Indians and 1.10 per cent. Chinese. As already stated 11 cases were invalided. It is difficult to account for the prevalence of this disease, as amongst neither section does the usual predisposing causes summarised as "low vitality and bad hygienic conditions" apply. They are all picked men and free from all apparent disease when passed into the service and are well housed, clothed and fed. A close study of the disease as it occurs amongst the Police does not impress one much with the tubercle bacilli as an agent in its spread, though it may seem treason to say so in these bacteriological days. If it were a contagious disease one would certainly expect some cases amongst the European section, as the men all live under similar conditions and the whole Colony must be teeming with tubercle bacilli. Unfortunately with Indians and Chinese it is not possible to get any family history and so one cannot say anything as to the hereditary ten- dency or predisposition of each individual attacked. The tropical practitioner's great stand by-malaria-next suggests itselfas a predisposing cause. Both Indians and Chinese suffer much more from this latter disease than do Europeans and it is interesting to note that they also suffer much in the same proportion from phthisis as they do from malaria:-

Malaria-32.94% Indians, 10.22% Chinese,

Phthisis-2.60% Indians, 1.10% Chinese, and this relationship also holds for the two diseases in the general hospital returns.

414

As regards season-and climatic influences may have something to do with the spread the following table gives the admissions for each month compared to the number of Police admitted:-

January,

February,

March,

April,

May,

June,

July,.

August..

September,

October,

November,

December,

.3.17

5.00

Nil.

..5.17

2.27

..1.44

...Nil.

...2.50

...0.90

...1.40

..Nil.

....Nil.

In summer (May to October) 1.34% as against 2.22% in winter (November to April). February and April are the worst months both in the Police and in the General Hospital returns.

Dysentery-13 cases were under treatment, of which 2 were Europeans, 11 Indians and none Chinese, the latter suffering very much less which is also found to be the case in the General Hospital returns. Possibly this may be due to their rarely drinking unboiled water as all evidence points towards dysentery being a water-borne disease in the vast majority of cases.

Beri-beri.-9 cases, all amongst the Chinese section. There were no deaths but 3 were invalided. We are still quite ignorant of the cause of this disease and I regret we have no further light to throw on the subject. The blood and stools of all cases and the cerebro spinal fluid in two were examined microscopically but without any result.

Typhoid Fever.-Only one case occurred in the Police during the year, the patient being a European. He recovered and is now doing his duty.

The other ailments (dengue fever, influenza, &c.) call for no special remarks. There were no serious accidents or injuries save one in which a Sergeant as the result of a fall developed gangrene of the toes necessitating partial amputation of the foot. He did well but had to be invalided.

Table II. gives the admissions and deaths during each month of the year. Table III. gives the admissions to hospital from each station for malaria. Exclusive of certain New Territory Stations already dealt with, this table shows a diminution in cases from Central, No. 1, No. 2, No. 5, No. 6, No. 7, Tzat Tze Mui, Pokfulam, Water, Shek O and Stonecutters' Island, and an increase from Nos. 3 and 8, Quarry Bay, Shaukiwan, Aberdeen, Stanley, Yaumati, Hung- hom, Tung Ching, Kowloon City, Kennedy Town, and Lamma Island.

GAOL STAFF.

There were 77 admissions out of a staff of 93 or 82.79 per cent. as against 94.50 per cent. in 1902. Two Indians were invalided for tuberculosis and one died of hepatic abscess.

SANITARY DEPARTMENT.

There were 34 admissions as against 64 in 1901. There were no deaths and no cases invalided.

GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL.

The total number of admissions was 2,794 as against 3,108 in 1902. The decrease is partly due to fewer cases of dengue and to the fact that, owing to repairs, C. Block has been closed for the last two months thus depriving us of 28 beds.

The total number of out-patients was 11,911 as against 11,815 in 1902. Attached are the following tables:-

Table IV. Showing the admissions and deaths in the hospital during each month.

Table V.

Showing the operations performed.

Table VI.

Showing admissions and deaths under respective diseases.

415

Table VII. Showing admissions and deaths in the Maternity Hospital. Table VIII. Showing varieties of malarial fever met with during the year.

The following table gives the number and class of patients admitted during the past ten years:

YEAR.

1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903

Police,

505

466

588

529 488 692

920 937 938 759

Paying Patients.........

191

198 632

603

741

764

891

830

931

777

Govt. Servants,

168

203

269

227

186

208

266 339

460

319

Police cases,

272

319

244

299

306 306

347

348

300

276

Free.

427

668

778

742

785 739

569 466

454

646

Board of Trade,

100 129

$7

45

65

25

37

28

25

17

Total,.....

1,963 2,283 2,598 2,4452,571 2,734 3,030 2,9483,108 2,794

This shows as compared with last year a decrease in the number of patients admitted under all headings except "Free."

The admissions and deaths for the last ten years are as follow:-

Years.

Admissions.

Deaths.

1894,

.1,967

101

1895,

.2,283

114

1896,

2,598

143

1897,

.2,445

119

1898,

.2,571

138

1899,

.2,734

114

...

1900,

.3,030

155

1901,

.2,948

153

1902,

.3.108

140

....

1903,

.2,794

142

The rate of mortality for the year was 5.08 per cent, as against 4.5 in 1902. The average daily number of sick was 99.09 as against 111.38 in 1902.

Women and Children.-The number admitted was 295 as against 357 in 1902, and 281 in 1901. The death-rate was 10.5 per cent.

NATIONALITY.

Europeans.-802 were admitted as against 956 in 1902. Indians.-748 were admitted as compared with 834.

Asiatics (Chinese and Japanese).—1,244 were admitted as against 1,315 in 1902, and 1,098 in 1901.

There were 6 Officers of the Garrison under treatment as against 4 in 1902. As we take in most of the cases this speaks well for the health of the Troops as far as Officers are concerned.

DISEASES.

The following diseases caused the greatest number of admissions:---

Fevers :----

Dengue,

.123 cases.

Malarial,

..346

Febricula,

96

29

Typhoid,

28

"

Venereal Diseases...

..166

">

Diseases of Respiratory System,

..194

11

Diseases of Digestive System,

252

"

Dysentery,

50

Beri-beri,

36

Influenza,

53

51

Rheumatism,

Injuries,

..100

...442

416

The following diseases caused the greatest number of deaths :--

Diseases of Respiratory System,

Diseases of Digestive System,..

Typhoid Fever,

Dysentery, Injuries,

....

30 cases.

17

""

""

6

11

27

Dengue Fever.-123 cases of this uninteresting disease; were admitted as against 422 in 1902. The epidemic started in August, and was practically over in October. The blood of all patients was examined in many ways but without any result nor were cultivation experiments more successful. The Government Bacteriologist (Dr. HUNTER) attended on several occasions with a view to examining the blood but his results were also negative. Several 'of the nursing- staff suffered and we were at times hard pushed in the nursing line. The cases were much the same as in other epidemic, varying in severity and none fatal. Diaphoretics, salicylates, yeast (according to the French method), and carbolic acid in 20-minim doses were all tried but without any very marked result. Next to morphia, hypodermically, salicylates were most useful. The disease was rarely associated with malaria (two cases only) and the parasites found by Dr. GRAHAM of Beyrout and which he claims as the producer of the disease must have been either vacuoles or the ringformed non-pigmented malaria. The epidemic moreover is very unlike a disease conveyed by mosquitoes.

Malarial Fever.-346 cases have been under treatment as against 349 in 1902, and 787 in 1901. There were only two deaths due directly to this disease. The varieties of malaria met with were:-

Malignant, Simple Tertian,.

Quartan,.

Mixed infection,

16.9

71.6 per cent.

}:

5.9

??

5.4

One case of mixed infection was interesting as the two simple forms were associated, a rare occurrence in our experience. The diseases associated with malaria were :-

Injuries,

Beri-beri,

Pneumonia,

Heart Disease, Phthisis,

7 cases. 2

*9

1

"

Venereal Disease,

Plague,

Hepatic Abscess,

Dysentery,

Abscesses,

Necrosis of bone,

Rickets,

Dengue,

....

Cirrhosis of Liver,

Alcoholism,

Eye Disease,

1

1

2

22

31

""

1

1

1

1

1

The influence of nervous shock, as seen in the association of injuries with malaria, is interesting; and needless to say all debilitating causes casily bring out an attack in a patient previously subject to the disease. The Maternity Hospital cases also exemplify this for most of the patients admitted have previouly had malaria and 4.41 per cent. had an attack shortly after the birth of the child.

At your request an investigation has been carried out as to the efficacy of methyl blue in destroying or removing from the blood stream the crescent forms. No one has as yet settled how long they remain without treatment and it was essential this should be ascertained. All patients with crescents had their blood examined daily and a record kept. The length of time varies directly as the number of crescents first seen and this gives such a wide limit that any drug vaunted as a specific must exercise its influence very rapidly to escape criticisın.. Of the untreated cases in which the crescents disappeared during their stay in hospital the average duration was 13 days, the shortest being 4, and the longest 30. There were also six cases which for various reasons it was not possible to detain in.

417

hospital and then left with crescents after periods varying from 7 to 27 days. Several cases were put on methyl blue (grs. 2 ter die) and the average duration was 14 days, the shortest being 4, and the longest 19. Methyl blue is therefore useless and this is much to be regretted. A patient with crescents in his blood is a source of infection to others if he proceeds to an Anopheles infected" neigh- bourhood and yet it is not always possible to keep him in hospital as long as it appears to be necessary in some cases. Further investigations will be carried out in this direction and the results duly recorded in next year's report.

<6

Typhoid Fever.-28 cases were under treatment with 6 deaths as against 34 with 8 in 1902. Typhoid in the tropics is usually considered a more serious ailment than in temperate climates and our records bear this out.

Taking the cases for the last two years the death-rate has been 22:57 per cent. and the relapse rate 11.28 per cent. and the average duration of the initial fever 24.85 days. BRAUNAN (20th Century Medicine) states that the rate of mortality varies and is about 10%, Maidstone epidemic (1897), 7.6, United States Army (1900) 6%. The relapse rate also varies. In 11,640 cases from all sources it was 6%, BRAUNAN himself having a rate of 7.8%, and MURCHISON 3%. The duration of the initial fever is from 24 to 28 days. It will thus be seen that except for the initial fever rate our figures show that it is a more serious disease here at any rate than in temper- ate climates. Face to face with a disease which runs its course and becomes al- most purely a question of skilled nursing numerous remedies have been advocated, from time to time, chiefly with a view to reducing the death and relapse rate and not the duration of the initial fever and most of them have fallen into disuse. Until the bacteriologists have settled the vexed question as to whether the typhoid bacillus is a bacillus sui generis or only a variety of the bacillus coli group they will have nothing to offer us in the way of a curative serum and we must endeav- our to work out our own salvation in this as in many other diseases.. Being anxious to settle the therapeutic value of carbolic acid I have given it in this disease. The cases treated (11) are too few to justify positive statements, but as the results are more promising it is as well to put them on record so that others. may be induced to try the method and settle its usefulness. Out of this small number there have been no deaths and no relapses, but the duration of the initial fever has only fallen to 20 days. The dose employed was 30 minims thrice daily well diluted. The average amount taken was 904 minims. Next year's report

will show, I hope, whether this line of treatment is of much use or not.

.

One case is inserted in the Appendix as the association of jaundice with the disease is rare. Two cases occurred in Chinese, both fatal. 15 cases were imported. In connection with this disease our best thanks are due to Dr. HUNTER for kindly doing the Widal Reaction" test in all cases. To be of any use to a clinician this rest must be positions aut nihil and this it certainly is not and I cannot say I am any more impressed with it than I have ever been.

Plague.-78 cases were admitted with 5 deaths. The bulk of the cases were, of course, transferred to the Infectious Disease Hospital. As soon as the epidemic started we had a stock mixture of carbolic acid (20 minims for a dose) made up, and all cases were put on this as soon as they came in— if the blood showed no malaria and the symptoms pointed to plague-so that no time was lost in starting the treatment. In view of the favourable report issued on this treat- ment by Dr. THOMSON I would like to point out that, though I suggested this treatment to you, the real credit for introducing this drug in such large doses belongs to Dr. A. WIGLESWORTH of Liverpool (Vide Lancet April 8th, 1899).

After working at malaria with Ross' method and trying it with equal success in filaria, we (Dr. LAING and myself) tried the method on plague and reported to you that we considered that all cases, both mild and severe, could be diagnosed by finding the bacillus in the general circulation. Dr. THOMSON, Medical Officer to the Infectious Hospital, spoke highly of the method in his report and is in fact a greater believer in it than I am now myself. After a long run of undoubted cases several mistakes were made in diagnosis; this led me to go into the question of microscopical diagnosis of plague and I duly submitted to you a report on the subject. To be brief, I found that throughout the alimentary canal of man there exists a bacillus identical in shape, size and staining properties as the plague bacillus and also that it is very easy to get blood films contaminated with the Though blood diagnosis is possible it is alsolutely necessary to be sure that perfect cleanliness of the part has been secured which means taking it your- self and this necessarily limits the scope of the method.

I would not now, as

-

:

.

418

we did before, dream of diagnosing blood films taken by all and anyone and sent to hospital for report. As in next epidemic we are sure to be called upon for diagnosis now and again I would submit to you the advisability of bringing the above report, condensed or otherwise, to the notice of the medical men here so that they may be alive to the possibility of error.

We have hitherto been chary of treating cases in a General Ward for fear of infection amongst nurses, attendants or other patients. Judging from our experience here and at Kennedy Town Hospital this is very rare however, though as already mentioned one Sister contracted the disease presumably at Kennedy Town Hospital. ASHBURTON THOMPSON, Chief Medical Officer to the Government of New South Wales, in the last report ridicules the idea of its spreading in this way, save perhaps in cases of the pneumonic form. If his conclusions are verified by others, and it is about time something definite was settled regarding plague, it will remove a great anxiety from our shoulders as no doubt many cases would do all the better if they were spared a second journey to Kennedy Town Hospital. One case of relapse in this disease, being a rare occurrence, has been inserted in the Appendix. Two cases were also met with in which the premonitory symptom was diarrhoea with fever and on the third day both patients developed plague. This looks as if it were possible to contract the disease via the alimentary tract though THOMPSON and others deny this.

Phthisis.-60 cases were under treatment with 15 deaths. Of these, 10 were Europeans, 24 Indians, 17 Chinese, 4. Philipinos, and 5 Japanese. This disease is very prevalent here due no doubt to a variety of causes which would come under the heading of low vitality and bad hygienic conditions. Both Indians and Chinese suffer more severely from malaria than do Europeans, and one is inclined to suggest this latter ailment as a predisposing cause. As with the Police so in the General Hospital returns it is seen that they suffer in the same proportion from phthisis as they do from malaria.

Indians,. Chinese...

Phthisis.

24 17

Malaria.

159 cases 108

??

If this is so there is not much hope of removing the cause as the various malaria preventive measures do not touch the bulk of the moving coolie class. who suffer badly from this disease. The following table gives the percentage of cases each month compared to the number of patients admitted:

January...... February,

March,

April,

May. June, July,

August,

September.

October,

November,

December,

Winter (November to April),

Summer (May to October),

2.44 per cent.

6.00

2.11

"1

3.52

0.89

*

0.41

1.20

2.12

1.79

1.16

2.56

1.66

2.93

J1

1.34

As in the Police so in these figures it is noticeable that February and April are the worst months and that the number of cases occurring in the winter are double the number of there occurring in the summer. I attach the meteorological record issued monthly from the Observatory as it may be useful for reference in connection with this disease.

As regards treatment we have nothing new to suggest. The urea treat- ment as suggested by Dr. HARPER of Liverpool has been thoroughly tried here, and in view of its failure (Principal Civil Medical Officer's Report for 1902) it was not continued as a routine treatment though I again tried it in one or two cases, giving 40 grains 4 hourly for days but without any result. Needless to say my thoughts were turned towards carbolic acid as a possible cure and I am much disappointed in the result. If the disease is due to bacilli one would expect good results from internal antiseptics. I gave up to 40 minims ter die and con-

÷

.

1

419

tinued the treatment for a long time but as with all other drugs only the very early cases were benefitted and as they are not now under observation it is not possible to say if the improvement has been maintained. A European who entered into the experiment with zest has been, and still is, taking the drug since August (60 minims daily). His weight has improved and the fever stopped but other- wise his condition is the same. Guiacol carbonate has also been tried but I can- not say it is of much use either in phthisis or in those curious cases of abdominal tuberculosis which we see amongst the Indians.

One case is reported in the Appendix as the patient suddenly developed meningitis, a rare ending in an adult.

Possibly the collection of cases of this disease in sanitoria may lead to some successful method of treatment being discovered. A short but very interesting report the first I have seen-has lately been issued by Dr. SMITH from the man- chester Sanitorium. So far he does not speak very enthusiastically of any special drug but agrees with us as to the uselessness of urea. 'The best results were

obtained with guiacol but the cases were all in an early stage.

Febricula.-96 cases come under this heading. One is naturally loth to place patients under this heading but it has to be used for a fair number after all methods No doubt a few are of diagnosis have failed to identify the cause of the disease.

malarial, in which, owing to the previous use of quinine, no parasites have been found in the blood and one or two may be cases of phthisis in an early stage. None, I think, are due to trypanosoma as a very careful look out has been kept for this parasite and the constant daily blood examination, more especially by Ross' method, would have detected them if they were present. Three cases were interesting inasmuch as after the fever had kept up for several days a very short antisyphilitic course of treatment at once reduced it. The results were so evident-

ly due to the treatment that one is, I think, justified, even in the absence of all other signs, in looking upon the cases as "Syphilitic fever."

Dysentery.-50 cases with 11 deaths as against 74 in 1902. The word dysentery is now practically considered as a symptom of a disease due to many causes, but not much has yet been done towards elucidating the special factor in each case.

With the increase of microscopical work now done here I hope we may be able in due course to add a few facts to those already accumulated regarding this serious ailment. The stools in 31 cases were examined daily and the results are worth recording.

1. In 4 cases no cause save malaria could be found. They all had fever parasites in the blood. Malaria per se is not generally considered to produce this disease though personally I am inclined to think it does. In view of the enormous number of parasites found in a smear from the mucus membrane of the bowel in fatal cases of this disease it is easy enough to understand that small patches might have their blood supply cut off by blocking of the capillaries and this would account for the local condition.

2o. In 3 cases amaba were found in the stool and malaria in the blood. These will be looked upon as cases in which a debilitating cause precipitates an attack of malaria.

3o. In 4 cases the only cause found was the presence of cercomonas intestinale in the stools. I have not hitherto seen these parasites except in cases of dysentery. Little or nothing is said of them in text books though SIMONS' "Clinical Diagnosis alludes to them as a possible cause of diarrhoea. They all rapidly disappeared as the stools became normal and the cases were mild in type. One case was com-

bined with malaria.

4o. In one case in a Chinaman nothing was found but eggs with which we were not familiar but Dr. HUNTER, Government Bacteriologist. kindly saw the specimen and reported "these are eggs of Distoma Cranum, a fluke said to be com- inon in parts of India and South China and also said to produce diarrhea with blood in the stools.” The case was fairly mild and the eggs disappeared as the case progressed to a favourable termination.

5°. In 10 cases Amoeba Coli were found. It still seems to be doubtful whether this is a cause of dysentery or not but in all these cases they diminished in numbers daily and rapidly as the stool became normal and the blood disappeared.

420

6o. In no less than 7 cases no cause was discoverable and of these two were: fatal. May they be sporadic cases due to bacillus dysenterica?

Paramœcium Coli, mentioned by TREILLE, as a cause of dysentery in Cochin China I have never met with.

As regards treatment there is nothing new to mention. The local condition being the same, the same treatment seems to suit most cases. Here salines have long been favourites and they give us good results, quinine of course being used in cases with malaria. Ipecacuanha we seldom now use and in our experience it is not of much use if salines fail. If used at all the best results seem to be obtained by using it as an enema. I found carbolic acid (grs. 20 ter die) useful in the cases with cercomonas intestinale. Enemata of potass: permanganat: were also useful in 2 or 3 obstinate cases.

If dysentery is a cause of liver abscess it is surprising this latter is not more frequent.

Of the cases treated 20 were amongst Europeans, 24 Indians, 3 Chinese, and 3 Japanese.

Parasites.-The more important of these were (a) Guinea Worm-two cases. This disease is, I believe, unknown in China and both our cases were in Indians. For preserving the embryos permanently I found a saturated solution of erythrosin most useful though LEISHMAN, to whom I sent some specimens, recommends his own stain which is certainly the best for filaria. He suggests overstaining and quickly washing in water slightly acidified with acetic acid.

(b.) Filaria Nocturna.—Several cases have come under our notice but none of them with any very special symptoms. This is strange for they are of fair size, as compared with malaria, and teem in the blood stream without seemingly doing much harm as most of them were only found in the routine blood examination. It is interesting to note that in the cases (plague, malaria, and leprosy) the parasite showed up by day as well as by night.

by night. It may be of use to mention that Ross' method for malaria is the best way to get them in number and LEISHMAN'S- stain the best for preserving them permanently.

(c.) Distoma Ringeri-A case of this interesting disease occurred in a Japanese sailor, the only symptom being homoptysis. I was not able to get eggs to stain so as to preserve the specimen permanently nor was I able to get them to develope after any of the recognised methods. This is the first case we have ever had here.

(d.) Ankylostoma Duodenale.-Several cases have occurred in which the eggs were found in the stools but none of them with any very pronounced. symptoms. One case, a Japanese, was a small pathological museum as his stools showed amabæ, eggs of this parasite, tricophalus dispar and ascaris lumbricoides..

Poisons. Of the 12 cases 7 were due to datura alba and five to opium. None of the foriner were fatal but two of the latter succumbed.

Hepatic Abscess.-Five cases-one European, three Indian and one Chinese. They were all operated upon and of the number four died. Three were cases of multiple abscesses, a hopeless condition, and the fourth was in a patient the sub- ject of malaria Soon after the operation he had profuse hæmorrhages from the abscess cavity, the rectum and stomach and gradually sank. The Chinese case- was interesting in that it occurred in a woman--a rare event.

Tetanus.-Two cases occurred both as the result of wounds the incubation period in one case being a month and the other a fortnight. They were both treated with carbolic acid 20 minims every four hours, morphea and chloroform when necessary.

One recovered from the tetanus and the other died on the 8th

day.

life.

Injuries.—Bullet wounds.-8 cases were under treatment, none fatal. Dynamite Explosion.-5 cases, one fatal and all the others badly maimed for

421

Fractures. The following fractures were treated during the year:-

Femur,

..10 cases with 1 death.

Humerus,

.12

""

Forearm,

**

Clavicle,

2

>>

Jaw,

1

??

Patella,

2

Leg,

8

17

Skull,

.1.3

with 10 deaths.

1

Ribs,

with 1 death.

Dislocations.--The following were under treatment:----

1

:

Thigh,

Shoulder..

.1 case.

.2

1

.1

Jaw,...

Elbow,

Operations. There were 192 operations performed during the year. Amongst the more important were :-

Liver Abscess.-5 cases alluded to above.

Abdominal Section.-2 cases. One was for tubercular disease and as the case was interesting it has been inserted in the Appendix. The second case was for injury simulating internal trouble so the abdomen was opened. The patient eventually died from the effects of extensive hæmorrhage (retroperitoneal}.

Penetrating wounds of the abdomen with protrusion of omentum.--Both cases did well. In my own the omentum was ligatured and removed and in Dr. LAING'S it was returned after thorough cleansing.

Lithotomy.-Three cases were operated on with one death-one by yourself, one by Dr. LAING and the third by Dr. KoсH. The fatal case was done by the suprapubic method, not a very sucessful method here as far as I can gather.

Strangulated Hernia.-One case with a fatal result. This occurred in an old Chinaman who had evidently had the trouble for some time. He died of shock shortly after the operation and the gut was found to be gangrenous with commenc- ing peritonitis.

Ovarian Tumour.-One case in a European. The tumour was a dermoid cyst lull of fat and hair. She convalesced rather slowly but eventually left

hospital all right. The operation was performed by Dr. LAING.

Appendicitis. Two cases were operated on and both did well.

Double Amputation at same time.-This was done for dynamite injuries. I removed the right arm and Dr. LAING the left. The patient stood the operation well. Unfortunately though he recovered he was totally blind as both eyes had also been injured.

Ligature of Femoral.-Two cases, both sucessful. One was a case of revolver bullet wound through the thigh. The patient nearly bled to death 48 hours after the injury and the femoral was ligatured. As gangrene supervened the leg was amputated below the knee. He recovered and left for home. The second case, under Dr. LAING, had the misfortune to have a popliteal aneurism opened by mistake, not here however, and the femoral was accordingly ligatured.

ligatured. He is doing well.

Splenectomy.-Three cases with 2 deaths. One died on the sixth day and it was not possible to determine the cause as the ligature had been firmly tied and there was no evidence of peritonitis. The other fatal case had in addition to a ruptured spleen a fractured leg, a fractured thigh and a smashed arm which was amputated. He died shortly after.

Anaesthetics.-Chloroform was administered 201 and ether 3 times without any fatal result.

We find the previous administration of morphia gr. and hyoscine gr. once or twice most useful in the case of all Europeans. It is given hypodermically 2 or 3 hours before and the dose if necessary repeated an hour previous to the operation. They require much less or it abolishes almost entirely the struggling stage.

}

422

Vaccinations:-The following were performed:--

Successful. Unsuccessful.

Primary cases,... Re-vaccinations,

173 188

Total.

:

0

173

92

280

453

Radiography. The new apparatus arrived early in the year and has been a most useful addition. Fortunately Dr. LAING was already a good photographer and was able to begin work at once with it. I need scarcely mention its use in connec- tion with fractures, foreign bodies, &c., in all of which it has been most valuable. and we have now a very fine album of skiagrams. No cases of malignant disease have as yet been treated with it but we are now so far provided in the event of any inoperable cases coming under our care. Our best thanks are due to Dr. JORDAN for helping us to put the somewhat complicated machinery together and for keeping our batteries charged.

MATERNITY HOSPITAL.

Sixty-eight cases were admitted as aganist 67 in 1902 and there were no fatal cases. Of those in hospital 9 were wives of Government servants. 45 private paying, and 14 free. One case of twins occurred and of the births 27 were boys and 35 girls.

The whole of the hospital has been lately colourwashed and painted inside

and out.

Fees:-The total fees received in the department during the year were:-

Hospital fees, Certificates,

$35,167.62

465.00

$35,632.62

In conclusion, I desire to thank all the members of the staff who have so ably assisted me during the year, and I take this opportunity of thanking those who have kindly presented books, flowers, &c. to the patients.

I have, &c.,

J. BELL,

Superintendent

T

;

}

423

Table I.-Shewing the SICK RATE and MORTALITY RATE in the different SECTIONS OF THE POLICE for the last ten years.

EUROPEANS.

INDIANS.

CHINESE.

Year.

Mortality

Mortality

Mortality

Sick rate.

Sick rate.

Sick rate.

rate.

rate.

rate.

1894

116.51

112.96

1.85

41.10

3.37

1895

85.91

0.89

112.89

0.44

40.00

2.07

1896

89.52

0.95

172.89

1.40

40.52

3.26

1897

94.28

0.95

146.11

1.37

35.54

0.99

1898

77.67

3.57

123.45

1.32

41.78

4.10

1899

104.46

3.57

151.98

1.08

17.09

2.75

1900

135.50

147.40

0.57

57.02

0.40

1901

160.31.

3.17

147.17

0.56

52.97

0.49

1902

126.00

0.84

131.90

0.80

76.90

1903

115.04

124.56

0.57

54.69

0.82

J. BELL,

Superintendent.

POLICE.

Table II.-Shewing the ADMISSIONS into and DEATHS in the GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL

during each Month of the Year 1903.

MONTHS.

EUROPEANS.

INDIANS.

CHINESE.

Admissions. Deaths. Admissions. Deaths. Admissions. Deaths.

TOTAL TOTAL Admissions. Deaths.

Remaining on the 1st Jan.,

1903,..

5

3

2

10

January,.

6

February,

10

March,

11

ོ ོ ཿ བ

1

17

53

1

1

9

40

1

16

10

37

April,

16

21

21

58

May,

B

22

9

44

June,

12

42.

15

69

July,

8

46

17

71.

August,

11

42

27

80

}

September,

B

78

19

1

110

I

October,

10

38

23

71

November,

8

45

15

68

December,

7

27

14

48

Total,....

130

431

2

198

3

759

5

J. BELL,

Superintendent.

424

Table III.—Shewing the ADMISSIONS to HOSPITAL from the POLICE for MALARIAL FEVER from each Station, during the Year 1903.

Percentage

STATIONS.

to

Strength.

January,

*&ium.1qU

March.

April.

May.

June.

July.

August.

September.

*.0{0})}

November.

December

Central,

23.45

11

No. 1,

No. 2,

19.44

No. 3,

28.57

No. 5,

8.33

No. 6,

50.00

No. 7,

18.75

No. 8.

2.70

Tzat Tsz Mui,

25.00

Quarry Bay,

100.00

Shaukiwan,

90.00

Aberdeen,

60.00

Stanley,

200.00

Pokfulam,

Gap,

Mount Gough,

Water,

3.84

Yaumati,

17.24

Hunghom,

29.41

Sha Tau Kok,

15.38

Ping Shang,

45.45

Tung Ching,

71.42

Sai Kung,..

16.66

San Tin......

Kowloon City,

33.33

Tai 0,

11.11

Uu Long.

Sha Tin,

12.50

Tai Po.. Au Tau

33 33

61.53

Shek 0.

Sheung Shui,

...

9.09

Kennedy Town,

28.57

Cheung Chan,

Stonecutters' Island.

Lamma Island,

40.00

Total.

20.34

16

:::

..

3 :

~

10

:

3

Total.

57

12

9

9

12

1

3

10

27

14 23

20

25

9

167

Table IV.-Shewing the ADMISSIONS into and DEATHS in the GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL during each Month of the Year 1903.

EUROPEANS.

INDIANS.

ASIATICS.

MONTHS.

Total Total Admissions. Deaths.

Admissions. Deaths. Admissions.

Deaths. Admissions. Deaths.

i

Remaining on the 1st

January, 1903,

82

1

20

January,

41

1

51

February,

46

44

March,

66

39

April,.

71

43

May,

June,

91

41

83

69

July,

65

75

August,

70

69

September,

73

117

October,..

69

6

70

November,

48

65

December,

47

45

Twaa-10 10 – 10 20 4 10 19

53

1

105

4

89

8

181

15

60

150

8

84

7

189

12

113

92

81

109

NO40

7

227

11

6

224

11

233

9

6

219

11

130

11

269

17

6

144

334

16

6

119

258

18

82

88

♡ - 1

195

10

8

180

Total,

802

28

748

36

1,244

78

2,794

142

D

J. BELL,

Superintendent.

1

!

425

Table V.-LIST of OPERATIONS performed during the year 1903.

OPERATION.

DEATH.

SURGICAL OPERATIONS.

Operations on Organs of Locomotion,-Amputation of Hand,

1

""

""

""

Leg, Toes,

2.

6

""

""

Fingers,

""

Arm,

12

4

""

Fore Arm,

3

Double Amputation of both Arms,

Removal of loose Cartilage from Knee-joint,

Suturing Tendons,

Removal of Tumours,-Buboes Scraping,

Epithelioma of Lip,

2

1

11

1

Parotid Tumour,

Lipoma.......

1

2

Adenoids,

1

Ovarian,

Carbuncle,

1

1

3

Eye Operations,-Cataract,

Excision of Eye,

Trichiasis,

External Strabismus,

Operations on Genito-urinary System:-

Hydrocele (radical cure), Circumcisions,

Lithotomy,

Stricture of Urethra,

Operations on Digestive System :-

Hernia (strangulated),

Hepatic Abscess,

Exploring Liver,

Fistula in Ano,

Abdominal Section,

Paracentesis Abdominalis,

Appendicitis,

1

2

21

2220

22

I

Wounds:

-Of Leg,

Arm,

>>

Chest,

""

Loin,

""

""

Abdomen,

General Abscesses :-Abscess of Lumber Region,

2

29

"

Breast, Thigh,

Scrotum,

""

99

Neck,

Perinceum,

2

""

Foot, Hand,

""

Buttock,. Abdomen,

""

Ischio-rectal,.

""

General Operations:-Necrosis,

10

Ingrowing Toe-nail, Empyema, Cellulitis,

Sloughing Phagodena,. Gangrene of Leg,

"

Simus,.

Foot,.

Resection of Rib,

Caries,...

Parturition-Forceps,

Version,

Excision of Spleen,

Ligature of Arteries (Femoral),

Aneurism (False, Removal of), Paracentesis Thoracis,

Harelip,

1

1

}

6

4

6

10400200 02 m pod pet med NHN~~-—-—~~O~~I0 21 21 20 10 30 20 01 − 21 ∞O CI

1

1

5

4

2

1

3

1

1

2

3

2

1

I

4

5

3

2

2

1

Total,......

192

9

J. BELL,

Superintendent.

426

Table VI.-Shewing ADMISSIONS and MORTALITY in the GOVERNMENT CIVIL

HOSPITAL, UNDER RESPECTIVE DISEASES, during 1903.

GENERAL DISEASES.

Small-pox,

Chicken-Pox,

Measles,

Dengue Fever,

Plague,

Influenza,

Mumps,

Diphtheria,

Febricula,

Typhoid Fever,

Cholera,

Dysentery,

ADMISSIONS.

1

3

2

DEATHS.

123

78

5

53

3

5

1

96

28

6

3

2.

50

11

36

5

Beri-beri,

Malarial Fever:-

(a.) Simple Tertian,

60

(b) Quartan,

22

(c.) Malignant,

244

2

(d) Mixed Infection,

20

Malarial Cachexia,

Sloughing Phagedona,

11

Pycemia,

1

1

...

1

Septicœmia,

1

1

Puerperal Fever,

1

Tubercle,

8.

3

Leprosy,

2

Syphilis (a.) Primary,

13

(b.) Constitutional,

59

Gonorrhoea,

94

Actinomycosis,

2

Diseases dependent on Animal Parasites, Effects of Vegetable Poisons,

13

12

2

Heat,

18

""

""

Scurvy,

1

Alcoholism...

Delirium Tremens,

Rheumatism.

Gout,

Cyst,

New Growth, Non-malignant,

Rickets,

Ancemia,

Malignant,

Congenital Malformations, Debility,

Local Diseases :-

DISEASES OF THE

41

1

100

2

1

8

6

1

12

11

62

Nervous System,..

42

11

Eve, Ear,

60

16

Nose,

1

Circulatory System,

19

6

Respiratory System,

194

30

Digestive System,

252

17

Lymphatic System,.

61

Urinary System,

29

Male organ, Female organ,

86

12

Female Breast.

2

Organs of Locomotion,

122

Connective Tissue,

46

Skin,

39

Injuries,

442

27

Under Observation,

59

Total,

2.794

142

MONTHS.

EUROPEANS..

427

Table VII- Shewing the ADMISSIONS into and DEATHS in the GOVERNMENT MATERNITY HOSPITAL

during each Month of the Year 1903.

January, 1903,

January,

February,

March,.

April, May, June, July, August,

2

1

INDIANS.

Remaining on the 1st

Admissions. Deaths. Admissions. Deaths. Admissions. Deaths.

September,

October,

November,

December,

Total,.

134

7

1

ASIATICS.

1

7

11

5

11

1

2

37

68

J. BELL, Superintendent.

Table VIII.-Shewing Varieties of MALARIAL FEVER, occurring Monthly at the GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL during 1903.

January,

February.

March.

April.

May.

June.

July.

August.

September.

October.

November.

Quartan,

Simple Tertian, Malignant,

31

Mixed Infection,

نترنت

21:30

67

1

3

3

4

5

3

7

6

12

10

33

11

35

32

22

4

110

2

23

65

39

30

16

275

4

:

1

}

2

1

21

Total,....

42

6

19

40

21

45

45 53 39

36

20

384

Percentage to Patients

in Hospital,.

14.6

6

7.4

8.3 17,8 8.914.05 16.7 16.01 15.11

18.5 11.04

J. BELL, Superintendent.

Appendix.

CASE OF MENINGITIS DUE TO ANTHRAX,

A Russian aged 30 was admitted at 2.30 p.m. on the 20th April. He spoke Russian only so no history was obtainable. His temperature was 101° and he seemed to be suffering from severe headache but neither his tongue nor pulse suggested plague or typhoid. Two hours after admission he suddenly became violently delirious and was removed to a private ward. Morphia and strychnia were given hypodermically as his pulse was now failing. He became quieter and gradually sank dying ten hours after admission.

Post-mortem.-Spleen and blood smear showed neither malaria nor plague nor B. anthracis. The internal organs were practically normal though the small intestine was a good deal congested. Lungs and heart normal. Dura mater and pia mater were both intensely congested with patches of lymph on convexity of brain but no pus anywhere. The cerebral fluid was much increased in quantity but no hæmorrhages were found. The inflammation was more marked on the convexity than at the base. Fortunately the routine practice of the hospital was followed and a smear from the brain made when to our surprise what looked like typical anthrax bacilli were found. Tubes were inoculated and when a pure growth was obtained in bouillon this was inoculated into a Guinea pig. The animal died in 36 hours. The heart blood and spleen gave a pure growth of

December.

Total.

Total

Total Admissions. Deaths.

428

anthrax bacilli. Brain, smear, and inoculated tubes were all sent to the Government Bacteriologist for confirmation. Report of Dr. W. HUNTER, Government Bacteri- ologist:"Smear, culture tubes and brain showed presence of at least two micro- organisms resembling Bacillus Anthracis and Streptococcus lanceolatus. When isolated in pure culture the rounded organism proved to be the S. lanceolatus and the rod shaped organism the B. authracis the latter giving all the morphological, tinctorial, cultural, and experimental tests in a marked manner. I am of opinion that the meningitis was occasioned by the presence of the two named organisms. Though no detailed examination was made of the other body tissues I conclude the meningitis was not primary but part of a general anthraxæmia."

TYPHORD FEVER WITH JAUNDICE. DEATH.

E.C.E., aged 50, admitted on 26th March, having been ill for five days with continued fever. Slight jaundice on admission which deepened and persisted up to the end. Temperature for first week was between 104° and 102°. Tongue furred. Bowels open once daily. Heart and lungs normal.

Heart and lungs normal. Liver dulness not increased. Stools pea-soupy in character.

in character. On April 7 dulness over region of gall bladder was first noticed. Typical roseolar spots on abdomen. Bowels now only act after enema. Temperature now ranging between 103° and 102°. No delirium but patient very apathetic. Died suddenly of heart failure on seventeen days.

This complication is both rare and very fatal. MURCHISON only saw three cases and OSLER none out of 500 in John Hopkin's University Hospital.

CASE OF RUPTURED SPLEEN. OPERATION. RECOVERY.

A Chinese male adult was admitted on April 30th having been knocked about in a fight. His pulse was small and thready and he complained of great pain all over the abdomen. There was dulness on percussion in both flanks. His dying deposition was at once taken and the operation rapidly performed, the abdomen being opened by a median incision. The abdominal cavity was full of blood and the spleen was found ruptured on the inner surface. The pedicle was ligatured and the spleen removed. No attempt was made to clear out the blood but the intestines were moved to one side and a pint of saline fluid poured in on both sides and the incision closed with silkworm gut sutures. The patient was much collapsed and was kept going for the next few hours by saline rectal infections and hypodermics of strychnia and camphor. The wound healed well but on the sixth day his temperature rose to 101.2°. To our relief the blood slide showed crescents and malignant parasites. On quinine being given this subsided in 24 hours. Patient was discharged on the 25th May.

The spleen was about 2 times the normal size. According to the independent statement of the patient and the witnesses the blow was given some 28 hours previous to admission but if this were so the capsule only must have first been torn and a further tear of spleen tissue occurred later. This case is of interest to medical jurists as there seems no doubt the injury was received at the time stated. The rise in temperature due to malaria is also of interest.

PLAGUE. RELAPSE.

KELAPSE. RECOVERY.

An Indian Policeman was admitted on June 27th with temperature of 105°, furred tremulous tongue and quick intermittent pulse. He had been ill for two days. Blood film showed no malaria but plague bacilli were found. The following day his temperature ranged between 103° and 105° and on June 29th as his con- dition was better though his temperature was 101° he was transferred to Kennedy Town Hospital. Dr. THOMSON, Medical Officer, reports: "His fever fell but kept above normal till July 4th and plague bacilli were found in his blood up to July 6th. He was treated with carbolic acid 12 minims every 2 hours till this day," and was discharged on the 19th July.

His blood

Five days after he was admitted to the Government Civil Hospital with tem- perature 103°, furred tongue, and foul breath. The following day his pulse was intermittent with quick breathing. There was a dry rub at right base and coarse crepitations here and there. His sputum was blood tinged and very sticky and showed no tubercle, or pneumococcus but was full of plague bacilli. was free from malaria but contained plague bacilli. His temperature varied be- tween 100° and 103° till the 21st July when it fell to normal. His threatened heart failure which required digitalis strychnia, &c., was the worst symptom. He rapidly convalesced and was discharged on the 6th August.

429

Remarks.-Modern writers hardly mention relapses in plague and I should think they were very uncommon. LIEBERMEISTER however states "Genuine relapses may also take place." [Ziemssen Cyclopaedia of the Practice of Medicine, 1874].

SUICIDAL CUT THROAT. TETANUS. ACUTE MANIA.

DEATH.

A Chinaman was admitted on August 12th with a history of having first murdered his wife and then cut his own throat.

Patient had a jagged wound opening into the trachea and had evidently lost a good deal of blood. He went through an attack of septic pneumonia but in fourteen days' time was doing well.

On September 5th as there was trouble in breathing a tube was inserted and kept in for ten days.

On September 16th he suddenly developed tetanus the fils being ushered in with trismus. Resus sardornicus was well marked and opesthotonos occurred

several times.

He had gr. morphia hypodermically and 4 drams of ammon: bromid: every 3 hours. Whilst under chloroform he was fed by a tube an l three doses of 30 minims of carbolic acid given.

In 48 hours he had apparently recovered being conscious, without fits all the previous 12 hours and taking his food by mouth.

On the 19th he became maniacal, being very restless with occasional slight fits, laughing and trying to talk and get out of bed. He had bromide but continued in the same restless demented condition and died on the 30th September-six weeks after the injury.

Post-mortem.--Nothing was discovered to account for the condition.

Remarks.-The incubation period of the tetanus was somewhat long-nearly five weeks, The fits were bad and very frequent so one may claim that the energetic treatment cured the disease. The bacillus was not found either in the wound or on the knife. The mania which eventually killed the patient was probably the original cause of the whole trouble of murder and suicide.

I am inuch indebted to Dr. HUNTER, Government Bacteriologist, for seeing the case several times and for kindly making the post-mortem examination.

CASE OF PHTHISIS. DEATH FROM TUBERCULAR MENINGITIS.

A Chinese lukong aged 32 was admitted to hospital on 24th September, with cough and fever. There were well marked signs of phthisis of the left apex and the sputum was full of tubercle bacilli. The fever was of the remittent type vary- ing between 103° and 101° (without any malaria) but the patient looked and felt fairly well.

On 30th September he suddenly became delirious and very irritative resisting any attempt at examination. The following day it was necessary to feed him by nasal tube but he was much quieter though quite unconscious. He gradually

sank and died on the 3rd October.

Post-mortem.---Well marked signs of phthisis of left apex. Meninges slightly congested and slight increase in the amount of cerebral fluid. On carefully examination a few small nodules were found at the base of the brain mears from which teemed with tubercle bacilli.

Remarks.—This is a very uncommon ending to a case of phthisis especially in an adult. The sudden onset and rapid termination are also rare.

The signs after death were very slight and might easily have been overlooked but for the usual smear preparation as the tubercular nodules or rather spots were very few and very indistinct and only on the base. I cannot find any mention of a similar ending to a case of acute phthisis.

430

ABDOMINAL TUBERCULOSIS ABDOMINAL SECTION. RECOVERY.

