Sessional Papers - 1903

PAPERS LAID BEFORE THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL OF HONGKONG 1903

Table of Contents

1. Assessment

Report for 1903-1904

2. Bacteorologist, Government

Report for 1902

3. Blue Book for 1902

Report on

4. Botanical and afforestation

Report for 1902

5. Cattle Disease

Preliminary Report on a

6. Currency in Hongkong

Correspondence Regarding

7. Education

Correspondence arising Out of Report of the Education Committee (1902)

8. Education

Report for 1902

9. Education - Queen's College

Report on Examination of

10. Education - Queen's College

Report for 1902

11. Estimates of Expenditure for 1904

Memorandum on

12. Finance Committee

Report of Proceedings of the Finance Committee

13. Financial Returns

For 1902

14. Financial Statements

In Connection With Estimates for 1904

15. Fire Brigade

Report for 1902

16. Gaol

Report for 1902

17. Harbour Master

Report for 1902

18. Legislative Council

Proceedings for 1902

19. Medical

Report for 1902

20. Naval Yard

Correspondence Respecting Proposed Removal of

21. New Territory

Report for 1902

22. Observatory

Report for 1902

23. Plague Bacillus, &C

Correspondene on Culture of

24. Plague Cases Treated in Kennedy town Hospital

Report on

25. Plague in Hongkong

Memorandum By H. E. the Governor on

26. Plague Staff

Statement of Work Done By

27. Po Leung Kuk

Report for 1902

28. Police

Report for 1902

29. Post office

Report for 1902

30. Public Works

Report for 1902

31. Public Works Committee

Report of Proceedings of the Public Works Committee

32. Registrar General

Report for 1902

33. Sanitary

Reports for 1902

34. Sanitary Condition of Hongkong

Report for 1902

35. School of Tropical Medicine

Circular Despatch on

36. Sterling Salaries

Scheme for

37. Subordinate Court Returns

For 1902

38. Supreme Court Returns

For 1902

39. Taipingshan Public Garden

Correspondence on

40. Volunteer Corps, Hongkong

Report for 1902

41. Water account

For 1902

42. Widows and Orphans' Pension Fund

Report for 1902

 

28

No.

1903

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE ASSESSMENT FOR THE YEAR 1903-1904.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

ASSESSOR'S OFFICE, HONGKONG, 27th July, 1903.

SIR,-I have the honour to submit my Report on the Assessment for the

1903-1904.

year

2. His Excellency the Governor in Council under section 8 (2) of the Rating Ordinance, No. 8 of 1901, ordered the existing Valuation for 1902-03 to be adopted as the Valuation for 1903-04. During the past year no general assessment has been made, the increase in Rateable Value being due entirely to the normal growth of the Colony.

3. The City of Victoria. The Rateable Value has increased from $6,944,395 to $7,427,100, an addition of $482,705 or 6.95 per cent.

4. The Hill District. The Rateable Value has increased from $193,990 to $199,910, an addition of $5,920 or 3.05 per cent.

5. Hongkong Villages.-The Rateable Value has increased from $220,453 to $220,738, an addition of $285 or 0·12 per cent.

6. Kowloon Point.--The Rateable Value has increased from $289,945 to $308,175, an addition of $18,230 or 6.28 per cent.

7. Yaumati.-The Rateable Value has increased from $187,930 to $232,245, an addition of $44,315 or 23:58 per cent.

8. Mongkoktsui.-The Rateable Value has increased from $55,410 to $66,565, an addition of $11,155 or 20·13 per cent.

9. Hunghom.-The Rateable Value has increased from $150,485 to $164,550, an addition of $14,065 or 9.34 per cent.

10. Kowloon Villages.--The Rateable Value has increased from $124,005 to $130,360, an addition of $6,355 or 5·12 per cent.

11. The Whole Colony.-The Rateable Value has increased from $8,166,613 to $8,749,643, an addition of $583,030 or 7·13 per cent.

12. Interim Valuations.-From 1st July, 1902, to 1st June, 1903. Interim Valuations have been made as follows:-

IN THE CITY OF VICTORIA.

507 new and/or rebuilt tenements, rateable value,..

36 tenements, rateable value,...... $95,305 Replacing Assessments, amounting to,. 79,885

$582,230

15,420

597,650

144 Assessments cancelled, tenements pulled down, or

being in other respects not rateable,

94,455

Increase in City of Victoria,

IN THE REST OF THE COLONY.

$503,195

401 new and/or rebuilt tenements, rateable value,......$154,325

24 tenements, rateable value,....... $26,370 Replacing Assessments, amounting to,. 14,340

12,030

166,355

66 Assessments cancelled, tenements pulled down, or

being in other respects not rateable,

27,295

Increase in the Rest of the Colony,

.$139,060

350

The total number of tenements affected by Interim Valuations being 1,178.

13. Vacant Tenements.-The number of reported vacant tenements in the City of Victoria inspected under section 35 of the Rating Ordinance averaged about 165 monthly against 176 last year.

14. New Kowloon.-A valuation has been made of Kowloon City and its sub- urbs and Shamshuipo. The Rateable Value of Kowloon City is $20,250 and Shamshuipo $18,170.

15. Tabular Statements.-The usual tabular statements giving comparisons of the valuations for 1902-03 and 1903-04 are attached.

16. Staff-Mr. DAVID WOOD acted for me from 14th May to 30th September, 1902, during my absence from the Colony.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

The Honourable

A. M. THOMSON,

Colonial Treasurer.

Table A.

ARTHUR CHAPMAN,

Assessor.

THE CITY OF VICTORIA.

No.

DISTRICT.

VALUATION VALUATION 1902-1903. 1903-1904.

INCREASE. DECREASE.

PERCENT-

AGE.

$.

$

1 Kennedy Town,..........

131,215

134,335

$ 3,120

$

2

Shektongtsui,.

3 Saiyingpun,

324,025 314,290

1,531,915 1,689,070 157,155

9,735

4 Taipingshan,

559,110 621,940 62,830

5

Sheungwan,

6 Chungwan,.

946,860 988,990 42,130

2,538,690 2,731,990 193,300

7

Hawan,..

331,700 331,325

375

8

Wantsai,

368,070 381,345

13.275

9 Bowrington,.

84,435 98.125

13,690

10

Sookonpoo,....

128,375

135,690

7,315

$ 6,944,395 7.427,100

492.815

10,110

Deduct Decrease,.

10,110

Total Increase,

482,705

6.95

:

351

Table B.

THE HILL DISTRICT AND HONGKONG VILLAGES.

DISTRICT.

VALUATION VALUATION 1902-1903. 1903-1904.

INCREASE.

PERCENTAGE.

$

$

$

%

To

The Hill District,

193,990

199,910

5,920

3.05

Hongkong Villages,

220,453

220,738

285

0.12

$414,443

420,648

6,205

1:49

Table C.

KOWLOON POINT, YAUMATI, MONGKOKTSUI, HUNGHOM AND KOWLOON VILLAGES.

DISTRICT.

VALUATION VALUATION

1902-1903.

1903-1904.

INCREASE. PERCENTAGE.

$

$

Kowloon Point,...

289,945

308,175

18,230

.6.28

:

Yaumati,

187,930

232,245

44,315

23.58

:

Mongkoktsui,

Hunghom,

Kowloon Villages,

55,410

66,565

11,155

20.13

150,485

164,550

14,065

9.34

124,005

130,360

6,355

5.12

30

807,775

901,895

94,120

11.65

A

Table D.

THE COLONY OF HONGKONG.

DISTRICT.

The City Victoria,....

Hill District and Hongkong Villages,

Kowloon Point and Kowloon Villages,

VALUATION VALUATION

INCREASE.

1902-1903.1903-1904.

PERCENT-

AGE.

$

$

$

6,944,395 7,427,100

182,705

6.95

414,443 420,648

6,205

149

807,775 901,895

94.120 11.65

$ 8,166,613 8,749,643 583,030 7·13

Kowloon City, Shamshuipo,

Table E.

KOWLOON CITY AND SHAMSHUIPO IN NEW KOWLOON.

DISTRICT.

VALUATION 1903-1904.

20,250

18,170

$ 38.420

352

MEMORANDUM.

ANNUAL RATES.

Valuation 1903-04.

Valuation

Increase.

1902-03.

$

C.

$ C.

$

C.

Victoria,

902,717·20

965,376-12

Hill District,

20,824.96

21,461.48

62,658.92 636.52

Hongkong Villages,

17,761.80

18,023.80

262.00

Kowloon Point,.

34,810.64

37,043.92

2,233.28

Yaumati,

23,022.36

28,451.00

5,428.64

Mongkoktsui,

5,819-24

8,155.48

2,336.24

Hung Hom,

.....

18,435.04

20,157.96

1,722.22

Kowloon Villages,.

9,566.36

9,966.96

400-60

Hongkong, 29th July, 1903.

1,032,957.60

1,108,636.72

75,679.12

A. M. THOMSON,

Treasurer.

;

50-6.6.03.

;.

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE GOVERNMENT BACTERIOLOGIST, FOR THE YEAR 1902,

No. 20

1908

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

GOVERNMENT PUBLIC MORTUARY, HONGKONG, April 14th, 1903.

SIR,I have the honour to submit my report for the year 1902.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

The Honourable

WILLIAM HUNTER.

J. M. ATKINSON, M.B.,`

Principal Civil Medical Officer,

etc., etc., etc.

SIR, I have the honour to submit, for the information of His Excellency the Governor, the following Report on the work done in the Bacteriological Department during the year 1902.

As there

I arrived in the Colony from London on the 27th February, 1902. was no Bacteriological Laboratory in the Colony, and no suitable place for the immediate establishment of such, the Principal Civil Medical Officer proposed that I should be allowed to establish, temporarily, a Laboratory in the Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital. This suggestion I gladly availed myself of, and with the assistance of Dr. THOMSON, the Medical Officer in charge of that Institution, I was able to obtain part of the office and dispensary of the Hospital for laboratory accommodation.

A serious drawback to the immediate commencement of my duties was occasioned by the loss, through shipwreck, of the whole of my bacteriological apparatus shortly after it had left London. The Crown Agents for the Colonies were instructed to re-order the apparatus with the least possible delay, but notwithstanding all their efforts, the whole of the apparatus for the equipment of a Bacteriological Laboratory did not arrive in Hongkong until the end of June, 1902, that is to say, about four months after my arrival in the Colony.

In the month of March, the Principal Civil Medical Officer requested that the work at the Government Public Mortuary should be undertaken by me. To this proposal I gladly assented, as much of the work there was of a bacteriological nature, Colfos

the examination of cases of plague and cholera. I commenced my duties at the Mortuary on the 20th March, 1902.

Immediately on commencing my duties at the Public Mortuary, a regular system of post-mortem and bacteriological examinations on rats was instituted. The services of four Japanese medical men were obtained in May for this particular work, and all rats found dead or alive in the Colony were regularly examined for plague by these gentlemen, who worked under my direction.

On the 13th of October, 1902, these Japanese doctors returned to Japan, and the services of three qualified Chinese Doctors were obtained. Accordingly on the 14th of October, 1902, Drs. Ho Ko TSUN, LEE YIN SZE, and CHAN FAI KWONG, each of whom had been trained in the Hongkong College of Medicine for Chinese, commenced their duties as assistants in the Bacteriological Department. Dr. Ho

212

KO TSUN was appointed Laboratory Assistant, his duties being mainly to assist me with routine pathological and bacteriological work, while Drs. LEE YIN SZE and CHAN FAI KWONG were appointed Bacteriological Assistants, and assisted me in the routine examination of rats sent to the Public Mortuary.

I take the opportunity at this point of bearing testimony to the excellent services which have been rendered by these qualified Chinese Doctors. I found them well trained and anxious at all times to take a thorough grasp of the oppor- tunities vouchsafed to them of gaining a knowledge of Pathology and Bacteriology. They grasped the somewhat delicate technique for bacteriological work with wonderful rapidity, and I have repeatedly noted the care which they bestowed on the systematic examination of enormous numbers of rats.

I regret to say that at the commencement of the Plague epidemic of 1902, the Caretaker of the Public Mortuary fell a victim to the disease.

The Assistant Caretaker was appointed in his place, and has so far performed his somewhat difficult duties with care and to my satisfaction.

It is now the practice to have all coolies connected with the Public Mortuary inoculated with plague vaccine as prepared by Professor HAFFKINE.

During the year, 2,816 human bodies were examined at the Public Mortuary. These figures, I understand, represent a number of post-mortems larger than in any previous year since the Institution was established. Further, I am sure that these figures are probably unique. I know of no institution where, given suitable accommodation, apparatus, and assistance, greater scope would be afforded for pathological and bacteriological research.

In addition to the routine post-mortem work, there have been 117,839 rats examined bacteriologically, approximately 400 rats examined daily during the year. Of these, 2,015 were found to be infected with Plague.

During the autumn of 1902, the Government Vaccine Institute was transferred from the Medical to the Bacteriological Department.

In the month of October, the management of the Institute was taken over by me from the Acting Colonial Veterinary Surgeon.

The preparation of Small-pox Vaccine was begun in the month of October. So far the vaccine sent out from the Institute has given the utmost satisfaction.

Since my arrival in the Colony, a considerable amount of pure bacteriological work has been done. Considerable difficulty was experienced, however, in obtain- ing suitable apparatus for experimental work.

During the months of May, June and July, Professor SIMPSON and I carried out a series of very extensive researches in regard to the possibility of producing Plague in all lower animals, more particularly in those animals which are closely associated with man-calves, sheep, goats, pigs, fowls, etc. The results, notwith- standing the conditions under which the experiments were performed, were of a highly satisfactory nature, and should set at rest much of the hitherto varied discussion on this subject. The details of these experiments and the interpretation of the results will of course be fully dealt with by Professor SIMPSON in his report. Had it not been for the great assistance rendered by the Principal Civil Medical Officer and the Government Analyst in supplying certain apparatus, the research could not have been carried out. During the summer a series of pathological and bacteriological examinations were made at the Dairy Farm, Pokfulam, and the Kennedy Town Slaughter houses, on cattle suffering from what appeared to me to be a form of Septicæmia Hæmorrhagica.

What has been felt during the past year is the want of a properly equipped and centrally situated Bacteriological Institute. As already mentioned, the Medical Department has allowed me part of the office and the dispensary in Kennedy Town Hospital. Any bacteriological research which one may propose to undertake has to be done there, and this Hospital can be shown to be a most inconvenient place for carrying out bacteriological work. In the first place, there is no accommoda- tion, and secondly it is very inaccessible owing to its distance from the other branches of the Department, namely, the Vaccine Institute and the Public Mortuary. It has been a matter of regret that, owing to these circumstances, the preparation of plague vaccine and serum, &c., has been quite out of the question. At the present time, however, I am glad to be in a position to state that a con- venient site has been obtained for a Bacteriological Institute. Its completion is now only a matter of time.

2

213

In conclusion, I should like to express my sincere thanks to the members of the Medical, Sanitary, and other Departments who have at all times been most willing to help me and rendered most valuable assistance, and also to the members of the Staff who have performed all their duties satisfactorily.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

The Honourable

J. M. ATKINSON, M.B.,

WILLIAM HUNTER.

Principal Civil Medical Officer,

etc., etc.,

etc.,

etc.

THE GOVERNMENT PUBLIC MORTUARY.

Total number of Post-mortem Examinations held during the year 1902, 2,816.

RETURN OF CAUSES OF DEATH DURING 1902.

Total General Diseases,

.1,636

Local Diseases :-

Of the Nervous System,

6

Circulatory System,

44

"}

Respiratory System,

401

Digestive System,..

235

>>

Lymphatic System,

1

Urinary System,

7

""

Generative System,

1

Total Injuries,

81

"

776

Total Decomposed Bodies,.

404

Total,.

2.816

GENERAL DISEASES.

Small-pox,

39

Plague,

473

...

Enteric Fever,

7

Cholera,

379

Dysentery,

2

Beri-beri,

149

Malaria,

80

Malaria Cachexia,

Septicæmia,

Teranus,

1

Leprosy,

1

Syphilis, acquired,

Syphilis, congenital,

2

Tuberculosis,

151

Alcoholism,

3

Anæmia,

Debility,

5

38

Starvation,

Burns,

6

Premature Birth,

24

Hodgkin's Disease,

1

Opium Poisoning,

3

Stillbirth,

50

Drowning,

24

....

Hanging,

4

Asphyxia,

25

Marasmus,

147

Total,

1,636

Concussion of Brain,

Of the Nervous System :-

Acute Meningitis, Apoplexy,

214

LOCAL DISEASES.

Laceration of Brain,

2.

1

1

1

Internal Hydrocephalus,.............

1

Total,...

6

Of the Circulatory System

Acute Pericarditis, Tubercular Pericarditis,

Malignant Endocarditis,

Aortic Valvular Disease, Mitral Valvular Disease, Fatty Infiltration of Heart, Rupture of Heart,... Aneurism of Aorta, Aneurism of Renal Artery, Wound of Heart,

$

Of the Respiratory System :-

12

2

10

3

5

4

2

3

1

Total,

14

Laryngeal Obstruction,.

...

Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema,

Acute Bronchitis,

Croupous Pneumonia,

Broncho Pneumonia,

Tubercular Broncho-Pneumonia,

1

21

20

90

..141

.100

Pleurisy,

16

Empyema,

9

Wound of Lung,

1

Atelectasis,

2

Total,

.401

Of the Digestive System:-

Cancrum Oris,

1

Acute Colitis,

Appendicitis,

Tubercular Enteritis,

Intussusception,

Acute Enteritis,

Follicular Ulceration of Intestines,

Diarrhoea (cause unknown),

Internal Strangulation of Intestine,..

41

20

19

14

102

11

2

Chronic Interstital Hepatitis,

5

Icterus (cause unknown),.

4

Acute General Peritonitis,

10

Tubercular Peritonitis,

3

Total,....

.235

Of the Lymphatic System :- Tubercle of Spleen,

Of the Urinary System :-

Acute Parenchymatous Nephritis, Acute Glomerular Nephritis,

Chronic Interstitial Nephritis,

Total,....

7

1

2

4

1

....

:

Of the Generative System

Rupture of Uterus,

215

1

INJURIES.

12

45

20

3

1

Total,..

81

Multiple,

Fracture of the Skull,

Rupture of the Spleen,.

Cut throat,.

Rupture of the Kidney,

Nationality of Bodies brought to the Public Mortuary during 1902 :—

Chinese,

European,

Japanese,

Portuguese,

Indian,

Total,.

2,783

15

8

7

3

.2,816

Return of Causes of Death of Bodies of Nationalities other than Chinese :-

Europeans:-

Fracture of Skull,

Drowning,

Plague,

Suicide by Shooting,

Asphyxia,

Heart Failure,

Cholera,

Burns,

3

3

3

10 00 00 0S

1

1

1

1

Total,.......

15

Japanese

Cholera, Malaria,

Murder,

Portuguese

Plague...

Heart Failure,

Aneurism of Aorta,

Indian :-

Plague, Cholera,

Total,.

4

2

1

Total,...

7

2

1

Total,.......

STATISTICS AS TO "DUMPED BODIES."

Total number of Dumped Bodies, 1,476 out of 2,816, ......52.4 per cent.

Plague Bodies, 252 out of 473,...53.2

";

2)

GENERAL REMARKS ON THE CAUSES OF DEATH.

During the early part of the year a small epidemic of Small-pox occurred. Thirty-nine cases were examined at the Public Mortuary. The first case was re- ceived in the 7th week of the year, and from that time onwards the number of cases per week increased slowly until the 14th week of the year. Subsequent to this date, the cases became much fewer. The majority of the cases occurred in young children. The type of the disease was usually severe, confluent Small-pox forming by far the largest number of cases.

?

216

The number cases of Dysentery is small. In the two cases returned as the cause of death, the pathological changes were marked to an extreme degree. Dur- ing the year one frequently came across cases showing limited Dysenteric ulcera- tion, altogether insufficient however to occasion death.

Septicemia, apart from cases of plague, was the cause of death in 4 cases, 3 of them being due to infection with Streptococeus pyogenes, the other to

Pneumococcus.

The case of Leprosy was of the tubercular variety.

Tuberculosis accounted for the death of a large number, namely 151. The majority of cases occurred in children or young adults. In the general miliary forms, the lesions were of the most pronounced character, pathological changes being present in all the internal organs to such a degree as is scarcely ever seen in Europe.

Two cases of Tubercular Pericarditis were found, typical minute miliary nodules being scattered over the serous surfaces of the Pericardium. Numerous tubercle bacilli were found in those nodules in each case. In one of the cases, the infection could be traced to caseating mediastinal glands, the other organs in the body being apparently healthy.

Eleven cases of Tubercular Enteritis and 3 of Tubercular Peritonitis occurred a rather large number. All of the cases presented very pronounced lesions, and the tubercle bacillus was abundant in all the cases.

A large number of cases of death of infants have been registered under the name Marasmus. This term, which really means a gradual dying off, has been employed to designate certain conditions which one meets with frequently in infants, and which are the result of obscure causes, namely, congenital syphilis, defective nourishment, intestinal atrophy, diarrhoea, &c. The cases, as already mentioned, are all infants from a few days to a few weeks old. A post-mortem examination held on such a body reveals practically nothing excepting acute hyperemia of the internal organs, no definite pathological lesion being discoverable.

Five cases of Aneurism were met with during the year, all of them being of the saccular form. At this point it is interesting to note the great prevalence of atheroma amongst the Chinese. In almost every adult, say after the age of 20 or 25, one will, if carefully looked for, find patches of atheroma in the aorta and other more peripherally situtated vessels.

The cases of Appendicitis are numerous. In several instances the vermi- form appendix had been rounded off in a ball-like fashion containing its interior pus from which pure cultures of B. coli commune were obtained.

The usual large numbers of cases of Fracture of the spleen occurred. In all cases the spleen was previous pathological and more brittle than normally. In hardly a single instance were there any signs of external violence.

Total number of cases 379.

Cholera.

A very severe outbreak of this disease occurred during 1902 in Hongkong, The first case which was received at the Public Mortuary was during the 10th week. From that time onwards the number of cases examined increased rapidly, till the 19th week of the year was reached. After the 21st week, the number of cases diminished rapidly, with the exception of a slight recrudescence during the 33rd, 34th, and 35th weeks of the year. From the accompanying Chart, a good idea is given of the course of the disease, and such a chart is quite typical of an epidemic of cholera in sub-tropical countries. It will be noted that there is a sudden advent of the disease and then a more or less sudden disappearance. Again one will be able to note another important point, namely, the appearance of the disease as soon as the temperature begins to rise, and its disappearance co-incident with a fall in temperature. The epidemic under discussion began approximately about the beginning of April and was present more or less continuously until the month of October. Thus this outbreak of Cholera is quite in harmony with the investigations made by those working in other sub-tropical parts of the world. Although epidemics of cholera have been known to occur during the colder seasons of the year, yet the majority occur in summer. Thus the 1902 epidemic of cholera in Hongkong corresponds favourably with the results of HIRSCH, which are based on the investigation of 920 epidemics and are quite indisputable. Of these 920

:

217

epidemics, 647, or 70 per cent., took place during the summer months. If we omit those in regions where the mean temperature for the year does not exceed 15 C., we have 668 epidemics, or 74 per cent., which occur during the same period of time.

The post-mortem examination of the 379 cases of Asiatic Cholera has supplied some interesting details as to the pathological changes which may be met

with.

At the commencement of the epidemic, it was noticed that a larger number than usual of deaths from intestinal diseases were reported, these cases being classified as diarrhhoa, infectious diarrhoea, choleraic diarrhoea, or cholera. In regard to this point it is important to remember that the diagnosis may be specially difficult in the first cases where no epidemic yet exists. The first cases of an epidemic are frequently violent and run a rapidly fatal course. Appearances similar to cholera are also met with in severe cholera nostras, and acute poisoning with arsenic, tartar emetic, or mercury, and frequently discussions have arisen at the beginning of an epidemic as to whether the disease in point was true Asiatic Cholera or Cholera Nostras. Fortunately we possess to-day a means of decisively recognising almost all cases. With the help of the method which KOCH gave us in 1893, there can be no doubt about the disease being Cholera, if the result of the examination is positive. During the past year, this method has been applied in every case at the commencement of the epidemic, although after the disease had fully established itself as an epidemic, cases were received at the Mortuary which were so striking and characteristic that the microscopic test was alone employed, and owing to the prejudices of the Chinese, as partial a post-mortem made as possible.

So far as the anatomical changes are concerned, it has been observed that the more rapid the death, the slighter the post-mortem changes. It was the routine custom at the Mortuary during 1902 to examine the intestinal contents for the vibrio choleræ in almost every case, and certainly some cases-which to the naked eye did not warrant a diagnosis of cholera-proved themselves, after bacteriological examination, to be undoubted cases of the disease. This was more particularly the case in individuals who had previously been enfeebled by other diseases, e.g., Berit beri, Tuberculosis, Dysentery, &c. Further the first cases of the epidemic, which are usually of a severe and rapidly fatal character, were markedly devoid of any severe or typical choleraic post-mortem change.

In general, the post-mortem appearances met with during the epidemic were the following:-The external appearances, including the Boxer Pose, were in the majority of cases well defined. The cyanosis present during life and the injection of the superficial veins were in most cases absent. Post-mortem rigidity was a marked feature, and further those peculiar and long-standing post-mortem muscular contractions which may be called forth by light tapping were sometimes found well marked. This phenomenon was found to be most frequent in the extremities.

In addition, these bodies were scarcely ever found in a state of decomposition even during the height of summer. This, which is a feature of subjects dead from Cholera, is probably due to the anhydræmic condition of the tissues in general.

The examination of the abdomen is in all cases of peculiar interest. The rose colour of the small intestine and the sticky, slimy, and dry appearance of the peritoneum are striking contrasts to the normal colour of the stomach and large intestine. In a large number of cases so intense was the acute hyperæmic reaction that instead of the rose red colour being met with, the whole small intestine was converted into a dark purple mass of congestion with hæmorrhages into the in- testinal mucous membrane and with the presence of a large amount of broken down blood detritus in the intestinal contents. In these cases, the intestinal contents are of a deeply blood stained colour, and the microscopic examinations in all instances demonstrated the presence of enormous numbers of vibrio cholera, practically a pure culture.

The contents of the intestine are so well known as not to require special reference.

The other abdominal organs present little pathologically. In women hæmor- rhagic extravasations were commonly met with about the internal genital organs. Frequently the women examined were pregnant. In such cases the foetus was always examined, but apart from such pathological changes as would be produced by intoxication, nothing was found. No cholera-producing micro-organisms were ever found present in the fœtus.

ÅGE.

January,

I

[year]

February,

Murch,.

PESTIS BUBONICA,

101-9 9-1

This table, if examined closely, gives one a good idea of the relations existing between the different types of plague, their relative frequency at particular times, and the age at which they have been most frequently fatal.

10-20

20-10

:

:

over

40

:

:

Total.

PESTIS SEPTICÆMICA.

IRO.

:

: :

1-65-10

over

40

:

:

:

10-20

20-40

Total.

PESTIS PNEUMONIČA.

year.

1-65.10

I

:

10-20;

20-40

over

40

Number of cases, 473.

These cases are divided up as follows:-

Pestis Bubonica,-

Right Femoral Bubo,

Left Femoral Bubo, Right Axillary Bubo,

Left Axillary Bubo,

Pestis Septicemicu,

Pestis Pneumonicu,

These results are in perfect harmony with those obtained by other investiga- tors. They show the greater frequency of bubonic plague, the predominance of femoral over axillary buboes, and the relatively small number of pneumonic cases.

Total.

F.

17

: DD.

:

I

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

:

:

:

I

3

9 | 20

74

:

FI

10

...

2

7

11

32

6

9

35

15

v

10

: :

19

:

:

I

:

:

: :

:

April,................

I

3

9

B

May,

2

6

شات

June,

N

3

19

12

5

13

95

{; [

July,

August,

1、

7

2

9

:

September,

October,.

November,

: :

December,

Total,

B

12

16

121

62121 38252

"

15

IG

28

42 204

6

~

2

Total,..............

218

Plague.

81

288

82

56

33

252

204

17

473

3

January. February. March.

April. May.

June.

July.

August.

September. O

Weeks.

33

32

31

30

29

28

27

26

25

24

23

22

21

20

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

Cholera.-No. of Cases.

4

6

5

-

30

8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

15161718192021

ry.

March.

April.

May.

June. July.

August.

September.

October.

November December.

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 171819202122232425 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

219

1. The first case was Septicæmic in type.

2. The epidemic was mainly established by the prevalence of the bubonic

type of the disease.

3. The epidemic was prolonged chiefly by a continuance of the Septicæmic

type of the disease.

4. Pneumonic types of the disease were most frequent at the commence-

ment of the epidemic.

5. The Bubonic type was most frequent during the middle of the epidemic. 6. The Septicæmic type was most frequent towards the end of the epidemic. 7. The Pneumonic tpye was most prevalent amongst young children.

8. The Bubonic and Septicemic types were mostly found between the ages

of 20 and 40.

9. After the age of 40 the number of cases of plague diminished rapidly.

So far as the pathological anatomy of plague is concerned, one has nothing to add to the voluminous investigations and writings of Indian Commissions, and the valuable researches of WILMS in Hongkong. The description given by him agrees entirely with my own results.

The question of the bacteriological diagnosis of plague cases is one of the most important if trustworthy results are to be obtained. The methods adopted are too well known to be again recorded.

Beri-Beri.

During the year, 149 post-mortem examinations have been made upon the bodies of persons dead from this disease. All forms of the disease are met with, but for general purposes we may speak of a dropsical form and an atrophic form. So far as 1902 is concerned, the dropsical form of the disease has formed by far the larger number of cases.

The pathological anatomy of this disease is of great interest, and as no recent references in regard to the post-mortem appearances as met with in Hongkong have been made, the following is of interest :-

The Dropsical Form.-On superficial examination, the dead body of a case of Beri-beri is frequently characteristic a cyanotic, swollen face with protruding eyes, foaming mouth, and swelling of the veins of the neck are all frequently met with.

On Section-a characteristic appearance is the great infiltration of the subcu- taneous tissues with serous and mucoid like fluid.

The pericardium is often distended with fluid, which may reach enormous quantities, when one considers the normal size of the sac. The fluid is of a clear yellow colour.

The heart is enlarged, sometimes enormously, and the condition of the ventri- cles is usually dilatation of the right ventricle with contraction and thickening of the left ventricle. The cardiac muscle is frequently in a condition of fatty de- generation. On opening the heart, enormous quantities of extremely dark red blood escapes, which is perfectly fluid. On allowing it to stand for a few minutes freely exposed to the air, it becomes of a brighter red colour and begins to clot. As is generally now accepted, this peculiarity on the part of Beri-beri blood is accounted for by the fact of the presence of an excess of C 0.

The aorta, arteries and veins are frequently the seat of extensive atheromatous degeneration.

The lungs are as a rule oedematous and emphysematous. The empyhsema may be so extreme as to completly cover the pericardial sac.

Hydro thorax is frequently present and is often bilateral.

So far as the abdomen is concerned, there is usually a certain amount of Hydroperitoneum. This may be extreme. The fluid as in the other cavities is clear, yellowish and viscid in character.

220

The intestines, and in particular the small intestine, present a somewhat typical appearance. The slaty-grey colour, the thickened walls and swelling of the intestinal mucous membrane are quite characteristic. In a few cases punctiform hæmorrhages may be present either in the serous or in the mucous membranes.

The liver is generally enlarged, with increased specific gravity and weight. This is mainly due to venous hyperemia and the presence of an increased amount of fibrous tissue. A large majority of livers examined show fine cirrhosis.

The pancreas is usually fibrous.

The kidneys are congested and slightly cirrhotic. Occasionally nephritis or hæmorrhage is present.

The spleen is very variable in size, and is in the majority of cases fibrous. It is very congested.

The brain and spinal cord are usually infiltrated with serous fluid. They are firm on consistence and hyperæinic.

To recapitulate, one may say that the main changes met with are dropsical accumulations, venous hyperomias, and general fibrotic accumulations in the various internal organs.

In the liver and spleen this fibrotic change is usually well marked by the occurrence over the capsule of these organs of localised whitish grey thickenings which ramify and branch in a tree-like fashion. This peculiar form of capsular thickening is met with in other diseases, such as chronic malaria, etc., but in beri- beri it is usually peculiarly well defined.

In atrophic cases the appearance of the dead body is one of anæmia. The dropsy is absent and the body appears usually in a state of extreme emaciation. The condition of the heart and other internal organs are in correspondence with those in the dropsical form, only there is the absence of fluid accumulation.

In a few instances microscopical preparations have been made of the organs, muscles and nerves of cases of Beri-beri, but the results have not so far been completed.

The routine bacteriological examination of dead and living cases of Beri-beri has been carried out in a few cases, but so far the results have been unsatisfactory.

Typhoid Fever.

Seven cases of Typhoid Fever were examined at the Public Mortuary during the year 1902.

No.

Age.

Sex.

1

6 years

M.

2

36

>3

3

4

4

OCH OS LO

442

29

F.

M.

*

??

2

""

6

7

13

2.

""

F.

Remarks.

Post-mortem appearances typical.

""

""

>>

Severe post-mortem lesions present. Post-mortem appearances typical. Severe ulceration and perforation. Severe post-mortem lesions present.

All the cases were among Chinese.

29

""

""

BODIES TOO DECOMPOSED FOR POST-MORTEM EXAMINATION.

During the year 1902, 402 bodies, including one skeleton, were returned as "too decomposed." These figures show a marked increase as compared with the preceding year, and this is probably accounted for by an approximate increase in the number of bodies found in the harbour, on neighbouring islands, the hillside and the streets. This question of decomposed bodies at the Public Mortuary is one of the greatest importance. During the cooler months there are naturally fewer, but during the hotter seasons of the year-at a time when the Mortuary is

:

221

already overcrowed with the bodies of persons who have died of Plague--the number increases enormously. The following is of slight interest :-

No. of Bodies too decomposed :

In January,.

February, March, April,.. May, June, July, August, September,.

6

12

26

28

60

54

....

96

56

October,

32

November, December,

17

7

402

This table shows clearly that July and August, the hottest season, are the months during which the largest number of decomposed occur. In fact during the short interval of 10 days from the 1st to the 10th of August, no fewer than 50 decomposed bodies were received at the Mortuary.

The work at the Mortuary, under these circumstances, is carried on with considerable difficulty and risk. There is no method there at present of immedia- tely dealing with such decomposed organic matter. Certainly the most efficient way of getting rid of decomposed bodies would be cremation, immediately on their arrival at the Mortuary.

REPORT ON THE EXAMINATION OF RATS FOR PLAGUE AT THE GOVERNMENT

PUBLIC MORTUARY FOR THE YEAR 1902.

Before giving any details as to the opportunities afforded for carrying out this research, the methods employed, and the interpretation of the results obtained, it will be interesting to enumerate the total number of rats examined during the year.

Total number of City of Victoria rats examined,

of Kowloon

Total number of Hongkong rats examined,

Total number of City of Victoria rats found infected,

"

of Kowloon

""

Total number of Hongkong rats found infected,.

68,517

19,322

.117,839

1,413

602

2,015

OPPORTUNITIES AFFORDED FOR CARRYING OUT THIS RESEARCH.

The systematic examination of rats found alive or dead was begun when I as- sumed charge of the Government Public Mortuary on the 20th March, 1902. It was evident from the very commencement that if this work was to be carried out on an extensive scale and in a systematic manner with uniformity of results, extra accommodation at the Mortuary would have to be provided. Accordingly with the consent of the Principal Civil Medical Officer (the Public Mortuary at that time being under the supervision of the Medical Department), I had the existing old Coroner's Court adjoining the Mortuary so reconstructed that the examination of rats could be undertaken satisfactory for the time being. The Coroner's Court consisted of two fair sized rooms, and with slight alterations these were fitted up so that one room was devoted to the actual post-mortem work, the second room being used as a microscopic or research room.

At the same time the arrangements made last year could only be of a temporary character, no system being possibly obtainable whereby the examinations could be satisfactorily carried out from a modern sanitary point of view.

222

.

During the months of March, April and of May these examinations were systematically carried out by myself. In May the services of 4 Japanese Doctors were obtained, and their researches, supervised by myself, were carried on until the 13th October, when they returned to Japan. From the latter date onwards, the work has been done by myself assisted by Chinese Qualified Doctors and Students of the College of Medicine in Hongkong. These examinations were gone on with even during the hottest weather, the daily number of rats examined— counting six days to a week-averaged nearly 400. This reaches approximately between 2,000 or 3,000 rats examined per week.

THE METHODS EMPLOYED.

Exact details as to the place where each rat was found was furnished by the Sanitary Department. The post-mortem on each rat was under antiseptic precau- tions, and smears both of the heart blood and spleen pulp were made on micros- copic glass slides. These were dried, fixed and stained by the usual tinctorial methods and examined microscopically. In almost all cases plague infection in rats is one most pronounced, the stained smears usually containing millions of typically ovalbipolar plague bacilli. If any doubt existed as to the nature of the organisms present GRAM's method of decolorisation was employed as a counter test. Seeing that so enormus a number of rats were examined by such a limited staff, these methods were the only possible. Subsequent to the post-mortem examina- tions, all the rats are cremated in an apparatus erected in the immediate neigh- bourhood.

THE INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS.

The post-mortem and bacteriological examination of large numbers of living and dead rats is a research which must be carried out with considerable care. The diagnosis of the presence of plague bacilli in any tissue or organ by means of the microscope alone is frequently one of extreme difficulty, and this is all the more so because in the tissues of man and animals micro-organisms occur which by the microscope alone cannot under any conditions be distinguished from the plague bacillus. The research is even complicated to a much greater degree in regard to the diagnosis of the presence of plague bacilli in rats. Rats suffer from a large number of septicemic diseases. These diseases frequently break out amongst them in epidemic form with a heavy mortality. Among the many micro-organisms causing these epidemic diseases may be mentioned B. DANYSZ and B. v. SCHILLING, etc. Other micro-organisms such as B. of fowl cholera, B. swine plague, etc., are also pathogenic for rats. Morphologically and tinctorially all the above mentioned micro-organisms resemble the B. Pestis. Therefore it is evident that even though plague is prevalent among rats in any particular city, one has to be on guard for the possible occurrence of other epidemic diseases which might account for an increased death-rate at any time among them.

The rat is one of the most susceptible animals to plague infection, the gray as well as the white rat probably sharing this almost equally.

The paths of infection in the rat are numerous.

The skin, the mere rubbing of plague material on the shaved abdomen of a rat is sufficient.

The mouth, the throat, and the nose are frequently sources of infection. In these cuses one frequently has evidence of infection of the nearest lympathic gland, e.g., of the neck. The glands are sowllen, oedematous and hæmorrhagic, and are full of plague bacilli. This condition may be met with in rats found alive, but pre- senting symptoms of disease.

In other cases it is not difficult to trace the infection by way of the alimentary canal.

The stomach and small intestine show marked swelling, adema and hæmorrhagic infiltration. The intestinal follicles and mesenteric glands are the seat of great edema and blood extravasation. The glands may even reach the size of a pea, and they contain enormous masses of plague bacilli.

Further infection may take place by way of the lungs setting up what is called an Aspiration Pneumonia. This may either be patchy or affect whole lobe of a hung. and the consolidated patches always show great hæmorrhagic infiltration. The parts are always choked with plague bacilli.

223

The method of infection in these cases is certainly direct, from contact with other rats dead from plague or suffering from plague, or plague infected material. It is a well known fact that the dead body of a rat is usually devoured as food by other rats.

The forms of plague as met with in rats may be divided into acute and chronic.

In the acute form, death occurs in a few days. There is loss of appetite, the hair becomes ruffled, and they usually sit in a corner of the cage curled up, pre- senting a very listless appearance. The post-mortem examination shows a marked inflammatory re-action in the spleen, lungs and liver. The spleen and liver are much enlarged, dark in colour, and contain enormous masses of bacilli. The lungs are hyperamic, the heart is full of fluid and tarry looking blood, which also has numerous bacilli. Frequently the peripheral lympathic glands are enlarged, and these may present all the appearances commonly met with in a Bubo in human subject.

In the chronic form, death may not occur for some considerable time, even for months. The post-mortem examination presents indurative swellings in the lungs, liver and spleen, some of which are usually in a condition of so called caseation. Plague bacilli are found in those areas which are capable of transmitting the disease.

In addition to rats, a number of other dead animals, as mice, dogs, cats and fowls, have been examined for the presence of B. pestis.

The number of fowls examined is small and the result was always negative. Four dogs were examined with a similar result. In the case of mice, a number have been examined, and in many distinct evidence of plague infection was found. So far as cats are concerned, the results obtained are highly interesting. Towards the end of the year one of the Godown Companies in Kowloon, who keep large num- bers of cats for destruction of rats, observed a higher death-rate than usual amongst their cats. Several of these were forwarded to me for examination, and in most cases the post-mortem examination showed unmistakable evidences of marked plague infection. Subsequently the cat mortality in these godowns greatly in- creased, and all the cats were forwarded to me. In almost all instances the cats died of plague. Further, several cats were forwarded to me immediately they showed signs of illness. They were kept under observation in isolation. Their chief symptoms was loss of appetite, ruffling of the hair, marked wasting, and in some cases paralytic phenomena showed themselves in the hinder extremities. In one instance the cat lived for over a week. In other two they died about 48 hours after I had them under observation. The post-mortem changes were mainly those of acute congestion with the presence of plague bacilli in the heart, blood and spleen. In one instance a small bubo was found in one groin, but did not present the extensive hæmorrhagic extravasation present in human beings.

The occurrence of plague infection in cats is one of the greatest importance from a domestic point of view. Undoubtedly the cats at present under considera- tion contracted plague from the plague infected rats in the godown. That the rats there were infected had conclusively been proved prévious to the infection in the cats. The method of infection here had probably been in the majority of cases a direct one, per os, although of course other possible channels of infection cannot be completely disregarded.

THE GOVENMENT VACCINE INSTITUTE.

During the greater part of the year, Dr. CLARK, the Acting Colonial Veterinary Surgeon, had charge of this Institution.

In the month of October the duties of Director of the Vaccine Institute were taken over by the Government Bacteriologist.

The preparation of Small-pox Vaccine was at once commenced.

The total number of calves paid for the manufacture of vaccine was 23, an expenditure of $150.

The total number of tubes of vaccine prepared during the year was 3,652, of which the Government Bacteriologist personally prepared 2,475.

The value of this lymph was $1,460.80.

f

224

During the year tubes of vaccine have been supplied to the local Hospitals and the Gaol, as well as to the Naval and Military Authorities, to the private practi- tioners in the Colony, and to Canton and some of the other neighbouring ports.

Altogether 4,616 tubes of vaccine were issued, the value of which was $2,499, of which $315.50 was paid into the Bank.

Considerable care has been taken to keep up the efficiency of the Vaccine, and so far it has given the utmost satisfaction to all who have used it.

No. of Tubes issued.

353.....

Value of Tubes issued.

Month.

January,

$176.50

February,

450..

225.00

March,

1,277..

638.50

April,

675.

337.50

May,

205....

102.50

June,

326.

163.00

July,...

100...

50.00

August,

101.

50.50

September,

106...

53.00

October,

248.

195.00

November,

305..

292.50

December,

470....

215.00

ISSUES OF VACCINE DURING 1902.

The Victoria Gaol,

1,520

The Tung Wah Hospital,..

1,100

The Government Civil Hospital,

730

The Alice Memorial Hospital,

222

The Sanitary Department,

100

The New Territory,

300

Vaccine paid for,

644

Total number of Tubes,

.4,616

BACTERIOLOGICAL LABORATORY.

After the arrival of the Bacteriological apparatus from England, a series of interesesting post-mortems and bacteriological examinations were made upon cattle at the Dairy Farm, Pokfulam, and the Kennedy Town Slaughter-house. The animals in question suffered from what appeared to be chronic diarrhoea. The stools were liquid and slimy and contained appreciable quantities of blood-stained mucus. There was loss of appetite, gradual emaciation, and the symptoms in the majority of cases gradually became aggravated, and was followed by death from

exhaustion.

The post-mortems made upon such carcases were extremely interesting, as many of the lesions found might from a superficial glance raise the suspicion that the animals had succumbed to infection with Plague. There was great congestion of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and muscles. Ecchymosis in great abundance were usually present in the serous membranes. The stomachs and intestines were inflamed and presented ulceration, which in some cases was very extensive and extended over considerable areas of the mucous membrane. The mesenteric, re- troperitoneal, scapular and groin glands were always enlarged, and the cut surfaces presented considerable congestion with frequent blood extravasation.

Cultures were made on ordinary nutrient media from the intestines, glands, spleen, heart, blood, &c., and at the same time guinea pigs, pigeons, &c., were inoculated direct from the tissues of the dead carcase. There could be no chance. of much contamination having taken place with other bacteria as the carcases used for those purposes were perfectly fresh, the almost comatose animal being killed immediately before the examination was made.

In addition to these, a large number of smears on microscopic glass slides were made from as many hæmorrhagic glands as possible, and the various internal

organs.

225

The microscopic preparations on being stained in various ways showed the presence of small rods resembling diplococci. This diplococcoid appearance was called forth by the more intense staining reaction at the poles of the rod—an appearance similar to that presented by B. pestis, and a large number of other rod- shaped micro-organisms. They did not retain the stain when treated by GRAM'S method.

The organism grew upon all media as gelatine, bouillon, agar-agar, potato, milk, &c. Ön all of these media the growth characteristics were similar to those of B. coli.

The organism was non-motile.

All the animals inoculated died after 24 to 48 hours with symptoms of post- mortem appearances of Septicemia with the occurrence of many hæmorrhages throughout the various internal organs. One pigeon was inoculated intra-mus- cular, and after death at the point of inoculation one found a white, thick, and hard swelling with marked necrosis of the surrounding muscle fibres.

Owing to a variety of reasons, the research was not prosecuted further, but it is the intention to follow up the disease more closely on the next favourable opportunity. From the symptoms and pathological appearances, coupled with the bac- teriological investigations, one is drawn to conclude that these animals suffering from a form of Hæmorrhagic Septicemia-a group of diseases affecting large numbers of different animals.

In view of the fact that such a disease or group of diseases prevails amongst cattle, it would be important to determine how widespread this disease is in the Colony, and in all cases to clearly distinguish the disease from what is called Rinderpest a disease which so far has baffled all the attempts of bacteriologists to reveal its exciting agent.

Further, in view of the fact that this form of Septicemia breaks out, apparently regularly each year, it would be useful to determine whether the animals in such herds could be protected by some method of active Immunisation.

During the year, an attempt was made to prepare HAFFKINE'S vaccine and plague curative serum. Operations were commenced, but had to be given up owing to want accommodation in the Infectious Diseases Hospital, its distance from the other branches of the Department, and further to want of suitable animal accom- modation in the immediate neighbourhood. It is felt that until some adequate accommodation in the form of a Bacteriological Laboratory, combined with the centralisation of the work requiring to be done, the preparation of complicated curative vaccines and sera cannot be undertaken.

—----

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE BLUE BOOK FOR 1902.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

No. 26

903

No. 304. HONGKONG.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 22nd June, 1903.

SIR,-I have the honour to submit, for your information, the following general Report on the Annual Blue Book for the year 1902.

I-FINANCES.

The Revenue for the year 1902 exclusive of Land Sales amounted to $4,329,712.48. Land Sales for the year reached $571,361.22. The total revenue from all sources was the therefore $4,901,073.70, or $295,108.70 more than the estimate. All the main sources of revenue showed an excess over the estimated receipts with the exception of Interest on Credit Balances and the Water Account, which yielded $2,996.08 and $14,050.53 respectively less than the estimate.

Licences and Internal Revenue showed an excess of no less than $158,340.55 over the estimate, and there were also considerable excesses under Fees of Court or Office, &c., Post Office and Light Dues.

The Expenditure for the year, chiefly owing to the sums disbursed (under the head of Miscellaneous Services) in connection with Plague, was very large, and far in excess of the estimate. The estimated expenditure (including that on Public Works Extraordinary) was $4,558,955.26, but the actual disbursements exceeded this estimate by $1,350,593.25.

The total actual expenditure was $5,909,548.51. Deducting from this the total actual receipts, there was a deficit of $1,008,474.81 on the actual working of the year, though the surplus of Assets on December 31st amounted to $66,869 exclusive of arrears of Revenue.

a.)-GENERAL REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.

The following is a brief abstract of Revenue and Expenditure for the years 1901 and 1902 :

1901.

1902.

Increase.

Decrease.

$

Light Dues,

58,375.98

$5 66,106.52

$

$

7,730.54

A

Licences and Internal Revenue not other- |

wise specified,

2,270,145.69

2,600,520 55

330,374.86

Fees of Court, &c.,

284,453.22

296,709.19

12,255.97

Post Office,

355,912.74

387,066.19

31,153.45

Rent of Government Property,

555,469.58

572,286.15

.16,816.57

Interest,

1.14

2,003.92

2,002.78

Miscellaneous,

280,100.36

233,070.49

47,029.87

Water Account,

169,119.45

171,949.47

2,830.02

Land Sales,

240,315.06

571,361.22

331,046.16

Total,

.$4.213,893.22 4,901,073.70

734,210.35 47,029.87

Deduct Decrease,

47,029.87

Nett Increase,

$687,180.48

The Right Honourable

JOSEPH CHAMBERLAIN, M.P.,

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies,

&c.,

&C...

&'c.

326

TOTAL REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE FOR THE 5 YEARS 1898-1902.

1898.

1899.

1900.

1901.

1902.

$

$

Revenue,. Expenditure,

Surplus,

Deficit,

$

$ 2,918,159.24 | 3,610,143.25 4,202,587.40] 4,213,893.22 4,901,073.70 2,841,805.20 | 3,162,792.36 3,628,447.13| 4,111,722.49 5,909,548.51

76,354.04 447,340.89 574,140.27 102,170.73

1,008,474.81

(b).-ASSETS AND LIABILITIES.

At the end of the year 1902 the surplus of the Assets of the Colony over the Liabilities amounted to $66,869.88, the total Assets being $815,903.89 exclusive of arrears of revenue amounting to $90,780, and the total Liabilities to $749,034.01.

(c).-PUBLIC Debt. ·

There is a public debt of £341,799.15.1 outstanding. The original debt was incurred in connection with the Praya Reclamation, the Central Market, and Water, Drainage and Sewerage Works.

Fund.

Interest at 31% is payable upon the loan, which is being paid off by a Sinking

II.-TRADE, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES, AGRICULTURE AND LAND. (a.)-TRADE AND SHIPPING.

The following table shows the principal articles of export in the year 1902 in vessels of European construction, compared with similar returns for 1901. The figures represent the tonnage.

Articles.

1901.

1902.

Increase.

Decrease.

Beans,

1.290

Coal,

917,144

· 300 1,040,906

990

123,762

Cotton Yarn and Cotton,

14,423

11,498

2,925

Flour,

145,287

107,826

37,461

Hemp,

31,195

22,923

8,272

Kerosine (bulk),

70,728

54,461

16.267

(case),

77,977

60,400

17,577

Lead,

260

625

365

Opium,

2,872

4,871

1,999

Liquid Fuel,

Rattan,

Rice,

Sulphur,

Sugar,

Tea,

3,973

6,299

2,326

...

3.488

4.742

1,254

618,780

819,919

201,139

Sandalwood,

5,272

5,374

102

55 241,291

268,268

26,977

1.473

Timber,

General,.

66,860

25 75.023

...

1,278,619

1,480,003

55

1,448

8,163 201,384

Total,...

3,480,987

3,963,463

567,471

81,995

Transit,..

2,134,585

2,372,397

237,812

Grand Total........ 5,615,572

6,335,860

805,283

81.995

Nett.........

720,288

327

It will be observed that coal imports resumed their upward tendency, and the figure for 1902 is not appreciably smaller than that for the abnormal year 1900. Still more noticeable are the large increases in the import of opium and rice.

The principal features to be remarked in the reported Trade of the Port for 1902 are:

In Imports reported—

of 26.5.

of 25.1%.

Increases in Opium

Rice

of 69.6%. of 32.6%.

Decreases in Hemp

"",

General of 15.7°

""

Flour

Bulk Oil of 22.9 %

>"

Coal

of 13.4%.

Case Oil of 22.5 %

O

""

**

""

Sugar

of 11.1 %.

Cotton of 20.3 c

Timber of 10.7%.

99

The net increase under this head amounts to 482,476 tons. In Exports, there is an increase reported of 126,814 „,

In Transit Cargo

of 237,812

""

">

>>

""

The total reported Import Trade of the Port for 1902 amounted to 26,037 vessels of 9,867,486 tons, carrying 6,921,928 tons of cargo, of which 4,549,531 tons were discharged at Hongkong. This does not include the number, tonnage or cargo of Local Trade Junks, or Steam Launches.

These returns show a decided improvement upon those for 1901, when the import trade was much depressed. This is a hopeful sign, especially as the further fall in silver exchange and the high values ruling on the home markets in certain staple commodities continued throughout the year to militate against the import trade of the Colony.

It must not be forgotten that figures such as those given above are necessarily imperfect in the case of a free port. The returns depend for accuracy upon the information voluntarily afforded to the Harbour Master by the Masters and Agents of the vessels concerned, and their reliability cannot be tested as thoroughly as might be desired.

The total tonnage entering and clearing during the year amounted to 21,528,780 tons, being an increase, compared with 1901, of 2,203,396 tons and 3,083,644 tons in excess of any previous year.

There was 51,542 arrivals of 10,783,502 tons, and 51,547 departures of 10,754,278 tons.

Of British Ocean-going tonnage, 3,010,441 tons entered, and 3,005,148 tons cleared.

Of British River Steamers, 1,775,960 tons entered, and 1,780,238 tons cleared.

Of Foreign Ocean-going tonnage, 3,273,817 tons entered, and 3,238,719 tons cleared.

Of Foreign River Steamers, 95,766 tons entered, and 95,909 tons cleared.

Of Steam Launches trading to Ports outside the Colony, 97,607 tous entered, and 97,607 tons cleared.

Of Junks in Foreign Trade, 1,613,875 tons entered, and 1,624,344 tons .cleared.

:

:

328

Of Junks in Local Trade, 916,016 tons entered, and 903,313 tons cleared.

Thus-

British Ocean-going tonnage represented,

Foreign Ocean-going

River

""

River

27

""

""

""

27.94%

16.52%

30.25%

0.89%

""

0.91%

15.04%

2)

8.45%

100.00°/°

Steam Launches in Foreign Trade,,

Junks

""

Local

""

""

**

"}

A comparison between the years 1901 and 1902 is given in the following Table. Steam Launches are not included.

1901.

1902.

Increase.

Decrease.

British,..

Foreign,

Junks in Foreign

Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage.

6,715 | 9,213,639| 7,102| 9,571,787 | 387 358,148 4,092 5,345,502| 5,359| 6,704,211 1,267 1,358,709| 35,394 3,266,168 36,245| 3,238,239 851

27,929

Trade,

Total,...... 46.201 | 17,825,309 48,706 | 19,514,237 | 2,505 1,716,857

27,929

Trade,

Junks in Local 41,235 1,334,947 50.743

1,819,329 9.508|| 484,382

Grand Total,... 87,436 | 19,160,256 99,449 | 21,333,566 12,013 2,201,239

27,929

NET,

12,013 2,173,310

For vessels under the British Flag, this Table shows an increase of 387 ships of 358,148 tons. These figures are, however, misleading, for River Steamers are responsible for an increase of 397 ships of 157,539 tons. This leaves a net decrease of 10 Ocean-going ships, with an increase in tonnage of 200,609 tons.

The above increase in River Steamers is due to the fact that the one vessel which ran in 1901 and not in 1902 is more than counterbalanced by two which started to run at the end of 1901, and two which started to run at the beginning of 1902.

The fall of 10 Ocean-going vessels is a genuine decrease, which loses a por- tion of its significance when we consider the increased size of vessels as evidenced by the increase in tonnage.

For vessels under Foreign Flags, we find a large increase, viz., 1,267 ships of 1,358,709 tons, of which 301 ships of 93,627 tons are due to River Steamers, one new French vessel having started to run in 1902, and another French ship having run more often in 1902 than in 1901. The remainder, 966 ships of 1,285,082 tons, is due to-

1. An increase of 453 Norwegian ships of 372,021 tons

2.

186 German

57.

""

""

"1

of 221,619

">

3.

4.

169. Chinese

""

""

11

of 307,897

17

150 Japanese

32

of 342,668

""

and smaller increases in other nationalities.

The actual number of ships of European construction (exclusive of River Steamers and Steam Launches), entering the Port during 1902, was 718, of which 350 were British, and 368 Foreign. These 718 ships entered 4,047 times, giving a total tonnage entered of 6,284,258 tons. Thus, compared with 1901, 37 more ships entered 477 more times, and give a total tonnage increased by 728,926 tons.

329

The following table indicates the nationality of the various ships entering the port, the numbers of vessels under each flag and the tonnage carried by them, compared with the similar figures for the previous year

Ships.

Flag.

No. of times entered.

Total Tonnage.

1901| 1902. 1901.| 1902. 1901. 1902.

British,

321

324 1,770 1,753

2,894,519 2,965,030

Austrian,

20

20

53

50

128,483, 125,929

Belgian,

1

9

3

12,407

3,624

Chinese,

17

10

135

3,349 163,396

Corean,

1

796

Danish,

12

13

25,903

23,374

Dutch,

29

23

40,872 26.464

French,

German,

122

Italian,

Japanese,

Norwegian,

22222

27

206

228

209,094 219,111

123

842

939 1,242,499 1,360,524

4

12

14 17,988 23.428

65

56

336

409

692,981 865,400

26

49

79

300

78,004 263,379

Portuguese,

3

49

46

4,948

Russian,

11

4

16

8.797:

7,897 32,046

Spanish,

1

1

784

Swedish.

1

4

7

15

6,923

...

14,325

United States,.

19

23

89

56

130,476 121,939

No Flag,

1

1

80

#

Total,..

632

676 3,510 4,000 5,498,9036,215,866

:

The above return refers to steamers only. In addition, 42 sailing vessels visited the port during the year, with a total tonnage of 68,392, as compared with 50 ships and 56,429 tons during 1901. 26 of these ships were British and 9 American.

The total Revenue collected by the Harbour Department during the year was $266,765.99, being an increase of $15,168.60 on the previous year.

́b.)—INDUSTRIES.

Most of the local industries of the Colony were carried on with satisfactory results during 1902 and were less hampered by Plague than during the preceding year.

The fall in the exchange value of silver, to which Sir W. GASCOIGNE referred in his Blue Book Report for 1901, continued throughout 1902 with hardly a break. The effect of this fall, however embarrassing in other respects, is undoubtedly advantageous as regards many local productions and industries.

Cotton Spinning in Hongkong was carried on in 1902 under more favourable circumstances than have prevailed since the initiation of this industry.

(1541)

Comparative immunity from Plague together with improved skill on the part of operatives resulted in largely increased production, and, aided by declining exchange which checked excessive imports of Indian yarns, the local spinnings were freely sold at gradually advancing dollar prices.

Under normal conditions the progress of this industry may now reasonably be considered as assured, but the possibility of an annual recurrence of Plague which experience has proved drives many of the work-people from the Colony, owing to their strong dislike to the measures instituted by the Sanitary Authorities, is a factor which must not be overlooked in attempting a forecast.

The Sugar industry had many adverse conditions to contend against during the year which was a most unprofitable one. Chief amongst these was the con- tinued competition with bounty-fed Beet Sugars, which low prices in Europe (the result of enormous overproduction) allowed of being placed in Eastern markets at a level never before reached. The preferential treatment accorded to Refineries in Japan and the very onerous conditions there to be contended against constitute a very severe handicap to trade with that country, which was formerly an important

T

330

outlet for the production in Hongkong. Scarcity of water and greatly increased cost of labour were factors which further conduced to an unfavourable result to local Refineries.

In other respects the outlook for industrious enterprise in Hongkong is on the whole promising.

(c.)—FISHERIES.

A considerable proportion of the boat-population of Hongkong supports itself by deep-sea fishing, in which pursuit a large number of junks are engaged. In the immediate neighbourhood of the Colony, or within its territorial waters, the fishing industry has not assumed any considerable dimensions. About $2,000 was paid into the Treasury during the year from fees for fishing stakes and station licences in the New Territory.

d.)-FORESTRY, BOTANICAL, SCIENCE AND AGRICULTURE.

Nearly 6,500 new trees were planted in Hongkong during the year, and more than 31,500 in the New Territory, the majority being pines. It has been found that camphors will grow sucessfully in the New Territory and nearly 3,000 of these trees were planted in the neighbourhood of the new Taipo Road.

Forestry and Botanical work generally made good progress during the year, though hampered to a considerable extent by the excessive drought in the Spring and the severity of the typhoons during July.

Good experimental work is carried on by a Chinese gentlemen in the New Territory, who has under cultivation sugar cane, mulberries, and various fruit trees, flowers and vegetables. As the cultivation is carried on strictly according to Western methods, and with the assistance of Government, it is hoped that the Chinese of the New Territory will benefit by this excellent object-lesson.

In another district of the New Territory a considerable area is being cul- tivated by a small company under European supervision. So far success has attended the growing of vegetables, and both hemp and Chinese tobacco give promise of repaying cultivation.

(e.)-LAND GRANTS AND GENERAL VALUE OF Land.

Sales of Crown land for the year 1902 amounted in value to $571,361.22, or more than $70,000 in excess of the estimated receipts from this source, and more than $330,000 over the actual receipts for 1901. The only year in which a larger sum has been realized was 1900, when the receipts were $816,222. The value of the land in the New Territory which is contiguous to the harbour or south of the Kowloon range of hills has enormously increased in value since the Bristish oc- cupation commenced. As an example of this, a case may be cited of a small land- owner who before the New Territory was taken over held about 127 acres of land near Devil's Peak, west of the Lyeemon Pass, and paid a tax to the Chinese authorities of $5 per annum. As soon as his title to the land was confirmed by the Hong- kong Land Court, he sold it to a local Company for $50,000.

The cadastral survey of the New Territory and the demarcation of the farm lots was a difficult and costly work owing to the rugged and mountainous nature of the ground and the small size of the holdings. This work is now practically finished, and rapid progress is being made with the new rent-roll.

Building land in the urban portion of the Colony is limited in extent and continues to be very costly.

III.-LEGISLATION.

Forty-seven Ordinances were passed during 1902, of which twenty-two were amending and twelve private Ordinances.

The dependence of the Colony for its water-supply on the annual rainfall, and the occurrence of a serious water famine in the Spring of the year under review, showed the necessity of introducing new legislation to regulate and control the supply. The result was the Water-works Consolidation Ordinance, which had for its object the economising of water.

Four Ordinances dealt with the New Territory, chiefly in connection with Crown lands resumption, rent recovery, and the registration of titles.

1:|: : 1

!

!

331

Of the private measures the most important was the Tramway Ordinance (No. 10 of 1902), by which the contruction of an electric tramway within the Colony was authorized and the necessary legal powers, conferred upon the Company by which the tramway is to be constructed.

IV.-EDUCATION.

The educational system in the Colony is at present undergoing revision, and it is as yet too early to speak with confidence of the results which may be expected from measures which are, to some extent, only tentative.

Of recent years the demand among the Chinese for instruction in the English language has largely increased, and is now so keen that all the Anglo-Chinese schools of the Colony are full, and many would-be pupils cannot find admittance. There is also a growing number of night-schools and other non-aided institutions where English is taught. One such school, founded little more than a year ago. has a total enrolment of 300; and application has been made by its Manager for its inclusion, under the Government Code, among aided Schools.

Of Government Schools, Queen's College, with an average attendance of nearly one thousand, is the most important. Three Anglo-Chinese District Schools, with a total enrolment of about 400, were entirely re-constituted and put under European headmasters from the end of the year. Of aided Anglo-Chinese Schools, the Roman Catholic Cathedral School has an average attendance of over one hundred. In all these schools a large proportion of the staff consists of European masters.

During the year a school for children (both sexes) of European British parentage was established at Kowloon: it has already a total enrolment of over sixty.

A Committee was appointed early in the year to consider the whole question of education in the Colony; and it published a report in which were enunciated several important principles. Of these perhaps the most universally accepted is the dictum that while educating Chinese in English and Western Knowledge, it is also desirable to ensure a certain standard of proficiency in the Chinese written language.

The Inspector of Schools, who was in England during the summer, made a study of the methods employed by the Board of Education, and on his return drew up a new Code for aided Schools. This draft has since received the full approval of the Managers of Schools.

V.-PUBLIC WORKS.

The principal public works undertaken or completed within the year were the new Law Courts, the road to Taipo, the Western Market, the new Harbour Office, an extension of the Tytam Reservoir, the Kowloon Water-works, and the Governor's new Peak Residence. The Law Courts are to be built on the Praya Reclamation. The greater part of the year was occupied in forming the foundations, which were nearly completed. The road to Taipo, the administrative centre of the New Territory, was practically finished. Its width is 14 feet and its length 18 miles. The founda- tions of the new Western Market were nearly completed up to ground level, and also those of the new Harbour Office. The new Water-works at Tytam and Kow- loon have been undertaken in consequence of the inadequacy of the existing water supply to meet the requirements of the city of Victoria during the dry season. The excavation of the foundations for the new Tytam Reservoir, over a length of about 280 feet, was practically completed, and a portion was filled in with cement concrete. The new Kowloon Water-works scheme is in the hands of a firm of local architects and engineers. Beyond the laying of mains, the defining of drainage boundaries and a certain amount of excavation, there has not yet been time to make any decided progress with the work.

The Governor's new Peak Residence was completed in July and occupied shortly afterwards. The house is large and substantial and stands near the highest point on the island.

The total amount spent on Public Works Extraordinary during the year was $1,157,104; and on works annually recurrent, $506,793. Of the former sum, $508,000 was expended in the purchase of a site on the Praya Reclamation for the new Post Office.

..

332

VI.-GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS.

(a.)-HOSPITALS,

Government Hospitals consist of the Civil Hospital, to which is attached an isolated Maternity Hospital; Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital, and the hulk Hygeia.

The Civil Hospital contains 150 beds in 20 wards; the Maternity Hospital 6 beds for Europeans and 4 for Asiatics; and Kennedy Town Hospital 26 beds in the main building. In 1902, 206 cases were treated at Kennedy Town, of which 94 were cases of plague, 10 of small-pox and 52 of cholera.

3,108 in-patients and 11,815 out-patients were treated at the Government Civil Hospital in 1902. There was a decided decrease in the number of admissions from malarial fever, the figures being 349 as compared with 787 in 1901.

The Tung Wa Hospital is mainly supported by voluntary subscriptions, and only receives a small contribution from the Government. It takes the place of a Poor-house and Hospital for Chinese sick and destitute. Chinese as well as European methods of treatment are employed in accordance with the wishes ex- pressed by the patients or those who are responsible for them.

(b.)—ASYLUM.

The Lunatic Asylum is under the direction of the Principal Civil Medical Officer. European and Chinese patients are separated, the European portion of the Asylum containing 8 beds in 8. separate wards, and the Chinese portion 16 beds. patients of all races were treated during 1902, and there were 13 deaths.

OTHER GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS.

120

The Prison, Observatory, Post Office, Educational establishments and other Government institutions are dealt with under separate heads.

VII.-INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT.

Among institutions recognised and encouraged but not to any considerable extent supported by Government may be mentioned the Po Leung Kuk and the College of Medicine for Chinese. The Po Leung Kuk is an institution presided over by the Registrar-General and an annually elected Committee of twelve Chinese gentlemen, for the protection of women and children. The inmates of the Home receive daily instruction in elementary subjects and sometimes earn pocket-money by doing needle-work. During 1902 a total of 617 persons were admitted, made up of 494 women, 93 young girls, and 30 small boys. Of these, 261 were restored to their parents or sent to charitable institutions in China, 27 were sent to mis- sionary schools and convents, 19 were married, 10 adopted, and 310 allowed to leave. The Home is medically attended by one of the Colonial Surgeons.

The Hongkong College of Medicine for Chinese was founded in 1887, for the purpose of teaching surgery, medicine and midwifery, especially to Chinese. The Government of the College is vested in the Court, of which the Rector of the College, who has always been a Government official, is President. 76 students. have been enrolled up to 1903, and of these 18 have become qualified licentiates and have obtained various posts under Government and elsewhere. The institution is of great value in spreading a knowledge of Western medical science amongst the Chinese; and in addition to the employment of certain of the licentiates in the public service, the senior students have frequently been made use of for various purposes during epidemic seasons. A Government grant-in-aid of $2,500 is made to the College, to be used as honoraria to the lecturers.

VIII-CRIMINAL AND POLICE.

STATISTICS.

The number of convictions in the Superior Courts during the last five

years

:

!

is as follows:---

1898. 1899. 1900. 1901. 1902.

1. For Offences against the Person, 2. For Offences against Property,

19

49

54

54

زون

17

18

7

7

3. For other Offences,...

3

10

12

21

12

:

:

:

333

The total of all cases reported to the Police was 10,421, as against 9,172 in 1901. This shows an increase of 13.61 per cent. In the division of these cases into serious and minor offences there appears an increase, as compared with 1901, of 594 cases or 17.45 per cent. in the former, and of 655 cases or 11.35 per cent. in the latter. The serious offences in which the increase was most noticeable were burglary and larceny.

The increase in crime in the Colony is no doubt largely due to the restlessness of the neighbouring districts in China, and the influx of Chinese paupers who were the victims of bad harvests and spasmodic rebellions in the two adjoining provinces.

The Police Force is composed of 133 Europeans, 367 Indians and 419 Chinese, and has thus increased, largely owing to the necessities of the New Terri- tory, by nearly 300 members during the past five years. The executive staff consists of a Captain Superintendent, a Deputy and two Assistant Superintendents.

The daily average of prisoners confined in the gaol during 1902 was 576. The average may be said to have been raised by about 25 per cent. during the past ten years.

Constant attention is given to the instruction of long-sentence prisoners (first offenders) of good conduct, who are employed at industrial labour, viz.:-Boot and Shoe-making, Tailoring, Mat-making, Carpentry, Tinsmithing, Net-making, Mat- tress-making, Rattan work, Knitting, Printing and Book-binding the knowledge of which is useful and educational, rendering many of them much better adapted to earn an honest livelihood after their discharge from prison.

The total number of forms printed at the Gaol during the year 1902 was 3,050,828, and 11,949 books were bound. The value of work done by the Print- ing and Book-binding Department was $29,039.13. Deducting the cost of paper, leather, etc., used during the year, from the net earnings, the total profits on all industrial labour amounted to $29,439.91 for year 1902.

The Chinese inhabitants contribute by a voluntary assessment among them- selves to the pay of District Watchmen, a native force which is of material assist- ance to the regular Police. During the year 1902 over $17,000 was contributed for this purpose.

IX.-VITAL STATISTICS.

(a).-POPULATION.

The last Census was taken in January, 1901, when the population was found to be 283,975, exclusive of the Army and Navy. The estimated population at the beginning of the year under review, (the naval and military forces being similarly excluded from the estimate), was 311,824, including 18,524 non-Chinese. This is exclusive of the New Territory, the population of which is probably slightly under 110,000. The total population of the Colony may therefore be estimated in round figures at 421,000 of all nationalities. The total number of births registered in the Colony was 1,200 and of deaths 6,783. This gives an annual birth-rate of 3.8 and a death-rate of 21.7 per 1,000. The excess of deaths over births is explained by the fact that thousands of Chinese families are represented in Hongkong by men only, and that a large proportion of the population of the Colony is a floating population of adult males. It should also be remembered that a large proportion of births among the Chinese remains unregistered. The preponderance of male over female births is very marked among the Chinese community, being in the proportion of 190 males to every 100 females. The proportion among the non-Chinese community was 111 to 100 as compared with 107 to 100 in 1901.

(b).-PUBLIC HEALTH AND SANITATION.

The Colony was again visited by Plague in the Spring and Summer of 1902, though the outbreak was much less severe than in several former years. 546 Chinese are known to have died of this disease in the Colony, and 26 members of the British and Foreign community, which includes Asiatic Portuguese. 57 cases

1334

of small-pox, of which 41 were fatal, occurred during the year, and a somewhat serious outbreak of cholera which was responsible for 433 deaths took place syn- chronously with plague. It is probable that the spread of the disease was encouraged by the shortage of the water-supply in the Spring, which was the result of the deficient rainfall of 1901. There were 425 deaths from malarial fever, and 453 from beri-beri. The total number of deaths from all causes was 6,783, including 352 members of the British and Foreign community.

There was a very marked diminution in the number of malarial fever cases reported from the New Territory. The treatment with larvicides of the breeding places of the anopheles mosquito is still being actively continued with good results.

The sanitary condition of the City still leaves much to be desired, and the overcrowding in Chinese tenement houses is excessive. New legislation will ameliorate present conditions by degrees, but it is evident that real improvement can only be gradually attained. A new consolidating and amending law relating to buildings and public health was prepared with great care under the supervision and by the advice of Mr. OSBERT CHADWICK, C.M.G., and Professor SIMPSON, M.D., who, as experts in sanitation and plague respectively, were commissioned to hold investigations into the present sanitary condition of the City and to trace the causes of the continued prevalence of bubonic plague. The new Ordinance, which embo- dies most of the recommendations of Messrs. CHADWICK and SIMPSON, did not actually come into operation during 1902, though it practically passed through all its legislative stages before the end of the year.

(e).-CLIMATE.

The average monthly temperature throughout the year has been 73.4° F. as compared with 72.1° F. during 1901; the maximum monthly temperature was attained in the months of August and September when it reached 81.8° F., and the minimum monthly temperature was recorded in the month of February, being 59.5° F.

The highest recorded temperature during the year was 92.2° F. on July 27th, and the lowest 40.5 F. on February 4th.

The returns from the Hongkong Observatory show that the total rainfall for the year was 97.50 inches as compared with 55.78 inches in 1901 and an average of 77.86 inches during the past ten years. The wettest month was May with 26.73 inches, while there were also 26.5 inches of rain in the month of August; the driest month was February with only 0.02 inch. The greatest amount of rain which fell on any one day was 8.06 inches on August 2nd, while no rain fell on 223 days of the year; the relative humidity of the atmosphere throughout the year was 75.6 per cent. as compared with 75 per cent. in the pre- vious year, while during March to August it averaged continuously over 82 per The average daily amount of sunshine throughout the year was 5.3 hours, and on 51 days no sunshine was recorded.

cent.

X.-POSTAL SERVICE.

All

The revenue derived from all sources of the postal service amounted to $387,066.19, an increase of $42,554.61 on that of the previous year. The sale of stamps realised $353,949.99, or $29,886.03 more than was realised in 1901. branches of the postal organisation shared in the general increase except exchange on Money Order transactions, the profits of which showel a decrease from slightly over $10,000 to $2,768.

It is hoped that before long a direct parcel post exchange with the United States of America will be established, effecting an appreciable reduction in the time now occupied in transit.

The Penny Letter postage was extended to the British postal agencies in China from 15th February. The agencies exist at Amoy, Canton, Foochow, Hankow, Hoihow, Liu Kung Tau (Weihaiwei), Ningpo, Shanghai and Swatow,

;

335

XI-MILITARY FORCES & EXPENDITUE.

(a.)-REGULAR FORCES.

The following return shows the number and nature of the forces employed in the Colony during 1902 :--

General Staff,

CORPS.

EUROPEAN.

Officers.

Warrant

Officers.

N.C.O.'s

and Men.

{$

Officers.

INDIAN.

CHINESE.

TOTALS.

N.C.O.'s

and Men.

N.C.O.'s

and Men.

Garrison Staff,

Royal Garrison Artillery,

Hongkong-Singapore Battalion, R.A.

Royal Engineers,

Chinese S. M. M. Co., R. E.,

Second Battalion Royal Welch Fusrs.

1st Sherwood Foresters,

Army Service Corps,

Royal Army Medical Corps,

A.O.D. and Corps,

21

16

12

:སྤྲ ོ; ོ

30

19

1

ཤ:ས:::

570

#93

8 186

462

494

200

69

69

865

897

569

588

5

32

42

48

56

A.P.D. and Corps,..

11

Indian Sub-Medical Dept.,

1

Educational Dept.,

1

2

Hongkong Regiment,

13

763

781

10th Bombay Light Infantry,

9

16

700

725

14th Bombay Infantry,

10

16

723

749

33rd Burma Infantry,

9

15

723

717

22nd Bombay Infantry,

15

684

706

5th Infantry Hyderabal Contingent,.. 10

16

666

692

Totals..

176

10 2,290

99

4,721

69

7,865

The 2nd Battalion of the R.W.F. left the command on the 9th November, and were relieved by the Sherwood Foresters. The 22nd Bombay Infantry and the 5th Infantry Hyderabad Contingent left on the 9th August and 20th June, respectively, and were replaced by the 10th Bombay Light Infantry, the 14th Bombay Infantry and the 33rd Burma Infantry.

(b.)-COLONIAL CONTRIBUTION.

The Colony contributed $914,038.83 (being the statutory contribution of 20% of revenue) towards the cost of the maintenance of the regular forces in the Colony, and Barrack Services.

(c.)-VOLUNTEER CORPS.

The strength in

The total establishment of the Corps is 400 of all ranks. is 400 of all ranks. 1902 was 274, made up as follows :-Staff, 6; 2 Garrison Artillery companies, 235; 1 Engineer company, 27; and a Band, 6.

The Field Battery, Machine Gun companies and Infantry company were changed to two Garrison Artillery companies during 1902.

The expenditure on the Volunteers, which is entirely borne by the Colony, was $21,026.91.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

From 4th January, 1902, to 8th September, 1902, during my absence on leave, Sir W. J. GASCOIGNE, K.C.M.G., administered the Government.

In April, 1902, Mr. W. M. GOODMAN was appointed Chief Justice, and towards the close of the year received the honour of Knighthood. Sir HENRY SPENCER BERKELEY, late Chief Justice of Fiji, succeeded him in the Office of Attorney-General. Mr. J. H. STEWART-LOCKHART, C.M.G., was appointed Commis- sioner of Wei-hai-wei in April, 1902, and was succeeded as Colonial Secretary by Mr. F. H. MAY, C.M.G.

336

The Coronation of His Majesty the King was celebrated in the Colony by a Special Service in the Cathedral, by general illuminations, and by the presentation of loyal addresses.

A statue of His Royal Highness the Duke of Connaught the gift of Sir PAUL CHATER, C.M.G.—was unveiled on 5th July, 1902, and it was announced on that occasion that the same donor and Mr. J. J. BELL-IRVING intended to present the Colony with statues of His Majesty the King and of His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales.

The New Territory has continued its gradual and peaceful development; and if it were not for the occasional inroads of disorderly characters from the Chinese side of the frontier there should be but little to record in the way of robbery or outrage. The demarcation of the whole of the New Territory, with the exception of certain strips, and the Island of Lamma, was finished during the year. The construction of an excellent road from Kowloon to Taipo, a distance of about 18 miles, was practically completed. The system of Police Stations is also complete, and nearly every Station is connected with the City by telephone. The settlement of land claims has been steadily progressing, and it is hoped that the work for which the temporary Land Court was created will shortly be concluded. The area of the New Territory is about 370 square miles, of which the cultivated area is about 45,000 acres or 60 square miles. The estimated population is slightly over 100,000. At present the expenditure on the New Territory, largely due to the cost of the Land Court and Public Works Extraordinary, is considerably in excess of the revenue; but judging from the present rate of progress and prospects for the future it may be expected that the revenue will equal the expenditure within seven or eight years.

The local Chamber of Commerce has pronounced itself strongly in favour of the compulsory adoption of the Metric System of Weights and Measures through- out the Empire, and will welcome any change in that direction.

In spite of the depression caused especially in Import Trade, by the fluctua- tions in the Silver Market and other more remote causes, the prosperity of the Colony has continued to expand during the past year. Statistics show that in spite of the heavy drain upon the resources of the Colony caused directly and indirectly by the annual recurrence of plague, the financial position of the Colony is sound and gives no cause for uneasiness for the future. At the same time it is well to remember that the assets of this Colony are practically the goodwill of its commerce, and it is only by a continuance of its sea-borne trade-which fortunately as yet shows no signs of declining that the Colony can expect to remain in its present prosperous condition.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient, humble Servant,

H. A. BLAKE,

Governor.

19

No. 1903

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT, FOR THE YEAR 1902.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

No. 11.

BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT,

HONGKONG, 4th April, 1903.

2

SIR,-I have the honour to submit the Annual Report on this Department for the information of His Excellency the Governor.

STAFF.

2. The Superintendent left for home on the 6th of August on four months' vacation leave, with the intention of retiring at the end of that time.

3. The Assistant Superintendent was acting as Head of the Department from the 7th August until the end of the year.

4. Sickness amongst the Chinese Staff was very prevalent throughout the year, 1,218 days having been recorded. Much of the sickness was attributable to the epidemic of Dengue Fever last summer.

BOTANIC GARDENS.

5. Plant Sales and Louns.-The revenue derived from these last year was $936.01 as compared with $958.18 for the previous year. Of this amount the sum of $688.13 was received for 1,596 plants sold, and $247.88 for 3,182 plants on loan.

6. Drought. Much time and labour were expended during the first four months of the year on account of the exceptionally dry weather and the inadequacy of the water supply for the Gardens. Coolies were employed to carry water from the Garden Road Nullah where there is always a good supply.

7. Typhoons. These were very frequent during July, but did very little dam- age to trees and shrubs. On the 2nd of August, however, there was a strong gale accompanied by a heavy rainfall which wrecked many large trees in the streets and did some damage to the Gardens, but not so much as might have been expected from the force of the wind. Two landslips occurred in the New Garden-one at the east end of the Gallery Walk and the other above the same walk.

8. Rockeries. Most of the plants in the large rockeries at the north-east entrance to the Old Garden, and those in the small rockery at the west end of the Rose-bed Terrace were taken up; those which were worn out thrown away and new ones planted in their places.

9. Plant Houses.-Nos. 2 and 3 houses, mentioned in last year's report as being in course of construction, were finished during the year and are a great im- provement on the former structures. The rockery at the south end has been pro- vided with a bamboo roof similar to the roofs of the plant houses.

10. Walks. In paragraph 13 of last year's report it is stated that repairs to walks were suspended between March, 1900, and October, 1901. As a matter of fact, about 600 square yards were re-surfaced with cement and granite during that time, rather more than was done between October, 1901, and the time the report was written.

11. Elephant's Head Banana.-When Mr. E. H. WILSON, who was from 1899- 1902 collecting plants and seeds in China for Messrs. J. H. VEITCH & SONS, was here in 1899, he gave me a few seeds of a Banana he had collected in Yunnan, and informed me that the plant was known by the natives, who grew it for the centre of the stem which they used as food, as the Elephant's Head Banana. Three of the seeds germinated and two of the plants thus obtained arrived at maturity and

202

flowered and fruited last year. The species appeared to be new, although closely allied to Musa glauca, Roxb., so I drew up a description and made a sketch of the plant which I sent to the Gardeners' Chronicle where it is described and figured, on pages 450 and 451 respectively of Vol. XXXII, Third Series, of that Journal, under the name of Musa Wilsoni. The native name evidently refers to the inflores- cence which has a striking resemblance to an elephant's head. The two plants were objects of beauty for a considerable time on the lower terrace in the Old Garden, but as the species is monocarpic they died after fruiting. I hope to obtain some young plants from the seeds saved, as it is a most interesting acquisition.

12. Heterostylism in Stachytarpheta indica, Vahl.-In Hongkong there are two forms of this plant, which is a common road-side weed-one with dark blue flowers with leaves having a strongly marked venation, which I take to be the type, and another with light blue flowers having leaves with a much less prominent venation. On an examination of the flowers of these two varieties I found that the pistils in the dark blue flowers protruded beyond the corolla tube, the stigmas being con- siderably above the anthers, but in some of the light blue flowers the stigmas only reached to the top of the corolla tube and just above the anthers, whilst in others the stigmas were below the anthers. I examined the flowers of a large number of plants and found all the styles of any particular plant to be always of the same length.

13. Additions to the Hongkong Flora.-The following plants have not been recorded from Hongkong before, so far as I am aware.

Calanthe curculigoides, Wall.-In March, 1901, I discovered a plant on Mount Parker, but as it was not in flower it could not be named with certainty. It flowered in October last year and proved to be the above.

Ipomea carnosa, R. Br.-Found in flower on the seashore at Chai Wan Tsai last December, growing amongst Ipomoea biloba.

Erythrina indica, Lam.-This plant was also found at Chai Wan Tsai in December, probably naturalized, as it is cultivated in Hongkong.

Senecio vulgaris, Linn.-A specimen of the common groundsel was found in the Gardens in December, probably introduced with European seeds.

Sphenoclea zeylanica, Gaertn.-This plant was discovered at Sookunpo, in a swamp in August last, and later on in the year I found it at Little Hongkong.

Eurya distichophylla, Hemsl.-Male and female plants of this were found on Mount Parker in November last. I take it to be this species as it agrees fairly well with HEMSLEY's description in the Index Flora Sinensis, Vol. I, p. 77. There is a specimen of this plant in the Herbarium of the Botanic Gardens under the name of Eurya acuminata, found by Mr. FORD on Mount Parker, but apparently it is not that species although closely allied to it, as, besides other differences, it has dark purple (nearly black) flowers, whereas according to KURZ, Eurya acuminatu has white flowers.

Fatoua pilosa, Gaudich.-A plant found on rubbish heaps and detected on the bank east of College Gardens, in October last.

Scutellaria indica, Linn., var. insignis.-This plant was first found by Mr. FORD on Tai Mo-shan; afterwards it was collected by myself on Lantao Island, and in October of last year I discovered it in Hongkong on a high hill, west of Washer- men's Ravine, Causeway Bay. HEMSLEY in the Index Flora Sinensis, Vol. II, p. 295, says that specimens had been received from Dr. HENRY intermediate in character between this and the ordinary S. indica. As the plant under review evidently maintains its character, having been discovered in three different localities, I have given it a varietal name. It is an exceedingly pretty thing, quite unlike ordinary S. indica, and well worth growing as a foliage plant. There are two or three plants under cultivation in the Botanic Gardens, and I hope to send a living specimen to Kew later on.

Peperomia pellucida, Kunth.-I am not quite sure about this plant, but as it is the species common about Georgetown, Penang, (CURTIS), it might have reach- ed here. It is a common weed in the vicinity of the Gardens during the summer months, but originally a native of the West Indies and Brazil.

Mirabilis Jalapa, Linn.-This American plant is colonized in Hongkong as in other parts of China.

י

A

.

.

:

203

14. Interchange of Plants and Seeds.-The following were the chief donors of plants, seeds, animals, or herbarium specimens:-

Acclimatising Association, South Ca-

lifornia.

Alves, J. L. de

Blake, Lady

Bondonnet, Lt.-Col., Kwangchauwan.

Botanic Gardens, Bangalore.

Calcutta.

""

17

Durban.

Jamaica.

Melbourne.

"}

27

Nagpur. Ootacamund.

Botanic Gardens, Singapore.

Dealy, T. K.

Forteath, H. H., Rangoon. Hallifax, E. R.

Hayata, H., Tokyo.

Hodgins, Capt. A. E.

Ortif, Rev. J.

Perkins, Chas.

Sanders, E. D.

Seth, Mrs. A.

Sprenger, Cav. C., Vomero, Napoli. Wilkinson, E. D.

15. The chief recipients of plants and seeds were:---

Agricultural and Botanical Department,

Sierra Leone.

Barton, J.

Blake, Lady

Botanic Station, Lagos.

Department of Agriculture, Zanzibar.

Gardens and Forests, Mauritius.

Government Civil Hospital.

Johnstone, Miss

Joshua, Bro., Penang.

Hodgins, Capt. A. E.

James, B.

Li Pak.

May, Mrs. F. H.

Robinson, Mrs. E. G.

Roebelen, C.

Sanders, E. D.

Seth, Mrs. A.

Tang Yui-san.

Pearce, Rev. T.

Veitch, Messrs. J., & Sons, Chelsea. Victoria Gaol.

16. Rainfall. The total rainfall for the year, as registered in the Botanic Gardens, was 110.03 inches. The first ten years' record is now complete, and last year's fall is 23.52 inches above the average for that period (1893-1902). The fall for the first four months of the year was 5.57 inches below the average for the cor- responding months of the last ten years. In May, June, July and August 97.65 inches were registered, being 39.68 inches above the average for the same months during the last decade. The last four months of the year showed a fall below the average, for the ten years' period, of 10.55 inches. The greatest fall was in August, 31.95 inches, and the smallest in February, 0.02 inches. Statistics are given in Appendices A and B.

17. Herbarium and Library.—Very little progress has been made with Her- barium work for some years, and there is a mass of material awaiting incorporation. Many books also require binding. Annual Reports, Bulletins, &c., have been received from the under-mentioned Establishments, to the chiefs of whom the thanks of the Department are due :—

British Guiana, Calcutta, Ceylon, Gold Coast, Grenada, Jamaica, Kolonial Museum, Haarlem; Natal, New South Wales, Rio de Janeiro, Tokyo, Sarharanpur, Straits Settlements, Trinidad; the Agricultural Departments of Cape of Good Hope, England, Queensland, United States of America, University of California, West Indies, and Zanzibar; Forest Administration in Assam, Ajmer-merwara, Baluschistan, Bengal, Bombay, Burma, Central Provinces, Coorg, Dehra, Dun, Hyderabad, Madras, North-west Provinces and Oudh, Punjab, and Western Australia.

Purchased:-

The Bambusea of British India.

Gardeners' Chronicle, 1902.

Journal of Botany, 1902.

Botanical Magazine, 1902.

Presented:-

Hooker's Icones Plantarum, by the Bentham Trustees through Royal

Gardens, Kew.

Kew Bulletin, Supplements, by the Royal Gardens, Kew.

Index Flora Sinensis, part XIII, Royal Gardens, Kew.

204

MOUNTAIN LODGE GROUNDS.

18. During the year great progress was made with the laying out of these Gardens, and before the Superintendent left for home, most of the work in them had been completed. Work was carried on afterwards as far as funds would allow, but there are still some small matters to finish in the Gardens, as well as nearly the whole of the grounds, amounting to about 45 acres, which surround the building. The typhoon on the 2nd of August did very great damage to the shrubs and plants which had only been put in during the previous month, and consequently they have not made as much progress as they would have done under more favourable cir-

cumstances.

KING'S PARK, KOWLOON.

19. His Excellency Sir WILLIAM J. GASCOIGNE, K.C.M.G., cut the first sod of this Park on August 6th, and on the same day Lady GASCOIGNE planted a camphor tree in the Park, in connection with the festivities then being celebrated in comme- moration of the Coronation of His Majesty the King.

20. Nothing further, however, was done in laying out the grounds, but previous to the Superintendent's departure for England, a sum of $5,000 was placed in the Estimates of the Public Works Department for 1903, for carrying on the work.

WESTERN DISTRICT PARK.

21. The land on the north side of Lower Richmond Road was treated in a somewhat similar way to that which had been done on the south side of the same road in 1898, but not so much was done in the way of beautifying the place.

ECONOMIC GARDEN.

22. Perhaps it is as well to place on record the fact that Mr. LI PAK is doing excellent experimental work on his estate at Castle Peak. He informs me that his grounds amount to about 600 mow, (about 60 acres), and he has under cultivation sugar cane, mulbery trees, fruit trees, flowers and vegetables., Mr. LI PAK has adopted western methods in his cultural experiments, and he deserves every success in his undertaking.

23. Last year cuttings of Honolulu and Province Wellesley sugar cane were supplied to him by this Department, and these were grown side by side with the Chinese variety.

24. Samples of juice obtained from the three varieties were recently analysed by Mr. FRANK BROWNE, the Government Analyst, and the following is an extract from his Report:-

Total sugar,

Ash,

Other organic matter,

Total solid matter,

Specific Gravity at 15.50 C.,

..

Honolulu.

Province Wellesley.

Chinese.

Per cent.

Per cent.

Per cent.

16.10

15.80

.17

.18

13.50

.49

.89

1.01

1.08

17.16

16.99

15.07

:

1.072

1.070

1.063

25. Mr. LI PAK has expressed his willingness to grow on trial any plants which may be given to him by this Department, so that the Government is not altogether losing the advantages of a Departmental Experimental Garden.

FORESTRY IN HONGKONG.

26. Tree Planting.-The total number of trees planted in Hongkong was 6,402.

27. Tree Seed Sowing.-A quantity of pine tree seed was sown broadcast which was estimated to produce 66,000 trees. Owing, however, to the exceptionally dry spring very little of the seed germinated, so that the actual number of trees produced is very far short of the estimate.

far short of the estimate. Where necessary, sowings will be made again this year. Statistics are given in Appendix C.

:

:

205

28. Grass Fires.-A very large number of fires occurred during the year and 22,607 trees were destroyed. The great destruction of trees was attributable, no doubt, to the very dry state of vegetation in general, prevailing during the early months of the year. Of the 49 fires recorded, including one near Cheung Sha Wan, New Territory, no less than 39 were reported in January, February, March and April, and these were the means of destroying 21,486 trees. The other 10 occurred in September, October and November and, as vegetation was much less dry at that time than in the early months of the year, only 1,211 trees were killed. Further statistics are given in Appendix D.

29. The Police Department rendered great assistance in extinguishing these fires and the several officers concerned deserve great thanks for their timely help, without which many more trees would have been destroyed.

30. Thinning of Plantations. This branch of Forestry was almost at a stand- still for the first four months of the year when work in other directions was being actively prosecuted. May, June, July and August were exceptionally wet which rendered the work of felling exceedingly difficult. Only 8,124 were felled and these were sold for $232.44. Statistics are given in Appendix E.

31. Fire Barriers.--About 33 miles of old barriers were cleared and about one mile of new ones made.

32. Protective Service. The number of trees reported as illicitly cut was 752. 33. The Forest Guards had 41 cases before the Magistrate and convictions were obtained in 39 cases.

34. Banian Trees. In 1901 the large Ficus retusa trees on the west side of Robinson Road, between Elgin and Austin Roads, Kowloon, were lowered, as the Public Works Department proposed to do away with the bank and make a foot-path on that side of the road. In all 29 trees were successfully transplanted.

FORESTRY IN THE NEW TERRITORY.

35. Tre: Planting.-The number of trees planted amounted to 31,746, the majority of which were the ordinary pine tree.

Most of these were planted along the Taipo Road and a few at Pingshan. Included in the total are 2,781 camphor trees planted along the Taipo Road, and 112 Castilloa elastica planted below the same road, between the fourth and fifth mile-stones.

36. Tree Seeds sown.-Pine tree seeds were sown broadcast in the catchment area of the new reservoir, which includes the hills between the sixth and seventh mile- stones. A sufficient quantity of seed was sown to produce 46,800 trees but, as in the case of Hongkong, very few of the seeds have produced trees.

37. 24,200 sites were sown to replace the failures of the previous year. Sta- tistics are given in Apendix G.

38. Camphor Trees.-The Superintendent made experiments in sowing cam- phor tree seeds in pots and planting the young trees out in the middle of the summer when about five months old, with the hope of finding out a cheaper method of rearing this particular tree than had been practised hitherto.

39. The seeds germinated successfully, and the young trees were about 6 inches high when planted out, some in prepared trenches and others in pits, but they have made very little progress since, and do not give much promise of success.

40. There is ample evidence that camphor trees will grow in the New Territory from the fine specimens to be seen at different places over there. There are some noble looking trees at Ho Sheung Hung; seven, which I measured at 3 or 4 feet from the ground, had the following circumferences and were about 75 feet high:—

20 feet 7 inches.

15 feet 9 inches.

13 feet 3 inches.

11 feet 4 inches.

8 feet 6 inches.

6 feet 8 inches.

These trees the villagers designated "small pine-trees and brushwood" and endea- voured, fruitlessly I am glad to say, to obtain permission to cut them down.

41. Fire Barriers.—About 4 miles of old barriers, 15 feet wide, were cleared to protect the young trees on both sides of the Taipo Road.

206

42. Firewood. Through the courtesy of the Captain Superintendent of Police, Mr. FORD arranged to have the approximate quantities of firewood exported from certain districts in the New Territory recorded. These returns give, taking a load as 70 catties, a total of about 60,000 piculs for the year from the four places-Shatin, Saikung, Lantao Island and Sheung Shui. This does not represent, however, the total quantity exported, as firewood comes from other places in the New Territory besides those mentioned. Putting the cost of a picul at 75 cents it gives the subs- tantial figure of $45,000, which, after paying for labour and all other expenses, must leave a considerable margin of profit. The thanks of the Department are due to the Captain Superintendent of Police and his officers for their kind co-operation in the matter. Statistics are given in Appendix F.

REVENUE.

43. The total Revenue of the Department is given in Appendix H.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

W. J. TUTCHER,

Acting Superintendent,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

Hon. F. H. MAY, C.M.G.,

Colonial Secretary,

$5. Sen

&e.

Appendix A.

RAINFALL OBSERVATIONS MADE AT THE BOTANIC GARDENS, DURING 1902. RAIN GAUGE ABOUT 300 FEET ABOVE SEA LEVEL.

Date.

Jan. Feb. Mar. April. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov.

Dec.

1,

.01

.06

2,

.06

3,

.02 .02

.04 2.93 .55 .93 .19

.16 12.17

.01

.03

4.

.01

5,

6,

7,

8.

9.

10,

11,

12,

13.

14,

15.

:ཋ:ལུཿ ཙ

.04

.94 1.46

.08

...

.01

.02

.41

...

1.91

.01

.01

.16

.02

.23

.07

.45

1.07

.37

.28

46

.02

.52

.16

.55

....

.39

.71

.06 .14

6.57

.49

1.33

1.51

1.55 1.90

.10

.05

.17

.09

16,

17.

18,

19,

20.

21,

22,

23,

24,

25.

26.

27.

>

.48 .01 5.57 .13 .44 3.89

.02 5.83 .06 .01 .01 2.26 .02 .01 .01 .08 .OL

1.37

84

.04

.98 5.03

.22

1.61 .01

.01

.02

.16

.04

1.31

.09

.75

.01 .46

1.16

.01

.09

.63

4.78

.01

.71

3.62

.03

...

.04

.01

.01

...

.68

.09

.04

.07

....

.11

.01

.01

.30

.22

.04

.06

.05

.06

.76

.15

1.78

.03

.02

.82

..12

.19

.06

1.10

.03

.87 .44

.01

28,

29.

1.28 1.06 .30 .17

.05

3.02

30,

31,

.79

.02

5.78

.01

.01

.32

Total,.........

Total inches for the

.01

:03 .15

.14 1.29 1.38 .57

.05

.40

.05 .31

.76

.33 .02

.67 2.20 24.37 19.13 | 22.20 | 31.95

1.12 .93

3.42

3.69

year=110.03.

Observations made at 10 a.m.

Acting Superintendent,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

W. J. TUTCHER,

Deepwater Bay,

Grazing Hill,

Mount Kellett,

Locality.

Mountain Lodge,

Pokfulam Catchwater,

Peak,....

Plague Cemetery,.

Repulse Bay,..

Stanley,

207

Appendix B.

MONTHLY AND YEARLY RAINFALL, 1893-1902.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar. April. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct.

Nov.

Dec. Total.

1893,

1.50

.70

3.15

1894,

1.51

.73

.22

9.48 | 17.37 6.97 24.62 11.46 15.84 | 21.16 3.03 20.15 18.49 8.93 18.16 21,96 18.84

.04 112.29

.04

.80 112.86

1895.

.58 .96

1.48

3.18

5.09 5.24

1896,

1.72

8.13

1.96

2.75

1.27 17.34

1897.

2.01 1.74

.79

2.87

16.64 26.64

|

1898,

1.46

2.98

.24

3.36

4.84 14.02

1899,

.20

2.15

.37

3.70

8.59

1900.

.96

2.10

3.57

3.20

9.89

1901,

.56

.73

1.33

1902,

.33

.02

.67

21.75 13.54 5.34 6.79 30.41 9.09 13.35 19.70 | 10.34 25.58 27.77 | 12.20 5.37 9.46 11.44 5.43 5.74 15.74 2.20 24.37 19.13 22.20 31.95

6.91 7.07

.53

.45

.31

53.55

11,10

8.53

2.33

3.61

77.62

6.95

7.20

2.83

.40

110.27

6.90 8.99

.73

.03

65.99

8.18 .81

2.05

2.24

83.91

6.17 2.30 6.92

.16

80.61

2.21 3.39

1.06

.94

58.03

1.12 .93

3.42

3.69 | 110.03-

Average,

1.08

2.02

1.37

4.32 11,96 | 16.07 | 13.52 : 16.42

8.75 7.26

2.48

1.22 86.57

Appendix C.

