Sessional Papers - 1902

PAPERS LAID BEFORE THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL OF HONGKONG 1902

Table of Contents

1. Assessment

Report for 1902-1903

2. Belilos Reformatory

Statement Regarding

3. Blue Book for 1901

Report Ou

4. Botanical and afforestation

Report for 1901

5. Chair and Jinricksha Coolies

Despatch on

6. City of Bombay Improvement act, 1898

Extract from

7. Collapsed Houses

List of

8. Education

Report of Committee on

9. Education

Report for 1901

10. Education - Queen's College

Report for 1901

11. Estimates for 1903

Memorandum on Draft of

12. Financial Returns

Report for 1901

13. Financial Statement

In Connection With Estimates for 1903

14. Fire Brigade

Report for 1901

15. Gaol

Report for 1901

16. Harbour Master

Report for 1901

17. Housing of Populations of Hongkong

Report on

18. Immunity of Chinese in Cape Colony from infections of Plague

Correspondence Regarding

19. Kowloon Waterworks Gravitation Scheme

Correspondence Regarding

20. Legislative Council

Proceedings of the

21. Medical

Report for 1901

22. Medical Department Staff

Report of Committee of inquiry into adequacy of

23. New Post office

Papers Regarding

24. New Territory

Report for 1901

25. Observatory

Report for 1901

26. Plague Prevention

Memoranda on

27. Po Leung Kuk

Report for 1901

28. Police

Report for 1901

29. Post office

Report for 1901

30. Professor Simpson's Recommendations

Reference Table to

31. Public Works

Report for 1901

32. Public Works Department

Report of Commission of inquire into

33. Registrar General

Report for 1901

34. Sanitary

Report for 1901

35. Sanitary Condition of Hongkong

Report on

36. Sanitary Condition of Hongkong

Report for 1901

37. Sanitation

Statement Showing action Taken to Give Effect to Mr. Chadwick's Recommendations

38. School for European Children amd School for Chinese of Upper Classes

Correspondence Regarding

39. Sewerage and Drainage of Hongkong

Report on

40. Sterling Salaries

Papers on introduction of

41. Subordinate Court Returns

For 1901

42. Supreme Court Returns

For 1901

43. Volunteer Corps, Hongkong

Report for 1901

44. Water account

Statement of for 1901

45. Water Storage Capacity in Hongkong and Kowloon

Replies to Questins in Council

46. Water Supply of Hongkong

Report on

47. Widows and Orphans' Pensionfund

Despatch on Rate of Exchange for Payment of in England

48. Windows and Orphans' Pension Fund

Report for 1901

 

}

773

No.

39 1902

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE ASSESSMENT, FOR THE YEAR 1902-1903.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

ASSESSOR'S OFFICE, HONGKONG, 22nd July, 1902.

SIR, I have the honour to submit my Report on the Assessment for the

year 1902-1903. 2. The City of Victoria. The result of the new Valuation is that the Rateable Value of the City of Victoria is, in the list which came into force on the 1st instant, $6,945,115 as compared with last year's (1901-1902) Assessment, $5,969,765-an increase in Rateable Value of $975,350, equivalent to 16.34 per cent.

3. The Hill District.-The Rateable Value of the Hill District is now $193,990 against $164,490 last year-an increase of $29,500 or 17.93 per cent.

4. Hongkong Villages.-The Rateable Value of the Hongkong Villages has been raised from $199,281 to $220,453—an increase of $21,172 or 10.62 per cent.

5. Kowloon Point.-The Rateable Value of the Kowloon Point or Tsim Tsa Tsui District has increased from $178,067 to $289,945-a difference of $111,878 equal to 62.83 per cent.

6. Kowloon Villages.-The Rateable Value of the Villages comprising the remainder of British Kowloon is now $517,830 as compared with $378,149 last year-an increase of $139,681 or 36.94 per cent.

7. The Whole Colony.-The Rateable Value of the whole Colony is now $8,167,333 as compared with last year's Assessment of $6,889,752—an increase of $1,277,581 or 18.54 per cent.

8. Interim Valuations.-During the period from 1st July, 1901, to 1st June, 1902, Interim Valuations have been made as follows:-

In the City of Victoria.

438 new and/or rebuilt tenements, rateable value,

173 improved tenements, rateable value,

·

.$583,540

Replacing Assessments, amounting to

.$190,755

117,200

73,555

657,095

189 Assessments cancelled, tenements pulled down, or being in other respects not

rateable,

156,335

Increase in City of Victoria,

.$500,760

In the Rest of the Colony.

431 new and/or rebuilt tenements, rateable value,

.$208,758

5 improved tenements, rateable value,

..$890

Replacing Assessments, amounting to

300

590

209,348

104 Assessinents cancelled, tenements pulled down, or being in other respects not

rateable,

Increase in the Rest of the Colony,...

The total number of tenements affected by Interim Valuations being 1,340.

27,661

..$181,687

50-5.8.02.

774

9. Vacant Tenements.-The number of reported vacant tenements in the City of Victoria inspected under section 35 of the Rating Ordinance averaged about 176 monthly against 103 last year.

10. Tabular Statements.-The usual tabular statements giving comparisons of the Valuation for 1901-1902 and the new Valuation for 1902-1903 are attached.

11. Staff. The services of Mr. CHAN U CHIU, Interpreter, and his successor Mr. CHEUNG SHIU HUN were dispensed with during the year, Mr. CHEUNG LAI KAM now occupying the post.

Mr. CHAPMAN returned from leave on 27th November, 1901, and left again for England in charge of the Coronation Contingent of Volunteers on 14th May last.

The members of the Staff, with the exception of the two first mentioned, have discharged their duties to my satisfaction, particularly Mr. CHEUNG YUK FAI who has shown much energy and zeal in the performance of his duties.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

The Honourable

A. M. THOMSON,

No.

Colonial Treasurer.

District.

Table A.

THE CITY OF VICTORIA.

DAVID WOOD,

Acting Assessor.

Valuation 1901-1902.

Valuation 1902-1903.

Increase.

Percentage.

%

1

Kennedy Town,

122,620

131,215

8,595

2

Shek Tong Tsui,..

258,365

324,025

65,660

3

Sai Ying Pun,

1,324,775

1,531,915

207,140

4

Tai Ping Shan,

537,005

559,110

22,105

5

Sheung Wan,

752,585

945,860

194,275

Chung Wan,

2,228,270

2,539,410

311,140

7

Ha Wan,

282,935

331,700

48,765

Wan Tsai,

279,640

368,070

88,430

9

Bowrington,

62,305

· 84,435

22,130

10

Soo Kon Poo,

121,265

128,375

7,110

*A

5,969,765

6,945,115

975,350

16.34

Table B.

THE HILL DISTRICT AND HONGKONG VILLAGES.

District.

Valuation 1901-1902.

Valuation 1902-1903.

Increase.

Percentage.

$

%

The Hill District,

164,490

193.990

29,500

17.93

Hongkong Villages,............

199,281

220,453

21,172

10.62

363,771

414,443

50,672

13.93

Kowloon Point,..

Kowloon Villages,....

District.

Table C.

KOWLOON POINT AND KOWLOON VILLAGES.

*

775

Valuation. 1901-1902.

Valuation 1902-1903.

Increase.

Percentage.

O/

%

178,067

289,945

111,878

62.83

378,149

517,830

139,681

36.94

556,216

807,775

251,559

45.23

Table D.

THE COLONY OF HONGKONG.

Valuation

District.

1901-1902.

Valuation 1902-1903.

Increase.

Percentage.

$4

O

The City of Victoria,

5,969,765

6,945,115

975,350

16.34

Hill District and Hongkong Villages,

363,771

414.443

50,672

13.93

Kowloon Point and Kowloon Villages,

556,216

807,775

251,559

45.23

6,889,752

8,167,333

1,277,581

18.54

95

No.

1902

HONGKONG.

STATEMENT REGARDING BELILIOS REFORMATORY.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

One child has been accommodated in the Belilios Reformatory from the date upon which it was opened up to the present day. There are no young criminals now resident there.

The total cost in respect of the one inmate was nil, as he only remained in the building a very

short time. .

The amount expended on the Reformatory up to date is as follows:

(a.) Maintenance of buildings, furniture, &c.,

(b.) Emoluments of officers connected with the institution,

.$ 606.99 2,781.42

Total,

..$3,388.41

As there has been only one inmate of the Reformatory since it was first started, the Committee appointed by Sir HENRY BLAKE to enquire into educational questions has been requested to consider and report what should be done as regards the Reformatory. The Report of the Committee has not yet been received. When the Government is in possession of its views, steps will be taken without delay to deal with the question. Though the Master and Assistant Master have had nothing to do in the Reformatory, they have not been idle. They have been and are now employed by the Govern- ment in other Departments. Mr. CURWEN, the Master, was for several months attached for special work to the Colonial Secretary's Office, and is now in the Postmaster General's Department. Mr. BULLIN, the Assistant Master, has been provisionally appointed First Clerk in the Registrar General's Office. The money expended on account of their salaries has not therefore been wasted.

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE BLUE BOOK FOR 1901.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

No. 390.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 29th August, 1902.

SIR,-I have the honour to submit the following general Report in connection with the Blue Book for 1901.

I.-FINANCES.

The Revenue for the year 1901, exclusive of Land Sales, was $3,973,578, or $636,523 more than the estimate; inclusive of Land Sales the total revenue was $4,213,893. The Expenditure, exclusive of the cost of Public Works Extraordinary, was $3,723,249, or $455,317 more than the estimate; including the heavy outlay on Public Works Extraordinary, the total expenditure was $4,111,722. There was thus an excess of Revenue over Expenditure of $102,171.

The sources of Revenue which proved most productive and were chiefly res- ponsible for the excess of actual over estimated receipts were the opium monopoly, the assessed taxes, chair and jinricksha and some other forms of licences, the Post Office, and stone quarries.

The items which yielded a smaller sum than the estimate were not numerous, and represented no very large amounts, with the exception of the item of New Territory Land Revenue, from which a sum of $140,000 had been anticipated and only $28,783 received. This return, however, compares well with that of 1900, when only $1,300 was collected from this source. As has already been pointed out in New Territory Reports, the difficulties in connection with the settlement of land claims make the collection of Crown Rent a slow process.

The figures quoted above do not represent the whole of the revenue derived from the New Territory during 1901, as they do not include its share in the consi- derable increases to general Revenue derived from the opium monopoly and other miscellaneous sources.

The amount realised from land sales was much less than that realised in 1900. In that year more than $816,000 was received from this source; in 1901 only $240,315, or nearly $160,000 less than the estimate.

(4.)-GENERAL REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.

The following is a brief abstract of the heads of Revenue and Expenditure for 1900 and 1901 :-

801

No. 44

1902

REVENUE.

1900.

1901.

Increase.

Decrease.

$

$

$

Light Dues,

Licences and Internal Revenue not other-

wise specified,

Fees of Court, &c.,

Post Office,

Rent of Government Property,

Interest, ...

2,270,145.69 295,386.11 284,453.22 325,603.33 355,912.74 482,777.27 555,469.58

1.14.

Miscellaneous,

Water Account,

Land Sales,

238,910.74 280,100.36 151,034.87 169,119.45 816,222.92 240,315.06

55,379.38 58,375.98

2,996.60

1,847,272.78

422,872.91

932.89

30,309.41 72,692 31

1.14

41,189.62

18,034.58

575,907.86

Total,....

4,202,587.40 4,213,893.22

588,146.57 576,840.75

Deduct Decrease, .

576,840.75

Nett Increaes,..

$11,305.82

50-8.9.02.

802

EXPENDITURE.

Charge on account of Public Debt, Pensions, Departmental Expenditures,

Military Contribution, &c., Public Works Extraordinary,

1900.

1901.

Increase.

Decrease.

$ 153,363.07

$5

$

162,363.84

9,000.77

559,007.43

84,732.84

3,001,878.17 3,560,885.60 473,205.89 388,473.05

3,628,447.134,111,722.49

568,008.20 84,732.84

Deduct Decrease,

84,732.84

Nett Increase,..

$483,275.36

Revenue for 1901,

$4,213,893.22.

Expenditure for 1901,......................... 4,111,722.49

Surplus............$102,170.73.

TOTAL REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE FOR THE FIVE YEARS 1897-1901.

Revenue, Expenditure,

Surplus,

1897

1898.

1899.

1900.

1901.

$

$

$ 2,686,914.70 2,918,159.24 3,610,143:25 4,202,587.40 4,213,893.22 2,641,409.71 2,841,805.20 3,162,792.36 3,628,447.134,111,722.49

45,504.99 76,354.04 447,340.89 574,140:27 102,170.731

(b)-ASSETS AND LIABILITIES.

At the end of the year under review the total Assets of the Colony amounted to $2,023,581.60, and the Liabilities to $987,058.06, thus leaving a credit balance of $1,036,523.54 not including certain arrears of Revenue amounting to $61,132.

(c.)—PUBLIC DEBT.

The nature of the loans contracted by the Colony and the conditions govern- ing their repayment may be ascertained by reference to I (D) of the Blue Book Report for 1898,. page 3.

LOAN ACCOUNT.

Dr.

· Cr.

To Inscribed Stock Loan at 3% interest, to be

paid off on the 15th April, 1943,

£341,799.15.1 By Sinking Fund

£20,363.12.8

3

II. TRADE, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES, AGRICULTURE, AND LAND.

(4.)-TRADE AND SHIPPING.

The following table shows the principal articles of import in the year 1901 in vessels of European construction, compared with similar returns for 1900. The figures represent the tonnage:-

Aricles.

1900.

1901.

Increase.

Decrease.

Beans,

560.

Coal,

1,045,812

1,290 917,144

730

128,668

Cotton Yarn and Cotton,

19,993

14,423

5,570

Flour,.....

154,111

145,287

8,824

Hemp,

54,105

31,195

...

22,910

Kerosine, (bulk),

64,732

70,728-

5,996

(case),

69,979

77,977

7,998

Liquid Fuel,

2,759

3,973

1,214

Lead,

2,350.

260.

2,090

Opium,

3.194

2,872

322

Rattan,

10,204

3,488

6,716

Rice,

673,029

618,780

54,249

Sandalwood,

3,811

5,27,2

1,461

Sulphur,

22

55

33.

Sugar,

238,863

241,291

2,428

Tea,

6,393

1,473

4,920

Timber,

82,311

66,860

15,451

General,

1,172,094

1,278,619

106,525

Total,..

3,604,322

3,480,987

126,385

249,720

Transit,

2,143,749

2,134,585

9,164

Grand Total,......... 5,748,071

5,615,572

126,385

258,884

Nett...

132,499

There was a considerable decrease in coal imports as compared with 1900, but the amount imported in 1900 was far above the average. The coal imports for 1898, also, were stated to have been abnormally large, but the returns for last year show an increase as compared with that year of nearly 100,000 tons.

The principal features to be remarked in the reported trade of the Port for the year 1901 are:-

(i.) A decrease in the Coal imports of 12.3%. (ii.) A decrease in the Cotton imports of 27.8%. (iii.) A decrease in the Rice imports of 8%. (iv.) A decrease in the Timber imports of 18.7%. (v.) A decrease in the Hemp imports of 42.3%.

(vi.) An increase in the General imports of 9.8%.

(vii.) Also small increases in case and bulk Kerosine and in Liquid Fuel.

The nett decrease in import cargo is 123,335 tons or 3.4 %.

In exports there appears to be an increase of 150,823 tons or 7.7 %.

In transit cargo, a decrease of 9,163 tons or 10.4%.

In the interior

The Import Trade was very depressed throughout the year. of China there was much poverty, and trade was hampered by unauthorised exactions on goods beyond the confines of the Treaty Ports. The fall in the exchange of silver and the high values ruling on the home markets-especially in raw cotton and al cotton fabrics-also militated severely against this branch of trade.

803

804

4

The Opium Trade was far from prosperous during the past year.

In the Bengal drug, owing to large stocks early in the season and a declining exchange in the latter half of the year, the business done, though considerable, was productive of loss to both importers and native dealers. The demand for Malwa was poor and disappointing, and the prices obtained left no margin for profit. Owing to the Formosan Government being practically the only buyer of superior Persian, the rates for this drug fell from $825 per picul, the opening quotation, to $640 per picul in the latter end of the year.

As regards the trade in Indian Cotton yarn, the year under review shows a decidedly marked improvement over the previous twelve months.

The Imports to Hongkong and Shanghai, which showed a shrinkage of close upon 60 per cent. in 1900, increased again over 100 per cent. during the past twelve months, whilst sales in Hongkong showed an excess of 45,715 bales and those in Shanghai of 69,083 bales.

A great and important movement has taken place which has opened the whole of the markets of inland China to the world. Manufacturers on the spot will cer- tainly be unable, at least for some time, to meet the greatly increased demand which will thus be occasioned; and in the meantime India may fairly hope to reap some share of the harvest, more especially if Lekin-a veritable millstone round the neck of this trade-is effectually removed.

The following figures are of interest :—

COMPARATIVE TABLES OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS AND REPORTEDŜALES OF INDIAN GREY YARN EFFECTED IN HONGKONG AND SHANGHAI DURING THE YEARS 1876 TO 1901.

Imports

to

Direct shipments

Total

Imports to

from India

Year.

Hongkong

to Shanghai

China and

from India.

and Japan.

Japan.

Total Sales

effected

in

Hongkong.

Total sales

in

Shanghai.

Bales.

Bales.

Bales.

Bales.

Bales.

1876

17,598

17,598

6,758

1877

30,288

30,289

17,806

1878

37,799

37,799

30,031

1879

47,338

6,721

54,059

42,093

1880

60,265

3,980

64,245

49,571

1881

55,705

7,834

63,539

54,411

1882

82,286

6,458

88,744

77,945

1883

97,200

16,514

113,714

89,889

1884

137,075

12.858

149,933

112,450

1885

150,221

27.954

178,175

147,894

1886

175,291

50,089

225,380

142,974

1887

178,790

88,435

267,225

182,152

1888

187,368

90,242

277,610

182,198

1889

225,457

104,850

330,307

197,941

55,401

1890

209,689

167,353

377,042

187,330

104,016

1891

218,732

171,130

389,862

161,504

134,337

1892

237,569

186,305

423,874

219,189

154,386

1893

207,935

119,625

327,560

171,491

112,786

1894

237,260

146,121

384,381

169,117

129,938

1895

257,803

144,250

402,053

213,854

120,911

1896

256,367

244,376

500,743

215,375

151,935

1897

279,412

167,623

447,035

187,948

117,861

1898

,308,978

168.467

477,445

221,144

147,678

1899

315,369

288,307

603,676

205,441

167,860

1900

153,610

110,409

264,019

152,277

125,796

1901

291,885

228,688

520,573

197,992

194,879

SHIPPING.

The total tonnage entering and clearing during the year 1901 amounted to 19,325,384 tons, being an increase, compared with 1900, of 880,248 tons, and the same in excess of any previous year. Of this increase, 165,128 tons are due to the

5

fact that steam launches trading to ports outside the Colony have been included this year, whereas in former years they have been returned separately.

There were 45,349 arrivals of 9,681,203 tons, and 45,171 departures of 9,644,181 tons.

Of British Ocean-going tonnage, 2,917,780 tons entered, and 2,897,200 tons cleared.

Of British River Steamers, 1,697,242 tons entered, and 1,701,417 tons cleared, making a grand total of British tonnage of 9,213,639 tons entering and clearing.

Of Foreign Ocean-going tonnage, 2,637,552 tons entered, and 2,609,902 tons cleared.

Of Foreign River Steamers, 48,545 tons entered, and 49,503 tons cleared, making a grand total of Foreign tonnage of 5,345,430 tons entering and clearing.

Of Steam Launches trading to ports outside the Colony, 82,564 tons entered, and 82,564 tons cleared.

Of Junks in Foreign Trade, 1,631,272 tons entered, and 1,634,896 tons cleared.

Of Junks in Local Trade, 666,248 tons entered, and 668,699 tons cleared.

Thus-

British Ocean-going tonnage represented..

Foreign Ocean-going

""

,,

""

River

River

""

""

Steam launches

""

>>

Junks (Foreign Trade)

""

(Local Trade)

""

""

.30.1%

.17.2%

.27.5%

0.5%

0.9%

....16.9%

6.9%

The actual number of ships of European construction (exclusive of river- steamers and steam-launches) entering the Port during 1901 was 682, being 337 British and 345 Foreign. Thus 682 vessels entered 3,570 times, and gave a total tonnage of 5,555,332 tons. A comparison of the Shipping Returns for 1900 and 1901 appears in the following table, from which it will be seen that though there was a large decrease in the number of vessels under the British flag (chiefly due to the withdrawal of some river steamers) there is an increase in British tonnage of 58,441 tons.

1900.

1901.

Increase.

Decrease.

Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage.

British, Foreign.

Junks in Foreign

Trade,

7,511| 9,155,198 | 6,715 9,213,639 3,429 4,866,969 | 4,092|| 5,345,502

35,425 3,224,856 35,394 3,266,168

58,441 796 663 · 478,533

41,312 31

Total,

46.365 | 17,247,023 46,201 | 17,825,309 663 578,286 $27

The above table does not include junks in local trade, the business of which shows an increase of more than 700,000 tons over that of the preceding year.

The problem of providing berthing accommodation in the Harbour for the ever-increasing tonnage frequenting the Port is one that is getting more difficult each year, and though there may not be any very pressing necessity just at present, there can be no reasonable doubt that, with the constant advance in size, draught, and number, as well of Ships-of-War as of the Mercantile Marine, and of Foreign as well as British Shipping, the water space will soon be found inadequate...

805

806

6

The following tables, as showing the relative importance of the Shipping con- ducted under the various national flags, will be of interest:-

ENTERED.

CLEARED.

NATIONALITY OF VESSELS.

Vessels.

Tons.

Vessels.

Tons.

American,

111

155,667

104

147,711

Austrian,

53

128,483

51

122,632

Belgian,

9

British,

3,360

12,407 4,615,022

9

12,407

3,355

4,598,617

Chinese,...

138

18,932

140

19,113

Chinese Junks,

17,736

1,631,272

17,658

1,634,896

Corean,

1

796

1

796

Danish,

12

25,903

12

25,903

Dutch,

29

40,872

29

40,872

French,

328

243,588

328

238,427

German,

844

1,242,642

843

1,239,967

Italian,

13

18,782

14

19,502

Japanese,

336

692,981

333

688,140

Norwegian,

79

78,004

75

73,821

Portuguese,

83

10,456

83

10,456

Russian,.

4

8,797

Siamese,

Spanish,...

Swedish,

No Flag,

the Colony,

1

784

7

6,923

1

80

2117A

4

8,797

407

784

6,923

2,747

Steam launches trading to ports outside

1,542

82,564

1,542

82,564

Total,..

24,687

9,014,955

23,056

8,892,918

(b.)-INDUSTRIES.

During the

year 1901, most of our local industries, which are chiefly carried on upon joint stock principles, were well employed throughout the year, with satis- factory results.

'Cotton spinning by the local company was hampered by the plague. The results to original shareholders were not good, owing to the initial cost of the Mill being higher than originally estimated. However, the capital was written down largely, and fresh capital brought in, with the effect that the present condition of the Company is very satisfactory, and the future outlook promising. Improved dwell- ings for their operatives are shortly to be erected, and the system of piece work has been successfully introduced. >

The sugar industry has been hampered by the large importations of Continental bounty fed sugar into Japan and other markets which used to draw their supplies from here.

The shipping industry during 1901 was presperous throughout the year. Over-speculation in shares both here and in Shanghai has in many cases ad- versely affected the value of shares in several of the local undertakings, but I think that this is merely a temporary condition and that things will come to their normal level before long.

If the heavy fall in silver becomes permanent, it must eventually stimulate local productions in many directions, particularly in the repairing and docking of ships, as this work can be excellently done by Chinese under European supervision.

The local Dock Company is a large and will equipped institution, and the docking facilities of the colony will, in the course of the next few years, be largely augmented by the Admiralty Dock and by considerable works of the same sort at present under construction by Messrs. Butterfield & Swire at Quarry Bay.

The Hongkong Dock Co. are at present building a large river steamer for the Canton route, and if the result is satisfactory a considerable development in ship- building may shew itself, especially if silver remains low.

7

The labour question-the crux of the industrial problem here-gives serious food for thought, and it is to be hoped that the extension of the boundaries of the colony may make it possible to provide cheaper and healthier house accommodation for the labouring classes, so that the two chief elements of industrial prosperity- cheap labour and cheap money-may be successfully united.

At present, high rents and some unseen influence-probably Chinese guilds - militate against full advantage being taken of the abundant supply of labour in the adjoining provinces.

(c.)-FISHERIES.

There are no fisheries of importance. The local demand for salt and fresh fish is met by fleets of fishing junks and a large number of net stations, and the fish that are required for salting are dried and salted on the beach. There is a very large local demand for fish from the Canton River, which are brought down alive in tanks in the daily passenger steamers.

(d.)-FORESTRY, BOTANICAL SCIENCE, AND AGRICULTURE.

The Forestry and Botanical Department is under the charge of a Superintend- ent and Assistant Superintendent, aided by a large staff of gardeners and foresters. Perhaps the most important work carried on by this Department is the planting of trees. Camphors have been planted as an experiment in the New Territory, but it is feared that they cannot be grown there so as to give an adequate return on the capital invested. The experiment was not successful, but will be repeated. Rubbers were also tried, but the climate is not suitable to this Central American and Malayan tree and most of the plants died in the cold season.

Much interesting botanical work is yearly carried on in Hongkong. Mr. FORD, the Superintendent, has shown that the total number of plants, exclusive of mosses, lichens, sea-weeds and fungi, indigenous to Hongkong, is 1,397, probably more than are indigenous to the whole of the British Isles. Plants and seeds are regularly interchanged with other botanical institutions, and the number of plants which are successfully introduced into the Colony by this means is constantly increasing. It is hoped that before long an experimental Economic Garden will be established in the New Territory for the purpose of introducing and distributing amongst the natives new plants of economic value.

The hilly character of the Island and its comparative absence of fertilising soil has prevented agriculture from becoming an active source of industry in Hongkong. The acreage of cultivated land in the Island is a little over 400 acres only. The old dependency of British Kowloon, which is chiefly composed of level ground, contains almost the same amount of cultivated land. This, however, tends to diminish as buildings extend. The only part of the Colony where agricultural industries can be expected to thrive is the New Territory, which, though intersected by extensive ranges of barren hills, contains valleys where rice and sugar and other crops are grown with success. The acreage of cultivated land in the New Territory (including the islands) is not far short of 100,000, but much of this contains exceed- ingly poor soil and consists of minute holdings belonging to the poorest class of peasants. The Government has taken steps to introduce some better qualities of sugar-cane into the New Territory. Some attempts have been made to grow the mulberry but without success.

(e.)—LAND GRANTS AND GENERAL VALUE OF Land.

The available amount of building land in Hongkong, except in the New Territory, is so limited that it has for many years commanded a very high price, and Land Premia and Crown Rents form a considerable portion of the Colonial Revenue. Land in private hands has proved to be a most lucrative source of wealth to its owners, while at the same time its scarcity and high value have tended to

807

808

8

raise house-rents to such an extent as to seriously embarrass large numbers of Chinese and European tenants. Very extensive reclamation works have been and are still being successfully carried out, and large areas of level building ground have thereby been created. It is hoped that before long a practical commencement will be made of a new reclamation which will extend from the Naval Dockyard in the centre of the town to Causeway Bay in the East.

The sales of Crown land in 1901 were, as has been already stated, much less than those in 1900.

III.-LEGISLATION.

Thirty-seven Ordinances were passed during 1901, of which fifteen were amendments of Ordinances already in force, and two were private Ordinances for, the naturalisation of Chinese.

From the Imperial point of view perhaps one of the most important measures of the year was the first Ordinance, which raised the annual Military Contribution of the Colony from 17 per cent. to 20 per cent. of the total gross revenue, exclusive of land sales and premia on leases or statutory land grants.

Ordinance 5 is perhaps the most important measure of the year. It is an Ordinance "to establish a Code of Procedure for the Regulation of the Process, Practice, and Mode of Pleading in the Civil Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of the Colony." The Supreme Court was established by legislative enactment in 1845 and all its proceedings were regulated by the practice of the English Courts "unless and until otherwise ordered by rule of the said Court.' Successive attempts at im- proving the Civil Procedure of the Court were made in 1855, 1856, 1858, 1860 and 1861, and led to the enactment of what is known as the Old Code of Civil Procedure, in 1873, which abolished the old distinction between common law and equity, and established a uniform procedure for the administration of both. Alter- ations were from time to time carried out during many subsequent years, and the new Code, which was drafted last year by Sir JOHN CARRINGTON, C.M.G., and enacted as Ordinance No. 5 of 1901, contains the final results, up to the present time, of all the changes and improvements which experience had found necessary.

Ordinance No. 13 of 1901-a Consolidating and Amending Public Health Ordinance was an important measure which will probably, however, be partially superseded by new legislation during 1902.

IV. EDUCATION.

The system and methods of education in the Colony are fully described in the Report for 1899, since which time there have been few changes. The whole system of education is at present under consideration, and may shortly undergo considerable modifications as the outcome of the deliberations of a special Committee appointed towards the close of the year. A description of any changes which may take place should find a place in the next Report.

The principal school in the Colony is Queen's College, an institution which forms a distinct Government Department. The total number of pupils on the roll European, Chinese and other Asiatics) is nearly 1,500. The average annual ex- penses of each boy are less than $18, and the total fees received by Government amount to over $28,000. There is a large staff of English and Chinese masters, who provide the pupils with an education which not only enables many of them to compete successfully in the Oxford local examinations but also fits them for import- ant posts as interpreters and clerks in the Government service and in mercantile houses.

There is a growing feeling amongst both British and Chinese residents that the system of educating European and native children side by side in the same schools is not without its serious drawbacks. The subject has been fully dealt with in a

9

Petition forwarded to you in September last, and the outcome will probably be the establishment of one or more good schools for European boys and girls and similar schools for the children of the better class Chinese.

V.-PUBLIC WORKS.

The total expenditure on Public Works during the year was $687,325.70.

The principal work initiated was a greatly enlarged scheme for the construction of Water-works to supply the Kowloon Peninsula with water by gravitation, the estimated cost of the work being $835,000. The reservoir to be constructed is situated in the New Territory, in connection with the development of which several works were in progress, principal among them being the road to Taipo, 16 miles in length.

Work was begun on an additional reservoir at Tytam for increasing the supply of water to the City of Victoria.

A number of buildings were in progress, including the New Law Courts, Harbour Office, Western Market, and Governor's Peak Residence.

A large Reclamation Scheme in front of the eastern section of the City, estimated to cost $5,000,000, was under consideration, and arrangements for the construction of an electric tramway, 9 miles in length, were nearly brought to a conclusion.

VI. GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS.

(a.)-HOSPITALS.

Government Hospitals consist of the Civil Hospital, to which is attached an isolated Lying-in Hospital; Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital, and the Hospital hulk Hygein.

The Civil Hospital contains 124 beds in 18 wards; the Lying-in Hospital 6 beds for Europeans and 4 for Asiatics; and Kennedy Town Hospital 78 beds. In 1901, 267 cases were treated at Kennedy Town, of which 204 were cases of plague, 42 of small-pox, and 15 of cholera.

Two thousand nine hundred and forty-eight (2,948) in-patients and 12,663 out-patients were treated at the Government Civil Hospital in 1901, showing a slight decrease in the figures for 1900. Malarial fever alone was responsible for over 800 admissions.

The Tung Wa Hospital, supported by voluntary subscriptions among the Chinese and only to a small extent endowed by the Government, takes the place of a Poor House and Hospital for the Chinese sick and destitute. Chinese as well as European methods of treatment are employed in accordance with the wishes expressed by the patients or those who are responsible for them.

(b.)-ASYLUM.

The Lunatic Asylum is under the direction of the Principal Civil Medical Officer. European and Chinese patients are separated, the European portion of the Asylum containing 8 beds in 8 separate wards, and the Chinese portion containing 16 beds. Ninety patients of all races were treated during 1901, and there were 7 deaths.

(c.)—THE CHINESE COLLEGE OF MEDICINE.

This institution was founded in 1887, largely through the efforts of Dr. PAT- RICK MANSON, Dr. CANTLIE and others, for the purpose of teaching surgery, medi- cine and midwifery to Chinese. The Government of the College is vested in the Court, of which the Rector of the College, who has always been a Government Official, is President. 57 students had been enrolled up to 1901, and of these 12 have become qualified licentiates, who have obtained various posts under Govern- ment and elsewhere. The institution is of great value in spreading a knowledge of Western medical science amongst the Chinese.

.809

810

10

(d.)-Po LEUNG Kuk.

This is a Society, under the supervision of Government, for the protection of women and children. It has done much good work in connection with the sup- pression of brothel slavery, which was in Hongkong and still is in China, one of the gravest social evils. If the Registrar-General, who acts as President of the Society, has reason to believe that a girl is being sold into a life of prostitution against her will, or if she is, in his opinion, of too tender an age to judge for herself as to her mode of life, she is sent into the Po Leung Kuk, where she is fed, lodged, and, unless she has relatives who will receive her, appropriately educated until she has an opportunity of making a respectable marriage or of earning an honest livelihood by her own exertions. The institution is managed by a number of Chinese gentle- men who are annually elected as a Managing Committee.

The number of women and children admitted into the Home during the year was 389, being 52 more than in 1900. 187 were restored direct to parents or relatives or were sent to some Benevolent Society in China, 3 were adopted, 5 placed at school, and 50 were married.

(P.)-REFORMATORY.

The Belilios Reformatory, presented to the Colony by Mr. E. R. BELILIOS, C.M.G., has not been occupied. It has been proposed to make use of the building, with the donor's consent, by turning it into a School. The matter is at present

under consideration.

)-SAVINGS Bank.

There is no Post Office Savings Bank in Hongkong. A branch of the Hong- kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation takes the place of such an institution in this Colony.

(9.)-POLICE.

The total strength of the Police Force, which stood at 630 in 1898, 827 in 1899, and 929 in 1900, now stands at 920, including 145 Europeans, 366 Indians and 409 Chinese. The gradual diminution in armed robberies and lawlessness in the New Territory made it possible to withdraw a number of men from that part of the Colony during the year to strengthen the force in the City of Victoria and Kowloon. The executive staff now consists of a Captain Superintendent, a Deputy Superintendent and two Assistant Superintendents. The conduct of all the con- tingents is reported to have been satisfactory.

Since the middle of the year, the Chinese Provincial Authorities have main- tained a force of soldiery along the northern boundary of the New Territory, who have co-operated with our Police in preventing the incursion of armed robbers into the Colony.

(h.)-PRISON.

The daily average of prisoners confined in Victoria Gaol was 499, as compared with 486 for the year 1900. There were 180 convicts in the Gaol on the 31st December, 1901, against 141 on the same date in 1900, 96 in 1899, 55 in 1898. This shows an increase of 125% during the past 3 years. This large increase is synchronous with and largely attributable to the inclusion of the New Territory in the Colony.

The total profit of all industrial labour amounted to $24,783 as compared with $17,458 for the preceding year. All minor repairs to the Gaol have been carried out by prison labour. A new wing was completed and occupied by long-sentence prisoners early in the year.

The question of extending the Prison accommodation in the Colony has been for some time engaging the attention of the Government.

The Superintendent of the Gaol is also Captain Superintendent of Police, and is assisted by an Assistant Superintendent, a medical officer, chaplains, and European and Indian warders.

11

()-FIRE BRIGADE.

The Superintendent of Fire Brigade is also Captain Superintendent of Police and Superintendent of Victoria Gaol. The European members of the Brigade, with the exception of the Engineer, are also members of the Police Force voluntarily enlisted, and for their services in the Brigade they receive a small addition to their

pay.

There are also a number of Chinese foremen and engine-drivers. The Bri- gade possesses a powerful floating fire engine for use in the Harbour, four land steam engines, and 29 despatch boxes. The 5 fire engines were all built by Messrs. SHAND & MASON.

There were 58 fires and 84 incipient fires during the year, and the Brigade turned out 57 times. The estimated damage caused by the fires was $630,381 and by the incipient fires $212. The only year in. which greater damage was done by fire was 1898, when the total damage was $829,814.

Towards the end of the year the work of extinguishing fires was rendered more arduous by the drought and the consequent want of water in the mains.

!

VII.-JUDICIAL STATISTICS.

The number of Convictions in the Superior Courts during the last 4 years are as follow:-

1898

1899 1900 1901

1. For Offences against the Person,... 2. For Offences against Property,

19

49

54

54

17

18

7

7

3. For other Offences,

3 10

12

21

The total of all cases reported to the Police was 9,172 as against 9,873 in 1900. This represents a decrease of 7.10 per cent. In offences which are classed under the term "serious" there was a decrease of 128 cases or 3.62 per cent.; in Minor Offences a decrease of 573 cases or 9.03 per cent. Three men were arrested and convicted for being members of an unlawful (the Triad) society. There was a notable decrease in piracies and armed robberies, partly no doubt owing to the efficacy of recent legislation on the subject.

VIII-VITAL STATISTICS.

(.)-POPULATION.

The last Census was taken in January, 1901, when the population was found to be 283,975, exclusive of the Army and Navy. The numbers of those forces amounted to 7,640 and 5,597, respectively. In the middle of the year the popu- lation is estimated to have been as follows:-

Non-Chinese Civil Population,

Chinese Population,

Army,

Navy,

9,560

280,564

5,462

5,074

300,660

The New Territory was not included in the recent Census, but a fairly accurate enumeration of its population was made. It numbers about 100,000, which brings the total population of the Colony up to rather over 400,000.

811

812

:

12

It is significant that while the total increase in the population of the Colony during the five years between 1897 and 1901 was 35,095, the increase during the same period in the population of British Kowloon (which used to be a garden suburb of Victoria) was no less than 16,534, or nearly half the increase for the whole Colony.

There were 1,088 births during the year, and of that number 848 were Chinese. This is equal to a general birth-rate of 3.6 per 1,000, as compared with 3.3 in 1900, 4.3 in 1899, and 4.7 in 1898. Owing, however, to the large number of Chinese infants who die unregistered, it is estimated that a more correct birth-rate for the past year would be 4.7 per 1,000.

(b.)-PUBLIC HEALTH.

As compared with the 1,088 births mentioned above, there were 7,082 deaths in 1901. This gives a death-rate of 23.5 per 1,000, as compared with 23.9 in 1900, 23.8 in 1899, and an average of 22.5 per 1,000 during the past five years. The deaths included 1,562 from bubonic plague, which again visited the Colony and ran its usual course. Excluding the deaths from plague, the death-rate for 1901 would have been 19.03 per 1,000. Among the non-Chinese the deaths numbered 412, of which 302 were among the Civil population, 96 among the Army, and 14 among the Navy. This is equal to a death-rate of 20.5 per 1,000. The British deaths among the non-Chinese numbered 116; the rest were chiefly Indians, Malays and Portuguese.

One thousand six hundred and fifty-one (1,651) cases of Plague were reported during the year, of which all but 89 were fatal.

of which all but 89 were fatal. The disease showed an increased tendency to attack Europeans. The chief causes of death among the non-Chinese resident civil community were plague, phthisis, malaria and pneumonia. There were more cases of small-pox than usual, and some cholera cases were imported.

It is hoped that when the much-needed improvement in the sanitary condition of the City is effected, there will be a large decrease not only in the deaths resulting from bubonic plague but also in those from phthisis and other chest diseases, which are

more or less directly attributable to overcrowded and insanitary

dwellings.

It is to be regretted that the experiment of once more sending troops to reside in the building which was originally destined to be a Military Sanitarium, has not proved successful, and the hopes expressed in paragraph VIII () 8 of my Report on the Blue Book for last year have not been realised. After a brief period of freedom from malaria, the troops stationed there began to be attacked in consider- able numbers and had to be wholly withdrawn from the building, which now stands empty.

The treatment with larvicides of the breeding places of the Anopheles mosquito- is being actively continued.

(c.)-SANITATION.

In spite of the efforts of the Government, the Sanitary Board and the Legis- lature, during the past few years, the sanitary state of the Colony still leaves much to be desired. The City of Victoria retains its unenvied pre-eminence in the matter of surface crowding, and in spite of the enforcement of the provisions of the Insani- tary Properties Ordinance of 1899, the condition of the vast majority of the Chinese dwelling houses is far from meeting the requirements of modern sanitary science. As there seemed to be no prospect of amelioration without the adoption of more radical measures than had hitherto been attempted, and as the Community showed by a Peti-

.

1

13

tion which they addressed to you in the course of the year that they were prepared to face the heavy expenditure which stronger measures would certainly involve, Sir HENRY BLAKE asked you to send out an expert to enquire into the sanitary state of the Colony and report upon the steps which in his opinion should be taken to remedy existing defects. In October, 1901, you informed Sir HENRY BLAKE that you had selected Mr. OSBERT CHADWICK, C.M.G., a sanitary expert of wide experience and no stranger to Hongkong, for this special work. About the same time you informed him that you had selected Professor SIMPSON, M.D., to pay a simultaneous visit to the Colony with a view to a thorough enquiry being made into the origin of bubonic plague, and the best means of providing against its annual re-appear- A notice of the work done by these gentlemen, who had not yet arrived in the Colony at the end of 1901 will, it is hoped, appear in next year's Report. A certain result of their visit must be the introduction of legislative measures to con-

solidate and amend the present Health and Building Ordinances.

ance.

(d.)-CLIMATE.

The average monthly temperature throughout the year was 72.1° F. as com- pared with 71.6° F. during 1900; the maximum monthly temperature was attained in July, when it reached 82.2° F., and the minimum monthly temperature was recorded in the month of February, being 54.8° F.

The highest recorded temperature during the year was 92.7° F. on August 3rd, and the lowest was 38.4° F. on February 4th.

The total Rainfall for the year was 55.78 inches, as compared with 73.73 inches in 1900 and an average of 77.2 inches during the past ten years. The wettest month was May with 14.10 inches, while there were also 14 inches of rain in the month of August; the driest month was January, with only 0.685 inch. The greatest amount of rain which fell on any one day was 4.23 inches on April 7th, while no rain fell on 213 days of the year; the relative humidity of the atmosphere throughout the year was 75 per cent. as compared with 77 per cent. in the previous year.

The average daily amount of sunshine throughout the year was 5.5 hours, and on 35 days only was no sunshine recorded.

It may be mentioned that the rainfall of 1901 was less than half the rainfall of the year 1891. Taitam Reservoir, the principal source of water supply, was not filled throught the year, and only one rainfall during the last 20 years (that of 1895) was lower than that of the year under review.

IX. POSTAL SERVICE.

The cessation of the Boxer troubles in the North of China gave an impetus to trade, which was faithfully reflected in the steady increase in postal business.

The monthly sales of stamps showed an increase of $21,765, as compared with 1900, and for the first time since the adoption of the penny postage the revenue exceeded the highest revenue from the same source in former days. The returns from the Branch Post Offices at Shanghai and in China also show gratify- ing results.

The Revenue of the Department from all sources in 1901 was $355,912, and the Expenditure $273,685. The nett balance to the Hongkong Post Office on the year's transactions amounted to $82,227.

The Acting Postmaster General comments on the fact that though many foreign Post Offices were opened at various ports in China during 1901, no new British Offices or Agencies were opened. He is strongly in favour of the establish- ment of Agencies at Chefoo, Tientsin and Peking.

813

814

14-

X.-MILITARY FORCES AND EXPENDITURE.

(a.)-REGULAR FORCES.

The following Return shows the number and nature of the Forces employed in the Colony during 1901 :-

CORPS.

EUROPEAN.

Officers.

Warrant

Officers.

N.C.O.'s

and Men.

INDIAN.

Officers.

Warrant

Officers.

CHINESE.

N.C.O.'s N.C.O.'s

and Men and Men.

TOTALS.

General Staff,.

Garrison Staff,

Royal Garrison Artillery,

Royal Engineers,

Hongkong-Singapore Battalion, R.A. 12

Chinese S. M. M. Co., R.E.,

Second Battalion Royal Welch Fusrs. 27

Army Service Corps,..............

Royal Army Medical Corps,...

A.Ö.D. and Corps,..

A.P.D. and Corps,..

Indian Sub-Medical Dept.,

Educational Dept.,.................

1,012

6

46

52

..6

1

1

Hongkong Regiment,

13

22nd Bombay Infantry,.

13

3rd Madras Light Infantry,

10

5th Infantry Hyderabad Contingent,.. 13

Co

6

6

:

1

1

21

ಈ :

WHONN: HEN:

2

578

601

9

8

437

466

13

221

238

65.

65

....

1,041

8

56

59

10

2

3

2

17

898

928

12

678

703

16

652

678

15

671

699

Totals,

150 13 1,930 68

3,338

65 5,564

(6.)-COLONIAL CONTRIBUTION.

The Colony contributed $801,275 (being the statutory contribution of 20% of revenue) towards the cost of the maintenance of the regular forces in the Colony and Barrack Services.

(c.)-VOLUNTEER CORPS.

The total establishment of the Corps is 351 of all ranks. The strength in 1901 was:-Staff 7; one Field Battery (80) of six 2.5" R. M. L. Mountain Guns; three Machine Gun Companies (157) of four .303" Maxim machine guns each; an Infantry Company (53); an Engineer Company (25), and a Band (19).

The .45" Maxim machine guns have been converted into guns of .303" calibre.

The expenditure on the Volunteers, which is entirely borne by the Colony, was $26.772.60.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient, humble Servant,

W. J. GASCOIGNE,

Officer Administering the Government.

.

}

The Right Honourable

JOSEPH CHAMBERLAIN,

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies,

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

F

683

32

No. 1902

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT FOR THE YEAR 1901.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT, HONGKONG, 18th April, 1902.

A

SIR,--For the information of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government I have the honour to forward the Annual Report on this Department for the past year, 1901.

STAFF.

2. The Superintendent was absent on leave from the end of March, 1900, until the end of September, 1901; the Assistant Superintendent, who officiated during his absence, was actively employed, and with the effective work of the clerks and the leading men in the different departments, he has maintained the ordinary routine work generally in satisfactory order.

3. Towards the end of the year the Head, Forester, SUEN TUNG, resigned in order, as he alleged, to go into business, and YUNG CHING was appointed in his place. The latter enters with an excellent character, and although he lacks knowledge of forestry work, he promises soon to acquire what is needed.

4. The Foreman Forester also resigned, and he was replaced by WONG SING Po, who was educated in the Queen's College and promises to become a useful man.

5. During the previous year there was the unprecedented number of 45 changes in the out-door staff and notwithstanding the general increase of wages which commenced on January 1st, there were 37 changes again last year, 15 of which occurred in the 3rd quarter; in the 4th quarter the numbers decreased to 11, and during the 1st quarter of this year there has been a further fall to 6 only, so there is some promise now of improvement which, I hope, with careful management, may be maintained.

6. Last year was a record one for absences on account of alleged sickness, 968 days having been registered.

BOTANIC GARDENS.

7. Plant-houses.—In my Report for 1900 I mentioned that No. 1 Plant-house-in the Old Garden-was being re-built on an enlarged and improved plan; this consisted principally of the sub- stitution of tables supported partly by angle iron instead of brick walls, which could never be kept clean on account of mossy growth on them, of increased width of tables and of a roof at a greater height, bearing split bamboos with the internodes cut out and the concave sides placed uppermost, which carries off about half or more of the rainfall; the bamboos are spaced at about half their width which allows just sufficient light to penetrate for successful plant growth. These changes have resulted in a very great improvement in the condition of the ferns which the house contains.

8. Immediately after my return in September, No. 2 house was razed and its re-construction commenced, followed by No. 3 in the same manner, in order to complete the plan which was designed when No. 1 house was commenced, but the execution of which was interrupted by my absence when on leave.

9. Nos. 1 and 3 houses are each about 52 feet long by 26 feet wide, and No. 2, which stands transversely between Nos. 1 and 3, is 37 feet long by 28 feet wide. No. 1 is filled with ferns and kindred plants and Nos. 2 and 3 will be used for the accommodation of orchids and ferns as the old

houses were.

10. The enlargement of the three houses will give 400 square feet of additional table space for plants.

11. At the north and south of this range rockeries have been constructed and the entrance at the south end instead of being by way of a flight of steps is arranged to come in level from a side-walk.

12. Just before the end of the year extensive repairs were commenced to the plant-houses-Nos. 5, 6, 7 and 8—in the nursery and the usual annual re-painting was done to these houses and gates, railings &c., in different parts of the Garden.

50-7.7.02.

684

13. Walks.-Repairs to these as well as many other things were suspended between March, 1900, and October, 1901, but in the autumn arrangements were made for resuming the work of surfacing with cement a large area of the decaying lime-concreted walks, the whole of which should be completed during the current year when no further expenditure should be needed on any walks with gradients for a great many years to come.

14. Lawns. Many of these are becoming very uneven owing to the sinking of the earth in places, but more particularly to the action of earth-worms which are very numerous and very large. For this reason the lawns require to be frequently re-laid and a good deal of work is needed and should be taken in hand as soon as possible.

15. Shrubberies.-Shrubs grow so rapidly and become worn out so quickly that it is necessary to be constantly re-planting some of them, and there is of this work a rather unusual amount which now requires to be done.

16. Rockeries.—What has been said in regard to shrubberies applies equally as much to rockeries. These are usually made in the shade of trees and over their roots, which quickly grow into the good soil prepared for the plants which grow in the rockeries. The re-planting of all rockeries is now much needed and work on them has commenced.

17. Succulents.-These have become overgrown in places and worn out in others and much need increased attention and re-planting.

18. Roses. I have been for many years endeavouring to improve these and increase the number of varieties which can be grown here, but although there is ample evidence that very great improvement is possible and that all the conditions for greater success are within reach, yet I find the greatest diffi- culty in the execution of what is indicated by myself.

19. Japanese Bamboos.-A few years ago a small collection of bamboos, including Phyllostachys, were obtained from Japan and planted in a group by themselves. These have thrived and produced a good effect and encourage the enlargement of the collection.

20. Indigenous Orchids.-A small rockery was made some years ago for the reception of a collection of Hongkong orchids, which, however, are not in the condition which good cultivation might have produced.

21. Rhododendron javanica.-In 1897 a collection of hybrids from this beautiful Java Rhododen- dron was obtained for trial from Messrs. J. VEITCH & SONS of London. They were kept under glass for some time, but afterwards they have been grown-in pots-under slight shade and shelter from heavy rains and have succeeded very well indeed, and annually produced their lovely flowers.

22. Bougainvillea glabra. Cæsalpinia nuga.-The exceptional colour of the flowers of the formee exercise the minds of many people when making use of it in combination with other colours. For thr benefit of those who are interested I may mention that if it and Caesalpinia nuga, which is a robust climber indigenous to Hongkong, are planted near to each other, the yellow flowers of the latter and the flowers of the Bougainvillea have a pleasing effect. Casalpinia vernalis, also an indigenous climber but with more beautiful foliage although smaller flowers, is also useful for the same purpose.

23. Fibrous-rooted Begonia.-Seeds of this plant were obtained for experiment from Messrs. SUTTON & SONS two years ago and it has proved a most valuable addition to bedding plants here, flowering between the cold and hot seasons. It has been treated as an annual, but as one plant has lived through both seasons although in a bed and exposed to all weathers, it is possible that by careful selection in plants from which seeds are gathered a strain may be established which will be perpetual.

24. Wistaria sinensis.-This favourite climber has not flowered well in Hongkong, but it has been experimented with by providing good soil for its roots and a horizontal trellis for its branches where it gets full exposure to sun. With this treatment it produces flowers in fair quantity, but the racemes are rather small, these however should be capable of improvement by better cultivation.