A German sailor was admitted on May 1st with a history of having been ill a month with fever. A diffuse tender swelling over Poupart's ligament on the left side. There was a history of wasting and he had numerous scars about the neck suggestive of tubercular ulceration. His temperature varied between 99° in the morning and 101° and 102° in the evening. On May 13th an examination was made under chloroform but nothing very definite was made out. Some enlarg- ed glands were felt per rectum. His temperature still continued with some trouble in micturition and general pain all over abdomen, varying in intensity in different parts. An incision over Poupart's ligament did not reveal any suppuration or any tumour.

His condition slowly grew worse, the fever running up to 103° and 104° at night with obstinate constipation and pain all over the abdomen though more chiefly confined to the epigastrium. On June 23rd vomiting set in and his pulse became very quick and feeble. The following day abdominal section was performed. Immediately under the incision was a thick adhesion running between two coils of the small intestine. This was ligatured and divided, some serous

fluid evacuated and the incision closed.

He

The patient immediately felt the benefits of the operation. Vomiting, cons- tipation and fever ceased and he slowly, owing to crops of boils, convalesced. was discharged cured on 6th August and proceeded home to Germany.

Remarks. Numerous enlarged glands were felt in the abdominal cavity at the time of operation but no further adhesions. The patient was very ill at the time and though seen by numerous medical men none were quite sure of the nature of his illness. The case shows the advantages of an exploratory abdominal

incision in these obscure cases.

OUTBREAK OF MALARIA AT SEA.

At

Two Russian torpedo boat destroyers left home for the Far East in October, 1902. They touched at Colombo, leaving there on April 10th for Sumatra. this port they were auch:ored close to the shore and the crews were allowed leave. The destroyers left on the 19th for Singapore, at which port none of the members of the crews were on shore and the boats were anchored a long way off. On the 23rd they left for Hongkong, the health of the men being

being so far good. On May 1st and 2nd, several of the men were suddenly taken ill with high fever, headache. furred tongue, and in some cases vomiting. Out of the total of 58, 21 men were affected. On the 5th these men were brought to hospital and were isolated as the Medical Officer reported them as cases of "Malignant Influenza.” Their symptoms were much the same as when first attacked, the temperature varying between 100° in some and 104° in others, most of them appearing very ill.

A blood examination at once settled the diagnosis as they were all teeming with parasites, in the majority of cases (18) of the malignant type and in a few of the simple tertian variety.

The disease was no doubt acquired at Sumatra, which would give an incuba- tion period of over 13 days and was in all probability acquired on shore as the Captain informed me that he noticed no mosquitoes on board either boat. Under quinine they all recovered and left for the North after eight days in hospital.

This outbreak at sea is well worth recording as the latest authorities on the subject seems doubtful as to malaria occurring at sea, having evidently lost sight of the fact that the disease has, like most others, an incubation period.

PUERPERAL FEVER. USE OF ANTISTREPTOCCUS SERUM. RECOVERY.

A Chinese female was admitted to hospital with fever. She had been confined 4 days previously, having a normal labour. Fever and pain set in next day the pain being chiefly on the left side of the abdomen. Temperature on admission 104°, diffuse tender swelling left iliac fossa, lochia normal and not offensive. She continued ill for four or five days and was treated with anodyne applications to abdomen, diaphoretic mixtures with aconite, quinine and occasional hypodermics of morphia and strychina. The improvement in her condition was a direct result of the serum as the chart shows. She is now well and will leave shortly.

The therapeutic use of sera still being on its trial this case is worth recording as I think a consideration of the chart will show how immediate the benefit was after the seruin. The case was was under Dr. LAING, Assistant Superintendent.

1

MONTH.

DAY.

DAY OF DISEASE.

111°

110°

109°

108°

107°

106°

105°

104°

103°

102°

101°

100°

99°

98°

97°

96°

GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL.

Patient's Name and Surnane in full-Mrs. E. D. K.

Disease Puerperal Septicemia.

DECEMBER.

JANUARY.

MONTH.

27

| 28 | 29

30

31

1

2

3

DAY.

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

DAY OF DISEASE.

MEME MEME MEM

MEMEME

EME ME

DIE

ICE SPONGING.

QUININE

TER

ICE SPONGING 5 A.M SERUM 10 C.C. AT 4 P.M.

10 C.C. SERUM AT NOON.

-43°

-42°

-41°

-40°

-39°

-38°

-37°

-36°

<

431

Meteorological Return for 1903.

BARO-

METER

TEMPERATURE,

HUMIDITY.

WIND.

ΜΟΝΤΗ.

AT M.S.L.

NESS.

CLOUDI- SIX-

SHINE.

RAIN.

Max. Mean. Min.

Rel.

Abs.

Dir. Vel.

ins.

p. c.

ins.

p. e.

hrs.

January,

30.24

63.0 58.3 54.2

68

0.35

73

107.3

ins. Points. 1.370 E.N.E.

Miles. P. h.

11.8

February,

30.27

62.7 58.4

55.1

73

0.37

78

77.2

0.210 E. by N. 12.6

March,

29.99

70.1 66.3

63.0

89

0.58

88

64.3

2.655

E.

15.0

April,

29.96

76.8

72.4

68.7

83

0.66 77

86.6

4.725 E. by S. 13.2

May,

29.90

79.5

75.4 72.2

87

0.77 85

82.5

13.960

13.8

June,

29.79

$6.4

82.0

78.5

82

0.90 74

151.6

July,

29.74

86.2

$1.7 78.1

81

0.91 70

208.1

25.230 S. S. W. 11.7

11.160 E. by S.

11.4

August,

29.77

85.8

80.9 77.1

85

0.90 69 157.5

14.970 S. S. W.

September,

29.89

82.9 78.6

75.8

84

0.82

62

165.7

16.535

E.

8.7

13.0

October,

29.93

81.5 76.4

72.2

70

0.64 60

173.9

1.660 N. E.by N. 13.9

November,

30.11

73.8 67.2

62.1

62 0.42 40

209.2

1.090

N, E.

9.6

December,

30.17

66.9 66.1

56.0 56 0.32

35

222.3

0.085 N.E. by E.

12.0.

Report on the Government Lunatic Asylums.

GOVERNMENT LUNATIC ASYLUMS,

HONGKONG, 12th February, 1904.

SIR, I have the honour to forward to you the Annual Medical Report on the Government Lunatic Asylums for the year ending December 31st, 1903.

On May 21st, I proceeded on leave to Japan and resumed duty on August 5th, 1903.

During my absence Dr. W. V. M. KOCH acted for me.

I attach Table IX. which shows the admissions and deaths that have occurred during the year, and Table X. the number of patients under the respective diseases. The total number of patients admitted to the Asylums was 155 as against 120 in 1902.

The following are the admissions for the past six

years:-

1898,

88

1899,

78

1900,

....109

1901,

90

1902,

120

1903,

...155

With such a steady increase of insanity in the Colony and limited accomoda- tion I need scarcely add that the Asylums (especially the European block) have been greatly overcrowded during the year.

:

432

There is only accommodation for 4 European male lunatics, and yet as many as from 8 to 10 have to be housed somehow, with the result that the quieter lunatics sleep in the day rooms and the acute cases, e. g., mania and alcoholics, occupy the four rooms. From many points of view this is a most unsatisfactory state of things.

Europeans. Forty-four were admitted as against 25 in 1902, an increase of 19. Of these, 26 were suffering from alcoholism or delirium trem ens.

One was a woman who unfortunately died from syncope after a few days' illness. She was only in the Asylum 6 hours, and her case was hopeless from the first.

Two males died. One from acute alcoholism and the other, who was brought in drunk, was found to have a slight fracture of the base of the skull which proved fatal.

The American female who was admitted in 1895 and the Roumanian Jewess in 1903 are still in the Asylum. Both are suffering from chronic mania and are quite incurable.

Of the 44 Europeans admitted, 3 were under observation, 1 suffering from dementia recovered sufficiently to be sent home, 27 were discharged cured, 2 died from alcoholism, and 1 from fractured skull, leaving 10 remaining on January 1st, 1904, viz., 2 females and 8 inales.

The females I have already referred to as chronic lunatics. The males are in the same condition, so I see no chance at present of having any of them transferred to his own country. As regards their nationalities, 3 are English, 1 Canadian, 1 West Indian, 1 Austrian, 1 German, and 1 Russian-Finn.

Indians and Coloured.--There were 10 admissions, all males. Of the above, one was under observation, 6 were discharged cured, or in care of friends, leaving 3 remaining at the end of the year.

Three Indians were suffering from alcoholism. One of the coloured class suffering from mania unsuccessfully attempted suicide by swallowing his bed sheet.

Asiatics (Chinese and Japanese).-The admissions this year were 101 as against 87 in 1902, showing an increase of 14.

Of the 16 patients under observation (8 males and 8 females), 7 were trans- ferred to the Government Civil Hospital for treatment and 9 were discharged.

Forty-one cases were sent to Canton, 35 handed over to their friends, leaving 9 remaining in the Asylum at the end of the year.

One Japanese female who was in the Asylum since 1899 was sent to her own country by her Consul.

There were 9 deaths--1 from spinal meningitis, 1 from erysipelas, and the others from debility or malnutrition accompanying acute mania or dementia.

Staff -Wardmaster J. R. LEE left on April 9th to join the staff of the Sanitary Board, and was succeeded by Wardmaster MACFARLANE from the Government Civil Hospital. Wardmaster MACFARLANE resumed duty at the Hospital on December 15th, and was succeeded by Wardmaster J. MULROONEY.

Buildings. The present buildings are in a good state of repair. Minor im- provements were carried out during the year, including increased ventilation to all rooms in the Asiatic block.

Automatically flushed urinals and water-closets are as I mentioned in my report of 1902-a necessity and I believe will be supplied during the current year. The proposed installation of special locks and keys throughout the Asylums will be of great benefit.

I have, &c.,

ERNEST A. R. LAING,

Medical Officer in charge of Government Lunatic Asylums.

The SUPERINTENDENT, Government Civil Hospital.

1

433

Table IX.-Shewing the ADMISSIONS into and DEATHS in the GOVERNMENT LUNATIC ASYLUMS during each Month of the Year 1903.

ASIATICS INCLUDING

EUROPEANS.

COLOURED.

JAPANESE.

MONTHS.

Total

Total Admissions. Deaths.

Admissions. Deaths. Admissions. Deaths.

Admissions. Deaths.

Remaining on the 1st

January, 1903,.

7

January,

10

February,

3

March,

April,

May, June, July,

2

10

19

7

17

8

13

1

11

15

1

11

17

1

3

10

17

1

6

1

11

B3

3

1

ཕྱུག ཿཀ ུ

August, September,

October,

November,

December,

421

7

Total,

44

Co

10

101

1

155

12

ERNEST A. R. LAING,

Medical Officer in charge of Asylums.

Table X.-Slewing the Number of Patients in the ASYLUMS during the year 1903, under the respective Diseases.

ASIATICS (JAPANSE

EUROPEANS.

INDIANS & COloured.

INCLUDED).

Total.

Males.

Females.

Males. Females.

Males. Females.

Mania,

Dementia,

Melancholia,

2

1

4

1

17

Delusional Insanity,

3

Epilepsy,

Alcoholism

and Delirium

Tremens,

25

Senile Insanity,

2

Spinal Meningitis,

Under Observation,

3

T9384

: །

9

33

29

8

44

1

6

11

1

5

1

33

2

1

1

8

20

Total,..

41

3

10

73

28

155

ERNEST A. R. LAING,

Medical Officer in charge of Asylums.

Report on the Infectious Diseases Hospitals.

HONGKONG, 29th February, 1904.

SIR, I have the honour to forward the Annual Report an Returns for the Hospital for Infectious Diseases at Kennedy Town, and for the Hospital Hulk Hygeia, for the year 1903.

stage.

I took over charge of the hospital from Dr. THOMSON on the 22nd August. Small-pox.-37 cases were admitted and 7 terminated fatally-3 of the fatal cases were of the hæmorrhagic type, and 1 case died of a syphilitic complication. Salol and zinc oxide were given in the majority of cases during the suppurative With some of the later cases I tried carbolic acid in twelve-grain doses every 4 hours. This seemed to me to dry up the vesicles, and, where suppuration had already set in, to limit it. The cases I tried it in were too few to enable me to draw any definite conclusions as to its efficacy, but I mean to continue the trial. addition these patients are kept in rooms into which only red light is allowed to penetrate.

In

434

Cholera.-Only two cases were admitted, both male Europeans.

One was

a constable from No. 5 Fire Brigade Station-he was discharged cured after 12 days' treatment; the other was a seaman from the S.S. Sithonia, who was received in a state of collapse and died shortly afterwards.

Plague. There were 301 cases of plague admitted for treatment, of whom 248 were males and 53 females, the former being 82.4 per cent., the later 17.6 per cent., and the proportion of males to females being about 6 to 1.

(a.) Its varieties.--The cases of bubonic plague numbered 182, a percentage of 60.5. Of these the femoral bubo occurred in 110 cases, 60.45 per cent., the inguinal in 25 cases, 13.73 per cent., cervical in 15 cases, 8.24 per cent., and multiple buboes in 11 cases being 6.04 per cent. The septicemic and pneumonic cases together amounted to 119 or 39.5 per cent. of the admissions, and there were two cases of intestinal plague.

(b.) Its mortality.-Of the admissions 139 males and 37 females died, and there were discharged cured 109 males and 16 females. The recoveries among the males amounted to 44 per cent., and among the females to 30 per cent., roughly, three males recovering as compared with two females. Of the deaths 56 per cent., were among the men, and 70 per cent., among the women. This proportion, like that which obtains among the recoveries, tends to shew that the man, generally stronger and more robust, bas a greater power of resistance to the disease than the woman. The total mortality was 58.5 per cent., and the total recoveries 41.5 per cent.

(c.) Its racial incidence.—The Europeans numbered 27, and there were two deaths giving a mortality of 7.4 per cent. Three Portuguese were admitted, of whom two died, equalling 66.6 per cent. Of the 216 Chinese, 156 died making a percentage of 72.2, and of other races 55 cases were admitted of whom 16 died giving a percentage of 28.2. Thus it will be noted that the better fed European, brought up and living amid more healthy surroundings, and who is presumably more stalwart and of a more robust physical development, has the greater chance of recovery than a patient of any of the other races. The mortality among the Chinese is high-they are not as a rule strong and robust, and probably they do not seek treatment until the disease is somewhat advanced. No definite conclu- sions can be drawn regarding the Portuguese from the small number under treat- inent, though they are for the most part not so robust, and are of a more delicate physique than the European. Among "other Races are included East Indians who though more lusty and strong than the Chinese do not attain that degree of physical vigour that is seen among Europeans.

""

(d.) Its treatment.-Three methods of treatment were tried serially-

(1.) Thirty cases were treated as follows: Essence of cinamon 15 minims was given every 3 hours, liq. strychninæ 5 minim every 3 hours, and 5 grains of quinine in solution three times in the day. Injections of morphine were admin- istered hypodermically as required, and belladonna was applied locally to the buboes. The deaths amounted to 26, making a percentage of 86.6.

(2.) One hundred and twenty cases were treated as above but omitting the cinamon. 101 deaths occurred, a percentage of 84.2.

3.) In this series 151 cases were treated. Carbolic acid in 12. grain doses flavoured with syrup of orange and chloroform water was given every two hours. The deaths under this method of treatment amounted to 49 giving a percentage of

31.4.

It will be observed that so far the greatest success has been obtained by the free use of carbolic acid. The very purest preparation should be used, and in order to be efficacious it should be given in large doses-12 grains or more every two hours. Contrary to expectation carboluria seldom, if ever, occurs. Should it threaten of course the dose should be reduced or its administration suspended. Its exact mode of action is not known. It is stated however to enter the blood un- changed (BRUCE, Materia Medica). and presumably it acts directly upon the bacillus pestis and its toxins. As an aid to treatment, and to counteract the depression, the free exhibition of stimulants such as strychnine, digitalis and alcohol is called for.

1

435

It would seem, moreover, that the better results obtained this year-the higher percentage of recoveries are to be attributed to the earlier and more positive diagnosis of plague which has been rendered possible by Dr. BELL'S adaptation of Ross' method of examination of the blood. A large number of cases were dia- gnosed positively almost at the earliest manifestation of illness and were at once isolated and subjected to treatment.

Various.-Under this heading 21 cases were admitted. One case of choleraic diarrhea which died, was suspected to be cholera. Twenty cases were admitted suspected to have plague-of these, 7 were cases of malarial fever; 3 of dengue fever; 1 of septicemia; 4 of influenza; 1 of febricula; 1 of tuberculosis of lungs, which died; and I was a plague contact. Two cases of gonorrhea were suspected to bave plague, since repeated examination of the blood drawn from the finger shewed a bipolar organism very similar to the bacillus pestis. No symptoms of plague however developed and these cases were transferred back to the Government. Civil Hospital. The gonorrheal pus shewed typical organism of gonorrhæã but not of plague.

The Staff-Dr. CHUNG CHI CHAN was appointed Resident House Physician on the 3rd April and resigned on Mày 31. Dr. JEW HAWK acted as Resident House Physician from June 1 to August 31.

European Sisters from the Government Civil Hospital were employed from May 16 till July 31. Mr. W. CORDELL was appointed Second Wardmaster on his arrival from England on January 14 and resigned on May 23. Mr. CHUNG SHU CHEUNG, Wardmaster, acted as Second Wardmaster in his place from May 23 to June 7. Private C. WALLACE, R.A.M.C., lent by the Military Authorities, was appointed Assistant Wardmaster on the 7th June and was recalled on July 7. Mr. RICHMOND, Wardmaster. Government Civil Hospital, was in charge from June 9 to June 16 when Wardmaster MCKAY was ill with plague. Privates A. L. DROKE and W. LAWSON, R.A.M.C., were appointed Assistant Wardmasters on June 10 and were recalled on June 16.

The Chinese àttendants were obtained as required.

The Hospital Buildings.-In November and December the Hospital was painted and colourwashed throughout, and the equipment thoroughly overhauled. The place is now in good order.

Towards the end of May, when the epidemic of plague was at its height, two wards in the new Plague Branch of the Tung Wah Hospital were used to relieve the pressure on the Kennedy Town Hospital two weeks prior to its opening by His Excellency Governor BLAKE on June 6th.

On the night of May 9th fire broke out in a wood yard adjoining the Hospital and No. 3 matshed was ignited by sparks. The Wardmasters assisted by European Police Constable HILL. a patient convalescing from cholera, kept the hose playing until the arrival of the Fire Brigade. The patients were safely removed to the main building. Amahs CHEE LUK and LEUNG KUм were awarded three dollars each for meritorious conduct.

Hospital Hulk Hygeia is used for the treatment of cases of small-pox. It is in very good condition at present.

I have, &c.,

W. V. M. Kocн, Medical Officer in charge.

The Honourable

The PRINCIPAL CIVIL MEDICAL OFFICE".

¿

·

436

RETURN OF DISEASES.

GOVERNMENT KENNEDY TOWN HOSPITAL.

Diseases.

Remain- ing in Hospital

Total

Total

Admis-

under

Patients discharged.

sions

at the end

Remain- ing at the end

Remarks.

treat-

in

of

ment.

1903.

1902.

Cured. Died.

of 1903.

GENERAL DESEASES.

Plague,

301

301

125

176

Small-pox,

37 38

29

7

Scarlet Fever,.............

6

Measles,

1

Cholera,

Choleraic Diarrhoea,

Malarial Fever,

Dengue Fever,

Septicæmia,..

Tuberculosis of Lungs,

1

Influenza,

4.

Febricula,

Gonorrhoea....

2

Plague Contacts,

1

181

186

Total No.....

368

369

367

HONGKONG, 11th January, 1904.

Suspected Cholera. Suspected Plague.

W. V. M. KOCH, Medical Officer in charge.

Y.

Government Kennedy Town Hospital Return for 1903.

Attendants.

Patients discharged.

Average Stay of those (days)

Number

remaining

Number

Daily

in Hospital

admitted

Average in

Nurses

Servants doing no partially

other or not at all!

at the

during

Hospital

duty.

cmployed as Nurses.

beginning

the

during

of the

year

the year

Day

and

Year

1903.

1903.

Night

Nurses.

1903.

Not Nurses.

Day

and

Night

Nurses.

Small-pox.

Plague.

Various.

Small-pox.

Plague.

Cholera.

Various.

10248 2

Males

.04 $4.006.06,

Obtained as

required.

2

Females

53

ลง

HONGKONG, 31st December, 1903. .

Small-pos.

Plague.

Cured and relieved.

Cholera.

Various.

Small-pox.

Plague.

Not improved.

Cholera.

10 109 1

16

15

:

...

Various.

Small-pox.

Plague.

Cholera.

Various.

Small-pox.

Plague.

Cholera.

Various.

Small-pox.

Plague.

Cholera.

Various. Small-pox.

Plague.

Cholera. Various.

Small-pox.

Plague. Cholera.

Number who died in 1903.

Died in 1903.

Discharged.

Remaining at the end of

1903.

Specify

the longest

time

for which

any one

Inmate

has stayed

(days).

139: 1

37

:

:

2

2

1.8

2

1.8

...

25.4 20.9 12 2.6

32.5 16.8

W. V. M. KоCH, Medical Officer in charge.

40 104 12

8

:

:

:

Various.

437

:

438

...

51

50

Small-pox.

Scarlet Fever.

Various.

Small-pox. Scarlet Fever.

Various.

Small-pox. Scarlet Fever.

Various.

Small-pox.

Scarlet Fever.

Various.

Small-pox.

Scarlet Fever.

Various.

Small-pox.

Scarlet Fever.

Various.

Small-pox.

Scarlet Fever.

Various.

Small-pox. Scarlet Fever.

Various.

Small-pox.

Scarlet Fever.

Various.

Small-pox.

Scarlet Fever.

Various.

1903.

Number

remaining in - Hospital

Number

Daily

Average in

admitted

Hospital

Nurses

doing

at the

during

during

the

the

no other

duty.

Servants

partially or not at all employed as

Nurses.

beginning of the Year

Year.

Year

1903.

1903.

Day and

Night

Nurses.

Not Nurses.

Day and

Night

Nurses.

Cured and relieved.

Not improved.

Number who died in

1903.

Died in 1903.

Discharged.

Government Hulk "Hygeia" Return for 1903.

Attendants.

Patients discharged.

Average Stay of those (days)

Remaining at the end of

1903.

Specify

the longest

time

for which

any one

Inmate

has stayed

(days).

Males

Females

...

-H

2

Obtained as required.

16 2

19

2

.07.02 .006

4

41)

1.006

:

HONGKONG, 31st December, 1903.

:

16

4

:

:

:

:

2

...

2

:

:

:

:

21.6 37

1

2

30.5 37

21

:

21

W. V. M. Kocn, Medical Officer in charge.

439

Report on the Gaol Hospital.

HONGKONG, 29th February, 1904.

SIR, I have the honour to submit the Annual Medical Report on the sanitary condition of the Victoria Gaol, and the health of the staff and of the prisoners during the year 1903.

Dr. THOMSON proceeded on leave of absence on the 2nd September, 1903, and I took over medical charge of the Gaol.

Health of Staff-An early victim to the epidemic of plague last year was an Indian Assistant Warder. ISHER SINGH, who was transferred to Kennedy Town Hospital and died on May 21st, 1903. Five other other Indian officers and one European officer contracted the disease and were promptly transferred to the same. hospital. They all, I am glad to say, recovered. Apart from this the general health of the staff was good.

Outbreak of Plague.-On the 24th of April a prisoner under remand shewed signs of plague a few hours after admission. He was taken into the hospital at once but died within a few hours. Sixteen cases occurred after this, six among the staff and ten among the prisoners. Among the staff one case occurred on May 16th, two on May 28th, two on June 3rd, and one on June 7th. Among the pri soners one case occurred on May 22nd, one on May 27th and on May 30th, two on May 31st; one on June 1st, two on June 3rd, one on June 4th, and one on July 16th. Of these cases three, possibly a fourth also, seemed to have contracted the disease in the Gaol; the others showed signs very shortly after admission which admitted of no doubt but that the disease was already incubating when they were committed to prison. Among the staff, four could be reasonably suspected to have contracted the disease in the prison, the two probably contracted it outside. All the cases were immediately transferred to Kennedy Town Hospital and the Tung Wah Plague Branch. Energetic disinfection of the cells and corridors was carried through. No further cases occurred after July 16th. A Commission was appointed by His Excellency the Governor to investigate into this outbreak and has already reported.

Overcrowding. The question of overcrowding is still urgent, and is a matter which should be dealt with decisively at an early date. Each year shows a steady increase in the number of committals to Gaol, not merely of short sentence prison- ers but also of long sentence prisoners. The Belilios Reformatory has been used as a gaol, and between ninety and a hundred prisoners are kept there. But the Reformatory is certainly not satisfactory as an ideal prison. In spite of this, and of other drastic measures, it will be noticed that the daily average of pri- soners in Gaol is 653. It is a matter for congratulation that the slight outbreak of plague ceased so quickly, but there is not the least doubt that should by any chance a serious idemie break out, the condition of affairs will be distinctly a cause for alarm.

Sanitary Condition.-The sanitary condition of the Gaol continues satisfactory. The pail system of removal of sewage exists and is perhaps the most suitable under the circumstances The old drains and traps about the entrance yard require attention rgently.

Dietary. --The food was good and wholesome, and of sufficient quantity according to scale: there were practically no complaints among the prisoners re- garding the quality of the food, which was inspected by me at frequent intervals.

:

Warming and Ventilation of the Hospital.-Frequently during the past winter the temperature in the hospital has gone down to 54°, 52°, and lower--a temperature which is distinctly dangerous to enfeebled and sick persons. In the case of two old men who were admitted into hospital, acute pneumonia supervened in from two to three days, which undoubtedly was caused by or accelerated by the cold. I recommend that before next winter a stove should be placed in each ward, as has been done in the Tung Wah Hospital, so that by this means a uniform temperature of 66° can be maintained. A slight alteration of the ventilation will have to be arranged in order to permit of the free circulation of fresh air without the danger of draughts.

440

General Health of Prisoners.-The committals for the year amounted to 7,273, a larger number than in any previous year. Among them was a large proportion of prisoners debilitated by disease, by exposure, by age, and also a large percentage of opium smokers who have to be carefully looked after in the early days of imprisonment. Notwithstanding this and overcrowding, the general health of the prisoners was good.

The Admissions to Hospital numbered 568, a percentage of 7·80 on the com- mittals. Of these admissions, 274 were really malingering, they were kept under observation in the hospital and discharged within 24 hours. Deducting these the admissions for sickness amounted to 294, a percentage of a little over 4. Incident- ally, it is interesting to note the large proportion of malingerers-48% on the total admissions to hospital-they really give more trouble and cause more anxiety than those who are ill. Prevailing diseases.-Malarial fever and dysentery were most prevalent. Malarial fever, in one or another form, occurred in 95 cases with two deaths-this gives a percentage of 32.3 of cases under treatment in hospital. Among the out-patients only about 2 per cent. suffered from malaria, totalling 33. Its period of greatest prevalence was from March to October, reaching its maximum in May the remaining four months were comparatively free from it. Dysentery occurred in 41 cases, making 14 per cent., with two deaths. Among the com- mittals 114 prisoners suffered from syphilis in its primary or secondary manifesta- tions, and 46 from gonorrhoea. The daily average of hospital patients was 8:29, and of out-patients was 29-39.

K

Deaths.-There were 16 deaths from disease and 2 executions-the former making a percentage of 22 on the total admissions to Gaol, and 2.8 on the number in hospital. The majority of the deaths call for no comment, a few of them how- ever do merit same comment. In the case of prisoner No. 601 who died from internal hemorrhage and collapse due to rupture of spleen, the question arose as to the cause of this rupture. He had made no complaint, was locked up in his cell at 4.15 p.m., ate his afternoon meal at 4.30 p.m., and was found groaning and collapsed at 5.45 p.m. There was no history and no evidence of his having been struck by any one-the presumption was that while using the sanitary bucket he fainted and in falling struck his side, and thus caused the rupture. The spleen was enormously enlarged and the stomach was full of food. The case of prisoner No. S. 113 was also remarkable. He was an opium eater, and was not of robust physique. On admission the heart and lungs were found to be normal. He made no complaint whatever but refused to work. He took his food well and heartily. Four days after committal he was found dead in his cell at 6.9 a.m., having been seen alive at 5.50 a.m., apparently well. On post-mortem examination a sinall solitary chronic ulcer was found at the pyloric end of the stomach, on its anterior and lower aspect very close to the gastro duodenal junction, and there was a small perforation at its base. The stomach wall was thickened around the ulcer, and there was slight peritonitis; the mucous membrane of the stomach and of the duodenum was thickened and in a condition of chronic congestion. The other organs were normal. Apparently in this case the free use of opium had dulled any pain there may have been, bad stilled peristalsis considerably, and had sup- pressed vomiting. When the opium was stopped it may be presumed that peris- faltic movements became strong again and perforation thus occurred. I may mention that his diet all this time was of the softest-rice and rice congee. The absence of the cardinal symptoms during life, and its sudden termination make the case remarkable. Prisoner No. 252 was admitted into Gaol on 28th November, 1903. He was examined carefully and the thoracic and abdominal organs were found to be healthy. He was however of poor physique and on this account was put to light labour, which consisted of oakum picking in his cell. He made no complaint at all, did his task daily, went out for his exercise regularly. On the 12th December, 1903, he was found dead in his cell at 6.20 a.m. On post-mortem examination the lower lobe of the left lung was found to be in a state of hepatization. The total absence of symptoms in this case was noticeable-there was no cough, he suffered from no dyspuca, nor was he feverish or even “droopy.' In the last case which I shall remark on, the post-mortem appearances were interesting. The prisoner No. 311 was under treatment for dysentery, to which he unexpectedly succumbed. The liver was crowded with small cysts varying in size from a green pea to a walnut. They all contained a clear yellowish fluid-no hooklets were found. The substance of the right kidney was entirely destroyed

grey

},

441

and converted into a huge cyst containing a yellow fluid and the left kidney was full of small cysts containing a similar fluid. A few dysenteric ulcers were found.

Discharges on Medical Grounds.-These amounted to 41. Ten cases which developed plague, four probably in the Gaol, and six which shewed sypmtoms on admission, were transferred to the Tung Wah Hospital and the Kennedy Town Hospital. Eight cases of leprosy were sent on the Leper Home at Canton. It seems a pity that such cases cannot be properly isolated and treated in this Colony, but there seems to be great aversion and fear of this disease among the people, who I understand regard it as highly contagious. Six cases of phthisis pulmonalis were discharged. they were all in an advanced stage of the disease.

Four cases showing mental derangement were sent to the Lunatic Asylum. Three cases of acute pneumonia were sent on to the Tung Wah Hospital, as the conditions for the treatment of this disease in the Gaol Hospital were not in my opinion favourable. Two cases of beri-beri were sent away, both were imported. There was one case each of small-pox, heart disease. Bright's disease, acute dysentery, intestinal obstruction and syphilitic hemiplegia. The majority of these cases were short sentence men, three were sentenced to one year-a case of leprosy, one of Bright's disease and one of phthisis;-and one to five years-the case of syphilitic hemiplegia, he died a few months after discharge.

The Female Prison.-There was an average of almost 20 prisoners a month. The general health was good. There were two births in prison.

The Branch Prison.-The Belilios Reformatory at East Point has been occupied by short sentence prisoners since 1st July. There have been from 65 to 95 in residence at one time, only the stronger and better nourished men are sent there, and the general health of the inmates has been good. This building is but poorly adapted for this purpose, and confinement here cannot have much of a deterrent effect.

Vaccinations.—I append a table shewing in some detail the result of vac- cinations in the prison. It will be observed that the number of unsuccessful cases was high, 21.16 per cent. I hope however that with some futher modification this table will supply more detailed information next year.

Out-patients.-There was a large number of prisoners suffering from slight ailments who were treated as out-patients-1,715 in all. The diseases are detailed in the table and call for no comment.

Corporal Punishment was inflicted on 128 prisoners-with the cat 3, and with the birch 125. None required special treatment afterwards.

In annex the following Tables :-

1. Monthly Return of Diseases and Deaths in Hospital.

2. Monthly Return of Out-patients.

3. Admissions and Deaths during the year.

4. Rate of Sickness and Mortality.

5. Yearly Statistics.

6. Recommendations for Discharge on Medical Grounds.

7. Record of Deaths.

8. Vaccinations.

I have, &c..

W. V. M. Koch, Medical Officer in charge.

The Honourable

THE PRINCIPAL CIVIL MEDICAL OFFICER.

442

Table 1.-MONTHLY RETURN of DISEASES and DEATHS in GAOL HOSPITAL at Hongkong in 1903.

Cafes.

Deaths.

Cases.

Deaths.

MONTHS.

JAN. FEB.

MAR. APRIL. MAY.

JUNE.

JULY. AUGUST. SEPT.

OCT.

Nov.

DEC.

YEARLY TOTAL.

DISEASES.

Cases.

Deaths.

Cases.

Denthis.

Cases.

Deaths.

Cases.

Deaths.

Cases.

Plague.

Dengue,

Dysentery,

Beri-beri,

Fever Remittent,

Erysipelas.

Syphilis-

(a) Primary.

(b) Secondary,

Alcoholism.

Rheumatism, ..

New Growth, non-mal-

ignant,

Anæmia.

Debility,

Epilepsy.

idiocy.

2

*l[0}}}

Cases

Deaths.

Cases.

Deaths.

Cases.

Deaths.

Cases.

Deaths.

Cases.

:=

N-

**

Mania.

Melancholia,

Dementia.

Diseases of the Circul-

atory System,

Diseases of the Respir-

atory System,

Diseases of the Digestive

System,

Diseases of the Lymph-

atic System,

Diseases of the Urinary

System.

Diseases of the Organs

of Locomotion,

Diseases of the Cellular

Tissue,

Injuries. Local,

observed for Diarrhoea,

found malingering.

Observed mentally, cer-

tified sound mind,

Observation,

3

to:

-

:

Total.

23 2 21 1 25

2

.

10

10

1

:

:

:

10

:

:

:

2

:

:

l'eaths.

::

Cases.

:

86

49

33

32

1

24

1

122

REMARKS.

:

10

A

Deaths.

:

:

:མ

མཾ སྨཱ བྦེ ཡམ

: :

39

2:

3

AA

210-21

1

2

19

1

4

18

1 25

31

Q

23

10

-:

I

35

21

96

:

59

מי:

22

178

85

62 2 71

2 568 16

Death in March. Malarial Fever.

September. Malarial Coma.

April. Bubonic Plague.

October, Acute Dysentery.

December. Acute Dysentery with Cystic Disease of Liver and Kidneys.

5th January. 1903. Pneumonia with Empyema and Dysentery,

9th January, 1903, Tuberculosis of Lungs.

15th February, 1903. Heart disease with effects of malaria and opium smoking.

Deaths in 2nd June, 1903, Tuberculosis of Lungs. 30th July, 1903, Tuberculosis of Lungs. 31st August, 1903, Tuberculosis of Lungs.

**

3rd September, 1903, (hronic Ulcer of Stomach and Cardiac Failure.

7th November, 1903. Acute Pneumonia.

15th November, 1903, Diarrhoea and Cardic Syncope. 12th December. 1903, Sub-acute Pneumonia and Car-

W. V. M. KOCH, Medical Officer in charge.

MONTHS.

443

Table II. MONTHLY RETURN of Out-patients in GAOL HOSPITAL, 1903.

JAN.

FEB. MAR. APRIL.

MAY.

JUNE. JULY. AUGUST. SEPT.

YEARLY

OCT.

Nov.

DEC.

TOTAL

DISEASES,

Cases.

Deaths.

Cases.

Deaths.

Cases.

Deaths.

Cases.

Deaths.

Cases.

Deaths

Cases.

Deaths.

Cases.

Deaths.

Cascs.

Deaths.

Cases,

Deaths.

Cases.

Fever,-

(a) Intermittent,.

(b) Remittent.

Syphilis.-

(a) Primary,

(7) Secondary,

Gonorrhoea,

12

36

:༣༣

Alcoholism,

Rheumatism.

Anæmia,

wai mei

1-30 15

Debility,

Diseases of the Eye...

Ear,.

:

UNAKO!

ircul-

atory System.

3

نت

Diseases of the Respir-

atory System, 113

45

28

23

15

Diseases of the Digestive

System,

29

10

12

13

#2

24

21

10

:

Diseases of the Lymph-

atic System.

2

:

Diseases of the Cellular

Tissne.

26

Diseases of the Skin,

2-

21

8

Injuries, Local,...

16

Parasites. Animal,

10

10

14

10

Vegetable,

15

17

16

14

Lice.

47

52

44

39

49

:

10

AA

~

10

2

+

00

Deaths.

Cases.

Deaths.

Cases.

Deaths.

Cascs.

Deaths.

ལ :

༢༣

N

:

:::

20

13

GO

49

46

10 10

22

28

16

13

:

27

:

نیات

286

:

:

108

3

13

13

142

10

57

98

151

492

37

18 24

Total,

292

179

168

173 136

158

143

127

103

70 |

78

1.715

W. V. M. Koch,

Medical Officer in Charge.

Table III.-Showing ADMISSIONS into, and DEATHS in VICTORIA GAOL HOSPITAL

during the year 1903.

EUROPEANS.

CHINESE.

MONTHS.

TOTAL ADMISSIONS.

TOTAL DEATHS.

ADMISSIONS.

DEATHS.

ADMISSIONS.

DEATHS.

January,

February,

March,

2

April,

May,

June,

July,

August,..

September,

October,

22

21

23

19

212-

23

21

2

1

25

21

[

42

49

32

33

]

26

1

32

20

1

24.

1

120

122

2

1

84

1

85

1

November,

4

58

62

2

December,

1

70

2

71

2

Total,

31

537

16

568

16

t

W. V. M. Kocн, Medical Offeṛr in chargy.

:

:

444

Table IV.-Showing the RATE of SICKNESS and MORTALITY.

Daily Average Number of:

Total Number of

Prisoners admitted to Gaol.

to

Admissions Cases treated

Hospital. Out-parients.

as

Deaths due to Disease.

in

Prisoners Sick Hospital

Out- Gaol. Hospital. patients.

Admissions to Hospital

in

to Total Admissions to Gaol.

7,278

568

1,715

16

658

8.29 29.39

7.80

Rate per cent. of :-

Daily Average Daily Average

of All Sick

in Gaol to

of Sick in Hospital to Daily Average Daily Average of Prisoners. of Prisoners.

Deaths due to Disease to

Total Admissions to Gaol.

1.27

5.77

0.22

И. Г. М. Коен. Medical Officer in charge.

Table V.-Showing GENERAL STATISTICS connected with the VICTORIA GAOL during the past ten years.

Years.

Admissions

to the Gaol.

Daily Average Number

of Prisoners,

Number of Cases treated in Hospital.

Number of Out-patients.

Deaths due to Disease.

1893,

1894,

4,010

458

272

523

3,913

455

271

614

1895,

5,014

472

231

948

1896,

5,582

514

507

740

10

1897,

5,076

462

342

455

1898,

5.427

511

298

1,033

1899,

4,789

434

503

1,778

1900,

5,432

486

495

1,523

1901,

5,077

499

348

1,316

1902,

5,988

576

516

1,760

A ད:1、 ࿉ # ཀླའ་རྒྱ རྒྱ

2

4

6

5

6

9

6

1903,

7,273

653

568

1,715

16

ز

W. V. M. KOCH,

Medical Officer in charge.

7

Table VI.--Showing RECORD of PRISONERS discharged on MEDICAL GROUNDS.

!

445

-

>

SENTENCE.

REGISTERED

NAME.

SEX. AGE.

NUMBER.

ADMISSION.

DATE OF.

RECOMMENDATION. DATE OF.

DISCHARGE.

DATE OF.

WHERE SENT.

REMARKS.

Y. M. M. D.

E

50

P. Hakaman,

M.

30

Destitute.

27. 1. 03.

4. 2. 03.

671

Lam Kam San,

58

1 ¦

25. 1.

03.

5. 2. 03.

S

ناد

Leung Lam,

45

14

18. 2.

03.

21. 2. 03.

21.

>>

790

Lam Wan,

27

20. 2.

03.

21. 2.

03.

23.

266

Li Cheung,

31

1

18. 2.

03.

19. 2. 03.

19.

>>

:

635

Mok Ming,

66

9. 2.

03.

27. 2. 03.

599

Wong Loi,

47

700

Tsang Tse,

43

30.00

30. 3. 03.

1. 4. 03.

9. 2. 03.

13. 4. 03.

15.

760

Chung Fuk,

24

21

13. 4. 03.

521

So Sam,

12

26. 2. 03.

13. 4. 03. 27. 4. 03.

15.

SON NON NOA

2. 03.

5.

2. 03.

Tung Wah Hospital.

2. 03.

2. 03.

Canton.

27.

2. 03.

2. 4. 03.

4. 03.

4. 03.

28.

4. 03.

S 173

Wong Kwan,

14

29. 4. 03.

30. 4. 03.

553

Tung Wong,

43

1

29. 4. 03.

30. 4.

666

Chung Ki,

22

21

5. 5. 03.

S 14

Chung Fuk,

24

14

10. 5. 03.

03.

6. 5. 03. 11. 5. 03.

30. 4. 03. 30. 4. 03.

Do.

Do.

2. 03.

Lunatic Asylum.

Lunatic Asylum.

Do.

Tung Wah Hospital.

Canton.

Tung Wah Hospital.

Canton.

Tung Wah Hospital.

Mania.

General Debility. Dementia.

Leprosy.

Do.

Phthisis-General Debility.

Leprosy.

Phthisis-Debility.

Leprosy.

Mitral Heart Disease. Phthisis.

Do.

742

Chan Sing, ...........

28

21

20. 5.

03.

22.

03.

6. 5. 03.

12. 5. 03. 22. 5. 03.

Hygeia.

Canton.

Small-pox.

Leprosy.

778

Leung Chun,

18

17

25. 5. 03.

27. 5. 03.

27.

10

Ip Hi,

30

25. 3.

03.

30. 5. 03.

...

·S 119

Kwok Mui,

18

14

30. 5. 03.

31. 5. 03.

776

Yeung Hin,

25

21

25. 5. 03.

31. 5. 03.

551

Yeung Kwai,

21

49

30. 4. 03.

1. 6. 03.

744

Kan Tau Kwai,

3. 6. 03.

5. 03.

30. 5. 03. 31. 5. 03. 31. 5. 03. 1. 6. 03.

3. 6. 03.

Kennedy Town H'tal. Do.

Plague.

Do.

Tung Wah Hospital.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Kennedy Town H'tal.

Do.

Tung Wah Hospital.

Do.

Kennedy Town H'tal.

Do.

· S 133

Cheung Sam,

28

14

03.

6. 03.

6.

03.

Do.

Do.

757

Ng Hang,

26

23. 5. 03.

4. 6. 03.

1.

6. 03.

Do.

Do.

584

Lu Kan,

22

659

Chan 1,

11. 7. 03. 24. 8. 03.

16. 7. 03.

290

Yik Shu Wun,

33

1

663

Un Hi,

34

Remand.

Leung Yan Tai,

F.

83

:མ:

4. 12. 02.

31. 8. 03. 21. 9. 03.

676

Ho Tsat,

M.

32

26. 7. 03.

25. 8. 03. 28. 8. 03. 19. 9. 03. 23. 9. 03. 16. 10. 03.

16. 7. 03. 26. 8. 03. 29. 8. 03. 19. 9. 03. 24. 9. 03. 16. 10. 03.

Do.

Do.

Canton.

Tung Wah Hospital. Lunatic Asylum. Gov't Civil Hospital. Tung Wah Hospital.

Leprosy.

Bright's Disease. Melancholia. Senile Debility. Acute Dysentery.

:

Table VI.-Showing RECORD of PRISONERS discharged on MEDICAL GROUNDS,—Continued.

446

SENTENCE.

REGISTERED

NUMBER.

NAME.

SEX. AGE.

ADMISSION.

DATE OF.

RECOMMENDATION. DATE OF.

DISCHARGE.

DATE OF.

WHERE SENT.

REMARKS.

Y.

M. D.

761

Li Po Li

M. 48

189

Lam Fai Nam,

22

""

886

1

27. 9. 03.