STATISTICS OF PLANTING OPERATIONS, HONGKONG.

Pinus Masson-

iana.

Camphor.

Tristania.

Bamboo.

Pinus Masson-

iana.

Broadcast sow-

ing.

Area in acres.

W. J. TUTCHER,

Acting Superintendent,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

Grand Total

of Trees.

776

1,690

2.466

2,392

2

2.392

3,178

21/10

3,178

56

174

230

36,000

30

36,000

142

142

974

974

14,850

121

14,850

13,460

11

13,460

3,168

56

3.178

1,290

66,000

593

73,692

W. J. TUTCHER,

Acting Superintendent,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

Date.

208

Appendix D.

STATISTICS OF GRASS FIRES.

Localities.

1902

January

4

Mount Kellett,

9

Northpoint

སྭ་

13

16

17

20

21

Aplichau,.

Deepwater Bay, Tsat Tse Mui,

Magazine Gap,

Tai Hau Wan..

21

Mount Kellett,

22

Aberdeen,

55

February

Victoria Peak..

10

"

Tytam Bay,....

11

Little Hongkong,

18

12

Quarry Bay,

19

Tytam Tuk..

་་

23

Mount Davis,

24

*

Stanley,

27

""

March

2

4

11

Stanley,

12

Do..

:

13

Deepwater Bay,

Pokfulam,

Cheung Sha Wan, N. T.,.

Kennedy Town,

April

Tai Hau Wan,.

5

Aplichau,.

7

Sookunpo,

32

Kennedy Town,

Sookunpo,

多啤

Mount Davis,

Victoria Gap,

Aberdeen,

Brickfield, Aberdeen,.

September 28

Pokfulam,

29

Chaiwan,

30

Shaukiwan,

"

October

10

10

>>

Pokfulam,.

Sandy Bay,

10

Little Hongkong,

13

Mount Davis,

18

Chaiwan,

November 11

Deepwater Bay,

Number of

Fires.

Number of Trees destroyed.

1

1,500

1

1

302

1

930

1

60

1

1

1

1

183

1

1

830

1.

274

1

30

1

3

950 8,262

1.

1.

1,367

2

580

1

5,000

1

1

1

1

6

1

1

1

1

5

982

i

2

130

1

10

1

1,211

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

49

22,607

W. J. TUTCHER,

Acting Superintendent,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

Aberdeen, Aplichau,.... Bowen Road,

Jubilee Road,

Little Hongkong, Mount Davis, Pokfulam, Tytam,..

Tree Prunings, Brushwood.....

}

209

Appendix E.

SALE OF FORESTRY PRODUCTS.

Locality.

Quantity Pine Trees.

Amount realized.

$ c.

44

2.29

966

27.97

797

40.86

493

:

38.68

1,862

54.10

2,024

34.40

1,211

24.67

727

9.47

8,124

232.11

58,352 catties

11.99

283,650

28.36.

ས་

£0

272.79

W. J. TUTCHER,

Acting Superintendent,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

Appendix F.

FIREWOOD EXPORTED FROM THE NEW TERRITORY DURING 1902.

Sha-tin.

Sai Kung.

Lantau Island.

Loads.

Piculs.

January,

5,593

1.220

Piculs. 500

Sheung Shui.

Piculs.

650

February,

2,360

450

March,

3,291

860

1,420

April,

5,006

560

400

May,

5,348

164

650

June,

7,054

230

350

July,

6,894

680

350

August,

5,636

180

September,

8.711

760

October,

4,780

1,180

November,

4,262

1,070

205

December,

7,586

580

66,521*

7,934

3,875

650

*

1 load about 70 catties.

Total 59,023 piculs.

3

W. J. TUTCHER,

Acting Superintendent,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

1

210

Appendix G.

STATISTICS OF PLANTING OPERATIONS.

NEW TERRITORY.

Pinus

Pinus Massoniana.

Locality.

Masson-Camphor. Tristania.

Castilloa elastica.

Area

in

Grand Total

of Trees.

iana.

Broadcast sowing.

Sown in situ.

acres.

Pingshan,

1.115

...

4

1,115

Taipo Road,.

27,558

2,781

180

112

54

30,631

Reservoir,

46,800

24,200

58%

71,000

Total,...

28,673

2.781

180

112

46,800

24,200

641

102,746

Plant Sales,... Loan of Plants, Forestry Products,

Appendix H.

REVENUE.

W. J. TUTCHER.

Acting Superintendent,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

$ 688.13 247.88 272.79

$1,208.80

W. J. TUTCHER,

Acting Superintendent,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

#

HONGKONG.

No.

A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON A CATTLE DISEASE IN THE COLONY OF HONGKONG.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

GOVERNMENT PUBLIC MORTUARY,

HONGKONG, October 31st, 1908.

SIR, We have the honour to submit the following Report for the information. of His Excellency the Governor.

Since the year 1896, the Colony of Hongkong has suffered from the effects of an extremely fatal disease amongst its cattle. As to the existence of the disease prior to this date, we have no information.

In the year 1896, while the Colonial Veterinary Surgeon was absent on leave, a very fatal epidemic of disease broke out amongst the cattle belonging to the Dairy Farm Company at Pokfulum. This outbreak attracted considerable attention, and was the subject of investigation by many of the local medical men. Further outbreaks of apparently the same disease occurred during the years 1898, 1899, 1901 and 1902.

In addition to the existence of the disease at the Dairy Farm in Pokfulum, epidemics of a similar nature occurred in other Dairies, in the Kennedy Town Cattle Depôt, and in the New Territory.

From an examination of all official records at our disposal, of epidemics since 1896, the general consensus of opinion appears to be that the disease was Rinderpest.

No record of the symptoms and post-mortem appearances could be obtained.

Mr. WALKER, Manager of the Dairy Farm Company, has kindly placed his notes, taken during the progress of the various epidemics occurring at Pokfulum, at our disposal. These consist of temperature records with remarks thereon, symp- toms, and attempts made to procure immunity from the disease.

The following is a digest of Mr. WALKER's remarks. There was no loss of cattle until the year 1896. Reliable information as to the cause of the outbreaks was not ascertainable. He inclines to the opinion that food has something to do with the spread of the disease, and the introduction of infection. Straw, brought from the mainland, he believes to be the chief source of infection. From his notes of the various epidemics down to and including that of 1902, he is convinced that "the disease has been the saine all through" and is that which is known to him as Rinderpest. His conclusions as to the identity of the disease during the different outbreaks are supported by the fact that he has never seen a recurrence of the disease in an animal which had taken the disease and got better, even although the animal in question was in direct contact with sick animals.

His description of the symptoms is briefly as follows:-

The initial symptom is a rise in temperature. The rise in temperature is very rapid. It may reach 105° F. or 106 F. in 24 hours. In milch cows, the secretion of milk was arrested almost immediately after the temperature began to rise. The animal still kept on feeding. In 2 or 3 days food was refused. A little later diarrhoea set in. The visible mucous membranes became reddened. A discharge, variable in amount, was visible from the eyes, nose and vagina. The animals "shiver" and have a staring coat. The diarrhoea was black and offensive. Its duration was 1 or 2 days. In mild cases the diarrhoea proceeds no further. In more severe cases blood appears in the fæces and the diarrhoea continues. The character of the continued diarrhoea is thin and watery, with flakes of mucous membrane, streaked with blood. The animal lies most of the time, the anus is in- flamed and raw, and frequently considerable straining is observed. At other times the faces are passed unconsciously.

40

1903

502

So far as the mouth is concerned, patches of the mucous membrane becoine inflamed and detached, leaving raw surfaces in a few European cattle-he has never observed this appearance in native cattle and only occasionally in half-breeds. Believing the disease to be Rinderpest, he followed the treatment generally found successful in South Africa. That is to say, he inoculated healthy animals with the defibricated blood of recovered animals as a preventative and further carried out the same method in regard to sick animals as a curative The general results of his

treatment led him to believe in the efficacy of this method.

Mr. WATSON, Senior Inspector in Charge of the Kennedy Town Animals Depôt and Slaughter House, who has had many years' experience of native cattle, both in the Depot and the Island, and rendered us valuable assistance during the present investigation, made the following statement:-

That so far as he can see, the symptoms, etc., of the disease under consideration, are identical with those observed during the epidemics of past years.

Mr. COTTON, 1st class Inspector of Animals Depot and Slaughter House, Ken- nedy Town, who has had, at the instigation of the Government, the opportunity of coming in contact with sick animals during the past epidemics, and more particularly in the New Territory in 1899, states:-"That with reference to the present disease existing among cattle in the Depôt.........I have taken particular observations and failed to observe any different symptoms from those shown by the animals affected in the Hunghom Cattle Depôt and in the New Territory during the outbreak of the disease in 1899.”

For further information in regard to reports to the Government, reference may be made to C.S.O.s 193 of 1899 (Extension), 85 and 691 of 1900, and C.O.D. 130

of 1901.

In 1902 a severe outbreak of the disease occurred at the Dairy Farm, Pokfulum. During this epidemic we both had an opportunity of investigating the disease. Symptoms were noted, post-mortem and simple bacteriological examinations were made, but owing to the prevalence at the time of a severe outbreak of Plague and the conduction of experiments on Plague in animals by Professor W. J. SIMPSON, it was found impossible to carry out a systematic examination. For details in regard to the symptomatology and post-mortem appearances met with at the Dairy Farm during this epidemic reference may be made to Appendix F. In Professor SIM- PSON'S Report on Plague Prevention in Hongkong mention is also made of this epidemic and its possible relation to Plague.

Since our arrival in the Colony early last year, post-mortem examinations have repeatedly been made on animals found dead in the different cattle depôts in the Colony and occasionally the lesions found by us resembled the disease under con- sideration. A microscopical examination of the blood and tissues was inade in several instances and micro-organism was found similar to the one we are about to describe as having a causal relationship to the disease under consideration. the examinations made were only microscopical and the micro-organism seen by us presented no definite morphological peculiarities, we were unable, in the absence of biological and experimental data, to form an opinion as to its relation to the disease.

As

In June of this year an epidemic appeared among the cattle housed in the Kennedy Town Depôt. From the symptoms, post-mortem appearances and micros- copic examinations we were convinced that we had to deal with the same disease as at Pokfulum in 1902.

The commencement of this year's epidemic appeared to be a favourable oppor- tunity for further investigation of this disease. The occurrence of epizootics amongst the cattle all over the Colony in different years and at different seasons of the year, has been attended by serious loss to Hongkong. Cattle owners through- out the Colony have lost heavily. The residents of the Colony consuming butcher meat and milk have been affected. The loss in cattle has seriously interfered with farming in the New Territory, and should the establishment of a cattle raising industry in the New Territory become an accomplished fact, this disease will be a factor with which such an industry would have to reckon..

As has already been noted, the conclusion generally arrived at by those who have come in contact with the sick animals is that the disease which they had before them was Rinderpest. From our own preliminary examinations, however, the

.

503

appearances presented by the diseased animals-intra-vitam and post-mortem-differed from those usually regarded as pathognomonic for what is generally recognised as true Rinderpest. The absence of certain symptoms and the characteristic and constant post-mortem appearances coupled with the presence of a definite micro- organism in the blood and tissues have led us to the conclusion that the epizootic is something very different from Rinderpest, and required investigation. Accord- ingly we requested the Government, through the medium of the Sanitary Board, to grant us such facilities as would enable us to do so. Permission having been got, the enquiry was commenced early in June, of the present year. In the first instance it was our intention to investigate this disease with a view towards its prevention. However on undertaking the enquiry we found so much of interest in regard to the symptomatology, pathology and bacteriology of the dis ase that we considered it advisable to make a preliminary report on these questions only. In making this report we hope that we have so dealt with the disease as to show conclusively that the cattle epidemics here in Hongkong are not rinderpestic but of a different etiology. This report deals only with the question "What is the Disease?" The important questions as to the modes of infection, curative treat- ment, and immunity against the disease have not been considered by us at present. As such questions can only be tackled after a thorough knowledge of the pathogenesis of the disease, we have left them to be dealt with at a future date.

At the commencement of our enquiry, the temperature of all the animals presented for slaughter at the Kennedy Town Cattle Depot was taken; all animals having a suspicious rise in temperature were at once isolated and placed under observation. The temperature of these animals was taken twice daily and symptoms as they presented themselves noted. Immediately the nature of the disease became evident the animals were quarantined in the old Tung Wah Mortuary, which is fitted up for segregation purposes. The condition and temperature of such animals were noted daily and on death occurring, a post-mortem examination was undertaken as soon as possible. This method of segregation of animals has been adopted by us since the commencement of the present enquiry and is still being carried on. This procedure was found necessary owing to the fact that the disease is most insidu- ous in its onset. It was a common occurrence to find an animal with a temper- ature of 106° F. and with no other manifestation of ill health. The method in addition was of advantage in that all cases of sickness were discovered and that no suspicion could arise as to the quality of meat sent out for consumption. It may be as well at this point to state that so far we have alsolutely no data as to the com- municability of the disease to man. Inspectors, boys and coolies who were daily in contact with the disease have so far enjoyed perfect health.

Up to the date of writing this report, 224 animals (experimental included) have been either infected or attempts have been made to induce infection. These animals consisted chiefly of bullocks. In connection with the particular species of animal affected it is important to note that during the course of this epidemic only one buffalo contracted the disease, but this coincidence may be accounted for by the fact that during the summer very few buffaloes have been brought into the Colony for slaughter.

The mortality amongst the affected animals averaged 70 per cent.

The disease as met with during our investigation, was in the majority of cases an acutely fatal one. Death usually occurred within a week. In other cases the disease was of a more chronic nature, death occurring 10-15 days after the com- mencement of the rise in temperature.

An

In those cases in which recovery took place after the disease had run a typical course, the temperature reached its normal figure in about three weeks. Appendix (A.) is attached giving full details in regard to the symptomatology of the disease. The chief characteristics regarding this are rise in temperature, diarrhoea of a mucoid and bloody character, rapid emaciation accompanied by great weakness and prostration. No lesions of the mouth, skin and feet have been observed. The diarrhoea commences in the majority of cases two days after the temperature has reached its maximum-vide Temperature Charts appended.

Post-mortem.—The results are uniform, and characterised by congestion, in- flammation, ulceration and necrosis of the gastro-intestinal tract and by a hæmorrhagic condition of the visceral, deep and superficial lymphatic glands.

504

Bacteriologically a micro-organism was invariably found in the blood, organs and tissues. It possesses the characteristic morphology, biology, and experimental effects which are detailed in Appendix.

Experimentally the investigation was limited to the question of the causal relationship of the micro-organism to the disease. That such a relationship exists is fully proved by the insemination of a pure culture of the micro-organism in question into a previously healthy animal and its subsequent contraction of the disease in typical form and with typical results.

For full data in regard to the post-mortem results and micro-organismal nature of the disease, reference may be made to Appendices attached.

The following is a comparative statement of the differences and resemblances between this disease and Rinderpest:-

This Disease

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN

1. Micro-organism constantly present. 2. Mouth lesions extremely rare. 3. No skin eruption.

and

Rinderpest.

1. No micro-organism.

2. Mouth lesions constantly present. 3. Skin eruption commonly present.

4. Trachea and bronchi normal or con-

gested.

4. Trachea and bronchi show

changes.

croupous

RESEMBLANCES BETWEEN

This Disease and Rinderpest.

1. Rapid emaciation and weakness common to both.

2. Diarrhoea.

3. Intestinal lesions.

4. Hæmorrhagic lymphatic glands. This condition is constant in the disease under consideration. It is common in Rinderpest.

5. Cardiac petechiæ.

Our conclusions are as follows:-

1. The disease is a form of Hæmorrhagic Septicemia.

2. It has no connection with Rinderpest.

3. It is allied to Pasteurellosis.

We have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servants,

WILLIAM HUNTER.

ADAM GIBSON.

THE PRESIDENT, SANITARY BOARD.

List of Appendices.

Appendix A,......... Symptoms.

33

B,......... Temperature Charts.

mortem Examinations.

19

"

>>

C......... General Remarks on Post-

D............................ Bacteriology.

E..........Experimental Investigations. F..........Dairy Farm Epidemic of 1902. G..........Post-mortem Charts.

}

ཤ ༥

505

Appendix A.

SYMPTOMS.

Preliminary Note.--There is a greater variation in temperature among Chinese cattle than among European. Taken per rectum it is found to vary between 99° F. and 102° F. The average normal temperature is found to be about 100.5' F. The normal temperature of European cattle is usually reckoned at 101.5° F.

Chinese cattle bear pain with greater fortitude than European cattle do. This seems to be due to their temperament and to the fact that they are less well-bred. Cattle are sometimes seen landed during rough weather with both hip-joints dislocated and extensive laceration of the adductor muscles of the thighs. When these animals are allowed to lie undisturbed, the temperature remains normal, the animal eats, drinks and ruminates, and the only thing to indicate that anything is the matter is a slightly quickened breathing.

Owing to the intimate association between Chinese cattle and their owners dom- estication is more thorough than in European breeds. Docility, obedience to, and familiarity with man are noteworthy of all Chinese cattle as we meet with them in Hongkong.

Symptoms. For convenience of description we have divided the symptoms into three stages. First, the stage during which fever is the characteristic symptom; second, the stage during which a peculiar foetid diarrhoea is well marked; and third, the stage during which there is great prostration and blood-stained diarrhoea. The last two stages more or less run into each other.

1.) In the early part of the disease an elevation of temperature is the only noticeable symptom.

The animal eats, drinks and ruminates and behaves as if in perfect health. The rise in temperature is usually very sudden. It is com- mon to find an animal with a normal temperature in the morning and a tem- perature of 103° F. to 105° F. in the evening and a pulse of 100 to 120 per minute. Occasionally a slight cough can be noticed. This febrile condition may last from two to four days. Towards the end of this stage the animal begins to show signs of ailing. It becomes less inclined to eat, ruminates intermit- tently. The fæces become coated with a thick tenacious mucous which gives them a polished and varnished appearance. The animal's coat begins to "stare" a little and the belly becomes tucked up. The animal although eating and drinking fairly well begins to lose flesh rapidly. The ears hang listlessly; the eyes are unnaturally brilliant with frequently a considerable amount of dried tears at the inner canthus. The nose at first moist and natural begins to get hard and dry, and there appears a slight discharge from the nose which the animal becomes too indifferent to remove. The temperature now usually falls a degree or so. Often there are occasional colicky pains in the abdomen; the animal holds its breath, arches its back and gives a short painful grunt. This spasm only lasts for a short time, and when it passes off the animal appears as usual and will often eat a little. The bowels instead of being constipated become loosened and diar hoea sets in gradually. The com- mencement of the diarrhoea may be regarded as the beginning of the second stage.

(2.) With the onset of the diarrhoea there appears to be some relief, and the animal eats and drinks more freely. Griping pains in the abdomen are still notic. able noticable at intervals. The diarrhoea is at first perfectly healthy looking. It is necessary at this point to explain that the normal droppings of Chinese cattle are almost identical with those of sheep in Great Britain so that the appearance of the fæces at the begin- ning of the dirrahcea resembles exactly what would be regarded in home cattle as per- fectly normal excreta, riz., soft and pultaceous. During this stage the temperature usually falls a degree or two, e.g., from 104° F. or 105° F. to 102.5 F. or 103° F. The excessive mucous which enveloped the excreta, during the febrile stage now disappears. The discharge from the nose becomes very profuse. The eyes become hidden by a thick glairy mucous which overflows, trickles down the cheek and becomes agglutinated to the hairs. The conjuntival mucous membrane is reddened. The rectal and vaginal mucous membranes are sometimes reddened, at other times normal. Over the upper third of the shoulders, on the upper aspect of the neck and over the rump there is frequently to be seen a scaly furfuraceous condition of the skin which causes the hair to stand erect over those parts. At other times this condition is not noticeable until the disease is more advanced. Shortly after its commencement, 12 to 24 hours, the character of the diarrhoea alters, it becomes thin,

506

watery, almost black in colour and has a very offensive smell. There is often a good deal of straining and as the disease progresses the anus becomes excoriated. The pain in the abdomen now appears to be constant and there is almost continuous grinding of the teeth. The animal lies the greater part of its time, when standing the head hangs down, the belly is tucked up and held rigid. The expirations are short and painful and frequently accompanied by a grunt. The eyes become sunken and the discharge from them and from the nose increases and becomes thinner with more of a muco purulent character. Rumination ceases. The animal refuses all food but continues to drink greedily. Muscular twitchings of the panniculus, muscles of the neck and shoulder and of the thighs are often seen. The twitchings of the muscles of the head and neck cause the animal to make peculiar short jerky nodding movements and the legs are frequently picked up as if they had been struck sharply. This black and highly offensive diarrhoea may persist for from 24 to 48 hours, and not infrequently death occurs at this stage. Emaciation proceeds rapidly and there is great weakness and prostration. The character of the diarrhoea again alters, and this marks the opening of the third stage of the disease.

(3.) The discharges become clear and straw coloured. The fluid frequently contains pale pink blood clots, shreds of a croupous or diphtheritic looking ex- udate resembling casts of the bowel and a great deal of mucous. This material is frequently passed involuntarily and trickles down soiling the hind quarters and tail. In stronger animals it is often ejected with considerable force and preceded and followed by painful straining. The rectum is often partially everted and the mucous membrane appears reddened and inflamed. In female animals there is a whitish glairy mucoid discharge from the vagina and the mucous membrane of the labiæ and vagina is reddened and shows a few hæmorrhagic looking spots. The animal becomes rapidly weaker and loses flesh fast. When standing it is very unwilling to move and when made to do so, moves very slowly and stiffly as if every movement caused pain. It lies the greater part of the time. When it lies down it usually makes one or two attempts to do so, stops and seems afraid and finally lies down all in a heap. Instead of resting on its sternum after the usual manner of oxen, it more often rolls over on to its side and lies with legs extended and head and neck flat on the ground. The head is often held as far back as possible. The temperature often falls to normal and may remain so for 24 hours. death approaches the temperature becomes subnormal and death usually takes place without a struggle. The carcase in deaths from chronic cases presents an ex- tremely, dirty, emaciated, loathsome appearance. The natural orifices of the body are patent and soiled with their discharges.

As

Appended are four photographs, two of which give a fair idea of the appearance of healthy Chinese cattle, the other two present representations of cattle suffering from the disease. These photographs were inserted to bring out more forcibly the difference between healthy cattle and those suffering from this disease and to illustrate the description of the symptoms, viz., the degree of emaciation, "tucked up" ap- pearance and the discharges from eyes and nose.

* Not printed.

WILLIAM HUNTER.

ADAM GIBSON.

MONTH

507

JUNE.

MONTH

DAY

12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd

DAY

DAY OF

DISEASE

DAY OF DISEASE

но

MEME MEMEME MEME ME ME ME ME MEME MEMEME

1070

106°

105°

104°

103°

102°

101°

100°

99

98°

90

96°

DIARRHŒA.

. . : ·

-41°

-40°

-39°

-38°

-370

-36°

MONTH

509

JUNE.

MONTH

DAY

12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th

DAY OF

DISEASE

Fo MEME MEME MEME MEME MEME MEME ME ME ME ME

DAY

DAY OF DISEASE

107°

106°

105°

104°

103°

102°

101°

100°

99

98°

970

96°

DIARRHŒA¡

f

-41°

-40°

-39*

-38°

-37°

-36°

MONTH

511

JUNE.

MONTH

DAY 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd

DAY

DAY OF

DISEASE

DAY OF

DISEASE

о

MEME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME MEME MEME MEMEME

со

107°

106°

-41°

105°

104°

-40°

103°

102°

-39°

1019

100°

999

98°

gryo

96°

DIARRHŒEA.

...

-38°

-370

-36

MONTH

513

JUNE.

MONTH

DAY 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th

DAY OF

DISEASE

DAY

DAY OF DISEASE

Fo

MEME MEME ME ME ME ME ME MEME MEME MEME ME

со

1070

106°

105°

104°

103°

102°

101°

*100°

99°

98°

970

96°

DIARRHEA.

-41°

-40°

-39°

-38°

-370

515

JUNE.

MONTH

DAY 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th Day

MONTH

DAY OF

DISEASE

DAY OF

DISEASE

Fo

MEME MEME MEME MEME MEME MEME MEME MEME

::

1070

106°

105°

104°

103°

102°

101°

100°

99

98°

дно

96°

DIARRHOEA.

NO DIARRHOEA

-41°

-40°

.. PM. NORMAL.

-39°

-380

29TH JULY 1903.

SLAUGHTERED

-37°

-36°

517

Appendix C.

GENERAL REMARKS ON POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS.

During the course of this investigation very good opportunities have been afforded us for conducting post-mortem examinations on typical cases.

In many instances, however such an examination could not be undertaken owing to the rapidity with which decomposition sets in during the hotter seasons of the year. In addition to the climatic factor, the size of the animal itself prevents the rapid radia- tion of heat, and the bulky nature of the stomachs and bowel and their contents favour the rapid growth of post-mortem micro-organisms. Indeed the changes, which set in after the death of the animal are so rapid that 3 to 4 hours after death, a satisfactory post-mortem cannot be made. Although a considerable number of animals succumbed to the disease, it was impossible to find a favourable opportunity to perform the post-mortem examination within the limit of time between death and the onset of decomposition.

The general results of the post-mortem examinations held by us were remark- ably uniform. From an external examination of the animals, the first noteworthy point is the presence of extreme emaciation. The eyes are sunken, a thick yellowish muco-purulent discharge is found around the eyes and nose. This is found agglu- tinated to the hair of the cheek. The flanks are sunken, the anus and vagina are relaxed and excoriated with the presence of a discharge similar to that found around the eyes.

Such an aggravated condition is constantly present in cases surviving 5 to 8 days. In more acutely fatal cases, these appearances are less definite, in fact, in a few cases, the external examination of the carcase may show nothing noteworthy.

Circulatory Organs.-The condition of the pericardium. It may be normal. In many instances petechiae are found in the parietal and visceral layers. They are about the size of a lentil and as a rule are most abundant in the visceral layer.

The pericardial sac occasionally contains a small amount of straw-coloured fluid. Otherwise the general appearance of the sac is normal.

The heart frequently shows small circumscribed hæmorrhagic extravasations both intra-muscular and endocardial. Otherwise the heart is to all appearance normal, although in a few instances the muscular substance is extremely soft and flabby. In one or two cases, tenacious ante-mortem clots have been found. In one case, valvular vegetations were found in the right heart. These appeared recent in origin. Their significance was not determined.

In old animals, a noteworthy point is the occurrence of marked hypertrophy of the cardiac muscle, more particularly on the left side. This condition appears to be due to the hard outdoor work done by these cattle.

Respiratory Organs.-The nares, larynx and trachea were frequently congested. Occasionally submucous hæmorrhages were found. There has never been any appearance suggestive of erosion or ulceration. The lungs may be normal, but in the majority of instances are congested. In a large number of cases interlobular emphysema was present. Cases of oedema and infraction of the lungs have been found. In two cases multiple abscesses were present. In one case, P.M. No 5, the animal had been ill for 21 days. In the other case, P.M. No. 26, the animal was sick for 12 days.

In both cases the abscesses were variable in size and shape. The smaller abscesses were about three-eighths of an inch in diamater and enclosed in dense fibrous capsules. In many cases these walls appeared to have broken down giving rise to the formation of large abscesses of very irregular outline. The pus was thick, creamy and blood stained and contained the characteristic bacillus as well as ordinary pyogenic cocci.

In no case was there ever any appearance of pleurisy, or consolidation of the lungs. The appearance of tubercular disease was also absent from every post- mortem made by us.

Cavity of Abdomen.-No excess of fluid was ever present. The peritoneum appeared to be normal with the exception of the presence of a few petechiae. There were never signs of peritonitis. The great omentum was usually congested with a few

518

petechiæ. The general appearance of the gut was congested, in several instances subserous hæmorrhages were found along the mesenteric vessels. The bowel was usually empty.

Gastro Intestinal Tract.-The mucous membrane of the tongue was occa- sionally congested. The buccal mucous membrane was in a similar condition. In no case was there any abrasion, erosion or ulcerations of the buccal or lingual mucous membrane. The pharynx and oesophagus were always found normal.

The first three stomachs were constantly normal.

It may be interesting to note that in several cases Amphistoma Conicum was found in the rumen and reticulum. These parasites were sometimes found in so large numbers as to completely cover the mucous membrane over particular areas. It appears to have no causal relationship to the disease, since it is frequently met with in the abattoir in perfectly healthy cattle. The food in the omasum was always in a perfectly normal condition, and not dry, caked and powdery as in many diarrhoeic conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract. The abomasum was normal in three cases only. In all other cases this organ presented what might almost be termed a characteristic appearance, and was the seat of one of the most pronounced patho- logical lesions met with in this disease. Congestion, inflammation, submucous hæmorrhages, necrosis and ulceration were of common occurrence. Congestion and inflammation frequently extended thoughout the entire organ. At times these changes were confined to the anterior or posterior portions of the viscus, the central portion being normal. Submucous hæmorrhages, variable in size, shape and extent constituted a marked feature of the pathological condition of the organ in this disease. The occurrence of necrosis and ulceration is variable in degree. In some instances it is extremely widespread, extending over the entire mucous surface of the stomach. In other cases, the process is more or less confined, like the congestion and inflammation, to the anterior, middle, or posterior divisions of the organ. As already incidentally mentioned, in three fatal cases the stomach was normal. In other fatal cases congestion, inflammation and hæmorrhages may be practically the only changes observable, ulceration and necrosis being in abeyance, In such cases the presence of nodular lymphoid-like masses, ranging in size from a pea to a beau, irregular in outline, and encircled by a zone of intense hyperemia which at times is in addition distinctly hæmorrhagic is frequently found. These masses project slightly beyond the level of the surrounding mucous membrane. They are variable in consistence, those which appeared to be of more recent origin were firm, while others, probably more advanced, were soft, pulpy, and readily broken when handled. The latter frequently showed a slight apical depression in which could be seen the commencement of ulceration.

In those cases where extensive necrosis and ulceration were most in evidence, the necrotic areas presented the following appearance. The dead mucous membrane was of variable extent, from quarter of an inch to one inch in diameter, of very irregular outline, of whitish colour and was easily detachable from the subjacent tissues, leaving a flat, ragged edged ulcer, the floor of which was very granular with intergranular collections of pyoid-looking material.

In some cases the ulcers presented a distinctly punched out like appearance, their floors being necrotic. In one case the ulcers had extended deeply into the muscular wall.

In no case hal perforation taken place.

The duodenum may be found normal. The pathological changes in this gut are less frequently of such an extent or gravity as in the abomasum. They how- ever partake of the same character. Congestion is of common occurrence; inflam- mation, general or patchy, is not infrequent; and ulceration and necrosis have been found. The lesions found in this gut were usually most pronounced towards its junction with the abomasum.

The small intestine usually presents an appearance somewhat similar to that found in the duodenum. In the majority of cases, however, the lesions are deve- loped to a lesser degree, the occurrence of ulceration and necrosis being rare. The Peyer's Patches were frequently ulcerated. In other cases no ulceration had occurred but they were enlarged and softened. Others were normal. The bowel was usually all but empty. Such contents as were present, were of a

.

:

519

thin, greyish yellow character with streaks of mucus and traces of blool. In one or two instances distinct solid masses were found. These presented the appear- ance of casts of the gut. They were extremely friable, greyish yellow in colour and were non-adherent to the mucous membrane of the bowel.

The ileo-cæcal valve may be normal. In many cases congestion, hæmorrhages, ulceration and necrosis are met with. The character of these changes is identical with that of the aboinasum. The cæcuin and large intestine are also involved in changes similar to those found in the abomasum, although the degree of such changes is less. Congestion and submucous hæmorrhages are frequent, but the occurrence of ulceration and necrosis is somewhat rare. In the large intestine, along the crests of the longitudinal rugæ congestion, inflammation and hemorrhages occur. These give the mucous surface of bowel a peculiar streaked or striped appearance. Such a condition is frequently found extending throughout the whole of the large intestine.

The contents of the cæcum and large intestine resemble those found in the small intestine. The rectum presents an appearance akin to that found in the large intestine. The anus is frequently excoriated.

The liver is as a rule unchanged. Fatty infiltration is fairly common. Jaundice is also met with. In one case insular hemorrhages were found scattered in the parenchyma. Chronic biliary cirrhosis caused by the presence of the Distoma Hepaticum in the bile ducts was frequently met with. This condition has probably nothing to do with the disease as it is daily met with among healthy animals in the slaughter-house.

In the majority of cases the gall bladder was found to contain a thick glairy bile. In many cases this had distended the organ to twice its normal size. The mucous membrane was often found congested and inflamed. In other cases necrosis and ulceration were present in addition. Hæmorrhages and petechire were occasionally found.

The spleen was found unaltered in the majority of instances. Congestion and enlargement may be present. In other cases infarctions and hæmorrhages are found in its substance. Rarely the spleen may be even diminished in size.

Genito-Urinary Organs.-The kidneys are usually normal to the naked eye. The pelvis and ureters are also healthy. The bladder, however, may show con- gestion with submucous hæmorrhagic extravasations. No ulceration or necrosis have been found.

The majority of animals examined were males. From the small number of females examined, it is scarcely possible to make any general statement with regard to the effects of this disease upon the female generative organs. However ulceration of the vagina appears to be fairly common. One case of pyometra was examined, but the significance of this condition in relation to the disease in question was unde- termined.

The Lymphatic System.-A constant feature of the disease is the condition of the lymphatic glands. In every instance of the disease so far met with the lymphatic glands throughout the whole body were the seat of marked changes, these consisting of extensive hæmorrhagic extravasation into their substance, congestion with enlargement, and frequently the presence of a large amount of infiltration. The peri-lymphatic connective tissue was usually the seat of serous infiltration. Exact details in regard to the condition of the individual lymphatic glands in each case is given in the Appendix on post-mortem examinations.

serous

WILLIAM HUNTER.

ADAM GIBSON.

Appendix D.

BACTERIOLOGY OF THE DISEASE.

After a careful analysis of the symptoms and pathological appearances present- ed by this disease, it becomes evident to the investigator that there is no limit as to the extent of the morbid process in the body. of an affected animal. The changes met with are certainly most pronounced and most frequently found in some struc- tures, e.g., the lymphatic glands, the abomasum, etc., but they are not necessarily

520

confined to these. In fact there can exist no doubt in the mind of the morbid an- atomist, who has performed a few necropsies on the bodies of these diseased animals, that he has before him, a disease of a decided septicemic nature, the pathological appearances of which are chiefly cl:aracterised by the occurrence of widespread and multiple hæmorrhages into the organs and tissues, and of necrosis and ulceration more particularly in certain parts of the alimentary system.

The bacteriological enquiry into the nature of the exciting agent of this disease has yielded most satisfactory results. As will be described presently, this investigation has clearly shewn the disease to be distinctly septicæmic in nature, and excited by the growth in the blood, organs and tissues, and the excrement and discharges of the infected animal of a definite species of micro-organism which possesses certain well marked morphological and biological characteristics.

This micro-organism can be isolated from every case of the disease either intra-ritam or post-mortem. The latter method of obtaining the micro-organism in pure culture is purely a question of careful bacteriological technique, the causative agent being present in considerable numbers in the different fluids and tissues of the dead animal. The most certain results are attained by the preparation of plate cultures from the lymphatic glands, more particularly from those which pre- sent a deeply hæmorrhagic appearance.

The demonstration of the micro-organism during life is a procedure of much greater difficulty. The discharges from the eyes, nose, rectum and vagina certainly contain the organism in considerable quantity, but owing to the presence of numbers of other micro-organisms in these excretions, its isolation is requiring of much technical skill. Further, films of blood obtained from the ear and prepared by Ross' method, occasionally show one or two typical micro-organisms. Their microscopic_demon- stration in drops of blood and their successful cultivation from the blood stream during life are by no means constant factors. Indeed it would appear that the presence of the micro-organism in the circulating blood is not demonstrable during all periods of the disease. There is reason to believe that towards the end of the fatal form of the disease and more particularly during the agonal period, the micro- organism can be demonstrated with a much greater degree of certainty.

Again, in the discharge resulting from the occurrence of complications and sequelae of this disease, the micro-organism has been recovered in almost pure culture. In one instance of the chronic form of this disease, in which death resulted from the presence of miliary abscesses in both lungs, the micro-organism was obtained in almost pure culture from one of these pus foci.

In several other instances, subcutaneous abscesses resulted from experimental inoculation. In these the micro-organism was constantly present, although rarely in

pure culture.

These remarks clearly emphasize the septicemic nature of the disease, a morbid process called forth by the growth in the blood stream and tissues of a particular micro-organism of which the following is a description.

Microscopic Appearances.

It is a short rod. Its length is rarely twice its breadth. It is extremely minute and frequently great difficulty is experienced in dertermining its rod-shaped nature. In films, the micro-organism appears at the first glance to be a micro- coccus or a diplo-coccus, but careful scrutiny shows that it is really a short bacillus with rounded ends and flattened extremities. When one end is pointed towards the observer the micro-organism appears to be a coccus. When the bacillus gives the appearance of a diplo-coccus, this illusion is due to the fact that the central por- tion of the rod remains unstained. This central part is contained within two delicate stained lines the walls of the rod -the whole giving the appearance of two juxta posed cocci. Its exact shape varies. It most frequently appears as an oval shaped rod, but coccoid and biscuit-shaped forms are met with.

This "bipolar staining" is by no means confined to any one species of micro- organism.

The micro-organism is found for the most part lying free in the plasma be- tween the leucocytes and red blood corpuscles. Rarely it is enclosed in the white blood cells. In the blood the individual rods are usually isolated, but in the spleen, hæmorrhagic lymphatic glands, etc., the bacilli are often united into small clumps- staphylo-coccoid in appearance.

:

521

The number of these rod-shaped micro-organisms found in different film pre- parations varies considerably. Films prepared from the spleen and hæmorrhagic, lymphatic glands usually contain considerable numbers of the micro-organism. The number of those present in the blood is small.

The morphological appearance of the micro-organism varies considerably according to the conditions under which it lives. As already mentioned it may be like a coccus or become biscuit-shaped. In other cases it may become distinctly longer and thicker so that no difficulty is experienced in determining its bacillary or rod-shaped outline. In cultures, particularly in bouillon, there appears to exist a tendency on the part of the organism to elongate into threads. The micro- organism does not appear to possess a definite capsule.

Motility.

In no strain of this micro-organism so far isolated, has any trace of motility been observed. So far as can be made out, the organism is possessed of no cilia.

Tinctorial Reactions.

All the ordinary aniline dyes stain the micro-organism readily. If there is any preference perhaps carbol-fuchsin and gentian violet give the clearest pictures. The bipolar appearance is most clearly seen after treatment with carbol-fuchsin and half per cent. acetic acid.

The micro-organism does not retain the colour when treated by GRAM's method of staining. This is constant in all strains of the organism so far met with.

Relation to Oxygen.

The micro-organism is a facultative anærobe.

Optimum Temperature.

It grows most luxuriantly at the aminal body temperature.

Cultural Characteristics.-Gelatine Plates.

To the naked eye the colonies appear after 48 hours as minute white points. These in the course of a few days increase in size and form definitely rounded colonies with somewhat irregular edges. They are semi-transparent, glistening, and of a whitish hyaline appearance.

With the aided eye, little more can be made out, excepting the roughly granular character of the growth.

Colonies of the micro-organism lying in the depth are smaller in size and more opaque.

Gelatine Strokes.

The growth forms a thin whitish coating. Its spread is extremely limited, the colonies tending to remain discrete.

Gelatine Stabs.

The growth is limited, but occurs throughout the extent of the line of inoculation. It is granular, whitish, and semi-transparent in appearance. The growth is more abundant in the upper layers of the gelatine than in the under- lying portions. The surface of the gelatine becomes covered with a whitish hyaline layer which only under exceptional circumstances reaches the wall of the

tube.

It never liquefies gelatine.

Agar-agar Plates.

To the naked eye the colonies after 24 hours appear as rounded, structure- less, glistening, and semi-transparent bodies of a greyish white colour.

With the aide eye these colonies are found to possess sharply deinarcate l edges. Their substance is finely granular.

Deeply situated colonies are rounded with smooth edges. They are deeper in colour and present no appearance of granulation.

522

Agar-agar Slopes.

The growth is widespread and heaped up. The edges of the growth are smooth. The general appearance of the growth is smooth, shining, and hyaline. The condensation water is always cloudy with a considerable granular deposit.

Agar-agar Stabs.

The growth occurs throughout the whole extent of the line of inoculation. It is thread-like and granular. Its colour is whitish-grey. Considerable growth takes place on the surface of the columns of agar-agar. This ultimately reaches. the walls of the tube.

Peptone Bouillon.

In this medium the growth is frequently slow. The medium becomes diffusely cloudy.

The extent of this cloudiness varies. It is accompanied by the formation of a considerable granular deposit, which on shaking the culture tube rises and breaks up and gives rise to a diffuse cloudiness. In the course of a few days the initial cloudi- ness more or less vanishes and the medium appears as a hazy fluid with an abundant deposit. Occasionally a delicate pellicle of growth forms on the surface of the broth. This membrane is so fine that the slightest handling of the culture tube tends to break it up-the fragments sinking as a deposit to the bottom of the tube.

Milk.

So far no strain has caused coagulation, even after several weeks. The reac- tion of the medium is sligtly acid after the micro-organisin has grown for sone time.

Potato.

The growth on this form of medium is subject to considerable variation. Micro-organisms freely isolated from the living or dead animal grow very sparsely on this medium. In certain instances no growth at all is obtained. This seems to depend entirely upon the acid reaction of the medium-a circumstance which has always to be taken into consideration when dealing with such a variable form of nutrient medium as the potato. If the potato be not acid, a growth is always obtained. However this growth varies in its amount and appearance in different strains of the micro-organism tested.

In certain cases a typhoid like growth is obtained, delicate, moist, and in- visible. In other instances the growth is luxuriant, of a greyish-yellow or greyish- white colour. The colonies are flat or heaped up and present a shiny appearance. The medium in the neighbourhood of the growth is never pigmented.

Spore Formation.

There is no evidence of the formation of spores.

Resistance of the Micro-organism.

No experiments have been undertaken so far to determine the action of injurious agents upon the micro-organisms. It is proposed to undertake this in a later research.

Chemical Reactions. Pigmentation. Odour.

Pigment is formed under no condition. Cultures of the micro-organism have no characteristic odour.

H2S.

In albuminous and peptone medium this gas is constantly formed as shown by the reaction obtained with basic lead acetate.

Indol.

The formation of this body varies in amount. In certain cases it is accoin- panied by a reduction of nitrates, so that the nitroso-indol reaction can be obtained, the formation of indol by this micro-organism depends as in other cases upon the particular form of peptone present in the nutrient medium.

No

gas

Action on Carbo-hydrates.

is produced in media containing the ordinary carbo-hydrates.

Phenol.

There is no production of phenol by the bacillus.

523

Appendix E.

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION.

This part of the investigation has been prosecuted to a limited extent, indeed only so far as to place the micro-organism which has been isolated from cases of the disease upon an irrefutable basis and to determine whether it fulfils the postulates of Koen. Having satisfied ourselves in regard to these points, we have, apart from a few preliminary experiments, decided to postpone this important part of the research. It is proposed to deal fully with this part of the investigation in a later

report.

In the first place, feeding experiments were resorted to. Small pieces of the internal organs, eg., the lymphatic glands, spleen, &c., were given to a number of fowls. The condition of these animals including their body temperature was regularly noted. Although these animals were fed upon considerable quantities of infected tissues no reaction was obtained, all maintaining a perfect state of health.

Further numbers of fowls were allowed to wander about the shed in which the sick animals were kept, and on opportunity presenting itself, all of them vora- ciously fed upon the intestinal excreta of the sick animals. Sometimes large quantities of solid or semi-solid masses of necrosed tissues and casts of the bowel were devoured by these animals and although the fowls were wandering about the shed during the greater part of the summer and picking up what excreta they could find, only in one instance was a fatal result obtained. This fowl was examined bac- teriologically and in its blood and internal organs the specific bacillus was found.

Again, large numbers of pigeons were constantly present in the infected shed and although they readily fed on the infective material passed per rectum by the sick animals, only one of these was found dead, its blood containing the charac- teristic micro-organism. From these results-although only preliminary-one is thoroughly justified in concluding that so far as feeding experiments are concerned these animals-fowls and pigeons-are extremely resistant.

The results obtained by the feeding of animals of the same species as those diseased, with blood and pieces of the internal organs obtained from the fresh dead body of a diseased animal were highly satisfactory

For details in regard to this experiment vide "Heifer Calf D."

The disease in this animal ran a typical course. It was marked by a high temperature, characteristic diarrhoea, rigors, &c., during life, and the subsequent post- mortem and bacteriological examination proved the conditions present to be due to the disease under consideration.

The foregoing completes our experimental data obtained by feeding. Highly interesting results were obtained in one bullock by the subcutaneous inoculation of fresh blood taken from a diseased ox. For details in regard to this experiment vide "Bullock A." The disease in the inoculated animal ran a typical course and gave characteristic post-mortem and bacteriological results.

-

As already mentioned experiments were undertaken with pure cultures of the bacillus which had been isolated from the disease. These experiments were of a limited number and only proceeded with as far as the point where a conclusion could be drawn as to the causal relationship of the micro-organism to the disease. Inoculation and feeding experiments with the culture were carried out on small animals as mice, rabbits, guinea pigs and birds. The result obtained was subject to considerable variation. Fresh strains of the bacillus recently isolated from a dead animal gave in the majority of cases a positive result. Each species of animal dying rapidly from septicemia. The bacillus could be recovered from the bodies of these dead animals with little difficulty. Cultures of the micro-organism which had been growing in the laboratory for some time gave in the majority of instances a negative result. This apparently depends upon the very rapid diminution in virulence of the bacillus when grown upon artifical nutrient media. Experiments in regard to this question will be dealt with fully in a later report.

524

The most interesting experiment and the crucial test as to the causal relation- ship of the bacillus to the disease is given in detail under the heading "Heifer Calf E." From this experiment alone, there can exist no further doubt as to the bacillary nature of the disease which we have had the opportunity of investigating. The bacillus which we regard as the exciting agent of this pestilent disease fulfils therefore to the full extent KocH's postulates:-

(1.) It can be isolated from every case of the disease.

(2.) Pure cultures of the bacillus give rise to a similar septicæmic and

hæmorrhagic disease in many of the lower animals.

(3.) Pure cultures of the micro-organisms give rise to the disease in

characteristic form in bullocks of the same species.

(4.) And from all animals experimented with, including oxen, the

bacillus can again be isolated in pure cultures.

BULLOCK "A".

The animal was perfectly healthy previous to experiment. Its temperature averaged 100° F. to 101° F. for two days previously.

On the 3rd day it was inoculated subcutaneously into the upper third of the neck, just in front of the shoulder with 10 c.c. of fresh blood from Ox No. 145, obtained from the heart within a few minutes after death.

The disease in Ox No. 145 ran a typical course-vide P.M. No. 39.

As will be observed from the accompanying tenperature chart, a decided rise in temperature was obtained on the 4th day after inoculation. Up to the 7th day after inoculation the animal showed no symptoms of disease. Food and drink were taken as if in perfect health.

On the 8th day after inoculation the animal refused food, rumination was suspended, and generally speaking showed an appearence of ill-health.

On the 9th day, diarrhoea set in. The discharges presented the characteristic black fluid, and fœtid condition found in animals which had contracted the disease under natural circumstances. Rapid emaciation and severe prostration accom- panied the onset of the diarrhoea.

On the 10th day, the animal was unable to rise, and lay with legs stretched out, and head and neck flat on the ground. Respirations became short, hurried and shallow, and painful grunts accompanied each expiratory effort.

The animal rapidly sank, and died on the morning of the 11th day after inoculation.

¥

Y

A.

MONTH SEPT.

525

BULLOCK “A.”

OCTOBER.

MONTH

DAY 29th 30th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th

DAY OF

DISEASE

Fo

1070

106°

105°

104

103

102

1010

100

MEME MEME MEMEME MEME MEME ME ME MEMEME

MEM

99°

98°

97°

96°

DIARRHEA.

DAY

DAY OF DISEASE

-41°

-40°

-39°

-38°

-37°

-36°

!

527

HEIFER CALF “E.”—2 YEARS.

MONTH SEPT.

OCTOBER.

MONTH

DAY

29th 30th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th

DAY

DAY OF

DISEASE

DAY OF DISEASE

FO

MEME MEME MEME MEME MEME MEME MEME MEME

C

1070

106°

.105°

104°

103°

102°

101°

100°

99

98°

gryo

96°

DIARRHOEA.

'DEATH.'

BEFORE

KILLED, JUST:

'ANIMAL

-41°

-40°

-39°

-38°

-370

-36°

:

529

Post-mortem Examination.

The skin and subcutaneons tissues over the point of inoculation were deeply congested, with extensive hæmorrhagic extravasation. Lying deeply in the sub- cutaneons tissues were found the remains of the blood inoculated. There was no necrosis or breaking down of tissue in or about the area of inoculation. From this focus of inoculation, the congestion and hæmorrhagic infiltration of the tissues spread almost over the entire left side of the body, extensive extravasations of blood had occurred into and along the muscular sheaths. The pericardium was slightly reddened. Numerous petechiae of varying size were present in the epicar- dium. The visceral layer was normal. The trachea was normal, the lungs con- gested and all the mediastinal lymphatic glands were deeply hæmorrhagic. The liver was jaundiced and slightly fatty. Thick tenaceous bile was found in the gall bladder, the sac itself being normal. The spleen was normal in size and appear- ance. The rumen, reticulum and omasum presented nothing abnormal. The abomasum was deeply congested throughout its whole length. More or less ex- tensive extravasations of blood were found scattered throughout the mucous mem- brane. Varying sized ulcers, rounded in shape, with ragged edges were numerous. In the majority of cases the centre of these ulcers was occupied by a mass of necrosed tissue. The duodenum and small intestine were much congested, but not ulcerated. The cæcum was deeply inflamed and presented many hæmorrhagic foci with ulceration and necrosis. The large intestine was generally congested with streaky hæmorrhages along the summits of the ruge. There was no ulcera- tion or necrosis. The rectum was intensely inflamed but not ulcerated. The kidneys and bladder were normal. The mesenteric lymphatic glands were deeply hæmorrhagic. The peripheral lymphatic system was profoundly affected, the pre- scapular, precrural, and superficial inguinal glands on both sides of body being intensely hæmorrhagic.

The submaxillary and parotid glands were similarly affected.

The bacteriological examination of the blood, organs and lymphatic glands showed the presence of large numbers of typical diplo-coccoid looking bacilli the majority of which were agglomerated into staphylo-coccoid like clumps.

HEIFER CALF “E.”

The animal was placed under observation for two days previous to the com- mencement of the experiment. The temperature varied between 101·5° F. and 102.5° F. The animal appeared to be in perfect health.

On the 29th of September, 1903, the animal was fed with a bouillon culture of the bacillus. The micro-organism used for this purpose was isolated in pure culture from a typical case of the disease. It was grown for 5 days in neutral peptone bouillon, a luxuriant growth with abundant deposit being obtained. Altogether about 250 c.c. of this culture was poured over the animal's throat.

On the afternoon of the 5th day after feeding, the animal gave a temperature of 103-8° F. No other symptoms was noticeable at this period.

On the afternoon of the next day a temperature of 105° F. was reached. In addition to this rise in temperature, slight rigors could be seen.

The animal, however, fed well, etc., and showed no signs of distress. On the 7th of October, the rigors were more pronounced. In addition, the conjunctival, nasal, and vaginal mucous membranes were congested.

On the 8th of October, there appeared a distinct discharge from the eyes, nose and vagina. There were marked rigors and muscular twitchings of the neck, shoulders, and thighs.

On the 9th October, diarrhoea commenced. The discharge was of the usual thin, black and offensive character, showing here and there traces of blood.

The diarrhoea gradually increased in severity, and blood and mucus became more and more in evidence. From this stage onwards the animal obviously sunk fast, and on the afternoon of the 12th of October, was killed in extremis.

It was considered judicious to kill the animal at this stage as it was obvious that life could not be prolonged until morning. Supposing death had taken place during the night a satisfactory necropsy would have been impossible owing to the rapid onset of decomposition.

530

Post-mortem Examination.-The skin and subcutaneous tissues were markedly congested. The pericardium contained a small quantity of blood-stained watery fluid. The parietal layer was normal. The visceral coat showed the presence of numerous minute blood extravasations. These were most pronounced along the tracts of the coronary vessels. The heart was normal. Nothing abnormal was found in the trachea or lungs. Several of the mediastinal glands were deeply hæmorrhagic, the majority, however, only showed enlargement, slight congestion and serous infiltration. The liver and gall bladder were normal. The latter was distended with thick, glairy, tenacious bile. The rumen, reticulum and oma- sum were normal. The abomasum was acutely inflamed, more particularly towards its upper end. Minute and irregularly shaped hæmorrhagic foci were found scattered throughout the surface of the mucous membrane.

Ulceration was

just commencing. There was no marked necrosis. Spreading over the whole extent of the mucous membrane, was a delicate film of greyish, and easily detachable exudate. The duodenum was inflamed but not ulcerated. The changes in the small intestine resembled those met with in the abomasum. It was acutely inflamed and ulceration and necrosis were on the point of commencing. The cæcum was very much congested. Hæmorrhagic extravasations were diffusely scattered over the entire mucous surface. These varied in number and size, being most numerous and of greatest extent towards the cæcal or blind end.

The ileo-cæcal valve was normal. In the vicinity immediately around the valve ulceration was marked.

The large intestine was generally inflamed. Hæmorrhagic foci were scattered throughout its entire length, ulceration and necrosis were just on the point of beginning. The rectum was in a similar condition. The spleen was normal,

The mesenteric lymphatic glands were enlarged and congested. Many were deeply pigmented; a few, however, were deeply hæmorrhagic. The kidneys were healthy.

The urinary bladder was inflamed, small hæmorrhages were found in the mucous membrane. The animal was pregnant. The foetus was about 3 months old. The uterus and appendages were normal. A post-mortem examination was made on the fœtus but nothing pathological was detected. The peripheral lymphatic system of the animal was distinctly pathological. Both parotid glands were normal. The right submaxillary gland was also normal but that on the left side was deeply hæmorrhagic. The prescapular lymphatic glands were enlarged and congested and contained an excessive amount of serous or mucoid like fluid. The right precrural lymphatic gland was enlarged and congested--that on the left side was deeply hæmorrhagic. The inguinal lymphatic glands were deeply congested and infiltrated with mucoid fluid. The iliac lymphatic glands were deeply hæmorrhagic.

Blood films, smears from different organs and cultures, were made and the bacillus demonstrated microscopically and obtained in pure culture.

HEIFER CALF "D".

For two days prior to experimentation the animal was under observation. The temperature was taken morning and evening and found to vary between 101.5° F. and 102.5° F. To all appearance the animal was in perfect health. On the afternoon of the third day the animal was fed with an emulsion of blood, spleen and lymphatic gland. In all about one pint of this emulsion was given. The in- fective material from which the emulsion was prepared was obtained from Ox No. 145, as in the case of Bullock "A." For 3 days after the experiment no obvious change was observed in the condition of the animal. On the 4th day, feeding was again resorted to, a pint of blood being obtained from Ox No. 176, vide post-mor- tem chart No. 31. In this ox, the disease had run a typical course.

On the 3rd October, 1903, a decided reaction was manifest, the temperature in the evening reaching 105.2° F. The animal still remained to all appearance healthy. On the following day occasional rigors were noticeable. The animal con- tinued to take its usual quantity of food and water up until the 6th of October, when it left the half of its ration untouched and greedily drank more than its usual allowance of water. On the next day all food was refused, rumination was sus- pended, the belly was "tucked up," the back arched, and the head and ears hung listlessly. The coat began to "stare" and a scurfy condition of the skin was noticeable over the withers and rump.

:

531

HEIFER "D."-2 YEARS.

MONTH SEPT.

OCTOBER.

DAY

29th 30th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th

DAY OF

DISEASE

MEME MEME MEME MEME MEME MEME MEME ME ME

Fo

107°

о

106°

105°

104°

103 ©

102°

101°

100°

99

98

970

96°

DIARRHŒA,

+

MONTH

DAY

DAY OF

DISEASE

-41°

-40°

-39°

-38°

-37

-36°

A

533

On the 8th of October diarrhoea set in. At first this was very slight, amount- ing only to a softer and more pultaceous condition than is usually found in Chinese cattle.

On the following day the diarrhoea was more severe.

The fæces were thin, black and foetid and here and there streaks of blood were to be found. This was accompanied by flakes and croupous looking casts of the bowel These were greyish yellow in colour, friable in consistence with an admixture of blood.

The animal was found dead on the morning of the 10th of October, 1903, and a post-mortem examination was held.

Post mortem Examination. The skin and subcutaneous tissues were deeply congested.

The pericardium was reddened and contained a small quantity of blood-stain- ed fluid. Its visceral layer contained a number of minute hæmorrhagic extra- vasations specially along the course of the coronary vessels, the parietal layer also contained several irregularly shaped blood extravasations.

The

The heart was normal. No endocardial hæmorrhages were found. trachea was congested, the lungs were healthy and all the mediastinal lymphatic glands were deeply hæmorrhagic.

The liver, gall bladder, spleen, rumen, reticulum and omasum were healthy. The abomasum was in a condition of acute congestion. Towards its upper end and more particularly at its junction with the omasum, the mucous membrane was extensively ulcerated, the ulcers were of a distinct punched out appearance, they varied much in size, their edges were ragged and the centre of each contained a greyish white mass of necrosed tissue. Towards the pyloric end a similar con- dition existed, the ulceration, however, being less extensive and the ulcers smaller in size. Scattered throughout the whole area of the abomasum were numerous small haemorrhages into the mucous membrane. The duodenum and small intestine presented a condition similar to that found in the abonasum, the ulcers being scattered throughout its whole length. Extensive hæmorrhagic extravasations were found in the peritoneal surface of the small intestine. These continued along the tract of the blood vessels for a considerable distance into the mesentery. Around the ileo-cæcal valve the ulceration was well marked, the valve itself being very ragged. The cæcum was intensely inflamed and contained a solid cast of the mucous membrane occupying the whole lumen of the gut. It was greyish yellow in colour and very friable in consistence. Throughout the whole area of the mucous membrane there was extensive ulceration, necrosis, and hæmorrhagic extravasation. The large intestine and the rectum were found in a similar con- dition.

The mesenteric lymphatic glands were generally enlarged and hæmorrhagic. The kidneys were normal.

The urinary bladder was congested and its mucous membrane covered with a delicate, greyish white and readily detachable exudate.

The peripheral lymphatic glands were generally markedly pathological. The precrural, prescapular, and inguinal glands on both sides of the body were deeply hæmorrhagic. Both parotid and the left submaxillary glands were hæmorrhagic. The right submaxillary gland was enlarged and contained a large amount of mucoid looking material.

The animal was preguant, a 3 months' male foetus being found in the

uterus.

The uterus was normal.

The post-mortem examination of the foetus showed only a few hæmorrhages into the visceral layer of the pericardium. All other organs and tinues were normal. The micro-organism could not be found in the fœtal tissues.

The characteristic micro-organism was found microscopically in the blood and lymphatic glands and subsequently obtained in pure culture.

534

Appendix F.

SYMPTOMS AND POST-MORTEM APPEARANCES NOTED DURING THE

EPIDEMIC AT POKFULUM IN 1902.

A notable rise in temprature 103°-106.5° F. was at first the only notice- able symptom. For two or three days this high temperature was maintained without much alteration in the condition of the animal except that the secretion of milk in milch cows was arrested almost simultaneously with the onset of the fever.

At the end of the 2nd or 3rd day diarrhoea set in. This came on gradually. The animal lost appetite, rumination was suspended; there was great dullness and weakness, staring coat, arched back, and the animal occasionally ground its teeth, As the diarrhoea progressed the pulse became weaker and respiration was more hurried. Occasionally colicky pains were present. The visible mucous membranes became reddened and congested and covered with a small amount of thick tenacious mucous. The eyes were swollen and watery. As the diarrhea became more marked the fæces became streaked with occasional tinges of blood and a thick mucus was often passed in small quantities.

Straining and tenésmus were usually slight. The animal often lay down a good deal and towards the end emaciation was very rapid. Death was usually pre- ceded by a marked fall in temperature.

In certain cases, the animal may appear to be recovering, becomes brighter for a day or two, shows some desire for food, diarrhoea becomes less acute and the temperature falls slowly when suddenly the temperature rises again, diarrhoea sets in accompanied by great prostration and the animal dies in a short time. There were no lesions in the visible mucous membranes, only congestion and there was no skin eruption. Death occurred at all stages of the disease.

Post-mortem Appearances.-The mouth, abomasum, large and small intestines were the only parts of the alimentary tract affected.

The mucous membrane of the mouth was reddened and congested but there were no ulcers or abrasions.

The abomasum was the seat of marked lesions. It was reddened throughout with inflamed patches here and there. Scattered over the folds of the mucous membrane were necrotic patches and ulcers. These were irregular in outline and varied in size from a pin's head to ten-cent piece. The ulcers had raised edges with hæmorrhagic floors and occasionally necrotic tissue in their cavities.

The small intestine was frequently congested throughout its entire length. Inflamed patches could be seen on the mucous membrane. Peyer's Patches were ulcerated. These ulcers were sometimes minute in size, at other times three to four inches in length with raised ragged edges and bleeding points in their depres- sions. Under the mucous membrane of the intestine petechial hæmorrhages were frequent and here and there all along the mucous membrane were small necrotic patches about the size of a pin's head.

The large intestine showed small petechial spots on both its serous and

mucous coats.

The liver was unchanged in the earlier stages, of the disease. Later on it became enlarged, congested, softened and fatty.

The respiratory tract was normal.

The heart showed the presence of petechial spots. The kidneys, bladder and muscular tissue were normal. The lymphatic glands throughout the body were found enlarged, softened and congested. On section they presented a mottled appearance. Petechial spots and what looked like areas of hæmorrhagic infraction and small necrotic spots about the size of a pin's head soft, friable, and resembling boiled rice were frequently met with. This appearance was well seen in the large body glands as the prescapular and popliteal and although the small intestine and abomasum may show marked lesions, the lymphatic glands of the mesentery may

4

535

not be affected, the majority remaining healthy while one or two may show the typical hæmorrhagic appearance. In these cases which died early the stomach and bowel lesions may be absent or only slighthy in evidence, and in such the lymphatic glands were the seat of the lesions. Again, in cases which were appar- ently recovering but had a relapse and died, there were the remains of the stomach and bowel lesions in the shape of cicatrices and healing ulcers, but here again the same condition of the lymphatic glands was found.

..!

No. ANIMAL.

ILL.

PERICAR-

DIUM.

R. HEART. L. HEART. TRACHEA. LUNGS.

MEDIAS-

TINAL

GLANDS.

LIVER.

DAYS.

1. Bullock.

3. Normal.

Normal.

Normal. Congested. Congested.

Deeply

Normal.

hæmorr-

hagic.

2. Calf, female.

2.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Fatty.

Τ

3. Bullock.

4. Petechiæ present.

Do.

Petechia Normal.

Do. with

Do.

Do.

inter-lobular

on endo-

emphysema.

cardium.

4. Cow.

4. Normal.

Do.

Normal.

Congested. Congested.

Do.

Normal.

D

:

5. Calf, female. 21. Petechiae pre-

sent with commencing pus foci.

Both cardiac cavities full Normal.

of dense blood clots,

Apices of both anterior and mid- dle lobes of right| and anterior left lobe contain multiple abscesses and middle, normal.

Soft and flabby. Both car- Large amount Congested and Oedema-

vities full of firm ante- mortem blood clots.

Do.

.. Do.

P

6. Calf, male.

12. Normal.

Do.

N

of frothy mu-

oedematous.

cus present.

7. Bullock.

5. Do.

Normal.

Normal.

Hæmorrhages Both

into mucous

membrane.

congested.

8.

Do.

8.

Do.

Do.

Petechiae in

Do.

endocar-

dium.

9.

Do.

3.

Do.

Do.

Normal.

Normal.

Normal.

Do. plus

inter-lobular emphysema.

Anterior and Fatty.

bronchial

hæmorrh-

tous.

Deeply

hæmorr-

hagic.

Slightly

Normal.

hæmorr- hagic.

1

B

Fatty.

agic, poster- ior and mid- dle, normal.

10.

Do.

7.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Inflamed. Deeply

Hæmorr-

Fatty.

It

congested.

hagic.

11.

Do.

6. Petechiæ

Do.

Endocardial

Normal.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Di

an muscular

present.

hæmorrh-

12. Heifer.

5. Normal.

Do.

ages. Normal.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Normal. N

13. Bullock.

7.

Do.

Petechiæ on R. & L. endocardium.

Do.

Do. with

Do.

emphysema

Fatty with in- sular paren-

and

14. Heifer.

Do.

Both normal.

Blood-

infarction.

Do.

Do.

stained

chymatous hæmorrhages.

Distoma- A:

tosis.

AP

mucus.

15. Bullock.

Do.

Do.

Petechiae. Congested.

Congested. Norinal. I

16.

Do.

6.

Do.

Do.

Normal.

Right congested; Hæmorr- Fatty.

left, normal.

N.

hagic.

17.

Do.

11.

Do.

Do.

Congested. Congested; in-

Do.

Normal.

ter-lobular em- physema.

18.

Do.

10. Petechiæ

on epicar- dium.

Do.

Inflamed. Congested.

Do.

Fatty.

19.

Do.

2. Normal.

Normal.

Endocardial Congested. Normal.

Anterior and

Normal.

ecchymosis.

bronchial deeply hæ-

20.

Do.

5. Petechia on

epicardium.

Do.

Apical ec- Normal. Congested.

chymosis.

morrhagic; others normal.

Hæmorr-

hagic.

Do.

MEDIAS-

AL.

ILL.

PERICAR-

DIUM.

R. HEART. L. HEART. TRACHEA. LUNGS.

TINAL

LIVER.

GALL BLADDER.

SPLEEN.

RUMEN.

GLANDS.

DAYS.

3. Normal. Normal. Normal.

Congested. Congested.

Deeply Normal.

Normal.

Enlarged. Normal.

hæmorr-

hagic.

nale. 2.

Do.

Do..

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Fatty.

Thick

Normal.

Do.

glairy

bile.

4. Petechia

Do.

present.

Petechia

on endo-

Normal.

Do. with

Do.

Do.

Normal.

Do.

Do.

inter-lobular

emphysema.

cardium.

4. Normal.

Do.

Normal.

Congested.

Congested.

Do.

Normal.

Distended;

Do.

Do.

necrosis and

alceration.

commencing pus foci.

of dense blood clots,

le.

12. Normal.

aale. 21. Petechia pre- Both cardiac cavities full Normal.

sent with

dle lobes of right and anterior left lobe contain multiple abscesses and middle, normal.

Soft and flabby. Both car- Large amount Congested and Oedema-

vities full of firm ante- mortem blood clots.

Apices of both anterior and mid-

Do.

Do.

Bile very

Do.

Do.

tenacious

otherwise

normål.

Do.

Normal.

Do.

Do.

of frothy mu-

oedematous.

tous.

cus present.

5. Do.

Normal.

Normal.

Hæmorrhages Both

into mucous membrane.

congested.

Deeply

hæmorr-

Fatty.

Do.

Congested.

Do.

hagic.

8.

Do.

Do.

Petechiæ in

Do.

Do. plus

Slightly

Normal.

Distended;

Normal.

Do.

endocar-

inter-lobular emphysema.

hæmorr-

with miliary

ulceration.

dium.

hagic.

3. Do.

Do.

Normal.

Normal.

Normal.

Anterior and Fatty.

bronchial

hæmorrh-

agic, poster-

Bile very Slightly

Do.

tenacious. enlarged.

ior and mid- dle, normal.

7.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Inflamed. Deeply

Hæmorr-

Fatty.

Inflamed. Enlarged with

Do.

congested.

hagic.

one infarc-

tion 3 inches

in diameter.

6. Petechiæ

Do.

Endocardial

Normal.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Distended.

Hæmorrhagic

Do.

an muscular

Ulceration.

infarctions.

present.

hæmorrh-

ages.

5. Normal.

Do.

Normal.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Normal.

Normal.

Normal.

Do.

E

7.

Do.

Petechiae on R. & L.

Do.

Do. with

Do.

Fatty with in-

Do.

Focal

Do.

endocardium.

emphysema

sular paren.

hæmorr-

and

chymatous hemorrhages.

hages.

4.

Do.

Both normal.

Blood-

infarction.

Do.

Do.

Distoma- Apical

Normal.

stained

tosis.

ulceration.

mucus.

7.

Do.

Do.

Petechiae. Congested.

Congested. Norinal.

Inflamed. Do.

Amphis- toma Conicum. Normal.

і

6.

Do.

Do.

left, normal.

Normal. Right congested; Hæmorr- Fatty.

hagic.

Normal.

Do.

Do.

11.

Do.

Do.

Congested. Congested; in-

Do. Normal.

Do.

Do.

Do.

ter-lobular em- physema.

10. Petechiæ

on epicar- dium.

Do.

Inflamed. Congested.

Do.

Fatty.

Do.

Do.

Do.

2. Normal.

Normal.

Endocardial Congested. Normal.

ecchymosis.

Anterior and

bronchial deeply hæ-

Normal.

Do.

Do.

Do.

5. Petechia on

Do.

Apical ec- Normal. Congested.

morrhagic; others normal. Hæmorr-

Do.

Do. with' Do.

Do.

APPENDIX G.

DUODE-

SPLEEN. RUMEN. RETICULUM. OMASUM.

ABOMASUM.

NUM.

SMALL INTESTINE.

LARG

CÆCUM.

INTEST

Enlarged. Normal. Normal. Normal.

Normal.

Congested. Congested: Peyer's Congested, patches inflamed.

Normal.

Normal.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Congested. Sub-mucous hæmorrha- Normal.

ges. Necrotic patches of mucous membrane with ulceration.

Normal.

Normal.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Congested. Congested areas

with necrosis and ulceration.

Ulceration around ileo-cæcal valve,

Streaky

gestion

along r

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Congested with submucous hæmorr- Normal.

hages and extensive ulceration and necrosis.

Normal.

Patchy

Sub-mucou

inflammation.

hæmorrh

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Normal.

Do.

Patchy

congestion.

Ileo-cæcal valve

ulceration and co-

Adjacent

similar to

vered with a diph-

cæcum; o

teritic exudate.

parts nor:

תי

e

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Cicatrices of old ulcers, Do.

otherwise normal.

Normal.

Normal.

Normal.

Congested.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Extensive inflammation; no

ulceration.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Normal.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Inflamed throughout. No

Do.

Do.

Do.

Streaky

flamma

ulceration.

along 1

Slightly

Do.

Do.

Do.

Deeply hæmorrhagic. No

Do.

Do.

Do.

Normal.

enlarged.

ulceration.

Enlarged with

Do.

Do.

Do.

Inflamed throughout.

Miliary

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

one infarc-

ulceration. Three ulcers in pylorus.

tion 3 inches

the size of 20-cent piece.

in diameter.

Hæmorrhagic

Do.

Do.

Do.

Inflamed near pylorus.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

infarctions.

Normal.

Do.

Do. plus

Do.

Inflamed; with ulceration.

Streaky in-

Patchy

Miliary ulcerations

Do.

Amphistoma

flammation,

inflammation.

throughout, with

Conicum.

necrosis.

Focal

Do.

Normal.

Do.

Anterior and posterior portions in- | Normal.

flamed, middle portions normal;

Congested.

Normal.

Do.

hæmorr-

hages.

Posteriorly extensive ulceration; anteriorly extensive necrosis of mucous membrane.

Normal.

Amphis-

Amphis- Do.

toma

toma

Inflamed with necrosis and

ulceration.

Do.

ation. Peyer's

Patches enlarged.

Do.

Conicum. Conicum. Normal. Normal.

Do.

Inflamed; Sub-mucous hæ- morrhages variable in size.!

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Ulceration and necrosis.

Inflamed.

congested. Normal.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Congested with ulcer-Imflamed, ulceration, Streaky

Erosion; consider. able quantity of blood present; Peyer's patches

necrosis, sub-mucous hæmorrhages.

Ileo-cæcal valve

ulcerated; streaky inflammation of mucous membrane. Inflammation.

Inflammati and necro

Streaky in- flammati along rug

flamma

Normal.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Normal.

Do.

Do.

Normal.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Extensive ulceration at car- Patchy in-

Do.

flammation.

diac end; normal towards, and at pylorus.

Streaky

inflammation

Streaky

inflammas

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Ulceration extensive.

Congested. Marked inflamma-

tion, Pors

of rugæ.

Deeply congested

Normal.

towards blind end;

LY M P HATI (

MESEN-

LARGE.

TESTINE.

RECTUM.

TERIC

KIDNEYS.

BLADDER.

PAROTID.

SUBMAXILLARY.

PRESCAPULAR.

GLANDS.

Right.

Left.

Right.

Left.

Right.

Left.

rmal.

Normal.

Normal.

Medulla Normal.

deeply congested.

Deeply hæmorrhagic.

Deeply hæmorrhagic. Deeply hæmorrhagic.

0.

Rugæ in-

Do.

Normal.

Do.

flamed and

Hæmorr- Normal.

hagic.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Normal.

Hæmorr-

lagic.

ulcerated.

eaky con- Normal.

Hæmorrhagic

Do.

Do.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Both hæmorrhagic.

throughout.

estion

ong rugæ.

mucous

Do.

Enlarged

Do.

Do.

morrhages.

and con-

Hæmorr- Normal.

hagic.

Hæmorr- Normal.

hagic.

gested.

cent to valvel

Do.

Normal.

Do.

Do.

Normal.

lilar to

Hæmorr- hagic

Normal.

Both hæmorrhagic- left more so than right.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Hæmorr-Congested. Normal.

hagic.

cum; other

ts normal.

'mal.

Do.

Oedema-

Do.

Do.

Do.

Oedema-

Both hæmorrhagic.

Both oedematous.

tous.

tous.

Do.

Normal.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Hæmorr-

Do.

hagic.

Normal. Hæmorr-

hagic.

eaky in-

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Both hæmorrhagic.

immation

ong rugæ.

mal.

Do.

Hæmorr-

Do.

Do.

Slightly

hagic

hæmorr-

Congested

and

Do.

Both normal.

through-

hagic.

enlarged.

out.

¿

Streaky in-

Many ha-

Do.

Do.

Both hæmorrhagic.

flammation.

morrhagic.

Both deeply hæmorr-

hagic.

Both hæmorrhagic.

0.

Normal.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Congested. Hæmorr-

hagic.

Normal.

Hæmorr- hagic.

Do.

0.

Inflamed. Enlarged.

Do.

Do.

Normal.

Do.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Normal.

Deeply hæ- morrhagic and enlarged.

0.

Inflamed with Congested.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

sub-mucous

hæmorrhages.

caky in-

Inflamed.

Do.

Do.

Do,

Both congested.

Both congested.

mmation.

Congested. Hæmorr-

hagic.

mal.

Do.

Deeply

Do.

Do.

Normal.

Congested.

Both normal.

Both deeply hæmorr-

hæmorr-

hagic.

hagic.

mmation

! necrosis.

ky in- nmation

ig rugæ.

Inflamm-

Congested. Do.

Do.

7:19

ation. Normal.

Some normal,

Do.

Do.

hagic. Do.

some conges-

ted, others

hæmorrhagic.

mal.

Do.

Hæmorrhagic

Do.

Do.

throughout.

ky Animation.

Inflamed

Some hæmorr-

Do.

Do.

towards

lagic, other

Deeply

hæmorr- hagic.

Congested. Hæmorr-

hagic.

Normal. Hæmorr-

hagic.

Hæmorr- Congested. Congested. Hæmorr-

Do.

Hæmorr-

Normal.

hagic. Normal.

hagic.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Normal.

Hæmorr- hagic.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Hæmorrhagic

with necrotic

arcas and sup-

purating foci.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Hæmorr- hagic.

congested.

anus.

mal.

Normal.

Do. others Do.

normal.

Do.

Hæmorr- hagic.

Congested.

Do.

Do.

รุ

A

TY

71

TY

1

H A TI C

RESCAPULAR.

GLA NDS.

PRECRURAL.

INGUINAL.

ILIACAL.

BACTERIO-

LOGICAL REMARKS.

EXAMINA-

Jit.

Left.

Right.

Left.

Right.

Left.

Right.

Left.

TION.

y hæmorrhagic. Deeply Hæ- Normal.

morrhagic.

Deeply

hæmorr-

Normal.

Both normal.

hagic.

Characteristic organism in glandular tissues.

......

al.

Hæmorr-

hagic.

Both normal.

Both normal.

Do.

Do.

Ulceration

of vagina.

hæmorrhagic-

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

ore so than right.

hæmorrhagic.

Both congested.

Both congested.

Do.

Do.

Pyometra

with

ulceration.

ted. Normal.

Deeply

congested.

Normal.

Both normal.

Hæmorr- Normal.

hagic.

Do.

......

oedematous.

Both oedematous.

Do.

Both normal.

Do.

Extensive oedematous infiltrations of

mesenteric folds.

al.

Hæmorr- hagic.

Both normal.

Do.

Do.

Do.

hæmorrhagic.

Normal.

Congested.

Do.

Do.

Do.

soth normal.

Both normal.

Do.

Do.

Do.

hæmorrhagic.

Both congested.

Normal.

Normal.

Do.

Normal.

Serous infiltration.

Do.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Characteristic

organism in glands and organs. Do.

al.

Deeply hæ- morrhagic

Both normal.

Do.

Both normal.

Organism found microscopically,

and enlarged.

Do.

Do.

Hæmorr- Normal.

hagic.

Do.

Do.

sted. Hæmorr-

hagic.

Congested. Normal.

Both normal.

Do.

Characteristic

organism mi- croscopically and continually.

Ulceration of vagina.

deeply hæmorr-

Both congested.

Do.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Do.

Ir- Normal.

hæmorrhagic.

Both normal.

Nromal.

Congested.

Both congested.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Both congested.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Organisın found microscopically.

Do.

agic crotic

1 sup- ; foci.

Hæmorr- hagic.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Both congested.

Both normal.

Do.

......

hæmorrhagic.

Do.

Do.

Hæmorr- hagic.

Congested. Organism pre-

sent in cultures from glands.

Do.

Both normal.

Do.

Congested. Normal.

Do.

physema.

18.

Do.

10. Petechiæ

19.

Do.

2. Normal.

Do.

Inflamed.

Congested.

Do.

Fatty.

Do.

on epicar- dium.

Normal.

Endocar lial Congested. Normal.

Anterior and

Normal.

Do.

bronchial

ecchymosis.

deeply hæ-

morrhagic;

others normal.

20.

Do.

པ་

5.

Petechiæ on

epicardium.

Do.

Apical ec- Normal.

chymosis.

Congested.

Hæmorr-

Do.

Do.

hagic.

glai

bile.

21.

Do.

5. Normal.

Do.

Normal.

Do.

Normal.

Do.

Do.

Do

Ulcera

22. Calf, female.

3. Petechiæ on

epicardium.

Do.

Petechiae on Congested.

Do.

Do.

Fatty.

Norm

endocardium.

23. Bullock.

8. Normal.

Valvular vegetations.

Tenacious

Do.

Congested.

Deeply Do.

Ulcer

ante-mortem

hæmorr-

clot.

hagic.

24. Calf, female.

7. Petechiæ on

epicardium.

Both Normal.

Normal.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Norm

25. Bullock.

6. Normal.

Do.

Do.

Apical

emphysema.

Do.

Jaundiced.

Do

Petechiæ near Frothy

Apex of right lung

consolidated

mucus.

with multiple abscesses.

Do. necrosis and abscesses in

with

Do.

Dister with

the post-

mediastinal.

Hæmorrhagic throughout.

Do.

Norm

26.

Do.

12. Inflammation. Normal.

l'etechiæ on epicardicum.

valves. Full of tenacious

blood clot.

27.

Do.

3. Petechiæ on

Do.

Normal.

Normal.

Congested.

epicardium,

otherwise

normal.

28.

Do.

4. Petechia

Do.

in epicar-

Petechiæ present

Congested. Do.

Hæmorr- hagic.

especially

dium.

under valves.

um.

29.

Do.

5. Normal.

Do.

Do.

Normal.

Do.

Do.

Do. Biliary, Petech cirrhosis Dis- muco toma hepatic

Congested. Normal

hino-c

mem

cyst c

30.

Do.

3.

Do.

Do.

Normal.

Do.

Normal.

Normal.

Normal.

Conges

hæm

areas

31.

Do.

3.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Congested. All hæmorr- Jaundiced. Streak

hagic.

gesti

peted

32.

Do.

3.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Congested

Do. inter-lobu- lar emphyesma.

Do.

Normal.

Infla

wit

pet

33.

Do.

5. Hæmorrhages

Do.

into epicar- dium.

Hemorrhages Normal.

into endocar-

dium.

Marked emphy-

Do.

Do.

Norr

sema at apices:

deeply con-

gested.

34.

Do.

5. Normal.

Epicardial and endocardial petechiæ.

Do.

Emphysem- Normal.

Fatty and Diste

atous.

friable;

congested.

35.

Do.

5. Pericardial and endocardial hæmorr-

Do.

Normal.

Hæmorr-

Normal.

Very

hages.

hagic.

dist

36.

Do. (found dead.)

?

Normal.

Endocardial hæmorr-

hages.

Do.

Inter-lobular em-

Do.

Do.

D

hypostatic con- gestion of lungs.

37. Bullock.

hages.

38.

Do.

Extensive Congested 6. Epicardial Scattered

hæmorr-endocardial endocardial mucous hages. hæmorr hæmorr membrane.

5. Epicardial and endocardial hæmorr- Normal.

Congested

All hæmorr-

Do.

Dist

and emphy- hagic.

pet

sematous.

hages.

hag

Congested.

Hæmorr-

Do.

Nori

39.

Do.

6. Normal.

hages.

Both normal.

hagic.

Congested

Normal.

Do.

Do

10.

Do.

2. Epicardial and endocardial hæmorr-

hages.

Do.

Congested.

Do.

Do.

Do

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Normal.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Extensive ulceration at car-Patchy in-

Do.

flammation.

diac end; normal towards,

and at pylorus.

Streaky

inflamma of rugæ.

Do. with Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Ulceration extensive.

Congested. Marked inflamma-

Deeply conges

tion, Peyer's

towards blin

glairy

Patches congested.] Ileo-cæcal v

No ulceration.

normal.

bile.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Inflamed throughtout sub- Normal.

Normal.

Normal.

Ulceration.

Amphistoma Amphistoma

Conicum.

Conicum.

mucous hæmorrhages.

Normal.

Do.

Normal.

Normal.

Do.

Normal.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Ulcerated. Diminished Amphistoma conicum.

in size.

Do.

Ulceration and necrosis

Do.

Do.

Do.

very extensive.

Normal.

Normal.

Normal. Normal.

Normal.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Inflamed tow

apex.

ed.i

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Normal at cardiac end;

ulcerated at pyloric end.

Inflamed

Do.

Sub-mucous ha

patches; no

ulceration.

hages down cæcal valve.

Distended

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Cardiac end shows extensive! Normal.

Do.

with bile.

ulceration; Pyloric and

normal.

Normal.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Pyloric end ulcerated;

Ecchymosis

Do.

Petechia throughout.

into mucous

membrane.

Inflamel tow blind end; towards ileo valve.

Hæmorrhages

mucous mer of ileo-cæca

Inflamed to-

liary Petechiæ in

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Dis- mucous

Inflamed throughout; ulcer- wards stom-

ation especially towards

Do.

Normal.

ach; Normal

towards small

atic membrane.

pylorus.

intestine.

ed. Normal.

Ec-

Do.

Do.

Contained

Do.

hino-coccus

large quantity

cyst calcified.

of saud, Other-

wise normal.

Congestion,

Do.

Do.

Normal.

Do.

hæmorrhagic

Inflamed throughout. No Normal.

ulceration.

Congestion; ulceration with Do.

extensive necrosis.

Peyer's patches in-

Do.

flamed, otherwise

normal.

Sub-mucous

Do.

haemorrhages.

areas.

ed. Streaky con-

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Congested. No ulceration.

Do.

Normal.

Ileo-cæca

gestion and

ulcerated.

petechiæ.

Inflamed

Slighly

Do.

Do.

Do.

Inflamed, ulceration, necrosis with

numerous hæmorrhages into

Similar to

abomasum;

Similar to

abomasum.

Similar to

abomasu

with

enlarged.

mucous membrane.

croupous

petechiae.

exudation.

Normal. Normal.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Ulceration and necrosis

extensive.

Inflamed near Cougseted with

stomach.

patchy hæ-

Ulceration at end. Ragg ulceration a

morrhagic foci.

nd Distended. Hæmorrhages

Do.

Do.

Do.

into capsule.

General congestion with

erosion.

Normal.

Inflamed

ileo-cæcal v Normal.

throughout,

';

sted.

bloody mucus.

1.

Very

Enlarged. Do.

Do.

Do.

distended.

Ulceration and necrosis

throughout.

Both congested. Sub-mucous Do.

petechial hemorrhages.

Do.

Do.

Do. plus

Do.

Do.

Amphistoma

General congestion. Scat- Normal.

tered hæmorrhages. No

Normal.

Do.

Conicum.

ulceration.

Distended: Normal.

Do. with

Do.

Do.

petechial

Amphistoma

Cardiac end normal. Pyloric end Inflamed; Congested.

shows scattered punched out

Do.

Conicum.

ulcers with ragged edges. Floor

no ulcer-

hæmorr-

hages.

of ulcers necrotic and extending into muscular coat.

ation.

Normal.

Do.

Normal.

Do.

Do.

Extensive ulceration and

Congested.

Do.

Ulceration

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

necrosis. Ulcerated with

necrosis.

many

scat-

Do.

Do.

with

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

tered sub-mucous hæmorr-

hages. Congested, ulcerated and

scattered sub-mu-

cous hæmorrhages.

No ulceration.

Same as

Patchy hæmorrhages,

Do.

localised dysenteric

necrosis.

abomasum.

sub-muc

ulceration. Hæ-

hæmorr

morrhages over peri- toneal surface.

AVORIRUı.

Do.

Hæmorrhagic Do.

throughout.

Do.

Streaky

inflammation

Streaky

inflammation.

Inflamed

Some hæmorr-

Do.

Do.

towards

hagic, other

Congested. Hæmorr-

hagic.

Normal. Hæmorr-

hagic.

Normal. Hæmorr

hagic.

Both hæmorrhagic.

congested.

of rugæ.

anus.

lamma-

Deeply congested

Normal.

Normal.

I'

towards blind end;

Do. others Do.

normal.

Do.

Hæmorr- Congested.

hagic.

Do.

ongested. Ileo-cæcal valve,

tion.

normal.

Normal.

Petechia

Congested. Oedema-

Do.

Do.

Both congested.

Serous infiltration of

in mucous

tous.

membrane.

glands and surround ing tissues.

Do.

Do.

Normal. Normal.

Do.

Do.

Hæmorr-

Normal.

hagic.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Inflamed towards

apex.

Normal.

Do.

Hæmorr-

Do.

Do.

Enlarged. Hæmorr-

Both hæmorrhagic.

Congested. Hæmorrhagic Hæmorr-

with periglan- dular serous infiltration.

Normal.

hagic.

Congested

hagic.

Sub-mucous hæmorr-Streaky hæmorr-General con-

hages down to ileo-hages along folds gestion. Pete-

Normal.

Do.

Do.

hagic. Both hæmorrhagic.

Both hæmorrhagic.

cæcal valve.

parallel to long chiæ scattered axis of intestine. over whole

surface.

Inflamed towards

blind end; Normal towards ileo-cæcal valve.

Hæmorrhages into

mucous membrane of ileo-cæcal valve.

Hæmorrhagic

bands running longitudinally along rugæ.

Normal.

Normal.

Hæmorr-

Do.

Do.

Normal. Hæmorr-

Do.

hagic

hagic

through-

out.

Similar to

Do.

Do.

Do.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Do.

large in-

testine. No

ulceration.

Normal.

Normal.

Normal. Hæmorr-

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

hagic.

Les in-

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Normal.

erwise

Hæmorrh- agic.

Both normal.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Normal.

Do.

Do.

Both normal.

Both hæmorrhagic.

es.

Ileo-cæcal valve Ulceration and

Do.

Hæmorrhagic

Do.

Deeply conges-

Both hæmorrhagic.

Do.

necrosis near

ulcerated.

and deeply

ileo-cæcal valve.

pigmented.

ted; scattered hæmorrhagicĮ

Streaky con-

foci.

gestion.

Similar to

Streaky con- Deeply in-

Q.

abomasum.

gestion. No

flamed; no

Congested

Do.

Slightly

ulceration.

only.

congested.

Both slightly hæmorr-

hagic.

Do.

ulceration.

with Ulceration at blind

Streaky in- Normal.

Congested. A Do.

Petechial Normal.

Deeply

Do.

3-

:

end. Ragged

ulceration around

foci. ileo-cæcal valve,

flammation.

few hæmorr-

hæmorrhages

hæmorrh-

hagic.

around base.

agic.

Normal.

Normal.

Do.

Hæmorrh-

Do.

Normal; con- Congested. Hæmorrh- Congested. Hæmorrh-

ut,

agic.

tained port-

wine coloured

agic.

agic.

urine.

icus.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Both hæmorrhagic.

cousi

5.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Normal.

Do.

Do.

Both normal.

Both normal.

Do.

Sub-mucous hæ- Congested

Hæmorr- Do.

Do.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Both hæmorrhagic.

morrhages;

with sub-

croupous exu-

mucous hæ-

hagic.

date over mu-

cous membrane;

morrhages.

no ulceration,

Ulceration and Sub-mucous

Congested. Hæmorr- Do.

Do.

Do.

necrosis.

hæmorrhages.

hagic.

with Do.

mu-

Do.

Sub-mucous

Do.

Do.

Do.

Both normal.

Do.

Both normal.

with

hæmorr-

ages.

hages; no

ulceration.

ulceration.

ages,

Do.

with

Same as

Congested.

Do.

Do.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Both hæmorrhagic.

teric

sub-mucous

Do.

cæcum.

2.

peri-

hæmorrhages.

Læmorr-

hagic.

Both hæmorrhagic.

areas and sup-| magic. purating foci.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Do.

Do.

Hæmorr- Congested.

hagic.

C

ongested.

Do.

Do.

Both normal.

Do.

Congested. Normal.

sted.

Serous infiltration of

Similar to

glands and surround-

sub-

Hæmorr- hagic.

Serous infiltration.

Normal.

Both congested.

ing tissues.

maxillary.

orial.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Deeply Congested.

Both normal.

Do.

Both normal.

with periglan-

ongested. Hæmorrhagic Hæmorr-

hæmorrhagic.

Do.

}

Hæmorrhagic Hæmorrh- Congested.

Do.

Hæmorrh- Congested.

dular serous infiltration.

hagic.

with insular necrosis.

agic.

agic.

æmorr-

Normal.

Congested. Do.

Do.

Do.

hagic.

rhagic.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Hæmorr- Normal.

hagic.

Hæmorrh- agic. Both normal.

Do.

Do.

Hæmorrh- agic.

d.

Normal.

Hæmorr- hagic.

Both congested.

æmorr-

Do.

Normal.

hagic

Hæmorr- hagic.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Both normal.

Both normal.

hagic.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Normal.

Hæmorrh- agic.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Normal.

Enlarged and

hæmorrhagic.

Both normal.

Both normal.

Normal.

Hæmorr-

hagic. de

01

emorrh-

Both normal.

Do.

Do.

agic.

Normal. Hæmorr- Normal. Hæmorr-

hagic.

hagic.

Do.

Normal.

al.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Both hæomrrhagic.

Both normal.

Both hæmorrhagic.

hagic.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Normal.

Hæmorr- hagic.

hæmorr-

Do.

Congested. Hæmorr-

hagic.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Hæmorr- hagic.

Deeply morrh-

Do.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Do.

Both congested.

Normal.

Congested.

agic.

emorrh- Congested. Hæmorrh-

Do.

Both normal.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Both normal,

agic.

agic.

agic.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Perilymphatic hæmorr- hagic extravasation. Both hæmorrhagic.

de

0

Both congested.

Both congested.

Both hæmorrhagic.

al.

Both normal.

Do.

Do.

Both normal.

Both normal.

hagic.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Congested. Hæmorrh-

agic.

Both normal,

Both normal.

Do.

Mic

der

of

ba

Do.

Both congested.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Do.

Do.

al.

Both normal.

Both hæmorrhagic with Normal.

gelatinous infiltration.

Hæmorr- hagic.

Normal.

Hæmorr- hagic.

Do.

Isol

mi

SI

CU

agic.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Hæmorrh- Deeply Do.

agic. hæmorrh-

agic.

Congested.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Both hæmorrhagic.

morr- Both hæmorrhagic.

Both congested.

Both normal.

Do.

agic.

hagic.

Do.

Do.

Hæmorr hagic.

Congested. Organism pre-

sent in cultures from glands.

Both normal.

Do.

Congested. Normal.

Do.

æmorr-

Serous infiltration.

Normal.

Both congested.

Do.

agic.

ngested.

Both normal.

Do.

morrhagic Hæmorrh- Congested.

Do.

ith insular

ecrosis.

agic.

Do.

Do.

›rmal.

Hæmorrh- agic. Both normal.

Do.

Do.

Hæmorrh- agic.

Normal.

Hæmorr- hagic.

Both congested.

Do.

emorr-

Both hæmorrhagic.

Both normal.

Both normal.

Do.

Both normal.

Hæmorrh- Congested. Organism found

agic.

microscopically in organs and

tissues.

Organism demonstrated in cultures.

Do.

agic.

......

......

......

Do.

Normal. Hæmorrh-

agic.

Do.

Do.

Do.

arged and

morrhagic.

Both normal.

Both normal.

Normal.

Jo.

Normal. Hæmorr-

hagic.

Normal. Hæmorr-

hagic.

Do.

Hæmorr- hagic.

Normal.

Do.

hagic.

Both hæomrrhagic.

Both normal.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Do.

Microscopic demonstration of organism.

Subcutaneous tissues

very congested, with

hæmorrhages into areolar tisnes.

Diffuse hæmorrhages

into omentum and

mesentery.

Animal slanghtered while suffering from disease.

Do.

Do.

Normal. Hæmorr-

Do.

......

hagic.

emorr-

Do.

Do.

Do.

agic.

hagic.

Do.

Both congested.

Normal.

Hæmorr- hagic.

Congested.

Do.

Do.

Both normal.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Both normal.

hæmorr- sation. gic.

Cultural demonstration of organism.

Intra-muscular and

intra-alveolar

hæmorrhages.

Both congested.

Both congested.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Do.

Do.

Both normal.

Both normal.

Do.

morrh- agic.

Both normal,

Both normal.

Do.

Microscopic.

demonstration

of ovoid bacterium.

sted.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Do.

gic with Normal.

tration.

Hæmorr- hagic.

Normal.

Hæmorr- hagic.

Deeply morrh- agic.

Do.

Congested.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Do.

Do.

Both hæmorrhagic.

Do.

Isolation of

micro-organi-

sm hy- cultivation.

Do.

Blood, organs and tissues used for ex- perimental purposes. Vide later inexperi- mental section.

HONGKONG.

CURRENCY IN HONGKONG,

(Correspondence respecting proposal for an enquiry.)

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

No. 37

1903

;

HONGKONG GENERAL CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, HONGKONG, 28th February, 1903.

SIR,-I am directed to inform you, for the information of His Excellency the Governor, that in November last the Singapore Chamber of Commerce addressed this Chamber, drawing attention to the steps taken by that Chamber with the object of investigating and considering the possibility of arriving at some method by which the fixing of Exchange between gold and silver in Singapore and the Straits Settlements might be solved, and asking for this Chamber's views as to the advisability of taking any action in the same direction with regard to the currency of Hongkong.

At a meeting of the Committee specially called to discuss this matter, held on the 23rd December last, it was decided to reply that, although they greatly appre- ciated the friendly desire for joint action, the Committee regretted that, by reason of the very different position occupied by the two Colonies, they were unable to see their way, whilst China still retains a silver currency, to take any steps which might tend to lead the Government to adopt another Standard.

Since the expression of opinion by the Committee, a requisition from five members was received calling for a Special General Meeting of the Members of the Chamber, for the purpose of discussing the question of local currency, and this Meeting of Members was held on the 18th instant, when the following Resolution was carried by a majority.

"That in the opinion of this Meeting it is desirable the Straits Currency Commission should extend its enquiries to Hongkong with a view to ascertaining whether reform of the Colony's currency arrangements is advisable."

In this connection, I enclose copies of the following papers :-

1. Published minutes of Committee Meeting held 23rd December, 1902.* 2. Notice calling Special General Meeting of Members for 18th February,

1903.*

3. Published minutes of Special General Meeting.*

Hon. F. H. MAY, C.M.G.,

Colonial Secretary.

I have, &c.,

A. R. LOWE, Secretary.

* Not printed.

2

440

1

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE,

HONGKONG, 23rd March, 1903.

SIR,-With reference to your letter of the 28th ultimo, I am directed to inform you that a copy of the Resolution therein contained will be forwarded to the Secre- tary of State for the Colonies in due course.

Secretary,

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.

I have, &c.,

F. H. MAY.

X

No. 174.

__

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 2nd April, 1903.

SIR, I have the honour to transmit for your information the enclosed copy of a letter from the Chamber of Commerce regarding the proposal to fix a rate of Exchange between gold and silver and so relieve trade in this Colony from the difficulties and embarrassments caused by the fluctuations in their relative value. As stated in the letter, a majority of the Chamber have at a recent meeting adopted the following Resolution: "That in the opinion of this Meeting it is desirable the Straits Currency Commission should extend its enquiries to Hongkong with a view to ascertaining whether reform of the Colony's currency arrangements is advisable."

I laid the letter from the Chamber of Commerce with the Resolution there- in contained before my Executive Council, and was advised by a majority that it would be well to have a Commission appointed to enquire into the currency question so far as it affected Hongkong, but that such a Commission should be separate and distinct from that appointed to enquire into the question in Singapore. The Council offered no opinion on the ultimate question as to whether a gold standard should or should not be adopted for Hongkong, but advised that in the event of His Majesty's Government deciding to appoint a Commission, the Hong- kong Chamber of Commerce should be invited to nominate two gentlemen for appointment as members, one to represent that section of the Chamber which is in favour of the status quo, and the other to represent the section which is in favour of adopting a gold standard.

I enclose* also for your information copies of the proceedings of the Cham- ber of Commerce at a Meeting of the Committee held on the 23rd December, 1902, and of a General Meeting of the Chamber held on the 18th February, 1903, at which the Resolution now forwarded was adopted by a majority of 40 to 25.

As it appeared to me that the papers read on that occasion by the gentlemen who proposed the Resolution in opposition to the conclusion forined by the Com- mittee of the Chamber at the Meeting of 23rd December had been carefully prepar- ed, while the time occupied in the discussion was palpably not sufficient to admit of well considered reply, I communicated with a number of the most important` Merchants, Managers of Shipping Companies, and Bankers in the Colony requesting their views on the subject. I attach their answers * which will show that, among the mercantile men who have the largest stake in the Colony, including British, German and Chinese, there is an almost unanimous feeling against any interference with the present currency so long as the Chinese currency remains what it is.

The arguments put forward in these various statements cover the whole ground from a business point of view, and a glance at the gold value of shares ten years ago and now shows that the gold value of capital then invested has increased

* Not printed.

:

441

very considerably even with the depreciated dollar. But there is another aspect of the question that requires very grave consideration even before a Commission be decided upon, for the appointment of a Commission would at once further affect Exchange. Can this Colony afford to pay the cost of conversion? Assuming a gold reserve, with paper currency and token silver coins, is the paper to be inconvert- ible? If not, gold selling sometimes at a premium, our reserve will be demanded for conversion into gold leaf, of which there is enormous consumption in China, and must be replaced, while of the large token coin there will probably be a perennial supply of counterfeit from China that we can only exclude by the establishment of a rigid Customs service and the total change in the character of the port, which has grown and thriven upon its freedom from restrictions. While if the silver rises beyond the token value of the coin then the silver currency will be at once con- verted into bullion.

These are questions that can be answered in London as well as in Hongkong, and require to be very carefully considered before any step is taken that will disturb present conditions. Whether Hongkong turns to the East or to the West it is evident that she will have to meet Exchange fluctuations on one side or the other. At present the double calculation is made by the merchant or commission agent in Hongkong. If we seek to transfer that trouble to the Chinese importer and exporter, will he not prefer to continue to deal in Exchange with his accustom- ed currency in Chinese ports to which the Exchange Banks will transfer their busi- ness, and where he will be met by all the most active merchants and brokers who will perforce be drawn by trade competition from Hongkong? Such an exodus from this port would profoundly affect its prosperity which has grown upon the principle of minimum interference with the freedom of trade and a maximum of convenience for the Chinese traders.