25. Acclimatisation.-Opportunities are watched for increasing the number of desirable ornamental plants, and in this way two welcome additions have been established; one a Pink-Dianthus-which Mr. E. S. KELLY had introduced to his garden, was kindly contributed by that gentleman in response to a request, and it is flourishing even through the summer. This is the first of the Pink family which has made itself at home here. The other is the "southern-wood"-Artemisia abrotanum- which Mrs. WICKING before she left Hongkong had successfully established at the Peak, and which thrives equally as well, with some protection down here.

26. Hippeastrum (Amaryllis).—VEITCH'S strain of this showy bulbous plant which was introduced some years ago to replace older and inferior varieties is succeeding remarkably well not only in pots but in an open border for which a sufficient stock was propagated three years ago. For those really interested in their gardens this easily cultivated plant could not be too highly recommended.

685*

27. Western and Northern China Plants.-Messrs. JAMES VEITCH & SONS of London have very kindly contributed through their collector, Mr. WILSON, who has recently returned to England after three years' plant-collecting in China, some plants which are valuable acquisitions. Amongst them should be specially mentioned Jasminum primulinum, a species with, as has been said, “glorified” yellow flowers of J. nudiflorum, Libocedrus macrolepis, a very fine conifer, Magnolia Delavayi and Primula obconica all of which are thriving remarkably well. The Primula has its home on ledges of rocks in the Yangtsze gorges above Ichang and is, I believe, the first one of its genus which has really succeeded in Hongkong.

28. Supplementary Indigenous Plants.-Two unknown climbing plants were discovered in the Island in 1899 and brought to the Gardens to be grown until they flowered in order to identify them. Flowers were produced in 1900 and last year. One is found to be Canavalia obtusa, D. C., and the other a species of Illigera, which is apparently the same as specimens in the herbarium which were collected on the Lo-faü Mountains in the Kwang Tung Province. These bring the total number of plants, exclusive of mosses, lichens, sea-weeds and fungi, indigenous to Hongkong, up to 1,344 that is 38 more than BENTHAM gives as indigenous to the whole of the British Islands, BENTHAM in the "Flora Hongkongensis," published in 1861, described 1,053 plants as found here. About ten years later Dr. H. F. HANCE in his supplement enumerated or described an additional 75 plants, and now I have a further list of about 253 later discoveries, which make the total number 1,397 species.

On the 19th April, 1900, a paper on "Some Mosses from China and Japan," by Mr. E. S. SALMON, F.L.S., was read before the Linnean Society in which 18 mosses were recorded from Hongkong, 16 of which were additions to the Flora, 5 previously found only in Japan, 5 before not found out of India, and 1 new to science; the latter was named Calymperes Fordii, Beach.

29. Interchange of Plants and Seeds.-Introductions are somewhat more curtailed as the rather limited available space becomes less for their development, but every year there are many interesting and useful additions. The chief donors of plants, seeds or animals during the year were:—

Acclimatizing Association, South California. Agri-Horticultural Society, Madras. BLAKE, Lady

Botanic Gardens, Aburi, West Africa.

Calcutta.

11

11

Durban.

})

Jamaica.

""

""

""

Ootacamund.

Saharanpur. Sibpur.

Singapore.

Sydney.

BLACKBURN, Commander

Conservator of Forests, Bengal.

>>

17

COOKE, Mrs. R.

CROOKE, J. R., Gibraltar. DAMMANN & Co., Italy.

FUNG WA-CH'UN.

HALLIFAX, E. R. HODGINS, Captain A. E. HUNG YEUNG.

KIRKWOOD, J.

LOBER, A., Manila.

ORTIF, Rev. J.

ROEBELEN, C., Bangkok.

Rangoon.

BULLEY, A. K.

Chinese, A

CHUNG, Dr. K. U.

State Gardens, Baroda.

Prefectural Agricultural Station, Formosa.

30. The distribution of plants and seeds has been maintained, but on a rather limited scale.

chief recipients were:--

Acclimatizing Association, South California. Acclimatization Society, Queensland.

Belilios Public School.

BERG, V., Vice-Governor, Caroline Islands.

BLAKE, Lady

Botanic Gardens, British Guiana.

""

Ceylon. Durban.

""

Jamaica.

""

""

Station, Lagos.

BOURNE, F. S. A., Shanghai.

Cox, Dr. W. H.

CROFTE, Col., Gwalior.

CROOKE, J. R., Gibraltar.

CURTIS, C., Penang.

HALLIFAX, E. R.

HANCE, T.

HARRIS, A. H., Wuchow. HENRY, Dr. A.

HODGINS, Captain A. C.

Public Museum, Milwaukee.

Queen's College.

Royal Gardens, Kew.

STEPHENS, M. J. D.

TRESEDER & Co., Truro.

VEITCH, Messrs. J., & Sons, Chelsea.

The

Prefectural Agricultural Station, Formosa.

31. Plant Sales.-Although there was not any falling off in money realised by the sale of plants there was a large decrease in the number of plants sold. This was in consequence of the prices having been doubled about the middle of the year and the result so far as the public are concerned is that only the more wealthy of the community are now able to buy. pared with 3,451 in the previous year.

The number of plants sold was 2,345 com-

686

32. Loan of Plants.-There was under this heading a proportionate falling off in the number of plants applied for so that the anticipated doubling of revenue did not follow, the figures remaining but very little in excess of those of the previous year, the small increase was practically of no advantage to the Government and yet the public did not obtain the usual amount of satisfaction. The plants lent are chiefly for public purposes such as balls, concerts, &c., and they consist of specimen plants in pots from 10 inches to 18 inches in diameter, the plants being from 2 feet to 10 feet in height. The numbers lent during the last three years were:—

1899, 1900, 1901..

.4,235 .3,651

.2,570

There may have been some little reason for a small increase in the prices of plants sold, but as a profit was already being made on loan plants there was not sufficient reason for an increased rate for them, therefore it has been taken off and the previous rate reverted to, as it was not the original inten- tion, nor is it desirable, that profits should be made out of plants lent for such purposes as these are.

Aviaries and Deer Pens.-The birds and animals continue a source of attraction and are in good condition.

There seems to have been a good deal of mortality amongst them during the year but the numbers have been maintained by various additions from time to time for which thanks are due to the donors.

34. Rainfall. The rainfall was only 58.03 inches, which is the smallest since 1895 when it was only 53.55.

Appendix A gives the statistics.

HERBARIUM.

35. The collections of dried plants are in good condition. Work in this section of the Department during the absence of the Superintendent, naturally, had, as usual, to remain in abeyance.

36. The time of the Superintendent, which had been so much absorbed in additional work in other directions, has not been sufficient to allow of a mass of material which has been accumulating for a few years to be dealt with beyond having collections of dried plants poisoned to preserve them from destruction by insects. These collections now require to be mounted and incorporated but I still have not time to go through them in preparation for the Chinese assistants to do the mounting, nor to incorporate such as are mounted.

37. Herbarium work is conducted entirely by the Superintendent with Chinese assistants only.

LIBRARY.

38. Beyond the usual periodical publications and reports there have been no additions of standard works.

39. Insects cause a good deal of trouble in the care of books which are in open cases. Closed cases with glass doors which would retain the fumes of naphthaline would probably preserve the books in better condition.

40. Annual Reports, Bulletins, &c., have been received from the following establishments, to the chiefs of whom thanks are due:-

Calcutta, Ceylon, Grenada, Jamaica, Kolonial Museum Haarlem, Mr. Romell, Stockholm; Natal, New South Wales, Rio de Janeiro, Royal Gardens, Kew; Saharapur, Sydney, Straits Settlements, Trinidad, the Agricultural Departments of Cape of Good Hope, England, Queensland, United States of America, University of California, West Indies, Zanzibar, Forest Administration in Assam, Ajmere Merwara, Baluschistan, Bengal, Burma, Bombay, Central Province, Coorg, Hyderabad, Madras, North- West Provinces and Oudh, Punjab, Western Australia.

Purchased:-

Gardeners' Chronicle, 1901.

Journal of Botany, 1901.

Botanical Magazine, 1901.

Presented:-

Flor Forestère de la Cochine-by Royal Gardens, Kew.

Hooker's Icones Plantarum-by the Bentham Trustees through Royal Gardens, Kew.

FORESTRY IN HONGKONG.

41. Planting operations in Hongkong were the smallest on record since afforestation work was established. The total number of trees planted was 1,719 which amounted to one small day's work in the usual order of planting. Annual plantings should, at least, equal the number of trees destroyed by fire or by illicit tree cutters in the previous year which, however, exceeded those planted by 971,

>

Observatory

YEAR.

Observatory.

Taitam.

Pokfulam.

Observatory.

Taitam.

Pokfulam.

Observatory.

Taitam.

Pokfulam.

Observatory.

Taitam.

MAY.

JUNE.

JULY.

AUGUST.

SEPTEMBER.

TOTAL.

OCTOBER.

Pokfulam.

Observatory.

Taitam.

Pokfulam.

Observatory.

Taitam.

84-85,

85-86,

9.04

4.86

86-87,

1.781

87-88,

2.05

88-89,

19.53

89-90,

48.84

NO GAUGE

GAUGE

16.76 23.86

NO

34.92 10.55

NO GAUGE

NO GAUGE.

*

*

*

*

90-91,

11.23

*

9.72

14.84

4-57

9.44 11.03

4.24 31.36

0.15 10.62

3.10

5.47

9.54 13.08

32.70 13.54

9.73 28.24

4.27 12.08

14.95 10.81

14.12 27.87

24.63 9.08

15.24 13.15

10.13 13-32

18.14

10.21 12.37

31.25 5.84

3.00

14.10 56.33

5.46 83.47

3.63 52.72

10.79 43.71

7.93 73.67

58.24 3.09

87.77 2.51

2.32

1.49

9.15

15.08 10.96

19.45,

6.41

NO GAUGE.

NO GAUGE.

47.29 2.81

48.48

2.03

GAUGE.

1.53 0.76

1.70

0.05

3.20

0.79

89.19

4.52

ΝΟ

I

0.77

ΝΟ

GAUGE.

0.00

1.78

0.55

0.85

1

4.09

NO GAUGE.

1.35 0.00

1.50 1.25

0.00 0.87

1.50 2.01

2.47

8.43

1.45

0.18

0.73

11.80

*

93.07

8.72

*

*

*

1.54

0.18

*

2.39

*

22.60

8.95

I

1.94

59.56

Į

0.01

0.00

Ο.ΟΙ

0.00 1.37

1.1 1

0.04

91-92,

28.00

92-93,

8.57

93-94,

94-95,

95-96,

96-97,

97-98,

90-99,

99-00,

00-01,

13.97 31.86 21.32 30.37 22.82 23.10 25.02 18.05 16.79 13.45 12.90 11.43 12.37 2.30 3.50 3.25 1.96 1.60

6.81 10.54 34-37 35.41 35.94 10.79 12,35 12.66| 12.09 | 12.54 15.32 7.01 9.94 10.61 72.83 77.05 85.07: 0.02 0.05 0.00 0.34 0.42 16.13 23.95 21.86 7.09 10.57 7.74 21.22 29.25 23.26 8.73 14.52 9.15 15.04 18.82 14.54|| 68.21 97.11 76.55 17.87 17.65 21.36 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.89 20.01 22.88 16.24 16.54| 22.87| 14.87 9.47 10.13 9.98 16.53 20.80 15.52 19.11 18.53 8.28 81.66 95.21 64.89 17.57 16.10 5-34 0.09 0.02 0.76 0.68 0.34

5.64 6.72 3.63 4.97 8.24 4.44 18.87 18.39 18.46| 6.13 7.75 7.06 3.96 6.56 5.52 39.57 47.66 | 39.11 0.50 0.60 0.47 0.32 0.64 0.18 0.20 0.20 0.35 1.73

1.15 1.35 0.65 18.63 18.00 13.67 12.42 11.67 10.80 5.20 5.57 3.62 9.99 12.51 9.71 47.39 49.10 38.45 7.91 7.10 5.92 2.97 2.63 1.00 1.29 2.76 1.28 2.26

14.86 16.68 17.02 23.35 25.20 22.05 5-57 4-45 8.45 25.55 33.19 19.87 8.34 9.25 2.75 77.67 88.77 70.14 6.42 8.32 4.39 7.32! 7.57 5.31 0.48 0.38 0.27 1.16

5.70 6.18 3.72 14.25 15.87 17.31 7.05 7.05 9.40 9.90 8.81 12.85 5.30 6.19 7.65 42.20 44.10 50.93 7.16 9.66 5.76 18.98 19.40 17.06 10.13 13.61 11.31 19.98 24.54 23.41 6.30 9.47 7.45 62.55 76,68 | 64.99| 9.31 14.53 9.41 26.52 34.25 26.94 10.13 17.00 12.70 6.69 6.72 4.91 4.31 6.85 4.85 56.96 79.35 58.81

12.60 100.64 95.18 98.23 6.21 7.73

5.67

0.07 0.52 0.59

0.92 0.52

0.36

1.53

0.03

0.41

i

1.61

6.72 10.12 8.48 0.79 Ι.ΟΙ 0.55 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.19 0.88 0.08 0.26 1.64 2.66 1.76 1.79 1.75.

3.84 1.31 5.78 13.08. 7.65 0.15 0.03

2.14 0.77

0.16 0.68

Pokfulam.

Observatory.

Taitam.

Pokfulam.

Observatory.

Taitam.

TABLE II.

NOVEMBER.

DECEMBER.

Pokfulam.

Observatory.

Taitam.

Pokfulam.

Observatory.

J

Observatory.

Taitam.

Pokfulam.

Observatory.

Taitam.

TOTAL.

OCTOBER.

Pokfulam.

Observatory.

Taitam.

Pokfulam.

TABLE II.

Observatory.

Taitam.

Pokfulam.

Observatory.

Taitam.

NOVEMBER.

DECEMBER.

JANUARY.

FEBRUARY.

MARCH.

APRIL.

Pokfulam.

Observatory.

Taitam.

2.03

3 73.67

ΟΝ

89.19

4.52

› 56.33

5 83.47

3 52.72

43.71

GAUGE.

58.24

3.09

87-77 2.5I

47.29 2.81

48.48

NO GAUGE.

2.32

1.49

1.53 0.76

1.70 0.05

3.20

0.79

GAUGE

1.35

0.00

GAUGE.

0.00 0.87

0.60

2.70

2.35

2.47

1.50 1.25

1.50 2.01

0.00

1.78

2.47

8.43

0.55

0.85

1.45

0.18

0.77

ΟΝ

4.09

ON

0.73

NO GAUGE.

oie

1.50

1.54

8.70

1.89

3.97

0.72

NO GAUGE.

3.14

2.59

2.19

2.95

4.II

10.43

GAUGE.

11.71

*

*

2.49

ΟΝ

12.27

NO GAUGE.

2.37 14.89

1.78 5.67

3.57 5.64

6.95

16.50 25.51

1.65 16.33

4.34 23-55

7.74 25.20

25.49 81.84

83.73

93.07

8.72

*

1.54

0.18

*

2.39

1.48

*

*

4.15

1.96

*

25.59

*

20.42

NO GAUGE.

59.56

0.01

0.00 0.01

1

0.00

1.37

1.II

0.04

1

0.00 0.24

1

0.18

2.58

2.42

3.15

6.21

7.73

0.03

39.11 0.50 0.60 0.47 0.32 0.64 0.18 0.20 0.20 0.35

I 47.39 49.10 38.45 7.91 7.10 5.92 2.97 2.63 1.00 1.29 2.76 6.42 8.32 4.39 7.32 7.57 5.31 0.48 0.38 0.27 6.72

577.67 88.77 70.14 5 42.20 44.10 50.93 562.55 76.68 64.99

5 56.96 79.35 | 58.81

100.64 95.18 98.23 1 72.83 77.05 85.07 0.02 0.05 0.00 0.34 0.42 0.07 0.52 0.59 0.36 1.53 1.22 1.52 0.46 0.50 0.48 3.39 3.70 4 68.21 97.11 76.55 17.87 17.65 21.36 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.89 0.94 0.69 0:58 0.62 0.73 881.66 95.21 64.89 17.57 16.10 5.34 0.03 0.09 0.02 0.76 0.68 0.34 0.41 0.52 0.09 0.83 0.64 0.29

239.57 47.66 6.24 4.78

1.23 1.59

5.67 2.30 3.50 3.25 1.96 1.60 0.92 0.52 0.30 0.64

1.25 0.93 1.16 3.90

3.34

5.02

11.59 11.30

1.02 7.40

12.60 99.80

22.97 76.27

28.86 68.91

99.26

113.49

4.73 66.96

4-73

14.00 27.73 28.70 30.66 128.37 123.88 128.89

ΝΟ

GAUGE.

100.37

70.26

77.34

89.19

0.27 0.17

1.39

1.28

1.73 1.09 1.23

2.26 3.74 0.41 1.82

7.95

1.45

0.82

1.44 0.35 2.10

0.66 0.61 3.24

3.44 8.43 11.85

0.46 2.49 3.32

1.21 0.60 2.61 2.98

1.94

2.45

16.11| 14.69 18.33 21.98 87.52 95.38 107.05 3.12 22.17 22.70

0.66|| 23.60 22.22

1.58 14.25 12.15

2.15 20.31 20.57

26.36 90.38 119.81 102.91 7.34 105.26117.43 72.23 8.94 53.82 59.81 48.05 12.96 67.70 69.67| 51.41

1.16 I. II 0.72 2.52| 1.72 2.26 0.17 0.23 0.08 3.44 5.14 10.12 8.48 0.79 1.01 0.55 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.19 0.12 0.05 2.20 2.06

1.63 21.51 24.47 14.66 99.18113.24| 84.80

0.88 0.08 0.26 1.64 2.66; 1.76 1.79 1.75. 2.14 0.77 0.98 0.74 2.64 1.61 3.84 1.31 5.78 13.08 7.65 0.15 0.03 0.16 0.68 0.66 0.29 0.77

1.67 0.32 0.15 0.14 3.14 2.27 1.89 3.02 3.30 2.92 2.78 0.41 0.69 1.27 1.35 0.94 9.03 12.07

3.75

3.32 13.38 17.23 14.21 55.58 61.33 65.14 1.43 2.41 13.52 12.47 12.12 76.07 89.15 77.11 7.03 19.29 31.44 18.07 76.25|110.79 76.88

Pokfulam.

Observatory.

Taitam.

Pokfulam.

Observatory.

Taitam.

Pokfulam.

Observatory.

Taitam.

Pokfulam.

TOTAL.

GRAND TOTAL.

Observatory.

Taitam.

Pokfulam.

;

95-96,

96-97,

97-98,

90-99,

99-00,

10.54 22.87 14.87 | 10.24 9.47 10.13 9.98 16.53| 20.80 15.52 19.11 18.53

5.64 6.72 3.63 4.97 8.24 4.44 18.87 18.39 18.46 6.13 7-75 7.06 3.96 6.56 1.15 1.35 0.65 18.63 18.00 13.67|| 12.42 11.67 10.80 5.20 5.57 3.62 9.99 12.51 14.86 16.68 17.02 23-35 25.20 22.05 | 5.57 4.45 5.70 6.18

7.16 9.66

8.28 81.66 95.21 64.89| 17.57 5.52 39.57 47.66| 39.11 9.71 47.39 49.10 38.45

16.10

5.34

0.03

0.09

0.02 0.76

0.50

0.60

0.47

0.32

0.64

0.18

0.20

1

7.91

7.10:

5.92

2.97

2.63

1.00 1.29

00-01,

8.45 25.55 33.19 19.87 8.34 9.25 2.75 77.67 88.77 70.14 3.72 14.25 15.87 17.31 7.05 7.05 9.40 9.90 8.81 12.85 5.30 6.19 7.65 42.20 44.10 50.93 5.76 18.98 19.40 17.06 10.13. 13.61 11.31 19.98 24.54 23.41 6.30 9.47 7.45 62.55 76.68 64.99 9.31 14.53 9.41 26.52 34.25 26.94 10.13 17.00 12.70 6.69 6.72 4.91 4.31 6.85 4.85 56.96 79.35 58.81

6.42

8.32

4.39

7:32

7.57

5.31 0.48

(

6.72

10.12 8.48

0.79

1.01 0.55 0.02

(

0.88 0.08 0.26

1.61

1.64 2.66

1.76 1.79

3.84 1.31

5.78 13.08

7.65

0.15:

Observatory

Total 17 years, ..............

213.86

Average over 17 years, | 12.58

292.92

17.23

233.41

13.73

228.91

13.46

143.11.

[1112.21

8.42 i

65.42

Taitam:

· Total 10 years,

122.73

220.18

148.92!

|147.89

110.49

750.21

71.59

Average over 10 years,

12:27

22.02

14.89

14.79

11.05

75.02

7.16

Pokfulam :

Total 15 years,

154.38

274.00

214.14

209.75

125.87

978.14

61.95

3.16

23.19

Average over 15 years,

10.29

18.26

14.28

13.99

8.39

€5.21

4.13

-

1.55

* Gauge removed during this period.

89.40

5.26

26.93

1.59

16.73

0.98

31.60

8.

0.

1

{

Taitam

Pokful

Observ

Taitah

Pokfula

Observ

Taitam

Pokfula

Observa

Taitam.

Pokfula

Observa

Taitam.

2.03

1.52

8.72

0.01

NO

GAUGE.

2.32 1.49

1.53 0.76

1.70 0.05

0.79

3.20

*

0.77!

1.54

NO GAUGE

1.35 0.00

1.50

1.25

0.00

0.55

1.78

0.85

4.09

*

0.00 0.87

NO GAUGE.

0.18

1.50 2.01

2.47 8.43

1.45

*

*

0.18

0.73

2.39

NO GAUGE.

0.60 2.70

1.50

8.70

0.10

*

32

*

1.54

1.89

3.97

0.72

1.48

NO GAUGE

2.35 2.47

3.14 2.59

2.19

2.95

4.11

10.43

2.49

4.15

2.37 14.89

16.50 25.51

25.49 81.84

83-73

NO

GAUGE.

1.78 5.67

3.57

5.64

11.71

6.95

*

12.27

*

1.96

NO GAUGE

1.65 16.33

4.3423-55

7.74 25.20

0.00

0.01

0.00

1.37

I. II

.21

7.73

5.67 :

2.30

3.50 3.25 1.96

1.60

0.04

0.92 0.52

0.00

0.24

0.18 2.58

2.42 3.15

*

25.59.

*

20.42

1.02 7.40

NO

GAUGE

12.60 99.80

22.97 76.27

28.86 68.91

99.26

113.49

NO GAUGE.

100.37

70.26

77.34

89.19

4-73 66.96

4.73

0.30

0.64

1.25

0.93

1.16 3.90

3.34

5.02 11.59 11.30

14.00 27.73 28.70 30.66 128.37 123.88|128.89

joz

7.57 16.10

5.34 0.03 0.09 0.02

0.05 0.00 0.34 0.42 0.07 0.52

0.59 0.36 0.46 0.50 187 17.65 21.36 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.89 0.94 0.69 0:58 0.62 0.76 0.68

0.48 3-39 3.70 3.44 0.73 0.27 0.17 0.46 2.49

0.34 0.41 0.52 0.09 0.83 0.64 0.29 1.39 1.21 0.60 2.61 0.60 0.47 0.32 0.64 0.18 0.20 0.20 0.35 1.73 1.09 1.23 7.95 6.24 4.78 1.45 1.44 0.35 2.10 7.91 7.10 5.92 2.97 2.63 1.00 1.29 2.76 1.28 2.26 3.74 0.41 1.82 1.23 1.59 0.82 0.66 0.61 3.24

0.48 0.38 0.27 1.16

0.02 0.02 0.00 0.19

1.53 1.22 1.52

8.43 11.8516.11| 14.69 18.33 21.98 87.52 95.38 107.05

3.32 3.12 22.17 22.70' 26.36 90.38 119.81 102.91

2.98

0.66 23.60 22.22 7.34 105.26 117.43 72.23

I.I I

1.58 14.25 12.15 8.94 53.82 59.81 48.05 2.15 20.31 20.57 12.96 67.70 69.67| 51.41

36.42 8.32 4.39 7.32 7.57 5.31 0.72 2.52 1.72 2.26 0.17 0.23 0.08 1.63 21.51 24.47 14.66 99.18 113.24 84.80

6.72 10.12 8.48 0.79 1.01 0.55 0.12 0.05 2.20 2.06 1.67 0.32 0.15 0.14 3.14 3.75 3.32 13.38 17.23 14.21 55.58 61.33 65.14

.9.88 0.08 0.26 1.64 2.66 1.76 1.79 1.75. 2.14 0.77 0.98 0.74 2.64 2.27 1.89 3.02 2.92 2.78 1.43 2.41 13.52 12.47 12.12 76.07 89.15 77.11

1.61 3.84 1.31 5.78 13.08 7.65 0.15 0.03 0.16 0.68 0.66 0.29 0.77 0.41 0.69 1.27 7.03 19.29 31.44 18.07 76.25|110.79 76.88

1.94

3.44

2.45

5.14

3.30

1.35

0.94

9.03 12.07

9.40

26.93

16.73

5.26

1.59

0.98

24.79

1.46

33.56

43.66

1.97

2.57

99.38

5.85

334.45

1446.66

19.68

85.10

71.59

31.60

8.01

10.68

16.62

15.55

56.23

210.28

7.16

3.16

0.80

1.07

1.66

1.56

5.62

21.03

960.49

96.05

61.95

23.19

12.35

17.28

27.51

36.41

83.26

261.95

1240.09

4.13

I

1

1.55

T

0.82

I

Į

1.15

1.83

2.43

5.55

17.46

www.

82.67

Pokfulam

Observa

Taitam.

Pokfula

Observa

Taitam.

Pokfular

Observa

Taitam.

Pokfular

Observat

Taitam.

Pokfulam

687

but these will be far more than made good this year as arrangements are made for bringing up the numbers either by planting or sowing seeds to about that of the previous year's work which was 54,000.

42. The planting of lands suitable for trees either in regard to their growth or facilities for protec- tion is almost completed in the Island except in catch-water areas of reservoirs, and those are being attended to this year. Afterwards planting generally will be only needed to replace losses by fires or other mischief. Statistics are given in Appendix B.

43. In connection with the completion of the main features of tree planting in Hongkong, it will be useful and interesting to mention here that since the establishment of an Afforestation Department the whole of my plans have been carried out under my direct guidance and control by Chinese and without European assistance, except once a year when either the Assistant Superintendent or a Police Constable was employed to count tree pits to check the contractors' numbers, and also when the Assistant Superintendent has carried on the plans during, mostly, rather brief intervals when I have been absent on leave. The work has not been done without constant care, but it speaks well for the Chinese staff, who, if the leading members had the same educational advantages and technical training as Europeans, would be still more valuable.

Thanks are due to the Police Department for again rendering great assistance in extinguishing grass-fires; the stations at Shaukiwan, Stanley, Aberdeen, Pokfulam and West Point (No. 7) having done a great deal of work with the aid of hired coolies paid by this Department, as usual.

44. Thinning of Plantations.-There was also a little diminished activity in this work. The number of trees cut out was 32,274, which sold for $728.15, a decrease of $96.30 compared with 1900. The items and particulars are provided in Appendix D.

45. Fires. There was a considerable increase in the number of fires and trees destroyed by them, 12,174 trees having been killed and there were 41 fires. Little Hongkong district has a very bad reputation in this respect, as have also Mount Davis and Mount Kellet, the two latter owing their misfortunes most probably chiefly to the people who frequent the graves there.

46. Experience points out the necessity of still further widening fire barriers as trees increase in size, especially when they are on steep declivities. Probably 50 feet will be a necessary width in some places.

About 32 miles of fire barriers were cleared and 3 miles of new ones made. Appendix E contains statistics of grass-fires.

47. Protective Service. Only 310 trees were reported as having been stolen, but there is evidence that the forest guards have been very slack and I have no doubt they have neglected to report in many cases as tree cutters seem to have been pretty active.

The guards had 55 cases, but of these there was the very unusual number of 19 aquittals; the number of convictions averaged about 7 only for each man for the whole year.

There is only one forest guard who has as much as one year's service, it is therefore not surprising that with so many changes their work is far from what is desired.

FORESTRY IN THE NEW TERRITORY.

48. Tree Planting.-As mentioned in my Report for 1899 soon after the New Territory was taken over I made arrangements and operations were commenced in October for planting about 80,000 trees. Four new Police Stations were first to have about 20,000 trees planted in their neighbourhoods and then a beginning was to be made with planting about 60,000 in a broad band on each side of the new road which had been commenced and was to run from Kowloon to Taipo. I hoped that in time the roadside planting would be extended, year by year, to Taipo, a distance of 17 miles. The number of trees actually planted was 81,154 and they consisted chiefly of Pines, Camphors, Eucalyptus and Tristaneas. A considerable number of pine and camphor tree seeds were sown in situ, the failures-there are always some-have now been re-sown or re-planted.

In addition to these a supplementary plan was carried out of sowing seeds of Pinus Massoniana broadcast on each side of the road between the 3rd and 6th mile stones and they have given most satisfactory results. A rough measurement of the land sown and estimate of seedlings gives an addition to the 81,000 named above of about 22,000 which were not alluded to in the Report for 1900, making a total for the first year's work in the New Territory of about 103,000 trees.

49. Broadcast sowing, if the land on which the seeds are sown and the time of sowing is well chosen, produces as good plantations as the more expensive plans of sowing in situ or of planting trees. The total costs of planting in the New Territory amount to about $54 per acre, whereas the costs of broadcast sowing are only about $5 per acre. Each method has to be adopted according to circum- stances, but in future broadcast sowing should receive special attention and planting should be reduced to narrow limits. This conclusion is the result of careful experiments and observations which I have made for some years past.

50. During the past year the working plan sketched in 1899 has been extended by 11,800 trees being planted around Police Stations, two of them new ones, and 125,565 continuing the new road, the

.

688

latter composed of 17,407 trees planted, 98,158 trees reared in situ in prepared soil and 10,000 reared from broadcast sowings.

51. Eucalyptus and Malaria.-A great deal has been made at different times and places of the supposed benefits of planting Eucalyptus, in malarious places, a theory which I have never been converted to and about which for many years I have spoken words of caution to those who pinned their faith to it. Last

Last year the medical authorities here recommended the planting of Eucalyptus in selected places in the New Territory and in Hongkong and preparations were made for carrying out the recommendations and planting Eucalyptus this spring, although two of the places were, as I understand, under water and where, of course, nothing could be done until they were first filled in with soil but which work I believe is not yet done.

In connection with this subject I may quote what Professor ANGELO CELLI, an authority on malaria, said in his book "Malaria According to the New Researches," published in 1890. Writing of trees planted near Rome he says, at page 142: "The Eucalyptus planted round our railway stations "are now proved to be useless against malaria, if even they do not do more harm than good by har- "bouring the mosquitoes near the houses. Here outside the gates of the city, at Tre Fontane, an "intensely malarious spot, there is a fine wood of them, and in Australia there are enormous forests "of these trees and all are malarious."

And again, at page 234, he says: "That the planting of woods is not a protection against malaria "has been demonstrated by the example already recorded of the Tre Fontane, where in spite of the "Eucalyptus wood which has grown vigorously, this disease still remains."

In consideration of facts such as these, which were not altogether unknown before the publication of Professor CELLI's book, I think caution should be exercised in adopting planting recommendations for the object of preventing malaria only.

The planting of Eucalyptus trees which has been done here was not intended any more than the plant- ing of the other trees as a preventative of malaria specially but they were in common with all tree-planting intended to act in other ways for the improvement and healthfulness of the districts.

52. Fire Barriers.-Trees planted have been protected from fire as far as possible by making 4 miles of fire barriers 15 feet wide and re-clearing 1 mile 10 feet wide.

53. Conservancy. No system of conservancy of trees which were in existence before the territory was taken over has yet been adopted, as the time has not yet arrived for taking action in this matter, but notes and information are being collected in preparation for what may seem advisable in due course. The Government is in possession of information connected with this subject and also of my views on the same to which there is no necessity for making further allusion here.

54. Estimates.-I found that $8,000 had been placed on the Estimates of the Department for expenditure in the New Territory this year, but as this was in excess of present requirements and was based on a proposed plan of work which was unsatisfactory and included rearing trees by the more expensive system of sowing in situ instead of the effective and vastly less expensive system of sowing broadcast above referred to, I recommended its reduction to $3,000 which is ample for this year.

55. I hope to be able during the next few months to submit a special Report on the Forestry pos- sibilities of the New Territory which will deal exhaustively with the whole subject both of conservancy and planting, and until that is carefully considered it is not advisable to extend work beyond the limits on which it has been conducted so far.

ECONOMIC GARDEN.

56. In C. S. O. No. 1,768 (1), dated 7th July, 1899, when dealing with the subject of the New Territory I suggested amongst other things the establishment of an Experimental Garden for the purpose of introducing and distributing amongst the cultivators plants of economic value which would be new to the territory. In 1900 this object was approved and money provided in the Estimates for carrying it out in 1901, when, during my absence, a site for the garden was selected and an attempt made to purchase the land, but the matter of ownership and the high price asked for the land caused a delay and the question was still open on my return in September, which, however, was quite early enough as the land could not have been dealt with satisfactorily at that time. On inspection I found the selected site unsuitable and recommended its abandonment, which was approved, and another site. has been chosen which has all the advantages desired.

This newly chosen site, which is accessible in one hour from Hongkong by launch, has also the advantage, which the other had not, of proximity to suitable hill land for experimental forest tree cultivation which can be conducted under the same economical management as the garden will have.

MOUNTAIN Lodge.

57. The construction of a new summer residence at Victoria Peak for the Governor involved the re-laying out of the grounds there, and the extension of the lawns over the site occupied by the old building after its removal. I therefore recommended in C. S. O. No. 2,333, dated 18th September, 1899, that this work should be carried out and a sufficient sum of money be provided for the work, which was adopted. In last year's Estimates the money was provided, but works were not commenced until October, when, however, arrangements were immediately made for commencing work, and good progress was made up to the end of the year.

689

KOWLOON PUBLIC RECREATION GROUND.

58. In 1898, His Excellency the Governor, Sir H. A. BLAKE, G.C.M.G., foresaw the necessity of providing additional recreation grounds, and after discussion of the subject he requested me to submit a report on the most favourable site for a Park at Kowloon. This report was forwarded on January 12th, 1899-C. S. O. No. 120. It contained a recommendation for the formation of a large Park of about 90 acres of land, part of which was to be taken up by a new road that should open out on one side of it a large area of land that would be made available for building sites for a good class of houses. In the event of this scheme being considered too ambitious or of there being then insurmountable difficulties in carrying it out, I submitted an alternative plan which would allow of a Park of about 11 acres being made at first. This large scheme would necessitate the removal of Military, Navy and Police rifle ranges and the forfeiture or exchange of other Military interests.

At the time there were difficulties in carrying out either scheme, but in the early part of 1900 the Honourable F. H. MAY, C.M.G., who was then Acting Colonial Secretary, brought up the subject for re-consideration, with the result that the lesser scheme was sanctioned.

Changed conditions having made still greater claims for extended recreation grounds and the probabilities of their acquirement having become more hopeful I made a request in January of this year for a further re-consideration of the large scheme and it received the warm support of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government-Sir WILLIAM J. GASCOIGNE, K.C.M.G. It is hoped, therefore, that during the present year a very large portion of the main scheme will be sanctioned* and that plans and arrangements for laying it out can be put in hand. This land would provide public golf links and lawns for tennis, bowling, foot-ball, croquet, &c., in combination with an ornamental Park.

The Honourable J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, C.M.G., suggested at the first meeting of the Corona- tion Committee that this work should form a permanent Memorial of the Coronation of His Majesty Kind EDWARD VII and that the grounds should be named King's Park.

WESTERN DISTRICT PARK.

59. The upper portion of this land was laid out in 1898 by the Public Works and the Botanical and Afforestation Departments, the former making roads and re-distributing a large amount of soil, and the latter continuing soil re-arrangements and carrying out the turfing and planting. Part of the money for the work was provided by the Government and part by the owners of property in the district.

In response to a desire of residents in the neighbourhood the Government decided last year to extend the work to the portion of land on the north side of Lower Richmond Road, and $10,000 for this purpose was included by this Department in the Estimates for 1902. This, however, I found was much in excess of what was necessary and the sum was consequently reduced to $5,000. The work will again be carried out jointly by the Public Works and the Botanical Departments, the former having the heaviest portion in hand.

The maintenance of this Park, for which no additional sum of money has been provided, will rest with this Department and the expense will be defrayed by the Forestry Vote, which is sufficient for the purpose at present.

ELECTRIC LIGHTING OF THE BOTANIC GARDENS.

60. In June of last year His Excellency Major-General Sir W. J. GASCOIGNE, K.C.M.G., communi- cated with His Excellency the Governor reporting an offer of Lieutenant-Colonel TEVERSHAM, to allow his Regimental Band to play on certain days in the Botanic Gardens for the benefit of the Public. In consequence of this it was decided to make provision for lighting the Gardens by electricity for which a sum of $800 was placed on the Estimates for this year. An examination of the proposed arrange- ments have, however, revealed some weak points which require further consideration and, if eventually adopted, perhaps certain modifications. In the meantime satisfactory arrangements can be made for lighting by other means.

REVENUE.

61. The particulars of Revenue collected are given in Appendix F.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

CHARLES FORd, Superintendent,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

The Honourable J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, C.M.G.,

Colonial Secretary, &c.,

&c.,

&c.

* Sanctioned in June by the Secretary of State for the Colonies.

690

Date.

Appendix A.

RAINFALL OBSERVATIONS MADE AT THE BOTANIC GARDENS, DURING 1901.

RAIN GAUGE, ABOUT 300 FEET ABOVE SEA LEVEL.

Jan. Feb. March. April. May. June. July. Aug. Sept.

Oct.

Nov. Dec.

1,

2,

4,

:

.01

.03

2.69

...

5,

:.

6,

.03

7.

.21

8,

.05

9,

:

10,

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

.01

.02

.02

.01

.35

1.22

.04

:.

12,

13,

.04

14,

.05

11,

.10

.03

.21

:

:

:

:

:

:.

.32

.10

.47

.85

:

:

.31

.39

.13

3.71

.20

.14

.38

.57

.04

.70

1.03

.01

.07

4.11

3.99

:

.22

.46

.63

.03

.05

:.

:

:.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

.01

.03

:

:.

:

:

.03

:

:

.12

.01

.05

.17

.65

:

15,

16,

17,

18,

19,

20,

21,

22,

23,

24,

25,

26,

27,

:.

:

:

:

.01

.03

:

:

:

.01

.08

.02

.22

:

:

:

:

.03

.57

.56

.11

1.01

1.01

1.22

.03

.01

:

:

:

:

.72

.08

.14

.01

:

:.

:

:

:

.82

.01

.01

.28

.09

1.48

.01

.26

.01

.37

1.19

.85

.01

.18

:

1.05

:

:

1.74

:

.01

.37

.24

1.27

.24

.02

.01

.21

1.26

.01

.06

.01

.01

.30

.36 1.77

.0i

.32

.02

.01

:

:

:

:

.02 1.17

:

.26

.03

.62

.01

.01

:

:

.02

.26

.01

.06

:

.11

.01

.01

.07

.14

.09

.07

:

:

:

:.

.08 1.43

.01

:

:

:

::

:

:

1.64

.33

:

884

28,

29,

30,

31,

Total,..

:

:

.56

.19

:

:

.12

.33

.10

:

:

.63

.73 1.33 9.46 11.44

:

:

.10

.69

:

5.43 5.74 15.74 2.21 3.39 1.06

.94

Total inches for the year-58.03. Observations made at 10 A.M.

CHARLES Ford,

Superintendent,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

.14

:

:

.03

.12

.68

.02

.30

.04

.25

.35

.24

.11

.07

.37

.15

:

.05

:

:

:

:

:

.01

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

÷

:

:

:

:

:

.12

.29

.18

.02

:

:

1

Appendix B.

STATISTICS OF PLANTING OPERATIONS.

691

HONGKONG.

Tristania con-

Locality.

Camphor.

ferta.

Pinus Thumbergii.

Area in Acres.

Grand Total.

84

84

43

1,093

1

1,136

499

01/1

499

Total,.....

43

84

1,592

11/

1,719

Near Peak Road, Victoria Peak, Plantation Road,

CHARLES FORD,

Superintendent,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

Appendix C.

STATISTICS OF PLANTING OPERATIONS.

NEW TERRITORY.

Pinus

Locality.

Massoni-Camphor.

ana.

Mela- leuca leuca- dendron.

Eucalyp-

Pterocar-

Area

phylla.

tus platy-triloba.

Aleurites

pus indiens.

Tristania conferta.

Grand

in

Tota

acres.

Au Tau, Police Station,

500

New Road,

15,925

474

508

Do.,

in situ..

92,840

5,318

Do., broadcast,

10,000

Ping Shan Police Station,

Sai Kung

Do.,

3,284

45

Sha Tai Kok Do.,

3,476

152

Tai-po

Do.,

479

400

240

81

120

Total,...... 125,525 5,989

508 1,619

81

120

3,523

1,488

1/3/3

1,988

500

14

17.407

81

98,158

81

10,000

1,535

134

2,014

31

3,729

31

3,868

01

201

1131137,365

Superintendent,

CHARLES FOrd,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

Deep Water Bay,.

Jubilee Road,

Little Hongkong,.

Military Sanitorium,

Mount Davis.

""

Gough,

Kellet,.

Parker,

Pokfulum,

Repulse Bay,

Stanley,

Tytam-Tuk, Wongneichong,

Tree Prunings,. Brushwood,

Appendix D.

SALE OF FORESTRY PRODUCTS.

Locality.

Quantity Pine Trees.

Amount realized.

C.

3,485

57.95

738

52.90

1,576

58 42

2,033

29.26

727

39.57

83

5.49

622

36.00

9,995

222-20

1,921

82.45

3,593

43.86

5,680

65.49

1,386

9.99

435

24.67

32,274

728.15

104,239 catties.

4,000

19.56

0.40

""

Total Revenue for Forestry Products,...

$748.11

CHARLES FOrd,

Superintendent,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

692

Date.

Appendix E.

:

STATISTICS OF GRASS FIRES.

Localities.

Number of Fires.

Number of Trees destroyed.

1901.

February

3

Deep Water Bay,

1

4

Do.,

1

75

"

4

Repulse Bay,

1

5

Aberdeen,

1

10

"

8

Shek O;

1

21

Pokfulum,

1

39

25

""

Cape Collinson,

1

27

Pokfulum,

1

150

92

March

"

28

4

Do.,

1

823

Aplichau,

2

20

Little Hongkong,

2

15

4

Shun Wan,

1

10

""

7

Mount Kellet,

1

""

11

Mount Davis,

1

""

11

Pokfulum,

1

15

"

21

Tai Hau Wan,

1

200

28

* A

Stanley,

1

30

Shek 0,

1

""

""

April

31

31

Aplichau,

2

50

Kennedy Town,

1

Deep Water Bay,

1

5

29

Shun Wan,

1

Little Hongkong,

1

1,000

196 1,519

5

Mount Kellet,

1

11

5

Stanley,

1

5

59

Sookumpo,

1

12

5

Mount Davis,

1

18

19

5

Aplichau,..

1

""

17

Mount Kellet,

1

3,100

May

17

Tai Hong Village,

1

August

30

Mount Kellet,

1

1,100

October

20

Pokfulum,

1

21

Tytam-Tuk,..

1

November

20

Little Hongkong,

1

3,190

26

Mount Parker,

1

200

28

29

Deep Water Bay,

1

70

December

15

Quarry Bay,

I

100

31

""

Deep Water Bay,

1

300

Total,...

41

12,174

Plant Sales,..

Loan of Plants,

Forestry Products,

Appendix F.

REVENUE.

CHARLES FOrd,

Superintendent,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

783.30

174.88

758.11

$1,716.29

CHARLES Ford,

Superintendent,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

HONGKONG.

97

No. 10

1902

No. 526.

CHAIR AND JINRICKSHA COOLIES.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

SIR,

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 31st December, 1901.

I have the honour to report that, in consequence of a number of complaints which reached the Governinent in connection with the difficulties of procuring and retaining reliable coolies for private chairs and jinrickshas, I appointed a Com- mission, in August last, for the purpose of enquiring into the cause of these com- plaints and suggesting a remedy.

2. The Commission held fourteen meetings during the months of September, October and November, and examined a large number of witnesses.

The Report in which the evidence of these witnesses was reproduced, and in which the Commissioners formulated their suggestions for the removal of the alleged grounds of discontent, was submitted to me last month. I gave it my very careful consideration and perused all the evidence upon which the recom- mendations of the Commissioners were based.

3. I did not find myself in agreement with the deductions drawn from the evidence by the Commissioners, and was unable, therefore, to concur in their recom- mendations. I invited the Members of my Executive Council, however, to give me the benefit of their views on the subject, and caused them to be informed of the opinions held by myself.

4. On the 20th instant, the question was fully considered in Executive Council, especially as to the question whether there should or should not be compulsory registration of private coolies, and it was advised by a majority of the Members of Council that no steps should be taken to carry out the recommendations of the Committee. This advice was given on the ground that the recommendations, if carried out, were not calculated to bring about the desired result, nor, in the long- run, to satisfy the employers of private coolies, inasmuch as the real causes of discontent appeared to be traceable to the state of the labour market of Hongkong and China and other natural economic conditions.

5. I have now the honour to transmit for your information six copies of the Report together with a statement of my own views, which I drew up after reading the Report but before I consulted the Executive Council.

6. I also enclose an extract from the China Mail of the 20th instant from which it appears that the difficulties dealt with by the Commissioners who drew up the Report may be mitigated by other methods than those suggested by them- methods which would be less subversive of sound economic principles.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Yours most obedient Servant,

The Right Honourable

J. CHAMBERLAIN, M.P.,

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies,

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

HENRY A. BLAKE,

Governor.

98

streets.

(Enclosure.)

Extract from "China Mail" of the 20th December, 1901.

The difficulty in procuring ricksha coolies seems to have been almost met by the recent action of the authorities in placing 500 extra public rickshas on the There are now twelve hundred of these conveyances plying in Hongkong, and the coolies, finding that their earnings are not so profitable as before, are throwing aside the public ricksha and going into private employ. The public ricksha owners grumble that many of their machines are lying idle for want of coolies. The grumble, of course, is justifiable when one takes into consideration the fact that the licensee has to pay $72 a year to the Treasury for the licence for each ricksha.

Minute by His Excellency the Governor on the Report of the Committee appointed to enquire into and report on the Question of Chair and Jinricksha Coolies.

Honourable COLONIAL SECRETARY,

I have very carefully read and considered this report and the evidence upon which it is based. The causes of the difficulties complained of are fairly set forth in the answer of the first witness to question 7 of page la—(a.) the demand for coolies is greater and the coolies are more or less limited in number; (b.) they are under no control and they can do as they like; (c) the cost of living has increased and wages are still going up. The latter reason given is borne out by 17 of the 32 responses in Appendix E. and is emphasised by Inspector HANSON in his answers to questions 9 and 10, page 11. On the other hand, as suggested in questions 3 and 4, page 14, as private chair coolies are usually housed, the increased cost of lodging outside ought to tend to increase the supply of private chair coolies.

Another reason of the alleged discontent of private chair coolies is that they object to performing the light work outside the mere carrying of chairs that has hitherto been within the scope of their duty.

The proposals put forward by the Members of the Commission to meet this state of discomfort are compulsory registration of all coolies employed as private ricksha or chair coolies, and the reduction of the fares of public ricksha and chair coolies so that their possible earnings would cease to be a temptation to private chair coolies to leave private employment and become licensed public chair coolies. The establishment of a coolie farm was also suggested, question 10, page 15, but Mr. HANSON's answer "There is no doubt that if these people are put into the hands of one person, the community will have to pay largely for that man's mono- poly" confirmed by Mr. DYER BALL's answer, question 6, page 23, is borne out by the demand of NGAN WING CHI who had evidently been approached on the subject of a monopoly, and was prepared to undertake the supply of 2,700 private chair and ricksha coolies in three classes at eleven, ten, and nine dollars respectively.

On the subject of registration, the views of the witnesses are very divergent. Registration has been tried before and prove a failure, because the masters would not be troubled by any restriction of the kind so long as they could get their work done. Mr. MAY's answer to question 2, page 6, shows how far this disinclination went to accept any trouble even in a case where it was notified to the master by the police that one of his boys was a thief. The answer was:

"Well, so long as he does not trouble me, I don't mind." The evidence of Mr. DENNYS, late Crown Solicitor, showed that he was strongly opposed to any interference by compulsory registration of private coolies as an interference with freedom of con- tract, questions 6 to 9, page 29; and at question 6, page 31, he gives the reasons for

99

the present difficulty, that is, that a street or cargo coolie can earn more money than a private chair coolie. The evidence of Mr. SAUNDERS, pages 92 to 99, is also very strongly against registration, on the grounds of interference with freedom of con- tract (question 3, page 94) and also of the danger of intensifying the present dis- comforts (question 4, page 94) “There is a limited supply of these people and, if you weed them out, there will be an insufficient supply." Mr. SAUNDERS' evidence appears to have been rather a resistance to persistent arguments of the Commis- sion in favour of registration making employment of unregistered coolies an offence, than the volunteering of his views on the questions under discussion.

Mr. BREWIN, the Registrar General, declared himself in favour of compulsory registration, question 6, page 57, but the answers to the questions from 4, page 58, to question 7, page 59, show some of the practical difficulties of identification. The examination of the witnesses shows that the Commission entered upon the inquiry with strong views upon the advisability of compulsory registration and of the necessity for reducing the fares of the public ricksha coolies and chair coolies so that their earnings would cease to induce private chair and ricksha coolies to elect to serve as public licensed coolies rather than to engage as private coolies. Inspector HANSON said, question 3, page 15, that two men can make from sixty to eighty dollars a month with a public ricksha, but at question 7, page 16, he places the probable duration of a coolie's ricksha life at three years, while NGAN WAN CHI, in answer to question 11, page 90, shows that over ten of his ricksha men have died, because they had a long run over the new road from Kowloon to Shatin.

Mr. BREWIN, in answer to question 6, page 60, said that cargo coolies are the best paid. The question at the bottom of the page assumes that in such case the reduction of the ricksha and chair fares would not have much effect in driving the men into private employ. Mr. FUNG WA CHUN, question 10, page 65, placed the earnings of a street coolie with a pole at 40 cents a day while other coolies make $15 a month. And that the increase in wages is not confined to Hongkong is shown by Mr. LAU CHU PAK (questions 3 to 12, page 71) by which it appears that in South China wages have risen 30% in the villages. The first three witnesses agree that compulsory registration will probably produce a strike.

I have analysed the evidence thus carefully as I consider it highly undesirable, to interfere with sound economic principles except very strong local reasons are shown-that I cannot find in the evidence given before the Commission. Freedom of the port and freedom of contract are two principles under which Hongkong has grown and prospered. The original Registration Ordinance was repealed because the European population showed that they did not care to avail themselves of its provisions, and the passing of such an Ordinance as is now recommended might have far reaching consequences, extremely inconvenient to Europeans dependent upon the services of chair coolies. It has been shown in the evidence that Regis- tration Offices have been tried on more than one occasion and have failed from want of support, and it is evident that any master who desires to be satisfied as to the character of his chair coolies, can refuse to engage any coolie who does not produce some evidence of his character. All that is required is a common agree- ment between a number of employers. Or, if a number of people find it difficult to obtain coolies, it is evident from the stateinents of Chinese witnesses that there are men in the Colony who would undertake to supply them if arrangements were made with them. Mr. HANSON points out, on page 14, the objection the Chinese coolies have to many restrictions, and it seems to me that compulsory registration would reduce the labour supply and further raise the wages.