19. 9. 02.

16. 10. 03. 19. 10. 03.

16. 10. 03. 20. 10. 03.

:..

536

Chan Cheong,

23

2

24. 11. 03.

723

Wong Tong,

57

42

643

ᏞᎥ Tsun,

565

Chung Chan,

-306

Au Chak,

S 68

Hang Yan I,

566

Hon Sing,

རྨ ི ནི མི ནི མ

37

34

24

12

27

39

ל,

593

Chan Fuk,

40

""

339

Wong Sui Cheong,..

41

""

625

Fong Cheung Kwai,

25

::

::མས:ཡི:ཀྱམ

15

2

10

15

6

:: 584:: SE:

18. 11. 03.

25. 11. 03.

3.12.

26. 11. 03.

Do.

03.

3. 12. 03.

Do.

2. 12. 03.

3. 12. 03.

3. 12. 03.

Do.

20. 10. 03.

7. 12. 03.

7. 12. 03.

Do.

11. 12. 03.

11. 12. 03.

Do.

7

23. 12. 03.

24. 12. 03.

24. 12. 03.

12. 11. 03.

26. 12. 03.

26. 12. 03.

Do.

Do.

28. 12. 03,

29. 12. 03.

29. 12. 03.

Do.

30. 12. 03.

31. 12. 03.

1. 1. 03.

Canton.

31. 12. 03.

31. 12. 03.

1. 1. 03.

Do.

Lunatic Asylum. Tung Wah Hospital.

Dementia.

Paralysis (Syphilitic Hemiplegia).

Beri-beri.

Acute Pneumonia.

Do.

Do.

Phthisis Pulmona lis. Beri-beri.

Intestinal Obstruction. Phthisis Pulmonalis. Leprosy.

Do.

""

W. V. M. KOCH,

Medical Officer in charge.

447

SENTENCE.

ADMISSION.

DATE OF.

REGISTER-

NAME.

AGE.

SEX.

ED No.

Years.

Mos. Days.

Table VII.-RECORD of DEATHS during the year 1903.

ADMISSION TO HOSPITAL.

DATE OF.

DEATH.

DATE OF.

CAUSE OF DEATH.

14. 11.

02.

788

Ching Lam U,

2. 12. 02.

580

Trang Choi,

12

20. 1. 03.

620

Chan Fu,

41

22!!

M.

**

0.0014

24. 12. 02. 26. 12. 02. 4. 2. 03.

رت

5. 1. 03.

8. 1. 03.

15. 2. 03.

>>

18. 2. 04.

121

Tang Yan Tai,

44

3. 3. 03.

601

Tai Fat,

35

24. 4. 03.

Remand

Cheung Kun In,

37

2. 6. 03.

573

Li Ming,

31

23. 7.

03.

632

Wong Sam,

20. 5. 02. 31. 8. 03. 27. 2. 03. 26. 9. 03.

36

Nand Singh,

S113

Sun Kwong,

277

Li Man,

36

Remand

Cheung Pak,

19. 2. 03.

210

Sui Ngan,

36

13. 11. 03.

576

Yang San,

28.

11. 03.

252

Hu Chi,

7. 10. 03.

311

Chan Kan,

56

Ip Pang,

Lin Chin,

36

#3 5532 1859228 28

""

1-

:

3. 03.

19.

3. 03.

42

:་།

31.

3. 03.

31.

3. 03.

24. 4. 03.

,,

21

14. 6. 03.

43

21

27. 7. 03.

30

4

22. 8. 03.

24. 4. 03. 16. 6. 03. 30. 7. 03. 31. 8. 03.

Plague.

10

Found Dead.

3. 9. 03.

A A

4. 9. 03.

9. 9. 03.

27

3

""

12. 10. 03.

5. 11. 03.

14. 11. 03.

14. 10. 03.

7. 11. 03.

15. 11. 03.

Found Dead.

12. 12. 03.

""

12

23. 12. 03.

25. 12. 03.

19

Death.

Do.

03.

14. 4. 03.

17. 6.

Pneumonia, with Emphysema and Dysentery. Tuberculosis of Lungs.

Heart Disease, with effects of old malaria aud opium smoking.

Malarial Fever. with Collapse due to Fatty Heart.

Internal Hemorrhage and Collapse due to Rupture of Spleen.

Tuberculosis of Lungs.

Do.

Geueral Tuberculosis.

Chronic Ulcer of Stomach and Cardiac Failure. Malarial Coma.

Acute Dysentery.

Acute Pneumonia.

Diarrhoea and Cardiac Syncope.

Subac, Pneumonia and Cardiac Failure.

Acute Dysentery and Cystic Disease of Liver and Kidneys.

Dislocation of Neck in due course of law,

Do.

W. V. M. Koch, Medical Officer in charge.

448

Table VIII.-Shewing VACCINATION and RESults.

NOT VACCINATED because of

Total No.

Month.

Total Number | shewing pre-

Total No. Success- Unsuc- owing to early examined.vious Vaccin-vaccinated.

Not inspected

ful.

cessful.

ation Marks.

discharge from Prison.

Previous Recent

ation.

Small- Vaccin- De bility.

pox.

Age.

January,

435

393

359

226

90

43

6

34

Fe

February,

308

283

253

180

43

30

1

31

2 2

34

21

March,

386

344

318

218

77

23

16

35

17

April,

308

260

238

168

43

27

12

38

20

May,

349

295

260

125

41

94

16

47

26

June,

339

271

254

183

58

13

19

37

29

July,

298

252

193

127

51

15

29

55

21

August,

302

249

175

102

34

39

32

61

34

September,

392

347

234

118

50

66

39

92

27

October,

427

352

264

146

56

62

45

83

35

November,

304

280

182

108

33

41

43

54

25

December,

278

256

157

80

35

42

39

58

24

Total,...... 4.126

3,582

2,887

1,781

611

495

297

625

4

313

W. V. M. KOCH,

Medical Officer in charge.

TUNG WAH HOSPITAL, March 7th, 1904.

SIR, I have the honour to forward, for the information of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government, the Annual Report on the working of the Tung Wah Hospital for 1903.

Dr. THOMSON, the Inspecting Medical Officer, proceeded on leave of absence on the 2nd September, and I assumed the duties.

The Staff-There have been no changes in the Staff. Dr. JEU HAWK, the Resident Surgeon, was detached temporarily for plague duty at Kennedy Town Hospital from June 1st to August 31st. Mr. LEUNG CHIK FAN and Mr. MA LUK acted for him.

The Admissions.-A total of 2,457 patients were admitted during the year- 2,112 males and 345 females. This number added to the number resident on January 1st-129-gives a total number of 2,586 under treatment.

Of these, 1,569 were discharged, and 889 died, leaving under treatment on January 1st, 1,904, 128 patients.

During the past eleven years the admissions have been as follows :

1893,

1894,

1895,

1896.

1897,

1898,

1899,

1900,

1901,

1902,

1903,

2,255

2,354

2,732

2,041

2,776

2,898

2,542

2,981

2,989

2,576

2,457

It will be noticed that there has not been much variation in the number of admissions. The average for the eleven years is 2,600, so that the year under review is only about 150 short.

Transfers. For various reasons there were 245 cases transferred elsewhere- to the Government Civil Hospital 13, to the Lunatic Asylum 6, to Kennedy Town Hospital 177, to the Tung Wah Branch Hospital 48, and to Canton 1. The greatest number of transfers took place in the second quarter and 178 were cases of plague. In the first quarter 24 cases of plague were transferred, and in

the third 22.

449

Moribund Cases.-These were very high in number, 203-being 177 males and 26 females.

Deducting these moribund cases we have a net total of 2,254 persons under treatment-males 1.935, females 319. Of these there were under European treat- ment 1,176 persons, representing over 52 per cent., and under Chinese treatment 1,078, representing over 47 per cent. It will be noticed that those persons who elect to place themselves under European treatment are steadily increasing yearly. This is a matter for congratulation as shewing that a cloud of prejudice in the native mind is at last lifting.

Brought in dead.-A large number of bodies were brought in dead-males 284, females 104, total 388. Of this total, 105 were sent to the Public Mortuary for pathological examination, the symptoms detailed and statements made by the friends not being satisfactory, and such examination not being feasible at the Hospital owing to the strong prejudice of the Chinese to the use of the knife on the human body living or dead.

or dead. The bodies of 153 patients who died in hospital were also sent to the Mortuary for examination.

Free Burial was provided by the Hospital authorities in 2,424 cases.

Out-patients. The large number of 7 2,835 out-patients-males 49,368, females 23,467-were under Chinese treatment. Owing to no definite arrangements hav- ing been made for treating out-patients by European methods until the last two months of the year, only a small number was recorded-215 males, and 100 females. Now, a room has been provided and a record is being kept, and we shall be able to gange fairly accurately the extent of the appreciation of the Chinese for Western methods as applied in the out-patient department.

Destitutes. The large number of 600 persons were provided with food and shelter during the past year for short periods.

Vaccinations.-1,685 successful vaccinations were performed. A table is

attached.

Operations. Several minor operations were performed during the year, as

follows:-

Circumcision,

Extraction of bullet. Excision of tumour,

Cataracts removed,

Entropion, Urethrotomy,

1

1

1

6

4

1

The new wing across the road was opened by His Excellency the Governor Sir HENRY BLAKE on the 26th March. It is an airy structure, well ventilated, and contains 78 beds. The Ko FONG wards in the old hospital have been pulled down with the exception of a few rooms which have been retained for use as isolation wards and others used at present as store rooms. This demolition has been of gain in permitting better ventilation and lighting.

The new Plague Branch of the Tung Wah Hospital was also opened by His Excellency the Governor on June 6th. It is built in proximity to the Kennedy Town Hospital, and is in direct communication with it by means of a new stone stair-way. Sixty-two patients were under treatment here and on the subsidence of the epidemic of plague it was closed on July 21st. It contains 7 wards and has accommodation for 64 beds.

Conclusion.-I must express my cordial thanks to Dr. JEU HAWK for the invaluable help he has given me in the duties which I have had to perform, and my appreciation of the ready cooperation of the Directors and Chairman.

I have, &c.,

W. V. M. KOCH, Inspecting Medical Officer.

The Honourable

The PRINCIPAL CIVIL MEDICAL OFFICER.

450

Table I. RETURN of DISEASES and DEATHS in 1903 at TUNG WAH HOSPITAL, HONGKONG.

DISEASES.

GENERAL DISEASES.

Small-pox,

Measles,

Dengue,

Tubercular Meningitis,

Diphtheria,

Mumps,

Choleraic Diarrhoea,

Cholera,

Dysentery.

Plague,

Malarial Fever -

1. Quartan,

2. Simple Tertan,

4. Malignant Qiuotidian, Malarial Cachexia, Beri-beri....

Erysipelas,

Puerperal Fever,

Septicemia,.

Remain- ing in Hospital at end of

Yearly Total

Total Cases

Remain- ing in Hospital

Remarks.

treated. at end of

1902.

Admissions. Deaths.

1903.

13 1

232

:

32

N

13

1

WNNNWN T

2

2

...

!

..

2

66

35

68

...

303

90

303

5

5

:

3

99

102

1

10

105

58

115

12

3

12

...

27

277

170

304

29

847362

2

1

4

12

*3

3

:

47362

...

Tetanus,

Tubercle, General,

Tubercular Leprosy, Syphilis:-

(a.) Primary, (b) Secondary, Rheumatism,

New Growth. Malignant,

Ancemia,

Debility,

LOCAL DISEASES.

Diseases of the Nervous System.

SUB-SECTION 1.

Diseases of the Nerves,-

Meningitis,

Functional Nervous Disorders,--

SUB-SECTION 2.

Apoplexy,

Paralysis,

Epilepsy,

Neuralgia,

30 N

5

64

40

:

7

72

2

4

20

20

1

24

2

25

5

42242*

1

13030

10 -

1

:

20

17

3

17

74

20

2

4

20

1

8

AN

1

SUB-SECTION 3.

Mental Diseases,-----

Idiocy,

Mania.

1

1

1

5

5

Melancholia,

1

1

Dementia,

1

1

Diseases of the Eye,

1

21

22

Circulatory System,

6

107

68

113

:>

39

Respiratory System,.

29

473

318

502

21

*

Digestive System,

144

54

144

5

Lymphatic System,

14

14

.

Urinary System,

3

36

13

39

3

Generative System,

5

1

5

1

>>

"

""

"

Male Organs,.

1

1

*

"

Female Organs,

1

1

""

Organs of Locomotion,

26

1

26

Cellular Tissue,

53

...

53

Skin,

"

Injuries, Local,

17 17

222

...

239

15

212

13

229

12

996

Midwifery,

Poisons,

3

3

1

...

Total.

129

2,457

889

2,586

128

W. V. M. KOCH. Inspecting Medical Officer.

4

451

Table II.-Showing the Admissions and Mortality in the TUNG WAH HOSPITAL during the year 1903, with the proportion of cases treated by European and Chinese methods respectively.

ADMISSIONS.

DEATHS.

Fouropean Chinese Treatment. Treatment.

Total.

European Chinese Treatment. Treatment.

Total.

General Diseases :-

Small-pox,

13

Measles,....

:

13

1

Dengue Fever,

1

Diphtheria,

Mumps,

Cholera,

Choleraic Diarrhoea,

Tubercular Meningitis,

2

1 1

Dysentery,

33

33

66

INNNAN AS

1

2

1

1

3

2

1

20

15

Plague,

303

303

90

Malarial Benign Tertian,

33

Quartan,

Malignant,

42

Malarial Cachexia,

8

Beri-beri,

119

158

Erysipelas,

: ས ཤྩ ཀ 2 :

66

99

5

63

105

17

41

4

12

1

277

64

106

170

Septicemia,

7

6

6

Puerperal Fever,

4

ลง

2

:|:མ ཀ 1| དུ 1:|:|:རྩརྒྱུུམལཝ

35

90

3

2

12

4

Leprosy,

Tuberculosis--General,

Tetanus,

Syphilis, Primary,

""

Constitutional,

Rheumatism,

4

3

5

37

27

64

5

2

7

14

26

40

New Growth, Malignant,

3

Ι

4

Anæmia,

6

14

20

Debility,

10

14

24

1

1

2

Local Diseases :-

Nervous System,

34

Eye,

21

Circulatory System,

45

སྶ:ལྱ

22

56

7

14

21

62

107

31

37

Respiratory

207

266

473

137

181

22

Digestive

50

94

144

19

35

Lymphatic

12

2

14

ས:་ྲ།:

21

68

318

54

Urinary

19

17

36

7

6

13

""

Organs of Locomotion,

14

12

26

1.

1

Connective Tissue,

21

32

53

Skin,

137

85

222

Poison-Opium,

1

1

Injuries

87

125

212

5

Generative System,

1

7

1

13

1

Midwifery Cases,

3

1,318

Less Moribund Cases,

142

1,139 61

2,457

428

461

889

203

142

61

203

1,176

1,078

2,254

286

400

686

Less transferred,...

243

245

Total Cases in Tung Wah Hospital,.........

933

1,076

2,009

286

400

686

W. V. M. Kосн,

Inspecting Medical Officer.

Table III.-Showing GENERAL STATISTICS relating to the Tung Wan Hospital during the year 1903.

"

Dead Bodies

Patients.

Remaining in Hospital on Dec. 31st, 1902.

Admissions.

Total Cases

treated.

Discharged.

Died.

Remaining in Hospital on

Destitute

Out-patients. Vaccinations.

Dec. 31st, 1903.

Persons

sheltered.

brought into Hospital Mortuary

for Burial.

Free Burials provided for Poor Persons.

Males,

Females,

115

2,112

2,227

1,379

743

105

49,583

600

284

2,424

14

345

359

190

146

23

28,567

104

Total,

129

2,457

2,586

1,569

889

128

73,150

600

388

2,424

Table IV.--Showing VACCINATIONS at, and in connection with, the TUNG WAH HOSPITAL during the year 1903.

W. V. M. KOCH, Inspecting Medical Officer.

{

Chek Choi.

Pó Léung Kok.

10

5

1

811

48

874

21

15

49

1,685

Sex,

Hongkong (Victoria).

Shaukiwan.

Aberdeen.

Hung-hom.

Yaumati.

Male,

761

16

· 15

7

Female,..

779

14

9

5

14

Total,

1,540

29

24

W. V. M. KOCH,

Inspecting Medical Officer,

452

:

453

Report on Plague Cases treated in Kennedy Town Hospital.

KENNEDY TOWN HOSPITAL,

HONGKONG, 6th July, 1903.

SIR-I have the honour to report, for the information of His Excellency the Governor, regarding the Plague cases that have been treated in Kennedy Town Hospital this year up to this date.

2. Two hundred and eight-two cases of Plague have been admitted to this date, of which 87 were discharged cured, 171 died, and 24 are still in Hospital, but all convalescent. All these 24 will almost certainly recover completely, and for purposes of my calculations in what follows I shall class them with those cured. As the epidemic seems practically over, future admissions to the Hospital this year will probably scarcely interfere with general statements that may now be made; and this year's figures may, I think, be quite fairly compared tentatively with the total figures for previous years.

3. At the beginning of the epidemic, as fresh curative serum is not yet avail- ble locally, and as last year's experience sufficiently proved serum imported from Europe to be useless, I decided to continue trials I had made to some extent in the two previous epidemics as to the curative value of oil of Cinnamon. As an aromatic volatile oil it is antiseptic, and it is absorbed into the blood unchanged, so I gave it in large doses in the form of the essence, in the hope that it might be absorbed in sufficient quantities to exercise its antiseptic action against the Plague Bacilli. After a further series of 30 cases, however, I abandoned it as useless.

4. The next series of cases, over a hundred in number, I treated on general principles, symptomatically, until the 18th of May, when you suggested to me a further trial of Carbolic Acid in larger doses than when I previously used it in this Hospital.

5. I consented to make such further trial, though, I confess, without much hope of its proving of value. I had in 1901 used this drug in a series of over 200 cases in doses of 80 grains a day, and while the mortality in that year was 76.5%, slightly less than the average, I did not think it had been much affected by the

treatment.

6. It was, I think, your proposal that one should begin with an initial dosage of 14 grains in 24 hours, but rapidly diminish the quantity given. I determined, however, to push the remedy to the utmost, and, while watching carefully against any appearances of poisoning, to give the drug in full doses so long as Plague Bacilli were present in the blood. I accordingly gave 144 grains of Carbolic Acid daily. divided into two-hourly doses of 12 grains each, and administered, as two years ago, in a mixture flavoured with syrup of Orange and Chloroform water, in some cases over long periods. Inspector KNIGHT, for instance, consumed over 2,500 grains of pure Carbolic Acid before his blood was free from Plague Bacilli.

·

7. With these enormous doses, I expected evidence of Carbolic Acid poisoning to appear frequently, but it was practically unknown. In a few cases Carboluria developed, but the omission of one or two doses was usually sufficient to clear the urine, and permit resumption of the remedy in full doses. In certain cases dys- peptic symptoms occurred, but in these greater dilution of the mixture with water was all that was required to overcome this obstacle to its consumption.

This absence of untoward symptoms is probably an incidental testimony to the purity of the Apothecary's stock of Carbolic Acid, as Carboluria is believed to be due more to impurities in the acid than to the drug itself.

8. As a result of observation of its use in a series of 143 cases, I consider Carbolic Acid in large doses the most hopeful means of treating Plague thus far at our disposal in Hongkong.

9. Before looking at the actual figures, there are two circumstances that need to be mentioned, and for which due allowance must be made:-

(1)-The treatment with Carbolic Acid was commenced late in the epidemic, at a stage when there is a greater natural tendency to recovery, the disease being invariably more virulent early in the season.

?

454

(2)--Coincidently with my beginning the use of Carbolic Acid, Dr. BELL announced his modification of Ross's method for the examination of a thick film of malaria blood as a method for the examination of plague blood; and as a consequence of this improved means of diagnosis a much larger number of very mild cases, many of which would not have been diagnosed as Plague in former years, were proved to be Plague and sent to Kennedy Town. These cases swelled the proportion of cases recovering.

10. I should like in passing to express my sense of the great value of BELL'S method for diagnosis of Plague. I at once put it in routine use both at Tung Wah Hospital and at Kennedy Town Hospital. At Kennedy Town it has not only added to precision of diagnosis, but it has enabled me to watch more definitely the progress of the illness; and I have used this, as I have mentioned, as my guide in the use of Carbolic Acid, while disappearance of the Plague Bacilli from the blood circulation has become a sine quâ non before discharge from the Hospital.

11. The following tables show the racial and general mortality before and during the use of Carbolic Acid; and to facilitate comparison I submit the total figures for the current year, to date, alongside the corresponding figures for 1901 and 1902:-

BEFORE CARBOLIC ACID WAS USED,

i.e., in the First Half of the Epidemic.

Europeans,

Portuguese,

CONVALES-

CASES.

CURED.

CENT.

DEATHS. MORTALITY.

:

N

...

1

1

50.0°

Chinese,

123

15

106

86.2,,

Other Races,

14

N

12

85.7,

""

139

18

20

N

UNDER THE USE OF CARBOLIC ACID,

i.e., in the Second Half of the Epidemic.

119

85.6%

Europeans,

22

17

4

1

1.5°

Portuguese,

1

1

Chinese,....

80

31

3

46

57.5,

Other Races,

40

20

15

5

12.5,,

143

69

22

52

36.4°

91

..

1

455

TOTAL CASES DURING 1904 (TO 6TH JULY).

282

$7

24

171

60.6°

111

1901.

Treatment throughout:-80 grains Carboblic Acid daily.

C'ASES.

DEATHS.

MORTALITY.

Europeans,

24

33.3°

Portuguese,

16

12

75.0",

Chinese,

136

121

89.0

Other Races,

28

15

53.6,,

204

156

76.5°

1902.

Treatment throughout:-Calmette's Serum from Paris.

3

1

33.3°

Europeans,

1

1

100.0

""

Portuguese,

80

73

91.3,,

Chinese,

Other Races,

10

10

50.0 »

94

80

85.1°

1903 (to 6th July).

Treatment as described in preceding Pages.

24

N

8.3

Europeans,

Portuguese,

1

203

152

74.9,,

Chinese,

54

17

31.5

Other Races,

282

171

60.6°

رد

456

12. The Hospital Mortality of Plague cases treated at Kennedy Town since the first outbreak of the disease in the Colony has been as follows:-

1894,

1895,

1896,

1897,

D

1898,

1899,

....

1900,

1901,

1902,

1903, (to 6th July),................................

76.0 per cent.

74.3

""

81.8

81.8

77.5

76.5

85.1

60.6

13. When all allowances, such as I have before referred to, have been made, I think it must be admitted that Carbolic Acid is of undoubted value in the treat- ment of Plague, when given in such doses as to allow its sufficient concentration in the blood to exert its antiseptic action on the bacilli. It is, however, by no means a specific remedy; and, while reporting thus favourably on its use, I would urge upon His Excellency's attention the desirability of carrying into effect before next epidemic season proposals already sanctioned for the production locally of a Curative Serum for the treatment of Plague.

14. I attach a Table showing the main facts regarding each of the Plague cases admitted this year, entered in series in the order of their admission to Hospital; and also notes in more detail with temperature charts of six typical Plague cases, illustrating different forms of the disease, and some of them presenting features of peculiar interest.

I have, &c.,

The Honourable

Dr. J. M. ATKINSON,

Principal Civil Medical Officer,

&c., &'c.,

&c.

J. C. THOMSON.

CASES.*

D-M- English, male, æt. 42, Inspector of Police, admitted to Ken- nedy Town Hospital on 16th May, 1903, suffering from Plague.

Had a little fever, and small Right Fe:noral Bubo, and Plague Bacilli were found in his blood.

Mild case.

Treatment.-Liq. v, three times a day. Liquid diet.

Strych. m. x., in mixture, every 6 hours. Quin. Sulph. gr.. Belladonna, locally, to Bubo. Brandy, 4 oz., in 24 hours.

25th May. Bubo resolving without suppuration.

30th May. Still a few Plague Bacilli in blood.

mixture every 4 hours.

6th June. No Plague Bacilli in blood.

8th June. Discharged from Hospital.

Solid diet.

Acid. Carbolic. gr. xii, in

This case is interesting, in that it was an ordinary somewhat mild case, which when apparently quite convalescent still harboured Plague Bacilli, and in which bacilli disappeared within a few days after use of Carbolic Acid.

* The temperature charts accompanying these cases have not been printed.

N

457

Y- -K-

-, Japanese, male, æt. 15, admitted to Kennedy Town Hospital

on 8th June, 1903, suffering from Plague.

Temp. 102-2° F. A large diffuse Right Cervical Bubo.

Third day of illness. Temp. 102-2° F.

Plague Bacilli in blood. No delirium.

Treatment.-Acid Carbolic, gr. viii, in mixture, every 2 hours. Tinct. Digi- talis in. v and Liq. Strych. m. iv, ia mixture, every 6 hours. Belladonna, locally, to Bubo. Brandy, 3 oz., in 24 hours. Liquid diet.

Tendency to pyrexia. Controlled by iced compresses. Temp. normal. Tea and toast.

10th June.

12th June.

17th June.

Digitalis and Strych. stopped.

Bacilli still in blood, but rare. Bubo fomented.

Acid Carbolic reduced to gr. vi, `

18th June.

every 4 hours.

20th June.

Solid food.

22nd June. No Plague Bacilli in blood. incised.

J-H

Acid Carbolic stopped. Bubo

English, male, æt. 30, Armourer-Sergeant, Hongkong Volunteer permanent staff, admitted to Kennedy Town Hospital on 16th June, 1903, suffer- ing from Plague.

Had been run down in health for six weeks before, but actual Plague attack seems to have commenced on 10th June, when he first noticed a swelling and tenderness in the Right Axilla. Did not note fever, but felt out of sorts.

At admission, Temp. 101° F. Plague Bacilli in blood.

Right Axillary Bubo of size of duck's egg.

Treatment.-Acid. Carbolic, gr. xii, in mixture, every 2 hours. Tinct. Digi- talis m. vii and Liq. Strych. m. v, in mixture, every 6 hours. Belladonna, with fomentations, locally, to Bubo. Brandy, 4 oz., in 24 hours. Liquid diet.

20th June. Digitalis and Strych. stopped. Diet improved.

23rd June. Solid food.

25th June.

Bubo resolving without suppuration. No Plague Bacilli now in blood. Acid Carbolic stopped.

30th June. Ung. Hydrarg. Iod. Rub. to be rubbed in over remains of bubo.

6th July. Bubo gone. Discharged from Hospital.

An interesting feature in this case is, that in its inital ambulant stage on 14th June, ie., two days before admission to Hospital, Armourer-Sergeant H. at- tended a church parade at St. John's Cathedral, and was publicly presented by His Excellency the Governor with the South Aftrican war medal. He does not seem to have at that time suspected Plague, but says that on account of the pain in the Right Axilla he had great difficulty in raising his hand to the salute after the medal had been pinned on his breast.

, English, married lady, admitted to Kennedy Town Hos- pital on the 8th June suffering from Plague.

Had been out of sorts for some weeks. Attack of Plague commenced on the 5th June, when she had fever 104° F. On 6th June, Temp. 102° F., and tender- ness in left groin.

7th June. Temp. 100° F.

8th June. Plague diagnosed, and patient admitted to Hospital. Temp. 99.6° F. Left Inguinal Bubo, of size of small hen's egg, and slight tender swelling in Left Femoral Region, Plague Bacilli in blood. Patient very nervous, but otherwise in good condition.

Treatment.-As in J. H. case.

every 2 hours.

458

Essential feature of it: Acid Carbolic gr. xii,

10th June. Femoral Bubo more marked, more tender, size of a large hen's egg. Diet improved.

18th June.

Inguinal Bubo incised.

Femoral Bubo smaller and less tender.

20th June.

every 4 hours.

Digitalis and Strych. stopped. Solid food.

Acid Carbolic reduced to gr. xii,

23rd June. No Plague Bacilli in blood or in discharge from Bubo. The Fem- oral Bubo resolved without suppuration. Inguinal Bubo healing. Acid Carbolic stopped.

25th June. Hypophosphites as tonic."

27th June. Discharged from Hospital.

;

AJ

-J- -M- English, male. æt. 23. Government Official, admitted to Kennedy Town Hospital, on the 13th June, suffering from Plague.

Admitted to Government Civil Hospital on the 11th June, with fever, 102° F. 12th June. Temp. 105.8° F. Tender swelling in Left Femoral region. Plague Bacilli found in blood.

13th June. Transferred to Kennedy Town.

Treatment.-As in J. H. case. Essential feature :—Acid Carbolic gr. xii, every 2 hours. Iced Compresses to control temperature.

tonic.

16th June. Steady improvement; there has been no delirium. Bubo less tender. 17th June. Diet improved. Digitalis stopped.

23rd June. Solid food.

28th June. Bubo incised.

29th June. No Plague Bacilli in blood.

30th June.

Acid Carbolic stopped. Syr. Ferri Phos. c. Quin. et Strych. as

6th June. Quite convalescent.

Quite convalescent. Bubo healed.

H-K-

English, male, æt 33, Sanitary Inspector, admitted to Kennedy

Town Hospital, on 6th June, suffering from Plague.

Illness began with fever 105° F. on the previous day.

At admission, Temp. 104° F. Delirium. No Bubo. Plague Bacilli in blood. Condition complicated by alcoholism.

Treatment.-Acid Carbolic gr. xii, in mixture, every 2 hours. Tinct. Digi- talis, m. vii and Liq. Strych. m. v, in mixture, every 4 hours. Brandy, 7 oz., in 24 hours, reduced to 4 oz. two days later. Liquid diet. Iced compresses to control temperature.

7th June. Delirium severe. gr. xx, at night.

Potass Bromid. gr. xxx, and chloral hydrat.

12th June. To-day for the first time able to be freed from shackles. Deli- rium has been violent day and night, but he is now quiet, though very weak.

18th June. Diet improved, allowed to sit up in bed.

23rd June. Acid Carbolic gr. xii, every 4 hours.

24th June.

Temp. 100° F. Quin. Sulph., gr. v, thrice daily. 26th June. No Plague Bacilli in blood. Acid Carbolic stopped. Syr. Ferri Phos. c. Quin. et Strych. as tonic.

6th July.

Quite convalescent, but not yet fit to resume work.

In this case, a severe septic case, non-bubonic, over 2,500 grains of Carbolic Acid were given before the blood was free from Plague Bacilli.

a

Was Cin-

Type

No.

of

Patient's Name.

Race.

Sex. Age.

Occupation.

of

Disease.

Type

Situation

of

Buboes.

Was

namon Carbolic Essence Acid used? used?

How long

in

Result.

Case.

Hospital?

Days. House. Cured. Died.

459

123

Lai Long,

Chinese.

M.

22

Coolie.

Bubonic.

R. F.

Yes.

No.

1

D.

Wong Fung Lan,.

30

L. F.

4

...

D.

"

""

"">

Nika,

Tsang Kan,

Indian.

Chinese.

22

Groom.

R. F.

1

D.

""

""

>>

26

Coolie.

R. F.

1

D.

""

";

Chung Kum,.

26

Barber.

R. F.

1

D.

99

"3

""

6

Dung Maik,

16

133

Coolie.

L. F.

14

D.

A

"3

Wong King,

21

C. C. 476.

""

Septic.

None.

20

Jured.

""

8

Lo Yung,

22

Coolie.

Bubonic.

Fem. & Cer.

18

D.

:

29

**

9

Lo Shoi,

23

L. A. & R. F.

11

D.

·,

"3

";

"

10

Li Ah Chui,

40

R. A.

D.

""

""

""

11

Kong Kwai,

37

Watchman.

R. F.

3

D.

""

""

12

Chan Hong,

40

35

13

Hoi Sam Dai,

40

""

Coolie.

Telegraphist.

י,

R. & L. F.

14

Cured.

""

L. F.

3

D.

23

14

Fung Sing,

38

Coolie.

R. & L. F.

D.

""

*

15

Sung Wan Yam,

11

R. A.

30

...

Cured.

""

>>

""

""

""

16

Chong Se Yuen,

F.

9

...

R. C. & R. F.

99

:

11

D.

,,

17

Chong Ki Chong,

M.

4

L. F.

D.

...

""

""

18

Chong King,.

14

...

""

19

Leung U,

41

Coolie.

Septic.

Bubonic.

None.

5

D.

""

51

R. F.

1

D.

>>

39

""

20

Fong Chui,

16

R. F.

10

D.

99

""

55

""

21

Young Chat,

21

R. F.

1

...

D.

"3

77

""

לי

>>

22

Chow Ling,

31

R. F.

D.

""

>>

""

""

""

,,

23

Ng Fall,.

37

R. A.

4

D.

""

""

""

""

24

Li Ying,..

10

"

>>

25

Chong Tso,

M.

30

Barber.

26

Kong Se Chi,

F.

20

Septic.

Bubonic.

...

29

27

Chan Shui,.

M.

16

Coolie.

28

Wong Long,

35

""

>>

29

30

Lo Chui,

Lo Lum,

21

....

""

26

""

"}

>>

35

L. C.

None.

L. Ing.

R. C.

L. F:

L. Ing.

L. & R. F. L. Ing.

2

D.

,,

"7

3

D.

A

""

15

D.

""

""

3

D.

7.

D.

1

D.

...

es.

In Hospital.

Type

Situation

No.

of

Patient's Name.

Race.

Sex. Age.

Occupation.

of

Disease.

of

Buboes.

used? used?

Was Cin-

Was namon Carbolic Essence Acid

How long

in

Hospital?.

Result.

Days. Hours. Cured. Died.

Case.

460

31

Foe Sing,

Chinese.

M.

36

Coolie.

Bubonic.

32

Hong Pui,.

22

R. F.

L. I. & F.

No.

No.

D.

D.

دو

""

Kwan Chan,

16

Silversmith.

""

31

Hoi Luk Ging,

18

Coolie.

Septic.

Bubonic.

None.

1

D.

;་

L. Ing.

1

D.

"

*

35

Yau Se Kiu,

F.

16

R. Ing.

4

D.

2

36

Chan Chu,....

M.

21

Coolie.

""

37

Young Se King,

F.

25

""

>>

38

Ali Ismail,..

Indian.

M.

18

Foreman, S. D.

R. & L. Ing.

R. F.

L. Ing.

D.

D.

2

D.

39

¡

Ngan,....

Chinese.

F.

26

53

40

Lan Sam,

M.

30

Coolie.

R. Ing.

R. F.

D.

D.

"

41

Fong Yeun,..

24

Carpenter.

42

Yung Se Noi,

33

>>

43

Cheung Se Lin,

22

Septic.

R. & L. Cer.

R. F.

None.

D.

D.

"

44

Yuen Wong,

M.

24

Coolie.

""

,-

"

45

Ng Sum,..

15

Bubonic.

R. F.

Ι

11

D.

D.

D.

:

"

>>

46

Kwan On,...

31

L. F.

17

Cured.

>>

55

47

Chan Yan Choi,

28

Barber.

L. F.

ia

D.

"

>>

48

Chan Hing,

14

...

R. Ing.

22

Cured.

49

Kan A Fuk,

18

Coolie.

R. F.

4

D.

""

">

?

50

Hon Ah Mui,

31

Septic.

None.

1

D.

وو

51

Lan Wai,...

M.

18

Coolie.

Bubonic.

L. F.

D.

"

59

52

Wong Fuk,

23

R. F.

D.

""

""

53

Lo Se Ngan,

22

R. Ing.

I

D.

"3

??

""

54

Khan Fai,

M

25

Coolie.

""

R. F. & Ing.

1

D.

"}

,

55

Fan Se Ho,

F.

22

Septic.

None.

5

D.

""

99

""

56

Lum Mun,..

M.

32

Coolie.

Bubonic.

R. F.

1

D.

""

57

Chan Wai..

22

R. F.

1

D.

99

""

""

58

Wei Yu,..

F.

44

R. F.

1

D.

وو

59

Dung Se Mui,

60

L. F.

1

D.

">

>>

60

Chan Shen,

M.

13

R. F.

2

D.

""

""

""

""

461

Was Cin- Was

No.

Type

Situation

of

Patient's Name.

Race.

Sex. Age. Occupation.

of

Disease.

of

Buboes.

Case.

61

Dung Se Tim Dai,

Chinese.

F.

62

Tun G. Yuen,

63

Lam Pui I,

""

64

Mun Fam,

65

J.

A-

Jew.

66

Johoroh Mahommed,

Indian.

F.

67

Yung Se Fung,

Chinese.

وو

68

Nat Se Ngan Ban,

""

69

Wong Ching,

"

70

Wong Fwai,

71

Ju Se Yan Ching,

F.

72

Ú. Cheong,

""

73

Li Kai Tseung,

""

74

Ye Ngan Kwai,

HERE HE

16

M. 16

Coolie.

Septic.

Bubonic.

None.

No.

R. F.

">

30

L. F.

namon Carbolic Essence Acid used? used?

No.

How long

in

Hospital.

Result.

Days. Hours. Cured. Died.

725

D.

D.

6

D.

""

""

18

L. F.

1

D.

""

59

28

Coolie.

R. F.

32

Cured.

55

""

20

L. F.

16

D.

""

99

27

33

R. Ing.

1.

D.

""

16

L. F.

12

D.

""

2

M. 23

Coolie.

R. F.

2

D.

""

18

R. F.

31

Cured.

""

16

R. A.

D.

M.

29

Coolie.

L. F.

1

D.

""

"3

""

8

R. A.

11

Cured.

55

F.

49

""

L. Ing.

2

D.

"

75

Ching Se Kwai,

25

R. & L. Cer.

10

D.

""

,,

""

"

1

76

Lai San,

M.

25

23

Coolie.

R. A.

13

D.

""

""

77

Ah Kit,

15

Septic.

None.

1

D.

""

78

Ma Han,

""

79

Liu Kun Fuk,

""

80

Li San,

81

Ip Kwong,

""

82

Kwan Kit,

83

Mo Chun Lo,

F.

,,

84

Kong Se Ying,

""

85

Ng Se Cheung,

""

86

Ng Se Ng,

י,

87

Choi Se Wah,

::

88

Ngan Tong,

89

90

So Se Dai,

Chan Se Lin,

F.

""

""

མི མི མི ནི མི ནི མི འ ིམཚམི

""

>>

22

Bubonic.

L. F.

D.

""

""

30

R. C.

D.

""

""

""

35

R. F.

D.

"}

""

""

28

Seaman.

L. F.

D.

""

""

29

C. C. 391

Septic.

None.

D.

>>

>>

23

Bubonic.

R. A.

D.

...

99

""

79

L. A.

D.

...

>>

>>

>>

35

""

61

Amah.

L. Ing.

L. F.

D.

>>

""

22

Cured.

""

::

""

16

L. C.

""

""

M.

!

33

Coolie.

>>

63

""

12

L. F.

R. Ing.

R. A.

>>

2

26

47

2

D.

Cured.

...

Cured.]

D.

""

""

A

>>

How long

in

Hospital?

Result.

Days. Hours. Cured. Died.

Was Cin-

Was

No.

of

Patient's Name.

Race.

Sex. Age.

Occupation.

Case.

Type

of

Disease.

Situation

namon Carbolic

of

Essence

Acid

Buboes.

used? used?

462

91

Wong Yen,

Chinese.

M.

16

Coolie.

Bubonic.

92

Soo Hop,

28

""

""

99

>>

R. F. L. Ing. & L. Cer.

No.

No.

1

D.

57

Cured.

...

99

""

93

G. Shimamura,

94

Lan Hen,

Japanese.

Chinese.

25

Farmer.

R. C.

1

D.

...

""

""

>>

""

20

Blacksmith.

R. F.

1.

D.

55

>>

95

Ng Kuk,

18

Coolie.

L. Cer.

I

D.

>>

96

Augustine Natal,

Spanish.

10mths

L. A.

1

D.

"5

35

97

Lam Nam,

Chinese.

16

Carpenter.

L. F.

D.

وو

98

Un Fat,..

21

Coolie.

R. F.

D.

""

"5

""

ל,

"

99

Yik Se Kun Yung,

F.

51

""

Septic.

None.

D.

""

100

Yse She,

M.

30

Coolie.

Bubonic.

R. F.

D.

,,

33

101

Unknown,

45

L. F.

D.

19

"

""

>>

""

102

Tung Hop,.

30

L.

F.

""

""

""

""

In Hospital.

103

Pun Kai,

24

R.

A.

23

Cured.

""

33

"

104

Chan Ping,

28

R.

F.

+

D.

""

""

105

Yong Sing Ye,

F.

16

L. C.

>>

,!

"3

106

Nichi Hora,

Japanese.

M.

26

R. F.

D.

107

Wong Ping,

Chinese.

36

Coolie.

R. F.

D.

108

F

H

M-

>

109

Wan Tsan Fuk,

Eurasian.

Chinese.

20

Foreman, S. D.

Septic.

16

Coolie.

Bubonic.

""

A

110

Ng Pin,.

22

Artisan.

55

""

111

Cheung Wai Chung,

48

Coolie.

None.

R. A.

L. Ing.

L. F.

D.

: :

D.

>>

""

Cured.

29

D.

>>

""

""

""

112

Họ ('hui,

25

Rat-catcher.

L. F.

D.

""

113

Ediljec Manekjee,

Indian.

95

""

Draper.

L. F.

""

A

33

D.

114

Kin Nosuki Fugihira,

115

H. Okada,

116

Chee Chong,

Japanese.

Chinese.

38

19

55

>>

3

Seaman.

Engineer. Silversmith.

R. A.

D.

""

L. F.

1

D.

Septic.

None.

Yes.

42

117

Leung Kon,

16

Bubonic.

R. F.

No.

28

1

...

Cured.

...

D.

""

""

>>

118

Sophie Mahoumed,

Indian.

F.

18

L. F.

Cured.

""

""

119

Li Shun,

Chinese.

Ꮇ .

41

Coolie.

120

Lai Poy,

31

""

Septic.

Bubonic.

None.

R. Ing.

5

D.

A

1

D.

""

>>

*

Type

Situation

No.

of

Case.

Patient's Name.

Race.

Sex. Age.

Occupation.

of

Disease.

of

Buboes.

Was Cin-

Was namon Carbolic Essence Acid used? used?

How long

in

Hospital?

Result.

Days. Hours. Cured. Died.

In Hospital.

Cured.

463

121

Cheung Sun Kun,

Chinese.

M.

21

C'. C. 394.

Bubonic.

R. F.

No.

No.

122

Li Kam,...

16.

Cook.

"5

123.

Chow Kum,

23

Coolie.

Septic.

Bubonic.

None.

16.

""

99

L. F.

10.

D.

...

>>

""

,,

124

Lam (hoi,

40

Hawker.

L. F.

1

D.

,,

""

多多

125

Unknown,

25

Coolie.

L. F.

D.

>>

126

Sundi Khan,.

127

Cheung Shui,

Indian.

Chinese.

25

P. C. 716.

L. F.

D.

">

""

""

""

20

Coolie.

R. F.

D.

""

128

Tsang Chung,

14

Mason.

""

235

L. Ing.

1.

D.

""

129

Tsoi Lau,....

F.

15

R. A. & R. C.

1

D.

""

"

""

130

Chung Wai,

M.

23

Coolie.

R. F.

D.

"5

95

""

""

131

Sakichi Saito,

Japanese.

46.

""

Draper.

R. F.

D.

>>

33

132

Chong Se,

Chinese.

F.

30

Septic.

None.

""

133

J.

J— M-

British.

M.

51

>>

99.

"

>>

134

Ye Mean,....

Chinese.

13.

Bubonie.

R. F.

"3

135

Yong Chik,

26.

Coolie.

"

"

"

136

Ho Tin,

22

>>

""

""

Septic.

R. F.

None.

N:

NN

D.

D.

6

D.

>>

A

6.

D.

137

Leung Chung On,.

32

Boatman.

1

D.

"}

""

>>

""

""

"

138

Isher Singh,

Indian.

34

Asst. Warder.

Bubonie.

R. F.

D.

""

""

139

DM-

British.

42

Police Inspector.

""

140

Lam Kow,.

Chinese.

F.

15

Septic.

R. F.

None.

Yes.