The Right Honourable,

I have, &c.,

H. A. BLAKE.

The Secretary of State for the Colonies,

HONGKONG. No. 305.

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

DOWNING STREET,

22nd August, 1903.

SIR, I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch No. 174 of the 2nd April, with its enclosures, on the subject of the currency in Hongkong.

I regret that I have not returned an carlier reply to your despatch, which has, however, been receiving my careful attention. I transmit to you herewith a copy of Resolutions agreed to at a recent Conference between Delegations from the United States, China and Mexico, and Representatives of this country, regarding the mone- tary systems of silver-using contries and the establishment of a national currency in the Chinese Empire, together with a copy of a Message* from the President of the United States which led up to the Conference. The Delegations are now discussing the silver question with Representatives of different Governments in Europe.

It does not appear expedient to discuss further at the present stage the possi- bility of establishing a gold standard in Hongkong, the difficulties of which are clearly stated in your despatch. It appears to me to be out of the question to

* Not printed.

442

entertain the idea of adopting a gold standard of currency for the Colony while China remains a silver standard country, and I do not, therefore, consider that it would be expedient to appoint a Commission to enquire into the subject.

Governor

Sir HENRY A. BLAKE, G.C.M.G.,

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

I have, &c.,

J. CHAMBERLAIN.

(Enclosure.)

CONFERENCE between DELEGATIONS from the UNITED STATES, CHINA, and MEXICO, and REPRESENTATIVES of GREAT BRITAIN.

POINTS regarding monetary systems for silver-using countries on which the Conference unanimously agree:-

1. That the adoption in silver-using countries of the gold standard on the basis of a silver coin of unlimited legal tender, but with a fixed gold value, would greatly promote the development of those countries and stimulate the trade between those countries and countries already possessing the gold standard, besides enlarging the investment opportunities of the world.

2. That a national currency for the Chinese Empire, consisting of silver coins which shall be full legal tender throughout the Empire, is urgently desirable.

As soon as practicable, steps should be taken for the establishment in China of a fixed relation between the silver unit and gold.

3. That approximate uniformity in the coinage ratio between gold and the silver coins of such countries as may hereafter adopt a gold standard is desirable.

4. That, if there are no further serious changes in the price of silver bullion, it is desirable that the coinage ratio between gold and the silver coins of those silver-using countries which may hereafter adopt a gold standard should be fixed at about 32 to 1.

5. That fluctuations in the price of silver bullion would, to some extent, be prevented by reasonable regularity in the purchases of silver required by each Government for actual coinage purposes, and that such regularity is desirable, and might be adopted, as far as possible, in each country, subject to its monetary policy and convenience.

Great Britain:

JAS. L. MACKAY.

EWEN CAMERON.

China:

HALLIDAY MACARTNEY. IVAN CHEN.

ROBERT CHALMERS.

W. BLAIN.

GEORGE W. JOHNSON.

United States :

H. H. HANNA. CHARLES A. Conant. JEREMIAH W. JENKS.

Mexico: ENRIQUE C. CREEL.

LUIS CAMACHO.

ED MEADE.

Technical Counsellor :

London, 18th June, 1903.

EDWARD BRush.

*

HONGKONG.

CORRESPONDENCE ARISING OUT OF THE REPORT OF THE EDUCATION COMMITTEE (1902).

(In continuation of Sessional Paper No. 14 of 1902).

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

39

No. 1903

No. 1.

The Officer Administering the Government to the Secretary of State for the Colonies.

[No. 177.]

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 6th May, 1902.

of 24/9/00.

SIR,-With reference to the despatches noted in the margin, regarding the 1. C.O.D. 315 staff and organisation of Queen's College and the general educational system of the 2. Gov. 8 of Colony, I have the honour to transmit for your consideration the enclosed six copies of the Report* of a Committee appointed by Sir HENRY BLAKE towards the close of last year to enquire into the question of local education.

9/1/01. of 10/1/01.

3. C.O.D. 15

4. C.Ó.D. 65 of 28/2/01.

C.O.D. 225

of 5/7/01.

7. Gov. 324

2. The members of this Committee were the Bishop of Victoria, the Registrar 5. General, the Inspector of Schools and Dr. Ho KAI. The Bishop of Victoria sent 6. Gov. 258 in his resignation before the Committee had completed its investigations or drafted its final recommendations, and his name does not, therefore, appear among the signatories to this Report. On this subject I shall address you in a separate des- patch.†

of 16/7/01, of 23/8/01. 8: Gov. 313

of 3/9/01. 9. Gov. 357 of 10/9/01.

of 13/9/01.

12. Gov.,380

3. The Committee spent more than six months over their deliberations, and 10. numerous witnesses were summoned to give evidence as to the working of the 11.0.368 existing systems of education. The Report, therefore, is based on a solid founda- of 16/9/01. tion, and is the result of careful investigation. It has been written, however, not of 24/9/01. so much with the intention of explaining the present system of education, as with 13. C.O.D. that of laying before Government a carefully considered scheme for improvement. 01.

408 of 6/12/-

14. C.O.Tel.

416 of 13/12/-

of 28/1/02.

4. After describing, in Part I, the existing schools of the Colony, including of 13/12/01. Queen's College, the Report proceeds to consider the different classes of children 15 C.O.D. for whom it is desirable that education should be provided, and the kind of educa- 01. tion appropriate to each class. Part II attempts to set up a standard by which 16. Gov. 41 the deficiencies of the existing schools are measured, and the difficulties consequent upon the exceptionally large intermixture of races are carefully examined. Female education is also dealt with in this section. In Part III the schools of the Colony are criticised class by class, and detailed improvements are suggested. Part IV is occupied with the additions needed to complete or rather regenerate the present system, and deals with the necessity of providing schools for British subjects of European parentage, a school for the children of the richer Chinese, and educa- tional facilities in the New Territory. Part V estimates the cost of the propose l changes, and Part VI deals with miscellaneous questions regarding normal schools and the distribution of expenditure.

5. I do not propose to enter at length into a detailed examination of the Com- mittee's recommendations. Two of their number-the Bishop of Victoria and the Inspector of Schools-have already left for England, and will very shortly be followed by the Registrar General. As all the members of the Committee, there- fore, with the exception of one, will be in England at the same time, and will be able to enter into any detailed explanations which you may desire with regard to the principles which guided them in the preparation of their able and interesting Report, it would be superfluous for me to offer a minute criticism or elucidation of details.

6. I am glad, however, to have an opportunity of recording my entire appro- val of the principle of creating British schools for the education of children of European parentage. Before assuming the post of Officer Administering the Gov- crnment, I had already expressed my approval of this principle, in connection with the Petition for the establishment of a British School, transmitted to you in Sir HENRY BLAKE's despatch No. 343 of the 3rd September last. It was with much satisfaction that I received, in your despatch No. 408 of the 6th December, an expression of your approval of the request in that l'etition and I shall address you in a separate despatch on the subject of the steps which have been taken to carry it into effect.

* Sessional Paper No. 14 of 1902.

† No. 180 of 8th May, 1902.

No. 179 of 8th May, 1902.

-A

454

19

7. In dealing with the non-Chinese Schools of the Colony, the Committee recommend their division into two classes-British Schools for the children of European British subjects, and "English Schools where the medium of instruc- tion is the English language, and where the scholars are Indian British subjects, Portuguese, Filipinos, Annamites and Eurasians. The Committee have recom- mended, in section 28, the withdrawal of the Government grant from four small schools where Portuguese is the medium of instruction, for reasons which appear to me to be sufficient. Apart from these points, no radical changes are recom- mended in the non-Chinese Schools.

8. In dealing with the Chinese the Committee have recommended the adoption of the principle that, whether the point of view is Imperial or Colonial, the thorough education of a comparatively small number of Chinese will work more good than a smattering given to the many. The argument appears to me to be sound, and if so it should be accepted with all its logical consequences. There is no doubt that neither the Chinese themselves, nor the object of the advancement of Western knowledge derive much benefit from the existing system, which ap- parently teaches the Chinese boy to be an inferior Chinaman without providing him with the intellectual or moral equipment of the average European.

9. The Committee have devoted a large proportion of their Report to the consideration of what they call Anglo-Chinese Schools, that is, schools in which the English language and Western knowledge are taught to Chinese boys: Western knowledge, for want of a better term, being taken to imply a knowledge of history and geography, some natural science, and other such elementary subjects of a European education. In section 39 it is reported that at present no recruiting ground exists for competent Chinese teachers of English; and it is urged therefore that masters of English nationality should be obtained to supplement the de- ficiency. In my opinion it would be better to give up teaching English and Western knowledge altogether than continue as at present to teach children who, owing to the deficiencies of their teachers, learn little better than nothing.

The Bishop of Victoria has stated in his criticism of a portion of this eport that it will be impossible for the Missionary Schools to provide Englishmen as masters even on the largely increased grant recommended by the Committee. The Committee do not share this view, and point to the Roman Catholic Cathedral School to illustrate their contention that, given the proper inducements, suitable English masters will be forthcoming under the new scheme.

The Missionary

Bodies are, indeed, exceptionally well placed for providing themselves with pro- ficient English masters possessing a knowledge of Chinese. However that may be, if the views of the Committee are correct, as they appear to me to be, it will be better for the Anglo-Chinese Missionary Schools to retire gradually from the grant system in the manner indicaded in section 44 of the Report than to continue in receipt of monies which are a return for work not satisfactorily accomplished.

10. Sections 9 and 11 and other portions of the Report deal with what are styled Vernacular Schools: those, namely, in which the Chinese written language together with something of Western knowledge is taught to Chinese children in the vernacular. The Western knowledge which is imparted in these schools is generally of an elementary and fragmentary character, the teachers being chiefly drawn from the large class of Chinese pupils who have acquired in the Anglo- Chinese Schools of the Colony some of the little learning taught therein. metic," say the Committee in their Report, "is an optional subject, and the four simple rules are taught with fair success. Geography is taught (very badly) in the Fourth Standard, where many of the scholars were at the last examination ignorant that Hongkong was a British Colony, and a number hazarded the opinion that it belonged to Russia." It appears that difficulties exist in the way Too much pressure of any radical improvement of the Vernacular Schools.

brought to bear on the children with the object of teaching them either Westeru knowledge or their own written language by scientific methods might only result in emptying the schools. The Committee appear to have thoroughly considered the matter of making these Vernacular Schools more attractive, and the result is their proposal to use the undoubtedly keen desire to learn English as an allurement. I understand their recommendation to be that boys passing a certain standard in the Vernacular Schools should be admitted into the attached Anglo-Chinese Schools without the uncertainty of an entrance examination; while in the Grant Schools

:

:

I

455

it will be open to the managers to start English classes for boys who have reached a certain proficiency in their own language. These suggested means of employing the widely-spread desire of learning English to induce boys to study their own lan- guage and Western knowledge are admitted to be experiments. It can at least be said of them that they appear to be ingenious and carefully devised; and they con- form to the indubitably sound principle that the Chinese should attain to some proficiency in their own language before they attempt to learn English.

11. You will observe that the adoption of the Committee's recommendations will necessitate an increased expenditure on the Education Department. The total present increase asked for by the Committee is nearly $35,000, a sum which if added to last year's estimated nett expenditure (nearly $70,000) represents approx- imately 2 per cent. of the actual Colonial revenue for last year. According to the table given in section 90 of the Report, a larger proportion than that has been spent on Education in this Colony as late as 1896. It must also be remembered

that $60,000 does not now represent nearly as much productive expenditure on Education as it did a few years ago. The total increase necessitated by the new scheme appears to me to be very reasonable when the far reaching improvements which it is designed to effect are taken into account.

12. To suppose that the adoption of the new scheme will immediately bring about an educational transformation in Hongkong, or that each recommendation made by the Committee is the one true solution of the particular problem with which it professes to deal, would be to expect too much. I am satisfied, however, that the general principles enunciated by the Committee are sound, and once those principles are accepted and established it will always be a comparatively simple matter to modify, if need be, the minor recommendations involved.

13. I have omitted special reference to Queen's College in this despatch, inasmuch as the views of the Committee do not commend themselves to Dr. WRIGHT, the Headmaster, whose letter on the subject I shall transmit to you under separate cover.* Subject, however, to any modifications which may occur to you in conse- quence of the criticisms of Dr. WRIGHT and the Bishop of Victoria, I have no hesi- tation in recommending that the new scheme framed by the Committee be adopted and initiated as early as may be found practicable.

I have, &c.,

W. J. GASCOIGNE, Major-General.

No. 2.

The Officer Administering the Government to the Secretary of State for the Colonies.

[No. 178.]

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 7th May, 1902.

SIR,-With reference to your despatch No. 416 of the 13th December last, and paragraph 13 of my despatch No. 177 of the 6th instant, I have the honour to transmit for your consideration the enclosed two copies of a letter and Memoran- dum by Dr. BATESON WRIGHT, Headmaster of Queen's College, in which he criticises some of the recommendations made by the Committee on Education with regard to the future status of that School.

2. In paragraph 36 of their Report it is recommended by the Committee that Queen's College should revert to the purpose for which it was originally intended, and supply an education only to Chinese and (section 29) to Eurasians who elect to be educated as Chinese.

3. The desirability of taking this step is emphatically disputed by Dr. WRIGHT. He begins by saying that he disapproves the providing of different schools for different nationalities in general, and then points out what appear to him to be the disadvantages of applying that principle to Queen's College in particular. As regards the principle itself, it is unnecessary for me to enter into a re-consideration of the arguments which led to its adoption. That it is held by very large sec- tions of the English and Chinese communities has already been proved by the

* No. 178 of 7th May, 1902.

456

Petitions which accompanied Sir HENKY BLAKE's despatches No. 343 of the 3rd September and No. 380 of the 24th September last; and you have expressed your approval of the principle in your despatch No. 408 of the 6th December last. Whether the principle should be carried out to its logical conclusion and app lied to a school like Queen's College which has for many years been a school of mixed races, is a question which receive the careful consideration of the Education Committee, whose arguments in paragraphs 36 to 39 and elsewhere appear to me, in spite of Dr. WRIGHT's remarks, to be sound. But as Mr. IRVING left Hongkong on leave of absence a few days before Dr. WRIGHT'S Memorandum was sent in to Government, and he has not yet had the opportunity of reading and considering it, I would suggest that before coming to any decision upon this part of the Committee's new educational scheme it might be advisable for you to communicate the terms of Dr. WRIGHT'S Memorandum to Mr. IRVING and ascertain whether its arguments are such as to induce him to reject or modify the conclusion which he and his colleagues arrived at after several months' mature deliberation.

4. Dr. WRIGHT's experience of educational matters in this Colony is so extensive and covers so large a portion of the history of the Colony that any opinions expressed by him on local educational problems are of considerable weight and must command respect. Apart from the principle, moreover, to which Dr. WRIGHT objects, it is conceivable that the new scheme may be produc- tive of serious injury to the prosperity and prestige of Queen's College, and for that reason I hesitate to recommend that Dr. WRIGHT's views should be set aside without careful examination. If all European boys, on the one hand, are with- drawn from Queen's College, and all the children of the richer and better c'ass Chinese, on the other hand, are eventually sent to a Chinese High School there may be grounds for apprehension that Queen's College may fall very materially in the estimation of the Chinese public and that the numbers of its pupils may diminish to a serious extent as a consequence. It seems clear to me, however, that the present system is an unsatisfactory one and should be altere.

I have every reason to believe that the statement made by Sir HENRY BLAKE in paragraph 4 of his despatch No. 343 of the 3rd September last, is in no way exaggerated, and that through no fault of the Headmaster or his staff-neither the English nor the Chinese boys of Queen's College are properly educated.

5. If the Committee's recommendations are adopted I do not anticipate that it will be found possible to reduce the staff of masters, unless the numbers of the pupils come to be very largely reduced. The Committee recommend (section 39A) that the duties of the staff should be so re-arranged as to enable every Division of every Class to receive instruction in English from an English master for not less than one and-a-half hours a day; and such a system will keep a large staff fully occupied. In connection with this subject I have to refer you to your despatch No. 416 of the 13th December last, and also to the attached copy of a letter which has just been received from the Headmaster, in which he points out the pressing necessity for filling the vacancies at present existing on the English

staff.

6. The suggestion of the Committee at section 96 of their Report does not call for any action at present. I concur in their opinion, however, that the Education Department should not have more than one head, and that the Inspector of Schools, who is responsible for all the other Schools connected with Govern- ment, should, when occasion offers, be made responsible also for Queen's College.

7. I observe that Dr. WRIGHT states in paragraph 5 of his Memorandum that Sir HENRY BLAKE was "strangely misinformed when he wrote that. **

European Scholars are obliged to regulate their progress by that of their Chinese classmates, who are painfully endeavouring to assimilate Western education taught to them. in a foreign language." Dr. WRIGHT affirms on the contrary that, as a matter of fact, in combined classes "Chinese are more rapidly qualified for promotion, and leave behind them in the lower class non-Chinese boys." I think that the lead-. master must either have misunderstood Sir HENRY BLAKE's remark or must hold an opinion at variance with that held by other educational experts in the Colony. Unless it is to be taken as proved that the intellectual abilities of Chinese boys are decidedly superior to those of European boys, it must surely be the case that when the results of Western civilisation and experience are conveyed in the English language to a mixed class of Chinese and English boys, it is impossible for the

*

457

Chinese not to be outdistanced by their European classmates unless there is a very great disparity of age. This contention is supported by the opinion of the Committee, who state in paragraph 16 of their Report that the education of the British children is retarded by the inevitably slower progress of their classinates, to whom English is a foreign language. It was also stated in paragraph 2 of the Petition which formed the first enclosure to Sir HENRY BLAKE's despatch of the 3rd September last that "many an English boy is of necessity kept back whilst instruction is laboriously imparted to those who have a very inferior knowledge of the medium of instruction.

8. In conclusion I shall be glad to learn whether after consideration you are of opinion that steps should be taken to introduce into Queen's College those portions of the proposed new educational system which is concerned with the organisation of that institution.

I have, &c.,

(Enclosure No. 1.)

W. J. GASCOIGNE, Major-General.

No. 39.

QUEEN'S COLLEGE, HONGKONG, 23rd April, 1902.

SIR, I have read with great attention and considerable interest the able Report of the Education Committee recently published in the Gazette (11th instant). It bears evidence of wise judicial deliberation, but as some of their re- commendations for Queen's College are opposed to my views, it appears incumbent on me as Head Master to state my objections, without unnecessary delay, in con- sideration of the lapse of time required for correspondence with the mother-country; and here I beg leave to remark that the attached Minutes are written in no spirit of carping criticism, but as embodying another phase of certain questions, which may otherwise escape the attention of the Government.

I have therefore the honour to submit for the consideration of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government, the following Minutes on certain points, viz.:-

A.-Admission : 1. Nationality.

2. Entrance Examination.

B.-Chinese Studies.

C.-Course of English Studies.

C. 2.-Object and sphere of usefulness of Queen's College.

-Internal Organisation.

E.-Finance : 1. Revenue.

2. Expenditure with Table.

F-Examinations:

1. Independent.

2. Oxford Local.

3. Government.

and further to beg, that if His Excellency see fit, he would be pleased to forward the same to the Right Honourable the Secretary of State for the Colonies; in order that the points, which I venture to raise, may receive consideration with the recommendations of the Education Committee, and thereby a saving of time be effected.

. Hon'ble A. M. THOMSON,

Acting Colonial Secretary.

I have, &c.,

GEO. H. BATESON WRIGHT,

Head Master.

i

458

MINUTES.

1.-ADMISSION : 1. Nationality.

1. Though personally I view the provision of different schools for different nationalities as opposed to elsewhere universally approved educational and Imperial policy, and as liable to produce racial ill-feeling, now happily unknown, I confine myself to the effect on Queen's College of the suggestion to restrict its advantages to boys in Chinese dress.

2. From 1867, or 15 years before my arrival, no boy has been excluded from Queen's College on account of his nationality and I stoutly maintain that this proper course should be continued; that parents should not be compelled to send their boys to a school, with which for any reason they are dissatisfied. A certain number of English, Portuguese, Italian and German boys actually prefer the course of education at Queen's College, and I see no objection to their parents' complying with this reasonable desire; any more than I raise objection to boys' leaving me for other schools.

3. The suggestion of the Committee is that Portuguese boys shall a tend St. Joseph's College (§27), British boys Victoria British School or Kowloon British School (817), Chinese and Eurasians Queen's College, while schools will hereafter (§14) be provided for Mohammedans (a large community), Parsees, Jews, &c. No alternative in case of dissatisfaction is provided or permitted.

4. In recommending the abolition of the non-Chinese classes (§36) that have existed for a dozen years, the chief purpose of the Educational Committee is to enable one English Master to be connected with the three sections of each class. As however the Normal Master will be in constant supervision of the six sections of the Preparatory School, there only remain for the eight English Masters, at the utmost, six classes of three sections each. Two masters can well be spared for the two non-Chinese classes, and leave six for sixteen sections, which is more than sufficient for the purpose the Committee has in view. The Committee recom- mends the appointment of ten English Masters in addition to the Head Master, but wisely calculates on the constant absence on leave of at least one of them (§72), I therefore only deal with nine.

5. Some misapprehension appears to exist as to my motive in forming these classes; it was because I observed that two or three nou-Chinese boys in each section throughout the College suffered in their education, because in compet- ing with Chinese boys, they were so completely outdistanced, that they lost the necessary stimulus of emulation. In combined classes, it is rare for a non-Chinese boy to be amongst the first dozen. His Excellency Sir HENRY BLAKE was strangely misinformed, when he wrote (Gazette 227, §3):-

"European scholars are obliged to regulate their progress by that of their "Chinese classmates who are painfully endeavouring to assimilate Western "education taught to them in a foreign language."

As a matter of fact, in combined classes, Chinese are more rapidly qualified for promotion, and leave behind them in the lower class non-Chinese boys.

6. In recommending ($36) that the abolition of these non-Chinese classes should take place at once, the Committee overlooks the fact that 25 non-Chinese boys in these classes have paid an aggregate of $227.50 as Entrance Fees for the Oxford Local Examinations in July next, which sum must in equity be refunded by the Government if these boys are compelled to leave before the expiration of the present term (5th August).

7. I would beg to recommend that the non-Chinese classes be permitted to continue, until (if ever) they become extinct in natural course, by changes effected elsewhere, .., when I report at the beginning of any school year, that less than 50 boys are attending these classes, there being at present 56.

A. ADMISSIONS:-2. Entrance Examination.

8. 317 boys out of nearly 500 applicants have been admitted since 5th March last. Of these I doubt that 100 could pass even the test suggested by the Com- mittee (§38A), viz., fair Chinese composition of a narrative, and ability to read a news column of a native paper.

;

!

}

459

9. The difficulty of the time employed in the careful examination, by compe- tent Native scholars, of this enormous number of annual applicants for admission, is, it is true, somewhat obviated by the recommendation of the appointment of Composition Masters (§75), better perhaps called Native Stylists.

10. It is however in my opinion a serious question whether the Government is justified in increasing from 200 to 400 the number of rejected applicants, of whom several have already spent 1 to 5 years in the study of English. These boys are really anxious to enjoy the benefits of English education in this College, as their grief at refusal of renewed applications testifies.

11. There is further the sordid consideration of annual loss to the Revenue of about $5,000 from fees of vacant seats, which may be estimated at over $400 per mensem-200 seats @ $2.

12. Again my experience has taught me that it is an overcrowded institution that is attractive to the Chinese. If a College is half or three-quarters full, disci- pline suffers from the independence of parents, who think the presence of their sons a personal favour.

13. My recommendation is, to admit applicants to all vacancies, as heretofore, but provide proper Native Chinese instruction, in addition to English school for all boys in the Lower and Preparatory Schools as formerly up to 1895. I believe His Excellency Sir HENRY BLAKE advocates the restoration of the Native School in connexion with this College. No expense, in addition to the recommendations of the Committee, will be entailed, as I propose, on the suggestion of the Second Master, to employ the six (instead of nine) Native Stylists 34 hours daily in Native School as well as 1 hours daily in English School. The few boys, not half a dozen, admitted to the Upper School, do not require consideration.

14. I found on my arrival in 1882, no Entrance Examination, Chinese or Eng- lish. Dr. STEWART's practice, as assured me by the then Second Master (Mr. A. FALCONER) was to admit, first, all boys with letters from leading European and Chinese residents; second, all who knew some English; third, the most intelligent looking of the remainder. After admission these boys were examined in Chinese by Messrs. IP UT LAU, HO TSUK SHAN and CHAN TSZ FAI to qualify for Chinese classes, not for admission to the Central School. The quotation (§2) of the cus- tom, 1864, when the Central School had not existed three years is of little value, as showing Dr. STEWART'S practice 16 years later.

15. A previous attempt, made in 1896 under orders of the Governing Body, to hold a preliminary examination in elementary Chinese knowledge, failed com- pletely, and the practice was at once abandoned by permission of that Body, as tending to empty the College.

B.-CHINESE Studies.

16. Ignorance of the Chinese language by Chinese boys (§5) in Queen's College, which, I frankly admit, is due to the abolition by the Governing Body in 1895 (against my repeated protests) of the Native Chinese School in this College after 33 years' experience of the necessity of its maintenance. It must be remem- bered that the Marquis of RIPON in C. O. D. 14 of 1893, §5, considered the proposed change in the system of Chinese teaching at Queen's College un- advisable; and quite recently His Excellency Sir HENRY BLAKE has expressed himself in favour of a reversion to the former practice.

17. I do not fear contradiction of the statement that no really good Chinese composition can be written by a Native whose mind is not saturated with the Native Classics. Missionaries train Native preachers in Chinese taught after European ideas, but I should be surprised to learn that even one of these has ever graduated in the lowest degree of Sau Tsoi.

6.

18. I find some difficulty in reconciling the opinion of the Committee (§19) that too much has been made of the time which must be spent on the study of the Chinese written language," with their statement (§37B) that Messrs. NG and TSANG who have constantly for fifteen years been painstakingly engaged in teaching translation from and into Chinese are "incompetent."

¿

>

460

19. The restoration of Chinese School for the 720 boys in the Lower and Preparatory Schools is, in my opinion, the only remedy for ignorance of Chinese. Six classes A.M., and six P.M., maximum 60, averaging 50 scholars each would employ the six Native Stylists 3 hours daily (see preceding Minute A). It would also be welcomed by me, as there has been a marked falling off in the politeness and general manners of the Chinese, since the abolition of Chinese School, in which these points are inculcated as a quasi-religious duty.

20. The appointment of Composition Masters to teach Native style in Eng- lish School will not apparently meet the difficulty of want of groundwork in Chinese composition and literature.

21. I am aware that the Committee is sanguine that in course of years the College can have all its vacancies (400 in February, 200 in September) filled annually with Chinese boys well grounded in Chinese scholarship; I am however very dubious of this happy consummation. It should moreover not be forgotten, that Chinese really skilled in Native style seldom become good English scholars. (§38 B.) The problem is rather to provide help in the acquirement and main- tenance of Chinese knowledge for apt students of English.

C.-COURSE OF ENGLISH STUDIES.

22. With the exception of the Preparatory School (246 boys) the instruction throughout this College (to the remaining 880 boys) is given in the English lan- guage, and has been for twenty years. I do not know on what evidence the Committee makes the remarkable statement (§ 21) that “in Queen's College "Chinese has always been the actual medium of instruction." Never in surprise visits, nor from reports of English Masters, have I found that my strict rule has been disregarded, that in Upper and Lower Schools the use of the Chinese lan- guage may only be resorted to in explanation of exceptionally hard idions and in translation lessons. That the Committee recognise the former difficulty is apparent from their recommendation (§ 21 E.) that English masters should know Chinese for the purpose of teaching," though it is to be noted that no provision for this has been made in their Financial recommendations (§ 77).

23. I found on my arrival in 1882 that the Chinese possessed a very limited English vocabulary and it occurred to me as a sensible idea, that increase of sub- jects taught in English must increase that vocabulary. History provides terms of war and politics, as well as of usual domestic occurrences, births, deaths and inar- riages, &c.; Shakespeare requires employment of all the commonest phrases in connection with matters of everyday life, as well as in expression of emotion and humour; the explanation of these being given in ordinary modern conversational English appears to me highly instructive.

24. As to the study of mathematics, which at its highest stage in the College (with rare exceptions, at intervals of years) is purely elementary, increased the number and standard of these subjects, as I discovered the great want in the Chinese boy is exactness of thought and expression, and I do not dread opposition to this view from any Educationalist, from PLATO downwards. (§ 6.)

25. With regard to the suggestion (8 37) that "Western knowledge seems taught without sufficient regard to the local view" I have felt this in some mea- sure and have endeavoured to meet it, as far as the limited time and energy at my disposal permitted. Beside editing-

Cuttings from Chinese Newpapers.

Translation of the same.

Ku Man.

">

11

""

91

School Committee Book No. 1.

No. 2.

11

""

>"}

""

??

"1

13

No. 3.

""

79

461

I have published-

1884-School Arithmetic.

1890-New Spelling Book.

1895-Conversational Exercises Grade, 1.2.

""

3.4.

5.6.

""

1901-Summation of Series.

The Staff has assisted as under-

1887-Mr. FALCONER,

Mr. A. J. MAY,.

..Ku Man Selections, Chinese. .Anglo-Chinese Vocabulary.

11

""

""

1896-Mr. Dealy,

1894-Mr. LUK,

.Esop's Fables in Chinese I.

11

II.

.Geography of Chinese Empire. ....Anglo-Chinese Grammar.

26. I would suggest that in the summer months when he is less occupied the Inspector of Schools might prepare a series of graduated Reading Books dealing with Chinese and Hongkong life and customs. If these were illustrated and published at a price not exceeding that now paid, they would doubtless be in great demand. Strict attention would require to be paid to the employment of simple monosyllables at first, gradually growing harder as they advanced-and to the necessary repetition of the simplest words in the earliest grades.

27. On political grounds I am strongly averse to any instruction in Chinese history, which would expose us to the charge of being a nursery for Revolutionists in the Continent.

C 2.-THE OBJECT AND SPHERE OF USEFULNESS OF QUEEN'S Colle ÷e.

28. I have always understood that the main object of Queen's College was not to train boys for mere copying clerks, bookkeepers or even translators or inter- preters, but to give them a generally thorough good education, in which the know- ledge of English was to bear a prominent part. In this view I have been support- ed by the public utterances of various Governors and so recently as 4th February, 1893, by the Marquis of RIPON's Despatch (C. ). D. 14 §2,) "Victoria (Queen's) College ought to be the model secondary school of the Colony.'

??

29. It is to be hoped that this broad view of the scope of the curriculum of this College will not be narrowed down, in the attempt to turn out boys proficient in translation and interpretation. Our boys have become doctors, engineers, etc., throughout the empire of China, as well as clerks in mercantile, professional and Government (Civil, Naval and Military) offices in this Colony, Japan and the Philippines, and of these the most celebrated are the men whose intellectual powers were sharpened by a successful course of study under the existing system, and were for the most part distinguished in mathematics.

30. Though I recognise with pleasure that the Committee shares the view of Sir GEORGE BOWEN, Sir WILLIAM DES VEUX and Sir W. J. GASCOIGNE that the benefit to the empire of China from boys educated in Queen's College irrespective of birthplace should not be ignored (§15), I am at a loss to understand the state- ments "the majority of the 900 (? 1,483) boys at Queen's College belong to this class" Non-resident. Three and a half years ago in my letter No. 85 of 22nd September, 1898, I supplied the Governing Body with careful statistics on this point, which show that only 16% of the scholars were without parents or near relations resident in the Colony; and I have no reason to believe that any inaterial change in this ratio has since taken place.

D.-INTERNAL ORGANISATION.

31. I can arrange (§39A) for an English Master to give instruction in Englihs 14 hours daily to three classes, but I very much deprecate lessening the responsibility of each teacher in his own class. It is also unadvisable for any man to give daily more than two Reading and one Conversational lessons, as either his nerves will suffer from overstrain, or the class from his wearied indifference. Personally I

* Not printed.

462

consider 1 hours daily away from his own class to give one lesson to each of two other classes, sufficient to benefit these sub-sections, without injury to all three

sections.

32. I object to the suggestion (§39 B) that an English Master should be in charge of three sections of a class with two Chinese Assistants subordinate to him.

1st Because the principle imperium in imperio is always open to objection; the arrangement of nine little Head Masters under one Head Master cannot work well.

2nd Because, while the English Assistant Master is improving the Chinese Assistants in two other class-rooms (not always adjacent) his own boys must be neglected.

3rd Because I have found English Masters have quite enough to do to teach their own classes; they have no spare energy for assuming synchronous duties.

4th Because there is a considerable danger of unnecessarily introducing

causes of friction which at present is unknown.

The Committee is apparently unaware, that one of the duties of the Head Master is in his frequent visits to class-rooms to advise both English and Chinese Masters, though naturally the latter receive most of his attention. I object to delegating my personal duties to my subordinates.

""

33. As to the suggestion (ibid) that no division should contain "more than 50 scholars reckoning by the average attendance.' If this means that on opening day not more than 50 may occupy the 60 seats in 11 class-rooms, it will keep out 110 boys and entail loss to the revenue of $3,000 per annum, neither of which appears desirable. Otherwise the existing system may be continued, for starting with 60, we get about an average of 50 per annum, whereas 50 as an opening attendance would yield an average of say 42.

E-FINANCE: 1. Revenue.

34. Under existing conditions, the Annual Revenue derived from School Fees approaches $30,000 and without disturbance from epidemics would actually reach that amount. The fees (@$36 for Upper School, $24 for remaining classes per annum) have so far in the first four months of 1902 yielded $10,029 as against $9,780 in same period last year.

35. It does not appear to me either wise or necessary to reduce this amount by $8,000 per annum, viz., $5,000 through rejecting boys of inferior Chinese attain- ments (§38) and $3,000 reducing classes of 60 to 50 attendances (§39 B).

Free Scholarships.

36. These are a very useful institution for encouraging education, but I do not see why their cost should fall on Queen's College, whose expenditure will through this cause be this year swelled $540, half of which is caused by Student Interpreters at the Registrar General's Office. The Committee proposes extending this system (§22). It appears therefore time to consider whether this expenditure of Government money should not rather come under the head of "Charitable Allowances" whence Queen's College (and other schools) could by quarterly statements obtain the amount from the Treasury, paying it back into the Treasury as Fees. The actual expenditure of Queen's College and the Education Department would be more faithfully preserved, and the annual cost to the Government would not thereby be increased, as Charitable Allowances are deducted from Revenue liable to Military percentage, the items being kept separate in Reports, thus

Fees Revenue,

Do. Charitable Allowances,

.$29,560 540

Tatal,...... ..$30,100

:

Increase of Fees.

463

The Committee appears to hint at raising Fees (§77). Report I had purposed proposing the following scheme :-

96 @ $5 480 instead of

"

Before reading their

420 @ 3=$1,260

Class I

II, III

324

$4=1,296

IV-VI 468

17

12

$31,404

,,

$2= 480

708 @ 2=$1,416

""

VII, VIII 240

per mensem

$3,660 instead of...............$2,676

Say $40,000 per annum instead of $30,000, $10,000 increase, after allowing for absentees $3,920 and $2,112 respectively.

38. I abstained however for the following reasons. A large proportion of our scholars are poor, and they will all be included in that category, if the scheme (§63-65) of a Government School for the sons of rich Chinese is carried into effect. Again, an increase of Fees is only desirable, and in fact equitable, if the College is overcrowded as at present. If however we turn away-

300 boys for not knowing Chinese,

110

Total..........410

not to exceed 50 in a class

there will be so many vacancies as to make any increase very distasteful, and probably further empty the College.

E-FINANCE: 2. Expenditure

39. I entirely agree with the Committee (§74) that increased expenditure is necessary to maintain the efficiency of Queen's College. Without aiming at economy (for in some instances I recommend further increase) I have succeeded in reducing the expense of the new scheme by $1,080 rising to $1,980, i.e., the actual cost of my proposals is $8,427-$11,940 as against $9,507-$13,920 recommended by the Committee.

The number of classes and boys for which provision is necessary is :-

240 boys 6 rooms not 450 (§71).

Preparatory School,

Lower

468

9

"9

19

""

Upper

420

""

1,128

9

24

"}

54

400

100

950 boys.

For these we require

Preparatory, 1 English 7 Chinese instead of 3 English 9 Chinese (§71).

Lower, ......

3

6

4

8

""

22

>>

"

Upper, 5

4

2

2

""

11

""

Total, 9

...

31

17 (11+6 P.T.)

9

"

19 (14+5 P.T.).

With the appointment of a Normal Master (§ 39 D) constantly supervising the six sections of the Preparatory School, I am of opinion that one Chinese As- sistant and six Pupil Teachers (eight Masters in all) can efficiently do the necessary work in that branch of the College. I propose to dispense with three of the 14 Chinese Assistants recommended by the Committee and to add a sixth Pupil Teacher (§73).

40. The Committee (in § 72) recommend a total of eleven English Masters including Head Master, this is an increase of three to the Masters actually on the staff, and one additional to the number (ten) provided in the Estimates for 1902. The Committee were apparently misled by the number of items in the list which include a Senior English Assistant Master on the Estimates in 1901, whose death however is indicated by **** in 1902 Column. There were in addition to the Head Master and Second Master, 5 Seniors, 3 Juniors in 1901, 4 Seniors, 4

1

י

464

Juniors in 1902. Total 10 in both. Naturally therefore the Committee made no recommendation as to the Grade of the additional English Master. I recommend that 5 Seniors and 4 Juniors should be provided, i.e., an additional Senior Master at $2,400-$3,000 (a post for which Mr. TANNER is specially qualified) should be appointed. My reason for this, as against 4 Seniors and 5 Juniors, is the simple one, that by the former arrangement more hope of promotion is offered, which by the latter arrangement would almost be despaired of by the Fifth Junior; and the present rate of pay, even to Seniors, is none too high when the expense of living is considered.

41. The raising of the salaries of Chinese Assistants (§ 39 C) is a point on which I am specially grateful to the Committee for their recommendations. I suggest however that as the new salaries are no promotion to the 1st Chinese Assist- ant, and little to the 2nd Chinese Assistant, these should be respectively $1,320- $1,440 and $1,200-$1,320 both on account of their length of service and the responsible nature of the posts. The two chiefs of the Chinese Staff have been always recognised by distinction of salary, just as are the two chiefs of the English Staff.

42. Five Chinese Assistants at $840-$1,200 and 4 at $480-$720 are re- commended by me, but with their initial salaries adjusted to a scale for length of service, as on subjoined Table.

Six Pupil Teachers instead of 5, and at $240 rising to $360 instead of $240 fixed. The Second Master has reminded me that we seldom get the better class of students for these important posts, because the salary offered is too low.

The Clerk's salary should be raised to equal that of the Chinese Junior Assist- ants, this only affects his maximum by $120 ($480-$720 instead of $480-$600).

All salaries of Chinese should rise by annual increments of $60, as otherwise the object of retaining their services will not be attained.

Instead of 9 Composition Masters, I recommend 6 Masters of Native School, who in English school should also act as Native Stylists for 1 hour daily each (vide Minutes A. B.).

[In above and in accompanying Table,

Table, I find I have overlooked the fact that 3 Pupil Teachers are now in their second year, and will enter on their third in August. I have overlooked increments due to them.-G. H. B. W.].

RECOMMENDATIONS OF EDUCATIONAL COMMITTEE.

Now SUGGESTED IN THIS LETTER.

INCREASE.

DECREASE.

465

$

1st Chinese Assistant,

$

840- 1,200

$

$

$

$

ུད་

$

1,320 1,440

480-240

2nd

""

>>

7 @ $840-$1,200,

840- 1,200

Higher Salary for length of service and responsible posts.

1,200- 1,320

360-120

5th

4,200— 6,000

All initial salaries not minimum,

4,560- 6,000

360

""

""

"

""

@ $480-$720,

7th

5 Pupil Teachers, @ $240,

9 Composition Masters, @ $420, Normal Master,..

3,780 - 3,780 {

600--

14,820-19,020

4

6 @ $240~$360,.

6 Masters Native School to act also as "Native Stylists,"

3,360- 5,040

2,100-- 2,880

1,260-2,160

">

1,200— 1,200

1,440- 2,160

240-960

}

2,520-2,520

1,260—1,260

600

600- 600

13,740-16,920

1,440--1,320

2,520--3,420

Estimate, 1902.

Estimate, 1902.

Deduct Present Expense of Chinese Staff,

Recommended but omitted 1 Senior English As- sistant Master,

7,713- 8,100

7,713 8,100

Deduct Increase,

1,440-1,320

7,107-10,902

6,027 8,820

1,080-2,100

2,400- 3,000

2,400-- 3,000

Clerk's salary $480–$600 raised to $480-$720,

120 Deduct Increase, 120

000- 120

Actual Cost,

$9,507-$13,920

Actual Cost,

$8,427-$11,940

Actual Reduction,

$1,080-$1,980

SERVICE.

OFFICE.

466

Monthly Salaries Compared.

OFFICER..

PRESENT. COMMITTEE.

Now PROPOSED.

14 Years,

1st Chinese Assistant, Ng,

95

70

110

15

2nd

>>

Tsang,

75

70

100

10

""

3rd

4th

""

""

Wong,

574

70

80

Ün.

52/1/

70

80

""

""

35

19

6

5

4

>"

6th

7th

5th

">

Luk, S. K.,.......

50/1/2

70

75

Lai,

50/1/2

70

75

23

A

Luk, K. K.,

38/1/

70

70

"

""

4

4

8th

>>

"

""

Wong, K. L.,..............

41

40

50

""

4

3

33

9th

10th

Lo,

34

40

45

"

Fung,

29

40

40

2

11th

Tse,

29

40

40

29

>>

""

""

Saving per Month,

Year,....

40

40

...

40

...

770

760

10

120

The above reduction is only on the Salaries of Chinese Assistants and has no connection with the increase of $20 a month for a sixth Pupil Teacher which is more than compensated by the reduction of $105 a month for three Composition Masters dispensed with.

PUPIL TEACHERS.

OFFICER. PRESENT.

COM- Now MITTEE. PROPOSED.

Articled 1st August, 1900, Kong,

17

20

25

30 from 1st August.

Au,

17

20

25

30

22

2

1

""

""

""

""

235

"3

Leung, 17

20

25

30

"

""

""

May, 1901, Lau,

12

20

20

25

""

"

May.

22

35

Sept., 1901,

Li,

12

20

20

25

>>

Sept.

Vacant,

20

:

F-EXAMINATIONS:-I. Independent Examination of Queen's College.

43. I regret that the Educational Committee has made no recommendations on the above subject, as this matter was proposed to be referred to them.

44. I would venture to make the following suggestions:-

Examiner.-Hon. A. W. BREWIN and Mr. E. A. IRVING both of whom are on the Governing Body and have experience in Hongkong educational matters. To obtain some reliable standard, for noting progress or the reverse, it is important that at least one Examiner should be the same, and probably both these officials will not be absent at the same time.

!

467

Time of Examination.-July instead of December, as the latter date is generally a busy one in all Departments especially in the Educational Department.

Method of Examination.-The object of the examination is to ascertain whether the boys are well taught and have an intelligent acquaintance with various subjects, which purpose would be sufficiently attained if the head twenty boys of each of the nine sections of the Upper School (180 in all instead of 400 were examined). The examination of the remaining boys would unduly extend the time spent in the examination.

45. The examination should be almost entirely conducted orally, even in such subjects as Grammar, Geography, History, Shakespeare, &c.; and the Class Masters should teach and be permitted to ask boys questions in the presence of the Examiners to assist the latter in appraising correctly the value of the work done. Dictation and Mathematics would of course require to be done on paper.

46. An examination held on these lines would enable the Examiners with least trouble to make an efficient Report on the real character of the work done in the College. They would not be required to draw up a Table of Passes but simply record their general impression.

2. Oxford Local Examinations (vide §22).

47. The 15th Annual Examination at this Centre will be held in July next They are popular with Masters and Mistresses, boys and girls of all schools in the Colony, and serve as a stimulus to education. The number of boys willing to pay such large sums sufficiently attests the public opinion of the value of certificates issued by the Oxford University. This surely is a matter in which schools and scholars should be allowed to exercise the right of private judgment.

Diocesan St. Joseph's Queen's

...

Victoria

...

Others

1899.

1900.

1901.

1902.

14

17

19

15

16

20

15

20

20

34

48

41

...

...

5

7

7

2

5

5

...

57 $548.80

80

94

81

$719.70

$841.30

$806.50

Total No. of boys

Dollars

...

...

3. The Government Examination (vide §22).

48. This seems a good idea, but unless the certificates confer preference for appointments to clerkships in the Civil Service, the Examination will prove no more attractive and serve but little better purpose, than the Examination already provided by the Belilios Medal and Prize Fund; and in no case would affect the established popularity of the Oxford Local Examinations.

GEO. H. BATESON Wright, Head Master.

No. 3.

The Officer Administering the Government to the Secretary of State for the Colonies.

[No. 179.]

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 8th May, 1902.

SIR, I have the honour to transmit for your consideration a copy of corres- pondence relating to the Kowloon School, which was built and 'presented to the Government by Mr. Ho TUNG, and formed the subject of the despatches noted in the margin.

23 Aug. '99

2. The correspondence consists of four letters, (a) a letter signed by Messrs. Gov. No. 244, BREWIN and IRVING, the late and present Inspectors of Schools, representing that S/S No. 212, the School should be maintained for scholars of European British parentage 29 Sep. 99.

468

exclusively; (b) a letter from the Colonial Secretary to Mr. Ho TUNG in which his consent is requested to the changes indicated in letters (a), (c); Mr. Ho TUNG's reply, in which he consents to the proposed change in the nature of the School subject to two conditions which are discussed in paragraph 6 below; and (d) a further letter from the Colonial Secretary in reply, conveying my consent to these conditions subject to your approval. Letters (b), (c) and (d) have been published in the local Press.

3. I was unwilling to trouble you in this matter until the Report of the Education Committee, which has been forwarded to you under cover of my des- patch No. 177* of the 6th instant, had been published. Section 16 of that Report expresses the opinion of the Committee on the subject of "mixed schools,” an opinion shared by the Government and one approved by you in general terms in C.O.D. 408. I have also addressed you on this subject in my despatch No. 178† of the 7th instant, in connection with Dr. WRIGHT's criticism of the Report.

4. As a result of the correspondence, the School has now been reserved for European British parentage; and as such it was opened by me on the 1st instant. I attach a copy of the newspaper report of the speeches made on that occasion. It is to this change from its original purpose, and to the compromise made by the Government with Mr. Ho TUNG, that I have now the honour to request your sanction.

5. It will be convenient briefly to recapitulate the arguments which have influenced me in ny decision. I was satisfied that the school would not have been a success as a mixed School. Chinese boys could not have attended it with profit to themselves, since English was designed to be the medium of instruction; while the proper education of the Chinese demands instruction mainly through the medium of the Chinese language. The Report of the Education Committee, under the sub-head Anglo-Chinese Schools, section 21 B. reads as follows: "Western Knowledge ***** should be taught in Chinese until the students have acquired so good an understanding of English as to enable them to receive in- struction in English." On the other hand the English community of Kowloon would have continued to regard the mixture of races as undesirable for their children, an opinion now generally recognised as sound. Thus the School would have benefited neither of the classes for whose conjoined advantage it was designed.

6. In deciding that the School should be maintained for Europeans and not for Chinese, I had in mind the recommendation of the Committee as communicated to me by the Inspector of Schools, that English should be taught in all Anglo-Chinese Schools by English masters, a view which is contained in section 44 of their Report. I was, therefore, able to satisfy Mr. Ho TUNG upon the first point raised by him, namely, that the Yaumati Anglo-Chinese School should be provided with an English master. His second stipulation that the School at Yaumati should be properly housed is also certain of fulfilment. A vote of $9,000 for this purpose wsa inserted in last year's Estimates, but it was not spent, mainly at the desire of the Inspector of Schools, who wished for more time to consider the needs of education in the Colony. I was therefore able to assure Mr. Ho TUNG that his requests were no more than the Government would in any case have desired to perform. I may add that, subject to your approval, provision for English masters in the Anglo-Chinese Schools will be made in the Estimates for 1903.

7. If the suggestion of the Committee in section 60 of their Report can be adopted, namely, to utilise the Belilios Reformatory Building for a British School in the City of Victoria, the problem of giving an education to the European British children of the Colony will have been solved without any expenditure upon buildings. I have strong reasons for believing that the money devoted to British education will be best expended by dividing it between two establishments- one in Victoria and one at Kowloon-and on this subject I beg to suggest that you will consult Mr. IRVING during his residence in England. There seems to be now no doubt that so far as the purpose for which it was originally intended is concerned the Belilios Reformatory is a total failure and is not required in this Colony. The building has not been occupied by any children since it was opened, and is not at present utilised for any purpose whatever. It is admirably situated, as the Com- inittee have stated in their Report, for the purposes of an English School on the island of Hongkong, owing to the large number of Englishmen employed in the neighbouring docks and workshops.

* No. 1.

† No. 2.

Not printed: "Daily Press" 21st April, 1902.

:

i

469

8. If you concur in my opinion that the institution may as a Reformatory be abolished and devoted to the education of the children of British parents, it will be necessary to obtain the permission of Mr. E. R. BELILIOS, C.M.G., to change the character of his gift to the Colony and to turn it into a School; and it will be necessary in the second place to consider the cases of Messrs. CURWEN and BULLIN, who were obtained from England as masters of the Reformatory at salaries of $1,488 and $960 per annum respectively, and whose services in connection with the Re- formatory the Government has not yet been able to utilise. Up to a recent date temporary employment was found for both Mr. CURWEN and Mr. BULLIN, and it has been possible therefore to save any material loss to the public revenues owing to their non-employment in the offices which they were engaged to fill. I have now, provisionally and subject to your approval, appointed Mr. CURWEN to a clerkship in the Post Office, allowing him to draw the same salary which he drew as master of the Reformatory. It may be possible to find him other employment later on which will carry with it some slight increase of salary, but meanwhile he has expressed himself satisfied with the arrangement which I have already provision- ally made. I have similarly appointed Mr. BULLIN to be First Clerk in the Registrar General's Office, in which a vacancy was recently created by the resignation of Mr. WONG. The salary which I have tentatively attached to the post is $1,380 rising to $1,800 by annual increments of $120.

9. I have now the honour to enquire whether you approve of the abolition of the Reformatory and its re-establishment as a British School; of the tentative agreement which I have arrived at with Mr. Ho TUNG as regards the Kowloon School; and the arrangements which I have made to utilise the services of Messrs. CURWEN and BULLIN. If you approve I have the honour to suggest that the consent of Mr. BELILIOS, who is at present in England, should be obtained to the proposed establishment of the Victoria British School, in the title of which the Government would of course be glad to associate his name. Mr. IRVING would be able to satisfy him in regard to any details involved in the proposed change.

I have, &c.,

W. J. GASCOIGNE, Major-General.

( Enclosures.)

REGISTRAR GENERAL'S OFFICE,

HONGKONG, 28th January, 1902.

SIR, AS the late and present Heads of the Education Department, we have the honour to address the following recommendations to you for the better success of the British Kowloon School.

2. This School has been built at the expense of Mr. Ho TUNG on the condition that it should be taken over by Government as a school where an English Edu- cation should be given to boys and girls of all nationalities. The building is finish- ed; and a Master and Mistress have been engaged, and will shortly be here.

3. Since Mr. Ho TUNG's offer and con-litions were accepted, some two years ago, the theory of education in the Colony has made a great advance in the direc- tion of differentiating between the requirements of the different classes of students; and in particular we have recommended, and the Secretary of State for the Colonies has in principle approved, of the founding of two classes of schools hitherto un- known here, one for the sons of British parentage and one for the higher classes of Chinese.

4. Other radical reforms having at various times been suggested by us, the Government has recently appointed a Committee, of which we are members, to consider in detail the whole educational problem of the Colony. We are now in a position to state that the Committee is unanimous in confirming our opinion as to the undesirability of "mixed" schools.

:

470

5. For these reasons we regard the proposed constitution of the British Kowloon School as the embodiment of a principle which is on all sides condemn- ed, and we feel confident that it will fail to compete with the all-English and all-Chinese schools, and is foredoomed a failure. And therefore, in spite of everything that has been done hitherto, and in spite of the very natural objections which we conceive the generous donor may have to such a radical change in the scheme with which his name is associated, we make the following recommenda- tions:

(a.) That the idea of a mixed school be abandoned.

(b.) That the School may be regarded as the Kowloon wing of the all-

English School above referred to.

6. In making these recommendations we have after careful consideration rejected the alternative scheme of making the school all-Chinese. There is already a Government Chinese School where English is taught at Kowloon, which is by no means overcrowded; whereas, the demand for a school for English children there

real indeed.

We have, etc.,

is very

The Honourable,

The COLONIAL SECRETARY,

&c.,

fc.,

&c.

A. W. BREWIN,

Registrar General.

EDWARD A. IRVING,

Inspector of Schools.

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE,

No. 314.

HONGKONG, 15th February, 1902.

SIR,-I have the honour to draw your attention to a matter of great import- ance connected with the British Kowloon School recently built at your expense. In past years the Government of Hongkong has held that in Schools maintained or assisted by the taxpayers no distinction of race or creed could legitimately be drawn. Lately, however, the Government has been induced to regard the question in another light and has arrived at the conclusion that an education given in schools attended indiscriminately by the children of various races and languages is not efficient, and that the best interests of the inhabitants of the Colony will be served by the establishment of separate schools in which the children of each race can obtain the education which is specially suited to their needs.

This being so the Government views with some embarrassment the position created by the terms on which the British Kowloon School has been established. The position may be briefly stated as follows. You, Sir, made the generous offer of a large sum of money for the erection of a public school at Kowloon open to all races and the Government gratefully accepted that offer. But in the two

years that have since elapsed the views of the Government have developed and at the very time when the principle of separate schools has become established it finds itself in the position of having to open a new mixed school.

Under the circumstances, there is but one course to pursue, however ungraci- ous it may appear to be. Happily the Government is emboldened by the confid- ence that you had no motive in your liberal action beyond the welfare of the Colony and it has therefore the less reluctance in requesting you to re-consider the condition which you attached to your gift-that the building should be devoted to a mixed school. The Government is convinced that a mixed school is not likely to prove a success and will certainly fail to benefit the European section of the Kowloon community whose wants were beyond doubt the immediate objects of solic- itude when the scheme was evolved. On the other hand the present wants of the Chinese are well provided for by the Government School at Yaumati. The Government has already recognised the desirability of securing proper quarters for this School and a large site in a central position has been reserved and plans have been prepared for a school to accommodate 100 pupils.

471

If the educational system of the Kowloon Peninsula is to fall into line with that of the rest of the Colony there should be at least two separate schools there- one for Europeans and one for Chinese. The latter School is already in existence and the Government undertakes to provide it with proper quarters without delay. The Government therefore desire formally to request you to waive the condition that the School erected at your expense should be for Europeans and Asiatics alike, and to agree to its being maintained exclusively for children of European parent- age. In so doing the Government feels that it is asking you to supplement a very handsome gift by removing a difficult condition, and one which is believed, by those best qualified to judge, to be prejudicial to the best interests of the Colony."

I have, etc.,

-

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART,

Colonial Secretary.

Ho TUNG, Esq.

HONGKONG, 17th February, 1902.

SIR,-I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 15th instant, requesting me to reconsider the condition attaching to my gift of the Kowloon School on the ground that Government have come to the conclusion to provide instruction, in future, to children of different nationalities in separate schools.

2. It is hardly within my competence, speaking from the point of view of the educationalist, to enter into any discussion on this latest decision of Government. But I cannot refrain from an expression of very sincere regret for so radical a change of policy on the part of Government, and one that is so much opposed to the spirit which prompted my offer of the School to the Colony. To recall pre- vious correspondence and interviews, it will be remembered that I attached most importance to the stipulation that no distinction should be drawn as regards either the nationality or creed of any scholar applying for admission to the Kowloon School.

3. I was actuated to lay special stress on this particular point by the con- sideration that all Colonial public institutions (to the maintenance whereof public funds were to be applied) in order to be successful and prosperous, broadly speak- ing, must be open to one and all alike. It is in the strict adhesion to this vital principle that I had contemplated the prosperity and success of the new School on the other side of the harbour.

4. On the other hand, I have no desire that my gift should be hedged in by conditions not capable of reasonable modification as my sole object is to benefit education. I am prepared, therefore, though with very much reluctance to yield to the request of Government to waive my original condition to the extent desired. I do so, however, on the definite understanding that Government, on their part, undertake to appoint for the new Yaumati School for Chinese mentioned in the third paragraph of your letter under reply, at least one properly qualified English Master and to maintain the standard of education there on the same level as that in the Kowloon School for European children. Until such provisions are made, in addition to those contemplated, I beg respectfully to differ with the opinion that the educational wants of the Chinese in the dependency of Yaumati are well provided for.

The Honourable

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, C.M.G.,

Colonial Secretary.

I have, &c.,

Ho TÙNG.

472

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE,

HONGKONG, 18th February, 1902.

SIR, I have the honour by direction of His Excellency the Officer Adminis- tering the Government to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 15th instant relating to the proposed change in the character of the British Kowloon School, and to express to you the thanks of the Government for the readiness with which you have allowed your private wishes to give way to what the Government believes to be best in the interests of public education.

2. As regards the two conditions mentioned in your letter under reply (a) that the Anglo-Chinese School at Yaumati be put under a properly qualified English Master; and (b) that the course of instruction pursued there be raised to the same level as that at the British Kowloon School, the Government is prepared, subject to the approval of the Secretary of State for the Colonies, to accept those con- ditions.

3. The Government does not propose at present to discuss the propriety of the policy of providing separate schools for the various classes of the community, as that question will be fully discussed in the Report of the Committee appointed to enquire into Education, which will be published shortly.

I have, &c.,

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART,

Colonial Secretary.

Ho TUNG, Esq.

No. 4.

The Officer Administering the Government to the Secretary of State for the Colonies.

[No. 180.]

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 8th May, 1902.

SIR,-With reference to paragraph 2 of my despatch No. 177 of the 6th instant, in which I informed you that the Bishop of Victoria had tendered his resignation as a member of the Education Committee before its sittings were completed or its Report fully drawn up, I have the honour to transmit for your information the enclosed copy of the correspondence which took place between the Bishop and myself in connection with His Lordship's resignation.

2. The correspondence so fully explains itself that it is not necessary for me to enter into any further details. I have to inform you, however, that as I thought the Bishop's former colleagues on the Education Committee should be allowed an opportunity of reading and commenting upon his remarks, I caused the corres- pondence to be forwarded to them for that purpose, and received from them a Memorandum of which the second enclosure to this despatch is a copy.

**

*

*

**

*

I have, &c.,

(Enclosures.)

W. J. GASCOIGNE,

Major-General.

Received 12th March, 1902.)

SIR. In the Summer of last year His Excellency the Governor did ine the hon- our to invite me to be Chairman of a Committee which he was appointing to inquire into and report on Education in this Colony, an honour which I gladly accepted.

F

473

I regret however to say that I must now ask your Excellency to allow me to retire from the Committee. My reasons for wishing to retire are as follows :-

(1.) The draft Report drawn up by the other three members of the Committee contains many strong statements, with which I cannot agree, but which I have reason to understand I cannot get altered. The sweeping condemnation of the Educational work now being done in all classes of Schools is, in my opinion, too severe and does not show a just appreciation of the immense difficulties by which the education of Chinese in Western languages and knowledge is bent.

A

(2.) Whilst I hold that the principles laid down in Part II of the draft Report are in the abstract sound, I consider that the manner in which it is proposed to carry them out is too drastic, and that the attempt to enforce the proposals made would inevitably lead to the closing of a very large proportion of the Grant-in-Aid Schools, and to the very serious injury of others. As a very large amount of useful work is done by these schools at a comparatively small cost to the Govern- ment, I consider that such a result would be injurious to the cause of Education in the Colony, and unjust to schools which have been established on the existing understanding with the Government. As instances of what I mean I would

note:

(a.) The proposal that in existing "English Grant Schools" "the propor- tion of Chinese Scholars to non-Chinese Scholars should not exceed five per cent. of the average attendance." Whilst I am wholly in fav- our of the establishment of schools in which English parents c in obtain a separate education for their children, a step which has, I am glad to say, already received the sanction of Government, I do no think it right to say that English and Chinese must not be taught side by side if the parents wish it, as in the Belilios School, and in the Diocesan School and Orphanage. The latter School, for instance, is established for "English, Eurasian and Chinese" boys. It has done and is doing remarkably good work in the education of each of three other named classes. It is much valued and used by English, Eurasians, and Chinese; no one need attend it that does not wish to do so, especially now that schools for English children are to be established. A first rate staff of English masters conducts it, brought out from England at considerable cost, on the existing understanding with the Government. It would, in my opinion, be impolitic and unjust to exclude any one class of boys from the benefits which they now seek in attending the school by prohibitive legislation of the kind suggested.

It is with curious inconsistency that this same proposal is not made to

apply to the Government Belilios Girls' School.

(b.) The proposal that it should be compulsory to secure the services of English Masters for all the "Anglo-Chinese Grant Schools" could not be carried out, and would lead to most of these schools being closed, to, I believe, the serious injury of education in the Colony, especially amongst the poorer classes of Chinese, many of whom could not afford to pay the fees which it is proposed to charge in the Government Anglo-Chinese Schools.

(3.) My own opinion is that instead of attempting what the draft Report rightly terms "drastic reforms," and laying down impracticable regulations for Grant Schools, gradual reform should be aimed at by such alteration of the Code for Grant Schools, as may secure, as far as possible, for the Chinese (a) the attainment of a knowledge both of the English and Chinese languages, and (b) the teaching of Western knowledge, in English to those who have, in Chinese to those who have not, a really good knowledge of the English language.

The Code should however be drawn up with a full appreciation of the im- mense difficulty experienced all through China of imparting a sound knowledge of both languages. And it should, in my opinion, be drawn up in consultation with experienced teachers and managers of schools, who with an equal desire with the Government for the advance of Education in the Colony, combine a knowledge of what can and what cannot be done, which must necessarily be greater, if I may venture to say so, than that of an Inspector of Schools, drawn from some other Department of Government service, and of no personal ex-

(

474

perience in the work of teaching. It should I ment in making any future appointment to the secure the services of one who has himself had possible in the education of Chinese.

think be the aim of the Govern- Office of Inspector of Schools to experience in education, and if

I would further lay very great stress on the necessity of training good Native Masters. The proposal that English Masters should be employed to teach in all the Anglo-Chinese Schools, I consider to be wholly visionary. The Government has not been able to maintain a sufficient stuff of English Masters even in the Queen's College, and I do not think it will be able to maintain a sufficient qualified staff to teach all the Anglo-Chinese Schools that ought to be established. But even if that could be done, a very large proportion of the work of education in the Colony must still be done by Chinese, who can, as I know from experience, do excellent work if properly trained; but who of course need proper training.

(4.) I have barely touched on the proposals with regard to Government Schools. With the command of ample means it is much more easy for the Gov- ernment to make experiments, such for instance as compelling its masters to spend a year or two in learning Chinese; but it must be remembered that many of the proposals of the draft Report are but experiments-though based, it may be, on sound principles-and that some of these experiments have been tried before in Hongkong and have failed.

(5.) I notice that the draft Report on the "British Schools" contains no mention of the desire of those who signed the Petition for such Schools last year, that it should be possible for the children to obtain Christian teaching in the Schools. I very much hope that that point may not be lost sight of; and that arrangements may be made for instruction in the Christian Scriptures, not of course compulsory, but in School hours, not out of School hours (as was suggested in the Report of the Inspector of Schools on the subject) either by the master of the School or by Ministers of various Denominations. That such an arrangement would be welcomed may, I think, be clearly gathered from the fact that there were the names of sixty-five British children on the books of the Kowloon Sunday School last

year.

1

(6.) In conclusion whilst I ask Your Excellency to allow me to withdraw from the Education Committee, I would express my thanks for the honour which was put upon me in inviting me to take part in the work of the Committee. I would also ask you to allow me to express my thanks for the unfailing courtesy with which I have always met during the meetings of the Committee, and in all correspondence on the subject.

I have, &c.,

J. C. VICTORIA.

P.S.-I shall be obliged if Your Excellency will allow this letter to have equal publicity with the Report of the Committee.

[No. 18 G.]

MY LORD,

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 15th March, 1902.

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, which reached me on the 12th instant, asking to be allowed to retire from the Committee appointed to inquire into and report on Education in this Colony.

I at once hasten to convey to you my regret that your Lordship should desire to adopt such a course and to express a hope that you will reconsider your decision.

As a member of the Committee it is quite open to you to express your views even though they differ from those held by the other members of the Committee, without resigning your position. Indeed this is the course invariably adopted when difference of opinion arises among those appointed to inquire into any subject.

475

I trust, therefore, that on further consideration you will consent to continue as a member of the Committee and allow the Government to have the benefit of your views, based on the inquiries you have held, which can be embodied in a minority report if they do not receive the support of your other colleagues.

I feel certain that such a course would prevent misconception and would tend to lend greater weight to opinions which, emanating from an authority of such long and varied experience as your Lordship's, must command attention.

The Right Reverend

Bishop HOARE, D.D.

I have, &c.,

W. J. GASCOIGNE, Major-General.

ST. PAUL'S COLLEGE, HONGKONG, 20th March, 1902.

SIR,-I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Excellency's letter, which reached me on the 17th instant, in which you ask me to reconsider my decision with regard to my retirement from the Education Committee.

I regret to say that in view of my departure from the Colony at an early date for England it would be useless for me to retain my seat on the Committee.

Some three or four weeks ago I had hoped that, as the Committee were in the main agreed as to principles, it would be possible to draw up the Report before my departure. When however I found that the other members of the Committee wished to introduce changes which seemed to me to be very injurious, I felt that this would be impossible. To remain on the Committee and to dispute the clauses on which we differed, would, I found by experience, take too long. To pass the clauses, and then draw up an independent Report would, I felt, be inconsistent. I considered therefore that my only course was to retire, and at the same time to indicate what I considered the best course to adopt, instead of the drastic "reforms to be recommended by the Committee, for the improvement of Edu- cation in Hongkong, viz., (1) the appointment of an Inspector of experience in edu- cation; (2) the training of Masters and Teachers; and (3) the alteration of the Code in such a way as to secure the gradual improvement of the existing machinery. Were I to draw up a minority report it would but embody these three points.

Under these circumstances, I trust that Your Excellency will allow me to retire from the Committee.

I have, &c.,

J. C. VICTORIA.

To His Excellency

Major-General Sir W. J. GASCOIGNE, K.C.M.G.

[No. 23 G.]

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG,§25th March, 1902.

MY LORD,

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 20th instant, in which you inform me that you are unable to reconsider your decision to retire from the Education Committee. I regret that you have considered it necessary to take this step, and that the Committee will not have the benefit of

your advice and assistance at its final sittings and in the preparation of its Report. In the circumstances, however, I am unable to do otherwise than accept your resignation, and sincerely trust that your dissent from some of the views expressed by the rest of the Committee, and their inability to concur in some of the opinions expressed by Your Lordship, will not do injury to the cause of Education in this Colony.

476

2. I need hardly say that any communication from you in connection with the proceedings of the Education Committee will carry weight with the Govern- ment and will be treated with the high respect which it deserves. At the same time I must take this opportunity of pointing out that as you have left the Com- mittee of your own desire and before its labours were completed, a criticism on its Report from one who is no longer a member can only receive the consideration which would be accorded to a criticism emanating from any outside source.

I have, &c.,

The Right Rev. The BISHOP OF VICTORIA.

W. J. GASCOIGNE,

Major-General.

Notes by the Education Committee upon their Report, and upon two letters written by the Right Reverend Bishop of Victoria in which he

sets forth the reasons for his resignation.

I. The Committee first met about the end of September, and after discussing a Memorandum drawn up by His Lordship to which reference is made in Section IX below, proceeded to hear the evidence of the principal authorities on Education in the Colony. Dr. WRIGHT, Headmaster of Queen's College, Mr. A. J. MAY, Second Master of Queen's College, Mr. SYKES, Acting Headmaster of the Diocesan School and Orphanage, Brother PETER of St. Joseph's College, Miss JOHNSTONE of the Church of England Mission, and Miss DAVIES of the London Mission, were called, among others; and their evidence was taken down in shorthand: having been given in confidence, it is not pablished with the Report.

II. Owing to the absence of their Chairman from the Colony and to the Autumn Examinations with which the Inspector of Schools was occupied, the Committee were then obliged to adjourn until the beginning of January.

+

III. Their next proceeding was to endeavour to arrive at certain fundamental conclusions which should form the basis of an improved system of education: to this end a number of resolutions were, after the most thorough discussion, drawa up, and are embodied in Part II of the Report. As His Lordship admits in his first letter, "while I hold that the principles laid down in Part II of the Draft Report are in the abstract sound") these ruling principles were unanimously agreed to.

IV. But owing to the numerous calls upon him and the necessity he was under of repeatedly absenting himself from the Colony, His Lordship was unable to spare as much time as might otherwise have been desirable. Under these circumstances it was unanimously decided that the work of applying these principles should be carried on by the other three members, who should submit the result to His Lordship. This we did, sitting regularly and discussing details. Mr. IRVING putting them between whiles into the form of a Draft Report; so that at our next full meeting Parts I, III. and IV were ready for discussion. This Draft Report was not, and did not claim to be, the final and unanimous opinion of the members who drew it up; and as a fact it has since received important modifications.

V. At our next full meeting His Lordship expressed disapproval of several features in the Draft Report, and especially of two main points. After some dis- cussion a modification of one of them was suggested, which he promised to take into consideration. On the other main point it was agreed that the evidence of the Headmaster of the Diocesan School should be taken, before a decision was arrived at; and with this intention the Committee adjourned for two days.

VI. It must be clearly understood that this was the only occasion on which His Lordship gave us an opportunity of discussing the Report with him.

VII. Before the day came on which the further evidence was to be heard, we received a brief intimation from His Lordship informing us that he had sent in his resignation. At the request of the Government the remaining three members completed the Report, which is unanimous.

}

;

477

VIII. His Lordship's responsibility for the Report is therefore confined to Part II and the first few pages of Part I. The rest of Part I and most of Part Ill and the whole of Part IV were not discussed between us and him he has not seen Parts V and VI.

IX. It remains to reply to certain statements in His Lordship's letters which cannot be allowed to pass unchallenged. The references are to the marginal numbers in the letters.

HIS LORDSHIP'S LETTER OF THE 13TH MARCH.

1.-"The sweeping condemnation of the educational work now being done in all Classes of Schools is in my opinion too severe."

At the first sitting of the Committee His Lordship laid before us a Memorandum drawn up by himself, a part of which runs as follows:-

"In the elementary Schools the boys apparently learn nothing that they can use in after life unless they go on to secondary Schools. In the secondary Schools the majority of the boys acquire no practical working knowledge of either Chinese or English, they cannot translate from one language to the other, and they do not know enough to give them a command of the literature in either language. The other subjects which they study they know for the most part in parrot fashion having learnt them in a language which they do not know. Such results are not beneficial either for the develop- ment of the individual, or for the spread of sound knowledge amongst the people."

We submit that this statement is as sweeping a condemnation as any to be found in the Report.

2.-"The attempt to enforce the proposals made would inevitably lead to the closing of a very large proportion of the Grant-in-Aid Schools."

71

'There are seventy-eight Grant Schools in the Colony, made up as follows:- Fifty-seven Vernacular Schools. These are left untouched by the Committee except that Western Knowledge is to be taught in all classes-a provision defin- itely approved by His Lordship, and which cannot therefore have been considered by him as likely to close the Schools.

Nine English Schools.-All these, except the Diocesan, are practically untouch- ed, except that the grant is more than doubled.

Eight Anglo-Chmese Schools.--All these, too, remain practically untouched. One of these schools is in a satisfactory condition. As to the rest, the Committee only recommended that in the event of their still proving unsatisfactory in the future, the Grant to them should be withdrawn and they should be replaced by the English classes in the Vernacular Schools, if the latter were sufficient in numbers and efficiency.-(Section 49 of the Report.)

Four Roman Catholic Portuguese Schools.-His Lordship agreed to Section 28 of the Report which recommends the unconditional withdrawal of the Grant from these Schools. This is by far the most "drastic reform" recommended in the Report.

It therefore appears that the fears expressed by His Lordship are exaggerated. 3.-"I do not think it right to say English and Chinese MUST not be taught side by side if the parents wish it."

We do not say so. We say that the State should not pay a Grant for what is not a proper education. That the education of English and Chinese side by side is not a "proper education," His Lordship is our witness :-

"Thus of a total of 109 Schools, there are only four available for English children. We consider that even in those four schools in which there are English teachers, European boys cannot secure a proper educa- tion. Education should include both the acquirement of knowledge, and also the formation of character. In both these respects we

1

478

consider that the education of the European children suffers very much from the fact that Europeans and Asiatics are mixed, and the European child has to be educated side by side in the same class with large numbers of Asiatics.

As regards the acquirement of knowledge, this mixture of races operates very injuriously upon the European. The Chinese come to these schools to learn English, not to acquire general knowledge.

*

*

*

*

We do not wish to call in question the wisdom of the Chinese in this matter; but we would point out that in a school in which the majority of boys are Chinese, who come to learn English and not for the sake of acquiring knowledge, the European boy, who comes to acquire knowledge and not to learn English, must be at a very serious disadvantage.

The methods of education, moreover, have to be adapted to the ins- truction of the Chinese, and many an English boy is of necessity kept back, whilst instruction is laboriously imparted to those who have a very inferior knowledge of the medium of instruction."

These extracts are from the Petition headed by His Lordship, given in

Appendix A of the Report. (Section 2.)

In the Report above quoted His Lordship is regarding the question from the English boy's standpoint. Regarding it from the Chinese boy's standpoint, he subscribes to Section 21 B of the Report: "Western Knowledge... ...................should be taught in Chinese.'

93

If however the instruction is in Chinese, it is unintelligible to non-Chinese scholars. Thus it seems plain from His Lordship's own statements that a course of study suited to non-Chinese does not suit Chinese, and vice versa; and that therefore an education attempting vainly to combine mutually in incompatible courses of instruction is not a

'proper education" for State Aid.

64

4.-"It is with curious inconsistency that this same proposal is not made to apply to the Government Belilios Girls' School.

There is no inconsistency, and the suggestion that a Government School has been favoured as opposed to Grant Schools is hardly fair. The Committee believe that Female Education is not yet ripe for the proposed reforms. The benefit of this opinion is given equally to the Grant Schools, such as the Italian Convent or the Diocesan Schools for Girls.

5.-"The proposal that it should be compulsory, etc."

The proposal is on the contrary, that it shall be compulsory to schools desiring to earn a more than doubled Grant. Those content to go on in the present unsatisfactory way will remain practically unaltered until their places can be filled by the English Classes of the Vernacular Schools. (See Section 49.)

6.-"I would further lay very great stress, etc."

His Lordship though invited to do so did not give us any suggestion as to how he proposed to overcome the obvious practical difficulties in the way of establishing a satisfactory Training College. (See Section 94 of the Report.)

Apart from that, His Lordship does not appear to have mastered the details of the scheme proposed.

7.—“ Some of these experiments have been tried before.”

We are not aware to what experiments His Lordship alludes unless it can be to the proposal that admission to Anglo-Chinese Schools shall depend upon passing an entrance examination. But this principle was approved by him in Part II Section 21 C.

.

!

479.-

HIS LORDSHIP'S LETTER OF THE 20TH March.

8.—“The best course to adopt, etc.”

His Lordship's second and third suggestions present in three lines an alternative to a report which, with all its shortcomings, is the result of several months' hard work. We had thought that to discover how the training of masters and teachers was to be accomplished, and how the alteration in the educational machinery was to proceed, were the objects of our enquiry. His Lordship appears to consider that to re-enunciate these problems is a satisfactory conclusion of our endeavours.

While differing with His Lordship on these points we cannot but thank him warmly for the very kind and courteous manner in which he performed his duties as our Chairman.

A. W. BREWIN. HO KAI.

EDWARD A. IRVING.

HONGKONG, 9th April, 1902.

P.S.-As a personal matter, I beg leave to point out that is Lordship. in implying that I am without "personal experience in the work of teaching," has drawn his bow entirely at a venture, and has also missed his mark. I have had a year's experience as house-master in a boarding school, as well as experience as a private tutor.

EDWARD A. IRVING,

No. 5.

Inspector of Schools.

[No. 372.]

Governor to Secretary of State for the Colonies.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 30th July, 1903.

SIR,-With reference to paragraphs 9 and 10 of my Despatch No. 161 of the 30th March last, I have the honour to transmit for your consideration the enclosed copy of a report by a Sub-Committee of the Governing Body of Queen's College on the subject of a scheme for the restoration of Chinese Classes at the College, and the employment of a Normal Master at the College for training purposes. The Sub-Committee also recommend certain increases in the salaries of the Chinese Masters and Pupil Teachers at the College whose salaries the Committee on Edu- cation (see paragraph 74 of their report) considered too low.

2. The Governing Body has adopted the Report as also a Resolution concern- ing the annual examination of the College, copy of which I enclose.

3. I concur in the suggestions contained in the Report and Resolution. They have been communicated to the Head Master of the College, and I enclose extracts from a minute of his in which he offers objection to the only material points on which he has not been able to agree with the Governing Body. They are that promotion in the proposed 5 Chinese Classes should coincide with promotion in the English Classes and that there should be an entrance examination in Chinese.

:

4. If you approve of the recommendations of the Governing Body I have to request your authority to provide in the Estimates for next year the increased expenditure set out in the attachel schedule. It amounts to $6,899 for next year and a maximum of $11,040.

The employment of a Third Examiner for the College involves an additional expenditure of $300 per annum, there having been heretofore 2 Examiners who were paid a fee of $300 each.

I propose that the allowance of $600 to the Master who acts as Normal Master should not carry exchange compensation nor be drawn in whole or in part by an officer on leave nor be pensionable.

480

5. I take this opportunity of informing you that the project of instituting a Chinese High School is at present in abeyance. I understand that the want is being met by a local private Institution.

I have, etc.,

HENRY A. BLAKE.

Enclosure No. 1.

MEMO. ON EDUCATION AT QUEEN'S COLLEGE.

1. The product we desire to see as the result of an education at Queen's College is a young man equipped with a good knowledge of English and "Western learning," and with so much of the Chinese written language as will enable him to write clearly and intelligently and to read plain prose, and to render Chinese into English and vice versâ with some degree of ease and accuracy.

2. After consultation with the Head and Assistant Masters (English and Chinese) we approve a scheme drawn up by Mr. RALPHS attached* though we do not commit ourselves to an approval of all its details. Moreover our approval depends on the acceptance of certain modifications and provisos, given in sections 4 and 5 below.

3. The scheme contemplates putting the 5 lowest Divisions under 5 of the less experienced Chinese Masters with a Normal Master in control of them. Five Pupil Teachers, now in sole charge of Divisions of 50-70 scholars each-a disastrous arrangement-will be relieved entirely of this duty, and will be attached to the five Divisions. They will give occasional lessons under supervision, and spend the rest of their time either in assisting the Divisional Masters or in private study.

As five Pupil Teachers will thus have to be withdrawn from the teaching staff, it is clear that their places must be filled. This it is proposed to do by the creation of a Chinese side to the School of five Classes corresponding to the five Classes of the Preparatory and Lower School, i.e., to Classes IV, V, VI, VII, VIII. Five Vernacular Class Masters will be appointed.

The Normal Master will be in charge of the five lowest Divisions with their Masters and Pupil Teachers.

4. As regards the English side of the education we believe that this scheme will work a great improvement in the teaching of the School and in the grounding given to new scholars. We have however two conditions to attach to this approval: (i) no Pupil Teacher should be confirmed in an appointment as Master under the supervi- sion of the Normal Master until he shall have passed a suitable examination and have received a certificate of proficiency signed by the Head and Normal Masters, and that similarly no master under the supervision of the Normal Master should be confirmed in a mastership free from the supervision of the Normal Master till he shall have passed a further examination and obtained a further certificate. (This will not apply to the 7 Senior Masters, Chinese, who are quite competent, according to the Head Master's assurance to us, and who should at once receive a certificate from him to this effect.) The second condition we attach is: (ii) the Normal Master should be trained and certificated.

5. We do not think the scheme will provide for the acquirement of Chinese pari passu with English unless the following points are insisted on:-(i) Promotion in the five Chinese Classes shall coincide with promotion in the five English Classes. It shall not be possible for a boy to be in Class IV (English) and Class V (Chinese); (ii) In the examination for promotion of scholars and for prizes, Chinese should carry due weight; (ii) There should be no admittance to the School otherwise than by an Entrance Examination in Chinese.

Note. The entrance examination complies with Sir C. C. SMITH'S Memo. para. 8.- No Chinese boy should be "admitted to these Schools until he can pass the approved standard in the Chinese written language.”

But we think that the plan of an Entrance Examination combined with the creation of a Chinese side to the Preparatory and Lower Schools is more feasible than that apparently contemplated by the Secretary of State, of linking a Ver- nacular School to the Queen's College. Among other reasons, Queen's College is already full, and it is not clear where the Vernacular School could be housed; (ir) The work of the five Chinese Classes should be carefully considered by a small Committee who should draw up a syllabus. These Classes should, if possible, be put under the Normal Master, or at any rate should have strict European supervision and the teaching in them should be modernised.

* Not Įrinted.

J

481

6. The scheme involves the engagement of one English Master-to liberate the Normal Master-and of 5 Vernacular Masters. We also recommend certain increases of salary. Thus the total increased cost will be :—

To one European Master at £270 to £360-at 1/8,. $3,240 To allowance to Normal Master, [N.B.--This should be attached to the Office and not personal to any officer.]

To Salaries of 5 Vernacular Masters at $360,

600

1,800

To increases of Salaries of Anglo-Chinese Staff over

present establishment, (Details overleaf)

959

Fee to Third Examiner,

300

$6,899

HO KAI.

EDWARD A. IRVING.

PRESENT SALARY PER ANNUM.

1st Assistant,..

2nd

3rd

DETAILS OF INCREASES TO SALARIES OF CHINESE STAFF.

PROPOSED

SALARY PER ANNUM.

$1,200-$1,440 960- 1.200 720- 960

$1,080-$1,200

840- 960

630- 720

4th

630- 720

720-

960

5th

606

720- 960

6th

606

720- 960

7th

462-

552

720-

960

""

8th

462-

552

480-

720

""

9th

348-

408

480- 720

""

10th

348- 408

480- 720

""

11th

348

480-

720

>>

To five Pupil Teachers, $240 for 1st year, ($300 2nd year; and $360 3rd year, conditional on passing progress

examination),

Less present cost of five pupil teachers,.....

.$1,200

.$1,020

$ 180

(Enclosure No. 2.)

Proposed by Mr. IRVING that in future the annual examination of the College for prizes and promotions shall be held by the Head Master at Christmas ; and that the examination by examiners appointed by the Governing Body shall be held either soon before or soon after the midsummer holidays in their discretion; and that it shall be conducted partly by examination and partly by inspection, as the examiners may think best; and that it shall include the whole School.

Passed nem. con.

Resolved further that in view of the additional work imposed upon the examin- ers, three instead of two be appointed.

(Enclosure No. 3.) ·

I fear it will be found impracticable to arrange for progress in Chinese and English Schools to proceed pari passu as suggested. For example, when the Vernacular School is formed, boys from English Class IV will, on examination by Native Masters, be sent to each of the five sections (several having to go to the lowest section) of Vernacular School; if, however, these boys pass well in English they will leave the College in preference to remaining another year in English Class IV amongst the failures in English. The same principle applies to all classes.

482

I regret that in view of the restitution of Vernacular School the Governing Body considers an Entrance Examination still necessary, as I fear it will have a very prejudicial effect.

*

17th June, 1903.

No. 6.

G. H. BATESON WRIGHT.

[No. 435.]

The Governor to the Secretary of State for the Colonies.

Government House, HONGKONG, 30th September, 1902.

SIR,-With reference to Sir W. GASCOIGNE'S despatch No. 177* of the 6th of last May, I have the honour to transmit for your consideration the enclosed copy of a letter from the Ven'ble Archdeacon BANISTER and other Managers of Grant-in-Aid Schools in the Colony calling attention to certain recommendations in the Report of the Education Committee and submitting that these recommenda- tions will, if adopted by the Government, be prejudicial to the schools in which the signatories are interested.

I defer any comments on the letter pending the return of the Inspector of Schools.

I have, &c.,

(Enclosures.)

HENRY A. BLAKE.

HONGKONG, September, 1902.

SIR. The undersigned Managers of Schools working under the Government Grant-in-Aid Code have the honour to request you to lay before His Excellency the Governor their views on "The Report of the Committee on Education," after careful consideration thereof.

I. VERNACULAR SCHOOLS.

While concurring in the general recommendations and principles of the Report as to these Schools the Managers consider :-

(a.) That owing to great differences in the social and pecuniary position of the inhabitants of different parts of the Colony the amount of fee should not be fixed but left to the Manager's discretion. (Section 54.)

(b.) That if the Government wish to obtain a better class of Teachers, there must be a higher rate of remuneration than is possible now, and that the Grant in these Schools should not be less than Eight Dollars ($8). (Section 54.)

(c.) That owing to the frequent interruptions to which school work is liable from the prevalence of epidemics, the observance of Chinese holidays and feasts, and from other causes, the Rule for the 100 attendances should remain as at present, viz., from 1st January to 31st December. (Section 57, Sub-section 14.)

(d.) That as hitherto, every scholar who can complete 100 attendances before 31st December should be examined, for though a few earn grants after only four or five months' study, many after attending half or three-quarters of the year, leave just before the examination, whereby schools lose considerably every year. (Section 57, Sub- section 14.)

(e.) That although the present "system of payment by the results of individual examination of each scholar" has its defects, it has won the confidence of Chinese teachers, and that the proposed new method is not at all suited to the condition of education in Hong- kong, and will not improve the general efficiency of schools, and that Chinese teachers will not work well, if they work at all under such a system. (Section 57, Sub-sections 10, II.)

* No. 1.

*

No. 177-6th

97

"

"1

""

"

"}

484

No. 7.

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor, Hongkong.

HONGKONG.

No. 300.

Downing StrEET, 12th September, 1902.

SIR, I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of Major-General Sir W. May GASCOIGNE's despatches, as noted in the margin, on the subject of education in May. Hongkong.

178-7th

179-8th

May.

180-8th

183-8th

May. 2. His despatch No. 177 of the 6th of May encloses and comments clearly 181-8th and practically upon the report of the Committee on Education which was appointed

May. 182-8th by yourself. To this report I will refer presently. His despatch No. 178 of the May 7th of May, encloses copies of a letter and Memorandum by Dr. BATEson Wright, May. Headmaster of Queen's College criticising certain points in the report, with which 230-29th the criticisms should be considered. His despatch No. 179 of the 8th of May encloses copy of correspondence as to the Kowloon School to which reference will be made later on. His despatch No. 180 of the 8th of May encloses copy of cor- respondence with the Bishop of Victoria as to His Lordship's retirement from the Education Committee. The Bishop has been good enough to communicate his views to this Office personally and in writing.

May.

*

*

His despatch No. 182* of the 8th May reports that the establishment of a Government School for European children in the Colony will not make it possible to dispense with the existing Military School. This despatch requires no further

comment.

His despatch No. 183 of the 8th of May submits the draft estimates of expend- iture under the head of Education for next year, which estimates have been framed by Mr. IRVING, the Inspector of Schools, on the assumption that the recommenda- tions of the Education Committee will be accepted. I have informed Sir W. GASCOIGNE by telegram of the 13th instant in answer to his telegram of the 5th instant that a lump vote may be placed on the Estimates to cover all or some of the proposed increases, but that I am not yet prepared to sanction the Estimates, being not yet satisfied how far the conclusions of the report can be accepted.

Lastly Sir W. GASCOIGNE'S despatch No. 230* of the 29th of May refers briefly to the question of High Schools for teaching English to Chinese of the better classes and promises a further despatch on the subject which has not yet been received.

3. Advantage was taken of your presence in this country to consult you as to this difficult matter of Education. The Bishop of Victoria and Mr. IRVING were consulted and I further thought it advisable to ask Sir C. C. SMITH to read through the papers and to give an opinion on them, based on his past long ex- perience of Hongkong and of the Chinese. I enclose a copy of a Memorandum* which he has been good enough to write, but which is not intended for publica- tion.

4. The thanks of the Government are due to the Commissioners for their care- ful and comprehensive report. If I hesitate to accept their conclusions en masse, it is because I desire to form a correct estimate as to what would be the probable result of adopting them, and how far that result would commend itself to you and In other words, I wish to be clear-and I am not clear at present-as to what principle or principles are advocated by the report as to the future basis of Education in Hongkong.

to me.

* Not printed.

EL

485

5. The Committee recommend that there should be different schools for different races, or at any rate that English children should be taught apart from others. "It is essential," they say (paragraph 16 of the report), "that the children of British parentage be educated by themselves and not side by side with children of other nationalities or races." and they base their recommendation upon two grounds, one, that British children in a class with others to whom English is a foreign tongue, are thereby retarded in their progress: the other, that the beliefs and standards of other races are widely different from English beliefs and standards, and that, to quote the words of your despatch of 3rd September, 1901, deteriorating moral effects come from the mixture of the two races at school. Similarly they recommend (paragraph 36 of the report) that "Queen's College revert to the purpose for which it was originally intended and supply an educa- tion to Chinese only."

Dr. WRIGHT, I notice, is strongly opposed to this restriction by nationality; and, as far as Chinese boys at the Queen's College are concerned, he challenges the statement that in mixed classes they hold other boys back. The other objec- tion based on the alleged evils of association is one for parents to decide, and the utmost that Government can be expected to do in the matter is to provide or give facilities for a separate school if it is asked for by a particular section of the com- munity on reasonable grounds and with adequate backing.

It was from this point of view that I approved and was glad to approve your proposals for a school for Europeans only, and a High School for Chinese, but I am not at all prepared to accept as a general principle that education should follow the lines of race; and I cannot consent to exclude any nationality from the main school of the Colony -the Queen's College. Parents who do not wish to send their sons there are not compelled to do so, but if they wish to send them, knowing auy real or alleged objections to such a course, they should certainly not be prevented from carrying out their wishes.

6. In his despatch No. 179 of the 8th of May, Sir W. GASCOIGNE has enclosed correspondence showing the conditions under which Mr. Ho TUNG has consented that the School at Kowloon which has been built at his expense shall be maintain- ed for children of European British parentage only and not as he had intended for children of all nationalities. I can only say that in my opinion Mr. Ho TUNG has been good enough to concede more than he might perhaps have fairly been asked to concede and the conditions upon which the concession has been made should be strictly carried out.

Mr. BELILIOS will be consulted as to whether he is prepared to allow the Belilios Reformatory in the City of Victoria to be converted into a school for British children, but I decline to press the matter upon him, inasmuch as I must confess that I do not think it a happy solution of difficulties, that the generosity of Mr. BELILIOs and Mr. Ho TUNG, intended to benefit all nationalities, should be diverted to the education of children of European British parentage alone.

Nor am I satisfied with the fate of the Reformatory. It was built to supply what was supposed to be a need. It was welcomed by the Government and much trouble was taken in selecting specially qualified masters from this country. These steps have no sooner been taken than the institution is found to be wholly super- fluous and to supply no want at all. It is impossible, in the light of this fiasco and also in the light of previous voluminous but somewhat unfruitful correspond- ence and reports on educational subjects, to feel much confidence that the position in longkong has yet been fully gauged.

You will consider whether, as there will now be no Reformatory, the Reformatory Act should not be repealed as suggested in Mr. IRVING's letter to the Governor of the 15th of April,

7. I now turn to the concluding paragraph of the report and I wish to know how far the words which I proceed to quote really represent the views of the Cominission, and if so to point out what conclusion can logically be drawn from

ז

486

them. The words are: "The Committee hold that what Education is given should be thorough, and that better results will be obtained by assisting to enlighten the ignorance of the upper classes of Chinese than by attempting to force new ideas on the mass of the people,'

29

This is a definite and intelligible statement embodying a principle which, whether sound or not, could, if adopted, quite well be brought into practice and be acted upon steadily and consistently for many years to come. It implies that such Government money in Hongkong as is devoted to Education should preferably be spent on teaching few scholars of the higher rather than the lower classes, and teaching them well.

This would seem to point to withholding Government aid from all or most of the Vernacular Schools which now receive it, and confining it to the higher schools in which English is taught; and there is much in the report that tends to support this conclusion. I note for instance that the Committee state that for the reason given in their words, as quoted above, they have paid much more atten- tion in their report to the Anglo-Chinese Schools than to the Vernacular.

I note too from paragraph II of the report that the private Vernacular Schools which receive no aid from Government attract as many pupils as-indeed in 1901 they attracted considerably more than the Governinent and aided Vernacular Schools which give their education free.

.6

In the Anglo-Chinese District Schools (paragraph 9 of report), it is stated that the majority of the scholars are sons of small shop-keepers, but about one- third belong to the labouring classes. Most of them before joiuing have attended some private Vernacular School * * * * * * very few have studied in the Ver-

nacular District Schools next described or in the Vernacular Grant Schools."

Of the Vernacular Grant Schools for boys-and the shortcomings of the Verna- cular District Schools are said to be much the same-it is stated (paragraph 11 of report) "the children, provided as they are with a free education at the hands of the Government remain to all appearances destitute of any conception of the obliga- tions they are under. Any hopes the Government may have entertained of win- ning the good will of the rising generation through the establishment of these schools appear altogether unrealised."

Thus the expression of opinion that, in the case of the Chinese, thorough teach- ing of the few should be attempted rather than more widely spread education, coup- led with the condemnation of the existing Government and aided Vernacular Schools, and the evidence that private Vernacular Schools successfully compete with schools which give free education at the Government expense, points, as I have said, to the conclusion that Government money would be much better spent if withheld entirely from Vernacular Schools and devoted entirely to Anglo-Chinese Schools, or if such encouragement as is given to Vernacular Schools were given only in the form of a large number of free foundation scholarships, such as are suggested on pages 10 and 12 of the report, intended to carry on boys from the private Vernacular Schools to the Government or aided Anglo-Chinese Schools, assuming fees to be charged, as they are now charged, in the Anglo-Chinese Schools. I do not say that such a solu- tion would commend itself to me. Sir C. C. SMITH lays down in his Memorandum that "the first duty is to maintain Vernacular Schools," and certainly it would need very strong grounds to justify withholding Government assistance from Vernacular education in a large native community such as exists at Hongkong, thereby presumably excluding the very poorest from the benefits of education but I do say that it would be a logical course to adopt on the assumption that the last paragraph of the report represents the real views of the Commission, and I should have expected a rather clearer and more definite statement on the subject, for guidance in the future.

As it is, the Commission recommend (paragraph 53 of report) that the Vernacular Grant Schools should be retained as a framework on which to build an improved system," but what the improved system is to be is not clear, though various specific improvements in existing conditions are recommended clearly enough.

..

487

If I understand right from paragraph 68 and other passages of the report, the linking of Vernacular Schools to Anglo-Chinese Schools, placing two schools under the same head, and aiding or supporting Vernacular teaching only or mainly as preparatory to the higher English teaching, is what the Commission really recommend.

8. There are, if I understand right, now in Hongkong as far as Chinese are concerned, and after all the question principally concerns them,

(i.) Vernacular Schools, whether private, aided, or Government schools, in which Chinese are taught-or are supposed to be taught-by Chinese to read and write the Chinese language, and in the Govern- ment or aided schools some arithmetic (which in the aided Schools is stated to be an optional subject) and a little geography. (ii.) Anglo-Chinese Schools in which the English language and such subjects as are taught in an elementary English school are taught or supposed to be taught to Chinese, mainly by Chinese. (iii.) The Queen's College which till a few years ago included not only all classes and races but also elementary Vernacular as well as higher teaching.

9. The Vernacular Schools were and are quite distinct from the Anglo- Chinese, but the Commission appear to be inclined to obliterate the difference, to allow the teaching of English in the higher standards of the Vernacular Schools, to link the Government Anglo-Chinese Schools, as already noted, to Vernacular Schools, and, while insisting on the importance of employing English masters in the Anglo-Chinese Schools (whether Government or aided Schools), to give Government aid to a limited number of elementary Anglo-Chinese Schools under Chinese masters.

I am not qualified to criticise what is proposed, as I have no first hand knowledge of local conditions, but I note that, in Sir C. C. SMITH'S opinion the teaching of English in a Vernacular School for Chinese would result in the worst kind of smattering," and however this may be, I must confess that the effect left upon my mind by these recommendations of the Committee is that such little system as now exists is likely to disappear, and that there will be somewhat more overlapping and greater confusion than at present. Unless a definite educational principle is laid down upon which all who have interest in, or knowledge of the subject are practically agreed, and on the basis of which work will be steadily carried on year after year, I would prefer to leave matters very much as they are, gradually adopting such improvements in detail as are obviously desirable and obviously practicable, and above all taking any steps which are likely to secure good teachers.

10. On this last point, although the Bishop of Victoria has laid great stress on the importance of instituting a normal or training school for teachers in the Colony, I cannot refuse to accept the summing up of the Committee in paragraph 94 of their report against the establishment of such a school at the present time, supported as their opinion is by Sir CECIL SMITH, though I cordially agree with the recommendation (paragraph: 39 D) that one of the masters at Queen's College shall be specially detailed for training purposes, receiving, if I understand right (paragraphs 76-7) additional payment at the rate of $600 per annum.

I am further fully prepared to concur in the view that there should be a larger propor- tion of English masters in the Anglo-Chinese Schools, but I agree with Sir C. C. SMITH that in regard to the Grant-in-aid Schools, the Government should demand certain results and should not prescribe how those results must be attained; and, in carrying out any proposals made in the report which may affect these schools, action should only be taken very gradually and with full notice to the Managers. That teachers both English and Chinese should be adequately paid goes without saying, and in so far as the purely Government Schools are concerned there should be no difficulty in this respect.

It is a question of money, and the number of schools supported by the Government should be measured by the number of efficient teachers whom the Government can afford to pay.

488

11. The subject of the Queen's College has been so often brought up and considered in past years without, as far as I can judge, any very substantial gain from the discussions, that I rather hesitate to express any additional views on the subject.

I have already stated that I do not agree in the Committee's recommendation that the College should be confined to Chinese boys only. On this point I share Sir C. C. SMITH's view, and I accept his view also that the institution should, when the Headmastership next falls vacant, be again placed under the Inspector of Schools, a view which commends itself to the Committee and to General GASCOIGNE, and that the purely Chinese classes should be restored.

It seems to have been agreed that it would be unwise to entirely confine the College to higher education, and therefore the same reasons that suggest linking Vernacular Schools to Anglo-Chinese Schools seen to me to operate in favour of having Vernacular classes in this most representative school in the Colony.

The restoration of the Chinese School or Vernacular classes is warmly advo- cated by Dr. WRIGHT and apparently favoured by yourself, but I presume that some additional expense will be involved though Dr. WRIGHT hardly seems to contemplate it, and that there may be difficulties of housing and management.

12. The Committee are inclined to "view with disfavour the idea of selecting one or two promising students and giving them a free Professional or University education in England" for the reason, I presume, that only a limited amount of Government money can be applied to education and they consider that it can be used to better advantage in other ways. It is a matter in which local opinion should certainly prevail, but I must confess that I am sorry that, in the matter of Colonial Scholarships, Hongkong is not in line with other Colonies, and I should have thought that the provision of such scholarships was eminently likely to stimulate sound and thorough, as opposed to widely diffused, education.

I should also be sorry if the Oxford Local Examinations were discontinued. The defects in it as a test of education in the Colony might be discussed with the University authorities, and possibly removed, and moreover the Government examination for certificates suggested in paragraph 22 of the report night supple- ment or be partly combined with the Oxford Local Examination.

I

13. The other points of detail in the report I can leave to your discretion. There are some which should be further defined and considered, such for instance as the recommendation in paragraph 62 that "all boys of sufficient age should be required to join a cadet corps, if the military authorities can arrange to form one," if the recommendation contemplates more than the ordinary school-boy drill. understand that of the expenditure which Mr. IRVING would like to include in the Estimates for next year as set out in the enclosure to General GASCOIGNE'S des- patch No. 183* of the 8th of May and on account of which I have suggested that a lump vote should be taken, he considers the most important items to be firstly, those which concern the Anglo-Chinese District Schools, that is to say, the expen- diture on giving them sufficient European supervision and improved salaries to the masters and linking to them Vernacular Schools, and secondly, the provision which he has made for two linked schools in the New Territory. I have no objection to this expenditure being incurred. or indeed so far as the finances of the Colony allow, of other items being taken up also at your discretion; but I wish this despatch to be read and considered before any large innovation is made-if indeed any is contemplated.