But the question as to fares and as to the issue of tickets as recommended in para. 21 might be considered in Executive Council. In para. 20 Inspector HANSON'S statement is quoted. These amounts may possibly have been earned in one of the busy months before the large increase of 1,200 rickshas, but, granting the

100

statement that, for the year the average nett earning was $10, this cannot be reckoned exborbitant remembering the short life of a ricksha coolie, and is not more than can be earned by a cargo coolie.

If a system of tickets could be adopted it would, in my opinion, save many disputes especially with people who do not carry very small change, and who generally receive Chinese coins in exchange. I have spoken to Mr. HEWETT on the Shanghai system which, he tells me, works well, and if such tickets were issued by Government, probably books of them would be bought freely and used by sailors, &c., &c. As to the amount, a sum equal to one penny farthing does not appear to be very startling even for the shortest journey, and is decidedly moderate for fifteen minutes, but this could be considered in Executive Council. Increased competition must bring down the earnings and with lower fares we might find such a curtailment in the number of rickshas as would reproduce the inconvenience felt last year.

Circulate for Executive Council.

10.12.01.

H. A. B.

787

41

No. 1902

HONGKONG.

EXTRACT FROM THE CITY OF BOMBAY IMPROVEMENT ACT, 1898.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency

the Officer Administering the Government.

*

*

*

49. In determining the amount of compensation to be awarded for any land or building acquired under this Act, the following further provisions shall apply:-

(1.) The Court shall take into consideration any increase to the value of any other land or building belonging to the person interested likely to accrue from the acquisition of the land or from the acquisition, alteration or demolition of the building;

(2.) When

any addition to, or improvement of, the land or building has been made after the date of publication under Section 27, 32, or 39 of a notification relating to the land or building, such addition or improvement shall not (unless it was necessary for the maintenance of the building in a proper state of repair) be included, nor in the case any interest acquired after the said date shall any separate estimate of the value thereof be made, so as to increase the amount of compensation to be paid for the land or building;

of

(3.) In estimating the market value of the building at the date of the publication of a declaration relating thereto under Section 29, 32, or 39, the Court shall have due regard to the nature and then condition of the property and the probable duration of the building in its existing state and to the state of repair thereof and to the provisions of sub- sections (4), (5) and (6) of this section;

(4.) When the owner of the land or building has, after the passing of this Act, and within twenty-four months preceding the date of the publication of a notification relating to the land or building under Section 27, 32, or 39, made a return under Section 155 of the Municipal Act of the rent of the land or building, the rent of the land or building shall not in any such case, save as the Court may otherwise direct, be deemed to be greater than the rent shown in the latest return so made: Provided that where any addition to or improvement of the land or building has been made after the date of such latest return and previous to the date of the publication of a notification under Sec- tion 27, 32, or 39 relating to the land or building, the Court may take into consideration any increase in the letting value of the land due to such addition or improvement; (5.) If in the opinion of the Court the rental of the land or building has been enhanced by reason of its being used for an illegal purpose, or being so overcrowded as to be dangerous or injurious to the health of the inmates, the rental shall not be deemed to be greater than the rental which would be obtainable if the land or building were used for legal purposes only, or were occupied by such a number of persons only as it was suitable to accommodate without risk of such overcrowding;

(6.) If in the opinion of the Court the building is in a state of defective sanitation, or is not

in reasonably good repair, the amount of compensation shall not exceed the estimated value of the building after being put into a sanitary condition, or into reasonably good repair, less the estimated expense of putting it into such condition or repair;

(7.) If in the opinion of the Court the building being used or intended or likely to be used for human habitation is not reasonably capable of being made fit for human habitation, the amount of compensation shall not exceed the value of the materials, less the cost of demolition.

50-25.8.02.

HONGKONG.

LIST OF COLLAPSED HOUSES FROM 1ST JANUARY TO 3RD AUGUST, 1902.

795

No. 43

1902

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency

the Officer Administering the Government.

50—10.9.02.

LIST OF COLLAPSED HOUSES FROM 1ST JANUARY TO 3RD AUGUST, 1902.

Porsons

House

No.

Name of Street.

Nature of Collapse.

Date.

Owners.

Architects.

Contractors.

Date of

Erection.

Remarks.

Killed. Injur- Rescil.

ed.

ed.

..

CENTRAL DISTRICT.

Bridges Street,

Party wall and floors,

10

Old Bailey Street,

12

Do.,

36 Caine Road,

3 Houses, Bonham Strand, 129 | Des Voeux Road West,

131

Do.,

66

The Pines," Peak Road,. Landslip (coolie quarters),.

Side and cross walls,

Do.,

Collapse of Verandah,

5 Ladder Street,

Top of Front walls and Ve- randah columns,

Roof,

:

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

2.8.02.

Chau Yuk Shan,

John Lemm.

Not known.

In course of

erection.

3

4 Chartered Bank,

Do.

2

Sin Tak Fan,.

B. B. Harker.

LA

ang Fat.

Do.,

Do.

Do.

Poon Chai Shi,

Denison, Ram & Gibbs.

Wing Wo.

+

In course

of

erection.

Do.

An end house at time of collapse.

Due to a landslide falling on coo- lie quarters.

Contractor fined $100 twice-Ist on 28th April, and again on 19th May, 1902, for bad work.

Mistake apparently.

Lo Kang Yue,

Yun Yü Lun,..............

Palmer & Turner.

Leigh & Orange.

Unknown.

About May,

1900.

Do.

32

Do.,

Do.,

Chan Hing Nam,

Do.,

T. J. Mullan, for new storey.

Do.

Do.

About Nov., No. 131 corner house. 1900.

Caused by collapse of houses in Caine Road.

Do.

,,

37 | Gough Street,

5 Chung Wo Lane,

Collapse of cook-house,

3.8.02.

1

Yau Shiu Chi,

Not known.

Not known.

Not known. Old property.

Portion of back wall and kitchen floors,.

5.8.02.

Chan Lo Shi & Chan

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

U Pan,

42 | Queen's Road West,

Projecting brick cornice,

1.6.02. I

Tsang Yee Shan and

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

4 & 5

Wa In Fong,

„Portion of roof,

25.7.02.

:

:

:

Tsang Sun Wan.

:

No. 4, Wong Leung, &

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

No. 5, Cheung Yuk.

CHEUNG CHAU.

17 Houses,

ABERDEEN.

1

Tin Wan,

Partly collapsed,

2

Do.,

Do.,

45 Little Hongkong,

Partly collapsed,

2.8.02.

>>

*

55

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

******

Outlying District in the New Territory.

[2]

796

LIST OF COLLAPSED HOUSES,—Continued.

Persons

House

No.

Name of Street.

Nature of Collapse.

Date.

Owners.

{ Injur

Killed.

ed.

Rescu-i

ed.

Architects.

Contractors.

......

Date of

Erection.

Remarks.

Chan Tze Chun,

Not known.

Not known.

Not known).

Old house.

:

6 Land Investment Co., Leigh & Orange.

Mow Wo.

Feb., 1901.

Ye

(eung Pi Kuk,

Not known.

Cheung Yuk Chai,

Unknown.

Not known.

Unknown.

Not known.

Unknown.

Old house.

Do.

SHAUKIWAN.

9

Shaukiwan East,

2.8.02.

EASTERN DISTRICT.

12

Cross Street,

Back wall of kitchen,

7.7.02.

1

45 Praya East,

17 Swatow Lane,

33 Nullah Lane,

Roof, side and front wall to 1st floor level,

2.8.02.

13

Collapse of kitchen,

"}

Roof of kitchen collapsed,

12.8.02.

THE PEAK.

:.

Stolzenfels,

TSIM SHA TSUI.

Electric Store, Naval Depôt, Part of roof,

2.8.02.

PING SHAN.

35 Out-houses,

20 partly collapsed,

""

YAUMATI.

:

.:..

:

:

[ 3 ]

Outlying District, New Territory.

Yam Kiu,

Not known.

Humphreys Estate & Palmer & Turner. Not known. Finance Co.,

In course of

erection.

Not known. Old property.

Do.

Humphreys Estate & Palmer & Turner.

Do.

New houses

Finance Co.,

unoccupied.

Lung Sing Lai,

Unknown.

Unknown.

Unknown.

Ho Tsz Shan,

Li San Ting,...

M. J. D. Stephens,

Do.

Do.

Do.

Very old unoccupied houses.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Denison & Ram.

Do.

In course of

coustruction.

:.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

Unnum Temple Street,

Verandahs of 5 new houses, 14.5.02.

bered.

50 Battery Street,

Roof of house,

25.5.02.

Unnum Station Street North,

Roof collapsed,

28.5.02.

bered.

165 Kramer Street, Taikoktsui, Roofs collapsed,

30.5.02.

167

Do.,

Do.,

Do.,

"

169

Do.,

Do.,

Do.,

Unnum- Reclamation Street,

Verandahs of 2 houses col-

bered.

lapsed,

..

797

LIST OF COLLAPSED HOUSES,~—Continued.

Persons

House

Name of Street.

Nature of Collapse.

Date.

Owners.

No.

Injur- Rescu-

Killed.

ed.

ed.

Fung Chew,

Architects.

Contractors.

Date of

Erection.

Remarks.

Luknown.

Unknown.

Do.

Do.

Unknown.

Do.

Fire previous to collapse.

Very old property.

Land Investment Co., Leigh & Orange. Loong Cheong 19.3.1902.

Pestonjee Eduljee,

Yueng Pi Kuk,

Palmer & Turner.

Lin Wo.

In course of demolition.

Exec. of Ho Shu Tong,

Not known.

Not known.

Not known. Old property.

Chan Ki,

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

YAUMATI, Continued.

83

Station Street,

Veraudal collapsed,

27

Temple Street,

30 &

32

Kowloon City Road,.

Do.,

Both collapsed,

2.6.02.

3.6.02.

:

:

18.7.02. 10

10

10

WESTERN DISTRICT.

2 & 4 Eastern Street,

Party wall,

11.3.02.

1

56

First Street,

Cook-house,

29.7.02.

1

200 | Third Street,

Front wall,

2.8.02.

202

Do.,

Frout wall collapsed,`

204

206

Do.,

Dos

Do.,

Do.,

208

Do.,

Do.,

91

:.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

210

Do.,

Do.,

:

:

10 &

Second Street,

Partly collapsed,

6

12

3 First Street,

Ground floor collapsed,......

"}

58

Do.,

Cook-house collapsed,

"}

2 Bonham Road,

Verandah collapsed,

:

& the Verandah of 2 honses,

New houses, Bonham Road, One house totally collapsed

Portion of 4 new houses,

Pokfulam Road,

......

*

......

798

[4]

Unknown.

Unknown.

́Old property.

Li Po Kum and Li Po Yang,

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

6

Leung Leon Ting,....

Denison & Ram,

Do.

Architects for new storey on No. 10.

Additional storey was added to No. 10 in beginning of 1901. It fell on to No. 12 and caused it to collapse.

Unknown.

Do.

Unknown.

Old property.

Not known,

Exec. of Ho Shu Tong,

London Mission,

Wong Ng Shi,

E. R. Belilios,

Not known.

Do.

E. F. X. dos

Remedios.

Wm. Danby.

Not known. Not known. In course of demolition.

Do.

Chau Quang

Loong.

5 different

Contractors.

Do.

Old property.

Do.

In course of erection.

Do.

:

:

:.

:

:

:

:

:

LIST OF COLLAPSED HOUSES,—Continued.

Persons

House

No.

Name of Street.

Nature of Collapse.

Date.

Owners.

Killed. Injur- | Rescu-

ed.

ed.

WESTERN DIST.,― Contd.

64

First Street,

Cook-houses collapsed,.

10.8.02.

66

Do.

KOWLOON CITY.

21

Houses,

11 of them partly collapsed,

2.8.02.

STANLEY.

19 & Tytam Village,

20

106 | Stanley Village,

ོ ཾ ྲ

DO.,

Do.,

18.7.02.

...

28.7.02.

2.8.02.

Architects.

Contractors.

Cheung Lung Fong Tong,

Not known.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

355

92

Do.,

100

Do.,

133

Do..

......

"

""

137

Do.,

"}

156

159

Do.,

Do.,

>

Houses,

Partly collapsed,

99

42

92

93

SHA TIN.

Tin Sam Village,

Do..

Do.,

:

.....

""

"}

Date of

Erection.

Remarks.

Not kuown. Not known.

Application for Magistrate's order to pull down party wall be- tween Nos. 64 and 66 applied for on 9th July, 1902. Occu- pants turned out and houses closed.

Outlying District.

[ 5 ]

Outlying District, New Terri-

tory.

7.99

LIST OF COLLAPSED HOUSES,-Continued.

Persons

House

Name of Street.

No.

Nature of Collapse.

Date.

Owners.

Killed.

Injur- Rescu-

ed.

ed.

SHA TIN,-Contd.

97 Tin Sam Village,

35 Kak Piu,

HUNGHOM.

1, 3, 5, Lo Lung Hang,......... 7 & 9

Back walls,

SAI KUNG.

1

House in Im Tin Tsoy Lo Partly collapsed, Island,

AU TAU.

20 Out-houses,

Partly collapsed,

TAIPO.

4

Houses,

29 Houses,

SHAN TIN.

MONG KOK.

131 Station Street,

133

Do,

SHAMSHUIPO.

Harbour Office,

་་

2.8.02.

""

""

Architects.

Contractors.

Date of

Erection.

Pang Wing Ko,..

W Kat Sou. ong

22.10.1901.

:

:

:

...

:.

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

:.

:

:.

:

:

:

:

Verandah collapsed,

12.8.02.

Do.,

Part of roof and Verandah 3.8.02. collapsed,

Remarks.

800

The owner supplied all materials and obtained labour from Con- tractor Chan Fook only.

Outlying District.

Outlying District, New Terri- tory.

Do.

Li U,

Unknown.

Unknown.

Unknown.

Ko Sing,

Do.

Do.

. Do.

Do.

[ 6 ]

Old Customs Station now used as a Harbour Office.

G

HONGKONG.

653

No. 29

REPORT OF THE INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS, FOR THE YEAR 1901.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT.

1902

HONGKONG, 6th April, 1902.

SIR-I have the honour to forward to you my Report upon the Education Department during the year 1901.

STAFF.

I was appointed Inspector of Schools from 26th April, 1901, and took over control of the Depart- ment from Mr. BREWIN on 1st May.

Messrs. CURWEN and BULLIN were appointed on 30th August, 1900, and on 24th December, 1900, respectively, to the Belilios Reformatory, their appointments dating from 4th January and 2nd March, 1901.

Mr. and Mrs. JAMES were engaged as Headmaster and Headmistress of the Kowloon British School within the year under review, but had not arrived in the Colony before its termination.

Miss BATEMAN was appointed as Second Assistant Mistress in the Belilios Girls' School from 1st September, 1901.

FINANCE.

The sole source of Revenue of the Department consists in the fees charged at the Belilios Girls' School. Those fees were raised in the month of September from 50 cents a month to $1.50 a month, with certain reductions where two or more children of the same family are at school together.

The total Expenditure for the Department was $48,195 as against $40,532 in 1900. The increase is mainly due to the cost of the Belilios Reformatory, on experiment, which has failed and has been abandoned; and to an increase in the staff and salaries of the Belilios Public School.

GENERAL.

Since arriving in the Colony I have written a report on the System of Education in the Colony for the Board of Education at Home, and I have acted as Honorary Secretary to the Education Coni- mittee, of which body I was also a member. My views have thus been put before the Government at considerable length and there is little to add.

GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS.

English School.-The Belilios Public School for girls is the only Government English School. The staff was strengthened, as already stated, during the year, and is now fully equal to the work before it. The very satisfactory education given reflects credit on all concerned. I have however thought it desirable to request that certain changes should take place in the course studied by the highest class, in the hope of making it more useful in itself and less intended for purposes of examin- ation: the result of the change will appear in the next year's Report.

ANGLO-CHINESE DISTRICT SCHOOLS.

Three of these Schools-at Saiyingpun, Wantsai and Yaumati-are in as nearly a satisfactory state as can be expected so long as English subjects are taught exclusively by Chinese. The Report of the Education Committee recommends a complete reorganization of these Schools. The fourth School at Wongnaichung is less satisfactory.

VERNACULAR DISTRICT SCHOOLS.

These are seven in number of various degrees of efficiency. I was compelled to recommend that the School at Aplichau should be closed, and that the services of the Master at Wantsai should be lispensed with. Shek-o, Tanglungchau and Pokfulam are small Schools which do not seem to be par- ticularly needed. There is no doubt that this class of Schools is in want of radical amendment.

GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS.

These Schools, and education in general, are so thoroughly discussed in the Report of the Committee on Education that it is useless to deal with the matter further. I propose to give in my next annual Report a full description of the more important grant-earning Schools under the different Missionary Bodies.

I enclose usual Tables (I to VIII).

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

4

#

j

Honourable J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, C.M.G.,

Colonial Secretary.

50-21-6-02.

EDWARD A. IRVING,

Inspector of Schools.

654

TABLE 1.-Summary of Statistics relating to all Schools under the Inspectorate of Schools in the Year 1901.

NUMBER OF SCHOLARS

Number of Schools.

ATTENDING SCHOOLS.

Expenses.

Amount Average

of Grant.

Maximum Minimum Daily Monthly Monthly Attendance. Enrolment. Enrolment.

Boys. Girls. Total.

Government Schools,

$

C.

C.

English,

6

516

276

792

9,791.00

Chinese,

7

251

308

559

2,093.43

397.6

586

314

265.6

141

234

Total,......

13

767

584

1,351

11,884.43

663.2

1,027

548

Grant-in-Aid Schools,

European,

13

نت

598

Anglo-Chinese,.

30

8

771

27

656 1,254

798

44,859.72 6,983.39

836.4

1,087

810

Chinese,......

57

1,500

1,684 3,184

8,405.70 2,888.39 434.8

18,761.75 10,002,23

1,926.6

635

355

2,895

1,700

Total,

78

2,869

2,377

5,246

72,027.17 19,874.01 3,197.8

4,617

2,865

Grand Total,... 91

3,636

2,961

6,597

83,911.60 19,874.01 3,861.0

5,644

3,413

TABLE II.—Statistics regarding Attendance at Government Schools during the Year 1901,

and the Cost of each School.

NUMBER OF SCHOLARS ATTENDING SCHOOLS.

Maxi-

Name of School.

Expenses.

Amount of Grant.

Boys. Girls. Total.

Number Average

of Daily School Attend- Days. ance.

Minimum

mum

Monthly Enrol-

Monthly

Enrol-

ment.

ment.

Aplichau School (Chinese), ....

Belilios Public School (English),

34

34

192.00

276

276 3,607.23

:

308

308 1,068.50

2,985.11

20

129.00

:

174 1,124.26

91

220.50

:

:

:

:

:

:

29

129.43

37

126.00

187

957.78

40

228.00

76

397.66

79

718.96

39

(Chinese),

Belilios Reformatory,

Pokfulam (Chinese),

20

Saiyingpun (English),

(Chinese),

174

91

29

Shek-o (Chinese),

Tanglungchau (Chinese),.

Wantsai (English),

(Chinese).

Wongnaichung (English),...........

Yaumati (English),

29

37

187

· 40

76

79

Total,......

767

584

1,351 11,884.43

:

:.

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

241

19.52

27

250 110.30

192

88

239

111.78

240

93

241

14.10

18

14

240 97.15

122

91

239

50.62

69

38

245

19.24

24

14

236

21.15

24

15

240

: 106.94

148

80

235

29.23

39

•21

240

37.69

64

23

241

45.46

60

222

32

663.18 1,027

521

!

655

TABLE III-STATISTICS regarding Attendance at GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS during 1901, and the Cost of cach School.

Number of Scholars attending Schools.

Name of Schools.

Ex-

penses.

Boys. Girls. Total.

Amount of Grant.

Number Average

of Daily School Attend- Monthly Monthly Days. ance.

Maxi- Mini-

mum

mum

Enrol- Enrol-

ment. ment.

American Board Mission, Bridges Street, (Boys),

125

125

$ 532.52

$ 281.87

227

88.74

114

"

""

Tsat-tszmui, (Boys),

78

78

263.50

220.89

227

45.29

་་

""

**

17

29

::

Pottinger Street, (Girls),

"

""

::

Basel Mission, Shamshuipo, (Boys),

Shaukiwan, (Boys), Tokwawan, ("oys),

High Street, (Girls),

Berlin Foundling House School, (Girls),

C.M.S.. Aberdeen School, (Boys),

Quarry Bay, (Boys),

St. Stephen's Chinese School, (Boys). Aplichau, (irls),

Hunghom, (Girls),

Kau-ü-fong, (Girls),

Lyndhurst Terrace, (Girls),

Saiyingpun, Praya, (Girls),

Shaukiwan, (Girls),

Stanley, (Mixed),

62

62

485.89

262.69

210

53.38

42

12

$60.69

128.94

206

26.88

96

96

534.60

313.71

228

61.43

:

64

64

802.82

381.53

241

43.20

31

30

30

879.86

199.73

265

27.65

MENSCHR

$5

15

22

26

77

26

23

123.22

35.61

231

11.72

169.73

189 12.77

16

S

589.83

264.27 245 57.54

76

54

26

26

155.04

47.78

263 12.07

20

9

Bonham Road, Chinese, (Girls),

39

503.99

246.61

212

29.23

38

26

39

231.14

154.27

231

26.55

26

49

234.99

96.89

223

21.78

10

65

65

430.40

230.98 257

37.97

20

45

45

341.67

125.81

213

22.12

37

34 31

293.00

116.50

229 17.00

30

52

52

247.25

113.47

246

20.95

36

40

70

212.66

164.77

261

41.04

63

**

St. Stephen's Memorial, (Girls),

64

64

566.30

132.16

236

28.82

55

"

Third Street, (Girls;,

65

65

250.67

103.63

246

26.26

39

Tokwawan, (Girls),.

42

42

151.35

36.32

203

10.64

22

Victoria Home and Orphanage, (Girls),

47

47

352.33

289.96

220

37.95

13

L.M.S., Hospital Chapel, (Boys),

119

119

-400.00

321.72

232

61.95

107

Hunghòm, (Boys),

35

35

196.00

94.12

241

18.24

27

Saiyingpun, I. Division, (Boys),

53

53

144.83

106.06

200

32.62

52

II.

(Boys),

54

51

273.03

115.12

234

28.75

19

Saiyingpun, Second Street, (Boys)........

101

101

329.13

277.39

217

57.28

90

""

Shaukiwan, (Boys),

52

52

249.66

220.34

217 38.69

52

Shektong-tsui, (Boys).

53

53

426.26

169.09

232 37:69

52

་;

Tanglungchau No. 1, (Boys),

76

76

412.36

273.00 241

55.00

""

No. 2, (Boys),

30

30

156.00

63.94

225

17.39

11

Wantsai Chapel, (Boys),

61

61

345.95

183.47

229

36.44

11

Yaumati, (Boys),

58

58

311.68

83.70 243

25:90

Aberdeen Street, (Girls),

73

73

345.18

206.81

225

32.13

:

>

Sayingpun, Second Street, (Girls),

74

74

204.00

154.84 204

39.69

69

»

Shektong-tsui, (Girls),

14

14

151.00

37.46

252

8.93

14

"

Square Street, (Girls),

74

74

401.00

260.25

239

46.51

73

15

Tanglungchau, (Girls),

45

45

90.53

235

26.57

39

Training Home for Girls, (Girls),

51

-614:09

350.97

242 37:97

13

99

""

"7

""

""

""

Ui-hing Lane, I. Division, (Girls),

**

II.

Wantsai Chapel, (Girls),

R.C.M., Aberdeen School, (Girls),..

Bridges Street, Chinese, (Girls),..

Hunghom, (Girls)......

"7 Sacred Heart, Chinese, (Girls),

Shaukiwan, (Girls),

Yaumati, (Girls),

Rhenish Mission, West Point, (Boys),

Wesleyan Mission, Lower Lascar Row, (Boys),

62

62

349.94

262.55

227 40.11

60

(Girls),

29

29

232.00

78.69

250 15.88

26

63

63

414.89

187.75

252

31.50

52

51

192.50

125 84

265

30.19

15

57

57

173.65

157.99

259

30.98

49

Holy Infancy School, (Mixed),

40

34

74

303.75

247.29

257 52.59

63

58

58

271.50

131.92

271 36.35

49

Italian Convent, Chinese, (Girls),

76

76

530.00

448.34

281 70.68

74

33

33

126.85

83.85

253 20.20

32

34

34

203.50

138.30

267 19.61

33

60

245.45

156.00

270 34.01

58

M

37

88.76

238 20:02

34

59

59

294.50

178.56

200 37:63

59

"

:>

**

""

+1

Wellington Street, (Boys), Spring Gardens, (Boys), ... Graham Street, (Girls),....

52

52

343.00

192:03

219 47.57

62

56

56

315.00

213.18

253 43.37

56

68

68

367.00

252.49

254 46.49

66

45

""

Wellington Street, (Girls),

37

37

364.00

101.49

187 19.98

31

21

2-A23428BAANSAMA28¤ˆ#76⠀⠀BAKSHETR3**88*897

60

30

12

35

12

30

70

20

15

15

44

1,500 1,6843,184 18,761.75 | 10,002.23

1,926.6

2,895

1,700

A.B. Mission, English, (Boys),

86

86

2,084.56

200.15

167 53.15

78

43

C.M.S., Des Voeux Road. English, (Boys),

St. Stephen's, English, (Boys).

48

48

452.34

148.76

228

24.76

38

*22

216

216

1.997.85

1,101.84

241

142.81

201

123

No. 2, English, (Boys),

68

68

571.00

255.04

213

41.04

57

31

Bonham Road, English, (Girls),

27

27

.515.00

226.09

214 22.59

26

20

L.M.S., Taipingshan, English, (Boys),

70

70

742.95

224.39

200 34.39

57

31

R.C.M., Cathedral School, (Boys),................

252

252

Wesleyan Mission, Lyndhurst Terrace, (Boys),

31

31

1,640.00 402:00

620.45

221 92.45

147

62

111.67

244 23.67

31

23

771

27

27

798 8,405.70

2,888.39

434.89

635

355

Diocesan School, (Boys),.

293

293 20,923.73

1,430.97

249 145:97

202

145

*

(Girls),.

51

51

9.814.79

R.C.M., St. Joseph's College, (Boys),

279

279

5,365.25

:

Bridges Street, English Division, (Girls),

42

42

**

""

French Convent, (Girls),

Portuguese Division, (Girls),

14

14

162.00 181.16

230.26 2,062.32 1983.90

222 34.26

49

27

219

237.32

279

237

248

28.40

37

26

36.49

248

8.99

14

9

57

2,093.55

197.38

230 38.38

60

10

Italian Convent, English Division, (Girls),

303

303

3,415.83

1,607.28

219 192.78

253

207

>

""

>

>>

"

"

l'ortuguese Division, (Girls),

Sacred Heart School, English Division, (Girls),

St. Francis, English Division, (Girls),

Portuguese Division, (Girls),

Victoria Portuguese School, English Div., (Mixed),

64

64

601.95

491.00

216

45.50

58

50

40

40

325.50

149.11

227

24.11

31

24

39

39

210.00

153.57

237

25.57

33

27

26

26

146.01

145.06

237 20.56

25

14

10

157.47

212 18.47

24

14

Portuguese Div., (Mixed),

1,616.95

12

10

ì 128.58

217 16.08

22

12

598

656

1,254 44.859.72 6,983.39

836.39

1.087

810

Grand Total,

2,869 (2,377 |5,246 $72,027.17 $19,874.01 |

3,197.8

4.617

2,865

656

TABLE IV.-Average Expense of each Scholar at Government Schools under the Inspectorate of Schools and at the Grant-in-Aid Schools, during the Year 1901.*

I-DIRECT EXPENDITURE ON GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS.

(Cost of working the Schools irrespective of cost of erection or repairs of Buildings.)

1.-BELILIOS PUBLIC SCHOOLS,-

Expenditure,

Deduct School Fees,

2.-OTHER DEPARTMENTAL SCHOOLS,-

Cost to Government, in 1901,

.$4,739.73 1,132.50

$ 3,607.23

$8.277.20

II.-EXPENDITURE ON THE GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS.

Total Cost to Government, in 1901,................

III-AVERAGE COST OF EACH SCHOLAR.

(Calculated by Enrolment.)

Average Cost, to Government, of each Scholar,-

1. At Belilios Public School,

3. At Grant-in-Aid Schools,

2. At Other Departmental Schools,

IV. AVERAGE OF EACH SCHOLAR.

(Calculated by the Average Daily Attendance.)

Average Cost, to Government, of each Scholar,―

$19,874.01

13.66

7.69

3.78

*

1. At Belilios Public School,

2. At Other Departmental Schools,

3. At Grant-in-Aid Schools,

32.73

14.97

6.21

The above expenditure does not include the cost of Direction, Inspection. or Repairs to Buildings, nor, in the case of Grant-in-Aid Schools, Building Grants.

TABLE V.-Summary shewing the Number of Schools under the Inspectorate, and the Number of Scholars attending them during the last Eleven Years and in the Years 1871 and 1881.

1

YEARS.

1871........

1881

1891..

1892..

1893.

1894..

1895.

1896..

1897.

1898.

1899.

1900.

1901

Government

avvaaaaaaaque | English.

Chinese.

25

26

11

11

30

35

28

35

28

12 13

TERARN*******

26

37

16

65

SL

19

76

95

21

102

99

106

101

100

23

100

96

97

23

78

78

SCHOOLS.

Grant-in-Aid.

t-in-Ai

Government.

Total.

English &

Portuguese.

CALARISSE Chinese.

Total.

Grand Total.

Total.

SCHOLARS.

Graut-in-Aid.

Percentage

of Expen-

Total.

Grand Total.

Boys. Girls.

diture on Education

to Revenue.

37

72

116

129

678

124 731

613

118

710

572

121 696

412

119 755 380

115 798

115 894

367 589 956 251 1,735 1,986 622 281 623 809 1.432 1,135 184 8-2 1.560 1,259 186 186 201 1.10% 1,527 209 1,135 1,553 241 467 1,265 1,532 193 554 1,445 1,869 190 108 886 558 1,444 2.353 153 109 899 527 1.426 2,248 161 91 792 559 1,351 1,912 150

336 336 1.292 1,201 91 1,334 2,237 | 4,223| 3.364

1.74

859

204

1,344 | 1,477

1,282 1,529

3,803| 5,132 | 6,504| 3,778 || 2,791 4.210 5,655 7,215|| 4.228| 2,987 4,587 6,250| 7,599|4,332 | 3.262 4,231 5,964 | 7,246| 4,131 | 3.115. 3,948 | 5,684 | 6,792 | 3.819 | 2,973 3,381 | 5.178| 6,313 | 3.613| 2,700 3,797 5,522 | 6,787 | 3,752| 3,035 3,823 5,882| 7,327 | 4.219| 3,108 3,810 |, 6,3:6 | 7,760 | 4,502 | 3,258 3,646 | 6.055 | 7,481 | 4,389 | 3,092 3.184 | 5,246 | 6,597| 3.636| 2,961

3.26

3.29

3.22

2.07

2.37

2.52

2.18

1.66

1.24 1.90

1.73

TABLE VII.-Percentage of Passes in cach Standard in each Class of School, at the Annual Examination of the Grant-in-Aid Schools in 1901.

ORDINARY SUBJECTS.

SPECIAL SUBJECTS.

NEEDLEWORK.

Standard.

Very

J.

II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. Total. I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. Total. Failed. Fair. Good. Good

Chinese School. Classes I & II,

83 $2 74 87 76 80 77 80

76 57 62 79

Anglo-Chinese School. Class III,

90 85 87 79 92100

88

:

European School. Class III,.

83 82 82 75 83 79 60 80

:

15

76 66 66 68

9.0

32.0 39.1 19.3

38

90

$7

26.0

65.2

66

56 58 94

65

:

14.4 42.5

43.1

NAME OF SCHOOLS.

TABLE VI.-RESULTS of the EXAMINATION of the GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS in 1901, under the provision:

Class of School.

No. of Scholars Presented.

No. of Scholars Examined.

Stand. I.

Stand. II.

Stand. III.

Stand. IV.

Stand. V.

Stand. VI.

Stand. VII.

Stand. I.

Stand. II.

Stand. III.

Stand. TV.

Stand. V.

Stand. VI.

Stand. VII.

Stand. I.

Stand. II.

Stand. III.

Stand. IV.

| Stand. V.

Stand. VI.

Stand. VII.

Stand. 1.

Stand. II.

Ordinary Subjects.

Special Subjects.

Ordinary Subjects.

:

NUMBER OF SCHOLARS WHO PASSED.

NUMBER OF SCHOLARS WHO

4.-

5.- "}

6.- •

"

>>

"}

"

>

Beriin Foundling House School, (Girls), 8.—C.M. S., Aberdeen School, (Boys),..

9.-

10.- >>

11.-

Quarry Bay, (Boys),.

1.- American Board Mission, Bridges Street, (Boys),

2.-

11

3. Basel Mission, Shamshuipo, (Boys),

Tsat-tszmui, (Boys),

Shaukiwan, (Boys),. Tokwawan, (Boys),. .

High Street, (Girls),

87

56

57

28

78

45

29

10

St. Stephen's, Chinese, (Boys),

52

Aplichau, (Girls),.

12.-

13.-

}

Bonham Road, Chinese, (Girls),

26

Hunghom, (Girls),

1

14.-

Kan-i-fong, (Girls),

I

15.-

Lyndhurst Terrace. (Girls),.

16.-

Pottinger Street, (Girls),

17.-

11

Saiyingpun Praya, (Girls),.

18.-

Shaukiwán, (Girls),

19.----

Stanley, (Mixed),

20.-

21.--

Third Street, (Girls),

22.-

23.-

་་

St. Stephen's Memorial, (Girls),

Tokwawan, (Girls),..

Victoria Home and Orphange, (Girls),

24.—L. M. S., Hospital Chapel, (Boys),

Hungliom, (Boys),

45

43

26

25

25

21

7

33

73

16

25.-

22

20

10

-1

26.-

Sairingpun I. Division, (Boys),

46

30

27.-

$1

JI.

19

(Boys),

30

28,-

Saiyingpun, Second Street, (Boys),

74

C4

29.-

Shaukiwan, (Boys),

15

20. -

Shektongtsui, (Boys),

-19

11

$1.--

Tanglungehau, No. 1 (Boys),

زاد

No, 2 (Boys),

20

18

3

33,-

Wantsai Chapel, (Boys),

43

Yaumati, (Boys),

26

Aberdeen Street, (Girls),

39 15

BG.

Siyingpun, Second Street, (Girls).

46

#7: 18

87.--

Shiektongtsui, (Girls),..

D

10

38.-

Square Street, (Girls),

51

19 21

39.---

Tanglungchau, (Girls),

a

40.---

"

41.---

Training Home for Girls, (Girls), U-hing Lane, I. Division, (Girls),

15

11.

(Girls),

FOTORER :NTRARGARAERE'ERagozegaremse

25

28

9

53

15

15

56 19 16

26 5

99%

76

42

20

8

-18

14

14

25

30

30

26

22

13

40

42.-

Wantak Chapel, (tris),

44. – R. C. M., Aberdeen School. (Girls).. Bridges Street, Chinese, (Girls), Holy Infancy School, (Mixed),

45.--

"

46.

"

47.

"

48.

49.--

50.

AL-

Hunghồm, (Girls),

Italian Convent, Chinese (Girls), Sacred Heart, Chinese, (Girls), Shaukiwan, (Girls),

" Yaumati, (Girls),

52. Rhenish Mission, West Point, (Boys),

53.-Wesleyan Mission, Lower Lascar Row (Boys).

34.----

55,--

56.-

Wellington Street, (Boys).

Spring Gardens, (Boys),

Grahain Street, (Girls),

K

20

2

#G

24

21

42

13

16

15

55 2:

18

11

5

5

کمه

10

CAO

مین

NAME OF SCHOOLS.

NUMBER OF SCHOLARS WHO Passed.

Class of School.

No. of Scholars Presented.

No. of Scholars Examined.

Stand. I.

Stand. II.

Stand, III.

Stand. IV.

Stand. V.

Stand. VI.

Stand. VII.

Stand, I.

Stand. II.

Stand, III.

Stand. IV.

Stand. V.

Stand. VI.

Stand. VII.

Stand. I.

Ordinary Subjects.

Special Subjects.

TABLE VI.-RESULTS of the EXAMINATION of the GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS in 1901, under the provisions of the Scheme of 19th August, 1893.

ican Board Mission, Bridges Street, (Boys),

งา

Tsat-tszmui, (Buys),

56

Mission, Shamshuipo, (Boys),

"

>>

Shaukiwan, (Boys),. Tokwawan, (Boys),..

I

28

"

High Street, (Girls),

II

n Foundling House School, (Girls),

II

S., Aberdeen School, (Boys),.

I

Quarry Bay, (Boys),....

I

St. Stephen's, Chinese, (Boys),

I

Aplichau, (Girls),.

I

Bonham Road, Chinese, (Girls),

Hunghòm, (Girls),

1

Kau-ül-fong, (Girls),

Lyndhurst Terrace. (Girls),.

Pottinger Street, (Girls),

Saiyingpun Praya, (Girls),.

Shaukiwán, (Girls),

Stanley, (Mixed),..

I

St. Stephen's Memorial, (Girls),

I

Third Street, (Girls),

NHANUNANUNAO: HUG78484

83 25 23 9

10

53

15 9

15

20

57

56 19 16 1i

16

14

26 5 4

$

12

76

21 30

14

9

69426

04217

માર

34

42

7

5

29

26

4

10

8

48

17

14

14

2

26

25 1

30

30 11

26

22

16

2

13

40

40

13 10

20

2J 4

20

22

19 9

22 10

45

43 10

26

25 18

25

21

14

11

10

Tokwawan, (Girls),..

7

3

Victoria Home and Orphange, (Girls),

I

36

33

S., Hospital Chapel, (Boys),

73

33

16

Hunghom, (Boys),

I

22

20

4

Sairingpun 1. Division, (Boys),

46

39

8

II.

(Boys),

32

30 11 $

13

Salyingpun, Second Street, (Boys),

74

€4

18

8

23

5

Shaukiwan, (Boys),

48

45 10 7

2

13

Shektongtsui, (Boys),

.19

41

1

G

17

4

Tanglungchau, No. 1 (Boys),

AS

56

12

13

No. 2 (Boys),

20

18

8

7

Wantsai Chapel, (Boys),

43

17

15

Yaumati, (Boys),

26

6

Aberdeen Street, (Girls),

39

39 16

5

1

Siyingpun, Second Street, (Girls),

46

Shektongtsui, (Girls),.

11

10

Square Street, (Girls),

51

49 21

Tanglungchau, (Girls),

22

Training Home for Girls, (Girls),

5

87

Ching Lane, I. Division, (Girls),

52

43 15

12

10

AN

II.

(Girls),

G

2

Wantoul Chapol, (Girls),

31 11 11

4 5

M., Aberdeen School. (Girls)..

30

30 18 5

Bridges Street, Chinese, (Girls),

6 6

Holy Infancy School, (Mixed), .

52

18 11 4 3

Hunghờm, (Girls),

33

*

12 4

10

Italian Convent, Chinese (Girls),

42

62

8 10 10

Sacred Heart, Chinese, (Girls),

21

20

2 5 1

Shaukiwan, (Girls),

25

25 11 8

13

Yaumati, (Girls),

37

36 20 11

'sh Mission, West Point, (Boys),

24 7

yan Mission, Lower Lascar Row (Boys), Wellington Street, (Boys),

42

13 7 10

46 19 13

Spring Gardens, (Boys),

45 7 13

Graham Street, (Girls), .

57

55 22

3

Wellington Stseet, (Girls)..

21 !

6

3

NUMBER OF SCHOLARS Who Failed.

Stand. II.

Stand. III.

Stand, IV.

Stand, V.

Stand. VI.

Stand. VII.

Stand, I.

Stand. II.

Stand. III.

Stand. IV.

Stand. V.

Stand. VI.

Stand VII

Pussed.

Failed.

Passed.

Falled.

Failed.

Fair.

Good.

| Very Good.

Ordinary Subjects.

Special Subjects.

Subjects, Subjects.

Needle Work.

Ordinary Special

Average Daily Attendance

during the year.

མ་བས་་་་

TOTALS.

Examination Grant.

Capitation Grant.

Total Grant earned in 1901.

S

58

22 16 60

88.74

237.50

44.37

281.87

40 13

49 7

31

17

45.29

198.25

22.61

220.69

37 8

53.38

236.00

26.69

262.69

22 1

25.58

115.50

13 44

129.94

10

15 11

61.43 283.00

30.71

313.71

43,20

350,00

31.53

3-1.53

21

27.65 179.00

20.73

199.73

11.72

29.75

5.86

35.61

36

4

22

57.54

*235.50

28.77

26.1.27

12.07

41.75

6.03

47.78

29 23

232.00

11.61

246.61

26.55

141.00

18.27

154.27

21.78

$6.00

10.89

96.89

33

27

37.97

212.00

18.98

230.98

19

22.12

114.75

11.06

125,81

12

17.00 108.00,

8.50

116.50

21

1 2.1

28 15

20.95

44.04

103.00 10.47

142.77

113.47

22.02

184.77

25

12

28.82 117.75

14.41

132.16

20

26.26

90.501

13.13

103.63

10.64

31.00

5.32

36.82

37.95 261.50

28 16

2-9.96

25

64.95

289.25

32.47

#21.72

20

ī

18.24

85.00

9.12

94.12

21

J

14 16

32.62

89.75

16.31

106.96

25 5 16 8

28.75

100.75

14.37

115.12

52

12 29

אן

57.28 248.75 28.64

277,89

3x

ī 16

20

38.9

፡፡

8 24 11

37.09

201.00 19.34 1:0.25 18.81 169.00

220.31

11 35 3

55.00

215.50j 27.50

273.00

12

G B 5

17.39

55.251

8.69

68.94

23

#6.44

165.25 18.22

183.47

12 A

25.90

70.75

12.95

83.70

4 21 10

7 { 12

ON

82.13

190.75

16.06

206,81

39.69

135,00 19.4

154.81

Na

8.93

33.001

1.16

37.16

32

2

C

NO

46.51.

237,00

23.25

260.25

8

25,57

77.25

13.28

90,5%

37

37.97

#22,50] 28.47

350.07

13

5

40.11

242.501 20.05

262,55

15

15.-8

70,751 7.91

78,60

31

3

31.50

172.00

15.70 i 187.75

27

4

G

30.19

110,25] 15.59:

125.81

22 10

3 | 13

30.98 142.50]

15.49

157.99

40 12

34

1

# 12

52.59

»

3

36.85

220,00]

113-761

25.20

247.29

18 17 1

131.92

73 { 34 27

41

2

70.68

413.00]

35.34

418.34

!

2.20

73.75

10.10

83.85

25

20

4

19.61

128.50

9 80

138.30

33

3

21

6

34.01

139.00

17.00

156.00

16

15 B

20,02

78.75

10.01

88,76

83

19

17

37 68

1:9.75 18.81

178.56

40

29

47.57

168.25 23.7S 192.03

1.1 16

13.37

191.50) 21.68

213.18

G

46.49

229,27

$2.21

252.19

16

5

.1

13

19.98

91.50!

9.09 |

101.49

50.--

1.-

>>

T

Shaukiwan, (Girls), Yaumati, (Girls),

25

25

11

37

36

20

11

2

52. Rhenish Mission, West Point, (Boys),

53.-Wesleyan Mission, Lower Lascar Row (Boys), ·

21

7

G

15

42 13

7 10

54.-

55.-

56.

57-

++

Wellington Street, (Boys),

50

46

19 13

"

Spring Gardens, (Boys),

45

7

13

18

Graham Street, (Girls),

57

$5

22

7

71

Wellington Stseet, (Girls),.

1

21

21 1

6

3

Total,

2,121 | 1,994 26 494 328 127

:::

13

11

10

18

12:2

2

2

51

21

7 485 265 102 17

13

4

2 125 108 115

19

16

་་

58.~ A. B. Mission, English, (Boys),

59.—C. M. S., Des Voeux Road, English, (Boys),

33 20

26

23

GO.--

St. Stephen's,

(Boys),.

138

127

66 11

23

19

(1.---

No. 2.

י

(Boys),

33 27

62.--

*

Bonham Road,

(Girls),

23

23

63.— L, M, S., Taipingshan, English, (Boys),

26 15

67,-

39

31

(Girls),.

69.--

70.-

71.--

72.-

73.--

74.-

81.-R. C. M., Cathedral School, (Boys), 65.--Wesleyan Mission, Lyndhurst Terrace, (Boys),

66.- Diocesan School, (Boys),

68.-R. C. M., St. Joseph's College, (Boys),

Bridges Street, English Division, (Girls),

77

01

23

9

10

:9

19

19 12

Total,

102

348 175

28

56

35

12

:

:

:

:::::

:

3

25

III

130 112

16

20

25

11

15 | 10

3

28

28 4

1 1

III

197

189

20

32

22

9

:::

10

18

5

8

9

18 29

25

18

2

31

30

18

29

100

III

26

26

1-1

"

>

ני

Portuguese Division, (Girls),.. French Convent, (Girls),.

III

7

(

III

32

30 1

་་

Italian Convent, English Division, (Girls),.

156

160 22 3D 26

14

"}

>>

75.-

76.-

77.-

78.--

31

>

>>>

Sacred Heart English, (Girls),.

St. Francis, English Division, (Girls),

Victoria Port. School, Eng. Division, (Mixed),

Portuguese Division, (Girls),

III

41

40 7 7

8

1I1

17

17 2

III

15

15 4

2

Portuguese Division. (Girls),

III 14

14 8

1

III

20

20

Port. Division, (Mixed),

III

15

14

8

H:::

::::

::

11

"

""

Total,

698

562 110 118 124 78 GO 33

14

49

CU

44

49

22

265

26

27

2.1

12 10

9

Grand Total,.

3,2212,904 911 610 508 235 123

55

21

121

83

48

51 165 139 150

52

20

15

19

2

ned, 15 Ollies (511,8),

Shaukiwan, (Girls),

25

11

8

R

::

25

Ra

x

:

Yaumati, (Girls),

36

20

11

14

33

3

21 1

7

h Mission, West Point, (Boys),

21

3

16

S

15

1,01

34.01

20.02

128.5

139.09

17.00

156.00

78.75

10.01

88.76

"an Mission, Lower Lascar Row (Boys),

]

42

13

10

10

"

Wellington Street, (Boys),

30

19

46

18

Spring Gardens, (Boys),

45

18

31

Graham Street, (Girls),

I

57

55

22

3

18

8

16

16

6

83

Q

19

17

37 63

1:0.75

18.81

178.56

6

29

17

47.57

168.251

23.78

192.03

:8

7

1.1

16

13.57

191.5

21.68

213.18

39

16

6

6

13

29

46.49

220,2 1

$2.21

252.19

Wellington Stsect, (Girls),.

T

21

21 6 3

7

16

5

13 2

19.98

9.99

91.50

101.49

Total,

2,121

1,994 | 526 494 328 |127

51

21

7 4-5 265 102

47

13

4

2 125 108 115

19

16

2117 200

61

12

2

1

1,635 328919 127

71 252 300 (152 1,926,578,988,50|1.013.73 1,002.23

fission, English, (Boys),

III

46

33 20)

28

., Des Voeux Road, English, (Boys), St. Stephen's,

26

23

>>

(Boys),.

138 127

66 11

19

No. 2.

י,

(Boys),

85

33 27 4

Bonliam Road,

(Girls),

23

23

5 4

, Taipingshan, English, (Boys),

BS

26 15

1., Cathedral School, (Boys),

17

€1.4 23 6

10

an Mission, Lyndhurst Terrace, (Boys),

111

19

19 12

Total,

402

348 175

28

50

35

12

an School, (Boys),

(Girls),.

130

112

16

20

25

28

28 4

יי.

Italian Convent, English Division, (Girls),.

Sacred Heart English, (Girls),...

I., St. Joseph's College, (Boys),

Bridges Street, English Division, (Girls), Portuguese Division, (Girls),.. French Convent, (Girls),..

Portuguese Division, (Girls),

III

197

189

20

#6

31

III

26: 26 11

1

1ོདྡཱ སྶ :2

11

1 1

#2

22

::

-* :

::

::

:::

5

10

:::::::

::

15

8

130 00

53.15

17

3

24.76

142.81

53.15

147, 0) 10.4.15

24.76

124. 0 145.76 959.00! 142.8+ 1.101.84

33

41.01

148.00 41.94

255.04

18

22.59

203.50) 22.59

226.09

25

$4.39

190.0

34.39

224.39

55

18 2

92,15

$28.00

9.43

6:0.45

14

5

28.67

88.0 23.67

111 67

:

:

:

:

:::

25

10

18

29

25

18

31

30 18

29

18

:

:

5 8

20

41

80741

35 5

:

2

G

15

434.89

2,153.50) 434.89

2,588.39

10

13

14

1100

12

III

7

7

4

ཀྵ ཿརུ — ཀྵ 1

::

15 13

10

15 33

16

145

226

44 108

21

+2

2::

90

38

145.97

• Ka

9

34.25

1,285, 0

196.0

145.97

34.26

1,430.97

230.24

66

237.32

1,824,00| 237 32

2,062,32

28.40

165.50

28.40

193.93

i 4

3

8.99

III

32

30

6

4

15 15

3

156 140 22 30

26

120

30

4

21 60

58

III 41

40 7 7

4.1

2 11

21

27.10 38.3- 15,00 38.8 102.78

4,50

8.99

36.49

197 88

1,114.50|

192.78

1,607,23

4.5

45. 0

491.00

17

17

2:11

125,00

21.11

149.11

St. Francis, English Division, (Girls),

15

15 4

2

133

25.-7

1:80

25.77

153,7

Portuguese Division. (Girls),

11

14

X4

21.16

134. 0

20 56

147.06

Victoria Port. School, Eng. Division, (Mixed)..

20

20

5

"

19

Port. Division, (Mixed),..

15

14 3 8 3

:::

7

3

18.47

139.16

18 47

157,17

1:4

16.08

112,5

16.68

128.58

Total,

698

Grand Total,.

562 110 118 124 GO

73 3,221 2,904 9:1 610 508 235 123 55

33

14

49 CO

44

49 22 26 27

24

12

10

9

21

121 83 48

51 165 |139 150

52

29

15

11

17 200 61 11

2:

25

46

¡

31

51

89 115 117

3 52 130 202 105

71499 1,158537

71 293 430 281 3,197,85 17,588,00| 2,286.01|19,874.01

836.39 6,146.00 836.39 6,983.39

1

657

TABLE VIII.--Percentage of Passes in the various subjects in which the Grant-in-Aid Schools

were examined in 1901.

659

Name of Schools.

Total.

>>

"

22

**

19

**

"

19

Pottinger Street, (Girls),

">

>>

""

22

St. Stephen's Memorial, (Girls),

"

>

"

**

II.

""

"

>"

21

""

";

Wantsai Chapel, (Boys),

""

Yaumati, (Boys),...

$3

Aberdeen Street, (Girls),

""

**

Shektongtsui, (Girls)...

""

Square Street, (Girls),

29

Tanglungchau, (Girls),

**

!!

Basel Mission, Shamshuipo, (Boys),

>>

Tokwawan. (Boys),

High Street, (Girls)..

Berlin Foundling House, (Girls).

C.M.S., Aberdeen, (Boys),

Quarry Bay, (Boys),

St. Stephen's, Chinese, (Boys), Aplichau, (Girls),

Bonham Road, Chinese, (Girls),

Hunghom, (Girls),

Kau-ü-fong, (Girls),

Lyndhurst Terrace, (Girls),

Saivingpun Praya, (Girls),

Shaukiwan. (Girls)..

Stanley, (Mixed),

Third Street, (Girls).

Tokwawan, (Girls),...