23

Cured.

No.

31

Cured.

141

Mok Ying,..

M.

21

Coppersmith.

Bubonic..

R. C.

D.

142

Li Se Kwai,

F.

18

>>

R. Ing.

143

Li Ki,

M.

22

Coolie.

R. F.

Yes.

No.

...

1

D.

N

D.

""

144

Kwan Luk,

27

R. F.

Yes.

D.

י,

""

39

""

145

Low Ching,

20

R. F.

D.

....

146

Lam Chun,

38

R. F.

2

D.

395

::

""

">

39

29

147

Wong Sing,

57

148

Pun Hin,.....

149

150

Wong So Ho, Unknown,

>>

>>

""H"

19

Septic.

Bubonic.

None.

D.

"

""

R. A.

D.

...

59

"3

F.

33

""

3

>>

Septic.

R. F. & Ing.

None.

D.

55

"

35

...

Cured.

33

99.

How long

Was Cin-

Type

Situation

No.

of

Patient's Name.

Race.

Sex.

Age.

Occupation.

of

of

Was

namon Carbolic Essence Acid

in

Result.

Disease.

Buboes.

used? used?

Case.

Hospital?

Days. Hours. Cured. Died.

151

Mahommed Hoosan,...

Indian.

M.

152

Chan Fai,

Chinese.

153

Unknown,

154

Tsang Se Ngan,

F.

155

Chan Bo,..

M.

>>

156

Lam Fong,

157

Leung Se Shop,

F.

""

158

Chan Sing,

M.

159

Pun Pin,

160

Wei Yuen,

161

F.

A-

British.

162

A

T

$

163

Li Sing,.

Portuguese. Chinese.

F.

M.

ཟ ི ི་དམི མི མི་

25

Interpreter.

Septic.

None.

No.

Yes.

16

Cured.!

24

Coolie.

Bubonic.

R. F.

4

D.

33

2

25

L. F.

6

D.

""

"5

49

R. F.

D.

33

""

23

Coolie.

L. A.

2

D.

""

49

23

Septic.

None.

4

D.

""

28

Bubonic.

R. C.

D.

...

99

""

23

Coolie.

L. F.

D.

">

>>

Septic.

None.

8

...

Cured.!

""

""

48

""

25

P. C. 106

Bubonic.

Septic.

L. F.

1

D.

,,

"

None.

23

""

16

34

""

""

33

35

164

To Chung,

53

2

165

Ye Cheung,

58

Coolie.

Wardboy.

Coolie.

10

""

""

""

29

::

""

166

Ho Sik,

33

""

وو

167

Chun Fong,

16

Bubonic.

Septic.

Bubonic.

R. & L. F.

13

...

Cured.

D.

Cured.

Cured.

464

D.

...

""

""

None.

7

Cured.

>>

R. F.

8

D.

>>

29

""

>>

168

Tse Sam,

36

Storekeper.

L. F.

1

D.

""

99

169

Chong Kwon Sang,

14

L. Ing.

10 min.

D.

33

وو

>>

33

""

170

Lam Wing Sang,

22

Coolie.

L. F.

2

D.

""

""

多多

""

171

Wong Hung, ...

34

R. F.

D.

...

99

"3

*

""

172

Yan Tan,.

28

R. Ing.

14

...

D.

""

27

""

173

M-

MW.

British.

36

Engineer.

Septic.

None.

14

""

""

""

174

Umi Tanigate,

Japanese.

F.

30

15

Cured.

Cured.

"

""

175

Chou Ku,

Chinese.

M.

19

Coolic.

Bubonic.

R. F.

...

6

""

"3

176

Lau Ying,

20

""

Wardboy.

177

A-

MA

Armenian.

10

Septic.

Bubonic.

None.

11

Cured."

""

R. F.

1

""

A

>>

178

Tsang Chen,

Chinese.

32

Coolie.

L. F.

""

>>

""

""

179

Al Kun,

18

>>

""

L. Ing.

99

""

180

Hoi Hai,

29

39

""

""

99.

R. Ing.

2

36

1

...

Cured.

: id idd is

D.

D.

D.

D.

""

""

Was Cin- Was

How long

Type

Situation

No.

namon Carbolic

of

Patient's Name.

Race.

Sex. Age.

Occupation.

of

of

Essence

Acid

Disease.

Buboes.

Case.

used?

used?

in

Hospital?

Days. Hours. Cured. Died.

Result.

465

181

Wong Yim Yan,

182

Ichi Taura,

183

Leung Chan,

Chinese.

Japanese.

Chinese.

F.

وو

M.

184

Su Kwai,

28

2 30 18 3

Bubonic.

R. F

No.

Yes.

1

R. Ing.

4

""

Coolie.

Septic.

None.

4

:::

"3

"

""

>>

Engineer.

Bubonic.

185

A-

C-

186

Wong Kwong,

British.

Chinese.

36

Septic.

L. F.

None.

3

""

29

A

""

""

>>

19

Coolie.

12

י,

""

>>

187

Unknown,

30

Bubonic.

L. A.

1

""

188

Tsang Hoi Kwai,

72

33

* 189

MB-

Philippino.

190

Mahommed Taky Khan,

191

Hai Fung,

Indian.

Chinese.

32

Coolie.

Septic.

Bubonic.

Septic.

None.

1

39

A

12

>>

R. F.

None.

12

""

">

18

S

""

יג

28

C. C. 179.

15

33

""

""

วร

192

Matabali,

Indian.

25

Asst. Warder.

29

"3

39

193

Garmikh Singh,

32

12

72

D.

D.

D.

D.

Cured.

Cured.

D.

D.

Cured.

Cured.

Cured.

Cured.

Cured.

:

""

194

Ng Fat,

195

Abdul Rahim,

196

Li Kan,

Chinese.

Indian.

Chinese.

31

""

Coolie.

Bubonic.

R. F.

"S

22

Watchman.

L.

A.

In Hospital.

In Hospital.

25

A

51

Coolie.

""

Septic.

Nonc.

""

""

"}

197

Wong Hing,

21

6

29

F

""

A

""

198

Chơi Fa,

17

""

""

""

""

A

""

199

Sunda Singh,

Indian.

25

Watchman.

11

""

."

200

Katha Singh,

30

P. C. 750.

11

FREE

D.

Cured.

D.

Cured.

Cured.

""

""

>>

""

3

201

Chung Tim,

Chinese.

31

Coolic.

28

Cured.

"

,!

""

202

G

N

H-

British.

22

P. C. 62.

Cured.

203

Ng Yau,

204

Mal Singh,

Chinese.

Indian.

23

وو

Wardboy.

Cured.!

"

"}

32

P. C. 815.

13

Cured.

205

Ching Fong,

Chinese.

206

Leung Wong Hai,

F.

"""

"S

""

59

28

C. C. 354.

13

Cured.

9

""

""

""

20

Bubonic.

R. C.

,,,

""

""

207

Ip Se Hai,

34

""

""

208

Ip Sik,

M.

34

Coolic.

209

Young Him,

""

A

A

25

Septic.

Bubonic.

Septic.

None.

""

R. Ing.

None.

""

33

""

89231

Cured.

Cured.

D.

Cured.

210

So Wood,

25

...

D.

55

"

ንን

>>

""

";

Was Cin-

No.

Type

Situation

of

Patient's Name.

Race.

Sex. Age. Occupation.

of

Disease.

of

Was

namon Carbolic Essence Acid

How long

Buboes.

Case.

used? used?

in

Hospital?

Days. Hours. Cured. Died.

Result.

211

Leung Wan,

Chinese.

F.

212

Chu Yu,

M.

213

Li Sen,

"

214

Lai Hong,

215

Yun Kwai,

>>

216

Wong Choi Ha,

F.

217

Ahmet Khan,

Indian.

218

Yung Se Lin,

Chinese.

F.

219

Ng Dong,

220

Sik Mahomed,

221

Lam Sai Kam,

Indian.

Chinese.

F.

222

Go Yun,

""

223

Wong Choi Hoi,

FEE: FFFF · · EF

13

59

Coolic.

38

""

Septic.

Bubonic.

Septic.

None.

L. I. & F.

None.

No.

Yes.

1

D.

33

Cured.

""

10

D.

"

28

13

Cured.

99

>>

""

""

21

13

>>

99

""

""

19

9

39

وو

99

""

M.

20

Farmer.

4

Bubonic.

Septic.

R. Ing.

None.

22

""

20

""

M.

45

Coolie.

D.

وو

""

70

Storekeeper.

.16

...

Bubonic.

Septic.

R. A.

D.

""

None.

Cured.

""

M.

30

Coolie.

D.

33

59

F.

15

Bubonic.

R. A.

I

D.

""

""

>>

224

Cheng Te Wan,

36

None.

20

Cured.

466-

¦¦dd idd :

""

>>

14

""

""

225

Ng Hang,

M.

20

Coolie.

9

...

""

""

""

99

35

226

Kan Yau Kwai,

33

22

""

""

""

"

"3

""

227

Sundar Singh,

Indian.

33

P. C. 519.

7

""

,,

>>

""

228

Lam Yang,

Chinese.

22

C. C. 321.

9

""

""

>>

33

229

E-

E-

British.

29

Warder.

26

""

""

""

33

230

Cheung Sam,

Chinese.

28

Coolie.

...

وو

231

Ebrahim,

Indian.

26

Assistant Warder.

""

232

Katta Sheik,

50

Coolie.

""

Septic.

L. C.

'None.

""

In

In

18

Hospital.

Hospital.

Cured.

>>

""

233

Fakir Khan,

30

Watchman.

13

""

""

""

234

Lau Ti,

Chinese.

24

C. C. 286.

10

""

99

""

25

235

Long Kwai,

35

""

Carpenter.

236

Tsang Wong Ping,

F.

14

Bubonic.

Septic.

R. C.

None.

1

""

""

7

""

""

>>

237

Ng Fuk,

M.

25

""

Wardboy.

Cured.

""

238

Fu Yat On,

29

Tailor.

Bubonic.

""

239

Chan Hok,

28

Coolic.

""

""

240

Lee Wan,

28

Septic.

Bubonic.

R."F.

None.

""

>>

>>

R. F.

""

""

>>

33

...

4

⠀ ⠀ ⠀då dåå

D.

D.

D.

D.

D.

Was Cin-

No.

Type

Situation

of

Case.

Patient's Name.

Race.

Sex. Age.

Occupation.

of

Disease.

of

Was namon Carbolic Essence Acid

How long

Buboes.

used?

used?

in

Hospital?

Days. Hours. Cured. Died.

Result.

467-

241

Lee Sze Mui,

Chinese.

F.

9

242

To Kwai,

M.

31

C. C. 300

י,

243

Kaiser Singh,

Indian.

26

P. C. C. 76

Bubonic.

Septic.

R. F.

None.

No.

Yes.

1

19

...

D.

""

244

H

K-

British.

33

""

245 H

M-

21

33

246

P

F-

R-

A-

29

""

247

D

W

248

Ladha Singh,

249

A-

R-

250

Goolam Mayden,

251

G- -A- P

""

Indian.

British.

Indian.

British.

""

22

""

:

""

32

25

""

S S

48

252

Thaker Singh,

253

Indian.

British.

20

F.

254

D

O'K-

>

""

255

Yokoshi Kuni,

256

W.

M-

Japanese.

British.

257

F.

258

Noor Ahmed,

Indian.

RE: EES

24

Inspector, S. D.

Army Officer.

Stoker.

P. C. 823

School-master. Fireman.

Captain M. P. C. 524

,,

""

>>

Septic.

Bubonic.

""

""

L. F.

L. Ing.

None.

::

""

""

""

"

8

6

""

ag

Cured.

Cured.

In Hospital. Cured.

...

18

Cured.'

...

*

19

Cured.'

""

14

Cured.

""

""

6

Cured.

""

>>

27

Cured.

""

4

Cured.

""

>>

33

Cured.

""

95

42

Bubonic.

L. Ing. & F.

20

Cured.

35

M.

32

Inspector, S. D.

Septic.

None.

14

Cured.

""

*

15

Bubonic.

R. C.

26

Cured.

""

>>

27

Wardmaster.

Septic.

None.

6

35

Cured.

...

25

Cured.

>>

>>

""

">

M.

25

Asst. Warder.

Cured.

""

259

M

-J-

D-

British.

43

-Engineer.

14

Cured.

""

,,

وو

260

O'Kami,

Japanese.

F

19

16

Cured.

>>

261

A- P-

French.

M.

28

Merchant.

Bubonic.

L. F.

4

55

>>

262

Kwourm Deen,

Indian.

22

Watchman.

R. F.

8

D.

D.

225

29

""

263

A- ·J. J-

-M,

British.

23

Officer, Land Court.

L. F.

""

""

264

Tung Yung,

Chinese.

32

Coolie.

Septic.

None.

19

**

""

265

ป-

H-

266

Matoes Fernandez,

British.

Indian.

30

Armourer Sergt.

Bubonic.

40

Cook.

""

Septic.

L. A.

None.

16

""

"

""

267

Joseph Morel,

28

"

""

""

268

G. Pinto,

50

.....

""

Pantryman.

""

""

多多

269

Domingo F. Carlos,

26

Butcher.

""

""

270

Gabriel de Silva,

33

Baker.

In Hospital. Cured.

Cured.

In Hospital. In Hospital. In Hospital.

In Hospital. In Hospital.

i

...

33

>>

:

468

In Hospital.

In Hospital.

In

Hospital.

In

Hospital.

In

Hospital.

In

Hospital.

In Hospital.

In Hospital.

In | Hospital.

Cured.

D.

...

In Hospital.

:.

How long

Was Cin-

Was

Type

Situation.

No.

of

Patient's Name.

Race.

Sex. Age. Occupation.

of

Disease.

of

Buboes.

Case.

namon Carbolic Essence Acid

used? used?

Hospital?

Days. Hours. Cured. Died.

in

Result.

271

Maurice De Souza,

Indian.

M. 38

Steward.

Septic.

None.

No.

Yes.

272

Cipriano Pereira,

22

""

273

A

GW

E-

274

Paulo Fernandes,

British.

Indian.

24

39

""

>>

"

21

Pantryman.

""

33

275

Augustin Minezi,

21

Steward.

""

A

39

""

276

Remedios Almedi,

22

Pantryman.

**

"3

277

Antonia Paches,

22

Waiter.

33

"

""

278

J-

R-

M

279

Kaichi Soda,

British.

Japanese.

10

2

F

Engineer.

""

23

*

39

Merchant.

A

280

Choo Singh,

281

Leung An Lum,

Indian.

Chinese.

55

Watchman.

"3

""

25

Cook.

སཏྭ

""

282

Mah Bal Shah,

Indian.

40

P. C. 552.

:

34

""

23

469

Report of the Government Analyst.

GOVERNMENT LABORATORY, HONGKONG, 28th January, 1904.

Sir, I have the honour to submit a statement of the work done in the Government Laboratory for the year 1903.

2. Analyses, more difficult and extensive than those of any previous year, were required to be performed. The work may be summarized as follows:-

DESCRIPTION OF CASES.

NO. OF ARTICLES

EXAMINED.

Toxicological (including 9 stomachs ),-

Articles for blood stains,

Waters,

Petroleum.

Food and Drugs,

Chinese drugs,

Coal,

Rocks,.

Coal-tar disinfectants.

Mortars,

·

Lime,

Cement,

Fire enquiries.

Sugar-cane juice.

Ores,

Opium pills.

Opium wine.

Medicated wines.

Aerated waters,

Mineral water,

Tin,

White metal,

Red earth,..

54

45

93

244

47

30

30

13

5

3

2

·

26

47

17

5

1

4

G

2

1

1

1

Yellow earth,

1

Cylinder oils,

6

Vegetable oils,

11

Alloy,

1

Air,

1

Deed for stain,

Paint,

White lead,..

Kill fire, Medicine,. Ointment,

..

1

3

2

1

1

Plague remedy,

Phosphorus paste,

Morphine Ordinance,

1

1

7

713

TOXICOLOGICAL.

3. The toxicological cases investigated comprised nine cases of suspected human poisoning. The poison found in four of these was opium.

WATERS.

4. The results of the analyses of samples taken each month from the Pokfu- lum and Tytam Reservoirs, from the Kowloon service, and Cheung Sha Wan supply, indicate that these supplies continue to maintain their excellent qualities.

In an Appendix will be found particulars of the monthly analyses of the public supplies, and of other waters.

{1

.

470

The analytical figures given by a sample of unfiltered water from the West River will prove of interest. The following report was made:-

"The amount of organic matter present being higher than that in a first-class drinking water, this sample is of medium purity. The amount of impurity is very small. With but little purification this water could be converted into an excellent supply.

The sediment is composed of alumina, iron oxide, silica, magnesia, vegetable debris, and bacterial forms. The water has to a certain extent undergone self- purification-alumina, iron oxide, and magnesia having in course of time, been thrown out of solution, and in their precipitation have carried down some of the bacterial and vegetable matter of the water, thus forming a sediment of a mixed character."

The Dangerous Goods Ordinances, 1873 and 1892.

5. Of petroleum and petroleum fuel, 244 samples were examined. lity of the oil imported was sufficiently high to pass the 73° F. limit.

The Food and Drugs Ordinance.

The

qua-

6. Forty-seven exhibits were examined. The following table shows the results of the examination of 42 samples taken for the purpose of analyses:

Beer, Brandy,

Milk,

Ghee,

Portwine,

Whisky,

Gin.

Coffee,

DESCRIPTION.

NO. OF SAMPLES.

No. FOUND

No. FOUND

GENUINE.

ADULTERATED.

16

16

...

2

2

7

5

2

1

1

...

1

1

13

13

1

1

1

1

7. A sample of tinned ham was found to contain .377 per cent. of boric acid and 6.187 per cent. of salt. Poisonous metals were absent. The tin being slightly blown' the gas contained therein was examined and found to be air expanded by the summer heat prevailing at the time of examination.

8. The result of the systematic method of taking samples by the Police has been that the sale of adulterated liquor has ceased in the Colony.

sis.

BLOOD STAINS.

9. Forty-five articles consisting of clothing and weapons were examined.

10. Samples of lime, mortar, cement, and red earth, have been sent for analy-

Some experiments with red earth' mortars have been continued.

It has been found that after more than a year's immersion such mortars, when not containing more than eight volumes of red earth to one volume of lime, become harder when kept under water than when exposed in the ordinary way. The lime used was the 'shell' variety and contained no soluble silica.

:

Red earth has been found to contain no less than 12.8 per cent. of soluble silica; its hydraulic character is therefore at once explained. Red earth is thus a kind of "pozzuolana."

LIME.

11. The quality of this material still demands attention. It is frequently contaminated by much lime carbonate, also by sand. The use of bad lime for building purposes will entail much expenditure yearly in repairs to houses.

471

CHINESE DRUGS.

12. With a view to ascertaining the usefulness of some native plague remedies, 30 Chinese drugs were sent to the laboratory for identification, and for accounts of their medicinal value.

EXAMINATIONS FOR THE PUBLIC.

13. A considerable number of articles of various kinds have been examined for the public. The list comprises ores, coal, liquor, milk, lime, cement, petroleumn, oils, air, paint, earth, rocks, tin. opium, medicines, and water. For these examin- ations the public have paid $3,474.50 in fees.

SPECIAL REPORTS.

14. Special reports have been supplied on:-

Naphtha.

Medicated wines.

Spirit of wine.

Ginseng.

Petroleum.

Chinese plague remedies.

West River water.

Prepared Opium Ordinance.

Tin melting.

Silverfish Insect.

15. Value of the work done.-The value of the analyses performed as determined from the tariff of charges published in Government Notification No. 664, is $8,167.00.

16. Library.--The following works have been ordered :-

Microscopical Examination of Food and Drugs-Greenish. Physiological Chemistry--Halliburton.

Painters' Colours, Oils, and Varnishes-Hurst. Practical Sanitation- Reid.

In Pharm. Journ., July 11th, 1903, a paper has been published giving methods for the preservation of books in hot climates.

Briefly, it may be stated

that books require to be preserved from damp and insects.

To guard against damp, after a prolonged spell of moist weather, the covers should be wiped, and the books should be placed in the sun or before a fire for a few hours. The following varnish has been found to prevent effectually the ravages of insects:-

Dammar resin, Mastic,

Canada balsam, Creosote,

Spirit of wine,

2 oz.

2 oz.

10%.

10%.

20 fluid ounces.

Macerate with occasional shaking for a few days if wanted at once, but for a longer time when possible as a better varnish will result after a maceration of several months.

Attention was also directed to the 'Silverfish' insect which is supposed to be destructive to books. It was found that a diet of either paper, wood, or cloth, was sufficient to keep these insects in good condition. Paper seemed to be the favourite food. The 'silverfish' seemed to prefer a vegetable diet and to have no liking for other insects that feed upon

books.

I have, &c.,

FRANK BROWNE, Ph. Ch., F.C.S.,

(Formerly a Demonstrator in the Laboratories of the Pharmaceutical Society),

Government Analyst.

The Hon. PRINCIPAL CIVIL MEDICAL OFFICER.

Total Solid

1903.

Matter

Supply.

dried

Saline Chlorine. Ammo-

Month.

Albume- noid Ammo-

at 100° C.

nia.

uia.

Oxygen absorbed in

4 hours at 80° F.

Pokfulum

6.0

.6

Absent.

.0014

.010

472

-

HONGKONG PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES.

Result of the Monthly Analyses.

Results expressed in Grains per Imperial Gallon, (1 in 70,000).

in

Poi-

Nitrogen Sugar Test for

the detection Nitrates. of Sewage.

of Sewage. Metals.

No trace of Sewage indicated.

sonous

Absent.

Nitrites.

Absent. .012

January....

Tytam

3.2

.5

Absent.

.005

27

""

Kowloon

4.0

.4

.005

.008 .008

""

95

"

""

Cheung

"

Sha Wau.

3.2

16

.005

.016

"

""

""

""

Pokfulum.

5.9

7

*

.0014

.013

.020

Tytam

2.8

.5

.0028

.013

.012

February

Kowloon

3.3

.5

Absent, Absent.

.008

.024

* * *

"

"

""

Cheung

Sha Wan

4.0

+

.006

.016

""

A

"

Pokfulum

5.0

March

Kowloon

Tytam..... 3.0

3.2

bibli

.7

.012

.016

>"

.5

.007

.012

"

.5

.007

.024

93

***

""

Cheung

Sha Wan.

4.1

+

.4

15

.007

.016

29

99

:

Pokfulum

5.x

.7

.0028

.007

.037

Tytam....

3.0

5

.0014

.006

.008

"

95

April ..........

Kowloon

4.2

.4

.0014

.016

.012

**

""

>>

""

A

Cheung

Sha Wan.

4.2

.4

Absent.

.016

.012

25

"

Pokfulum.

6.8

.0028

.019

.016

19

""

Tytam

5.5

.014

.012

.་

99

May

Kowloon

3.7

.5

.0014

.009

.024

"

-"

Cheung

Sha Wan.

4.0

.4

.009

.012

.

""

Pokfulum

5.8

Tytam

4.0

.5

June

Kowloon

3.7

60 10 10

.6

.0014

.024

.024

"

**

""

.019

""

.5

Absent.

.012

.008 Absent

""

39

*

99

""

Cheung

Sha Wan.

3.8

.4

.008

.008

وو

39

Pokfulum.

5.3

Tytam

4.0

July

Kowloon

4.5

754

.018

"

.022

.012 Absent.

""

"

>

""

.0014

.018

.0.6

""

A

""

Chenng

Sha Wan.

3.5

.4

Absent,

.010

.008

Pokfulum

3.8

Tytam...

3.3

.5

August

Kowloon

4.0

.5

ان ان ان

.0014

.030

.016

"

9.9

""

.017

.008

Absent.

.020

.008

Cheung

Sha Wan.

3.5

.4

.0014

.013

""

.008

"

3

Pokfulum

4.3

.6

Tytam

3.0

.6

September

Kowloon

3.0

.5

365

.027

.016

99

""

.027

.008

29

99

Absent.

.010

59

.008

"

""

Cheung

Sha Wan.

3.2

.6

.010

.016

92

J

Pokfulum

4.0

.7

Tytam.... 3.0

.6

October...

Kowloon

3.5

.5

785

39

.0028 Absent.

.011

.012

"

99

19

.007

.004

29

Į

.005*

.016

"

Cheung

Sha Wan.

3.5

12

.007

.016

"

::

Pokfulum Tytam

4.3

.6

3.0

.6

November

Kowloon

3.3

9992

.011

""

.009

29

"

.016 Absent.

""

""

.5

.003

"

ས་

""

.008

Cheung

Sha Wan

3.5

.5

.003

.016

Pokfulum

4.2

.6

Tytam....

2.9

December

Kowloon

3.3

b. aa

.004

31

"

":

.016

""

多多

.6

.006

.008

*

"

,,

.5

.004

.016

""

""

""

Cheung

Sha Wan.

3.5

.5

.002

"

.016

22

"

WATERS.

Results expressed in Grains per Imperial Gallon, (1 in 70,000).

Total

Solid

Date.

Situation.

Depth.

Matter Chlorine.

Saline

Ammonia

dried at

100° C.

Oxygen Nitrogen Albume- absorbed noid in 4 Ammonia hours at

80° F.

in

Nitrates Nitrites.

and

Nitrites.

Sugar Test for the

Poisonous

General Remarks.

Detection of Sewage.] Metals.

Yellow colour of

water due to a trace

1903.

Jan.

Well in rear of I. L. 1513,

22.5

2.8

Tung Lo Wan,

:

.0028 .0028

1.440

Absent.

Absent.

22

99

Well at Wong Ka Wai,

4.8

.8

Absent. .0056

.029

.021

No Sewage indicated.

22

Well at Shing Ting Pi,

3 feet.

17.0

3.1

.0014 .0028

.029

.576

""

2

>>

22

93

Well at Tung Chung Kai,

8 feet.

14.0

2.4

.0042

.0070

.045

.288

"

وف

26

Well at Tung Wah Hospital,

7 feet.

23.0

4.2

.0014

.0028

.008

.460

""

28

Well at Swatow-No. 3..

12 feet.

32.5

8.4

.0042 .0042

.040

.098

""

""

,,

28

2

Well at Swatow--Tsui Keng

20 feet.

5.0

.6

Absent.

.0014

.024

.008

>>

14

-No. 1,

15

28

Well at Swatow---Hong Sua

20 feet.

17.0

4.2

.0084

.0115

.063

.148

-No. 2,

A

>>

Feb. 5

Water from tap at Bay View

23

?

Hotel,

Water supplying shipping near

Bay View Hotel,

Well in rear of 24 and 26,

3.7

.7 Absent.

.0014

.008

.008

""

Sewage indicated.

No Sewage indicated.

>>

95

4.3

.7

.0014

.005

.012

:

39

>>

17.5

2.8

.0112 .0140

.403

Temple St., N., Yaumati, .S

Sewage indicated.

""

Mar. 3

Water from Macao,

43.0

4.9

.0042

.0028

.011

2.214

Present.

""

11

25

Well at side of Bailey's Yard,

32.0

10.5 Absent.

.0126

346

To Kwa Wan,

Sewage indicated.

""

11

Well in rear of No. 104, To

"}

12.5

2.1

Absent.

.005

.543

Kwa Wan,

Absent. No Sewage indicated.

12

Water from Macao,

13.7

1.7

.0056

.059

.576

""

""

12

Water from Canton-conden-

""

A

4.5 Absent. .3066

Absent.

.056 Absent.

...

sed water,

""

29

28

Well at 111, Jervois Street,

9 feet.

42.0

8.4

1.616

Present. Sewage indicated.

""

May 5

Well at 112 and 114, Welling- ton Street,

12 feet.

16.0

2.0

.0224 .0028

.570

Absent.

""

99

Stream below new dam, New

5.8

.5

.0028 .0056

.032

.016

No Sewage indicated. |

Kowloon,

Stream above Kew's dam, New 2

4.8

Absent. .0014

.020

.012

Kowloon,

""

33

23

Well at back of No. 26, First

18.0

9.1

.1050

.0070

.403 Present. Sewage indicated.

""

Street,

of iron.

473

WATERS.

Results expressed in Grains per Imperial Gallon, (1 in 70,000),—Continued.

474

Total

Date.

Situation.

Depth.

Solid

Matter Chlorine. dried at

Oxygen Nitrogen Albume-absorbed

Saline

Ammonia

Sugar Test for the Detec- Poisonous

100° C.

noid in 4 Nitrates Nitrites. Ammonia hours at and 80° F. Nitrites.

General Remarks.

tion of Sewage.

Metals.

July 21

Well at Un Loong,

62.0

12.6

.0140

.0028

Absent.

Absent.

22

Well at No. 6, Dock Street,

""

17.0

2.5

.0028 .0014

.016

321

Absent.

Hunghom,

No Sewage indicated.

"

Aug. 8

Well at Deep Water Bay,

10 feet.

8.0

1.8

.0056

.0028

.060

.025

""

""

Sept. 9

Well at Tai Wai,

9 feet.

32.0

9.1

.0084 Absent.

:

.057

""

99

Vegetable fibre and earth in deposit.

9

Well at San Piu,

4 feet.

.7

.028

.0028

""

""

Sewage indicated.

9

Well at Tung Tau,

6 feet.

60.0

14.0 .0056

.0028

.707

>>

""

9

Well at Choi Uk Tsun,

15 feet.

44.0

14.0

.0056

.0028

.230

""

35

No Sewage indicated.

>>

9

Well at Nam Piu Wai,

12 feet.

32.0

15.4 .0056

.0028

.016

"3

9

35

Well at Un Loong Wai,

6 feet.

66.0

20.3

Absent.

.0028

*.460

Present.

9

"3

Well at Un Loong Chow Kai,

8 feet.

66.0

16.1 .0056

.0028

1.143

""

""

Sewage indicated.

77

""

""

35

9

""

Well at Wong Uk Tsun,

15 feet.

13.0

4.2 .0056 .0028

.112

Absent.

No Sewage indicated.

10

75

Well at the Metropole Hotel,

4.8

.7 Absent.

.0028

.026

.008

""

>>

""

10

Stream at the Metropole Hotel,

4.8

.7

.0028

.033

.008

23

??

""

Oct. 13

Well at back of No. 176, Third

6 fect.

7.5

1.7

.0014 Absent.

.010

.172

Street,

وو

Nov. 12

12

27

2222

West River water,

9.0

.4

Absent.

.0056

.110

Absent.

99

وو

""

Sediment-11.57 grains

Well at Un Chow,

6 feet.

1.5

.0140

.0028

.033

Sewage indicated.

""

per gallon.

Well at Un Lun Garden,

9 feet.

6.0

.0700

.0084

.247

Present.

97

""

""

Well at 114 and 116, Welling-

12 feet.

9.5

1.2

.0056

.0012

.029

.188

Absent.

ton Street,

""

27

Well at Kowloon Ting, East, ....

8 feet.

16.0

2.8

.0056 .0042

.030

.329

""

Dec. 2 Spring at Kennedy Town Hos-

pital,

:

1.2 Absent. Absent.

.016

""

3

Well in rear of K. I. L. 1092,

3 feet.

7.2

1.2

.0140 .0140

.042

.080

No Sewage indicated. Sewage indicated.

.99

Well at Mau Lam Gardens,

6 feet.

7.0

1.1 .0168 .0112

0.35

.058

""

"3

No. 1904

27

HONGKONG.

REPORTS OF THE MEDICAL OFFICER OF HEALTH, THE SANITARY SURVEYOR, AND THE COLONIAL VETERINARY SURGEON, FOR THE YEAR 1903.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

SANITARY BOARD OFFICES,

HONGKONG, March 20th, 1904.

SIR, I have the honour to submit, for the information of the President and Members of the Sanitary Board, the following report on the Health of the Colony during the year 1903.

The geographical situation of the Colony just within the northern tropic (N. 22° 5′) and its relation to the mainland of the southern part of the Chinese Empire, the annual cycle of meteorological phenomena, the configuration of the island of Hongkong and its geological formation, all combine to pro luce a state of things which, summed up under the word Climate, must have directly and in- directly a great though perhaps a not easily perceptible effect on the health of the

inhabitants.

Although Hongkong is an island, yet its proximity to the mainland modifies the solar climate considerably. The range of temperature throughout the year is considerable, yet it is not so great as is found to be the case in places not very far inland in the Kwang Tung Province. The effect of the ocean is seen in that the highest monthly mean was only 82 F, while the effect of the proximity of the main- land of South China is felt in the comparatively low temperatures in the first two months of the year, when the mean temperatures were 58.3 and 58·4 respec- tively. The highest rise of the thermometer therefore in the hot season is small when compared with that which occurs in Calcutta, which is in about the same latitude, and the cool bright days of the cold season are, considering the low latitude of the Colony, a wonderful advantage from a climatic point of view.

There is no doubt however that the condition of the atmosphere in the City of Victoria is, during the summer months, very depressing. This is due to a great extent to the high percentage of moisture in the air at the same time when the temperature is high. But there are, in my opinion, other factors to be considered. The position of the City of Victoria on the northern side of the Island and at the foot of high hills cuts it off to a great extent from the influence of the prevailing winds of the hot season, and moreover the crowding together of the houses owing to the steepness of the site of the City and the lack of room for expansion, the resulting narrow streets, high buildings and the heavy verandahs to the houses, all tend to produce a condition of stagnation in the atmosphere of the City during the time when free ventilation is most desirable.

The configuration of the ground upon which the City of Victoria is built is undoubtedly a great factor in the sanitary condition of the Colony. The steepness of the hills has rendered it necessary to cut deeply into the hillsides when preparing sites for houses, with the result that in the older portions of the City dark and unhealthy basements abound. In some cases two floors are com- pletely below the level of the ground on one side.

The nature of the rock or soil on which the City is built is also unfavourable. This geological formation of disintegrated granite or laterite has long been considered unhealthy. In former years, before the discovery of the relation of the mosquito to malarial fever, the laterite of Hongkong was considered to be essen- tially a malaria producing soil.

But apart from this it is easy to see how this soil may play its part as a factor in the sanitary condition of the Colony.

300

This gravelly soil must contain a great quantity of water. This can be seen to be a fact inasmuch as there are springs or sources of water in the City which even during the longest droughts do not dry up.

As a consequence the soil below the ground floor of houses and frequently the basements of houses themselves are more or less damp.

These matters have of course long been recognised and legislated for, but in actual practice I think that there is much to be desired. There appears to be great difficulty in obtaining, for example, lime concrete of a good enough quality to render a ground floor dry and impervious, and I am of the opinion that, wherever it is desired to lay down a ground surface which is to be impervious, good cement concrete should be insisted on in lieu of the lime concrete at present accepted as sufficient by the law.

The following table, compiled from the monthly report of the Director of the Observatory, gives the monthly means or totals, as the case may be, of certain meteorological phenomena recorded throughout the year:-

TEMPERATURE.

WIND.

MONTH.

HUMIDITY. SUNSHINE. RAINFALL.

Max. Min. Mean.

Direction.

Force.

January,

63

54.2

58.3

68

107:3

1.370

ENE

11.8

February,

62.7

55.1

58.4

73

77.2

•210

E by N

12.6

March,

70·1

63.0

66.3

89

64.3

2.655

E

15.0

April,.

76.8

68.7

72:4

83

86.6

4.725

E by S

13.2

May,

79.5

72.2

75'4

82.5

13.960

E by S

13.8

June,

86.4

78.5

82.0

151.6

25.230

SSW

11.7

July,

86.2

78.1

81.7

208.1 11.160

E by S

11.4

August,

85.8

77.1

80.9

157.5 14.970

SSW

8.7

September, ...

82.9

75.8

78.6

81

165-7

16.535

E

13.0

October,..

81.5

72.2

76.1

70

173.9

1.660

NE by N

13.9

November,

73.8

62.1

67.2

62

209-2

1·099

9.6

December,

66.9

56.0

61.1

56

222.3

'085

NE by N

12.0

The month of June shews the highest mean nonthly temperature while the greatest height of the thermometer was reached at 92.4 F. on July 31st.

The lowest mean monthly temperature is that for January 58 3, but the low- est daily mean is that for Febrary 2nd when a temperature of 46.0 was recorded.

The lowest temperature recorded by the minimum thermometer was 41.9 on February 3rd.

In my report on the epidemic of plague during 1903 I have discussed at some length the possible relationship of the epidemic to the meteorological data.

I should like however here again to draw attention to the very great differ- ence between the recorl for December, 1902, and that for December, 1903.

It is perhaps best shewn in the form of a table :-

WIND.

Month.

Mean Temp. Humidity.

Relative

Sunshine. Rainfall.

Direction. Force.

Dec., 1902. 64.6

75%

Dec., 1903, 61.1

56%

719 222.3

2.965 085

ENE NE by E

11.2

12:0

In December, 1902, therefore the mean temperature of the month was 3.5° F. higher, there was 18 times as much moisture in the air, and the amount of sun- shine was less than one-third that of December, 1903. The rainfall too in December, 1902, was nearly 3 inches, while in December, 1903, was practically nil.

ז'

301

The month of November in 1902 and 1903 too compare somewhat similarly as

here shewn.

Month.

Nov., 1902,

Nov., 1903,

Temperature.

Relative Humidity.

Sunshine.

Rain.

715

74%

150-8

5.400

67.2

62%

209-2

1·099

:

It is seen therefore that the weather during the last two months of 1993 has been cooler, dryer and brighter than in the corresponding months of 1902.

As it is undoubtedly a matter of common observation that the state of the weather bears some relation to the seasonal recurrence of plague, I have compiled the following table showing the mean temperature an! relative humidity and the total hours of sunshine and inches of rainfall, together with the total cases of plague for each of the months November to February inclusive, which are those in which as experience shows the annual plague epidemics begin. With the exception of the years 1895 and 1897, it will be noticed that as a general rule the brighter, dryer and cooler these months are the less are the numbers of the plague cases at the beginning of the several epidemics.

I also give here for convenient reference a table showing the cases of plague which occurred each month from 1895 to 1903 inclusive.

1895 EPIDEMIC,-44 Cases.

Month.

Plague Cases. Temperature. Humidity. Sunshine.

Rain.

November, ...1894,

December,

January,..............1895,

February,

ཌས ་ ༤༤

70.0

60

226.0

0·030

62.4

64

151.0

0.755

56.5

75

151.2

0.410

60-2

79

73.6

0.835

Mean or Total, ...

62.2

69.5

601.8

2-030

1896 EPIDEMIC,-1,204 Cases.

Month.

Cases.

Temperature. Humidity. Sunshine.

Rain.

November, ...1895,

5

67.6

63

185-7

0.325

December, ...

12

63.2

63

117·2

0.200

January,......1896,

19

62.0

76

133.8

1·730

February,

125

56.0

85

16.3

7.945

... ""

Mean or Total, ...

191

62.2

71.7

453.0

10.200

1897 EPIDEMIC,-21 Cases.

Month.

Cases.

Temperature. Humidity.

Sunshine.

Rain.

November,...1896,

December,

...

""

January,......1897,

February,

>>

HOOO

1

71-7

76

134.0

2.975

62.2

65

167·0

1.290

63.1

80

90.7

2.260

54.2

80

47.4

1.820

Mean or Total, ...

1

62.8

75-2

439.1

8.345

302

1898 EPIDEMIC,-1,320 Cases.

{

Month.

Cases.

Temperature. Humidity. Sunshine.

Rain.

November,...1897,

January,......1898,

67

RONN

69.8

65

176-1

7.320

60.6

60.1

62.7

""

December,....

February,

Mean or Total,

80

63.3

69

604.1

11.480

68

146.8

0.480

65

175.8

1·160

78

105.4

2.520

Month.

November, ...1898,

December,

...

22

January,......1899,

December,

Mean or Total,

1899 EPIDEMIC,-1,486 Cases.

Cases.

Temperature. Humidity. Sunshine.

Rain.

OHIN

0

69.4

61

171-1

0.790

1

62.1

52

254-4

0.025

59.0

63

198.6

0.185

59.6

70

136.4

2.205

62.5

61.5

760-5

3.205

1900 EPIDEMIC,-1,087 Cases.

Month.

Cases.

Temperature. Humidity. Sunshine.

Rain.

November, ... 1899,

1

67.8

62

153.4

1.640

December,

11

66.2

78

172.9

1.790

January,......1900,

· 55.6

77

120.5

0.770

February,

56.9-

74

48.1

2.640

95

Mean or Total, ...

28

61.6

72.7

494.9

6.840

1901 EPIDEMIC,-1,651 Cases.

Month.

Cases.

Temperature. Humidity. Sunshine.

Rain.

November,...1900,

14

2274

68.8

68

143-2

5.785

64.4

64.9

58.4

December,

"5

January,.....1901,

February,

Mean or Total, ...

25

64.1

66.2

547.3

7.390

66

211.2

0.155

83

94.3

0.685

48

98.6

0.765

Month.

November, ...1901,

December, ...

33

.1902,

January,.. February,

""

Mean or Total,...

1902 EPIDEMIC,-572 Cases.

Cases.

Temperature. Humidity. Sunshine.

Rain.

121A

69.5

64

227.7

0.770

2

61.6

66

176-3

0.835

1

63.1

67

238.8

0.285

59.5

60

200-0

0.020

10

63.4

64.2

842.8

1.910

.3

303

Month.

Cases.

1903 EPIDEMIC,-1,415 Cases.

Temperature. Humidity.

Sunshine.

Rain.

November, ...1902,

1

71.5

74

150.8

5.400

December,...

4

64-6

75

71.9

2.965

January,......1903,

4

58.3

67

107.3

1.370

February,

29

58.4

73

77-2

0.210

"

Mean or Total, ...

38

63.2

72.2

407.2

9.945

Table Shewing the Number of Cases of Plague known to have occurred in the Colony for each Month from 1895 to 1903.

YEAR.

MONTH.

1895. 1896. 1897. 1898. 1899.

1900.· 1901. 1902.

1903.

January,

49

9

1

7

1

4

February,

125

67

2

14

29

March,

168

137

25

5

54

115

April,

316

468

101

94

160

27

272

May,.

2

344

3

534

421

326

701

157

515

13

113

1

92

514

325

551

194

343

242

2

52

11

7

263

209

109

131

$5

25

1

86

80 27

50

32

3

57

16

24

N

4

12

NN

9

12

52

22

1

2

11

1

4

42

June, July, August, September, October, November, December,

44 1,204 21 | 1,320 1,486 1,087 1,651 572 1,415

RAINFALL AND WATER SUPPLY.

The rainfall for the year amounted to 93.659 inches being 3.841 inches less than in 1902 and 7·539 inches more than the average rainfall for the last twenty years.

The annual scarcity of water is a matter of the greatest hygienic importance inasmuch as the people are frequently driven to obtain water from most unde- sirable sources. Were the system of water service designed ab initio for an inter- mittent supply careful supervision could eliminate many dangers, but unfortunately we bave in Hongkong that most dangerous combination-a system designed for constant service with an intermittent supply during several months of each

year. I have before, in a report on cholera at the Tung Wah Hospital in 1902, pointed the dangers of the ball valves in the street hydrants, and how they may be the means of entrance of specific infective material, and should unfortunately a water borne disease, e.g., cholera, break out in the City during our time of intermittent supply there would be many chances of the disease assuming epidemic proportions. The quality of the water as shewn by chemical analysis throughout the year has been constant and good. The result of twelve analyses shew an average analysis as follows:

[These Tables are compiled from Monthly Reports to the Board by the Government Analyst.]

KOWLOON SERVICE.

Results expressed in grains per gallon.

Appearance in 24 inch tube,

Total solid matter dried at 212° F..

Chlorine in chlorides,

Hardness in "degrees,"

Ammonia,

Albumenoid Ammonia,.

Oxygen al sorbed in 4 hours at about 80" F.

Nitrogen in Nitrites and Nitrates,

Nitrites,

Sugar test for the detection of sewage, Poisonous metals,

* On four occasions slightly opalescent.

Clear and bright. *

*

3.65

4.75

...

absent.

.0003

.009

2014

absent.

negative.

absent.

:

304

TYTAM SERVICE,

Results in grains per gallon.

Appearance in 24 inch tube,.

Clear and bright. *

Total solid matter dried at 212° F.,

3.40

Chlorine in Chlorides,.