HONGKONG. No. 389.

I have, etc.,

No. 8.

J. CHAMBERLAIN.

Secretary of State for the Colonies to Governor, Hongkong,

DOWNING STREET, 18th November, 1902.

SIR, I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch No. 435* of the 30th September last, forwarding a copy of a letter from various Man- agers of Grant-in-Aid Schools in Hongkong on the subject of certain recommend- ations made in the Report of the recent Committee on Education in the Colony.

*

Not printed.

489

2. Since writing your despatch under acknowledgment you will have received my despatch No. 300 of the 12th September last, dealing with the Committee's recommendations. Some of the objections put forward in the Managers' letter are disposed of by that despatch; in particular those numbered III (i) in regard to the principle that may be described as "education by race

>"

3. Many of the other objections can be best dealt with in framing the new Code: and I understand that Mr. IRVING intends to consult the Managers of the Grant-in-Aid Schools before submitting his final draft of the Code to Government.

4. I may add, however, that the arguments urged in paragraph I (e) in favour of maintaining in full the system of payment by the results of the individual examination of each scholar hardly carry conviction to my mind; and I am disposed to think that the present system might with advantage be gradually modified.

I have, &c.,

J. CHAMBERLAIN.

[No. 161.]

No. 9.

Governor to Secretary of State for the Colonies.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 30th March, 1903.

SIR,---I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch No. 300 of the 12th of September last, on the subject of Education in this Colony.

**

*

3. I enclose for your consideration and approval a statement, in the form of a supplementary estimate, of the expenditure which I have authorised during the current year out of the lump sum of $20,000 voted on the Estimates for improvements in Education. I have included in the statement the salaries of the new masters who have been added to the Department, but a separate vote will be taken in the Legislative Council for their salaries in accordance with your in- structions in Mr. WILLIAMS' case.

4. I share the views which you have expressed on the recommendation of the Committee that children of British parentage should be educated by them- selves and not side by side with children of other nationalities or races, and I have noted your decision in the matter.

The Inspector of Schools, however, holds such strong opinion on the subject that I enclose copy of a minute of his on this point. In my opinion the difficulty may be surmounted by arranging that Chinese boys shall not be taught English in the same class as non-Chinese boys until it is found that they have acquired a sufficient knowledge of English to understand the teaching given to the Class in that language. This will prevent the English boys being retarded, without violating the principle that education shall be given equally and indiscriminately to all races.

5. Premises have been rented at Yaumati for an Anglo-Chinese School there and the School has been opened under Mr. CURWEN, concerning whose appoint- ment I have already addressed you separately.

Plans and estimate are being prepared for a permanent School with a view to provision being made for it in the Estimates for next year.

6. The Reformatory Ordinance confers on the Magistrate some useful powers in regard to the boarding out of children which can be exercised in the absence of a Reformatory. I would instance sections 5 (concluding portion) and 7 of the Ordinance. I do not think, therefore, that it should be repealed.

7. With reference to paragraphs 7, 8 and 9 of your despatch the recommend- ations of the Committee on Education may, I think, be fairly stated as follows: For the reasons stated in the last para. of their report they advocated that the limited pecuniary assistance which Government is able to render should

:

490

be devoted in much larger measure to Anglo-Chinese than to Vernacular Schools. They recognised that the existing Vernacular Schools could not be disestablished. They proposed therefore to endeavour to improve such of them as were capable of improvement and to utilise them where possible as Preparatory Schools for some of the Anglo-Chinese Schools, but they apparently did not con- template assisting any new Vernacular Schools.

I agree in the view which you seem to hold that Government assistance should not be withheld from Vernacular Education, and after very careful consideration I am of opinion that it will be better to keep the Vernacular Schools quite distinct from the Anglo-Chinese Schools and not to provide for the teaching of English in them. At the same time I consider that every endeavour should be made to improve the Vernacular Schools especially in their method of teaching the Chinese language. Chinese text books by the use of which the children may at the same time acquire some Western knowledge should also be introduced in them. The Committee have laid stress on the fact that it is essential that students should have a good working knowledge of their own language.

8. The principles which should, therefore, be laid down as those on which educational work will be carried on are; in my opinion, the following, and I may say that they commend themselves to all those interested in Education in the Colony :-

1. Government to continue to support Vernacular Schools provided they attain a reasonable standard of efficiency. The method of teach- ing the Chinese language in these schools to be improved, and Western knowledge spread by the use of Chinese text books written in that behalf.

2. No English to be taught in Vernacular Schools.

3. No candidate to be admitted to a Government Anglo-Chinese School, that is a school in which Chinese study English, until he passes an examination in the Chinese language. The Educational ladder in Hongkong will then he graded as follows:-

1. English Schools, which are divided into :--

(a.) Seventh Standard Schools.

(b.) Lower Standard Schools.

By English Schools is meant (1) Schools in which non-Chinese Scholars are getting an English education; (2) Schools in which Chinese boys are getting an English and Chinese education; (3) Schools in which both these classes of scholars are studying side by side. Note.-It is to be understood that Chinese boys in English Schools must be instructed in the Chinese language.

2. Vernacular Schools which are likewise divided into :

(a.) Seventh Standard Schools.

(b.) Lower Standard Schools.

In the new Code which I shall forward in a short time the distinction between Seventh Standard and Lower Standard Schools is marked by a higher grant to those which can teach the Seventh Standard, since it is generally recognised that save in exceptional cases, when, for instance, a Chinese educated abroad is employed, it requires an English Master to teach that Standard. There are two Vernacular Grant Schools at present which employ English teachers though it is not likely that this class of School will increase in numbers.

9. Regarding the appointinent of a Normal Master the question is under the consideration of the Governing Body of the Queen's College.

!

10. The Governing Body of the Queen's College is also considering the ques- tion of the restoration of the Chinese Classes in the College. The matter is one that presents no little difficulty if the teaching of the Chinese language is to be con- ducted on rational principles. I shall report further on this matter when I have received recommendations of the Governing Body. I note your decision that when the Headmastership of the College falls vacant the College shall be placed under the Inspector of Schools.

11. As regards the re-establishment of a Hongkong Scholarship I am of opinion that in view of the enormous demand among the Chinese for education in

:

..

}

491

English it is better for the present to devote any surplus funds the Government may have to spend on Education to the opening of more Anglo-Chinese Schools rather than to the institution of a Scholarship.

12. I agree that it will be well to continue the Oxford Local Examinations, and the Inspector of Schools is considering the question of better adapting the syllabus of those examinations to local requirements.

13. I do not propose to take any steps at present in the matter of the forma tion of a Cadet Corps.

14. I shall address you separately on the subject of the proposed Chinese High School, the promoters of which have applied for Government assistance in the shape of a free grant of land as a site for the school.

I have, &c.,

HENRY A. BLAKE,

(Enclosure No. 1)

SUPPLEMENTARY ESTIMATES 1903.

EDUCATION.

Inspector of Schools.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

1. Master and Supervisor, Saiyingpun School,

(£270 rising to £330 by £30 triennially ), ..... Master and Supervisor, Yaumati School,

(£270 rising to £330 by £30 triennially),

2. Master and Supervisor, Wantsai School,

(£150 rising to £240 by £30 triennially),

3. Master, Yaumati School,

...

4. Assistant Master, Yaumati School, 5. Chinese Teacher,

6. Coolie,

...

Do., Do.,

...

...

...$3,342.16

... 3,456.00

...

504.00

192.00

350.00

200.00

70.00

Total

...

...$8,114.16

Notes:-1. The total of $3,342.16 is made up of Mr. WILLIAMS' full pay for 11 months together with his half-pay from 25th December, 1902, to 31st January, 1903, calculated at 1/63 to the dollar. 2. This is in addition to the $1,800 already provided for Mr. Young HEE as Senior Master and Supervisor. Mr. YOUNG HEE is recommended to begin at £180.

3. This is at the rate of $720 per annum for 10 months :-author-

ised salary of $438.

4. For 10 months at $35.

5. For 10 months at $20.

6. For 10 months at $7.

To transport

OTHER CHARGES.

...

...

...

$144.00

(2) for

...

...

...

...

360.00 80.00 340.00

To allowance to Masters and Supervisors.

salaries of Chinese Teachers,... To furniture, Yaumati School,

To rent (1.)

Do.,

...

Total ...

...$924.00

Note: 1. For 12 months at $20 and for 10 months enlarged premises at $30.

Total Personal Emoluments, Total Other Charges,

...

...

$8,114.16 924.00

Grand Total,

...

...$9,038.16

492

Enclosure No. 2.)

Referring to your para. 5, believing as I do that a principle of the utmost importance is here involved, which the Secretary of State does not yet fully understand, a few words are necessary. The real point at issue is: Can Chinese boys, who are ignorant of English and attend school in order to learn it, be educated satisfactorily along with boys who already know colloquial English and do not want to learn it?

The Bishop in his petition (see Report of the Committee on Education, p. 31, the last para.) answers this question by an emphatic negative. "As regards the "acquirement of knowledge, this mixture of races operates very injuriously upon "the European." And again (note to p. 32) he says: "A young English boy "who goes to Queen's College and is placed in a low class is compelled to sit "idle under a Chinese Assistant, who teaches his Chinese pupils in the Chinese "language. Could any plan be devised more calculated to render a boy listless and “inattentive throughout the rest of his school course?" This, I think, is the right ground to take. His Lordship in introducing the question of morals, (the petition, p. 32, second para.)-"Chinese children are fully conversant with many matters which are purposely kept from the knowledge of European "children" K. T. not only confuses the issue, but exposes himself to a charge of inconsistency while in his own Diocesan School, Chinese and European children share the class-rooms, play-grounds and dorinitories.

66

Dr. WRIGHT, in his very interesting Memo. on the Committee's Report, justifies the admixture of races on very startling grounds. In his 5th para. he states that "in combined classes it is rare for non-" Chinese boy to be among the first dozen." That is to say that the Chinese boy, handicapped as he is by the enormous task of mastering English can yet beat the other. But it is a de- monstrable fact that even the top Chinese boys cannot write a page of English without gross mistakes. In what then does this alleged inferiority consist? cannot surely be maintained that non-Chinese boys take a whole school course and then cannot write English ! Surely my second extract from the Bishop's petition sufficiently explains any apparent inferiority. They are idle and listless and inattentive because the instruction given is not suited to their needs. If it were they should surely be able to master their own language.

It

What history is taught in these mixed schools? English history. And why? Surely a detailed knowledge of the Wars of the Roses is not much use to a foreigner -especially an Oriental? The answer of course is that the history which should be taught to different nationalities is different, or rather it should be taught from a different standpoint. What must be taught in detail to one, may be lightly sketched for another. And how can this be done when the two nationals are sitting at the same desk, like water and oil in one vessel ?

That it is more economical to educate Chinese and non-Chinese separately is, I think, demonstrable from a single example.

Take a group of average non-Chinese boys and average Chinese boys, each group being about to join an European school.

The following points of difference can safely be predicated :-

Non-Chinese Boys.

They will average from 5 to 7

years of age.

They will have received little or

no education.

They will most of them under-

stand spoken English well. Their first year's education will

consist of lessons tending to cultivate memory, to teach them the elements of arithmetic, and to read and write. It will be broken into short lessons and will be combined with "action- songs, &c."

Chinese Boys.

They will average from 11 to 13

or 15 years of age.

They will have received at least

4 years' severe mental training in their own language. None of them will understand

English.

It will consist of the mastery of

the art of reading and writing, and as much colloquial English as they can assimilate with a little arithmetic in which they will soon be far beyond the non-Chinese class.

They will also be pursuing the study of their own language.

493

The difference will continue in each class, the Chinese boy will spend hours a week on the practice of colloquial English and of writing idiomatic English and of translating from and into Chinese. He will be mentally and physically far superior to the little boys with whom his limited knowledge of English must class him.

As time goes on-after say 3 years his knowledge of English will be so much increased that he will be better able to study side by side with non-Chinese boys and the arguments against amalgamation will be lessened. At Queen's College, however, by what seems to me an extraordinary disregard of expediency, the amalgamation ceases and the differentiation begins at this point.

My contention may be summed up in an exaggerated example. Non- Chinese and Chinese should be taught apart, for the reasons which would urge one to dissuade a Frenchman desirous of learning English from attending an English infant school.

E. A. IRVING.

[No. 191.]

No. 10.

Governor to Secretary of State for the Colonies.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 8th April, 1903.

SIR,-In continuation of my despatch No. 161* of 30th ultimo, I have now the honour to forward for your consideration and approval the new Education Code, which has been circulated amongst all managers and European headmasters of private schools in the Colony and is generally approved by thein. It has also been seen by the Bishop of Victoria and accepted by him. The Code has been consi- dered by my Executive Council and it is recoinmended by them for adoption. I attach a resumé of the main points of difference between the new Code and the one now existing, together with an estimate of the increased grants which will probably be earned next year under the new Code.

2. The nett estimated increase amounts to $15,540. The grants in the new Code are arranged under four heads: (1) to English Schools, with a staff fully qualified to give instruction up to the Seventh Standard: this means in effect a European staff, or at least a staff with a proportion of Europeans on it. For these schools the grants will be made in Sterling, because English teachers in the Colony are now nearly always paid a Sterling salary. The grants are a little higher than those earned by Board Schools at home, but not nearly so high as those earned by the higher Elementary Schools; (2) the second class of grant is to schools with staffs qualified to teach the lower standards. This class covers the schools described in italics on page 18 of the Education Committee's Report, that is to say, elementary Anglo-Chinese Schools under Chinese teachers; (3) the third class is for Vernacular Schools which are qualified to give instruction up to the Seventh- Standard. These schools are under European management and Europeans teach in them. The grants are therefore proposed to be made in Sterling;` (4) to the ordinary Vernacular Schools.

3. I would observe that although under the new Code it is proposed that grants should be paid on the report of the Inspector based on inspections, there is ample provision in the Cole to hold examinations of particular schools in whole or in part or of a regular annual examination of all schools if such were considered necessary.

I have, etc.,

(Enclosure No. 1.)

THE GRANT CODE.

PRELIMINARY CHAPTER.

HENRY A. BLAKE.

1. A sum of money is annually granted by Government for Public Education in the Colony, and is administered by the Government through the Inspector of Schools.

* No. 9.

:

Object of grant.

494

2. The object of the Grant is to aid in maintaining

(a.) English Schools.

(b.) Vernacular Schools.

CHAPTER I.

"English School."

"Vernacular School,"

"Grant School."

K

"

Inspector."

Managers."

INTRODUCTORY.

3. The term "English School" means a school in which the study of the English Language is a compulsory subject, or in which the English Language is the medium of instruction.

4. The term "Vernacular School" means a school in which the Chinese Language is the sole medium of instruction during the hours of Attendance.

5. The term "Grant School" means any English or Vernacular School in receipt of a Grant under the Code.

6. The term Inspector" means the Inspector of Schools or any person em- ployed by the Government as Acting Inspector, Sub-Inspector, or Inspector of Needlework.

7. The term "Managers" includes all persons who have the management of any Grant School, whether the legal interest in the school house is or is not vested in them.

"Attend-

">

day.

ance.

"Half at- tendances."

"Average attendance."

"Annual grant list.

"School year'

and payment of grants.

"Educa-

8. Attendance

means attendance at instruction during four hours in one

Note (i.) The times constituting Attendances must be so arranged for each school as to render practic.

able an effective supervision of the Attendance Registers.

Note (ii.) The class registers must be marked and finally closed before the minimum time constituting an Attendance begins. If any Scholar entered in the register as attending is withdrawn from school before the time constituting an Attendance is complete, the entry of Attend- ance should be at once cancelled.

Note (iii.) The minimum time constituting an Attendance may include an interval for recreation of not more that 15 minutes in a meeting of three hours, and not more than 10 minutes in a shorter meeting. Note (iv.) Visits paid during the school hours, under proper guidance, to Museums, Art Galleries, and other places of educational value, or of national or historical interest, may be reckoned in making up the minimum times constituting an Attendance, provided that not more than ten such Attendances may be claimed for any one Scholar in the same School Year, and tha. the places to be visited and the arrangements for such visits are approved by the Inspectort Note (v.) No Attendance is, as a rule, recognised for any Scholar under five years of age, or over 20 years

of age, without the express consent of the Inspector.

9. An Attendance may, with the approval of the Inspector, be divided into two Half-Attendances of not necessarily equal duration. The marking of these Half-Attendances will be carried out as indicated in Article 8.

10. The "Average Attendance" for any period is found by dividing the total number of Attendances made during that period by the number of times on which the school has met during that period.

6.

11. The Annual Grant List" is a

a register, kept by the Inspector, of all schools in receipt of a Grant under the Code.

Note (i.) The Annual Grant to a school begins to run, as a rule, from the date on which the school is

placed upon the Annual Grant List.

Note (i.) Any school from which the entire Annual Grant is withheld, is at once removed from the Annual Grant List, and cannot be replaced thereon until a fresh application has been addressed to the Inspector.

12. The "School Year" is the year or other period for which an Annual Grant is for the time being paid or payable under this Code.

Note (i.) The Grant becomes payable on the first day of the month following the end of the School Year The Government at the time of agreeing to place a school on the Annual Graut List informs. the Managers in what month the Grant will become payable, and this month continues the same from year to year, unless the Government informs the Managers of a change.

Note (i.) An instalment of the Grant may be paid when, owing to a change in the date of the School Year, or any other sufficient cause, the time at which the Grant would otherwise be payable is delayed by three months or more.

Note (iii) Where a Grant is payable for a school which has been closed, the amount of such Grant shall not as a rule exceed the amount of the net outstanding liabilities on current account of the School at the time of its closing.

13. The Managers may adopt for purposes of instruction an Educational Year, tional year." which need not be identical with the School Year.

495

CHAPTER II.

INSPECTION.

14. The Inspector is required to visit schools, to enquire whether the conditions Duties of of Annual Grants have been fulfilled, and to report to the Government.

Inspector.

out notice.

15. The Inspector may visit at any time without notice any school in which Visits with- the Scholars are receiving instruction under the Code. The Manager or Teachers must, if required, produce for his inspection the registers, log-book, and, after due notice, the cash-book. Any of these documents may be required to be sent to the Inspector or to the Government.

CHAPTER III.

MANAGEMENT.

16. The Managers are held responsible by the Government for the conduct of Duties of their schools, for their maintenance in efficiency, and for the provision of all need- Managers. ful furniture, books, and apparatus, and in particular of:—

(a.) Suitable Registers;

(b.) A Diary or Log-book;

Note (i.) The Log-book must be stoutly bound and must be kept by the principal Teacher, who is required to enter in it from time to time such events as the introduction of new books, apparatus, or courses of instruction, any plan of lessons approved by the Inspector, the visits of Managers, absence, illness, or failure of duty on the part of any of the school Staff, or any special circumstances affecting the school that may, for the sake of future reference or for any other reason, deserve to be recorded. No reflections or opinions of a general character are to be entered in the Log-book.

Note (i.) In the case of schools where the principal Teacher is not European, the Manager

are required to record their visits in the Log-book, and to note therein the Attendance at the time of their visits.

Note (iii.) The summary of any report made by the Inspector and any remarks made upon it by the Government must, as soon as communicated to the Managers, be copied verbatim into the Log-book and signed by them.

(c.) A Cash-book ;

(d.) The Code and Revised Instructions for each year.

17. Managers are supplied with a form of Annual Return, which they are Managers' required to have ready for the Inspector immediately after the end of the School Returns. Year.. Any other Returns called for by the Government must be duly made.

18. It is the duty of Managers to see that the Admission and daily Attendance Registers of the Scholars are carefully registered by or under the supervision of the principal and accounts. Teacher, and periodically to verify them, and to keep accurate accounts of incoine and expenditure.

notice of all

19. Notice must be sent to the Inspector by the Manager, as soon as is Inspector to possible in each case, of every date upon which a school will be closed, or its have timely ordinary work suspended, during the year. These dates should include the usual closures. and any special holidays, and any closure on account of epidemic sickness.

NOTE. This Article is not intended to limit the discretion of Managers in closing a school tempo-

rarily in the event of a sudden emergency.

20. The Managers must at once comply with any notice of the Sanitary Authority or of the Medical Officer of Health, requiring them for a specified time, with a view to preventing the spread of disease, or any danger to health likely to arise from the condition of the school, either to close the school or to exclude any Scholars from attendance, but after complying they may appeal to the Government if they consider the notice to be unreasonable.

CHAPTER IV.

ANNUAL GRANTS.

GENERAL CONDITIONS.

Compliance close school.

with order to

21. The conditions required to be fulfilled by a school in order to obtain an Conditions Annual Grant are those set forth in the Code. The decision of Government grant. whether these conditions are fulfilled in any case is final and conclusive.

of annual

:

Application for grant.

Children not to be refused admission.

School not to be unneces-

sary. Minimun number of Meetings.

Conditions relating to (a.) premises,

staff, furni-

ture and

apparatus ;

(b.) course of instruction and time table.

added by C. N. 157.

496

22. Before a new school can be placed on the Annual Grant List, an applica- tion must be made to the Inspector by the Manager, and particulars be given as detailed in Schedule A.

23. No child may be refused admission as a Scholar on other thin reasonable grounds.

/04

24. The school must not be unnecessary.

25. A school must have met on not less than 200 days in the year.

NOTE--If a school claiming an Annual Grant for the first time has not been open for a whole year, or if a school has been closed during the year under medical authority or for any unavoidable cause, a corresponding reduction is made from the number of meetings required by this Article.

26. The Government must be satisfied :-

(a.) That the school premises are healthy, lighted, cleaned, drained and ventilated, and contain sufficient accommodation for the Scholars attending the school, and that the school has a sufficient Staff, and is properly provided with suitable desks and furniture, books, maps and other apparatus. In no case there shall be less than 80 cubic feet of internal space and 8 square feet of internal area for each Unit of Average Attendance.

NOTE. The plans of all new school premises and enlargements must bè approved by the Govern-

ment before such new premises and enlargements are passed under this Article.

(b.) That the course of instruction is in accordance with a Time Table,

to be approved for the school by the Inspector.

NOTE-(i). The Course of Instruction in English Schools intended for the education of Chinese

Scholars should include, in the three lowest Standards :-

(i.) Daily practice in Colloquial English.

(ii.) Elementary Geography.

(iii) Instruction in the Chinese Written Language.

And in the four highest Standards in addition to the above, --

(iv.) General History in Outline.

(v.) General Geography, special importance being paid to the British Empire. (vi) Elementary Mathematics.

NOTE-(ii) The Course of Instruction in Vernacular Schools should, as a rule, include :-

(i.) The explanation of the Chinese Characters, which should keep pace with

the learning of them.

(ii.) Elementary History.

(iii.) Arithmetic, including Mental Arithmetic and the Multiplication Table. NOTE-(iii.) Any other subject may be included in the Course of Instruction, provided that a gra-

duated scheme for teaching it be submitted to, and approved by, the Inspector. Note IV.

Application 27. The Income of any school must be applied only for the purposes of that of income of school.

School.

Power to

of withhold-

28. The conditions required of Managers under Chapter III. must be fulfilled.

WITHDRAWAL OF GRANTS.

29. No school on the Annual Grant List will be deprived of a Grant under Articles 34 and 35 until the following conditions have been fulfilled :-

(1.) The Inspector must, in his annual report, report the school inefficient and state specifically the grounds of his judgment, and the Government must communicate the report to the Manager and give formal warning to them that the Grant may be withheld under this Article, if the Inspector again reports the School inefficient.

(2.) The Inspector must, in his next annual report and after a visit paid with due notice during the last month of the School Year, again report the school inefficient, and again state specifically the grounds. of his judgment.

30. In cases where any of the conditions of Annual Grants set forth in this warn instead Code (except such conditions as are specially imposed by Law) are not fulfilled

the Government have power, after considering all the circumstances, to pay the" Grant or portions of the Grant, and give a warning to the Managers that the Grant- may be withheld next year.

ing grant.

497

SUBJECTS AND AMOUNT OF GRANTS.

31. The Annual Grant is made up of the several Grants, which, with their amounts, are enumerated in the following Articles.

32. Except where it is specially provided otherwise, the sum mentioned is the amount of a year's Grant for each Unit of Average Attendance.

A fraction of a Unit, if it reaches 5, may be counted as an additional Unit.

33. If the Grant is paid for a period other than a year, the year's Grant is increased or diminished by one-twelfth for each month more or less than a year.

34. Grants are made to English Schools under this Article.

Principal grants to

(i.) A Principal Grant of $5, $6, $7, or $9, is made to schools provided English with a Staff competent to give instruction in the subjects of the Schools, Lower Standards,

(.) A Principal Grant of 25s., 30s., or 35s., is made to schools provided

with a Staff fully competent to give instruction in all subjects of the Seventh Standard, payment being made at the average rate of exchange for the year in which the Grants are earned.

Principal grants to

35. Grants are made to Vernacular Schools under this Article.

(i.) A principal Grant of $5, $6, $7, or $9, is made to schools provided vernacular

with a Staff competent to give instruction in the subjects of the Lower Schools. Standards.

(ii.) A Principal Grant of 15s., 17/6, or 20s. is made to schools provided with a Staff fully competent to give instruction in all the subjects of the Seventh Standard, payment being made at the average rate of exchange for the year in which the Grants are earned.

36. The Government will decide which of the Grants enumerated in Articles Method of 34 and 35 shall be paid after considering the report and recommendation of the assessment, Inspector upon each of the following four points: provided that it shall not be possible for any school to earn the highest Grant unless it shall have been reported

as "thoroughly efficient" by the Inspector for two consecutive years.

(a.) The suitability of the instruction to the circumstances of the Scholars

and the neigbourhood.

(b.) The thoroughness and intelligence with which the instruction is given.

Note.-The Inspector will periodically examine the Scholars so far as may be necessary to enable

him to form an accurate judgment on these points.

(c.) The sufficiency and suitability of the Staff.

Note. In reporting upon the sufficiency and suitability of the Staff, the Inspector will have regard

to the fitness of each Teacher for the work allotted to him.

(d.) The discipline and organisation."

Note. In reporting upon the discipline and organization. the Inspector will have special regard to the conduct of the Scholars, to the neatness and order of the school premises and furni- ture, and to the proper classification of the Scholars, both for teaching and examination. To meet the requirements respecting discipline, the Managers and Teachers will be expected to satisfy the Inspector that all reasonable care is taken, in the ordinary management of the school, to bring up the Scholars in habits of punctuality, of good manners and language, of cleanliness and neatness, and also to impress upon them the importance of cheerful obedience to duty, of consideration and respect for others, and of honour and truthfulness in word anp

act.

37. Where the Government is satisfied that by reason of a notice of the Epidemic Sanitary Authority under Article 20 or any provision of Law requiring the exclu- grant. sion of certain children, or by reason of the exclusion under medical advice of children from infected houses, the Average Attendance has been seriously diminished, and that consequently a loss of Annual Grant would, but for this Article, be incurred, the Government have power to make a special Grant, not exceeding the amount of such loss, in addition to the ordinary Grant.

38. Grants may be made to schools occupying leased premises of two-thirds Grants in of the rental,

Note.-The Rental is reckoned as not exceeding that paid for similar buildings in the immediate

neighbourhood.

aid of rent.

39.-(i.) Aid may be granted to build new schools if the Government is Building

satis fied-

grants.

498

(a.) That there is a sufficient population requiring a school in the

neighbourhood.

(b.) That the school is likely to be maintained in efficiency.

(ii.) The Grants made by the Government for building, enlarging, improving, or fitting up schools will in no case exceed one-half of the actual cost.

iii.) The site, plans, estimates, specifications, title, and trust deed, must be previously approved by the Government.

(iv.) The extension of the area of existing school-rooms to receive more Scholars, and the addition of Teachers' dwellings to existing school-rooms, may be treated pro tanto as new cases.

(v.) The Trustees (or other legal representatives) of the school must state by a Declaration of Trust to be registered in the Land Office:—

(a.) That the premises will be used for educational purposes and

for no other purpose whatever.

(b.) That the school will be managed in accordance with the

principles of the Grant Code in force for the time being. (c.) That the school and premises will be open, at all reasonable times, to educational and sanitary inspection by the Government. (d.) That, if they should hereafter desire to release themselves from the foregoing obligations, they will, in such case, repay into the Colonial Treasury the whole amount of the Building Grant.

(vi.) The Grant is paid on presentation of a Certificate (with balance-sheet annexed), by the Building and Managing Committees of the school, setting forth that the building and conveyance are completed and that the money in hand, will, when added to the Grant, meet all claims and finally close the account.

Schedule.

APPLICATION.

(To be filled up when application is made for a Grant.)

1. What is the name of the School?

2. Is it a Boys', or a Girls', or a mixed School?

3. Where is it situated?.

4. What are its Dimensions? (a.)

5. What is the Average Attendance?

6. Is the School-work conducted by a Time Table? (b.)

7. Is there a regularly kept School Roll? (c.)..........

8. What Books are to be used under the several Standards?

9. What are the School-hours?.

10. What four hours are to be assigned to instruction in

the subjects of the Standards?.

11. What Holidays are given, and when?

12. What is the Manager's name, and what is his profes-

sion or occupation?

13. What is the Head Master's name?

14. What experience as a teacher has he had?.

15. What Assistants has he, and what are their names?

16. What is the salary of the Head Master, and that of

each of his Assistants?

17. What annual sum is derived from. School-fces ?

18. What annual sum is derived from Donations and

Subscriptions?

19. Has the School any other, and what, means of support? 20. What are the various headings and amounts of Ex-

penditure? 21. Is there any, and what,. Debt connected with the

School?

Signature of Applicant.

Date of Application.

(a.) Give the length, breadth and height of the room or rooms, with the extent of wall-space available for maps.

(b.) Enclose a copy.

(a.) Enclose a specimen page.

**

499

(Enclosure No. 2).

ABSTRACT OF THE MAIN POINTS OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN

The Draft Code.

1. Grant paid on Inspection.

II. Schools classified as (1) English.

(ii.) Vernacular.

The Existing Code. Grant paid on Examination.

Schools classified as

(i.) Vernacular giving a Chinese

Education.

(ii) Vernacular giving a European

Education.

(iii.) European giving a European

Education.

III. Grants to be paid to

(i.) a. English Schools qualified to teach Seventh Standard 25/, 30/, or 35/~

b. Ditto to teach Lower Standards,

$5, $6, $7, or $9, (ii.) a. Vernacular Schools quali- fied to teach Seventh Stan- dard, 15/-, 17/6, or 20/-

b. Ditto to teach Lower Standards,

$5, $6, $7, or $9.

IV. A Grant in aid of Rent, equal

to the Rental.

Such schools now earn an average

Grant of $8.35.

Such schools now earn an average

Grant of $6.38.

Such schools now earn an average

Grant of $9.00.

Such schools now earn an average

Grant of $5.05.

V.B. The value of these Grants in sterling has decreased largely since they were first awarded in 1893.

A similar Grant of is now made though not under the Code.

Draft.

Abstract of Probable Increased Grant required under the Draft Code.

To 1,350 scholars in English Schools, Class I,

Το

Το

...

at 30/-£2,025 at 1/7,- 350 Scholars in English School, Class II,

at $7,

...

...

...$25,576

2,450

...

1,114

...

...

...

...

11,400 4,000

100 Scholars in Vernacular Schools, Class I,

at 17/6 £88 10s, at 1/7,

...

...

To 1,900 Scholars in Vernacular Schools, Class II,

at $6,

...

To Grant-in-Aid of Rent,

...

...

...

...

Grant Code, including Grant in aid of Rent,

Total,

...

****

...

...$44,549

29,000

...

...

Net increase,

...

...$15,540

HONGKONG, [No. 185.]

500

No. 11.

Secretary of State for the Colonies to Governor, Hongkong.

DOWNING STREET,

19th May, 1903.

SIR, I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch No. 161 * of the 30th March last, on the subject of Education in Hongkong.

2. I approve the Supplementary Estimate, enclosed in your despatch under acknowledgment, of the expenditure which you have authorised during the current year out of the lump sum of $20,000 provided on the Estimates for improvements in Education.

3. The solution of the difficulty in regard to the co-education of Chinese and English boys in Queen's College and other Government schools, which is suggested in the latter part of paragraph 4 of your despatch, should be acted upon.

4. I have also to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch No. 191† of the 8th ultimo, and to inform you that I approve the New Education Code submitted therein.

I have, &c.,

J. CHAMBERLAIN.

No. 12.

[No. 380.]

Governor to Secretary of State for the Colonies.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 6th August, 1903.

SIR,--With reference to paragraph 6 of your despatch No. 300 of the 12th September last, in which you stated that the conditions upon which Mr. Ho TUNG consented to confine his school in Kowloon to the children of European British parentage only should be strictly carried out, I have now the honour to inform you that I have caused plans to be drawn up for the new school for Chinese and have given instructions for the work to be put in hand this year.

2. As planned, the school will accommodate about 180 pupils, and will cost $21,000. Of this sum the Director of Public Works considers that he will be able to spend $6,000 this year, and I have authorised a vote to be taken in Legislative Council for this amount. The balance will be provided for in the Estimates for next year.

I have, &c.,

HENRY A. BLAKE.

:

*No. 9.

† No. 10.

13

HONGKONG.

No.

1903

REPORT OF THE INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS, FOR THE YEAR 1902.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

EDUCATION Department,

HONGKONG, 31st January, 1903.

SIR, I have the honour to forward to you my Report upon the Education Department for the year 1902.

STAFF.

Mr. JAMES, M.A., and Mrs. JAMES, Headmaster and Headmistress of the Kowloon School, arrived in the Colony in February.

Second Assistant Masters were appointed to the District Schools at Sai Ying Pun and Wan Tsai in March.

Mr. YOUNG HEE was appointed Master and Supervisor to the same schools in April.

Miss CALCUTT, was appointed Infant Schoolmistress at the Kowloon School in May.

The Reformatory being empty, Mr. CURWEN and Mr. BULLIN have been em- ployed in other Departments during the greater part of the year.

I was absent on leave from the middle of April till the end of November, the Rev. T. W. PEARCE kindly acting for me.

THE COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION.

The Report of the Committee on Education was published in April. It is still not entirely decided how far the recommendations contained therein are to be adopted.

DRAFT OF A NEW CODE.

During my absence on leave I endeavoured, at the request of the Government, to familiarise myself with the working of the English Code, and with that view I visited a number of representative Secondary and Board Schools. I also drafted a New Code, which is now in the hands of the Government.

INSPECTION.

During the last few weeks of the year, after my return, it was thought advisa- ble that I should confine myself to general inspection and not hold the Annual Examination of the Grant Schools. I have thus been enabled to report fully on the condition of the Government Schools. I also visited the principal Grant Schools, many of them with Miss E. P. HUGHES, from whom I obtained much valuable advice. Miss HUGHES, for many years Principal of the Cambridge Training College for Secondary Teachers, is just returning from a year's visit to Japan, where she was sent to make a special report for the Board of Education. Her knowledge of Eastern requirements, added to her long experience in matters educational, lends great weight to her opinions.

THE KOWLOON SCHOOL.

The Kowloon School is the outcome of a widespread desire throughout the Colony for a school, where children of European nationality should be given the opportunity of being educated apart from Asiatic surroundings.

14

That it has been possible to report such a school in full working order during the last seven months of the year, is due to the liberality and to the broad views of Mr. Ho TUNG. Some time previously Mr. HO TUNG had offered to build at Kowloon and to present to the Colony a school where instruction in English should be given to scholars of all nationalities. The building was completed about the time that the Committee on Education made its Report. In view of the feeling as to the undesirability of mixed schools alluded to above, and emphasized in that Report, it was felt that to open a new mixed school would be courting failure. And it was finally decided to appeal to the good will of the donor, asking him to change the conditions of his gift, and to allow the school to be one for the children of Europeans exclusively. This he consented to do upon certain conditions for the improvement of Chinese education on the Kowloon side.

I

The following extracts from Mr. JAMES' Report require little comment. have paid several visits to the school since my return to the Colony, and am satis- fied that really good work is being done therein, although the initial difficulties are considerable. Mr. JAMES is fully satisfied with the work done by his Staff. I am pleased to be able to report a considerable increase in the attendance for the first month of the new year.

"The school was formally declared open by His Excellency Major- General Sir W. J. GASCOIGNE, K.C.M.G., Officer Administering the Govern- ment, on April 19th. On the 1st and 2nd of May I conducted an Entrance Examination in order to classify my pupils. On 5th May, regular school work was commenced.

Admissions.

The number of pupils admitted on the first day was 39; 18 more were admitted up to 31st December, thus making the total number of admissions for the year 1902, reach 57.

Attendance.

During this period the school was opened 125 times, and the aggregate attendance amounted to 4,913. This gives an average daily attendance of 39.3. The greatest number present on any one day was 51, and the smallest 14-the latter being accounted for by a typhoon. I give the average daily attendances for the different months :-

·

May,

35.9

June,

34.5

July,

33.9

August, September, (Annual Holidays.)

October,

39.8

November,

45.7

December,

46.3

:

The above table shows, in spite of the increasing number of admis- sions, a distinct falling-off in attendance on the approach of the hot weather. This, in my opinion, confirms the wisdom of the scheme which fixes the two hot months-August and September-as annual holidays, and allows work to be re-started in comparatively cool weather on 1st October.

Fees.

The following table will show the amount collected in fees during

this period:-

May,

.$154.00

June,

142.00

July,

135.00

October,

155.00

November,

169.00

December,

169.00

Total,.

..$924.00

"

15

The loss in fees for June and July is due to the fact that it was found necessary to reduce to the Lower School some pupils whom, mainly on account of their age, I had first of all placed in the Upper School.

Withdrawals.

Six children were withdrawn from the school in the course of the year-four because their parents were leaving the Colony, one (who has since been re-admitted) because she was too small, and one because it was thought that the Convent School would suit her better.

Staff.

The teaching staff during this period has consisted of the Head- mistress (Mrs. JAMES), the Infant Mistress (Miss CALCUTT) and myself.

*

* * *

* *

*

* *

Curriculum.

year :-

The following subjects were taught at the school during the Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, English Composition, English History, Geography, English Grammar, Drawing, Sewing, Algebra and French.

We have been at considerable pains to make the teaching as interest- ing and attractive as possible to the infant pupils (who form a majority in the school), and their evident keenness on coming to school, coupled with the accounts which we receive from their parents, prove that we have met with a certain measure of success in this direction.

They have shorter hours and more frequent intervals than the bigger children. Miss CALCUTT gives them Object Lessons, and often makes them learn their ordinary lessons marching round the room; Mrs. JAMES teaches them to colour skeleton drawings with crayons, and also teaches them Musical Recitations with character gestures; while I teach them. three times a week by the aid of Education Pictures.

Desks.

The new patent adjustable desks arrived from America towards the end of the year. They are now in use and are giving complete satis- faction. They are greatly admired by all the Schoolmasters who have seen them, while two schools-one in Hongkong and one in Canton-are taking steps to procure similar ones.

Gifts, &e.

H. E. Sir W. J. GASCOIGNE, K.C.M.G., presented the school with a framed portrait of himself: Mr. W. C. JACK presented the school with a flagstaff and a large British flag, while the Committee of the old Kowloon School defrayed the expenses of a Tea, a children's Pantomime and a Christmas Tree, for the benefit of the pupils.

Nationality.

** ** **

When the school was started it was predicted that innumerable difficulties would arise in the way of maintaining it exclusively for Eu- ropean children. These difficulties *

were easily overcome, without hurting the feelings of any of the Asiatic or Eurasian applicants who had to be rejected.

Religious Instruction.

No religious teaching is given as part of the school course. It has been given out, however, that the school buildings are always (except during school hours) at the service of any Minister of the Gospel who may wish to give religious instruction here to those among the pupils who attend his church.

3

-

:

!

16

Advantage of this has been taken, so far, only by the authorities of the Free Church, who hold flourishing Sunday School classes here every Sunday.

Boys and Girls.

The boys and girls in the school are taught side by side during the school hours, but are kept rigorously and carefully separated during play time. There seems to me a certain amount of advantage in letting them work together, as it introduces a healthy element of competition.

Play Ground.

I must point out that a play ground 7 yards square is hardly big enough for a lot of young Britons with a natural leaning towards British sports. I venture to hope that the year 1903 will see a more spacious play ground provided.

Retrospective.

*

*

*

It was with something like dismay that I discovered on opening school that my thirty-nine pupils varied in age from five to seventeen years, and that it would be necessary to divide them into eight separate classes. It is a significant fact that not more than two children used the word "Sir" when addressing me.

* * * * Since that time there has been effected a marked improvement in the behaviour and de- meanour of both boys and girls and I maintain that, by this alone if by no- thing else, the school has justified its existence. The actual amount of school work got through is a long way short of what would have been ac- complished at a similar school in England during the same period. Allow- ance must however be made for the following--(1) the climate; (2) the difficulty in getting books and appliances from England, the long time taken to bring them out, and the caution necessary when ordering; (3) the time taken in finally classifying the pupils, and in evolving a modus operandi for the teaching of eight classes by three teachers; (4) the illness of a member of the staff, and in short all the difficulties incidental to the starting of a new school.

I have reason to hope that the coming year will see considerably greater progress made, and that the educational machine will work with a greater degree of system, smoothness, and regularity.

THE BELILIOS SCHOOL.

* * * ***

The staff of the Belilios School was strengthened considerably in the years 1900 and 1901 by the appointments of Miss BATEMAN and Miss CHUN YUT. In the latter half of 1901 the fees were practically doubled, now averaging about one dollar a month. In 1902 the Kowloon School withdrew a certain number of girls and small children from the Belilios School. From the following table it seems clear that the improvement in the teaching does not weigh with parents against the countervailing disadvantage of increased fees, or counter-attractions else- where.

TOTAL AVERAGE ENROLMENT OE SCHOLARS DURING PERIODS OF 4 MONTHS:

Jan.-Apr. 00. Sept.-Dec. '00. Jan.-Apr. 01. | Sept.-Dec. '01. | Jan.-Apr. '02. | Sept.-Dec. '02.

675

405

692

650

479

475

I have eliminated the figures for the middle period of each year, as they are made irregular by the recurrence of plague. The figures are arrived at by adding together the total Enrolment of each of the four months. The last three periods represent the time during which the higher fees have been charged. The last peri- od is that in which the competition of the Kowloon School has been felt

17

Of the 90 odd children in attendance at the end of the year, one-third were girls in the Upper School, one-third were girls in the Lower School, and one-third were boys in the Lower School. Miss BATEMAN, the Lower School Mistress, em- ploys methods in grounding small children which I consider to be most successful, and the Lower School is in a very healthy condition. Turning to the Upper School, I cannot, in the face of such rapidly declining numbers, say as much. The fault certainly lies not in the capacity nor in the industry of the teachers: nor can it be altogether attributable to the raising of the fees, since parents would not refuse to pay the same fee in the Upper School which they are willing to pay in the Lower School, if equally satisfied with the education. The fact, I believe to be, that a specialising process is at work in the educational system of the Colony. There seems a natural tendency for schools to aim at providing an education specially suited to the requirements of one or other section of the community. The Kowloon School, the reorganisation of the Diocesan School and Orphanage for Girls, the special classes at Queen's College, the gradual elimination of Chinese from St. Joseph's, all point in this direction. If this view is correct, it follows naturally that a school avowedly cosmopolitan will attract few scholars from classes of society for which more particular arrangements are made elsewhere, and will only appeal with certainty to classes which are too small to make their own particular wants a matter of special study. That the Belilios School is actually tending more and more to provide for this residuum is, I think, not unlikely. And the opinion is strengthened by reference to the roll of the Upper School, which contains the names of Japanese, Indians, Filipinos, and Chinese from the Colonies, besides the more normal elements.

Meanwhile in the same building there is a Vernacular School for Chinese Girls, totally distinct, and in a flourishing condition, under the management of a Chinese Staff. The school is about as good as can reasonably be hoped for under purely Native management. I quote from an examination recently held by Miss BATEMAN, whose good knowledge of Chinese makes her opinion valuable :-

"At your request I examined some of the highest classes in the Chinese Department of the Belilios School for Girls.

I

Arithmetic.

gave all the classes sums to do in the first three rules. With two exceptions they were all correct in their answers. The exceptions had taken two Multiplication sums as one sum. They were perhaps not accustomed to my English method of setting down the sums.

Reading.

All the classes read each from the book learned this year. The lowest from Book I, the next from Book II, and the highest from Book III. The reading was correct enough, but it was done at express speed, and once a pupil was shown where to start she went on, as if wound up, to finish the book. Without an instant's pause she would be off to the next lesson, and read it as if it were merely a continuation of the last.

Explanation of the Reading.

This too was correct, but done at the same rate as the reading. But I found, when I put one or two leading questions on the reading, I got perfectly correct answers without any hesitation.

Questions on various Subjects.

I questioned all the classes together. With one or two exceptions I got correct answers at once. Once or twice I had to get an answer by asking some other questions. In getting the questions ready I took their reading books as a guide. If I kept to the books I was on safe ground, but I could not get much that was outside the book matter. They told me to whom Hongkong belonged, but had no idea of there being a

18

town and several villages in Hongkong. They said they had never been taught. They gave me the names of the five continents, five oceans, countries of Asia, rivers of China, capital of China. I could not get any definitions of "island" or "river" from them. They answered well in other subjects, such as metals and their uses, &c.

The second day I gave them some written work.

The younger classes of those I examined made two sentences em- bodying two Chinese characters I had chosen. Their sentences were all good.

Letter-writing.

The elder classes wrote a letter. I gave as subject matter, the Public Gardens-what they would see and hear there, and whom they might see there. The letters were, on the whole, fair, one or two were rather stereotyped, and one, written by a pupil in class V, whose number is 131, is really very good. The set forms of her letter are well chosen, and the subject matter natural and showing an observant mind. She is the only one who writes of the pond and the gold fish and the little English children playing and fighting there."

Thus there are within the building a somewhat languishing Upper School of about thirty girls, a flourishing Lower School of about sixty girls and boys, and a Chinese school of about one hundred and forty girls.

It seems a pity that some at least of these last should not be receiving instruc- tion in English and Western Knowledge, such as their brothers and future husbands are now obtaining, especially when there is upon the premises a Staff with time at its disposal and special qualifications for the task. For these reasons I have obtained permission to allow a class of these girls to study English with Miss BATEMAN in the afternoons, continuing their Chinese studies in the morning. They will pay a reduced fee of fifty cents.

DISTRICT SCHOOLS.

Education in the Colony may, for administrative purposes, be arranged under three Heads. Under the first is Queen's College, entirely independent of the Education Department. The second includes the Grant Schools, which are con- nected with the Department, but by loose bonds; in consequence of which experience proves, that any reform set in motion by the Department takes at least a year to produce its results in the Grant Schools. The District Schools, however, like the Kowloon School and the Belilios School, are within the direct control of the Inspector of Schools. It was, therefore, natural that the changes in the educational policy, recommended by the Committee on Education, should produce their first fruits in these schools.

The District Schools are the survivors of a centripetal movement, by which in the year 1860 a number of them were brought together to form the Central School, now Queen's College. The rest, scattered beyond the reach of that centre of attraction, have pursued each one its isolated course. One after another they suffered extinction, until at the beginning of 1902 only the following were left:- at Wan Tsai, Sai Ying Pun, Yau Ma Ti, and Wong Nai Chung, English Schools; and at Wan Tsai, Sai Ying Pun, Tang Lung Chau, Pok Fu Lam, and Shek O, Chinese Schools,

It is necessary to give a brief description of these schools as they were at the beginning of the year under review for

under review for a proper understanding of the changes introduced in them. At Wan Tsai and Sai Ying Pun (English Schools), English, Arithmetic, and Geography were taught up to the Fourth Standard. The

.

:

:

19

study of the Chinese Written Language was entirely neglected, and in consequence scholars in the uppermost class were quite incapable of composing a few sentences correctly in their own language. Being what they were-schools professing to teach English-an equally serious fault was that from lowest to highest Standard the practice of colloquial English was almost entirely neglected. It was another weak point that the time devoted to Geography was by no means used, as it should have been, to implant those elements of general information or "Western Knowledge" which the youth of China lacks so universally.

The English Schools at Yau Ma Ti and Wong Nai Chung were smaller, but no less inefficient. Under the same roofs as the English Schools, but not other- wise connected with them, were the Vernacular Schools of Sai Ying Pun and Wan Tsai where instruction in the beginnings of the Chinese Classics was given, with a little Arithmetic, and in the Fourth Standard a little Geography. It was the excep- tion for scholars to pass from the top (Fourth) Standard of these schools into the English Schools adjoining; nor when they did so were their prospects of obtaining a valuable education very bright. The study of their own language dropped at the point where some use was just accruing from it: they might hope in four years more to have conned and perhaps learned by heart three School Readers, but not to understand an Englishman addressing them in the simplest phrases. The other Vernacular Schools were much less efficient.

Before my departure from the Colony in April the following changes had been made in the English and Vernacular Schools at Sai Ying Pun and Wan Tsai, now known as the Anglo-Chinese Schools of those two places:-

(a.) The English and Vernacular Schools were linked together in such a way, that the Vernacular School became the Lower School and the English School the Upper School.

(b.) A Fifth Standard was added to the Upper School. (Arrangements

have been made for the addition of a Sixth Standard in 1903.)

(c.) In every Standard of the Upper School daily translation from English into Chinese and from Chinese into English has been insisted

upon.

(d.) Daily instruction in the Chinese Classics has been given to the

Upper School by the Classical Master of the Lower School while at the same time one of the Masters of the Upper School has taken the Lower School in Western Knowledge.

(c.) The English lessons to the upper Standards of the Upper School have been combined with instruction in current topics of general interest, such as the recent treaty with China.

;

(f) Colloquial conversation was practised to some extent in every Stand- ard of the Upper School, though it has not been given nearly as much attention in the lower Standards as I should have expected, had I been present throughout the year.

It

(9.) A Master and Supervisor was appointed for these two schools, Mr. YOUNG HEE, who has divided his time between them. The recom- mendation of the Committee was that "English Masters should be "engaged.........to supervise the work of the Chinese Masters." was however considered desirable to engage the services of Mr. YOUNG, on the ground that while he spoke English naturally, having spent all his life in a British Colony, he was on the other hand a good Chinese scholar, a combination hard to obtain. Mr. YOUNG has shewn great zeal in the performance of his duties, and, although he has had no former experience of teaching, has greatly advanced his pupils.

.

·

20

(h.) In return for these advantages given something more was expected from the Scholars. In particular it was desired that new Scholars unduly ignorant of their own Written Language should not be al- lowed to hamper the work of the translation classes. Consequently the vacant seats were allotted upon the result of test examinations held at the beginning of the year. The subject of the examinations was a simple narrative told by word of mouth, which the competi- tors were required to reproduce in literary Chinese. About twice as many candidates attended as there were seats to be filled; and the experiment-one recommended by the Committee on Education-must be considered successful.

(i.) The other point on which additional effort was expected from the scholars was in the matter of payment for their education. I did not venture to recommend that fees should be charged throughout these schools at once, though this further development has taken place from the beginning of 1903. It was however decided that all new Scholars should pay the small fee of fifty cents a month. No difficulty was experienced in collecting these fees, which pro- duced a revenue during the year of $152.50.

In order to give an opportunity to boys of good attainments whose parents might find a difficulty in paying this fee, a system of free scholarships, tenable for one year, has been started. On the result of the Summer Examination fourteen of these scholarships were given to scholars at Sai Ying Pun and fifteen at Wan Tsai, to date from January, 1903. The number is large and will probably be reduced in future years. The rather degrading practice of giving a great number of small money prizes of fifteen or twenty cents at Christmas, has been abandoned.

I was able to do less with the school at Yau Ma Ti. Mr. YoUNG has visited it regularly on Saturdays, and a Fifth Standard has successfully been added. Here again the general weakness in colloquial is a blot on what otherwise would be a well conducted school. No serious attempt was made to work up the English School at Wong Nai Chung, and at the end of the year its closure was recommended, partly because the knowledge of English possessed by its one Master was insufficient to justify his position; partly also because the school is situated too near the Anglo- Chinese School at Wan Tsai to be necessary at present.

Of the other Vernacular Schools than those of Wan Tsai and Sai Ying Pun there is nothing to report. The best that can be said of them is, that they are po- tential nuclei of Western thought and knowledge in the remoter districts of the Colony whether this justifies their existence is a question which will engage the attention of the Department during the present year.

Sanction has been given for the engagement of a second Master and Supervisor- Mr. WILLIAMS of the Municipal Technical School at Birmingham, who is expected in a few days. Since my return from leave I have laid before Government a scheme for placing the Yau Ma Ti School on the same footing as the other two Anglo-Chinese District Schools, by the engagement of a third Master and Supervis- or and the establishment of a Lower (Vernacular) School. Should this scheme be sanctioned, there will then have been equipped three schools with a purpose and aim which it will be well to enunciate and bear clearly in mind. In the first place they are to teach the English language, not merely by Readers, Grammars and Spelling Books, but in the only way a language can be taught by word of mouth. On their ability to accomplish so much the schools must stand or fall. Chinese Written Language will also receive much attention and will be taught,

The

:

"

.

21

especially in the Lower School, in such a way as to reduce the drudgery attendant on the study to a minimum. The Humanities, History and Geography and Western Knowledge generally, will be treated as matters of great importance in view of the extraordinary ignorance under which the Chinese suffer, of what has passed and what is passing in the world they inhabit. Besides these subjects, Mathematics and others will be pursued as time admits.

But if it is found in a year or two

that the Scholars cannot understand plain English, and if they cannot write a good letter in their own language, failure must be admitted, though they understand Bookkeeping as taught in school books, and can write Shorthand at the rate of 30 words a minute.

GRANT SCHOOLS.

The earlier date on which I have been this year required to send in my Report has rendered it impossible to give the usual returns and figures for the Grant Schools; the material for these, which itself requires careful sifting, not being available till the middle of January. I hope to send them with a short supplemen- tary Report in explanation of them shortly.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

EDWARD A. IRVING,

Inspector of Schools.

The Hon. F. H. MAY, C.M.G.,

Colonial Secretary.

J

:

་ ་ ་

HONGKONG.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

REPORT ON THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE, FOR THE YEAR 1902.

:

No. 7.

QUEEN'S COLLEGE,

HONGKONG, 19th January, 1903.

;

the

SIR,-I have the honour to present the Annual Report on Queen's College for year 1902.

2. The total number on the Roll was 1,434, a slightly lower figure than in the previous year.

This reduction is one of many indications of considerable im- provement in Attendance; for with fewer boys and with seven schooldays less, there is actually an increase of 15,662 attendances in the course of the year. Again the number on Roll exceeded 1,000 in nine months and 1,100 in four, while the average daily attendance is 990. When it is remembered that in the summer, plague, cholera and dengue fever were prevalent, it must be admitted that a steady attendance under these conditions is highly commendable.

3. The fees were short of $30,000 by only $121. The cost of the College is enhanced by the fact that the fees of Free Scholars are not credited to this Department, though $216 is the annual cost of educating Student Interpreters for the Registrar General's Department, and $180 for the charitable education of children of Public Servants, which does not include the four Free Scholarships granted annually to encourage education in the Government District Schools of Saiyingpun, Wantsai, etc.

4. It is just five years since the services of Mr. J. W. JONES were first loaned to the Supreme Court for twelve months. It was therefore quite as much a matter of congratulation to the College as to Mr. JONES, when in October last the news of his permanent transfer to be Deputy Registrar, as from 7th June, 1901, reached the colony. No surprise can be excited at the decision of the Secretary of State, that in the future Educational Officers are not to hold acting appointments in other Departments. I venture however to express a hope, that this does not mean an absolute negation of the possibility of permanent transfer elsewhere. The experi- ence of the Government in the cases of Messrs. ARTHUR, JONES and WOODCOCK would appear to justify the conclusion that Assistant Masters are capable of performing excellent service elsewhere; and I maintain that the effect of such transfer on Queen's College is a salutary one; there being the stimulus to exertion with view to the recognition of the Government, and the infusion of new blood into the English staff, from time to time.

5. Once again we have at last ten English Masters. Mr. TANNER has been promoted to the Senior Grade. To fill the three vacancies amongst the Junior Assistant Masters, Mr. BIRD was appointed in October, Mr. CROOK arrived a few days ago, and Mr. HOLLIS is shortly expected. In addition to being University men of marked careers (Oxford and Dublin respectively) Messrs. BIRD and CROOK have had the advantage of practical experience as schoolmasters and will doubtless prove valuable acquisitions. Mr. DEALY last May went on leave for the second time in nineteen years' service.

No. 1903

{

6

6. The Report of the Education Committee recommends the appointment of an eleventh English Master, which appears necessary, there being now nearly 200 more boys daily receiving instruction than when ten English Masters were deemed sufficient.

7. Mr. JAMES CHEONG, graduate of Melbourne University, who for more than three years did excellent and successful work as English Assistant Master, resigned at the end of August last on proceeding to Oxford. In April, Mr. WONG MING, 3rd Chinese Assistant, was loaned to the Magistracy for twelve months. In October, Mr. UN KAMWA, 4th Chinese Assistant, a useful and energetic Master, resigned to act as interpreter and translator to a local legal firm. The restitution of the full complement on the English staff will terminate the excessive strain thrown, during the last few years, on the Chinese staff by temporary promotions and appointments; though I cannot withhold from these young men, especially the Acting Pupil Teachers, the well deserved meed of praise for their cheerful energy in the discharge of their difficult duties.

8. The desire of the Government to promote and encourage greater attention to the study of Chinese amongst natives and English alike, has not been without its effect on this College. Several Chinese Assistants formed themeslves into a class, and at their own cost engaged a Native Teacher chiefly for improvement in style. Mr. BIRD has begun the study of Chinese. Though I do not think that the knowledge of Chinese, written and spoken, should as formerly be obligatory on all masters; there can be no doubt that even a small acquaintance with the language of the boys is desirable to maintain the proper efficiency and discipline of the College.

9. Messrs. RALPHS, GRANT and TANNER deserve warm congratulations upon the excellent results at the Oxford Local Examinations held last July. Twenty certificates were obtained by Queen's College boys; 3 Senior, 6 Junior and 11 Preliminary. The mark G, next in order to distinction was obtained no less than 16 times chiefly in Arithmetic and History. I am glad to note that Chinese boys are again coming to the fore, both in position and number of passes.

10. The good results at the Half-yearly Examination (a practice instituted by myself in 1882) led me to anticipate satisfactory improvement at the close of the year, and I feel justified in saying that I have not been disappointed.

11. Messrs. Ross and Kirro, appointed Independent Examiners of the Upper School, made a separate Report. I would beg leave, on behalf of masters and boys, express our sense of the kindness and consideration shown by the Examiners.

to

12. The examination of the Lower and the Preparatory Schools was conducted by myself, under Standing Orders from the Governing Body. The whole tone of the examination is higher than that of the previous year; the improvement being chiefly attributable to greater regularity in attendance, as reported above. With the exception of the Grammar paper in the three sections of Class IV, there was absolutely none of the provoking practice of inserting silly or irrelevant informa- tion. No further comment upon the Summary and Table below is needed than the statement that the Lower School has distinguished itself by marked general improve- ment; and the Preparatory School, taught by Acting Pupil Teachers, under the charge of a Senior Pupil Teacher, has maintained its usual high-level.

Lower School, Preparatory School, ...257

422 boys examined 388

or 92% passed

245

"

}}

95,

"}

Total,...679

633

93,,

19

39

11

";

7

TABLE OF PERENTAGE OF PASSES.

CLASS.

IV, A

B

C

V.

A

B

C

33 13 8 2 2 2

53

51

96

100

98

55

42

74

87

86

100

24

33

31

93

100

100

96 30

54

51

94

69

93 100

46

53

45

$5

70

94

100

23

77

55

29

28

.97

76

97

97

66

79

90

He

2 3 F

8 = 8 8 8

100 45 66

73 34

81

64

71 60 26 56 42 78

69

42

72 66

84

89 67 74 85 90 52

CO

8 N

70

91

47

86 100

8 6

2 32 33 2 8

87

5 2 3 27

READING.

CONVERSATION.

DICTATION.

ARITHMETIC.

GRAMMAR.

GEOGRAPHY.

COMPOSITION.

MAP.

72

79

VI, A

B

8889

56

54

96

96

96

100

25

95

83

65

59

56

95

98

100

100

14

98

70

68

C

30

30

100

100

97

100

57

97

77

90

VII, A

36

35

97

100

100

89

83

86

В

33

31

94

100

85

97

64 85

57

50

87

100

63 90

58

74

་་་་་།

13 8 8 10 8 33

98

75

64

85

97

8 2 9 5

70

46

67

53

D 32

30

100

100

100 100

:

:

Writing.

94

97

88

VIII, A

33

31

96

100

93 100

:

96 90

93

B

34 34

100 100

91 100

:

C

32

31

97

77

87 88

91

100

94

81

97

:

:

88

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

!

13. Observations on individual subjects

Reading. Though few failures occurred, it was rare to be able to assign marks higher than 80%. I make a point of treating most severely the mispronunciation of common words.

Conversation.-As usual, the percentage of passes is low. I applied a

slightly higher standard of intelligence.

Dictation.-Very good, especially the writing.

Arithmetic.-A very marked improvement on the results of recent years. A large number of boys successfully tackled the usual sort of problems. The work was neat, and less crowded into out-of-the-way corners.

Grammar.-Very satisfactory, with the exception of one class. The masters of the three sections of Class IV admitted the questions to be fair, if not actually easy, yet the fact remains that the great bulk of the boys failed to get 50% marks. Knowing from personal observa- tion that those masters taught this subject very carefully, I can only conclude that they had been paying more particular attention to other details.

8

Geography.-Good. I expected that more boys would have been ac- quainted in Class IV with the draining operations of the Emperor Ü, and in Class V with the diurnal and annual motions of the earth. Map-drawing from memory.--Excellent. The maps of Hongkong, Africa and the 18 provinces of China that obtained over 80% marks were wonderful specimens of handiwork, and feats of memory. Composition.-Very good indeed, the employment of suitable phrases, not

dictated by me, was very successful and praiseworthy.

Chinese to English.-Satisfactory. More boys made laudable attempts to translate the unseen piece that formed the fifth question in each

paper.

English to Chinese.-This subject was, as usual, marked by the Second Master (Mr. A. J. MAY) who found himself able to award a very large proportion of high marks.

14. The following is a complete list of the Scholarships, all locally promoted and maintained without any assistance from the Government:-Morrison Senior and Junior Scholarships each tenable for three years, Stewart Scholarships for one year, Belilios Senior and Junior Scholarships each tenable for two years.

15. The non-Chinese boys past and present, assisted by the friends of the late Mr. W. MACHELL, have raised a small sum to endow a Special Prize in memory of his devoted zeal in behalf of the interests of the Senior non-Chinese Class. In spite of the handsome allowance for Prizes from the Government, we should be poorly off to provide recognition for our sixty scholars deserving of distinction, were it not for the generous beneficence of the public. The following is a list of the present contributors:-The Consul General for Portugal, Messrs. ARCULLI and DORABJEE NOWROJEE; Messrs. CHAN HE-WAN, CHAU PAK-CHEÜN, HO FOOK, Ho KOM-TONG, HO TUNG, IP SHIU-KAM, KÓ YIK-KAM, LAU CHÁK-MIN, LEUNG YAN-PO LO CHEUNG-SHIU, Lo TáT, LUK KING-FO, MOK MAN-CHEUNG, NG KWOK-CHING, SIN TAK-FAN, TSOI LAP-TSZ, U HANG-KAM, WONG KAM-FUK, YING HING-PONG, YING SHIU-PO, the Directors of the Tung Wa Hospital Messrs. GAUPP & Co., the Head Master, and others.

16. The School Magazine Yellow Dragon, the Reading Cricket and Football Clubs continue to flourish. A novelty in 1902 was a Boys' Pair-oared Race intro- duced into the Regatta by the kindness of the Victoria and Hongkong Rowing Clubs. Our crew consisting of the brothers BUNJE Coxswain SAYER were coached by Mr. BIRD and won a well contested race.

17. The gymnastic appliances to be used temporarily in the basement of the College at a cost of about $400 we may expect to get in the year 1904.

18. The usual Tables of Statistics are attached.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

GEO. H. BATESON WRIGHT, D.D. (Oxon.),

Heud Master.

The Honourable F. H. MAY, C.M.G.,

Colonial Secretary.

:

:

;

.་

9

1902.

QUEEN'S COLLEGE.

AVERAGE

MONTH.

No. of SCHOLARS.

No. of ATTEND-

No. OF

SCHOOL

DAILY ATTEND-

REMARKS,

ANCES.

DAYS.

ANCE.

January,

936

21,694

25

868

February,

835

1,650

2

825

March,....

1,070

19,745

20

.987

:

April,

1,147

17,602

17

1,035

May,

1,126

26,977

26

1,038

June,

1,083

21,150

21

1,007

July,

1,038

21,179

22

963

August,

948

2,667

3

889

September,

1,122

20,127

19

1,059

October,

1,115

27,124

26

1,043

November,

1,071

23,623

24

984

December,

1,022

22,177

23

964

225,715 228

Total number of Attendances 1902,.............

Number of School Days 1902,

Average Daily Attendance 1902,................

Total Number of Scholars, 1902,

.225715.

228.

990.

1434.

AVERAGE EXPENSE OF EACH SCHOLAR AT QUEEN'S COLLEGE DURING 1902.

Expenditure:-

Cash Book,

Do. Exchange Compensation,

Crown Agents,

Do.

Adjustment of Exchange,*

Total,..

Deduct:-

School Fees,

Sales of Books,

$31,869.34

13,616.70

1,375.00

1,832.02

$48,693.06

.$29,879.00 10.85

$29,889.85

$18,803.21

Total Expense of College,..

Average Expense of each Scholar:-

Per Number on Roll,

Per Average Daily Attendance,

GEO. H. BATESON WRIGHT, DD. (Oxon.),

Head Master.

19th January, 1903.

* November and December estimated.

1

13.11

18.99

77

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE EXAMINERS OF QUEEN'S COLLEGE.

Laid before the Legislative Council bij Command of Ilis Excellency the Governor.

No.

8

1903

50-21.3.03.

HONGKONG, 19th January, 1903.

SIR,-We have the honour to lay before you a report on the examination of the upper portion of Queen's College which we have recently conducted.

Before giving our remarks in detail on each of the subjects offered it would perhaps be well to make a few general observations.

The work shown up was on the whole satisfactory. The writing was good and the general neatness was highly to be commended. Some really excellent work was done by the boys at the top of IA. But there is often an enormous difference between the boys at the top and the boys at the bottom of any given form. The boy at the top of IA., for instance, out of a possible 1,700 marks gets 1,257, while the boy at the bottom obtains only 520.

The work offered by IB. appeared to us to be too advanced, few of the boys in this class were able to cope with the questions set them.

The answers presented to us shewed that the boys had been very carefully taught; but the great fault which we noticed in all the classes examined was a disinclination or disability on the part of the boys to think for themselves. Too great a reliance is placed on mere effort of memory. For instance, one of the ques- tions set for class IIA. in History was: "What do you know of Judge Jeffreys?" A great many boys evidently imperfectly remembering what they had been taught, answered this by saying: "He was a ready tool."

"He was a ready tool." In fact much of the nonsense written by many of the boys is due to the fact that, instead of trying to think what the question means and attempting to write an answer in their own words, they strove by mere effort of memory to reproduce verbatim what had been taught them.

But when it is recollected that all the work is done in what is, to the Chinese boys, a foreign language, the results are very satisfactory; it is all the more to be lamented that boys who can do such work in English should, with one or two exceptions, be so ignorant of their own written language.

We now append our remarks on each subject.

Reading and Conversation.-The reading was good throughout the school. The examination in colloquial was unfortunately held before the written examination, and it is very difficult to judge of the boys' capacities. On the whole the boys ex- plained the phrases which came in the course of their reading and appeared to understand the questions which were put to them.

Dictation.-In some forms this was very well done. In Class IIIC. 14 boys obtained full marks. Class IA. was not very satisfactory, and Class IB. collapsed entirely eight boys out of the eleven in this form failing to obtain any marks.

Grammar was very well done by all the school.

Composition.-Class IA. did not appear to understand the question set them. One or two boys, however, did good papers.

The composition for Classes II. & III. & N 2 & N 3 consisted of a short story read aloud to them. They then had to write down what they thought they had heard. The results were fair.

Geography.This was well done.

The map drawing of Class IIA., was very good indeed.

50

Chinese to English.--It is difficult to say to what extent the boys are capable of translating from Chinese to English. The passages set for translation were from the books which had been prepared during the year. There is an English crib translation of these books and the passages selected were well translated by such boys as recollected their crib. Those who forgot the crib usually wrote rubbish.

The translation of Chinese to English appears to us to be a matter of such importance that we venture to go into the question in some detail. In one passage set to Class II. "The cession of Hongkong" is described.

道光二十年

The date given in the Chinese is =+; (20th year of To Kwong). the crib owing to a misprint translates this as To Kwong 22nd year. In Class IIA out of 53 boys, 36 instead of looking at the Chinese words before them faithfully reproduced their crib and wrote 22nd year.

Again in one of the passages set to Class III. the phrase

occurs. The

crib translates this "he communed with himself" and so wrote all the boys who recollected the crib; those who did not, wrote "he consumed himself." In fact an unintelligent use of the crib was evident. Those boys who got the translation right got it word for word the same. Some boys began a paragraph before the Chinese passage given them and some continued the crib after the Chinese had come to an end, apparently not knowing in some cases what portions of the crib corresponded with the Chinese before them. We would suggest in future that in

· all forms a short portion of unseen translation, part of a simple petition or news- paper article, be made obligatory. It is at present impossible to say whether the boys can translate simple Chinese into English or not.

English to Chinese.-LI HO CHING in Class I. and three boys in Class IIA. did very good translations into Chinese. Many of the boys are apparently quite unable to write correct Chinese. A very large number of common characters were incorrect- ly written.

Shakespeare was well done by the non-Chinese form, who had evidently been very carefully taught. The top boys in A. also did very creditable work con- sidering the difficulties which a play of Shakespeare must present to a foreigner. Many of the boys gave a good account of Macbeth's character-one of the questions asked-indeed it is surprising that boys who answered this question so well should have not been able to write a better piece of composition.

General Intelligence.-It was surprising that so few boys could give correctly the names of the Four Books and the Five Classics.

Special Translation.-Chinese to English and English to Chinese.

This paper, which was optional, was attempted by some thirty boys. Only three boys appeared to understand a piece selected from the SHU KING.

The piece of prose set for translation into English was well done in some cases; few boys translated the short sentences correctly.

LI HO CHING did well in both subjects.

Algebra.-General. The papers set appear to have been too severe in all classes and the amount of work offered for examination to be beyond the abilities of the majority of the boys. The marks and percentage of passes are low, but it is to be remembered that the papers were set for a high standard on the work offered, whereas it is considered that it would have been better to include in the syllabus easy ques- tions only, on the more advanced work.

IA. As this is a scholarship class, boys should have been prepared to answer any question set on the work offered; consequently it is thought that only the book work of the more advanced portions should have been included.

To make this subject at all comparable to others, it was found necessary to award full marks for two thirds of the paper set.

:

!

-51

Algebra.-IB. NI.-The marks obtained are a fair criterion of the attainments of these classes.

IIA., B.-A better standard of knowledge than that of IA., B., NI. was shown, but still not very satisfactory.

IIIA., B., C., N 2, N 3.—These classes showed better work in this subject; a very fair standard being attained.

Euclid.-General.-The standard of work is generally good throughout the College; especially when it is remembered that the Chinese language does not lend itself at all to the form of reasoning adopted, and consequently this subject has not only to be learned in a language foreign to the majority of the scholars, but the reasoning has to be followed and expressed, even to themselves, in that language.

The figures were in the majority of cases accurately and neatly drawn. Euclid.-IA.-Good as a whole.

Even among those who obtained only low marks there was a satisfactory absence of those absurdities in reasoning which shew that the work has been learnt by heart without being understood.

IB., NI.—Satisfactory compared to the other mathematical papers.

IIA., B.-Very good throughout the class. The subject appears to be well understood.

IIIA., BC., N 2.-Disappointing compared to the other classes; the majority appear to have learnt the work by heart, and hardly any to understand it; as is shown by the indiscriminate arrangement of the steps in the reasoning, without any regard to any connection between them.

Arithmetic.-Good throughout in method; accuracy fair.

IA.—The great failure of this class was inaccuracy and the comparatively low marks are to be attributed to this cause: the subject, however, is well understood and accuracy is merely a matter of practice.

IB., NI.—Again very poor.

IIA., B.-Very satisfactory: accuracy was particularly good in this class. IIIA., B., C., N 2, N 3, N 4.—Accuracy was not so good, but there is evid- ence of careful training requiring only practice to develope it.

Mensuration.-A better general standard was attained in this than any other mathematical paper.

IA. Inaccuracy, already noticed in arithmetic, was the cause of the majority of failures in this class; the formulæ and method of applying them appear to be thoroughly understood by the majority.

IB. Still not very satisfactory.

IIA., B.-Particularly good in this as in other mathematical papers.

Natural Science, Physiology.-NI.-A good grasp of the subject has been

obtained.

N 2.-The answers given were vague and not so precise and definite as is desirable in such subjects.

Book-keeping.-IA., B.-The paper set does not appear to have been sufficiently difficult; consequently, in marking notice had to be taken of minor errors in technical expression. The results obtained were, in the main, accurate.

IIA.-Good on the whole, though the paper appears to have been found rather too long. Few of the boys attempted all the questions set.

We have to thank Messrs. A. R. Lowe and H. E. MORRISS for setting the

papers.

We recommend the following boys for scholarship :-

Morrison,

Belilios, Senior, Belilios, Junior, Stewart,.....

Ho YAN SIK. ....E. BUNJE.

.....LUI IU-CHEUNG.

..HO YAN SIK or LI HO CHING.

52

We should like to specially commend the papers done by E. BUNJE and Ho YAN SIK.

In conclusion we have to thank Dr. BATESON WRIGHT and the Masters of Queen's College for their help during the examination and for undertaking the duties of invigilation while the work was being done.

We have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servants,

S. B. C. ROSS.

E. A. IRVING, Esq.,

Secretary to the Government Body, Queen's College.

QUEEN'S COLLEGE, HONGKONG. ANNUAL EXAMINATION. 1902.

W. A. KITTO.

CLASS.

Total No.

examined.

Chin. Eng.

Eng.-Chin.

Reading.

Conversation,

Dictation.

Arithmetic.

Grammar.

Geography.

Composition.

History.

Algebra.

Euclid,

Shakespeare.

Book-keeping.

Mensuration.

General

Intelligence.

Physiology.

Science.

I A.,

16

100

63 100 100 38

44 100

75

38

81

19

IB.:

11

45

N 1,

8

N 2,

16

N 3,

12

N 4,

12

II A.,

50

84 96 100 100

II B.,

55

62 73 100 33

50

III A.,

43

81 100 100 81

77

0 100 82 9 45 100 45

100 100 75 38 100 100 100 31 38 50 25 100 100 100 75 100 100 100 83 58 42 66 42 25 80 90 90 88 34 62 85 60 13 77 93 51

-0

55

75

50 100

62 62 25

50 66 83

III B.,

5+

83 100 98

III C.,

28

64 100 100

81 100 50 96

65

70 19

46 33

75 57 32 11 50 25 50

COOK

64

63

19

89683:: 332%

50 56 100

50

41

82

88

63

63 100

56

44

44

52

94

73

49

50

:

:

:

HONGKONG.

A REPORT ON QUEEN'S COLLEGE..

MIDSUMMER, 1903.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT,

HONGKONG, 25th September, 1903.

No. 38

SIR,-I have the honour to forward a report on Queen's College submitted to the Governing Body by the Examiners.

2. It appears to the Governing Body that the teaching at Queen's College should be so organized that a boy who has succeeded in reaching the upper Classes ought (with reasonable diligence and ability) to have acquired a fair knowledge of Chinese, a reasonably good knowledge of English, as it is spoken and written and printed, and ought to be able with considerable facility to translate from one language to the other. These attainments will be to him, in after life, of much greater value than a superficial knowledge of Algebra and Euclid, for instance, or long lists of tributary rivers, &c., stored away in his memory, till time effaces them.

3. Knowing Chinese and English, the literatures of both countries lie open before him if he pushes his studies, as opportunity offers, after he leaves the College.

4. The Governing Body do not undervalue special subjects but speak only of relative importance.

5. The Governing Body can well appreciate the difficulty some masters, who do not know very much English themselves, must have in imparting their know- ledge of that language to the boys in the lower part of the school. But speaking generally, they agree with the recommendations of the Examiners.

6. The question of suitable Readers is a difficult one, and the Governing Body is of opinion that it might be referred to the Committee now sitting to consider the teaching of English among other subjects taken in connection with the Oxford Local examinations.

7. Will you kindly authorise payment of the Examiners' fees.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

EDWARD A. IRVING,

Honorary Secretary

to the

GOVERNING BODY, QUEEN'S College.

1903

Hon. F. H. MAY, C.M.G.,

Colonial Secretary...

444

SIR, AS requested in C. S. O. 4452/03, we inspected Queen's College during the last fortnight of the summer term, and have now the honour to submit the following report.

METHOD OF CONDUCTING THE EXAMINATION.

The examination was held, by the desire of the Government, in a different way from usual. It has hitherto been an examination of the Upper School only (Classes I, II, and III,) and has been held at the end of the winter term in con- nection with the Christmas examinations; prizes and promotions depending upon it. It thus involved the examination of every individual scholar in every one of the subjects studied by him, and an exact comparison of the papers in each subject, in order that the order of merit in each subject and in each Class might be ascer- tained. The labour of such an undertaking, dealing as it must with more than a thousand papers, is considerable. It does not leave much time to the examiners for such considerations as the efficiency of the Staff, the discipline, or the nature or the methods of instruction. Indeed, the nature of the examination tended to prevent the examiners from easily considering these vital points. Their first duty was to declare which boy had best assimilated the educational diet provided for him. That diet might be unwholesome; and the healthier instinct the one that turned from it. But, however unwillingly, the examiners were compelled to award praise and blame on the results before them, after which any criticism in a contrary sense that they might make, would be apt to fall unheeded.

Further the system was objectionable, in that, while the examiners were not put in the best position for doing that which they were best qualified to do, they were not the persons best qualified for the task actually given them. However painstaking and skilful an outside examiner may be, the best judge to decide who deserves prizes and promotions will still be the master who has had the Class under his eye day after day throughout the year. And it will often happen that the decision of the examiners will stultify the predictions of the master, and so inevitably disable his judgment in the eyes of his scholars.

The examiners have in fact hitherto attempted to draw up the school in a graduated order of merit. The duty is analogous to that of arranging troops in review order, first the taller and then the shorter. Such a duty in the latter case is best performed by those who are closest in touch with the men, and not by the Inspecting Officer. He has other and more widely important duties to fulfil. He has to see that such exercises as are performed are smartly performed: but he also considers the intrinsic value of the exercises, and it is his business to make sure that they are the most useful that can be devised.

Impressed by these views the examiners have paid little attention to 'places and 'marks,' but have set themselves to enquire whether the work of the school is laid upon the soundest possible lines, and whether what is in fact being done, is being done in the best possible way.

"

From this altered view of their task, it followed that the examination could no longer be limited to the Upper School. Not all boys in the Lower School will rise to the Upper; but the Upper has with few exceptions passed through the Lower School. And it is found that the effects of bad teaching in the lower Classes are not easily got rid of. Moreover the Lower School is, speaking broadly, staffed by Chinese masters, and the Upper School by English masters; and, further, there seems a tendency to place the least experienced Chinese masters in the lowest Classes. It seemed to the Examiners that if it came to a choice between inspecting the Upper and Lower Schools, the latter could less safely be neglected. In order to cope with the extra work thus imposed upon them, their number has been in- creased from two to three.

To

THE CHAIRMAN, The Governing Body, Queen's College.

1.

:

;

445

It was considered advisable to hold the Inspection at Midsummer instead of at Christmas as in former years, in order to interfere as little as possible with the Christmas examination for promotions and prizes.

THE ARRANGEMENT OF CLASSES.

The school is divided into Classes, numbered from I to VIII, of which the first three constitute the Upper, and the rest the Lower School. Each Class is divided into two, three, or four Divisions, distinguished by letters A, B, C, D. The Divisions of a Class do the same work; but they are otherwise quite independent, each under its own master.

Promotions take place twice a year as a rule in the Lower School, and once a year in the Upper School. The top boys go from Division A of one Class into Division A of the next. The number of scholars in a Division varies between 20 and 60, reckoning by the average attendance.

The great majority of the boys are Chinese, but there are also a number of Portuguese, Indians and Eurasians, with a very few English. The Headmaster has, since the last inspection, given up the two special Classes in the Upper School for non-Chinese. The Headmaster does not identify himself with any Class or Division, but exercises supervision over all.

RESULTS ATTAINED IN THE VARIOUS SUBJECTS.

The inspection (which lasted about a fortnight) included the examination of individual boys, the inspection of note books, and a study of the methods employed by the masters. Below are given the conclusions we have drawn, arranged under the different subjects.

Colloquial English.--In order to be able to make a more thorough investigation of the results obtained in this subject, we confined ourselves for the most part to an examination of a selection of 5 boys in each Division, so chosen as fairly to represent it. In Class VIII, representing 6 months to a year's work, a fair beginning seemed to have been made; and the boys understood a number of sentences relating to their work, such as "Put away books," "Clean your slates." The master gave such orders in English, though he made the mistake of translating them into Chinese immediately afterwards. We did not find any attempt made to teach the boys to do the talk- ing till much higher Classes were reached. We regret that the colloquial acquired in Classes VII, VI, V and IV by boys who have presumably been studying from 2 to 5 years by no means shewed a sufficiently rapid improvement. In fact only in IV A under a European master did the boys begin to talk a little. All we could get was a Chinese version of English sentences spoken to them by us.

To give examples of very general faults, in Class VI A., the master was still giving the orders "Put away your slates" and "Stand up" in Chinese, in V B none of 4 boys asked knew the names of the four seasons.

In the Upper School we took the boys out on the verandah and asked them to describe what they saw in the streets and shops before them. Except in Classes I and II there was little attempt at conversing.

We noticed that boys in

a Class taught by an English master were much more willing to make an attempt than those in a Class under the direction of a Chinese master.

In the Lower School there was a general unwillingness to attempt to say anything. No doubt this was partly due to nervousness. Colloquial is a difficult subject to teach; but when every lesson can be made a lesson in colloquial, we cannot help thinking that much of the inability to speak or understand English is due to the fact that the Chinese masters employ Chinese and not English, when giving directions connected with the ordinary routine work. We have no wish to question the zeal of the Chinese masters; they appeared to be carrying out to the best of their ability a very difficult task, but in the Lower School, Chinese as a medium of communication between master and boy was, as we have said, far too

common.

What is sometimes called the New Method, the Gouin, and other related systems, are now almost universally employed in France and Germany and very generally in England, but are apparently unknown or not approved of at the Col- lege, as means of teaching colloquial English.

..

--

446

Composition including Handwriting, Spelling and Dictation.-Original com- position in English is offered for examination in the Upper School. The teaching of Colloquial, Handwriting, and Spelling in the Lower School forms a course of preparation for it.

In Class I, "The Stocks as a Punishment for Highway Robbery" was set as an Essay. It was expected that about one page of foolscap or 200 words would be written. In marking these papers our attention was principally confined to the language used, no marks being deducted for weakness of arrangement nor for lack of ideas so long as the matter was germane to the subject. At the conclusion of what represents an eight years' course of study of English we expected, not absolute correctness of idiom, but an absence of gross grammatical mistakes-much the same standard in fact as is attained in the composition of Latin in Public Schools. There too, the course has occupied about eight years; though as Public School boys have not the inestimable advantage of hearing Latin spoken daily, the test is very favourable to Queen's College. Under this test no paper containing more than 6 gross mistakes in 200 words could be passed. Out of 63 papers corrected, 19 passed with credit, 19 passed, 25 failed. Of the last, 11 or 18 per cent. of the total num- ber were very bad. Considering the Class as a whole some excellent work done at the top is counterbalanced by the performances of boys, who should apparently have hardly reached the Upper School at all, much less the top Class.

In support of this view we attach papers (see Appendix) selected quite at random from the first 19, and the last 11. The first 19 papers are divided almost equally between Divisions A and B, but the last 11 are all in Division B.

Certain blunders are so common throughout the Upper School, that we feel it should be not impossible to trace them to a common source and then stop them. A notable example is the use and abuse of the word "shame" and its derivatives. It will hardly be believed that of 63 papers corrected in Class I, no less than 20 contained these and kindred mistakes "will never be ashame" (this form alone recurred in 14 papers) "cause him much ashamed", "make ashame on the sufferer", &c., &c. Another very general mistake is failure to balance the tenses of verbs in a sentence correctly, especially in conditional sentences, where 'has' or 'had is needed in the apodosis. "I will not dare to do what he had done", "If the Government do not punish the offenders, the people could not be safe."

In Class II the subject for composition was a letter, the recipient of which was to be informed that there was "some talk of increasing the time devoted to Chinese studies in the schools of the Colony," the writer giving his own views. (This was a very popular subject: some original views were developed. Incidentally it may be mentioned that a very large majority were in favour of the increase, the dissen- tients being non-Chinese with few exceptions.) On correcting the papers we found the greatest inequality in them and in order to come to some definite con- clusion on this point we shewed them to a lady who has had many years' experience as mistress of a school under the London School Board. She kindly classified them for us as follows :-

12 corresponded with Standard VII.

21

>>

25

19

""

14

VI.

??

V.

"2

IV.

III.

>>

6

This classification corresponded sufficiently closely with our own estimate. Here again there is a long but very feeble tail.' It is obvious that in a Class representing a year out of the school life there should not be a difference represented by four years in the attainments of the first and last dozen scholars. As it stands the Class reaches the Fifth Standard. It should reach the Sixth Standard, and would do so, were it not for the deficiencies of a score or more of boys who should never have been admitted into it.

In Class III a short story was read to fifteen boys selected by the examiners as representing the 3 Divisions. Eight gave the sense of it correctly; the rest failed through inability to follow it, though it was delivered several times over very slowly and distinctly. Only one out of the eight was in Division C: thus Divisions A and B passed 7 out of 10 which is creditable, and Division C failed utterly.

'

447

Writing, Spelling, and Dictation in the Lower School were on the whole good, especially the Handwriting, which was generally speaking very good throughout the school. Many mistakes in Dictation were made in some Divisions of the Lower School, but others did very well, VI C, and VI B, for instance.

Reading. This subject was on the whole well done. In Class I the boys read scenes from Macbeth. The various characters were distributed among the Class, and were sustained with intelligence, and very creditably. In the Lower School there is a tendency to slur the final consonants, though otherwise the pronunciation and delivery were good. But we have to point out that the system under which the reading is taught in the Lowest Classes is most unsatisfactory. A distinction is made between reading and the meaning of the passage read. The process appears to be that the boys are first taught the sound of the words, and at a later date are taught a Chinese translation of the passage which they have read. Instruction in this Chinese version moreover does not keep pace with instruction in reading, so that on asking how much the boys had prepared, we were met with the answer:-The class has read to (say) page 60, but the meaning has only been explained up to page 40. Reading and explanation were treated as different subjects. This distinction appears to us to be foolish and should be abolished. Chinese boys are only too willing to memorize instead of trying to understand, and it can be of no service to any boy to be able to repeat certain sounds, without understanding in the least what those sounds mean.

When taking a new lesson, many of the Chinese masters do not attempt to explain the matter to the boys beforehand, and so create an interest in it. The master in Class V B was an exception; he briefly explained what the new lesson was about, so that the boys when they began had some idea of what they were going to read.

The reading books appear to be unsuitable. The stories contained in them are not very interesting, and deal with subjects with which a Chinese boy is unfami- liar. Reading Books suited to local needs are no doubt badly wanted.

Geography and History.-A Committee is at present considering the methods of teaching these subjects in the Colony, and we do not think it necessary to make detailed criticisms upon the courses of study. It must however be pointed out that the necessity of studying the periods and countries chosen for the Oxford Local Examinations every year, has the effect of making the teaching disjointed and fragmentary. For instance the teaching of Geography in the Upper School this year is confined to Europe (Class III), England and Wales (Class II), and India (Class I). A boy might, as it seems to us, pass through the school without knowing anything about some countries, while his mind was packed with details about others of no more importance. Similarly unless a regular course of instruction in History is laid down, the know- ledge of a boy who has passed steadily through his Classes will probably suffer from want of continuity. He might take up the Norman period in Class III, the Hanoverian period in Class II, and the Norman period again for the Oxford Local in Class 1. There is moreover a subdivision of Classes to suit the needs of the candidates for this examination, which must be disorganising to the or- dinary school work.

Geography. The subject is first studied in Class VI by the rather old fashioned and unattractive method of teaching "definitions," which are committed to memory. "An island is a piece of land entirely surrounded by water. Example, the Isle of Wight." The subject should surely be first attacked by beginning with the Geography of Hongkong, and all the more because from the school windows nearly every kind of geographical features-isthmus, bay, strait, peninsula, mountain, valley, watershed-can be seen.

In VIC the subject was a failure: out of 37 boys, 21 replied "No" when asked if they had ever seen an island. In VI B only 4 boys knew what a harbour was. VI A i and VI A i did better. A few boys were able to describe the position of the Pacific Ocean in relation to Hongkong. Asia is studied in Class V B. Here again 9 boys said they had never seen an island. It appeared that interest in the study was not raised by bringing it into relation

448

with facts observed out of school. For instance, every boy must have seen the mail steamers which enter and clear the port every few days. But the great majority were unable to shew on a map where they come from and whither they are bound. The study of China in Classes IV B and C was much better, doubtless owing to the fact that the Chinese masters were themselves more interest- ed in the subject; in IV A, on the other hand, where the master is a European, only a very few boys were able to give a reply to the question "What is a treaty port?" although in other subjects this Division was considerably the strongest of the three. Europe is taught in Class IV. No doubt the subject is a hard one for Chinese masters. Nevertheless they should endeavour not to solve the difficulty by teaching mere lists of names to their scholars. And some omissions seem hardly excusable. Out of 4 boys asked in III B, two said that Gibraltar belonged to Spain, one to England, and one to Portugal. Few boys in III knew what the source of a river was. On the other hand, the general nature of the Governments of England, France, Russia, Germany, was well known. Class IV 4 under an English- man shewed a very different state of affairs. There alone we obtained some sort of a description of the physical features of Switzerland, and an intelligent deduction from the well-known large sale of Swiss milk of the fact that that country contains much pasture. The Geography lessons in Class II (C and B) ap. eared to suffer from similar defects of method. It is a significant fact that the tributaries on the right bank of the Thames "Kennet, Wey, Mole and Derwent" were very generally known by the scholars (though not by their examiners), but no idea could be elicited as to the nature of the scenery along the banks. A wall-picture of a hay- making scene-brick farm-house, wagons, country-lane---would have taught so much more than that barren list could. In Class II 4 a very intelligent apprecia- tion of the connection between the coal fields and the neighbouring manufacturing centres was elicited. The physical nature of the country was well understood. Class I took India. The master of I objected to some of the questions asked, on the ground that they were hardly Geography. And yet it is hard to see how India can be profitably studied by a class of young men for a year without considering these and kindred matters. The truth appears to be that the Oxford Local, in requiring a very detailed knowledge, assumes a general knowledge which cannot safely be assumed in the case of Chinese students. In Class I A, 13 boys out of 21 passed; and in Class I B only 17 out of 33. The questions asked were:--

1. What makes the North-West Frontier important to India?

2. From what part of India do the Hongkong Police mostly come? 3. What was the Indian Mutiny ? Did it affect Madras ?

4. What are the Native states ?

(Fairly correct answers to the 1st, 2nd and 4th questions or to the 3rd and one other gave a pass.)

History. History is correctly taught in Class' I, by the means of well con- sidered dictated notes. We did not set a paper, but looked through one set by the master. The result was good, but the tendency of the boys was to depend too much on the notes, and to reproduce them by memory.

We heard an interesting lesson on the reign of John by the master of III 4. It might have been thought somewhat discursive, but we are not prepared to condemn this as a fault. A great difficulty in teaching History is to make the subject sufficiently interesting to Chinese boys.

Translation. (Chinese to English, English to Chinese,) ---The Lower School was examined in these subjects rira vre, the upper portion by means of set pa ers.

It was difficult to elicit much from the Lower School; a few simple sentences or words were set for translation into Chinese, but the knowledge of English in this part of the school is so limited, that it seemed useless to set unseen sentences for translation from Chinese into English. Many of the boys were ignorant of what one would im- agine that every boy would know. The majority asked were unable to translate cor- rectly into Chinese the phrase "The Governor of Hongkong"; only 2 boys, out of four Classes to whom the question was put, knew the English equivalent for the Chinese

RK

(Registrar General). In one Class eight boys were asked to write down the Chinese for "It will not rain": half of them wrote When asked, the boys admitted that the phrase had no meaning in Chinese ;

*

·

A

ů

:

449

but inasmuch as it was word for word the equivalent of the English words, they appeared to think that though meaningless, it was in some peculiar way, a tran- slation.

The Upper School was set short papers in these subjects. Three passages from a Chinese newspaper were set for translation into English. This paper was done by 242 boys, and was on the whole done very badly. In Classes I and II a boy was considered to have passed if he made a fair attempt at two passages, and succeeded in translating them in such a way that the meaning would be intelligible to a person who had not seen the original. A boy in Class III was considered to have passed if he understood one passage, and did not make more than four gross blunders in translating it into English. Judged according to this standard in Classes I and II 21 boys passed, and 117 boys failed to pass, of whom 77 sent in exercises which were quite worthless. In Class III, 55 boys attempted the translation into English and 7 passed; 48 failed, of whom 26 sent in work which was worthless. Translation would appear to be little practised in the school. Many boys are unable to transliterate the commonest characters. The character for instance appears as Ga, Gar, and Car, while

appears under an infinite number of forms; Chuk, Chirk, Chur, Churk, Chak, etc. The simplest titles are misunderstood: LI KA CH'EOK, the well-known Official in Canton, is variously described as a Viceroy, a General, an Admiral, an Ambas- sador, a Corporal and a Policeman. H. E. the Viceroy of Canton was usually spoken of as Mr. SAM. The failure of the boys was due as much to their inability to write correct English as to their ignorance of written Chinese. Few shewed themselves able to write three consecutive lines in English without at least one gross blunder. It is needless to multiply examples of this; the 8th boy in the school who has presumably been learning English for some time, and who (if one may judge from the exercise he sent in) is quite unable to write a sentence in correct Chinese, composes the following sentence in English "The two generals are also received from the Japanese King of stars," meaning to say "the two generals also received stars from the Japanese King." Papers were also set for translation from English into Chinese. In Class I A B 10 boys wrote correct Chinese, but the Chinese written by four boys out of this number, though correct, had so little relation to the English set, that it was worthless considered as translation.

Classes II and III did better than Class I, the English passages set were easier. Too many common characters are however written wrong, and the style was seldom good. The almost universal use of for the plural should be discouraged. Many common English words were not understood, e.g., Pirate, Junk, Fort, Tear off, etc. It is curious that only 15 boys out of 106 knew the Chinese for the Bogue Forts. Class I B. failed absolutely: of the 43 boys in this Division 36 sent in exercises which were quite worthless. They appeared to be neither able to understand the English nor to write Chinese. We consider that the teaching of translation from English into Chinese and vice versa, and the teaching of Chinese at Queen's College is unduly neglected. In our opinion there is no boy in the school at present who could make a translation of a despatch or petition from Chinese to English, which could be accepted without very careful checking.

A Chinese boy who enters Queen's College knowing nothing of his own written language is not likely to learn any, while the boy who enters knowing some- thing about it, is, under the present system, extremely likely to forget what he already knows.

Mathematics.-The Arithmetic was good on the whole, but rather slow, though some improvement was apparent in the higher. Classes.

The importance of smartness in addition to accuracy should be impressed up- on the scholars. Their slowness was sometimes caused by the desire for unnecessary neatness, and by using their rulers too often. Discipline was excellent throughout, with this modification that there was some 'cribbing' among the lower Classes. It is satisfactory to note however that this fault diminishes in the higher Classes and disappears about Class IV.

t

450

Algebra was offered by Classes I, II, and III. The various Divisions of these Classes shewed good results on the whole, though Class II was rather weaker than the others. Several boys in Class I failed to find an extraordinary, though simple, solution to an equation. Types of such should be more frequently given.

Euclid.-Offered by Classes I and II. Questions re axions and postulates were considered by most boys to be answered by quoting the number in the book, only about 15 per cent. answering properly. A few did not understand the questions. The proposition set was done fairly well in Class I but not so well in Class II.

It is unnecessary in our opinion for the scholars to be able to quote from memory the numbers of the propositions referred to.

Perhaps the difference in the quality of Euclid as compared with Algebra is due to the greater knowledge of English required; but we think that the Geometry might be improved, as there is no want of the mathematical faculty among the boys. Practical examples frequently given of the definitions, axioms, &c. might improve their conceptions of this subject.

About 20% of Class I solved an easy rider, but most either made a false as- sumption or missed out the important step in the reasoning.

Mensuration.-Offered by Class I, was very good, though some confused the volume of a cone with that of a cylinder.

The course of study appears to be perfectly well suited to the College, and the methods of teaching, subject to the foregoing remarks, appear to be good.

Discipline and Organization.-- Except in the matter of promoting boys who do not deserve promotion, the organization of the thousand boys of the College is very good. We say this however with a knowledge that the less experienced Chinese masters are to be put under an English Normal Master, and that the Staff teaching Chinese is to be strengthened. The discipline of the school is excellent, with however the exception of one important point. The importance of making civil replies is not sufficiently impressed on the scholars; and this applies to the majority of the Classes. When a boy is asked by an examiner what his age is, he might well be taught to reply "I'm fifteen, Sir," and not to blurt out a blunt "fifteen".

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS.

In conclusion, we have the following general recommendations to make.

Colloquial English.-This should be (what it certainly is not at present) the most important instrument for teaching English. From the outset boys should be taught to talk to the master and to each other. That this can be done is beyond dispute. If it were done, we should not find that boys after 3 or 4 years' education

in English were unwilling to reply to the most simple questions.

History and Geography.-It is highly desirable that a syllabus should be carefully thought out and laid down, so as to extend throughout the school without variation from year to year.

Mathematics. This is much the strongest subject, and we recommend that less time be devoted to it and more to the teaching of English, until the deficiencies of that subject are improved.

Reading.-Reading is studied in the Lower Classes as it were under two heads, reading without and reading with, a comprehension of the meaning of what is read. This system is quite indefensible and should be amended.

Chinese. The teaching of Chinese should be altogether reorganized.

Organization.-The less competent Chinese masters should be placed under the supervision of English masters.

1.-

451

General. In order to secure continuity, these General Recommendations should be made the basis of next year's Report.

We have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servants,

A. M. THOMSON.

EDWARD A. IRVING, Inspector of Schools.

S. B. C. ROSS.

Appendix.

The Stocks as a punishment for highway robbing.

By stocks we mean a frame with two holes in which the feet of offenders are closed. This is a sort of punishment against those who are guilty of crime. The object of such penalty, which can be made really useful, is to cause the criminals to feel ashamed of having done a wrong thing, and to purify them from the guilt of having looked on such a crime. Those who steal something from others or violate the laws, are often put into stocks and carried to the place where they have committed the theft and there the people may laugh and make a ridicle of them. This chastisement is necessary, as those who have been imprisoned will immediately forget what they have suffered after being set free and will commit further offence, but this condemnation will make the people recognize their face as soon as they are in sight and serve as an example and a warning that will be useful in preventing them from assimulating such faults. In this way, those who have suffered such penance must of course fear and hate it. To put it quite shortly, this chastisement should be preventive and everybody ought to leave off committing the crimes which lead to this disaster. This is the way for punishing an offender or thief in Hongkong, China and Siam.

The Stocks as a punishment for highway robbery.