Victoria Home & Orphanage. (Girls),

L.M.S., Hospital Chapel, (Boys).

Hunghom. (Boys),

Saiyingpun 1. Division. (Boys),

(Boys).

Saiyingpun, Second Street. (Boys), Shaukiwan, (Boys),.......................

Shektongtsui. (Boys)...

Tanglungchan No. 1, (Boys),

No. 2, (Boys),

American Board Mission, Bridges Street, (Boys),.

Tsat-tsz-mui, (Boys),

72.50 96.25 78.75 24.24 75.47 92.45 $1.13 64.58 87.50 94.64 96.42 82.22

100.00

100.00

100.00

Shaukiwán, (Boys);

76.92 88.46 92.30 84.61 86.84 92.10 95.23 100.00

94.87 57.69

100.00

85.71

92.85

81.25

100.00 76.46 | Failed 100.00 100.00 | Failed 100.00 88.88 | Failed 96.15 73.33 | 100.00 93.42 [100.00 | 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

100.00

73.07 100.00 61.53

$7.69

$7.50 100.00 |. 100.00

12.50

100.00 66.66

97.91 100.00 97.91

90.00

57.14 100.00

57.14

96.00 100.00 100.00

$8.00

Failed. 82.35

90.00

100.00 $6.66 $6.36 | 100.00 86.36 81.25 82.50 97.50 87.50

67.23 100.00 100.00 100.00 82.35 94.78 100.00 100.00 75.00

66.66

Failed.

50.00

100.00 100.00

92.85 100.00

100.00 95.45 83.33

100.00 81.81

100.00 75.00

100.00 95.01 92.30 100.00

100.00 100.00

100.00 88.8

95.45 100.00 100.00 65.11 90.69 100.00 100.00 | 100.00

90.90

Failed.

100.00 80.00

76.74

26.92

25.00

98.02 50.00

66 66

100.00 100.00

95.23 100.00 95.23

93.33

100.00

100.00 100.00

100.00 100.00 100.00

100.00 100.00

93.93 100.00 93.93 87.67 93.89 90.11

96.96

100.00

100.00 73.18 100.00

89.28

100.00

100.00 100.00 100.00

77.77

93.15 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 | 100.00

70.00 93.33 80.60 83.33 100.00 83.33 66.66

46.66 33.33

93.33 57.14 66.66 100.00 100.00

82.81 100.00

89.06

61.70

88.88

84.44 97.77

95.55

35.55

100.00

80.48 | 100.00

82.92

68.57

100.00 87.50 | Failed 97.77 88.00 75.00 100.00 78.57 16.66

78.57 100.00

98.21 92.10

85.71

100.00 64.28

71.44

66.66 88.88 94.44 72.22 79.07 97.67 88.37 76.66 53.84 69.23 92.30 21.73 89.74 100.001 81.0 97.29 80.00 100.00

100.00 25.00

85.71

90.69 100.00 Failed

100.00

96.15 66.66

50.00

97.43 67.74 72.97. 57.14 $0.00

100.00

50.00

91.89 85.71

Failed.

95.91 100.00 97.95 94.11 63.63 72.72 63.63 72.72 100.00 100.00 | 100.00

100.00 |

100.00

100.00

**

(Girls),

100.00

100.00 77.77 | 100.00

90.00 Failed!

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

85.71 100.00 (100.00 100.00

100.00 93.75 100,00

100.00 100.00 100.00

100.00

Saiyingpun, Second Street. (Girls),

Training Home for Girls, (Girls),

Ui-hing Lane, I. Division, (Girls),.

II.

:

Wantsai Chapel, (Girls), .

R.C.M., Aberdeen School. (Girls),

Bridges Street, Chinese, (Girls).

22

*

Holy Infancy School, (Mixed),

19

Hunghom, (Girls),

Italian Convent, Chinese, (Girls),

Sacred Heart, Chinese, (Girls),

Shaukiwan, (Girls),

Yaumati, (Girls),

Rhenish Mission, West Point, (Boys),

Wesleyan Mission, Lower Lascar Row, (Boys),.

**

*

>>

*

Wellington Street, (Boys), Graham Street, (Girls),..... Wellington Street, (Girls),

A. B. Mission, English School, (Boys),

C.M.S., Des Voeux Road, English, (Boys),

St. Stephen's, English, (Boys),

No. 2, English, (Boys),

Bonham Road, English, (Girls),

L.M.S., Taipingshan, English, (Boys),

R.C.M., Cathedral School, (Boys)......................

Wesleyan Mission, Lyndhurst Terrace, (Boys), Diocesan School, (Boys),..

(Girls),

R.C.M., St. Joseph's College, (Boys),

Bridges Street, English Division, (Girls),

Portuguese Division, (Girls). French Convent, (Girls),

""

31

"

25

Italian Convent, English Division, (Girls),

وو

وو

";

**

"

11

Portuguese Division, (Girls),

Sacred Heart English, (Girls),..

St. Francis, English Division, (Girls),

Portuguese Division, (Girls),

Victoria Portuguese Sch., Eng. Div., (Mixed),

Port. Div., (Mixed),.

"}

>>

89.58 97.91 93.75 $3.33 93.75 100.00 | 87.50 100.00 100.00 100.00, 100.00 90.90 90.00 100.00 93.33 $2.35 68.75 96.87 68.75 76.92 98.07 80.76 72.72 90.90 87.87 90.47

64.28 60.00 97.14 100.00

85.48 98.38 75.80 55.73 55.00 80.00 70.00 7647

100.00 | 100.00 100.00 100.00

100.00 88.88

100.00 80.00

100.00 73.33

100.00 77.77

100.00 62.50

75.86

100.00 78.57 100.00

50.00

90.00 37.50

100.00

100.00 100.00

91.66

97.22 100.00)

75.00

· Failed.

100.00 50.00

66.66 87.50

79 16

65.21

95.83 81.81

78.57 95.23

90.47

52.77

100.00

97.61 84.61 66.66

86.66 100.00

88.88

63.04

100.00 90.90

70.90 96.36

83.63

80.64

100.00

98.18 69.56

1

76.19 100.00

$0.95

100.00 77.77

69.69 100.00

66.66

69.56 90.00

40.00

92.91 100.00 79.31 96.96 100.00 100.00 60.86 | 86.66 87.50 $0.00 90.90

100.00

90.90

87.50 100.00

88.23

...

52.63 100.00 100.00

81.81

87.50

$7.50

64.81

34,84 99.99 84.84 65.21 65.21 78.26 93.72 81.10 95.27 100.00 100.00 100.00 78.26 100.00 65.21 96.15 96.15 92.30 85.93 93.75 $1.11 73.68 89.47 89.47 89.28 97.32 92.40 53.57 100.00 75.00 76.13 92.06 83.21 80.76 96.15 80.76 57.14: 57.14 57.14 50.00 93.33 70.00 80.00 $6.00 78.52 100.00 100.00 87.50 $2.35 100.00 76.47 86.66 93.33 80.00 100.00 100.00| 100.00 85.00 90.00 75.00 100.00 92.85 100.00

94.06 | 88.88 66.66

75.00

87.20 100.00 91.73

77.77

$7.50 79.72). 94.31 100.00 100.00 14.28 | 50.00 70.83 100.00 83.33 71.95 85.93 61.53 75.00 71.42 23.33 | 66.66 64.66 83.72 100.00 100.00 | 100.00 76.47 100.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 55.55 100.00 100.00 100.00 70.00 93.33 71.42 57.14 [190.00

81.81

371

No. 1902

14

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

PART I.

A DESCRIPTION OF THE EXISTING SYSTEM.

1. Before proceeding with their duty of pointing out the defects which exist in the Educational System of the Colony, and of making suggestions for their amend- ment, the Committee think it convenient to recall the leading features of the different schools with which they are concerned.

QUEEN'S COLLEGE.

2. Of these schools, Queen's College stands first in numbers and reputation, and will be first considered. Formerly known as the Government Central School, Queen's College was founded to give an education to Chinese boys. The course which that education was intended to pursue is indicated in the report for 1864 of the then Inspector of Schools, Mr. STEWART. He writes:-

66

"With the present year the scheme sanctioned by the Board caine into operation. The School was henceforth to be one where "those only were to be admitted who intended to study English; and, "to prevent that neglect of their own language which is so frequently "found in the case of those who enter on that study, a system of ex- "aminations was introduced, by which boys were to be admitted to "the Chinese classes for one year, on showing that they possess a "competent knowledge of certain elementary books, that is, Chinese "Classics, and on the following year were to be admitted to the "English classes by passing successfully on the work of the previous "year."

The scheme here indicated of an entrance examination in Chinese was allowed to fall into dissuetude. It may be said at once that one of the recommendations of the Committee will deal with its re-establishment.

3. Some eighteen years later, the Education Department was relieved of the control of Queen's College, and in 1882 Dr. WRIGHT, the present Headmaster, was appointed. His experience of the School extends over twenty years, and the following extract from his latest report describes the changes that have taken place during his term of office :--

"1. On the 22nd January, 1882, I first arrived in the Colony "to assume the duties of Head Master. I propose, therefore, briefly "to compare the conditions existing twenty years ago and now.

"2.

Statistics.

1901.

1881.

"Total No. on the Roll,

1,483

562

(C

Average Daily Attendance,...

894

386

"Monthly Maximum,

1,154

451

66

Daily Maximum,..

1,129

"School Fees,

$28,424

$4,051

$10,550.15

"Expense to the Government, $15,475.04

"Average Expense of each Scholar, $17.31

$27.35

"Thus at the present time we have twice and a half as many boys

44

as twenty years ago; Fees seven times the amount; Total Net “Annual Expense to Government one and a half times, while the "cost of each individual scholar is nearly two-thirds of the figures "in 1882.

372

"3. I arrived at a time when the work at the Central School had

"been publicly called in question, and my opinion, as a stranger, was "desired. At the Prize Distribution, after conducting the examina- 'tion, I was able truthfully to say to Sir JOHN POPE HENNESSY "that I was surprised at the success of Chinese boys in coping with "the difficulties of the English language; and I may add that this "impression has not faded, but on the contrary has been confirmed "with increased experience. That a Chinese boy should in five "years advance from the study of the Alphabet to an intelligent "acquaintance with a play of Shakespeare and a period of English History is to me little short of the miraculous; when due allowance "is made for the novelty of the simplest ideas, which are conveyed in "idioms, without parallel in his own language.

"4. The chief points of contrast between the Examination held by "ne in 1882, (which naturally is indelibly printed on my brain) and "the Examination just concluded, are as follows. The papers now "are nearly all clean and remarkably well written; whereas twenty "years ago these were the exception, the majority of papers being "dirty and almost illegible. The standard now applied is infinitely "severer; in 1882, the action of the gauge was very delicate and "sympathetic; e. g., if from a hopeless translation, you could deci- "pher that the boy had a fairly correct idea of the original, he was "allowed to pass; in Composition, three sentences grammatically "correct constituted the test of a pass, irrespective of subject matter; "in Arithmetic, there was an allowance for method, which was sup- "posed to condone for a wrong digit in even a total or product ; "beyond all this, a personal element was introduced into the equa- "tion in the case of delicate or weak minded boys, or of boys whose "attendances had been affected by sickness or other cause. I "objected to anything but a rigid uniform standard being applied to "all alike; and maintained that, in mathematical subjects, except for "some slight clerical error, no leniency could be shown. The "severer standard was gradually adopted, to avoid pressing too "heavily at first.

"5. A further proof of the increase of standard is to be found in "the larger proportion of boys examined in certain subjects. Every "boy is now examined in Reading, as against three-quarters of the "school. All the Chinese are examined in Translations, whereas in "1882 twenty per cent. did not offer these subjects. More than "half the boys are now examined in English Composition, as against "less than one quarter in 1882; in Grammar 85% as compared with "46%, and in Geography 69° with 39%. The full significance of "the difference will be more apparent when it is understood that "781 boys were in 1902 examined in English Grammar as against "170, in 1882. On the other hand, twenty years ago, Copy Writing "was accepted for more than three-quarters of the whole school as a "subject which might assist in averting failure; this concession is "now made to only one-seventh. Several subjects now forming part "of the curriculum were not taught in 1881-Shakespeare, Algebra, Euclid, Mensuration, Book-keeping, Natural Science and Physio- "logy. One outcome of this general raising of the standard of "education in Queen's College has been that for the last twelve "years, through entering for the Oxford Local Examinations, our "boys have, with varying success, been able to submit to a test of "their English attainments by English Examiners in England.

(

64

3

"6. I feel confident that this brief historical review will not be "misconstrued into an expression of satisfaction with either the progress made or the standard attained in so long a period as twenty years. My desire is merely to place on record a statement "of the fact that, some advance, however inadequate, has been made "in that time."

*C

4. The 910 boys present at the last examination were divided between a Prepara- tory, a Lower, and an Upper School, the numbers in each being 269, 362, and 279 respectively. About a tenth of these boys are non-Chinese of various races and nationalities, some of whom take their places with the Chinese boys in the Pre- paratory and Lower Schools, while 50 are segregated in separate classes of the Upper School. The education given to these non-Chinese boys appears to be good on the whole.

5. Referring to the Chinese students, attention is drawn to the following opinions expressed by the Head Master in his latest report to the Governing Body

"Reading is not of a high standard though a great majority of boys pass."

Conversation is not a successful subject."

Again, referring to the General Intelligence Paper, he writes:-

"The four Chinese sentences were carefully selected by me so as to be well "known to any educated Chinaman. Yung Kai Pong was the only "scholar out of 21 boys who was really acquainted with the con- .

"text."

The value of the instruction given in English subjects and the Chinese Writ- ten Language is estimated in section 37.

6. A striking feature in the education at Queen's College is the number and diversity of the subjects taught. They include Algebra, Euclid, Shakespeare, Book- keeping, Mensuration, Physiology and Science.

7. As might have been expected in a Chinese day-school of its size, Queen's College does not appear to engender any spirit of esprit de corps among its boys, a state of things more easily deplored than remedied. A school newspaper has been founded, which is no doubt a step in the right direction.

DISTRICT SCHOOLS.

8. There are at present in the Colony twelve District Schools, that is, Schools maintained by the Government and under the direct control of the Inspector of Schools. It must be obvious to any one acquainted with the Colony that these schools were not established where they are in the fulfilment of any ordered scheme. The whole of the centre of the City of Victoria has no school for boys; Kowloon has no Vernacular School: insignificant hamlets-Sheko and Pokfulum-are favoured. The explanation is, that the existing schools are a survival from a time when the education of the Colony had not yet been largely entrusted to Grant Schools.

The policy of Dr. EITEL, who was Inspector of Schools between the years 1879 and 1897, was, generally speaking, to reduce the number of District Schools and to increase the number of those under the Missionary Bodies. The effects of this policy are shewn below, thus:-

Year.

1871,..

1881,

1891,...

1901,

No. of District Schools.

26......

..35...

...35....

No. of Grant Schools.

..11*

..37

...81

12.

..78

*This is the total number of Christian Schools in the Colony; the Grant-in-Aid Code in its present form did not come into force until 1878.

373

374

4

Note.--

9. The District Schools are:- 1.-Schools teaching the English Language and Western Knowledge to Chinese

Boys, hereinafter called ANGLO-CHINESE DISTRICT SCHOOLS.

The words "Western Knowledge" are used for want of a better term to express a knowledge of history and geography, the natural sciences, and modern civilization.

These are four in number-one at Saiyingpun in the West of the City of Victoria, two in the East at Wanchai and Wong-nei-chung, and one on the Kow- loon side at Yaumati. The masters are Chinese. The instruction, which is free, does not go beyond the four lowest Standards, and approximates to that given in the Preparatory and Lower Divisions of Queen's College. The boys usually acquire a fair knowledge of Arithmetic, and have read through (and sometimes know by heart) the School Readers; they seldom can speak or understand English Col- loquial. With the exception of Wong-nei-chung, these Schools are always full, especially in the lower Standards. The majority of the scholars are sons of small shop-keepers, but about one-third belong to the labouring classes. Most of them before joining have attended some Private Vernacular School, but have obtained nothing more than a very superficial knowledge of their Written Language: very few have studied in the Vernacular District Schools next described or in the Vernacular Grant Schools.

II-Schools teaching the Chinese Written Language and Western Knowledge in the Chinese Vernacular to Chinese Children, hereinafter called VERNACULAR DISTRICT SCHOOLS.

Of these, six are for boys, namely, two attached to the Anglo-Chinese District Schools above described at Saiyingpun and Wanchai, and one in each of the outly- ing villages of Sheko, Pokfulum, Aplichau, and Tanglungchau.

The instruction given in these schools is free, and is very similar to that given in Private Vernacular Schools. Beginning with the Trimetrical and Thousand Character and certain other Classics, which are learned by heart, the scholars are taught first to read and then to write the characters. Subsequently they learn their meanings, first as isolated characters and afterwards in their context. Unfor- tunately they nearly all leave school before getting as far as this, that is to say, unable to read. A little Arithmetic is taught. Geography is taught in the higher classes, but not hitherto in such a way as to be of much practical use.

The boys who attend this class of schools are usually sons of labourers and mechanics, and have to begin to earn a living at about ten or eleven years of age.

The shortcomings of these schools are in the main those of the Vernacular Grant Schools described below.

There is also one Vernacular District School for Chinese girls--the Chinese Division of the Belilios Girl School. It is conducted on precisely the same lines

as the boy schools, except that the knowledge of Chinese acquired is greater: this is partly due to an able teacher, and partly because the girls spend a longer term of years at school than the boys. Chinese desirous of giving an extended education to their children would be content with the Vernacular for their daughters, but would teach their sons English as well, curtailing their education in the Ver- nacular in order to do so.

III.—A School giving an English Education to European, Chinese and Eurasian

Girls and Infants-the BELILIOS PUBLIC SCHOOL.

In this school about a hundred girls obtain under English mistresses a very sound though not ambitious English education. In the Preparatory School young children of both sexes and many nationalities are taught according to the latest method. A fee of $1.50 a month, reduced under special circumstances, is charged in the Preparatory and Upper Schools alike. Special attention is paid to English Composition, English Literature, and the Geography and the History of the British Empire.

GRANT SCHOOLS.

10. These schools, like the District Schools, have not been designed to fill a part of any definite system of education, but are the results of various and disconnected efforts extending over nearly sixty years. For convenience of description they may be divided into three classes, though such a classification must not be consi- dered accurate in detail. It is at any rate more accurate than that which is given in the Grant-in-Aid Code, and which is therefore ignored throughout this Report.

11. These classes are:-

I.-Schools giving an Education in English or Portuguese to Scholars of all

Nationalities, hereinafter called ENGLISH GRANT SCHOOLS.

These include most of the old establishments of the Colony. The Diocesan School and Orphanage is a boarding and day school for boys (Europeans, Chinese and Eurasians, the Chinese being in the majority) to whom a primary education in English is given. The Diocesan School for Girls, originally founded for Europeans and Eurasians, is a school of the same class, only Chinese are not admitted. St. Joseph's College is a large Roman Catholic School for boarders and day boys. The boys are mainly Portuguese, Filipinos and Chinese, and the education is very similar to that given in the Diocesan School. Besides the Diocesan, the chief Girl Schools are the Italian Convent, where a similar education is given, principally to Portuguese, Eurasians, and Chinese orphans, many of whom are boarders, and the French Convent, managed on very similar lines. There are also four schools in which an elementary education is given in the Portuguese language.

Lastly, the Church Missionary Society has a small school giving an English education to Chinese girls.

Various as they are, these schools all unite in one common principle-they are Christian schools. Non-Christian Chinese may and do attend them, but with- out affecting the distinctive religious tone. They are genuine Grant-in-Aid Schools in the sense that the Grant is not the sole source of revenue. Fees are charged or remitted at the discretion of the Managers, guided by their judgment as to whe- ther individual cases are worthy objects of charity.

11.-Schools teaching the English Language and Western Knowledge to Chinese Boys, hereinafter called ANGLO-CHINESE GRANT SCHOOLS.

The most important of these is the Roman Catholic Cathedral School, taught by Lay Brothers with the assistance of Chinese masters.

The students are young men who have completed their Chinese education to their own satisfaction, and desire to learn English for business purposes. The school gives instruction up to the Fifth Standard.

None of the other schools go above the Fourth Standard, nor do they call for description in detail. In this connection it is noticeable that under the existing Grant-in-Aid Code no distinction is drawn between English infants learning to. 'read, and Chinese students beginning the study of English after their Vernacular education is complete. Hence it is a common thing for a young Chinaman of eighteen or twenty, his natural gift for memorising accentuated by a prolonged education in his own language, to present as his year's work 30 pages of a reading book in monosyllables concerning Ann and her Goat.

Fees of about one dollar a month are paid in these schools. Except in the Roman Catholic Cathedral School, the instruction is left entirely to the Chinese teachers. No written Chinese is taught.

375

376

6

III.-Schools teaching the Chinese Written Language and Western Knowledge in the Vernacular to Chinese Scholars, hereinafter called VERNACULAR GRANT SCHOOLS.

These schools are without exception under the management of various Mis- sionary Bodies, none of the Private Vernacular Schools of the Colony caring to accept the Grant. As in the case of the Anglo-Chinese Grant Schools, the Verna- cular Grant Schools are left, with few exceptions, so far as secular instruction is concerned, to the charge of the Chinese teachers, who do not appear as a class to be sufficiently impressed with the necessity of maintaining their schools in disci- pline, cleanliness and order; while the children, provided as they are with a free education at the hands of the Government, remain to all appearances destitute of any conception of the obligations they are under. Any hopes the Government may have entertained of winning the goodwill of the rising generation through the establishment of these schools appear altogether unrealised.

The Girl Schools stand on a somewhat different footing. The teachers have been trained in Mission boarding schools and Convents; and the influence of their training is manifest in discipline order and cleanliness, while the supervision of the Managers is more regular and effective.

The Chinese Written Language is taught in the same unsatisfactory way as in the Vernacular District Schools described above. Arithmetic is an optional subject, and the four simple rules are taught with fair success. Geography is taught (very badly) in the Fourth Standard, where many of the Scholars were at the last examination ignorant that Hongkong was a British Colony: a number hazarded the opinion that it belonged to Russia. Most of them, as well as some of the teachers, seemed unaware that the Chinese expression meaning "red-headed man" as applied to Englishmen is resented by them. But this is not all the children from whom alone such knowledge was expected are a very small minority, as the following figures show. Out of 795 boys who obtained passes in the last examination, only 54 or 7 per cent. were in the higher Standards (Fourth or above). The proportion of girls was better, 146 out of 818, or 17 per cent. The percentage of boys and girls taken together was 12 per cent., and was the same for 1900 and for 1899.

No fees are charged in the Vernacular Grant Schools.

There have always been a large number of Private Vernacular Schools main- tained by the Chinese themselves and quite independent of Government aid. The Vernacular Grant Schools have never been able to do more than hold their own against them, as the following table shews:-

SCHOLARS.

PERCENTAGE IN

Year.

F

Vernacular Vernacular

Grant Private Schools. Schools.

In Grant

Schools,

(Average

In Private Schools.

Total Scholars.

Grant Private Schools. Schools.

Attendance).

*

1897,

17

77

96

2,618

2,124

4,742

5501

10

1898,

1899,

1900,

12 5 3

75

100

2,300

2,257

4,557

50%

45%

50%

67

93

2,270

2,058

4,328

53%

47 01

61

94

2,194

2,179

4,373

500!

10.

50%

1901,

57

95

1,926

2,457

4,383

44°

56%

Thus, if the sudden fluctuations are disregarded which are inherent in private schools as compared with those that receive State aid, the proportion of the total

7

number of scholars in the Private Schools has increased in 4

years

from 45 per cent. to 56

per

cent. of the whole. The decrease in the number of Grant Schools is also very marked, while the average number of children in each has increased from 27.5 in 1897 to 33.8 in 1901. The visible explanation of these facts is the rise in prices and rents during the last few years, leading to the disappearance of the less profitable schools and to overcrowding in the rest. As a large number of the Grant Schools are Adventure Schools, the master and not the Mission standing to gain or lose by the Grant, and as the Grant does not increase while prices and rent do, it is plain that the masters of these schools suffer more from such causes than do those of the Private Schools, where if expenses increase fees are increased proportionately. This remedy has not commended itself to the Managers of the Grant Schools where no fees are charged.

SUMMARY.

12. It is not easy to obtain a correct statement of the number of children receiving education in the Colony. The total enrolment certainly exaggerates the number. The average attendance underestimates it, but is on the whole the safer guide. The latest figures are as follows:-

NUMBER OF SCHOLARS IN THE SCHOOLS OF THE COLONY.

(RECKONED BY THE AVERAGE ATTENDANCE.)

English Anglo-Chinese Vernacular Schools. Schools. Schools.

Total.

Government Schools

Queen's College,.

894

Belilios Girl School,

110

4 Anglo-Chinese District Schools,

287

7 Vernacular District Schools,

266

Total Government Schools,

110

1,181

266

1,557

Grant Schools :—

13 English Grant Schools,.........

836

8 Anglo-Chinese Grant Schools, 57 Vernacular Grant Schools,

435

1,926

Total Grant Schools,

836

435

1,926

3,197

Private Schools :—

English Private Schools,

?

12 Anglo-Chinese Private Schools,

526

95 Vernacular Private Schools, ...

2,457

:

Total Private Schools,

?

526

2,457

2,983

GRAND TOTAL,

946

2,142

4.649

7,737

PART II.

THE CLASSES OF CHILDREN REQUIRING EDUCATION.

13. In the Second Part of the Report the different classes and races of children in the Colony are reviewed, and an endeavour is made to decide how far the Government is responsible for providing them with education. Consideration is next given to the questions, how far and in what respects the education already provided for each class falls short of the provision to which it is morally entitled, or which it is expedient that it should receive.

These opinions have for convenience sake been cast into the form of Resolu- tions, which are accompanied, where necessary by explanatory notes.

377

E

378

:

14. The Government of Hongkong may reasonably be expected to provide or assist in providing an education for four classes of children:-

First. Children of British parentage resident in the Colony. Second. Children of Chinese parentage resident in the Colony. Third. Children of Portuguese extraction resident in the Colony. Fourth.-Children of mixed European and Chinese parentage (Eura-

sians) resident in the Colony.

The case of Parsees and other Indian British subjects, of whom there are a considerable number in the Colony, has been disregarded. Probably some settle- ment of their case will have to be made before long, such as the establishment of a small school for their use. No definite recommendations are made on this point, which does not appear to be of instant importance.

Among the classes and races who can hardly expect the Hongkong Govern- ment to defray the cost of their English studies are French and American subjects from Annam and the Philippines.

The Portuguese from Macao may seem to present a parallel case, but a distinction can be drawn. It is the duty of the Government not to abandon a large section of its subjects, while on the other hand it is quite impossible to distinguish between the Portuguese who are domiciled in Hongkong and Macao.

15. Further, in Imperial interests it is desirable to offer instruction in the English Language and Western Knowledge to all young Chinese who are willing to study them, even though they are not residents of the Colony: provided that the instruction can be furnished at a reasonable cost.

The majority of the 900 boys at Queen's College belong to this class. After having studied Chinese in their own schools on the mainland, they are attracted to the Colony by the facilities it gives for the study of English. No distinction is made between them and the sons of Chinese residents of Hongkong, and it is recom- mended that this policy remain unaltered. The additional expense to the Colony is trifling, and the gain to British interests in China by the spread of English and of friendly sentiments towards our Empire should well repay the cost.

CHILDREN OF BRITISH PARENTAGE.

16. It is essential that the children of British parentage be educated by themselves, and not side by side with children of other nationalities or races.

This opinion is mainly based on two reasons: first, because the education of the British children is retarded by the inevitably slower progress of their class- mates, to whom English is a foreign language; secondly, because they have to consort during their most impressionable years with the offspring of alien beliefs and other ethical standards.

17. There is no public school in the Colony reserved for the children of Eritish parentage alone. It is recommended that steps be taken to remedy this state of affairs.

The principle here involved has already been approved. (See Appendix A.)

CHILDREN OF CHINESE PARENTAGE.

18. The Chinese who attend schools under Government control fall into two classes, namely, those who attend the Anglo-Chinese Schools, and those who attend the Vernacular Schools.

It has already been pointed out (section 9) that the same children seldom attend first one class of these schools and then the other. The gratuitous education given in the Vernacular Schools makes them attractive chiefly to the

9

poorer classes who are unlikely to prolong their children's education; while the students who attend the Anglo-Chinese Schools, where fees are charged, have usually first acquired their Chinese education on the mainland, or in Private Schools in the Colony.

It should be the policy of the Government to influence the education of Chinese children from their early years, but little can be done whilst the Verna- cular Schools remain what they are.

ANGLO-CHINESE SCHOOLS.

19. In the Anglo-Chinese Schools instruction in the English Language is of course essential: it is to give this instruction that the schools were founded, and to obtain it that they are attended.

It is essential that Western Knowledge should be a compulsory subject in every Standard. ·

It is essential that the students should possess on entering a sufficient knowledge of the Chinese Written Language, which knowledge should be maintained and improved during the school course.

The Committee are fully alive to the extreme importance of spreading the English Language among the Chinese: but they maintain that the spread of Western Knowledge is no less essential. Their opinion that a knowledge of Eng- lish has not always proved sufficient in itself to ensure a feeling of goodwill towards the Empire, is supported by the authority of Lord CROMER, who writes in his Report upon Egypt for 1900, page 51 :-"The Egyptians, as a rule, think that they will have a better chance of obtaining Government employment if they know English than if they are ignorant of that language. Within certain limits, they are probably right. The English on the other hand, provided they are really acquainted with Egyptian circumstances and requirements, regard the matter wholly from an educational point of view. study of foreign languages, whether English or necessary and useful to the Egyptians themselves. superficial, and, in my opinion, generally erroneous view, that the study of French or English necessarily connotes the creation of French or English political proclivities." It is highly desirable that a fair exposition of our policy in the East, and of China's relations with the other Powers, should be presented to every Chinese scholar: but these ideas can be conveyed in the Chinese language no less well than in English.

***

They wish to confine the French, to what is really They are not led away by the

The argument that Chinese should learn English to the exclusion of their own Written Language is often heard, but it will not bear serious consideration. No Chinese, however learned in English and Western Knowledge, can hope to be of influence with his countrymen, nor can he indeed communicate with them, if ignorant of the written character which binds the Chinese Empire together.

Too much besides has been made of the time which must be spent on the study of the Chinese Written Language: for a Chinese to learn to write clearly and intelligibly, and to read plain prose is no such immense undertaking. And it is quite possible that existing difficulties will some day be lessened after the methods which have approved themselves to the natural mentors of China-the Japanese.

20. The Anglo-Chinese Schools as at present constituted are defective in all three essentials.

As regards English, in colloquial, composition, and intelligent reading alike, the results attained are not commensurate with the time devoted to the study.

379

380

10

Western Knowledge is taught unsystematically and disjointedly, and moreover is not taught at all in the lower Standards.

The knowledge of the Chinese Written Language, insufficient as it is, which the students possess on entering the Anglo-Chinese Schools, is not made. use of as it should be to aid them in acquiring English and Western Knowledge, nor is any attempt made to train them to utilise it as a medium of expression.

21. The following remedies are suggested :--

(a.) English should be taught with a view to its practical use: less attention should be paid to grammatical forms, and more to com- position.

(b.) Western Knowledge should be taught systematically in all Stand- ards, and it should be taught in Chinese until the students have acquired so good an understanding of English as to enable them easily to receive instruction in English.

Under the present Code the scholars in Anglo-Chinese Grant Schools are sup- posed to receive instruction in all subjects through the medium of English, from the lowest Standards upwards. How it could ever have been thought possible to explain arithmetic or geography. in English to boys who know no English, is not clear. As a matter of fact the masters have ignored this condition systematically, throwing themselves on the reasonableness of the Inspector of Schools. In Queen's College and the Anglo-Chinese District Schools, Chinese has always been the actual medium of instruction.

It is certain that the boys' knowledge of English will not suffer by the abolition of this Formula.

(c.) Before entering these schools, students should be required to shew that they possess a useful knowledge of the Chinese Written Lan- guage.

The practical steps that should be taken to secure this are explained in sections 38A, 43, and 51.

(d.) Constant translation from English into Chinese and from Chinese into English, both oral and in writing, should be insisted upon. (e.) English masters should know Chinese, both for the purpose of teaching and also to enable them to supervise the work of the Chi- nese masters.

This knowledge need not always be very profound. If the English master were in a position to see that the Chinese master was properly carrying out his duties, an important point would be gained.

22. It is further recommended that inducements should be held out to students to prolong their studies in the Anglo-Chinese Schools, and the following expedients are suggested :--

(a.) That foundation scholarships be offered giving free education in

these schools.

(b.) That certificates should be given by the Government to students

passing a Government examination.

The principle involved in (a.) is that of the Despatch of 1854 which laid down the lines on which education in India was to proceed. It directs that "the best "pupils of the inferior schools should be provided for by means of scholarships in "schools of a higher order, so that superior talent in every class may receive that

encouragement and development which it deserves."

""

Foundation scholarships have hitherto been granted from the Anglo-Chinese District Schools into Queen's College. The principle might be extended by offering scholarships from the Vernacular Schools into any Anglo-Chinese District or Grant School at the option of the holder. Opportunities of getting to the front should be

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given to the clever and ambitious children of poor parents. With the shifting and very ignorant population of Hongkong, the most that can be done is to pick out and encourage all promising material, and so contrive things that the ablest men of the next generation shall be on our side.

The Government examination suggested in (b.) should be designed to take the place of the Oxford Local Examination, to which schoolmasters and the public generally appear to attach somewhat too much importance. What is required in Hongkong is an examination that will test the ordinary work of a school, and not one the preparation for which entails special tuition; one suited to local educational conditions and not designed to prove the attainments of English boys educated in England.

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VERNACULAR SCHOOLS.

23. In the Vernacular Schools instruction in the Chinese Written Language is essential.

It is essential that Western Knowledge should be a compulsory subject in every Standard.

The argument which was used to defend instruction in the Chinese Written Language in the Anglo-Chinese Schools, justifies also the existence of Vernacular Schools.

In Vernacular Schools it will not be possible for the bulk of the scholars to acquire any practical acquaintance with Western Knowledge and with the Chinese Written Language, and also with English (written or spoken) as well. Very important as the study of English is, Western Knowledge is still more so; and where the two studies cannot be conducted at the same time, Western Knowledge must take precedence.

24. The Vernacular Schools as at present constituted are defective in both essentials. Western Knowledge is arranged to begin in the fourth year of study, but nine-tenths of the scholars leave school after three years or less; consequent- ly to them it is never taught at all. As for the instruction in the Chinese Written Language, it is given too much with the object of memorising the Classics, and too little with the idea of teaching the children to read and write. Explanation of what they read is not given till the fourth year, so that again nine-tenths of the children derive no practical benefit from their study.

25. The following remedies are suggested:---

(a.) That Western Knowledge be carefully taught from the lowest class

upwards.

(b.) That the Chinese Written Language be taught on more practical

lines.

As regards (b.) two main points have to be borne in mind: the average period of study in the Vernacular Schools is three years or less, while the principal object to be attained is not the study of the ancient classical literature but to learn. to read and write simple prose. It is necessary that the meaning of the characters should be taught from the outset, and that the commoner characters should be selected and taught first. If this were done, a child whose education was cut short after two or three years would have learnt little, but that little would be of use, not resembling as at present a cypher without a key.

There is no reason why this practical instruction should not be based on the Confucian and Mencian Classics, while to banish these would be an unnecessary challenge to the fundamental principles of Chinese social life.

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26. It is further recommended that inducements be held out to children to prolong their studies in the Vernacular Schools, and the following expedients are suggested :---

(a.) To permit the teaching of English as a special subject in the higher

Standards.

(b.) To offer scholarships from the higher Standards of the Vernacular

Schools into the Anglo-Chinese Schools.

The principle that underlies these recommendations is to use the eagerness of the Chinese to learn English, as an inducement to them to submit themselves longer to educational influences. The instruction in English given to the highest Standards of the Vernacular Schools will, it is hoped, benefit children who cannot afford to continue their education in the Anglo-Chinese Schools.

CHILDREN OF PORTUGUESE EXTRACTION.

27. There are two classes of schools in the Colony, both under Roman Catholic management, which provide an education mainly intended for the Portuguese, namely, (a.) those in which English, and (b.) those in which Portuguese is the medium of instruction.

The first class includes St. Joseph's, where Portuguese scholars predominate, though there is a tendency to admit too many Chinese: the latter not only fail to get the education best suited to their needs (as described above) but also keep back their European class-mates, by reason of the greater difficulties which a Euro- pean language and European ideas present to them. Neither should Annamese and Filipinos be allowed to predominate in a school primarily intended for the children of Hongkong.

PORTUGUESE VERNACULAR SCHOOLS.

28. It is unnecessary for the Government to foster the study of the Portu- guese language, and it is recommended that the support given to these schools be withdrawn.

There are four of these schools. At the last examination 75 children (mostly girls) were presented, nearly all of whom were in the lower Standards. Many scholars make use of these schools merely as preparatory schools, completing their education in the English Schools, where they are hampered by their ignorance of English and forget, for want of practice, the Portuguese they have acquired.

CHILDREN OF MIXED PARENTAGE (EURASIANS).

29. The existing English and Anglo-Chinese Schools are sufficient to meet the needs of Eurasians; who can as heretofore choose which class of school they prefer to attend.

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Queen's College is open to all Eurasian boys, and will continue open to those who elect to be educated as Chinese. The Diocesan School and Orphanage is largely attended by Eurasians: so. also is St. Joseph's.. The Belilios Public School and the Diocesan School for Girls were founded for the special benefit of Eurasian girls.

FEMALE EDUCATION.

30. The education of girls in the Colony should follow the lines indicated for boys as a general rule.

GIRLS OF BRITISH PARENTAGE.

31. The education of girls of British parentage is as defective as their brothers' and for the same reasons.

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GIRLS OF CHINESE PARENTAGE.

ANGLO-CHINESE GIRL SCHOOLS.

32. There is no present need for the creation of Anglo-Chinese Schools for girls. The High School for Girls will satisfy any existing demand for a more advanced education in English. (Sections 63-65 and Appendix A.)

It must not be forgotten that the large attendance at Queen's College and the other Anglo-Chinese Boy Schools is due to a desire to acquire English for business purposes. This stimulus is absent in the case of girls.

VERNACULAR GIRL SCHOOLS.

33. They should be conducted on the same general lines as the Vernacular Schools for boys. At the same time it is a matter of some delicacy to impose stringent conditions upon the education of girls whose parents regard that education as somewhat of an extravagance, and who might be easily inclined to withdraw their daughters from school. The following passage from a recent Report by the Inspector of Schools commends itself to the judgment of the Committee:-

"To find themselves amenable to education must be an invalu- "able lesson to the Chinese girls and a wholesome one to their "parents and brothers, so that whether that which they learn is worth "learning or not, it is a distinct advantage that they and their "men-folk are alike convinced of their capacity for intellectual "exercise. The self-approbation of your male Chinese requires no "such stimulus."

The time is ripe to put increased pressure on the schoolboys; but in the case of the schoolgirls it can hardly be said to be so. It is therefore necessary for the time being to make distinctions in the treatment of the two classes of children.

PORTUGUESE AND EURASIAN GIRLS.

34: These classes are provided for by the Roman Catholic Convents on the one hand, and the Diocesan School for Girls and the Belilios Public School on the other. The last-named is attended by a considerable number of Chinese, but the restriction upon the admission of Chinese, which is recommended in English Boy Schools, is at present unncessary.

PART III.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF EXISTING SCHOOLS.

35. In the First Part of the Report a description has been given of the various systems of schools under Government control, and incidentally some of their weak points have been exposed. In the Second Part the different classes of children in the Colony have been enumerated; enquiry has been made how far their wants are at present supplied; and the general lines have been indicated on which further improvements should be effected.

In the Third Part the existing schools are considered in detail in the light of the principles determined in Part II; and where they are found wanting, definite

suggestions are made to remedy their shortcomings.

QUEEN'S COLLEGE.

36. It is recommended that Queen's College revert to the purpose for which it was originally intended, and supply an education to Chinese only.

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The only scholars on whom the exclusion of non-Chinese might inflict a hardship are the Indians. Until therefore provision for them has been made as contemplated in section 14, this recommendation can hardly be carried out : meantime the school, numbering nearly 1,000 boys and combining the functions of an English and of an Anglo-Chinese School, is attempting more than it can perform.

The abolition of the non-Chinese Classes can be effected at once, and will not inflict any serious hardship on the scholars, a large proportion of whom know Chinese. Until they reached the Upper School these boys received their education side by side with Chinese boys, and it is fairer that they should continue to do so while they remain in the school, than that they should monopolize the services of two English masters as they do at present.

The following criticisms and recommendations apply to the Chinese classes only.

37. As in the other Anglo-Chinese Schools, the knowledge of English acquired at Queen's College does not appear satisfactory, considering the time spent upon it; Western Knowledge seems taught without sufficient regard to the local point of view; and the knowledge of the Chinese Written Language possessed by the scholars is very imperfect.

To verify these conclusions the Committee made use of the following tests. An examination was held of the twenty top boys, who were required, (a.) to translate about 150 words of simple English narrative into Chinese, (b.) to write an essay in English of about 250 words, (c.) to translate about 250 words of sim- ple Chinese narrative into English. No great accuracy in translation was expect- ed; and in the essay the matter was regarded as of no importance, so long as it was germane to the subject. Out of the twenty boys only two could be classed as good, while two others did fairly. The rest were bad, and the work done by many of them was quite worthless.

It is not probable that even these results could be equalled by Chinese schoolboys elsewhere in the Colony. The Committee feel it is their duty to put these significant facts plainly before the Government.

As regards Western Knowledge too much time is spent over the acquisition. of dry facts relating to early and medieval English History, and to the geography of countries which are only remotely connected with the Far East. Nor is it made sufficiently clear that the past and present condition of other countries have had and still exercise an important influence on the Chinese life of to-day.

38. As regards the teaching of the Chinese Written Language the follow- ing more detailed recommendations are submitted:-

(A.) That an entrance examination be held each term, the test for admission being ability to write an ordinary narrative intel- ligently, and to read and understand the news column of a Chinese newspaper.

The time spent by the average Chinese boy prior to his admission into Queen's College should, if directed to more practical purpose, enable him easily to pass the test examination. The desire to enter Queen's College is so strong and the demand for admission so great, that the proposed examination may reasonably be expected to influence the course of study in the Private Schools of the Colony and on the Mainland.

(B.) That translation from English into Chinese and vice versa be

seriously studied under competent teachers in all the classes.

In order that this may be done to any good purpose it will be necessary to engage Chinese Composition Masters, the present Chinese masters being as a class incompetent to teach their written language. This division of duties is

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a temporary necessity. Good Chinese scholars who know no English are plenti- ful. Chinese who combine a competent knowledge of English and their own language are hardly to be found.

39. As regards the organisation of the school the following recommendations are submitted:-

(A.) The duties of the Staff should be so re-arranged, that every Division of every Class may receive instruction in English from an English master for not less than one and a half hours a day.

The assumption that Chinese masters of the quality at present obtainable are competent to teach the beginnings of English is unwarranted, and results in stock mispronunciations and mistakes of idiom being handed down from generation to generation. The Preparatory and Lower Schools are at present taught English almost entirely by Chinese masters, some of whom are pupil teachers from the up- per Classes.

(B.) The English masters should each be in charge of a Class: the Divisions of Classes should be each under a Chinese master subordinate to the English Class Master.

No Class Master should be in charge of more than three Divisions, and no Division should contain more than fifty scholars reckoning by the

average attendance.

Thus every unit of fifty scholars would receive not less than one and a half hours' instruction daily from an Englishman, and would for the rest of the school time be under a Chinese Division Master subordinate to the English Class Master.

(C.) The salaries of the Chinese Staff are inadequate and should be increased.

The present scale of pay gives $1,138 a year to the First Assistant Master ; $898 to the Second Assistant Master; and so in a descending scale to the Tenth, who receives $328. These rates are not sufficient to attract suitable men even with the present modest requirements, much less masters capable of teaching translation from and into Chinese.

If at any future time it shall become possible to find Chinese masters compe- tent to teach the Chinese Written Language and English Subjects without the assistance and supervision of an English Class Master, large reductions in the cost of the Staff will become possible. Such masters would be well worth the salaries now given to First Class Translators in the Colony, viz., $1,500 to $2,400 a year. Meanwhile the rate of pay of the Division Masters should be increased to the standard which experience has shewn to be necessary in other Government Departments.

(D.) Pupil Teachers should be organized under a practical system. They

should receive instruction from a qualified Normal Master.

The present "pupil teachers" are pupil teachers in name only. They should be bound for a term of years, and receive instruction daily, out of school hours, both in general subjects and in the science of teaching.

(E.) Subjects like Algebra, Euclid, the more advanced parts of Arithmetic, Mensuration, and Book-keeping, which are taught more as a mental exercise than for practical purposes, should not be taught to boys who have not attained to a thorough knowledge of English. Western Know- ledge on the other hand should be taught from the lowest Class upwards.

Theoretically no doubt, and if properly taught, these subjects are an excellent mental training: but as a matter of fact Chinese boys, with their strong bias towards memorising, learn these subjects by rote or by formula more often than otherwise.

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When English is once thoroughly mastered, there is access to the whole of the culture of Europe, and no need for mental gymnastics.

(F.) Promotion from Class to Class should be slower, more regular, and depen- dent on no considerations other than the ability of the students promoted.

In Queen's College the numbers in attendance fluctuate largely; and there is an unfortunate tendency to fill up the gaps thus caused in the higher Classes by making promotions solely or chiefly to this end.

If through natural causes the numbers in the higher classes become reduced, it is better that they should remain so, and that the revenue of the school should fall, than that boys should be pressed forward before the natural time of their promotion.

DISTRICT SCHOOLS.

40. The Anglo-Chinese District Schools which should be conducted generally on the lines prescribed in Part II, may be expected to relieve the overcrowding at Queen's College, as well as to provide a somewhat less advanced education at a lower cost.

41. The Vernacular District Schools have for long been treated as if there were no natural connection between them and the Anglo-Chinese Schools, even when the two were held under the same roof. In view of this, the following recommendation is made:-

Vernacular District Schools should be established in connection with Anglo-Chinese District Schools, and linked to them; and opportunities should be given by scholarships or otherwise, enabling the more intelligent of the boys after passing through the Vernacular Schools to continue their education in the Anglo-Chinese Schools attached.

One advantage to be gained by linking these classes of schools is, that so it will be possible to employ Chinese Composition Masters to teach the Chinese Language in both their presumable lack of Western Knowledge will matter little, as instruction in that branch can be given in both schools by the English-teaching Chinese masters. Another advantage of the "linked system" is that continuity of education is as-

sured.

42. The salaries of the English-teaching Chinese masters are inadequate. They should be made equal to those proposed for the Chinese masters at Queen's College.

43. Boys desirous of entering the Anglo-Chinese Schools from Private Schools must pass the Examination laid down in section 38 A.

Boys who have previously passed the Fifth Standard at a Vernacular District or Grant School might be excused this entrance examination.

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44. English masters should be engaged to give instruction in English and Western Knowledge in the Anglo-Chinese Schools; it should also be their duty to supervise the work of the Chinese masters.

Great importance is attached to this recommendation. It is at present impos- sible to find the required number of Chinese masters capable of teaching Western Knowledge or English, or even translation to and from Chinese, in a satisfactory manner without constant supervision.

The proportion between the numbers of masters (both English and Chinese) and scholars should be those recommended for the Anglo-Chinese Grant Schools below.

GRANT SCHOOLS.

45. Assistance under the Code is at present refused to Private Schools, i.e., schools where admission is restricted, and to schools which are carried on with a view to private emolument Adventure Schools.

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The propriety of aiding schools where the admission is restricted was recognized by the Government, when it consented to establish the British School and to assist the Chinese High School (See Appendix A).

The ruling against Adventure Schools, such as many of the Vernacular Schools are, has in practice never been enforced, and there appears to be no reason why it should be, so long as they are efficient and meet a real want.

It is therefore recommended that Private Schools and Adventure Schools shall not as such be excluded from the benefits of the Code.

46. Grants should be made to three classes of schools :-

1. English Schools, giving an education to Europeans and other non-

Chinese ;

2. Anglo-Chinese Schools;

3. Vernacular Schools.

Under the present Code the first two classes are amalgamated, with unfortunate results. The principle that European children should not be hampered by Chinese class-mates was laid down in Part II, when the needs of British and Portuguese children were considered. The existing Grant Schools where English is taught will have to elect whether they will become English Grant Schools or Anglo- Chinese Grant Schools. As a matter of fact, all the existing schools fall naturally into one or other category, except the Diocesan Boy School, where in 1900 there were 80 Europeans and Eurasians and 106 Chinese. Two courses remain open to this school, to refuse admittance to one or other class of boys, or to form an English side and an Anglo-Chinese side, each properly equipped.

A somewhat meaningless division is made of the Vernacular Schools into schools in which a "Chinese education" or a "European education " is given in the Chinese language. This classification is ignored throughout the Report.

ENGLISH GRANT SCHOOLS.

47. The following suggestions are made for their improvement:-

(1.) The proportion of teachers to scholars should not be less than

one to forty, reckoning by the average attendance.

(2. The proportion of Chinese scholars to non-Chinese should not exceed ten per cent. reckoning by the average attendance. (3.) The great importance of physical training should be recognized.

48. The maximum Grant obtainable should be $18 for each scholar, reckon- ing by the average attendance.

The Grant earned last year in this class of schools amounted on an average to $8.22, reckoning by the average attendance. The present Grant was fixed at a time when the gold value of the dollar was far higher than it is at present, and its purchasing power far greater; and the Committee feel that it is hopeless to expect Managers to incur further expenditure, by engaging more teachers and generally by improving the efficiency of their schools, on the present inadequate remuneration.

It is intended that the Grant of $18 shall include all separate Grants, and that it shall be possible only for schools of the highest efficiency to earn it.

ANGLO-CHINESE GRANT SCHOOLS.

49. The services of an English master should be secured for every Anglo- Chinese School in the following manner:-

No school should be considered efficient unless instruction is given and supervision exercised by a qualified English master for one and a half hours daily for every fifty boys in average attendance. The English master should speak and read Chinese.

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The results obtained by these schools as a class have been hitherto so unsatis- factory because of the want of English masters. The English Language and Western Knowledge cannot be taught satisfactorily here any more than in Queen's College or the District Schools by Chinese alone.

Under the system proposed a school of 150 boys or two schools of 70 or 80 boys each would fully occupy the time of one English master. He should himself teach English, and should superintend and direct the instruction given by the Chinese

masters.

Under present conditions, it is not practicable to insist upon the English masters knowing Chinese. But the Committee recommend that no school where the requisite number of masters are without this knowledge should be considered as qualified to earn the maximum Grant.

It has been represented to the Committee that if this policy is carried out, it will lead to the withdrawal of some of the existing Anglo-Chinese Grant Schools from their connection with the Government. Though it is highly desirable that all these schools should conform to the suggestions above indicated and increase their efficiency, still it is better that they should withdraw, than that they should continue inefficient and at the same time be in receipt of a Grant. So far as these schools are Prepara- tory Schools, attended by boys who are anxious to obtain a good knowledge of Eng- lish, the Committee are emphatically of the opinion that supervision by English masters is necessary.

But, as a matter of fact, these schools principally serve the purposes of boys who wish to learn just enough English to fit them to be servants or shopmen; and in so far as they are doing useful work which cannot conveniently be carried on by other existing institutions in the Colony, they deserve Government assistance. This assistance they should continue to receive in the mean time, but not on such a scale as will enable them to enter into unfair competition with efficient private schools, or to induce boys by the offer of tuition at nominal fees to waste their time by learning a smattering of English, which will be of no use to them in after life.