5.50

Hardness in degrees,"

Ammonia,

...

.0002

Albumenoid Ammonia..

Oxygen absorbed in 4 hours at about 80° F.

Nitrogen in Nitrites and Nitrates,

Nitrites,

Sugar test for detection of sewage,

Poisonous metals,

....

.0008

.012

"

.007

absent.

negative. absent.

POKFULUM SERVICE.

Results in grains per gallon.

Appearance in 24 inch tube,

Clean and bright

or slightly opalescent equally.

Total solid matter dried at 212° F.,

4.7

Chlorine in Chlorides,

.6

Hardness in "degrees,'

""

Ammonia,

.0001

Albumenoid Ammonia,

.001

Oxygen absorbed in 4 hours at about 80° F. Nitrogen in Nitrites and Nitrates,

.016

5.

.017

Nitrites,

absent.

Sugar test for the detection of sewage,. Poisonous metals,

negative.

.... absent.

During the year, twelve wells have been closed by order of the Board on con- sideration of the reports of the Government Analyst on the quality of the water yielded by them, and of their situation. Six of these were in Hongkong and six at Kowloon. Samples of water from three other wells at Kowloon and two others in Hongkong were reported on by the Government Analyst and in consequence of his report it was not considered necessary to close the wells.

GENERAL SANITARY CONDITION OF THE CITY.

Although comparatively few buildings have as yet been erected under the pro- visions of the Public Health and Buildings Ordinance, yet such buildings as have been put up shew a marked improvement in the matter of open spaces about them when compared with old buildings.

When a new building is erected on the site of an old building in a row of houses the shape of the old site does out afford sufficient opportunity to build a house of quite a new type. What is required in Hongkong is a new type of Chinese house and this will surely not be obtained unless houses can be re-built in blocks so that the frontage of houses and consequently the available window area may be much wider for the depth of the houses than at present.

In Hongkong little or no attention has been paid to the necessity of adapting houses to the requirements of the community and therefore the working classes have had to adapt themselves to existing houses.

This has resulted in the present insanitary condition of the houses of the working classes of Chinese.

In Great Britain much has been done latterly to provide houses for the work- ing classes; affording the tenants the necessary privacy and independence and at the same time adequate lighting, ventilation and other sanitary requirements.

It should not be difficult to model some scheme to effect this in Hongkong taking into consideration the local conditions and adapting the scheme to the place.

This I fear cannot be effected merely by the re-building of houses one by one on their old sites but only by concerted action.

* On four occasions slightly opalescent.

T

305

During the year special attention has been paid to the enforcement of the domestic cleanliness bye-laws. The standard of thoroughness for the six-monthly limewashing of tenement houses has been considerably raised, though not without much difficulty and opposition at first.

GENERAL CLEANSING OF THE CITY,

On November 10th there was begun a general cleansing of the buildings throughout the City of Victoria and Kowloon. The scheine was as follows:-The Sanitary Inspectors of the Plague Staff were to have served on each separately let floor a notice requiring the tenants to cleanse the floor on the third day from the date of service. Failure to comply with the notice would result in the floor being cleansed by the coolies employed by the Board.

On the morning of the day mentioned for compliance with the notice the Sanitary Inspector assisted by a Foreman would visit the houses to be cleansed on that day, and would supervise the work. Soft soap ready dissolved in hot water would be issued to the people free of cost. Any floors found clean would be exempted from further washing. Empty floors found dirty would be cleansed by coolies under the direction of the Sanitary Inspector. The scheme proved very successful. With surprising willingness the people set to and cleansed their houses, with the result that up to the end of the year 18,983 floors were cleansed and up to the date of the last weekly return (January 23rd, 1904,) 23,784 floors.

That such a general cleansing is really required is shown by the great quan- tily of domestic rubbish daily carted away from the houses being cleansed. It has been estimated that about 30 tons of rubbish has been removed daily in this way since the cleansing began.

PUBLIC SANITARY CONVENIENCES.

During 1903 there have been erected and handed over to the Board two public latrines, two public urinals and one public (free) bath-house. The latrines are situate at Tai Hang Village and in the compound of No. III Police Station in Queen's Road East. The two urinals are one in Ice House Street and one at the Parade Ground. The bath-house is in Cross Lane.

This bath-house has been a great boon to the neighbourhood, the average number of men making use of the place during December, 1903, being 550 per day. Before the water supply was cut off after 10 a.m. between 900 and 1,000 men used the bath-house daily.

The four bath-houses rented by the Board in the block of houses between Second and Third Streets have been retained since the last epidemic of plague was over, and are much used by the people in this district.

Two more public latrines, one new bath-house and three urinals are shortly to be erected and there is no doubt that they are urgently needed.

Complaints of bad smells emanating from the public latrines have been fre- quently received and are not unjustified. These places are well looked after by the Sanitary Inspectors, but if bad smells are to be avoided the design of these build- ings and the system of ventilating them will have to be altered. Instead of ventilation by simple diffusion or even by exhaust fans and tall shafts some elaborate scheme of controlled ventilation by means of special inlets and outlets will have to be adopted and moreover cremating furnaces for the foul air will have to be provided at the outlets.

OPEN SPACES.

A small resumption of built over land has been made in No. 6 Health District by which Lower Lascar Row has been continued to U Hing Lane. The resump- tion included four houses and small portions of two others but a considerable improvement has thereby been effected providing a good open space between the backs of houses in Queen's Road Central and Circular Pathway. The large plot of land between Taipingshan Street and Po Hing Fong between Square Street on the East and the new Tung Wah Hospital building on the West has been saved from the builder for the purpose of a public park. As a playground for the children of the very densely populated district below, it should prove a great

benefit.

3

306

POPULATION.

The estimated Population of the Colony excluding the Army and Navy (excluding the New Territory) to the middle of 1903 is as follows:---

British and Foreign Community.

The whole Colony, Civil Population,.

10,080

Chinese Community.

Victoria Registration District.-Land Population,.

.186,890

V. Harbour

33,930

Kaulung Shaukiwan

Land

58,220

*;

སྭ

Land

10,105

"

Boat

6,300

Land

3.720

11

""

Boat

6.000

Land Boat

885

1,000

Land

.259,820

Boat

47.230

19

Aberdeen

Stanley

་་

The whole Colony

.་

The whole Colony.

Land and Boat Population,...307,050

British Foreign & Chinese

Community excluding 317.130 Army and Navy,..

This shews an increase of 14,014 over the estimate for 1902. This increase can be divided into the classes :-

1. Increase in British and Foreign Community.

264

2. Chinese Community increase in Victoria Registration District, 4,090

OTH 30 10:

3.

་་

4.

5.

12

י,

Kowloon, Regn. District, ...6,660 Floating Population, ....... 2.475 Villages of Hongkong,

525

Total,.

.14,014

Army. The total strength of the troops in the Hongkong Command on June 30th, 1903, was 4,100, made up as follows:-

British troops.-Officers 73, British Non-Commnissioned officers and men

1,238, British women 77, and British children 126.

Native troops.-British officers 18, native officers 45, Non-Commissioned

officers and men 2,485, native women 15, native children 21.

Navy. The total numerical strength of Officers and men on the China Station on 30th June, 1903, was 8,905, and the average number resident in the Colony during the year ended 30th June, 1903, was 4,401.

The total population of the Colony including Army and Navy was therefore 325,631 made up as follows :-

Civil population, Non-Chinese,.

Chinese population,

Navy,

Army,.

Total,

10,080

.307,050

4,401

4,100

.325,631

The total population, comprising Europeans, Americans and Portuguese, is for 1903 12,771, as compared with 12,105 in 1902.

The white population amongst the Army and Navy is 5,933 for 1903, as against 6,063 in 1902.

This difference and the fact that the Portuguese element has tended to decease of late years accounts for the apparent decease of the resident white population of the Colony and the smallness of the real increase which appears when the fact that there are less naval and military forces is taken into account.

>

Y

307

The other races amongst the population number 5,810, as compared with 5,719 in 1902. The Nationalities represented amongst these are natives of India, Malays. Filipinos, Japanese, Africans and Eurasians.

The number of Indian troops including women and children in the Colony at the end of June, 1903, was 2,566.

The following is a statement of the number of licensed boats belonging to the Colony :-

Victoria trading junks,

37

Hunghom

fishing

17

Sam-shui-po

7.9

""

Shaukiwan

""

772

88

936

.1,122

.1,222

2,080

394

·6,614

Aberdeen

Stanley

New Territory

Cheung Chan fishing junks,

.1,622

Tai O,......

740

Tai Po

..1,343

Deep Bay,

Sai Kung,

Sampans,

1,428

..1,074

6,207

..2,424

Lighters,

53

Cargo boats,

.2,005

Other boats,

362

4,844

Grand Total,......

...17,665

1

:

The following Tables show details of the distribution of the population in the City of Victoria. Table I shows the estimated number of inhabitants per house and per floor, while Table II shows the number of persons per acre based on the estimated population.

The average number of persons per built over acre has risen from 258 in 1892 to 266 in 1903, and the total number of persons per acre inclusive of all open spaces in the City has risen from 132 in 1902 to 136 in 1903.

It is however highly probable that the population of the City of Victoria is under-estimated and that therefore the overcrowding is much more intense than these tables show.

When His Excellency Sir HENRY BLAKE took a census of the experimental block of houses in Second and Third Streets it was found that in 257 houses comprising 604 floors there were 7,701 inhabitants giving an average of 29.9 persons per house and 12.7 persons per floor.

The houses in this block are smaller than the average Chinese houses in the City and yet the corresponding figures for No 9 Health District are only 23·5 per house and 8.9 per floor for 1903.

I have pointed out in my Report on the plague epidemic for 1903 that there appears to be direct relation between this overcrowding and plague the disease being worst where the number of persons per floor is greatest.

A

City of Victoria

Health Districts.

www.

308

Table I.

Dwellings.

One storey

Dwellings.

Two storey

Dwellings.

Three storey

Dwellings.

Four storey

Dwellings.

Five storey

Total Dwellings.

Total Floors.

Average Num- ber of Floors per Dwelling.

No. of Persons per House.

No. of Persons

per Floor.

1

268

545

248

2

13

354

556

3888888

33

1,094

2,234

2.04

11.7

5.7.

80

1,003

2.709

2.7

24.6

9.1

3

8

19

27

73

2.7

6

72

576

352

5

1,011

3,311

3.2

24.9 7.6

2

132

515

263

46

956

3,193

3.1

24.7 7.4

6

51

51

395

338

42

877

2,900 3.3

23.0

6.9

17

38

445

373

24

897

3,040

3.4

16.2

4.8

8

6

83

616

275

3

983

3,135 3.1

20.4

6.4

9

16

466

478 98

1.058

2,774 2.6 23.5 8.9

10

31

334 342

29

736

1,841 2.8

19-0 7.6

Total & Averages,

4102,083 4,190 | 1,841 1208,642

25,210 2.8 21.6 7.4

In No. 3 Health District the majority of the Chinese live in houses not classed as Chinese dwellings.

Health

Districts.

Table II.

Built over

Non- Total Area (in- Chinese Chinese Acreage. cluding Houses. Houses.

Streets.

Chinese

Non- Chinese Population

Persons per

Population. (Approxi

mate) including Troops.

acre on

Built-over Areas.

1

531

131

1,094

154

12,810

1,396

108

2

243

139 1,003

60

24,700

2,230

198

164

134

27

555

6,490

3,020

70

56

52

1,011

157

25,200

1,260

508

29

27

956

62

23,650

260

848

30

27

877

20,200

65

750

7

36

31

897

14,600

75

473

8

49

46

983

3

20,100

30

437

9

44

44

1,058

17

24,900

160

569

10

252

105

736

41

14,050

560

139

1,434

736 8,642

1,057

186,700

9,064

266

Total,.

This Table shows that the total number of domestic buildings in Victoria is 9,699. During 1903 116 actually new houses were certified in Hongkong by the Sanitary Surveyor, and 130 in Kowloon-a total of 246. In addition 161 houses were rebuilt becoming new houses under the Ordinance. Besides these 246 houses certified under Ordinance 13 of 1901, there were two new houses certified under the present Public Health and Buildings Ordinance.

BIRTHS.

The following births have been registered during the year :

Chinese, Non-Chinese,

Males.

Females.

Total.

...521

228

749

.150

135

285

671

363

1,034

The general birth-rate is therefore 3.17 per 1,000 as compared with 3.8 per 1,000 in 1902.

The birth-rate for 1903 amongst the Non-Chinese population is 15.2 per 1,000 as compared with 12.6 per 1,000 in 1902.

:

T

1

309

The nationalities of the Non-Chinese parents were as follows-British 118, Portuguese 73, Indian 37, Malay 14, Filipino 10, German 8, French 4, Spanish 3, Persian 3, Norwegian 2, Jewish 2, Japanese 2. Austrian 2, Australian 1, American 1, Eurasian 1, Arabian 1, Hungarian 1, Turkish 1, Dutch 1.

The proportion of Non-Chinese births of male children to female children is the same as in last year, viz., 111 to 100, but the number of Chinese births regis- tered this year shows a proportion of 228 males to 100 females.

During 1903 there died in the Convents 455 children of 1 month of age and under-186 males and 269 females. There were found by the Police in the harbour, streets and on the hillside 92 male children, 50 female and 4 stillborn sex unknown-a total of 146.

If these figures be added to the number of Chinese births to obtain a cor- rected birth-rate as has usually been the custom, the birth-rate would become 5:02 per 1,000 for the whole Colony.

For the Chinese Community alone the addition of the above figures to the Chinese births will give a corrected birth-rate for the Chinese Community of 4:39 per 1,000. Without this correcting factor the Chinese birth-rate becomes 2:43 per 1,000.

It is however probable that even this corrected figure is too low and that comparatively few births amongst the poorer classes of Chinese are registered.

DEATHS.

The deaths registered during the year numbered 6,185 as compared with 6,783 in 1902. The general death-rate for 1903 is therefore 18.9 as compared with 21.7 in 1092.

This is the lowest death-rate recorded during the last twenty-one years. If the Naval and Military populations and deaths be excluded the death-rate becomes 19.3 per 1,000 which is lower than any annual rate recorded from 1883 to 1894 when the death-rate was thus reckoned. The lowest rate for these eleven years

was 20.7 in 1892.

During the last eight years when the Naval and Military population and deaths have been taken into account the lowest death-rate was in 1897, viz., 19′13. In 1897 however there were only 21 cases of plague so that the death-rate for 1903 (18.9) must be reckoned as exceedingly favourable as this year there were 1,251 deaths from plague alone. Excluding deaths from plague the death-rate for 1903 is 15.1 per 1,000; the previous lowest rate since 1894 being 17-98 per 1,000 in 1898.

The deaths amongst the Chinese community numbered 5,875 as compared with 6,431 in 1902. This gives a death-rate for Chinese of 19.1 per 1,000 as compared with 21.93 per 1,000 in 1902.

Of the Chinese deaths 3,281 were inales and 2,554 were females, while 40 were of unknown sex.

At the 1901 census the females amongst the Chinese numbered 27 per cent. of the population so that the figure for female deaths is proportionately very high. The latter half of the year 1903 is noteworthy on account of the considerably less number of deaths than occurred in the corresponding half of 1902.

The following table shows the quarterly death-rates for Chinese and Non- Chinese for 1902 and 1903 respectively:

1902.

1. Non-Chinese,...

2. Chinese,

1. Non-Chinese,

2. Chinese,

1st quarter.

2nd quarter. 3rd quarter. 4th quarter.

13.7

25.0

20.3

16.4

14.7

26.2

26.4

20.4

1903.

13.1

24.5

17.4

25.3

13.9

17.8

14.8

16.6

This shows that the latter half of 1903 has been more healthy both for Chinese and Non-Chinese than the corresponding half of 1902. The greatest difference lies between the quarterly death-rate for Chinese during the third quarter

of each year.

310

The deaths registered as having occurred amongst the Non-Chinese community during 1903 number 310. Of these, 33 are from the Army and 9 from the Navy, leaving 268 amongst the Civil population.

The death-rate therefore for the Non-Chinese population including the Army and Navy is 16.6 per 1,000 as compared with 19 per 1,000 in 1902.

The nationalities of the deaths were as follows:-British 81. Portuguese 52, Indian 89, Danish 2, Siamese 1, Malay 9, Filipino 4, Japanese 30, American 6, Jewish 4, German 10, Russian 2. Spanish 3. Armenian 1. French 5, Parsee 1, Peruvian 1, Austrian 1, Norwegian 2, Gounese 1, Unknown 5.

Thirty-nine deaths occurred in men belonging to the Mercantile marine and Foreign Navies, so that the total number of deaths amongst the resident Civil population of the Colony in 1903 is 229. This gives a death-rate for the resident Civil population of 24-2 as compared with one of 29-9 in 1902.

The causes of the 39 deaths in the Mercantile marine were as follows:-

Heart Disease,

Pueumonia,

Rupture of Liver,

Beri-beri,

Dysentery.

Shooting,..

Meningitis,

Phthisis,

Plague,

Apoplexy,

Drowning,

Fracture of Skull. Malaria, Hæmorrhage,

Peripheral Neuritis, Hepatic Abscess,. Cancer...

Cirrhosis of Liver,

Cholera,

Bronchitis,

Empyema, Unknown,

4

3

1

3

2

CONNN

2

2

1

1

1

232

1

1

1

222

1

1

39

Causes of Death in the 34 Deaths that occurred amongst the Troops (one case being Chinese does not appear amongst the Troops in the Registrar General's returns)

Enteric Fever,

Beri-beri..

Alcoholism,

....

Gun-shot Wound,

Heart Disease,...

Pneumonia,

Dysentery,

Phthisis,

Meningitis,

Opium Poisoning,

Cirrhosis of Liver,

2

1

1

2

2

3

3

3

1

1

}

1

I

Abscess of Liver,

Malarial Fevers,

Drowning,

.....

Gastritis,

Pyæmia,

Sarcoma,

Shock,

8

1

1

1

1

1

34

*

311

Causes of deaths registered as having occurred in Navy during 1903 :-

Acute Bronchitis,

Myelitis,

Apoplexy,

Pneumonia,

Intestinal Obstruction,

Fracture of Skull,

Injury to Chest,

Aneurysm,

Pernicous Anæmia,..

1

1

1

1

I

1

1

1

9

UNCERTIFIED DEATHS.

During the year, 569 deaths reported to the Registrar General's Department were referred for further particulars to this department, the reports of the deaths not being accompanied by a medical certificate.

Of these 569 deaths, 278 occurred in Victoria and 291 in Kowloon.

1

The following table shows the causes of death in these cases assigned to them either after removal to and examination at the Public Mortuary or on inspection of the body with a history of the case given by the relatives:-

Aneurysm,

Aortic Disease,

Asthma,

Beri-beri,..

Bronchitis,

Cancer.

Heart Disease,..

Childbirth,

1

1

3

29

132

2

12

2

Convulsions,

Colic,

Debility,

Diarrhoea,

Diphtheria,

Gangrene,

7

1

19

7

1

Fatty Degeneration of Heart,.

General Tuberculosis,

Hæmorrhage,

1

1

4

4

Hemiplegia,...

Malignant Endocarditis,

1

1

Marasmus,

Malaria,

Nephritis,

Old age, Peritonitis,

Phthisis,

2

21

4

62

3

87

Pericarditis,.

Placenta previa,.

1

Plague,

119

Pleurisy,

1

Pneumonia,

15

Post-partum Hæmorrhage,

Premature Birth,

2

Septicemia,.

Syncope,

•-1

Syphilis,

2

Tubercular Enteritis.

1

Tubercular Peritonitis,

1

Unknown (decomposed),

14

569

312-

INFANT MORTALITY.

The total number of deaths of infants under one year old was for the year 1903 1,069 as compared with 1,199 in 1902. The percentage of these deaths on the total deaths for the year was for 1903 17.2 as compared with 17-6 in 1902.

For the Chinese community alone the percentage of these deaths on the total Chinese deaths was 17.6 for 1903 as compared with 17.8 per cent. in 1902.

The infant death-rate amongst the Non Chinese community for 1903 was 108.7 per 1,000 as compared with 196·6 per 1,000 in 1902.

Amongst the Chinese, however the deaths under 1

year of age numbered 1,038, while the registered births amongst the Chinese numbered only 749. This figure may be corrected as has been the custom by adding to it the deaths of Chinese infants under one month under the assumption that these children have not had their births registered. Such a corrected figure would give 1,247 births.

As there have been 1,038 deaths of infants under one year this is equal to an infant death-rate of 832 per 1,000 as compared with a similarly estimated rate of 792 per 1,000 in 1902.

This exceedingly great infantile mortality-rate formed the subject of an Enquiry by a Committee appointed by His Excelleney the Governor in 1903.

As a result of the Enquiry the Committee came to the conclusion that a very large number of births remain unregistered, perhaps amounting to between one third and half the total number. That the chief cause of the non-registration is the national training or ideas of the Chinese community

or ideas of the Chinese community who in the Colony as well as in China proper register in their Ancestral Temples the births of males only and those not until they are at least one month old.

DEATHS FROM DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.

The total number of deaths during the year from respiratory diseases was 1,397.

In 1902 the number was 1,640. In 1903 the number of deaths in this group of diseases amongst the British and Foreign community was 55 as compared with 58 in 1902.

For the Chinese community the figure for 1903 is 1,342 as compared with 1,582 in 1902.

The deaths from these diseases therefore form 22.8 per cent. of the total Chinese deaths as compared with 24-6 per cent. in 1902.

The death-rate for the Chinese community from these diseases for the year is is 4:37 per 1,000 as compared with 54 in 1902.

The difference in the rate between the floating and land populations (Chinese) is not so marked this year as last. The death-rate from these diseases for 1903 amongst the floating population was 4.63 per 1,000 as compared with 67 per 1,000 in 1902.

Amongst the land population the rate for 1903 was 4:32 per 1,000 as coin- pared with 5.2 per 1,000 in 1902.

The greater number of deaths in this group of diseases was from bronchitis, pneumonia and phthisis, namely, 1,367 out of a total of 1,397. Of these deaths 1,313 were amongt the Chinese. This gives a death-rate for these three diseases amongst the Chinese of 427 per 1,000.

The number of deaths from these diseases amongt the floating (Chinese) population was 216 which gives a death-rate of 4:57 per 1,000, while the corres- ponding figure amongst the Chinese land population was 4:22 per 1,000).

From phthisis alone the death-rate for 1903 was 1.94 per 1,000 for the whole Colony as compared with 2:37 in 1902. For the Chinese community the death-rate from phthisis alone was 199 per 1,000 as compared with 2:45 per 1,000 in 1902.

Amongst the Chinese the deaths from phthisis alone were 104 per cent. of the total Chinese deaths in 1903 as compared with 11·18 per cent. in 1902.

Of the deaths from all respiratory diseases in 1903 those from phthisis alone formed 45.52 per cent. as compared with 45 44 per cent. during 1902.

¡

313

DEATHS FROM NERVOUS DISEASES.

The total number of deaths recorded in this group of diseases for the year 1903 is 590 as compared with 584 in 1902.

Amongst the British and Foreign community there were 27 deaths in this group for 1903 as against 20 in 1902.

Amongst the Chinese the figure for this year is 563 as against 564 in 1902. Of these 563 Chinese deaths 313 were of childeren under one month old or a percentage of 55 5 of the total Chinese deaths in this group. The corresponding figure for 1902 was 66.5 per cent.

The assigned causes of death in these cases were infantile convulsion, tetanus and trismus.

As in former years the Italian and French convent returns furnish the largest number of infant deaths from these diseases, the return for this year from these Institutions being 384 as compared with 442 in 1902. These Institutions take in large numbers of children left at their doors in a dying condition.

The high death-rate amongst children from these diseases has been reported on by a Committee to which I have referred under the heading Infantile Mortality. MALARIAL FEVERS.

The total number of deaths from malarial fevers during the year was 300 as compared with 425 in 1902. Amongst the Chinese alone the deaths from malarial affections was 283 as compared with 393 in 1902 and 541 in 1901. This gives a Chinese death-rate from malaria of 0.92 per 1,000 as compared with 1.3 per 1,000 in 1902. For the British and Foreign community including the Navy and Army the death-rate from malaria for 1903 was 0.91 per 1,000 as compared with 1·9 per 1,000 in 1902.

There have been 8 deaths from these causes recorded during the year amongst the troops as compared with 16 in 1902, and 9 amongst the Civil population as -compared with 16 in 1902.

It is very satisfactory to note this decline in the mortality from malaria which is doubtless due to the gradual training of the nullahs in the vicinity of the City and the better understanding by the people of the importance of preventing pools of water from collecting about their houses.

The Chinese flower gardens in the City have had special attention paid them during the year and all broken and useless pots and jars have been removed at intervals.

A great deal of work has been done in the matter of the training of nullahs in the Colony during the year.

From figures kindly supplied me by the Hon. Director of Public Works it is seen that during the year 12,270 feet of nullahs and channels have been trained. There is evidence that this training of nullahs has reduced the incidence. of malaria in the Western district of the City.

BERI-BERI.

There were 387 deaths registered from beri-beri during the year comprising 8 amongst the British and Foreign.community and 379 amongst the Chinese.

In 1902 there were 1 death in the British and Foreign and 452 in the Chinese -communities from this cause.

The following table shows how the deaths from this disease were distributed throughout the year —

January, February, March, April,

May, June, July, August. September,

....

.2 British and Foreign, 32 Chinese.

....0

.0 ...1

0

""

30

29

.

23

22

20

25

37

49

October,.

2

44

**

November...

.0

32

11

December,

.0

36

""

Total,...

379

i

311

It will be noticed that the least number of deaths from beri-beri is recorded. during the months when plague is most severe. Undoubtedly plague deaths mask many cases of beri-beri.

Various hypotheses have been put forward as to the cause of the disease, but as yet none of them have sufficient support to entitle them to be ranked as generally accepted theories.

INFECTIOUS DISEASES.

The total number of infectious diseases reported under the Infections Diseases Notification Ordinance during 1903 was 1,553.

Of these, 1,415 were cases of plague, 60 small-pox, 44 enteric fever, 9 diphtheria, 8 puerperal fever, 7 scarlet fever, and 10 cholera.

The following Table shows the distribution of these diseases except plague amongst the different races of the community and the periods of the year at which they occurred:-

Disease.

1st

2nd 3rd 4th Quarter. Quarter. Quarter. Quarter.

Total.

European,

12

7

6

33

Enteric Fever,...

Chinese,...

4

Other Asiatics,

1

European,

3

Small-pox,

Chinese...

24

26

Other Asiatics,

2

European,

Cholera......

Chinese,....

Other Asiatics,

European,

Diphtheria,

European,

Chinese,....

Scarlet Fever, ...

European,

Total.......

Puerperal Fever,

Chinese,...

Other Asiatics,

OHONOHNÓ☺☺☺c ☺

·~~-~O~HOMHOONH

0

1

1

53

5

1

7

1

7

58

50

17

13

138

PLAGUE.

I have separately reported on the 1993 Plague Epidemic for the first 7 months of the year.

This report included 1,363 cases, and details of the statistics will be

found in that report.

Since then there have been 52 further cases with 45 deaths, making a total of 1,415 cases with 1,251 deaths. The death-rate for the whole year for plague was therefore 88.4 which is the same as for the first 7 months of the year and the lowest death-rate for plague since 1894.

I append a table which shows the distribution of plague seizures and deaths according to nationality and locality and also the numbers of plague infected rats found in the different districts of the City of Victoria and Kowloon.

NATIONALITY.

1

Europeans,..

Chinese,

:

Cases.

Deaths.

Deaths. Cases.

| Deaths.

Cases.

Deaths.

Cases.

Deaths.

LO

Cases.

COLONY OF HONGKONG.

PLAGUE RETURN FOR THE YEAR 1903.

LOCALITY

CITY OF VICTORIA HEALTH DISTRICTS.

KOWLOON.

TOTAL.

Shan-

HAR-

Quarry

ki- Stanley

BOUR.

Tsim-

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Mong- Yau-

kok-

tsatsui. mati.

Tai-kok- Hung- Other

Bay.

Aber-

deen.

wan.

tsui.

tsui.

hom.

Villages.

Cases.

-

Deaths.

-

Cases.

Deaths.

Cases.

Deaths.

Cases.

Deaths.

Cases.

Deaths.

Cases.

Deaths.

Cases.

Deaths.

Cases.

:

:

Deaths.

Cases.

:

Deaths.

Cases.

:

Deaths.

:.

:

Cases.

1

CO

1

:

:

~

:

1

2

5 110 1

:.

:

8 113 106 21 20 17 17 46 44 18 13

76 69 207 195| 28 | 27 |119|101| 89 | 86 | 85 83 71 69 68 65190184 46 | 42 | 46 | 4214 8113106 21 20 17 17 46 44 18 13

حت

:

4

3

2 1 17

7334

:

1 1 3

:

2

:

1

1

7

715 14

:.

:

Cases.

Deaths.

35

3

འཌ

1| 15 | 13 | 1,294 1,206

Indians,

Asiatic Portuguese,

Malays,

Japanese,..

Others,......

Totals,

:

:

:

O

~

2

2

:

~

ลง

10

:

:

:

:

1 1 2

2 2

1 21

:

:

2

2

4 1

1 1

:

...

:

:

...

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

...

:

:

:

:

:

:

...

:

...

...

12

1

1

:

:

:

1 1

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

2

:

:

:

17 46 41 19 14 8 8 15 14 5 1 16

81 69 224 205 31 28 149112 96 92 92 89 73 70 70 65 191 184 52 4472 44 21 10 116 108 21 20 17 17 46 44 19 14

1

Infected Rais,

162

287

72 344 365 459 392 558 268

118

""

Total cases from Jannary 1st, 1903, Total deaths

""

:

153

273

56

2

233

:

Europeans.

35

Chinese.

1,294

Other Asiatics.

Total.

86

1,415

4

1,206

41

1,231

15

21

22

9

1

14

9

4

1

116 13 1,415 1,251

:

3,742

315

316

TYPHOID FEVER.

The number of cases of typhoid fever reported during the year was 44 as compared with 55 in 1902. The distribution of these cases according to nationa- lity is shown in the above table of Infectious Diseases.

Sixteen European cases were imported, one Indian case and one Japanese case.

The nationalities of the cases given under the heading "Other Nationalities in the above-mentioned table were:-Chinese 6, Portuguese 2, Japanese 2, Indian 1.

Of the 33 European cases 7 died, giving a mortality of 212 per cent.

Of the 6 Chinese cases all died.

The others recovered.

Of the 26 non-imported cases 17 occurred during the first four months of the year and 9 only afterwards.

This is important when it is remembered that the City is invariably on a short water supply in the early part of the year before the advent of the rainy season warrants the turning on of a constant supply. During the shortage of water much is obtained from questionable sources.

There are so many possible ways by which the infective material may reach the person that it is extremely difficult if not impossible to say in most cases how they originated.

Possible and even probable sources of infection are manifest, e.g., one case occurred in a house having its own private water supply. The water was liable to contamination as it passed through a vegetable garden top dressed in the usual Chinese manner.

There was no evidence during the year to show that the public water supply was contaminated even peripherally but at the same time it is an undoubted fact that the intermittent supply in the dry season coupled with the system of ball valve hydrants is a latent danger.

SMALL-POX.

There were recorded during the year 60 cases of small-pox with 31 deaths. The cases comprised 53 Chinese, 4 Europeans, 1 American, 1 Indian, and 1 African.

The deaths were all amongst Chinese. Of these cases 19 were known to be imported leaving 41 local cases. The 4 European and 1 American cases were imported as also the Indian and African cases. Twelve Chinese cases were also imported. Of the local Chinese cases 23 were found in the streets, hillsides and foreshore. Consequently measures for disinfection and vaccination of contacts could not be undertaken. The number of vaccinations recorded is unfortunately less than in last year and in 1901, which showed totals of 6,475 and 5,937 vaccinations respectively. The following table shows the number of recorded vaccinations for 1903:-

VACCINATIONS IN 1903.

At the Government Civil Hospital,

>>

Victoria Gaol, Alice Memorial Hospital,

453 2,887

321

1902.

By the Tung Wah Hospital:-

In Victoria,

""

Aberdeen, Stanley,

....

""

Shaukiwan,

""

Kowloon,

.1,591

24

15

29

28

Total,............5,348

CHOLERA.

Fortunately there was no retura during the year of the Cholera Epidemic of

317

Some few cases however did occur during the year, namely, 10.

These comprised 3 Europeans, 6 Chinese and 1 Japanese. There were 6 deaths-a mortality rate of 60 per cent.-2 amongst Europeans, 1 Japanese and 3 Chinese.

No case occurred in the Colony (as far as is known) between 12th December, 1902, and 30th April, 1903. During this period of the year the difficulty of obtaining water is greater amongst the Chinese, water being frequently collected from various questionable sources.

The 10 cases occurred from 30th April to 31st October inclusive.

The following table shows the distribution of the cases :--

:

:

1

cases.

Nationality.

.European,

Date.

April 30th,

May 2nd,.. June 10th,

June 15th,

June 16th, July 11th, July 18th,

.Chinese,

European, ..Chinese,

August 28th,.

September 25th,

October 31st,

"}

..European, ......Chinese,

...Japauese,

Health District.

6

2

8

9

9

2

6

Harbour.

5 Harbour.

This table shows that little connection if any can be established between the

The only two cases close together both from the point of view of time and locality are the two in No. 9 Health District. It was however not possible to as- sign a common origin to the cases nor to decide whence the infection was acquired.

DIPHTHERIA.

Nine cases of diphtheria were reported during the year as compared with 20 cases in 1902 comprising 5 Europeans and 4 Chinese. The deaths-4-occur- red amongst the Chinese. One European case was imported.

All the cases occurred in the first half of the year. Of the 8 local cases the first 5 occurred from January 26th to March 19th inclusive, i.e., during the season of dry weather and scarcity of water.

The remaining 3 cases occurred from April 28th to June 3rd inclusive.

This is interesting, but the life history of the diphtheria bacillus outside the human body is so obscure that it is premature to state any definite opinion as to the reason why more cases occur in the dry weather than in the wet.

PUERPERAL FEVER.

There were 8 cases of puerperal fever reported during the year, comprising 1 Portuguese and 7 Chinese cases. The Portuguese case and 6 of the Chinese

cases died.

In addition to these, 21 deaths were recorded from affections connected with pregnancy and parturition.

There is no doubt that great ignorance prevails amongst the Chinese as to the proper care of women during and after labour. This matter has been repeatedly drawn attention to by the Medial Officer of Health and was also considered by the Committee of Enquiry into the Chinese Infant Mortality, to which I have referred

above.

During 1903 there has been built a new charitable hospital, namely, the Alice Memorial Maternity Hospital, and a qualified English Lady doctor has arrived from England to take charge of it. That the Institution will do much good is certain and it is further to be hope that some means may be found of training Chinese midwives who could attend, at their own houses, Chinese women who cannot or will not come to a hospital.

318

SCARLET FEVER.

There were 7 cases of this disease reported by the Military authorities comprising 5 children and 2 adults, all European. No deaths occurred. The fact that this disease confined itself to the military element suggests the probability of the infection having been imported by the families of soldiers lately arrived in the Colony.

INTERMENTS.

The following is a list of burials during the year 1903 in the Cemeteries of the Colony:

Non-Chinese-Colonial Cemetery,

Roman Catholic Cemetery,

134 1,027

Mahommedan

Jewish

Parsee

50

4

4

Total,.......

1,219

Chinese-Mount Caroline Cemetery,

173

Mount Davis

314

31

Tung Wah Hospital

1,707

Infectious Diseases

91

Protestant

Shaukiwan

Aberdeen

Stanley Shek-O

Kennedy Town................. Cheung Sha Wan ...

3

1,179

54

259

113

34

་་

Ma-tau Wai

362

*

Total.......

4.206

Grand Total,....

5,425

There have been also 16 cremations during the

year.

THE DISINFECTING STATION.

A new and more efficient steam disinfector was erected at the Disinfecting Station in the early part of 1903.

The old machine will be erected at the new Disinfecting Station about to be erected at Kowloon. It is to be hoped that the new Station will be erected as soon as possible as it is urgently needed.

The following is a list of the number of articles passed though the Steam Disinfector during 1903.

Articles from private houses in Victoria,

82,516

11

19

""

99

21

Kowloon,

7,415

""

Kennedy Town Hospital,

Tung Wah Hospital,

3,585

100

"

""

Government Civil Hospital,.

1,879

"

"}

Station Hospital and Barracks,

1,126

Victoria Gaol,

1,147

""

Government clothing used by contacts and disinfected afterwards, 16,000 Clothing and bedding of Disinfecting Staff, .

16.112

Total,..

129,880

The apparatus was in use on 310 days during the year and for 16 hours

daily during the prevalence of the plague epidemic.

the

319

PROSECUTIONS.

The following is a list of prosecutions instituted under the authority of the Sanitary Board during year 1903:

Offence.

Summonses.

Convic- tions.

Penalties.

Remarks.

Attempting to bribe officers,

1

1

$

25

Breaches of Bye-laws:-

Bakehouses,

35

35

359

Cattle & Swine,

15

Dairies,

40

Latrines & Privies,...

23

23

239

Matsheds,

18

18

395

Offensive Trades,

5

50

Public Laundries,

14

13

63

1 Dismissed.

Verandahs,

8

17

Damaging grave,

1

Dirty premises,

260

258

996

Failing to cleanse and limewash,

450

433

2,299

3 Weeks hard labour.

1 Absconded, 1 withdrawn.

8 Dismissed, 9 withdrawn.

>>

to fill rat

up

runs,.

64

63

260

1 Withdrawn.

to provide backyards,

32

30

447

2 Withdrawn.

22

to repair kitchens,

8

8

80

*

to repair or concrete surfaces,..

78

64

292

6 Dismissed, 8 withdrawn.

Illegal cubicles,

62

62

364

""

cockloft,

37

36

185

1 Withdrawn.

Insufficient window area,

1

1

Nuisances on Crown Land,

1

1

5

99

">

private premises,

17

17

89

public streets,

2

2

7

""

Sleeping on cocklofts,

Obstructing backyards,..

windows,

Occupation of basement,

Overcrowding Common Lodging Houses,

Opium Divans,

Tenement houses,

Removing infected articles,

in common kitchens,

5

37

4

3

18

1 Dismissed.

22

20

87

1 Absconded, 1 withdrawn.

""

infected premises,.

3

1

23

18

186

2 Absconded, 3 withdrawn.

1

5

59

49

316

7 Absconded, 3 withdrawn.

1

1

60

2

2

15

1

1

10

Unregistered Common Lodging Houses,

11

11

65

Total,............ 1,258

1,202

$ 7,032

1

STAFF.

At the beginning of the year the special Plague Staff was sanctioned and at once formed. Inspectors L. E. BRETT, F. FISHER, W. H. WOOLLEY, J. REIDIE and F. ALLEN were appointed special Plague Inspectors under this scheme and Inspector W. FINCHER was appointed Acting Plague Inspector in charge of the work at Kowloon.

As the work increased with the increasing number of cases of plague per week the staff was augmented by temporarily engaged men.

The best of these temporarily engaged men were as vacancies occurred in the ordinary staff transferred to this staff.

Some of the temporary Plague Inspectors were so unsatisfactory that it was thought better not to engage such men in the future but to increase the number of Foremen continuously on the Plague Staff so that they could be better trained by and be under the control of the Plague Inspectors.

Dr. CLARK, Medical Officer of Health, went on leave to England in March and Dr. BARNETT, Assistant Medical Officer of Health, arrived from England in April. Dr. MACFACLANE, Assistant Medical Officer of Health, arrived from England in September and has been appointed Assistant Medical Officer of Health at Kowloon.

:

320

Inspector ALLEN went on leave in August, and Inspector FISHER returned from leave in March. Inspector MACMICHAEL died. Inspector MACEWEN was transferred from the Colonial Veterinary Surgeon's Department, where he was Inspector of Markets, to be Inspector of Nuisances, and Inspector C. W. BRETT took Inspector MACEWEN's former post.

The following Inspectors joined the service in 1903 :-

S. M. GIDLEY,

S. KELLY,

F. BROWN,

F. JONES,

F. AMY.

THOMAS WHITE,

Formerly temporary Inspectors

on the Plague Staff.

M. W. CLEVELAND, Since left the Service.

A. D. J. MCCARTHY,

The following is a list of the Staff of Inspectors in the service of the Board at the close of 1903-

Senior Inspectors.

M. GRICE.

A. CARTER.

J. A. LYON.

P. T. LAMBLE.

T. P. CONOLLY.

Plague (1st Class) Inspectors.

L. E. BRETT.

F. FISHER.

W. H. WOLLEY.

J. REIDIE.

F. ALLEN.

W. FINCHER (2nd Class), Acting.

First Class Inspector in Charge of the Disinfecting Station.

H. J. W. GIDLEY.

Temporary Assistant Inspector at the Disinfecting Station.

R. C. WITCHELL.

District Inspectors.

H. J. KNIGHT.

G. HOGGARTH (Prosecuting Inspector.)

E. ROGERS.

R. G. MCEWEN.

S. M. GIDLEY.

MCKENZIE (Prosecuting Inspector.)

A. BROWN.

P. O'DONNELL.

D. O'KEEFFE.

C. H. J. Ross.

J. R. LEE.

S. KELLY.

J. BROWN.

F. O. AMY.

F. JONES.

}

}

:

:

:

j

5

321

THE YAU-MA-TI PUBLIC MORTUARY.

This Mortuary was built in 1902, but was not used until this year, when on May 22nd there was begun here the post-mortem examination of bodies from this side of the harbour.

The work was at first carried on by Dr. KEYT of the Medical Department and latterly by Dr. MACFARLANE, Assistant Medical Officer of Health at Kowloon.

Appended is the report from Dr. MACFARLANE on the number of post- mortems performed in the Mortuary during the year.

I have, &c.,

Appendix I.

WILFRID WM. PEARSE,

Acting Medical Officer of Health.

SANITARY BOARD BRANCH OFFICE, KOWLOON, April 8th, 1904.

Sir, I have the honour to submit for your information the Report of the Public Mortuary, Kowloon, for the period from May 22nd (the date of its commencement) to December 31st, 1903.

During that period, 300 bodies have been examined-by Dr. KEYT from May 22nd to October 7th, and by myself for the remainder of the time.

The causes of death were returned as below.

ī

The Secretary, SANITARY BOARD.

*

I have, &c.,

HAROLD MACFARLANE,

Medical Officer in charge of Mortuary, Kowloon.

Name of Disease.

(i.) Notifiable Diseases

Plague Septic,

Small-pox,

Bubonic,

Pneumonic,

Enteric Fever, ...........

Diphtheria,

BOTH SEXES.

107.

Total Cases.

Under 1 year.

1-5

years.

5-15 years.

15-25 years.

25-65 years..

102

2

N

ہے

16

13

22

CASES DIVIDED ACCORDING TO SEX.

MALE.

FEMALE.

1-5

Under

1 year. years. years. years.

5-15 | 15-25

25-65. Total.

Under 1-5 5-15 15-25 1 year. years. years. years.

65 and

25-65.

Total.

upwards.

47

9

15

30

61

I

7

7

1.7

:

2

1

2

1

...

Puerperal septicemia,

(ii.) Respiratory Diseases = 49.

Empyema,

1

1

:

1

Pleurisy,

Bronchitis,

Broncho-pneumonia,

Lobar pneumonia,

Septic pneumonia,

3

1

1

1

11

6

:76

1

11

2.

...

1 unknown age.

Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Congestion of Lungs,. Pulmonary Hemorrhage, Miliary Tuberculosis,

12

1

4

7

1

1

...

2

1

(iii.) Urinary System

4

Acute Nephritis,

1

Sub-acute Nephritis,

Chronic Nephritis,

2

112

NHH

1

2

1

1

1

1

2

2

1

1

...

...

...

1

1

1

4

...

1

2

2

::

9

7

2

(ir.) Circulatory System =14.

Heart, Valvular Disease of,

""

Fatty Degeneration of,

30 00

00:00

3

...

72

2

Pericarditis,

1

1

Endocarditis,

1

...

Aortic Aneurysm,

...