The stock is used to bound the thieves and the robbers from their hand to feet. The Chinese Custom is usualy with this punishment. I saw several men were covered on his neck with the stock in Canton, and when they finished to covered by the stock; they also put into the prison. I saw a man was covered by the stock near Queen's Road last week for he robbed somebody's things in the highway; I suspected that the reason is used to give the people to look at him and cause him very shame and so he did not do this in hereafter. In this punishment is best to be imprisoned for if a man who put into prison that every person could not see him but if he was covered with the stock, and stood in the street etc; he is very shame than imprisoned. If a thief steals something and sentenced him to be stood in the street with the stock in his neck; I think he will willingly to be imprisoned and dislike to put the stock in his neck. If he put into prison for several days is better than the stock covered on the neck for several hours. It is very seldom with this punishment in Hongkong. In this way is really useful to take care the other people. I dare say no body shall be like this punishment.

Note. This essay was attempted by the 63 boys of Class 1. In classifying the results 19 papers were marked as passed with credit, and 11 as very bad. Specimens selected entirely at random from these two classes are given here.

CONTENTS.

No.

FROM.

DATE.

1 Sir W. J. GASCOIGNE,

(O.A.G.) to The Sec- retary of State,

2

Do.,

4

SUBJECT.

PAGE.

1902.

6 May,

Report of Education Committee. Transmitting it

with comments,

1

7

"

Report of Education Committee. Transmitting letter and memorandum by Dr. BATESON WRIGHT criticizing some of the recommenda- tions relating to Queen's College, with com- ments,

...

3

Kowloon School. Transmits correspondence re- lating to its reservation for children of Euro- pean British parentage,

15

3

Do,

8

""

Belilios Reformatory. Submitting that it be utilized as a British School for Victoria, being a failure as regards its original purpose,

16

Do.,

00

5 Governor Sir HENRY A. 30 July,

BLAKE to The Secre- tary of State,

6 Governor Sir HENRY A. 30 Sept.,

BLAKE to The Secre- tary of State,

7 The Secretary of State 12

to Gov. Sir HENRY A. BLAKE,

8

Education Committee. Transmitting correspond- ence respecting the resignation of the Bishop of Victoria,

...

Queen's College. Transmitting report by a Sub- committee of the Governing Body respecting a scheme for the restoration of Chinese classes, the employment of a Normal Master and re- commending increases in the salaries of Chi- nese Masters and Pupil Teachers,...

Grant in aid Schools. Transmitting letter from the Managers submitting that the recommend- ations of the Education Committee will be prejudicial to their Schools,

20

27

30

""

Report of Education Committee. Commenting thereon and upon the several despatches re- specting it,

32

The Secretary of State 18 Nov.,

to Gov. Sir HENRY A.

BLAKE,

1903.

9

Governor Sir HENRY A.

30 March,

10

BLAKE to The Secre- tary of State,

Grant in aid Schools. Replying to despatch of 30th September, (No. 6), and referring to des- patch of 12th September, (No. 7),...

Report of Education Committee. Replying to despatch of 12th September, 1902, (No. 7), and laying down the principles on which it is considered that educational work should in future be carried on,

Education Code. Transmitting new Code for con-

sideration and approval,

...

36

37

41

Do.,

8 April,

11

The Secretary of State 19 May,

to Gov. Sir HENRY A. BLAKE,

Report of Education Committee. Acknowledg- ing despatch of 30th March, (No. 9), and ap- proving supplementary Estimate therein also the new Code, (No. 10),...

48

12 Governor Sir HENRY A. BLAKE to The Secre- tary of State,

6]Aug.,

Chinese School in Kowloon. Reporting that plans have been prepared and that the work is to begin this year,

48

HONGKONG.

No. 34

MEMORANDUM ON THE ESTIMATES OF EXPENDITURE FOR 1904.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

[Note. Rate of Exchange is taken at 1s. 8d. instead of 1s. 10. for Sterling salaries and payments and 1s. 8d. for Exchange Compensation in 1903 Estimates.]

1903

GOVERNOR.

OTHER CHARGES.

New Furniture for Government House and Peak Residence.-The sum of $8,000 (non-recurrent) has been provided for the purchase of new furniture for Government House and Mountain Lodge. The expenditure of this sum will obviate the necessity of periodically moving furniture from one house to the other, which causes excessive wear and tear. Carpets, curtains and other articles of furniture require renewal. Deterioration is rapid in this climate, especially on the Peak.

The vote for Incidental Expenses has been separated from the Furniture vote and has been increased from $1,200 to $1,500. It has been underestimated in recent years.

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S DEPARTMENT AND LEGISLATURE.

PERSONAL EMOluments.

Assistant Colonial Secretary.-The first increment of this post is provided for in anticipation of the holder of the substantive appointment being no longer required for the Land Court which is expected to finish its work in the middle of next year.

OTHER CHARGES.

Advertisement. — Advertisements of military gun-practices have hitherto been paid for out of this vote. In future the cost will be defrayed by the Military Authorities, hence the decrease of $135.

TREASURY.

OTHER CHARGES.

The vote for Office Furniture, Conveyance for collecting Village Rates in Hongkong and Kowloon, and Incidental Expenses, has been split up into three separate votes. The increase is rendered necessary by the expenses of collection of rates in the villages of New Kowloon.

Sub-Department.--Assessor of Rates. PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

The Interpreter has not yet passed the examination prescribed for 3rd Class Interpreters, and, therefore, does not draw the salary of Interpreters attached to that class. Throughout the Estimates the posts that are on the Interpretation Depart- ment and which it is intended eventually to fill with qualified Interpreters, are distinguished by the letters I. D. and the class.

OTHER CHARGES.

The decrease of $1,800 in connection with the numbering of houses in the New Territory is due to the fact that the actual numbering is now completed, and only a small amount of supervision as regards changes, new buildings, &c., will be required.

426

Sub-Department.-Stamp Office.

OTHER CHARGES.

The increase of $1,000 under "Cost of Adhesive Stamps" is due to the cost of the introduction of the new system of stamping, (vide Governor's Despatch No. 236 of 30th April, 1903.) The same cause renders the vote for Incidental Expenses insufficient, and it has been increased by $100. The new machines require fresh rollers at least once a week, which will entail a cost of about $60 per annum. small provision for cleaning is also necessary.

POST OFFICE.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Superintendent, Registration and Parcels Branch (formerly Supervisor.)

General Office.

A

1st Clerk, Registration and Parcels Branch (formerly Superintendent). 2nd Clerk, Registration and Parcels Branch (formerly Deputy Superintendent). Superintendent of Mails, (formerly Supervisor).

[Note.--Fifteen Clerks at $720 to $,1080 were by printer's error wrongly

quoted in 1903 Estimates as at $780 to $1,080. Three Clerks are em- ployed as Assistant Marine Officers. They are drawn sometimes from those on one Class of pay and sometimes from those on another, accord- ing as suitable men for the work are found,]

OTHER CHARGES

Agencies in China.

Canton.---3 Postmen.- An additional postman has been provided. The Chinese Imperial Postal Authorities have recently issued instructions that all 4-cent letters are to be treated as insufficiently prepaid. This necessitates the British Post Office delivering all such correspondence through its own Agencies instead of through the Chinese offices as formerly. An extra postman at Canton has, therefore, become necessary. The same necessity will probably be felt before long in the other Agencies.

Hankow.-2 Postmen, one at $120 and one at $96.-The senior postinan is granted an increase of $24 per annum from the 1st January, 1904. He has been employed for 16 years and has been strongly recommended for the increase.

Cost of Stamps.-Increase of $5,000. The stamps are now bi-coloured, and in the case of the lower values--of which very large quantities are used-the cost is found to be twice as great as that of the last issue. For correspondence regarding the new stamps wide letter from Crown Agents No. 96 of 3rd July, 1901, and Colonial Secretary's letter of 12th August, 1901, No. 1982.

Shanghai-Advertising Poste Restante Correspondence. This provision is made to allow a daily list of unclaimed letters to be published in the Shanghai Times.

Fee of Medical Attendant.-Hitherto the Medical Attendant's fee has been only $100 per annum, which was paid out of Incidental Expenses. The fee was fixed in 1899, when the staff had been increased to 3 clerks. It has since been conside- rably further increased, and the Medical Attendant declines to attend the whole staff for less than $250 per annum. This sum, which appears reasonable, has now been provided, representing an increase of $150 per annum.

REGISTRAR GENERAL'S DEPARTMENT.

Interpretation Department.

Translator's allowance for instruction of Student Interpreters.--The Transla- tor is required to correct the composition of the Student Interpreters out of office hours. A monthly salary of $15 has therefore been allowed him for the purpose. This was approved in 1901, but owing to an oversight did not appear in the Estimates for 1902 or 1903. During 1903 it has been paid out of lapsing salaries.

}

!

427

Emigration Interpreter and Clerk.-This clerk will not draw the higher rate of salary until he has passed the examination for a Second Class Interpreter.

OTHER CHARGES.

The vote" Furniture and Incidental Expenses" has been altered to "Incidental Expenses." New furniture is so seldom required and in such small quantities that it can be paid for out of the "incidentals" vote.

HARBOUR DEPARTMENT.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Chinese Interpreter, 1.D. 2nd Class.-This officer has not yet passed the examination for 2nd Class Interpreters and hence draws only his former pay.

Superintendent of Imports and Exports, Incidental Expenses.-The increase of $40 is due to the increased price of newspapers, telephone charges and increased cost of sundry articles.

BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Clerk and Interpreter.The post is assigned to a Second Class Interpreter, but the present holder has not yet passed the prescribed examination.

1st Herbarium Assistant.-The initial pay of this post is $240 per annum and the increments are biennial. The officer who has been newly appointed to the post has been allowed to commence on $300 as the salary of his former post (Foreman Forester) would otherwise have been initially greater than the post to which he has now been appointed.

OTHER CHARGES.

Draining King's Park, Kowloon.-Until negotiations with the Military Authorities are complete it will be impossible to lay out the King's Park, but the sum of $5,000 is provided to enable the Department to undertake the draining of the swampy areas therein. The proximity of barracks and dwelling-houses makes

it desirable to undertake this work in the first instance, as the areas referred to are reported to be unhealthy.

Recreation Ground for the Victoria liospital.-A small area of ground, of no value for building purposes, has been allotted to the Victoria Hospital for Women and Children to be used as a garden or recreation ground. The turfing of this ground is estimated to cost $300 and the laying-out about $200.

JUDICIAL AND LEGAL DEPARTMENTS.

LAND REGISTRY OFFICE.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Clerk and Translator.-The salary of the present holder of the office (Mr. KENT), is $720 per annum. He is expected shortly to pass the examination for 2nd Class Translator with the pay of $960 rising to $1,200.

FOR NEW TERRITORIES.

Assistant Land Officer. The Estimates were closed prior to receipt of C.O.D. 282 of 29th July, 1903, authorising a salary of $3,000 to $3,600 only. The lower scale will be drawn by the incumbent.

ATTORNEY GENERAL.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Additional Messenger at $72.-Necessitated by the increase in the volume of correspondence passing between this and other Departments.

OTHER CHARGES.

Typewriter for Crown Solicitor's Officc.-Rendered necessary by the large amount of copying to be done in this office.

428

Lighting Atibrney General's and Crown Solicitor's Offices.-Increased cost of electric lighting and fans.

EDUCATION.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Kowloon School:- Second Mistress.-See Governor's Despatch No. 435 of the 11th September, 1903.

Saiyingpun Anglo-Chinese School-First and 2nd Assistant Masters.-The quar- ters allowances of these officers have been withdrawn, and their salaries have been in- creased so as to give them $24 a year each more than their salaries plus quarters allowances provided in the Estimates for 1903. This arrangement took effect from the 1st May, 1903, the extra expenditure (in this and in the case of Wantsai School) being met out of the vote of $20,000 (See C.O.D. 300 of 12th September, 1902). The expenditure was sanctioned after the supplementy estimate referred to in Gov- ernor's Despatch 161 of 30th March, 1903, was passed.

Wantsai Anglo-Chinese School. The pay of the First Assistant Master has been raised to $60 a month. It was impossible to secure a satisfactory Master on a smaller salary, nor were there any candidates, except within the Education Depart- ment itself, for the vacancy when advertised at $60. An extra $120, or less, may be earned as a bonus at the end of this year, but this depends on the way in which the Master has carried out his duties.

Second Assistant Master,-As in the case of the Masters of Saiyingpun School the quarters allowance of this officer has been abolished, and his salary raised from $348 to $360 per annum. As the quarters allowance was $72, there will be an annual saving of $60 per annum.

This officer is also entitled to a conditional bonus of $120.

OTHER CHARges.

Chinese High School and other Improvements in Educational System.—Authoris- ed expenditure separately provided for.

Senior Master and Supervisor, for Conveyance.-It is considered unnecessary to supply this officer with a conveyance allowance. As it is sometimes necessary, however, for the Inspector of Schools to send for the Masters of the various schools and as they reside at a considerable distance from his office it has been decided that actual conveyance expenses may properly be defrayed by the Department. For this

purpose a transport vote of $144 per annum has been provided under the head of "District School, Transport of Master."

Kowloon School-Hire of Piano.-This is necessary as several of the school- children learn music, which is taught by the Headmistress.

District Schools-Examination Grant.-The increase of $650 is accounted for as follows:-

Appointment.

1903.

1904.

Increase.

$

$

1st Assistant, Saiyingpun, 2nd

120

120

23

39

Vernacular

1st Assistant, Wantsai,

2nd

Vernacular

Master, Yaumati,

2nd Assistant, Yaumati, Vernacular

Master, Wongneichung,

Tunglungchau, Sheko, Pokfulam,

""

60

188 188 :

120

120

60

60

70

120

50

120

120

60

60

120

60

120

120

60

60

60

60

36

36

36

36

36

36

$ 418

$ 1,068

$ 650

.

"

429

These increased grants or bonuses are designed to supplement the salaries of the Chinese Masters and are part of the Improvements in Education sanctioned by the Secretary of State. They did not appear in the estimate forwarded in despatch No. 161 of 30th March last because they were not required till 1904. For recom- mendation to increase emoluments of Chinese Masters in District Schools see para- graph 42 of Education Committee's report.

Transport of Master.-See "Senior Master and Supervisor, for Conveyance."

QUEEN'S COLLEGE.

Second Master's Allowance for knowledge of Chinese.--Exchange Compensation is drawn on this allowance, which in Mr. MAY's case is a personal allowance and is not on the same footing as language allowances drawn by other officers. $180 was first inserted in the Estimates for 1893 as a personal allowance to this Officer.

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Civil Hospital Staff, European Sisters. The decreases are due to fewer Sisters drawing Exchange Compensation, and to five Sisters being placed on Sterling salaries without allowances for fuel and light.

Probationers. The increase is due to two probationers having been granted Sterling salaries, and to stiputated increment in the salary of one.

OTHER CHARGES.

Civil Hospital, Bedding and Clothing.-Vote hitherto too small. Chinese washing entails considerable wear and tear.

Photographic Camera. -For use in connection with the diagnosis of disease.

Public Mortuary-Assistant Caretaker. --Necessary to increase the pay of this post from $72 rising to $120 a year to $120 a year fixed. It was impossible to obtain a suitable candidate for the post at a lower salary.

Maintenance of Public Mortuary, Bacteriological Laboratory and Vaccine Institute.-These items are necessary for the proper equipment of these institutions, the introduction of new methods, the increasing number of post-mortem examinations held, and the large number of rats examined.

MAGISTRACY.

OTHER CHARGES.

Advertising Meetings of Justices of the Peace.--Formerly paid out of News- papers, Advertisements, etc. under the C.S.O. vote for "Other Charges."

Costs of Witnesses, c.-Increase of $250 rendered necessary by increase in number of cases requiring the services of interpreters.

Office Furniture, &c.-Increase due to the introduction of electric light and fans into the Court. The increase represents the approximate cost of use.

Typewriting machine. The purchase of a typewriting machine is provided for, to enable the Magistrates' depositions to be typewritten for use by the Judges of the Supreme Court.

Third Clerk.

POLICE.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

27 Chinese Sergeant Interpreters.

}

In the Interpretation Department, but having

not yet passed the prescribed examination do not draw the salary of their Class.

430

Female Searcher.-Hitherto there has been no regular Female Searcher and inconvenience and delay has been caused in the past through having to call in outside assistance when required. The sister of a Chinese constable has now undertaken the duties for the sum named.

Miscellaneous.--17 Boatmen at $96 each.--The addition of 5 boatmen to the number formerly provided for accounts for the increase in aggregate emoluments. The new men are required for a boat for use for Police work on the water at Sha- T'au-Kok in the New Territory.

OTHER CHARGES.

Kent of Police Stations.-For the rent of the house next to No. 2 Station the sum of $1,080 is required. (See Governor's despatch No. 350 of the 16th July, 1903.) As the rental of a house for the station at Tai O ($240) has been discon- tinued the excess is reduced to $840.

Repairs for Launches.-The new No. 3 launch for use on Mirs Bay is a much larger vessel than the old one. The repairs will be more costly.

Sub-Department.-Fire Brigade. PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Floating Engine.

Coxswain.

Hitherto one of the seamen has acted as coxswain, but this arrange- 2 Seamen. ment has not proved satisfactory. By the appointment of a coxswain it has been possible to reduce the number of seamen from 3 to 2. The total increase is, there- fore, only $144.

VICTORIA GAOL. PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

!

Allowance to Officers for Knowledge of English and Chinese Colloquial.-- Hitherto, by an oversight, these officers have only drawn $1 a month each, whereas they are entitled to $2. They have drawn at the higher rate since March 1st, 1903.

SANITARY DEPARTMENT.

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Sanitary Inspector's Allowance for Knowledge of Chinese. This is for one Inspector, who has passed the 3rd Class examination in Cantonese colloquial.

4 1st Class Sanitary Inspectors.-The 1st Class Inspectors have been made Plague Inspectors. Vacancies will be filled by promotion. Provision is made for increments for 5 months.

1 1st Class Sanitary Inspector. Language Allowance, $120, has been transferred to Plague Inspectors' Language Allowance. A 2nd Class Sanitary Inspector who draws $120 language allowance has been promoted to be 1st Class Inspector.

2nd Class Sanitary Inspector's Allowance for Knowledge of Chinese.—1 Inspect- or has passed the 3rd Class examination in Cantonese colloquial.

6 Sanitary Inspectors 3rd Class.-Provision is made for increments for 5 months for 6 3rd Class Inspectors.

1 Temporary Sanitary Inspector, for Kowloon Disinfecting Station.--As the Station may only be open for six months in the year provision is made for 6 months' salary only.

Foreman, Peak District.- Appointment necessary in view of the large increase in the number of houses on the Peak and the desirability of supervising the work of the scavenging contractor.

Foreman, Disinfecting Staff.-The salary of this post has been placed on the same level as the salaries of the foremen on the Plague Staff, as the duties are practically the same.

Foremen, Coolies and Artisans, Kowloon Disinfecting Station.-These officers are required to carry out the disinfection of premises at Kowloon, and as they will be employed throughout the year they have been placed on the permanent staff. In 1903 they were paid out of the vote for "Coolie Labour.”

431

12 Foremen Interpreters.-The engagement of temporary European Inspectors for plague work is very unsatisfactory on account of the difficulty of obtaining trustworthy men. The extra provision under this head has been made with a view to the discontinuance of the engagement of temporary Plague Inspectors and substi- tution of 12 permanent Portuguese Foremen at a slightly increased pay. Of the 12, six will assist the Plague Inspectors and six will perform the duties of Rat Foremen and assist the Plague Inspectors generally.

6 Temporary Foremen Interpreters.-Provision has been made for these for 4 months, during the period when plague is usually at its height. They will be Por- tuguese, and will be employed similarly to the permanent Interpreters and paid at the same rate without increments.

60 Coolies at $144 each.-An increase of 20 coolies is provided for at the same rate of pay. It was found necessary to employ these 20 extra men and they have been paid during 1903 out of the vote "Coolie Labour" under the heading "Other Charges" (Plague). They are employed in the removal of dead bodies from the Convents, Tung Wa Hospital and private premises to the mortuary; and the cleansing and disinfection of houses in which plague rats have been found is carried out by them. The 60 coolies are fully employed throughout the year.

3 Foremen Rat-catchers.

30 Rat-catchers.

The system by which rats were caught and destroy-

ed has not proved a success. Obstruction and disobedience on the part of house- holders, suspected bribery and extortion on the part of the rat-catchers, and the probability of the importation on a large scale of dead rats from Canton and Macao for the sake of the bonus, have made a change in the system imperative. No bonus will henceforth be granted, and the work of rat-catching will be carried out by 14 coolies at a fixed salary of $144 each, whose duty it will be to collect rats from the various Health Districts and to carry traps to the premises of anyone apply- ing for the services of rat-catchers or traps. Their work will be supervised by the Plague Inspectors assisted by the Portuguese Foremen.

10 Temporary Inspectors for Disinfecting Purposes.-The appointment of the 12 Portuguese Foremen renders these men unnecessary.

2 Temporary Inspectors for Rat-poisoning Purposes.-No longer necessary under the new Rat system.

Temporary Inspector in charge of Burials.-It has been found that an Inspector is required for six instead of four months.

2 Temporary Inspectors, Observation Blocks.-As the Observation Blocks are essentially shelters and not in any sense Quarantine Camps, it is unnecessary to have special Inspectors in charge of them. The Plague Inspectors in whose districts these blocks are situated will be able to exercise the necessary supervision with regard to cleanliness, etc.

Telephone Clerk, Kowloon Disinfecting Station. This new Station is not ex- pected to be open for more than 6 months. (See "1 Temporary Sanitary Inspector for Kowloon Disinfecting Station.")

ment.

40 Rat-poisoning Coolies and 8 Foremen.-Unnecessary under the new arrange-

2 Messengers. Formerly paid out of the open Plague vote and in 1903 out of

"Coolie Labour."

Caretaker and Meseenger, Public Mortuary, Kowloon.-The new Public Mortu- ary at Kowloon was handed over the to Sanitary Board in April, 1903, and a Caretaker and Messenger at once provided, as plague cases were daily occurring in Kowloon.

14 Coolies for Collecting Rats at $144 each.—To replace the Rat-catchers under the old system see remarks under "3 Foremen Rat-catchers and 30 Rat-catchers."

Nurses, Doctors, Attendants, Coolies and Cooks for District Hospitals.--This staff is necessary in consequence of the decision, based on a resolution of the Sani- tary Board, to establish 8 district plague hospitals, to give patients a better chance of recovery by treating them close to their own homes and near their friends. (See Gov-

.

432

ernor's Memorandum on Plague transmitted under cover of Despatch No. 403 of the 31st August, 1903.). Eight hospitals will be established at first: one in each of the Health Districts 1, 2, 3, and 4, one in Health Districts 5 and 6, and one in each of the Health District's 9, 11 and 12. The Tung Wa Hospital will continue to take patients from Health Districts 7 and 8 and Kennedy Town Hospital from Health District 10. The estimates for the hospitals and staff have been calculated for 4 months, and on the expectation that there will be 500 patients. As far as possible licentiates will be engaged from the College of Medicine for Chinese, as doctors. The three Lady Nurses will exercise a general supervision over the female wards. It is proposed to have two for Victoria and one for Kowloon.

Veterinary Staff-24 Searengers.-An addition of 8 Scavengers has been made to the 1903 staff,-making 24 in all (22 in the Estimates for 1903 was a misprint for 16). The new coolies will be attached to the Cattle Depôt at Kennedy Town, to which large alterations and extensions are being made. (Vide Governor's Des- patch No. 393 of the 14th August, 1903.)

Wantsai Extension Market.

Temporary Market (Harbour Office). Š

each of these new markets.

Two Scavengers have been provided for

OTHER CHARGES.

Cattle Crematorium and Refuse Destructor.--It is estimated that about 90 tons of coal will be consumed in a year. The amount provided will pay for this and for incidental expenses of working. This building was originally sanctioned under Supplementary Vote No. 10 of 1901.

Conveyance Allowance.-Inspector of Markets, Kowloon.-The appointment is a new one. (See C.O.D. 182 of 15th May, 1903.)

Disinfecting Tanks.-This provision is made on the recommendation of the Sanitary Board and as a result of the experiment described by the Governor in his Memorandum on Plague (forwarded under cover of Despatch No. 403 of the 21st August, 1903). This expenditure will allow of an extension of the water tanks to other portions of the City, besides Second and Third Streets and the adjacent lanes.

Market Expenses.-Increase of $200. Former vote insufficient and regularly exceeded.

Rent of Land for Accommodation of Cattle.-Required for the accommodation of cattle pending completion of the extensions at the Cattle Depôt. (Vide Governor's Despatch No. 393 of the 14th August, 1903.)

Piague-Ambulances, Coffins, &c.-- It is considered that the sum named will be sufficient for expenses under this head.

Bonus for Hats.-Bonus abolished. See remarks under "3 Foremen Rat-cat- chers."

Compensation for Damages by Disinfectum.- For compensation under Ordinance 1 of 1903, section 89.

Coolie Labour.-Reduction due to the re-organisation of the staff and re-distri- bution of expenditure.

Disinfectants.--It is hoped that the extension of the water-tank system and the separation of other items of expenditure which were formerly met out of this vote will render the sum now provided sufficient. It may be noted that lime-washing after disinfection will henceforth be discontinued, and the amount spent thereon will be saved.

Disinfecting and Cleansing Apparatus.-This vote is provided to enable the Department to obtain twelve Equifex sprayers, as perchloride of mercury is not only one of the most effective disinfectants but also one of the cheapest.

Disinfecting Stations and Matsheds, Lighting. Headstones. Incidental Expenses. Plague Boats and Matsheds. Plague Corpses, Conveyance. Uniforms for Staff-New votes have been provided for each of these sub-heads. The expenditure was for- merly met out of the vote "Disinfectants," which has been reduced by one half.

:

:

433

District Hospitals.-For explanation of 5 items of expenditure under this head, see remarks on "Nurses, Doctors, Attendants, Coolies and Cooks for District Hos- pitals." The estimated rent includes $30 a month Rent Allowance for 4 months for the 8 doctors. The estimate for food as well as medicine has been provided as it is probable that most of the patients will have to be provided with food.

Observation Blocks, Rent. Plague Corpses, Cost of Burial.-The former votes under these two heads are found insufficient.

PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT. PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS.

Crown Land and Surveys, Clerk, $360 to $480 by $60 bienniall -This clerkship was formerly paid at the rate of $180 rising to $600. The last holder of the post at this rate was transferred to be a clerk under the Superintendent of Ac- counts, Correspondence and Stores at the same rate of salary; while the holder of that post was similarly transferred to the vacant clerkship under Crown Land and Surveys at his own former rate of salary-$360 to $480. The increase of expendi- ture in respect of the one clerkship is, therefore, exactly balanced by the decrease in respect of the other.

Accounts, Correspondence and Stores.—Clerk, $480 to 8600 by $60 biennially. vide the above note.

Clerk, $480 to $600 by $60 biennially.-This clerkship was formerly paid at $360 to $480. (See Estimates for 1903.) On the resignation of the holder of the post in 1902 it was found impossible to secure a suitable successor at a smaller salary than $480 to $600, which was accordingly provisionally sanctioned, though it was too late to make the necessary alteration in the Estimates for 1903. The pre- sent holder of the post was appointed on October 3rd, 1902. He will be entitled to draw his first increment from October 4th, 1904.

Miscellaneous.-Office Coolie, at $90 per annum. This Coolie has been trans- ferred from Survey to Office work. As Survey Coolie he drew $84 per annum. The increase of his pay by 50 cents per annum was sanctioned in May, 1903. He is an addition to the establishment to meet increase of work and is necessary.

PUBLIC WORKS ANNUALLY RECURRENT.

Maintenance of Public Cemetery-Owing to considerable extensious in the Cemetery this vote would have had to be increased to $4,000 had not the sum of $800 been transferred to the Botanical and Afforestation Department for the garden- ing and general care of the Cemetery.

Maintenance of Light-houses. In this year's Estimates an extra $500 was pro- vided for Maintenance of Waglan Light-house. The buildings there are considerable and the addition has been found insufficient. This vote has, moreover, been under- estimated in the past.

Maintenance of Public Recreation Grounds.-The Queen's Recreation Ground has caused a considerable increase in the area to be maintained. The Happy Valley Recreation Ground also requires more attention than formerly owing to greater wear and tear.

Maintenance of Water Works-City and Hill District. --The increase of $10,000 is to provide for pumping of water from Tytam-tuk into the Tytam Con- duit pending construction of storage reservoir at Tytam-tuk.

Water Works, Miscellaneous.--The increase of $4,000 is to provide for minor additions and extensions in Hongkong and Kowloon.

PUBLIC WORKS EXTRAORDINARY.

Bacteriological Institute.-The estimated cost stated in the Estimates for 1902 was $30,000. That was merely an approximate estimate before plans were made.

The estimated cost is now ascertained to be $40,000. Plans of the proposed building are attached.

:

434

Cattle Depôt Extension.- Explained in Governor's Despatch No. 393 of the 14th of August, 1903.

Disinfecting Station, Kowloon.—The original estimate in 1903 Estimates was $13,000. Since it was made the Sanitary Board have asked for additional accom- modation to house the coolies employed on the Kowloon Plague Staff and to store disinfectants, etc., on the same site as the Disinfector. This accommodation is con- sidered very necessary. The estimate is thereby increased to $27,000. Plans of the building are attached.

Gunpowder Depôt, Green Island.-The original estimate was $30,000.

That was for a much smaller and less modern type of building.

The building which it is now proposed to construct is not larger than is consider- ed necessary for the quantity of explosives for which storage accommodation will be required. The average revenue from storage fees for the past 5 years is over $21,000 per annum which will give a very handsome return on the capital outlay. Plans are attached.

Harbour Office.—Plans of the building are attached.

Western Market.-Plans are attached.

Prison on Stonecutters' Island.-Plans are attached. The accommodation is for 186 convicts and 60 Naval Prisoners.

Yaumati School. This is the School referred to in the Governor's Despatch No. 380 of 6th August, 1903. Plans are attached.

Tai P-Quarters for Officers-Permanent quarters are absolutely necessary for the Assistant Superintendent of Police and District Magistrate, and the Assistant Land Officer.

The accommodation at present consists of two mat-sheds which besides being inadequate for permanent purposes are very expensive to maintain owing to constantly required repairs. Plans of the proposed building are attached.

Cable for Observatory and other Telephone Lines to Kowloon. --The cable is worn out and Government is at present using a borrowed cable.

Training Nullahs.-The sum is to provide for the continuation of the work of prevention of malaria.

Public Health and Buildings Ordinance. Compensation. Insanitary Properties Resumption.-Authority was obtained to include $410,000 for these two items divided almost equally between them:

It is not anticipated that so large a sum will be required next year for com- pensations and as it is desirable to make effective progress with resumptions, the bulk of the sum has been allocated to that item.

Rifle Ranges. For explanation of the items under this heading, see Governor's Despatch No. 298 of the 18th June, 1903.

1

Hongkong, 14th September, 1903.

F. H. MAY,

Colonial Secretary.

:

.

Receipts.

HONGKONG.

FINANCIAL RETURNS FOR THE YEAR 1902.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Commar

His Excellency the Governor.

HONGKONG.

STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURE IN T

Amonut Estimated.

Actual Receipts.

More than Less than Estimated.

Estimated.

$

(.

Payments.

C.

Nett Balance (overpaid) 1st Jan., 190.

Nett Balance, 1st January, 1902,

IEADS OF REVENUE,

1. Light Dues,

2. Liceuces and Internal Revenue, not

otherwise specified,

...

3. Fees of Court or Office, Payments forS pecific purposes and Reimbur- sements in aid,

4. Post Office,

5. Rent of Government Property,

6. Interest,.

7. Miscellaneous Receipts,

8. Water Account,

..

55,000.00

106,896.94

C.

66,106.52

11,106.52

2,442,180.00 2,600,520.55 158,340.55

272,595.00 296,709.19 24,114.19

350,000.00 387,066.19 37,066.19!

564,200.00 572,286.15 8,086.15

5,000.00 2,003.92

230,990.00 233,070.49 2,080.49

186,000.00 171,949.47

9. Land Sales,

TOTAL, exclusive of Land Sales,... 4,105,965.00 4,329,712.48

500,000,00 571,361.22

240,794.09

71,361.22

*

C.

HEADS OF EXPENDITURE.

Public Debt,

Pensions,

Governor and Legislature,

Colonial Secretary's Department, Audit Deptartment, Treasury,

Public Works Department,

Post Office,

Registrar General's Department, Harbour Master's Department, Light-honses,

Observatory,

2,996.08 Botanical and Afforestation Dept.,

Legal Departments,

Land Court, New Territory, Eccclesiastical,

14,050.53 Education,

Medical Departments, Magistracy,

Police,

17,046.61 Sanitary Department,.,

Charitable Allowances,

Transport,

Miscellaneous Services,

Military Expenditure,

Public Works Recurrent,

Total Revenue,.......

More than Estimated,

4,605,965.00 4,901,073.70 312,155.31 17,046.61

295,108.70

17,046.61

Total Revenue, INCLUDING BALANCE,

5,007,970.64

Deposits Available, (Subsidiary Coin),

3,222,000.00

Deposits Available,

300,000.00

Deposits Not Available,

477,088.20

Crown Agents,

2,876,230.78

Crown Agents' Bills outstanding,

120,000.00

Advance Account,.

559,066.83

Family Remittance,

43,251.63

Tutal,

Public Works Extraordinary,

Total Expenditure, ..

More than Estimated

PAYMENTS.

Deposits Available, (Subsidiary Coin

Deposits Available,

Deposits Not Available,.

Crown Agents,

2

HONGKONG.

FINANCIAL RETURNS FOR THE YEAR 1902.

before the Legislative Council by Command of

His Excellency the Governor,

No.

13 1903

HONGKONG.

)WING THE TOTAL RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURE IN THE YEAR 1902.

al

More than Less than

ots.

Estimated.

Estimated.

C.

96.94

C.

Payments.

Nett Balance (overpaid) 1st Jan., 1902,

HEADS OF EXPENDITURE.

Amount Estimated.

Actual Payments.

دیر

More than Estimated.

Less than Estimated.

$

C.

)6.52

+

..

C.

C.

C.

:

11,106.52

20.55 158,840.55

Public Debt,

157,415.00

175,649.54

18,234.54

Pensions,

167,000.00

206,654.80

39,654.80

Governor and Legislature,.

60,584.83

71,749.08

11,164.25

Colonial Secretary's Department,

67,203.13

57,815.54

9,387.59

Audit Deptartment,

10,670.00

15,461.64

4,791.64

Treasury,

32.670.00

41,490.59

8,820.59

*9.19

24,114.19

Public Works Department,

138,701.00

122,085.28

16,615.72

Post Office,

290,116.00

316,240.12

26,124.12

66.19

37,066.19

Registrar General's Department,

28,497.00

24,230.33

733.33

Harbour Master's Department,

115,521.00

113,878.62

1,642.38

36.15

8,086.15

Light-houses,

30,780.00

23,697.03

7,082.97

Observatory,

15,688.00

16,678 30

990.30

3.92

2,996.08 Botanical and Afforestation Dept.,

40,726.24

31,446.11

9,280.13.

Legal Departments,

83,230.00

97,395.39

14,165.39

70.49

2,080.49

Land Court, New Territory,

47,584.00

41,465.04

6,128.96-

Eccclesiastical,

2,200.00

1,800.00

400.00

9.47

14,050.53 Education,

96,314.38

92,355.78

3,958.60

Medical Departments,

146,666.00

149,472.41

2,806.41

Magistracy,

24,908.00

29,050.62

4,112.62

Police,

539,261.00

497,238.12

42,022.88-

2.48

240,794.09

$1.22

71,361.22

17,046.61 Sanitary Department,.

Charitable Allowances,

Transport,

Miscellaneous Services,

187,973.00

212,710.20

24,707.20

5,260.00

3,498.13

1,761.37

8,000.00

18,703 66

15,703.66

271,781.00

929,711.55

657,930.55

886,389.00

955,182.77

68,793.77

Military Expenditure,

Public Works Recurrent,

73.70

312,155.31 17,046.61

17,046.61

$

295,108.70

70.64

00.00

00.00

38.20

30.78

00.00

816,500.00 506,793.41 190,293.41

Tetal,

3,761,63,53 4,752,444.06| 1,089,086.58

98,281.10

Public Works Extraordinary,

797,816.68 1,157,104.45 359,787.77

Total Expenditure, .... 4,559,955.265,009,548.51| 1,448,874.35

98,281.10

98,281.10

More than Estimated,.

$ 1,350,593.25

PAYMENTS.

Deposits Available, (Subsidiary Coin),

56.83

51.63

Deposits Available,

Deposits Not Available,.

Crown Agents,

Clunes A monte' Rille in transit

2,372,000.00

300,000,00

502,196.80

3,013,956.15

264.000.00

Nett Balance, 1st January, 1902,

IIEADS OF Revenue.

1. Light Dues,

2. Licences and Internal Revenue, not

otherwise specified,

3. Fees of Court or Office, Payments forS pecific purposes and Reimbur- sements in aid,

4. Post Office,

5. Rent of Government Property,

6. Interest,

7. Miscellaneous Receipts,

8. Water Account,

(.

106,896.94

C.

$

č.

C.

55,000.00 66,106,52

2,442,180,00| 2,600,520.55

11,106,52

158,340.55

272,595.00 296,709.19 24,114.19

350,000.00 387,066.19 37,066.191

564,200.00 572,286.15 8,086.15

5,000.00 2,003.92

230,990.00 233,070.49

186,000.00 171,949.47

HEADS OF EXPENDITURE.

Public Debt,

Pensions,

Governor and Legislature,.

Colonial Secretary's Department, Audit Deptartment, Treasury,

Public Works Department, Post Office,

Registrar General's Department, Harbour Master's Department, ... Light-honses,

Observatory,

2,996.08 Botanical and Afforestation Dept

2,080.49

...

TOTAL, exclusive of Land Sales,... 4,105,965.00 4,329,712.48

9. Land Sales,

240,794.09

500,000.00 571,361.22

71,361.22

Legal Departments,

Land Court, New Territory, Eccclesiastical,

14,050.53| Education,

Medical Departments, Magistracy,

Police,

17,046.61 Sanitary Department,

Charitable Allowances,

Transport,

Miscellaneous Services,

Military Expenditure, Public Works Recurrent,

Total Revenue,.......

4,605,965.00 4,901,073.70

312,155.31

17,046.61

17,046.61

More than Estimated,

295,108.70

NA

Total Revenue, INCLUDING BALANCE,

5,007,970.64

Deposits Available, (Subsidiary Coin),

3,222,000.00

Deposits Available,

300,000.00

Deposits Not Available,

477,088.20

Crown Agents,

2,876,230.78

Crown Agents' Bills outstanding,

120,000.00

Advance Account,..

559,066.83

Family Remittance,

43,251.63

Subsidiary Coin,

2,396.811.44

Money Order,......

180,231.63

Suspense House Service,

12,396.20

Suspense,

26,072.79

Exchange,

176,600.57

Total,

$ 15,397,720.71

Hongkong, 18th March, 1903.

Tetal,

Public Works Extraordinary, ...

Total Expenditur

More than Estim

PAYMENTS.

Deposits Available, (Subsidiary Deposits Available,

Deposits Not Available,. Crown Agents,

Crown Agents' Bills in transit,. Advance Account,

Family Remittance, Subsidiary Coin, Money Order,

Suspense House Service, Suspense,....

Private Drainage Works,

Nett Balance 31st Dec.,

T

C.

C.

HEADS OF EXPENDITURE.

C.

6,106.52

11,106.52

Public Debt,

157,415.00 175,649.54

18,234.84

Pensions,

167,000.00

206,654.80

39,654.80

Governor and Legislature,

60,584.83

71,749.08

11,164.25

0,520.55

158,340.55

Colonial Secretary's Department,

67,203.13

57,815.54

9,387.59-

Audit Deptartment,

10,670.00

15,461.64

4,791.64

Treasury,

32.670.00

41,490.59

8,820.59

6,709.19 24,114.19

Public Works Department,

138,701.00

122.085.28

16,615.72

Post Office,

290,116.00

316,240.12

26,124.12

7,066.19 37,066.19

Registrar General's Department,

28,497.00

24.230.33

733.33

Harbour Master's Department,

115,521.00

113,878,62

1,642.38:

2,286.15

2,003.92

8,086.15

Light-houses,

30,780.00

28,697.03

7,082.97

Observatory,

15,688.00

16,678 30

990.30

2,996.08 Botanical and Afforestation Dept.,

40,720.24

81,446.11

9,280.13

Legal Departments,

83,230.00

97,895.39

14,165.39

3,070.49

1,949.47

2,080.49

Land Court, New Territory,

47.5684.00

41.455.04

6,128.96.

Eccclesiastical,

2,200.00

1,800.00

400.00-

14,050.53 Education,

96,314.38

92,355.78

3,958.60-

Medical Departments,

146,666.00

149,472.41

2,805.41

Magistracy,

24,908.00

29,050.62

4,142.62

9,712.48 240,794.09

1,361.22

71,361.22

Police,

17,046.61 Sanitary Department,.

Charitable Allowances,

Transport,

Miscellaneous Services,

Military Expenditure,

539,261.00

497,238.12

42,022.88

187,973.00

212,710.20

24,707.20

5,260.00

3,498.13

a

1,761.37

3,000.00

18,708 66

15,703.66

271,781.00

929,711.55

657,930.55

886,389.00

955,182.77

68,793.77

Public Works Recurrent,

316,500.00 508,798.41 190,293.41

1,073.70

312,155.31 17,046.61

295,108.70

17,046.61

Total,

3,761,63.53 4,752,444.06 1,089,086.59

98,281.10

Public Works Extraordinary,

797,316.68 1,157,104.45 359,787.77

7,970.64

2,000.00

0,000.00

7,088.20

Total Expenditure,.... 4,558,955.26 5,909,543.51 1,418,874.35

98,281.10

98,281.10

More than Estimated,.

$1,350,593.25

6,230.78

PAYMENTS.

0,000.00

Deposits Available, (Subsidiary Coin),

2,372,000.00

9,066.83

Deposits Available,

300,000.00

Deposits Not Available,.

502,196.80

3,251.63

Crown Agents,

3,013,956.15

Crown Agents' Bills in transit,

264,000.00

5.811.44

0,231.63

Advance Account,

Family Remittance,

Subsidiary Coin, Money Order,

587,816.00

78,412.75

2,396.20

3,072.79

5,600.57

Suspense House Service,

Suspense,......

Private Drainage Works,

Nett Balance 31st Dec., 1902,.

1,989,490.85

192,081.86

17.056.43 24,882 69 292.36

146,086.81

7,720.71

Total,

.$ 15,397,720.71

A. M. THOмson,

Colonial Treasurer.

:

:

+

}

A

109

Statement of Funded Public Debt or Loans borrowed for Fixed Periods outstanding on the 31st December, 1902, and of the Accumulated Sinking Funds at the same date.

Designation of Debt or Loan.

Legal

Amount Authority. Outstanding.

Hongkong. 31% In- Ordinances 1 & 2 £341,799.15.1

scribed Stock,

of 1893.

SINKING FUNDS.

Amount of Stock, &c.

Cost Price.

Market Value.

Sterling.

South Australia, 3 stock, New Zealand, 31%

£

s. d.

1,104,19. 0 2,468. 3. 2

£

s. d.

£

s. d.

1,196. 3. 2(103) 1,138. 2. 0

29

2,459. 9. 4

(104) 2,566.17. 8

Western A'tralia, 3

1,877.11. 2

1,814.18. 4

""

(93) 1,746. 2. 7

Trinidad,

3

3,787. 9. 5

"

Gold Coast,

3 %

"

5,000. 0. 0

3,628. 2.11 4,480.11. 6

(93) 3.522. 6.11

(91) 4,550. 0. 0

B. Guiana,

3

1,811.13.11

""

Queensland,

Cape of G. Hope, 3

Natal,

Advance, Lagos

Government Loan,..

Advance-

Sierra Leone,

1,784.18.11

>

11

1,763.18.10 168. 1. 6

5,036.14. 8

5,036.14. S

287. 8. 7

£25,090.19. 2

287. 8. 7

(94) 1,658. 2. I (93) 156. 6. 2

5,036.14. 8

287. S. 7

£24,325.13. 1 £23,988.15.10

A. M. THOMSON,

Colonial Treasurer.

1,761.18. 6 1,762. 9.10 1,736. 4. 5 161.11.10

(92) 1,666.15. 2

(93) 1,660. 0. 0

Hongkong, 23rd February, 1903.

Summary of Advances and Repayments of Advances for the year ended 31st December, 1902.

Names.

Balances on

1st January, 1902.

Advances during the year.

Total.

Repayments of Advances during the year.

Balances on 31st Dec.,

1902.

$

Money Order,

21,482.29

267,901.14

$

289,383.43

$ 243,470.74

$

43,144.46

(3) 2,768.23

Government of Singapore,

Supreme Court,

Captain Superintendent of Police,.

566.50 100.00 25.00

2,361.05

2,927.55

2,411.05

516.50

100.00

100.00

600.00

625.00

600.00

25.00

Praya Reclamation,.

1,997.95

770.73

2,768.68

2,768.68

Crown Solicitor,

200.00

200.00

200.00

Sanitary Department,

262,500.00

262,500.00

262,500.00

Postmaster General,

: 717.29

Treasury,

Public Works Department,..

500.00 1,500.00

717.29 500.00

1,500.00

Private Street Improvements,

H. B. Lethbridge,

Inspector Carter,...

5,012.90 14.50 140.26

28,974.89

33,987.79

697.29 500.00 1,500.00 33,987.79

20.00

...

...

159.96

174.46

140.26

159.57 140.26

14.89

...

J. R. Crook,.....

ইচ

155.52

158.16

158.16

2.64

A. Chapman, W. R. Seymour, C. F. O'Brien, Mrs. J. Ackers,

Captain Hastings,

Mrs. Ada Robertson,

1,081.69

48.60

52.40 110.26

1,081.69

1,081.69

48.60

48.60

52.40

52.40

110.26

110.26

{(2)

58.99 (2) 00.31

59.30

59.30

41.58

340.13

381.71

177.45

204.26

E. A. de Carvalho,

540.85

540.85

540.85

M. J. Drayson,

454.31

454.31

454.31

Surgar Cane Mill,

285.01

285.01

285.01

E. Kelly,

20.00

20.00

20.00

India Office Advance of Pay,..

145.07

!145.07

145.07

P. P. J. Wodehouse,

1,378.00

1,378.00

1,378.00

A. Holdaway,

51.20

51.20

51.20

W. Hunter,

219.43

219.43

219.43

R. A. V. Savage,

182.86

182.86

100.00

82.86

T. H.

Martin,

J. H. S. Lockhart,

182.86 2,115.00

182.96

100.00

82.86

2,115.00

2,115.00

Carried forward,......$ 33,548.37

569,442.80

602,991.17 558,800.34 44,190.83

110

Summary of Advances and Repayments of Advances for the year ended 31st December, 1902.— Contin ued.

Names.

Balances on 1st January, 1902,

Advances during the

Repayments of Advances

Total.

year.

during the year.

Balances on 31st Dec., 1902.

$

$

$

$

Brought forward,..

33,548.37

Passage of Kendall & wife,

J. T. Hawks,

569,442.80 506.87 196.36

602,991.17

585,800.34

44,190.88

506.87 196.36

160.00 196.36

346.87

Committee District,.

...

Watchman Fund,..

5,000.00

5,000.00

5,000.00

H. Nicolle,

Furniture for Government Pavilion,

Sir H. A. Blake,

654.55

654.55

500.00

1,000.00

1,000.00

154.55 1,000.00

4,571.43

4,571.43

1,000.00

3,571.43

F. Keyt,

457.14

457.14

150.00

307.14

H. Coombs,

L. E. Brett, A. C. Lanley, S. E. Barker, W. L. Tett,

B. Tanner,

59.44

59.44

59.44

1,371.43

1,371.43

120.00

1,251.43

165.71

165.71

165.71

114.29

114.29

114.29

139.90

139.90

139.90

1,000.00

1,000.00

100.00

900.00

J. A. McKay,

588.80

588.80

{ (4) 41:93

546.87

...

Margaret Duncan,

W. H. Williams,

Passage of Mrs. Augus,

Passage of Mrs. Lauder,..... Mrs. J. Wildey,

238.55

238.55

94.04

144.51

142.66

142.66

142.66

588.80

588.80

588.80

588.80

588.80

589.80

...

991.42

991.42

991.42

(1) Profit in Exchange,

(2)

7+

33,548.37

.$2.64

0.31

$2.95

587,818.95

621,367.32

561,883.27 59,484.05

.$2,768.23 41.93

(3) Loss in Exchange, (4)

$2,810.16

A. M. THOMSON,

Colonial Treasurer.

Balances on 1st January, 1902.

Hongkong, 16th March, 1903.

Summary of Deposits and Refunds of Deposits for the year ended 31st December, 1902,

Names.

Balances on

'Deposits repaid during 31st Decem-

the year.

ber, 1902.

Deposits received dur- ing the year.

Total.

$

Intestate Estate,

1,331.51

40.76

Sikh Police Fund,

5,544.00

143.00

1,372.27 5,737.00

1,161.00

1,372.27 4,576.00

Police Fine Fund,

393.04

745.00

1,138.04

733.54

Chinese Recreation Ground,

2,993.64

1,257.02

-4,250.66

582.46

404.50 3,668.20

Estate of deceased Policemen,

197.42

Tender Deposits,

5,700.00

12,180.00

Post Office Fine Fund,

Suitors' Fund,

200.10 108,939.69

152.07 376,748.48

197.42 17,880.00 352.17 485,688.17

15,180.00

96.17

197.42 2,700.00

256.00

353,188.48

132,499.69

Widows and Orphans' Fund,

109,266.89

28,175.06

Custom Duties on Parcels,

556.25

2.121.03

Praya Reclamation Fund,

203,500.24

Sale of Land,

400.00

Medical Department Fine Fund,

47.91

47,246.94 800.00 39.60

137,441.95 2,677.28 250,747.18

5,053.14

132,388.81

1,310.23

118,344.19

1,367.05 132,402.99

Deposit for expenses of erecting 3 Lamp Posts on

290.00

I. L. 199,

Administration of Passengers' Estatę,

Miscellaneous,

15.883.31

Board of Trade,

Gaol Library,

1,182.07 103.90

30.74 3,395.15 4,013.35

1,200.00 87.51

290.00

30.74 19,278.46 5,195.42 103.90

900.00

300.00 87.51

290.00

30.74

251.00 5,106.59

19,027.46

.88.83 103.90

Hongkong, 16th March, 1903.

456,579.97

477,088.20 933,668.17

502,196.80

431,471.87

A. M. THOMSON,

Colonial Treasurer.

PRAYA RECLAMATION FUND.

STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURE TO 31ST DECEMBER, 1902.

Total

1890.

· 1891.

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

1896.

1897.

1898.

1899.

1900.

1901.

1902. Expenditure.

Estimated

Cost.

Balance

to be spent.

Balance

spent

in Excess

of the

Estimated

Cost.

Private Marine Lot Holders.

$

Section No. 1,*

Do. No. 2,

Do. No. 3,

6,051.44

Do. No. 4,

Do. No. 5,

Do. No. 6,

7,128.44 | 42,019.54 43,791.64 24,984.84 46,758.18 63.318.02 14,086.90 24,596.23 29,091.12 32,355.42 55,887.63 34,580.26| 49,612.81 | 35,455.12| 36,245.99 6,202.29 5,754.83 11,705.77 | 10,903.57 6,548.41 65,661.55 | 112,573.89 33,075.47 31,593.99 36,697.68 48,599.71 43,961.02 25,030.76 | 14,247.88 3,113.67 6,552.99 7,019.62 1,822.21 7,063.88 55,691.67 39,144.85 11,964.17 31,946.66 28,704.10 5,004.19 9,187.60 14,215.46| 7,876.47 14,630.92! 27,669.30

29,025.13 16,322.59 31,256.52 | 404,733.57 2,343.63 2,205.13

4,206.01 3,892.45

7,998.26 6,377.75

423,260.67

18,527.10

2,658,99 260,104.43

4,663.93 430 255.78

2,745.75|210,145.58

251,176 20

8,928.23

459,378.56

29,122.78

227.392.11

17.246.53

Do. No. 7,

3,428.36 14,169,36 8,670.52 63,670.23 | 62,780.32 49,058.88 58,331.35 15,581.31 12,793.76 5,230.11 322,121.45 329,686.00 7,564.55 5,666.04 53,029.15 57,374.26 29,767.10 50,382.14 52,327.67 52,553.60 67,275.01 35,341.07 501,398.44 47,505.71 523,788.60 22,390.16

21,788.35 31,817.59 77,925.38 9,600.81 51,701,26 44,549.27 27,309.82 27,919.28 | † 12,423.70 7,630,77 3,516.38 5,422.41 305,889.72 316,268.44 10,378.72

106,850.19 204,450.45 | 332,808.10 114,032.85 240,561.81 | 272,503.71| 228,333.44 233,308.93 | 198,358.66 | 205,164.46 184,060.12 80,449.13 99,483.42 2,434,648.97 | 2,530,950.58 105,229,84 8,928.23

Government.

Section No. 4,

Do. No. 5,

443.53 1,260.26

814.38 303.87 1,418.47 2,520.24 4,213.30 1,003.11

Do. No. 6,

Do. No. 7,

233.81

774.39 755.45 1,400.02 2,119.82 544.73 637.44 32,304.19 48,472.28 | 111,086.04 12,473.23 10,156.55

9,727.49 5,464.26 3,290.36 5,661.37 4,678.83 1,406.59 1,107.42 38,734.40 34,834.90

1,697.95 16,858.62 18,515.52 | † 11,741.06 3,430.13 2,811.06 1,135.21 64,746.11 67,194.90 1,036.00 1,541.61 3,337.25 1,094.88 5,888.25 8,925.85 4,585.20 6,747.30 38,613.80 46,818.00 5,709.57 | 12,954.74 3,393.29 3,005.03 2,178,44 2,827.40 2,818.70 2,900.13 250,279.59 259,218.77

442.73

3,899.50

2,448.79

8,204.20

8,939.18

Total,..

9,761.28 24,486.58 16,589.97 11,322.38 11,225.37 388,474.40 411,966.07 23,491.67

34,921.64 | 53,206.92 | 118,679.42 14,324.94 11,802.19 18,171.01 36,819.23 28,536.42 Grand Total,......$ 141,771.83 257,657,37 451,487.52 128,357.79|252,364.00 | 290,674.72 | 265,152.07|261,845.35 | 208,119.94|229,651.04 150,650.09 91,771.51 110,708.79 | 2,823,123.37 | 2,942,916.65 | 128,721.51

Hongkong, 23rd March, 1903.

*This includes Marine Lots Nos. 184, 188, 189 R.P., which belong to the Government.

Expenditure,..........

Less Transfers,

.$21,242.23

36,958.53

+ Expenditure, Less Transfers,

Cr. Balance,.

$15,716.30

Cr. Balance,

:

:

:

111

8,928.23

.....

.$ 8,486.01

9,858.96

1,372.95

A. M. THOMSON,

Treasurer.

ཝཱ, ཀ༎

HONGKONG.

No. 32

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH ESTIMATES 1904.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of

His Excellency the Governor.

3

STATEMENT OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES, ON THE 31ST DECEMBER, 1902.

1903

ASSETS.

Balance in Bank,

Subsidiary Coins,

C.

LIABILITIES.

$

C.

146,086.81 Crown Agents' Draft in transit,

120,000.00

600,000.00 Military Contribution,

44,749.50

Advances,

Suspense House Service,

59,484.05 Deposits not available,.

431,471.37

333.03

Refund of Taxes,

4,200.00

Profit, Money Order Office,.....

10,000.00 | Officers' Remittances,

153.60

Money Order Remittances,

15,447.55

Transit Charges, General Post Office,........

11,000.00

Civil Pensions,

23,000.00

Police Pensions,

16,000.00

Suspense Account,

Public Works,.....

Miscellaneous,......

1,272,38

69,515.61

12,224.00

TOTAL ASSETS,......*

.*$ $15,903.89

Treasury, Hongkong, 16th March, 1903.

TOTAL LIABILITIES,......$

749,034.01

BALANCE, ......$

66,869.88

815,903.89

* Not including Arrears of Revenue amounting to $90,780.

A. M. THOMSON,

Treasurer.

422

ESTIMATED BALANCE OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES ON 31ST DECEMBER, 1903.

Ordinary Revenue, 1903,

Land Sales, 1903,

Ordinary Expenditure, 1903,

-Publice Works Extraordinary, 1903,

Balance of Assets, 1902,

Estimated arrears, 1903,

Balance of Liabilities on 31st December, 1903,.................

Hongkong, 29th August, 1903.

Dr. Balance,

Dr.

ESTIMATED LOAN ACCOUNT, 1903.

To Inscribed Stock Loan at 34% interest,

to be paid off on the 15th April, 1943, £341,799.15.1 By Sinking Fund,

LOAN ACCOUNT, 1902.

$ 4,837,773.00 350,000.00

$5,187,773.00

$4,833,922.00 761,760.00

5,595,682.00

$ 407,909.00

$

66,869.88

60,000.00

$ 126,869.88

281,039.12

!

A. M. THOMSON, Treasurer.

Cr.

£28,524.0.0

To Inscribed Stock Loan at 33% interest,

to be paid off on the 15th April, 1943, £341,799.15.1 By Sinking Fund,

£24,325.13.1

A. M. THOMSON, Treasurer.

Hongkong, 29th August, 1903.

C

HONGKONG.

No. 14

REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF FIRE BRIGADE FOR THE YEAR 1902.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

FIRE BRIGADE DEPARTMENT,

HONGKONG, 16th March, 1903.

SIR,-I have the honour to submit the following report on the Government Fire Brigade for the

year 1902.

2. There were 76 Fires and 95 Incipient Fires during the year. Details re- garding each are attached. The Brigade turned out 70 times during the year.

The estimated damages caused by the Fires was $2,144,919.50, and by the Incipient Fires $1,159.50.

3. A list is attached showing the number of Fires that have occurred during each of the last ten years, with the estimated value of property destroyed in each

case.

4. The water in the mains was turned off from 11th November, 1901, to 24th May last, and again from 1st November last, during which period the steam engines and sea water were used.

5. Two large Fires occurred during the period of intermittent water supply. That of the 29th March was the largest conflagration that has taken place for several years. The Fire broke out at No. 280, Queen's Road Central, at about 3.10 a.m., and fanned by a strong breeze quickly spread across the street and up the hill. Before water was available a large area was in flames. By 7 a.m. it was well un- der control, though it continued to smoulder for many days; 47 houses in all were wholly or partially destroyed, and the total damage was estimated at $990,000, most of which was covered by insurance.

Another large Fire occurred on the 19th May in Wellington Street, near the Fire Brigade Station, which destroyed 15 houses.

6. Four Fires occurred in the Harbour during the

year.

7. A case of attempted arson was discovered at No. 335, Des Voeux Road West on the morning of the 6th December by P.C. 382 Ng Luk. The Fire had already got a good hold of the boarding of the staircase and the Constable with quick presence of mind beat out the Fire with his cape. He, then examined the place and found some apparatus obviously intended to produce arson, but there was not sufficient evidence to prosecute any person.

8. A prosecution for arson was instituted in respect of the Fire at No. 318, Queen's Road West, on the 26th December. The two defendants were found guilty and sentenced to seven years' imprisonment with hard labour at the Criminal Sessions.

9. I attach a list of places where Fire Despatch Boxes are kept, and copy of re- port by the Engineer on the state of the Fire Engines, which are all in good order.

10. The conduct of the Brigade has been good.

11. I was appointed Superintendent of the Brigade from the 23rd April in succession to the Hon. F. H. MAY, and Captain F. W. LYONS, of the Perak Police, was appointed Assistant Superintendent and arrived on the 17th September last, Chief Inspector MACKIE was appointed Second Assistant Superintendent from the 17th September.

The Honourable

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

F. J. BADELEY,

Superintendent of Fire Brigade.

1903

F. H. MAY, C.M.G.,

Colonial Secretary.

1 Box.

114

List of Places where Fire Brigade Despatch Boxes are kept.

No. 1 Police Station.

3 Boxes. Engine House at No. 2 Police

Station.

1 Box.

Naval Dock Yard.

1

Government Offices.

1

1

1

"

1

1

""

""

33

1

">

1

""

1

""

Clock Tower.

Government House.

2 Boxes. No. 7 Police Station.

1 Box.

1

""

1

1

22

No. 7, Queen's Garden, Royal 1

Engineers' Mess.

Central Police Station. Wellington Street at Lyndhurst

Terrace.

Government Civil Hospital. Staunton Street at Sing Wong

Street.

Water Lane at Queen's Road

Central.

Bonham Strand West, at West

End.

Gas House, West Point. Fat Hing Street, at Queen's

Road West.

Ko Shing Theatre.

Government Lunatic Asylum.

2 Boxes. Nam Pak Hong Fire Station.

Man Mo Temple.

1 Box.

2 Boxes. 1 Box.

1

25

1

No. 5, Police Station. Kennedy Town Hospital. Collinson Street.

No. 463, Queen's Road West.

List of Telephones to which the Police can have access to communicate with Central Station in the event of a Fire breaking out.

Hongkong and China Gas Company, East and West Point, from 7 A.M. to 9 P.M. Tung Wá Hospital, Po Yan Street. Man On Insurance Office, Queen's Road

West.

Hongkong Hotel, Praya Central. Royal Naval Yard, Queen's Road East. Mr. J. KENNEDY's, Causeway Bay. Electric Light Company, Queen's Road

East.

HONGKONG, 5th March, 1903.

SIR, I have the honour to forward the Annual Report on the state of the Government Fire Engines for the year ending 31st December, 1902.

STEAMER No. 1.

(Floating Fire Engine by Shand & Mason.)

This Engine has been 5 years in service, was docked in August, 1902, for re- gular annual overhaul, and was docked again last month for repairs to stem after having been in collision with a lighter near the Naval Yard whilst proceeding to a Fire at Wanchai. The Hull, Machinery and Boiler are all in good order and

condition.

STEAMER No. 2.

(Land Engine by Shand & Mason.)

This Engine has been 24 years in service (Boiler 5 years old). It has been used regularly at Fires during the year, and tested at Drill for Drivers. It was thoroughly overhauled and is now in good order and condition.

STEAMER No. 3.

(Land Engine by Shand & Mason.)

This Engine has been 20 years in service and has been used at several Fires during the year, and tested at Drill for Drivers.

It was thoroughly overhauled in March, 1902, and is now in good order and condition.

STEAMER No. 4.

(Land Engine by Shand & Mason.)

This Engine has been 21 years in service, and has been regularly used at Fires during the year, and tested at Drill for Drivers.

It was thoroughly overhauled in December last, and is now in good order and condition.

A

-

A

F

:

·

[

115

STEAMER No. 5.

(Land Engine by Shand & Mason.)

This Engine has been 16 years in service. It has been regularly used at Fires during the year, and tested at Drill for Drivers. It was thoroughly overhauled in December last, and is now in good order and condition.

All the Manual Engines and Gear, Hose, Reels, Ladders and Supply Carts have been kept in good repair and are now in good order and condition.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

D. MACDONALD, Engineer, Fire Brigade.

F. J. BADELEY, Esq.,

Superintendent, Fire Brigade.

No.

DATE.

FIRES, 1893.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

No. 73, Hollywood Road,

NO. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

Wholly. Partly.

ESTIMATED AMOUNT OF PROPERTY

DESTROYED.

"

>>

""

??

*

1 January

18

4 February 11

March

8 April

9

10

11 May

1

$

800

11

No. 79, Nullah Lane,.

1

300

No. 2, Square Street,..

1

10

No. 68, Jervois Street,

1

10,000

13

22

No. 101, Wing Lok Street,. No. 22, Holland Street,...

1

6,000

1

1

40,000

26

No. 301, Queen's Road West,

1

8,000

13

No. 87. Jervois Street,

2.000

25

No. 15, West Street,

1

800

27

No. 1, In On Lane,

N

19.000

No. 344, Queen's Road Central,

2,000

12 June

16

No. 406, Queen's Road West,

2,000

13

16

No. 28, Tze Mi Lane,...

1

700

14 July

3

No. 191, Hollywood Road,..

1

1

1,500

15

14

No. 19, Gough Street,

150

*

16

19

No. 280, Queen's Road West,

1

1

1,000

""

17

20

No. 12, Tung Loi Lane,...

20,000

""

18 August

16

No. 337, Queen's Road West,

1

300

19

17

20

25

No. 32, Queen's Road West,. No. 155, Second Street

1

2,800

20,000

33

22

23

18

30

25

26

11

""

27

16

>>

28

21

"

29

23*

"

30

26

5

">

33

9

No. 11., Bonham Strand,

步步

34

10

"

35

13

*

No. 240, Queen's Road West, No. 99, Praya West,

36

25

21 September 5

24 October 12

November 11

31 December 4

32

No. 115, Praya West,

No. 58, Square Street, No. 5, Pan Kwai Lane,. No. 9, Tannery Lane,........

No. 314A, Queen's Road Central, . No. 22, Tsz Mi Lane,...

No. 31, Wing Fung Street,

No. 131, Bonham Strand,

No. 7, Ezra Lane,

400

No. 248, Hollywood Road, No. 127, Bonham Strand,

4,000

5,000

No. 14, Li Shing Street,

1

:

5,500

CON

1

20,000

1

3,000

1

1.000

1

10

8.000

1

5,500

1

10

2

2.000

2 1

5,000 9,000

1

400

No. 100, Queen's Road West,

1

1

2,000

TOTAL..

208,210

-

116

FIRES, 1894.

:

NO. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

:

No. DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

ESTIMATED DAMAGE.

Wholly. Partly.

+

:

p.m.

14

6

14

4.50

25

7

>>

p.m.

3

9

""

10 April

1 January

2

3

25

""

912.30

16

4 February 1

6

7

"

>>

8 March

8.45 p.m.

1.25 a.m. 7.55 a.m. 1.40 p.m.

p.m.

7.30 a.m.

28 9.25 a.m.

No. 57, Queen's Road West,...! No. 28, Upper Station Street, No. 86, Queen's Road West,... No. 17, Salt Fish Street, No. 17, Upper Lascar Row,.

49.20 p.m. No. 136, Bonham Strand,..

No. 56, First Street,

1

$

800

No. 13, U Lok Lane,

1

400

No. 273, Queen's Road West,.. No. 26, Market Street,

1

1,200

pand N

2,500

21

2

4,000

1

300

1

50

2

1,500

1

1

5,000

6

1

150,000

11

12

AA

17 10.30 a.m.

28

9 a.m.

No. 211, Hollywood Road, No. 63, Wanchai Road,

1

2,000

1

1,500

13

30

2 a.m.

14 May 15

1

7 p.m.

No. 122, Queen's Road Central, No. 116, Queen's Road Central,

3

2

55,000

1

1

18,000

15

3 a.m.

16 June

3

17

""

18 July 19 August 20

""

21 October

22

23

3 a.m.

33.10 a.m.

110.25 p.m.

14 10.30 a.m.

21 3.45 a.m.

2

2 a.m.

311.30

No. 137, Queen's Road West,.! No. 15, Jervois Street, No. 228, Queen's Road Central, No. 123, Queen's Road Central, No. 59, Square Street,

No. 68, Jervois Street,

2

No. 9, Sai On Lane,

1

4,500

2,500

3,000

1

1

1

500 18,000

1

200

,,

p.m.

No. 21 West Street,

1

800

""

11

6.20 p.m.

No. 2, Ship Street,

1

200

24

24

12.10 a.m.

No. 127, Queen's Road West..

1

15,000

31

10 p.m.

7.40 p.m.

10 p.m.

""

1

13

25

""

26 November 30

27 December 1

28

29

11.20 p.m.

5.30 p.m.

No. 207, Queen's Road Central, No. 183, Hollywood Road,...

No. 22, Queen's Road West,...

No. 115, Queen's Road Central,

3

4,600

No. 32, Bonham Strand,

1

2,000

1

8,000

I

1

2,000

1

100

TOTAL...........

323,650

21

20,000

་ ་ ་ ་ ་

117

comm

FIRES, 1895.

No. OF BUILDINGS

No. DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DESTROYED. ESTIMATED

DAMAGE.

Wholly. Partly.

1 January

6

7.45 p.m.

House No. 230, Queen's Road

Central,

1 $ 6,000

N M

45

""

12

9.30 p.m.

House No. 4, Wellington Street

1

4,000

18

5.45 p.m.

House No. 189, Queen's Road

""

18

6.45 p.m.

21

""

9 p.m.

3

3

6 February 6 9.15 p.m.

9 March

10

11

""

2 6.40 p.m.

24

7 p.m. 8 p.m. 26 8.30 p.m.

30 2.50 a.m.

63.25 a.m. 11 12 Noon.

18

7 p.m. 24 10.15 p.m.

14 3.05 a.m. 4.50 a.m.

Central,

House No. 15, Mercer Street, House No. 337, Queen's Road

West,

House No. 73, Bonham Strand, House No. 149, Queen's Road

Central,

House No. 3, Wai Tak Lane,..

House No. 1, Queen's Street,. House No. 144, Queen's Road

West,

1

::

2,000

1

9,000

1

1,000

1

6,000

""

12

>>

13

14 April

15

16

17

18 June

19 July

29

House No. 34, Bonham Strand, House No. 19, Jervois Street, House No. 76, Jervois Street, House No. 34, Wing Lok!

1

1

Street,

20

29

12.30 a.m.

21 August 5 22 September 6

1a.m.

3.45 a.m.

23

""

6 8.30 a.m.

24 October

25

26

3 35

27

""

30 12.45 a.m.

28 November 21 29 December 13

30

""

13

7.35 p.m. 11.15 p.m. 4.30 p.m.

House No. 3, Station Street.... House No. 70, Jervois Street, House No. 4, Praya Central,

premises of Messrs. Wieler & Co.,

House No. 12, Nullah Terrace,

Quarry Bay,

5 12.50 a.m. House No. 169, Hollywood

6 8.20 a.m. 15 11.15 p.m.

Road,

Matshed at Quarry Bay,

House No. 149, Queen's Road

Central.

American ship Wandering Jew,

Victoria Harbour,

House No. 111, Praya West,.. A matshed at Kun Chung,. A squatter's hut on the Hill- side at the back of Shau- kiwan Station.....

1

:

...

1

1

10

1 a.m.

20

1.20 p.m.

House No. 228, Queen's Road

West,

2

House No. 7, Li Shing Street, House No. 96, Bonham Strand, House No. 212, Queen's Road

West,

1

1

Ι

House No. 352, Queen's Road

Central.

1

1

30

1

200

12,000

3,000 Unknown.

3,000

27

5,000

5,000

3,000

1,000

12,000

NIN

Not known.

5,000

1

800

22,000

1

100

1

700

1

1

3,000

1

500

1.

100

:

150,000

6,000 200

1

25

31 32

16

1 a.m.

""

17

1 a.m.

House No. 110, Praya West,... House No. 247, Queen's Road

Central.

1

8,000

1

1

15,000

33

34

23 1.35 a.m.

House No. 285, Queen's Road

25

Central,

2

4,000

24

">

6 p.m.

Houses Nos. 347 & 349, Queen's

Road West...

2

5,325

35

30 1.10 a.m.

House No. 40, Queen's Road

""

West,

2

5,000

TOTAL,.........

297,980

!

118

FIRES, 1896.

NO. OF BUILDINGS

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DESTROYED. ESTIMATED

DAMAGE.

Wholly. Partly.

1 January 15

2

16

7.45 p.m. 8.20 p.m.

House No. 30, Wing Lok Str.,

2

2 $ 9,000

|

House No. 63, Queen's Road

Central,

30

:

3

25 10.30 p.m.

10 to

A

6 1 a.m.

6

7.

""

1-∞

5

26 4.25 a.m.

**

9 March

9

4 a.m.

4 February 112.30 a.m.

6 2.45 a.m.

8 11.05 p.m.

House No. 205, Queen's Road

West,

House No. 302, Queen's Road

West,

House No. 56, Jervois Street, House No. 57, Queen's Road|

West..

House No. 133, Praya West,. House No. 309, Queen's Road

Central,

House No. 367, Queen's Road

Central,

1

1,000

2,600

1

1

6,000

2 2

2

16,000

1

6,000

1

1

5,000

1

5,000

10 April

1

5.10 a.m.

11

1

4.45 a.m.

House No. 3, Wing Lok Street, House No. 288, Queen's Road

1

8,000

230 +10 O

A

A

35

2223

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

22

19 May

20

""

21 June

6 4.20 a.m. 8 4.15 a.m. 22 1.15 a.m. 24 3.15 a.m.

26 8.45 a.m.

27 10.15 a.m.

29 9.50 p.m.

9 1.10 a.m.

14 10.15 p.m.

5 9.20 p.m. 15 7.30 a.m. 29 3.30 p.m.

14 3.10 p.m.

24 August 25 October 28 2.10 p.m.

26 November 5 12.40 a.m.

West,

House No. 21, Salt Fish Street, House No. 13, Wing Wo St.,:.. House No. 48, Praya West,... House No. 13, Cochrane Street, House No. 31, Belcher's St.,

Kennedy Town, House No. 238, Hollywood

Road, House No. 115, Praya West,. House No. 12. Sutherland

Street,

House No. 73, Jervois Street,. House No. 3, Tsz Mi Lane, Licensed Cargo Boat No. 69,. On board the British barque

Glen Caladh, House No. 10, Ship Street, House No. 137, Wing Lok

Street,

House No. 109, Queen's Road

1

4,000

1

8,700

1

2,000

1

3,000

600

1

3,500

1

2,000

2,300

50

2

6,000

1

1,290

::

::

4,500

Unknown.

1

600

...

1

7,000

West,

1

25

27

"

21 3.20 a.m.

House No. 138, Queen's Road

200

West,

1

29

28 December 8 10

8.30 p.m. 1 a.m.

House No. 18, New Street, ... House No. 10, Queen's Road

1

1,000

30

21

West.

House No. 63, Bonham Strand,

1

200

...

Trifling.

.$

105,595

TOTAL.....

FIRES, 1897.

No. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

ESTIMATED DAMAGE.

Wholly. Partly.

2

22

1 January 12 10.30 p.m. 18 10.15 p.m. 3 February 3| 4.20 â.m. 11 1.20 p.m. 15 9.15 a.m.

6

""

7 April

9

>>

28 1.35 a.m.

1 1.20 a.m. 3 12.30 a.m.

11

2.24 a.m.

On board the S.S. Fausang,... House No. 138, Jervois Street, House No. 213, Praya West,... House No. 24, Cross Street,... Government Offices, Lower

Albert Road,

500

25,000

1

17,000

1

300

200

House No. 124, Jervois Street, House No. 14, Cross Street,...

1

1

20,000

1

4,000

House No. 128, Queen's Road

Central,

1

200

House No. 351, Queen's Road

Central,

N

24,000

Carried forward..

91,200

119

FIRES, 1897,-Continued.

NO. OF BUILDINGS

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DESTROYED. ESTIMATED

DAMAGE.

Wholly. Partly.

10 April

21 5.25 a.m.

11

12

13 May

""

14

20

22

15 June

15

1.45 a.m. 2.30 a.in.

16 July

23

10 p.m.

17

**

27

11.55 p.m.

18 August

3

4.15 p.m.

21 10.15 p.m. 25 1.55 a.m. 17.40 p.m.

Brought forward...

House No. 90, Jervois Street, On S.S. Belgic,

House No. 95, Wing Lok Street House No. 8, Cross Street, ... House No. 71, Jervois Street, House No. 114, Jervois Street, Hongkong Hotel, Queen's

Road Central,

House No. 248, Queen's Road

West,

House No. 15, Praya, Fuk

Tsun Heung,

$ 91,200

1

3,000

3,000

1

5,000

1

700

2

13,500

3

34,000

1

300

1

300

4

19

22 2.05 a.m.

**

House No. 213, Queen's Road

West,

7,000

.21 22

>>

""

24

"

28

7 p.m. 7.10 a.m.

20 September 4

1.15 p.m. 18 7.15 a.in. 19 12.20 p.m. 11.35 p.m.

23 November 24

24

25

26 December 22 1.15 p.m.

House No. 16, Tung Loi Street, House No. 49, Quarry Bay,... House No. 5, "Wild Dell,"

House No. 64, Third Street,... House No. 53, Stanley Village, House No. 122, Second Street, H. M. Naval Yard,

2.3

600

6,900

1

600

1

300

1

1.200

3,000

1

5,000

1

2.000

TOTAL,..

177,150

FIRES, 1898.

NO. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

ESTIMATED DAMAGE.

Wholly. Partly.

4

5

""

6 March

7 April

12 11

1 January 22 3.55 p.m.

2

"

26 4.40 p.m.

3 February 5 3.10 a.m.

11

9 p.m. 25 3.35 p.m.

12.40 a.m. 3 a.m.

House No. 21, Lyndhurst Ter-

race,.

Government Asylum, Eastern

Street,

:

1

500.00

150.00

House No. 46, Praya Central,' House No. 125, Wanchai Road, Matshed at British Kowloon,.: House No. 2, Graham Street, House No. 288, Queen's Road]

West,.

1

200.00

1

4,000.00

Unknown.

1

1,000.00

1

600.00

8 May

10 11.10 p.m.

House No. 295, Queen's Road

West,.

1

700.00

9 June

7.05 p.m.

House No. 67, Praya Central,

100.00

10.

3 p.m. p.m.

10 August 11 September 10 12 October 10 13 November 18 14 December 9 12

15

16

2

5.30 p.m.

7.30 a.m. 5.50 p.m.

6.15 p.m.

13

10 a.m.

39

|

House No. 22, Belcher's Street, Matshed at the Peak,

House No. 2, West Street,.

House No. 76, Praya East,

House No. 56, Jardine's Bazaar

House No. 136, Queen's Road

East,

Hut at Shaukiwan,

1

7,000.00

7

200.00

:

N

2

11,628.74

TOTAL....

200,00

1

1

2,500.00

1

800.00

1

5,423.00

35,001.74

:

120

FIRES, 1899.

NO. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

ESTIMATED DAMAGE.

1 January

7

2

""

""

3.40 p.m. 13 10.30 p.m. 20 10.30 p.m.

4

5 February 10 6 March 17

7

8

9 April

10 May

2 p.m.

|

House No. 33, Wing Wo Lane, House No. 35, Wongneichung, House No. 234, Hollywood

Road,

House No. 28, Nullah Terrace,

Quarry Bay..

House No. 143, Wanchai Road, House No. 3, Wai Sun Lane,.j House No. 226, Queen's Road

Central,

29

8.45 p.m.

2.30 a.m.

>>

18

7.30 p.m.

19

12.30 p.m.

Hunghom West,

19

1.25 a.in.

2 7.15 a.m.

11

""

10 11.05 p.m.

12

13 June

14

23 8.25 p.m.

House No. 61, Queen's Road

West,

On board German Steamer! Sabine Richmers, Tai-Kok Tsui Wharf,

House No. 118, Hollywood

Road,

House No. 100, Wellington

Street,

10 11.50 a.m. On board the British Steamer Amara, Wanchai Anchor-

16 4.30 a.m.

>>

21 7.35 p.m.

age,

Nos. 24 and 25, Praya, Kenne-i

dy Town,.

House No. 205, Queen's Road

Central,

Praya, Kennedy Town, near

Chater Street....

House No. 65, Queen's Road)

West,

Wholly. Partly.

A

:

1

$ 1,000

100

1

1,500

1

1,500

50

3

3,000

30,000

I mat-

shed

160

1

200

1

40

3,000

1

300

27,500

1

150,000

1

...

2,500

1 mat-

shed

200

1

2,880

1,500

15

16 July

18 Midnight.

17 August

8

3 a.m.

18

10

??

8 p.m.

No. 2 Store, Kowloon Dock,.

19

11

1 a.m.

House No. 83, Station Street,

Yaumati,.

3

600

20

"

12 12.50 a.m.

21 September 10 6.15 a.m. 22 October 5 6.15 p.m.

House No. 373, Queen's Road

Central,

1

N

McDonald Road,

1

mat-

19,000 Unknown.

sheb

House No. 256, Des Voeux

Road,

1

1

2,500

23

"

5 9.50 p.m.

House No. 235, Queen's Road]

Central

1

6,500

1

12,000

24

11

9.20 p.m.

House No. 28, Praya West,...

1

1

25 November 8

8.30 p.m.

26

9

6 a.m.

25

House No. 1, Duddell Strect,. On board S. S. Poseidon in

Victoria Harbour,

27 December 1 6.35 p.m. Lam Lo Mi Village, Kowloon

10

City,

Kowloon City,

150 40,000

...

2

13 huts

180

28

2 6.30 a.m.

Nga Chin Loong

Village,

1

29

13 6.20 a.m.

House No. 76, Jervois Street.

1

23,000

""

30

19

22 8.50 p.m.

Godowns next to Hing Lung

31

""

26 8.30 p.m.

Lane, House No. 1, Ship Street, ....

3

500,000

1.

1

300

TOTAL,..

829,814

:

:

:

154

121

FIRES, 1900.

NO. OF BUILDINGS

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DESTROYED. ESTIMATED

DAMAGE.

Wholly. Partly.

1 January

234+

5

CO

100

1 12 Noon. House No. 29, Praya, Kenne-

6 7.15 a.m.

8 8.15 p.m.

99

13

5.30 a.m.

""

13

5.45 p.m.

16

2.15 p.m.

""

19

2.30 p.m.

20

7.00 p.m.

>>

25 3.15 a.m.

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13 February 2

99

29 2.10 a.m.

30 11.19 a.m.

33

31

8.10 a.m. 7.10 p.m.

14

""

4

10.30 p.m.

10

2.25 p.m.

""

16

5.15 p.m.

22 2.00 a.m.

27

111.40 p.m.

9

15

16

17

18 March

19

20

45

ง ง

3.00 p.m.

11 7.50 p.m.

20 12.15 p.m.

28 1.00 a.m.

dy Town,....

House No. 25, West Street,... House No. 22, Western Street, Fishing Boats at Kan Pai Kang

Village,

Matshed at East Road, Tsing

Sha Tsui...

Matshed of Dairy Farm at

Pokfulam,

House No. 22, Ma Tao Kok,... Shed at Sha Po Village, Kow-

loon City,

Caretaker's Matshed at Coffee Plantation Cemetery,..

House No. 335, Queen's Road

Central,

House No. 18, Cochrane Street House No. 10, High Street,... House No. 11, Shing Hing

Lane, West Point,

House at Ma On Kong Village,

Pat Heung,..

Matshed opposite Harbour

Office,

...

7 mat-

shets

I mat-

1

$

265.00

1

300.00

:

100.00

6 boats

:

40.00

1 mat-

shed

3,000.00

1 mat-

shed

3,000.00

1

40.00

:

30.00

shed

Unknown.

1

7,500.00

1

2,000.00

1

200.00

2

3,300.00

1

15.00

1 mit-

shed

100.00

5 mat-

sheds

1,100.00

1

1,700.00

1

50.00

1

800.00

1

1,000.00

1

1,500.00

1

* 30.00

1

15.00

Road,

1

1

1 mat-

shed

Unknown.

300.00 Unknown.

80.00

220.00

Carpenters' Matshed at Hung

Hom Cement Works,...... House No. 25, Queen's Road

West,.

House No. 11, Hollywood

Road,

House No. 77, Wellington

Street,

House 128, Winglok Street,...

House No. 324, Queen's Road

Central,

House No. 287, Queen's Road

West,

31 5.00 p.m. House No. 7, "Wild Dell

21

22

23

Buildings,

24 April

19.15 p.m.

"Bluff," Plantation

25

12

2.30 p.m.

:

1

:

:

:

30

""

26

27

28

16 3.00 p.m.

""

21

""

29 May

29

7.30 p.m.

4 9.00 p.m.

29 7.30 a.in.

Peak,

House No. 230, To Kwa Wan, Hung Hom Docks,

An unoccupied House in Ha Mi Lane, Ping Shan,...... A Stack of breaming grass on

the Aberdeen Road,

A Stack of grass at Hung Hom

West,

House No. 36, Upper Lascar

Row,

30.00

1

400.00

31 June

21 12.40 a.m.

House No. 237, Queen's Road

West,

1

200.00

32 July

3 8.50 p.m.

House No. 240, Des Voeux

Road West,...

1

150.00

33

""

13 7.30 p.m.

House No. 1A, Connaught

34

""

35

36 August

16 2.35 a.m.

21 3.45 a.m.

37 September 13 10.00 p.m. 11.45 a.m.

Road,

House No. 11, Tai Wong Lane,

House No. 274, Queen's Road

Squatter's Matshed at Tai Hang

1

60.00

1

43.00

Central,

29

6.00 p.m.

Cargo Boat No. 374,

1

cargo

boat

Cargo Boat No. 61,

1 cargo

oac

38

>>

16

39

""

19 9.45 p.m.

|

Village, near Yau Ma Ti, Matshed at Yau Ma Ti Village,

17 mat-

sheds

4 mat

sheds

Carried for ward,...

1

::

::

8,000.00 1,679.73 3,950.00

937.00

200.00

42,334.73

122

FIRES, 1900,-Continued.

No. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED,

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

ESTIMATED DAMAGE.

40 | September 25

41

42

28 10.15 p.m.

29 7.30 a.mn.

43 October 13 2.00 a.m. 44 November 13 | 3.50 a.m. 45

16 8.40 p.m. 46

27 8.30 a.m.

47 December 2 2.44 a.m.

48

19

50

51

13

RAA

9 6.50 p.m. 96.50

10

15 9.20 p.m.

20 1.50 a.m.

Brought forward. Matshed at Sai Kung, Boat-building Matshed, Mong

Kok Tsui, Matshed at Robinson Tsim Sha Tsui, House No, 58, Jervois Street, House No. 122, Jervois Street, House No. 26, Sai Woo Lane, House No. 93, Market Street,

Hung Hom,

House No. 275, Queen's Road

Central,

Wholly. Partly.

I mat-

shed

...

$42.334.73 100.00

30,000.00

1,000.00

32 mat-

sheds

Road,

3

mat- sheds

1

8,700.00

1

19,000.00

1,500.00

1

800.00

1

2,500.00

1

4,000.00

1 mat-

shed

100.00

7 mat- sheds

265.00

2

1

20,000.00

130,599.73

House No. 9, Beaconsfield

Arcade,

Matshed at Valley Road,

Matshed at Yau Ma Ti,...

House No. 235, Queen's Road

West,

TOTAL,......

:

FIRES, 1901.

No. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

ESTIMATED DAMAGES.

Wholly. Partly.

1 January

2

2 7.00 p.m. 29.30 p.m.

1 F

23

9 12.50 a.m.

13

20

6 February 3

7

"

∞ c.

10

11

12

13

14

15

"

16

AA, AR

17

99

18

19 March

20

1.50 a.m. 1.40 p.m. 2.30 a.m.

36.15 a.m.

Tai Koo Sugar Works,.. Tai O Harbour,.......

House No. 39, Wing Lok St.. House No. 29, Jervois Street, No. 13, Beaconsfield Arcade,. Matshed, at Hung Hom West, House No. 201, Queen's Road!

Central.

7.00 a.m. A house at Shun Wan Village,

5 9.30 a.m.

512.48 a.m.

611.45 p.m.

7 5.30 a.m.

11 10.30 p.m.

Matshed (Boat-building Yard) at Tam Shui Hang Village in Sheung Sha Wan,

House No. 289, Queen's Road

West,

House No. 25, New Street,

No. 1, Lam Loi Street, Kow-

loon City,

No. 203, Queen's Road West,

12 12.50 a.m. House No. 119, Third Street,.

13 12.45 p.m. House No. 7, Kwai Wa Lane,

13

a

Matshed adjoining with

coolie quarters at the Peak Terminus,

19 10.50 a.m. House No. 468, Queen's Road

27 5.17 a.m.

26.14 a.m.

West....

House No. 3, East Street,

House No. 164, Wing Lok

Street,

70

wooden huts,

12 stone

and wooden houses

$ 18,000

7,000

1

20,000

1

18,000

80

280

1,200

1

1

5 mat

1

shels launch and

2 small

twin

cscrew eamers

:

:

:

Unknown. 50,000

2

17.600 100

2

1:000

70

340

1.600

Unknown.

200

1

700

1

11.000

103,000

Carried forward,.

.$

250,170

16 12.30 p.m. A Kerosine Oil Tank in the

Engine-room of S.S. "Colo- nies" in Victoria Harbour,.

}

123

FIRES, 1901,-Continued.

NO. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

No.!

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

ESTIMATED DAMAGE.

Wholly. Partly.

Brought forward,......

$ 250,170

21 March 22

2610.43 p.m. 31 9.30 a.m.

House No. 12, Kwai Wa Lane, House No. 185, Queen's Road

Central,

1

4,200

23 | April

7

24

35

15

9.10 p.m. 3.00 p.m.

12

1

10,000

2

10,000

25 May 26

27

155

28 June

29

30

31

A

3

111.53 p.m. 15 4.00 a.m.

21 9.50 p.m.

89.50 p.m. 13 12.40 p.m. 20 2.40 a.m. 25 9.00 p.m.

32

28

33 July

5

10.00 a.m. 8.30 p.m.

34 August 28 1.50 a.m.

35 September 3 9.55 a.m.

36

"

37

38

39

40

وو

2

10 10.40 p.m.

17 7.00 p.m.

19

6.20 p.m.

22 7.00 p.m.

25 11.00 p.m.

41 October

42

43

دو

10

House No. 120, Second Street, Matshed on the Road between

Lok Lo Ha and Ma Nguif Shui,

House No. 19, East Street, ... Matshed near Tin Hau Temple,

Tai Hang Village,

No. 9, Beaconsfield Arcade,... No. 292, Queen's Road Central, No. 31, Peel Street,

No. 7, Queen Victoria Street, Shaft Funnel of S.S. “Arethu-

sa" in Hung Hom Dock,. In a House at To Shek Village, A Matshed at Valley Road,

Wong Nei Chung,

|

House No. 136, Queen's Road

Central,

A Government Matshed, Praya East, used as Public Bath- house,

House No. 4, Upper Lascar

Row,

A small Matshed in Barker

Road,

A Matshed in Peak Road near

Tram Terminus,

House No. 369, Queen's Road

Central,

An old and disused house at Kun Chung, Tsim Sha Tsui,....

5 1.40 p.m. A small Matshed on the Re-

6 7.50 p.m.

67.15 p.m.

44

20 2.20 a.m.

""

45

"

26 7.35 p.m.

46

""

28 6.00 a.m.

47 November 6 7.15 a.m.

clamation

Ground

Canton Wharf,

near

House No. 116, Queen's Road

Central,

House No. 16, Praya, Shau Ki

Wan West,

House No. 249, Queen's Road

Central,

House No. 25, Caine Road,

A grass stack at Hung Hom

West,

In an unnumbered Hut at

Cheung Chow,

4 mat-

1

250

100

sheds

75

1

29,000

1

21,000

1

50

1

1

15,000

1 mat-

shed

I mat-

shed

15

50

35,844

1

75

1

500

10

Unknown.

1 mat-

shed

mat- sheds

1

150

1

50

15

2,700

1

...

3,000

1

9,500

1

200

30

382

10 huts

48

17 49 December 1

5.30 a.m. 5.35 p.m. 5.35 p.m.

No. 540, Des Voeux Road West, House No. 189, Queen's Road

2

203,000 22.000

West,

1

2

50

>>

8 2.30 a.m.

House No. 22, Chinese Street,

1

100

51

10 3.00 a.m.

House No. 279, Queen's Road

Central,

Ι

2.000

52

52

10 8.15 a.m.

A Rice Store, No. 78, Tung

53

54

55

AAA

10 6.30 p.m.

15 9.00 p.m.

16 3.30 a.m.

Tan Village,

House No. 21, Lo Wai Village, Chenk I-Fu, Sai Kung,

Matshed at Lung Chau Cheong

1

40

1

20

mat-

50

sheds

Village,

25

56

34

16 4.30 p.m.

Au Liu Village in Cheung Sha 78 mat

sheds

Wan,

houses

8.000

57

58

25

17 3.00 p.m.

House No. 101, Wanchai Road,

1

800

18 6.45 p.m.

House No. 67, Ngau Chi Wan,

1,650

TOTAL,.........

630.381

No.

DATE.

TIME.

1 January

46.10 p.m.

7

6 a.m.

ל,

""

7 7.15 p.m.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

House No. 10, Sai Woo Lane,.

FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1902.

A Wooden shed at Yau Ma Ti, Soy Factory, House No. 282, Des Voeux Road,

NO. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

Wholly. Partly.

ESTIMATED

DAMAGE.

3,000,00

CAUSE.

1

...

$

1,800.00 Overheating of flue,

1

...

200.00 Unknown,

2

""

20 10.50 p.m.

House No. 115, Winglok Street,.

3.

Ι

40,000.00

>>

21 11.15 a.m.

On board S.S. Bygdo in Victoria Harbour,...

1

47,510.00

""

""

26 10.55 p.m.

House No. 142, Second Street,

1

1

1,000.00

>>

""

6 12.20 a.m.

8 2.30 a.m.

>>

10

February 5 2.58 p.m.

On board S. S. Hong Chow, in Victoria Harbour,

10 3.35 p.m. House No. 19, Chinese Street,....

House No. 26, Eastern Street,.

1

House No. 5, Tung Loi Lane,

2,000.00

12,000.00

""

29

1

12,000.00

1,000.00

"".

REMARKS.

!

124 --

1,584.00 Firing crackers,.... 1,500.00 | Burning joss sticks,. 75.00 Accident,

1,000.00

>>

100.00 Supposed to have been set on

fire by some person,

50,000.00 Unknown,

Damage covered by insurance. Not insured.

Building covered by insurance, Damage covered by insurance.

Damage covered by insurance. Building covered by insurance. Building covered by insurance.

Goods not insured.

The ground floor covered by insurance, the 1st and 2nd floors were not insured.

No insurance.

No insurance.

No insurance.

Ground floor insured, 1st and 2nd floors not insured.

Two of the houses were insured.

The ground floors were covered by insurance.

The ground floor insured.

11

11

8 a.m.

A Matshed on the reclamation works at

9

miat-

sheds

""

Quarry Bay,

1 stack of

grass

12

11 8.45 a.m.

""

13

""

11

8.40 p.m.

14

"3

12 6.40 p.m.

House No. 37, Aberdeen Street,

A Matshed bath-house on Ship Street Whay, House No. 6, Chinese Street,..

1

1

...

1.

15

13 7.30 a.m.

A Matshed bath-house in Second Street,

1

16

15

a.m.

"

A Matshed on the foreshore at Tai Kok 7 m Tsui,.

sheds

23 houses

17

22 3.35 a.m.

House No. 300, Queen's Road West,

4

1

40,000.00

>>

18

22 7.55 a.m.

House No. 17, Torseen Street,

1

19

23

""

1 p.m.

A

coolie bath-house shed in

Third

Street,

1

:

:..

...

6,900.00

Carried forward.

50.00

221,719.00

>>

FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1902,-Continued.

No. OF BUILDINGS DESTROYED.

125

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

21

22

23

24

""

25

26 April

4 7.30 a.m.

27

4 12.25 a.m.

20 March

6' 3.45 p.m,

8 7.25 p.m.

11

3.05 a.m.

14

9 a.m.

17 1.30 p.m. 29 | 3.10 a.m.

Brought forward,

| A Workmen's matshed on the reclamation ground at Mong Kok Tsui,

Carpenters' Shop in Hung Hom Docks, House No. 222, Des Voeux Road,

A Stack of grass at Hung Hom West,.. A Govt. bath-shed on Praya at Yau Ma Ti,. House No. 280, Queen's Road Central,

A Matshed in the ship yard, Quarry Bay, House No. 75, Station Street South,

stacks

of grass

1

42

DAMAGE.

Wholly. Partly.

:

$ 221,719.00

1

150.00 Unknown,

1

2,000.00

>>

N

315,000,00

""

125.00

""

CAUSE.

REMARKS,

6 sheds

...

4

28

22

11 12.55 p.m.

House No. 1, Pottinger Street,

1

1

29

1.4

4 a.m.

30

>>

27 12.55 p.m.

House No. 293, Queen's Road Central, House No. 73, Jervois Street,

1.

5,000.00

"3

Ι

40,000.00

33

75.00

990,000.00

850.00

600.00

>>

Sparks from the funnel of an

engine,.

Supposed to have been caused by joss sticks,

1,200.00 Unknown,

Not insured.

Partly covered by insurance. Covered by insurance.

The property was mostly covered by

insurance.

Covered by insurance.

Ground floor, covered by insurance 1st and 2nd floors not insured. Covered by insurance.

35

31

30 12.45 a.m.

32 May

12' 12.40 a.m.

House No. 355, Queen's Road Central, House No. 271, Queen's Road West,

4,000.00

>>

5

35,000,00

""

33

34

19 1.28 a.m.

House No. 192, Wellington Street,...

10

200,000.00

"

""

""

"

51

19 1.30 p.m.

35

21 12.20 p.m.

37

""

38

41

36 June

39 July

40 August

5 11.45 p.m.

19 2.30 a.m.

21|10.20 p.m.

6 4.30 a.m. 5| 3.20 a.m. 131 3,30 a.m.

|

On board S.S. Ting Sang in Victoria Harbour,

On board sailing ship Dynomene, House No. 239, Queen's Road West, House No. 17, Sai Woo Lane,.. House No. 17, Circular Pathway, House No. 379, Queen's Road Central,

Carried forward.

...

100,000.00

House No. 219, Des Voeux Road West,.

1

2,500.00

>>

House No. 175, Queen's Road West,

1.

100.00

...

Insured.

"S

Unknown.

...

""

1

1

9,000.00

5,000.00

>>

>>

1

...

1.

2,000.00 Carelessness while smoking, 7,300.00 Overheating of a stove,...

Insured,

,,

""

1,941,619.00

No.

DATE.

TIME.

FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1902,-Continued.

No. oF. BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

Wholly. Partly.

DAMAGE.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

4,000.00 Supposed to have been caused

by a lamp,

500.00 Unknown,

160.00 Supposed to have been caused by firing crackers,

50.00 Spontaneous combustion, 2,500.00 Supposed to have been caused by a lamp,

Insured.

The bodies of a woman and two girls were found on the 2nd floor after the fire had been extinguished.

Brought forward,

42 August

16 1.15 a.mi.

A hut at Cheung-chow,

10 huts

...

$ 1,941,619.00

400.00 Unknown,

43

17 12.45 a.m.

House No. 67, Bonham Strand West,

>>

44

30

12 Noon.

A Matshed in the ship yard at Quarry Bay, 6 sheds

45 September 1

46

7 p.m.

A Matshed at Mong Kok,

1

250.00

...

""

""

1

7.45 p.m.

A Matshed Theatre at Aberdeen,

1

47

48

...

House No. 4, Praya, Kennedy Town,..

House No. 105, Wellington Street,

1

:

A

""

49

4.12 a.m.

512.30 p.m. An old Customs Bungalow on the hill

between Kowloon City and Kowloon'

Tong Tsai,.

1

100.00 Unknown,

50

9

>>

3 p.m.

House No. 26, High Street,.....

1

800.00 Accident,

51

26

3 a.m.

Matshed No. 14, Kau Pui Shek, Kowloon City, 12 mat

415.00 Unknown,

""

52

26 3.45 p.m.

|

A Matshed at Wong Nei Chung Village,

i

1

15.00 Accident,

53

">

27 12.30 p.m.

A Matshed at east side of Observatory,

1

150.00 Unknown,

54

55

28

A Matshedat Cheung-chow,

28

33

58

59

ོང་སྤཕྲ་

56

>>

29 12.15 a.m.

House No. 116, Jervois Street,

57October

7

8 p.m.

12 8.30 p.m.

4 p.m.

16 7.15 a.m.

A heap of coal stored at the east side of Sharp's Building at Tsim Sha Tsui,.

House No. 78, Un Long Market,

House No. 290, Des Voeux Road West,..

A Matshed used as a dwelling and Telephone Office at Green Island,

...

1

Carried forward,..

7

inat-

sheds

...

1,310.00

brick

houses

:

15,000.00 Spontaneous combustion, 10,000.00 Unknown,

2

1,250.00

"

:..

100.00 | Accident,

376.50

1,978,995.50

""

Covered by insurance.

1.26

No. DATE.

FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1902,-Continued.

No. OF BUILDINGS ·

DESTROYED.

Wholly. Partly.

DAMAGE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

127 -

61

62

63

3828

60 October

7 p.m.

13 9.30 p.m.

""

16 8.15 a.m.

64

65

66

33 35 3

""

19

20

1 a.m.

8 a.m.

26

November 8 3.50 a.m.

Brought forward,..

Brickworks near Lui Pak in San Tin,

House No. 115, Hollywood Road,

A Matshed inside the Hung Hom Docks,.. On board S.S. Indrapura in Cosmopolitan Docks,

House No. 15, Winglok Street,

A Matshed in Hung Hom Docks,

...