To meet this state of affairs the following recommendations are made :-

(i.) A limited number of Elementary Anglo-Chinese Schools under Chinese

teachers should be assisted by the Government.

(ii) A Grant of $6 for every scholar in average attendance should be

given them.

(iii) No Grant shonld be given for tuition above the Third Standard. (iv.) There is no need at present of any increase in the amount of money set apart for this class of school; aud as soon as the number of English Classes in the Vernacular Schools (see section 26) is sufficient, and the success of that experiment assured, it is recommended that the Government should then consider the advisability of withdrawing the Grant altogether from these Elementary Anglo-Chinese Schools.

50. Besides the English master, Chinese masters should be engaged in not less a proportion than one to every fifty boys in average attendance:

51. Boys desirous of entering these schools from Private Schools must pass the examination laid down in Section 38A.

Boys who have previously passed the Fifth Standard at a Vernacular District or Grant School might be excused this entrance examination.

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52. The maximum Grant obtainable should be $18 for every scholar, reckoning by the average attendance.

The Grant earned last year in these schools amounted on an average to $6.48, reckoning by the average attendance.

Of the existing schools none have higher Standards than the Fourth, with the exception of the Roman Catholic Cathedral School which takes scholars up to the Fifth. In fixing the Grant it is assumed that it will be paid in full only to schools where a fair proportion of boys are in the highest Standards. The increased expen- diture caused by the engagement of English masters and of better qualified Chinese masters fully justifies the proposed increase in the Grant.

VERNACULAR GRANT SCHOOLS.

53. The Vernacular Grant Schools for Boys are not at all in a satisfactory condition; nor is any very material improvement likely to take place, until more thorough supervision can be given then by the Managers. It is not, however, proposed to disestablish them: they should be retained as a framework on which to build an improved system. All that cau profitably be attempted for the present is to weed out some of the less competent masters.

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54. The maximum Grant obtainable should be $7 for each scholar, reckoning by the average attendance.

This is the same Grant as can be earned under the present Code by a school in which a fair proportion of the children are in the upper Standards. No increase is needed, since the additional revenue gained by charging appropriate fees will, it is hoped, be sufficient to attract a superior class of master. (See Part V, Fees.)

GRANTS IN AID OF RENT.

55. A Grant equal to two-thirds of the rent paid should be made to schools occupying leased premises.

The present Grant in aid of rent is 30% of the rent of the school quarters. It was authorised only two years ago and has been of service, but has proved inadequate to redress the disadvantage incident to schools in densely populated districts.

BUILDING GRANTS.

56. The instability of Grant Schools, especially the Vernacular Schools, arises from their being too often housed in premises leased from month to month. No increase in the Grant in aid of rent will remedy this state of affairs. But Managers have no encouragement to erect permanent school-buildings unless they can feel assured of liberal assistance from the Government. The provisions of the Code (Appendix B. Section 27) governing Building Grants appear to be satisfac- tory, but the sum now voted for this purpose ($3,000 for three years) is insufficient.

THE CODE.

57. It is not the purpose of the Committee to draw up a new Code, but only to indicate what its general character should be.

The existing Code which will be found in Appendix B is based on the first local Code of 1872, and is now out of date. Its principal shortcomings are enu- merated below, the references being to the sections of the Code.

Section 1a and b-As stated above, these restrictions, that schools shall be public and not carried on with a view to private emolument, are unnecessary.

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Section 2c.-In view of the greater efficiency now required from masters, more especially from those of Anglo-Chinese and Vernacular Schools, great care should be taken by the Education Department that none but fully qualified men obtain appointments.

Section 3.—It will be more convenient to adopt an opposite principle, and instead of making a reduction from the maximum Grant the exception, to limit the maxi- mum Grant to cases of exceptional efficiency.

Section 8.-The payment of a portion of a Grant directly to the teacher should be discontinued.

Sections 10 & 11.--The system of payment by the result of an individual examin- ation of each scholar should be discontinued. It is recommended that the system in

vogue at Home be introduced, and that the Grant shall not directly depend on the success or failure of any individual scholar.

One effect of the present system is to strengthen the hands of the parents and weaken those of the teachers. This is especially true of the Chinese Adventure Schools. The teacher is in the unpleasant position of having his year's remuneration dependent on the good-will of the scholars, whether they choose or do not choose to present themselves on the day of examination.

Another effect of the system is that the best Grant is earned by the Master who having brought his best pupils up to the passing point leaves them there, and devotes himself exclusively to the stupid and backward. He has no inducement to teach more than the minimum imposed by the Code.

ances.

Section 13.-Schools eligible to earn Grants should be-

1. English Schools.

2. Anglo-Chinese Schools.

3. Vernacular Schools..

Section 14.-The basis of examination should be as now a hundred attend- But it should be made impossible for a school to obtain a full year's Grant for a scholar who has entered within four or five months of the end of the year, as happens frequently under the present system.

Section 16. The course of instruction for Vernacular Schools requires com- plete revision. The following points are important:-

(a.) Mental Arithmetic and the Multiplication Table should be taught. (b.) The explanation of Chinese characters should keep pace with the

reading of them.

(c.) The History first taught should be that of China, viewed in its relation to other countries. The Geography should be political and commercial rather than physical.

(d.) The only special subjects taught should be (1.) English in the Sixth and Seventh Standards, and (2.) Needlework in the Girl Schools as at present.

Section 18.-In the Anglo-Chinese Schools, it will probably be found possible to teach Algebra (or Euclid) and Physical Geography (or Elementary Natural Philosophy), but in the two highest Standards only. They should form part of the ordinary course.

It is impossible to formulate one course of study for English Schools and Anglo-Chinese Schools alike. In the case of the English Schools advantage should. be taken of the latest experience gained at Home.

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PART IV.

ADDITIONS NEEDED TO COMPLETE THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM.

58. In the preceding Parts of the Report the existing educational institutions have been described (Part I); the needs of the children of the Colony have been enumerated (Part II); and improveinents have been suggested, with the purpose of adapting these educational institutions to these needs (Part III).

The present system of education however is in want, not of amendment merely, but of enlargement as well. In the Colony, the British population has hitherto had no distinct part in the system of education, such as its numerical and intrinsic importance entitles it to. There is a very decided demand among the Chinese for a better education than can be obtained at present. A third direction

in which the educational system requires extension is among the inhabitants of the New Territory.

BRITISH SCHOOLS.

59. A recognition has already been made of the desirability of taking steps to prevent the children of British parents born in the Colony from growing up un- educated, or at best educated in undesirable surroundings. Correspondence on the subject is given in Appendix A. ·

It is not desirable to lay down hard and fast rules for the conduct of the British Schools until experience has been gained in working them. But the following suggestions are made.

60. One school should be established in Victoria and one at Kowloon.

In the City of Victoria, the central position of the Belilios Reformatory with regard to the Naval Yard, the East Point Sugar Refineries and Quarry Bay indi- cates the building as very suitable for the British School, if it can be adapted to this purpose. It is true that children from West Point will have a long distance to go, but this is inevitable for some scholars wherever the school is placed. The proposed electric tramway will minimise this inconvenience, which arises from the straggling nature of the City.

It has already been decided by the Government to limit the attendance at the Kowloon British School to children of British parentage. In this way the Kow- loon population is well provided for.

61. A boarding house should if possible be established in connection with the Victoria British School.

This provision will enable a number of parents to make use of the school who otherwise would have to seek another home for their children. It is likely that it will encourage the Residents of Canton and other Treaty Ports to send their children to Hongkong for their education.

62. All boys of sufficient age should be required to join a Cadet Corps, if the Military Authorities can arrange to form one.

A HIGH SCHOOL FOR CHINESE.

63. General sanction has been obtained for the formation of such a school in the correspondence given in Appendix A. But hitherto no decision has been arrived at among the leading Chinese as to the precise form which it should take.

The following points appear essential, if the school is to be of such a nature as to merit a place among the schools controlled by Government.

64. The school should be open to all Chinese of respectable antecedents and connections. 65. The fees should be fixed on a high scale.

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This provision is essential in order that the cost of the Staff and other charges should, in so far as it exceeds that of the other Anglo-Chinese Schools, fall on the scholars and not on the ratepayers.

ORY.

THE NEW TERRITORY.

66. In considering what education should be provided for the New Territory, due regard must be paid to its financial position, which is that of a debtor to the Colony, with no immediate prospect of freedom from the obligation. The lack of good communications in this barren and mountainous country must also be taken into consideration, as well as the poverty of its inhabitants.

Despite all drawbacks, over 4,000 out of a total of 17,500 male children under 16 years of age are in attendance at Private Schools, of which there are over two hundred, and pay fees averaging 20 cents to 30 cents a month. This spontaneous desire for education deserves all possible encouragement.

67. A scheme has elsewhere been formulated for assisting the present schools with a Grant: but it appears probable that this expedient would result, not in raising the pay of the teachers and in due course their qualifications as well, but in a reduction of the school-fees; and would thus tend to discourage a praiseworthy self-reliance, without benefiting education. Further, it is certain that any direct attempt to induce the present teachers to adopt new methods would be futile, and might give rise to unfortunate misunderstandings. On the other hand any hasty attempt to supplant private schools by Government schools would be sure to rouse the hostility of the teachers, who would be thrown out of employment, and would no doubt use all their influence to thwart the change; and for this reason and owing to the need for economy, a quiet and unobtrusive beginning is required.

on

68. To improve Vernacular Education the Government must rely chiefly indirect means, making use of the undoubted desire that exists to learn English. A few Anglo-Chinese Schools should be opened in the most populous centres; and Vernacular Schools, in which a good education should be given by competent and progressive teachers, should be linked to them. Fees should be charged at least equal to those that are usual in the neighbourhood. Admission to the Anglo- Chinese Schools should be granted only to boys who have passed an examination in Chinese. At first the examination should only test the proficiency of the boys' studies according to the old-fashioned methods of teaching Chinese, but gradually its scope can be enlarged until it becomes a real test of the candidate's ability to read and write his language. Anxiety on the part of their pupils to obtain admission to the Anglo-Chinese Schools will necessarily compel teachers of Private Vernacular Schools to modify their system of instruction so as to accord with the requirements of the entrance examinations. The Government Vernacular Schools will no doubt be well attended for the same reason, and they will act as model schools for the neighbourhood. If the experiment is successful, Government Vernacular Schools may be opened in the principal market-towns; but at its fullest development it is not probable that more than three Anglo-Chinese Schools and twelve Vernacular Schools will be required.

To commence with, it will suffice to open Anglo-Chinese Schools at Jen Long and Sheung Shui, and to attach Vernacular Schools to them.

No unnecessary expense should incurred on them until their success is assure1; in the first instance school-houses should be rented not built, and the staff should be limited to one master to each school.

FEMALE EDUCATION.

69. The time has not come for assisting female education in the New Territory.

:

23

PART V.

FINANCE.

70. In considering the cost to Government of the various changes which have been recommended in the course of this Report, it will be necessary to calculate such expenditure only as must immediately follow the adoption of the new policy. Whether, and if so when, that policy should receive its fullest development, are questions which the future must decide.

QUEEN'S COLLEGE.

71. The following table has been used as a basis from w hich the cost of carrying out the recommendations contained in sections 36-39 has been estimated. Reckon- ing the average attendance at 950 scholars, the Staff needed is :-

For 450 scholars in the Preparatory School 3 English and 9 Chinese masters

19

400

100

""

17

""

""

Lower Upper

4

8

""

""

2

2

29

"".

""

9

19

950

72. In addition, allowance must be made for one English Master being constantly on leave, and for the supervisory duties vested in the Headmaster. Two additional English masters will be needed for these reasons, making a total of eleven-the number for which provision is made in the Estimates for the current year.

73. As against 19 Chinese masters required, provision is made in the 1902 Esti- mates for 11, together with 5 pupil teachers. Thus an increase of 3 in the Chinese Teaching Staff must be made.

74. The present Staff of Chinese masters is underpaid (see section 39 C), and it is found impossible to retain the services of teachers of even the present quality at the present rate of pay. The following scale is suggested :-

masters from $840-$1200 per annuin.

7

7

""

$480-$ 720

5 pupil-teachers at $240

""

"

On an average their salaries will be found to amount to $12,540 a year.

75. In addition, until such time as thoroughly competent Chinese masters can be found, and the organization of the Staff simplified accordingly, Composition Mas- ters must be engaged (see section 38 B). One should be put at the disposal of each of the 9 Class Masters. Their pay should average $420 per annum, making an additional charge of $3,780.

76. The Normal Master referred to in section 39 D should be paid $600 per

annum.

77. Thus the total increase in the cost of Queen's College will be:-

To 19 Division Masters and Pupil-Teachers, $12,540

To 9 Composition Masters,

To allowance to Normal Master.

3,780

600

$16,920

Less salaries of present Chinese Staff,

7,713

Net increased cost,

$ 9,207

This increased cost amounts to about seventy-five cents a month for each scholar.

393

394

24

DISTRICT SCHOOLS.

78. It will be sufficient if two English Masters are engaged for the Anglo- Chinese District Schools (see section 44). Their pay should be that given to the Junior Assistant Masters at Queen's College, namely $1,800 rising to $2,400. This with compensation will entail an average annual expenditure of $6,300.

79. The salaries of the 6 Chinese Masters in the Anglo-Chinese Schools should be raised to the level of the Chinese Masters at Queen's College, with an average of $810 per annum, or a total of $4,860. Their present salaries and bonuses amount to about $2,600, making a net increase on this account of $2,260.

the

80. In accordance with the recommendations embodied below under the heading Fees, a small fee should be charged in the Anglo-Chinese Schools. At very low figure of 50 cents a month, $1,800 per annum may safely be counted upon. The actual increase to the cost of the District Schools will thus be :—

To salaries of English masters,

To increased salaries of Chinese masters, .

By fees,.

Net increased cost,

$6,300

2,260

$8,560

1,800

$6,760

:-

GRANT SCHOOLS.

81. In 1901, an average attendance of 836.39 scholars in English Schools earned $6,983 being an average Grant of $8.22 for each scholar.

The Grant earned by

435 scholars in average attendance at the Anglo-Chinese Schools was $2,822 or an average of $6.48. The maximum Grant recommended for each class of school has been fixed at $18; but as this will only be given where all the circumstances of a school combine to raise it to a very high order of merit, it will be safe to estimate the average Grant earned at $15.

The number of scholars earning the Grant may be regarded as unchanged in the English Schools, namely, as 836. But owing to the inefficient nature of a number of the Anglo-Chinese Schools, it may be considered certain that some of them will fail to reach the standard required by an amended Code; and it is unlikely that the number of scholars will rise above 250 for some years.

82. The net increased cost in the Anglo-Chinese Grant Schools is thus obtained :-

To 836 scholars in English Schools @ $15,

Less present Grant to English Schools,

.$12,540 6,983

-$ 5,557

To 250 Scholars in Anglo-Chinese Schools @ $15...$ 3,750 Less present Grant to Anglo-Chinese Schools,

Net increased cost,

2,822

-$ 928

$ 6,485

83. The sole increase under Vernacular Schools is that recommended in section 55. The effect of this will be to double the sum now paid as Grants to schools occupying leased premises, increasing it by $2,000.

!

...

25

BRITISH SCHOOLS.

84. Of the further provision for education asked for in Part IV, the two British Schools will each entail the following approximate charges:-

To Headmaster @ $3,500; to Headmistress

@ $1,200; to Mistress for the Infant School

@ $600; to Sundry Expenses and Servants @ $700,.......

Less fees of 90 children @ $35 per annum,..

To net cost of one British School,

To net cost of two British Schools,

$ 6,000

3,150

$ 2,850

5,700

Until some experience has been gained, it will be impossible to make any more accurate estimate than the above. The rate at which fees should be charged is very doubtful.

THE CHINESE HIGH SCHOOL.

An

85. Whether the High School is placed under Government, or whether it is managed as a Grant School, the expense of its up-keep will be about the same. average Grant of $17 (for a high standard of efficiency may be anticipated) to 100 scholars male and female gives a total of $1,700, and it is not probable that a larger sum will be needed in the near future.

.

THE NEW TERRITORY.

86. The immediate expenditure upon the New Territory will include salaries of two English-teaching and two Chinese-teaching Masters in the linked Anglo-Chi- nese and Vernacular Schools at Uen Long and Sheung Shui, The masters will need to be well paid in order to compensate them for what they will consider banishment from Hongkong. And as it is not proposed to place them under the immediate supervision of an Englishman, the two English-teaching Masters will need a considerable knowledge of English. Their salaries should be at the rate of $1,200 per annum. The Chinese-teaching Masters should be paid at the rate of $480 per annum. Rent of the school houses and other charges will cost at least $150 for each linked school. School fees should be charged in the Anglo-Chinese Schools from the outset, and should bring in not less than $600 per annum.

87. Thus the total cost should be estimated as follows:-

To two English-teaching Masters at $1,200,

Chinese-teaching

""

480,

""

35

""

rent and other charges,...

By fees,

$2,400

960

300

$3,660

$ 600

$3,060

Net cost,

TOTAL INCREASED EXPENDITURE.

88. It is certain that the inauguration of a number of new schools and the extension of others will necessitate some increase in the cost of working the Depart- No estimate of this increase, which will not be large, is attempted.

ment.

89. The total increases recommended are thus

Queen's College,.

$9,207

District Schools,.

6,760

Grant Schools (English and Anglo-Chinese),

6,485

">

(Vernacular),.

2,000

British Schools,

5,700

Chinese High School,

1,700

New Territory,

.....

3,060

$34,912

395

396

26

RATIO OF EXPENDITURE TO REVENUE.

90. The following table gives the net expenditure on education, and the pro- portion it bears to the Revenue of the Colony (excluding Sales of Land) in the

past ten years :-

Net Expenditure on Education.

Year.

Percentage of Total Revenue.

1892,...

$74,486

3.29

1893,

65,531

3.22

1894,

67,372

2.07

1895,..

47,021

2.37

1896.

66,079

2.52

1897,

58,906

2.18

1898,

50,138

1.66

1899

47,135

1.24

1900,

50,035

1.90

1901

>

60,663

1.73 (Estimated.)

The percentage of the total Revenue spent on education has always been small and is still decreasing.

91. Adding $34,912, the estimated cost of the proposed increases, to the expen- diture on education for the past year, a total of $95,575 is obtained, a sum less than 2 per cent. on the estimated revenue of 1902 ($4,105,965).

SCHOOL FEES.

92. Where reimbursements by school fees have been counted on in the foregoing calculations, the estimates have been very cautiously made. On this subject the Committee are in agreement with the Indian Education Commission of 1882, section 354 of whose report runs as follows:

"

*

*

"Policy of the Department in regard to Fees.--The advisability of "raising the rates of fees to the highest point consistent with the con- "tinued spread of education has been repeatedly acknowledged. It is, "if not only, yet chiefly, by this means that Government institutions "of the higher class will be enabled to approach the self-supporting stage, a result to which many educational Despatches look for- "ward; and also that privately-managed institutions will attain "to greater efficiency and success.

The policy which we recommend has its natural and necessary limits in the fact "that any increase in fees beyond the capacity of the people to pay them will result in a loss of pupils and thus defeat the object "it is intended to secure.

We recommend that it be an “instruction to the Departments of the various Provinces to aim at raising fees gradually, cautiously, and with due regard to necessary "exemptions up to the highest amount that will not check the spread of education, especially in colleges, secondary schools, and primary “schools in towns where the value of education is understood.”

"C

65

Again, in section 194, Recommendations as to Fees, the Commis- sioners write:-"We think it generally desirable that even in primary "schools fees should be raised as far as is consistent with the spread "of education.

* * The whole educational fund is inade-

63

*

quate to the supply of schools for every group of villages, and "those who enjoy the advantage of a school should contribute towards "its cost so as to promote the establishment of similar institutions "elsewhere. But we do not overlook the wants of the struggling

poor, or of exceptionally backward races and tracts."

66

The proper policy of the Government towards its poorest subjects is set forth in section 204 of the same report :-

"Poor Classes.-

* A poor law is unknown in India, "The rules of caste enjoin the performance of those charitable duties, "by the performance of which the relief of the destitute is dis-

(C

66

(6

(C

27

“tributed over the area of the family and even of the whole caste. "In every caste, not excluding Brahmans, cases of great poverty "exist. But as the caste descends in the social scale, the ins- tances of poverty increase, and the well-to-do are less able to render aid to the poorer members of their class. The best remedy is perhaps to relax the rule which requires that edu- cation, even in schools which are not entirely supported but. only aided by the State, should not be purely gratuitous. We therefore recommend that in all board-schools, a certain propor- "tion of pupils be admissible as free students on the ground of poverty; "and in the case of special schools established for the benefit of the poorer classes, a general or larger exemption from payment of fees be "allowed under proper authority for special reasons. There may be "schools which specially undertake the education of the poor, and which, under the operation of the above rule, will be unable to charge fees, and must thus depend upon charitable assistance and grants from the State. The grants which they may earn under "the result system will be very small, and their case seems to deserve special encouragement. We therefore recommend that assistance be given to schools and orphanages in which poor children are taught "reading, writing, and counting, with or without manual work.”

(3

፡፡

66

PART VI.

MISCELLANEOUS RECOMMENDATIONS.

HIGHER EDUCATION.

93. There should be no attempt to provide any sort of University Education, until a far firmer grounding for it can be found than now exists in the schools of Hongkong.

Generally speaking, the Committee view with disfavour the idea of selecting one or two promising students, and giving them a free Professional or University Education in England, as has been done in past years.

NORMAL SCHOOLS.

94. There is a very general idea that the main desideratum of Education in Hongkong is a Normal School. While it is fully recognized that the qualifications of the present teachers leave much to be desired, financial difficulties in the way of such a school appear very great, and no practical scheme has yet been suggested. As far as the Chinese teachers of English are concerned, the system recommended in sections 39, 44, and 49, ensures that they shall teach under the control of an English master; and it is hard to see what more they could gain from a Normal School. At the same time it is recognized that Chinese masters should be encouraged to keep up and extend their knowledge of English, as otherwise the teaching in the Junior Classes especially will be apt to deteriorate.

This tendency should be met by making promotion in the Teaching Staff of the Government Schools, and the maximum Grant in Grant Schools, depend upon the masters passing regular qualifying examinations.

95. It is still less easy to see how the Normal School proposed would effect any radical improvement in the masters of the Vernacular Schools. If Chinese who have spent a number of years in Anglo-Chinese Schools are still not competent to teach English or Western Knowledge without European supervision, the present teachers of Chinese in Vernacular Schools would be even less qualified to teach Western Knowledge or their Written Language in a practical way, notwith- standing that they had spent one or two years in a Normal School. But it is certain that after such a course of study they would demand an increase in their

397

3

398

:

28

emoluments. This increase would eventually fall on the Government, as well as the cost of the Normal School: but the Committee do not recommend any more money to be spent on Vernacular Schools unless real efficiency can be assured.

ORGANIZATION.

96. Under the existing arrangement the Education Department is organized under two distinct heads. Queen's College, by far the most important school in the Colony, is under its Head master: the Inspector of Schools is responsible for the other scholastic establishments.

This arrangement, obviously an unsatisfactory one, should be abandoned when occasion offers.

CONCLUSION.

97. It is desirable to state briefly the principles which were accepted by the Committee as those which should govern the distribution of the expenditure upon education. The Portuguese community present no difficulty: their education is already provided for by the Roman Catholic Corporations, and all that remains to be done is to increase the Government share of the cost. The education of the children of British parents has been provided for on grounds which are justified by the interests of the Empire and of the Colony alike. The only difficult problem is met when the education of the Chinese in the Colony is con- sidered. To what extent is that education a duty incumbent upon the Govern- ment? Beyond that point, how far is it expedient in the interests of the Colony or the Empire? Should the funds available be so handled as to give the greatest number a limited course of instruction; or would they be expended to greater advantage in thoroughly educating a smaller number?

The Hongkong Government has never pretended to supply education to all the children within its jurisdiction, never having asked the ratepayers for the very large sum which would be needed, were it so largely to increase its responsibilities. It is equally unnecessary and undesirable that such an extended provision should be made. A very large number of the Chinese resident in Hongkong prefer to send their children to be educated in their own country: they do not pretend to be citizens, or anything more than strangers in the land; yet it would be im possible to discriminate so as to avoid taxing them for an education which they would never take advantage of. Moreover it would be necessary under the conditions con- templated to put narrow limits upon the courses of study. To suggest, for instance, that taxation should be extended in order to pay for a ten years' course for every child in the Colony is a reductio ad absurdum.

Thus, the argument that provision should be made for the entire population leads naturally to the conclusions, firstly, that taxation should be largely increased in order to provide a smattering for the children of persons who neither ask for it nor desire it; and, secondly, that no attempt should be made to provide a thorough educa- tion. The Committee hold that what education is given should be thorough, and that better results will be obtained by assisting to enlighten the ignorance of the upper classes of Chinese than by attempting to force new ideas on the mass of the people. Civilised ideas among the leaders of thought are the best and perhaps only means at present available of permeating the general ignorance: for this reason much more attention has been paid to the Anglo-Chinese Schools than to the Vernacular. At the same time the principle has been adopted that the cost of a good education should be borne by the recipients so far as they can possibly afford it. The tax- payer who reaps the benefit of every advance in the intelligence of the Com- munity may fairly be called upon to supply the balance.

A. W. BREWIN.

HO KAI, M.B., C.M. EDWARD A. IRVING.

No. 343.

29

Appendix A.

CORRESPONDENCE RELATING TO THE PROPOSED

ESTABLISHMENT OF (1) A BRITISH SCHOOL ;

(2) A CHINESE HIGH SCHOOL.

GOVERNOR TO SECRETARY OF STATE.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE,

HONGKONG, 3rd September, 1901.

i

SIR,

I have the honour to forward a copy of a petition received by me and signed by over one hundred of the principal British inhabitants of the Colony.

2. The petition prays that a school may be established for Europeans only. The statements made in the petition are in accordance with the facts, and hav- ing very carefully considered the question myself, and submitted the petition for examination and report by the late and present Inspectors of Schools, I find my- self forced to the conclusion that, however opposed the proposal may be to the accepted theory of State aided education, the establishment of a school for Euro- pean children is in this Colony highly expedient..

3. Putting aside the deteriorating moral effects of the mixture of the two races in school-a deterioration I venture to say not confined to European boys— it is evident that European scholars who are obliged to regulate their progress by that of their Chinese classmates, who are painfully endeavouring to assimilate West- ern education taught to them in a foreign language, are placed at a serious disad- vantage. Under such a system I can understand the failure of the scheme of Government Scholarships adopted during the administration of Sir GEORGE BOWEN, and abandoned in 1893.

4. It is important for the Colony that English boys should learn Chinese, and that Chinese should learn English, but the result of the present system of mixed teaching is that English boys leave the Government School half instructed and Chinese boys leave knowing neither their own language nor English. The report of the last examination held at the Queen's College, which I attach,* shows this clearly.

5. I have spoken on this subject many times with the Bishop of Victoria, who has had a long experience of educational matters in China, and I agree with him that English should be taught to the Chinese students as a special subject; that they should have some knowledge of the characters of their own language before they enter upon the study of English and that their instruction in the ordinary Western school curriculum should be imparted in the Chinese language. There are, I understand, an ample supply of suitable books for the purpose translated into the Chinese language.

* Not printed.

399

:

:

400

30

6. In the same way Chinese-at least colloquial Chinese-could be taught as a subject to English boys, for whom it would be necessary if the sphere of their future labours were to be in the Far East.

7. It must be remembered that the children for whose education the estab- lishment of a European School is desired are the children of respectable parents who cannot afford to send them home and who, in many cases, are driven by the present system to the abandonment of their education as, in their opinion, the least of two evils.

8. I enclose a copy of the observations of the Inspector of Schools upon the petition. Mr. IRVING roughly calculates the cost of a school such as that pray- ed for at $4,000 a year over and above the fees. This amount is not large. It might be reduced by increasing the fees, but having regard to the exception :l cost of living for Europeans of the class for whom the school is desired, I question if higher fees could be paid without serious inconvenience.

9. A petition on the subject of separate education has also been received from a number of Chinese gentlemen who pray for the establishment of a school where higher fees than those paid at the Queen's College may be charged. They are anxious to avoid the association of their children with the poorer classes at Queen's College and are willing to pay fees sufficient to support the school without cost to the Colony, but they require the assistance of Government so as to secure a proper succession of Masters. I shall address you on this subject in a separate despatch. 10. The present petition I venture to strongly recommend for your favourable consideration."

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient, humble Servant,

"

The Right Honourable

1

HENRY A. BLAKE,

Governor.

J. CHAMBERLAIN, M.P.,

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies,

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

Enclosure No. 1.

A PETITION: FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A BRITISH SCHOOL.

To His Excellency

SIR,

Sir HENRY BLAKE, G.C.M.G.,

Governor, etc., etc.

We, the undersigned residents in Hongkong, beg to call your Excellency's attention to the following facts with regard to Education in Hongkong, in the hope that means may be found for the provision of Education for the European children in the Colony, better than exist at present.

1. The need of suitable Education for European children in the Colony is now very great. The European population is steadily increasing. The number of European children in the Colony between the ages of 5 to 16 (inclusive), as

31

401

:

shown by the recent Census, is 175 males and 202 females. Of these a very large proportion are the children of parents of small means, including many en- ployés of the Government, who cannot afford either a private education, or to send their children to Europe for schooling. To these a school in the Colony, where a suitable education can be obtained is an absolute necessity. ·

2. At present no suitable education for European children, other than Por- tuguese, is provided in the Colony. This statement may seem at first somewhat surprising in view of the number of schools maintained or assisted by the Government in which "a European education" is said to be "given in a Euro- pean language." We venture, however, to think that the following considerations will show that our statement is not inaceurate :-

(a.) The schools in the Colony assisted by Government are 96 in number. Of these, 70 schools are in Class I, "in which a Chinese education is given"; 3 schools are in Class II, in which "a European education is given in the Chinese language." The schools in these two classes are obviously not available for European children. The schools in Class III," in which a European education is given in any European language," are 23 in number. But in the great majority of these schools the masters are Chinese only; and these Chinese masters are not only incompetent to give a European education to European children, but also habitually use their own language as the medium of instruction in explaining the English books, which they teach, to their pupils. Such schools are, therefore, also not available for Europeans. There are only two Grant-in-aid Schools in Class III which have English teachers, and are open to Europeans. In addition to the schools in these three Classes, there are the Queen's College and the Belilios Public School maintained by the Government, in which there are English teachers; and also eleven schools maintained by the Government, in which there are only Chinese teachers. Thus of a total of 109 schools there are only 4 available for English children.

(b.) We consider that even in those four schools in which there are English teachers, European boys cannot secure a proper education. Educa- tion should include both the acquirement of knowledge, and also the formation of character. In both these respects we consider that the education of the European children suffers very much from the fact that Europeans and Asiatics are mixed, and the European child has to be educated side by side in the same class with large num- bers of Asiatics.

As regards the acquirement of knowledge, this mixture of races operates very injuriously upon the European. The Chinese come to these schools to learn English, not to acquire general knowledge. In his report for 1866, Mr. STEWART, who was the Headmaster at the Central School and Inspector of the Government Schools, wrote: "Nothing seems to find favour with the Chinese which does not bear a market value. Hence the comparative success of the Central School, English being convertible into dollars."(') The following year "the Principal of of St. Saviour's College dwelled especially on proving the difficulties one meets here in educating Chinese. They don't study for the sake of acquiring know- ledge, but for the sake of dollars and to enable them to earn money, and the Very Rev. Father anticipated that with very few exceptions we would never succeed in having Chinese conversant with our Sciences, but we must content ourselves with forming clerks and compradores."(2) In his Report for 1899, the

(1) See "Dates and Events connected with the History of Education in Hongkong,” p. 13. (2) Ibid, p. 21.

*

-

402

32

late Inspector of Schools explains the more regular attendance at the schools in which English is taught, as compared with the Chinese schools, by the fact that "the education given is a special one having a distinct money value."

We do not wish to call in question the wisdom of the Chinese in this matter; but we would point out that in a school in which the majority of boys are Chinese, who come to learn English and not for the sake of acquiring knowledge, the European boy, who comes to acquire knowledge and not to learn English, must be at a very serious disadvantage. That the Chinese boys often do better than European boys in the examinations at such schools does not militate, as it might at first sight seem to do, against this statement; for the Chinese boys have undoubted ability, and, moreover, they far outnumber the English boys, and are of much more advanced age than their European class-mates. The methods of education, moreover, have to be adapted to the instruction of the Chinese, and many an English boy is of necessity kept back whilst instruction is laboriously imparted to those who have a very inferior knowledge of the medium of instruc- tion. The above remarks apply also to the so-called "Foreign Classes" in the Queen's College, where Europeans and non-Chinese Asiatics are mixed. (1)

As regards the formation of character, it is not easy to write without the risk of giving offence to our Chinese neighbours. It is not our wish to do this, for we gladly recognise the worth, and high character, of many of our Chinese fellow-residents in the Colony. But the Chinese boys in the schools are numbered by thousands, large numbers of whom, be it noticed, come from the mainland, and are in no way connected with the Colony; and the ordinary standards of truth, honour, and morality amongst the masses of the Chinese people undeniably differ very widely from our European standards. Chinese children are fully conversant with many matters which are purposely kept from the knowledge of European children. Constant contact with Chinese, both in class-room and play-ground(2) must affect the formation of the character of the European boy; more especially as the average age of the European boy is much below that of the Chinese, and the younger are always apt to follow the older. It is a note- worthy fact that some of our most respected Chinese fellow-residents have recently started a school for their own children, because they do not think it desirable that they should be thrown into constant contact with the boys in the Queen's College. What is not desirable for Chinese boys in this respect is not desirable for Europeans; but the Europeans who have to send their children to the existing mixed schools, have not the wealth to enable them to imitate the Chinese in this matter of starting a school for themselves.

4

:

3. "Perhaps," said Mr. STEWART in his Report for 1870, "the greatest educational want in Hongkong is that of a school or schools for European and American children of both sexes.

The school need not be a free one. After the preliminary expenses of site and building, with which the Government might fairly charge itself, the fees would go far to make the school self-supporting Under whatever regulations it might ultimately be placed, such a school is very much wanted, and it is a matter of astonishment that parents have not long ago made a strenuous movement in this direction."(3) If the want existed in 1870, much more does it exist in 1901, when the number of European children has greatly increased. Efforts have been made to meet the want, notably in the case of the "Hongkong Public School," which was commenced in 1880. This school was started by an influential committee; it had the advantage of good

(1) A young English boy who goes to the Queen's College and is placed in a low class is compelled to sit idle under a Chinese assistant, who teaches his Chinese pupils, in the Chinese language. Could any plan be devised more calculated to render a boy listless and inattentive throughout the rest of his school course?

(2) A senior master in the Queen's College stated that he sent his son to be taught there, but always took good care to keep his son in his own room away from the Chinese boys during the mid-day recess. It is a noteworthy fact that the European masters in these mixed schools have, without exception, sent their own children elsewhere for education.

(3) "Dates and Events," p. 18.

33

school-rooms provided free of rent in St. Paul's College; but it failed. The chief reasons of its failure were as follows:-First, The Government Grant-in- aid being calculated for schools with large numbers of Chinese pupils and with Chinese teachers, was wholly inadequate to help a school with a smaller number of pupils and with European teachers: Secondly, The fees that could be charged were necessarily low. For these two reasons it was necessary to raise a large annual subscription in the Colony for the support of the school. Then, in the third place, it was a matter of very great difficulty for the managers, who of course had not the control of a large staff of teachers, as the Government has, to retain a teacher permanently at the school; the attractions of Government posts, and other causes, leading to frequent vacancies in the post of teacher. The same cases would operate now on any private endeavour. They simply confirm the fact, now well recognised at home, that for the effective carrying on of education the State must undertake the work. The Public School in Shanghai, with 230 pupils, of whom 80 per cent. are European, the rest being Eurasian and quarter- Eurasian, could not be carried on without an Annual Grant from the Municipal Government of Tls. 4,000 with certain special grants in addition. In Hongkong, as in Shanghai, low fees could be charged; but experience has proved that Mr. STEWART'S anticipation that such a school might be nearly supported by the fees was too sanguine; and in these days it is useless to argue that necessary education should be. provided by charitable contributions and not by the rates.

4. It has been urged against the proposal to found a school for Europeans only, at the cost of the rate-payers, that it would be "Class Legislation." As a matter of fact the present system is one "Class Legislation" in favour of the Chinese as against the Europeans. All the schools in Class I and Class II and almost all the schools in Class III are available for the Chinese only. The Government has just voted $9,000 to build a school in Yaumati, and that in spite of the fact that others wished to establish such a school, asking for nothing more than a Government Grant-in-aid. It is idle to say that that school and scores of other schools maintained or supported by Government are available for Chinese and Europeans alike. Even the schools in which English is taught, where they have Chinese teachers, and instruction carried on in the Chinese language, are no more available for Europeans for the purpose of education, than the sea is available for them as a place of residence. It is true that a large proportion of the rates is paid by the Chinese. It is equally true that no inconsiderable proportion is paid by Europeans. The Chinese are bountifully provided by the Government with an education such as they desire. The Europeans are not. We do not grudge the Chinese the advantages given to them: we only ask for similar advantages for Europeans. This Colony is a composite one. Both Europeans and Chinese are absolutely essential for its very existence. By all means let the Chinese have the advantage of a good education; but we cannot believe that it is wisdom or justice on the part of the Government to make it impossible for Europeans of small means to remain in the Colony unless they are prepared to forego a proper education for their children.

5. It does not fall within our province to enter into details as regards the character and management of such a school as is suggested; but there are certain points of importance, arising from the peculiar circumstances of Hong- kong to which we think it well to call your Excellency's attention."

(a.) In view of the fact that there are many Europeans in Hongkong who require something more than a Primary Education for their children, we think that a school for Europeans ought to combine both Primary and Secondary Education. The scale of fees might easily be adjusted in such a way, that those who desired a higher

403

404

34

education should pay higher fees. It must be remembered that the Queen's College provides the Chinese with more than a Primary Education.

(b) We consider that it should be possible for the children to obtain Christian teaching in the school. At present the only religion taught in the Government Schools is Confucianism! Europeans may justly claim that their children should have the opportunity of Christian teaching. Some arrangement such as exists in Board Schools in England, by which teaching in the Christian Scrip- tures should be given by the Ministers of various Denominations to the children of such parents as might wish for it, would in our opinion be essential.

(c.) In view of the manner in which the European population is scatter- ed, and the difficulty of locomotion, especially in the suminer, we consider that it would be necessary to make some arrangement for the boarding of some of the children. This is very largely done in Government Schools in India.

6. In conclusion, and on account of the foregoing considerations, we venture to appeal to your Excellency for the establishment of a school for Europeans only, where people of small means may be able to obtain a suitable education for their children. Whatever may be advanced in argument as a matter of theory, we do not believe that any European in the Colony, from your Excellency downwards, can really consider that the system of mixing a small number of European children with vast numbers of Asiatics in the same schools is really beneficial.

beneficial. As a matter of practical politics such a school as we have advocated is most urgently needed. We most earnestly hope, therefore, that your Excellency will be able to give a favourable response to our appeal.

J. C. VICTORIA. W. J. GASCOIGNE,

We have the honour to remain,

Sir,

Your Excellency's most obedient Servants,

Major-General,

Commanding in China & Ilongkong.

F. POWELL,

Commodore.

T. JACKSON.

J. J. KESWICK.

JOHN THURBURN.

H. A. RITCHIE.

F. H. MAY.

T. SERCOMBE SMITH.

C. P. CHATEK.

BASIL TAYLOR.

W. POATE.

H. E. TOMKINS.

ROBERT SHEWAN.

ARTHUR W. COLLARD, Colonel.

G. A. HUGHES, Lieut.-Colonel. THE O'GORMAN, Colonel.

JOHN A. MACKAY. HENRY W. SLADE.

R. L. RICHARDSON.

A. G. WOOD.

D. E. BROWN.

G. H. MEDHurst.

G. W. F. PLAYFAIR.

J. M. BEATTIE.

HONGKONG DAILY PRESS,

ALFRED CUNNingham,

D. MCNEILL.

H. SCHOENFelder.

D. CURRIE.

J. J. BELL IRVING.

A. C. MORE.

J. DICKIE.

J. RODGER.

J. CROMBIE.

THOS. BLAIR. THOS. H. REID.

A. W. LAVERTON.

T. PETRIE.

J. M. KINLAY.

Manager.

35

7

J. S. HAGEN.

J. McIVER.

WILLIAM DAVIES.

W. H. CLEASBY.

W. D. SUTTON.

ETH. F. SKERTCHLY. A. E. SIMPSON.

J. C. KERSHAW. J. ASSUMPÇÃO. H. A: BURKE.

PHILIP W. Sergeant. HERBERT PRICE.

J. W. POLLOCK.

W. BREWER & Co.

A. N. HUKE.

G. RICHARDSON. DUNCAN CLARK.

W. STUART HARRISON.

R. COOKE.

J. R. CRAIK.

G. SMITH.

W. WILSON.

W. F. FORD. W. NICHOLLS. N. C. JACK. THOMAS NEAVE. JAMES H. Cox. J. M. HENDErson. JAMES D. LOGAN. G. WHITE.

E. C. WILKS.

A. G. EWING. EDWARD OSBORNE. GEO. L. TOMLIN. WILLIAM HARTIGAN.

G. MONTAGU HARSTON.

F. O. STEDMAN.

H. P. WHITE.

W. PARFITT.

HENRY HUMPHREYS.

A. H. MANCELL.

V. A. CESAR HAWKINS, J. C. PETER.

H. W. ROBERTSON.

E. J. LIBEAUD. JAMES THOMPSON. J. M. R. TAYLOR. S. R. GRIEVE. S. J. GODWIN.

U. J. MAYSON.

}

T. E. RAYNER.

G. WALLACE COSTER.

E. H. GOOD,

Chaplain, H. M. Naval Yard.

W. BANISTER,

Secretary, Church Missionary Society.

F. T. JOHNSON,

Chaplain, St. John's Cathedral.

J. H. FRANCE,

Seamen's Chaplain, Missions to Seamen.

M. STEWART.

A. MACKIE.

H. G. BAKER. WM. L. FORD. J. D. HANSON.

D. MCDONALD. WM. ROBERTSON. D. D. CUTHBERT.

P. MCNAB. E. H. SHARp. VICTOR H. DEACON. ED. ROBINSON. JNO. J. FRANCIS. CLEMENT PALMER. F. B. L. BoWLEY. J. SCOTT HARSTON. H. F. R. BRAYNE. F. MAITLAND.

A. TURNER.

Enclosure No. 2.

A PETITION FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A HIGH SCHOOL FOR CHINESE.

SIR,

HONGKONG, 2nd March, 1901.

On behalf of an important and influential section of the Chinese Community we desire respectfully to draw the attention of His Excellency the Governor to the urgent need for a suitable English School for the education of the children-both boys and girls-of the upper classes of the Chinese resident,in this Colony.

405

*

;

406

36

2. The efforts of the Government have hitherto been directed almost exclu- sively to the spread of an elementary education among what may be called the lower and lower middle classes both Chinese and non-Chinese. But the higher and more thorough training of the children of the more well-to-do classes has never been provided for.

3. The Queen's College and the Belilios Public School are excellent Govern- ment institutions in their way, but the exceedingly large number of pupils attend- ing these schools and the paucity of English teachers, and the indiscriminate and intimate intermingling of children from families of the most various social and moral standing, render then absolutely undesirable as well as unsuitable for the sons and daughters of respectable Chinese families.

4. As Government Board Schools, the above institutions answer their purposes admirably, but, we submit that, in view of the large increase to the Chinese popu- lation of a higher social status and permanently residing in this Colony, it is time that some provision should be made for a secondary education for their children.

5. At present, Chinese, who wish to give their sons a good English education, have either to send them to England or the United States for a long period or to engage at great expense a private tutor, who after all may not be a trained teacher. In the first case the children are parted from their parents at a most impression - able age and incur a very great risk of finding themselves unable on their return to resume their proper position in the family'.

6. The want is now increasingly felt of a school at which such a thorough knowledge of English could be obtained as would enable boys to leave school at a suitable age, and on proceeding to England to at once enter on the special course of study prescribed for the profession which might have been selected for them by their parents.

7. The best interests of the family demand also that the liberal education of Chinese boys should be accompanied by a commensurate advance in the education of Chinese girls, and it is for this reason that the scheme which we now beg to submit to His Excellency's most favourable consideration makes equal provision for girls.

8. The expense entailed upon the Government by the adoption of the scheme may at first sight appear great, but we do not consider that it will be in any way out of proportion to the results which are to be looked for. It is at present a con- stant complaint that, having received an education in the Government Schools, the Chinese have failed to assimilate to any extent English sympathies and ideas, and are ever backward in responding to the call of public duties. But we are confident that thorough education on the lines which we now suggest will soon remove all cause for such complaint. Such an education will not only endow our young men and women with more open minds and greater public spirit, but will result in the more cordial co-operation of the British and Chinese nations and closer intercourse between them.

9. It is well said that "large outlay on education is, if wisely directed, far "from being necessarily open to the charge of extravagance. On the contrary, "an excellent system of public education is one of the best forms of national in- “vestment. In commercial and industrial efficiency, in a higher level of civic du ty, "and above all, in the wider diffusion of moral culture and religious feeling, the "nation is amply repaid for what it spends."

10. We beg to subjoin a scheme* which roughly represents our proposals. Should His Excellency deem them worthy of consideration, we shall be happy to

* Not printed.

:

37

discuss them more fully in a personal interview at any time that His Excellency may desire.

The Honourable

We have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servants,

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, C.M.G.,

Η ΚΑΙ.

WEI AYUK.

FUNG WA CHUN.

CHAN TUNG SHANG.

UEN LAI CHÜN.

Lò KUN TENG.

S. W. Tso. WEI ON.

Colonial Secretary.

Enclosure No. 3.

NOTES ON ENCLOSURE No. 1 BY THE INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.

With reference to the question whether such a school should be established by the Government of Hongkong, the following three points must be settled :-

A. Is there any inherent objection to such a school on the ground that, while supported by general taxation, it would be for the benefit

of one class only?

B. If justifiable in principle, is it necessary ?

C. If necessary, what kind of school should it be?

4. As I understand the matter, public funds may be devoted to any object that will add to the strength or wealth of the Colony: such objects are, the erect. tion of batteries and forts, public works, and the equipment of the rising genera- tion with knowledge and character enabling them to subserve the general welfare. Now, as to this last object, there is one section of the community perhaps of more vital importance than any other, and that is the members of the mechanical and engineering trades, the skilled British labour in the dockyards and manufac- tories, the engineers on local steamers and steam-tramways. They are the back- bone of the Colony in time of peace, and their professional knowledge would be a potent factor in its defence in war time. Many of them are already members of the Engineer and other Companies of the Volunteer Force.

I base my justification of such a school as is proposed principally on the good it would do the Colony, by strengthening this vitally important class. To justify its creation, such a school must shew itself an addition to the local and imperial armoury it is no question of granting a compassionate allowance to one section of the community, however deserving.

B.-There are in the Colony; according to the recent Census, 175 boys and 202 girls between the ages of 5 and 16. Few of these are children of the comparatively wealthy classes who can afford to live at the Peak. Most of them have parents of the professions above enumerated. To such parents there are three courses open.

407

1

408

38

*

Either they can send their children home to be educated; or they can avail them- selves of the existing schools; or they can let their children grow up with- out instruction. As regards the first alternative, it is simply out of the question on the score of expense in most cases, the expense not only of sending them home but of the maintenance of two establishments out of one income. But in the few cases where they can be so sent home, they are probably lost to the Colony it is at least as likely as not they will never return. The second alter- native before them is to send their children to Queen's College or some other of the local schools. Apart from the educational question, and speaking of the climate, there seems no particular reason why children should not grow up in Hongkong. And it is hard to exaggerate the value to the Colony and the Empire's Far- Eastern interests which there would be in a thoroughly acclimatised, technically trained, well educated nucleus of mechanicians and engineers, who having lost nothing of the natural characteristics added thereto a knowledge of the Chinese language (such as they could hardly fail to pick up) and a full understanding of Chinese methods of business. At present this dream is unrealisable in part. One of two characteristics must be absent: the education must go or the character must suffer, though probably the requisite education is not attainable by any exist- ing means.

The character must suffer. I have the greatest respect for the many good qualities of the Chinese, and feel that I can say without offence, that I should strongly object to send children of my own to attend a mixed school.

The Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Victoria, who was for 20 years (I believe) Head of a Chinese Missionary College in Ning Po, and should know, if anyone does, is a' signatory of the Petition, pará. 2 of which expresses my meaning very clearly.

So universally is this opinion held that the second alternative is in practice bardly an alternative at all. The children are brought up, or allowed to grow up, ignorant. Their sons will be more ignorant still. When we might have had a strong full-blooded British community born to the soil, to carry on our commerce against American, German, and French competition in the Far East, we are lay- ing up for ourselves an unlearned, unskilful, unpatriotic generation of "mean whites" to be the standing disgrace of the Colony.

C.-Assuming the school to be un objectionable and necessary, it remains to consider what its nature should be. The Petition asks for both Primary and Secondary Education. The necessity for the latter must be conceded if my view of the matter is a correct one, and it should be carefully arranged to suit the prac- tical requirements of the Colony.

What the cost to the Colony would be can hardly be estimated at present.

;

*

*

There would be considerable difficulty in finding a site.

Unless it develops

into a success, perhaps the Belilios Reformatory might be adapted to this use.

EDWARD A. IRVING, Inspector of Schools.

P.S.-I should add that I am in agreement with those points raised in the Petition to which I have not alluded except the matter of religious instruction. I hold that if this is given at all it should be before or after school hours.

No. 380.

SIR,

39

GOVERNOR TO SECRETARY OF STATE.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 24th September, 1991.-

I have the honour to forward a letter received from eight of the leading Chi- nese gentlemen of the Colony, praying that facilities might be afforded them for securing for the children of the better class Chinese a good English education, their reasons for desiring a special school being given. I deferred dealing with this until the general question was being considered, but remembering that the better classes of Chinese are quite as anxious as any European to preserve their children from contact with children of a lower class, intimate communication with whom would be prejudicial to their moral character, I sympathise with the desire of the writers, and hope to receive authority to meet their views as well as those of the European Petitioners for a separate school.

2. The question might present itself that the wealthy Chinese could them- selves engage the teachers; but I do not think that they could secure the same class of teachers and the same continuity that would result from the employment of teachers by the Government.

3. I entirely agree with the remarks of the Inspector of Schools, and, if we can secure the attendance of the children of the Chinese upper classes, many of whom will if the schools succeed come down from China, and some of whom will probably form part of the official class of the future, the consequences may be far- reaching and the benefit to this country may amply repay the small outlay that the scheme demands. If the school turns out a success the fees can be raised so as to cover all the expense, for the class for which the schools are intended is wealthy and can well afford to pay, I shall be glad to be authorized to enter upon this interesting experiment.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient, humble Servant,

The Right Honourable,

JOSEPH CHAMBERLAIN, M.P.,

$c..

&c.,

&c.

HENRY A. BLAKE, Governor.

HONGKONG.

No. 408.

SIR

SECRETARY OF STATE TO GOVERNOR.

DOWNING STREET,

6th December, 1901.

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch No. 343 of the 3rd September, enclosing a memorial from certain British inhabitants of Hongkong, asking that a Government School may be established for. European children; and of

your despatch No. 380 of the 24th September, enclosing a letter from certain. Chinese residents asking that a suitable English School may be established, with the assistance of Government, for the education of the boys and girls of the Chinese upper classes.

409

410

40

2. In view of your strong recommendation, and the arguments with which it is supported, I am prepared generally to approve of the adoption of both these proposals.