...

1

1

1.

1

1

1

...

...

Carried forward,

174

9

36

18

31

78

6

21

6

20

55

108

:

41

1

1

1

1

...

1

...

2

1

1

1

unknown

age.

...

-K

...

...

***

14

12

:::

11

1

1

...

1

1

1

...

22

:

1

1

1

1

...

2

66

322

Name of Disease.

BOTH SEXES.

&

Total

Cases.

Under 1 year.

1-5 years.

5-15 years.

15-25 years.

25-65 years.

Brought forward,

174

9

36

18

(v.) Alimentary System

24.

Diarrhoea,

4

Enteritis,..

10

4

5

Peritonitis,

7

2

41

Cirrhosis of Liver,

1

Abscess of Liver,

1

Gastritis,

1

1

(vi.) Reproductive System

-

5.

Abortion-Hoemorrhage following,. Post Partum Hæmorrhage,

Placenta Prævia,

Syncope following Childbirth,

(vii.) Various Causes

Drowing,

97.

1

CASES DIVIDED ACCORDING TO SEX.

MALE.

FEMALE.

Under

1-5 5-15 15-25 25-65

Total.

1 year. years. years. years. years.

Under 1-5 5-15 15-25 25-65 56 and 1 year. years. years. years. years. upwards.

Total.

CO

21

6 20 55

108

4

14

12

11

22

66

31 78

6

...

1

1

1

2

1

...

1

1

1

1

Concussion of Brain,

NN

1

Starvation,

1

Gangrene of Leg,

1

...

Gangrene of Foot,

1

...

7

Shock,

Stillborn,

5

Cancer,

1

...

Malaria,

10

2

2

Beriberi,

Too decomposed,

63

13

26

26

Dropsy,

1

1

...

: ܗ:

4

4 unknown cases

1

1

1

...

37 3

...

...

...

1

1

:

:

-:

3~~

...

:.

21

1

...

1

1

1

1

1

...

1310-

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

...

...

...

...

1

1

1

...

...

1

1

...

2

1

...

...

1

...

...

1

1

1

+

3

3

2

1

...

...

...

2

1

3

2

2

1

9

...

1

4

1

4

5

8

2

14

10

...

(decom-posed.)

:9::

13

3

1

11

38

...

::

...

...

...

13

1

...

1

ia:

...

1

1

...

---

...

1

1

3

...

1

1

...

2

1

1

25

1

...

Total,.

300

40

76

32

39

111

24

4.4

13

24.

76

181

13

31

20

17

31

2

115

323

324

J

RETURN SHEWING THE NUMBER AND CAUSES OF DEATHS REGISTERED

CHINESE COMMUNITY.

CAUSES.

1.-General Diseases.

A-Specific Febrile Diseases.

BRITISH

AND

FOREIGN

COMMUNITY.

Civil.

Army.

Navy.

No. 1.

No. 2.

No. 3.

VICTORIA.

HEALTH DISTRICT.

No. 4.

No. 5.

No. 6.

No. 7.

No. 8.

No. 9.

No. 10.

Unknown.

Peak.

Harbour.

!

a Zymotic.

Small-pox,

3

2

Measles,

Whooping Cough,

Diphtheria,

2 1 2

1

2

3

6

1-

Fever Typho-malarial,

Typhoid, (Enteric),.

5

2

1

Simple Continued,

Cholera,

3

1

Choleraic Diarrhoea,

1

Diarrhoea,

3

7

20

22

14 6

Dysentery,

13

3

3

6

1 2

Bubonic Fever, (Plague),

43

52 162

16 110 64

800

9 12

6

17

5

10

2

1

7 1

3

52

80

98 129 196

10

24

Influenza,

1

Total,...... 68

10

5

63 193 41 134 73 66

93 118 159 209 16

1

38

B Malarial.

Fever Intermittent,

1

1

1 1 3

Remittent,.

">

(Undefined,

1

29 Malarial,

Beri-beri,

Malarial Cachexia,

Ague,

7

1

2

Co

6

::

:: 0 ::

...

...

9 30 12 25

16

15 6 10

34

14

31

18 1

...

Total,...... 16

9

34 66

26 47 35 35 32

::28:3

15 19 8

3

1 6

29 21 39 24 14 13 3 39

1

...

55

46 22 16 4 46

y Septic.

Pyæmia,

Septicemia,

12

Erysipelas,

Puerperal Fever,

1

1

2

2

1

3

1

Puerperal Eclampsia,

1

Total,...... 4

1

:

2

: : :

CO

1

2

No co

1

...

3 3 1

-

1

...

:

3

1

10

5

:

1

2

5

4 1 2

8 Venereal.

Syphilis (Acquired),

(Congenital),.

1

Total,..... 2

Total Group, A................. 90

15

:

:

:

B.-Diseases dependent on Specific

External Agents.

a Poisons.

Alcoholic Poisoning,

Poisoning,..

Opium Poisoning,

Poisoning by Carbolic Acid,

1

1

...

Total,...... 1

2

Carried forward, Group A.,...... 90

15

Group B........

1

N

2

6

8

* CO

4

3

3

1

1

14 7

99 276

4 1

+:

3 4 1

::

:|

75 186 109 102 130 182 210 232 34

1 1

:

:.

:

1

1

:

1

***

:

:

1

99 276 75 186 109 102 130 182 210 232

2:

888-

1

1

1

:

34

1

::

:

LO

5

85

IN

...

2

2

: cr

5 85

2

GRAND

TOTAL.

| Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

60 years

and over.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Age

Unknown.

325

DURING THE YEAR ENDED THE 31ST DAY OF DECEMBER, 1903.

CHINESE COMMUNITY.

TOTAL AT The DifferenT AGE PERIODS.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

montbs.

under ō

years.

1 year and

years and under 15

years.

15 years and under 25

years.

25 years and under 45

years.

45 years and under 60

years.

under 12

Non-Chinese. 1 month and.

Non-Chinese.

Under 1

Chinese.

month.

Kow- SHAUKI ABER-

STANLEY

LOON DIS-

WÁN DIS-

DEEN

DIS-

DIS-

TRICT.

TRICT.

TRICT.

TRICT.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

10

: 10:

:

• 10

N

22:42

· 00

4

5 1 164

ཙ:

20

-

N

N

a

1

144

13

3

6

10

24

54

N

21 26

2 95

:

8116 2198 11252 15441

19 2 52 3174 3223 19266 29516 13160

10

1

4

1

I 39 9 25

1

23 123

O

207

3 18

63

3 49

19

1,249

...

1

1

...

4 76...

25

1,584

:

:

2

29

10

2

6

9 1 10...

4...

65 4 29

10

4 82 3223

152...

8

2

...

...

10

30

6

1

10 1

3

...

2 8

1

1 39 1 60

+

...

2

...

9124 7310

5 99

:

:~

:

:

4

207

26 38 15 18 2

28:

:..

::

116 6 38

11

17

:

10

3

7

:

...

3

331

32

:

N

:

...

:

331

:

6

22:3

4

...

:

1~

:

19

10

...

10

CIT

N∞

...

...

...

:

Co

11

43

32

204

387

687

19...

N

1

:

•••

...

...

CO

2 3 J 14 1

N

6

...

6

2

:

::

- 3 ∞

40

22

01

9

...

...

...

35

4288 30395 37849 20 266

5 97

2,346

...

1 16...

19 5 77

4221

...

9 4

:

:

:

...

:

...

2

:

...

:

:

...

...

1...

2

-

21...

4288 30395 37849 20266|

N

20:0

1...

་་་

5 77 4221

2223

:

6:

10

15:

:::

12 10 pound

9

20

29

2,346

9

326

RETURN SHEWING THE NUMBER AND CAUSES OF DEATHS REGISTERED

CHINESE COMMUNITY.

CAUSES.

BRITISH

- AND

FOREIGN

COMMUNITY.

Civil.

Army.

VICTORIA.

HEALTH DISTRICT.

Navy.

No. 1.

No. 2.

No. 3.

No. 4.

No. 5.

Nc. 6.

No. 7.

No. 8.

No. 9.

No. 10.

Unknown.

Peak.

Harbour.

Brought forward, Group A..... 90

15

13

Group B.,...

I

ཟལ

2

General Diseases,—Continued.

B.-Effects of Injuries.

Concussion of Brain,

Rupture of Uterus,

""

of Femoral Artery,

49

of Spleen.

Sun Stroke,

Rupture of Kidny,

of Mesenteric Vessels,

"

"

of Lung,

of Liver,

1

99 276

75 186 109 102 130 182 210 232 34 5 85

1 1

ལྔ:

མྨེ་

1

Obstruction of Bowel,

Shooting,

Hanging,

Wound of Heart, Multiple Injuries,

Retro Peritoneal Hemorrhage,

Abdominal Injuries,

Scalds,

1

1

Dislocation of Neck,

Strangulated Hernia,

Strangulation,

Strangulation of Bowel,

Injuries,

Injury to Chest,

1

Haemorrhage,

3

Puncture Wound of Lungs,

Fracture of Skull,

6

1

of Leg,

1

"

of Pelvis,

Suffocation,

Stab of Heart,

Cut-throat,

Suicide by Hanging,

""

by Shooting,

Burns,

Compression of Spinal Cord,

Injury to Spinal Cord,

Drowning,

Shock, following Injury,

Shock,

Starvation,

Heat Apoplexy,

1

2

:

2

3

1

:

1

2

1

5

4

1

2

:

1

1

1

1

...

1

1

1

8

1

I

1

1

1

1

:.

10

5

8 8 16

11 4 3

15

1

1 2

2

Total,.......

20

4 3

1

:

4 13 1 14

γ Errors of Diet.

(Acute),

Alcoholism (Chronic),..

Malnutrition,

Rupture of Stomach from Overfeeding,...

4

1

Total,....

10

5

:

Total Group B......

26 6 3

C.-Developmental Diseases.

Imperforate Anus,

Carried forward, (Developmental Diseases),

Carried forward, Groups A., B.

:

:

1

:

3 2

14 1 18

со

:

1

:

:

:

:

8 9 16 11

:

:

:

:

10

116 21 3 103 290

76 204 117 110 139 198 221 237

3

:

:

:.

17

:

15

37 5 102

2

27

:

:

...

:

:

8

:

358

32

85

26

...

:

4

27

8

...

:

...

:

...

:

: :

...

:

:

تت

9

4

...

:

...

:

...

...

:

:

:

:

·

...

·

+

...

ان

:

...

22

5 81

4230)

4

:

:

2

[6

~

21

...

8

1

...

1 ľ

T

:

T

رین

:

COI

:

...

Kow-

LOON

WÁN SHÁCKI-

ABER-

STANLEY

DEEN

DIS-

Dis-

DIS-

DIS-

TRICT.

TRICT.

TRICT.

TRICT.

-327

DURING THE YEAR ENDED THE 31sT DAY OF DECEMBER, 1903,—Continued.

CHINESE COMMUNITY.

TOTAL AT THE DIFFERENT AGE PERIODS.

7

331

00

バン

26

:

:

26

9

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

+

:

under 12

Non-Chinese.

Under 1

Chinese.

month.

Non-Chinese. 1 month and

4

19 5

4221

:

:

:

cc

S

31

3

3 22 19 70)

1 16

4 24 23 73

2 17

21

:

CH

...

: :

...

:

:

:

1

...

1

--

...

...

...

6296 34419 60922 22 283

7102

2 35

2,530

по

2

6

184

11

3 15

19

164

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

months.

1 year and

under 5

years.

5 years and under 15

years.

15 years and

under 25

years.

25 years and under 45

years.

45 years and under 60

years.

:

4288 30395 37849, 20266]

I

1

20 21

ལ:

N

N

:

+

H

C

co or == 00 10 00

FRN TO COM

- 2 2 00 - 1

6

3

:

60 years

and over.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Age

Unknown

5 97

29

2,346 9

GRAND

TOTAL.

328

RETURN SHEWING THE NUMBER AND CAUSES OF DEATHS REGISTERED

CHINESE COMMUNITY.

CAUSES.

BRITISH

AND

FOREIGN COMMUNITY.

....116

$ | Civil.

Brought forward, (Groups A & B),

General Diseases,-Continued.

C-Developmental Diseases,-Contd.

Tabes Mesenterica,

Atelectasis,

Brought forward,..

Immaturity at Birth,

Debility,

Old Age,

Marasmus and Atrophy,

Anencephalus,

Inanition,

VICTORIA.

HEALTH DISTRICT.

Army.

Navy.

No. 1.

No. 2.

No. 3.

No. 4.

No. 5.

No. 6.

No. 7.

No. 8.

No. 9.

No. 10.

Unknown.

Peak.

Harbour.

21

3 103 290

76 204 117 110 139 198 221 1237

37 5 102

6

30 2

1

1

5

4

5

1

200 86

6 5

18

15

13

1

9

::

1

1

3

:

:

11 222

90

80

12

8

12

23

21

7 1

Total Group C., 11

:

14

2

+

t-

D.-Miscellaneous Diseases.

Rheumatic Fever,

:

Articular Rheumatism,

:-

Sarcoma of Orbit,

Sarcoma,

1

Scrofula,

1

General Tuberculosis,

9

2 108

24

10

3

4

5

5

Rickets,

1

Anemia,

1

1

Leprosy,

Rheumatism,

1

Hæmophilia,...

Cancer of Oesophagus,

Cancer of Uterus,

Cancer,

1

Total Group D., 12

3 109

28

14 5

4

7 14

II.-Local Diseases.

E-The Nervous System,

Meningitis,

1

41

9

1

૧૭

Tubercular Meningitis,

Abscess of Brain,

Apoplexy,

Paralysis (Undefined),

Paralysis (Spinal),

5

1

4

1

2

3

Hemiplegia,

Paraplegia,

Infantile Convulsious,.

Tetanus (Traumatic),

Trismus,

(Idiopathic),

Internal Dydrocephalus,

Epilepsy,

Mania,

Acute Peripheral Neuritis,

Eucephalitis,

Myeloplegia,

I

Total Group E.,.... 25

F―The Circulatory System.

14

:

1 88 9

3

2

1234 9

23

O

1

1

:

405

54

13 4 4 5 19 11

5

4 12 2 12 7

7

@

Aneurysm,

Carried forward, (The Circulatory System),

Carried forward, (Groups A to E),

14 2

:

:

4

12 2

12

7

9

13 8

12 6

1-

10

164 23 5 118 1.026248 311 138 126 163 254 263 249 38 6 123

Heart Disease,

13

12

24

2

24

10

2

2

479

67 130

3

21:

:

3 5

心心

181

:

:

N.

1

2

14

2

.

نت

·

·

:

:

N

-

N

:

94

:

:

CC

~ --

1274

:

00

co:

3813

6 73114 3 14

4

ما

4

3

3

N

6

::

30 *H

CC

1

12 3 11 459 12381

8568 11 355 39444 70973 27 318

...

744

*

OC

d

12.

:

:

Kow- SHAUKI- ABER-

LOON DIS-

WÁN Dis-

DEEN

STANLEY DIS-

DIS-

TRICT.

TRICT.

TRICT.

TRICT.

329

DURING THE YEAR ENDED THE 31ST DAY OF DECEMBER, 1903,-Continued.

CHINESE COMMUNITY.

TOTAL AT THE DIFFERENT AGE Periods.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Non-Chinese.

358

32

85

26

37

21

18 8

CC

:

00:

8

تزم

9

4

T

:

Chinese.

Under 1

month.

Non-Chinese.

1 month and

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

| Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

under 12

months.

1 year and under 5

years.

under 15

5 years and

years.

22

5 81

4230

95

1106

3

00

11

8120... 210 ... 113

6

:

1 11

1110

1 191 1111 134 4 12

517

2

1 20

5 21 314 3

2 45

3 27

......

8 47

2 45 3 27

12359

.

10

17

I

N

4696

19

151

590

147

N

1

...

...

N

I

::

3 11

6

6

145

288

1

30

I

2

[

: :

:

+

00

:

13

H

:

,- ༦=༤༦w

230

...

Non-Chinese.

15 years and under 25

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

! Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

years.

25 years and under 45

years.

45 years and

under CO

years.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

and over. 60 years

Non-Chinese.

心!

Chinese.

Age

Unknown.

6296 34419 60922 22283]

71021

2 35 2,530

121 2242

1

1

204

1

5

1

Լ.

I

1

1217

2

ск

43

218

427

1

30

10

746

L

GRAND

TOTAL.

330

RETURN SHEWING THE NUMBER AND CAUSES OF DEATHS REGISTERED

CHINESE COMMUNITY.

CAUSES.

Brought forward. (Groups A to E),

Local Diseases.—Continued.

BRITISH

AND

FOREIGN COMMUNITY.

VICTORIA.

HEALTH DISTRICT.

Civi!.

Army.

Navy.

No. 1.

No. 2.

No. 3.

No. 4.

No. 5.

No. 6.

No. 7.

No. 8.

No. 9.

No. 10.

Unknown.

Penk.

Harbour.

164

28 5118 1,026 248 311 138 126 163 254 263 249 38 6 123

F.—The Circulatory System,—Contd.

Brought forward,. 14

4 12 12 12

Pericarditis,

Endocarditis,

2

Aortic Disease,

2:

9

13

12

11

10

1

1

Fatty Degeneration of Heart,

1

Heart Failure,

Anemia, Syncope,

Syncope,

1

Total Group F........ 16 2

8 15

4 15 7

10

30

15

13

9| 11 || ...

12

G.-The Respiratory System.

Bronchitis,

Pneumonia,

**

B

13

Phthisis,

21

20. 46 16

Pleurisy,

3

426:

10 67 9 18 15

11

16

25

6

7 52 12 28 22 17

12

15

29

16

42

33 21

35

56 61

18 25

63

908:

16

6

Empyema,

1

Asthma, Afelectasis,

Atelectasis,

Asthma,

Collapse of Lungs,

Congestion of Lungs,

Emphysema,

:

Acute Bullous Emphysema,

Gangrene of Lung,

Total Group G,....

48. 5

2

37 169

37

93 70 46 60

88 116 10

32

85

Noma,

H.--The Digestive System.

Gastritis,

Enteritis,

Appendicitis,

Peritonitis,

Sprue,

Hernia,

Intestinal Obstruction,

Hepatitis,

Cirrhosis of Liver,

Abscess of Liver,

Jaundice,

2

Necrosis and Jaw Abscess,

1

Intussusception,

Icterus Neonatorum,

Carcinoma Ventriculi,

Tubercular Diarrhea,

1

1

Strangulation of Intestine,

Carcinoma of Gall Bladder, Strangulated Hernia,

Catarrhal Jaundice,...............

Coecal Abscess,

:

i

1

1

1

1

*..

I

Tubercular Enteritis,

1

Cancer of Liver,

Tonsillitis.

Hepatic Abscess,.

Abscess of Stomach,

5

1

:

Total Group H.................... 22

3 1 2 9

00

8

+

2

2

8

21

Carried forward, (Groups A to H),...... 250

33 9 165 1,219|297 423 217 |182 233 365 394 298

82

6 221

!

:.

x:

3

N

:

27

5 4

754 149 206

92

53

333

2

-

75

1

: N

331

DURING THE YEAR ENDED THE 31ST DAY OF DECEMBER, 1903,—Continued.

CHINESE COMMUNITY.

TOTAL AT THE DIFFERENT AGE PEriods.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Kow-

NOOT

SHÁUKI- ABER-

WÁN

STANLEY

DEEN

DIS-

Dis-

Dis-

TRICT.

TRICT.

DIS-

TRICT.

TRICT.

Under 1

month.

1 month and

under 12

months.

1 year and under 5

years.

under 15

years.

5 years and

15 yearsand under 25

years.

25 years and under 45

years.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese..

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

and over. 60 years

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Age

45 years and

under 60

years.

Unknown.

479 67

130 55

24

1

2

1

...

28 2

2

4

...

:

:

:

10

18

1

1 X

24

11

I

...

Οι

:

...

J

...

:

13

7

:

62

33

12

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀

23

:

:

::

ракописов

3 118

...

...

N

:

...

...

N

14

1

2 N

GRAND

TOTAL.

11 459 12381 $568 11355 39444 70973 27318 12359

2 27

4,096

...

...

:

...

2

S

1449 43 2110

31

00.00

:

847 2 45

3 27

151

51

2 11

8 53 3 50

3

་་་

le

:

178

1 20

00 10

10

19 9

1 96

3126

436

32

10

3 121 9 67

4 41

2 14

297

8306

3144 377

634

...

11

...

...

:

+

4110 3162

1 65 12 95 18414||

7258

8212

8

1,397

-

10

...

...

...

...

...

3

3!

N

2

K

N

yard

1

preval

ات

113

I

5

5 10 21

19

9

13 479 18 508 12747 13430|| 57 555 106 1,461 43635 25610 556

N

102

5,773

:

1

24

LINNTINN -

→ -∞ 10 00 00

332

RETURN SHEWING THE NUMBER AND CAUSES OF DEATHS REGISTERED

BRITISH

AND

FOREIGN COMMUNITY.

CHINESE COMMUNITY.

VICTORIA.

CAUSES.

Civil.

Army.

Navy.

Brought forward. (Groups A to H.)...250

Local Diseases,-Continued.

333333

No. 2.

No. 3.

No. 4.

HEALTH DISTRICT.

No. 5.

No. 6.

No. 7.

No. 8.

No. 9.

No. 10.

Unknown.

Peak.

Harbour.

9 165 1,219 297 423 217 182 233 365 394 298 82 6 221

No. 1.

3

4

4

1

1

1

1

J.--The Urinary System.

Nephritis (Acute),

1

فر

1

Bright's Disease,

9

Tumour of Kidney,

1

Stricture of Urethra,

Calculus,

Vesical Calculus,.......

Total Group J., ................ 11

1

L.-Affections connected with Pregnancy.

Placenta Prævia,

Total Group L.,

...

M.-Affections connected with

Parturition.

:

:.

:

1

1

1

3

2

::

3

1

HA

4

4

6

3

2

1

5

3

3

:

Obstructive Labour,

1

Post Partum Hemorrhage,.

...

Milk Fever,

Child-birth,

Total Group M.,................ 1

N-The Skin.

Pemphigus,

Phlegmon,

Ulcer,

Total Group N........

0.—Diseases of Organs of Locomotion.

Gangrene of Leg,

Total Group O.,

...

:

...

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

:

:

:

1

1

:

:

:

:

:

:

1

:

2

:.

:

2

1

...

:

1

...

:

1

:

...

:

...

:-

1

1

: _:

1

:

:

:

:

1

2

1

...

...

...

1

:::

:

:::

:

:

:::

:

:.

...

:

:

...

:

...

...

:

1

3

62 22

6 5

10 6 8 13 2

44

Total Group III.,.......

6

62

22 96 57 10 6 8 14 2 1 44

TOTAL, ALL CAUSES,...... 268 33

9 228 1,245312 437 226 191 244 377 406 312 87

7 266

III.-Undefined.

Dropsy,

Tumour,

Abscess,

Tumour of Brain,.

Gangrene,.

Undiagnosed,

:

3

8:

110

6

3

8

874 162 217

15

C

13

LOON Kow-

WÁN SHÁUKI-

ABER-

STANLEY

DEEN

DIS-

DIS-

Dis-

Dis-

TRICT.

TRICT.

TRICT.

TRICT.

333

DURING THE YEAR ENDED THE 31ST DAY OF DECEMBER, 1903,—Continued.

CHINESE COMMUNITY.

TOTAL AT THE DIFFERENT AGE PERIODS.

754 149 206

92 92

33

53 27

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

:

:..

: ::

4

2

4

~

G

2

:

:

:

...

:

:

:

с

a

C.

:

:

:

:

:

Jurnal

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

2

ลง

:

:

:..

:

:

:::

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:::

:

:

5

N

2

96

-

55

غم

ลง

:

: :

...

:

...

:

·

11

...

•••

:

Saved

-

3

...

...

:

::

...

...

·

32

1 62

9

17

314

:

20

32

3 68

2 16...

~

117

335

...

:

...

30

6

13 499 18540 12850 13 478 59 599 113 1,553 48 661 28 622 6 73

6,185

N

6

6

:

- NN OI

:

patal

:

:

...

...

6

2

Population.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Under 1

month.

1 month and

under 12

months.

1 year and

under 5

years.

Non-Chinesc.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

5 years and under 15

years.

15 years and under 25

years.

25 years and under 45

years,

45 years and under 60

years.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

60 years and over.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Age

Unknown.

13 479 18 508 12747 13430 57 555106 1,461 43635 25610

:

cc

:

:

...

***

:

3

3

...

:

:

4

4

4 10

:

...

:

20

-

...

6

n

3

N

...

556

5,773

15

31

29

1

1

:

CI

:

2

13

1

49

4

GRAND

TOTAL.

CAUSES.

334

RETURN SHEWING THE NUMBER AND CAUSES OF DEATHS REGISTERED

CHINESE COMMUNITY.

BRITISH

AND FOREIGN COMMUNITY,

Civil.

Army.

Navy.

No. 1.

VICTORIA.

HEALTH DISTRICT.

No. 2.

No. 3.

No. 4.

No. 5.

No. 6.

No. 7.

No. 8.

No. 9.

No. 10.

.'........

Unknown.

Peak.

Harbour.

SUMMARY.

I.-General Diseases.

A.-Specific Febrile Diseases,

B.-Diseases dependent on Specific Ex-

A, 90

15

:

99 276 75 186 109 102 130 182 210 232 34

85

ternal Agents,

26

6

3

4 14

1

18 8

8 9

16 11

5

:

3

17

(A to B),.....16 21

3 103 290

76 204 117 110 139 198 221 237 37

5 102

C.-Developmental Diseases,.....

11

11 222 90 80 12

12 23 24

1

14

(A to C),...... 127 21

3

512 166 284 129 118 151 221 245 244 38

5 116

D.-Miscellaneous Diseases,.

D. 12: 1

1

3 109 28

14

5 4

7

14 7 4

II.-Local Diseases..

1

1 405 54 13

4

4

४ 15 4 15 7 10

6 126 1.041 252 326 145 136 171 269 276 258 49

10 00

5

19

8 15

0 10

11

13

1

5

12

6 135

2

3

1

4 2

37 169 37 93 70 46 60 88 116

2 9

1 4

2:

8~~

2

:.

0000 10

:

:

40 32

8

5

2 ♡

2

3

3

-

218

85

1

E-The Nervous System, F. The Circulatory System,

E, 25

W 16

12

(A to F),......180 | 25

G, 48 H, 22 ..J, 11

10 00

Preg-

...L,

:

nancy,

rition,

M,

1

G.-The Respiratory System, H.-The Digestive System,. J.-The Urinary System, L.-Affections connected with

M.-Affections connected with Partu-

:

:

:

:

1

السمر

1

...

(A to M), .262 33 9166 1,224 301430 221 184 234 370 398 298

N,

.0,

0.-Diseases of the Organs of Locomo-

N.-The Skin,.

tion,.....

:

:

:

:.

:

:

III.-Undefined & Undiagnosed,.....III,

6

TOTAL, ALL CAUSES,..... 268 33

:

2

1

:

62

22

9

CO

1

:

:

1

85

6 222

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

10

5

7 10

6

14

2

1 44

87

7 266

9 228 1,246 312 437 226 191 244 377 406 312

335

DURING THE YEAR THE ENDED THE 31sT DAY OF DECEMBER, 1903,-

CHINESE COMMUNITY.

SHACKI- ABER- STANLEY

Kow-

LOON DIS-

TRICT.

WAN

DIS-

TRICT.

DEEN DIS-

DIS-

TRICT.

TRICT.

Land

Population.

Under 1

Population.

Land

Non-Chinese. Population.

Population.

Boat

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Chinese.

month.

1 month

and under

12 months.

1 year and

-Continued.

TOTAL AT THE DIFFERENT AGE PERIODS.

under 5

under 15

years.

under 25

y.ars.

under 45

years.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

years.

Non-Chinese. 5 years and

Chinese.

Non-Chinese. 15 years and

Chinese.

Non-Chinese. 25 years and

Chinese.

Non-Chinese. 45 years and

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

under 60

years.

60 years

and over.

Age

Unknown.

GRAND

TOTAL.

331

32

25

27

358

94

K

8

20

261 37

9

:

:

452

2318

33

85

26 37 9 4

32 22 21 18

:

:.

:

:

:

221

3 8120 210

[113]

1 11

19

5 77

42211

4288 30395 37:849 20,266] 597

A

8 4 24 23 73 2 17 2 5

5 81 4230 6296 34419 60922 22283) 7102

O

6

184

60922

2 35 (2,530)

13... 12

2242

10

746

29 2,346

65 117 48 58

27 12

8142 5291 4343 7307 34423 60935 22295 9344 245 (3,276)

14

2

-

1

4 1 19

:

1 34

4 12 5 17 2 9

9

:

230

4

3 14

5

:

10 00

21

314 3 6 53 350

4 32

590 178

8572 11360] 41455 78 1,026 30 368 16391

3. 48 (4,274)

!

3162 113

165 12 95 18 414

1

2

7258 8212 510 21 6 9 4 4 10 3 9 3

8 1,397

7

1

102

49

:

:

1

6

:

20

131

12:

Co

3

10

281

2

31

2

3313 1

6 71

1 2

3114 4

:

507 69 132

55

621 33

12

3 11 460 13383

220 75

70

361

30 20

15

3 1 18

4110

27

1

:

:

10

::

:

::

:

1 1

1 15

:

...

:

...

:

:

:

2

ลง

2

762 152 209| 97 94 54 27

1

1

:

:

:

:

:

110

9

8

co

874 162 217 162

K

6, 13479 18508 12749 18439 59 565 110 1,483 46645 28615 5 56 (5,843)

:

:

:

:

:

2

31

97

96 55 30

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

4

3

20

29 100

39

32 3 68 2 16

:

1 17

335

28622 673 6,185

1,553 48 661 28622

6 13499 18540 12850 13478 59 5991131,553 48661 28622 6 13499 18

2622

The Government Civil Hospitals.

Tung Wa Hospital-Continued.

- 336

RETURN OF DEATHS THAT OCCURRED IN THE UNDERMENTIONED INSTITUTIONS. During the Year ended 31st December, 1903.

The Alice Memorial and Nethersole Hospitals.-

(Continued.)

Causes.

No.

Causes.

No.

Causes.

No.

Plague, Typhoid,

Cholera,

Diphtheria,.

Dysentery,

Brought forward, 701

Brought forward,

38

Bright's Disease,

14

Heart Disease,

1

2

Asthma,

1

Hæmophilia,

1

1

Tetanus,

3

Convulsions,

1

12

Measles,

1

Bright's Disease,

1

Tetanus,

Hemiplegia,

Phthisis,.

Tuberculosis,

1

Malignant Endocarditis,

1

3

Compression of Spinal Caord,.

1

Total,

42

16

Undiagnosed,

1

3

Septicæmia,

12

Liver Abscess.

4

Erysipelas,

2

The Italian Convent.

Wounds,.

Pericarditis,

Fracture of Skull,

12

Peritonitis,

.2

Causes.

No.

Injuries.

7

Fatty Degeneration of Heart, .

1

Marasmus and Atrophy,

77

Bright's Disease,

2

Fracture of Skull,

Acute Yellow Atrophy,

1

Tuberculosis,

Heart Disease,

5

Injury to Spinal Caord,

NAN

2

Convulsions,

6

4

Concussion of Brain...........

1

2

Diarrhoea,

9

Pneumonia,

4

Plague,

129

Meningitis,

8

Malaria,

3

Rheumatism,

2

Pneumonia,.

4.

Endocarditis,

1

Puncture Wound of Lungs,

1

Trismus,

20

Rupture of Spleeu,

3

Emphysena..

1

Paralysis.

1

Anæmia,

2

Hemiplegia,

3

Syphilis,

5

Paralysis,

1

Acute Ballons Emphysema,...

1

Tuberculosis.

20

Meningitis,

5

Scalds,

1

Pemphigus,

1

Beri-beri,

Burn,

1

Dropsy,

1

Peritonitis,

Malarial Cachexia,

2

Phthisis,

3

Cerebral Homarriage,

1

Convulsions,

3

Enteritis,

3

Broncho Pneumonia,

1

Meningitis,

3

Icterus Neonatorum,

I

Marasmus,

1

Marasmus and Atrophy,

2

Tetanus,

Septicæmia,

2

Fracture of Pelvis,

1

Bronchitis,

Opium Poisoning,

2

Puerperal Fever,

4

Catarrhal Jaundice,

Ι

Diarrhoea,

2

Rupture of Mesenteric Vessels,

1

Bright's Disease,

1

Acute Peripheral Neuritis,

1

Paraplegia,

3

Cancrum Oris,

1

Puerperal Eclampsia,

1

Cirrhosis of Liver,

1

Pemphigus,

1

Alcoholism,

5

Tonsillitis,

3

Inanition,

1

Enteritis,

1

Vesical Calenlus,

1

Rupture of Urethra,

Cirrhosis of Liver,

Mania,........

Malignant Disease,

Bronchitis,

Strangulated Hernia,.

Ch. Interstitial Nephritis.

10 21

Epilepsy,.

Liver Abscess,

Choleraic Diarrhoea,

Gangrene of Lung,

Rupture of Spleen,

2

Total........ 177

1

1

1

L'Asile De La Ste. Enfance.

6

Total

917

Causes.

No.

Diarrhoea,

7

Purpura Hæmorrhagica,

1

Tubercular Diarhœa,.

1

Empyema,

1

Fracture of Thigh (compound),.

1

1

Causes.

Necrosis of Jaw,

1

Typhoid Fever,

Debility,...

2

Beri-beri,

Premature Birth,

1

Rheumatism,

Spinal Meningitis,.

1

Phthisis,

Dementia,

1

Carbuncle,

Erysipelas,

1

Traumatic Tetanus,

Pleurisy,

1

Nephritis,

1

Convulsions,

77

Total,

158

Vesical Calculus Haemorrhage,

1

Beri-beri,

I

Gangrene of Leg,

1

Bronchitis,

45

Stricture of Urethra,

1

Meningitis,

40

The Tung Wa Hospital.

Vesical Calculus (Nephritis)..

Malarial Fever,

2

Canses.

No.

Injury of Perineum (Tetanus),

}

Epilepsy,

I

Pneumonia,

35

Seald,

1

Plagne,

1

Phthisis,

224

Compound Fracture of Leg

Heart Disease,

2

Bronchitis,

50

Shock,....

Syphilis,

14

Heart Disease,

62

Tubercular Meningitis,

Trismus,

2

Diphtheria,

2

Sarcoma of Orbit,

Splenic Fracture,

1

Diarrhoea,

54

Tuberculosis,

Icterus Neonatorum,

1

Dysentery,

33

Ovarian Tumour,

Dysentery,

Malarial Fever,

62

Pneumonia,....

Old Age,

1

Beri-beri,

162

Cancer of Esophagus,

Myeloplegia,

1

Apoplexy,

5

Cancer of Uterus,

Shock,

Syphilis,

Dysentery,

Septicemia,

Concussion of Brain,

3

Malarial Fever,

1

Phthisis,

3

Debility,...

2

Imperforate Anus,.

Cancer of Liver,

1

Carried forward, 701

Carried forward, 38

Carried forward, 784

Marasmus and Atrophy,

174

The Alice Memorial and

Nethersole Hospitals.

Tuberculosis,

95

Noma,

1

Concussion,

11

No.

Tetanus,

272

3

I'nenmonia,

20

1

Bright's Disease,

1

1

Small-pox,

I

Syncope,.

2

Inanition,

3

2

HONGKONG.

A GENERAL REPORT ON THE SURVEY OF THE NEW TERRITORY FROM NOVEMBER, 1899, TO APRIL, 1904.

31

No. 1904

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

TRAVERSE SURVEY.

1. The strength of the Traverse section at the beginning of operations consisted of 3 Surveyors with 2 Indian coolies each. The chaining squads were made up of Chinese coolies who proved most unsatisfactory; the training of these men was a hopeless task as they were constantly deserting or going away and leaving sub- stitutes. Want of experience on the part of these chainmen led to constant revision of their work, but in spite of the delays I was fortunately able to keep the traverse work ahead of the cadastral section. This was a serious question at that time, as the Cadastral Surveyors were being paid at contract rates, and their earnings depended on the regular supply of skeleton plots, the results of the traverse work.

During the first season, from November, 1899, to June, 1900, the following Districts and Sub-Districts were traversed :----

a. The whole of New Kowloon.

6. The whole of Unlong District with the exception of Tai Lam Chung

Sub-District.

c. The whole of Sheung U District with the exception of Hap Wo Sub-

District.

de The Luk Yuck District.

e. Sub-Districts Wo Hang, Ha Po and Liu Ma Hang of the Sha Tau Kok

District.

The theodolite was set up at 2,383 new Stations and the total amount of chaining was 27,480.85 chains or 343.51 linear miles, while the angular work was checked by the results of 18 astrononomical observations for azimuth. The Cadastral Surveyors experienced great difficulty in finding the traverse stations which were marked with wooden pickets; the children from the villages being the principal offenders in uprooting them. It was not till the close of the season that steps were taken to permanently mark some of the stations; it was then decided to mark only the trijunction, with adjoining stations of traverse blocks, 575 clay cylinders were accordingly embedded. In June, 1900, one Tra- verse Surveyor resigned and one was dismissed; only one man remained, but before the beginning of the next field season we were fortunate in obtaining the services of another man from the Siam Survey Department

In consequence of the trouble we had experienced with Chinese coolies in season 1899-1900, it was thought advisable to procure 30 trained survey coolies from India; these men arrived in November, 1900.

2. In November, 1900, I made Tai Po my headquarters and started the new field season with 2 Traverse Surveyors, their chaining squads consisting of trained Indian coolies.

The work was very difficult and tedious owing to the extremely hilly nature of the country, and progress was rather slow as angles of elevation and depression had to be taken at almost every Station, in order to reduce all measurements to the horizontal.

Of the 4,114 new Stations at which the theodolite was set up, 2,277, being in cultivated tracts, were marked with clay cylinders; the remaining 1,837 Stations, which were on the hillsides away from cultivation and of no use whatever to the Detail Surveyor, were marked with wooden pegs.

398

The total chaining amounted to 32,854.52 chains or 410.68 linear miles, and the angular work was checked by 27 azimuths.

The following Districts and Sub-Districts fell within the area traversed :—

a. Sub-Districts Luk Keng, Kuk Po, Nam Yeuk and Hing Chun of the

Sha Tau Kok District.

b. Sub-Districts Kau Yeuk, Luk Yeuk and Hap Wo of the Kau Lung

District.

c. The whole of the Tung Hoi District.

d. Portions of Lan Tao Island near Tung Chung and Mui Wo.

e. All the cultivated islands in Mirs Bays.

3. One Traverse Surveyor was sent back to India in June, 1901, and by the end of 1902 the remaining man had finished the rest of the Territory.

He was employed in office for a couple of months and returned to India in March, 1903.

In 1902, 2,431 new Stations were put down, of which 1,860 were marked with clay cylinders. The chaining amounted to 27,133.10 chains or 339.16 linear miles, and 6 azimuths were observed.

The cultivated area of New Kowloon, comprising Districts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 9, which have been resurveyed or a larger scale, was retraversed as all the old traverse stations, originally marked with wooden pegs, had been destroyed by the villagers.

Four Demarcation Districts near Sha Tau Kok were also retraversed as a resurvey was necessary on a larger scale.

A traverse survey was also made of the cultivated area of old Kowloon, viz., that portion lying between the old boundary fence to the north and Yau Ma Ti and Hung Hom to the south.

4. The following Statement gives traverse figures for the whole Territory:-

Stations

Stations marked with marked with

Cylinders.

Total Number

of Traverse Stations in Wooden Pegs. New Territory.

Chains.

Links.

Linear Miles.

Azimu- ths.

4,712

4,216

8,928

87,468

47

1,093.35 51

J

5. Five-inch theodolites of the EVEREST pattern were work; and for the measurements of all distances we used lengths, one being the ordinary GUNTER'S chain of 100 links other a GUNTER'S chain minus 7 links.

used for the angular 2 chains of

unequal 22 yards, and the

====

The results obtained from these independent measurements were compared on the spot by means of a conversion table, and in cases of discrepancy, the distances were immediately rechained.

To ensure the accuracy of all chaining, each Surveyor's squad, in addition to the ordinary working chains, was supplied with 2 standard chains. All chains before being made over to the Surveyors, were tested on the standard laid down at the Headquarter camp, by means of the steel standard tape, and the spare chains were sent in once a fortnight to be tested on the standard. The Surveyors had orders to test their working chains daily in the field againt their spare standard chains.

6. The traverses were connected with the Stations of the Trigonometrical Survey wherever possible, but only the following connections were utilised for the comparison of the direct distances by the Trigonometrical Survey and the Traverse Survey-Kowloon City Station, White Head Station, Sha Tau Kok Station and Tung Chung Station on Lan Tao Island.

:

:

**

399

The origin of the survey is the intersection of 22° 30′ 00′′ N. Latitude with 114° 00′ 00′′ E. Longitude.

In order to check the chaining the traverses on the mainland were connected with the Trigonometrical Stations at Kowloon City, White Head and Sha Tau Kok. A main traverse was laid starting from Kowloon City and ending at Sha Tau Kok Station.

The course taken was as follows:-From Kowloon City Station along the Chinese road over the Customs' Pass to Sai Kung, then over the Gap to Ki Ling Ha at the head of Three-Fathom Cove. From Ki Ling Ha along the west coast of Three-Fathom Cove to White Head Station where a connection was made. From White Head along the east coast of Tide Cove to Sha Tin, then across to Tai Wai and along the new road to Tai Po.

From Tai Po along the northern coast of Tolo Harbour to Chung Mi at the head of Plover Cove; then on to Sa Ma viâ U Kau Tin and Min Tin. From Sa Ma through Lai Chi Wo and Yung Shu Au along the coast of Starling Inlet to Sha Tau Kok Station, which is near the village of Sha Tau Kok.

Between Kowloon City Station and White Head the correction applied to the traverses in office was, where the Northing was plus .27 links per 100 chains, Southing no correction, where the Easting was plus 6.52 links per 100 chains and where the Westing was minus 6.03 links per 100 chains. Between White Head and Sha Tau Kok Station the correction was, where the Northing was minus 4.16 links per 100 chains, where the Southing was plus 2.92 links per 100 chains, where the Easting was plus 11.37 links per 100 chains, and where the Westing was minus 10.94 links per 100 chains.

The average correction applied to the angular work on the Main Traverse between Kowloon City and Sha Tau Kok was plus 1 minute in every 93 angles and minus 1 minute in every 62 angles. Considering the nature of the country these results are very satisfactory. The traverse polygons have been set up and proved, the bearings and traverses worked out and the coordinates run down. The coordinates of the main traverse from Kowloon City to Sha Tau Kok Station, as well as those of the main traverse on Lan Tao Island, refer to the origin of the survey. I have prepared an Index Map on the 2-inch scale showing all the traverse stations laid down. I should suggest that steps be taken to preserve some of these stations, otherwise the existing traverse data will prove useless should -occasion arise for extending the surveys.

CADASTRAL SURVEY.

The cadastral survey staff commenced operations at the end of November, 1899, and consisted of 2 Inspectors and 16 Surveyors with one Indian and three Chinese coolies each.

New Kowloon, from Lai Chi Kok to Lyemoon, was first surveyed and in January, 1900, the men moved over to the Un Long District where traversing, was being carried on in advance.

The 16-inch to the mile scale was adopted and the Surveyors were paid at

contract rates.

By the end of the season the following Districts and Sub-Districts were surveyed:-

(a.) New Kowloon.

(b.) Sub-Districts Lung Ku Tau, Tun Mun, Ha Tsun, Pingshan, Shap

Pat Heung, Kam Tin and Pat Heung of the Un Long District. (e.) Sub-Districts San Tin, Hau Yeuk, Fan Ling, Sheong Shiu and a

portion of Lung Yeuk Tau of the Sheung U District.

(4.) The Luk Yeuk District.

(e.) Sub-Districts Wo Hang, Liu Ma Hang and Ha l'o of the Sha Tau

Kok District.

2

-

d

!