$ 1,978,995.50

1,000.00 Accident,

1

500.00 Unknown,

Insured.

1

60.00

Do.

63,000.00

Do.

1

30,000.00

Do.

Ι

21

67

24| 8.05 p.m.

A Matshed north side of Stonecutters Island,.I A Matshed on the hillside at the new Kow- loon Water Works,.....

1

60.00 Hot cinders dropping on the

roof from a ship,.

50.00 Accident,

Damage covered by insurance.

Gunner DUNCAN was burned to death.

4 mat-

sheds

:

:

68

93

29 8.30 p.m.

A Stack of rice straw at Tsun Wan Village, New Territory,

2

stacks

of straw

70

71

72

73

74

322 22 2

69 December 612.45 a.m.

10 | 3.15 a.m.

11

1.20 a.m.

House No. 39, Queen's Road West, House No. 48, Elgin Road, Tsim Sha Tsui,... House No. 458, Queen's Road West,

1

N

600.00 Unknown,

210.00

4,000.00

Do.

Do.

Insured.

I

""

by a lamp,

26

1.40 a.m.

House No. 318, Queen's Road West,

1

1,500.00 Arson,

26 2.15 a.m.

">

A Matshed at Mau Lam Gardens, Yau Ma Ti,

19 mat-

sheds

:

7,341.00 Unknown,

34

26 3.40 a.m.

On board Cargo Boat No. 251 in the harbour at Praya East,..

75

76

1925

""

27 10.40 p.m.

30 3.40 a.m.

House No. 2, Queen Victoria Street, House No. 4, Cross Street,.............

1.

1

21,600.00

Do.

5,000.00

Do.

23,000.00

Do.

1,000.00 Do.

7,000.00 | Supposed to have been caused

Do.

Do.

Insured. Two men were convicted at the Supreme Court.

Not insured.

Insured.

Do.

TOTAL,..

2,144,916.50

F. J. BADELEY,

Superintendent of Fire Brigade.

No.

DATE.

TIME.

INCIPIENT FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1902.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

Hillside below the Fort at North Point,.

A Stack of rice straw at Sha Po, Kowloon City, $ 2.00

1 January

4 12.15 a.m.

House No. 15, Peel Street,

2

4

1 p.m.

Hillside below Mount Kellett,

125

**

200 to 1-30 00

"

9

5 p.m.

15

10 a.m.

>>

16

''

7 p.m.

17

2 p.m.

Hillside above Tsat Tse Mui,

7

""

8

18

*

4 a.m.

20 Midnight.

22 5.45

Hillside above Deep Water Bay,.

A House at the back of Morrison Hill Road,...! Roof of No. 369, Queen's Road Central,.

Hillside below Aberdeen Gap,...

Chimney on fire, Grass on fire,....

Do.

Accident,

Grass on fire,.

· Do.

REMARKS.

128

Unknown,

Put out by Police and inmates.

Put out by Police and coolies; about 3,000 fir

trees were damaged.

Put out by Police and coolies.

Put out by Police and hired coolies.

Do.

Put out by Police.

Sparks from the fire at Bonham Strand,... Extinguished by Police and inmates.

Grass on fire,...

Grass on fire.

Carelessness with burning joss sticks, Grass on fire,.....

Burning joss paper,

Grass on fire,.

Do.

Sparks from crackers setting fire to joss paper and mattings,

Put out by Police and hired coolies; about 200 trees were burnt.

Put out by Police and inmates.

Put out by the people in the street assisted by Firemen from West Point.

Extinguished by the inmates.

Put out by inmates.

Put out by Police and coolies.

Extinguished by Police and villagers.

Put out by Police and hired coolies about 600 pine tress were destroyed.

Extinguished by Police and villagers,

Put out by Police and hired coolies; about 1,000 fir trees were damaged.

Extinguished by Police and inmates.

Put out by Police, Forest Guard and hired coolies. Put out by Police and coolies.

Extinguished by Police and villagers.

10

"

26, 3.30 a.m.

House No. 5, Irving Street,..

Unknown,

11

12

|

29 9.30 p.m.

13 February 13.45 a.m.

A Matshed bath-house in Second Street,

Do.

3110.45 p.m.

House No. 30, Des Voeux Road,

Do.

House No. 91, Third Street,.

1.50

Do.

14

15

16

17

18

19

8 4.30 p.m.

Chater Road,....

32.00

Do.

7 a.m.

*

3 p.m.

House No. 16, Sheung Cheung Wai, Ping-shau, Hillside at Tai Tam Tuk Bay, east of Shau Ki

15.00

Do.

Wan Bay.

12

12

NK

11 a.m.

House No. 98, Fui Sha Wai, Ping Shau,

90.00

2 p.m.

Hillside at New Little Hongkong,

20

19

""

8 a.m.

5 p.m.

House No. 76, First Street, Hillside near Tai Tam Tuk,

Trifling.

•21.

,,

20

5.30 p.m.

Hillside, Morrrison Hill,

22

22 8.15 a.m.

House at Cheung Chow,.

180.00

""

Carried forward,...

320.50

No.

DATE.

TIME.

INCIPIENT FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1902,-Continued.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DAMAGES.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

129

23 February 22

6.30 p.m.

Brought forward,.

House No. 214, Hollywood Road,

320.50

24

23

4 p.m.

Hillside at Mount Davis,......

A kerosine lamp caught fire, Grass on fire,.

25

24

>>

3 p.m.

Hillside above Siu Ting Liu, Stanley,

Do.

26

27

29

7 p.m.

Hillside, west of Deep Water Bay,

Do.

27

28

10.45 a.m.

House No. 51, Pottinger Street,

15.00

""

28 March

1

Hillside near No. 1 Bridge, Pokfulam Road,..

29

Hiliside below Pokfulam Dairy Farm,

30

7 a.m.

Hillside Chung Hom Bay,

Chimney on fire, Grass on fire,...

Do.

Do.

""

31

House No. 46, Hollywood Road,.

Unknown,

""

32

8

3 a.m.

House No. 228, Sun Wai Village, Ping-shan,

40.00

A

""

33

13 4.10 p.m.

West side of Kennedy Town Hospital,.

34

"

16 7.30 p.m.

A Matshed at Ah Chau Island,

15.00

35 April

1 10.45 a.m.

House No. 51, Pottinger Street,

15.00

36

4| 11.30 a.m.

|

Hillside at Aplichau,

37

""

6 12.30 p.m.

Hillside at Shun Wan,

38

...

Hillside near Kai Lung Wan,............

>>

39

""

40

""

41

""

42

7

""

2 p.m.

Hillside at Ping Shau,

Hillside at Kennedy Town,

43

44

""

45

*

99

46

18

""

47

20

""

48

23

49

2 p.m.

6 9.30 a.m.

14 6.40 p.m.

17 4.10 p.m.

17

9 p.m.

3 p.m.

21 7.15

27 12.10 a.m.

Hillside near Kennedy Town Hospital, Hillside at Coffee Plantation,..

House No. 2, Western Street, House No. 66, Praya East,

A stack of grass at Hung Hom West, House No. 60, Lower Lascar Road, ... Godown No. 21, HK. & K. Godown, Kowloon, Roof of offices at Victoria Barracks,

Carried forward,.

Do.

Do.

Do.

...

Do.

...

...

House No. 17, Caroline Hill Road,.....

70.00

10.00

Unknown,

50.00 Overheating of a flue,.

Burning joss candles, Grass on fire,.......

Attempted arson,

Overheating of the floor joints, Grass on fire,,

Do.

Do.

Carelessness with a lighted match, Carelessness while worshipping, Unknown,

Do.

Chimney on fire,

Put out by Police and inmates.

Put out by Police and coolies.

Putout by Police, Forest Guard and hired coolies. Put out by Police and hired coolies. Extinguished by Brigade.

Put out by Police and hired coolies. Put out by Police and coolies. Do.

Put out by inmates.

Put out by Police and villagers. Put out by Police and coolies. Burnt itself out.

Extinguished by Firemen and inmates. Put out by Police and hired coolies. Put out by Forest Guards and villagers. Put out by Police and hired coolies. Put out by Forest Guards.

Put out by Police and coolies.

Do.

Do.

Put out by Police.

Put out by Police and inmates.

Do.

Put out by Police and neighbours. Extinguished by inmates. Extinguished by Police.

Put out by Soldiers and Fire Brigade.

535.50

No.

DATE.

TIME.

INCIPIENT FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1902,-Continued.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

Brought forward,

535.50

50 May

51

3 7.30 p.m.

House No. 65, Praya East,

Upsetting of a kerosine lamp,

57.45 p.m.

Wild Dell,.

25.00

Do.

52

>>

6 9.45 p.m.

House No. 49, Wanchai Road,

Do.

53

10

House No. 7, Shelley Street,

>>

54

16 1.30 a.m.

Naval Club, Praya East,...

Unknown,

25

55

""

31 3.35 p.m.

56 June

7 10.30 a.m.

57

+

58

""

60

61

59 July

""

1 a.m.

8 p.m.

10 p.m.

4 9.20 p.m.

21

26

30

1

9 a.m.

""

62

25

...

House No. 5, Des Voeux Road,. House No. 1, Irving Street, House No. 193, Queen's Road West. House No. 28, Station Street South, Stokes Bungalow East, Mount Gough, House No. 12, Old Bailey Street, House No. 2, Western Street, House No. 2, Jervois Street, ...

...

Unknown,

63

28 12.30 a.m.

House No. 12, Belcher's Street,

64 August

4

2 a.m.

House No. 45, Praya East,

Unknown,

65

4

66

7

7 p.m.

On board San Chun Wo, Trading Junk,.. House in Chiu Loong Street,

320.00

Explosion of gunpowder,

67

|

"

26 10.15 p.m.

House No. 92, Wellington Street,

2.00

68 September 10 8.30 a.m.

69

11 4.30 a.m.

House No. 1, Gough Hill, Mount Gough, House No. 119, Hollywood Road,

100.00

70

18 7.30 p.m.A Stack of grass at Hung Hom West,

50.00

Unknown,

73

22 222:

71

21

""

7.07 p.m.

House No. 15, Queen's Road Central,.

10.00

Chimney on fire,

72

24

""

11 p.m.

House No. 28, Central Street,...

5.00

Unknown,

.....

>>

28 1.45 p.m.

Hillside above No. 3 Bridge, Pokfulam Road,.

74

28

12 Noon.

Hillside, Mount Barker,..

""

75 October

4

Cook-house, Hung Hom Station,..

Carried forward,.

20.00

1,067.50

Chimney on fire,

Do.

Carelessness with a lighted match,

Bursting of a kerosine lamp,

Exploding of a kerosine lamp,

Chimney on fire,

Unknown; some shavings caught fire,.

Chimney on fire, .....

Capsizing of a kerosine lamp,

Unknown,

Carelessness with a lighted match,

Unknown,

Attempted arson,..

Grass on fire,..............

Do.

Chimney on fire,

Put out by inmates.

Do.

Put out by inmates and Police.

Put out by Police.

Put out by inmates.

Put out by inmates, Police and Fire Brigade.

Put out by inmates.

Put out by Police.

Put out by inmates.

Put out by Police and coolies.

Put out by Police.

Do.

Put out by Firemen Put out by Police.

Put out by inmates.

7

persons were burnt.

Put out by inmates.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Put out by Police and neighbours.

Put out by Firemen.

Put out by inmates.

Put out by Police and coolies; about 30,000 fir trees were damaged.

Put out by Police and coolies.

Put out by Police.

130

No.

DATE.

TIME.

INCIPIENT FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1902,-Continued.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

Chimney on fire,

Accident while firing crackers, Grass on fire,..

Chimney on fire,

Throwing burning match on the bales, Unknown,

Accident,

Upsetting of a kerosine lamp, Unknown,

Put out by Firemen from F. B. Station. Put out by Police and inmates.

Put out by Police and Forest Guard. Put out by Police.

Put out by Firemen.

Put out by villagers.

Put out by Police and hired coolies. Put out by Fire Engine.

Put out by the crew.

Put out by Police and inmates. Put out by Dock employees. Put out by Firemen.

Put out by Police Constable 382. Put out by inmates.

Put out by Fire Brigade. Put out by Police.

Put out by Police and inmates. Put out by Police and servants.

Put out by Brigade and occupants.

Brought forward,..

1,067.50

76 October

8

6 p.m.

House No. 171, Queen's Road Central,

77

9 3.30 p.m.

House No. 49, Wing On Street, Tai 0,

6.00

78

10 10.30 a.m.

Hillside near Pokfulam Road,...

55

79

12

2 a.m.

Do.

Do.

55

80

""

16 7.26 p.m.

House No. 4, Jubilee Street,

81

17

""

I p.m.

A Matshed at Pokfulam Village,

Trifling.

Unknown, ....

82

18

7 p.m.

Hillside between Tai Tai Tuk and Shau Kiwan,

Grass on fire,......

83 Nevember 10

8.40 p.m.

|

On board S.S. Woo Sung, Victoria Harbour,...

Slight.

84

15

8.20 p.m.

House No. 9, Pokfulam Road,.

Slight.

85

""

22

10.30 p.m.

Mess room of Norwegian Steamer Tyr, Victoria Harbour, .....

Slight.

86 December 2

6.45 p.m.

House No. 62, Shau Kiwan,.

4.00

87

""

28.50 p.m.

Pottern Shop, Hung Hom Dock,.

20.00

88

""

4 1.30 p.m.

House No. 171, Queen's Road Central,

Chimney on fire,

89

,,

61.55 a.m.

90

6

8 p.m.

91

11 6.45

""

House No. 335, Des Voeux Road West,. House No. 12, Hok Lo Tsui, Kowloon City, A stack of bamboos and bags on the Reclamation Ground opposite Wing On Street,

Attempted arson,

2.00

Unknown,

50.00

Do.

92

11' 7.30 a.m.

No. 5 Police Station,

>>

93

""

28 12.10 p.m.

House No. 27, Queen's Road East,

Chimney on fire, Do.

94

"

29 5.45 p.m.

House No. 2, Gough Hill,

10.00

Unknown.

95

>>

30 4.20 p.m.

|

House No. 109, Queen's Road Central,

Do.

TOTAL.........

1,159.50

F. J. BADELEY,

Superintendent of Fire Brigade.

131

No. 7

1903

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF VICTORIA GAOL, FOR THE YEAR 1902.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

VICTORIA GAOL,

HONGKONG, 10th February, 1903.

SIR, I have the honour to submit, for the information of His Excellency the Governor, the following report on the Victoria Gaol, for the year 1902.

2. The number of prisoners committed to the Gaol under sentences from the Ordinary Courts was 5,786, besides 149 soldiers and sailors sentenced by the Military and Naval Authorities. There were 53 prisoners admitted for debt, making a total of 5,988.

3. The corresponding numbers for the preceding year were respectively as follows:

Convicted by the Ordinary Courts,

Sentenced by the Military and Naval Authorities, Debtors,

In default of finding security,

Total,.....

4,858

182

29

8

....5,077

4. The percentage of prisoners admitted with previous convictions recorded against them to the total number of admissions was 113 as compared with a percentage of 13.37 for the year 1901.

5. The following table shows the daily average number of prisoners confined in the Gaol during the past 10 years :-

1893,

1894,

1895,

1896,

1897,

1898,

;

1899,

1900,

.458

..455

.472

...514

.462

.511

..432

...486

...499

....576

:

50-21.3.03.

1901, 1902,

6. The Superintendent of the Gaol, in paragraph 10 of the Annual Report for the year 1898 (during which year the daily average number of prisoners in the Gaol was 511), called attention to the inadequacy of the Gaol accommodation. The question was again raised in paragraph 12 of the Superintendent's Annual Report on the Gaol for the year 1900, when accommodation for 570 prisoners was given as the total capacity of the Gaol.

7. During the year under review and especially in the month of May, when for several days the number of prisoners confined in the Gaol went up to 749, the Gaol was very much overcrowded.

For 171 days during the year the daily population of the Gaol varied between 571 and 749 prisoners and on 75 days of that period the numbers were over 600. During the latter part of the year a number of prisoners were located in the corridors, cell accommodation being insufficient.

40

8. The following table shows the number of convicts confined in the Gaol on the 31st December for the past five years:

1898,

1899,

1900.

1901,.

1902,.

55

96

...141

.180

..215

During the above five years there were 116 convicts released, time expired, etc. The figures in the above table call for special attention indicating as they do a continuous increase of long-sentence prisoners.

9. The number of prisoners admitted to the Gaol for offences not of a criminal nature was 2,729, made up as follows:-

Convicted under the Opium Ordinance,

10

Gambling Market

""

576

411

99

272

>>

Arms

30

99

وو

55

99

Vehicle

93

,,

""

27

97

17

Women and Girls Protection Ordce.,

14

""

""

the Sanitary Bye-laws,

115

وو

the Harbour Regulations,

331

19

for Drunkenness,

110

>>

""

Trespassing,

22

39

""

Disorderly Conduct,

78

99

""

""

*

"

21

135

""

""

97

""

as Rogues and Vagabonds,

Total,

Vagrancy,

Contempt of Court,

,, Assault,

Obstruction, Cutting Trees, Fighting,

Mendicancy,

94

78

140

113

31

95

1

125

2,729

10. The following table shows the number of prisoners committed to prison without the option of a fine and in default of payment of fine:

Imprisonment in default of payment of fine.

Imprisonment

Year. Total.

without the option of a fine.

Total.

Served the Imprisonment.

Paid full fine. Paid part fine.

1902 4,905

2,172

2,733

1,616

521

596

11. There were 6 deaths and 3 executions during the year, and 35 prisoners released on medical grounds.

12. There were 84 juveniles admitted to the Gaol during the year, 64 of whom were sentenced to be detained for 48 hours and to be whipped, the remainder were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment.

13. There were 1,971 punishments for breach of prison discipline, being an average of 3.42 per prisoner, as compared with 2,411 with an average per prisoner of 4.83 for the preceding year. There were eight cases in which corporal punish- ment was awarded during the year. Seven of which were (with the birch rod) sentenced by the Assistant Superintendent alone and one with the_cat-o'-nine-tails sentenced by the same Officer in conjunction with a Justice of the Peace.

Notwithstanding the overcrowded state of the Gaol during the year, the average number of reports per prisoner has been the lowest on record and speaks well for the maintenance of discipline throughout the prison.

14. There were 313 prisoners convicted from the New Territory during the year, of whom 16 were sentenced to 2 years' imprisonment and upwards.

:

L

!

:

41

15. Constant attention is given to the instruction of long-sentence prisoners (first offenders) of good conduct, who are employed at industrial labour, viz.:-Boot and Shoe-making, Tailoring, Mat-making, Carpentry, Tinsmithing, Net-making, Mattress-making, Rattan work, Knitting, Printing and Book-binding the know- ledge of which is useful and educational, rendering many of them much better adapted to earn an honest livelihood after their discharge from prison.

The total number of forms printed at the Gaol during the year 1902 was 3,050,828, and 11,949, books were bound. The value of work done by the Printing and Book-binding Department was $29,039.13. Deducting the cost of paper, leather, etc., used during the year, from the net earnings, the total profits industrial labour amounted to $29,439.91 for the year 1902.

16. All minor repairs to the Gaol have been carried out by prison labour. 17. The conduct of the European Officers has, as a rule, been excellent, and their duties satisfactorily performed. The conduct of the Indian Staff has been on the whole good.

18. There have been no escapes or attempts to escape.

19. The new quarters for married and single Officers were completed and occupied in March. The Officers' old quarters within the prison have been con- verted, by prison labour, into a hospital for prisoners.

The new hospital is a separate building, capable of accommodating 30 prisoners.

year.

20. There have been no suicides or attempts to commit suicide during the

I append the usual returns.

1.

Honourable F. H. MAY, C.M.G.,

*

Colonial Secretary,

Sc., &c., &c.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

F. J. BADELEY,

Superintendent.

VICTORIA GAOL.

Return showing the Expenditure and Income for the Year 1902.

Expenditure.

Amount.

Income.

Amount.

$

C.

$

C.

Pay and Allowances of Officers, in-

68,405.58

Earnings of prisoners,

29,439.91

cluding uniforms, &c.,

Paid by Military for subsistence of

1,938.10

Rent of quarters for Warders,

340.00

Military prisoners,

Victualling of prisoners,

14,643.09

Paid by

Paid by Navy for subsistence of

Fuel, light, soap and dry earth,

7,832.59

Naval prisoners,

1,393.00

Clothing of prisoners, bedding, fur-

Debtors' subsistence,

535.50

5,090.27

niture, &c.,

Consulate subsistence,

142.00

Waste food sold,

28.80

Starch,

33.74

Forfeiture,

12.04

Actual cost of prisoners' maintenance, 62,788.44

Total,

.$ 96,311.53

Total,

Average Annual Cost per prisoner, $108.92.

$ 96,311.53

.

42

(A.)

Return of Reports for talking, idling, short oakum picking, &c., for the years 1898,

1899, 1900, 1901, and 1902.

1898.

MONTH.

Daily average number in Prison, 510.

1899. Daily average

1900. Daily average

1901.

1902.

Daily average

Daily average

number in Prison, 434.

number in

Prison, 486.

number in Prison, 499.

number in

Prison, 576.

January,

170

60

58

164

117

February,

113

73

97

126

76

March,

165

95

82

127

113

April,

213

192

73

214

134

May,

223

69

90

224

63

June,

241

134

90

124

88

July,

282

65

138

162

105

August,..

331

100

163

166

92

September,

274

121

159

140

114

October,.

227

127

201

162

133

November,.

131

158

135

156

101

December,

100

90

127

54

98

Total,.

2,470

1,284

1,413

1,819

1,234

(B.)

Return of Offences reported of Prisoners fighting with or assaulting each other, or officers, for the years 1898, 1899, 1900, 1901, and 1902.

1898.

1899.

1900.

1901.

MONTH.

Daily average Daily average Daily average

Daily average

1902. Daily average

number in Prison, 510.

number in number in Prison, 434. | Prison, 486.

number in Prison, 499. Prison, 499.

number in Prison, 576.

January, February,

1

6

3

180

1

5

3

5

44 C

1

4

7

...

3

1

10

8

6

2

3

3

3

1

8

8

4

9

1

....

7

4

5

3

3

7

36672 O

2

6

1

8

1

7

1

10000 T

8

1

5

3

7

March,

April,

May,

June,.

July,

August,

September,

October,

November,

December,.

Total,.

66

45

43

28

64

43

(C.)

Return of Offences of Prisoners having Tobacco, for the years 1898, 1899, 1900, 1901, and 1902.

Daily average Daily average Daily average

1898.

1899.

1900.

1901.

1902.

MONTH.

Daily average Daily average number in number in Prison, 510. Prison, 434.

number in Prison, 486.

number in

number in

Prison, 499.

Prison, 576.

January,

4

4

5

February,

3

3

March,

4

7

4

April,

6

4

May,

4

1

June, July, August,

9

2

7

10

3

6

September,

3

5

2

October,

7

7

November,

1

1

December,

1

4

2

HHNNN 10

∞ 12 2NTIN N∞ – CO CO

101 +

3

3

...

1

1

1

1

4

2

2

3

2

5

3

3

2

Total,.

45

60

19

24

22

(D.)

Abstract of Industrial Labour, Victoria Gaol, for the year 1902.

OAKUM.

Dr.

Cr.

1902.

To Stock on hand, 1st Ja-

1902.

By Oakum sold during the

nuary,

$ 299.75

year,

$2,253.92

""

Cost of Paper Stuff pur-

""

Stock on hand, 31st De-

chased during the year,

2,254.35

cember,

1,100.00

Profit,..

1,098.57

Total,......$

3,352.92

Total,......$

3,353.92

COIR.

1902. To Stock on hand, 1st Ja-

nuary,

$ 907.15

23

Cost of Material pur- chased during the year, 749.40

.

Profit,.

1,151.71

Total,......$

2,808.26

1902. By Matting, &c., sold during

the year,

""

Articles made for Gaol

use,

Stock on hand, 31st De- cember,

$2,273.07

99.45

435.74

Total,......$

2,808.26

Dr.

1902. To Stock on hand, 1st Ja-

1902.

1902.

44

NET-MAKING.

nuary,

$

6.58

Cost of Material pur-

"1

chased during the year,

24.64

Profit,...........

36.32

Total,......$

67.54

To Stock on hand, 1st Ja-

nuary,

....

Cost of Material pur-

chased during the year,.

Profit,.

1902. By Nets and Nettings sold

TAILORING.

43.67

1,565.96

300.05

Total, .$ 1,909.68

Cr.

and repaired,

59.18

72

Stock on hand, 31st

December,.....

8.36

Total,......$

67.54

1902. By Articles sold and repaired, $ 138.02

""

Work done for Gaol,......

1,386.51

Stock on hand, 31st De-

cember,....

385.15

PRINTING AND BOOK-BINDING.

To Stock on hand, 1st Ja-

Total,......$

1,909.68

1902. By Printing,

$24,776.95

nuary,

$ 3,428.77

.

Cost of Material and Ma-

""

,, Book-binding,

4,262.35

chinery purchased during

the year,

13,462.17

""

Stock on hand, 31st De- cember,

8,530.73

Profit,.....

20,679.09

Total,......$ 37,570.03

WASHING.

1902.

To Stock on hand, 1st Jan-

uary,..

52.15

Cost of Material purchased

during the year,

1,253.52

Profit,

5,503.76

""

Total,......$ 6,809.43

Total,......$

37,570.03

1902. By Washing done for Prison,

Government Civil Hos-

pital and Police Officers

at 2 cents per piece, $2,622.60

...

Washing Prisoners' Cloth- ing at 2 cents per piece,.. Stock on hand, 31st De-

cember,

4,170.26

16.57

Total,......$

6,809.43

די

'4

.

45

RATTAN WORK.

1902. By Articles sold during the

year, Articles made for Gaol use,

0.45

year,

...

8.57

""

Stock on hand, $1st De-

cember,

Dr.

1902.

To Stock on hand, 1st Jan-

uary,

Cost of Material purcha-

sed during the

Profit,

1902.

1902.

•CREDIT NOGENOLLIDEINA

11.12

Total,... .$

20.14

To Stock on hand, 1st Jan-

""

uary,

Cost of Material purcha-

sed during the year,

Profit,

TIN-SMITHING.

Cr.

$

19.05

0.54

0.55

Total,......$

20.14

1902. By Work done for outside,... $

3.11

€0

$

2.83

Work done for Gaol,................

116.35

38.10

"2

80.93

Stock on hand, 31st De-

cember,

2.40

Total,.

121.86

CARPENTRY.

To Stock on hand, 1st Jan-

Total,......$

121.86

1902. By Articles sold and repaired

uary,

$ 29.15

""

Cost of Material purchased

11

during the year, Work done for Gaol,

$

51.99

322.83

during the year,

Profit,

227.37

""

176.99

Stock on hand, 31st De-

cember,

58.69

Total,......

433.51

GRASS-MATTING.

1902. To Stock on hand, 1st Jan-

29

uary,

Cost of Material purchased

1902.

during the year,

Profit,

Total,......$

433.51

1902. By Matting sold during the

$

13.04

year,

$

1.30

""

32.10

Matting and Mats made for Gaol during the year,

64.43

23.29

""

Stock on hand, 31st De-

cember,

2.70

Total,..

68.43

To Stock on hand, 1st Jan-

"}

uary,

Cost of Material purchased

during the year,..

Profit,

Total,......$

68.43

SHOE-MAKING.

1902. By Boots and Shoes made for Police and Gaol Depart-

ment during the year,.. $ 1,155.50 Repairs during the

96.95

$

16.87

1,023.16

year,.

378.08

""

Stock on hand, 31st De-

cember,

165.66

Total,......$

1,418.11

Total,......$

1,418.11

1902. Oakum,

Coir,

Net-making,

46

RECAPITULATION.

$1,098.57 1902. By Surplus,..

1,151.71 36.32

Tailoring,

300.05

Washing,

5,503.76

Rattan,

11.12

Tin-smithing,

80.93

Carpentering,

176.99

Grass-matting,

23.29

Shoe-making,

378.08

Printing,

20,679.09

Europeans,

Indians,

Total,.....$ 29,439.91

Total,......

Table showing the number of Casualties in the Gaol Staff during the year 1902.

$29,439.91

29,439.91

Establish- Resigned Pensioned.

Services

Died.

ment. voluntarily.

dispensed Dismissed. Total Number

with.

of Casualties.

32

3

1

4

52

6

2

1

2

11

This does not include the Superintendent, Assistant superintendent or Clerical Staff.

Return showing the Employment of Prisoners and the Value of their Labour.

1

+

Daily Average Number of Prisoners.

Value

Description of Employment.

Males. Females. Total.

of Prison Labour.

Total.

SUNDAYS, CHRISTMAS DAY AND GOOD FRIDAY,

.

Cooks,

10

...

Cleaners,

10

1

Non-Productive,

555

...

576

$ c.

64.80

59.40

x

Debtors, Remands, On punishment, sick, Crank, shot, shot and stone,

56

167

56 167

...

+

IN MANUFACTURES,-

Printing,

Knitting,

Book-binding,

Printing, Labourers,

2423

20

20

44

...

44

12

12

933.00 2,052.60

373.20

.

2

2

31.00

...

Oakum Picking,

125

7

132

821.04

Coir Matting,.

22

22

684.20

...

Grass Matting,

2

2

18.66

Shoe-making,

6

6

223.92

...

Tailoring,

16

4

20

933.00

Net-making, string-making and ship's fender-

making,

4

4

62.20

?

IN BUILDING,

Bricklaying,

Carpentering and Fitting,

Painting,

NON

2

9

2

NO N

2

93.30

9

447.84

2

62.20

IN SERVICE OF THE PRISON,-

Laundry,

33

3

36 1,529.40

Cooking,

10

10

373.20

Cleaning,

24

2

26

970.32

Hospital Cleaners, .

2

2

62.20

White-washing,

2

2

62.20

558

18

576 9,857.68

...

Date.

1932.

FLOGGING RETURN.

Table showing the number

of Floggings awarded.

Table showing the number of strokes awarded in each case.

Average number of Pri-

soners in Gaol. By Assistant Su- perintendent only.

By Assistant Supt.

and a Visiting Justice.

By Judge.

By Magistrate.

January,

February,

March,......

April,

May,

June,

July,

August,

551

cr.

เค

Total.

9

18

6

28

4

1

5

8

00

11

8

00

16

4

3

00

Co

3

5

00

8

3

6

11

10

11

2

10

5

:

:

2

:

-

562

:

September,

October,

:

:

:

r

November,

1

@

December,

599

1

5

Total,..............

:..

:

10

12

4

10

10

:

DO.

:.

:.

:.

00

لسر

Total.

Total number of Floggings

awarded by Prison Authorities.

Total number of Floggings

awarded by Courts.

:

Prison Offences for which Floggings were inflicted.

Personal Violence to an Officer of

the Prison.

Wilfully creating Disturbance.

ing Government Property.

Wilfully destroy-

Repeated refusals

to labour.

20 28

Total.

Total.

Birch.

Cit.Birch. Cat. Birch. Cat. Birch.

Cat.

20

:

10

1-

5

9

11

10

16

4

30

8

7

64

65 137

2

3

:

:..

:.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:.

:.

:

3

8

00

3 11

N

11

7

4 11

10

10

10

6 11

60

72

137

:

:

:

:.

:.

:

:.

:

:

00

8

12)

شميل

:

:

:.

:

I

:

:.

:.

DD.

:.

:

:

:.

:

FM.

:

:

:

:.

:.

2

3

47

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE HARBOUR MASTER, FOR THE YEAR 1902.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor,

17

NO. 1903

No. 56.

HARBOUR DEPARTMENT, HONGKONG, 16th February, 1903.

SIR, I have the honour to forward the Annual Report for this Department for the year ending 31st December, 1902.

I. Number, Tonnage, Crews, and Cargoes of Vessels entered.

II. Number, Tonnage, Crews, and Cargoes of Vessels cleared.

III. Number, Tonnage, Crews, and Cargoes of Vessels entered at each

Port.

IV. Number, Tonnage, Crews, and Cargoes of Vessels cleared at each

Port.

V. Number, Tonnage, and Crews of Vessels of each Nation entered. VI. Number, Tonnage, and Crews of Vessels of each Nation cleared. VII. Junks entered from China and Macao.

VIII. Junks cleared for China and Macao.

IX. Total number of Junks entered at each Port.

X. Total number of Junks cleared at each Port.

XI. Junks (Local Trade) entered.

XII. Junks (Local Trade) cleared.

XIII. Summary of Arrivals and Departures of all vessels.

XIV. Licensed Steam Launches entered.

XV. Licensed Steam Launches cleared.

XVI. Vessels registered.

XVII. Vessels struck of the register.

XVIII. Chinese Passenger ships cleared by the Emigration Officer (Summary). XIX. Vessels bringing Chinese Passengers to Hongkong from places out

of China (Summary).

XX. Marine Magistrate's Court.

XXI. Diagram of Tonnage of Vessels entered.

XXII. Statement of Revenue collected.

XXIII. Return of work performed by the Government Marine Surveyor.

XXIV. Return from Import and Export (Opium) Office.

SHIPPING.

1. The total tonnage entering and clearing during the year 1902 amounted to 21,528,780 tons, being an increase, compared with 1901, of 2,203,396 tons, and the same number in excess of any previous year.

There were 51,542 arrivals of 10,783,502 tons, and 51,547 departures of 10,754,278 tons.

Of British Ocean-going tonnage, 3,010,441 tons entered, and 3,005,148 tons cleared.

Of British River Steamers, 1,775,960 tons entered, and 1,780,238 tons cleared. Of Foreign Ocean-going tonnage, 3,273,817 tons entered, and 3,238,719 tons cleared.

164

Of Foreign River Steamers, 95,766 tons entered, and 95,909 tons cleared.

Of Steam Launches trading to Ports outside the Colony, 97,607 tons entered, and 97,607 tons cleared.

Of Junks in Foreign Trade, 1,613,895 tons entered, and 1,624,344 tons cleared.

Of Junks in Local Trade, 916,016 tons entered, and 903,313 tons cleared.

Thus

British Ocean-going tonnage represented

Foreign Ocean-going

""

12

27.94% 16.52% 30.25%

-

""

1

.

River

">

River

#

Steam Launches in Foreign Trade

""

0.89%

0.91%

Junks

>>

"

""

27

15.04%

Local

""

""

8.45%

100.00%

2. Six thousand one hundred and ninety-two (6,192) Steamers, 47 Sailing Vessels, 1,820 Steam Launches, and 17,978 Junks in Foreign Trade, entered during the year, giving a daily average of 71.2, as against 67.6, in 1901.

For European constructed vessels, the daily average would be 17.1, as against 14.8 in 1901.

3. A comparison between the years 1901 and 1902 is given in the following Table. Steam Launches are not included.

Comparative Shipping Return for the Years 1901 and 1902.

1901.

1902.

Increase.

Decrease.

Ships. Tonuage. Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage.

British,.. Foreign,

Junks in Foreign

6,715 | 9,213,639|7,102|9,571,787 387 358,148 4,092 | 5,345,502 5,359 | 6,704,211 | 1,267 1,358,709

35,394 13,266,168 36,245 3,238,239 851

27,929

Trade,

Total,...... 46,201 | 17,825,309 48,706|19,514,237 | 2,505 1,716,857)

Junks in Local)

Trade,

27,929

+

41,235 1,334,947 50,743 1,819,329 9,508|| 484,382

Grand Total,... 87,436 | 19,160,256 99,449 21,333,566 12,013 2,201,239

27,929

NET,

12,013 2,173,310|

** Including 15,386 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 495,332 tons. † including 17,210 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 637,052 tons.

4. For vessels under the British Flag, this Table shows an increase of 387 ships of 358,148 tons. These figures are, however, misleading, for River Steamers are responsible for an increase of 397 ships of 157,539 tons. This leaves a net decrease of 10 Ocean-going ships, with an increase in tonnage of 200,609 tons.

The above increase in River Steamers is due to the fact that the one vessel which ran in 1901 and not in 1902 is more than counterbalanced by two which started to run at the end of 1901, and two which started to run at the beginning of 1902.

The fall of 10 Ocean-going vessels is a genuine decrease, which loses a por- tion of its significance when we consider the increased size of vessels as evidenced by the increase in tonnage.

.

:

.

"

:

165

For vessels under Foreign Flags, we find a large increase, viz., 1,267 ships of 1,358,709 tons, of which 301 ships of 93,627 tons are due to River Steamers, one new French vessel having started to run in 1902, and another Frenchman having run more often in 1902 than in 1901. The remainder, 966 ships of 1,285,082 tons, is due to—

1. An increase of 453 Norwegian ships of 372,021 tons

2.

186 German

""

""

77

of 221,619

21

3.

169 Chinese

""

""

""

of 307,897

"}

4.

""

150 Japanese

""

of 342,668

"7

!!

and smaller increases in other nationalities.

A sailing ship under Sarawak colours visited the Port during the year; their first appearance in the waters of the Colony.

5. The actual number of ships of European construction (exclusive of River Steamers and Steam Launches), entering the Port during 1902, was 718, of which 350 were British, and 368 Foreign. These 718 ships entered 4,047 times, giving a total tonnage entered of 6,284,258 tons. Thus, compared with 1901, 37 more ships entered 477 more times, and gave a total tonnage increased by 728,926

tons.

STEAMERS.

Ships.

No. of times entered.

Total Tonnage.

Flag.

1901. 1902. 1901. 1902.

1901. 1902.

British,

321

3241,770 | 1,753 2,894,519,2,965,030

Austrian,

20

20

53

50

128,483

125,929

Belgian,

3

1*

9

3

12,407 3,624

Chinese,

4

17

10

135

3,349

163,396

Corean,

1

796

...

Danish,

12

13

25,903

23,374

Dutch,

8

29

23

40,872

26.464

French,

22

27

206

228

209,094 219,111

German,

122

123

842

939 1,242,4991,360,524

Italian,...

4

12

14 17.988 23.428

Japanese,

65

56

336 409

692,981 865,400

Norwegian,

26

49

79

300

78,004 263,379

Portuguese,

3

3

49

46

4,948

Russian,

4

11

4

16

8,797

7,897

32,046

Spanish,

1

1

Swedish,

1

4

7

15

784 6,923

...

14.325

United States,..

19

23

89

56

130,476 121,939

No Flag,

1

1

80

Total,................

632

676 3,510 4,000 5,498,9036,215,866

166

SAILING VESSELS.

Ships.

No. of times entered.

Total Tonnage.

Flag.

1901. 1902. | 1901. 1902. 1901.

1902.

British,

16

26 19

28

23,261

45,411

French,

9

16

7,040

German,

2

2

143

2,973

Italian,

1

794

Japanese,

2

Norwegian,

Sarawak,

222

212

1,418

1,338

United States,.

22

22

11 25,191

17,040

Total,.....

50

42

60

47 56,429 68,392

6. The 350 British vessels carried 2,659 British Officers and 21 Foreign Officers, as follows:-

British,

German,

Norwegian,

Swedish,

United States,...

Total,.

..2,659 2

2

2

15

..2,680

Thus the proportion of Foreign Officers in British ships was 0.78%, compris- ing four nationalities, a decrease of 0.29°。, with an increase of ships.

The 368 Foreign ships carried 2,737 Officers, of whom 293 were British, borne as follows:-

In Japanese

ships,

Chinese

Dutch

19

>>

French

"7

""

United States Belgian

>>

Total,..

..131

97

37

11

11

6

.293

The proportion of British Officers in Foreign ships was, therefore, 10.7%; distributed among six nationalities; an increase of 0.37%, with an increase of ships.

Of the crews of British vessels-

17.7% were British.

O

0.8% Other Europeans.

81.5%

""

Asiatics.

Of the crews of Foreign vessels-

1.4% were British. 24.1% Other Europeans. 74.5%

77

Asiatics.

This shows a slight increase of Asiatics, with a corresponding falling off in the proportion of Europeans.

TRADE.

7. It seems hardly necessary to again refer to the fact that the returns under this heading depend, for accuracy, on the information voluntarily afforded to this Department by the Masters, and, in some cases, by the Agents concerned. While thanking these for their assistance in the matter, I would ask to be allowed to impress upon them how desirable it is that such information should be as reliable as they can make it.

<

:.

:

1

-167

The principal features to be remarked in the reported Trade of the Port for

1902 are:-

In Imports reported-

Increases in Opium of 69.6°.

Decreases in Hemp

of

26.5%

""

Rice of 32.3 %. General of 15.7 %

Flour

of

25.1 %

Bulk Oil of

22.9 %*

??

11

Coal

of 13.4°/

Case Oil of

22.5%

""

""

Sugar

of 11.1%.

Cotton of

20.3%

""

Timber of 10.7%.

""

The net increase under this head amounts to 482,476 tons.

In Exports, there is an increase reported of 126,814 tons.

In Transit Cargo

*, 237,812

8. The total reported Import Trade of the Port for 1902 amounted to 26,037 vessels of 9,867,486 tons, carrying 6,921,928 tons of cargo, of which 4,549,531 tons were discharged at Hongkong. This does not include the number, tonnage or cargo of Local Trade Junks, or Steam Launches.

Cargo.

Country.

Ships.

Tons.

Discharged. In Transit.

CLASS I.

Canada,

23

47,673

19,735

Continent of Europe,

1.50

299,673

67,258

280,438

Great Britain,

173

503,847*

202,725

515.715

Mauritius,

6

6,069

7,611

United States,

152

437,971

231,257

95,061

CLASS II.

504

1,295,233

528,586

891,214

Australia and New Zealand.

57

107,094

67.637

38,664

India and Straits Settlements,

231

470,447

325,791

281,622

Japan,....

415

1,019,501

913,800

380,611

Java and Indian Archipelago,

182

231,155

302,545

28,320

North Pacific,

2

832

350

Russia-in-Asia,

4

9,089

5,116

8,222

CLASS III.

891

1,838,118 1,615,239

737,439

North Borneo,

44

57,329

74,663

14,707

Coast of China,

1,382

1,835,498

309.165.

633,011

Cochin-China,

195

228,585

305,329

37,962

Formosa,

111

94,842

43.780

6,030

Philippine Islands,

258

347,474

91,097

5,400

Hainan and Gulf of Tonkin,

361

274,097

272,975

42,934

Siam,

300

310,382

499,021

3,700

Wei-hai-wei,

1

2,700

CLASS IV.

2,652

3,150,907 1,596,030

743,744

River Steamers,--Canton, Macao and West

River,..

2,192

1,871,726 223,608

CLASS V.

Steam-launches trading to Ports outside the

Colony,

1,820

97,607 19,596

CLASS VI.

Junks in Foreign Trade,

17,978

1,613,895 566,472

Total,....

26,037 9,867,486 4,549,531 2,372,397

:

168

Similarly, the Export Trade from the Port was represented by 26,309 vessels of 9,841,965 tons, carrying 3,146,144 tons of Cargo, and shipping 654,274 tons of Bunker Coal.

Country.

Cargo.

Ships.

Tons.

Shipped. Bunker Coal.

CLASS I.

Canada,

22

57,075

25,061

Continent of Europe,.

38

153,775

27,734

9,785

Great Britain,

76

254,564

50,012

1,508

Mauritius.

3

3,195

1,310

1,920

United States,

124

346,166

180,847

360

CLASS II.

263

814,775

284.964

13,573

Australia and New Zealand,..

43

83,226

43,700

10,947

India and Straits Settlements,

269

610,279

298,922

76,541

Japan,.

420

940,873

183,592

47.542

Java and Indian Archipelago,

50

73,410

15,052

14.255

North Pacific,

2,742

1,800

1.170

Russia-in-Asia,

8.960

8,400

690

CLASS III.

794

1,719,490

551,466

151,145

North Borneo,

37

43,175

4,465

9,020

Coast of China,

1,764

2,464,262

760,796

209,924

Cochin-China,

213

264,685

60,199

57,701

Formosa.....

59

58,478

49.198

5,870

Philippine Islands,.

217

308,915

145,818

49,727

Hainan and Gulf of Tonkin,.

431

311,425

173,256

55,231

Port Arthur,

1

2.140

400

Siam,

239

243,179

40,401

58.662

Kiaochow,

3,470

1,500

860

Wei-hai-wei,

نا

9,873

4,500

1,000

CLASS IV.

2,972

3,709,602 | 1,240,133

448,395

River Steamers,---Canton, Macao and West

River, ......

2,193

1,876,147 144,304

28,627

CLASS V.

Steam-launches trading to Ports outside the

Colony,

CLASS VI.

Junks in Foreign Trade,..........

Total,...

1,820

97,607

30,386

12,534

18,267

1,624,344 894.891

26,309

9,841,965 3,146,114 654,274

9. During the year 1902, 12,461 vessels of European construction, of 16,275,998 tons (net register), reported having carried 9,198,467 tons of Cargo, as

follows

Import Cargo,

Export

>>

Transit

Bunker Coal shipped,

3,963,463

.2,220,867

.2,372,397

641,740

9,198,467

:

"

:

A

169

The total number of tons carried was, therefore, 56.5% of the total net register tonnage (or 70.2 %, exclusive of River Steamers), and was apportioned as follows:-

Imports

British ships,

1,833.871

Foreign do.,

.2,129,592

-3,963,463

Exports-

British ships,

.1,197,077

Foreign do.,

.1,023,790

-2,220,867

Transit-

British ships,

.1,259,439

Foreign do.,

.1,112,958

-2,372,397

Bunker Coal-

British ships,

Foreign do.,

254,770 386,970

641,740

Grand Total,.

...9,198,467

Trade of the Port of Hongkong for the Year 1902.

TONS.

Passengers.

No. of Ships.

Dis- charged.

Shipped.

In Transit.

Bunker Coal Shipped.

Total.

Registered Tonnage.

Emi- grants.

Arrived.

Departed.

British Ocean-going,

Foreign Ocean-going,

British River Steamers,

Foreign River Steamers,...

3,559 1,643,040 1,083,335 | 1,259,439

4,517 2,096,815 993,228 1,112,958

3,543

190,831 113,742

842 32,777 30,562

229,426 4,215,240 6,015,589 152,122

383,687 4,586,688 6,512,536 99,116

94,244 42,778

76.835 28.933

25,314 329,917 3,556,198

3,283 66,622

612,866

579.705

191,675

55,301

48,730

Total,....

Steam-launches trading to

ports outside the Colony,

Total,.

12,461 | 3,963,463 | 2,220,867 | 2,372,397

641,740 9,198,467 16,275,998

919,405

799,514 71,711

3,640 19,596 30,386

12,534 62,516 195,214

57.242

57,006

16,101 3,983,059 | 2,251,253 | 2,372,397

654,274 | 9,260,983 | 16,471,212

976,647 $56,520 71.711

Junks trading to ports out-

side the Colony,

36,245 566,472 894,891

1,461,363 3,238,239 55,083

52,553

-

Steam launches

Total Foreign Trade,

plying within waters of the Colony.*

52,364 4,549,531 3,146,144 2,372,397

242,872

654,274 10,722,346 | 19,709,451 1,031,730 909,073 71,711

23,378 23,378 7,238,212 3,400,872 3,400,622

Junks, Local Trade,.........................

50,743 300,964 51,702

352.666 1,819,329

76,840

77,137

Total Local Trade,

293,615 300,964 51,702

23,378 376,044 9,057,541

3,477,712 3,477,759

Grand Total,..

345,961 4,850,495 3,197,846 2,372,397

677,652 11,098,390 | 28,766,992

4,509,442

4,386,832 71,711

*The figures under the heading "Steam-launches plying within the waters of the Colony' are incomplete.

Star" Ferry Company stating that since 1901, owing to the amount of work entailed, they have had to discontinue keeping a record of the passengers carried by their launchies, and also number of trips.

The

170

IMPORTS.

EUROPEAN CONSTRUCTED VESSELS.

1901.

1902.

Increase.

Decrease.

No.

Tonnage. No. Tonnage.

No. Tonnage.

No. Tonnage.

Steamers,

3,510 5,498,903 | 4,000 | 6,215,866

River Steamers,... 1,839 1,745,787 2,192 1,871,726

Sailing Vessels,...... 60 56,429 47 68,392

490

716,963

353

125,939

11,963 13

:

Total,...... 5,409 7,301,1196,239 | 8,155,984

843

854,865

13

Nett,

830

854,865

Imported tons,

3,480,987

3,963,463

As follows:

Articles.

1901.

1902.

Increase.

Decrease.

Beans,

1.290

300

990

Bones,

Coal,

917,144

1,040,906

Cotton Yarn and Cotton,

14,423

11,498

...

Flour,

145,287

107,826

Hemp,

31,195

22,923

Kerosine (bulk),

70,728

54,461

123,762

2,925

37,461

8,272

16.267

""

(case),

77.977

60,400

·

17,577

Lead, Opium, Liquid Fuel, Rattan,

Rice,

Sandalwood,

Sulphur,

Sugar,

Tea,

260

625

365

2,872

4,871

1,999

3,973

6,299

2.326

3,488

4,742

1,254

618.780

819,919

201,139

5.272

5,374

102

55 241.291

55

268,268

26,977

1.473

25

1,448

Timber,

General,.

66.860

75,023

8,163

1,278,619

1,480,003

201,384

Total,..

3,480,987

3,963,463

567,471

84,995

Transit,.

2,134,585

2,372,397

237,812

Grand Total........ 5,615,572

6,335,860

805,283

$4,995

Nett,.

720,288

1901.

171

EXPORTS.

1902.

Increase.

Decrease.

1,848

63

1,750,920 2,193 63,331 43

Steamers,

River Steamers,. Sailing Vessels,

No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage.

3,487 | 5,443,7713,986

6,181,294 499 747,523

1,876,147 62,573

345

125,227

20

758

Total,

5,398 | 7,258,022 | 6,222 8,120,014

844

872,750 20

758

Nett,....

824

871,992

Exported tons,

2,084,053

2,220,867

Strs.

Bunker Coal.

Strs.

Bunker

Coal.

Strs.

Bunker Coal.

Strs.

Bunker Coal.

Steamers,

3,487

518,187 3,986

613,113 499

94,926

River Steamers,

1,848

24,760 |2,193

28,627 345

3,867

Total,..... 5,835

542,947 6,179

641,740 844

98,793

Nett.........

844

98,793

1901,

1902,

Year.

RIVER TRADE.

Imports, Exports and Passengers.

Imports.

Exports.

Passengers.

183,159

138,183

1,241,426

223,608

144,304

1,296,602

IMPORTS.

Junks.

Foreign Trade, Local trade,

17,978 measuring 1,613,895 tons. 25,505

916,016

"

Total,...... 43,483

""

2,529,911

"J

Imported, $67,436 tons as under :---

Tea,..

Fire Crackers,

Oil, Vegetable,

Rice,

Cattle, (2,034),

Swine, (36,594)

Earth and Stones,

General,

1,471 tons.

4,155

35

993

494

355

"

2,163

"

.245,493 ..612,312

"

Total,

..867,436

**

172

EXPORTS.

Junks.

Foreign Trade, 18,267 measuring, 1,624,344 tons.

Local Trade,

903,313

25,238

>>

Total,

.......43,505

""

2,527,657

Exported, 946,593 tons as under :--

Kerosine, (861,049 cases), Rice and Paddy,

Earth and Stones,

General,

30,751 tons.

.442,161 .150,350

>>

""

.323,331

"2

Total,.....

.946,593

PASSENGERS.

1901.

1902.

Increase. Decrease.

:

British vessels arrivals......

167,324

152,122

15,202

Do.,

departures,.

104,300 94,244

10,056

Do..

emigrants,

44,855 42,778

:

:

2,077

Total,......

316,479

289,144

27,335

Nett,

27,335

Do.,

Foreign vessels arrivals,

departures,

88,384 99,116

10,732

Do.,

67,507 76,835 9,328

emigrants, 24,919 28,933 4,014

Total,....... 180,810 204,884 24,074

Nett,

24,074

River steamers arrivals,

634,293 668,167 33,874

Do.,

departures, 607,133 628,435 21,302

Total,...... 1,241,426 1,296,602 | 55,176

Nett,

55,176

Junks foreign trade arrivals,

49,034 55,083 6,049

Do.,

departures,...

49,575

52,553 2,978

Total,................

98,609 107,636 9,027

Nett,.

9,027

:

173

PASSENGERS,--continued,

1901.

1902.

Increase. Decrease.

Total arrivals,

939,035

974,488

35,453

""

departures,..

828,515 852,067 23,552

1,767,550 1,826,555 59,005

">

emigrants,

69.774

71,711 1,937

Total,..... 1,837,324 1,898,266

60,942

Nett,

60,942

Diff. of Arrivals and Dep.,

110,520 122,421

Emigrants,

69,774

71,711

:

Remainder + or –

+40,746 + 50,710

:

Nett,

Junks, local trade arrivals,

76,324

76,840

516

Do.,

departures,

89,309

77,137

12,172

Total,...... 165,633

153,977

516

12,172

Nett,

11,656

REVENUE.

11. The total Revenue collected by the Harbour Department during the year was $266,765.99, being an increase of $15,168.60 on the previous year :-

1. Light Dues,

2. Licences and Internal Revenue,

$ 66,106.52 55,014.80 145,644.67

Total,......

.$266,765.99

3. Fees of Court and Office,

STEAM LAUNCHES.

12. On the 31st December, there were 283 Steam Launches employed in the Harbour; of these, 137 were licensed for the conveyance of passengers, 123 were privately owned, 17 were the property of the Colonial Government, and 6 belonged to the Imperial Government in charge of the Military Authorities.

Two Masters' Certificates were cancelled; one Master's Certificate was sus- pended for three months, one for two months, four for one month and one for a fortnight, and four Masters were cautioned. One Engineer's Certificate was sus- pended for ten days and two Engineers were cautioned.

Five hundred and one (501) engagements, and four hundred and eighty-seven (487) discharges of Masters and Engineers were made from 1st January to 31st December.

Sixteen (16) steam launches were permitted to carry arms, etc., for their pro- tection against pirates; of these, eleven were previously permitted, and five during this year.

174

EMIGRATION.

13. Seventy-one thousand seven hundred and eleven (71,711) Emigrants left Hongkong for various places during the year; of these, 42,778 were carried by British ships and 28,933 by Foreign ships; 129,812 were reported as having been brought to Hongkong from places to which they had emigrated, and of these, 95,937 were brought in British ships and 33,875 by Foreign ships.

Returns Nos. XVIII and XIX will give the details of this branch of the Department.

REGISTRY OF SHIPPING.

14. During the year, 4 ships were registered under the provisions of the Imperial Act, and 8 certificates were cancelled.

MARINE MAGISTRATE'S COURT.

15. Twenty-seven (27) cases were heard in the Marine Magistrate's Court; refusal of duty on board ship and breach of Harbour Regulations were the prin- cipal offences.

EXAMINATION OF MASTERS, MATES AND ENGINEERS.

(Under Section 15 of Ordinance No. 26 of 1891.)

16. The following table will show the number of candidates examined for Certificates of Competency, distinguishing those who were successful and those who failed:-

Master, First Mate, Only Mate,

Grade.

Passed.

Failed.

15

20

10:00

Second Mate,.

Total,...

39

14

First Class Engineer, Second Class Engineer,

8

11

54

37

Total,....

62

48

MARINE COURTS.

(Under Sections 13 of Ordinance No. 26 of 1891.)

17. The following Courts have been held during the year :-

On the 19th June, enquiry respecting the circumstances connected with the sinking of the British Steam-ship" Pakshan," Official No. 82,893, of London. The Master's (JAMES GEORGE REID) Certificate of Competency was returned to him.

On the 20th June, enquiry respecting the circumstances connected with the stranding of the British Steam-ship "Robert Dickinson," Official No. 82,891, of London. The Master's (SYDNEY FREDERICK MCDONNEL) Certificate of Competency was suspended for three months.

SUNDAY CARGO-WORKING.

(Ordinance No. 6 of 1891.)

18. During the year, 458 permits were issued under the provisions of the Ordinance. Of these, 125 were not availed of owing to its being found unnecessary for the ship to work cargo on the Sunday, and the fee paid for the permit was refunded in each case, and 56 permits were issued, free of charge, to Mail Steamers.

The revenue collected under this heading was $44,175; this was $625 less than in 1901.

175

The revenue collected each year since the Ordinance came into force is as follows:-

1892,

1893,

1894,

1895,

1896,

1897,

1898,

1899,

1900,

1901,

1902,

SEAMEN.

$ 4,800

7,900

13,375

11,600

7,575

11,850

25,925

21,825

43,550

44,800

44,175

19. Nineteen thousand nine hundred and thirty-six (19,936) Seamen were shipped and twenty-three thousand four hundred and ninety-nine (23,499) dis- charged at the Mercantile Marine Office and on board ships during the year.

Two hundred and twelve (212) "Distressed Seamen" were received during the year.

Of these, 66 were sent to the United Kingdom, 5 to Sydney, 2 to Melbourne, 2 to Calcutta, 1 to Aden, 4 obtained employment on shore, I went as passenger to Sydney, 43 to Canton, 4 to Singapore, 1 joined the Naval Yard, 2 the Chinese Customs, 1 the United States Transport, 1 taken charge of by the French Consul, 5 dismissed, 1 died at the Government Civil Hospital, 1 remained at the Lunatic Asylum, 3 at the Sailors' Home, and 68 obtained employment.

Two thousand nine hundred and thirty-six dollars and twenty-five cents ($2,936.25) were expended by the Harbour Master on behalf of the Board of Trade in the relief of these distressed Seamen, and $30.13 by the Colony.

MARINE SURVEYOR'S SUB-Department.

20. Return No. XXIII gives a report of the work performed by this Sub- Department during the year 1902.

The total tonnage of vessels surveyed during the year 1902, amounted to 417,974 tons, an increase of 41,435 tons over tonnage surveyed during 1901. Of this total tonnage, 337,551 tons represent the tonnage of vessels surveyed for passenger certificates; 67,923 the tonnage of vessels for bottom inspection only, and 12,500 the tonnage of licensed launches. The number of licensed launches surveyed in 1902 was 210, a decrease of 7, as compared with the number surveyed

in 1901.

In the Return the surveys and reports on Government Pumping Stations, Disinfectors, Steam Road Roller, Stone Crusher, Dredger and Pontoon Crane do not appear, Government Launches now number 17, they are surveyed twice a year and take up a considerable amount of time and attention of this sub-department.

The revenue derived from the work of this sub-department amounts to $19,458.24, an increase of $3,467.20 over the revenue for 1901.

In view of the fact that the fees for surveys of steam-ships for passenger certi- ficates having been doubled since 1st November, 1902, it may safely be estimated that the revenue of this sub-department for 1903 will be well over $30,000.

LIGHT-HOUSES.

21. The amount of Light Dues collected is as follows:-

Class of Vessels.

Ocean Vessels,

Steam launches,

Rate No. of per ton. Ships.

Tonnage.

Total Fees collected.

$

C.

1

| 164 1.419

1 cent 4,108 6,281,956

62,819.56

"

6,583 922,996

65.83 3,077.04

780

""

773

43,147 948,730

144.09

Free.

876

47,877

|

8,120 8,251,289 66,106.52

River Steamers, (night boats), Launches plying exclusively to Macao and West River, by night,

River Steamers, (day boats), ...Free.

Launches plying exclusively to

Macao and West River, by day,

Total,...

176

Telegraphic and telephonic communication has been kept up with the Gap Rock, Cape d'Aguilar and Waglan Island during the year.

From Gap Rock Station, 1,006 vessels have been reported as passing, and in addition 204 messages were received and 3,376 sent, including the daily weather report for the Observatory.

Twenty hours and thirty minutes of fog were reported from Gap Rock during the year, and the fog signal gun was fired 129 times. On two occasions the fortnightly reliefs were delayed by the rough sea.

From Cape d'Aguilar Station, 1,826 vessels were reported, and in addition 1,112 messages were sent and 12. received.

From Waglan Island Station, 1,658 vessels were reported, and in addition 42 messages were sent and 47 received. Owing to the telephonic communication being interrupted, 238 vessels were not reported.

Thirty-six hours and twenty-four minutes of fog were reported from Waglan Island during the year, and the fog signal gun was fired 376 times. On no occasion was the relief delayed by the rough sea.

GOVERNMENT GUNPOWDER DEPOT.

22. During the year 1902, there has been stored in the Government Gun- powder Depôt, Stonecutters' Island :-

No. of Cases. Approximate

Weight.

lbs.

Gunpowder, privately owned,

Do., Government owned,

Cartridges, privately owned,

8,855 278

182,258

8,724

2,983

428.374

Do., Government owned,

47

3,595

Explosive Compounds, privately owned,

86

4,483

Do..

Government owned,

436

80,660

Non-explosives, privately owned,

14

1,534

Do.,

Government owned,

14

2,590

Total,...

12,713

712,218

During the same period there has been delivered out of the Depôt

No.of Cases. Approximate

Weight.

lbs.

For Sale in the Colony :--

Gunpowder, privately owned,

948

14,460

Cartridges,

do.,

377

98,607

Explosive Compounds, privately owned,.

42

3.148

Non-explosives,

do.,

10

934

For Export:--

Gunpowder, privately owned,

Cartridges,

do.

1,763

54

30,254 10,805

Explosive Compounds, privately owned,.

Non-explosives,

do.,

Total,.

3.194

158,208

·

:

}

P.

;

177

On the 31st December, 1902, there remained as follows:-

No.of Cases. Approximate

Weight.

lbs.

Gunpowder, privately owned,

Do., Government owned,

Cartridges, privately owned,

Do., Government owned,

6,144

137,544

245

4,270

2,552

318,962

17

1,615

Explosive Compounds, privately owned,.

14

1,335

Do.,

Government owned,

434

80,300

Non-explosives, privately owned,

4

600

Do., Government owned,

Total,....

9,440

544,626

i

GENERAL.

23. This is probably the last Annual Report of this Department which will be signed by me, and being so, I should like to be allowed to make herein a few remarks on the subject of the Bridge across the Harbour which I advocated in the Annual Report for 1901.

I have been favoured with information concerning a bridge about to be built across Sydney Harbour, which is to be 3,000 feet long, and 170 feet above water level. This height is necessary to allow of the passage of ships under the bridge, a require- ment not called for in our case, owing to our good fortune in having an entrance at each end of the Harbour.

The Sydney bridge crosses a portion of the Harbour where the depths are from 6 to 12 fathoms, and is to carry two lines of railway, two roadways of 30 feet each, and two footways of 12 feet each, so that the deck cannot be less than 120 feet wide, 45 feet wider than our new Praya. Tenders have been called for, and so far as my information on that point goes, it seems that those received vary between 14 and 1 millions Sterling.

Hongkong's need for easy communication between the two sides of the Har- bour is, in my opinion, very great, probably greater than that of Sydney. Shipping has increased steadily during the last 20 years from 13 million tons to 21 million tons, entered and cleared. In 20 years also (1881-1901, the population has increased from 160,402 to 283,975. During the last 10 years (the period during which the statis- tics have been kept in the Harbour Department) Cargo, landed and shipped, has increased from 6 million tons to 83 million tons, and the local passenger traffic in Junks and Launches has risen from 4 million to 72 million.

The cry is for more room. Both for inhabitants and for shipping. From a sanitary, economical, and commercial point of view, it is desired. More room for shipping can only be obtained by dredging some of the shallower parts of the Harbour, more room for the inhabitants is already at hand on the Kowloon side of the water; I think it would be well if, instead of providing further space for the increasing population by means of reclamations from the water area, already insufficient for the needs of shipping, all reclamation at or about the harbour frontage was prohibited, and Kowloon and the New Territory utilized and developed, a course which cannot be thoroughly carried out until communication is made easy.

Hongkong has arrived at its present state of prosperity principally by reason of its natural advantages, first, its geographical position, and, secondly, its excellent harbour. Nothing we can do or leave undone can destroy the former of these advantages, it behoves us, however, to see that it is not rendered ineffective by reason of our reducing the capability of the latter to accommodate the ever-increas- ing amount of shipping, which has been frequently and truly referred to as "the life-blood of the Colony.

Taking Sydney as a rough guide, I suggest that the cost of such a bridge as I advocate will be amply provided for with $9,000,000.

178

The present reported passenger traffic between Hongkong and Kowloon is not less than 6,000,000 annually, which, I suggest, would be increased 50% by the facilities offered by the bridge to the increased population of Kowloon and the New Territory, for, once the bridge is decided on, the other side of the Harbour will begin to increase, and the development will go on side by side with the construction of the bridge. Assuming, then, 9,000,000 passengers annually, and further assum- ing 25° of them to be of a class capable of paying a very modest toll of 5 cents and the remaining 75% to be coolies at 1 cent, this would give an annual income from the bridge toll of $180,000, which will be 2 on the suggested cost of $9,000,000. In addition, there would be a toll on vehicles, animals, etc., the value of which cannot now be estimated, but would be considerable.

I am not prejudiced, possibly other means are forthcoming for securing the desired end. A tunnel has been suggested, and no doubt offers some advanta- ges not possessed by my scheme, but after consideration I am still in favour of the bridge. However, whether the means adopted be bridge, tunnel, or anything else, I submit confidently that easy communication must be had with the Kowloon side unless we are content to spoil our natural harbour, while leaving Kowloon and the New Territory undeveloped.

IMPORT AND EXPORT (OPIUM) OFFICE.

24. The Return shows that during the year the amount of Opium reported was as follows:

1901.

1902.

Chests.

Chests.

Increase. Decrease. Chests. Chests.

Imported,

42,314

43,7811

1,467

Exported,

40,2691

43,348

3,079

Through Cargo report-

ed but not landed.

12,150

13,483

1,333

Fourteen thousand three hundred and twenty-one (14,321) permits were issued from this Office during the year, being a decrease of 4, as compared with 1901.

A daily memo. of exports to Chinese ports was, during the year, supplied to the Commissioner of Imperial Maritime Customs, and a daily memo. of exports to Macao was supplied to the Superintendent of Raw Opium Department of Macao.

Surprise visits were paid to 103 godowns during the year.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

The Honourable F. H. MAY, C.M.G.,

Colonial Secretary,

etc.,

etc.,

etc.

R. MURRAY RUMSEY, Ret. Com., R.N.,

Harbour Master, etc.

III. TOTAL NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, AND CARGOES OF

BRITISH.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES,

NAMES

OF PORTS.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Cargoe

VIs. Tons. Crews.

Vls. Tons. Crews. Vis. Tons. [Crews.

Vis. Tons. Crews.

Dis- charged.

Transit.

Dis- charged.

Transit.

Dis- charged.

T

Hunghom,

Aberdeen,

Cheung Chau,.

Deep Bay,

Sai Kung,.

Sham Shui-po,

Shaukiwán,

221

208

7,329 1,417 3,106 2,564

144; 2,193

491

10

6,224 2,142 5,332

212

3,026|| 260,377 29,263||| 164,116,

124

370 5.012 1,927 3,672

39

1,622 200

577

113

3,678 871

770

57

16

32

Stanley,

Tai 0, Tai Po,

Victoria,

3,318 4,520,183 182,2261,833,8711,250.439 234 266,2'8 13.818 3,552 4,786,401196,0441,883,871| 1,259,439| 12,412 3.926,759 218,238 2,535,738, 1, 1

Tutal,...... 3,318,4,520,183 182,226|1,833,8711,259,430 234 260,218 13.818 3,552 4,786,401 196,044 1,833,871 1,259,439 16,900 4,214,125,305,279 2.713,6301.!

IV. TOTAL NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, AND CARGOES O

NAMES

OF PORTS.

Aberdeen,

Cheung Chaú,.......

Deep Bay,

Hunghom,

Sai Kung,.

Sham Shui-po,

Shaukiwán,...

Stauley,.

Tai 0,

Tai Po, Victoria,

WITH CARGOES.

BRITISH.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGO

Shipped.

Shipped.

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

Cargoes.

Bunker Coal.

Bunker Coal.

Vls. Tons.

Crews.

Cargoes.

Bunker Coal.

Vis. Tons. Crews.

Total,

3,321|4,425,793 184,6:31,197,077 222,015 229||| 350,593 10,809)

3,3214,425,793|184,613|1,197,077| 222,015 219 359,593 10,809

49 1,088 283 115 1,538 636

314

7,216 1,696

9

187

551

2,216 199,052 23,653||| 10

391

12,674 2,686

24

762 162

55

1,596 128

459

24

31,855 3,5504,785,386||95,42:1.197,077 254,770 13,595 3.944,883 295,068 1,77 31,855 3,550 4,785,386 105,4221,197,077 254,770 16,773 4,170.024 324,6721,9:

180

¿

OTAL NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, AND CARGOES OF VESSELS ENTERED AT EACH PORT IN THE COLONY OF H

FOREIGN.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Vis.

Tons. Crews.

Vis.

Tons. Crews.

Vis.

Tous. Crews. Vis.

Tons. Crews.

Vls.

Ton

Dis- charged.

Transit.

Dis- charged.

Transit.

Dis- charged.

Transit.

221

208

7,329 1,417 3,106 2,564 1,144 2,193

20 49;

821 207 250: 593 252 257

8,150 1,624, 3,106 3,157 1,396 2,193

221

208:

491

6,224 2,142

5,332

180

5,346 1,172

10

212 3,026 26,377 29,263

61

124

3

55! 201

677 13

11,570, 2,814

267

5,332

491

81

124

10

376

39 113

1,022

164,116 5,012 1,927 3,672 200

1,248

178,947|15,523|| 4,274|| 439,324|44,780 164,116

3,026

201

156

6,112) 1,145

532

12,024 8,072

3,672

370

577

10.

108

53

49

1.128 253

577

39:

3,678 871-

57 16!

7701 32

17

623

170

30

7

130 5

4,301 1,041

770

113

87

23

32

15,780 6,440

3,5524,786,401|196,644 1,883 871 1,259,439 12,4123.926,751 218,238′2,535,7381,112,958 3,886

3,552 4,786,401 196,0441,833,871|| 1,259,43916,900|4,214, 125 305,279 2.713,650 1,112;958|| 5,585

674,327 61,930 16,298 4,601,077 330,2182,535,733 1,112,958

806,960) 81,529 | 22,485 5,081,085 385,808 2,715,660|1,112,958)

20,218 8,73-

OTAL NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, AND CARGOES OF VESSELS CLEARED AT EACH PORT IN THE COLONY OF H

FOREIGN.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES,

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Shipped.

Shipped.

Shipped.

Bunker Coal.

Vis. Tons. Crews.

Vis.

Tons. Crews.

Vis.

Tons. Crews.

Cargoes.

Bunker Coal.

Cargoes.

Bunker Coal.

Bunker Coal.

Vis.

Tons. Crews.

Cargoes.

Bunker Coal.

49

1,088 283 115 1,538 636

394

1,319

142. 2,544 751 140

191

3,632 1,034

394

1,043 710

255

2,581 1,546

1,319

314

7,216 1,696

· 187 551 2,216. 199,952 23,653 154,229

5,083

398

4,859 1,731

712

12,075 3,427

5,683

77

13

549

93 2,243) 251,293) 22,992

148 4,459 451,245 40,645 154,229

652 15,624 3,857 9,2361

22

7271

77

301 12,674 2,636

9,236

241

2,960 1,221

24 55

762

1,596

162 459

386

88 3NI

307

70

128

24

69

31,855 3,550 4,785,386195,422|1.197,077) 234,770 13,595 3.944,883 295,068 1,777,870

2,631 30 32,700 2,728 020,51735,227

اران

7

94 125

158

8501 200; 4,277 1,004!

31

386

307

GO

71,908 16,3234,565,400 830,3451,777,370 399,50

31,855 3,5504,785,386 195,4221,197,077|| 254,770 16,773 4,170.024 324,672|1,049,067

32,706 5,986 886,555 (3,865

71,998 22,759 5,056,579 388,0371,949,007| 399,50

¡

THE COLONY OF HONGKONG, IN THE YEAR 1902.

WITH CARGOES.

TOTAL.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Vls.

Tous.

Crews.

Vls

Tous. Crews.

Vis.

S-

Transit.

ged.

Dis- charged.

Tons. Crews.

Transit,

Dis- charged.

Transit.

,106

221

7,320 1,417

8,106

20

821

207

250

8,150;

1,624

3,106

,193

208

2,564

1,144

2,193

49

593

252

257

3,157

1,396

2,193;

,332

491

6,224

2,142

5,332;

186

5,346

1,172

6771

11,570

3,314

5,332

124

10

212

61

124

55

20

13

267

81

,116

3,026

200,877

20,263

164,16

1,248

187,947

15,523,

4274

439,324

41,780

,672

376

5,912

1,927

8,672

156

6,112

1,145,

532

12,024

3,972

124 164,146 3,672

577

39;

1,022

200

877.

10

106

53

770

113

3,678

871:

770.

17

623

170

49 130

32

4

57

16.

32

30

7

1,128 4,3011 871

2531

577

1,041

770

23

32

1,733 1,112,958 15,780|| 8,446,433 450,464 4,360,600 2,372,307

5,6601,112,958, 20,218 8,734,308 4-7,505 4.549,531 2,372,397

5,819 1,133,178

√ THE COLONY OF HONGKONG, IN THE YEAR 1902.

4,120

940,545 75,798

3,178 94,347

19,850 9,387,478 520,262|||| 4.360,009,2,372,307

26,037|| 9,867,486 581,852 4.540,531 2.372,397

TOTAL.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL..

Shipped.

Shipped.

Shipped.

ons.

Crews.

Vls. Tous.

Crews.

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

Cargoes.

Lunker Coal.

Cargoes.

Bunker Coal.

Bunker Coal.

Vls. Tons. Crews

Cargoes.

Bunker

Coal.

3,632 1,034| 394 2,581 1,846 1,319

115

49 1,088 283

394 1,5:38 630 1,310

142

2,544) 751 140 1,043 716

191

255

3,632 1,034| 391! 2,581 1,346| 1,319

2,075 8,427 5,683

314

7,210 1,696

5,688

398

7271 148

77

9

187

55

77

1,245 46,645 154,229

5,634 3,857 9,236)

12,674 2,636

850 200!

386

4,277 1,004

307

ان

762 162 1,596| 469

2,216! 199,952|23,653, 154,229)|

391

24

9,236

386.

158

31

Gu

128

24

307 60

4,277 1,004 307

158

31

Col

55,400 830,3451,777,376 399,504 16,9168,370,676 479,681 2,974,153|||550,421| 2,957| 980,110 45,086|| 103,853 19,873 9.350,786 525,767|2,974,453 654,274

56,579,388,0371,949,067 399,504; 20,00 18,595 817|509,285[3,146,144| 550,421 6,215|1 246,148 74,174|| 103,853 26,300|0,841.067*588,459|3,146,144 (54,274

4,850 1,731 13

540 93 2,243 251,293 22,992

241

100 70

712

4.450

2,980 1, 21 88 38 2,681 545

30

632 31 125

12,075 3,427 5,683

727 1481

771 451,245|46,645| 154 229, 15,634 3,857 9,286 850 200 286

I-NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, and CA

BRITISH.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

COUNTRIES WHENCE ARRIVED.

Cargoes.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews. Vossela.

Tor

Dis-

charged Transit.

Australia and New Zealand,

British North Borneo,...

Conada.

Coa-t of China,.........................

Cochin-China,

Continent of Europe,

Formosa,

Great Britain,

India and Straits Sette u nt-,

Japan,.....

Java and other Islands in th. In lian Archipelago,....

Macao,

Mauritius.

North Pacific,

Philippine Islands,

Ports in Hainan and Gulf of Toukuin,

Russia-in-Asia.......

Siam,

United States of America,

Wei-hai-wei,...

40

26

21,

67,841 2,464 59,853 25,9:0 37,206 1,297 51.969 47 678 24144 19,785 2,011 2,216,627, 99,866|| 287,770

40

9,782

67. 26 37.

23 47.

865,65-

198 221,910 11,95 2,2092,438

48

32

61,355 2,729 99,178

8,286 148 31,357 1.229 16,083

4,000

48 61

815

16,684

4 8

5 870

أناة

33 31

144 4:3,868 9,202) 169,331

4.8,612

:

144 418

148 323,175 15,173 223 214 179,556 155 414,181 10,422 359,789 168.923 122 155,813| 4,833|| 207,946,

148 323

35

156 417

28,890)

122 155

309 314.423 14,050) 88,572

309 314.

2

2 353 40 4.011

125 158,830 8,405

52.238

4,00

82

20

22.647 1.207 39,840

39,049 1.207 57,774 $,000

77 205,502 7,540 145,748 84,460

::

2

31.090 1,460 4,676 234

148 189

41 43.

22

7001

51 28

207.

TOTAL,...

3,5184,520 183 182,226 1,833,871|1,259,439)

234 266.218 13,818 3,552 4,786.

II.-NUMBER, Tonnage, Crews, ar

WITH CARGOES.

BRITISH.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

COUNTRIES TO WHICH DEPARTED.

Shippet.

Shiz

Banke.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Cargoes.

Bunker Yessols.

Cal.

Tous. Crews.

Cal. Vessels. Tons. Crews.

Cargoes

Australia & New Zealand,

British North Borneo,

28 44,889 2,030j

34 200

Canada.

Const of China,

9 14.252 7031 22 57,075 3,047 2,303 2,734.403 119,086

1,184

7,307; 2,815

2.8171 28 4,165 175

380 1,110

47,156 2,058|

34,200

18,421

876

1,18:

25.081

22

57,075 3,047)

25.00.

541 124

102.969

59

Cochin-China,

15,857 4491

2,390

1,100,

30

72,928 3 224 44,247 1,541

4,005 10.150

2.862 2,807,331 122,3.0 541,124

38

60,104 1,990}

2,390

Continent of Europe,

Formosa.....

Great Britain,

Japan,

India and Straits Settlements,

30 85,619 1,55!| 56 177.824 4,476) 140 301,872 11.712 210,880

19.784

1811

1,207 38

180

31

56,826 1 589

19,73-

42.251

1.508

50 177,824 4.476)

42.25.

89,812

161 28,703 678

120 267.424) 8.279 68204

19.786

Java and other Islands in the Indian

Archipelago,

5 7,984 298!

4,000

Kiauchów,

1 1,428) 40

Macao,

311

352,701 14.189)

Mauritius,

North Pacific,

Philippine Islands,

Port Arthur,

Portsin Hainan & G. of Tonkuin,j

Russia-in-Asia,.

Siam,

South America,

I 1,49-8

66) 148 182,808 9,197 114,628

20,580

8001

69 123,335 3.038 1.020 H 25,019 540

250 4 52

3810 3 685 8,751

19

33,003

330.575 12,390) 210,830 189 895,759 11,867 68,20

8381

4,000

1,128

40

852,701 14,185

20,33:

1491 66

800

48 20.170 2,003

7.403

33

360

13,455 418 2,170

643 15,428

158 195,768 9,645 111.62.

54 2,011

35.598 2,616

7.461

38,127 1,519

United States of America, Wei-hai-wei,

1,131

99,199 63 162,543 5,701|

9,878 2671 4.500

20:4

4,441

IBU

35 C00

42.071 1,649

1,13)

360 1,000!

10: 19,341 276

73

181,884 5,977

9,873

267

99,199 4,000

TOTAL,........

3,021 4 425,793 184,613 1,197,

222 915 229 359,598 10,809

31,855 3,550 4,785,386 195,422|1,197,077

179

I.-NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, and CARGOES of Vessels ENTERED at Ports in the Colony of Hongkong from each Country for th

WITH CARGOES.

BRITISH.

IN BALLAST.

FOREIGN.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

Το

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Cargoes

15.

Crews.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews. Vesscle.

Tons. Crews.

Dis- charged. Transit.

40

26

23

67.841 2,464 59.858 25,910 37,206 1,297| 51,969 9,782 47,673 2,414 19,735

48

4

636

افادة

33

35

23,390

425| 14,050|||||38,572

353 40 4.011

61,355 2,729 99,178, 4.000 8.286 148 $15 16,684 31,993 1.285 16,083 5.370 144 413.863 9,202 169,331 428,612 118 323,175 15,178 223.214 179,556 156 417.071 10.457 359,789 168,923| 122 155,813 4.838 207,946{ 23,390 309 314,425 14,050| 38,572 2,353 401 4,011

Dis- charged Dansit.

811 2,464 59.853 25,910 206 1,297; 51.969 9,782 678) 2414 19,735

627, 99,866 287,770 805,65- 355 2,729 99,178 4,060) 815 16,684

286 148

357 1.229 16,083

5 870

863| 9,202 169,331 4.8,612

175 15,178|| 223.214 179,556| 181 10,422 359.789 168.923 $13| 4,833| 207,946,

198 221,910 11,951 2,2092,438,537 111,820 237,770 205,652 14,4821,774,118 205,5:2 756 915

147 167.230 7,904 206,,51 148 290.571| 6,267, 66,443

78 62,849 4,78 29 89.984 2,682) 82 146,444 6,048 258 599 820 17,381

327 359 5,201 787,862 78,267 19,688 2.541.480, 278:

Tons. Vessels.

rews.

Dis- charged

Vessels. Tons. Crews.' Vessels.

Tous.

re

Transit

17

39,253 1,608) 7,779 12.75 18 20,123 735 22,694

4,925:

17 39,253 18 20.12

33 962 268 754

47 167,250 7.9

$16:

58 850

73,660 1,859

27.697) $3 39 1 87,103 102.577, 102,066) 554.01 2.1.688

94 599,

78

146; 291,887 6,

29 89.984 2,

62.849) 4.7

828

36

2,6101

88 147.27 6,0 259 C02,450| 17,

4,980;

1.682

68

60

75,842 1,!

83,518 15,089|

35.554

20.75€ 3.838

1,171

104.284 188

3,716 177

3.600,

3,716

832

49

350

2

832

8,405! 52.238

4,:00

347 1.207 39,840

049 1.207 57,774 $,000

x02 7,540 145,748|| 81,460

31,090 1,460] 4,676 234!

41

148 189,920 9,865) 52,238 4,100 43,725 1,441 57,774 3,000

66 308

110,498 3.946 38,859 224,537 10,175 215,201 9,089 211 5,114

22,647 1,207! 39,840

2,316

ارة

280 287,73512,384 459 181 78 207,818 7,591 145,748 84,460 74 230,15 8,440. 85,509

1,300 39.0.41 8 222; 3.700

47.06: 2,956

5,835

110

157,554 5.

272

320| 230,372 10,

4 9.089

280

287,735 12;

10.601

74

230 153 8,

2,700

2.700 28

=85182,226|1,833,871|1,259,489

254266.218,13,818 3,5524,786,401 196,014 1,833,871 1,259,439 16,900 4,214,125 865,2: 82,715,601,112,958 5.585866,960 80.52922,485 5,981,085 335.

II.—NUMBER, Tonnage, Crews, and Cargoes of Vessels CLEARED in the Colony of Hongkong for each Country for the Year

BRITISH.

FOREIGN.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Shipped.

Shipped.

Sh.

Bunker

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.) Cal. Vessels. Tons. Crews.

Cargoes.

Bunker Vessels.

Coal.

Tons. Crews.

Cargoes.

Cuaker Coal.

Tons. Crews Vessels.

Bunker Coal.

Vessels. Tons. Crews.

Cargoe

2,8171 28

31,200

7.687

4,165 175

59

30

72,928 3 2241 44,247 1,541

1,207

38

16 28,703 678

69 123,335 3.038

180

3 810 B 685

31 36,826 1589|

19,734 56 177,824 4.476

42,254 156 330.57512,890 210,880

1.521

380 29: 47,156 2,058 1,110 14 18,421 878 1,184 8925 22 57.075 8,047) 25,061 4,005 2,8622,807,331|122,3.0|||541,124 106,974| 14.635|2,345,206 243,363 1,208,148| 119,365|| 5,524||| 460,149 49,318 10.150 38 60,104 1,990| 2,390 11,230 105 133,298 6,414| 57.809 29 344 70 71,283 2.318

38 153,775 4,768 27.731

28

18 35,421 1,50% 14 17,294 772

9.500 3 281

8.260 4.785

649 14

9 7,460 181

14 86.070 1,517] 9.50 3601 23 21,754 953 3,28

9781

18 768 20,159 2,895,355 292,811,208,14 17,107 175 204,581 8.727 57,80

83 158.775 4.768

27.73

1,508

26 21,588 1,576 29,464 201 76,740 2,811{

4,849

11 !

7,758

43,62

14

25,019 540

3,751

189 893,759 11,567| 68,204

19 38,008 838

23.421

108 268,266| 8,369| 88,092 142|| 364,527|10,982||| 115,383|

31.760

21.159

4,000

4.771

21

20,799 417

11,052)

6,233

89 1

1,428 40

652,701| 14,185

20,330

250 4,526

8

2,020 81 1,500)

590

1,060

90,359 17,594 60,725

1512

11,438 171 180,587 4.166 19,608 407 22 10 6,614 1,376

1,150 2.962 3.251 31

20:

25 21,652 1584

29,46 76,740 2311 7.70

20 118 279,708 8,510| 88,10

231|| 515,114 15,148|| 115,38

40,407 824 11,05

2,014 91 1,50

1,212

96,973, 18,970|

60,72

8,195 177 1,310

1920

3

8,195 177

1,31

1491 66

800

13,455 418 2,170

158 195,768 9,645 111.623

35,8271

1,248 78 54 105,673 8,969| 31,195

1,000

1.170

1,248 78 1,00

12,055

10:

:

11:

15,428

643 2,011

4,441

180

GOO

85.598 2,616

35! 42.671 1,649]

7,408

5,514

2,140 32 330| 225,215 9,958|| 165,793||

Si 8.969 332

404

41,890

47

8,400

GOD

1,131

2,614 13 134,897 5,763

39.270

37,840

70

276

73

6

181.884 5,977) 9,873 267

99,199 4,500

:.

360 48 159,453 6,295 81,648 1,000

3:

7,479: 859

50,612 1,926

65,711 3,032

4.829 G+

1,845

64

1:

113 152 4.328 31,19

2.140: 32

7,827

8!

18.703

377 275,82711,88|| 165,79

8 9801 832, 8.40 201 200,608 8,795 39,27

- 51

164,282 6,299

81,04

229) 359,593 10,809

31,855 3,550 4,785,386 195,1221,197,077|||251,770 16,773 4,170,024 324,672 1,919,067 327,506 5.986 889,555 (13,365

71,998 22,759.5,050,574 383,037|1,919,06

# from each Country for the Year ending 31st December, 1902.

REIGN.

ALLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

TOTAL.

IN BALLAST,

TOTAL.

Cargoes.

Car_oes.

Cargoes.

'ons.

Crews. Yessols,

Tous. Trews.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews

Dis-

charged Transit

Dis- charged Transit.

Vessels. Tous.

rews. Vostels.

Tons. Crews.

Dis-

charged Transit.

17 39,253 1.608 18 20.12

785

7.779 12,754 22,694 4.925

57

107.094] 4,072 67.637 38.664 44 57.329 2,082 74.663 14.707 23 47.678 2,414 19,735

57

107,094 4,072) 67.637)

816

58!

78

67,862 78,267 19,683 2.561.480 278,899 756,945 (47) 167,280 7.904 206,151 146 291,887 6,820) 66,443)

27.697

62.849 4.782

20 89,984 2,632|

33 394

828

36

83 147.27. 6,034)

102,577

38 962 263,754| 6601 87,105 102.04|

37,962

2,610

BE

259, C02,450) 17,899

554,011

211,688]

1.682

68

60

75,842 1,927

91599,

4.930

28.320|

20.756 3.838

1,171

104.284 18.877

35,554

74,126

321

44 57,329 2,082 74 663 231 47,673 2,414 19.735

327.359| 16,493 3,990.745 305,498 1.044,715 683.61 5,399 1,003,272 85,221| 21,892 5.000,017 390,719 1,044.715 633.011

195_228,565| 10,633| 305.329| 147 298.857 6,415 67.258 280.438 1:0 94,206 6,011| 48 780 6 030 178 508.84711,834|||202,725 515.715 230 469,619 2.221 325.791| 281,622¡ 413 1,0:4,001| 27,783 913.800 380.611 180, 229,473 6,692 302,545| 1.159 397 943| 29.089;

58,664

14,707

8 6

53

6361

56

828

96

5,500

73

1,682

68

20.766 3,838

195 228,585 10,633 305.329| 37.962 150 299,673) 6,468 67,258 280.438 111 94,842 5.067) 43.780 6.03% 173 503,847 11.834 202.725, 515,715 21 470,447|21,257) 8:6,791) 281,622 415 1,019,501 27.856; 913.800 380,611 182 281,155 6.760 8025-15 1,420 418.709||32,927| 74,-26

28,320

3,716 177

8,600

انا

6,069)

217

7,611

6.069 217 7611

2

832 49

350

2

8 2

49

350

47.06: 2,956

5,835 272

110 157,554 5,90:| 33,859 320|| 230,372] 10,448; 215,201 4 9.089 241 5.016 280||| 287,735 12,884|| 459,181| 74 230 153 8,440] 85,509

1 300 39.984

191|

269,323 12,351)

91.097

5.400

340

263,586 11.382–272 975]

42 934j

78,151 4.416 10.5 1

21 832 49 258 347.474 16,767 91,097||

360,

5,400

607

361| 274,097 11,889 272.975

42.934

8 222

4 9,0×9 24

5,116)

8 222

3,700 10,601

300 3 0.382| 13 591| 499,02

51 435,655 15,980 281,257| 95,061

3.700

1

2.316 51 2,700 28

4 9.089 241 5.16 300) 310.382) 13,591; 499 021] 152 437,971! 16,031 231,257; 95,061

1! 2,700 28

8,222

3.700

66,960 80.529 22,485 5,081,085 355,Rus 2,715,600 1,112,958 20,2188.734,808 47,50: 1,549.5312 872,397 5.819 1,133,178 94,347 26,037 9,867,486 581,8524,549,5512872.397

each Country for the Year ending 31st December, 1902.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES,

TOTAL.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Shipped

Vessels. Tons. Crews.

Cargoes.

Bunker Vessels. Tons. Crews.

Coal.

Cargoes. t'oal.

Shipped.

Bunker Vossels. Tons. rews.

Shipped.

Bunker

Coal. Vessels.

Tons. Crews Car. oes.

Lunker Coa',

1 30.070 1,517|

9,500 3,260 4!! 80.260 8,593, 601 231 24,754 953 3,281 5,095 28 8.546 1,4783

22 57.075 3,047

48,700 4 465 25,081

07

175 204,581 8.727 57,809 46.451 33 153.775 4.768 27.734 9.785

28

21,652 1,584

29,464

4,349

20

76,740 2.311)

7.758

6820,159 2,805.355 292,6811.208.148 138,073 16,9385,079,609 352,419 1,749.272| 222.274′ 5.583 113 149.157 6,863 60,199 30.444 100:

38 153.775 4,768 27.784 9.785 571 57.157 8.107; 49.198 5,690 76 254,564 6,787; 50,012

1,508

30

62

འ ུ་བོ

281

118 279.70 8,510 88,092 32,919

515,114,15,148 115,388 24,121

248 570,138] 20,081| 298,922|

71.581

262

31

40,407 82-4 11,052

9,481

261

201

2.012

91

1,500

610

1,212

96,973| 18,970|

60.725

1,512

681,951| 19,261|| 183 592| 28,783 715 15.052

3,418 121 448,060 31,788|

40.895

158

10.567)

2 2,966) 42 7,550 14 11.629 356

583,077 52,512| 115,530 3,854

1,821 GG

40 141 8491 308,922 7.254

7,253

24

1,500

840

1

8105)

6.033

44,627 947 22 10 140 6,614 1.878

380 1,470

22,773 27,257

180

4.960! 6.6471 7.0021

37 43.175 1.831 22 57,075 8047 25.06 2,521 5,612,686) 414.931′1,749,272||| 245,047 218 26465 10.717 60.199 57.701

48 83,226 3.575 43.700 10,947 4.465 9.020

...

38 153.775 4.768

27.734

9.785

59

58.478 3.173 76 254,504 6,787 269 610,279; 20.930 420 940,878 26,515

49 198

5.870

50.012

1,508

298 922

76.541

188.592)

47,542

50

73.410 1,662

15,052

14,255

20

5

3.470 131 1,500

SGA

1,523

449,674 33.159 $1,105

6.038

8,195 177 1,310

1,920

3.195 177

1,810

1,920

3

3.195 177 1,310

1,920

1.248

78

1,000

1.770

2.742 144

1,800

1.170

2742 144

1,800

1,170

45

64 113 152 4.323 31,195

27

2.140 275,827 11,88

8.960 332

$2

33;

204 200,608 8,795,

165,793||

8.400 39,270

13 900 400 49,717

197 287.981 13,166 145,818

45 712

20

2.140 873||||245.385| 11,959|| 173,256|

32

400

45,890

58

690 56,048

8.960 832 8,400 166 178,021 7,282) 40,401

690

89,851

73.

51 164,282 6,2

81,048

360

13:

20.934 807

66 040 2,569

70,155 3,162

24.170 340

4,015

217 308,95 18,973 145,8.8

49,727

1 2,160

32

400

9,841

431 311,425 14.528–173,256|

55.231

8 8,960 332

8,400

690

19.308

239) 248,179 10,444

40,401|

58,662

124 346,166|12.276

180,847

360

321,996 11,936 180,847

9,873 2671 4,500 1,000

08 22,759,5,056,579 385,037 1,919,067 399,504 20,004 8,595,817 539,253,146,144 560,421 6,215 1,246,148 74.174

9.873 267 1,500 1,000

74.174 103,833 26,309 9,841,900 588,4:08,140,144 054 274

181

V.-NUMBER, TONNAGE and CREWs of Vessels of each Nation ENTERED at Ports in the Colony of Hongkong in the Year 1902.

ENTERED.

NATIONALITY

OF

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

VESSELS.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

American,

96

137,721

6,606

9

6,829

478

105

144,550

7,084

Austrian,

50

125,929

2,895

50

125,929

2,895

Belgian,

2

2,416

73

1

1,208

40

3

3,624

113

British,

3,318

4,520,183

182,226

234

266,218

13,818

3,552

4,786,401 |196,044

Chinese,

214

150,924 9,279

11

23,530

1,285

225

174,454 10,564

Chinese Junks,

12,684 | 1,033,546 | 143,529

5,294

580,349

68,217

17,978

1,613,895

211,746

Danish,

11

21,347

335

2,027

75

13

23,374

410

Dutch,

20

23,129

893

3,335

104

23

26,464

997

:

French,

452

283,767

25,109

1

3,951

140

456

287,718

25,249

German,

771

1,184,202

39,122

170

179,295

7,324

941

1,363,497

4,6446

Italian,

14

23,428

860

14

23,428

860

Japanese,

393

838,262

30,510

18

27,350

1,180

411

865,612

31,690

Norwegian,

261

230,484

7,487

41

34,313

1,255

302

264,797

8,742

Portuguese,

105

17,082

1,287

1,345

166

111

18,427

1,453

Russian,

15

29,436

722

1

2,610

38

16

32,046

760

Sarawak,

2

1,338

80

2

1,338

30

Swedish,

15

14,325

655

15

14,325

655

Steam-launches trading to ports outside the Colony,

1,795

96,789 35,887

25

818

227

1,820

97,607

36,114

TOTAL,... 20,218 8,734,308 487,505

5,819

1,133,178 94,347 26,037 9,867,486 581,852 9,867,486581,852

VI.-NUMBER, TONNAGE and CREWS of Vessels of each Nation CLEARED at Ports in the Colony of

Hongkong in the Year 1902.

CLEARED.

NATIONALITY

OF

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

VESSELS.

Vessels.

Tons.

Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

American, Austrian,

Belgian,

+

93 41

131,771 6,646 106,950 2,617

13

15,312

468

106

147,083 7,114

8

15,639

233

49

122,589

2,850

2

2,416

83

2

2,416

83

British,

Chinese,

Chinese Junks,

3,321 215 12,709

4,425,793

184,613

229

359,593

10,809

3,550

4,785,386195,422

162,944

9,920

7

1,249,424

167,749

5,558

8,544 374,920

494

46,782

222 18,267

171,488 10,414 1,624,344

214,531

Danish,

13

23,374

410

13

23,374

· 410

Dutch,

15

16,977

665

6

7,090

252

21

24,067

917

French,

447

278,595

24,758

10

9,401

541

457

287,996 25,299

German,

751

1,119,096

38,427

181

221,635

7,793

982

1,340,731 46,220

Italian,

13

22,634

820

13

22,634

820

Japanese,

346

720,808

28,206

62

137,369 3,334

408

858,177

31,540

Norwegian,

195 179,187 5,776

110

89,862

3,086

305

269,049

8,862

Portuguese,

111

18,427 1,453

111

18,427

1,453

Russian,.

14

28,723

683

Sarawak,

المسمير الحر

1

2,610

37

1

669

Swedish,

15

14,325

655

No Flag,

2

270

1510 2

15

31,333

720

1

659

15

15

14,325

655

20

2

270

20

Steam-launches trading to ports outside the Colony,

1,795

96,789 $5,887

25

818

227

1,820

97,607 36,114

TOTAL,

20,094 8,595,817 509,285 6,215 1,246,148 74,174 26,309 9,841,965 583,459

|

182

VII.—Total Number, Tonnage, Crews, Passengers and Cargo of Junks ENTERED at each Port in the Colony of Hongkong, (exclusive of Local Trade), during the Year ending 31st December, 1902.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Ves- sels.

Tons. Crews.

gers.

Passen- Cargo Ves-

Discharged.

Tons. sels.

Tous. Crews.

Passen- Ves- gers. sels..

Tous. Crews.

! Passen- Cargo

Discharged.

gers.

Ton-.

Aberdecu,

221

7,329 1,417

Cheung Cháu.

208

2,564 1,144

1,353

3,106 20 2,193

821 207

250

8,150 1,624

3,106

49

593 252

337

257

3,157 1,396 1,690

2,193

Deep Bay,

Hunghom,......

491

6,224 2,142

Sai Kung

10

2121 61

Sham Shui-po,

3,026|| 260,377 29,263

Shankiwán,

Stanley,......

39

Tai 0,

Tai Po,

Victoria,

113 4 8,196

376 5,912 1,927 1,022 200 9,678 871 379

57 18 746,171|106,488|| 41,709

31 52

6,332 186 124 3 164,116 1,248 3,672 156 677 10

5,846 55 178,947; 15,523

1,172

13

677

11,570 3,314

16

5,332

20

13)

294

4,274

267 439,324| 44,786|

81

124

325

164,116

6,112 1,145

532

12,024 3,072|

59

3,672

106 53

770 17

32

623

}

30

170 7

5

49 1,128 253 130 4,301 1,041

5

87 23

577

384

770

32

386,550 3,595

Total,... 12,684|1,033,546|143,529|||43,528

387,716 49,668 10,899 | 11,791 1,133,887 156,156 52,608

566,472 5,294 580,349 68,217 11,555 17,978 1,613,895 211,746 55,083 566,472

| 17,978|1,613,895 |

386,550

VIII.-Total Number, Tonnage, Crews, Passengers and Cargo of Junks CLEARED at each Port in the Colony of Hongkong, (exclusive of Local Trade), during the Year ending 31st December, 1902.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Ves- sels.

Tons. Crews.

gers.

l'assen- Cargo Yes-

Shipped.

Tons. sels.

Tons. Crews.

Passen- Ves- gers. sels.

Passen-

Tons. Crews.

Cargo Shipped.

gers.

Tons.

Deep Bay,

Aberdeen,... Cheung Cháu,

Hunghom.....

115

49 1,088 283 1,538 636

980

394 142 1,319 140

2,544 751 1,043 710

191

3,632 1,034

394

767

255

2,581 1,346

1,747

1,319

314

7,216 1,696

13

5,683

Sai Kung,

9

187 55

2

77

Sham Shui-po, 2,216 | 199,952 23,653

132

398 4,859

13

540 154,229 | 2,243 251,293|22,992

1,731

712

12,075 3,427

17

5,683

93

22

7271 148

2

77

330

4,459

451,245| 46,645||

462

154,229

Shaukiwán,

391

12,674 2,636

20

9,236 241

2,960 1,221|

6

632

15,634 3,857

26

9,236

Stanley,

24

762

162

7

388

10

Tai 0,

55

1,596

459

94

307

70

88 2,681

38

34

850 200

7

386

5451

268

125

Tai Po,

5

128

24

60

1

Victoria,

9,531 1,024,283|133,145| 48,603 | 723,200| 2,300

30 108,882 | 18,694

7

1,327

6 11,8311,133,165 156,839 49,930

4,277 1,004 158 31

362

307

60

723,200

Total,... 12,709 1,249,424167,749 49,851 894,891 5,558 374,920 46,782

2,702

18,267 1,624,344 214,531

52,553 894,891

|

IX.-Total Number, Tonnage, Crews, Passengers and Cargo of Junks ENTERED at Ports in the Colony of Hongkong, from Ports on the Coast of China, and Macao, during the Year ending 31st December, 1902.