3. Before, however, any definite steps are taken towards the establishment of either school, I shall be glad to be furnished with further and fuller details of the initial and the annual cost of each school, so far as they can be forescen at present. 4. I think that it will be necessary for the Colonial Government to limit the amount of its building grant in the case of the proposed Chinese Higher School. I am very

doubtful whether Government could afford to contribute a sum equal· to or not much below $100,000, if so much were raised by private contributions.

5. You will doubtless also consider and report in due course how the estab- lishment of these two new schools will affect the Queen's College, and whether it will be possible to effect any reduction of the expenditure on the latter school.

6. I observe from the account of the system of education in Hongkong, which has been drawn up by Mr. IRVING for the Board of Education, that there is a school for sons of the troops in the Colony. If this is in any way controlled or supported by the military authorities, I presume that it will cease to exist on the opening of a Government School for European Children. I also assume that the British and American pupils at the Befilios Public School are likely to be trans- ferred to the new school.

7. It is of course understood that the new schools will be placed under the supervision of the Inspector of Schools.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient, humble Servant,

Governor

Sir HENRY A. BLAKE, G.C.M.G.,

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

J. CHAMBERLAIN.

Appendix B.

GOVERNMENT NOTIFICATION, No. 310.

NEW CODE OF REGULATIONS FOR EDUCATIONAL GRANTS-IN-AID.

1893.

Notice is hereby given to Managers of Schools that the New Code of Regula- tions for Educational Grants-in-Aid, as published below, has been approved by the Right Honourable the Secretary of State for the Colonies on the 27th of June last, to come into force six months after date of this Notification.

By Command,

G. T. M. O'BRIEN, Colonial Secretary.

Colonial Secretary's Office, Hongkong, 12th August, 1893.

41

LATION

NEW CODE OF REGULATIONS FOR EDUCATIONAL GRANTS-IN-AID.

1893.

411

For the better promotion of Education in the Colony, the Government of Hongkong is prepared to assist schools on the system of grants-in-aid, subject to the following conditions:-

that-

1. Before any grant can be made to a school, the Government must be satisfied

(a) The school is conducted as a public school.

(b) The school is not carried on with a view to private emolument but is under the direction of a manager personally deriving from it no pecu- niary advantage whatever.

(c) The school premises are healthy, well lighted, drained and ventilated, properly furnished, and contain sufficient internal space for the average attendance.

(d) The master is competent.

(e) The time devoted to instruction in the subjects of the standards is at

least four (not necessarily consecutive) hours daily.

(f) The admission and daily attendance of the scholars are carefully regis- tered by or under the supervision of the principal teacher and periodically verified by the manager; also proper discipline is maintained.

(g) The organisation is good, and the work conducted in accordance with a

proper time-table.

2. The Government will not interfere in any way with-

(a) The religious instruction of a school.

(b) The hours for such instruction.

(c) The appointment of a teacher, provided he is competent.

id) The school books, provided they are sufficient, as regards the instruction which they contain, for the purposes of the standards hereafter to be referred to.

(e) The style of handwriting, but a bold round hand is recommended for

European writing.

(f) The stipulations of this code, without six months' previous notice in the

Gazette.

3. Grants will be subject to a cumulative reduction of five per cent. on the whole sum gained by a school, in each case where the Inspector reports defects in

(a) The teaching.

(b) The accommodation.

(c) The keeping of the school roll.

(d) The organisation.

(e) The discipline.

(†) The books and apparatus.

Due regard in all these cases will be had to circumstances.

4. A school receiving a grant must be--

(a) Located where there is a sufficient population requiring a school, and not be removed elsewhere without previous approval of the Govern-

ment.

(b) Open at all times to Government inspection.

(c) Represented by a pecuniarily disinterested manager, from the paid

teacher who will periodically verify the school roll, conduct all corres- pondence with the Government, sign the receipt for the grant, and furnish all returns which the Government may require.

:

412

42

5. In the case of Chinese schools not under European supervision, the Inspect- or will be manager when necessary.

6. The Government will not bind itself to give grants to all schools claiming them under the foregoing conditions, but will be guided by the circumstances of each case, and by the amount of money at its disposal for educational purposes. In all cases where a grant is refused, the reasons for the refusal will be given.

7. The Government will reserve to itself the power to withdraw or reduce grants. In all cases, the reasons for the withdrawal or reduction will be given. All grants are subject to a reduction pro ratâ whenever the total sum otherwise payable exceeds the amount voted for the purpose.

8. One-fourth of the total grant made to a school will be handed to the paid teacher as a personal bonus. Paid assistant-teachers share in this payment in proportion to amount of salary received during the year. In the event of a change of paid teachers or assistant-teachers, each will receive his proportion of the sum thus due. If a paid teacher or assistant-teacher is dismissed, his share of the grant will go to the school.

9. A detailed account, with proper vouchers, of the total income and expen- diture of each school, must be furnished by the manager annually, in the form provided for that purpose.

10. Grants will be made for definite results in the subjects mentioned in the standards hereinafter referred to and no others.

11. These results will be ascertained at the annual examination of the school by the Inspector or by such assistant examiners as the Government may appoint.

12. Assistant examiners will be paid for their asssistance.

13. Schools eligible for grants-in-aid will be—

Class I.--Schools in which a Chinese education is given.

Class II.-Schools in which a European education is given in the Chinese

language.

Class III. Schools in which a European education is given in any European

language.

14. The basis of examination will be one hundred daily attendances of no less than four hours each at instruction in the subjects of the several standards, provided that the school shall have met not less than two hundred times in the course of the year.

15. Scholars who have satisfied the foregoing condition will be examined in accordance with the following standards and they may not be withheld from examination without a reasonable excuse. The results of the examination of each scholar will be communicated to the managers.

16. For Schools in Class I. (Schools in which a Chinese education is given.)

STANDARD I.

1. Reading. Two pages of the First Reader used in the school.

2. Repetition. Two pages of the same book.

3. Writing. From dictation, ten common characters in the First Dic-

tation Book used in the school.

4. Optional Subject (Arithmetic).—Notation up to 10,000.

Value of a pass in the ordinary subjects of this standard: three

dollars in Arithmetic: half a dollar.

STANDARD II.

1 Reading-A passage not exceeding fifty characters in the Second Rea-

der used in the school.

43

2. Repetition. A short paragraph of the First and Second Readers used

in the school.

3. Writing. From dictation, twenty consecutive characters in the Second

Dictation Book used in the school.

4. Optional Subject (Arithmetic).-Notation up to a million and simple

addition and subtraction.

Value of a pass in the ordinary subjects of this standard; four

dollars; in Arithmetic: seventy-five cents.

STANDARD III.

1. Reading. A passage not exceeding sixty characters in the Third

Reader used in the school.

2. Repetition. A short paragraph of the First, Second and Third Readers

used in the school.

3. Explanation.-The characters in the passage read.

4. Writing from dictation, forty consecutive characters in the Third Dic-

tation Book used in the school.

5. Optional Subject (Arithmetic).-Multiplication, in addition to the

arithmetic of the previous standard.

Value of a pass in the ordinary subjects of this standard: six

dollars; in Arithmetic: one dollar.

STANDARD IV.

1. Reading.-A passage not exceeding seventy characters in the Fourth

Reader used in the school.

2. Explanation.-Simple phrases in the passage read.

3. Writing. From memory, a passage not exceeding fifty characters in

the book used in the school for that purpose.

4. Composition. -Three antithetical couplets of not more than three

characters each (E).

5. Geography. The two hemispheres (general outlines).

6. Optional Subject (Arithmetic).-The simple rules.

Value of a pass in at least four of the ordinary subjects of this standard: seven dollars; in Arithmetic: one dollar and a half.

STANDARD V.

1. Repetition. A passage not exceeding eighty characters in the Fifth

Reader used in the school.

2. Explanation.-In writing, a passage not exceeding twenty characters

in the same book.

3. Writing. From mem ory, a passage not exceeding sixty characters in

the book used in the school for that purpose.

4. Composition.-Three antithetical couplets of not more than five char-

acter's each (五言對)

5. Geography. The Chinese Empire, in addition to the geography of the

previous standard.

6. Optional Subject (Arithmetic.)-Compound rules (Chinese money), in

addition to the arithmetic of the previous standards.

Value of a pass in at least four of the ordinary subjects of this

standard: eight dollars; in Arithmetic: two dollars.

STANDARD VI.

1. Repetition.-A passage not exceeding one hundred characters in the

Sixth Reader used in the school.

413

414

44

2. Explanation.-In writing, a passage not exceeding thirty characters in

the same book.

3. Writing. From memory, a passage not exceeding fifty characters in

the book used in the school for that

purpose.

4. Composition.-A simple letter ().

5. Geography. The Canton Province, in addition to the geography of

the previous standards.

6. Optional Subject (Arithmetic).-Reduction (Chinese Tables,) in addi-

tion to the arithmetic of the previous standards.

Value of a pass in at least four of the ordinary subjects of this standard: nine dollars; in Arithmetic: two dollars and a half.

STANDARD VII.

1.-Repetition. A passage not exceeding one hundred characters in the

Seventh Reader used in the school.

2. Explanation. In writing, a passage not exceeding fifty characters in

the same book.

3. Writing.-In colloquial or book style, a simple story read out twice by

the examiner.

4. Composition. In polite epistolary style, a letter (L).

5. Geography.-Drawing a map of any of the continents (the map to include the principal towns, rivers and mountains of the continent prescribed).

6. History. In colloquial or book style, answers to questions from the

History Book used in the school.

7. Optional Subject (Arithmetic).-Vulgar fractions, in addition to the

arithmetic of the previous standards.

Value of a pass in at least five of the ordinary subjects of this

standard: ten dollars; in Arithmetic: three dollars.

NOTE. In girls schools, repetition may be substituted for com- position in standard IV, and reading for composition in standard V.

17. For Schools in Class II. (Schools in which a European education is given in the Chinese language).

STANDARD I.

1. Reading and repeating.-Two pages of the First Reader used in the

school.

2. Writing. From dictation, ten common characters from the same book. 3. Arithmetic. Notation and numeration up to 10,000.

Value of a pass in this standard: four dollars.

STANDADRD II.

1. Reading and repeating.-A passage not exceeding fifty characters in

the First and Second Readers used in the school.

2. Writing. From dictation, twenty consecutive characters from the Second

Dictation Book used in the school.

3. Arithmetic. Notation and numeration up to one million, and simple

addition and subtraction.

Copy writing (Romanized only) will be taken in this standard, but it will not be counted if the scholar has not passed in two of the other subjects.

Value of a pass in this standard: six dollars.

“འཕ བ

7

45

STANDARD III.

1. Reading.-A passage not exceeding sixty characters in the Third Reader

used in the school, with explanation in colloquial Chinese.

2. Writing. From dictation, forty consecutive characters in the Third

Dictation Book used in the school.

3. Arithmetic.--The simple rules.

Copy writing (Romanized only) will be taken in this standard, but it will not be counted if the scholar has not passed in two of the other subjects.

Value of a pass in this standard: eight dollars.

STANDARD IV.

1. Reading. A passage not exceeding seventy characters in the Fourth Reader used in the school, with explanation in colloquial Chinese.

2. Writing. From dictation, fifty consecutive characters in the Fourth

Dictation Book used in the school.

3. Arithmetic.--Compound rules (Chinese money), in addition to the

arithmetic of the previous standards.

4. Geography. The two hemispheres (general outlines).

Copy writing (Romanized only) will be taken in this standard, but it will not be counted if the scholar has not passed in three of the other subjects.

Value of a pass in this standard: nine dollars.

STANDARD V.

1. Reading. A passage not exceeding eighty characters in the Fifth Reader used in the school, with explanation in colloquial Chinese.

2. Writing. From memory, a passage not exceeding fifty characters in

the book used in the school for that purpose.

3. Arithmetic.-Reduction (Chinese Tables) and simple proportion, in ad-

dition to the arithmetic of the previous standards.

4. Geography. The Chinese Empire, in addition to the geography of

the previous standard.

5. History. The History used in the school for this standard.

6. Optional Subject. - Physical Geography (atmosphere, rivers and winds). Copy writing (Romanized only) will be taken in this standard, but it will not be counted if the scholar has not passed in four of the other subjects.

Value of a pass in the ordinary subjects of this standard: ten dollars ;

in Physical Geography: one dollar.

STANDURD VI.

1. Reading.A passage not exceeding one hundred characters in the Sixth Reader used in the school, with explanation in colloquial Chinese. 2. Writing. From memory, writing (in Romanized character or collo- quial Chinese) the substance of a short story read out twice by the examiner.

3. Arithmetic.-Compound proportion and vulgar fractions, in addition

to the arithmetic of the previous standards.

4. Geography.-The Canton Province, in addition to the geography of the

previous standards.

5. History.-The History used in the school for this standard.

415

416

46

6. Optional Subject.-Physical Geography the oceans, currents and tides, in addition to the physical geography subjects of the previous standard). Value of a pass in at least four of the ordinary subjects of this standard :

eleven dollars; in Physical Geography: one dollar and a half.

STANDARD VII.

i

1. Reading. A passage not exceeding one hundred characters in the

Seventh Reader used in the school

2. Explanation.--In writing (Chinese characters) a paraphrase of a pas-

sage, not exceeding thirty characters, in the same book.

3. Composition. A simple letter () in Chinese characters (collo-

quial or book style).

4. Arithmetic-Reduction (of English money) and decimal fractions, in

addition to the arithmetic of the previous standards.

5. Geography.-Drawing from memory a map of any of the continents (the map to include the principal rivers, mountains and cities in the continent prescribed).

6. History.-The History used in the school for this standard.

7. Optional Subject.—Physical Geography (the earth, the moon, and the

planetary system).

Value of a pass in at least five of the ordinary subjects of this standard: twelve dollars; in Physical Geography: two dollars.

NOTE.-All the books used, and work submitted for examination purposes should be in the Chinese character, but in the cases of Copy writing, Arithmetic, Geography, History and Physical Geography, the Roma- nized system may be used.

18. For Schools in Class III. (Schools in which a European education is given in any European language.)

STANDARD I.

1. Reading.-Accurate pronunciation of each word in a passage not exceed-

ing five lines in the First Book used in the school.

2. Writing. A short sentence from the same book, slowly read once and

then dictated in single words.

3. Arithmetic. Notation and numeration up to 1,000. Simple addition

and subtraction of numbers of not more than three figures.

Copy writing will be taken in this standard, but it will not be if counted the scholar has not passed in two of the other subjects.

Value of a pass in this standard: six dollars.

STANDARD II.

1. Reading. Slow and distinct reading of a passage not exceeding ten

lines in the Second Book used in the school.

2. Writing.-A sentence from the same book slowly read once, and then

dictated in single words..

3. Arithmetic. Notation and numeration up to a million, and simple mul- tiplication and division, in addition to the arithmetic of the previous standard.

4. Geography.-Definitions.

Copy writing will be taken in this standard, but it will not be counted if the scholar has not passed in three of the other subjects.

Value of a pass in this standard: eight dollars.

.

:

r

· 47

STANDARD III.

1. Reading.--Clear and intelligible reading of a passage not exceeding

ten lines in the Third Book used in the school.

2. Writing.-Six lines of ordinary prose from the same book, slowly dic-

tated once by a few words at a time.

3. Arithmetic. Compound rules (English and Chinese money), in addi-

tion to the arithmetic of the previous standards.

4. Grammar.--Ability to distinguish the parts of speech in a short sentence

in the Reading Book.

5. Geography.-Orally: the two hemispheres (general outlines), in addition

to the geography of the previous standard.

Copy writing will be taken in this standard, but it will not be counted if the scholar has not passed in four of the other subjects.

Value of a pass in this standard: ten dollars.

STANDARD IV.

1. Reading.-Intelligent reading of a prose passage not exceeding fifteen

lines in the Fourth Book used in the school.

2. Writing.-Eight lines of ordinary prose from the same book slowly

dictated once by a few words at a time.

3. Arithmetic.-Vulgar fractions and reduction of the most ordinary weights and measures, in addition to the arithmetic of the previous standards.

4. Grammar.-Parsing (fully) a simple sentence from the Reading Book. 5. Geography.-Europe, in addition to the geography of the previous

standards.

Copy writing will be taken in this standard, but it will not be counted if the scholar has not passed in four of the other subjects.

Value of a pass in this standard: twelve dollars.

STANDARD V.

1. Reading-Fluent and intelligent reading of a short ordinary para-

graph chosen by the examiner from some com:non book.

2. Writing. From memory, the substance of a short story read out twice by the examiner. Writing, spelling and grammar will be

taken into account.

3. Arithmetic. Decimal fractions, simple proportion, simple interest

and practice in addition to the arithmetic of the previous standards. 4. Grammar.-Analysis and parsing of a simple sentence.

5. Geography.-Asia and Africa in addition to the geography of the

previous standards.

Copy writing will be taken in this standard, but it will not be counted if the scholar has not passed in four of the other subjects.

Value of a pass in this standard: fourteen dollars.

STANDARD VI.

1. Reading. To read with fluency and expression an ordinary piece of

prose or poetry chosen by the examiner.

2. Writing. A short theme or letter or easy paraphrase. Writing,

spelling and grammar will be taken into account.

3. Arithmetic. Compound proportion, compound interest, profit and loss and square root, in addition to the arithmetic of the previous standards.

417

418

48

4. Grammar,-Analysis and parsing of a complex sentence (prose or

poetry) chosen by the examiner.

5. Geography.-America and Oceania, and to draw from memory a map of any of these continents, the map to include the principal rivers, mountains and cities in the continent prescribed.

6. History. A period of the History used in the school.

Value of a pass in at least five of the subjects of this standard : sixteen dollars.

--་

AM

STANDARD VII.

1. Reading.-To read with intelligence (to be tested by questions), fluency and expression, a passage from a historical drama of Shakes- peare, chosen by the Manager.

2. Composition.-A theme. Idiom, grammar, spelling and handwriting

to be taken into account.

3. Arithmetic.-Cube root, averages, percentages, discount and stocks,

in addition to the arithmetic of the previous standards.

4. Grammar. Common prefixes, terminations and derivatives from

foreign languages.

5. Geography.-Commercial Geography of the British Colonies and Dependencies, and to draw from memory a map of any of the conti- nents of the eastern hemisphere..

6. Elementary Science.-Animal and plant life and distribution of plants,

animals and races of mankind.

7. History.-A period of the History used in the school, in addition to

the History of the previous standard.

Value of a pass in at least six of the subjects of this standard

eighteen dollars.

NOTE. The Arithmetic of girls schools need not include decimal frac-

tions, square or cube root, dicount or stocks.

19. In all cases where copy writing is taken, it may be tested by work to be done in the presence of the examiner, but anyhow, not less than twenty-six hours' work must be submitted for inspection.

20. Scholars who are presented under standards IV, V, VI or VII in schools of Class III may also be examined in the following special subjects, namely;-Latin, Greek, German, French, Algebra, Euclid, Mensuration, Trigonometry, Physical Geography, the Natural Sciences, Book-keeping, Drawing and Stenography, pro- vided the subjects are taught in such a way as to graduate the instruction to the different standards. But no scholar may be presented for examination in more than two special subjects in standard IV, three subjects in standards V or VI and four subjects in standard VII, and, as a rule, no scholar, after being examined in one special subject, may change it for another before passing in three stages of it.

Value of a pass, in each of such cases: one dollar in standard IV, two dollars in standard V, three dollars in standard VI, and four dollars in standard VII, in addition to the proper value of the respective standard.

21. Managers of schools, wishing to have scholars examined in any of the special subjects, will receive a graduated scheme for the subjects of their choice on application to the Inspector.

22. No grant will be made for any subject not specified in this code.

49

23. A capitation grant will be given for every scholar in average attendance, at the rate of one dollar a head in schools in Class III, seventy-five cents a head in schools in Class II and half a dollar a head in schools in Class I.

24. No scholar will be examined in a lower standard than that under which he has been previously presented, nor in the same standard unless he has failed to pass in two or more subjects.

25. Scholars learning a language which is not their mother tongue will have their intelligence tested by requiring them to explain in their own language the meaning of the passages read.

26. In girls schools one of the four hours for instruction in the subjects of the several standards may be assigned to Needlework which will have the following values:-fair, half a dollar; good, one dollar; very good, one dollar and a half.

27. Building Grants.

1. Aid is not granted to build new public schools unless the Government

is satisfied-

(a) That there is a sufficient population requiring a school in the vicinity. (b) That the school is likely to be inaintained in efficiency.

2. The grants made by the Government for building, enlarging, impro- ving, or fitting up public schools, are not to exceed one half of the actual cost.

3. The site, plans, estimates, specifications, title, and trust deed, must be

previously approved by His Excellency the Governor.

4. The extension of the area of existing school-rooms to receive more scholars, and the addition of teachers' dwellings to existing school- rooms, are treated pro tanto as new cases under clause 2.

5. The trustees (or other legal representatives) of the school must state by

a declaration of trust to be registered in the Land Office:--

(a) That the premises are to be used for educational purposes

and for no other purpose whatever.

(b) That the school is to be managed in accordance with the

principles of the grant-in-aid code.

(c) That the school and premises are to be open, at all reasona- ble times, to educational and sanitary inspection by the Government.

(d) That, if they should hereafter desire to release themselves from the foregoing obligations, they will, in such case, repay into the Colonial Treasury the whole amount of the build- ing grant.

6. The grant is paid on presentation of a certificate (with balance sheet annexed), by the Building and Managing Committees of the school, setting forth that the building and conveyance are completed and that the money in hand, will, when added to the grant, meet all claims and finally close the account.

28. All correspondence with the Government on subjects connected with this code must be sent through the Inspector of Schools for the time being.

Hongkong, 19th August, 1893.

E. J. EITEL, Ph. D.,

Inspector of Schools.

419

420

50

Application Schedule.

(To be filled up when application is made for a Grant-in-aid.)

!

1. What is the name of the School?

2. Is it a Public School? (a)

3. Is it a Bovs', or a Girls', or a Mixed School?

4. Where is it situated?

5. What are its Dimensions? (b)

6. What is the Average Attendance? (c)...

7. Is the School-work conducted by a Time Table? (√)

S. Is there a regularly kept School Roll? (e) ..

..

9. What Books are to be used under the several Standards? (ƒ;|

10. What are the School-hours?

11. What hours (four at least) are to be assigned to instruc-

tion in the subjects of the Standards?

12. What Holidays are given, and when?...............

13. What is the Manager's name and has he no pecuniary

interest in the school?

14. What is the paid Master's name?

15. How many years' experience as a teacher has he had? 16. What Assistants has he, and what are their names?

17. What is the salary of the paid Master, and that of each

of his Assistants?

18. What annual sum is derived from School-fees?...

19. What annual sum is derived from Donations and Sub-

scriptions?

··

20. Has the School any other, and what, means of support? 21. What are the various headings and amounts of Expendi-

ture?

22. Is there any, and what, Debt connected with the School?

Signature of Applicant.

Date of Application

(a) A Public School shall mean a school where education is given in the subjects of the standards, and where

no child is refused admittance on other than reasonable grounds.

Give the length, breadth and height of the room or rooms, with the extent of wall-space available for maps. The average attendance is the total number of attendances, marked in the roll within a certain period,

divided by the number of days the school has been taught during the same period.

(b)

(c)

(d)

Enclose a copy.

(e)

Enclose a specimen page.

Number.

(f) Forward a copy of each.

Examination Schedule.

(To be filled up and forwarded to the Inspector seven clear days before the day fixed for the

examination.)

Name of Scholar.

Age (on Inst Birthday.)

Dale of Admission to this School.

Year. Month.

Number of

In what class

Attendances of four hours

each at Instruction in the Year.

in School. (The First Class

means the

highest.) Commence-with

the lowest Class.

Under what Standard Last examined.

Under what Standard Now to be

examined.

Remarks.

1

Signature of Manager.

Date

I

91

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE, FOR THE YEAR 1901.

8 No. 1902

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

No. 10.

QUEEN'S COLLEGE, HONGKONG, 25th January, 1902.

SIR, I have the honour to present the Annual Report on Queen's College for the year 1901.

1. On the 22nd January, 1882, I first arrived in the Colony to assume the duties of Head Master. propose, therefore, briefly to compare the conditions existing twenty years ago and now:

2.

Statistics.

1901.

1881.

Total No. on the Roll,

1,483

562

Average Daily Attendance,

894

386

Monthly Maximum,

1,154

451

Daily Maximum,

1,129

School Fees....

$28,424.00

Expense to the Government,

$15,475.04

Average Expense of each Scholar,

$17.31

$4,051.00 $10,550.15 $27.35

Thus at the present time we have twice and a half as many boys as twenty years ago; fees seven times the amount; total net annual expense to Government one and a half times, while the cost of cach individual scholar is nearly two-thirds of the figures in 1882.

3. I arrived at a time when the work at the Central School had been publicly called in question, and my opinion, as a stranger, was desired. At the Prize Distribution, after conducting the examina- tion, I was able truthfully to say to Sir JOHN POPE HENNESSY that I was surprised at the success of Chinese boys in coping with the difficulties of the English language; and I may add that this im- pression has not faded, but, on the contrary, has been confirmed with increased experience. That a Chinese boy should in five years advance from the study of the Alphabet to an intelligent acquaintance with a play of Shakespeare and a period of English History is to me little short of the miraculous; when due allowance is made for the novelty of the simplest ideas, which are conveyed in idioms, without parallel in his own language.

4. The chief points of contrast between the Examination held by me in 1882 (which naturally is indelibly printed on my brain) and the Examination just concluded, are as follows. The papers now are nearly all clean and remarkably well written; whereas twenty years ago these were the exception, the majority of papers being dirty and almost illegible. The standard now applied is infinitely severer; in 1882 the action of the gauge was very delicate and sympathetic; e.g., if from a hopeless translation, you could decipher that the boy had a fairly correct idea of the original, he was allowed to pass; in Composition, three sentences grammatically correct constituted the test of a pass, irrespective of subject matter; in Arithmetic, there was an allowance for method, which was supposed to condone for a wrong digit in even a total or product; beyond all this, a personal element was in- troduced into the equation in the case of delicate or weak-minded boys, or of boys whose attendances had been affected by sickness or other cause. I objected to anything but a rigid uniform standard being applied to all alike; and maintained that, in mathematical subjects except for some slight cleri- cal error, no leniency could be shown. The severer standard was gradually adopted, to avoid pressing too heavily at first.

5. A further proof of the increase of standard is to be found in the larger proportion of boys examined in certain subjects. Every boy is now examined in Reading, as against three-quarters of the school. All the Chinese are examined in Translations, whereas in 1882 twenty per cent. did not offer these subjects. More than half the boys are now examined in English Composition, as against less than one-quarter in 1882; in Grammar 85° as compared with 46%, and in Geography 69% with 39% The full significance of the difference will be more apparent when it is understood that 781 boys were in 1902 examined in English Grammar as against 170 in 1882, On the other hand, twenty years ago. Copy Writing was accepted for more than three-quarters of the whole school as a subject which might assist in averting failure; this concession is now made to only one-seventh, Several subjects now forming part of the curriculum were not taught in 1881-Shakespeare, Algebra, Euclid, Mensuration, Book-keeping, Natural Science, and Physiology. One outcome of this general

سامر

92

raising of the standard of education in Queen's College has been that for the last twelve years, through entering for the Oxford Local Examinations, our boys have, with varying success, been able to submit to a test of their English attainments by English Examiners in England.

6. I feel confident that this brief historical review will not be misconstrued into an expression of satisfaction with either the progress made or the standard attained in so long a perio l as twenty years. My desire is merely to place on record a statement of the fact that some alvance, however inadequate, has been made in that time. No one can be more eager or ambitious than myself to see the standard of work at Queen's College raised immeasurably higher; but I may perhaps be permitted to say that nobody knows better the inherent difficulties in the way. The formation of an Advanced Class above and beyond the First Class has long been a cherished scheme of mine. Unfortunately, however, less than half a dozen boys remain in the College at the beginning of the new school year. who would be fit to proceed to higher work; and of these we should have no assurance whatever that any would remain so long as even six months, whereas two years would be the least possible time, in which any result could be hoped to be effected; and in saying this I refer to both non-Chinese and Chinese alike. Of circumstances not under our control, it is to be noted that so long as Plague recurs annually in the Colony education must suffer.

7. The present most crying educational neels of Queen's College would appear to be:—

(a.) the maintenance of the full strength of the English staff, vacancies being supplied as

expeditiously as possible;

(b.) more efficient training of Junior Chines. Assistants by the appointment of a Normal

Master, who, for a small extra salary (like that of the Head Master of the Police School), should devote, in addition to his ordinary class duties, six hours a week to the careful instruction of Pupil Teachers;

(e.) the restoration of Native Chinese School for the boys in the Lower and Preparatory

Schools;

(d) the erection, or enlargement, of schools at Wantsai and Suiyingpun under English Masters, to act as feeders to Queen's College, the curriculum of which place would have to be carefully followed, that boys might on admission be fit for the Upper School or for Class IV at the lowest.

8. I returned to the Colony after eighteen months' leave and resumed duties on 1st November, 1901. Mr. A. J. MAY (Second Master) had been Acting Head Master during my absence, evidently devoting himself most energetically to foster the welfare of the College. I may especially mention that it was due to his judicious arrangements, that increased accommodation was provided at the beginning of the year, and that considerable improvement was secured in the results at the Annual and Oxford Local Examinations.

9. I found on my return three English and two Chinese Masters, all energetic and capable men, re- moved from the staff: Mr. MACHELL by death, Mr. BARLOW by retirement on pension, Mr. WoonCOCK by transference to the Sanitary Board, Mr. PUN YUN FONG by resignation, and Mr. Ün K'am Wa on loan to the Supreme Court. If to these losses, we add the absence for four years as Acting Deputy Registrar, of Mr. JONES, the resignation of Mr. CHIU CH-TSUNG and Mr. LUK KING-FO, and the transfer to the Supreme Court of Mr. WoxG Kwok U, which took place a couple of years ago, we find that we have lost 4 Senior English and 5 Senior Chinese Masters.

10. A year was occupied in filling the vacancy caused by Mr. MACHELL'S retirement and subse- quent death, Mr. W. R. SEYMOUR of London University, who promises to be a useful addition to the staff, arriving in June last. There are still two vacancies caused in July and October, which we anxiously long to hear are suitably filled. It must be remembered that six English masters were considered the minimum number necessary for the 400 boys at the Central School; it is therefore evid- ent that for 1,000 boys per month (and often per day) ten English masters are far indeed from an ex- travagant demand.

11. With only half the English staff present, and with Junior Chinese Assistants rapidly promoted to fill the vacancies caused by five changes in the Senior Chinese staff, while all the Chinese Assistants were temporarily raised three plices to supply the vacancies on the English staff-it is manifest that Mr. MAY had serious difficulties to cope with in securing the efficient working of the College, and that great credit is due to him and the English and Chinese masters for the considerable success gained.

12. The Governing Body instructed me to examine the Upper School this year, in addition to the Lower and Preparatory Schools, which by standing order are annually examined by the Head Master. Unfortunately at the beginning of the Oral Examination, I was absent for several days through indisposition. As no time could be spared, I was obliged to authorize Mr. MAY to examine Classes V-VIII in Reading, Classes V and VI in Conversation, and Class VII orally in Grammar. With these exceptions, and the omission of the Translation Papers from English into Chinese, which were as usual entrusted for marking to the Second Master, I have personally conducted the entire Examination of the 910 boys present..

CLASS.

13. The following summary shows the result of the Examination in the various sections and the College generally :--

Upper

School

.269 boys examined

Lower

362

,、

Preparatory

279

19

College

.910

}:

238 boys or 89% passel

..332 ...271

"

92

19

98

19

.841

92

""

""

The usual table of Percentage of Passes in each class and subject is here given

QUEEN'S COLLEGE.

HONGKONG.

ANNUAL EXAMINATION, 1901.

Total Number examined.

Total Number

passed.

Percentage of total Passes.

Chin, to Eng.

Eng. to Chin.

Reading.

Conversation.

Dictation.

Arithmetic.

Grammar.

Geography.

Composition.

History.

Algebra.

Euclid.

Shakespeare.

Book-keeping.

General Intelli-

gence.

Mensuration.

Physiology.

Science.

Map.

Upper School.

97 81

85

93 96

IA..... 8

B.,.. 13 11 85 100 54 100 62 31 IIA.,... 32 31 B., 20 17 IIIA..... 59 55 B.,... 54 42 C.,... 32

31 N 1.... 10

7 88 100 100 88 50 38 75 100 38 25

75 88 88 63 50

50

38

69 92

15

23

83

23 46

54

23

8

97 100 84

91

84

94

91

91 84 88 81

72

70

95 95

70

50

80

55

60

85 45 90 40

50

98 100 80 90

56

86

78

92 93

93

100

4.

19 15 79

95

78 89 91 100 41 76 97 100 100 100 63 97 63 97 7 ΤΟ

100 80 70 70 60 2. 10 10 100

100 70 40 50 50 3.... 12 12 100

50 100 67

92 84 100 75 75 84 79 42 74 58 69

20 57

22 46

43

81

78

84 97

88

20 80

80

40

50

80

50 90

20 100 100

70 30

100 100

53

:

:

Lower School.

}

IVA..... 56 ! 51

91

91

B.,... 59 49 83 C.,... 32 28

69

95 100 39 33 68 52 53 71 95 98 32 82 87 100 100 47 91

31

56 50 83

34

47

44 50

V

VA.,... 31

28

87 100 97

74 64

35

32 19 87

B.,.

32 30 94 93 90 84

88 91

56

72 56 94

C.,... 31 VIA..... 51 B.,... 31 C... 36

30 97 100 97

100

87 100

32

81

64 100

51 100 98 98 94 92 98

29 85 97 100

36 100 100 100

100

258

55

94

84

97 77 91

24 68

65

94 97 69 100 100

::

:

:

:: 800

Preparatory School.

VIIA..... 51 50 98 100 94 84

B.,... 33 33 100 100 94

94

98 88 92 100 100 100

C.,... 27

27 100 100 83

96

100 93 81

D., 34

34 100 100 97 VIIIA.,...] 61 61 100 100 98

B.,... 42

41 98 90 94 71 C., 31

88

97 91

91

90

100 100

100

8 Writing.

93 88

25 | 81 82 52 84

55 61

94

There is a

14. On the whole, this is the best Examination within my memory for many years. manifest improvement in the non-Chinese sections. The excellence of the English Composition in the Chinese Classes IIA-IVC inclusive was, in my opinion, the chief feature of the Examination. English Grammar and History were subjects specially good in all classes.

In the Upper School, Arithmetic, Algebra and Euclid were good; Book-keeping in IIA very good; In IAB, N1.2 Geography was weak, and in IAB Dictation and Composition poor.

In the Lower School, with the exception of Arithmetic, which was very weak, all the subjects were much above the average.

The Preparatory School maintained its usual high level.

I shall provide the Governing Body with a separate Report with fuller particulars.

15. The results at the Oxford Local Examinations held at this centre were most encouraging, the number of certificates obtained last July by boys of this College being far in excess of previous successes for many years, there being 4 Senior, 3 Junior, and 9 Preliminary.

79

66

47

48

78

45

57

815

26

25

:

93

9+

16. Two years ago, the Honourable the Colonial Secretary, in his address at the Prize Distribu- tion in this ball, expressed a hope that a Gymnasium might be provided for the use of our boys. The matter has been under the consideration of the Government and plans were submitted some months ago by the Honourable the Director of Public Works. The issue is awaited with interest.

17. The playground accommodation originally intended for 700 boys is naturally barely suffi- cient for 1,000. It has been suggested that a triangular piece of waste ground to the south-west of the College might be given for this purpose by the Governinent. The cost of levelling and enclosing would not appear to be a very serious consideration. It might, however, be more advantageous to erect the Gymnasium on this site, instead of encroaching on the lower playground.

18. The usual Tables of Expenditure and Attendances are appended.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

GEO. H. BATESON WRIGHT, D.D. Oxon.,

Honourable J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, C.M.G.,

Colonial Secretary.

January,

February,

March,..

April,

May,

June,

July,

August,

September,

October,

November,

December,

1901.

QUEEN'S COLLEGE.

Head Master.

Number

Number

Month.

of Scholars.

of Attendance.

Number of

School Days.

Average Daily Attendance.

Remarks.

989

23,646

25

946

946

6,428

918

1,147

18,613

17

1,095

1,154

18,089

17

1,064

1,108

23,513

24

980

801

13,941

24

581

S

828

16,013

23

696

791

5,284

7

755

1,048

15,852

16

991

1,041

25,797

27

955

1,011

22,105

25

881

970

20,772

23

903

Total,.

210,053

235

Total Number of ATTENDANCES during 1901,

.210,053

Number of SCHOOL DAYS during 1901,

235

Average DAILY ATTENDANCE during 1901,

894

1,483

Total Number of SCHOLARS at this School during 1901,

AVERAGE EXPENSE OF EACH SCHOLAR AT QUEEN'S COLLEGE DURING 1901.

Expenditure,--

Cash Book,

Do.. Exchange Compensation,.

Crown Agents,

Do.,

Deduct,-

School Fees, Refunds,

Adjustment of Exchange,

Total Expense of College,

Average Expense of each Scholar,--

Per Number on Roll, .... Per Average Daily Attendance,

$32,153.74

5,209.75

3,339.83

3,441.37

$44,144.69

$28,424.00

245.65

$28,669.65

$15,475.04

$10.43 17.31

GEO. II. BATESon Wright, d.d. Oxon«,

Head Master.

:

50-7.10.02.

HONGKONG.

MEMORANDUM ON THE DRAFT ESTIMATES FOR 1903.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

835

47

No. 1902

D

GOVERNOR AND LEGISLATURE.

The only item calling for remark is the special vote for new furniture for Mountain Lodge, the Governor's new Peak residence. The vote will, of course, be

non-recurrent.

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE.

Assistant Porter.-The small additional expense entailed by this extra appoint- ment is recommended.

Mail Messenger.-Correspondence between Government Offices and Tái P'ó was formerly carried by coolies who carried provisions. This system proved un- satisfactory and the appointment of a Mail Messenger is recommended.

Three Messengers-Increase of Salary.-Rendered necessary by the fact that the service of Messengers could not be retained for less.

Water Coolie. -Increase due to the same cause.

TREASURY.

1 8 6

(1.) Eighth Clerk.-Departmental promotions consequent on the promotion of the 5th Clerk to the C. S. O. (sanctioned in C. O. D. ) necessitated the engage- ment of a new Clerk as 8th Clerk. The Treasurer recommended that the initial salary of this Clerk should be $480.

(2.) Two Temporary Clerks. These Clerks have been employed since 1901 in connection with the collection of revenue from the New Territory. They were previously paid out of the vote "Miscellaneous Services: Expenses of the New Territory."

(3.) Printing Coolie.-The increase of $1 monthly is justified by the increase of work and the state of the labour market. The increase was made in March, 1902, and has during this year been paid out of the unexpended balance on Trea- sury votes.

POST OFFICE.

344 1902

(1.) Swatow: Assistant.-Recommended in 0. A. G.'s despatch No. 4 for salary of $360 per annum: but it is now found that $240 rising by increments to $360 will be sufficient. The officer will earn his first increment next year.

246

(2.) Hankow: 2 Postmen.-By a clerical slip the salary of $48 per annum was mentioned in the O. A. G.'s despatch No. (approved in C.O.D. 12), instead of $96, which is the salary attaching to the post.

REGISTRAR GENERAL'S DEPARTMENT.

only passed as 2nd class Trans-

(1.) Translator.--Mr. LI KIN CHING has lator, salary $960 to $1,200 by $60 biennially. It rests with him to qualify as 1st class Translator and so become entitled to the full salary of the post. This he will probably do in 1903.

;

836

2

(2.) Emigration Clerk.-A new post rendered necessary by the coming into force of the Chinese Emigration (Amendment) Ordinance, No. 37 of 1901. See Governor's despatch No.

02.

OBSERVATORY.

The vote for "Laboratory Expenses" has been reduced by $200, as the in- creased cost of printing the Meteorological Register necessitates the addition of that sum to the vote for "Printing of Observations."

BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT.

(1.) One Foreman, Mountain Lodge.-Required to supervise the carrying out the improvement referred to in note (4) infra.

(2.) Other Charges.-To Superintendent in lieu of Vegetables. The allowance was personal to Mr. FORD, and therefore lapses on his resignation.

(3.) Economic Garden, New Territory.-This garden does not exist, having proved a failure. The item is, therefore, deleted from the estimates of the depart- ment, and $1,800 of the vote transferred to--

(4.) Laying out Mountain Lodge Grounds to provide for deepening and altering the course of a stream through the ground, turfing, manure for shrubberies, dig- ging shrubberies, Japanese soil, and other improvements, which the Acting Superin- tendent of the Botanical and Afforestation Department reports to be necessary.

JUDICIAL AND LEGAL DEPARTMENTS.

(1.) Supreme Court. 5 Messengers.-The $12 deducted from the salaries of the Supreme Court Messengers has been added to the salary of the Messenger attached to the Land Registry Office.

(2.) Land Registry Office. (a.) Clerk and Translator.-On the resignation of Mr. CHENG MUNG TONG, this post was made that of a 2nd class Translator with a salary of $960 rising to $1,200, and Mr. IM YAT WING was appointed with an initial salary of $720 a year on the understanding that if he passes a successful examination under the Interpretation Scheme he will be permanently appointed and his salary raised to $960.

(b.) Temporary Messenger.—The Acting Land Officer reports that the exist- ence of only one Messenger had often caused inconvenience and delay. If necessary two Messengers will be appointed in 1904..

(3.) Attorney General. Books.—The Attorney General has reported that bis office is practically without any books of reference, and the gradual accumulation of a reference library is a necessity.

LAND COURT-NEW TERRITORY.

Additional Registrar.-It was found necessary to add this officer (a Passed Cadet Mr. WOLFE) in November, 1901, in consequence of the heavy work in the Land Court. The allowance is in addition to his Cadet's pay and has hitherto been defrayed out of lapsing salaries in the Department.

First Clerk, Tái P6 Branch.-This Clerk is employed in the Branch Registry at Tái P'ó. He was appointed in December, 1900, and has hitherto been paid partly out of the vote "Temporary Clerical Assistance" and partly from lapsing salaries.

Claims Room Clerk.—Rendered necessary, and recommended, for work entailed by opening of a Branch Office for registration of claims in a fresh district.

Two Clerks, Tái Pó Branch.-Required to cope with the results of the season's field-work.

3

*

6 Demarcators and 30 Coolies. This reduction is occasioned by the progress made in demarcation work.

Instead of 49 Demarcators and 140 Coolies.

EDUCATION.

jubinna

(..) Inspector of Schools. (a.) Second Assistant, Saiyingpun School,.............(b.) Second Assistant, Wantsai School.--In March, 1902, the demand for admission into the Salyingpun and Wantsai Schools was so great that a temporary Master was engaged for each school to cope with the increase of work. The expense was met by charging an extra fee of 50 cents a month on all new pupils. If necessary, permanent appointments will be made in 1904.

(c.) Chinese Teacher, Aplichan School. The landlord of the house rented by Government for a Vernacular District School at Aplichau declined, in February, 1902, to continue the lease and the school was accordingly closed. A new school embodying the ideas of the Educational Committee can, if necessary, be opened there later.

(d.) Kowloon British School. (1) Second Mistress.-The numbers and great differences in the ages of the children attending the school render the employment of a special Mistress for the infant classes necessary. Sir W. GASCOIGNE authorised the appointment of Miss CALCUTT, in March, 1902, on the understanding that it should be from month to month only and that the salary would be fixed at $50 a month with free quarters at the school but without exchange compensation. During 1902 the salary has been paid out of savings on the Belilios Reformatory establishment.

(2.) one Coolie at

(4.) Furniture

.$ 84) ...$ 96 $275 .$100

$200)

3.) one Messenger at

......

(5.) Books

(6.) Incidentals

Expenses necessitated by the opening of the Kowloon British School. The ex- penditure during 1902 has been cover- ed by vote of $550 approved by Leg- islative Council on the 4th June, 1902. three vacancies in the staff of Assistant Appointments when made will be on a

(2.) Queen's College.-There are Masters which have not yet been filled. sterling salary; but pending instructions the dollar salary has been retained.

Inspector of Schools. (1) Other Charges. Rent of Government School and Offices.-Owing to the increased accommodation required by the Sanitary Depart- ment, it was necessary to shift the office of the Inspector of Schools to Glenealy where quarters were rented.

1902.

(2.) Chinese High School, etc.-Generally approved in C.O.D.

408 The Director of Public Works and the Acting Inspector of Schools are conferring with Dr. Ho KAI and the other signatories of the petition of the 2nd March, 1901, (forwarded in Governor's despatch) as to the acquisition of a suitable site. The sum of $20,000 is inserted in next year's Estimates provisonally pending the result of detailed inquiry into the cost which the Government is likely to incur in connection with an improved system of Education.

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT.

Temporary Clerk.-The Principal Civil Medical Officer has represented that extra clerical assistance will be required in the Office of the Accountant and Store- keeper owing to the opening of the Victoria Hospital for Women and Children. The appointment of a Temporary Clerk is recommended.

European Matron. -The Committee which enquired into the salaries of sub- ordinate Government employees in 1900 recommended the Matron for this in-

crease.

6 Nurses and 2 Amahs.-One Amah is added because it will still be necessary to have a women's ward in the Government Civil Hospital, as some cases cannot be sent to the Victoria Hospitals. At present there is only one Amah on day duty the 2nd Amah is required for night duty.

837

838

4.

Laboratory Attendant; Tailor.-Increase of salary in these cases is recom- mended because the Principal Civil Medical Officer reports that these men are very good servants, thoroughly conversant with their work, and unless they receive this small increase the Government will lose their services.

Amah, Maternity Hospital.—An additional Amah required for night work.

Rent of Temporary Quarters.-The Government Nursing Institute having been abolished owing to the decision of the Government to dispense with the services of the Private Nursing Sisters, the expenses in connection with "Stowford," formerly the institute and now occupied by the Nursing Sisters and Probationers, have been transferred to the Civil Hospital vote.

Victoria Hospital for Women and Children.-Provision of expenditure sanc- tioned generally in C. O. D. 262

1902*

BACTERIOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT.

This is a new Department, presided over by a medical officer specially trained in bacteriology. Dr. HUNTER'S work is that of a specialist, and it would be inconve- nient both for himself and the Medical Department if he were not placed in direct relation with the Government. As authority has not yet been obtained for the creation of a staff, provision has been made in the Estimates for certain temporary appointments which, if necessary, can be made permanent in 190. They include a Laboratory Assistant, two Bacteriological Assistants, a Laboratory Attendant, and an office coolie. Dr. HUNTER reports that the most useful Laboratory Assistant for his purpose would be a qualified student of the Hongkong College of Medicine, to be paid at the rate of $100 rising to $150 a month. His duties will consist in the preparation of Danyz's virus and other sera, and he will be expected to assist generally in the conduct of the Laboratory. The Laboratory Attendant will be a Chinese boy at $15 a month, and he will be required to keep the apparatus clean and in order. The office coolie, at $7 a month, will keep the office clean and distribute messages.

The two Bacteriological Assistants will, like the Laboratory Assistant, be licentiates of the Chinese College of Medicine and will draw the same pay. It is hoped that next year it will not be necessary to secure the services of Japanese doctors for bacteriological work, as was done this year, if these two appointments are sanctioned. Dr. HUNTER states that unless these appointments are made it will be impossible to carry out some of the important measures proposed by Professor SIMPSON with regard to plague. Meanwhile, the engagement of two fully qualified Chinese licentiates, to whom, if the Secretary of State approves, these appointments will be offered, has been provisionally authorised, and they will join the temporary staff (paid this year as plague expenditure by the Sanitary Board) as soon as the engagement with the Japanese doctors is terminated.

A considerable portion of the estimated expenditure of this new Department is due to transfers from other Departments, and is therefore counterbalanced by corresponding reductions in other departmental estimates. The maintenance of the Public Mortuary and the Vaccine Institute has hitherto been paid for by the Medical Department, and the coolie and messenger provided for under the former of these two heads were formerly paid out of the plague vote. Much of the work done at the Mortuary is necessarily of a bacteriological nature, especially since ar- rangements have been made for examining rats, a work which will probably have to be carried on for some years to come. It is also understood, as regards the Vaccine Institute, that the Government Bacteriologist should undertake the production of vaccine lymph. The Institute is therefore appropriately placed under his charge.

In connection with the "Other Charges," Dr. HUNTER estimates that a sum of not less than $3,000 will be required to carry out Professor SIMPSON's scheme of the wholesale distribution of Danyz's virus for the destruction of rats; that $500 will be required for the preparation of protective plague vaccine (Haffkinisa-

I

5

tion), and a like sum for curative plague sera; the purchase of animals, including horses, he estimates at $1,000; a sum of $500 will be necessary to purchase certain additional apparatus for the preparation of virus, vaccines and sera, owing to the fact that Dr. HUNTER was not informed, until two or three days before leaving England, that he would be expected to make these preparations on a large scale, and he had at that time ordered all the apparatus which he had considered sufficient. These various sums, therefore, have been inserted in the draft Estimates.

(1.) Office Furniture, etc. 2.) Cost of Witnesses, etc.

MAGISTRACY,

Previous votes insufficient. -

The increase of $300 under these heads combined is balanced by expunging the vote for Post Mortem Examinations, etc., which has not been drawn upon at all for several years past.

SANITARY DEPARTMENT.

(1.) Sanitary Commissioner. (a.) Allowance for House-rent. (b.) Conveyance Allowance. These items have been inserted provisionally. Should a Sanitary Commissioner be appointed he would, unless granted these allowances, be much worse off than the Principal Civil Medical Officer, who has free quarters.

(2.) Five Senior Inspectors of Nuisances.-The increment drawn by these officers as shown in the 1902 Estimates is triennial: but in their agreements an annual increment was granted by the Secretary of State.

(3.) 1st class Inspectors: 3rd class Inspectors: Foreman of Street Cleansers: Interpreter, Veterinary Staff: Watchman, Slaughter House, Kowloon.-The increment of $60 a year in the case of all these officers was sanctioned as from the 1st January, 1901, after the Estimates for 1902 had been drafted. Hence the 1902 Estimates do not show the first increment as they should do, and the 1903 Estimates show two increments.

(4.) Foreman, Disinfecting Staff.-The increase of salary was granted for the reason that the Foreman could not be retained at $30 a month.

MISCELLANEOUS SERVICES.

(1.) Loss in Exchange on Family Remittances.-Mr. DYER BALL is the only beneficiary and he is on leave in England.

(2.) Bungalows Committee, for Caretakers.- A mistake in this year's Estimates: the Caretaker's wage is $8 a month.

(3.) Interest.-Increase is chiefly due to the augmentation of the Widows and Orphans' Pension Fund (section 5 of Ordinance 15 of 1900).

(4.) College of Medicine for Chinese. Of the sum of $5,000 voted for the current year, half is for the Government Dispensary at Wantsai. A sum of $2,500 has therefore been transferred to the Estimates of the Medical Department. (5.) Expenses of the New Territory.-Transferred to other votes, thus:-

Land Court, New Territory.

4 Rent Roll Clerks at $300 each

.$1,200

Police Department.

2 Telephone Clerks at Ts'imshátsui Police Station at

$40 each =

816

Treasury.

2 Temporary Clerks at $312 each

Assessor's Office.

Numbering Houses (Other Charges)

624

2,000

$4,640

839

840

6

The balance of $5,360 is not required, and there is therefore a reduction in this vote.

(6.) Plague Expenses.--Inserted in Sanitary Board Estimates.

(7.) Grant-in-Aid of Band of Regiment.—The Hongkong Regiment has been disbanded.

(8.) Exchange Compensation.-Appears under the various votes for personal emoluments.