400

The total area surveyed amounted to 35,257.77 acres comprising 226,588 fields. These figures, which refer to the whole area of cultivated valleys, including streams, waste land and hillocks surrounded by cultivation, are rather misleading when compared with the total area given in the statement on page 7, which deals with demarcated and claimed land only. The field season closed in July, 1900, and up to November, 1900, the men were employed in office in inking up the maps and estimating the areas.

During those four months a survey, on the scale of 64 inches to the mile, was made of Kowloon City and its surroundings. The demarcation of New Kowloon, comprising Districts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 9, was carried out under the Land Court and surveys on the 32-inch scale were made of the Islands of Mah Wan, Peng Chau and Cheung Chau.

2. In November, 1900, I made Tai Po my headquarters and started the new field season.

The staff was increased by 6 Surveyors from India, but these new arrivals were not successes; four of them were old men, well over 50, and quite unfit for hard work. We were further handicapped as one Inspector died, 2 Surveyors had to be invalided and one dismissed for incompetence.

As the cultivation in the hilly Districts remaining to be surveyed, consisted of small terraced fields running up hillsides and narrow valleys, the average size of field was so small that it was found impossible to represent such minute detail on the 16-inch scale with any degree of utility; the Government therefore decided to increase the scale to 32 inches to the mile.

It was also decided to carry on the Demarcation and Survey operations together, so the contract system of payment had to be abandoned and the Surveyors were placed on salāries.

These changes considerably reduced the outturn of work for the season, which amounted to 11,087.35 acres and 174,677 fields.

The following Districts and Sub-Districts were surveyed

(a.) Sub-Districts Luk Keng, Nam Yeuk and Hing Chun of the Sha

Tau Kok District.

(b.) Sub-Districts Shun Wan, Tsoi Hang, Lam Tsun, Hap Wo and a

portion of Lung Yeuk Tau of the Sheung U District.

(c.) A portion of Sub-District Kau Yeuk of the Kau Lung District. (d.) A portion of Sub-District Cheung Muk Tau of the Tung Hoi

Districts.

(e.) The Islands of Peng Chau, Kat O and Double Island in Mirs Bay. (f) Portions of Lan Tao Island near Tung Chung and Mui Wo.

In August, 1901, the demarcation of the 16-inch surveys of the previous sea- son was started. Ten Surveyors were told off to do it and they completed the work early in 1902. They were supplied with traces of the maps on which they marked the various holdings as pointed out by the tenants; the Chinese demarcators enter- ing the record of owner's names, etc. The area thus dealt with was 35,257.77 acres with 226,588 fields comprising 100,972 holdings.

In July, 1901, four incompetent Surveyors were dismissed and, as the staff was insufficient, an Inspector was sent to India to recruit more men. He returned to the Colony in November, 1901, bringing one new Inspector, 28 Surveyors and 48 trained Indian coolies.

3. With this addition to staff the field season 1901-1902 was commenced in

November and by June the following Districts and Sub-Districts were surveyed :—

(a.) Remainder of Sub-District Kau Yeuk of the Kau Lung Districts. (b.) Sub-District Luk Yeuk of the Kau Lung District.

(c.) The whole of the Tung Hoi District.

(d.) Sub-District Tai Lam Chung of the Un Long District.

(e.) The greater part of Sub-District Tsun Wan of the Kau Lung District.

401

(f.) The whole of Lan Tao Island with the exception of portions previous-

ly surveyed near Tung Chung and Mui Wo.

(g.) And the following cultivated Islands :-Tsing I, Chik Lap Kok, Ni Ku Chau, Tap Mun, Pak Lap Chau, Kau Sai and Im Tin Tsz.

The area dealt with amounted to 11,715.81 acres comprising 219,292 fields. Considering the increase in the staff, the results on paper do not compare favour- ably with the previous year's outturn; the reason being that only the most hilly Districts of the Territory, which remained to be surveyed, were dealt with.

4. In June, 1902, I made Hongkong my headquarters and in the same month reduced the staff by one Inspector, 12 Surveyors and 43 Indian coolies. Two Surveyors were also dismissed for bad work. After a month's rest the new field season 1902-03 was started and the following staff took the field on 17th July One Inspector, 27 Surveyors, 37 Indian and about 55 Chinese coolies.

Early in May, 1903, the surveys were completed, and one Inspector, 20 Sur- veyors and 30 Indian coolies were sent back to India.

The following Districts and Sub-Districts were surveyed :—

(a.) The remaining portion of Sub-District Tsun Wan of the Kau Lung

District.

(6.) The Islands of Lamma and Pu Toi.

(c.) Four small patches of isolated hillside cultivation which had been

overlooked in the Tung Hoi Districts.

(d.) The resurvey on a larger scale (32") of 4 Demarcation Districts

of the Sha Tau Kok District.

(e.) The resurvey on a larger scale (32") of New Kowloon, compris-

ing Districts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 9.

(f.) A 32-inch scale survey was also made of the cultivated area of Old Kowloon extending from the old boundary fence southwards to Yau Ma Ti and Hung Hom.

The area dealt with amounted to 2,653.65 acres comprising 28,245 holdings.

5. The accuracy of the survey is assured not only by check lines carried out during the survey stage by experienced Inspectors, but more particularly so, by the independent check lines carried out while the maps are locked up in office. The original maps and field books of check lines were inspected and passed by me.

The total amount of check gives an average of 8.32 linear miles of test survey to each square mile of detail survey.

6. When the resurvey, on a larger scale, of districts 1, 2, 3 and 4 of New Kow- loon had been completed, I found that the areas of claims, as derived from the two surveys, would not in most cases agree. I now understand that the Public Works Department is experiencing some difficulty in allotting land to the various claim- ants of holdings in these Districts as the new 32-inch maps are being utilised in pegging out the granted claims, while the Land Court judgments are based on the areas extracted from the original 16-inch maps.

I submitted the following Memorandum to the Honourable Director of Public Works and to the President, Land Court, explaining these differences in the areas of No. 4 District. The same reasons apply to Districts 1, 2 and 3 of New Kowloon:-

"(a.) No. 4 District was originally surveyed on the 16-inch scale in January, 1900, and, after an interval of nearly 31 years, a resurvey was made on the 32-inch scale. In this interval a great many changes had taken place. Many new houses and boat-sheds had been erected along the foreshore between Sham Shui Po and Lai Chi Kok. The greater mass of the cultivation remained the same, except in the case of vegetable gardens and land on the outskirts. Here, besides the addition of new cultivation, the existing fields had altered considerably. Consequently the areas of claims as derived from the two surveys will not in all cases agree.

1

402

(b.) The large claims of No. 4 District consist for the greater part of fore- shore and patches of broken uncultivated land. The boundaries of these claims in the original survey were so vaguely given, that they could not be pointed out again exactly for the resurvey, even by the claimants themselves. Hence a margin of difference must always be allowed, even where the face of the ground has not undergone alteration. Where it has undergone such alteration, this margin, apart from the alteration, must be even greater. (c.) The areas of all foreshore claims, as surveyed on the new maps, differ from the areas originally submitted, owing to the fact that one boundary is usually given as high water mark, the delineation of which is left entirely to the discretion of the Surveyor.

d.) The larger scale of the second survey allows more detail to be shown; hence a margin of difference must be allowed in the smaller cultivated lots even where the boundaries are unchanged. (e.) I might add that in all big Cadastral Surveys, it is found impossible to make a resurvey tally exactly with the original, even if done on the same scale. The results of the system, which is the only practicable one for large settlement operations, must not be com- pared with an architect's plan of a building; and the differences between two surveys when put in figure form in the area column, lot for lot, though they seem alarming to the non-professional eye, have regularly to be discounted as absolutely unavoidable."

1

:

DISTRICT.

The Mainland including the following Islands :-Kato, Double Island, Tap Mun, Pak Lap Chau, Kau Sai, Im Tiu Tsz and Tsing I Island,

Lan Tao,.

Statement giving Cadastral Survey Figures for the New Territory including Islands.

Number

of De-

marcation

Districts.

Number

of Maps on 16" Scale.

Number

of Maps on 32" Scale.

Total

Number of

Maps

surveyed.

Number of

Acres

surveyed on 16' Scale.

Number of

Acres

surveyed on 32" Scale.

Total Number

of Acres

surveyed.

Number of

Holdings

REMARKS.

...

demarcated.

Includes 5 maps of Kowloon City surveyed on the

64-inch scale.

388

85

365

450

24,214.64 13,309.39

|

37,524.03

281,352

72

75

75

...

2,659.96

2,659.96

37,147

(hip Lap Kok Island,

1

2

2

...

24.87

24.87

396

Ni Ku Chau,

1

3

...

16.75

16.75

426

Peng Chau (near Lan Tao),

1

2

...

...

28.92

28.92

239

Cheung Chau,

1

3

3

113.90

113.90

619

...

Mah Wan,

1

1

1

52.26

52.26

218

...

Lamma,

Pu Toi,

10

1

12

12

155.09

155.09

4,693

6

...

Peng Chau (in Mirs Bay),

1

2

NO

6 2

33.51

128.66

33.51

1,140

128.66

...

2,409

TOTAL,

477

85

471 556 | 24,214 64 | 16,523.31 | 40,737.95

328,639

In addition to the above there are 6 Maps of old Kowloon (not demarcated) on the 32" Scale, and one Map of Lan Tao coast lines on 32" Scale, not demarcated owing to no cultivation. Total number of Maps=563.

403

:

404

MISCELLANEOUS.

1. Early in 1902 a regular office staff was established. Six Surveyors were called in from the field to assist, 5 Draftsmen and Estimators were recruited from India and one Draftsman engaged locally. The maps were inked up as they came in from the Surveyors and the areas were estimated; the area of each holding was extracted twice independently by two separate men and the means passed by a third. The areas of each District were then totalled, the references entered and the area statements passed on to the Land Court. An office copy of the area statements of each District was kept and they will be given over with the original

maps.

2. Two Chinese tracers were engaged in November, 1902, and one in February, 1903, to assist in preparing traces of Demarcation Districts, in order to supply the Land Court with sun prints; 555 traces were completed. 337 traces of a larger size, of the whole of the New Territory, were also prepared.

3. Two index maps have been prepared; one, on the scale of 2 inches to the mile,' showing all the Demarcation Districts: and the other on the 1 inch scale showing how the larger traces fit.

4. Throughout the whole period the health of the establishment was bad, and the men were constantly being sent in to Hospital. One Inspector, one Surveyor and 5 Indian coolies died, and 6 Surveyors and 9 Indian coolies were invalided; 4 out of the 6 Surveyors died on the way home.

5. In September, 1903. I commenced work on the new general map of the New Territory, prepared on the scale of 2 inches to the mile.

The Map at present consists of eleven standard sheets, but this number can be reduced by the publishers.

The Trigonometrical and some of the Traverse Stations were plotted and by means of the Pantagraph all the Cadastral Surveys were reduced.

I am greatly indebted to Major A. S. KING, R.E., Officer in charge of Military Surveys, for the loan of the Military topographical maps of a portion of the New Territory, recently prepared on the scale of 8 inches to the mile.

These surveys

were reduced by me to the 2-inch scale and the contours now shown represent 100 feet levels. The contouring of the remainder of the New Territory outside the Military Surveys, has been sketched in chiefly with the aid of Mr. TATE's 1 inch

map.

My thanks are also due to Captain E. C. HARDY, R.N., H.M.S. Waterwitch, for the loan of his surveys of the coast line of Tolo Harbour, Tide Cove and Plover Cove.

The coast line of Mirs Bay, from Mirs Point to Sai Kung, has been taken from the Naval Chart.

The coast line of Deep Bay, from the mouth of the Sham Chun River to Tsun Wan, and the coast line of Lan Tao and adjacent islands, has been taken from Mr. TATE'S 1 inch map.

HONGKONG, 11th May, 1904.

W. J. NEWLAND.

HONGKONG.

No. 14

REPORT OF THE ACTING DIRECTOR OF THE OBSERVATORY, FOR THE YEAR 1903.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

HONGKONG OBSERVATORY,

26th January, 1904.

SIR,-In the absence of the Director on leave, I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of this Department to His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government. The nineteenth volume of Observations was published last summer and the twentieth volume is now being printed. It contains the usual astronomical, meteorological and magnetic observations.

2. Twenty years' meteorological observations (1884 to 1903 inclusive) have now been recorded at the Observatory and the calculation of the mean values of the meteorological elements for this period is nearly completed.

3. The comparison of weather forecasts, issued daily about 11 a.m., with the weather subsequently experienced, has been conducted on the same system as here- tofore (compare Annual Report for 1896 § 5). The results are as follows:-

Success 58 per cent., partial success 34 per cent., partial failure 7 per cent., failure 1 per cent.

Following the method used in meteorological offices and taking the sum of total and partial success as a measure of success, and the sum of total and partial failure as a measure of failure, it follows that:-92 per cent. of the weather fore- casts were successful in 1903.

4. The China Coast Meteorological Register was printed every morning at the Observatory, and information regarding storms was telegraphed to Hongkong and exhibited on notice boards as often and as fully as such information could be justi- fied by the weather telegrams received. This happened on 80 days in 1903. The Red Drum was hoisted 8 times, the Red South Cone 3 times, the Black Drum 4 times, the Black South Cone 3 times, the Black North Cone once, and the Black Ball twice. Two lanterns were hoisted once, and the Typhoon Gun fired once. Printed Bulletins for general distribution were issued on 4 occasions. About 60 copies of the China Coast Meteorological Register are delivered free daily to ship- ping firms and others.

5. During last year it was decided to arrange the Hongkong (Drum, Cone, Ball) signals so as to indicate the bearing of typhoons to 4 instead of 8 points. At the request of the Hongkong General Chamber of Commerce the Government also decided to adopt the Shanghai Flag system of signalling meteorological inform- ation. A mast for this purpose has been erected on Blackhead's Hill, Kowloon Point, and the changes indicated above came into force on 1st January of the current year.

6. The thanks of the Government are due to the Telegraph Companies who continue to forward the meteorological telegrams to Hongkong free of charge, and also to the staffs of the Eastern Extension and Australasian Telegraph Company at Sharp Peak, Iloilo, Bacolod and Cebu, who make and transmit observations twice daily.

7. Telegraphic connection with Victoria was interrupted as follows:--January 5th, 10.30 a. to 1.25 p.; 25th, 12.10 p. to 2.15 p.; February 28th, 7 a. to March 2nd 11.30 a.; April 7th 6.2 p. to 8th 10.45 a.; 8th 11.40 a. to 3.55 p.; 18th 2 p. to 19th 11.25 a.; 29th 10.15 a. to 30th 9.50 a.; 30th 11.55 a. to May 2nd 1 p.; 9th 12 p. to 11th 2.15 p.; 13th 10.30 a. to 16th 3 p.; 25th 4 p. to 10 p.; June 17th 9 a. to 1.50 p.; July 22nd 11.42 a. to 4 p.; August 8th 2 a. to 3.30 p.; 13th 12.5 p. to 15th 12.15 p.; October 18th 7 a. to 12.35 p.; 23rd 6 p. to 24th 9.30 a. Interruptions occurred therefore on 34 days, and also, of course, during thunder-

storms.

1904

102

8. During 1903 in addition to meteorological registers kept at about 40 stations on shore, 1,450 ship logs have been forwarded by the captains. The total number of vessels, whose log-books have been made use of, was 186. The total number of days' observations (counting separately those made on board different ships on the same day) was 9,428.

9. The following is a list of ships, from which logs have been obtained in 1903. When not otherwise distinguished the vessels are steamships:-Abessinia, Ajax, Aki Maru, Albany (U.S.S.), Albion (H.M.S.), Alcinous, Alesia, Algerine (Ĥ.M S.), Amara, Anamba, Arabia, Ariake Maru, Arratoon Apcar, Australian, Ayr, Ballaarat, Banca, Benalder, Bengloe, Binh Chuan, Bombay Maru, Borneo, Brisgavia, Britomart (H.M.S.), Brunhilde, Calédonien, Candia, Canton, Capri, Carl Diederichsen, Catherine Apcar, Ceylon, Changsha, Chelydra, Chingwo, Chowtai, Chunsang, Cincinnati (U.S.S.), Clara Jebsen, Clavering, Coptic, Coromandel, Dagmar, Décidée (French Gunboat), Dunbar, Eastern, Empire, Empress of China, Empress of India, Empress of Japan, Esang, Europa (H.M.S.), Fausang, Ferdinand Laeisz, Formosa, Freiburg, Fungshun, Gaelic, Glenfalloch, Glengarry, Glengyle, Glenturret, Gregory Apcar, Haiching, Hailan, Hailoong, Haimun, Haitan, Hangchow, Hangsang, Hikosan Maru, Hinsang, Hitachi Maru, Holstein, Hong Bee, Hongkong Maru, Hongmoh, Hong Wan I, Hopsang, Hounslow, Hunan, I de la Rama, Idzumi Maru, Independent, Indramayo, Indrasamha, Indravelli, Ischia, Iyo Maru, Japan, Java, Kachidate Maru, Kagoshima Maru, Kaifong, Kamakura Maru, Kanagawa Maru, Karin, Kasuga Maru, Keongwai, Kiautschou, Kiushiu Maru, Korea, Kumano Maru, Kumsang, Kutsang, König Albert, Königsberg, Lena, Leviathan (H.M.S.), Lombardia (Italian Cruiser), Loongmoon, Loongsang, Loosok, Marburg, Marie Rickmers, Marquis Bacquehem, Massilia, Mausang, Mazagon, Mercedes (H. M. Transport), Mongkut, M. Struve, Namsang, Nanchang, Nippon Maru, Nürnberg, Oceana, Olympia, Omba, Onsang, Orono, Pakhoi, Persia, Phra Chula Chom Klao, Phoenix (H.M.S.), Preussen, Prima, Prinzess Irene, Progress, Prometheus, Pronto, Rohilla Maru, Rajaburi, Roon, Rose (barque), Rosetta Maru, Rubi, Sabine Rickmers, Sambia, Sandakan, Sanuki Maru, Segovia, Sejrstad, Selun, Shanghai, Shantung, Shinano Maru, Siam, Siberia, Simla, Sirius (H.M.S.), Sishan, Sithonia, Suevia, Suisang, Sullberg, Tacoma, Taichiow, Taisang, Taishan, Taksang, Tamba Maru, Thales, Tientsin, Tjepanas, Tosa Maru, Tsurugisan Maru, Tydeus, Tyr, Valetta, Vengeance (H.M.S.), Wakasa Maru, Wuchang, Yuensang, Zafiro, Ziethen.

10. The entry of observations made at sea in degree squares for the area between 9° South and 45° North Latitude, and between the Longitude of Singapore and 180° East of Greenwich for the construction of trustworthy pilot charts, has been continued by Miss DOBERCK and 266,848 in all have now been entered.

Table I.

Meteorological Observations entered in 10° Squares from 1893–1903 inclusive.

Square Number.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar. April. May. June.

July.

Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov.

Dec.

A

19

1

9

0

0

0

0

5

.1

0

0

1

0

20

50

48

12

62

22

13

12

13

7

43

29

28

21

44

43

48

43

40

2

12

16

7

35

37

52

22

20

15

32

40

25

31

18

2

27

7

3

23

239 305

104

68

26

1

103

87

34

155

92

218

24

535 409

464

439 379

330

694 579

441

538

657

479

25

335

259

212

200

232 209

279

259

227

520

520

378

26

3210

2838

3386

3450

3683

3716

3876

4143

3869

3880

3390

3225

27

0

0

5

13

6

9

11

5

4

4

55

22

37

26

20

27

45

29

20

10

11

23

56

23

59

30

15

34

40

48

16

33

26

20

57

62

89

48

76

52

31

62

39

12

54

29

45

58

79

94

108

68

75

76

51

72

18

36

86

76

59

147

165

161

61

82 110

114

102

19

114

168

131

60

331 375 352

221

315

290

450

347

202

264

281

262

61

3692 3162 3741

3488 4143

4288

4505

4530

4385

4179

4153

3729

62

1974

1929

2183

2127

2278

2344

2183

2214

2238

2137

2041

2006

63

36

45

50

52

58

72

55

57

60

64

45

37

91

75

107

56

114

24

35

39

46

39

69

151

102

92

86

126

59

114

35

16

28

23

38

44

142

100

93

69

102

41

64

7

26

4

27

37

50

91

82

·

94

71

63

77

ང་

101

70

96

74

38

34

21

160

71

95

99

127

75

112

100

65

93

67

57

106

85

141

103

Table I.—Continued.

Square Number.

Jan.

Feb. Mar.

April. May. June. July.

July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov.

Dec.

96

2186

1993

2064

2025

2359- 2325 2408* 2304 2073 2248

2129

2056

97

950 945

1109

970

1000

1110

1072

1070

1083

1130

1162

1051

98

306

291

291

324

377

385

417

419

401

395

399

351

127

190

91

159

126

97

134

169

142

157

175

134

133

128

206

115

173

146

130

174

198

204

188

223

166

168

129

245

132

236

219

163

230

220

237

230

240

243

216

130

634

475

616

543

663

673

765

730

555

662

717

599

131

585

510

550

591

624

673

765

888

553

575

601

510

132

1807

1679

2212

2574

2926

2955

3271

3009

2713

2736

2631

1899

133

2

2

126

110

159

181

182

130

128

159

130

20

163

186

180

201

267

249

292

286

323

251

264

252

174

164

310

226

311

383

340

464

416

466

420

383

353

246

165

353

246

310 |

349

433

466

471

194

448

372

402

287

166

124

72

108

120

147

155

168

143

186

163

128

106

167

19

13

21

64

86

127

162

165

103

76

43

4

168

1

7

14

12

12

12

7

7

14

12

0

169

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

170

0

0

0

0

0

0.

0

199

63

37

59

90

70

78

74

69

88

75

55

200

12

2

5

1

4

23

7

13

1

201

0

0

0

0

202

0

0

0

203

0

0

0

2

1

318

1

21

15

19

NO

0

.7

319

53

43

55

27

∙10

2

4

30

11

33

320

4

7

16

26

23

51

21

10

7

30

2

10

321

0

1

0

14

19

15

2

17

22

20

15

322

66

39

44

60

86

70

101

79

99

84

78

51

323

470

271

361

243

249

208

328

253

261

272

316

337

324

440

346

230

145

100

117

179

184

310

100

191

392

325

377

317 362

448

463

518

608

672

727

546

419

365

326

0

*1

0

0

0

0

0

0

20778 18475 20872

20830 22506

23280

25081

24790 22816 23983 23139

20298

11. As stated in the "Instructions for making Meteorological Observations etc.", meteorological instruments forwarded by Observers who regularly send their registers to the Observatory are verified here free of cost. During the past year 1 barometer and 2 thermometers were verified. In addition, several hundred barometers and aneroids on board ship were compared with our standard. One azimuth compass was also verified.

12. Professors SHINJO, OTANI and YAYAYAMA, of the Imperial Japanese Geo- detic Commission, who were on a tour for the purpose of determining the constant of gravity and the magnetic elements at various places in the Far East, spent a fortnight at the Observatory in the spring, the magnetic hut being placed at their disposal for their work in Hongkong.

13. In 1903 the number of transits observed was 1,067. The axis of the transit instrument was levelled 217 times, and the azimuth and collimation errors, which are less liable to variation, were determined 10 times by aid of the meridiau mark. The whole of the observations have been made and reduced by Mr. J. I. PLUMMER, and are now ready for the press.

14. The standard sidereal clock by Dent continues to give complete satisfaction. It was cleaned and the rate altered on December 10. The platinum points of the contact springs have been twice cleaned, viz., on April 6 and November 18. The going of the Brock mean time clock continues to be very unsatisfactory. It was oiled anew on January 27, and several attempts have been made to bring its rate within reasonable limits, but have proved unsuccessful. The time-ball clock and the chronograph are both in good working order.

15. The errors of the time-ball are given below in Table II. The ball is not dropped on Sundays nor Government holidays. There was no failure in 1903. On six occasions the ball could not be hoisted, viz., on February 18 when repairs were being effected to the building, on July 14 owing to a thunderstorm, on July

104

18 when the line was in contact with the telephone line between the Observatory and the time-ball tower, on September 1 when the relay acting badly there was no discharge current, on September 7 when the repairs to the relay having been im- properly effected there was an opposing in place of a locking current, and on October 27 on the near approach of a typhoon. The ball was dropped successfully 296 times in 1903. The probable error was in January ± 03. 14, in February± 0.10, in March± 0.15, in April ± 0.14, in May ± 0.20, in June ± 0.13, in July ± 0.09, in August 0.09, in September± 0.14, in October ± 0.09, in November ± 0.12, and in December ±0.09.

Table II.

Errors of Time-Ball in 1903.

means too late.

+ means too early.

Date. Jan. Feb. March. April. | May.

June. July. August. Sept. October. Nov.

Dec.

S

S

$

S

S

S

0

123

+0.2

+0.3

0.1

+0.5

+0.2

0.1

+0.4

0.1

0.1

0.1

+0.3

-0.2

0.1

4

0.1 +0.5

0.1

0.1

0.1

2922-

S

S

S

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

5

-0.2

0.1 +0.6

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

6

0.1

0.1 +0.2

0.1

+0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

7

0.1

0.1 +0.3

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

8

0.1

0.1

0.1.

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

9

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

+0.2

10

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

+0.3

+0.3

11

0.1

+0.2

+ 0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

+0.4

12

0.1

0.1

0.1

...

0.1

0.1

0.1

...

+0.6

13

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

14

0.1

0.1

0.1

-0.4

0.1

0.1

+0.4

15

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

16

0.1

0.1

-0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

17

0.1

0.1

-0.2

0.1

+0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

1383338 : 182838

1888 1888888 1883333

اگرام

S

S

0.1

0.1

18

-0.2

...

0.1

0.1

+0.3

0.1

0.1

0.1

22222: 222222: 22222

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

19

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1 +0.5

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

...

20

0.1

0.1

-0.2

+0.3

0.1

+0.6

+0.2

0.1

0.1

+0.3

21

0.1

0.1

0.1

+0.4

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1 +0.6

0.1

22

0.1

+0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

23

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

24

0.1

0.1

0.1 +0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

25

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

26

+0.2

0.1

0.1

+1.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

27

+0.3

0.1

0.1

0.1 +1.5

0.1

0.1

0.1

-0.2

28

+0.4

0.1

0.1

0.1

+0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

29

0.1

+0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

30

+0.6

0.1

+0.2

0.1

+0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

31

+0.4

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

16. The cisterns of the barograph and standard barometers are placed 109 feet above M.S.L. The bulbs of the thermometers are rotated 108 feet above M.S.L., and 4 feet above the grass. The solar radiation thermometer is placed at the same height. The rim of the rain-gauge is 105 feet above M.S.L., and 21 inches above the ground.

17. The monthly Weather Reports are arranged as follows :--

Table I. exhibits the hourly readings of the barometer reduced to freezing point of water, but not to sea level nor for gravity, as measured (at two minutes to the hour named) from the barograms.

Tables II. and III. exhibit the temperature of the air and of evaporation as determined by aid of rotating thermometers. Table II. exhibits also the extreme temperatures reduced to rotating thermometer by comparisons of thermometers hung beside them. Table III. exhibits also the solar radiation (black bulb in vacuo) maximum temper- atures reduced to Kew arbitrary standard.

105

Table IV. exhibits the mean relative humidity in percentage of saturation and mean tension of water vapour present in the air in inches of mercury, for every hour of the day and for every day of the month, calculated by aid of BLANFORD's tables from the data in Tables II. and III.

Table V. exhibits the duration of sunshine expressed in hours, from half

an hour before to half an hour after the hour (true time) named. Table VI. exhibits the amount of rain (or dew) in inches registered from half an hour before to half an hour after the hour named. It ex- hibits also the observed duration of rain.

Table VII. exhibits the velocity of the wind in miles and its direction in points (1-32). The velocity is measured from half an hour before to half an hour after the hour named, but the direction is read off at the hour.

Table VIII. exhibits the amount (0-10), name (HOWARD's classification),

and direction whence coming of the clouds.

Where the names of upper and lower clouds are given, but only one direction, this refers to the lower clouds. With regard to the names of clouds; nimbus (nim) is entered only when the rain is seen to fall; when no rain is seen to fall cumulo-nimbus (cum-nim) is entered. This name indi- cates clouds intermediate between cum and nim. Cumulo-stratus (cum-str) is the well-known thunder cloud, while strato-cumulus (str-cum) signifies a cloud intermediate between stratus and cum. Sm-cum means alto-cumulus.

Table IX. exhibits for every hour in the day, the mean velocity of the wind reduced to 4 as well as 2 directions, according to strictly accurate formulæ, and also the mean direction of the wind.

Below this is printed a list of the phenomena observed.

18. The following annual Weather Report for 1903 is arranged as follows:--- Table III. exhibits the mean values for the year (or hourly excess above this) obtained from the monthly reports. The total duration of rain was 773 hours. There fell at least 0.01 inch of rain on 135 days. Table IV. exhibits the number of hours during a portion of which at least

0.005 inch of rain (or dew) was registered.

Table V. exhibits the number of days with wind from eight different points of the compass. The figures are obtained from the mean daily directions in Table VII. of the monthly reports. Days with wind from a point equidistant from two directions given, are counted half to one of these and half to the other, e.g., half of the days when the wind was NNE are counted as N, and the other half as NE. Table VI. exhibits the number of days on which certain meteorological phenomena were registered, and also the total number of thunder- storms noted in the neighbourhood during the past year.

Table VII. shows the frequency of clouds of different classes.

Table VIII. is arranged as last year.

Table IX. exhibits the monthly and annual extremes.

Table X. contains five-day means.

19. The observations of magnetic declination and horizontal force published in Tables XI. and XII. were made with magnet No. 55 on Kew pattern unifilar magnetometer ELLIOT BROTHERS No. 55. The dips were observed with dip-circle Dover No. 71.

The methods adopted in making observations and in determining and applying the corrections are explained in Appendix G of Observations and Researches made in 1885-"On the verification of the unifilar magnetometer ELLIOT BROTHERS No. 55." The value of log π 2K determined during the year, was 3.44914 at 25°. The value of l' was 6.10. The mean value of the magnetic moment of the vibrat- ing needle was 574.91.

Y

106

The times of vibration exhibited in Table XII. are each derived from 12 ob- servations of the time occupied by the magnet in making 100 vibrations, corrections having been applied for rate of chronometer and arc of vibration.

The observations of horizontal force given in Table XIII., are expressed in C.G.S. units. The vertical and total forces have been computed by aid of the observed dips.

The Honourable A. M. THOMSON,

Acting Colonial Secretary.

&c.,

I have, &c.,

&c.,

&c.

F. G. FIGG,

Acting Director.

i

X

11

I a.

>

Table III.

Mean Values and Hourly Excess above the mean of Meteorological Elements in 1903.

4 a.

5 a.

6a.

7 a.

Sa.

9 a.

10a.

11 a.

Noon.

1 p.

2 p.

3 p.

4 p.

5. p.

6 p.

7 p.

sp.

9 p.

10 p.

11 p.

Midt.

Mean or

Total.

2 a.

a.

Pressure,

Temperature,..

+.00.3

1.4

-.007

1.6

-.016 -019 —.014 1.8 1.9

-.001

2.1

2.0

1.5

.015 +.030 +.041 +.043 +.035 +.015 −.007 0.6 +0.3 +1.3 + 2.0 + 2.5

+ 2.5

-.028.040 044-040 -.030 + 2.4 + 2.2 + 1.8 + 1.1 +0.4

-.015 +.002 +.015 +.023 +.022 +.014 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.6

29.863

1.0

1.2

71.5

Diurnal Range,.

8.5

...

...

...

Humidity,

+

5 +

5 +

5 +

5

+

5 + 4

+

2

0

Vapour Tension,

+.003 +.005 4.001

-.002 .007 -.010

-.008

.009

Sunshine (Total)

1.1

36.4

113.7

Rainfall (Total).

4.060

3.040

4.475

3.590

6.810

5.235

4.260

Hours of Rain (Total),

32

41

33

38

49

44

Intensity of Rain,

0.127

0.074

0.136

0.094

0.139

0.119

Wind-Velocity,

1.2

1.6

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.3

Wind-Direction,

50

40

३०

19

30

Cloudiness,

2

I

2 -,000 .008 -.006 -.005 148.5 177.9 191.0 197.9 3.830 2.830 3.380 5.245 5.185

8.900

29 36

36 41 46 40 27 0.144

0.096 0.114 0.105

0.118 0.217 0.117 0.8 + 0.3 + 1.3 + 1.5 +2.7 + 2.4 + 2.6 5° 1o + 20 + 3o + 6°

30

+

4

6

7

7

6

6

5

3

0 + 1 +

2 +

3 +

3 +

4

+ 4

77

-.005

..004

-.001

.002

.002 +.002 +.005 +.010 +.011 +.013

.011

+.009

0.636

197.6 197.4

189.3

171.3

71.0

13.1

1706.2

2.035

2.970

2.925

4.970

2 680

3.920

4.415

3.530

1.575

1.905

1.875

93.650

29

30

33

35

0.142 0.089 0.070 0.099 +2.6+ 2.1 +1.7 +0.8 + 90 +10° + 8° + 6o † 4o + 3o f 2

30

0.089

33

30

29

20

35

36

841

0.119

0.147

0.122

0.051

0.054

0.032

0.111

p

0.7

1.2

1.6

1.3

1.4

1,5

1.3 12.2

3o

30

2

7°E 10° S

68

Solar Radiation, Excess of do.

118.6

42.3

...

Table IV.

Number of Hours during a portion of which it rained for each Month in the year 1903.

107,-

Month.

1 a.

2 a.

3 a.

4 a.

5 a.

6 a.

7 a.

8 a.

9 a.

10 a.

11 a. Noon. 1 p.

3 p.

2 p.

4 p.

5 p.

6 p.

7 p.

8 p.

9 p.

10 p. 11 p. Midt

Total.

3

INCONTRO-

1

CO - Co

5

3

2

2

I

4

6

6

8

7

1132OOOO7-20

2182 10 0 10 0 0

∞∞∞ co co co 1-02-0

32 42 ON N01-270

3

6

9

Hp - X ∞ ∞ ∞ 01 00 10 –

January,

February,

March,

April,

6

May,

June,

1

4

July,.

6

4

4

4

August,

6

6

6

5

September,

1

1

1

1

2

2

October,

1

0

1

1

0

November,

0

December,

()

1

()

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Total,.

32

41

33

38

49 44

36

41

46 40

27

20

36

29 30

33

35

30

33

30

29

29 35

1

2

10 10 10 0 - O

TION TO 1000-0

2

1

1

1

1

1

4

---OGOA ON 11

4

AHON HOOM 10 - OO

2

3

1

2

2

3

5

TTGCN CO JA JA LNIN

0

3

# 0100 1 - 0

1

5

30-0 00 00 10 CO <--O

2

OONDA A NO 00 00 ON

CO ON NO NEE IN NOO

CONG DO OF NO CO CO CO - pad

6

2

1

4021 10 10 10 10 0 – 2 O

00 = 10 00 HORES E72-0

55

18

59

48

111

108

118

130

139

30

22

3

333

36

841

MONTH.

108

Table V.

Number of Days with Wind from eight different points of the Compass during each Month of the year.

N.

NE.

E.

SE.

S.

SW.

W.

NW.

January,

7

6

16

2

February,

5

3

19

1

·

March,

1

25

1

1

1

April, May, June,

July,

August,

September,

I

18

1

6

1

1

1

21

1

2

7

1

16

1

16

6

7

2

3

12

26

2

6

October,

November,

December,

Total,.....

37

32

201

17

13

دین

17

1

1

8

12

1

1

6

16

1

:

40

13

7

MONTH.

Table VI.

Total Number of Days on which different Meteorological Phenomena were noted and Total Number of Thunderstorms during each Month of the year 1903.

Fog.

Phenomena.

Electric

Lightning.

Thunder.

Thunderstorms.

Unusual

Dew.

Visibility.

Rainbows.

Lunar Halo.

Lunar Corona.

January,

February,..

March,

April,

May,

June,

July,

August,.

September,

420∞ ∞ ~

: ܗ:

CON

1

2

2

1

1

October,

November,

December,

::

6

2

1

1

1

:

3

7

6

2

2

3

18

16

5

4

2

18

18

7

3

3

19

19

5

4

2

8

27

27

11

11

13

10

10

2

2

6

1

2

2

4

1

2

:

Total,.

28

103

99

33333

43

32

13

54

14

22

1

22

3

MONTH.

Table VII,

Total Number of Times that Clouds of different forms were observed in each Month of the year 1903.

C.

c-str.

e-cum. sm-cum.

cum. cum-str.

str.

R-cum. cun-nim.

nim.

January,

14

February, March, April, May, June,

30 03

8

60

111

34

7

20

54

128

39

4

10

19

125

27

36

51

4

25

143

23

13

26

11

43

135

13

28

47

8

27

37

187

5

9

28

July,.

August,...

September,

October,

27

19

November,

17

December,....

35

NOORES

59

20

188

19

41

56

165

29

30

141

1

15

11

42

147

4

40

86

4

43

47

21:00 011- TO

10

31

5

47

9

51

10

19

4

10

5

2

Total,

169

197

469

1,603

حكم

168

2

140

342

A

Solar Halo.

Solar Corona.

109

Table VIII.

Mean

Baro-

Diurnal Weight

RAINFALL.

Variabi- of

MONTH.

metric

Tide.

lity of Aqueous

Hourly OF CLOUDS Intensity WHENCE COMING.

of

MEAN DIRECTION NUMBER OF DAYS.

WITH

CLOUDS BELOW.

Temper- Vapour. (1884-1903

Mean.

Rain.

1903.

Lower.

Upper. 2,000 ft. 1,000 ft.

ature.

inclus.)

O

January,

0.106

2.30

3.82

1.323

1.370

0.029

E 8 SW 3 S

7

4

February,

0.097

2.33

4.05

1.860

0.210

0.008

E 12 SW 15 N

7

6

March,.

0.106

2.54

6.33

2.630

2.655

0.026

S 35 DW 5 S

25

Co

April,.

0.098 2.44

7.16

5.561

4.725

0.067

S 36 EW 18 S

15

May,

0.073

1.92

8.21

13.432

13.960

0.112

S 34 E

W 16 S

22

1

June,

0.068

1.24

9.52 16.797

25.230

0.315

S 35 W W 34 N

12

1

July,

0.066

0.98

9.66

13.321

11.160

0.189

S 31 EN 21 E

12

1

August,

0.069

1.34

9.51

14.219

14.970

0.166

S40 WIN 3 W

12

1

September,

0.083

0.87

8.72

8.209

16.535

0.143

E 6 SN 18 W

13

October,

0.093

1.58

6.89

4.725

1.660

0.057

E 15 N E 6 N

2

Novembr,

0.114

2.07

4.62

1.711

1.090

0.044

E 23 N W 20 S

1

December,

0.111

2.42

3.50

1.030

0.085

0.042

E 1 SW 11 S

2

Mean or Total, 0.090 1.84

6.83

84.818 93.650

0.121

E 39 S W 35 N

130

26

Table IX.

Monthly Extremes of the Principal Meteorological Elements registered during the year 1993.

WIND RADIA-

BAROMETER. TEMPERATURE.

DITY.

HUMI- VAPOUR TENSION.

RAIN.

VELO-

TION.

CITY.

MONTH.

Max.

Min. Max. Min. Min.

Max. Min.

Daily Hourly Max. Max.

Sun

Max.

Max.

January,

30.509

29.809 73.8

46.2

17

0.683 0.074 0.815 0.170 32

123.5

February,

30.364 29.872 72.8

41.9

43

0.649 0.194| 0.140| 0.045

33

127.6

March,

30.089

29.656 79.8

56.2

42

0.777 0.275 0.835 0.480

37

130.7

April,

30.134

29.593 83.5

62.0

46

0.868 0.332 3.215 1.570

39

135.7

May,

June,

29.967

29.572 87.0

66.3

39

0.942 0.336 3.595 1.250

40

139.1

29.869

July,

August,

September,

October,....

November,

29.448 90.5 73.4

29.811 29.329 92.4 73.8 57

29.872 29.389 91.2

29.916 29.577 87.7

30.168 29.457 87.1

30.207

29.797 85.3 46.7

57

1.000 0.762| 8.505| 2.200

33

145.3

1.091 0.751 2.920 1.000

33

147.5

73.1 61

1.093 0.728 3.465| 1.570

42

142.7

73.0 55

0.956 0.606 3.340 1.025

31

134.8

57.4 35

0.849 0.291 1.050 0.255

46

137.5

19

0.680 0.118 1.025 0.185

34

133.3

December,

30.298 29.815 74.7 45.8

8

0.672 0.044 0.075 0.060

34

124.1

Year,..

30.509 29.329 92.4 41.9

8

1.093 0.044 8.505 2.200

46

147.5

110

Table X.

Five-Day Means of the Principal Meteorological Elements observed at Hongkong in 1903.

FIVE-DAY PERIODS.

Barometer.

Temper-

Humidity.

ature.

Wind Vapour Tension. Velocity.

Nebulosity. Sunshine.

Rain.

January

1- 5

30.214

50.2

62

0.320

13.0

2.6

7.4

0.000

6-10

.200

55.8

48

.220

16.1

7.8

2.8

0.027

>>

.11-15

.029

55.7

79

352

7.3

9.8

1.0

0.231

16-20

.029

57.3

51

.258

14.4

6.1

5.2

0.000

.21-25

.014

64.4.

79

.482

33.0

7.7

3.8

0.003

""

.26-30

29.988

58.7

86

.445

7.6

9.6

1.2

0.012

#

31-4

30.108

49.5

75

.266

4.1

9.2

1.4

0.036

February

5- 9

.232

57.0

61

.285

13.0

8.0

3.6

0.000

10-14

.121

59.6

80

.415

13.7

9.7

0.5

0.000

.15-19

.187

59.6

72

372

15.5

5.7

5.3

0.000

.20-24

.237

59.5

65

331

15.2

6.3

3.7

0.000

29

.25- 1

29.957

64.8

.509

10.7

7.2

2.7

0.007

وو

March

2-6

.845

64.0

93

.558

20.4

9.6

0.1

0.151

7-11

.839

66.9

93

.620

14.4

9.2

1.9

0.145

"

.12-16

.801

68.5

90

.632

11.6

9.8

1.3

0.034

"}

17-21

.927

62.0

$8

.491

13.0

10.0

0.0

0.034

""

02-26

.969

67.6

80

.583

17.2

7.5

4.0

0.000

31

.27-31

.855

69.8

80

.618

15.3

8.3

3.5

0.167

""

April

1- 5

.892

69.8

78

.586

10.9

8.0

2.1

0.039

6-10

.910

71.1

77

.592

9.9

4.9

5.9

0.000

""

.11-15

.869

72.6

90

.722

15.8

9.3

2.3

0.015

12

16-20

.880

72.2

83

.659

14.9

6.3

4.4

0.091

">

21-25

.716

76.2

84

.758

9.8

8.1

2.4

0.054

""

.26-30

.800

72.1

85

.669

18.0

9.8

0.2

0.746

""

May

1- 5

.852

71.2

91

.699

20.1

9.5

0.8

0.013

6-10

.833

73.4

77

.035

15.6

7.9

3.2

0.262

وو

.11-15

.774

75.7

87

.772

12.3

9.8

1.6

0.680

""

16-20

.712

78.2

89

.855

12.2

9.7

1.5

1.208

""

.21-25

.725

76.1

87

.781

9.5

9.4

1.3

0.451

""

.26-30

.814

77.0

89

.829

14.8

6.2

5.9

0.058

""

..31- 4

.801

81.3

83

.884

7.9

2.6

10.6

0.000

""

June

5-9

.770

82.8

80

.892

11.6

5.5

10.1

0.040

""

..10-14

.734

83.7

78

.897

10:2

7.5

6.8

0.019

15-19

.502

81.4

84

.899

14.3

9.8

0.5

0.583

"

20-24

.594

82.1

84

.922

11.5

8.0

4.2

0731

رو

.25-29

.000

79.8

""

..901

12.3

9.8

0.0

3.600

.30- 4

.636

82.3

.908

10.9

8.3

8.6

0.151

July

5- 9

.598

82.4

.908

8.7

8.1

6.9

0.313

10-14

.675

80.1

.901

16.0

9.1

4.3

0.587

15-19

.720

80.0

87

.911

10.5

7.4

5.0

0.087

""

20-24

.072

81.1

85

.002

9.9

"

4.6

9.0

0.200

25-29

.570

82.7

81

.912

16.2

6.3

81

0.216

30- 3

463

84.6

83

.988

8.2

6.8

6.3

0.527

August

4- 8

583

82.7

82

.921

14.6

7.2

4.7

0.145

9-18

723

82.1

83

.910

8.5

6.9

6.7

0.131

"

"}

14-18

(132

-

78.0

90

.864

5.8

9.4

1.8

0.924

.19-23

.749

80.5

85

.882

7.0

5.3

6.0

0.296

.24-28

.717

78.9

87

.856

8.3

""

5.6

5.0

0.278

.29-

.687

79.7

86

.874

6.3

7.0

8.5

1.292

September

8- 7

.741

77.3

89

.838

11.8

9.1

8.0

0.900

8-12

.070

76.7

92

.845

16.2

">

10.0

0.3

1.750

..13-17

.815.