CARGO,

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Tons. Crews.!

East Coast,.

San On Dis- trict, West

Ves- sels.

2,704 147,140] 18,936|

9,072 813,346 113,014 41,658

459: 20,904 3,892

Macao,

449 52,156 7,687

Passen- Cargo Ves-

Discharged. gers

Tons. sels.

1,200 89,495 339

443,926 4,118

574 12,388 520

96 20,753 317

Tons. Crews.

Tous. Crews.

River, &c., West Coast,

Total,... 12,6841,033,546 143,529 43,528 | 566,472 | 5,294 580,349 | 68,217 11,555 17,978 1,613,895 211,746 55,083 566,472

!

5,498 1,700

497,788 55,938

57,032 6,828

20,031 3,751

320

l'assen- Ves- gers. sels.

274 3,043 152,638 20,636 1,474 89,405

10,920 13,190 1,311,134168,952 52,578 443,926

979

Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Cargo

Discharged.

Tons.

77,936, 10,720

894 12,388

41

766

72,187, 11,438!

137 20,753

.

-

183

X-Total Number, Tonnage, Crews, Passengers and Cargo of Junks CLEARED at Ports in the Colony of Hongkong, for Ports on the Coast of China, and Macao, during the Year ending 31st December, 1902.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Ves- sels.

Tons. Crews.

Passen- gers.

Cargo Ves- Shipped.

Tons. sels.

Tons. Crews.

Tons. Crews.

East Coast,

San On Dis-

trict, West

River, &c., West Coast,

Macao,

1,684 66,152 12,258||

365

40,723 1,398 107,771 10,502

9,628 1,063,819 136,670 48,697 763,575 3,268 179,120 27,202

737 60,081 8,607

489 40,872 747 81,439 7,708

660 59,372 10,214

300 49,721 145 6,590 1,370

Total,... 12,709 1,249,424167,749 49,851 894,891 5,558 374,920 46,782|

171

l'assen- Ves- gers. sels.

530 3,082 173,923 22,760 895 40,723

1,484 | 12,8961,242,939163,872 50,181 | 763,575

517 1,484 141,520 16,315 1,006 40,872

805 65,962 11,584 471 49,721

2,702 |18,267 1,624,344214,531|| 52,553 894,891

Passen- gers.

Cargo

Shipped.

Tons.

XI.-Return of Junks (Local Trade) ENTERED at each Port in the Colony of Hongkong, during the Year ending 31st December, 1902.

Cargo.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Ves-

Tons. Crews.

sels.

Cargo Passen-

Ves- Discharged. gers.

Tons. sels.

Tons. Crews Passen-

Ves-

Tons.

gers. sels.

Passen- Crews.

gers.

Cargo Discharged.

Tons.

Aberdeen,

154

6,291 1,261

***

4,653

51 2,109

447

Cheung Cháu,

92

1,117

403).

784

843

34

348

142

205 306 126

8,400 1,708 1,465

545

1,090

4,653 843

Deep Bay,....

Hunghim,

147

1,631

557

1,250

161

4,543

1,236]

308

6,174

1,793

1,250

Sai Kung,

8

112

31

71

28

657

145

36

769

176

71

Sham Shui-po,

327

7,527

2,010

11

5,386 271

12,449

2,150

104

598

19,976

4,160|

115

5,386

Shaukiwán,

165

4,800 1,188

29

2,107 121

4,116

921

16

286

8,916

2,109

45

2,107

Stanley,.

15

485 109

5

150

15

413

153

30

898

262

5

150

Tai 0,

9

98

361

61

95

10

10

193

46

61

14

216

47

109

2

Tai Po,

Victoria,

9,623 371,487 110,964 12,690

Total,... 10,554' 393,764 116,606| 13,519 | 300,96414,951 522,252 135,568) 63,321 |25,505

916,016 252,174 76,840| 300,964

36.

11

16

252

58

109

286,334 14,267 497,486 130,353 62,895 23,890

868,973 241,317| 75,585 | 286,334

XII.—Return of Junks (Local Trade) CLEARED at each Port in the Colony of Hongkong,

during the Year ending 31st December, 1902.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Ves- sels.

Tons. Crews.' Passen- Shipped.

yers.

Aberdeen,

55 2,894 505

Cheung Cháu,

77

1,200

370.

774

Cargo Ves- Tons. sels.

1,286 204 9,955 1,749

810 51 716 236 477

Tons. Crews. Passen-Ves- gers. sels.

Tous. Crews.

Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Cargo Shipped.

Tons.

259

12,849 2,254

1,286

128

1,916 606

1,251

810

Sai Kung,

Deep Bay,......

Hunghom,...... 146

Sham Shui-po,

Shaukiwán,

***

3,163

44

944

19

227

85

2,399 159

127

2,503

7361

273

5,666 | 1,680

2,399

&

81

29

172 4,594

1,137

3,043

241

3,462

1,323

18

∞ m

1

27

308

114

413

8,056 2,460

87 2,521 649

36

1,190

92

2,712

670

179

Tai (),

Stanley,

Tai Po,

23

866

205

284

22

310

110

45

5,233 1,319 1,176

1-8

159

20

3,043

36

1,190

315

284

.8

157

49

3

73

7

62

34

6

15

14

151

431

1,365

1

30

7

15

219 181

83

9

73

50

1,365

Victoria,

5,737 193,75650,005 73,517

41,093 18,147 673,953 (191,075

2,297 23,884 867,703 241,080 75,814 41,093

Total,... 6,338|209,529 |53,992 74,338

51,702 18,900| 693,784|195,969)

2,799 |25,238| 903,313|249,961| 77,137

51,702

FOREIGN TRADE.

184

XIII. SUMMARY.

No. OF VESSELS.

TONS.

CREWS.

British ships entered with Cargoes,

3,318

4,520,183

182,226

Do.

do. in Ballast,

234

266,218

13,818

Total,.

3,552

4,786,401

196,044

British ships cleared with Cargoes,.

Do.

3,321

4,425,793

184,613

do. in Ballast,

229

359,593

10,809

Total,....

3,550

4,785,386

195,422

Total British ships entered and cleared,

7,102

9,571,787

391,466

Foreign ships entered with Cargoes,

Do.

do. in Ballast,

2,421

3,083,790

125,863

266

285,793

12,085

Total,.......

2,687

3,369,583

137,948

Foreign ships cleared with Cargoes,

2,269

2,823,911

121,036

Do.

do. in Ballast,

403

510,817

16,354

Total,...

2,672

3,334,728

137,390

Total Foreign ships entered and cleared,

5,359

6,704,211

275,388

Steam-launches entered with Cargoes,

Do.

do. in Ballast,...

1,795

25

96,789 818

35,887

227

Total,.......

1,820

97,607

36,114

Steam-launches cleared with Cargoes,

1,795

96,789

35,887

Do.

do. in Ballast,...

25

818

227

Total,.....

1,820

97,607

36,114

Total Steam-launches entered and cleared,

3,640

195,214

72,228

Junks entered with Cargoes,

12,684

1,033,546

143,529

Do. do. in Ballast,.

5,294

580,349

68,217

Total,......

17,978

1,613,895

211,746

Junks cleared with Cargoes,

Do. do. in Ballast,

12,709

1,249,424

167,749

5,558

374,920

46,782

Total,.............

18,267

1,624,344

214,531

Total Junks entered and cleared,

35,245

3,238,239

426,277

Total of all Vessels entered,

26,037

9,867,486

581,852

Total of all Vessels cleared,

26,309

9,841.965

583,159

Total of all Vessels in Foreign Trade, entered and cleared,

52,346

19.709,451

1,165,311

LOCAL TRADE.

Total Junks entered, Do. cleared,

25,505 25,238

916,016

252,174

903,313

249,961

Total of all Vessels in Local Trade, entered and cleared,

50,743

1,819,329

502,135

Total of all Vessels in Foreign Trade, entered and cleared,

Do.

all do. Local Trade, entered and cleared,

Grand Total of all Vessels entered and cleared,

.....

52,346

19,709,451

1,165,311

50,743

1,819.329

502,135

103,089 21,528,780

1,667,446

XIV. RETURN of LICENSED STEAM-LAUNCHES Entered in the COLONY of HONGKONG during the Year ending 31st December, 1902.

TOWING.

NOT TOWING.

TOTAL.

PLACES.

Vessels. Tonnage. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Cargo

Cargo

Discharged Vessels. Tonnage. Crews. in tons.

Passen-

gers.

Discharged Vessels. Tonnage. Crews.

Passen-

gėrs.

in tons.

Cargo

Discharged

in tons.

Within the Waters of the Colony,

*

40,466 1,043,934 301,698

63,785 2,028,321 501,746 2,884,388

104,251 3,072,255 803,444 2,884,388

Total,.

40,466 1,043,934 301,698

:

63,785 (2,028,321 501,746 2,884,388

104,251 [3,072,255) 803,444 12,884,388

Within the Local Trade Limits,

Total,..

Outside the Local Trade Limits,-

Sam Shui,

Kong Mun,.

:

:

:

:

:

23

759 214

1

24

6

1

35

7

:

17,185 546,851 139,518 516,484

17,185 546,851 139,518 516,484

17,185 546,851 139,518

516,484

17,185

546,851 139,518

516,484

185

:

1,292

71,233 27,673

44,217

11,463

1,292 71,238 27,673

41,217

11,463

24

921

408

327

18,394

6,304

152

6,241

1,502

105

8,340

4,580

2,269

47

1,680 622

105

2,269

4,224

328

18,118) 6,310

8,340

4,324

1,540

153

6,276 1,509

4,580

1,540

1,795

96,789 35,887

57,242

19,596 1,820 97,607 36,114 57,242,

19,596

...

|(2,671,961|

92,765 2,671,961 677,571 3,458,114

19,596 133,256 (3,716,713 979,076 3,458,114|

19,596

40,491 1,044,752 301,925

,044,752 30

* The figures under the heading "Steam-launches plying within the Waters of the Colony are incomplete: the "Star" Ferry Company stating that since 1901, "owing to the amount of work entailed" they have had to discontinue keeping a record of the passengers carried by their launches, and also number of trips.

Kam Chuk,

Wu Chow,

Macao,...

Other Places,

Total,...

Grand Total,..

25

818

227

XV.-RETURN of LICENSED STEAM-LAUNCHES Cleared in the COLONY of HONGKONG during the Year ending 31st December, 1902.

TOWING.

NOT TOWING.

TOTAL.

16,617

PLACES.

Vessels. Tommage. Crews.

Cargo Passon- Shipped gers. in tons.

Vessels. T 'onnage. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Cargo Bunker Shipped Coal in tons. in tons.

Vessels. Tounage. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Cargo Bunker Shipped Coal in tons, in tons.

Within the Waters of the Colony,

40,466 |1,043,934| 301,698

Total,.

40,466 |1,043,934 301,698

Within the Local Trade Limites,

Total,..

Outside the Local Trade Limits,-

Sam Shui,

Kong Mun, Kam Chuk,

Wu Chow,

Macao,

Other Places,

Total,....

h

:

:

:

23

759

214

24

6

86

1-

25

818

227

63,785 2,028,321 501,746 2,884,228

16,617 104,251 3,072,255 803,4442,884,228

63,785 2,028,321 501,746 2,884,228

16,617 104,251 3,072,255 803,444 2,884,228|

16,617

17,185 546,851| 139,518 516,394

6,661 17,185 546,851 139,518 516,394

6,661

17,185 546,851 139,518 516,394

6,661

17,185 546,851 139,518 516,394

6,661

:

186

1,292

71,233Į 27,673

44,261 20,187| 10,203| 1,292 71,233 27,673

44,261 20,187 10,203

24

327

921 408 18,394 6,304

152

6,241 1,502

284 3,919) 517 47 8,033 4,808 697 328 4,428 1,472 1,117) 153

1,680

18,418 6,310 6,276] 1,509

622

284 3,919, 517

8,033 4,808 697 4,428 1,472 1,117

1,795 96,789 35,887

57,006 30,386 12,534) 1,820 97,607

36,114

57,006| 30,386 12,534

Grand Total,..

40,491,1,044,752 301,925

92,765 2,671,961 677,151 3,457,628 30,386 35,812 133,256 3,716,713 979,076 3,457,628 30,386 35,812

* The figures under the heading "Steam-launches plying within the Waters of the Colony are incomplete: the "Star" Ferry Company stating that since 1901, "owing to the amount of work entailed" they have had to discontinuc keeping a record of the passengers carried by their launches, and also number of trips.

187

XVI.—RETURN of VESSELS REGISTERED at the Port of Hongkong, during the Year 1902.

Name of Vessel.

Official Number.

Regis- tered Tonnage.

Horse Power.

Rig.

Built of

Where built and when.!

Remarks.

Wai Hoi, .........(str.), 109,867

Planet Pilgrim,

Arab,...(str.),

109,868

97,806

47

Kwong Chow,...(str.), 109,869

2,674

930

53 24 Schooner Wood Hongkong, 1901.

Schooner Wood Hongkong, 1902.

360 Schooner Steel Yarrow on Tyne, 1890.

80 None Steel Hongkong, 1902.

Since sold to Foreigners.

XVII.-RETURN of REGISTRIES of VESSELS Cancelled at the Port of Hongkong, during the Year 1902.

Name of Vessel.

Official Number.

Regis- Date of tered Regis- Tonnage. try.

Horse Power.

Rig.

Built of

Where built and when.

Reason of Cancellation.

Leeng Kiang,(str.), 107,008

Vale of Doon,.

63,211

141 1897

669 1897

28

Queen of the Isles,

109,851

(str.), Hoi Moon, (str.), 109,858

Yoshino Maru,

86,119

(str.), Wing Hang, (str.), 109,863

*

Hongkong, (str.), | 109,864

Arab, (str.),

97,806

89 1899

218 1901 28

1,291 1901 275

278 1901

389 | 1901 37

2,674 1902 360

54

42

Schooner Composite Hongkong, 1896,

Barque Iron Glasgow, 1869,

Schooner Wood Califoronia, U.S.A., 1898,

Schooner Wood Hongkong, 1900,

Schooner Iron Newcastle, 1883,

Schooner Wood Hongkong, 1901,

None Wood Hongkong, 1901,

Schooner Steel

Yarrow on Tyne, 1890.

Sold to Foreigners.

Vessel to sail under For-

[eign Flag.

Sold to Foreigners.

Sold to Foreigners.

Abandoned on Fire.

Sold to Foreigners.

Sold to Foreigners.

Sold to Foreigners.

XVIII.—SUMMARY of CHINESE EMIGRATION from HONGKONG to Ports other than in China, during the Year ending 31st December, 1902.

BRITISH VESSELS.

FOREIGN VESSELS.

GRAND TOTAL.

WHITHER BOUND.

Adults.

Children.

Adults. Children.

Adults.

Children.

Total.

Total.

Total.

M.

F. M. F.

M. F. M. F.

M.

· F.

31.

F.

For Honolulu, Sandwich Islands,

106

>>

Japan Ports,

دو

Mauritius,

Portland, Oregon,

San Francisco, U.S.A.,.

,, Sarawak,

دو

Seattle, U.S.A.,

19

Straits Settlements,

37

Tacoma, U.S.A.,

136

"

Vancouver, British Columbia,.

""

Victoria, British Columbia,

4,926 1,664

TOTAL PASSENGERS,

28

107 437

28 219 31 971 23

10

101

3 4511 543 229 247 1,035) 971 10

10

31

558

c

257

23

=

1,035

10

1,089

10

17 1 1,1172,214||||24|

30

144

144

:

#6

2 2,270 3,303| 144 36 36

341 47

3

3,387

144

36

28,127 4,940 1,067] 495| 34,629, 19,4842,725 582) 248 23,03947,611 7,665 1,649|

743

57,668

12

137 359 4,938

1,668 1,504

362 495 4,926 1,511 3,168

499 *

12

4,938 3,179

36,230 4,951 1,101 496 42,778 25,2242,784 672 253 28,93361,454 7,735 1,773

749 71,711

{

Total Passengers by British Vessels,

Total Passengers by Foreign Vessels,.

30,230 4,951 1,101 496 42,778

25,224 2,784 672 253 28,933

Excess of Passengers by British Vessels, .

11,006 2,167 429 243 13,845

:

188

XIX.-SUMMARY of CHINESE IMMIGRATION to HONGKONG from Ports other than China,

during the Year ending 31st December, 1902.

BRITISH VESSELS.

FOREIGN VESSELS.

GRAND TOTAL.

WHERE FROM.

Adults.

Children.

Adults. Children.

Adults.

Children.

Total.

Total.

Total.

M.

F.

M.

F.

M. F M. F

M.

F.

M.

F.

From Bangkok, Siam,

91

91 1,826

:

1,826 1,917

""

Callao, Peru,

203

218

203

Honolulu, Sandwich Islands,

612

C

614

931

931

1,543

2

iai

1,917

218

1,545

"}

Java & Sumatra,

35

35

165

165

200

200

93

Mauritius,

667

""

Melbourne,.

243

New South Wales...

436

شدم

4

A

11

"7

New Zealand Ports,

106

"

Portland, Oregon,

68

":

Queensland Ports....

489

:::

243 237

445 253

106) 10

68

Jual N

6741

667

674

243

480

486

253

689

698-

10

116

116

68

68

4891 161

161

650

650

""

San Francisco, U.S.A.,.

2,069

38

33

17 2,157 3,884 97

71

42 4,094

5,953

135

104

59

6,251

Sarawak....

25

25

25

25

""

Seattle, U.S.A.,

71

71

71

71

"

South Australian Ports,

164

164

25

25

189

189

Straits Settlements,

$2,969 3,099

946

600 87,614 24,371 168

76

24 24,639 107,340 |3,267 | 1,022 624 112,253

39

Tacoma, U.S.A.,

85

85 64

""

Tasmania,

13

131

1:

Vancouver, British Columbia,

37

Victoria, British Columbia,..

2,959 843

3

3

5 2,970

8431 473! 3

TOTAL PASSENGERS,

| 91,182 3,145 986 624 95,937 33,366 280 154

75 33,875 124,548 3,4251,140

64

149

149

13

13

476

2,959 1,316

3

3

5

2,970

3

1,319

699 129,812

Total Passengers by British Vessels,.

Total Passengers by Foreign Vessels,

Excess of Passengers by British Vessels,

91,182 3,145 986. 624 95,937

33,366 280 154 75 33,875

57,816 2,865 832 549 62,062

DEFENDANTS HOW DISPOSED OF.

XX.-RETURN of MARINE CASES tried at the MARINE MAGISTRATE'S COURT, during the Year 1902.

NATURE OF CHARGE.

No. of Defendants.

No. of Cases.

Absent from ship without leave,

Arrival without report (Junk),

Assault,

2

2

1

:

:

:

2

1

:

:

تزم

:

:

:

:.

:

:

:.

:

:

:

1

1

1

9

Disorderly Behaviour,....

Harbour Regulations, Breach of (Junk),

Desertion,

CO

:

Obstruction of Fairways,

1

19

Refusal of duty,

10

41

35

$3

Rules of the Road, Failed to observe

(Steam-launch),

2

2

:

19

:

:

:

:

:

2

4:

:

4

: 60

Amount of Fines.

Dismissed.

Total,..

27

83

46

27

:

:

5

3

1

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

LO

:

1

I

:

:.

:

:

15

1

38

:.

-

CO

3

$66

TONS.

10,000,000

9,900,000

9,800,000.

9,700,000

9,600,000

9,500,000

9,400,000

9,300,000

9,200,000

9,100,000

9,000,000

8.000.000

8,800,000

8,700,000

8,600,000

8,500,000

8,400,000

8,300,000

8,200,000

8,100,000

8,000,000

7,900,000

7,800,000

7,700,000

7,600,000

7,500,000

7,400,000

7,300,000

7,200,000

7,100,000

000.000

1967.

1868.

L

XXI.-DIAGRAM of Tonnage entered at Ho

RED LINE represents British Shipping Tonnag

BLUE LINE represents Foreign Shipping Toni

GREEN LINE represents British and Foreign

YELLOW LINE represents Junk Tonnage only

VIOLET LINE represents Steam-launch Tonne

THICK BLACK LINE represents entire Trade

1869.

1870.

1871.

1872.

1873.

1874.

1875.

1876.

1877.

1878.

1879.

1880.

1881.

1882.

1883.

1869.

1870.

1871.

1872.

1873.

1874.

1875.

1876.

1877.

1878.

1879.

1880.

1881.

1882.

1883.

1884.

1885.

1886.

1887.

XXI.—DIAGRAM of Tonnage entered at Hongkong, from 1867 to 190.

RED LINE represents British Shipping Tonnage only.

BLUE LINE represents Foreign Shipping Tonnage only.

GREEN LINE represents British and Foreign Shipping Tonnage.

YELLOW LINE represents Junk Tonnage only, excluding Local Trade.

VIOLET LINE represents Steam-launch Tonnage only, excluding Local Trade.

THICK BLACK LINE represents entire Trade in British and Foreign Ships,

'8381

1889.

1890.

1891.

1892.

1885.

1886.

1887.

gkong, from 1867 to 1902 inclusive.

only.

Je only.

ipping Tonnage.

xcluding Local Trade.

only, excluding Local Trade.

British and Foreign Ships, Junks and Steam-launches.

*8381

1889.

1890.

1891.

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

1896.

1897.

1898.

1899.

1900.

1901.

1902.

TONS.

10,000,000

9,900,000

9,800,000

9,700,000

9,600,000

9,500,000

9,400,000

9,300,000

9,200,000

9,100,000

9,000,000

8,900,000

8,800,000

8,700,000

8,600,000

8,500,000

8,400,000

8,300,000

8,200,000

8,100,000

8,000,000

7,900,000

7,800,000

7,700,000

7,600,000

7,500,000

7:400,000

7,300,000

7,200,000

7,100,000

7,000.000

}

7,600,000

7,500,000

7,400,000

7,300,000

7,200,000

7,100,000

7,000,000

6,900,000

6,800,000

6,700,000

6,600,000

6,500,000

6,400,000

6,300,000

6,200,000

6,100,000

6,000,000

5,900,000

5,800,000

5,700,000

5,600,000

5,500,000

5,400,000

5,300,000

5,200,000

5,100,000

5,000,000

4,900,000

4,800,000

4,700,000

4,600,000

4,500,000

4,400,000

4,305,000

4,200,000

4,100,000

4,000,000

3,900,000

3,800,000

3,700,000

3,600,000

3,500,000

3,400,000

3,300,000

3,200,000

3,100,000

3,000,000

2,900,000

2,800,000

2,700,000

2,600,000

BLACK 2,500,000

2,400,000

7,500,000

7:400,000

7,300,000

7,200,000

7,100,000

7,000,000

6,900,000

6,800,000

6,700,000

6,600,000

6,500,000

6,400,000

6,300,000

6,200,000

6,100,000

6,000,000

5,900,000

5,800,000

5,700,000

5,600,000

5,500,000

5,400,000

5,300,000

5,200,000

5,100,000

5,000,000

4,900,000

4.800,000

4,700,000

4,600,000

4,500,000

4,400,000

4,300,000

4,200,000

4,100,000

4,000,000

3,900,000

3,800,000

3,700,000

3,600,000

3,500,000

3,400,000

3,300,000

3,200,000

3,100,000

3,000,000

2,900,000

2,800,000

2,700,000

2,600,000

2,500,000

2,400,000

2.300.000 1

3,700,000

3,600,000

3,500,000

3,400,000

3,300,000

3,200,000

3,100,000

3,000,000

2,900,000

2,800,000

2,700,000

2,600,000

BLACK

2,500,000

2,400,000

2,300,000

2,200,000

2,100,000

2,000,000

1,900,000

1,800,000

1,700,000

1,600,000

1,500,000

1,400,000

YELLOW 1,300,000

1,200,000

GREEN 1,100,000

1,000,000

900,000

800,000

RED

700,000

600,000

500,000

BLUE

400,000

300,000

200,000

100,000

90,000

VIOLET

80,000

3,600,000

3,500,000

3,400,000

3,300,000

3,200,000

3,100,000

3,000,000

2,900,000

2,800,000

2,700,000

2,600,000

2,500,000

2,400,000

}

2,300,000

2,200,000

2,100,000

2,000,000

1,900,000

1,800,000

1,700,000

1,600,000

1,500,000

1,400,000

1,300,000

1,200,000

1,100,000

1,000,000

900,000

800,000

700,000

600,000

500,000

400,000

300,000

200,000

100,000

90,000

80,000

191

XXII.—STATEMENT of the REVENUE collected in the Harbour Department, during the Year, 1902.

Head of Receipt.

1. Light Dues, Ordinance 26 of 1891,

2. Licences and Internal Revenue not otherwise specified :-

Chinese Passenger Ship Licences, Ordinance 1 of 1889, Emigration Brokers' Licences, Ordinance 1 of 1889,.... Fines,

Fishing Stake and Station Licences, Government Notification No. 299 of

1902,

Fishing Stake and Station Licences, Government Notification No. 299 of

1902, from the New Territory,

Junk Licences, &c., Ordinance No. 26 of 1891,

Junk Licences, &c., Ordinance No. 26 of 1891, from the New Territory, Steam-Launch Licences, &c., Ordinance 26 of 1891,................

3. Fees of Court and Office, Payments for specific purposes and Reimbursements-in-

Aid :-

Cargo-boat Certificates, Ordinance 26 or 1891,

Engagement and Discharge of Seamen, Ordinance 26 of 1891,

Engagement of Masters and Engineers of Steam-Launches, Ordinance 26

of 1891,

Examination of Masters and Engineers of Steam-Launches, Ordinance 26

Years.

Amount.

$

cts.

66,106.52

400.00

1,000.00

66.00

368.00

2,001.00

37,498.75

11,949.80

1,731.25

2,486.00

24,216.60

250.50

337.50

2,525.00

24,617.58

23,604.75

237.50

3,240.00

496.00

3,100.00

16,358.24

44,175.00

$ 266,765.99

of 1891,

Examination of Masters, Mates, and Engineers, Ordinance 26 of 1891, Gunpowder, Storage of, Ordinance 26 of 1891,...

Medical Examination of Emigrants, Ordinance 1 of 1889, Printed Forms, Sale of, Harbour Regulations, Tide Tables &c., Private Moorings and Buoys, Rent of, Ordinance 26 of 1891, Registry Fees, (Merchant Shipping Act), Ordinance 26 of 1891, Steam-Launches, Surveyor's Certificates, Ordinance 26 of 1891,. Survey of Steam Ships &c., Ordinance 26 of 1891, Sunday Cargo Working Permits, Ordinance 26 of 1891,

Total,.....

XXIII.-RETURN of WORK performed by the GOVERNMENT MARINE SURVEYOR'S DEPARTMENT.

Passenger

Certificate and

Inspection of Bottom.

Emigration.

Tonnage for

Registration.

British Tonnage

Foreign Vessels. Certificate for

Inspection of

Lights and

Markings.

Crew Space,

Minor Inspec-

tion.

Survey of Licen- sed Passenger Steam-launches.

Survey of Boilers under Construction.

Inspection of Government

Launches.

Examination of Engineers.

Examination of Chinese Engi-

neers for Steam- launches.

1892,

122

51

1893,

136

74

1894,

124

62

1895,

102

64

1896,

142

68

6

1897,

158

79

24

1898,

164

83

10

1899,

144

61

10

1900,

151

83

7

1901,

157

92

1902,

175

93

6010 1 10 co co co O♡Ŋ

Estimated Total

Number of Visits in

connection with fore-

going Inspection.

85

10

16

60

96

1,678

94

20

19

64

25

1,659

1

116

11

28

54

18

1,364

1

98

18

34

57

24

1,452

97

20

37

77

66

1,409

109

41

35

96

51

1,631

121

61

26

48

1,729

134

62

27

78

1,602

187

73

47

99

124

1,834

217

36

102

88

118

2,031

210

25

126

109

76

1,768

XXIV.-IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OFFICE.

IMPORTS.

MALWA. chests.

PATNA.

BENARES. PERSIAN.

TURKISH.

chests.

chesis.

chests.

chests.

CHINESE. chests.

TOTAL.

chests.

1901,

1902,

6,666

21,140

9,254

5,252

2

42,314

7,7811

23,207

8,723

4,062

8

43,781

Increase...... Decrease,

1,115

2,067

6

3,178

531

1,190

1,711

Remarks.

192

EXPORTS.

MALWA.

PATNA.

chests.

chests.

BENARES. chests.

PERSIAN. TURKISH.

CHINESE.

TOTAL.

chests.

chests.

chests.

chests.

1901,

7,427

19,733

8,801

4,116

189

40,269

1902,

7,313

22,274

8,671

5,0883

2

43,348

Increase,.

2,541

972

Decrease,

114

133

187

3,513

434

1901,.

Through Cargo reported in Manifests but not landed 1902,

NUMBER OF PERMITS, &c., ISSUED.

12,150 chests. 13,483

Increase,

1,333 chests.

1901.

1902.

Increase.

Decrease.

Landing Permits, Removal Permits,

299

320

21

7,527

7,079

448

...

Exports Permits,

6,499

6,922

123

Memo. of Exports to the Commissioner of Chinese Customs, Memo. of Exports to the Superintendent of Raw Opium Depart-

ment, Macao,..

602

526

76

294

293

1

SUMMARY OF EXPORTS, 1902.

+

..

"จ

Malwa. Patna. Benares. Persian. Turkish. Chinese. Total. chests. chests. chests. chests. chests.

chests.

chests.

Total in Piculs.

By Steamers to Amoy,

72

38

1,884

Bushire,

868 1

2,862 1

Cairo,

2

2

3,268.1

1.025 2.05

Canton,

693

5,421

Chefoo,

4

...

986 56

11

7,111

8,392.675

66

Foochow,

1,006

725

291

1,102

3,1243

78. 3,355.25

Hankow via Shanghai,

20

59

3

:

82

-

94.40

:

Haiphong,

5

5

Hoihow,

330

21

351

Kewkiang,

16

18

Kwong Chow Wan,

1

1,024

21

1,047

London,

264

264

Масао,.

4

4,951

30

4,986

Mauritius,

6

6

Mexico,

1.

1

6. 421.2

21.2 1,252.325

270.6 5,981.2

7.2 1.025

..

New York,

8

8

8.2

Pakhoi,

95

11

106

127.2

Philippine Islands,.

I

323

555

90

969

1,146.85

:

Shanghai,

3,207

6,665

3,655

2131

13,740 | 15,809.837

Straits Settlements,

163

10

999

1,172

1,231.575

Swatow,

1,916

1,692

645

157

4,410

4,881.825

Tansui,

300

500

1,348

2,148

2,341.7

Tientsin,

:

2.4

Wei-hai-wei,

8

6

17

18.8

Wuchow,....

2

2

2.4

By Junks to various adjacent Ports in China,

376

457

11

847

941.675

Total.........

7,313 22,274 8,671 5,088

2

43,348) | 49,664.712

The information in Column 8 above is on the following assumption

Patna and Benares, per chest,........

Malwa, Turkish and Chinese, per chest,

Persian, per chest,

1.20 piculs.

1,00

1.025

No. 1903

23

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE PRINCIPAL CIVIL MEDICAL OFFICER, FOR THE YEAR 1902.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Cominand of His Excellency the Governor.

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL,

HONGKONG, 9th April, 1903.

SIR,-I have the honour to submit, for the information of His Excellency the Governor, the following Report on the working of the Medical Department for the year 1902.

MEDICAL STAFF.

Dr. J. BELL left on home leave in March.

Dr. J. C. THOMSON returned from leave on the 5th February. During his absence, Dr. R. LAMORT was temporarily employed by the Government.

Dr. E. A. R. LAING was appointed Assistant Surgeon to the Department, and arrived to take over his duties on the 27th February.

Dr. F. T. KEYT was appointed Second Health Officer of the Port on the 12th July, and arrived in the Colony on the 24th of October.

Dr. W. J. E. DAVIES was appointed Assistant Surgeon, and arrived on the 10th September. He resigned his appointment on November 7th.

Dr. G. P. JORDAN, Health Officer of the Port, returned from leave on the 24th December.

ANALYTICAL STAFF.

Mr. J. T. WILD, Assistant Apothecary and Analyst, resigned on the 17th May, and was succeeded by Mr. A. C. FRANKLIN, who arrived here on the 13th August.

NURSING STAFF.

Miss BARKER, Matron, returned from leave on September 25th. During her absence Miss F. BARR performed the duties of Matron, she left for nine months' leave on the 4th October.

Miss GORHAM (Nursing Sister) proceeded to Japan on two months' holiday on October 4th.

Miss STOLLARD (Nursing Sister) was granted two months' leave and left on 14th May.

Wardmaster GRIFFITHS was dismissed on the 13th January, and was succeeded by Mr. CHARRINGTON, who was appointed locally, on the 8th February.

Wardmaster CHARRINGTON was dismissed on the 7th August, and was succeed- ed by Mr. STOUPE, who resigned on the 30th of September.

Mr. RICHMOND was appointed Wardmaster on the 1st October, he having been transferred to this Department from the Police Force.

Wardmaster LEE, Lunatic Asylums, returned from leave on 25th March. Wardmaster MACKAY was appointed to the Department and arrived on the 6th of May.

Mr. WONG HING, Chinese Wardmaster, resigned on the 9th October, and was succeeded by Mr. CHUNG SHU CHEUNG, who was transferred from the Police Force.

CLERICAL STAFF.

Mr. CHAN TSUN UN, Clerk, resigned on the 5th February, and was succeeded by Mr. Ip HIN SING.

248

Mr. SUN UN-PAN was promoted from the Harbour Department to the post of Second Assistant Clerk.

Mr. UN SHIN TSEUNG was promoted to the post of First Assistant Clerk on the 6th February, but was invalided from the Service on August 17th, Mr. SUN UN-PAN being promoted to his post.

Mr. CHAN IU SHING was appointed Second Assistant Clerk on promotion from the Sanitary Department on October 1st.

Mr. LEUNG SHIU CHIU was engaged temporarily from the 18th of August to the 30th of September.

POLICE.

The admissions to the Hospital were nearly the same as last year, the number being 938, as against 937 in 1901. The strength of the Force was 881, as against 886 in 1901.

There were 52 less Europeans, 42 less Indians, and 103 more Chinese admitted.

There was a marked diminution in the number of malarial fever admissions, the figures being 176, as against 407 in 1901, a result due, in a great measure, to the more active anti-malarial measures carried on and to the more regular use of quinine as a prophylactic.

Even more marked is the diminution of malarial fever cases in the New Terri- tory, as may be seen from the following comparative table which includes returns from the nine Police Stations to the north of the Kowloon hills:-

Police Station.

Malarial Fever Cases.

1901.

Average Strength.

1901.

1902.

1902.

Sha Tau Kok,

13

12

Ping Shan,

14

14

Sai Kung,..

7

6

San Tin,

12

12

Tai Po,....

10

10

Sha Tin,..

8

7

492372

0

1

1

0

5

0

Tai 0,

10

10

1

1

Au Tau,

14

13

17

1

Sheung Shui,.

11

10

7

2

99

94

52

11

In other words there was a diminution in the percentage of malarial fever cases from 52.5 per cent. in 1901 to 11.7 per cent. in 1902.

The admissions to the Hospital from the various sections of the Force are given in the following Table:--

Year.

1893,.

European.

..134

Indian.

Chinese.

255

133

1894,

...127

244

134

1895,.

90

254

116

1896,

94

370

124

1897.

99

320

107

1898,.

87

279

122

1899,

..117

421

154

1900,

...183

522

215

1901,

...202

521

214

1902,

..150

479

307

There were only two deaths during the year, as against eight in 1901. One

European died of heart disease and an Indian of phthisis.

53

.....

249

The

Twelve were invalided-three Europeans, six Indians and two Chinese. causes were phthisis (four), bronchitis (two), epilepsy (two), rheumatism (two), malarial cachexia and deafness one each.

Table I gives the admissions and deaths in the Government Civil Hospital during each month of the year.

year.

Table II shows the rate of sickness and the mortality in the Force during the

Table III gives the admissions to the Hospital for malarial fever from each Station during the year.

The following Table gives the total admissions to Hospital and deaths in the Force for the last ten years:-

Year.

1893,

1894.

1895,

Admissions.

Deaths.

..522

6

..505

15

..466

8

1896.

...588

14

1897.

..526

7

2

1898..

...488

19

1899

..692

16

1900,

..920

4

1901.

..937

8

1902,.

..938

2

TROOPS.

There was a considerable increase in the number of admissions to Hospital notwithstanding that the number of Troops was somewhat less.

From Table IV it will be seen that the mortality was higher amongst the Eu- ropeans and much lower amongst the Indians than in the previous year.

The average daily rate of sickness was less in both European and Indian Troops. The following Table gives the sickness and mortality amongst the Troops for the past ten years:-

Year.

Admissions.

Deaths.

1893,

2,927

28

1894,

2,905

39

1895,

.3,099

28

1896, 1897

.4,274

19

....

4,455

15

1898, 1899.

1900,.

.3,896

21

.4,714

29

.3,938

40

1901,

1902,.

..5,359

67

.6,340

38

Amongst the deaths in 1902 were ten from malarial fever, three from plague, two from dysentery and one from liver abscess.

GAOL STAFF.

Eighty-six members of the Gaol Staff were admitted to the Hospital during the year out of a total staff of 91. Three were invalided-two for rheumatism, and

one for phthisis.

There were no deaths.

**

SANITARY DEPARTMENT.

There was a large increase in the number of admissions during the year, the figures being sixty-four, as against thirty in 1901. This is accounted for by the increased number of men employed in this Department, more particularly in rat extermination. There were four deaths-one foreman and a disinfecting coolie having died from cholera and two others from natural causes. No members of the staff were invalided.

<

- 250

GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL.

The total number of admissions to the Hospital was the highest on record, 3,108 having been admitted during the year, as against 2,948 in 1901.

The total number of out-patients attending the Hospital was 11,815, as against 12,663 in 1901.

Attached to this Report are the following Tables:-

V. Showing the admissions and mortality in the Government Civil Hospital during the year 1902.

VI. List of operations performed during the year 1902.

VII. Showing the rate of mortality in the Government Civil Hospital during the last ten years.

VIII. Showing the admissions into and deaths in the Government Civil Hos- pital during each month of the year 1902.

IX. Showing the admissions and deaths in the Government Lunatic Asylum during each month of the year 1902.

X. Showing the number of patients in the Asylum and the disease for which they were admitted.

XI. Showing the admissions and deaths in the Government Maternity Hospital during each month of the year 1902.

XII. Showing the varieties of malarial fever admitted during the year.

The following Table gives the number and classification of those admitted to the Government Civil Hospital during the past ten years:---

Police,.....

1901. 1902.

588

Board of Trade,..

87

Paying Patients,

491

498 632

1893. 1894. 1895. 1896. 1897. 1898. 1899. 1900.

522 505 466 132 100 129 467

529

488 692

920

937 938

45

65

25

37

28

25

603

741

764

891

830

931

Government Servants,. 205 168

203

269

227

186

208

266

339

460

Police Cases,

247 272

319

244

299

306

306 347 348 300

Free Patients,

262

427 668

778

742 785 739 569 466 451

1,835 1,963 2,283 2,598 2,445 2,571 2,734 3,030 2,948 3,108

This shows a decided increase in the number of paying patients and Govern- ment Servants admitted and a small diminution in the number of Police Cases and Free Patients.

The admissions and deaths for the last ten years are as follows:-

Year.

Admissions.

Deaths.

1893,

.1,835

67

1894,

1,967

101

1895,

2,283

114

1896,

2,598

143

1897.

?

.2,445

119

1898,

9

*

2,571

138

1899,

2,734

114

1900,

.3,030

155

1901,

..2,948

153

1902,

..3,108

140

The rate of mortality for the year was 4.5 per cent., as against 5.18 in 1901. The average daily number of sick was 111.38 as against 111.72.

Women and Children.-The number admitted was 357 as against 281 in 1901 and 325 in 1900.

This increase in the number of Women and Children shows the need of further accomodation. This will be supplied by the Victoria Hospital which is now rapidly approaching completion and will I trust be occupied this year.

NATIONALITY.

Europeans. 956 were admitted during the year as against 1,026 in 1901. Indians.-834 were admitted as compared with 817 in 1901.

251

Asiatics (Chinese and Japanese).-1,315 were admitted during the year, as against 1,098 in 1901, an increase of 217. The majority of these must have been Paying Patients as there were fewer Police Cases and Free Patients treated than in the previous year. It is interesting to note that Asiatics are availing themselves more of the benefits offered by this Institution.

DISEASES.

The following diseases caused the greatest number of admissions:-

Fevers:-

Dengue,

Malarial Fever,

Simple Continued, Enteric,

Venereal Diseases,

Diseases of the Digestive System,

17

>>

"

Dysentery,

Beri-beri,

Influenza,

Respiratory System,... Nervous System,

.422

.349

85

34

890

.118

267

202

..122

74

62

67

The following diseases caused the greatest number of deaths:-

Diseases of the Respiratory System, 22 Cholera,

Malarial Fever,

Enteric Fever,.

....

10

9

8

6

Dysentery,

Dengue. No less than 422 patients were admitted suffering from this disease.

The first case occurred on the 28th June, 90 cases were admitted in July, 241 in August, 56 in September and 33 in October. The outbreak subsided with the onset of the cold weather, only two cases being admitted in November.

Nearly all the members of the Nursing and Medical Staff contracted the disease which is very infectious. It cannot, however, be said to be contagious, as many of the attendants did not contract it until they had been attending cases for fully two months.

Enteric Fever-There were 34 cases under treatment with 8 deaths. 15 of them were imported cases and 3 occurred amongst members of the Police Force, viz., Two Europeans and one Indian.

The disease was much more fatal amongst the Chinese, as out of 8 admitted 6 died, whereas with the Europeans out of 21 cases, 2 only proved fatal. The 5 Indians attacked all recovered.

Cholera.-There were 14 cases of cholera admitted with 10 deaths, these occurred in connection with the serious outbreak of this disease in the early part of the

year.

Dysentery.-There were 74 cases, with 6 deaths, a diminution both in the number of cases and in the number of deaths as compared with the previous year.

Diphtheria.-There were 6 cases under treatment with one death.

Beri-beri.-There was an increase in the number of cases as compared with the previous year, the figures being 62 as against 41. Five of the cases were fatal.

Malarial Fever.-There was a decided decrease in the number of patients admitted from this class of disease, the figures being 349 as compared with 787

in 1901.

This marked diminution is to a great extent accounted for by the active anti- malarial measures which have been carried out during the past few years.

The varieties met with were:

252

Malignant,

Benign Tertian,

Quartan,

Mixed infection,.

Malarial Cachexia,

.....53 % .33 % 7.2%

3.4 %

3.2%

Table XII gives the varieties met with during each month of the year.

Surgical Operations.-There were 176 operations performed during the year, as against 188 in 1901. Amongst the most important were the following:-

Liver Abscess.-Five cases were operated on, with two deaths. Post mortem examination proved that in both these cases there were multiple abscesses.

Lithotomy.-Two cases were successfully operated on, in one the lateral opera- tion was performed and in the other the median. The calculus in the former weighed 139 grammes, in the latter 4.5 grammes.

Tracheotomy.-There were two cases operated on for diphtheria with one death. This case was that of a Chinese female child picked up in the street, who was practically moribund when admitted.

Excision of Spleen.This was a case of rupture of the spleen which did not reach the hospital until some hours after the injury. The abdomen was found full of blood, the ruptured spleen was rapidly removed, saline fluid was transfused, but the patient had lost too much blood before admission, and died after the operation.

Femoral Aneurism.-The external iliac was ligatured but as pulsation recurred in the aneurismal sac three days after the operation, the artery was again tied higher up and this time successfully. The patient, a Sanitary Inspector, has since resumed his work.

Anæsthetics.-Chloroform was administered 111 times and ether once.

Fractures and Dislocations.-The following were treated during the year:- Compound Fractures.

Deaths.

No.

Compound Fracture of Forearm 1

Remarks.

Simple Fractures.

...

""

""

Thigh, Leg,

1

.

7

""

Arm,

1

Fracture of Thigh,

..10

">

"

Leg,

8

1)

""

Skull,

.12

6

99

"}

35

Arm, ,, Forearm,

2

7

""

""

"

""

Ribs, Clavicle,

....

4

3

""

Patella,

2

5.

";

Spinal Column,

1

1

A

""

""

Lower Jaw,

1

"}

,, Pelvis,

1

1

61

Dislocations.

Dislocation of Femur,

1

">

Elbow,

1

Cause of death Malarial Fever.

...

253

Vaccinations.-Vaccinations were performed during the year:-

Successful. Unsuccessful. Total.

Primary Cases,...... Re-vaccinations,

169

1

170

183

187

370

540

Fees. The total fees received during the year in the Medical Department was:-

Hospital Fees, Certificates,

$33,619.58 510.00

$34,129.58

:

Buildings.-These were maintained in repair, and several of the wards were repainted and colourwashed. The hospital was lighted with electricity during the year, a much needed improvement.

LUNATIC ASYLUMS.

Tables IX and X give the admissions and deaths during the year and the diseases from which the patients were suffering.

There were 30 more admissions than in the previous year, and at times it was with difficulty that the hospital could accomodate all who were brought in.

MATERNITY HOSPITAL.

Table XI gives the admissions and deaths during each month of the year. There were 67 admissions as against 54 in 1901.

There were no fatal cases.

Nineteen were wives of Government Servants, 35 Private Paying and 13 Free. Twenty-eight were Asiatics.

A scheme was instituted in 1902 for training Chinese women to act as mid- wives. There are already two Chinese women undergoing this training.

GAOL.

The following Table gives the number of admissions to the Gaol and the daily average number of prisoners during the past ten years:-

Total No. of Admissions

to the Gaol.

Daily Average No. of Prisoners.

1893,

4,010

458

1894,.

3,913

455

1895,

5,014

472

1896,

5,582

514

1897,

5,076

462

1898.

5,427

511

1899.

4,789

434

1900,

5,432

486

+

1901

5,077

499

1902,

5,988

576

The new Gaol Hospital was occupied from the 11th June.

TUNG WAH HOSPITAL.

The admissions were 413 less than in 1901, due to the smaller number of plague cases admitted.

The population of these under European treatment is slightly larger than in 1901, the figures for the last three years being:-

1900,. 1901,. 1902,..

European Treatment. .32 per cent. .30.4

Chinese Treatment.

57.7 per cent.

69.6

.......

19

99

""

";

.31.9

68.1

"

19.

""

254

It is with much regret that I have to record the death in the Government Civil Hospital, on the 24th November last, of Dr. CHUNG KING Ủ.

He has been the Resident Medical Officer at the Tung Wah Hospital since 1895 and it is to a great extent due to his tact and skill that so many improvements have been effected there. He died from consumption after several months' illness, and was succeeded by Dr. JEU HAWK.

PUBLIC MORTUARY AND VACCINE INSTITUTE.

The Government Bacteriologist, Dr. HUNTER, shortly after his arrival at the end of February last, took over the work at the Public Mortuary and the Vaccine Institute.

KENNEDY TOWN INFECTIOUS HOSPITAL.

During the year the hospital premises have been enclosed by a substantial iron railing.

Two hundred and six patients were treated, 17 being cases of small-pox, 52 cholera, and 94 were admitted suffering from plague.

The large increase in the number of cholera cases was due to the outbreak of the disease which occurred last spring and summer.

There was a decided diminution in the number of cases of small-pox and plague as compared with the previous year.

The European Nursing Staff was completed by the arrival in May last of Wardmaster MCKAY.

Dr. JEU HAWK was appointed resident medical officer during the time that cholera and plague were prevalent.

The Hospital Hulk "Hygeia" was moored off Kennedy Town Hospital from the 28th February to the 1st July and several cases of small-pox were treated there.

VACCINATIONS.

The following Vaccinations were performed during the year:-

Government Civil Hospital,

Victoria Gaol,..

Alice Memorial Hospital,

Tung Wah:-

Victoria,

Aberdeen,

Stanley,

Shaukiwan,

Yaumati,...

540 .3,973

256

.1,665

13

9

15

4

6,475

ANTI-MALARIAL MEASURES.

These have been vigorously continued during the year in the Western District. Several of the Nullahs here should be trained, I refer more especially to the one above Ripon Terrace to the West of the Nethersole Hospital. Several of the others require constant attention, viz., the one to the West of Richmond Terrace, &c.

The neighbourhood of Macdonnell Road has been dealt with. Much un- dergrowth has been removed, pools of stagnant water have been drained and the nullahs have also been partially trained.

In the winter months a general fumigation of the servants' quarters in the houses of this district was carried out by the Sanitary Board Staff with the object of killing off the anopheles with which they were found to be infected.

The military authorities have also been carrying on similar measures extensively on their land below Kennedy Road.

NEW TERRITORY.

Dr. Ho NAI Hop continued to reside at Tai Po and has attended at regular intervals the several Police Stations and Districts.

In an Appendix are given the notes of several cases of interest which have occurred in the Government Civil Hospital during the year.

}

-

·

}

255

Attached are the reports of:-

1. The Medical Officer to the Lunatic Asylum.

2. The Medical Officer in charge of the Infectious Diseases' Hospitals.

3. The Medical Officer to Victoria Gaol.

4. The Medical Officer to the Tung Wah Hospital.

5. The working of the Medical Department in the New Territory.

6. The Report of the Government Analyst.

In conclusion I desire to thank all the members of the Staff who have so ably assisted me during the year, and I take this opportunity of thanking those who have presented flowers, books, &c., to the patients.

The Honourable

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

J. M. ATKINSON, M.B. (London), D.P.H., (Camb.), &c.,

Principal Civil Medical Officer.

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY,

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

POLICE.

Table I.-Shewing the ADMISSIONS into and DEATHS in the GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL during each Month of the Year 1902.

EUROPEANS.

INDIANS.

CHINESE.

MONTHS.

Admissions. Deaths. Admissions. Deaths. Admissions. Deaths.

TOTAL Admissions.

TOTAL

Deaths.

Remaining on the 1st Jan.,

1902,....

January,

February,

පරාය

4

6

13

16

31

16

63

9

24

16

49

March,

12

1

24

58

1

April,

9

28

12

49

May,

9

28

20

57

June,

19

42

25

86

July,

B

62

38

113

August,

24

104

65

193

September,.

10

37

70

October,

11

37

22

70

November,

· 5

36

December,

10

25

ឥត

20

.62

1

20

55

Total,......

150

479

307

938

J. M. ATKINSON, Principal Civil Medical Officer.

Table II.-Shewing the RATE of SICKNESS and MORTALITY in the POLICE FORCE during the Year 1902.

AVERAGE STRENGTH.

TOTAL SICKNESS,

TOTAL DEATHS.

RATE OF SICKNESS.

RATE OF MORTALITY.

European.

Indian,

Chinese.

European. Indian. Chinese. European. Indian.

Chinese.

European. Indian. Chinese. European.

Indian.

Chinese.

119

363

399

150 479 307

1

3*

126% 131.9% 76.9%

.84% .80%

* One I.P.C. died in India while on leave, and one shot himself.

J. M. ATKINSON, Principal Civi! Medical Officer.

256

Table III.-Shewing the ADMISSIONS to HOSPITAL from the POLICE for MALARIAL FEVER from each Station, during the Year 1902.

STATIONS.

Average Strength.

Central,

No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, No. 5,

No. 6, (Gap),

No. 7,

No. S,

Tzat Tsz Mui,

Shaukiwan,

ཀྲྀ ས 2 ། ས སྐྱུ ཀྵ 1

233

30

Aberdeen,

Stanley,

Pokfulam,

4

Mount Gough,.

17

Water,

136

Yaumati,

34

Hunghom,

12

Sha Tau Kok,

12

Ping Shang,

14

Tung Ching,

7

Sai Kung,.

San Tin,

12

Kowloon City,

15

Tai 0,....

10

Sha Tin,

7

Tai Po, Au Tau, Shek O,

10

13

10

PANONO 1–

2

3

January.

February.

March.

April.

May.

7

June.

2

July.

August.

September.

October.

7

10

1

November.

December.

Total.

11

79

1

20

2

3

2

Sheung Shui,..

Kennedy Town,

Cheung Chau,

Stone Cutters' Island,.

Lamma Island,

2

Total,

776

20

7

8

12

6

25

18

14

10

11

21

24

176

J. M. ATKINSON,

Principal Civil Medical Officer.

Table IV. Shewing the RATE of SICKNESS and MORTALITY of the TROOPS SERVING in HONGKONG

during the Years 1901 and 1902.

AVERAGE STRENGTH.

ADMISSIONS INTO HOSPITAL.

DEATHS.

AVERAGE DAILY RATE OF SICKNESS.

YEAR.

White. Black. Total. White. Black. Total. White. Black. Total. White. Black. Total.

1901, 1,673 2,677 4,350 2,465| 2,894 5,359

RATE OF MORTALITY PER 1,000 OF THE STRENGTH.

White.

Black.

16

51

67

139.48 147.33 286.81

9.60

19.05

1902, 1,381 2,748 4,129 2,994 3,346 6,340

4,129|2,994|3,346 |

19

*19

38

131.70 132.00 263.70

13.77

6.91

* In Hongkong.

W. F. WEBB,

P. M. O., China and Hongkong.

14

257

Table V.-Shewing the ADMISSIONS and MORTALITY in the GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL, during the Year 1902.

DEATHS.

Small-pox,

Measles,

Dengue,...

Plague,

Influenza,

Diphtheria,

GENERAL DISEASES.

Simple Continued Fever-Synonym: Febricula,

Enteric Fever-Synonym: Typhoid Fever,..

Cholera-Synonym: Asiatic Cholera, Epidemic Cholera,

Choleraic Diarrhoea-Synonym: Cholera Nostras,

Dysentery,

Beri-beri-Synonym: Kakkè,

Malarial Fever,

Phagedona-

a. Sloughing Phagedoena,

Erysipelas,

:

Pyæmia,

Septicemia-

ADMISSIONS.

TOTAL.

TOTAL.

Euro-

Indians & Asiatics, Coloured including peans. Persons. Japanese.

Euro-

Indians & Asiatics, Coloured including

peans.

Persons.

Japanese.

1

21

48

97

ANGGONS: SA.

1

1

177

150

422

13

25

15

85

34

i

14

20

6

74

2

58

62

158

94

349

com con⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀

cal Hi

10

2

coal S∞ - -⠀⠀

5

3

3

11

14

2

6

::

Puerperal Fever,

Tetanus,

Tubercle,

Leprosy-Synonym: Elephantiasis Græcorum,.

Spyhilis-Synonym: Pox-

a. Primary, Hard Chancre or Infecting Sore,... b. Secondary, or Constitutional,

Gonorrhoea-Synonyms: Clap, Blennorhagia,. Diseases dependent on Animal Parasites,. Effects of Vegetable Poisons,

>:

Heat,

Electricity,

Alcoholism-

Delirium Tremens,

Rheumatic Fever-Synonym: Acute Rheumatism, Rheumatism,

Gout,

OSTEOARTHRITIS-SYNONYMS: ARTHRITIS NODOSA-

Arthritis deformans, Rheumatoid Arthritis,

Cyst,

New Growth, Non-malignant,.

"7

Anæmia,

Malignant,.

Idiopathic Anemia-Synonym: Pernicious Anæmia, Congenital Malformation,

Debility,

Old-age,......

LOCAL DISEASES :-

Diseases of the-

ܗ: :

135:26:

4

3

12

13

10

10: CON

28

43

9

13

57

4

14

10

12

17

25

1

8-

50

1

51

14

4

1

35

21

88

1

7987

19

2-36

201

1

2

14

1

1

13

12

39

1

1

1

·

Nervous System,..

Eye,

Ear,

Circulatory System, Respiratory

Digestive

Lymphatic

Urinary

Generative

Male Organs,

95

Female Organs,

""

Organs of Locomotion,

Connective Tissue,

Skin,

Injuries,

Under Observation,

33

10

8

18

56

"3

113

17

21

8

21

33

12

88

9

PII: a

10

79

122

2

11

11

32

15

26

202

267

14

39

8

38

B

16

21

50

9

19

46

98

17

12

41

54

342

484

29

31

CAN EA

2

54

84

TOTAL,

956

837

1,315

3,108

32

23

85

140

J. M. ATKINSON,

Principal Civil Medical Officer.

258

Table VI.-LIST of OPERATIONS performed during the year 1902.

SURGICAL OPERATIONS.

OPERATIONS.

DEATHS.

Operations ou Organs of Locomotion,-Amputation of Leg,

""

"9

>>

Toes, Fingers, Hands,

99

""

وو

وو

Fore Arm,

Double Amputations,-Amputation of Arm and Legs,

2 +63 ∞ —

1

3

1

I

,, Leg and Foot,.

Removal of Tumours,-Buboes Incision,

Scraping,

Dermoid Cyst,

1

25

9

I

Sebaceous Cyst,

Lipoma,...

2

1

Polypus (nasal),

Chronic Bursitis,

Eye Operations,-Excisions of Eye,

Removal of Growths, (Malignant), Epithelioma of Lip,

Sarcoma of Scalp,

Carcinoma of Orbit,

Operations on Genito-Urinary Organs,-Hydrocele,

Varicocele,

1

1

4

2

1

1

1

I

Circumcisions,

Lithotomy,

Stricture of Urethra,

10

2

3

Traumatic Rupture of Urethra,.

I

1

Operations on Digestive Organs,-Hernia,

Hepatic Abscess,

Exploring Liver,

Fistula in ano,

Abdominal Section, ...

Wounds, Of Thigh,

1

5

4

3

1

1

Of Arm,

Of Abdomen,

Bullet Wounds,

General Abscesses,-Abscess of Lumbar Region,

Breast,

1

}

3

1

1

1

1

Cheek,

Scrotum,

Neck,

Axilla,

Foot,

Hand,

Buttock,..

Leg,

Ischio-rectal,

General Operations,-Necrosis,

Ulcer (Scraping),

Lymphangitis,

In-growing Toe Nail,

Whitlow,

Perforating Ulcer,

Empyema,...

Cellulitis,

Sloughing Phagodena,

Ligature of Arteries (Aneurism),

Gangrene of Foot,

Tracheotomy (Diphtheria), Sinus,

Caries, .....

Excision of Spleen (Rupture),

Craniotomy,

Curetting Uterus,

Varicose Veins,

Plastic Operations :-Web Fingers,

Complete rupture of Perineum,

*

Multiple Abscesses.

Total,

2

GAON N-IN ∞

2

2

6

4.

1

2

20 0 10 1 10 pad

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

176

J. M. ATKINSON,

Principal Civil Medical Officer.

:

259

Table VII.-Shewing the RATE of MORTALITY in the GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL. during the last 10 Years.

Rate to Total Number of Rate to Number of Europeans Rate to Number of Coloured Rate to Number of Asiatics

Admissions.

Admitted.

Persons Admitted.

Admitted.

1893,

1894,

Per cent.

3.65

Per cent.

Per cent.

Per cent.

1893,

1.57

1893,

2.28

1893,

7.34

5.14 1894,

3.71

1894,

3.51

1894,

7.36

4.99

1895,

2.47

1895,

1.32

1895,

8.35

5.50

1896,

3.65

1896,

1.84 | 1896,

8.88

4.86

1897,

3.63

1897,

2.61

1897.

6.56

5.36

1898.

5.07

1898,

2.07

1898,

6.59

+

?

4.16

1899,

4.06

1899,

2.27

1899,

5.22

5.16

1900,

3.81

1900,

3.93

1900,

6.77

}

5.18

1901,

4.58 1901,

4.31

1901.

6.32

J

4.50 1902,

3.34

1902,

2.62

1092,

6.47

1895, 1896,

1897,

>

>

1898, 1899. 1900. 1901, 1902,

J. M. ATKINSON,

Principal Civil Medical Officer.

Table VIII.-Shewing the ADMISSIONS into and DEATHS in the GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL during each Month of the Year 1902.

EUROPEANS.

COLOURED.

CHINESE.

MONTHS.

Total Admissions.

Total Deaths.

Admissions. Deaths. Admissions. Deaths.

Admissions. Deaths. Admissions. Deaths.

Remaining on the 1st

January, 1902,.

January,

February,

March,

April, May, June, July, August, September,

October,.

November,

December,

@19:5881*NGNG

3

12

3

42

91

6

1

45

1

85

208

6

46

6

70

5

171

11

Total,

956

32

03 02 00 00 01 40 nao:18

37

1

89

11

198

15

49

88

9

195

11

52

1

104

9

233

13

87

5

100

10

283

18

104

1

147

350

7

153

2

176

7

407

14

64

109

232

10

65

1

97

229

· 9

65

1

101

236

12

58

1

107

225

8

837

23

1,315

85

3,108

140

J. M. ATKINSON, Principal Civil Medical Officer.

Table IX-Shewing the ADMISSIONS into and DEATHS in the GOVERNMENT LUNATIC ASYLUMS

during each Month of the Year 1902.

EUROPEANS.

INDIANS AND COLOURED.

MONTHS.

ASIATICS INCLUDING

JAPANESE.

Total Admissions.

Total

Deaths.

Admissions. Deaths. Admissions.

Admissions. Deaths. Admissions. Deaths.

Remaining on the 1st

January, 1902, .

1

1

1

January,

February,

March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December,

1

Total,

29

1

10

1

1

~O ONNO DA

11

2

7

9

8

2

5

15

10

10

1

13

18

8

11

87

10

120

13

ERNEST A. R. LAING,

Medical Officer in charge of Asylums.

-

260

Table X.-Shewing the Number of Patients in the ASYLUMs during the year 1902, under the respective Diseases.

ASIATICS (JAPANSE INCLUDED).

;

EUROPEANS.

INDIANS & COLOURED.

Total.

Males.

Females.

Males. Females.

Males. Females.

Mania,

Dementia,

Melancholia,

Delusional Insanity,

1242

Puerperal Insanity,

Epilepsy,

Alcoholism

and Delirium

Tremens,

12

2

Senile Insanity,

3

Climateric Insanity,

Under Observation,

1

Total,...

25

4.

4

2

20

7

30

2

34

10

48

5

2

1

9

5

1

1

::

2

2

...

67

12:25

15

1

1

514

5

4

20

120

ERNEST A. R. LAING, Medical Officer in charge of Asylums.

Table XI.-Shewing the ADMISSIONS into and DEATHS in the Government MATERNITY HOSPITAL during each Month of the Year 1902.

MONTHS.

Remaining on the 1st

January, 1901,

January,

February,

March,.

April,

May,

June,

July,

August,

September,

October,. November, December,

EUROPEANS.

INDIANS.

ASIATICS.

Total Admissions. Deaths.

Total

Admissions. Deaths. Admissions.

Deaths. Admissions. Deaths.

1

- CZ 30 – 30 0210

OI CI OD KO SO 00 07 07 10 00 — 1 G?

Total,.

29

1

37

~~78 CO

3

3

6

4

3

4

11

4

4

co co

3

67

J. M. ATKINSON, Principal Civil Medical Officer.

Table XII.-Shewing Varieties of MALARIAL FEVER, occurring Monthly at the GOVERNMENT CIVIL

HOSPITAL during 1902.

MONTHS.

Quartan, Benign Tertian, Malignant, Mixed Infection,

Malarial Cachexia,

Total,

January.

February.

20421

29

12

March.

6 3

13

20

20

April.

May.

2

11

2

N

June.

July.

August.

September.

October.

3

4

15

10

10

23

18

13

00 10 -4

303

11

2

I

21

15

43

3333

November.

December.

Total.

3

2

10

15

13

37

10 12 1

5

1

25

11

115

26

186

3

5

12

1

11

26

19

29

58

44

349

J. M. ATKINSON,

Principal Civil Medical Officer.

-t

:

-

261

APPENDIX,

CASE OF ABSCESS IN LEFT LOBE OF LIVER.-OPERATION, DRAINAGE, RECOVERY. W.W., Clerk, English, age 30, residing in Hongkong, was admitted on February 3rd, 1902. He stated that he been feeling unwell for 10 or 12 days, bowels constipated, vomiting more or less continuous, no history of dysentery. His temperature was 102 F., his tongue very much furred, breath offensive, hepatic dulness slightly increased, the upper part of the abdomen was semewhat distended. Urine S. G. 1,027, reaction alkaline, free from albumen and sugar. Patient was placed on low diet with milk O. ii daily, Carlsbad Salts şi in water each morning, and Calomel gr. i in powder given at bed time. Bowels were freely opened the following day, blood examined for malaria, but no parasites were found. On February 8th his temperature was normal and there had been no vomiting for several days. Patient improved steadily and on the 14th was able to take a walk in the garden. Two days afterwards his temperature rose steadily to 103° F. and the abdominal pain returned. On the 18th he complained of distinct pain in epigastrium, worse on pressure, the left lobe of the liver was slightly enlarged, there was slight cough, and pain in epigastrium on coughing. Spleen was enlarged, and a pleuritic rub was detected at the left base in the axillary line. The following day he vomited once.

On the 21st February, chloroform was administered, Potain's aspirator used, and the left lobe of the liver explored. No pus was found. The swelling at the upper part of the abdomen appeared less when patient was under chloroform.

He had an attack of bilious vomiting on the 23rd instant and three days later chloroform was again administered and an abscess found in left lobe of the liver. It was freely opened, a silver tube inserted, but very little pus came away. The tube was removed on the 28th instant as it was supposed to be blocked, dis- charge slight. On March 1st the opening leading to the abscess cavity was well dilated with a long pair of Sinus forceps, about seven ounces of pus came away and a long silver tube was re-inserted. Temperature kept normal, the abscess cavity gradually closed. Tube was removed on the 15th and the cavity packed with gauze. Patient was discharged from Hospital quite recovered on April 11th.

CASE OF HEPATIC ABSCESS BURSTING INTO THE LUNG AND BOWEL.-RECOVERY.

R.W.H., American sailor, age 31 years, was admitted on July 20th, 1902, with a history of dysentery since the previous December. Temp. 102° on admis- sion, liver dulness very much increased, bulging of the lower intercostal spaces, and he was spitting up "brick red" pus. A pleuritic rub was noticed at the lower half of the right lung posteriorly, and a peculiar catch at the end of inspiration over the base. The sclerotic was a pearly hue. His bowels had been moved twelve times in the previous eight hours. The stool was watery, offensive, and dysenteric in type, free from blood. He was placed on milk diet with chicken broth, custard pudding, etc., and a powder containing Salol gr. V, Pulv. Ipecac. Co gr. iv given every 4 hours.

The sputum on examination showed broken down liver tissue, cells altered, with red blood corpuscles, much debris, and the amoeba coli. Tubercle bacilli were absent and various forms of cocci present. Urine free from albumen and sugar, acid reaction. Temperature for the next four days was of a hectic type reaching 102° F. in the evening, and dropping to 99° F. towards morning. Sputum continued copious, cough severe, and the liver dulness was considerably diminished. Diarrhoea still continued, from 7 to 20 stools in 24 hours, placed on Mist. Cret. et Bel. every 4 hours, with fair result, about 8 stools on an average being passed in the 24 hours.

On August 1st it was decided to administer chloroform and try to locate the abscess cavity and drain.

The liver was punctured in several places without result, and Potain's aspirator being used.

On May 5th his temperature dropped to normal, cough and sputum were less and Pulv. Ipecac Ver. gr. xxx was given to check the diarrhoea. The patient passed a quantity of liver abscess pus in a stool on August 7th, up to this date he had lost 8 lbs. since his admission to Hospital. On the 20th patient was again placed on chalk and Bel. mixture. Stools averaged two to three per diem, cough had almost gone, little or no sputum, and temperature kept normal.

:

262

He made an uninterrupted recovery and was discharged from Hospital on August 30th quite free from cough, liver dulness normal. Stools formed, and able to eat anything.

CASE OF ALCOHOLISM FOLLOWED BY HYPERPYREXIA.-COMA, Death.

F. G., age 50, marine engineer of Scotch nationality, was admitted suffer- ring from alcoholism. According to the history of the case given by his friends who brought him, patient had for many years been a steady drinker, but went to excess during the previous week. A few hours before admission patient tried to jump out of a second storey window, hence the anxiety of his friends to put him under restraint.

When admitted patient was in the usual maudlin-argumentative state of a chronic drinker who had taken too much, but not enough to send him to sleep. In appearance he was a short, stout, thick set man with florid flushed face and short neck. He talked fairly rational, knew where he was, and though disposed to be violent was amenable to firmness and reason. He stated he wanted a good sleep as he had not slept for many nights. His pulse was 86, and his temperature 100° F. after a glass of milk and soda water (as he was thirsty), and a sedative draught patient went to sleep. He had a good night, slept 6 hours, and at 5.30 a.m. draught was repeated, he then slept until 8 a.m. He stated he felt quite well, temp 101-4° F., pulse 88, a diaphoretic mixture was ordered every 4 hours, and milk, soda-water, chicken broth, etc., besides the ordinary low diet, which includes beef-tea.

At 7.30 p.m. temperature rose to 103° F., notes read "patient comfortable, takes his food, talks quite rational and feels better. States his resolve to stay in Hospital for at least a week, or until he is quite cured."

At 9.30 p.m. temperature was 103-4°. Phenacetine gr. ii and caffeine gr. iv given in powder, ice-bag applied to the head; the powder was vomited.

His temperature steadily rose and at 10.10 p.m. reached 105-6° F. Cold. sponging was started, ice-bag to head continued and ice and milk and soda given at intervals to allay thirst, patient grumbled at being cold sponged, talked rationally at times but sufferred from delusions.

10.40 p.m. temperature reduced to 103° F. Cold sponging stopped. 11 p.m. a loose brown watery motion was passed. 11.10 p.m. Temperature rose suddenly to 105.6°, pulse 114, thready, patient incoherent. Cold sponging re-started 11.50 p.m. Temperature 102° F., Inj. Strych. Hypo grains x. given Brandy fi and water given at intervals of ten minutes. 12.10 a.m. Temperature 104.8° Cold sponging re-started. 12.40 a.m. Temperature 109° F., bowels open, motion loose, offensive, and brown colour. 12.50 a.m. Temperature 110° F. taken at axilla and rectum, and remained 110° F., in spite of every effort to reduce it. Patient was wrapped in sheets wrung out of ice water, and sheets in position rubbed with lump ice. Patient kept quite unconscious from 12.10 a.m., with noisy respiration, pulse 150, racing, till 1.55 a.m. when he died. Temperature registered 110° F. in axilla and rectum just before death, and in rectum five minutes after death.

TREATMENT OF PHTHISIS BY UREA.

Phthisis.-The treatment of this disease by urea, as suggested by Dr. HARPER in the Lancet of 1901, was tried in several cases, but the results were disappointing and as far as we are concerned this drug must be added to the already large list of drugs reputed to be cures but failing to hold their reputation. How Dr. HARPER obtained such excellent results is a mystery. The drug was only used in cases in which tubercle bacilli were found in the sputum. The dose was from fifteen grains up to thirty grains thrice daily. In not a single case (save one perhaps) was any decided benefit noticed.

The tubercle bacilli disappeared in some cases at first, and in others no effect was noticed, whilst in others they reappeared after a time though the patient was still taking the drug. It had no appreciable influence on the weight.

Of the ten cases in which it was tried, three died in Hospital.

In one case (Dr. Lowson's) after 6 weeks in Hospital, twenty grains of urea

were given and increased to thirty grains three times a day.

This patient was very ill and was aspirated several times, he had all and every attention in diet, &c., his weight went from 9.1 to 10.53 stones and the tubercle bacilli disappeared almost completely, this is the one exception referred to.

263

CASE OF PARTURITION, CONTRACTED PELVIS, CRANIOTOMY, SEPTICEMIA, PERINEORRHAPHY. RECOVERY.

C.C.T., Chinese female, age 19 years, primipara, was admitted to the Ma- ternity Hospital on September 24th, 1902, at 9 p.m. with a history of having been in labour for twenty hours. During this time she was attended by Chinese midwives who failed to deliver her.

On admission temperature was 102° F., labour pains strong and frequent, and on examination per vaginam the membranes were found ruptured. The head was just engaged in the pelvic brim which was contracted laterally, presentation occipito- anterior, and a commencing caput succedaneum was felt. Both rectum and bladder were empty. As operative interference was not urgent it was decided to watch the patient for a little and see if any progress was made, especially as the pains were good, and the uterus normal for the sceond stage of labour as ascertained by palpation.

In less than an hour patient was again examined per vaginam. Labias and perineum were found to be oedematous, the caput succedaneum had increaed in size, and no progress was made. Nenilles axis-traction forceps was applied with dif ficulty as the blades refused to lock, until after considerable manipulation. Traction light, and strong produced no impression on the head even after an hour's steady work, and the forceps showed a tendency to slip. A pair of Barne's forceps, also Assilini's were tried, but both slipped, the former suddenly, resulting in a complete rupture of the perineum. With the advice of Dr. ROBERT GIBSON, who kindly saw the case with me, and who tried all the forceps in the Hospital, it was decided to perform as craniatomy especially as the labour pains were very frequent and forcible. Bandl's ring could be distinctly felt a hand's breadth above the pubes, with thinning of the lower uterine segment, and a rupture of the uterus was only a matter of time. Accordingly chloroform was administered, Simpson's perforator and cranioclast used and a male child 8 lbs. weight was delivered in twenty minutes. The placenta came away in ten minutes. Ergot was administered, there was no post partum hæmorrhage.

Both uterus and vagina were thoroughly douched out with a warm Lysol douche. The perineum showed a complete rupture into the rectum which was torn to the extent of one inch. It was not thought advisable then to repair the rupture, so the parts were thoroughly cleansed and patient, who was quite worn out, was put to bed.

Temperature next morning was 101° reaching 103. 2° in the evening. The vagina was douched out twice during the day with a weak solution of permanganate of potash. A mixture containing Ext. Ergot. Liq. m. xx with Tinct. Opii. m. v was ordered every four hours. For the next two days the temperature remained steady between 102° and 103° F. Blood examined showed no malaria, patient had all the symptoms of fever, furred tongue, pulse 90, hot dry skin, headache, etc., also the uterus was very tender, lochia offensive, and as a Sapræmic infection was thought to be present the uterus was douched out twice daily with 1 in 2000 solution of corrosive sublimate.

On the 29th inst. as the lochia was still offensive and bad coloured, and the Temp. 103.4°, chloroform was given, and the uterus thoroughly curetted with a blunt curette, then douched out for five minutes with a Lysol douche. A liberal Slop diet was given, e.g., milk, beef-tea, brandy, chicken broth, eggs and milk, etc., and Pil. Quininae gr. v given every four hours. Bowels were opened with castor oil. For the next five days temperature varied between 100-8 to 103°, pulse 88 to 96, uterine tenderness and headache continued, though getting gradually less and the bowels were kept open with House Mixture given every second night. The corrosive sublimate douche was continued twice a day.

On October 5th (tenth day after parturition) the temperature fell to normal and remained so during the progress of the case. The lochia was now sweet and of the "Serosai" type, uterine tenderness gone, and uterus retracting normally.

Convalescence was uneventful and patient was transferred in a fortnight to the Asiatic Female Ward in the Government Civil Hospital, with the idea of repairing the perineum when all uterine discharge had ceased.

?

་་

264

On November 13th chloroform was administered, the edges of the torn rectum trimmed and brought together by means of three strong catgut sutures which were left buried. The perineum was then freshened, fine "purse-string" sutures of silkworm gut were inserted and tied carefully. The usual after-treatment was carried out. Bowels were kept confined for a week, then opened with a small enema. The vagina was washed out thrice daily with a weak antiseptic lotion, and the parts kept clean. As catheter was passed every 6 hours, and the patient lay on her side with knees lightly strapped together. The silkworm gut sutures were removed on the 12th day, and patient was discharged from Hospital, a few days later, perineum sound and ample, and having complete control of her motions.

This case is interesting as one of pure septicemia in which the absorption of morbific material into the blood gives rise to symptoms of blood poisoning without the development of local lesions. The attack coming on immediately after child- birth indicates infection during or previous to labour. As this patient must have been in the hands of the Chinese midwives for 12 hours or more, and subjected to manipulation with their unwashed hands, and long septic finger nails, one marvels both at her rapid recovery and the vitatily of the race.

CASE OF PARTURITION COMPLICATED BY MALARIAL FEVER.

M. C., an English lady, was admitted to the Maternity Hospital on December 21st, 1902.

Patient was a primipara, up to full time, and stated that she had been suffer- ing from fever for some days and her temperature had reached 105° F. Though not in labour when admitted, patient was recommended to come in at once owing to the fever, and especially as both she and her relatives were very anxious.

Temperature on admission at 9 p.m. was 101.6° F. descending to 98° F. on the following morning. She was placed on low diet, milk and chicken broth with a diaphoretic mixture to be taken every 4 hours. A blood film was examined at noon which showed patient to be suffering from malarial fever of mixed infection, (simple tertian and æstivo-autumnal).

A five-grain quinine pill was ordered thrice daily and one pill was given at 6 p.m. when the temperature was 98.2° F.

Symptoms of commencing labour were then apparent, and the pains continued during the night. At 6 a.m. on the 23rd instant the temperature was 100° F. reach- ing 100.5° F. at 12.15 p.m. when the child was born.

Beyond slight post-partum hæmorrhage, checked by hot lysol douche, the labour was normal.

The

Pil. Quinine grains five was now ordered every four hours but the temperature steadily rose and at 8 p.m. same evening reached 104° F. Except for a severe headache patient stated she felt very comfortable. The diaphoretic mixture was continued and by noon on the 24th instant her temperature registered 97.4° F. temperature now remained normal and on the 27th a blood film was examined when a few ring form parasites were found, but no simple tertian parasites were to be seen. Quinine was continued and patient discharged 18 days afterwards free from malaria after repeated careful blood examinations, temperature having been normal for 20 days.

This case is interesting from the fact that patient had only arrived in this Colony a few months previously, she never had malaria before, and did not come from a malarial district, but during her stay in Hongkong, she had resided in a locality known to be infested with anopheles and where malaria was rife (Macdon- nell Road).

Immediate blood examination revealed the cause of the fever, and the subse- quent rise of temperature after labour caused no anxiety as to sepsis, etc., besides enabling us to ease the mind of the patient and her relatives as to prognosis.

CASE OF MADURA FOOT.

An Indian, aged 36, was admitted on 4th January. The right foot was swol- len with several sinuses leading to dead bone. The sinuses were discharging an oily purulent material smelling very offensively. The disease was of three months' duration and the patient had been in Hongkong for eleven months, previous to this he lived in the Punjaub. The disease somewhat resembled syphilitic necrosis and he was treated with iodide of potassium for some time but without any result. A sincar from the discharge was full of streptothrix. He was advised to submit to amputation but he declined this radical treatment and left on 28th February.

This case shows that the streptothrix infection exists in this Colony and further cases of this interesting disease may be expected to occur.

265

:

GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL,

HONGKONG, 1st March, 1903.

SIR,-I have the honour to forward to you the Annual Medical Report on the Government Lunatic Asylums for the year ending December 31st, 1902.

On March 7th I took over charge from Dr. J. BELL, who proceeded on leave.

I attach Table IX which shows the admissions and deaths that have occurred during the year, and Table X the number of patients under the respective diseases.

The total number of patients admitted to the Asylums was 120, as against 90 in the year 1901, which shows a considerable increase and the need for such an Institution in the Colony.

Europeans. Three females were admitted during the year. Two suffered from alcoholism and peripheral neuritis, and one a Roumanian Jewess, from acute mania, both this woman and the American female who was admitted in April, 1895, now remain in the Asylum. They are quite incurable. The number of male patients admitted shows an increase of 18 over last year. Of these, 12 were suffer- ing from alcoholism or delirium tremens. Such cases require continuous vigilance and attention and can be treated with greater safety in the Asylum than in the Hospital. They have the same dieting and skilled attendance, and when violent can be restrained from injuring themselves and others. The moral effect on a patient suffering from alcoholism when he finds himself in an Asylum cannot but be beneficial, at least for a time. Two of the patients admitted have, to my know- ledge, given up drinking when they discovered their nearness to ordinary insanity. No fresh cases of mania following intemperance have come under my notice during the year.

One case of the Dementia from this cause recovered.

The English sailor admitted in January, 1899, is still in the Asylum. He is quite incurable, and is the noisest Lunatic under my care.

Of the 29 Europeans admitted, 1 was under observation, 3 were handed over to their friends and sent home, 17 were discharged cured, 1 died, leaving 7 remain- ing on December 31st.

The man who died was an Englishman ages 68 years, admitted in September, 1901, suffering from Senile decay. He succumbed to an attack of Diarrhoea following general debility.

Indians and Coloured.-There were four admissions during the year and two deaths, both from dementia.

Asiatics (Chinese and Japanese).--The admissions this year were 87, as against 76 in 1901. The number of females were 20 shewing a decrease of 5, as compared with last year, and a corresponding increase of 16 male lunatics.

There were 10 deaths. 38 patients were sent to Canton, 35 handed over to their friends when claimed, 3 under observation were discharged, leaving 11 patients in the Asylum on December 31st.

The death-rate amongst the Chinese patients was certainly very high in proportion to that of previous years; but it must be remembered that the majority of Chinese lunatics are brought in by the Police who find them half starved and wandering about, neglected by their friends. Many of these cases are diseased both physically and mentally, and with such lowered vitality they readily succumb to their physical condition or any onset of acute disease.

Dementia appears to be the commonest form of insanity amongst the Asia- tics; 44 cases were treated during the year.

I am pleased to be able to report that no accident occurred during the year. One Chinese patient attempted to commit suicide in his room by hanging, but the vigilance of the attendants averted this calamity.

Wardmaster J. R. LEE returned from leave in April, and resumed duty in the Asylum in August.

266

The Asylum buildings are in a good state of repair. The European block was painted and colour-washed outside during the year. Minor internal improvements were also carried out.

The fireplaces in each ward are satisfactory, and added much to the comfort of the patients in the winter months.

Electric light was installed in October. All the wards are well lit, ventilation is improved and risks from fire lessened.

Urinals and water-closets-automatically flushed-are a necessity, as with the present sanitary arrangements it is almost impossible to keep the latrines free from odour.

The padded rooms are unsatisfactory, though they were re-padded lately. The painted canvas coverings are difficult to clean and prevent getting offensive.

The rubber-coated pads which you suggested for the special rooms will be a great improvement from a hygienic point of view.

The present buildings though admirably suited as a Detention House for the insane, cannot be said to be suitable for the treatment of mental disorders.

Its only advantage is its proximity to the Government Civil Hospital, which obviates the necessity of a Resident Medical Officer. The insane requires for efficient treatment bright and pleasant surroundings and above all things occupation both in-door and out-door. This they cannot have in their present cramped space. Accommodation is also limited, and both the European and Asiatic blocks have been over-crowded several times during the year. With the growth of the Colony this

becomes a serious matter.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

THE PRINCIPAL CIVIL MEDICAL OFFICER.

ERNEST A. R. LAING,

Medical Officer in charge of Lunatic Asylums.

INFECTIOUS DISEASES HOSPITAL,

KENNEDY TOWN, HONGKONG, 8th January, 1903.

SIR,I have the honour to report, for the information of His Excellency the Governor, regarding the Infectious Diseases Hospital at Kennedy Town, for the year 1902.

I enclose a Return of Diseases and Deaths in the Hospital during 1902. Small-pox.-17 cases of small-pox were admitted, of whom 3, all Chinese, died. Further experience confirms my opinion of the value of Salol in the treatment of this disease, to which I referred in my last year's report.

Cholera.-52 cases of cholera were admitted, of whom 33 died. Of the fatal cases a large proportion were moribund at the time of arrival, 21 dying within 24 hours after admission. The racial mortality was as follows:-

Europeans,

Cases. 13

Deaths.

Mortality.

6

46.15%

Portuguese,

...

...

Chinese,

16

13

81.26 13

Others races,

23

14

60.87 95

52

33

63.46%

:

1

"

267

Plague.-94 cases of plague were admitted, of whom 80 died.

As was men- tioned in reference to cholera, many arrived in a state of collapse, 48 of the fatal cases dying within the first 24 hours. The racial mortality was as follows:-

Europeans,

Cases.

3

Deaths.

1.

Mortality. 33.33%

Portuguese,

1

1

100

""

Chinese,

80

73

91.25

Other races,

10

5

50

94

80

85.11%

The following table shows the distribution of the buboes :---

Cases.

Deaths.

Femoral,

46

40

Inguinal,

10

9

Axillary,

21

19

Cervical,...

4

3

Multiple,

2

1

No apparent bubo,

11

8

94

80

It

During this epidemic anti-plague serum was for the first time available. was obtained in monthly instalments from the Pasteur Institute in Paris, and was used systematically throughout the epidemic. The method of administration and the quantity used were as recommended by the Pasteur Institute Authorities. Allow- ance was made for sex, age, and other circumstances, but as a rule 40 c. c. of the serum were injected intravenously, and 20 c. c. subcutaneously, on admission, and 20 c. c. subcutaneously on each subsequent day while fever lasted. In spite of this, the mortality from plague was 85.11 %. During the past three years the mortality has been :---

1900, 1901, 1902,

77.5%

76.5 ""

85.1 ""

This actual increase of mortality I regard as an accidental circumstance in the consideration of a comparatively small number of cases; but the anti-plague serum as supplied to us from Paris is manifestly useless, though this uselessness in Hong- kong may be due to deterioration through lapse of time and through exposure to hot temperatures during transit from Paris.

Towards the end of the Plague epidemic I reported specially on this subject, under the date 7th August, 1902, and showed the main details of every case treated with the serum up to that date in the form of a tabular statement, which, however, I do not think it necessary to reproduce here. I suggested that it would be well to initiate arrangements forthwith for a supply of anti-plague serum being prepared in this Colony in good time for the next probable recrudescence of the disease, as the question of the value of such a serum is one of great practical importance to the Colony, and the curative qualities, if any, are at a maximum immediately after, production from an immunized animal. What I suggested was authorized, and I understand that the Government Bacteriologist has this matter in hand.

Observation Cases.-A much larger number of cases than usual were sent to Kennedy Town for observation purposes. The diagnoses are shown in the appended Return of Diseases, and they for the most part suggest the infective conditions under suspicion of which these patients were sent to this Hospital.

الله

:

..

268

THE STAFF.

Mr. C. F. O'BRIEN was Wardmaster in charge at the beginning of the year. Mr. W. MCKAY was appointed Second Wardmaster on 6th May, coming from England to take up this post, and has been in charge since 21st June, on which date Mr. O'BRIEN was dismissed from the service.

Dr. JEU HAWK acted as resident House-Physician throughout the epidemic season, from 28th April to 17th September.

When female European patients were under treatment, Nursing Sisters were detailed from the Civil Hospital for duty at Kennedy-Town, two Sisters being now held in readiness for immediate attendance when required.

The staff of Chinese "boys," amahs, and other employées was increased and diminished as was found necessary to meet the very varying conditions that existed in course of the year.

Dr. R. LAMORT acted for me during my absence from Hongkong at the begin- ning of last year. I resumed charge on my return to the Colony on 5th February.

THE HOSPITAL BUILDINGS.

The Hospital buildings are in good repair, and the grounds have been enclosed with an iron fence. A grant of plants in pots made from the Public Gardens greatly improves the appearance of the Hospital.

Pending the erection of a Bacteriological Laboratory, part of the office, part of the dispensary, and certain out-buildings have been placed at the disposal of Dr. HUNTER for laboratory purposes.

HOSPITAL HULK "HYGEIA".

A few of the small-pox cases were treated on board the "Hygeia," which was anchored off Kennedy Town throughout the epidemic season, ready for use when required.

Dr. J. M. ATKINSON,

Principal Civil Medical Officer,

&C.,

&c.,

18

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

J. C. THOMSON, M.D., M.A., Medical Officer in charge.

&c.

:

269

RETURN of DISEASES and DEATHS in 1902 at KENNEDY TOWN HOSPITAL.

DISEASES.

Remain- ing in Hospital

Yearly Total.

Total Cases

Remain- ing in Hospital

Remarks.

at end of

1901.

Admis- sion's.

Treated. at end of

Deaths.

1902.

Small-pox,

Plague,

Cholera,

Measles,

Dengue,

Dysentery,

Malaria,

Beri-beri,

Septicæmia, Syphilis, Alcoholism,

Rheumatism, Pneumonia,

Diarrhoea,

Lymphangitis,

Parotitis,

Plague Contacts,

1

17

3

18

1

94

80

94.

52

33

52

1

1

4921Q

1

1

Under observation

""

"

**

"

""

19

"

39

"?

22

19

2

2

14

14

1

1

1

1

"

"

17

2

Total,

1

205

119

206

1

J. C. THOMSON,

Medical Officer in charge.

Report of the Medical Officer of Victoria Gaol.

VICTORIA GAOL,

HONGKONG, 10th January, 1903.

SIR,I have the honour to submit, for the information of His Excellency the Governor, the medical report on the health and sanitary condition of Victoria Gaol for the year 1902.

Dr. R. LAMORT acted for me during my absence from Hongkong at the begin- ning of last year. I resumed medical charge of the Gaol on my return to the Colony on 5th February.

The health of the Gaol Staff has been good, but dengue was severely pre- valent

among the warders and guards during the epidemic of that disease.

The new Warders' Quarters have been completed, and the new Gaol Hospital became available for patients on 11th June.

The sanitary condition of the Gaol is satisfactory. But overcrowding has been more or less continuous since the New Territory was taken over, and the question of increased Gaol accommodation for the Colony is one of pressing importance. Both the number of admissions to the Gaol last year-5,988-and the daily average population-576-are the largest on record; and reference to Table IV, showing general statistics connected with the Gaol during the past ten years, will show how serious is the increase as compared with all previous years. An important con- sideration that does not appear in the figures is, that on account of the serious crime that has had to be dealt with by the Courts during the past year or two, there is a great increase in the number of long-sentence prisoners, that is, in the comparatively permanent population of the Gaol, so that there is no prospect that even a consider- able diminution of crime in the Colony might tend to rectify the existing state of congestion in the Gaol. In 1901 the number of admissions was 5,077, and the daily average number of prisoners 499.

In spite of these circumstances the general health of the prisoners has on the whole been satisfactory. While the number of admissions to Hospital is larger, partly on account of more adequate hospital accommodation being available, the rate of sickness and mortality in the Gaol, as shown in Table II, is less than in the previous year.

3,973 prisoners were vaccinated. All prisoners are vaccinated on admission, unless health reasons render it undesirable, or evidence of previous small-pox or recent vaccination renders it unnecessary.

During the epidemic of dengue 131 prisoners were attacked. All made good recoveries. One case of cholera occurred. There was no plague.

!

'

270

Twenty prisoners were found to be suffering from leprosy at the time of admission to the Gaol, and were deported. Fifteen others were discharged on medical grounds (beri-beri, cholera, insanity, serious heart or lung disease, &c.).

There were six deaths from natural causes, and three executions.

no case of suicide.

No case of corporal punishment required any after-treatment.

I append the following Tables:-

I. Return of Diseases and Deaths in 1902. II. Rate of Sickness and Mortality in 1902. III. Vaccinations during the past ten years. IV. General Statistics of the Gaol for ten years.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

There was

J. C. THOMSON, M.D., M.A., Medical Officer.

Dr. J. M. ATKINSON,

Principal Civil Medical Officer,

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

Table I.-RETURN of DISEASES and DEATHS in 1902 at VictorIA GAOL HOSPITAL.

DISEASES.

GENERAL DISEASES.

Dengue,

Cholera,

Dysentery,

Malarial Fever, Malignant,

Beri-beri,

Erysipelas,

Syphilis, Secondary,

Gonorrhoea,

Scurvy,

Alcoholism,..

Rheumatism,

Debility,

LOCAL DISEASES.

Disease of the Nervous System,

Paralysis,

Remain- ing in Hospital

Yearly Total.

at end of Admis- 1901. sions.

Remain- Total ing in Cases Hospital treated. at end of

Remarks.

Deaths.

1902.

131

131

1

1

20

20

63

63

4

6

6

1

1

1

1

1

1

5

5

2

2

16

16

Mania,

Melancholia,

Dementia,

Diseases of the Eye,.

1

1

Ear,

1

}

*

23

Circulatory System,.

17

17

1

??

""

Respiratory

16

16

5

"

""

""

Digestive

88

88

""

55

39

Lymphatic

10

10

"

Organs of Locomotion,.

1

Skin,

Cellular Tissue,.

Injuries, Local,.

Under Observation,

59

59

3

3

11

11

49

49

Parasites,

2

Total,...

516

* 6

516

10

* In addition to the six deaths from natural causes, there were three executions.

J. C. THOMSON,

Medical Officer in Charge.

T

"

271

Table II.-Showing the RATE of SICKNESS and MORTALITY in VICTORIA GAOL during the year 1902.

Total Number of :-

Daily Average Number of :-

Rate per cent. of :—

Cases, includ-

Prisoners Admitted to Gaol.

Admissions to

ing Skin

Hospital.

Diseases, treated in

Deaths due to Disease.

Prisoners Sick

in Gaol.

in

Sick not in Hospital. Hospital.

the Cells.

Admissions to Hospital to Total Admissions to Gaol.

Daily Average Daily Average

of All Sick

in Gaol to

of Sick in Hospital to Daily Average Daily Average of Prisoners. of Prisoners.

Total Admissions to Goal.

Deaths due to Disease to

5,988

516

1,760

6

576

8.67

33.24

8.62

1.51

7.28

0.10

J. C. THOMSON, Medical Officer in Charge.

Table III.-Showing the NUMBER and RESULTS of VACCINATIONS in VICTORIA GAOL during the past ten years.

Year.

Number of Prisoners Vaccinated.

Successful.

Unsuccessful.

Not inspected, owing to early discharge

from Gaol.

Number of those Vaccinated who showed Marks of Previous Vaccination.

1893, 1894,

1,417

763

654

1,325

747

242

505

746

1895,

942

455

487

941

1896,

831

631

200

831

1897,

2,830

1,678

1,016

136

2,410

1898,

4,507

2,875

1,252

380

4,181

1899,

3,378

2,004

1,063

311

3,069

1900,

2,638

1,765

666

207

1,916

1901,

2,880

2,150

$37

⚫393

2,549

1902,

3,973

2,552

872

549

3,700

J. C. THOMSON, Medical Officer in Charge.

Table IV. Showing GENERAL STATISTICS connected with VICTORIA GAOL and the GAOL HOSPITAL during the past ten years.

Year.

Admissions to the Gaol.

Daily Average Number

of Prisoners.

Number of Cases treated in Hospital.

serions Cases, including Skin Discases, treated in the Cells.

Number of less

Deaths due to Disease.

1893,

4,010

458

272

528

1894,

3,913

455

271

614

5

1895,

5,014

472

231

948

7

1896,

5,582

514

507

740

10

1897,

5,076

462

342

455

4

1898,

5,427

511

298

1,033

6

1899,

4.789

431

503

1,778

5

1900,

5,432

486

495

1,523

6

1901,

5,077

499

348

1,316

9

1902,

5,988

576

516

1,760

6

J. C. THOMSON,

Medical Officer in Charge.

272

REPORT OF THE MEDICAL OFFICER TO THE TUNG WAH HOSPITAL.

TUNG WAH HOSPITAL, HONGKONG, 14th February, 1903.

SIR,-I have the honour to submit, for the information of His Excellency the Governor, the Annual Report of the Tung Wah Hospital for the

year 1902. The number of patients in the wards at the beginning of the year was 144; 2,576 were admitted during 1902, making a total of 2,720 cases; 1,422 were discharged; 1,169 died; leaving 129 patients in the Hospital at the close of the

year.

The admissions during the past ten years have been as follows:-

1893, 1894,

1895,

1896,

1897,

1898,

1899,

1900,

.2,255

.2,354

.2,732

.2,041

.2,776

2,898

2,542

2,981

.2,989

..2,576

1901,

1902,

Of the 2,576 admissions, 95 were transferred for treatment to other institu- tions, as follows:-20 to Government Civil Hospital, 3 to the Lunatic Asylum, 71 to Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital, and 1 to the Italian Convent.

Of the fatal cases, 364 were in a dying condition at the time of admission. There remains a net total of 2,117 actually treated in the Tung Wah Hospital, of whom 675, i.e., 31.9 per cent., were under treatment by European methods, and 1,442, i.e., 68.1 per cent., under Chinese treatment.

The diminution in the number of admissions is due to the smaller number of plague cases; the number of those actually treated is practically the same as last year's figure (2,146); and the proportion under European treatment is slightly larger, 31.9 per cent., as compared with 30.4 per cent. in 1901.

There is, moreover, a marked tendency to improvement in the work of the Tung Wah Hospital which cannot be expressed in figures. All cases diagnosed malaria are required to take quinine, whether under European or Chinese treatment. By a recent resolution of the Directors, all cases of infectious disease go under European methods of treatment, and are hence more under the control of the Inspecting Medical Officer; the violent jealousy that previously existed against the introduction of European methods, especially among the native doctors, has to a large extent subsided, and they are frequently ready to be advised by the European- trained house-surgeon, who thus influences the treatment of many cases of fracture, dislocation, abscess, &c., which remain nominally under Chinese treatment; and many matters pertaining to the regular changing of bedding, clothing, &c., formerly secured only by continuous effort and watchfulness, have now become routine practice.

302 dead bodies were brought to the Hospital mortuary to await burial. 126 of these, and also 120 bodies of persons who died within the Hospital itself, were sent to the Government Public Mortuary for internal examination.

Free burial was provided by the Hospital for 2,703 poor persons.

The number of visits to the Out-Patient Department was 88,842.

456 destitute persons were provided with food and shelter for short periods. 1,706 persons were vaccinated at, and in connection with, the Hospital.

The Tung Wah Hospital was again used during the plague epidemic as a convenient centre for the diagnosis and observation of cases of the disease. It was not found necessary to open a plague branch of the Hospital during 1902.

During the cholera epidemic, two large airy wards were set apart for the treat- ment of this disease. Several cases originated within the Hospital, but the Assistant Medical Officer of Health, after careful enquiry, came to the conclusion that the cause was contamination of the water supply outside the Hospital.

A

:

273

The new buildings, to form an extension of the Hospital on the opposite side of Po Yan Street, are now finished, except that water and gas have not yet been laid on; and the Infectious Diseases Branch seems nearing completion.

During my absence from the Colony at the beginning of the year, Dr. R. LAMORT acted for me as Inspecting Medical Officer, and I resumed duty on my return to Hongkong on 5th February.

Dr. CHUNG KING UE, after repeated absences due to ill-health, was invalided on 17th September, and his illness proved fatal a few weeks later. During his absences Dr. Ho Ko TSUN acted for him, doing in all some six months' service as House-Surgeon, and his work was very satisfactory. On Dr. CHUNG's retirement, Dr. JEU HAWK, who holds the degree M. D. of the University of Oregon, U. S. A., was appointed to succeed him.

I desire to place on record my high appreciation of the large service rendered by the late Dr. CHUNG to the Tung Wah Hospital. His kindness, courtesy, tact, and professional skill combined to enable him to effect the very great improvements that were made during his tenure of office, and for which the credit is practically entirely due to him.

I attach the following Tables:-

I. A Return of Diseases and Deaths during the year 1902.

II. Showing the proportion of cases treated by European and Chinese

methods respectively.

III. Showing General Statistics relating to the Hospital during 1902.

IV. Showing Vaccinations at, and in connection with, the Tung Wah

Hospital during 1902.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

J. C. THOMSON, M.D., M.A.,

· Inspecting Medical Officer.

Dr. J. M. ATKINSON,

Principal Civil Medical Officer,

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

:

274

Table I. RETURN of DISEASES and DEATHS in 1902 at TUNG WAH HOSPITAL, Hongkong.

DISEASES.

Remain- ing in Hospital at end of 1901.

Yearly Total.

Admissions. Deaths.

Total Cases

Remain- ing in Hospital

treated. at end of

1902.

Remarks.

GENERAL DISEASES.

Small-pox,

Measles,

4

Transferred to Ken-

nedy Town.

Dengue,

Influenza,

20 1

20

1

...

Diphtheria,

1

1

Cholera,

192

177

192

Dysentery,

1

114

72

115

2

Plague,

119

49

119

Transferred, unless

Malarial Fevers :

actually dying, to

1. Quartan,

2

2

Kennedy Town.

2. Simple Tertian,.

1

95

96

3

3. Malignant,

285

104

290

10

4. Mixed Infection,

16

9

16

...

Malarial Cachexia,

1

5

4

6

Beri-beri,

50

414

217

464

27

Erysipelas,

7

7

...

Septicemia,

12

Tetanus,

Tubercle, General...

1

ana

12

9

Leprosy, Tubercular,

1

Syphilis, Primary,.