(9.) Maintenance of Quarters at the Peak Hospital for Nurses belonging to the Nursing Association. This vote was approved by the Secretary of State in C.O.D. roz provided that financial considerations allowed of its inclusion.

MILITARY EXPENDITURE.

(1.) Contribution to Imperial Government.-The increase is due to estimated increase in the Colonial Revenue.

(2.) Orderly Room Clerk.-Printed in italics for the reason that the experi- ment of appointing a Chinaman to the post temporarily and on probation is being tried.

PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT.

Telegraphs Workmen.-The increases to these 4 Workmen were sanctioned in October of 1901 owing to the fact that the men resigned and it would have been impossible to replace them on less salaries. The increases have hitherto been paid out of the vote "Maintenance of Telegraphs."

PUBLIC WORKS RECURRENT.

(1.) Maintenance of Buildings. It has been found necessary to largely sup- plement the amounts appearing in the Estimates for 1901 and 1902, and the cost of work appears to be steadily increasing. Hence the reason for the large increase shown.

(2.) Maintenance of Buildings in New Territory.-The same remarks apply to this. Some of the old buildings taken over from the Chinese Customs have been found very expensive to keep in order, and the number of new buildings is in- creasing.

·

(4.) Maintenance of Telegraph in New Territory. The increase is to cover the cost of additional lines to new Police Stations.

(5.) Maintenance of Public Cemetery.—Increased in order to provide for the maintenance and care of tombs.

(7.) Maintenance of Lighthouses.-Waglan Lighthouse has been added to the buildings coming under this heading, having been taken over from the Chinese Customs Authorities.

(8.) Dredging Foreshores.-This work was formerly carried on in conjunc- tion with the Praya Reclamation Works, the material dredged, whenever suitable, being deposited in the reclamation and credit obtained for it. The material has now all to be removed and deposited at sea. Dredging was also performed foa private individuals and the amount received was credited to the vote.

The receipts from this source are now otherwise credited by the Treasury.

9.) Miscellaneous Works.--Increase made to cover additional cost of work and the additional items which arise on account of extensions in the Colony.

(10.) Maintenance of Ronds and Bridges in City.—A few years ago, the annual expenditure under this heading was about $24,000. The terms of the contract for this work are now 50% more than they were then, in addition to which the new roads on the Praya Reclamation have added largely to the amount of work to be done, and there have been extensions and increases in other directions. The amount of traffic has also increased largely.

7

K

(11.) Maintenance of Roads outside City. The increase is accounted for in a similar way to the above, but the additions to the roads have not been as great nor are they subject to the increase of traffic to the same extent.

12.) Maintenance of Roads in Kowloon.--Hitherto the roads in Kowloon have only been surfaced with comparatively soft material, and lond complaints have been common regarding their condition during the wet season. It is proposed to begin macadamizing the principal roads and to obtain a steam-roller to consolidate them.

(14.) Maintenance of Sewers, Ñullahs, etc.--The increase shown is to cover increased cost of labour and extensions which have been made in the system.

(16.) Gas Lighting City of Victoria.-The increase is largely due to the increased terms of the new contract, which has just been entered into. Addi- tional lamps have also been erected for the lighting of private streets and lanes, under Ordinance No. 13 of 1901.

(18.) Gas Lighting Kowloon-The same remarks apply to this item.

(21.) Forming and Kerbing Streets.-A large amount of this work is being entailed by the erection of buildings under the numerous land sales of the past two or three years.

(23.) Drainage Works, Miscellaneous.-There is also a great amount of work of this nature to be done owing to the same cause. The large amount of reclama- tion work carried out under recent land sales also entails the revision of drainage of property in the rear of such reclamations and the extension of sewers, &c. across them.

(29.) Waterworks, Miscellaneous.-The increase is intended to go towards the reconstruction of the Albany Filter Beds, &c., which is a very necessary work.

(29.) Water Account (Meters, &c.).—The large increase here is to make provi- sion for the introduction of meters on all services as required by the new Water Works Ordinance (No. 29 of 1902).

PUBLIC WORKS, EXTRAORDINARY.

(3.) Harbour Master's Office.—The estimated cost of this work has been in- creased to $150,000. When it is pointed out that the foundations alone, up to about ground level, are costing about $40,000, it will be gathered that the sum of $75,000 for the entire structure was totally inadequate. The building will contain three stories and will occupy a conspicuous position on the Harbour front.

(4.) Survey of New Territory.-The estimated cost of this has been reduced to $180,000, in accordance with Mr. NEWLAND'S revised estimate. The amount was formerly $212,000.

(5.) Additional Reservoir, Tytam Drainage Areas. As it has been determined, upon Mr. CHADWICK's advice, to proceed with only one of the reservoirs recom- mended by Mr. COOPER, the estimated cost has been reduced to $120,000.

(6.) Kowloon Water-works Gravitation Scheme. The estimated cost of the revised scheme, which has been undertaken, namely, $835,000, has been inserted.

(13.) Tái Pó Road.-The estimated cost has been increased from $215,000 to $230,000, in order to cover the cost of some additional work found necessary in the course of its construction.

(14.) City and Hill District Water-works.-The estimated cost has been in- creased from $306,000 to $314,000. In the report prepared by Mr. CROOK on the ligh Level and Peak Supply, dated 29th August, 1899, the total estimated cost is given as $347,000. The programme of works specified in that report has under- gone modification since Mr. CHADWICK'S recommendations were received.

841

842

8

(15.) Widening Conduit Road.--In this case, the cost has been increased from $8,000 to $12,000, in consequence of some heavy landslips which occurred during the progress of the work. These were caused by severe rainstorms.

(25.) King's Park.-The estimated cost is only an approximate estimate given by the Superintendent, Botanical and Afforestation Department.

(26.) Cattle Depôt Extension.—'l his is a reproductive work, as fees are received for the housing of the cattle. Manila is now drawing its supplies of cattle largely through Hongkong, and the depôts are often overcrowded, necessitating the keeping of the animal in the open yards, where they are unprotected from the elements.

28.) and (29.) Both these items appeared in this year's Estimates, but it has been found impracticable to make a commencement with either of them.

(30.) Road from Hunghom to Yaumati. This is to provide suitable cross- communication between these two populous portions of Kowloon. At present, either a considerable détour must be made or it is necessary to walk over a rough pathway, which is almost impassable in the wet season.

(32.) Resumptions of Insanitary Property.-Provision is made for making commencement with the resumption of some of the insanitary property in the Colony.

;

}

503

No. 19

1902

HONGKONG.

FINANCIAL RETURNS FOR THE YEAR 1901.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

TREASURY, 9th April, 1902.

No. 25.

SIR,

I have the honour to transmit the following returns :--

1. Revenue and Expenditure for the year 1901.

2. Comparative Statement of Revenue and Expenditure for 1900 and 1901.

3. Return of Deposits not available.

4. Return of Advances Outstanding.

5. Statement of Expenditure from the Praya Reclamation Fund.

6. Statement of Assets and Liabilities.

The Honourable

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

A. M. THOMSON,

Colonial Treasurer.

5.

*

Table A.

COLONY OF HONGKONG.

RETURN OF REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE DURING THE YEAR ENDED

EXPENDITU

Charge on Account of Public Debt. Pensions,

Governor and Legislature.

Colonial Secretary's Department, Audit Department,..

Treasury

Stamp Office,

Public Works Department,.

Post Office,

Registrar General's Department,

Harbour Master's Department,

Lighthouses,

Observatory,

Botanical and Afforestation Depart

Legal Departments,

Land Court,

5,508.82 Ecclesiastical,

Education,

Medical Departments. Magistracy,

Police,

Sanitary Department,

Charitable Allowances, ..........................................、

Transport,

Miscellaneous Services,

Military Expenditure, Public Works, Recurrent,

REVENUE.

Amount Total Estimated. Revenue.

More than Less than Estimated. Estimated.

$

Arms Licences,

LIGHT DUES,

LICENCES AND INTERNAL REVENUE NOT OTHERWISE SPE-

CIFIED:

Assessed Taxes,

Auctioneers' Licences,

Billiard Tables and Bowling Alleys Licences,

Boarding-house Licences,

Boat Licences,

Cargo Boat Licences.

Carriage, Chair, &c. Licences,

Chinese Passenger ships Licences,

Chinese Undertakers' Licences,

55,000

$ 58,375.98

C.

$ e. $ c. 3,375.98

16,900

12,070.00

4,830.00

660,000

708,359.40

48,359.40

1,800

1.200.00

600.00

1,000

1,200.00

200.00

2,300

1,956.25

11,000

7,689.50

343.75 3,310.50

12,000

16,142.40

4,142.40

53,000

70,964.00

17,964.00

350

350.00

140

190.00

50.00

Dog Licences,

2,700

3,673.50

978.50

Emigration Brokers' Licences,.

Fines,

800

55,000

1,000.00

200.00

66,733.88

11,733.88

Forfeitures,

10,000

·

4,491.18

Hawkers' Licences,

9,500

10,989.50

1,489.50

Junk Licences.

42,000

46,647.55

1,617.55

Kerosene Oil Licences,

640

755.00

115.00

Marine Store Dealers' Licences, ....................

6,345

6,525.00

180.00

Marriage Licences,.

850

628.00

222.00

Money Changers' Licences,

650

575.00

75.00

Opium Monopoly,

372,000

687,000.00 | 315,000.00

Opium Divan,

1,800

Phosphorus and Dynamite,

Pawnbrokers' Licences,..

46,800

Rocket Licence.

Shooting Licences,

550

1,890.00 8.00 47,150.00 4.00 800.00

-90.00

8.00

350.00

4.00 250.00

Sulphuric and Nitric Acid,

18.00

18.00

Spirit. licences,

128,830

125,909.43

2.920.57

Stamps,....

430,000

442,621.35

12,621.35

Steam-Launch Licences,

1,300

· 1,763.75

463.75

Special Fruit Licences,

500

341.00

341.00

FEES OF COURT OR OFFICE, PAYMENTS FOR SPECIFIC PUR-

POSES, AND REIMBURSEMENTS IN AID :-

Bills of Health,

2,700

3,516.00

-$16.00

Births and Deaths, Registration of.

400

394.75

5.25

Cargo Boat Certificates,

2,200

2,466.00

266.00

C'emetery Burials,

1,215

1,398.22

183.22

Cemetery Fees from Public Cemeteries for Chinese,

1,300

1,590.90

290.90

Chinese Gazette, Sale of

40

53.00

13.00

Companies, Registration of

5,500

6,494,50

994.50

Convict Labour and other items,

3,600

4,668.83

1,068.83

Certificate to Chinese entering America,

12,000

1,750.00

10,250.00

Deeds, Registration of

15,000

12,000.50

2,999.50

Engagement and Discharge of Seamen,

22,000

23,863.40

1,863.40

Engament of Masters etc. of Steam-launch,

246.00

246.00

Examination of Masters, &c.,

2,400

3.047.50

647.50

Fees of Court,

14,000

15,268.10

1,268.10

Fees on Grant of Leases,

1,100

1,895.00

795.00

Fees for testing Petroleum,

350

677.50

327.50

Gaol Expenses, -Recovery from Diplomatic, Naval and Mi-

litary Departments, Seamen and Debtors,...

2,200

3,938.05

1,738.05

Gunpowder, Storage of......

18,000

26.873.67

8,873.67

Householders, Registration of

2,400

2,198.75

201.25

Imperial Post Office, Contribution from

7,100

7,316.44

216.44

Lock Hospital, Grant-in-Aid from Admiralty,

1,000

1,033.24

33.24

Medical Certificate,

Medical Examination of Emigrants,

23,000

650.00 21,669.00

650.00

1,331.00

Medical Registration Fees,

10

Medical Treatment of Patients in the Civil Hospital,

30,000

25.00 31,180.83

15.00

1,180.83

Maintenance of Gap Rock Lighthouse, Coutribution from

Chinese Imperial Government towards the

750

750.00

Official Administrator and Trustee,..

4,000

2,986.88

Official Signatures,

600

472.56

1,013.12 127.44

Printed Forms, Sale of

200

327.50

127.50

Private Moorings and Buoys, Rent for

3,000

3,150.00

150.00

Queen's College, Fees from Scholars,

29,000

28,424.00

576.00

Registry Fees,

400

761.00

361.00

Refund of Police Pay,

1,950

2,211.85

261.85

Refund Cost of Police and other Stores,.

800

391.53

408.17

Sick Stoppages from Police Force,

1,560

2,370.60

810.60

Steam-launches, Surveyor's Certificate,

2,300

3,075.00

775.00

Survey of Steam-ships,

13,000

12,916.01

83.96

School for Girls, Fees from Scholars,

Sunday Cargo-Working Pernits,

Trade Marks, Registration of

950 30.000 3,500

1,132.50

182.50

44,800.00

14,800.00

Waste Food,

6,449.73 18.85

2,949.73

18.85

....

Postage,...

POST OFFICE :—

Best of GOVERNMENT PROPERTY. LAND ANd Houses

330,000

355,912.74

25,912.74

Table A.

i

4,830.00

708,859.40 - 48,359.40

1.200.00

600.00

Treasury.

1.200.00

200.00

Charge on Account of Public Debt, Pensions,

Governor and Legislature.

Colonial Secretary's Department.

Audit Department...

Stamp Office,

COLONY OF HONGKONG.

AND EXPENDITURE DURING THE YEAR ENDED 31ST DECEMBER, 1901.

Estimated. Estimated.

Total Revenue.

More than Less than

$ C. 58,375.98

$ C. 3,375.98

$ C.

12.070.00

EXPENDITURK.

Amount

Total More than Less than Estimated. Expenditure. Estimated. Estimated.

$ 153,820.00

$ 162,363.81

$ C. 8,543.84

$ C.

164,000.00

178,073.55

14,073,55

61,641.00

62.527.99

886.99

41,629.00

46,983.40

5,354.40

10,000.00

12,706.33 2,706.33

30,157.00 38,096.98 7,939.98

1,956.25

343.75

Public Works Department,.

123,306.00 113,793.18

9,512.82

7,689.50

3.310.50

Post Office,

269,480.00

273,685.51

4,205.51

16,142.40 4.142.40

Registrar General's Department,

21,055.00

16.429.62

4,625.38

70,964,00

17,964.00

Harbour Master's Department,

94,688.00

109,406.63

14,723.63

350.00

Lighthouses,

24,976.00

18,655.11

6,320.89

190.00

50.00

Observatory,

15,488.00

15,480.87

7.13

8.673.50

973.50

Botanical and Afforestation Department,

27,367,24

25,560.70

1,806.54

1,000.00

200.00

Legal Departments,

79,716,00 91,277.66

11,561.66

66,733.88

11,733.88

Land Court,

32,884.00

30.964.31

1,919.69

4,491.18

5,508.82

Ecclesiastical,

2,200.00

1,825.00

375.00

10,989.50

1,489.50

16,647.55

1.647.55

755.00

115.00

6,525.00

180.00

Education,

Magistracy,

Police,

90.965.00

86,946.30

4,018.70

Medical Departments,

130,134.00

140,431.71

10,297.71

19,540.05

23,794.23

4,254.18

493,413.00

470,484.12

22,923.88

628.00

222.00

Sanitary Department,

152,993.00

144,962.20

8,030.80

575.00

75.00

Charitable Allowances.

5.260.00

4.994.07

265.93

6$7,000.00 315,000.00

Transport.

3,000.00

14.776.93 11,776.93

Miscellaneous Services..

216.594.00

469.629.33 | 253,035.33

Military Expenditure,

721,891.00

851,100.24 | 129,209.24

Public Works, Recurrent.

281,740.00

318,299.63| 36,559.63

1.890.00

8.00

8.00

47,150.00

350.00

4.00

800.00

4.00 250.00

18.00

18.00

125,909.43

2.920.57

442,621.35

12,621.35

1,763.75 841.00

463.75

341.00

3,516.00

816.00

394.75

5.25

2,466.00

266.00

1.398.22

183.22

1,590.90

290.90

53.00

13.00

6,494,50

994.50

4.668.83

1.068.83

1,750.00

12,000.50

10,250.00 2.999.50

23.863.40

1,863.40

246.00 3.047.50

246.00

647.50

15,268,10 1,895.00 677.50

1,268.10

795.00

827.50

3,938.05

1,738.05

26.878.67 8,873.67

2,198.75

201.25

7.316.44

216.44

1.038.24

33.24

650.00

650.00

21.669,080

33106

25.00 31.180.83

750.06

15.00 1.180.83

2.986.88

472.56

1.013.12 127.44

827.50

127.50

8.150.00

150,00

28,424.00

576.00

761.00

361.00

2.211.85

261.85

89153

108.47

2.370.60

810.60

3.075.00

775,00

12,916.04

1.132.50

182.50

44.800.00

14.800,00

6.149.73

2,919.73

!

18.85

18.85

355.912.74

25.912.71

Phosphorus and Dynamite. Pawnbrokers' Licences.......... Rocket Licence.

Shooting Licences,

0.00

.U

46,800

47,150.00

350,00

Muntary ra} in tune. Public Works, Recurrent,

4.00

550

800.00

4.00 250.00

Sulphuric and Nitric Acid.

Spirit licences,

128,830

18.00 125,909.43

18.00

2.920.57

Stamps,..

430.000

442,621,35 12.621.35

Steam-Launch Licences,

1,300

1,763.75

463.75

Special Fruit Licences,

500

$41.00

341.00

FEES OF COURT OR OFFICE, PAYMENTS FOR SPECIFIC PUR-

POSES, AND REIMBURSEMENTS IN AID :-

Bills of Health,

2.700

3,516,00

$16.00

:

Births and Deas, Registration of..

400

394.75

5.25

Cargo Boat Certificates,

2,200

2,466.00

266.00

Cemetery Burials,

1,215

1.398.22

183.22

Cemetery Fees from Public Cemeteries for Chinese,

1,300

1,590.90

290.90

Chinese Gazette, Sale of

40

53.00

13.00

Companies, Registration of

5,500

6,494,50

994.50

Convict Labour and other items,

3,600

4.668.83 1,068.83

Certificate to Chinese entering America,

12,000

1,750.00

10,250.00

Deeds, Registration of

15,000

12,000.50

2,999.50

Engagement and Discharge of Seamen,

22,000

23,863.40

1,863.40

Engament of Masters etc. of Steam-launch,

...

246.00

246.00

Examination of Masters, &c.,

2,400

3.047.50

647,50

Fees of Court,

14,000

15,268.10

1,268.10

Fees on Grant of Leases.

1,100

1,895.00

795.00

Fees for testing Petroleum,

350

677,50

327.50

Gaol Expenses,-Recovery from Diplomatic, Naval and Mi-

litary Departments, Scamen and Debtors,..

2,200

3,938.05

1,738.05

Gunpowder, Storage of........

18,000

26.873.67

8,873.67

Householders, Registration of

2,400

2,198.75

201.25

Medical Examination of Emigrants,

Medical Registration Fees,

Imperial Post Office, Contribution from

Lock Hospital, Grant-in-Aid from Admiralty,

Medical Certificate,

Medical Treatment of Patients in the Civil Hospital,

Maintenance of Gap Rock Lighthouse,—Contribution from

7,100

7.316.44

216.44

1,000

1.088.24

33.24

650.00

650.00

23,000

21,669.09

1,331.00

10

30,000

25.00 31,180.83

15.00

1,180.83

Chinese Imperial Government towards the

750

750.00

Official Administrator and Trustee,.

1,000

2,986.88

Official Signatures,

600

472,56

1,013.12 127.44

Printed Forms, Sale of

200

327.50

127.50

Private Moorings and Buoys, Rent for

3,000

3,150.00

150.00

Queen's College, Fecs from Scholars,

29,000

28,424.00

576.00

Registry Fees;

400

761.00

361.00

-Refund of Police Pay,

1,950

2,211.85

261.85

Round Cost of Police and other Stores,.

800

391.53

108.17

Sick Stoppages from Police Force,

1,560

2,370.60

810.60

Steam-launches, Surveyor's Certificate,

2,300

3,075.00

775.00

Survey of Steam-ships,

13,000

12,916.04

83.96

School for Girls, Fees from Scholars,

950

1,132.50

182.50

Sunday Cargo-Working Permits,

Trade Marks, Registration of

30,000 3,500

11,800.00

14.800.00

6.449.73

2,949.73

Waste Food,

18.85

18.85

POST OFFICE:-

Postage,...

RENT OF GOVERNMENT PROPERTY, LAND AND HOUSES:-

330,000

355,912.74

25,912.74

Buildings,

Laundries,

Leased Lands,.

Lands not Leased.

Land Revenue, New Territory,

Markets,

Piers,..

Rent of Salt Pans,

Stone Quarries,

Slaughter House,

Sheep, Pig and Cattle Depôts,

Interest,

MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS:-

Condemned Stores, &c.,

Night Soil Contracts,..

Other Miscellaneous Receipts,

Profit on Subsidiary Coins,

WATER ACCOUNT,

TOTAL, exclusive of Land Sales,

LAND SALES,

750

783.00

33.00

1,200

1,200.00

310,000

289.885.56

20,114.44

5,000

9,365.87 4,365.87

140,000

28,783.55

111,216.45

82,000

84,717.96 2,717.96

27,000

27,774.06

774.06

1,235.00

1.235.00

25,000

43,865.00

18,865.00

50,000

54,060.00

4,060.00

12,000

13,799.58

1.799.58

5,000

1.14

4,998.86

1,500

464.93

1,035.07

Interest for use of Furniture at Government House,

235

112.30

129.70

30,384

41,478.00

11,094.00

10,000

54,529.23

44,529.23

140,000

183,515.90

43,515.90

156,000 169,119,45

13,119.45

3,509,349 3,973,578.16 | 636,523,31|172,294.15

400,000 240,315.06

159,684.94

Public Works, Extraordinary, .

TOTAL,

$ 8,909,349 | 4,213,893.22 | 636,523,31 | 331,979.09

Treasury, Hongkong, 8th April, 1902.

TOT.

0,516.00 394.75 2,466.00

$10,00

...

266.00

5.25

1,398.22

183.22

1,590.90

290.90

53.00

13.00

6,494,50

994.50

4,668.83

1,008.83

1,750.00

12,000.50

10,250.00 2,999.50

23,863.40 1,863.40

246.00

246.00

3.047.50

647.50

15,268.10

1,268.10

1,895.00

795.00

677.50

327.50

3,938.05

1,738.05

26.873.67 8,873.67

2,198.75

201.25

7,316.44

216.44

1,033.24

33.24

650.00

650.00

21,669.00

1,331.00

25.00

31,180.83

15.00 1,180.83

750.00

2,986.88

1,013.12

472.56

127.44

327.50

127.50

3,150.00

150.00

28,424.00

576,00

761.00

361.00

2,211.85

261.85

391.53

408.17

2,370.60

810.60

3,075.00

775.00

12,916.04

83.96

1,132.50

182.50

44,800.00

14.800.00

6,449.73

2,949.73

18.85

18.85

355,912.74

25,912.74

783.00

33.00

1,200.00

289,885.56

20,114.44

9,365.87 4,365.87

28,783.55

111,216.45

84,717.96.

2,717.96

27,774.06

774.06

1,235.00

1.235.00

43,865.00 18,865.00

54,060.00

4,060.00

13,799.58

1,799.58

1.14

4,998.86

461.93

1,035.07

112.30

122.70

41,478.00

11,094.00

54,529.23 44,529.23

183,515.90 43,515.90

'69,119.45

13,119.45

73,578.16636,523.31 | 172,294.15

40,315.06

159,684.94 Public Works, Extraordinary,

213,893.22 | 636,523.31 | 331,979.09

TOTAL,......

$ 3,267,932.29 | 3,723,249.44515,128.91

726,338.00

388,473.05

59,811,76

337,864.95

$ | 3,994,270.29 | 4,111,722,49|515,128.91 397,676.71

A. M. THOMSON,

Colonial Treasurer.

505

Table B.

COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF THE REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE OF THE CO

REVENUE.

1900.

INCREASE.

DECREASE.

EXPENDIT

8,416.50

28,710.12

Charge on Account of Public 1 Pensions,.

Governor and Legislature,

Colonial Secretary's Departme

Audit Department,

Treasury,

Stamp Office,

Public Works Department, Post Office,.......

Registrar General's Departme Harbour Master's Department Lighthouses.....

Observatory,

Botanical and Afforestation D Legal Departments,

Land Court,

Ecclesiastical Department,

Education,

Medical Departments,

Magistracy,

Police,

Gaols,....

Fire Brigade..

Sanitary Department, Charitable Allowances, Transport....

Miscellaneous Services, Military Expenditure,. Public Works, Recurrent, Public Works, Extraordinary

1901.

c.

LIGHT DUES,

55,379.38

$ 58,375.98

C.

$ 2,996.60

C.

$

C.

LICENCES AND INTERNAL REVENUE NOT OTHERWISE

SPECIFIED :—

Arms Licences,

20,486.50

12,070.00

Assessed Taxes,

595,136.93.

708,359.40

113,222.47

Auctioneers' Licences,

1,800.00

1,200.00

600.00

Billiard Tables and Bowling Alleys Licences,

1,100.00

1,200.00

Boarding House Licences,

1,787.51

1,956 25

100.00 168,74

Boat Licences,.

10.172.55

7,683.50

2,483.05

Cargo Boat Licences,..

11,667.30

16,142.40

4,475.10

Carriage, Chair, &c. Licences,

55,294.10

70,964.00

15,669.90

Chinese Passenger Ships Licences,.

345.00

350.00

5.00

Chinese Undertakers' Licences,

150.00

190.00

40.00

Dog Licences,

2,898.50

8,673 50

780.00

Emigration Brokers' Licences..

800.00

1.000.00

200.00

Fines,

67,467.47

66,733.88

Forfeitures,

12,912.15

4,491.18

733.59 8,420.97

Hawkers Licences,.

10,129.50

10,989.50

860.00

Junk Licences,

44,459.80

46,647.55

2,187.75

Kerosene Oil Licences,

656.00

755.00

99.00

Marine Store Dealers' Licences,

6,255,00

6,525.00

270.00

Marriage Licences,

1,050.00

628.00

422.00

Money Changers' Licences,

560.00

575.00

15.00

Opium Monopoly.

372,000.00

687,000.00

315,000.00

Opium Divan Licences,

1,775.00

1,890.00

115.00

Phosphorus and Dynamite,

8.00

8.00

Pawnbrokers' Licences,

Rocket Licence,

47,150.00

17,150.00

4.00

4.00

shooting Licences,

Special Fruit Licences,

720.00 452.00

800.00

841.00

$0.00 389.00

Spirit Licences,

107,254.50

Sulphuric & Nitric Acid,

Stamps,

471,331.47

Steam-launch Licences,

1,466.50

125,909.43 18.00 442,621.35 1,763.75

18,651.93 18.00

297.25

FEES OF COURT OR OFFICE, PAYMENTS FOR SPECIFIC

PURPOSES, AND REIMBURSEMENTS IN AID :-

Bills of Health..........

2,769.00

3,516.00

747.00

Births and Deaths, Registration of..

319.90

394.75

74.85

Cargo Boat Certificates,

2,193.00

2,466.00

273.00

Cemetery Burials,....

1,328.28

1.398.22

69.94

Cemetery Fees from Public Cemeteries for Chinese,

1,587.75

1,590.90

3.15

Chinese Gazette, Sale ot...

52.00

53.00

1.00

Companies, Registration of

4,581.00

6.494.50

1,913.50

Convict Labour and other items,

2,971.28

4,668.83

1,697.55

Certificate to Chinese entering America,

11,100.00

1,750,00

9,350.00

Deeds, Registration of

14,554.25

12,000.50

2,553.75

Engagement and Discharge of Seainen,..

22,297,00

23,863.40

1,566.40

Engagement of Masters &c., of Steam Launch,

246.00

246.00

Examination of Masters, &c.,.

2,980.00

3,047.50

67.50

Fees of Court,

14,059.04

15,268.10

1,209.06

Fees on Grant of Leases,.

1,305.00

1,895.00

590.00

Fees for testing Petroleum,.

390.00

677.50

287,50

Gaol Expenses,-Recovery from Diplomatic, Naval and

Military Departments, Seamen and Debtors,

2,129.95

3,938.05

1,808.10

Gunpowder, Storage of

27,944.35

26,873.67

Householders, Registration of

2.262.25

2,198.75

1,070.68 63.50

Imperial Post Office, Contribution from

5,387.39

7,316.41

1,929.05

Lock Hospital, Grant-in-Aid from Admiralty,

1,000.06

1,033.24

Medical Certificate,

Medical Examination of Emigrants,

Medical Registration Fees,

180.00 25,460.50 80.00

$50.00 21,669.00

33.18 470.00

Medical Treatment of Patients in the Civil Hospital,

31,837.96

25.00 31,180.83

3,791.50 55,00 657.13

Maintenance of Gap Rock

ightâouse.—Contribution

from Chinese Imprl Government towards the ..

750.00

750.00

Official Administrator and Trusive,.

4,388.17

2,986.88

1,401.29

Official Signatures,.

Printed Forms, Sale of

424.00 223-0

472.56

48.56

327.50

99.50

Private Moorings and uoys, Rent for

3. 30.00

3,150.00

120.00

Queen's College, Fees from enolars,

29, 37.00

28,424.00

613.00

Registry Fees,

Refund of Police Pay,

521.00 2,032.99

761.00

240.00

2,211.85

178.86

Refund Cost of l'olice and other tor s,

812.58

391.53

Sick Stoppages from Folice For-e,

2,541.34

2,370.60

+21.05 170.74

Steam-launches, Surveyor's Certite.

2,675.00

3,075.00

400 00

Survey of Steam-ships,

12,361.59

12,916.04

554.45

School for Girls, Fees from Scholtes,

922.00

Sunday Cargo-Working Perinits,

43,550.00

1,132.50 44,800.00!

210.50

1,250.00

Trade Marks, Registration of

3.342.48

Waste Food,.....

POST OFFICE :-Postage,

325,603.33

6.449.73 18.85 355,912.74

5,107.25

18.85 30,309.41

Buildings,

Laundries,

Leased Lands,

RENT OF GOVERNMENT PROPERTY, LAND AND HOUSES:

747.00 1,210.00 280,402.69

783.00 1,200.00

6.976 05

289,835.56

9365 87

36.00

9.482.87

19.00

3.089 82

Table B.

THE REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE OF THE COLONY OF HONGKONG IN 1900 & 1901.

1901.

INCREASE.

$

8.

$

C.

08,375.98

2,996.60

DECREASE.

EXPENDITURE.

1900.

1901.

INCREASE.

DECREASE.

C.

$

C.

12,070.00

8,416.50

708,359.40

113,222.47

1,200.00

600.00

1,200.00

100.00

Charge on Account of Public Debt,. Pensions,.

Governor and Legislature,

Colonial Secretary's Department,

Audit Department,

Treasury,

153,363.07

$ C. 162,363.84

$ “.

$

9,000.77

166,730.19

178,073.55

11,343.36

47.109.83

62,527.99

15,418.16

47,261.02

46,983.40

277.62

11,762.53

12,706.33

943.80

Stamp Office,

30,839.94

38,096.98

7,257.01

1,956 25

168,74

7,689.50

Public Works Department,

97,413.06

113,793.18

16,380.12

2,483.05

Post Office,.

16,142.40

235,263.08

273,685.51

38.422.43

4,475.10

70,964.00

15,669.90

Registrar General's Department,.

13,058.53

16.429.62

3,371.09

350.00

5.00

Harbour Master's Department,

82.929.00

109,406.63

26.477.63

190.00

Lighthouses,.

13,472.59

18,655.11

5,182.52

40.00

Observatory,

16,963.79

15,480.87

1.482.92

3,673 50

780.00

1.000.00

200.00

Botanical and Afforestation Department,

21,519.95

25,560.70

4,040.75

66,733.88

Legal Departments,

81,475.24

91,277.66

9,802.42

4,491.18

733.59 8,420.97

Land Court,

30,964.31

30,964.31

10,989.50

860.00

Ecclesiastical Department,

1,805.00

1,825.00

20.00

Education,

79,993.76

86,946.30

6,952.54

46,647.55

2,187.75

755.00

99.00

Medical Departments,

125.256.34

140,431.71

15,175,37

6.525.00

270.00

628.00

422.00

575.00

15.00

687,000.00

315,000.00

1,890.00

115.00

Magistracy,

Police,

Gaols,...

Fire Brigade,..

Sanitary Department,

Charitable Allowances,

20,914.59

23.794.23

2,879.64

393,485.12

380,789.56

12,695.56

63,329.02

71,101.65

7,772.63

18,240.83

18.592.91

352.08

130,816.01

144,962.20

14,146.19

4,140.00

4,994.07

$54.07

8.00

8.00

47,150.00

Transport...

5,080.51

14.776.93

9.696.42

4.00

Miscellaneous Services,

426,591.28

4.00

800.00

Military Expenditure,

655,686.11

841.00

80.00 389.00

Public Works, Recurrent,

210,740.85

469,629.33 43,038.05

318,299.63 107.558.78

851,100.24-195,414.43-

125,909.43

Public Works, Extraordinary,

473,203.89

388,473.05

84,732.84

18,654.93

18.00

18.00

442,621.35

28,710.12

1,763.76

297.25

3,516.00

717.00

394.75

74.85

2,466.00

273.00

1.398.22

69.94

1,590.90

3.15

53.00

1.00

6.494.50

1,913.50

4,668.83

1,697.55

1,750.00

12,900.50

9,350.00 2,553.75

23,863.40

1,566.40

246.00

246.00

3,047.50

67.50

15,268.10

1,209.06

1,895.00

590.00

677.50

287.50

3,938.05

1,808.10

26,873.67

2,198.75

1,070.68 63.50

7,316.44

1,929.05

1,033.24

650.00

33.18 170.00

21,669.00 25.00

31,180.83

3,791.50

55.00

657.13

750.00

2,986.88

1.401.29

472.56

48.56

327.50

99.50

3,150.00

120.00

28,424.00

613.00

761.00

240.00

2,211.85

178.86

391.53

2,370.60

421.05 170.74

3,075.00

400 00

12,916.04

554.45

1,132.50

210.50

44,800.00

1.250.00

6.449.73

8,107.25

{

18.85

18.87

355,912.74

783.00

1,200.00 289,835.56

9,365.87 28,783.55

30,309.41

...

36.00

9.482.87

3,089.82

28.498.75

10.00

506

28,710.12

Public Works, Recurrent, Public Works, Extraordinary

J.UU

Special Fruit Licences,

452.00

Spirit Licences,

107,254.50

Sulphuric & Nitric Acid,

Stamps,

471,831.47

Steam-launch Licences,

1,466.50

JU.VU 841.00 125,909.43 18.00 442,621.35 1,763.75

J.00 389.00 18,654.93 18.00

907, 65

FEES OF Court or Office, PAYMENTS FOR SPECIFIC

PURPOSES, AND REIMBURSEMENTS IN AID :-

Bills of Health..

2,769.00

3,516.00

747.00

Births and Deaths, Registration of.

319.90

394.75

74.85

Cargo Boat Certificates,

2,193.00

2,466.00

273.00

Cemetery Burials,..

1,328.28

1.398.22

69.94

Cemetery Fees from Public Cemeteries for Chinese,

1,587.75

1,590.90

3.15

Chinese Gazette, Sale of........

52.00

53.00

1.00

Companies, Registration of

4,581.00

6.494.50

1,913.50

Convict Labour and other items,

2,971.28

4,668.83

1,697.55

Certificate to Chinese enteri ag America,

11,100.00

1,750,00

9,350.00

Deeds, Registration of

14,554.25

12,000.50

2,553.75

Engagement and Discharge of Seainen,

22,297.00

23,863.40

1,566.40

Engagement of Masters &c., of Steam Launch,

246.00

246.00

Examination of Masters, &c.,

2,980.00

3,047.50

67.50

Fees of Court,

14,039.04

15,268.10

1,209.06

Fees on Grant of Leases,.

1,305.00

1,895.00

590.00

Fees for testing Petroleum,.

390.00

677.50

287,50

Gaol Expenses, Recovery from Diplomatic, Naval and

Military Departments, Seamen and Debtors,

2,129.95

3,938.05

1,808.10

Gunpowder, Storage of

27,944.35

26,873.67

Householders, Registration of

2.202.25

2,198.75

1,070.68 63.50

Imperial Post Office, Contribution from

Medical Certificate,

5,387.39

7,316.44

1,929.05

Lock Hospital, Grant-in-Aid from Admiralty,

1,000.06

1,033.24

33.18

180.00

650.00

470.00

Medical Examination of Emigrants,

25,460.50

21,669.00

Medical Registration Fees,

80.00

25.00

3,791.50 55.00

Medical Treatment of Patients in the Civil Hospital,

31,837.96

31,180.83

657.13

Maintenance of Gap Rockighthouse.—Contribution

from Chinese Imperial Government towards the ..

750.00

750.00

Official Administrator and Trustee,.

4,388.17

2,986.88

1,101.29

Official Signatures,.

424.00

472.56

48.56

Printed Forms, Sale of

223-0

327.50

99.50

Private Moorings and Buoys, Rent for

3. 30.00

3,150.00

120.00

Queen's College, Fees from Scuolars,

29, 37.00

28,424.00

613.00

Registry Fees,

521.00

761.00

240.00

Refund of Police Pay,

2,032.99

2,211.85

178.86

Refund Cost of l'olice and other tors,

812.58

391.53

421.05

Sick Stoppages from Police Forve,

2,541.34

2,370.60

170.74

Steam-launches, Surveyor's Certificate.

2,675.00

3,075.00

400,00

Survey of Steam-ships,

12,361.59

12,916.04

554.45

School for Girls, Fees from Scholars,

922.00

1,132.50

210.50

Sunday Cargo-Working Perinits,

43,550.00

44,800.00

1,250.00

Trade Marks, Registration of

3,342.48

6,149.73

8,107.25

Waste Food,

18.85

18.85

POST OFFICE:-Postage,

325,603.33

355,912.74

30,309.11

RENT OF GOVERNMENT PROPERTY, LAND AND HOUSES :-

Buildings,

747.00

783.00

36.00

Laundries,

1,210.00

1,200.00

10.00

Leased Lands,

280,402.69

289,835.56

9.482.87

Lands not Leased,

6,276.05

9,365.87

3,089.82

Land Revenue, New Territory,

289.80

28,783.55

28,493.75

Markets,

83,356.35

84,717.96

1,361.61

Piers,

.......

25,571.77

27,774.06

2,202.29

Rent of Salt-pans,

...

1,235.00

1,235.00

Stone Quarries,

24,130.00

43,865.00

19,735.00

Slaughter House,.

48,960.00

54,060.00

5,100.00

Sheep, Pig and Cattle Depôts,

11,833.61

13,799.58

1,965.97

Interest,

1.14

1.14

MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS :—

Condemned Stores, &c.,

Interest for use of Furniture at Government House,.

497.01 470.60

Night Soil Contracts,

30,384.00

464.93 112,30 41,478.00

32.08

358.30

!1,091.00

Other Miscellaneous Receipts, .

16,025.73

Profit on Subsidiary Coins,.

191,533.40

51,529,23 38,503.50 183.515.90

8,017.50

Water Account,

151,034.87

169,119.45 18,084.58

TOTAL exclusive of Land Sales,.

| 3,386,364.48 | 3,973,578.16 665,565.43 78,351.75

LAND SALES,

TOTAL,....

816,222.92

240,315.06

575,907.86

១១

4,202,587.40 4.213.893.22

565.43

654,259.61

Deduct Decrease,

Nett Increase,

Treasury, Hongkong, 8th April, 1902.

654,259.61

11,305.82

1,590.90

3.15

53.00

1.00

6.494.50

1,913.50

4,668.83

1,697.55

1,750,00

9,350.00

12,000.50

2,553.75

23,863.40

1,566.40

246.00

246.00

3,047.50

67.50

15,268.10

1,209.06

1,895.00

590.00

677.50

287,50

3,938.05

1,808.10

26,873.67

2,198.75

1,070.68 63.50

7,316.44

1,929.05

1,033.24

650.00

33.18 470.00

21,669.00 25.00

31,180.83

3,791.50

55.00

657.13

I

750.00

2,986.88

1,401.29

472.56

48.56

327.50

3,150.00 28,424.00 761.00 2,211.85 391.53

99.50 120.00

...

240.00 178.86

...

613.00.

2,370.60

421.05 170.74

3,075.00

400 00

12,916.04

554.45

1,132.50

210.50

44,800.00

1,250.00

6.149.73

5,107.25

18.85

18.85

355,912.74

30,309.11

783.00

36.00

1,200.00

10.00

289,835.56

9,482.87

9,365.87

3,089.82

28,783.55

28,493.75

84,717.96

1,361.61

27,774.06

2,202.29

1,235.00

1,235.00

43,865.00

19,735.00

54,060.00

5,100.00

13,799.58

1,965.97

1.14

461.93 112.30

1.14

32.08

...

358.30

41,478.00

11,091.00

51,529.23 38,503.50

183,515.90

8,017.50

169,119.45 13,084.58

,973,578.16 665,565.43 78,351.75

240,315.06

575,907.86

213,898.22

1.505.43 654,259.61

TOTAL..

654,259.61

11,305.82

.$3,628,447.13 |4,111,722.49

582,464 30

Deduct Decrcase, .

Nett Increase,

99,188.94

483,275.36

99,188.94

A. M. THOMSON,

Colonial Treasurer.

507

$

Statement of Deposits not Available received and paid in the Colony of Hongkong during the year 1901.

By whom deposited.

Outstanding

Outstanding

on

1st January, 1901.

Deposits received during the year.

Total.

Deposits repaid during the

on

31st Dec.,

year.

1901.

$

{

Intestate Estate,...

1,205.24

Sikh Police Fund,

Police Fine Fund,

5,421.00 216.90

126.27 2,080.00

1,331.51

1,331.51

7,501.00

1,907.00

931.29

1,148.19

Chinese Recreation Ground,

3,319.29

1,090.52

4,409.81

755.15 1,416.17

5,594.00 393.04

Estate of deceased Policemen,

170.89

Tender Deposit,

31,165.00

26.53 16,210.00

197.42 47,375.00

41,675.00

2,993.64 197.42 5,700.00

Post Office Fine Fund,

Suitors' Fund,

128.72 107,426.10

71.38 189,803.86

200.10 297.229.96

200.10

188,290.27

Widows and Orphans' Fund,

88,793.24

23,135.14

111,929.41

2,662.52

108,939.69 109,266.89

Custom Duties on Parcels,

252.69

1,284.47

1,537.16

980.91

556.25

Praya Reclamation Fund,

214,175.12

99,890.46

314,065.58

110,565.34

203,500.24

Sale of Land,

200.00

2,500.00

Licence Fee Deposits,.

125.00

1,187.50

2,700.00 1,312.50

2,300.00 1,312.50

100.00

...

Deposit for Expenses of erecting 3 Lamp-posts

290.00

on Inland Lot 199,

Medical Department Fine Fund,

Miscellaneous,

Board of Trade,

Gaol Library,

47.91

15,868.96

213.00

290.00

47.91 16,081.96

290.00

47.91

716.98 103.90

2,669.14

3,386.12 103.90

198.65 2,204.05

15,883.31 1,182.07

103.90

Treasury, Hongkong, 31st March, 1902.

469,579.03

341,267.47 810,847.53

354,267.56

456,579.97

A. M. THOMSON,

Treasurer.

į

508

To whom advanced.

1st January, 1901.

Statement of Adrances made and repaid in Hongkong during the year ended 31st December, 1901.

Outstanding

on

Advances

repaid during

the year ended 31st Dec., 1901.

Balance on Outstanding

31st Dec., 1901.

Advances made during the year ended 31st Dec., 1901.

Total.

.$

$

286,391.34

Money Order,

Government of Singapore,

36,854.76

* 6,447.51

329,693.61

308,211.32

21,482.29

495.00

2,579.50

3,074.50

2,508.00

566.50

Supreme Court,

Captain Superintendent of Police,

Praya Reclamation,

Crown Solicitor,

Sanitary Department,

100.00

100.00

100.00

25.00

1,140.00

1,165.00

10,233,03

1,997.95

12,230.98

1,140.00 10,233.03

25.00

1,997.95

.....

...

200.00 92,500.00

200.00

92,500.00

200.00 92,500.00

Postmaster General,

348.62

Treasury,

Public Works Department,.

556.30 500.00 1,500.00

904.92 500.00

901.92 500.00

Private Street Improvement;

2,595.67

41,042.11

1,500.00 44,237.78

1,500.00

39,224.88

5,012.90

E. Griffith,

48.10

48.10

48.10

G. P. Tate,

200.00

200.00

200.00

H. B. Lethbridge, Widow and Orphans' Fund,

16.12

159.96

176.08

161.58

14.50

W. Curwen,

96.24

96.24

96.24

Sugar-cane

Mill,

285.01

285.01

285.01

E. Kelly,

20.00

20.00

20.00

G. T. Taylor,

192.48

12.19

204.67

204.67

F. Hast,

192.48

12.19

204.67

204.67

E. A. Johnson,.

192.48

12.19

204.67

204.67

J. Gidley, Widows and Orphans' Fund,

16.60

16.60

16.60

191.05

Mrs. J. Acker,................

J. R. Crock, Widows and Orphans' Fund,

India Office, Advance of pay to Lala Singh,.

J. H. Barrington,....

W. R. Seymour,

W. McGregor,

P. P. J. Wodehouse,

C. F. O'Brien,

Captain Hasting's Contribution to Jamaica Wi-

dows and Orphans' Fund,

Amount paid in to compensate Mr. Tutcher's Į

House Allowance,

Mrs. Ada Robertson, Widows and Orphans' Fund,

193.63

193.63

t

2.58

143.07

145.07

145.07

99.22

99.22

99.22

153.50

153.60

105.00

48.60

51.20

51.20

51.20

:

1,420.00 102.40

1,420.00

42.00

102.40

50.00

1,378.00 52.40

21.63

21.63

27.91 Cr. Bal. 6.28

58.50

58.50

58.50

155.26

155.26

45.00

110.26

68.88

68.88

27.30

41.58

Inspector Carter,

A. Holdaway,

A. Chapman,

E. A. Carvalho,

155.26

155.26

15.00

140.26

51.20

51.20

51.20

1,081.69

1,081.69

1,081.69

J. Drayson,

540.85 454.31

510.85

540.85.

454.31

454.31

Treasury, Hongkong, 31st March, 1902.

51,694.99

440,620.54

492,315.53 458,773.44

33,548.37

Less credit balance,................

6.28

$

33,542.09

* Profit in Exchange,

.$6,447.517

=$6,450.09

2.381

"

A. M. THOMSON, Treasurer.

PRAYA RECLAMATION FUND.

STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURE TO 31ST DECEMBER, 1901.

Balance

Cost. to be spent.

Balance

spent

in Excess

of the

Estimated

Cost.

1890.

1891.

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

1896.

1897.

1898.

1899.

1900.

1901.

Total

Expenditure.

Estimated

Private Marine Lot Holders.

$

$

$

$

$

$

36

Section No. 1,*

7,128:44 42,019.54 | 43,791.64 24,984.84 Do. No. 2,...| 55,887.63 34,580.26 49,612.81 35,455.12 Do. No. 3,...| 6,051.44

65,661.55 112,573.89

33,075.47

46,758.18

36,245.99

31,593.99

Do. No. 4,...] Do. No. 5,...| Do. No. 6,... Do. No. 7,... 21,788.35| 31,817.59

3,113.67

6,552.99 7,019.62

5,004.19

9,187.60 14,215.46

1,822.21 3,428.36 14,169.36

7,063.88

55,691.67

8,670.52

7,876.47 14,630.92 27,669.30 5,666.04 53,029.15 57,374.26

77,925.38 9,600.81 51,701.26 44,549.27

63,318.02 14,086.90 24,596.23 29,091.12 32,355.42 6,202.29 5,754.83 11,705.77 10,993.57 6,548.41 36,697.68 48,599.71 43,961.02 25,030.76 14,247.88 39,144.85 11,964.17 31,946.66 28,704.10 63,670.23 | 62,780.32 49,058.88 58,331.35 29,767.101 50,382.14 52,327.67 52,553.60 27,309.82|27,919.28|† 12,423.70

$

A

$

29,025.13 29,025.13 16,322.59 873,478.05 423,260.67 49,782.62 2,343.63 2,205.13 257,445.44 251,176.20 4,206.01 3,892.45 425,591.85 459,378.56 33,786.71 7,998.26 6,377.75 207,399.83 227,392.11 19,992.28 15,581.31 12,793.76 316,891.84 329,686.00 12,794.66 67,275.01 35,341.07 453,892.73 523,788.60 69,895.87 | 7,630.77 3,516.38 300,466.31 316,268.44 15,802.13

6,269.24

106,850.19 204,450.45 332,808.10 114,032.85 240,561.81 272,503.71 228,333.44 233,308.93 198,358,66 | 205,164.46 134,060.12 80,449.13 2,335,165.55 2,530,950.58 202,054.27 6,269.24

6,269.24

Government.

195,785.03

Section No. 4,... Do.. No. 5,... Do. No. 6,... Do. No. 7,...

443.53

1,418.47

755.45

32,304.19

814.38 1,260.26 303.87 2,520.24 4,213.30 1,003.11 1,400.02 2,119.82 544.73 48,472.28|111,086.04| 12,473.23

233.81 9,727.49 5,464.26 3,290.36 5,661.37 4,678.83 1406.59 1,107.42 34,392.17 38,734.40 4,342.23 774.89 1,697.95 16,858.62 18,515.52 11,741.06 3,430.13 2,811.06 63,610.90 67,194.90 3,584.00 637.44 1,036.00 1,541.61 3,337.25 1,094.88 5,888.25 8,925.85 4,585.20 31,866.50 46,818.00 14,951.50 10,156.55 5,709.57 12,954.74 3,393.29 3,005.03 2,178.44 2,827.40 2,818.70 247,379.46 259,218.77

11,839.31

|

11,802.19 18,171.01 36,819.23 28,536.42

Total,...$ 34,921.64 53,206.92|118,679.42 14,324.94

9,761.28 | 24,486.58 16,589.97 11,322.38 377,249.03

Grand Total,.$ 141,771.83 257,657.37 451,487.52 | 128,357.79 252,364.00 290,674.72|265,152.67|261,845.35 | 208,119.94229,651.04 150,650.09

1.83

* This includes Marine Lots Nos. 188, 189 and 190 which belong to the Government.

$21,212.23

36,958.53

+ Expenditure, Less Transfers,

Cr. Balance,..

.$15,716,30

411,966.07 34,717.04

91,771.51 2,712,414.58 2,942,916.65 230,502.07

Expenditure, Less Transfers,

.$ 8,486.01

9,858.96

Cr. Balance,.

$ 1,372.95

Hongkong, 31st March, 1902.

A. M. THOMSON, Treasurer.

509

510

FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR 1901.

Cr

By Sinking Fund.

£20,363.12.8

Dr.

To Inscribed Stock Loan at 34% interest,

LOAN ACCOUNT.

to be paid off on the 15th April, 1943,... £341,799.15.1

ASSETS AND LIABILITIES,

ON THE 31ST DECEMBER, 1901.

ASSETS.

C.

LIABILITIES.

C.

Balance in Bank,

Subsidiary Coins,

106,896.94 | Crown Agents' Drafts in transit,

264,000.00

1,450,000.00 Military Contribution,

92,845.83

Coins in transit,

Advances,

422,000.00 Deposits not available,.

33,542.09 | Refund of Taxes,

456,579.97

4,000.00

Suspense House Service,

165.53

Officers' Remittances,

150.00

Profit, Money Order Office,...

8,000.00 Money Order Remittances,

26,294.65.

Water Account,......

2,977.04

Transit Charges, General Post Office.......

7,600.00

Civil Pensions,

18,600.00

Police Do.,

24,000.00.