79.6

87

874

9.3

4.5

83

0.038

18-22

.838

79.8

""

80

.812

9.2

4.3

6.9

0.073

Q8-07

.827

79.1

75

.748

15.1

2.8

9.3

0.008

.28-2

.747

80.5

74

.774

18.2

4.0

7.5

0.000

October.

3- 7

753

79.3

67

.673

8.5

6.0

5.8

0.600

8-12

.820

77.5

79

.741

14.0

>>

8.0

8.2

0.101

B-17

.870

76.4

""

73

.005

14.0

3.7

7.3

0.000

18-22

.701

77.8

64

.598

12.5

5.6

0.0

0.018

23-27

715

76.6

75

.687

20.7

7.6

B.S

0.910

28- 1

30 075

06.0

59

.876

12.7

5.6

7.5

0.000

November

2-6

29.932

71.1

69

531

5.0

2.8

8.67

0.000

7-11

.941

""

69.9

48

.360

12.0

3.7

8.5

0.000

.12-16

.970

07.9

63

""

.437

10.2

1.6

8.2

0.000

.17-21

.970

68.9

22

79

580

9.7

6.5

3.1

0.212

22-20

20.086

65.4

65

""

.40%

11.8

6.2

6.5

0.006

.27-1

.079

69.0

46

233

6.9

86

7.1

0.000

December

2-6

.151

58 7

34

.174

13.8

3.1

8.4

0.000

7-11

20.940

62.7

11

64

868

10.7

2.5

8.0

0.000

12-16

9.3

66.5

>>

80

143

6.7

4.3

0.015

..17-21

30.106

58.4

51

""

202

13.1

42

6.7

0.000

22-20

.102

59.3

50

>>

.900

11.2

7.2

0.000

27-81

.043

60.9

58

313

9.7

8.0

0.000

I

111

Table XI.

Observations of Magnetic Declination and Dip.

1903.

H.K.M.T.

Declination East.

Observer.

H.K.M.T.

Dip North.

Needle

Observer.

No.

February,

174.3.18.p.

April,.

14 3 4 p.

0° 13' 30"

0 14 5

F.G.F.

130.4. 7p. 31° 12′.51

13 .77

16 3 55 p.

10 .64

"

9.77

June,

16 3 15 p.

0 12 45

"

12 3 46 p.

9 .92

004 00 H-00

F.G.F.

"

10.65

August,

October,....

12 3 23 p.

15 3 18

0 13 32

17 3 53 p.

12.12

""

12 .31

P.

✪ 13 13

13 3 52 p.

13 .34

11.62

December,.

15 3 15 p.

0 13 40

16 3 39 p.

10 .65 11.84

>>

in

1

Table XII.

Observations of Horizontal Magnetic Force.

1903.

H.K.M.T.

Time of

one

Distance Tem-

Vibration.

Tem- perature Cent.

Value of

Log mX.

H.K.M.T.

M.

in Cen-perature Deflection. timetres. Cent.

Log

X

Walne ofi Obser-

X.

veľ.

February....... 16d4h-16m.p.

3.6483 20°.95

2.32624

575.44 164.3.43m.p.

30

199.9

6° 38' 28" .7

3.19877 0.36833 | F.G.F.

{}

2 47 15.6

4 48 p.

30

19 .2

6 38 36 .3

40

2 47 21 .2

April,

15 3 48 p.

3 6534

27.7

2.32024

575.24 15 3 14 p.

B0

27 4

6 36 40 .0

3.19346 0.36846

40

2 46 36 .9

4 32 P.

80

26.6

40

6 37 7.5 12 46 46 .9

June,..

15 3 42 p.

3 .6563 30.0

2.32597

574.0815 3

4 p.

80

29 .8

40

6 35 43 .7 2 46 12 5

3.19280 0.86542

4 21 p.

30

20 .2

6 35 58 .8

40

2 46 18 .7

Angust,

14 3 44 p.

3 .6571

31.2

2.32589

574.78 14 3 11 p.

30

30..6

6 35 41.2

8.19312 0.06840

40

2 46 6.9

4 19 P.

30

27 .9

6 36 30.0

40

2 46 46.2

October,

14 3 50 p. 3 .6506 27.2

2.32532

574.53 14 3 13 p.

30

26 .9

6 36 46 .2

3.19880 0.30814

40

2 46 37 5

4 29 p.

30

25 .9

6 37 63

40

2 46 41 3

December.

14 3 40 p.

3 .6517

23.8

2.32511

574.82 14 2 48 p.

30

21 .8

6 38 22.5

2.19896 08777

40

9 47 11 .9

4 16 p.

30

22 .0

6 38 16 2

40

47 13 7

Month.

Table XIII.

Results of Magnetic Observations made in 1903.

Magnetic Force.

Declination East.

Dip North.

X.

1.

Total.

February,

0° 13' 30"

31° 13' 8"

0.30833

0.22323

0.43071

April,

14 5

10 12

0.36846

0.22288

0.43063

June,

12 45

10 17

0.36862

0.22299

0.43082

August,

13 32

12 13

0.30846

0.22818

0.43078

October,

December,

13 13

12 29

0.36811

0.22302

0.430-43

13 40

11 15

0.36777

0.22262

0.42980

Mean,

0 13 28

31 11 36

0.80830

0.22299

0.43055

No.

1904

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE WIDOWS' AND ORPHANS' PENSION FUND, FOR THE YEAR 1903.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

THE WIDOWS' AND ORPHANS' FUND,

HONGKONG, 1st February, 1904.

SIR,-We have the honour to submit the following report on the Widows' and Orphans' Pension Fund for the year 1903.

2. The amount to the credit of the Fund on the 31st December last was $163,162.46, including $8,496.77 for interest, as per statement appended.

3. The average monthly contributions amount now to about $2,100.

4. On the 31st December, 1902, the number of contributors on the books was 415, and on the 31st December, 1903, 435, of whom 178 are bachelors, 250 are married men, and 7 are widowers.

5. During the period under review 117 officers joined the Fund, 50 left and 6 died.

6. The total number of children on the books is 347.

7. There are in the list 21 pensioners, whose pensions aggregate $2,281.92 per annum, as follows:-

Mrs. Beavin,

Moosdeen,

14.45

63.67

5)

""

Moore,

239.85

""

Chan Tai,

54.85

Alarakia,

195.54

""

Chu Tsau,

81.62

""

Wong Yau Hiu,

5.12

Lo Lai Shi,.

113.26

"}

Wildey,

247.63

Ho Yau Tsoi,

187.51

55

Gutierrez,

236.19

>>

Robertson,.

163.78

""

Cheung Hon Shi,

17.86

1)

Freire,

41.99

Duncan,.

215.68

Wong Fung Shi,.

99.40

Hood,

45.04

23

Leung Wong Shi,

34.08

2)

Sun Au-Yung Shi,

99.46

Ku Yui Kyau,................

94.03

Miss Jalikar Madar,

30.91

$2,281.92

8. The causes of withdrawals are given as 44 resignations and 6 dismissals from Government Service, and the remarks in our special report apply to these.

9. Of the 6 subscribers who died, 3 were Chinese of the ages of 24, 27 and 57, respectively; as these men died in China no cause of death can be assigned.

10. One of the Europeans whose death was not reported till January, ought possibly not to appear in the accounts for 1903. He died in England and no cause

is known.

42

11. Of the others, one died of alcoholism and another of heat apoplexy and it is obvious that we cannot make any remarks as to the death-rates at different ages called for by the Actuary.

"We have &c.,

L. A. M. JOHNSTON,

Chairman.

C. McI. MESSER,

E. H. D'AQUINO, Directors. ARTHUR CHAPMAN,

S. B. C. Ross,

Acting Colonial Secretary,

&c.,

&e.

The Honourable A. M. TпoMSON,

ge.,

Balanco 1st January, 1993,

Contributions,

Less Refunds,

Interest,

STATEMENT OF WIDOWS AND ORPHANS' FUND

UP TO 31ST DECEMBER, 1903.

$132,388.81

Pensions paid to Widows,

$ 2,867.53

$26,310.23 425.07

**

Orphans,

60.09

25,885.16

8,496.77

Sums paid on the cancelment of membership, Expenses of management,

617.16

540.00

Printing,

23.50

Balance on the 31st December, 1903.

168,162.46

$166,770.74

$166.770.74

To Amount of the Fund,

$162,680.84

Luclained Pensions :-

">

Moosdcen's children,

26.54

Chan Tai,

Alarakia,

Chu Tsan,

Wong Yan Liu..

Wildey,

Robertson,

Freiro,

Hood,

Leung Wong Shi,

Wong Fang Sui,

36.59

81.47

64.41

3.41

20.63

13.65

7.00 89.23

27.11

121.58

$163,162,46

By Balanco deposited with the Government.. $163,162.46

$163,162.46

HONGKONG.

No. 1904

41

RESEARCH

INTO

EPIDEMIC AND EPIZOOTIC PLAGUE,

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

BACTERIOLOGICAL SUB-DEPARTMENT,

HONGKONG, 9th June, 1904.

SIR.

I have the honour to submit, for the consideration of His Excellency the

Officer Administering the Government, the following Special Report on the

Results of my Researches into Epidemic and Epizootic Plague.

I have, &c.,.

The Honourable

J. M. ATKINSON, M.B., ETC.,

Principal Civil Medical Officer,

etc.,

etc..

etc.

WILLIAM HUNTER,

Government Bacteriologist.

526

PREFACE.

In forwarding this report to the Government I would mention that I have been for many years a firm believer in the fact that infection frequently occurs through the gastro-intestinal tract. I would here repeat what I stated in my report to the Government on the prevalence of Bubonic Plague in the year 1896:-

"The main channel by which the bacillus gains access to the body appears to be by the digestive tract..

In most cases the mucus membrane of the alimentary tract, from the stomach downwards, has been found distinctly hyperamic, the membrane being thickly coated with mucus and presenting petechia and inflammatory patches. The mesenteric and retro-peritoneal glands in all cases were inflamed and in many cases surrounded by sanguineous effusion, the gland tissue itself being softened and crowded with plague bacilli. In many of the cases these were the only post-mortem appearances to be found.

Rats, mice, monkeys, pigs and fowls have been proved to have acquired plague after having been fed with fragments of organs of animals that have died of the disease. The fœces of those attacked undoubtedly contain the plague bacilli.

Infection of the skin (inoculation) occurs but very rarely, if this were the fre- quent mode of infection we should find more often inflammatory affections of the skin, as when animals are infected subcutaneously well marked inflammatory changes at the seat of inoculation always occur.

Again, the external glandular affections (buboes), from which the disease derives its name, are not met with as a rule until some three or four days after the period of invasion.

If infection by the skin is the rule one would expect, as WILM has pointed out, that axillary buboes would be quite as common as inguinal ones; this however is not the case.

As against the theory that the channel of reception of the bacillus is the respi- ratory tract (ie., infection through the air), may be adduced the immunity of those who attend the patients and of the Sanitary Staff who superintended and were engaged in the inspection and disinfection of the infected houses. The plague ba- cillus has not been detected in the air, many examinations were made of the air of the wards at the Plague Hospital but always with negative results. The plague ba- cillus also does not survive dessication.

The main channels of infection therefore appear to be the digestive tract and the skin.

In 1896 many cases occurred without the formation of buboes, during the height of the epidemic the percentage of these cases was twenty and towards the end as high as twenty-seven.

In all cases the disease was diagnosed as plague by demonstrating the presence of the bacillus in the blood or by culture experiments of the blood, fœces or urine."

*

As regards the microscopical examination of the blood and the diagnosis of plague, this method was perfected last year by the examination of blood films accord- ing to Ross' method, in this way much more of the blood is examined at one time and in typical cases of the disease one always finds plague bacilli present.

Playne a Septicamic Disease.

The reasons given in this report for considering plague a septicæmic disease appear to be conclusive, they are briefly

.) The fact that by Ross' method plague bacilli are found in the blood

in living cases in considerable numbers;

527

(ii.) The presence of plague bacilli in bubonic cases before the formation

of the bubo: and

(iii.) The presence of plague bacilli in the blood of patients convalescing

from this disease.

Avenues of Infection in Plague.

Dr. HUNTER's investigations lead him to the conclusion that it is chiefly through the alimentary canal that the bacillus enters the body, this raises the important question of the possibility of food infection.

In the Annual Report of the Medical Department for 1898 I drew attention to the fact that outbreaks of what was known as rinderpest in cattle had preceded the epidemics of 1894, 1896 and 1998.

In the earlier months of 1898 the neighbouring provinces of Kwantung and Kwangsi were overrun with this disease which killed off large numbers of cattle. Dr. MACDONALD of Wenchow wrote me in that year "that preceding the outbreak of plague in that town there was an epidemic of rinderpest in the native cattle.'

19

Again in 1896 an epidemic occurred amongst the pigs imported to the Colony from Hoihow. Dr. WILM and myself examined several of the pigs and the symp- toms and post-mortem appearances found were similar to those met with in cattle which had died of rinderpest. In the light of recent researches these diseases must have been of the nature of hemorrhagic septicemia. A similar epidemic occurred amongst pigs in and around Canton preceding the outbreak of plagne there in 1898.

In 1899 Cheung Chau, a small island sixteen miles from Hongkong, was attacked with plague and an epidemic of a similar nature prevailed amongst the pigs on this island prior to the outbreak in man, and distinct evidence was obtained that pigs which had died of this disease had been used as food. Suggestive as these facts were of the possibility of infected food spreading the disease it was impossible for us with our then limited staff to follow up these investigations.

On the arrival of Professor SIMPSON in 1902 I told him of these outbreaks and particularly of the one at Cheung Chau and suggested how important it would be to carry out experiments in regard to the susceptibility of animals to plague

infection.

The results of these experiments are given in Professor SIMPSON's Report on the Causes and Continuance of Plague in Hongkong published in 1903. They proved that pigs, calves, sheep, monkeys, fowls, &c., are more or less susceptible to plague of a fatal nature; that they take the infection by feeding as well as by inoculation and that the type of plague induced by feeding is usually septicemic.

Dr. HUNTER, as his report shows, has further investigated the possibilty of the infection being communicated by way of food.

He has shown that the plague bacillus grows exceedingly well in media, prepared with rice. He has found plague bacilli in the cheapest and most inferior quality of rice; rats fed with this rice contracted the disease, guinea pigs fed with it gave similar results, so that there can be no doubt that infected rice may spread the disease. This quality is used as food by the poorer class of Chinese.

The spread of plague infection by insects is an interesting chapter, this occurs indirectly by infecting food and household utensils.

Occurrence of Disease in Animals.

This report shows conclusively the important part played by rats, that are suffering from plague, in conveying the infection to man. The presence of chronic rat plague is dealt with very fully and it is this chronic rat plague which Dr. HUNTER thinks bridges over the intervals between successive epidemics. Again other animals such as cats, fowls, calves, sheep and pigs, &c., are susceptible to plague infection and may become elements of danger.

528

He concludes that plague is primarily epizootic and within a week or fortnight becomes epidemic in man.

Climatic Influences.

Dr. HUNTER does not think these have any effect on the progress or otherwise of the disease. The fact that in Hongkong the epidemics always subside when the mean daily temperature exceeds 82. F. may be accounted for by the fact that the higher the temperature the shorter the life of the bacillus.

Prophylaxis.

The first thing appears to be to attack the rats. The recent results obtained by Professor Roux in producing an epidemic amongst rats in the Department of Charente in France by means of a virulent strain of DANYZ's bsacillus justifies one in the hope that we may yet be able to rid the Colony of these pests.

Another measure almost of as great importance to my mind is the general cleansing of the native tenements, which has been carried out so successfully in this Colony during the past two years; associated with this must be the thorough disin- fection of all infected premises.

With regard to prophylaxis, Dr. HUNTER raises the question of the possibility of the occurrence of latent cases of plague in human beings; if this be true, viz., that an individual apparently in good health may yet be harbouring enormous numbers of plague germs, one can easily understand how such an one might be scattering the germs broadcast.

I have said enough to show that this report is well worth perusal and contains evidence of much careful investigation into this disease from every point of view.

HONGKONG, 21st June, 1904.

J. M. ATKINSON, Principal Civil Medical Officer.

529

1904.

A RESEARCH

INTO

EPIDEMIC

AND

EPIZOOTIC PLAGUE

BY

WILLIAM HUNTER

GOVERNMENT BACTERIOLOGIST, HONGKONG

HONGKONG:

PRINTED BY NORONHA & Co.

Government and General Printers and Publishers

63 & 65, Des Vœux Road Central

1904

r

531

CONTENTS.

1. The Symptom Complex of Plague.

2. The Relations existing between the different Types of Plague.

3. Sex Incidence.

4. Age Incidence.

5. Occupation Incidence.

6. Pathological Anatomy.

7. Pathological Conditions complicating Plague.

8. Buboes and their Significance.

9. The Bacillus Pestis.

10. The Length of Life of the Bacillus Pestis.

11. The Avenues of Infection in Plague.

12. The Paths of Elimination of the Bacillus Pestis.

13. Air as a Carrier of Plague Infection.

14. Water Supplies in Plague.

15. Infection from Plague Corpses.

16. The Spread of Plague by Insects.

17. The Importance of Food in Plague. 18. The Principles of General Prophylaxis. 19. The Principles of Special Prophylaxis.

20. Epizootic Plague.

21. Plague in Rats.

22. The Relation of the Epidemic to the Epizootic.

23. The Bridging of Epidemics.

24. The History of the Course and Relations of Epizootic and Epidemic

Plague in Health Districts of Hongkong during the year 1902.

25. Charts of the Course of Epizootic and Epidemic Plague during 1902. 26. The History of the Course and Relations of Epizootic and Epidemic

Plague in the Health Districts of Hongkong during the

with Charts.

27. The History of the Initial Stages of the Outbreak of 1904.

year 1903,

:

28. The Course and Relations of Epizootic and Epidemic Plague during the

Inter-Epidemic Intervals, 1902-03 and 1903-04.

39. Plague in Cats.

30. Plague in Mice.

31. The Susceptibility of Animals, in general, to Plague Infection.

32. General Conclusions in regard to Epizootic Plagne.

33. Spontaneous Epizootic Plague.

34. Statistics.

WILLIAM HUNTER.

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The Symptom Complex of Plague.

It is not my intention to enter into any detailed description of the symptoms and physical signs of Plague. Many excellent accounts of these have been given by those interested in the disease. The phases of the disease in Hongkong are in accordance with those found in other parts of the world..

My reason for discussing the clinical aspect of plague is, that certain symp- toms complained of by individuals during the earliest stages of the disease, appear to have attracted but scant attention. It is unfortunate that these have not been fully investigated, because from my researches, some of these symptoms are indi- cative of the starting point of the disease, and the deductions drawn from their appearance are verified by the results obtained after death.

It would appear that the majority of medical men, actively engaged in dia- gnosing the presence or absence of plague infection in man, have restricted their enquiries to the prominent symptoms and signs of the disease, paying but little attention to the exact mode of onset of the affection, and such symptoms which may have been present previous to the occurrence of fever-a bubo, etc.-or even before they come under the eye of the plague expert.

the cases.

The diagnosis of cases of plague has to be made as soon as possible. During plague epidemics, the time at the disposal of those in charge of plague patients is fully occupied. Little or no attention can be paid to the detailed clinical aspect of Consequently in plague infected localities, the clinical observations have rarely gone beyond the classical symptoms of the disease-namely, those upon which the physician depends in order to arrive at a correct diagnosis. Again the clinical features presented by cases of plague are not so carefully enquired into now-a-days, owing to the introduction of more rapid and accurate means of arriving at a diagnosis, namely, the demonstration in the tissues of the causal agent itself- the Bacillus pestis.

any-

In connection with my researches into the clinics of plague, I have asked myself, whether those well known symptoms of the disease are the only impor- tant evidences of plague, or whether there exist others, and if so, do these add thing to our knowledge of the pathology of the disease? The B. pestis does not produce a soluble toxin. The poison which it produces is intimately bound up with the bacterial protoplasm. It is of the nature of a protein. It is very lethal. Widespread evidence is present, in every case of plague, of its powerful action. All organs and tissues of the body are profuudly altered. The circulatory appa- ratus of the body is one of the systems most affected by the plague poison. All cases of plague show an early and extreme cardiac weakness. The heart beat is quickened, the pulse dicrotic, and becoming towards the close of life threadlike.

The

The exact pathology of this action of the plague poison on the cardiac apparatus is as yet undetermined. It would appear to act centrally. In all cases there occur marked chromatolytic changes in the nerve cells of the brain. appearance presented by the central nervous tissue in a case of plague, is similar to that found after death from acute intoxication due to some poison. The fever curve is far from typical. It usually rises suddenly to an appreciable height, and subsequently maintains an elevated position with morning remissions. Such remissions may be extreme. AS WILM says, no criterion of the severity of a case is afforded by the temperature chart. Patients may be supposed to be progressing favourably towards recovery and the physician in charge may have pronounced the prognosis as good, yet on his arrival the following day, he is told that the patient died suddenly during the night. Such is the history of many cases. It shows the dangers of giving an early prognosis in cases of plague. Experienced plague physicians avoid as much as possible the question of prognosis until the patient is well into a state of convalescence. It is the cardiac apparatus which one has to deal with, and it is to this system that the physician must exert his best skill.

Again intense headache with a feeling of giddiness is one of the earliest complaints. This is usually accompanied by persistent vomiting. The patients when brought to Hospital often appear as if intoxicated with alcohol. The sensorium is profundly affected, often accompanied by somnolence and great prostration.

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The speech is also regarded as characteristic. The conjunctivæ are usually intensely injected and often there is marked photophobia. Jerking movements of the muscles accompanied by a sort of intention tremor are usually present in typical cases.

These are among the most important symptoms usually described in character- istic cases of plague. They are followed by the development of the so-called types of the disease, namely, the bubonic, pneumonic and septicemic plagues. These clinical symptoms, aided by the demonstration of the specific cause in an individual complete the diagnosis. As already noted, such diagnoses have to be made as rapidly as possible during an epidemic. There is a constant influx of patients and with the preparation of the various necessaries requisite for their treatment, the time of plague officers is fully occupied. Consequently I venture to state that in the majority of cases a careful note of all the initial manifestations of the disease has not been made. Again trustworthy accounts of the earliest symptoms of the disease are difficult to obtain. The majority of patients are not brought to Hospital until a day or two after the onset of the disease, and even on reaching the Hospital the sensorium of these patients is so altered that a reliable account of the onset of the disease is either unattainable on untrustworthy.

The initial manifestations of the disease, which I regard as having been to a great extent lost sight of, are those arising from the gastro-intestinal tract.

In the varions Reports on Plague, including those of the Commissions, mere mention is made of the occurrence of diarrhoea and vomiting. Their appearance is apparently regarded as ordinary symptoms occurring during the advent of an acute in- fectious disease.

WILM, however, in his Report on Plague in Hongkong in 1896, describes shortly the occurrence of such manifestations and lays some stress upon them. On page 9 of this report we find the following:-"The symptoms of disorder of the digestive tract were very numerous. At the outset of the disease the tongue usually became swollen, bright red at the tip and edges, and was covered with a greyish white fur. Usually on the second or third day of the disease, the fur became brownish or black, and dried in a crust. The tongue becomes cracked and fissured so that it soon resembles that seen in typhus or in enteric fever about the third week of the disease. The lips soon become dry and often fissured, the mucous membrane of the mouth and pharynx was usually bright red. The appetite disappeared. There was frequently uncontrollable vomiting and great thirst, with a painful sensation of heat in the stomach and the lower part of the abdomen. The vomit was sometimes watery, sometimes bilious, sometimes like coffee grounds. Diarrhoea was frequent at the outset and again in the later stages of the disease

Blood, mucus, and epithelium frequently appeared

in the stools."

WILM concluded, as the result of his observations, that an intestinal type of plague existed. He says "that in 20% of the cases, the intestinal symptoms were so predominant, that the illness had to be regarded as essentially an intestinal affection."

WILM's results do not appear to have attracted a great deal of attention. The members of the various Indian Plague Commissions do not deny the existence of such a type of the disease, yet were unable to support it. Such a type of plague is put down by them as a form specially met with in Hongkong, and of no great importance so far as the pathogenesis of the disease is concerned."

On my arrival in Hongkong, I was prepared to meet with the classical types of plague, as laid down in the various Reports. My experience of plague at the Mortuary confirmed the presence of these types. At the same time I was struck by the appearances presented post-mortem. According to the type of case ex- amined, buboes, pneumonias, etc., were found and the general morbid alterations in the tissues and organs more or less harmonised with my expectations. What seemed to me to be wanting in the reports on the pathological aspects of these cases, was a description of the appearances presented by the gastro-intestinal canal.

In the vast majority of cases examined post-mortem, a careful examination of the

gut showed the presence of pathological change. Previous to the disturbance of the contents of the abdomen, one could observe on opening the peritoneal cavity, patchy congestion of the stomach: and intestines. The vessels leading to

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and from the gut were engorged and in their neighbourhood small hæmorrhagic extravasations were frequently found. On examination more closely, the gut was found to be thickened, oedematous with occasional hæmorrhages between its different tunics. The mucous membrane was usually much congested, thickened and pulpy. Numerous extravasations of blood of varying size were found, and in some places actual erosion and ulceration had taken place. In a few cases the humen of the gut was found to contain brownish black tarry material, evidently blood changed in colour owing to the action of HS. The changes were most marked in the lower small intestine, and gradually diminished in severity towards the stomach. In the stomach and duodenum the changes were sometimes extremely pronounced, but such usually occurred in patches of limited extent. Again enormous hæmorrhages are frequently found into the mucous membrane of the stomach. On examining the mesentery and contained lymphatic glands, changes were also found. The mesentery itself was often considerably thickened and sodden from cedema, with marked capillary injection. Large hæmorrhages were also found.

The lymphatic glands were also affected. They were enlarged and congested, and on section were found to be cedematous and often hæmorrhagic. All these changes will be discussed at greater length under the results of post-mortem examinations.

Having satisfied myself as to the more or less constancy of well marked intestinal changes in all varieties of the disease, I looked for assistance or con- firmation of the presence of these lesions. The literature on

The literature on plague was of little value. Beyond the mere mention of certain pathological changes in the intestine, no further comments are made. I consulted Professor SIMPSON, pointing out to him these changes. He agreed with these statements which I have just made, and told me that, to the naked eye, the appearances of plague corpses were similar to what he had seen in South Africa and India, and from the presence of these changes in the gastro-intestinal tract, he was more inclined than ever to support. the gastro-intestinal origin of the disease.

Again WILM's reports were of use. My own post-mortem results agreed in the main with those of this observer.

In order to obtain more definite information in regard to these intestinal -changes, I appealed to the clinical side of plague, hoping thereby to obtain evidence by the presence of symptoms of an affection of the gut. My help therefore, had to come from the various reports furnished by the Medical Officer in charge of the Infectious Diseases Hospital and the Superintendent of the Government Civil Hospital, both of whom had most experience with cases of plague during the last epidemic.

The presence of symptoms indicative of marked affection of the gastro-intestinal tract in plague do not appear to have called for comment by the Medical Officer in charge of Kennedy Town Hospital. Mention is made of the presence of vomit- ing and diarrhoea, but no details are given in the notes on the cases as to the date of onset of these symptoms, their duration, character and severity, etc.

It is interesting, however, to find that symptoms were found present in the majority of the cases, pointing to some affection of the alimentary canaļ.

During plague epidemics, a considerable number of individuals, complaining of indefinite symptoms, apply to the Government Civil Hospital for treatment. Many of these, after clinical examination turn out to be early cases of plague, and are forthwith despatched to the Infectious Diseases Hospital. Dr. BELL, the Superintendent of the Government Civil Hospital, tells me that many individuals have applied for treatment during the earliest stages of the disease, at a time when the history of the illness could be obtained with a certain amount of accuracy. Being specially interested in the question of the early diagnosis of the disease, Dr. BELL noted carefully the various symptoms complained of by each individual patient. On making enquiry as to the primary symptoms complained of by plague patients, Dr. BELL furnished me with the notes of the cases which came under observation and, as will be seen, he has been able to assist me greatly in regard to the question of the occurrence of marked evidence of an affection of the gastro-intestinal tract in plague.

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It would be impossible to detail in this report, the notes of all the cases which are of interest in regard to this question. I shall limit myself to the histories of the following four cases, these being representative of the question at present under consideration :-

Case No. I.-F. A., admitted to the Government Civil Hospital on the 17th March, 1903, complaining of severe diarrhoea. Tempera- ture on admission, normal. The blood was examined with nega- tive results. The character of the stool was loose, bile stained and foul smelling. Nothing characteristic was found in the stool when examined microscopically. The number of stools on the day of admission was 6. On the 18th 4 stools, on the 19th 4 stools, and on the 20th he had 2 stools. All the stools were of the same character as described. The temperature was still nor- mal on the 20th. On the evening of the 20th it suddenly rose to 102° F. The diarrhoea was still present. On the 21st the even- ing temperature was 103° F., diarrhoea still present. On the 22nd the temperature was 103° F, diarrhoea small in amount. The blood was examined by the method recommended by Ross for malaria, and a number of oval, bipolar shaped micro-organisms was found. These were regarded as plague bacilli, and the patient was remov- ed to Kennedy Town Hospital. Here, he complained of severe headache, and sleepiness. The tongue was thickly furred, and in general, the patient presented all the signs of severe plague infec- tion. No bubo developed. He went through an extremely severe attack of plague of the septicamic type.

Case No. II.—S. S., a police constable, was admitted to the Government Civil Hospital on 3rd June, 1903, complaining of vomiting and diarrhea of a day's duration. On admission, the dejecta were found to be watery, bile stained, and foul smelling. The tongue was furred. The temperature was 100° F. The blood was exa- mined by Ross's method, and large numbers of bacilli identical with the B. pestis were found. On the strength of this, the patient was removed to the Infectious Diseases Hospital, where ɑ severe and typical bubonic plague developed.

Case No. III.-T. K., a Chinese police constable, was admitted to the Government Civil on the 4th March, 1903, complaining of severe "colic," vomiting and constant watery diarrhoea. The bowels opened twice soon after admission, and the dejecta were watery and brownish yellow in colour. Nothing abnormal was found in the stools. The patient looked very pinched, ill, and somnolent.. The temperature was 99° F.

On the 5th the temperature was still 99° F. The patient was very sleepy and dull. He complained of severe headache. The tongue had become thickly coated. The diarrhoea was still profuse and of the same character. The blood was examined as in other cases. Bacteria morphologically identical with the B. pestis were found. He was removed at once to Kennedy Town Hospital where he passed through a typical attack of plague of the bubonic type.

Case No. IV.-H. T., a Chinese coolie, was admitted to the Government Civil Hospital on the 16th March, 1903, complaining of cramps in the abdomen, headache, vomiting and diarrhea. On admission, the temperature was 100.8° F.. the tongue was foul, headache was constantly complained of, and vomiting and diarrhoea continued severe. Nothing abnormal was found microscopically in the stools. They had the usual naked eye appearance. During the first 24 hours after admission, the patient had 22 stools. The blood was examined as in other cases and organisms identical with plague bacilli found. He was transferred to Kennedy Town Hospital and developed into a typical case of septicemic plague with no bubonic formation.

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These cases are illustrative of the mode of onset of plague. Many others presented the same train of symptoms previous to the development of the typical and well recognised signs of plague. From these and other cases it is evident that diarrhoea and vomiting are among the early symptoms of plague. They may be present alone and the individual affected able to go about his daily duties. Sometimes they are accompanied by headache and a feeling of sleepiness but these may be absent.

Again, during this initial stage, there may be no elevation of the body temper- ature. The reports on the microscopical examination of the dejecta say that nothing abnormal was found. Hoards of various micro-organisms were probably present, but the diagnosis of the presence of the plague bacillus in such a medium would be quite impossible. The diagnosis of plague was made absolute by the microscopical examination of the blood. The thick film method of blood examin- ation advocated by Ross for malaria was applied by Dr. BELL to cases of plague. The results were satisfactory and in the majority of cases of a convincing nature.

With a patient complaining of indefinite symptoms, as headache, diarrhoea and vomiting and the finding of oval shaped and bipolar bacteria which decolour- ised by GRAM's method in the thick blood film, during an epidemic of plague in the Colony, the diagnosis or at least provisional diagnosis could only be that of plague.

The presence of the B. pestis in the blood stream of patients suffering from plague is recognised. It is denied, however, that these bacilli are present in the blood during all the stages of the disease. The most modern views on the question are that in the bubonic variety of the disease, plague bacilli are found in the blood only just before death. That is to say the disease becomes septicemic during the agonal period and numbers of B. pestis appear in the blood. Some observers go so far as to assert that there exists no such thing as septicemic plague. Again in the pneumonic variety of the disease, the same views are held, namely, the tendency of the disease to become septicemic just before death.

That these statements are founded upon a firm basis, is by no means obvious. The results obtained by different observers would appear to "ary considerably. WILM was able to find plague bacilli in the blood stream of cases of all varieties of the disease some considerable time before death.

The results obtained by other observers, however, have been more or less negative. From these cases which have just been described, it is seen that the diagnosis of plague was made from a microscopical examination of the blood during the initial stages of the disorder, and further the method employed gave extremely reliable results.

This is in direct opposition to the views held by the majority of plague workers of the present day. Their views I have only just mentioned.

The presence of the B. pestis in the blood of plague patients during the early stages of the disease, appears to me to be of the greatest importance. Further the thick blood film method of Ross applied to plague hæmatology, is a most useful addition to the methods of diagnosis of cases of plague. Dr. BELL has told me that these bacilli have been found in the blood during the initial stages of all types of the disease, namely, the bubonic, pneumonic and septicæmic.

In the septicemic types of the disease (and as already mentioned, the existence of this form of plague is almost denied by some), the demonstration of the causal agent in the blood excites no surprise, but when we find that similar results are attainable in the other varieties of the disease, our ideas in regard to the pathology of plague must necessarily change. Ever granted that the method is not abso- lutely reliable (and no method in bacteriology is infallible), the finding again and again of plague bacilli in the peripheral blood stream during the early stages of the disease, is a new fact, and one which alters the present day conceptions of plague. That the micro-organisms found in the thick blood films were plague bacilli, there can be no doubt.

At the commencement of Dr. BELL's examinations of the blood of suspicious cases of plague, many of the slides were shown to me, and I must confess, that I was sceptical as to the reliance, which could be placed on the method as one for

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purposes of diagnosis. With further observation of such preparations, coupled with the results obtained in all types of the disease, often in the absence of an examination of the patient, and the negative reaction obtained when GRAM's method was employed as a precautionary test, I feel convinced that this method of Ross applied to the hæmatology of plague opens up to us an entirely new field of research into the pathology of plague and will alter our views as regards the types of the disease, if such distinct varieties of plague are existent.

Recently Dr BELL published a short note on this method in the British Medical Journal (March 1904, p. 544). He says: "I have examined numbers of cases, mostly on the first or second day of illness, and in every case, the result has been positive." Further he comments thus: "a case can be diagnosed almost as easily as a case of malaria.”

In my opinion these expressions are too absolute. The method is not absolute. One may easily fall in error unless great care is exercised in the preparation of these thick blood films. Again unless a fair number of these bacilli are found present, the diagnosis should be withheld until a more favourable blood film is obtained.

The method of finding plague bacilli in the peripheral blood during the phase of the disease is of the greatest interest, and the results obtained are more or less in direct opposition to the views expressed by most scientists in regard to this question.

This is so entirely new that I would not support such a result, in the face of so great an amount of contrary evidence, had I not convinced myself of its actual presence. The method has been successfully prosecuted at the Government Civil Hospital, and I believe the Medical Officer in charge of Kennedy Town Hospital has reported favourably upon it. From this result, it would appear that the views held in regard to the bacteriology of plague must alter in a manner similar to those held a few years ago in regard to typhoid fever. The B. typhosus was, up until a few years ago, supposed to have an extremely limited distribution in the body. The organism had scarcely ever been found apart from lymphoid tissues. Typhoid was regarded as a disease of the abdominal cavity. With extended research, all this has become changed. Typhoid fever is now recognised as a septicemia, with the presence of the B. typhosus in the blood, and the majority of the symptoms and physical signs of the disease, are regarded as being due to the actual presence of the specific organism itself, rather than to the absorption of poisons produced by the bacillus at some distance.

Plague, viewed in this light, would appear as a septicemia-a disease caused by the B. pestis, which is present in the blood stream and can multiply there. This septicemia may remain as such, or in other cases may be accompanied by the formation of one or more so called bubonic swellings in connection with certain groups of lymphatic glands, or again, may be accompanied by secondary pneumonic processes in the lung.

Such a view of the disease would account for the majority of plague cases. It must not be forgotten that there probably exists another type of the disease, distinct from that commonly found, namely, the primary pneumonic pest, which is caused by direct inhalation of virulent B. pestis. From all researches, it appears that this inhalation disease is something different, and the distinguishing features of this form, and the significance of its presence are discussed under a separate heading.

For purposes of comparison, it will be of use to sketch briefly the present day opinions in regard to the pathology and bacteriology of the disease.

Plague, with all its so called types or varieties is caused by the specific or- ganism, known by the name of the B. pestis, and, were it not for the constant presence of this characteristic micro-organism in all the different manifestations of the disease, there would, as in past ages, be a tendency to regard the principal types of plague as distinct diseases.

The general consensus of opinion is that the bubonic type of plague is the standard variety of the disease. The causal agents are found in the bubo, but not in the blood. Throughout the disease the bacilli are pent up in the bubo.

The

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affection only becomes septicemic before death. If recovery takes place, the bacilli never reach the blood. During the agonal period, the blood becomes full of plague bacilli, the organisms are found in the secretions and excretions of the patient. In the fœces, urine, the bile, and the terminal lung oedema, plague bacilli may be found in enormous numbers. Such is the general trend of opinion in regard to bubonic plague.

By some it is admitted that when using large quantites of blood for examina- tion, the B. pestis may be found, but that such a result does not justify the conclusion that the disease is of septicemic nature. On the evidence such a con- clusion is quite justifiable. As to the methods, however, through which one or two plague bacilli have been demonstrated in the blood of patients suffering from bubonic plague I am unable to speak.

What is certain, however, is, that in the films prepared according to the method of Ross, and showing the presence of plague bacilli, these organisms were always present in considerable numbers. From the total number of these found in a single drop of blood, one is compelled to conclude that they must be present in great force in the general circulation. Again such organisms are present in the blood frequently previous to the development of a bubo.

Another interesting fact in connection with the septicemic nature of plague, is the presence of plague bacilli in the blood of patients who are convalescing. Such a result has been found on several occasions, and just as I write, a case of this kind has come under my notice, through Dr. KocH, the Medical Officer in charge of the Plague Hospital. The patient has passed through a severe attack of plague. He is at present convalescing, and an examination of a drop of his blood, stained with methylene blue and eosin, shows the presence of numerous typical bipolar and oval shaped plague bacilli.

From these considerations I am inclined to regard plague as a septicamic disease ab initio. The organisms multiply in the blood, they may be found in the blood at the commencement of the illness, and may even persist in the blood for an indefinite time during convalescence.

The presence of plague bacilli in the blood, previous to the development of the bubo, is of great interest in regard to the modes of entry of the organism into the human body. Such has been the results of my observations of the bubonic type of plague. It is my object now to bring forward further evidence in favour of the views just expressed. These views are, so far as I understand, original, and are stated because of the results which have been obtained and verified by inyself over and over again.

When I arrived in the Colony a little over two years ago, I met with plenty of examples of the classica! bubo in all its various situations. I was well aware of the results of the various researches into the subject, and judging from the amount of work which had already been done by many eminent bacteriologists, I did not see that much could be added to the prevailing doctrines of the pathology and bacteriology of the disease. I was cognisant of the fact that the blood had frequently been examined in all varieties of plague, and that rigid bacteriological technique had been used. Considerable quantities of the blood-5-10 c.c.-had been used for purposes of cultivation. As has already been mentioned, plague bacilli have been found in the blood of such cases, e.g., in bubonic plague, but the reports are in harmony in declaring that the bacilli found were few in number, in fact so scarce, that one, under the circumstances, is not justified in pronouncing the cases to be of a septicemic nature.

I think, however, when one finds, in a single thick drop of blood, derived of its hæmoglobin and subsequently stained, numerous oval shaped, bipolar, non- grain staining bacteria, in the earliest stage of this type of the disease, and frequently previous to the development of the actual bubo itself, we can imagine how large a number of these same micro-organisms must be present in the general circulation. In fact, in order that such a number of plague bacilli can be found in the blood, the organisms must multiply. With these facts before one, the conclusion seems justified that Bubonic Plague is in reality Septicemic Plague in which the organism reaches the general circulation to begin with, multiplies there, producing the symptoms of the disease, and that the actual bubonic manifestation is au altogether secondary development. Further there are other points in favour

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of the view that the plague bacillus is more or less constantly found in the blood in plague. Skin eruptions of various kinds are frequently met with in plague. These may be of the nature of papules, vesicles or pustules. Some of these pustu- lar forms are of such a size as to resemble boils or carbuncles. Such skin erup- tions usually appear in the following way. A small reddish or brown spot, varying in size from a pin's head to a pea, appears on the skin. It has a hot or burning feeling. The spot becomes indurated, slightly elevated, and surrounded by halo of bright red congestion. It develops into a vesicle, which also varies much in size. The contents of this are cloudy, and contain plague bacilli in considerable numbers. The vesicles soon become infected with ordinany skin micro-organisms, and the contents become pustular. The surrounding halo of congestion increases in circumference, the induration is more marked, and according to the severity of the process, the lesion may be likened to a pustule, boil or carbuncle.

Such vesicular and pustular manifestations are by no means uncommon in bubonic or other varieties of plague. The vesicles contain plague bacilli. The pustules usually contain large numbers of ordinany pyogenic cocci.

Plague bacilli which were present originally, have usually disappeared, the condition resembling that found in suppurating bubonic swellings. I regard these papular, vescicular and pustular eruptions as evidences of local growth of the B. pestis. The condition, I presume, is similar to that found in enteric fever, where the typhoid rash is the result of focal multiplication of typhoid bacilli. These erup- tions often appear scattered over the skin, and in cases where a well developed bubo is present, they have nothing to do with the point of entry of the infection. They are evidence of blood infection and support the septicamic theory of plague.

At the same time such eruptions may occasionally represent the point of inoculation of the plague virus. Cases of this are occasionally met with. An excellent instance of the occurrence of this mode of infection came before my notice about two years ago, whilst engaged with Professor SIMPSON in carrying out an experimental research into the question of the relative susceptibility of different animals to plague.

The details of the case are as follows:-A Chinese butcher was engaged by us to assist in performing the post-mortem examinations on the experimental animals which had succumbed to plague. On one occasion, a post-mortem examination was being held on a pig which had died of severe septicaemic plague. The butcher accidentally scratched the back of his right hand with the broken end of one the ribs. The injury was slight and just-tinged with blood. It was washed, sucked and disinfected. It caused him no inconvenience at the time. He discontinued the post-mortem at once. Two days later, the man complained of