Syphilis, Secondary,

3

60

11

63

8

Scurvy,

1

Alcoholism,

2

Rheumatism,

4

32

36

2

New Growth, Malignant,

7

Anaemia,

2

10

33

7

12

Debility,

40

17

40

1

LOCAL DISEASES.

Diseases of the Nervous System.

SUB-SECTION 1.

Diseases of the Nerves,-

Meningitis,

SUB-SECTION 2.

Functional Nervous Disorders,---

Apoplexy,

Paralysis,

Epilepsy,

Neuralgia,

Hysteria,

:

...

4

3

18

14

18

17

6

22

461

...

3

...

SUB-SECTION 3.

Mental Diseases,-

Mania,

Melancholia,

Dementia,

1

1

1

1

6

7

Diseases of the Eye,

7

8

Circulatory System,

95

63

97

99

""

Respiratory System,

23

437

300

460

29

>>

Digestive System,

153

70

156

17

""

Lymphatic System,.

13

2

16

.་

99

Urinary System,

35

12

37

Generative System :-

Male Organs,

Female Organs,

Diseases of the Organs of Locomotion,

Cellular Tissue,

NN

1

3

34

42

Skin,.

Injuries, Local,

Poisons,

Total,....

12

༠༣༡།

26

28

123

135

17

11

129

2

42

140

17

2

Opium.

114

2,576 1,169

2,720

129

J. C. THOMSON, Inspecting Medical Officer.

1

*

275

Table II. Showing the Admissions and Mortality in the TUNG WAH. HOSPITAL during the year 1902, with the proportion of cases treated by European and Chinese methods respectively.

ADMISSIONS.

DEATHS.

European Chinese Treatment. Treatment.

Total.

European Chinese Treatment. Treatment.

Total.

General Diseases:

Small-pox,

3

Measles,

4

34

...

Dengue,

10

10

20

...

...

Influenza,

1

1

...

Diphtheria,.

1

1

...

Cholera,

98

94

192

90

87

177

Dysentery,

35

79

114

19

53

72

Plague,

*

119

119

49

49

Malarial fevers :-

Quartan,...

2

Benign Tertian,

10

85

95

2

Malignant,...

70

215

285

23

81

104

Mixed Infection,

3

13

16

7

g

Cachexia,

2

3

5

1

3

4

Beri-beri,

119

295

414

54

163

217

Erysipelas,

3

7

1

1

Septicemia,

4

Tetanus,

I

Tubercle, General,.

Leprosy, Tubercular,.

4

∞ 2 H

12

2

VID -

7

9

2

2

5

1

Syphilis, Primary,..

6

::

...

...

Constitutional,

40

20

60

6

5

11

Scurvy,

1

...

Alcoholism,

2

...

...

Rheumatism,

24

32

...

New Growth, Malignant,

4

3

7

1

Anaemia,.

3

7

10

Hün N

2

4

434

Debility,

18

22

40

7

10

17

Local Diseases :-

Diseases of the Nervous System,.

23

35

58

15

23

""

""

Eye,

7

7

Circulatory System,

34

61

95

22

41

63

99

""

Respiratory

108

329

437

71

229

300

""

""

""

Digestive

54

99

153

16

54

70

""

>>

""

""

""

33

""

"

Skin,

Injuries, Local,

Poison, Opium,

Lymphatic

Urinary Generative

""

Organs of Locomotion,

Cellular Tissue,

11

2

13

1

1

2

15

20

35

2

10

12

""

""

male,

1

1

2

1

1

female,

1

1

...

>>

19

15

34

10

16

26

...

1

...

42

81

123

42

87

129

1

1

2

4

2

2

42

939

1,637

2,576

384

785

1,169

Less moribund cases,

179

185

364

179

185

364

Less transferred elsewhere,

Total treated..

760

1,452

2,212

205

600.

805

85

10

95

675

1,442

2,117

205

600

805

* Removed at once, unless actually dying, tó Kennedy Town.

J. C. THOMSON,

Inspecting Medical Officer.

276

Table III.-Showing GENERAL STATISTICS relating to the TUNG WAH HOSPITAL during the year 1902.

Remaining in

Remaining in

Dead

Free

Patients. Hospital

Ad- missions.j

at end of

Total Cases treated.

Dis- charged.

Died.

Hospital

Out- Patients.

Vaccina- tions.

Destitute Bodies Burials

Persons brought to provided

at end of

sheltered.

Hospital Mortuary

for Poor

1901.

1902.

for Burial. Persons.

Male,

124

2,238 2,362

1,228

1,017

115

60,335

840

456

229

Female,. 20

338

358

194

152

14

28,507

866

78

Total, 144

2,576

2,720 1,422

1,169

129

88,842

1,706

456

302

2,703

J. C. THOMSON,

Inspecting Medical Officer.

Table IV.—Showing VACCINATIONS at, and in connection with, the TUNG WAH HOSPITAL during the year 1902.

Shaukiwan.

Aberdeen.

Stanley.

Yaumati.

Total.

Hongkong.

1,665

15

13

9

4.

1,706

J. C. THOMSON,

Inspecting Medical Officer.

THE WORKING OF THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT IN THE NEW TERRITORY.

GOVERNMENT CIVIL MEDICAL DEPARTMENT,

21st February, 1903.

Mr. HO NAI HOP, Chinese Medical Officer, resided at Tai Po and visited periodically the several Police Stations and villages in the New Territory. I enclose his report on the work done in 1902.

From this it will be seen that more than double the number of patients were treated than in the previous year, the figures being 2,908 in 1902 as compared with 1,267 in 1901.

"

277

Malarial Fever.-There was a considerable diminution in the number of cases' occurring especially amongst the members of the Police Force.

This I attribute, to a great extent, to the prophylactic administration of qui- nine, from the 1st May to the beginning of December. Each of the Police, whether European, Indian or Chinese, was given three grains of quinine daily.

Cholera. This disease was prevalent in May. Active measures were taken to check it by the issue of notices warning the Chinese against eating unripe fruit, un- cooked vegetables, &c., and advising them always to boil their drinking water.

Small-pox.-This disease was epidemic at Tai Po and Sha Tin districts in the Spring of the year, some twenty cases occurring with but one death.

Prompt measures were taken by vaccinating all the Civil Staff, and as far as possible most of the villagers, with calf lymph, and apparently with success as the disease did not spread to the neighbouring districts.

Vaccinations.--Free vaccination was carried on at the Police Stations during the winter months and altogether during the year 336 vaccinations were performed as compared with 78 in 1901.

Plague. No case was reported as having occurred during the year.

J. M. ATKINSON.

THE REPORT OF THE GOVERNMENT ANALYST.

GOVERNMENT LABORATORY, HONGKONG, 8th April, 1903.

SIR,-I have the honour to submit a statement of the work done in the Gov- ernment Laboratory for the year 1902.

2. Analyses, more difficult and extensive than those of any previous year, were required to be performed. The work may be summarized as follows:-

Description of Cases.

No. of Articles

Toxicological (including 11 stomachs),

Articles for blood stains,

Waters,

Petroleum,

Food and Drugs Ordinance,

Chinese Drugs,.

Coal,

Chloride of Lime,

.....

Coal-tar Disinfectants,

Mortars,

Lime,

Cement,

Fire enquiries, Sulphuric Acid,

Ores, Opium, Soap, Granite,

...

Powders,.....

Mineral Water,

Tin,...

Water deposit,

Red earth,

Yellow earth,

examined.

46

29

172

170

46

13

:1

3

-7

13

9

22

19

1

12

10

1

1

1

21

1

2

1

Total,

603

A

3

-

L

278

TOXICOLOGICAL.

3. The toxicological cases investigated comprised eleven cases of suspected human poisoning. The poison found in seven of these was opium. In a case of suspected intent to poison, a powder was found to contain sugar mixed with ten per cent. of arsenic.

WATERS.

4. The results of the analyses of samples taken each month from the Pokfu- lum and Tytam Reservoirs, from the Kowloon Service, and the Cheung Sha Wan supply, indicate that these supplies continue to maintain their excellent qualities.

Owing to the scarcity of the public supplies in Victoria during the first few months of the year, water had to be brought over from a stream at Tsin Wan. Owing to the possibility of this water becoming contaminated, daily examinations were made from March 17th to May 21st. After heavy rain the chlorine figure was increased, and a slight turbidity lasting for about 36 hours was caused, but, otherwise, the quality of the water remained unimpaired.

In an Appendix will be found particulars of the monthly analyses of the public supplies, and of other waters.

THE DANGEROUS GOODS ORDINANCES, 1873 AND 1892.

5. Of petroleum and petroleum fuel, 170 samples were examined. This is a large decrease as compared with the number examined in 1901. The quality of the oil imported was sufficiently high to pass the 73° F. limit.

THE FOOD AND DRUGS ORDINANCE.

6. Forty-six exhibits were examined. The following Table shows the results of the examination of 36 samples taken for the purpose of analysis by the Police and by the Sanitary Board:-

Description.

Beer, Brandy,

Milk,

Bread,

Rum,

Whisky,

Gin,

No. of Samples.

No found Genuine.

No. found Adulterated.

5

0

6

6

9

5

4

2

2

1

1

0

9

9

0

4

0

7. A number of various kinds of food were examined for the public at the specially low fees laid down in the Ordinance.

8. The result of the systematic method of taking samples by the Police has been that the sale of adulterated liquor has ceased in the Colony.

BLOOD STAINS.

9. Twenty-nine articles consisting of clothing and weapons were examined.

BUILDING MATERIALS.

10. Samples of lime, mortar, cement, and red earth, have been sent for analysis. In connection with some enquiries into the cause of the collapse of several buildings it was necessary to examine several mortars. In order to observe the effect of the heavy rains of 1902 on good and bad mortar, samples were prepared containing various proportions of lime and red earth. It was found from experi- ments lasting over three months that mortars, when not containing more than eight volumes of red earth to one volume of lime, became harder when kept under water, than when exposed in the ordinary way. Mortars containing more than eight volumes of red earth to one volume of lime became weaker with increasing age, whether exposed in air or in water. Mortar made in the proportion of two volumes of red earth to one volume of lime, underwent no deterioration when kept under sen-water, but became perceptibly stronger than a portion of the same sample ex- posed to air only.

-

i

:

!..

279

LIME.

11. Nine samples were examined. The quality of this material demands atten- tion. It is frequently contaminated by much lime carbonate, also by sand.

CHINESE DRUGS.

12. Thirteen were sent to the laboratory for identification, and, in the case of mixed drugs, for the presence therein of noxious constituents.

EXAMINATIONS FOR THE PUBLIC.

13. A considerable number of articles of various kinds have been examined for the public. The list comprises ores, coal, liquor, milk, lime, cement, petroleum, tin, opium, medicine, granite, and water. For these examinations the public have .paid $1,849.50 in fees.

SPECIAL REPorts.

14. Special reports have been supplied on:---

Naphtha.

Mortars.

Spirit of wine.

Chloride of lime.

Hongkong Poisons Regulations.

15. Value of the work done.-The value of the analyses performed as deter- mined from the tariff of charges published in Government Notification No. 664 is $7,820.00.

16. Library. The following works were added:-

Analysis of Food and Drugs-Pearmain and Moor.

Chemistry for Engineers and Manufacturers-Blount and Bloxam. Volumetric Analysis-Sutton.

Arsenic-Wanklyn.

Arsenic-Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry.

Index to Analyst, Vols. 1-20.

Lime, Mortar, and Cement-Dibdin.

Quantitative Analysis-Clowes and Coleman.

Pharmacopedia-White and Humphrey.

Agricultural Note-book--McConnell.

Year-book of Pharmacy.

The Blowpipe-Landauer.

Food Analysis-Leffmann and Beam.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

THE HON. PRINCIPAL CIVIL MEDICAL OFFICER.

FRANK BROWNE, PH. CH., F.C.S., (Formerly a Demonstrator in the Laboratories

of the Pharmaceutical Society),

Government Analyst.

280

HONGKONG PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES.

Results of the Monthly Analyses.

Results expressed in Grains per Imperial Gallon, (1 in 70,000).

Total Solid

1902.

Matter

Supply.

Month.

dried at 100° C.

Saline Chlorine. Ammo-

nia.

Albume- Oxygen

noid Ammo- nia.

absorbed in 4 hours at 80° F.

Nitrogen Sugar Test for

Poi-

Nitrites.

in Nitrates.

the detection of Sewage.

sonous

Metals.

Pokfulum.

5.0

.6

Absent. Absent.

.010

Absent. .008

No trace of Sew- Absent.

age indicated.

January...

Tytam

4.3

.6

.010

.008

32.

""

Kowloon

3.3

.6

.003

.016

""

"J

""

Cheung

Sha Wan

3.7

.5

.003

.008

""

"

??

Pokfulum.

4.3

.6

Tytam

3.6

.6

February.

Kowloon

3.3

.6

998

.007

.008

""

27

">

.013

.008

22

"

"

.0028

.010

.016

22

">

""

* * *

Cheung

Sha Wa

an

3.3

ة.

.0028

.007

.020

"

A

"9

Pokfulum.

6.6

.6

Tytam

3.3

.6

March

Kowloon

3.6

.6

696

Absent.

.017

.064

""

"

.013

.008

37

""

55

.0028

.0028

.013

.012

A

AAA

""

AAA

Cheung

Sha Wan

3.0

.G

Absent. Absent.

.013

.016

22

""

""

Pokfulum.

6.6

.8

Tytam

4.0

.6

April

Kowloon

4.0

.6

on to bo

.010.

.008

>>

>>

29

"

.010

.008

""

""

33

""

.0028

.006

.008

>>

""

"

ARA

>>

Cheung

Sha Wan.

4.3

.5

Absent.

.006

.008

27

""

"J

Pokfulum.

6.7

Tytam

6.5

May .....

Kowloon

2.8

1969 1

.6

.0014

.020

.012

>>

.6

.0014 Absent.

.013

77

.5

Absent.

.003

وو

งง ง

""

.008

""

.008

""

"

y 3 y

Cheung

Sha Wan.

3.3

.4

.003

.008

""

29

""

""

Pokfulum.

6.2

Tytam

6.0

June

Kowloon

3.7

778

.7

.0028

.020.

.016

>>

19

""

""

.7

.0028

.020

.024

""

22

"

.0028

.006

.008

""

"

""

Cheung

Sha Wan

3.0

.5

Absent.

.006

.008

"

""

""

Pokfulum.

5.3

.6

Tytam

4.3

.6

July

Kowloon

3.0

.6

966

.0028

.020

وو

.0014

.006

>>

Absent.

.003

""

3 3 3

.008

13

.008

>>

""

.024

""

Cheung

Sha Wan.

5.5

.4

13

.0014

.003

Absent.

""

""

Pokfulum.

4.9

Tytam...

4.4

August

Kowloon

3.2

as a bu

.5

Absent.

.030

.008

22

17

""

.6

.010

وو

""

.6

.0028

.030

.008 .041

"

"

22

"

**

""

Cheung

Sha Wan.

3.7

.4

Absent.

.004

"

125

.016

وو

19

"

Pokfulum.

4.7

.5

Tytam

3.7

September

Kowloon

2.7

12 60 19

.0014

.027

"

.6

Absent.

.010

"

.5

.007

""

29

♥ ♥ ❤

.024

""

""

.004

""

""

""

.041

""

""

Cheung

Sha Wan.

3.8

.4

.007

.024

"

"

19

99

Pokfulum. Tytam

4.7

.6

3.3

.5

October...

Kowloon

3.7

.5

101012

.013

""

"

.008

"

>>

.0014 Absent.

.012

""

.008

"

.005

.024

"

""

>>

Cheung

Sha Wan.

3.8

.005

.012

17

""

"

27

Pokfulum.

4.5

.6

Tytam

3.3

.5

November

Kowloon

3.0

.6

6426

.016

.016

.012

""

.009

""

3 3 3

.008

.016

""

AAA

"

"2

22

>>

Cheung

Sha Wan.

4.1

.5

.012

.012

22

"

"

Pokfulum.

4.8

December

Tytam...

Kowloon

Cheung Sha Wan.

4.0

.6

3.7

996

.0014

.016

.016

"}

.0014

.011

""

·

Absent.

.006

* 3 9

3.7

.4

.0014

.008

">

Absent.

.016

.008

RAA

""

ARA

""

-281

WATERS.

Results expressed in Grains per Imperial Gallon, (1 in 70,000).

Total

Oxygen Nitrogen

Solid

Saline

Albume-absorbed in

Date.

Situation.

Depth. Matter

Matter Chlorine, dried at

100° C.

noid Ammonia Ammonia hours at

80° F.

in 4 Nitrates Nitrites.

and Nitrites.

Suga

Detec

1902.

Feb.

4 Well at Hok Un, Hunghom,

:

23.0

7.0

Absent. Absent.

.010

.25 Absent.

No t

14

14

Stream at Tsin Wan, A,

Do..

3.7

A

B,

3.7

.3

.0014 .0042 .020 Absent. .0014 .020

Absent.

*

28

Well at Deep Water Bay,

8.0

1.6

.0056

Mar.

4

Stream at Canton,..

1.2

.0112

.0028 .013 Absent.

>>

...

8

Do.

8.0

1.4

Absent, .0084

.100

Absent. Absent.

**

""

10

Well at Arbuthnot Road,

20 feet.

20.0

8.7

Absent.

.010

.576

22

""

22

Spring at Canton,

6.0

.5

.0028

.017

.112

>>

27

Well at Wellington Street,

11.0

2.4

.014

1.0028

.023

.112

Apr. 3

Holes in the ground in Po Hing

Fong,

6.0

.6

.0056

.0014

.015

.082

55

2

9

">

Well No. 1, Morrison Hill, yard B,.

Do.,

12.0

1.7 Absent.

.0056 .020

.016

yard A.

4.6

.0028 .027

.008

">

Do.

99

"

9

Well, Dock Street, Hunghom,

May 8

9 Filter of A. S. Watson & Co.,

Well at Recreation Ground, Wong-

4.19

.6

Absent.

.003

.016

3.3

.6

.003

.016

8.0

1.6

.0028 .0014

.020

.080

neicheong,...

3 feet.

1.4

.0028 Absent.

.008

32 333 3

33

8

Bay water from Tai Wan,

::

.7

Absent. Absent.

"

8

Stream at Tai Tam Cheung, New

Territory,

.5

.0056

.0028

23

Well at Man Mo Temple,

.11.9

.0336

.0056

Se

23

>>

Well at Un Shing Lane,

3.5

.042

.0028

...

23

Well at Holland Street,

17.0

2.1

Absent.

23

Well at D'Aguilar Street,

34.0

4.9

23

25

Well at Kwai Wa Lane,

112.7

.0014

.010 .0056 Absent. .030 .014 .0056

.139 1.003

Νοι

Se

""

Present.

23

>>

Well at Sui Cheong Lane, Queen's

Road West,

13.5

2.8

.0112

.0028

.280

Absent.

24 Well at 341, Queen's Road West,

...

5.6 .056

.0056

24 Well at 33, Queen's Road Central, 24 Well at 16, Gage Street,

4.9

.140

.0028

Present.

...

10.0

1.4

.0056

.0028 .010

.057

Absent. No.

27 Well at Au Tan,

29 Water from Swatow,

June 7

7 Well at 284, Queen's Road West,

7 Well at 213, Hollywood Road,..

5 feet.

4

.0014

Absent. .013

117.0

44.1

Absent.

.0028 .03

.247

Present.

Well at Lamont's Lane, B,

3.5

.0028 .006

.247

Absent.

12.6

.084

.0056

Present.

4.2

Absent.

.0056 .053

.247

7 Well at Lamont's Lane, A,

4.2

.0028 .006

.165

Absent. No

"

7

Well at Caroline. Hill Road,.

3.8

.0028

.0028

.006

.411

>>

7

Well at Fung Tiun Street (Black-

smith's Lane),..

1.9

Absent.

.0056

.030

.123

>>

7

Well at 146, Hollywood Road,

74.0

11.9

Absent.

.229

Present.

*

Well at 22, Stanley Street.

3.5

.0028

.0028 .003

.411

Absent. No

7

Well at On Wai Lane.

124.0

51.1

.028

.0028

S‹

""

7

..

Well at Ui Po Lane,

128.0

36.4

.140

.016

Present.

14

Well at 46, Queen's Road Central.

13 feet.

39.0

6.3 .0042

.0014 .023

.823

Absent.

14 Well at Tung Wah Hospital,

17 feet.

36.0

5.6

Absent.

.0028

.013

.460

July 3

Well at 31, Pokfulam Road,

13.0

1.9

.0028

.020

.255

No

Aug.

1

Well in rear of K.I.L. 1090 & 1902, 12 feet.

17.0

4.4

.0056

.0056

.036

.329

Sept. 19

Well at Tung Lo Wan,...

18.2

1.6

Absent.

.0028 .024

.098

Oct.

6

Water from Kennedy T. Hospital,

4.2

.95

Absent. .0065

.016

6

Well at Fung Sing Temple, Queen':

Road East,

10.2

1.3

.0014

.0129

340

20 Spring at Kennedy Town Hospital.

4.0

Absent. .007

.012

20 | Well at 99, Jervois Street,

25,5

5.8

.0014

.0014 .018

.726

Nov. 19 Well at Suidter Str., Tai Kok Tsui,

43.5

14.7 Absent.

.0014 .009

.716

24 Well at 48, Lower Lascar Row,

25 feet.

61.0

10.5

.126

.014

1.544

Dec. 6 Well at Cattle Shed, Kowloon,.... 18 feet.

40.0

7.7

035

.0028 .023

533

16 Well at Po Hing Theatre, Yaumati, 12.6 feet.

W... 1 Vindaria Viow Kowloon.

10.5

1.9

.0140

.0028 .025

.115

9.5

1.6

Absent. | Absent. .018

.191

No

-281

WATERS.

Results expressed in Grains per Imperial Gallon, (1 in 70,000).

Total

Oxygen Nitrogen

Solid

Saline

Albume-absorbed in

atter Chlorine.

ried at

00° C.

noid in 4 Nitrates Nitrites. Ammonia Ammonial hours at and

80° F. Nitrites.

Sugar Test for the Poisonous

Detection of Sewage. Metals.

General Remarks.

23.0

7.0

Absent. Absent.

.010

.25

Absent.

No trace of Sewage indicated.

Absent.

3.7

.0014 .0042 .020

Absent.

3.7

.3

Absent.

8.0

1.6

.0056

.0014 .020 .0028 .013

32

"2

33

**

1.2

.0112 Absent.

""

8.0

ht

Absent.

.0084

.100

Absent. Absent.

Absent.

20.0

3.7

Absent.

.010

.576

**

"

Water alga and vegetable [debris.

6.0

.5

.0028

.017

.112

35

>>

""

11.0

2.4

.014

.0028

.023

.112

""

6.0

.6

.0056

.0014

.015

.082

39

12.0

1.7 Absent.

.0056

.020

.016

"

39

4.6

.0028

.027

.008

**

""

4.19

.6

Absent.

.003

.016

"

""

33

3.3

.6

.003

.016

""

66

*

8.0

1.6

.0028

.0014 .020

.080

"

1.4

.0028

Absent.

.008

::

A

.7

Absent. Absent.

>>

"

>>

""

"

.5

.0056 .0028

11.9

.0336 .0056

"

*

3.5

.042

.0028

"

17.0

2.1 Absent, .0014 .010

34.0

4.9

112.7

.0056 Absent. .030 .014 .0056

.139 1,003

""

Present.

Sewage indicated.

No Sewage indicated. Sewage indicated,

"

""

>>

13.5

2.8

.0112 .0028

.280

Absent.

י

5.6

.056

.0056

4.9

.140

.0028

Present.

10.0

1.4

.0056

.0028 .010

.057

Absent. No Sewage indicated. Absent.

4

.0014

Absent, .013

""

117.0

144.1

Absent.

.0028 .03

.247

Present.

3.5

-་

.0028 .006

.247

Absent.

12.6

.084

.0056

Present, Sewage indicated.

4.2

Absent.

.0056 .053

.247

4.2

.0028 .006

.165

Absent. No Sewage indicated.

3.8

.0028

.0028 .006

.411

"

>>

29

* * *

>>

1.9

Absent.

74.0

11.9

.0056 .030 Absent.

.123

33

""

.229

Present.

>>

>>

3.5

.0028 .0028 .003

.411

Absent. No Sewage indicated.

وو

124.0

51.1

.028

.0028

""

128.0

36.4

.140

.016

Present.

Sewage indicated.

"1

">

39.0

6.3 .0042

.0014 .023

.823

Absent.

36.0

5.6 Absent.

.0028 .013

.460

.༡

13.0

1.9

.0028 .020

.255

17.0

4.4 .0056

.0056 .036

..329

333

No Sewage indicated.

18.2

1.6

Absent.

.0028 .024

.098

">

4.2

.95

Absent. .0065 .016

93

**

>>

10.2

1.3

.0014 .0129

340

4.0

.8

Absent. .007

.012

25.5

5.8

.0014

.0014 .018

.726

>>

Sewage indicated.

Odour unpleasant.

43.5

14.7 Absent.

.0014 .009

.716

>>

61.0

10.5

.126

.014

1.544

Sewage indicated.

40.0

7.7

.035

.0028 .023

.533

10.5

1.9

0140

.0028 .025

.115

>>

9.5

1.6

x1

Absent.

0070

Absent.

.018

.191

No Sewage indicated.

.0042

.021

386

Date.

Situation.

Total Solid Depth. Matter Chlorine.

dried at 100° C.

Results expressed in Grains per Imperial Gallon, (1 in 70,0

Oxygen Nitrogen

Albume-absorbed in

Saline

noid in 4 Nitrates Nitrites. Ammonia Ammonia hours at and

80° F. Nitrites.

14

1902.

Feb.

"

>>

4 Well at Hok Un, Hunghom,

14

28

Mar. 4

Stream at Tsin Wan, A,

Do..

Well at Deep Water Bay, Stream at Canton,.

:

23.0

7.0

Absent. Absent.

.010

.25

Absent.

3.7

.4

.0014

B,

3.7

3

Absent.

.0042 .0014 .020

.020

Absent.

5

8.0

1.6

.0056

.0028 .013

22

1.2

...

.0112 Absent.

Do.

8.0

14

Absent. .0081

.100

Absent. Absent.

10

Well at Arbuthnot Road,

20 feet.

20.0

3.7

Absent. .0.10

.576

>>

""

22

Spring at Canton,

:

6.0

.5

.0028

.017

.112

9

9

>>

""

29

""

9

May 8

33

8

**

">

>>

27 Well at Wellington Street,

Apr. 3

Holes in the ground in Po Hing

Fong,

Well No. 1, Morrison Hill, yard B,

9 Filter of A. S. Watson & Co.,

Well, Dock Street, Hunghom, Well at Recreation Ground, Wong-

neicheong,.....

8 Bay water from Tai Wan,

23

Stream at Tai Tam Cheung, New

Territory,

Well at Man Mo Temple,

23 Well at Un Shing Lane, 23 Well at Holland Street, 23 Well at D'Aguilar Street,

23 Well at Kwai Wa Lane,

23 Well at Sui Cheong Lane, Queen's

Road West,

24 Well at 341, Queen's Road West,

11.0

2.4

.014

.0028 .023

.112

"

6.0

.6

.0056

.0014

.015

.082

25

12.0

1.7

Absent.

.0056 .020

.016

Do.,

yard A.

4.6

.0028

.027

.008

>>

4.19

.6

Absent. .003

.016

Do.

3.3

.6

.003

.016

...

"

8.0

1.6

.0028

.0014

.020

.080

""

3 feet.

1.4

.0028

Absent.

.008

::

.7

Absent. Absent.

2 :

.5

.0056

.0028

::::;

11.9

.0336

.0056

3.5

.042

.0028

2.1

Absent.

.0014 .010

.139

*

4.9

.0056

Absent. .030

1.003

"

112.7

.014

.0056

Present.

2.8

.0112

.0028

.280

Absent.

5.6

.056

.0056

>>

24

Well at 33, Queen's Road Central,

4.9

.140

.0028

Present.

3

24

Well at 16, Gage Street,

10.0

1.4

.0056

.0028

.010

.057

Absent.

27

22

Well at Au Tau,

5 feet.

.4

.0014

Absent. .013

29

"

Water from Swatow,

117.0

44.1

Absent.

.0028 .03

.247

Present.

June 7

Well at Lamont's Lane, B,

3.5

.0028 .006

.247

Absent.

>>

7

Well at 284, Queen's Road West,

12.6

.081

.0056

Present.

7

Well at 213, Hollywood Road,..

4.2

Absent.

.0056 .053

.247

7 Well at Lamont's Lane, A,

4.2

.0028 .006

.165

Absent.

99

7 Well at Caroline. Hill Road,.

3.8

.0028

.0028 .006

.411

Well at Fung Tiun Street (Black-

smith's Lane),

1.9

Absent.

.0056 .030

.123

7 Well at 146, Hollywood Road,

74.0

11.9

Absent.

.229

Present.

7 Well at 22, Stanley Street.

3.5

.0028 .0028 .003

.411

Absent.

7 Well at On Wai Lane,.

124.0

51.1

.028

.0028

7 Well at Ui Po Lane,

128.0

36.4

.140

.016

Present.

14 Well at 46, Queen's Road Central.

13 feet.

39.0

6.3

.0042

.0014 .023

.823 Absent.

14

Well at Tung Wah Hospital,

17 feet.

36.0

5.6 Absent.

.0028 .013

.460

July

3 Well at 31, Pokfulam Road,

13.0

1.9

.0028 .020

.255

...

Aug.

1 | Well in rear of K.I.L. 1090 & 1902, 12 feet.

17.0

4.4

.0056

.0056 .036

.329

Sept. 19 Well at Tung Lo Wan,,

18.2

1.6

Absent.

.0028 .024

.098

4 3 3 3

Oct.

6 Water from Kennedy T. Hospital,

1.2

.95

Absent. .0065

.016

6 Well at Fung Sing Temple, Queen's

20

Road East,

Spring at Kennedy Town Hospital.

10.2

1.3

.0014

.0129

340

4.0

.S

Absent. .007

.012

20 Well at 99, Jervois Street,

25.5

5.8

.0014

.0014 .018

.726

Nov. 19 Well at Suidter Str., Tai Kok Tsui,

43.5

14.7

Absent.

.0014

.009

.716

24 Well at 48. Lower Lascar Row, ... 25 feet.

61.0

10.5

.126

.014

1.544

Dec. 6 Well at Cattle Shed, Kowloon,....

18 feet.

40.0

7.7

.035

.0028 .023

.533

16 | Well at Po Hing Theatre, Yaumati, 12.6 feet. 16 Well at 1, Victoria View, Kowloon. 16 | Well at 30, Kennedy St., Yaumati, 14 feet.

10.5

1.9

.0140

.0028 .025

.115

9.5

1.6

Absent.

Absent. .018

.191

25.0

8.A

.0070 .0042

.024

386

Cotal

Solid

Saline

lesults expressed in Grains per Imperial Gallon, (1 in 70,000).

Oxygen Nitrogen

in

Albume-absorbed

[atter

Chlorine.

ied at

10° C.

noid

in 4 Nitrates Nitrites. Ammonia Ammonia hours at and

80° F. Nitrites.

Sugar Test for the Poisonous

Detection of Sewage. Metals.

General Remarks.

23.0

7.0

Absent. Absent,

.010

.25

Absent. No trace of Sewage

indicated.

Absent.

3.7

.1

.0014 .0042 .020

Absent.

**

3.7

3

Absent.

8.0

1.6

1.2

8.0

Absent.

20.0

3.7

.0014 .020 .0056 .0028 .013 .0112 Absent.

.0084 Absent. .010

"

19

.100

Absent. Absent.

.576

6.0

5

.0028

.017

.112

11.0

2.4

.014

.0028

99

*

.023

.112

"

3 3 3 3 3 3 3

22

Absent.

Water alga and vegetable [debris.

22

6.0

.6

.0056

.0014

.015

.082

12.0

1.7

Absent.

.0056

.020

.016

4.6

.0028

.027

.008

4.19

.6

Absent. .003

.016

"

3.3

.6

.003

.016

"

8.0

1.6

.0028 .0014

.020

.080

*AAAAA

**

多多

AAAAAA

53

"

"

1.4

::

.0028 Absent.

.008

""

.7

Absent.

Absent.

"

9 9 9 3 3 3 3

.5

.0056 .0028

11.9

.0336 .0056

**

"

8.5

.042

.0028

Sewage indicated.

23

"

*>

17.0 34.0

2.1 Absent. .0014 .010

.139

>>

4.9

.0056 Absent.

.080

1.003

No Sewage indicated. Sewage indicated.

112.7

.014

.0056

Present.

**

13.5

2.8

.0112

.0028

.280

Absent.

...

5.6

.056

.0056

""

4.9

.140

.0028

Present.

""

10.0

1.4 .0056 .0028 .010

.057

Absent. No Sewage indicated. Absent.

4

117.0

44.1 Absent.

.0014 Absent.

.0028 .03

.013

>>

.247

Present.

3.5

.0028 .006

.247

Absent.

12.6

.084

.0056

Present. Sewage indicated.

4.2

Absent.

.0056 .053

.247

""

4.2

.0028 .006

.165

Absent. No Sewage indicated.

""

3.8

.0028

.0028 .006

.411

>>

>>

""

1.9

Absent.

.0056 .030

.123

39

74.0

11.9

Absent.

.229

Present.

,

3.5

.0028 .0028 .003

.411

124.0

51.1

.028

.0028

Absent. No Sewage indicated.

Sewage indicated.

23

>>

128.0

36.4

.140

.016

Present.

""

""

39.0

6.3 .0042

36.0

5.6

.0014 Absent. .0028 .013

.023

.823

Absent.

"

.460

ས་

13.0

1.9

.0028 .020

.255

.....

No Sewage indicated.i

17.0

1.4

.0056

.0056 .036

.329

,

18.2

1.6

Absent.

.0028 .024

.098

4.2

.95

Absent. .0065

.016

""

དཱ-

10.2

1.3

.0014 .0129

.340

4.0

.8

Absent. .007

.012

25.5

5.8

.0014

.0014 .018

.726

Sewage indicated.

""

Odour unpleasant.

43.5

14.7

Absent.

.0014 .009

.716

"

61.0

10.5

.126

.014

1.544

Sewage indicated,

40.0

7.7

.035

.0028 .023

533

73

10.5

1.9

.0140 .0028 .025

.115

""

9.5

1.6

Absent, | Absent.

.018

.191

No Sewage indicated.:

་་

25.0

SA

.0070 .0042

.024

.386

**

:)

HONGKONG.

CORRESPONDENCE RESPECTING PROPOSAL TO REMOVE THE NAVAL YARD.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

HONGKONG, 9th April, 1903.

No. 25

SIR, On the 26th ultimo you were good enough to receive a Deputation composed of representatives of the various Commercial interests in this Colony when the question of the proposed new Admiralty Dock was discussed and when as Chairman of the Deputation I had the honour to inform Your Excellency that we proposed to draw up a petition to the Right Honourable the Secretary of State for the Colonies praying that a Royal Commission be appointed to consider the whole question relating to the dock.

In consequence of the unanimous support this movement has received from all sections of the Hongkong Community a petition has now been prepared and though the time at our disposal has been limited signatures have been readily obtained including those of all classes and nationalities represented here and embracing most, if not all, of the leading business firms in the Colony.

I have now the honour to hand Your Excellency this petition with the request that you will be pleased to forward it to the Right Honourable the Secretary of State for the Colonies and would further ask that Your Excellency be good enough, as soon as possible, to telegraph a summary of the petition to London.

In conclusion I would beg on behalf of this Community to express our grati- tude for the kindly sympathy Your Excellency has shown to us in this matter and to express the hope that with your able assistance the great improvement for the Colony advocated in our petition may be carried out.

1903

His Excellency

I have, etc.,

C. P. CHATER, Chairman.

Sir HENRY A. BLAKE, G.C.M.G.,

&c.,

&C.,

sc.

HONGKONG, April 4th, 1903.

To the Right Honourable THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR THE COLONIES,

LONDON.

The humble petition of the undersigned residents in the Colony

of Hongkong on behalf of the Community

RESPECTFULLY SHEWETH that your petitioners desire to bring to your notice the following facts concerning a matter of great moment to the Colony and one which has a very direct bearing on its future advancement and prosperity.

2. We refer to the question of the Admiralty Dock now under construction

and the contemplated extension of the Naval Yard.

1

320

3. We understand that certain unforeseen engineering difficulties have arisen and that an opportunity may have thus presented itself by which it is possible that if representations be made by the residents of Hongkong, the site of the Dock may be changed without detriment to the efficient docking and repairing of H.M. Ships of War.

4. The question of the present position of the dock is one of such vital importance to the future development of our Colony that we consider we are justified in approaching you on the subject in the hope that a representation of our views may result in the whole question being reconsidered by the various advisers of His Majesty who are concerned in the matter.

5. In support of our contention that much harm must eventually result to the Colony by the proposed Naval Establishment occupying what should, looking to the future, be part of our most important business centre, we beg to submit the following facts.

6. A glance at the attached map of Hongkong will show that the Naval Dock Yard is in the centre of the sea front of the City of Victoria and we would point out that the general tendency is for all leading places of business to congregate in the immediate vicinity of the proposed dock.

7. The praya reclamation scheme, so far as it has been carried out, has pro- vided a much needed stretch of level ground on which large offices have been erected to meet the growing trade requirements of the Colony, and, by increasing the number of main roads running from East to West, has much relieved the congested traffic which formerly had to be concentrated in the Queen's Road and on the old praya.

8. The present position of the Naval Dock Yard unfortunately blocks the extension eastward of this great improvement, cuts the praya in two, congests the traffic, and confines it to a single narrow road. Unless this obstruction is removed, the natural expansion of our city will be irretrievably ruined, much to the dis- advantage of the Colony at large, as, owing to the conformation of the ground, it is the only possible direction in which expansion can take place.

9. We need hardly emphasize the further disadvantages which will be ex- perienced through smoke and noise seriously affecting the comfort of those whose offices or residences are situated in the vicinity of the Dock. Moreover as the work would be going on frequently by night as well as by day these disadvantages, which are particularly felt in a tropical climate, would be specially objectionable to a large section of the community. In this connection we must also consider the serious depreciation in the value of property which will unquestionably result from the above causes. This will be far reaching as it will affect all residential property from the Tram Line eastward as far as the Naval Hospital, and as high up as the Peak.

The noise which will arise from the work at the Dock has been foreshadowed during the present construction and in one case led to a summons for a nuisance being taken out at the Magistracy against the Contractors.

10. Nor are the above the sole arguments for the removal of the Dock Yard which we can adduce.

11. We understand that even though land now in the possession of the War Department as well as other land were included in the Naval Yard site, the level ground at the disposal of the Naval Authorities would be barely sufficient to meet the present requirements of His Majesty's Navy in the Far East. We believe that the trend of events is such as to point in the future to a still greater expansion of the British Naval Forces in this part of the globe and under these circumstances we believe we are justified in raising the point that in the near future the new Dock Yard will be found inadequate for the purposes of H. M. Navy.

12. There are, moreover, we believe, other sites which might equally well be made use of for the purpose of a Naval Establishment, but on this point we refrain from saying more as we trust the whole question may shortly form the subject of an enquiry on the part of the respective authorities concerned.

ī

:

321

13. The question of the removal of the Naval Yard from its present site is one of such great importance to the Colony as to justify, in our opinion, its in- curring the necessary expenditure to recoup the Admiralty for the money already spent upon the new works.

14. In conclusion we would therefore strongly urge that in the interests of the Colony a Royal Commission be appointed on which all the interests concerned be represented to report not only on matters now under consideration by the various Government Departments but also on the advisability of removing the Dock to another site.

And Your Petitioners will ever Pray, &c.

[Here follow signatures.]

No. 184.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 8th April, 1903.

SIR, I have the honour to forward a petition addressed to you by a Committee representing the entire Community of Hongkong.* I enclose the report of a deputa- tion that waited upon me on the subject by which you will see that I entirely agreed with the views of the deputation and undertook to commend the prayer of the petition to the favourable consideration of His Majesty's Government.

2. As will be observed from the terms of the petition, in the event of the decision of the Lords of the Admiralty to meet the wishes of this Colony a site can be offered on the island of Hongkong equally defensible, with ample room for expansion, and at which a Dock begun now would probably be finished at smaller expense and in less time than it will take to complete the Admiralty Dock now in process of contruction, while the cost of the transfer will be borne by the Colony.

3. Apart from the arguments for the change put forward by the petitioners, I venture to submit that the whole question of a Naval Dock at Hongkong is worthy of careful reconsideration by my Lords of the Admiralty. The Hongkong & Whampoa Company have at present five dry docks besides three slips. In one of these docks H.M.S. Powerful has been docked. The Company is prepared, if the Naval authorities desire it, to construct another dock capable of accommodat- ing the largest vessel afloat, they are prepared to supply the Dock with the latest improvements in machinery and to lay down a plant capable of dealing with any repairs that could be required for H. M. Ships and to give to the Naval authorities perpetual right of priority. Messrs. BUTTERFIELD & SWIRE are also at present con- structing a dock of the largest size. I venture to say that with such docking facilities existing and prospective the repairs of His Majesty's Ships would be executed in an entirely satisfactory manner and at a very substantial saving to the Imperial Govern- ment. The Dock Company have a thoroughly efficient staff with the best appliances and there is constant work, while a Naval Dockyard must have an expensive establishment always at full strength while it is improbable that the work required for the Fleet on the China Station will keep the Dock fully occupied all the year round. The annual expenditure involved is very considerable and I would urge upon the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty the advisability of sending out a Commission to inquire on the spot into the important questions involved. There is in Hongkong capital and enterprize sufficient to carry out any scheme of docks that His Majesty's Government may decide to be necessary.

The Right Honourable

I have, etc.

JOHN CHAMBERLAIN,

H.M. Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies,

&c.,

&c.,

* Not printed.

ge.

H. A. BLAKE, Governor.

322

Telegram from the Governor of Hongkong to the Secretary of State

for the Colonies, dated the 9th April, 1903.

Petition signed most influentially forwarded by next mail asking appointment of Royal Commission investigate question of dock extension of Naval Yard. Peti- tion proposes to provide better site on island without additional expense Imperial Government. This is telegraphed at special request. Cordially endorse prayer.

BLAKE.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE,

HONGKONG, 17th April, 1903.

SIR,-I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 9th instant enclosing a Petition to the Secretary of State for the Colonies regarding the Naval Yard Extension and Dockyard, and to inform you that I have caused it to be transmitted to Mr. CHAMBERLAIN with an expression of my strong approval of the prayer which it embodies.

2. I have also, as requested in the third parapraph of your letter under acknow- ledgment, telegraphed a summary of the petition to London.

The Honourable

Sir C. P. CHATER, Kt., C.M.G.

I have, etc.

H. A. BLAKE,

Governor.

No. 214. HONGKONG.

DOWNING STREET,

5th June, 1903.

SIR, I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch No. 184 of the 8th April last, forwarding a petition from residents in Hongkong to the effect that the Naval Yard should be removed to another site.

2. It is suggested that the present site of the Naval Yard is inadequate for the purposes of His Majesty's Navy, but I am informed by the Lords Commis- sioners of the Admiralty, that though it would no doubt be an advantage if more room were available for extension, the area of the Naval Yard, when completed, will be 394 acres, and there is space for the construction of another dock of the largest size, should an additional dock be found necessary at some future date. There is therefore no necessity, from a Naval point of view, for any change of site.

3. Their Lordships also state that as the abandonment of the scheme for the extension works now under construction at the Naval Yard would mean postponing, for an indefinite period, the provision of a sufficient equipment for the British Naval base in the Far East, they could not under any circumstances consent to stop those works, the early completion of which they believe to be necessary to security.

4. Subject however to these extension works being completed, and to the Navy continuing to occupy the present Yard and anchorage until new accommoda- tion had been provided, their Lordships would be prepared to entertain a proposal to transfer the Yard, as soon as the Colony at its own cost had made equivalent provision for Naval requirements on an approved site. I enclose an extract from a letter from the Admiralty on this subject.

1

:

323

5. You will observe that this scheme would involve the Colony in very heavy expenditure and the expenditure would not be limited to the provision of a new Naval Yard and Dock, since the removal of the existing Yard would also neces- sitate the removal of the whole or a large part of the Military Establishment adjoin- ing the Naval Yard, and the erection of new Ordnance stores, magazines, barracks, &c., and possibly of new defence works.

6. I have very carefully considered the whole subject, and while I am at once most reluctant to negative a proposal put forward by influential members of the community and supported by yourself, and am well aware how strong are the objections to existing arrangements, I regret to have to inform you that I have come to the conclusion that the expenditure would be heavier than the Colony could bear, and I therefore request you to inform the petitioners that I do not find myself able to meet their wishes.

Governor

Sir HENRY A. BLAKE, G.C.M.G.,

fc.,

cfc.,

I have, etc.,

J. CHAMBERLAIN.

Sv.

EXTRACT

From a letter from the Admiralty to Colonial Office, dated 9th March, 1903.

Their Lordships' first duty is to provide for the necessities of His Majesty's ships on the China Station, present as well as future, and under no circumstances can they assent to abandon the present works, the early completion of which they believe to be necessary to security.

Subject, however, to the requirements of the Navy being met, their Lordships are anxious to place no obstacle in the way of the commercial expansion of the Colony, and they fully recognize that it is best whenever possible to establish Naval Stations outside the boundaries of great Commercial Harbours.

Whilst, therefore, their Lordships, for the reasons already stated, cannot see their way to themselves negotiate for any new site for the Naval Yard, they would not refuse to consider an offer from the Colony to re-provide equivalent accom- modation on an approved site.

In suggesting equivalent accommodation, their Lordships have in view not only the Docks, Basins, Stores, Magazines, Workshops and other accessories to a Naval Yard, but also the available anchorage and whatever defences are necessary to ensure security equal to that obtained under present conditions, and it might also be necessary to replace the Naval Hospital which is in the vicinity of the present Yard.

It is further necessary that the Navy should continue to occupy the present Yard and anchorage until the new establishment is ready, and can be handed over

to them.

If the Colonial authorities are prepared to deal with the matter on this basis, I am to suggest that they should in the first instance foward full particulars of any site they propose to offer, which must not be on the mainland.

Should their Lordships find it possible to accept any one of the sites, the details of all necessary works would next have to be considered and agreed to. These could then be executed by the Colonial Government to their Lordships' satisfaction, but entirely at its own cost.

When completed the new establishment could be taken over by the Navy, and the present Yard banded over to the Colonial Government.

324

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 8th July, 1903:

Sin,-With reference to my letter of the 17th April I have the honour to inform you that a despatch, of which the enclosed is a copy, has been received from the Secretary of State for the Colonies. I shall be glad if you will communi- cate its tenor to the other signatories of the Petition.

The Honourable

Sir C. P. CHATER, Kt., C.M.G.

I have, etc.,

H. A. BLAKE,

Governor.

No. 365.

HONGKONG.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 22nd July, 1903.

SIR.I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch No. 214 of the 5th ultimo from which it appears that, owing to the onerous conditions imposed by the Admiralty, it will be impossible to transfer the Naval Dockyard to a new site.

2. This information has been received by all sections of the resident community with much regret.

The Right Honourable

I have, etc.,

THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR THE COLONIES.

H. A. BLAKE.

Governor.

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE NEW TERRITORY, FOR THE YEAR 1902.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

No. 27

1903

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE,

HONGKONG, 19th March, 1903.

SIR,-I have the honour to submit the following Report on the New Territo- ries, for the year 1902.

LAND.

During 1902 the demarcation of the whole of the New Territory with the exception of (1) the coastwise strips from Tai Lam Chung to Tsun Wan, and (2) Lamma Island, was completed. Branch Offices for taking claims were opened at Ping Shan (April 1st to October 18th), and at Sai Kung (July 7th to October 25th), on the mainland: and at Mui Wo, Pui O, Tung Chung and Tai O in Lan Tao Island. All claims on the mainland have been filed except for the narrow strip from Tai Lam Chung to Tsun Wan. These are now being received at a branch office at Tsun Wan which it is hoped will be closed in May. This will finish claim-taking on the mainland.

The total number of Lots demarcated in 1902 was a follows:-

Mainland, 133,631 Lan Tao, 27,994

:

Total,.

161,625

:

The total number of Lots claimed was :-

Total,

Mainland, 164,971 Lan Tao, 18,289

.183,260.

The Full Court had 120 sittings during the year; while the President (Mr. GOMPERTZ) held 129 Single Court sittings in the Land Court and heard 19 cases under the Rent Recovery Ordinance, 14 of 1902. Rent Rolls were made out for Survey Districts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, and for the Districts of Tung Chung and Mui Wo in Lan Tao Island.

The Rent Roll for the rest of the Territory is being pushed on and will be complete before the end of 1903.

An Ordinance to regulate the tenure of land in the New Territory under the style of The New Territories Titles Ordinances, 1902, was passed at the close of the year, but has not been put into operation yet.

SURVEY.

The Traverse Survey was completed in December, the following being the areas surveyed during the year:-

District.

Kowloon,

Un Long, Lantao Island,

Lamma Island,

Tsing I Island,

Chik Lap Kok Island,

Ni Ku Chau Island,

Sub-districts.

Tsun Wan, and part of Luk Yeuk. Tai Lam Chung

The whole, with the exception of small portions previously surveyed near Mui Wo and Tung Chung.

The whole.

The whole.

The whole.

The whole.

To enable the cultivated areas in New Kowloon and several areas near Sha Tau Kok to be re-mapped on a larger scale,-the scale on which the original survey was plotted having been found too small in these cases,--fresh traverses had to be made; the cultivated lands south of the old boundary being also included.

One Indian Sub-Surveyor, with 6 Indian and 6 Chinese Chain-men, was en- gaged upon the work, which was connected at four points with the trigonometrical survey, upon which the topographical survey is based.

338

The areas cadastrally surveyed during the year amounted to 11,715.81 acres, including 219,292 fields. These figures do not compare favourably with those of the preceding year, when over 11,000 acres were dealt with by a considerably less staff, the reason being that the work during 1902 was confined to much more diffi- cult ground, which consisted of the most hilly parts of the whole Territory.

The following were the areas surveyed

District.

Kowloon, Tung Hoi, Un Long,

Lantao Island,

Sub-districts.

Kau Yeuk, Luk Yeuk, Tsun Wan. The whole.

Tai Lam Chung

The whole, with the exception of small portions previously surveyed near Mui Wo and Tung Chung.

The whole.

Tsing I Island,

Chik Lap Kok Island,

The whole.

Ni Ku Chau Island,

The whole.

Tap Mun Island,

The whole.

Pak Lap Chau Island,

The whole.

Kau Sai Island,

The whole.

Im Tin Tsz Island,

The whole.

The staff engaged upon this portion of the work consisted, up till June, of two Inspectors, 42 Surveyors, 88 Indian Chain-men and about 60 Chinese coolies. In July, 1 Inspector, 12 Surveyors and 43 Indian Chain-men were sent back to India and, after about a month's cessation, field operations were resumed with 1 In- spector, 27 Surveyors, 37 Indian Chain-men and about 55 Chinese coolies.

The demarcation of the areas surveyed during 1900. was completed by the 10 Surveyors mentioned in last year's Report, who are included in the Cadastral Staff enumerated above. They dealt with 13,446.84 acres, which included 97,960 fields; constituting 32,824 holdings.

One Surveyor, with one Indian coolie, was detailed throughout the whole year for special work in connection with the Land Court.

Five office Assistants were obtained from India in the early part of the year, one having been previously appointed locally. The number of maps dealt with during the year was 296, the boundaries being compared and the holdings and fields inked in and numbered as the sheets were received from the Surveyors.

Two Chinese tracers were engaged in November to assist in producing copies of the maps for the use of the Land Court.

Sickness was somewhat prevalent among the Staff, one Surveyor and two Indian coolies dying during the course of the year and six Indian coolies being in- valided back to India. Two Surveyors were discharged on account of incompe-

tence.

A

PUBLIC WORKS.

The works in progress, or completed, during 1902, were the following:-

(I.) Tai Po Road. With the exception of some minor works, confined to the last 5 miles, the whole of the work was completed, the road being available for ricksha traffic throughout its entire length. The distance from Tsim Sha Tsui Point to Tai Po is 18 miles, the first 2 miles consisting of roads south of the old boundary, which were made before the New Territory was taken over

(II.) Police Station, Sheung Shui.-The buildings were completed and occupied by the Police in May: accommodation is provided for a Sergeant, 2 European, 12 Indian and 8 Chinese Constables; be- sides a charge-room, two cells, etc.

(III.) Police Station, Tai O.-This station, which is situated near the south- ern extremity of Lantao Island, was completed and occupied by the Police in November. It contains accommodation for a Ser- geant, a European Constable, 8 Indian and 4 Chinese Constables and 4 Chinese boatmen, besides a charge-room, two cells, etc. Seven Police Stations have now been built in the New Territory, 6

being on the mainland and 1 on Lantao Island.

X

:

:

339

(IV.) Defining Boundaries.-Two large granite obelisks, bearing suitable inscriptions, were erected on Lantao Island, and a third near the shore of Mirs Bay, the former defining the points where the western limit of the Concession meets the north and south shores of the Island, and the latter the point where the eastern limit meets the shore of Mirs Bay. The points were established by H. M. S. Bramble.

(V.) Kowloon Waterworks.-Though being constructed principally for the supply of the population south of the old boundary of British Kowloon, these works are situated almost entirely within the New Territory. Substantial progress was made with the excavation of the foundations of the main dam for the large storage reservoir and about 3 miles of 12-inch cast-iron main were laid. The main was brought into service in October for conveying to Mongkoktsui and Yaumati the supply derived from the old intakes above Cheung Sha Wan and several new intakes were constructed and connected

up.

AFFORESTATION.

Tree Planting. The number of trees planted amounted to 31,746, the major- ity of which were the ordinary pine tree. Most of these were planted along the Taipo Road, and a few at Ping Shan. Included in the total are 2,781 Camphor trees planted along the Taipo Road and 112 Castilloa elastica planted below the same road between the fourth and fifth mile-stones.

Tree Seeds sown.-Pine-tree seeds to produce 46,800 trees were sown broad- cast in the catchment area of the new reservoir and between the sixth and seventh mile-stones, and to produce 24,200 trees in sites to replace the failures of the previous year.

Camphor Trees.-Experiments were made in sowing camphor seeds in pots and planting the young trees out in the middle of the summer when about five months old in order to find a cheaper way of rearing this particular tree than has been

prac- tised hitherto. The seeds germinated and the trees were 6" in height when they were planted, some in prepared trenches and some in pits, but they have made very little progress since and do not give much promise of success. That Camphor-trees will

grow in the New Territory when placed under suitable conditions is proved by the fine specimens at Ho Sheung Heung. The trunks of seven of these have the following dimensions in circumference at three or four feet from the ground:-

20 feet 7 inches: 15 feet 9 inches: 13 feet 3 inches: 11 feet 4 inches:

11 feet; 8 feet 6 inches: 6 feet 8 inches:

Fire Barriers.-About 4 miles of old Fire Barriers, 15 feet wide, were cleared to protect the young trees on both sides of the Taipo Road.

MEDICAL.

Mr. HO NAI HOP, Chinese Medical Officer, resided at Taipo and visited pe- riodically the several Police Stations and villages in the New Territory. He treated 812 native patients more than in the previous year.

Malarial Fever.-There was a considerable diminution in the number of cases occurring, especially amongst the members of the Police Force. This is attributed, to a great extent, to the prophylactic administration of quinine. From the 1st May to the beginning of December each of the Police, whether European, Indian or Chinese, was given three grains daily.

Cholera. This disease was prevalent in May. Active measures were taken to check it by the issue of notices warning the Chinese against eating unripe fruit, uncooked vegetables, &c., and advising them always to boil their drinking water.

Small-pox.-This disease was epidemic at Taipo and Sha Tin Districts in the spring of the year, some twenty cases occurring with but one death. Prompt measures were taken by vaccinating all the Civil Staff, and as far as possible most of the villagers with calf lymph, and apparently with success as the disease did not spread to the neighbouring districts.

Vaccinations.-Free vaccination was carried on at the Police Stations during the winter months and altogether during the year 336 vaccinations were performed as compared with 78 in 1901.

:

340

Leprosy. The Leper Asylum was visited regularly once a week by Dr. Ho. The total number of inmates was 27.

Plague.-No cases were reported as having occurred during the year.

Staff.--Mr. Ho resigned at the end of the year and was succeeded by Mr. Lau LAI a licentiate of the Hongkong College of Medicine for Chinese.

EDUCATION.

The Committee that reported on Education in the Colony generally made certain recommendations with regard to the New Territory which have not yet been given effect to.

HARBOUR DEPARTMENT.

The Station at the Island of Cheung Chau was opened in September, the one at Tai O in the Island of Lantao, in October, 1899; that at Taipo in Mirs Bay, on board the Police Steam Launch, in January, 1900; that in Deep Bay, on board the Police Steam Launch, in November, 1901; and that at Sai Kung in April, 1902.

From 1st January to 31st December, 1902, 8,359 Licences, Clearances, Per- mits, &c., were issued at Cheung Chau; 3,390 at Tai 0; 3,253 at Taipo; 3,010 at Deep Bay; and 3,108 at Sai Kung.

The Revenue collected by the Harbour Department from the New Territory during 1902 was $13,896.05.

POLICE.

I attach a table showing the distribution of Police in the New Territory in 1902. (Appendix I.)

There were 14 Europeans, 96 Indians and 41 Chinese with 10 Boatmen stationed in the New Territory on land, and 6 Europeans, 35 Chinese doing duty in launches.

There was a very satisfactory decrease in serious crime as compared with 1901, the figures for the last four years being as follows:--

1899.

1900.

1901.

1902.

Gang Robberies,

25

20

23

11

Boat and Junk Robberies.. Highway and Street Robberies,

5

5

8

3

12

7

...

4

3

Totals,

42

32

35

17

Police were employed, in addition to their ordinary Police duties, in collecting Crown Rent, and the Water Police have licensed boats and received the fees on be- half of the Harbour Master.

The new Stations at Sheung Shui and Tai O were occupied on the 19th May and 3rd November respectively.

The Chinese Force stationed on the border has continued active, and it is to a great extent due to its presence that there have been fewer incursions of robbers from over the northern boundary. Increasing appreciation of the presence of the 'Police is shown in the readiness with which reports of all sorts are made to them: although at times clan combinations and fear of revenge still make it difficult to elicit evidence.

CRIMINAL STATISTICS.

Returns of the number of cases brought before the Magistrates are appended. They show a satisfactory decrease in crime and especially in crime of a serious nature. (Appendix II.) |

Mr. HALLIFAX, the District Magistrate in the New Territories, reports that "though the number of cases brought before the Magistrates shews a reduction, "there is an ever increasing amount of work in the way of arbitration of disputes, "nearly all of them trifling: questions of money, marriage and Fung shui are the "most common. By far the greater number of these cases are fairly easily settled, as soon as it is possible to get down to the bed rock of facts: an outside decision is all that is asked for without any reference to the sentimental points raised on "both sides. Fung shui does at times give trouble: but in no case yet has either party been able even after a week or fortnight to give an idea of their case clear enough for practical purposes."

66

66

66

66

.

:

.

:

:

341

REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.

I attach a statement of Revenue and Expenditure for the year 1902. (Ap- pendix III.)

The collection of Crown Rent has been rendered very difficult owing to the want of a rent-roll based on demarcation. Demarcation is now practically complet- ed and the rent-roll based on it will be ready in the early autumn, when collection of the rent with arrears should be comparatively easy if undertaken with vigour.

Transfers of holdings and parts of holdings are frequent and as the machinery for recording such transfers was not ready, the collection of rent has suffered. The New Territories Titles Ordinance now provides for this want. Changes in the Trustees of common funds are also a constant source of trouble.

GENERAL.

The people seem to be more prosperous than they were in a small way; a num- ber of new houses are going up of a better class than the existing ones; there are a few new shops; a few new tea-houses show increased traffic, especially on the cattle routes; the cultivation of pineapples is noticeably extending; and in spite of the fact that paddy is now at $3.99 a picul, there is no real distress as far as can be seen. But with the exception of the Un Long Powder Factory, and a few establishments in Tsin Wan, there is no new undertaking of any size, unless the increased activity of the brick-kilns can be so designated.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your inost obedient servant,

His Excellency

F. H. MAY,

Colonial Secretory.

&c.,

SC..

$'c.

Appendix I.

Sir HENRY A. BLAKE, G.C.M.G.,

STATIONS,

Kowloon City, Saikung, Shatin, Shatin Gap, Taipo, Shataukok, Kat 0, Sheung Shui,. San Tin,

Au Tau, Pingshan, Tai 0, Tung Chung,

Chung Châu,

Lamma,

Water Police,.

Governor,

Distribution of Police in New Territory, during 1902.

EUROPEANS.

:

1

1

INDIANS.

1

1

10 30

CHINESE.

1

CHINESE CREWS OF LAUNCHES AND BOATS.

HNN

atm.*

7

18

Total...

1

1 12

7 14 82

30

7

5

10

5

18

10

* Aberdeen.

Appendix II.

RETURN of CASES from NEW TERRITORY tried at the Police Court, Victoria, during 1902.

DEFENDANTS IN EACH CASE, SENTENCE, DECISION OR ORDER MADE,

:

:

Number. Total Number.

of

Convicted

and

Punished.

Committed

for Trial

Discharged.

at the

Order to find Security or

to be of

Imprisoned.

Fined.

Cases

Supreme

Court.

Good

Behaviour.

recorded.

In lieu of fine. Peremptory. With Hard

Labour.

With Hard

Labour.

M.

F.

M. F. M. F. M. F.

M.

F.

M.

F.

M.

F.

M.

F.

1 2 3

21

1

1

19

18

1

24

30

28

1

1

1

106

106

103

19

26

19

4

3

2

1

Arms-Carrying or having possession of without a Licence,

Bribery,

Burglary,

Counterfeit Coins-Uttering, &c.,

Disorderly Behaviour,

Watchman to Street Gambler-Acting as,

Larceny (common),

Receiving Stolen Goods,

Housebreaking,

Gambling,

Opium,

from Dwelling House,

Hawking other than Market,

Street Obstruction,

Assault (common),

Leaving Anchorage without Permit,

Neglecting to give particulars of Cargo, Unlawful Possession of Property,

...

without Licence,

...

15

15

15

4

4

4

14

1

19.00

Carried forward,

210

243

1

214

1

19

1

342

1

1

1958 :::

16

2

17

11

1

50

53

19

1

:

1

13

2

4

8

13

1

1

3

1

120

:

122

72

:

22

1

RETURN of CASES from NEW TERRITORY tried at the Police Court, Victoria, during 1902,-Continued.

Number Total Number.

DEFENDANTS IN EACH CASE, SENTENCE, DECISION OR ORDER MADE.

Convicted

and

Punished.

Discharged.

Committed

for Trial

at the

Order to find Security or to be of

Imprisoned.

Fined.

of

In lieu of fine.

Cases

Supreme

Court.

Good

Behaviour.

recorded.

With Hard

Labour.

Peremptory. With Hard

Labour.

M. F.

M. F.

M.

F.

M. F.

M.

F.

M.

F.

M. F.

M.

F.

Brought forward,...

Injuries to Property,

Assault on Police Constables,

Vehicle Driver-Demanding more than legal fare,...

Rogue and Vagabond,

Child Stealing,

...

Manslaughter,...

Destroying Trees, &c.,

...

Breach of Recognizances,

Robbery from Person,

Armed Robbery,

Boat, &c., Neglecting to exhibit light,

-Unlicensed,

-Fishing without Licence,

""

""

-Breach of Condition of Fishing Boat Licence,

Trespass on Crown Land,

Triad Society,...

Removing Land Mark,

Storing Dangerous Goods,

Violating Graves,

210

243

1 214

4

SH 10 10

19

::

1

19

1

9

120

3

3

1

:

:

3

1

2

2

4

:

2

19

...

1

19

1

14

: 4

1

1

1

}

1

1

1

2

2

Grand Total,

261

314

1

256

48

The Magistracy,

Hongkong, 6th March, 1903.

:

CO

3

:

1

72

22-

23

22

1

1

1

1

9

157

75

24

1

F. A. HAZELAND,

Police Magistrate.

343 -

RETURN of CASES tried at the NEW TERRITORY from January 1st to December 31st, 1902.

DEFENDANTS IN EACH CASE, SENTENCE, DECISION OR ORDER MADE.

REMARKS.

Comitted for

Number

of

Total No.

Convicted

and

Punished.

trial at

Discharged.

Ordered to find security

To be imprisoned.

Fined.

Supreme

to keep

Cases as

recorded.

Court.

the peace.

In lieu of fine or security. With hard labour.

Peremptory. With hard labour.

M.

F.

M.

F.

M.

F.

M.

F.

M.

F.

M.

·

F.

M.

F.

M.

F.

00 ON 01

O2 N

9

:

I

1

1

6

57

6

12

I

2

boys with intent to sell,

Watchmen to Street Gamblers —Acting as,

Unlawful Possession of Property,

Disorderly Behaviour,

Burglary,

False Pretences-Attempting to obtain or obtaining

goods or money by,

Larceny-Common,

From a dwelling house,

From the person.

Menaces-Demanding money with,

Stolen Goods-Receiving,

Trespassing on Crown Land,

Murder,

Assault-Common,

Common, on Police Constable,

Detaining girls under age of 14 years,..

""

Opium-Raw,

: :

Bribery,

Arms-Carrying or being in possession of,

Banishment-Returning after, ...

2

1

Dangerous goods-Conveying without attaching labels

to cases or vessels containing the same,

11

Common Gaming-house--Keeping or playing in,

Dealing in Lotteries,

3

Street Gambling,

1 00 00 00 ∞ N TO

10

10

· 1

3

59

59

12

12

2

...

33

1822-2-~~~-~~-

1

33

36

1

- 8:

24

-:

12

:~

2

1

5

1

1

1

69

43

26

6

8

2

3

6

1

""

Prepared,

27

27

21

6

Damaging property,

18

7

11

2

Breach of Merchant Shipping Consolidation Ordinance, Selling Chinese wines and spirits without a Licence,... Breach of New Territories Land Court Ordinance,

3

3

2

1

1

2

...

TOTAL....

169

304

18

222

5

01

78

10

=

HONGKONG, 21st March, 1903.

:

41

2

2

I

-

*21

42

:

6

24

1

I

I

2

1

3

5

:

:

...

...

153

4

33

...

38

1

* One

died in Police custody.

E. R. HALLIFAX, Police Magistrate, New Territory.

344

A

Total No. of Cases.

Total No. of Prisoners.

Convicted and Punished.

Abstract of Cases under Cognizance of the Polire Magistrate's Court, during the year:1902.

Cases how disposed of, and the No. of Male and Female Prisoners under each Head.

Discharged.

Committed

for Trial at Su-

preme

Court.

To keep the peace.

Order to find Security.

To be of good beha-

viour.

M. F. M. F.

M. F.

M.

F.

M.

F.

169

* 333.

221 5 78 10

1

1

1

8

false

tes-

to be of good be- haviour.

To keep the peace and

Witnesses punished for pre-

ferring false charge or giving wilful timony.

Total No. of Prisoners.

M. F.

2

M. F.

2

M. F.

316

16

Remarks.

* One Prisoner died in Police

Custody.

Writs issued by the Police Magistrates during the year 1902.

Summous for Defendants.

Search.

15

42

Warrants.

For entering gaming

houses.

Total.

64

Hongkong, March 21st, 1903.

E. R. HALLIFAX,

Police Magistrate, New Territory.

345

346

Apendix III.

NEW TERRITORY.

STATEMENT OF REVENUE FOR 1902.

$

C.

Fines,

Forfeitures,

1,052

65

48

35

Junk Licences,

11,949

80

Kerosine Oil Licences, &c.;.

84

00

Pawnbrokers' Licences,.

3,650

00

Spirit Licences,

9,667

06

Fishing Stakes and Station Licences,

2.001

00

Opium Divan,

Crown Rent,

Buildings,

Rent of Salt-pans,

70

00

Registration of Deeds,

65

00

6,287

10

74

00

2,660

92

Rent of Piers,

Lands not leased,

Stone Quarries,

Loose Boulders Permits,

420

00

3

00

3,425

00

3,078 15

Lease of Water Shoot at Lai Chi Kok,

800 03

$ 45,334

: 03

Personal Emoluments.

STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURE FOR 1902.

Other Charges.

Exchange Compensation.

$

Colonial Secretary's Department,

Public Works Department,

4,256 00 3,952

Harbour Master's Department,

4,198

Lighthouses,

#8888

$

65

90

570 | 00 337 50 7,301 | 13

6,075 00 3,215

Botanical and Afforestation Depart-

ment,

Medical Department,

Land Court,.

264 00 1,400 00 35,988 54

2,458 94

741

Police,

JOAAN *88815

C.

C.

Total.

$

92

874 21 1,829 98 879 28 3,429 22

5,700 21 6,120 13 12,379 31 12,720 14

62

50

5,466

70,478 46 24,796 86 11,190 32 106,460 64

8,349 67

2,722 94 2,141 49,804 71

པས་སྐར སྣུ©=g

C.

62

126,608 55 44,888

47 26,552 68

198,049 | 70

Miscellaneous Services.

Expenses of the New Territory,

Travelling Allowances,

Public Works Annually Recurrent.

Maintenance of Buildings,.

Do.

Telegraphs,

Miscellaneous Works,

Maintenance of Roads and Bridges,

Miscellaneous Services, ...

$ 3,141

C.

50

87 50

3,229 00

$

C.

7,775 36

1,485 72

303

76

1,369

00

519 79

$ 11,453 63

:

:

J

:

:

347

Public Works Extraordinary.

Taipo Road, 16 miles in length,

Survey of New Territory, Police Station, Sheung Shui,

Do.,

Tai 0,

C.

S 40,459 00 48,980; 28 9,389 02 15,108 10

$113,936 40

Abstract.

S

C.

Colonial Secretary's Department,

5,700 | 21

Public Works Department,

6,120 13

Harbour Master's Department,

12,379 31

Lighthouses,

12,720 14

Botanical and Afforestation Department,.

2,722 94

Medical Department,..

2,141 62

Land Court,

49,804

71

Police,

Miscellaneous Services,

103,460

64

3,229

00

Public Works Annually Recurrent, Public Works Extraordinary,

11,453

63

113,936 40

$ 326,668

73

به گیره

No. 261.

No. 66 of

1899.

No. 61 of 19th Feb., 1900.

SIR,

348

(Governor Sir Henry A. Blake to Secretary of State for the Colonies.)

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 21st May, 1903.

I have the honour to forward for your information a report on the New Terri- tory, for the year 1902.

2. The reports forwarded with my previous despatches mentioned in the margin 17th March, will have shown the steps taken from the hoisting of the British flag at Taipo on the 16th April, 1899. It will be remembered that on the taking over of the New Territory we found a population roused to a spirit of active antagonism by lying reports carefully disseminated apparently with the concurrence of the Chinese 12th August, Authorities. The attacks made upon our troops were easily defeated, and active hostilities ceased after two engagements, to be succeeded by a period of distrust, happily not of long duration.

No. 314 of

1901.

3. The district of San On, North of Kowloon Peninsula, leased to Great Britain under the Convention of 1898, has not enjoyed a good reputation. Armed robbery on shore and piracy in the surrounding waters were too common to excite comment locally, powerful clans levied tribute from outlying cultivators, and settled their differences with rival clans by a ready appeal to force without the intervention of any Chinese Official Might was right, and during the journey through the district of Mr. LOCKHART, then Colonial Secretary, after the suppression of the outbreak, the small villages expressed a hope that they would be protected against the bullying to which they were subjected by the larger villages,

4. The first thing to be done was to ensure peace and to generate as far as pos- sible among the inhabitants a feeling of personal security. Military posts were established on the frontier and commanding positions, and Military and Police co-operated in a system of patrols. The location of permanent Police Stations was determined, each Station being connected with Hongkong by telephone, and the division of New Territory into districts undertaken. The Territory was divided into eight districts, which were subdivided into forty-seven sub-districts, the village elders, who were the natural leaders of the people, being appointed district elders with judicial power to deal with petty cases in their several districts.

J

5. At the same time Mr. LOCKHART was given a general controlling power over these district courts with co-ordinate jurisdiction. I was under the impression that these powers would have been appreciated by the elders and that the Courts would have been resorted to: but as a matter of fact the elders displayed no anxiety to take the duties upon themselves, and from the beginning the community showed perfect confidence in Mr. LOCKHART, and subsequently in Mr. HALLIFAX, who is now acting as Police Magistrate in the New Territory, but whose practical work is more often that of an Arbitrator, whose decision is accepted without demur.

6. Taipo Hu, a small market town at the head of Tolo harbour in Mirs Bay, was selected as the most suitable position for headquarters, situated as it is in almost the centre of the Territory, and this position has now been connected with Kowloon Peninsula by an excellent road, with easy gradients, 18 miles in length, upon the construction of which $225,133 have been expended. This road obviates the necessity of communicating with Taipo Hu by sea, a sometimes rough and dangerous passage. I am considering the possibility of arranging for the further extension of roads in the New Territory by local co-operation and without expense to the general revenue.

The Right Honourable

JOSEPH CHAMBERLAIN, M.P.,

&C.,

&c.,

&c.

V

348a

7. Having established Police Stations, and arranged for the patrol of the territo- rial waters by Police launches to check armed robberies ashore and afloat, the ques- 4ion of Crown Rents and Taxes had next to be considered. The district is a poor one, and almost entirely dependent upon agriculture and fishing, and, north of the range of Kowloon Hills, the main source of revenue must for the present be the Crown Rent upon land. This necessitated a survey, and demarcation of the holdings, for which purpose a staff of Surveyors and Demarcators were obtained from India. At the same time a Land Court was established to deal with all claims and grant leases to those who could prove title by deeds, or, in the absence of adverse claim, by occupation. To understand the difficulties of the Demarcators it must be remembered that much of the cultivation is on hilly ground, the small rice plots, which must be perfectly flat to admit of periodical flooding when the rice is sown, being terraced in patches, some of which are but a few square yards in area. Up to the 31st March the total number of such farms demarcated was 283,975, while the total number of holdings for which claims have been presented to the Land Court was 219,517. In this Land Court I determined that Solicitors and Barristers should not have a right to appear without the special permission of the Court, as the claims were for small amounts and I felt that substantial justice would be done at the smallest cost to the claimants. In the performance of this duty, Mr. GOMPERTZ, Assistant Colonial Secretary, who has from the beginning been a Member of the Land Court, has done excellent work. His report, given in Appendix No. 2 forwarded with the report on the Territory for 1900, shows some of the difficulties that presented themselves in the settlement of these claims, and the attached map of a portion of the map of claims for the land and village of Sam Shui Po, in the Kowloon Peninsula, now before the Land Court, will further show how these claims overlap in apparently inextricable confusion. Here the assistance of Counsel has been permitted as the claims represent very large sums, the value of land south of the Kowloon range having enormously increased since the taking over of the Territory. An exemplification of this is given in the case of a portion of the shore of Devil's Peak Peninsula, west of Lyemun Pass. The claimant obtained about eleven years ago a right to about 127 acres for the purpose of establishing fishing ponds. The consideration was five dollars per annum. Having paid one or two years' rent he was five years in arrear when the first whisper was known that the land would probably be ceded to Great Britain, upon which rumour he paid the arrears, and in due course laid his claim before the Land Court, which confirmed his grant. The total amount paid by him was about thirty dollars. As soon as his claim was confirmed he sold it to a local company for fifty thousand dollars, as the bay, a portion of which is included in the claim, is suitable for the construction of a dock. I hope that the labours of the Land Court may be concluded by the end of this year, when Mr. GOMPERTZ will revert to his substantive appointment of Assistant Colonial Secretary.

8. The Revenue collected from the Territory during the year was $45,334.03. I question whether the revenue to be derived from Crown Rent at the rate fixed at present will exceed $60,000, so far as the New Territory is concerned, outside the portion between the Kowloon range of hills and the Harbour: but for this portion I look forward to a steady development as soon as the claims to the land have been settled. As will be seen in reference to Appendix No. 4 p. 19 of the report for- warded with my despatch No. 61 of 19th February, 1900, the right to alter the amount of Crown Rent there laid down for the three classes of cultivable land was reserved, but, having regard to the density of the population and their condition, I question whether any general increase will be found advisable. The area of the New Territory is about 370 square miles, of which the cultivated area is about 45,000 acres or 61 square miles. The estimated population is 100,000. Therefore, although the population shows but 270 persons per square mile of the total area, the population per square mile of cultivated area is 1,639, and while to the produce of the land must be added the result of the 'fishing, in which a considerable uumber of the inhabitants are engaged for a portion of the year, it is evident that, having regard to the density of the population, there can be but little taxable mar- gin in the absence of other than agricultural industries. Although up to the present the hills have not been utilised for pastoral purposes, I am not without hope that by the introduction of more succulent grasses the 200 square miles of now barren hills may be made to support cattle sufficient to supply the demands of Hongkong, now dependent upon the import of cattle from the North and West River-sources that recent action of the Governor of Kwang Si in prohibiting ex- port has shown to be somewhat precarious. The Botanical Department is at present

3486

examining into this question. For the improvement of agriculture, sugar canes have been imported from the Straits Settlements and Honolulu, and over eleven thousand plants distributed among the Chinese, and improved sugar mills have been introduced, while a wealthy and enterprising Chinese gentleman has established an experimental farm, in the conduct of which the Botanical Department is giving him assistance and advice.

J

9. The Expenditure was for the year 1901, $326,668.73, of which $163,741.11 was chargeable to the Land Court and Public Works Extraordinary-charges that will soon cease. It may, therefore, be roughly taken that the normal expenditure of the Territory will be about $162,000. With the certain development of New Kowloon and the probable improvement of the pastoral capabilities of the hills, I am of opinion that within seven or eight years the Revenue and Expenditure of the New Territory will quadrate, and later on the Territory will materially assist in the General Revenue.

10. So far no systematic geological examination has been made either of the mainland or of the large island of Lantao, but as a silver mine has been worked on the latter, it is possible that when the state of the revenue justifies the employ- ment of a Geologist, minerals may be found in payable quantities, in which event the congestion of the agricultural population would be relieved and new conditions established that would increase prosperity. At present our most serious difficulties are armed robberies on shore and afloat, which, though steadily diminishing, are still of too frequent occurrence. They are the most common offences in the Southern provinces, and, so far as I can learn, the Provincial Authorities do not attempt to deal with such cases until some village is reported as being specially notorious as harbouring robbers, when, if the Authorities do not consider them too strong, a force is sent out and as many as possible arrested or the village destroyed. But at this moment there are on the Canton Delta two towns well known as being the headquarters of organized gangs that commit the piracies of the West River. As however they can muster over one thousand fighting men, the Canton Viceroy does not dare to interfere with them. Such habits and customs cannot be con- trolled at once without a much larger Police force than we have at present, but the Police have, by a judicious system of patrolling, materially reduced the number of those offences, and a fair proportion of the perpetrators have been made amenable and are undergoing punishment, while the people, who were at first disinclined to appeal to the Police, now show a readiness to come forward and give assistance in the work of detection.

11. The education in the New Territory has up to the present been left in the hands of the village teachers; but a school is about to be established in the large village of Un Long in which English will be taught by a competent Chinese Master.

12. On the whole I consider the development of the New Territory satisfactory. There have been some difficulties experienced by the Public Works Department in carrying out their operations, but they have been surmounted without friction with the inhabitants, and without extravagance. The Taipo Road has opened up a beautiful country round the shores of Mirs Bay, free from the fog that make re- sidence on the Peak so trying in the spring and early summer, and eight to ten degrees cooler than Hongkong. It is probable that in years to come country houses will be built in this district, and other developments take place, that will conduce to the comfort and well being of the Colony.

I have, &c.,

HENRY A. BLAKE. Governor, etc.

HONGKONG.

No. 6

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE OBSERVATORY, FOR THE YEAR 1902.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

HONGKONG OBSERVATORY,

5th February, 1903.

1903

SIR,-In the absence of the Director on leave, I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Observatory to His Excellency the Governor. The eighteenth volume of observations was published last summer, and the nineteenth volume is now being printed. It contains the usual astronomical, meteorological and magnetic observations.

2. The comparison of weather forecasts, issued daily about 11 a.m., with the weather subsequently experienced, has been conducted on the same system as heretofore (comp. Annual Report for 1896 § 5). The results are as follows

Success 56%, partial success 35%, partial failure 8%, failure 1%.

Following the method used in meteorological offices and taking the sum of total and partial success as a measure of success, and the sum of total and partial failure as a measure of failure, it follows that :-

----

91% of the weather forecasts were successful in 1902.

3. The China Coast Meteorological Register was printed every morning at the Observatory, and information regarding storms was telegraphed to Hongkong and exhibited on notice-boards as often and as fully as such information could be justified by the weather telegrams received. This happened on 95 days in 1902. The Red Drum was hoisted 5 times, the Red South Cone twice, the Black Drum 3 times, the Black South Cone twice, the Black North Cone 3 times and the Black Ball once. The Typhoon Gun was fired 3 times. Printed Bulletins for general distribution were issued on 26 occasions. The distribution of the China Coast Meteorological Register has been extended, and since last summer it has been delivered free daily to all shipping firms.

4. His Honour the Commissioner of Wei-hai-wei has been good enough to cause meteorological observations to be made there twice daily, and by the courtesy of the Eastern Extension and Australasian Telegraph Company, these observations have been transmitted to the Observatory free by cable since November last.

5. The thanks of the Government are due to the Telegraph Companies, who continue to forward the meteorological telegrams from outports to Hongkong free of charge, and also to the staffs of the Eastern Extension and Australasian Telegraph Company at Sharp Peak, Malate, Iloilo, Bacolod and Cebu, who make and transmit observations twice daily.

6. Telegraphic connection with Victoria was interrupted as follows:-March 20th 10.26 a. to 2.30 P.; 28th 7.10 a. to April 2nd 10.40 a. ; 8th 8 a. to 10th 9.40 a.; 10th 1 p. to 12th 9.48 a.; 12th 11.40 a. to 13th 11. a.; May 27th 4.10 p. to 28th 3.45 p.; June 20th 1.21 p. to 4.51 p.; July 3rd 1.8 p. to 7.15 p.; 17th 11.10 a. to 12.15 p.; 19th 8.43 a. to 10.20 a.; August 2nd 6.13 p. to 4th 9.25 p.; 5th 10.45 a. to 12.3 p.; 6th 9.48 a. to 10.56 a.; 10th 7 a. to 6.24 p.; 12th 1.30

p. to 2.50 p.; 19th 7.10 a. to 10.25 a. ; 28th 3.30 p. to 5.15 p.; 29th 7.10 a. to 31st 10.40 a.; 31st 11.45 a. to 1 p.; September 6th 1.5 p. to 3 p.; 15th 1.25 p. to 3.45 p.; 16th 5.15 p. to 17th 8.15 a.; 17th 11.55 a. to 1.10 p.; 29th 7 8 a. to 11.15 a.; October 13th 9.21 a. to 10.50 a.; 25th 10.45 a. to 2.40 p.; November 11th 11.45 a. to 1.15 p. Interruptions occurred therefore on 39 days, and of course, also, during thunderstorms.

7. During 1902 in addition to meteorological registers kept at about 40 stations on shore, 1,253 ship logs have been copied on board or forwarded by the captains. The total number of vessels, whose log-books have been made use of, was 164. The total number of days' observations (counting separately those made on board different ships on the same day) was 9073.

8. The following is a list of ships, from which logs have been obtained in 1902. When not other- wise distinguished the vessels are steamships :-Ailsa Craig, Airlie, Alcinous, Alesia, Amara, Amphitrite H M.S.), Anamba, Apenrade, Ariake Maru, Australian, Awa Maru, Ballaarat, Banca, Bengal, Bisagno, Bjórn, Bombay, Bormida, Braemar, Calchas, Candia, Canton, Capri, Carl Diederichsen, Ceylon, Chelydra, Chihli, Chinkiang, Chingtu, Chiyo Maru, Chowtai, Choysang, Chunsang, Coptic, Corinthia, Coromandel, Cressy (H.M.S.), Diamante, Dott, Eastern, Elsa, Empress of China, Empress of India, Empress of Japan, Esang, Espiègle (H.M.S.), Fausang, Ferdinand Laeisz, Feronia, Fukui Maru, Gaelic, Glengyle, Guthrie, Hailoong, Hakata Maru, Hangsang, Heathburn, Hikosan Maru, Hillglen, Hinsang, Hitachi Maru, Hong Bee, Hongkong Maru, Ibadan, Indrani, Indrasamha, Indravelli, Java,

50-11 3.03.

30

Kachidate Maru, Kaifong, Kaisow, Kamakura Maru, Kanagawa Maru, Keongwai, Kintuck, Kiukiang, Kiushiu Maru, Knias Gortschakow, Kongbeng, Kowloon, Kumano Maru, Kumsang, Kutsang, Kwang Ping, Kónig Albert, Kónigsberg, Laisang, Laporte, Lena, Loongsang, Lothair (barque), Lyeemoon, Machew, Malacca, Manila, Mausang, McClellan (U.S.T.), Miike Maru, Mongkut, Namsang, Nanchang, Nankin, Nassovia, Ness, Nippon Maru, Nuentung, Ocean (H.M.S.), Olympia, Onsang, Orlando (H.M.S.), Oro, Pakhoi, Parramatta, Patroclus, Pax, Pekin, Pelayo, Petchaburi, Phra Chom Klao, Pingsuey, Pitsanulok, Polynésien, Preussen, Prima, Prins Valdemar, Prinz Heinrich, Prinz Regent Luitpold, Rajaburi, Rambler (H.M.S.), Rinaldo (H.M.S.), Romulus, Rosetta Maru, Rubi, Sado Maru, Salahadji, Salamanca, Sambia, Sandakan, Sanuki Maru, Savoya, Shanghai, Shantung, Singapore, Skuld, Sleipner, Stentor, Strassburg, Suevia, Suisang, Taichiow, Taisang, Taiwan, Taksang, Tingsang, Tordenskjold, Tosa Maru, Tsurugisan Maru, Vale of Doon (barque), Wakasa Maru, Wongkoi, Yarra, Yawata Maru, Yuensang, Zafiro.

9. The entry of observations made at sea in degree squares for the area between 9° South and 45° North latitude, and between the longitude of Singapore and 180° East of Greenwich for the construction of trustworthy pilot charts, has been continued by Miss DOBERCK and 260,692 in all have now been entered.

Table I.

Meteorological Observations entered in 10° Squares from 1893-1902 inclusive.

Square

number.

Jan.

Feb.

March. April.

May.

June. July. August. Sept.

Oct.

Nov. Dec.

19

1

9

0

0

5

20

50

44

12

57

22

10

12

130

Ι

0

0

1

0

40

29

24

21

44

42

48

40

40

0

12

15

7

31

37

49

22

8

17

15

31

40

25

31

17

27

5

2

23

239

305

104

68

26

1

103

86

34

155

89

218

24

515

391

463

438

375

314

650

544

404

525

638

479

25

296

225

190

193

211

192

249

227

198

439

493

364

26

3182

2797

3361

3440

3674

3708

3826

1042

3786

3799

3372

3208

27

0

0

4

5

5

13

6

8

11

5

4

14

55

22

37

26

20

27

45

29

30

20

10

11

23

56

23

59

30

15

34

40

48

52

16

33

26

20

57

62

89

48

76

52

34

62

39

12

54

29

45

58

79

94

108

66

75

74

51

69

18

33

86

76

59

147

164

157

60

82 107

111

101

19

113

165

131

60

326

372

345

219

311

283

422

340

193

274 262

261

61

3520

3054

3644

3432

4057

4220

4392

4408

4279

4374

4099

3641

62

1970

1925

2181

2116

2274

2344

2182

2195

2211

2114

2030

2000

63

36

45

48

52

58

72

51

46

49

57

38

35

91

73

100

54

113

24

35

36

46

39

68

141

102

92

85

116

59

111

35

16

27

23

38

42

133

100

93

67

95

41

62

7

26

4

27

37

49

94

82

94

71

63

77

101

70

96

74

38

34

21

160

71

95

95

127

71

112

100

65

88

65

55

106

85

141

96

2148

1976

2043

1995

2359 2317

2398

2253

2048

2246

2106

2041

97

940

927 1088

967

992

1108 1053

1053

1075

1118

1151

1044

98

306

291

291

321

377

385

417

419

401

395

388

348

127

181

91

150

118

97

124

160

125

143

168

134

133

128

196

106

161

137

130

164

188

185

158

223

165

168

129

230

128

217

209

163

219

209

220 203

236

233

216

130

582

455

574

516

651

648

738

675

515

640

673 570

131

556 503

530

575

612

657

751

850

534

570

591

-508

132

1773

1651

2183

2535

2888

2909

3219

2955 2614

2694

2594

1859

133

0

0

122

107

158

177

178

127

119

153

124

20

163

171

162

189 260

244

286

277

303

241

253

234

151

164

283

212

289

368

332

448

399

428

404

358

329

213

165

329

231

284

327

420

446

449

455

428

350

364

255

166

117

70

99

117

144

147

160

127

177

155

119

92

167

19

13

21

64

78

124

148

165

96

76

£3

168

1

7

14

12

12

12

7

14

12

0

169

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

170

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

199

57

37

52

82

67

72

69

58

85

77

200

12

5

1

4

201

0

0

0

'202

203

Ο

318

1

21

0

15

319

52

42

55

24

·1

OONPO

2

0

19

∞ONNO

8

23

0

2

1

2

1

9

2

100

0-

27

ONOOHOON

0

0

70

52

13

1

0

11

30

.

-

31

Table I.-Continued.

Square

number.

L

Jan.

Feb. Mar.

April. May.

June. July. August. Sept.

Oct.

Nov. Dec.

320

7

16

26

23

51

21

10

7

30

2

10

321

0

1

0

14

19

15

2

15

20

22

18

14

- 322

53

31

41

60

84

70

79

60

85

82

64

41

323

461

262

361

243

248

187

312

238

232

256

306

334

324

404

322

230

145

100

111

155

174

266

374

449

387

325

357

305

362

448

463

505

582

619

655

480

110

344

326

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

. 20144 18026

20450 20519 22262 22922

24480 23950 22015

23361 22645

19918

10. As stated in the "Instructions for making Meteorological Observations, etc.," meteorological instruments forwarded by observers who regularly send their registers to the Observatory are verified here free of cost. During the past year 1 barometer and 2 aneroids were verified. In addition, several hundred barometers and aneroids on board ship were compared with our standard.

11. In 1902, the number of transits observed was 2,842. The axis of the transit instrument was levelled 235 times and the azimuth and collimation errors, which are less liable to variation, were determined 20 times by aid of the meridian mark. The whole of the observations have been made and reduced by Mr. J. I. PLUMMER and are now ready for the press.

12. The standard sidereal clock by DENT continues to give perfect satisfaction and has undergone no alteration during the year. The platinum points of the contact springs were cleaned once only, viz., on September 30. The expectation mentioned in the last annual report that the going of the Brock Clock would be improved by the alterations effected in 1901 has not been realized. The time- ball clock and the chronograph are in good condition, the latter having been cleaned on March 18th.

13. The errors of the time-ball are given in Table II. The ball is not dropped on Sundays nor Government holidays. There was one failure in 1902, viz., on July 5, owing to a defective cell in the clock circuit, and on two days, viz., on July 18 and August 12, it was deemed inadvisable to hoist the ball in the prevalence of bad weather. On August 5 and 6 the line was under repair having been broken down in the typhoon of August 2. The ball was dropped

The ball was dropped successfully 293 times in 1902. The probable error was in January 0.10, in February±0.09, in March ±0.09, in April±0.15, in May±0.18, in June±0.15, in July ±0.14, in August±0.09 in, September ± 0.09, in October±0.09, in November ±0.13 and in December ±0.15.

Table II.

Errors of Time-Ball in 1902.

means too late.

+ means too early.

Date.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar. April. May.

June. July. August. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

1 2 30 TH 10 COD

1

0.1

0.1 +0.7

...

+0.7

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

-0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

-0.2

+0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

9

0.1

0.1

10

0.1

0.1

-0.2

11

0.1

0.1

0.1 -0.3

12

0.1

0.1 -0.2

13

0.1

0.1

0.1

14

0.1

0.1

0.1 -0.3

15

0.1

0.1

0.1

16

0.1

17

0.1

0.1

0.1

18

+0.2

0.1

0.1

19

0.1

0.1

eeeeee:

282 1823833 18383333

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

+0.8

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

+0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1 +0.3

0.1

0.1

0.1

+0.5

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

...

.0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

+0.3

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

+0.5

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

+0.6

0.1 +0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

+0.3

0.1

0.1

+0.3

0.1

+0.5

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

-0.2

0.1 +0.6

0.1

0.1

0.1

+0.4

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

-0.3

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

+0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

+0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

+0.2

!

20

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

-0.3

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

21

-0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

-0.5

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

22

-0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

23

0.1

0.1

0.1

-0.4

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

24

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1 +0.2

0.1

-0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

25

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

-0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

26

0.1

0.1 -0.2 +0.4

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

...

27

0.1

0.1

0.1

+0.4

0.1

-0.3

28

0.1

0.1

0.1 +0.5

0.1

-0.2

0.1

29

0.1

0.1 +0.6

-0.2

0.1

...

30

0.1

31

0.1

0.1 +0.7 +0.7

0.1

-0.2

0.1

22:

0.1

0.1

0.1

22222

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

+0.3

0.1

+0.2

0.1

0.1

:

32

14. The cisterns of the barograph and standard barometers are placed 109 feet above M.S.L. The bulbs of the thermometers are rotated 108 feet above M.S.L., and 4 feet above the grass. The solar radiation thermometer is placed at the same height. The rim of the rain-gauge is 105 feet above M.S.L., and 21 inches above the ground.

15. The monthly Weather Reports are arranged as follows:-

Table I. exhibits the hourly readings of the barometer reduced to freezing point of water, but not to sea level nor for gravity, as measured (at two minutes to the hour named) from the barograms.

Tables II. and III. exhibit the temperature of the air and of evaporation as determined. by aid of rotating thermometers. Table II. exhibits also the extreme temperatures reduced to rotating thermometer by comparisons of thermometers hung beside them. Table III. exhibits also the solar radiation (black bulb in vacuo) maximum temperatures reduced to Kew arbitrary standard.

Table IV. exhibits the mean relative humidity in percentage of saturation and mean tension of water vapour present in the air in inches of mercury, for every hour of the day and for every day of the month, calculated by aid of BLANFORD'S tables from the data in Tables II, and III.

Table V. exhibits the duration of sunshine expressed in hours, from half an hour before to

half an hour after the hour (true time) named.

Table VI. exhibits the amount of rain (or dew) in inches registered from half an hour before

to half an hour after the hour named. It exhibits also the observed duration of rain. Table VII. exhibits the velocity of the wind in miles and its direction in points (1-32.) The velocity is measured from half an hour before to half an hour after the hour named, but the direction is read off at the hour.

Table VIII. exhibits the amount (0—10),

-10), name (Howard's classification), and direction whence coming of the clouds. Where the names of upper and lower clouds are given, but only one direction, this refers to the lower clouds. With regard to the names of clouds; nimbus (nim) is entered only when the rain is seen to fall; when no rain is seen to fall cumulo-nimbus (cum-nim) is entered. This name indicates clouds intermediate between cum and nim. Cumulo-stratus (cum-str) is the well-known thunder cloud, while strato-cumulus (str-cum) signifies a cloud intermediate between stratus and cum. Sm-cum means alto-cumulus.

Table IX. exhibits for every hour in the day, the mean velocity of the wind reduced to 4 as well as 2 directions, according to strictly accurate formulæ, and also the mean direction of the wind.

Below this is printed a list of the phenomena observed.

16. The following annual Weather Report for 1902 is arranged as follows:-

Table III. exhibits the mean values for the year (or hourly excess above this) obtained from the monthly reports. The total duration of rain was 678 hours. There fell at least 0.01 inch of rain on 132 days.

Table IV. exhibits the number of hours during a portion of which at least 0.005 inch of

rain (or dew) was registered.

Table V. exhibits the number of days with wind from eight different points of the compass. The figures are obtained from the mean daily directions in Table VII. of the monthly reports. Days with wind from a point equidistant from two directions given, are counted half to one of these and half to the other, e.g., half of the days when the wind was NNE are counted as N, and the other half as NE.

Table VI. exhibits the number of days on which certain meteorological phenomena were registered, and also the total number of thunderstorms noted in the neighbourhood during the past year.

Table VII. shows the frequency of clouds of different classes.

Table VIII. is arranged as last

year.

Table IX. exhibits the monthly and annual extremes.

Table X. contains five-day means.

i

33

17. The observations of magnetic declination and horizontal force published in tables XI. and XII. were made with magnet No. 55 on Kew pattern unifilar magnetometer ELLIOT BROTHERS No. 55. The dips were observed with dip-circle Dover No. 71.

The methods adopted in making observations and in determining and applying the corrections are explained in Appendix G of Observations and Researches made in 1885-"On the verification of the Unifilar magnetometer ELLIOT BROTHERS No. 55." The value of log 2K used was 3.44907 at 25°. The value of P was 7.04. The mean value of the magnetic moment of the vibrating needle was

577.27.

W

The times of vibration exhibited in Table XII. are each derived from 12 observations of the time occupied by the magnet in making 100 vibrations, corrections having been applied for rate of chrono- meter and arc of vibration.

The observations of horizontal force given in Table XIII., are expressed in C.G.S. units. The vertical and total forces have been computed by aid of the observed dips.

The Honourable

The Colonial Secretary

&c.,

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

&c.,

&c.

F. G. FIGG,

Acting Director.

Table III.

Mean Values and Hourly Excess above the mean of Meteorological Elements in 1902.

Mean or

1 a.

2 a. 3 a.

4 a.

5 a.

6 a.

7 a.

8 a.

9 a.

10 a. 11 a.

Noon.

1 p.

2 p.

3 p.

4 p.

5. p.

6 p.

7 P.

8 p.

9 p.

10 p.

11 p.

Midt.

Total.

-.016 +.001 +.013 +.021 +.020 +.013

Pressure,

Temperature,...

1.5

+.001 -007 -014 1.7

1.9

2.2

2.1

-.016-011 +.002 +.018 +.032 +.043 +.014 +.034 2.0 1.6 0.6 +0.5 + 1.4 + 2.1

+.014 →.009 + 2.5 + 2.5

.029

+ 2.4

Diurnal Range..........

...

Humidity,

Vapour Tension,

+ 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 + 3 + 4 + +.011 +.009 +.005 +.001 -001 -.006

1

3

6

8

$

7

..003

.011 015 .018 .016

Sunshine (Total)

3.5

60.5

126.9

Rainfall (Total),

4.740 3.495

2.185

Hours of Rain (Total),

33

33

86

Intensity of Rain,

0.144

0.090

0.01

8.115

39

0.030

6.110 4.250

2,585

3.725

39

41

37

0.157 0.104

0,070

32

0.116

169.0 186.2 199.0 5.165 4.340 4.710 41 33 .31 0.126 0.121 0.139 0.173

Wind-Velocity,.

1.1

1.4

1.1

1,3

P

1.4

1.1

0.1 + 1.2 + 1.7 +3.2 + 2.2

5.570

33

0.169

+ 2.2

7 6 .014 -.010 .006 ..008 203.2 203.8 213.2 211.7 6.740

39

5

.012-.045 -040 + 2.3 +2.0 + 1.2

3

.000 +.001 +.003 204.8 132.7 21.1

-.030

+ 0.4

29.858

0.1

0.3

B

0.5

0.6

1.1

1.3

73.4

8.6

1

+ 1 + 2 + 3 +.008 +.010 +.014

+ 4 + 5 + 6 +.017 +.018 +.015

76

0.654

1938.6

4.725

4.255

4.765

5.075

4.370

3.255

30

32

0.133

Wind- Direction,

Cloudiness,

Solar Radiation, Excess of do.

49

50

29

10

+ 1

100

11°

70

I

60

+ 5

0.157 + 2.3 + 2.0 + 1.7 +0.8 1°

1o + 3° + 7° +10° 12° 12° 11° + 8o + + õ + 4 0

28

0.170

28

0.181

25

0.175

28

2.345

23

2.645

23

0.142

q

0.4

5o + 1°

1,0

0·102

1.5

0.115

2.270

28

0.081

3.645

27

3.410

97.500

30

776

0.135

1.6

1.1

30

30

1.6

40

0.114

Mag

-1.0

0.126

12.3

5o

E 8° S

8

63

123.9

45.7

:

Table IV.

Number of Hours during a portion of which it rained for each Month in the Year 1902.

10 p. 11 p. Midt Total.

34 -

8

0

2

24