Private Drainage Works,

292.36

Public Works,.......

83,954.82

Miscellaneous,..............

8,740.43

TOTAL ASSETS,...$ 2,023,581.60

I

TOTAL LIABILITIES,............

987,058.06

BALANCE, *

$1,036,523.54

$ 2,023,581.60

Not including Arrears of Revenue amounting to $61,132.00.

Treasury, Hongkong, 4th April, 1902.

A. M. THOMSON,

ново

Treasurer.

HONGKONG.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH ESTIMATES 1903.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

ASSETS.

Balance in Bank,

Subsidiary Coins,

ASSETS AND LIABILITIES,

ON THE 31ST DECEMBER, 1901.

Coins in transit,

Advances,

Suspense House Service,....

Profit, Money Order Office,..

Water Account,......

833

48

No. 1902

C.

LIABILITIES.

C.

106,896.91 Crown Agents' Draft in transit,

264,000.00

1,450,000.00 Military Contribution,

92,845.83

422,000.00 Deposits not available,..

456,579.97

33,542.09 Refund of Taxes,

4,000.00

165.53

Officers' Remittances,

150.00

8,000.00 Money Order Remittances,

26,294.65

2,977.04 Transit Charges, General Post Office,.

7,600.00

Civil Pensions,

18,600.00

Police Do.,

24,000.00

Private Drainage Works,

292.36

Public Works,.......

$3,954.82

Miscellaneous,.

8,740.43

TOTAL ASSETS,...$ 2,023,581.60

TOTAL LIABILITIES,......$

987,058.06

BALANCE, *...$1,036,523.54

$2,023,581.60

*Not including Arrears of Revenue amounting to $61,132,00.

Treasury, Hongkong, 4th April, 1902.

50-22.9.02.

A. M. THOMSON,

Treasurer.

834

ESTIMATED BALANCE OF THE ASSETS OF THE COLONY ON THE 31ST DECEMBER, 1902.

Estimated Revenue on account of 1902,

$4,322,731.00

on Land Sales 1902,.

316,800.00

وو

Total Estimated Revenue,.......

$4,639,531.00

Estimated Expenditure Ordinary, ......................

$4,446,846.00

>>

Extraordinary,....

1,141,021.00

$5,587,867.00

Estimated Expenditure in Excess over Revenue, $ 948,336.00

Balance on 1st January, 1902,

Less Expenditure in Excess of 1902 Revenue,

$1,097,655.54 *

948,336.00

Estimated Balance of 1902 Assets, $ 149,319.54

* Arrears of Revenue,

Credit Balance of 1901 Assets,

61,132.00 1,036,523.54

$ 1,097,655.51

Dr.

ESTIMATED LOAN ACCOUNT, 1902.

To Inscribed Stock Loan at 34% interest,

to be paid off on the 15th April, 1943, £341,799.15.1

By Sinking Fund,

Dr.

LOAN ACCOUNT, 1901.

To Inscribed Stock Loan at 31% interest, to

be paid off on the 15th April, 1943, 341,799.15.1

By Sinking Fund,

Treasury, Hongkong, 11th September, 1902.

Cr.

£31,528.11.9

Cr.

£20,363.12.8

A. M. THOMSON,

Treasurer.

1

*

669

31 No.

1902

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE GOVERNMENT FIRE BRIGADE, FOR THE YEAR 1901.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

FIRE BRIGADE DEPARTMENT, HONGKONG, 22nd March, 1902.

SIR, I have the honour to submit the following report on the Government Fire Brigade for the year 1901.

2. There were fifty-eight Fires and eighty-four Incipient Fires during the year. ing each are attached. The Brigade turned out fifty-seven times during the year.

Details regard-

The estimated damages caused by the Fires was $630,381 and by the Incipient Fires $212.50. 3. A list is attached showing the number of Fires that have occurred during each of the last ten years with the estimated value of property destroyed in each case.

4. The water in the mains was turned off from 11th November last, since which date the steam engines and sea water were used, and the work of extinguishing Fires was rendered less prompt and considerably more arduous.

5. One large Fire occurred in a wharehouse after that date, fortunately quite close to the sea-wall. 6. One Fire occurred in the Harbour during the year.

7. A new telescopic fire-escape, capable of reaching a height of 60 feet, was received from Eng- land on the 5th November. The men were drilled in handling it, but it was never called into actual

use at a Fire.

8. I attach a list of places where Fire Despatch Boxes are kept, and copy of report by the Engineer on the state of the Fire Engines, which are all in good order. (Since the report was written No. 3 Engine has been repaired.)

9. The conduct of the Brigade has been good.

10. I acted as Superintendent of the Brigade, and Mr. MACKIE as Assistant Superintendent from the 5th September, when Mr. MAY left the Colony on leave of absence.

11. An additional Assistant Superintendent was added to the Brigade from the 15th July, the post being filled by Inspector KEMP.

I have the honcur to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

F. J. BADELEY,

The Honourable

Acting Superintendent of Fire Brigade.

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY,

&c.,

S'c.,

&c.

List of Places where Fire Brigade Despatch Boxes are kept.

1 Box. No. 1 Police Station.

3 Boxes. Engine House at No. 2 Police Station.

Naval Dock Yard.

1 Box.

1

1

31

1

""

1

""

1

??

1

""

1

""

1

>>

Clock Tower.

Government Offices.

Government House.

No. 7, Queen's Garden, Engineers' Mess. Central Police Station.

Wellington Street at Lyndhurst Terrace. Government Civil Hospital.

Staunton Street at Sing Wong Street. Water Lane at Queen's Road Central.

2 Boxes. No. 7 Police Station.

Bonham Strand West, at West End. Gas House, West Point.

Fat Hing Street, at Queen's Road West. Ko Shing Theatre.

1 Box.

1

""

1

2)

1

11

1

""

2 Boxes.

1 Box.

2 Boxes.

No. 5 Police Station.

1 Box.

1

1

""

Government Lunatic Asylum. Nam Pak Hong Fire Station. Man Mo Temple.

Kennedy Town Hospital. Collinson Street.

No. 463, Queen's Road West.

List of Telephones to which the Police can have access to communicate with Central Station

in the event of a Fire breaking out.

Hongkong and China Gas Company, East and

West Point, from 7 A.M. to 9 P.M.

Tung Wá Hospital, Po Yan Street.

Man On Insurance Office, Queen's Road West.

Hongkong Hotel, Praya Central. Royal Naval Yard, Queen's Road East. Mr. J. KENNEDY's Causeway Bay. Electric Light Company, Queen's Road East.

670

HONGKONG, 19th February, 1902. SIR, I have the honour to forward the Annual Report on the state of the Government Fire Engines, for the year ending 31st December, 1901.

STEAMER No. 1.

(Floating Fire Engine by Shand & Mason.)

This Engine has been 4 years in service, was docked and over-hauled in June, 1901, and the Hull, Engines, Boiler and Pumps are now in good order and condition.

STEAMER No. 2.

(Land Engine by Shand & Mason.)

This Engine has been 23 years in service (Boiler 4 years) it has been regularly tested at Drill for Drivers and is now in good order and condition.

STEAMER No. 3.

(Land Engine by Shand & Mason.)

This Engine has been 22 years in service and has been regularly tested at Drill for Drivers. At the last two Drills great difficulty was experienced in getting the Pump to catch the water, and on examination I found the Valve Seats badly corroded thus preventing a Vacuum being formed in the

Chamber.

STEAMER No. 4.

(Land Engine by Shand & Mason.)

This Engine has been 20 years in service and has been regularly tested at Drill and is now in good order and condition.

STEAMER No. 5.

(Land Engine by Shand & Mason.)

This Engine has been 15 years in service, it was over-hauled in 1900, and has been regularly tested at Drill and is now in good order and condition.

All the Manual Engines and gear, Hose, Reels, Ladders and Supply Carts have been kept in good repair and are now in good order and condition.

Owing to the extra work the Engines have recently done at fires and considering the long time that has elapsed since they were over-hauled, I consider that it will be necessary during the present year to examine and over-haul each of the Engines; but with the exception of No. 3 Engine, this can be left till the water from the mains can be used for fires.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

D. MACDONALD, Engineer, Fire Brigade.

F. J. BADELEY, Esquire,

Acting Captain Superintendent of Police.

No.

DATE.

1234

January February

.3 April

""

30 30 10 1-

FIRES, 1891.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

Nos. 170 and 172, Third Street,

No. 353, Queen's Road West,

No. 41, Hillier Street,

The Hongkong and China Bakery, Morrison Hill Road,

10 CO 1 ∞0

5

May

6

7

July

8

5

East Point,

No. 331, Queen's Road Central,

6 No. 280, Queen's Road Central,

11 December 19

No. 72, Station Street, Yaumati, No. 57A, Wanchai Road,

TOTAL,..

NO. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

Wholly. Partly.

ESTIMATED

A MOUNT

OF PROPERTY

DESTROYED.

3,000

1

700

1,500

1,000

11,500

12,000

1

1,800

600

32,100

No.

DATE.

FIRES, 1892.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

671

No. oF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

ESTIMATED AMOUNT OF PROPERTY.

DESTROYED.

Wholly. Partly.

123 + 10 20 1-∞ ✪

January

10 No. 9, Queen's Road Central, 13 Bonham Strand,

1

40,000

3

8,000

""

16 | No. 528, Queen's Road West,

6,000

21 No. 81, High Street,

1

100

April

}

No. 26, Sai Wo Lane,

1,000

10

No. 17, Queen's Road West,

400

59

11

""

No. 104, Queen's Road West,

1,500

8

May

22

No. 17, Tank Lane,

1

250

9

June

21

No. 29, Centre Street,

1

100

10

July

3

No. 91, Wing Lok Street,

1

5,000

11

August

18

No. 49, Queen's Road West,

1

300

12

21

""

No. 48, Queen's Road West,

1

3,000

13

September 15

No. 80, Queen's Road West,

2

4,000

14

December

8

No. 333, Queen's Road Central,

1

2

5,000

15

20

No. 14, Jubilee Street,

300

16

22

""

No. 16, East Street,

1

600

TOTAL,.....

A

75,550

No.

DATE.

FIRES, 1893.

No. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

Wholly. Partly.

ESTIMATED AMOUNT

OF PROPERTY

DESTROYED.

1 2 3 4 LO CON∞

January

""

7 No. 73, Hollywood Road,

11 | No. 79, Nullah Lane,

1

800

1

300

3

22

18 No. 2, Square Street,

1

10

February 11

No. 68, Jervois Street,

10,000

6

5

March

"

13

No. 101, Wing Lok Street,

6,000

22

No. 22, Holland Street,

1

40,000

7

26

"3

No. 301, Queen's Road West,

1

8,000

8

April

13

No. 87, Jervois Street,

2,000

9

31

25 No. 15, West Street,

800

10

19

27 | No. 1, In On Lane,

19,000

11

May

12

June

13 No. 344, Queen's Road Central, 16 No. 406, Queen's Road West,

2,000

2,000

13

97

14

July

16 No. 28, Tsz Mi Lane,.....

3 No. 191, Hollywood Road,

1

700

1,500

15

14 No. 19, Gough Street,

150

16

19 No. 280, Queen's Road West,

1

1

1,000

37

17

""

20

No. 12, Tung Loi Lane,...

20,000

18

August

16

No. 337, Queen's Road West,

1

300

19

17

No. 32, Queen's Road West,

1

2,800

"

20

25

"

No. 155, Second Street,

20,000

21

22

23

24

25

September 5

October November

18

30 No. 127, Bonham Strand,

12 No. 14, Li Shing Street, 11 No. 115, Praya West,..

No. 7, Ezra Lane,

1

400

No. 248, Hollywood Road,

1

4,000

5,000

1

5,500

26

11 No. 58, Square Street,

GO OV

3

20,000

2

3,000

27

"

16 No. 5, Pan Kwai Lane,

1

1,000

28

29

21 No. 9, Tannery Lane,....

40

29

97

23 | No. 314A, Queen's Road Central,

1

8,000

30

26 No. 22, Tsz Mi Lane,..........

1

5,500

25

31

December

4 No. 31, Wing Fung Street,

1

10

32

5 No. 131, Bonham Strand,

2

2,000

33

29

34

35

53

9 No. 11, Bonham Strand,

10 | No. 240, Queen's Road West, 13 No. 99, Praya West,

3,000

1

9,000

I

400

36

"

25 | No. 100, Queen's Road West,

2,000

TOTAL......

208.210

672

No.

DATE.

TIME.

FIRES, 1894.

No. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

ESTIMATED DAMAGE.

Wholly. Partly.

I

1 2 3

January

9

12.30 p.m.

No. 56, First Street,

2.

14

8.45 p.m.

No. 13, U Lok Lane,

16

1 25 a.m.

25

February

1

7.55 a.m.

6

23

6

14

29

1.40 p.m. 4.50 p.m.

25

""

8

March

3

9

28

7 p.m. 7.30 a.m. 9.25 a.m.

10

April

4

9.20 p.m.

11

17

10.30 a.m.

""

12

28

""

13

30

""

14

May

1

15

15

3 a.m.

3"

16

June

3

3 a.m.

17

3

3.10 a.m.

""

18

July

1

10.25 p.m.

19

August

14

10.30 a.m.

9 a.m.

2 a.m.

7 p.m.

No. 273, Queen's Road West, No. 26, Market Street, No. 57, Queen's Road West, No. 28, Upper Station Street, No. 86, Queen's Road West, No. 17, Salt Fish Street, No. 17, Upper Lascar Row, No. 136, Bonham Strand,. No. 211, Hollywood Road, No. 63, Wanchai Road,............ No. 122, Queen's Road Central, No. 116, Queen's Road Central, No. 137, Queen's Road West, No. 15, Jervois Street,

No. 228, Queen's Road Central, No. 123, Queen's Road Central, No. 59, Square Street,

20

21

3.45 a.m.

No. 68, Jervois Street,

21

October

2

2 a.m.

22

3

11.30 p.m.

23

11

""

6.20 p.m.

No. 9, Sai On Lane, No. 21, West Street, No. 2, Ship Street,.

24

24

12.10 a.m.

No. 127, Queen's Road West,

25

31

10 p.m.

26

November 30

7.40 p.m.

27

December 1

10 p.m.

28

1

""

29

13

5.30 p.m.

11.20 p.m.

No. 115, Queen's Road Central, No. 32, Bonham Strand,

No. 207, Queen's Road Central, No. 183, Hollywood Road, No. 22, Queen's Road West,.

TOTAL,....

FIRES, 1895.

800

400

1,200

2,500

1

2

4,000

1

300

50

1,500

5,000

1

150,000

2,000

1

1,500

2

55,000

1

1

18,000

4,500

1

2,500

2

20,000

1

3,000

500

1

18,000

200

800

200

15,000

4,600

2,000

8,000

2,000

100

323,650

No. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

ESTIMATED DAMAGE.

Wholly. Partly.

1

January

6

2

12

"

18

""

18

"

6.45 p.m.

21

27

9. p.m.

7.45 p.m.

9.30 p.m.

5.45 p.m.

House No. 230, Queen's Road Central, House No. 4, Wellington Street, .... House No. 189, Queen's Road Central,

House No. 15, Mercer Street,

I

$ 6,000

1

1,000

1

2,000

1

9,000

House No. 337, Queen's Road West,

1

1,000

6

February

6

9.15 p.m.

House No. 73, Bonham Strand,

6,000

7

10

1 a.m.

House No. 149, Queen's Road Central,

1

30

8

20

99

1.20 p.m.

House No. 3, Wai Tak Lane,

1

200

9

March

2

6.40 p.m.

House No. 228, Queen's Road West,

3

12,000

10

3

"2

7 p.m.

House No. 7, Li Shing Street,.......

3,000

11

24

""

.8 p.m.

House No. 96, Bonham Strand,

3

Unknown.

12

26

""

8.30 p.m.

House No. 212, Queen's Road West,

3,000

13

30

2.50 a.m.

395

14

April

6

3.25 a.m.

House No. 352, Queen's Road Central, House No. 1, Queen's Street,

2

5,000

1

5,000

15

11

12 Noon.

House No. 144, Queen's Road West,

1

3,000

""

A

16

18

""

7 p.m.

House No. 34, Bouham Strand,

1

1,000

17

24

>>

10.15 p.m.

House No. 19, Jervois Street,

12,000

18

June

14

3.05 a.m.

House No. 76, Jervois Street,

Not known.

19 July

29

4.50 a.m.

House No. 34, Wing Lok Street,.

2

5,000

20

29

12.30 a.m.

House No. 3, Station Street,

1

1

""

21

August

5

1 a.m.

House No. 70, Jervois Street,

2

800 22,000

22

September

6

3.45 a.m.

House No. 4, Praya Central, premises of

Messrs. Wieler & Co.,......

1

100

23

6

8.30 a.m.

House No. 12, Nullah Terrace, Quarry Bay,

I

700

""

24

October

5

12.50 a.m.

House No. 169, Hollywood Road,

1

3,000

25

6

8.20 a.m.

Matshed at Quarry Bay,

1

500

26

195

*** HO

>>

15

11.15 p.m.

House No. 149, Queen's Road Central,

1

100

27

30

12.45 a.m.

American ship Wandering Jew, Victoria

Harbour,

150,000

28 November 21

29

December 13

30

13

"2

7.35 p.m. 11.15 4.30 p.m.

House No. 111, Praya West,

1

p.m.

A matshed at Kun Chung,

1

6,000 200

A squatter's hut on the Hillside at the

back of Shaukiwan Station,

1

25

31

16

1 a.m.

House No. 110, Praya West,

1

8,000

22

32

17

1a.m.

House No. 247, Queen's Road Central,

1

1

15,000

>>

33

23

1.35 a.m.

>>

34

24

>>

6 p.m.

35

30

1.10 a..

House No. 285, Queen's Road Central, House No. 347 & 349, Queen's Road West, House No. 40, Queen's Road West,.........

3

2

4,000

2

5,325

2

2

5,000

TOTAL,........

297,980

1

FIRES, 1896.

No. of BUILDINGS

673

DESTROYED.

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

ESTIMATED DAMAGE.

Wholly. Partly.

- 230 H 10 TO 1-30 a

1

January

15

7.45 p.m.

16

"

8.20 p.m.

25

10.30 p.m.

February

1

99

55

8

26

12.30 am. 1 a.m. 2.45 a.m. 11.05 p.m. 4.25 a.m.

""

9

March

9

4 a.m.

10

April

1

5.10 a.m.

House No. 30, Wing Lok Street, House No. 63, Queen's Road Central,.. Honse No. 205, Queen's Road West, House No. 302, Queen's Road West, House No. 56, Jervois Street, House No. 57, Queen's Road West, House No. 133, Praya West,

House No. 309, Queen's Road Central, House No. 367, Queen's Road Central, House No. 3, Wing Lok Street,

2

2

9,000

30

1

1,000

I

2,600

1

1

6,000

2

16,000

1

6,000

1

1

5,000

1

5,000

1

8,000

11

4.45 a.m.

**

12

4.20 a.m.

"

4.15 a.m.

House No. 288, Queen's Road West, House No. 21, Salt Fish Street, House No. 13, Wing Wo Street,

4,000

8,700

2,000

27

14

22

1.15 a.m.

House No. 48, Praya West,

1

3,000

""

15

24

3.15 a.m.

House No. 13, Cochrane Street,

600

""

16

26

8.45. a.m.

House No. 31, Belcher's St.,Kennedy Town,

3,500

да

17

27

10.15 a.m.

House No. 238, Hollywood Road,

1

2,000

18

29

9.50 p.m.

House No. 115, Praya West,

1

2,300

19

May

9

1.10 a.m.

House No. 12, Sutherland Street,

1

50

20

14

10.15 p.m.

House No. 73, Jervois Street,

2

6,000

21 June

5

9.20 p.m.

House No. 3, Tsz Mi Lane,

1

1,290

22

15

7.30 a.m.

Licensed Cargo Boat No. 69,

4,500

27

23

29

22

3.30 p.m.

24

August

14

3.10 p.m.

On Board the British barque Glen Caladh, House No. 10, Ship Street,

Unknown.

1

600

25

October 28

2.10 p.m.

House No. 137, Wing Lok Street,

7,000

26

November

27

21

"

28

December 8

12.40 a.m. 3.20 a.m.

House No. 109, Queen's Road West,

1

25

29

10

8.30 p.m. 1 a.m.

House No. 138, Queen's Road West, House No. 18, New Street,

1

200

]

1,000

22

30

21

House No. 10, Queen's Road West,.... House No. 63, Bonham Strand,

1

200

Trifling.

27

TOTAL,..........

105,595

No.

DATE.

TIME.

FIRES, 1897.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

No. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

ESTIMATED DAMAGE.

1

January 12 18

29

February 3

10.30 p.m. 10.15 p.in. 4.20 a.m.

On board the S.S. Fausang, House No. 138, Jervois Street, House No. 213, Praya West,

Wholly. Partly.

1

500 25,000

17,000

11

1.20 p.m.

House No. 24, Cross Street,..

300

""

15

9.15 a.m.

Government Offices, Lower Albert Road,.......

200

27

28

1.35 a.m.

House No. 124, Jervois Street,

1

20,000

April

1

1.20 a.m.

House No. 14, Cross Street,

1

4,000

3

12.30 a.m.

>>

11

2.24 a m.

10

21

5.25 am.

"

21

>>

10.15 p.m.

On S.S. Belgic,

12

25

1.55 a.m.

13

May

Ι

7.40 p.m.

Honse No. 128, Queen's Road Central,. House No. 351. Queen's Road Central,

House No. 90, Jervois Street,

House No. 95, Wing Lok Street,

House No. 8, Cross Street,

200

24,000

1

3,000

3,000

1

5,000

700

14

20:

1.45 .m.

House No. 71, Jervois Street,

2

13,050

>>

15

June

15

2.30 a.m.

House No. 114, Jervois Street,

34,000

16

July

23

10 pm.

Hongkong Hotel, Queen's Road Central,

300

17

27

11.55 p.m.

House No. 248, Queen's Road West,

300

18 August

3

4.15 p.m.

19

22

2.05 a.m.

House No. 15, Praya, Fuk Tsun Heung,... House No. 213, Queen's Road West,

7,000

"

20

September

4

1.15 p.m.

House No. 16, Tung Loi Street,

O CO

600 6,900

21

18

7.15 a.m.

House No. 49, Quarry Bay,

600

>>

22

19

>>

12.20 p.m.

23

24

24

""

25

28

7 p.m. 7.10 a.m.

26 December 22

1.15 p.m..

November 24

11.35 p.m.

House No. 64, Third Street,. House No. 53, Stanley Village, House No. 122, Second Street,. H. M. Naval Yard,

House No. 5, "Wild Dell,"

1

1

5

1

300

1,200

-

3,000

5,000

2,000

TOTAL,....

177,150

:

674

FIRES, 1898.

No.

DATE.

TIME.

1

January

2

2285

26

>>

4.40 p.m.

3

February

5

3.10 a.m.

11

9 p.m.

>>

5

25

"

3.35 p.m.

6

March

12

12.40 a.m.

7

April

11

3 a.m.

8

May

10

11.10 p.m.

9

June

1

7.05 p.m.

10

August

10

3 p.m.

11

September 10

2 p.m.

12

October 10

5.30 p.m.

House No. 2, West Street,

3.55 p.m.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

House No. 21, Lyndhurst Terrace, Government Asylan, Eastern Street, House No. 46, Praya Central, House No. 125, Wanchai Road, Matshed at British Kowloon, House No. 2, Graham Street,

House No. 288, Queen's Road West, House No. 295, Queen's Road West, House No. 67, Praya Central,

House No. 22, Belchers Street,.

Matshed at the Peak,

NO. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

Wholly. Partly.

ESTIMATED DAMAGE.

500.00

150.00

200.00

4.000.00

Unknown.

1,000.00

600.00

700.00

100.00

7,000.00

200.00 11,628.74

13

November 18

7.30 a.m.

House No. 76, Praya East,

200.00

14

December 9

5.50 p.m.

House No. 56, Jardine's Bazaar,

2,500.00

15

16

56

12

>>

6.15 p.m.

House No. 136, Queen's Road East,

1

800.00

13

10 a.m.

Hut at Shaukiwan,

5,423.00

>>

TOTAL,.

35,001.74

No.

DATE.

TIME.

FIRES, 1899.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

NO. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

ESTIMATED

DAMAGE.

Wholly. Partly.

$ 1,000

1 01 00 E

1

January 7

3.40 p.m.

House No. 33, Wing Wo Lane,

2

13

10.30 p.m.

3

20

10.30 p.m.

House No. 35, Wongneichung,. House No. 234, Holly wood Road,

100. 1,500

4

29

2 p.m.

.5

February

10

9.45 p.m.

6

March

17

2.30 a.m.

House No. 3, Wai Suu Lane,

7

18

""

7.30 p.m.

8

19

"

12.30 p.m.

9

April

19

1.25 a.m.

10

May

2

7.15 a.m.

11

""

12

""

13

June

232

10

11.05 p.m.

10

8.25 p.m. 11.50 a.m.

14

16

4.30 a.m.

""

15

21

"J

16

17

July August

18

7.35 p.m. Midnight.

3 a.m.

18

10.

""

19

11

1 a.m.

>>

20

12

12.15 a.m.

21

22

September 10 October

6.15 a.m.

5

6.15 p.m.

23

5

ל,

9.50 p.m.

24

11

9.20 p.m.

House No. 28, Praya West,

25 November

8

8.30 p.m.

26

9

6 a.m.

27

December

1

6.35 p.m.

8 p.m.

House No. 28, Nullah Terrace, Quarry

Bay,

House No. 143, Wanchai Road,

House No. 226, Queen's Road Central, Hunghom West,....

House No. 61, Queen's Road West,.

On board German Steamer Sabine Rick-

mers, Tai-Kok Tsui Wharf,

House No. 118, Hollywood Road, House No. 100, Wellington Street, On board the British Steamer Amara,

Wanchai Anchorage,

Nos. 24 and 25, Praya, Kennedy Town,... House No. 205, Queen's Road Central, Praya, Kennedy Town, near Chater Street, House No. 65, Queen's Road West,. No. 2 Store, Kowloon Dock,

House No. 83, Station Street, Yaumati, House No. 373, Queen's Road Central, McDonald Road,

House No. 235, Queen's Road Central,

House No. 1, Duddell Street,

On board S. S. Poseidon in Victoria

Harbour,

Lam Lo Mi Village, Kowloon City,...

1

1,500

20 10 -- 1

50 3,000

30,000

[!at-

shel

160

200

40 3,000

:

300

1

27,500

1

150,000

2.500

1 mai- shed

200

1

2,880

1

1,500

600

19,000

1 mai-

shed

Unknown.

House No. 256, Des Vœux Road,.

2,500

6,500

12,000

150

40,000

154

13 huts

28

*

29

>>

30

22

27

~22

6.30 a.m.

13

6.20 a.m.

Nga Chin Loong Village, Kowloon City, House No. 76, Jervois Street,

1

180

23,000

8.50 p.m.

31

26

"

8.30 p.m.

Godowns next to Hing Lung Lane,

House No. 1, Ship Street,..

3

500,000

1

300

TOTAL,....

829.814

FIRES, 1900.

675

No. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

ESTIMATED

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DAMAGE.

Wholly. Partly.

- 21 20 10 10 10 00 0

1

January

1

12 Noon.

House No. 29, Praya, Kennedy Town,

1

265.00

6

7.15 a.m.

House No. 25, West Street,

1

300.00

3

"

8.15 p.m.

House No. 22, Western Street,.

100.00

4

13

5.30 a.m.

"7

5

13

5.45 p.m.

16

2.15 p.m.

""

7

19

=>

2.30 p.m.

8

3)

9

""

10

""

11

22

12

>>

13

14

February

ོ སྶ དྨེ ུ?|

20

7.00 p.m.

25

3.15 a.m.

29

2.10 a.m.

30

11.19 a.m.

8.10 a.m.

7.10 p.m.

4

10.30 p.m.

ל

15

10

2.25 p.in.

>>

16

16

5.15 p.m.

"

17

22

2.00 a.m.

"

18

March

1

11.40 p.m.

19

9

3.00 p.m.

""

20

11

7.50 p.m.

21

20

12.15 a.m.

"

22

28

1.00 a.m.

>>

23

31

5.00 p.m.

Fishing Boats at Kau Pai Kang Village, 6 boats Matshed at East Road, Tsim Sha Tsui, Matshed of Dairy Farm at Pokfulam, House No. 22, Ma Tao Kok,

Shed at Sha Po Village, Kowloon City......... Caretaker's Matshed at Coffee Plantation

Cemetery,...

House No. 335, Queen's Road Central, House No. 18, Cochrane Street,

House No. 10, High Street,

House No. 11, Shing Hing Lane, West

Point,

House at Ma On Kong Village, Pat Heung, Matshed opposite Harbour Office, Carpenters' Matshed at Hung Hom Cement

Works,

House No. 25, Queen's Road West,.

House No. 11, Hollywood Road, House No. 77, Wellington Street, House No. 128, Winglok Street,

House No. 324, Queen's Road Central, House No. 287, Queen's Road West,

House No. 7, Wild Dell Buildings,

sheds

1 mat-

40.00

1 mat-

3,000.00

shed

1

mar-

3.000.00

shed

1

40.00

***

inat-

30.00

Unknown

shed

1

7,500.00

I

2,000.00

I

200.00

:

1

1ma-

shel

5 mat-

sheds

I

I

800.00

1,000.00

1,500.00

3,300.00 15.00 100.00

1,100.00 1.700.00

50.00

"2

24

April

9.13 p.m.

66

Bluff, ," Plantation Road, Peak,

25

12

2.30 p.m.

House No. 230, To Kwa Wan,.

"

26

16

3.00 p.m.

22

27

21

An unoccupied House in Ha Mi Lane,

""

28

29

22

7.30 p.m.

29

May

9.00 p.in.

30

29

7.30 a.m.

""

31 June

21

12.40 a.m.

32

July

3

8.50 p.m.

33

13

7

7.30 p.m.

34

16

2.35 a.m.

55

35

21

3.45 a.m.

12

36

37

August September 13

29

6.00 p.m.

Cargo Boat No. 374,

10.00 p.m.

Cargo Boat No. 61,

38

16

11.45 a.m.

""

39

19

""

9.45 p.m.

40

25

Matshed at Sai Kung,

41

28

לי

10.15 p.m.

42

29

7.30.a.m.

15

Hung Hom Docks,...

Ping Shan,

A Stack of breaming grass on the Aber-

deen Road, ....

A Stack of grass at Hung Hom West, House No. 36, Upper Lascar Row, House No. 237, Queen's Road West, House No. 240, Des Voeux Road West, House No. 1A, Connanght Road, House No. 11, Tai Wong Lane,

House No. 274, Queen's Road Central,

Squatter's Matshed at Tai Hang Village,

near Yau Ma Ti...

Matshed at Yau Ma Ti Village,

Boat-building Matshed, Mong Kok Tsui, 32 mat Matshed at Robinson Road, Tsim Sha

Tsui,.

1

mat- shed

30.00 15.00 Unknown

300.00 Unknown

80.00

220.00 30.00

400.00

1

· 200.00

1

150.00

1

43.00

8,000.00

cargo

boat

1,679.73

} cargo

holt

3.950.00

17 mat-

sheds mat-

937.00

sheds

200.00

mat-

shed

100.00

30,000.00

60.00 ·

13

October

13

2.00 a.m.

House No. 58, Jervois Street,

44

November 13

3.50 a.m.

House No. 122, Jervois Street,.

sheds

3 mat-

sheds

1

8,700.00

19,000.00

1.000.00

45

16

>>

8.40 p.m.

46

27

8.30 a.m.

47

December

2

2.44 a.m.

48.

9

6.50 p.m.

19

10

Matshed at Valley Road,

50

15

51

20

""

9.20 p.m.

1.50 a.m.

House No. 93, Market Street, Hung Hom, House No. 275, Queen's Road Central,

House No. 9, Beaconsfield Arcade,

Matsed at Yau Ma Ti,

House No. 26, Sai Woo Laue, ........

1,500.00

1

800.00 2,500.00

mat-

shed

mat-

sheds

House No. 235, Queen's Road West,

TOTAL,..

4,000.00

100.00 265.00 20,000.00

130,599.73

.

676

No. DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

1

Jan.

2

7.00 p.m.

Tai Koo Sugar Works,

pl

2

9.30 p.m.

Tai O Harbour,

وو

35

4

13

"}

20

15

6 Feb.

to co

9

10

123

6

11

14

12 12.50 a.m.

2.30 a.m.

6.15

a.m.

Honse No. 201, Queen's Road Central,..

7.00 a.m.

9.30 a.mi.

12.48 a.m.

11.45 p.m.

5.30 a.m.

10.30 p.m.

A house at Shun Wan Village,

Matshed (Boat-building Yard) at Tam Shui Hang 5 Village in Sheung Sha Wan,

House No. 289, Queen's Road West,

House No. 25, New Street,.

No. 1, Lam Loi Street, Kowloon City,

No. 203, Queen's Road West,

House No. 119, Third Street,.

12,50 a.m.

1.50 a.m.

8.40 .m.

p.1

House No. 39, Wing Lok Street, House No. 29, Jervois Street,

No. 13, Beaconsfield Arcale,

Matshed, at Hung Hom West,

12 stone

and

wooden

houses.

BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1901.

No. of

ESTIMATED

DAMAGE.

Wholly. Partly.

$ 18,000

Unknown.

70 wooden

huts,

7,000

Do.

20,000

1

18,000

80

280

1,200

1

mat-

sheds,

Unknown.

50,000

I launch,

and

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

No insurance effected. Do.

• small

twin

screw

steamers,

2

17,600

Exploding of a kerosine lamp. Falling of a kerosine lamp... Unknown.

Do.

Supposed to have been caused by burn- ing joss paper or crackers.

Some straw accidentally caught fire. Sparks from the cook-house setting fire to the matting.

Covered by insurance. Do.

Not covered by insurance. No insurance effected.

The mistress of the house, a servant girl and a boy were burnt to death. No insurance effected.

Damage not covered by insurance,

Supposed to have been caused by a Covered by insurance. charcoal stove igniting the show

case.

}

100

>>

15

13 | 12.45 p.m.

House No. 7, Kwai Wa Lane,

: :

:

2

1,000

Joss sticks setting fire to a partition. Unknown.

70

Do.

340

Supposed to have been caused by over-

No insurance effected.

Do.

Do.

Do.

1,600

heating of sandalwood powder.

Supposed to have been caused by firing | Covered by insurance.

crackers.

16

B

17

19

10.50 a.m.

Matshed adjoining with a coolie quarters at the

Peak Terminus,

House No. 468, Queen's Road West,

Unknown.

Unknown.

200

Caused by firing crackers.

No insurance effected.

Do.

18

27

15

5.17 a.m.

House No. 3, East Street,

1

700

19 March

2

6.14 a.m.

House No. 164, Wing Lok Street,

11,000

20

""

21

55

22

31

16 12.30 p.m.

26 | 10.43 p.m. 9.30 a.m.

A Kerosine Oil Tank in the Engine-room of S.S. "Colonies" in Victoria Harbour,

:

:

103,000

House No. 12, Kwai Wa Lane, House No. 185, Queen's Road Central,

4,200

10,000

ing.

23 April

7

9.10 p.m.

House No. 120, Second Street,

10,000

Unknown

Carelessness by dropping a burning Covered by insurance.

match on some paper.

Supposed to have been caused by kero- sine lamp igniting a partition.

Unknown

Unknown.

Supposed to have been caused by smok-

Do.

Considerable damage was done to the Engine-room and machinery.

Covered by insurance.

Do.

$6,000 covered by Tung On Insurance Company.

Carried forward,..

274,370

FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1901,——Continued.

No. of

נ

32

28

10.00 a.m.

BUILDINGS

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DESTROYED.

ESTIMATED

DAMAGE.

Wholly. Partly.

Brought forward............

$274,370

19 10 10 10

24 April 15

3.00 p.m.

Matshed on the Road between Lok Lo Ha and Ma

1

250

Ngui Shui.

25 May

1

11.53 p.m.

House No. 19, East Street,..

400

26

15

27

21

4.00 a.m.

9.50 p.m.

Matshed near Tin Hau Temple, Tai Hang Village,..

4 mat-

75

Unknown.

sheds.

No. 9, Beaconsfield Arcade,

1

·

:

29,000

Do.

28 June

8

9.50 p.m.

No. 292, Queen's Road Central,.

1

21,000

Do.

29

13

12.40 p.m.

No. 31, Peel Street,.

50

Do.

30

20

2.40,a.m.

""

31

25

9.00 p.m.

No. 7, Queen Victoria Street,......

Shaft Funnel of S.S. "Arethusa" in Hung Hom Dock,

In a House at To Shek Village,..

1

1

15,000

Do.

Do.

:

:

:

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

45

:

33 July

8.30 p.m.

34 Aug.

28

1.50 a.m.

A Matshed at Valley Road, Wong Nei Chung, House No. 136, Queen's Road Central,

1 mat-

50

shed.

1

35,844

35 Sept.

3

9.55 a.m.

A Government Matshed, Praya East, used as Public

1 mat-

75

shed.

Bath-house.

36

10

10.40 p.m.

House No. 4, Upper Lascar Row,

1

500

:

lamp.

37

17

38

19

""

39

22

29

40

7223

7.00 p.m.

A small Matshed in Barker Road,

1

mat-

10

Unknown.

shed.

6.20 p.m.

7.00 p.m.

A Matshed in Peak Road near Tram Terminus, House No. 369, Queen's Road Central,

2 mat-

Unknown.

Do.

sheds.

1

150

་་

""

25 11.00 p.m.

An old and disused house at Kun Chung, Tsim Sha Tsui,

1

50

Supposed to have been caused by a

41

Oct. 5

1.40 p.m.

A small Matshed on the Reclamation Ground near Canton Wharf,

1

15

Unknown.

42

6

7.50 p.m.

House No. 116, Queen's Road Central,

1

2,700

Upsetting of a kerosine lamp.

43

6

7.15 p.m.

House No. 16, Praya, Shau Ki Wan West,

8,000

Do.

· 44

45

46

20

2.20 a.m.

House No. 249, Queen's Road Central,

1

9,500

Unknown

26

7.35 p.m.

House No. 25, Caine Road,......

200

28

6.00 a.m.

A Grass-stack at Hung Hom West,

30

"

47

Νον.

6

7.15 a.m.

In an unnumbered Hut at Cheung Chow,

10huts.

382

Do.

48

17

5.30 a.m.

No. 540, Des Voeux Road West,.

2

203,000

Do.

Caused by throwing a lighted match on floor.

Over-heating of tobacco drying racks...

Supposed to have been caused by sparks from cook-house.

Caused by a lamp hanging near the shed. Unknown

Supposed to be from sparks from a

boiler.

No insurance effected.

Covered by insurance.

No insurance effected.

Insured in the Union Insurance Com- pany for $25,000.

Covered by insurance. No insurance effected.

Covered by insurance.

were burnt to death.

Six persons

Two men were burnt to death and five

men were severely burnt and died subsequently.

No insurance effected.

Do.

Covered by insurance.

No insurance effected.

Accidentally upsetting of a kerosine Covered by insurance.

Do.

kerosine lamp.

No insurance effected. Do.

Covered by insurance. No insurance effected.

Do.

Covered by insurance. No insurance effected. Covered by insurance.

Lath partition accidentally caught fire. No insurance effected.

Unknown.

Do.

Do.

Covered by insurance for $155,000.

49

Dec.

1

5.35 p.m.

House No. 189, Queen's Road West,.

1

2

22,000

Supposed to have been caused by over-

| Covered by insurance.

50

8

2.30 a.m.

House No. 22, Chinese Street,

1

100

heating of a medicine drying stove. Unknown.

No insurance effected.

,,

Curried forward,........

617,796

677

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1901,—Continued.

No. of

Brought forward,.

51

Dec. 10

3.00 a.m.

52

10

8.15 a.m.

33333

53

54

55

10

""

6.30 p.m.

House No. 279, Queen's Road Central,

A Rice Store, No. 78, Tung Tau Village, House No. 21, Lo Wai Village,

15

""

9.00 p.m.

Cheuk I-Fu, Sai Kung,

1985

16

3.30 a.m.

Matshed at Lung Chau Cheng Village,...

56

16

:

4.30 p.m.

57

17

3.00 p.m.

Ap Liu Village in Cheung Sha Wan, House No. 101, Wanchai Road,....

58

18

6.45 p.m.

House No. 67, Ngau Chi Wan,

TOTAL,.

BUILDINGS

DESTROYED,

Wholly. Partly.

ESTIMATED

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

$617,796

2,000

Unknown.

Covered by insurance.

1

40

By sparks from crackers..

No insurance effected.

1

20

Supposed to have been caused by burn- ing joss sticks.

Do.

2 mint-

sheds.

50

:

...

:

:

Unknown.

Do.

25

Do.

Do.

78 mat-

sheds.

:.

8,000

Do.

Do.

2 houses.

1

800

Upsetting of a kerosine kettle..

1

1

1,650

Covered by insurance.

Accidentally set fire with a candle by No insurance effected.

an Excise Officer while executing

an opium warrant.

.$

630,381

F. J. BADELEY, Acting Superintendent of Fire Brigade,

678

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

INCIPIENT FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1901.

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

Jan.

2

3

1

17

18

1278

1.45 a.m.

3.45 a m.

1.25 a.m.

6.00 p.m.

House No. 292, Queen's Road West, House No. 76, Hollywood Road, House No. 60, Hollywood Road, A house in San Tin Village,

$2

Attempted arson.

Trifling.

$15

10 6

19

2.30 a.m.

""

20

"

6.24 p.m.

House No. 42, Upper Lascar Row, Queen's Road West,.

7890

22 12.30 a.m.

House No. 72, Bonham Strand,

...

">

27

و,

8.15 p.m.

House No. 3, Aberbeen Street,

""

29 12.20 p.m.

House No. 1, Shelly Street,.

10 Feb.

2

5.00 p.m.

Hillside between Deep Water Bay and Repulse Bay,.

11

""

12

10 10

-2

A

6.00 p.m.

House No. 24, Stanley Village,

12.00 Noon.

Hillside above the Aberdeen Reservoir,..

13

""

3.00 p.m

Hillside above Bowen Road,

14

6

15

16

""

2.30 p.m.

5.30 p.m.

Hillside at Shek O,

Sai Kung Village,........

11

""

10.30 p.m.

House No. 240, Hollywood Road,

17

13

"3

10.00 p.m.

House No. 308, Queen's Road Central,

18

16

""

4.00 p.m.

House No. 41, West Street,

19

19

A

7.00 p.m.

20

19

""

7.00 p.m.

21

21

1.45 a.m.

House No. 37, Shaukiwan,

On the Hill near No. 3 Bridge, Pokfulam Road,

House No. 8, West Street,

"

22

24

39

7.00 p.m.

Hillside near Cape Collison,

Grass on fire.

Grass on fire.

...

$10

Grass on fire.

Accident.

Grass on fire.

Do.

Do.

$30

Accident. Some dried grass set on fire.

·

Unknown.

Trifling.

Some matting caught fire.

Do.

Some mats caught fire.

Chimney on fire.

23

27

"1

5.30 p.m.

Hillside above Pokfulam Road,

Do.

24 Mar.

1

7.00 a.m.

House No. 295, Des Vœux Road,

Accident.

25

4

Hillside at Aplichau,

26

Hillside at Mount Kellet,.

Some clothing caught fire.

Grass on fire.

...

Do.

""

27

10

"}

4.00 p.m.

Praya Central,

...

28

29

11

""

2.00 p.m.

Hillside of Pokfulam Road,...

12

2.10 a.m.

House No. 17, Tai Wong Lane,

""

30

17

""

31

20

"}

6.30 p.m.

32

23

6.30 a.m.

33

25

4.57 a.m.

34

35

36

99

""

27

2.30 p.m.

28

7.30 p.m.

2.00 a.m.

Cargo-boat No. 241, Victoria Harbour,

An Out-house at Pak Kong Village,.

In a shop at Sai Kong Village, House No. 61, Aberdeen Street,. North end of Wong Ma Kok Hill,

Hillside above Shek 0,

Unknown.

Grass on fire.

Accident.

***

Some baskets caught fire.

31

Noou.

Hillside at Aplichau,

"}

$15

$30

Do.

Do.

Unknown.

...

Grass on fire.

Do.

Do.

Carried forward,...........

$105

Over-beating of a stove set fire to a beam. Attempted arson.

Falling of lighted joss candle on some dry grass.

Chimney on fire.

A jar of chinese spirit accidentally caught fire from a lighted lamp while being conveyed in a trunk.

Chimney on fire. ......

Extinguished by inmates. Extinguished by inmates and Police. Extinguished by a servant boy.

Extinguished by Police. Extinguished by inmates.

Extinguished by Police. Extinguished by Brigade.

Mosquito curtain accidentally caught fire. Extinguished by Police and inmates,

Do.

Extinguished by the Brigade.

Extinguished by Police and coolies from Aberdeen. Between 200 and 300 fir trees were scorched.

Extinguished by villagers.

Extinguished by Police and coolies. About 150 fir tress were scorched.

Extinguished by Police and coolies.

Do.

Put out by Police assisted by villagers.

Extinguished by Police and inmates.

Extinguished by Police assisted by a blue-jacket.

Extinguished by inmates.

Extinguished by Police and inmates.

Extinguished by Police and coolies.

Extinguished by inmates.

Extinguished by Police and coolies.

Extinguished by Firemen and hired coolies.

Extinguished by inmates and Police.

Put out by Police and hired coolies.

Extinguished by Police.

Extinguished by a Despatch-box from the Man On

Insurance Company.

Extinguished by Police.

Extinguished by inmates.

Put out by Police and boatmen.

Put out by Police and villagers.

Do.

Extinguished by Firemen.

Put out by Police and hired coolies.

Do.

Extinguished by Police and hired coolies. About 200 young fir trees were scorched.

679

No.

DATE.

TIME.

INCIPIENT FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1901,-Continued.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

680

Do.

Do.

Grass on fire.

Do.

Unknown.

Chimney on fire.

Upsetting of a kerosine lamp.

Do.

Upsetting of a kerosine lamp.

37 | Mar.

31

1.30

p.m.

38 Apr.

4 12.40 p.m.

Brought forward,... Hillside above Kennedy Town Hospital, Hillside, Pokfulam Dairy Farm,........

$105

་་་

Grass on fire.

Do.

3899

10.00 a.m.

Hillside, Deep Water Bay,

40

41

42

10 10

Hillside, Shun Wan,

Hillside, Wong Chuk Hang,

:

::

"

45

343

18

">

5.00 p.m.

11.30 p.m.

Hillside, Little Hongkong,

:

Some bamboo carrying-poles on Praya Central,

44 May

8.07 a.m.

House No. 10, West Street,.

4

5.40 p.m.

House No. 97, Wanchai Road,

46

11

7.00

p.m.

House No. 2, Station Street, Yaumati,.

$4

Unknown.

Do.

99

47

ง ง

11

10.15 p.m.

House No. 38, Queen's Road West,

48

21

10.30

p.m.

House No. 19, Gongh Street,

49

26

3.00 a.m.

House No. 473, Queen's Road West,

$15

Falling of a kerosine lamp.

50

26

12.30 p.m.

Shed at Fenwick & Co.'s Iron Works,.

$25

Accident......

51

27

6.30 p.ni.

House No. 8, Tai Wo Street,

Chimney on fire.

52

June

20

6.45 p.m.

House No. 19, Belcher Street,

$2

53 July

2

54

17

55

56

31

2.45 p.m. 2.45 a.m. 20 12.15 p.m. 1,00 a.m.

House No. 15, Triangle Street,

Trifling. Chimney on fire.

House No. 207, Queen's Road East,

$20

Unknown.

House No. 80, Kramer Street, Taikoktsui,

$1

Attempted arson.

"

57 | Aug.

15

11.00 p.m.

58

Sept.

5

10.00 a.m.

House No. 48, Queen's Road Central, House Nos. 30, 32 & 34, Cochrane Street, Honse No. 44, Wellington Street,

$5

$20

59

8

""

3

10.35 p.m.

House No. 40, Jardine Bazaar,

$2

60

12

""

9.00 p.m.

Partly built houses in Des Voeux Road West,

61

29

2.15 a.m.

House No. 68A, Third Street,.

39

62 Oct.

17.30 p.m.

House No. 12, Sau Walı Fong,

63

20

11.35 a.m.

Hillside at Pokfulam,

"

64

22

65

"

**

1.00 p.m.

Hillside near Tai Tam Tuk,

...

26

11.45 p.m.

House No. 251, Queen's Road West,

$2

66

27

8.30 p.m.

67

30

""

11.05 p.m.

Matshed on Praya Reclamation opposite Gilman St.,.{ House No. 223, Queen's Road West,

68 Nov.

1

4.30 p.m.

On a piece of land at the corner of Western Street and Third Street,

69

7.00 p.m.

70

7.00

p.m.

Grass on fire.

Chimney on fire.

$206.50

Over-heating of a stove flue. Unknown.

Children playing with fire.

Falling of some lighted joss sticks into

some oil.

Unknown.

50 cents. Mosquito curtain accidently caught fire. Sparks from chimney set fire to curtains. Grass on fire.

Do.

Upsetting of a lamp. Unknown.

Accident.

A stack of Coal on the Reclamation Ground, Yaumati, Unknown. Spontaneous combustion. Des Voeux Road, P. & O. Office,

Carried forward,.....

Extinguished by Police,

Extinguished by Police and coolies from the Dairy Farm. About 700 young fir trees were scorched and one old matsbed burnt.

Extinguished by Police and coolies. Several thousands fir trees damaged.

Put out by Police and coolies. 1,500 fir trees damaged. Extinguished by Police and coolies. 3,000 fir trees damaged.

Extinguished by Police and coolies. 100 fir trees damaged.

Extinguished by Police.

Extinguished by Brigade.

Extinguished by Police.

Extinguished by Police and inmates.

Extinguished by inmates and Police.

Extinguished by Police and inmates. Extinguished by inmates.

Put out by Police and watchmen.

Extinguished by Firemen from No. 2 Station. Extinguished by inmates.

Extinguished by Police and inmates.

Extinguished by Police and inmates.

Extinguished by an inmate.

Extinguished by Brigade.

Extinguished by Brigade.

Extinguished by inmates and Police.

Extinguished by Police. Extinguished by Firemen. Extinguished by the inmates. Extinguished by ocenpants. Extinguished by Police.

Extinguished by Police and hired coolies.

Extinguished by District Watchmen and occupants. Extinguished by coolies.

Extinguished by inmates.

Extinguished by Firemen,

Do.

Do.

!

}

INCIPIENT FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1901,- Continued.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

Accident while jossing.

Extinguished by Police and inmates.

Extinguished by Police and inmates.

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DAMAGE.

Brought forward,.

$ 206.50

72

22

12

71 Nov.,

Nov., 10

8 10 p.m.

3.50 p.m.

House No. 1, Wing Shing Street,

House No. 23, East Street,

Unknown.

:

73

16

11.05 p.m.

House No. 55, Wellington Street,

None,

Do.

""

74

75

76

77

"3

"9

20

10.00 a.m.

Hillside at Little Hongkong,

Grass on fire.

""

22

6.30 a.m.

25

10 000

9.00 p.m.

House No. 39, Stanley Street,.. House No. 216, Hollywood Road,

Hillside at Tai Tam Tuk,

:

:

:

Chimney on fire.

Accident.

Grass on fire.

Extinguished by inmates.

Extinguished by Police and hired coolies. Over 4,000 fir trees were damaged.

Extinguished by inmates.

Do.

Extinguished by Police and workmen.

26

"

6.00 p.m.

78

30 10.45 p.m.

House No. 53, Praya, Yaumati,

$6

""

79

Dec.

Hillside above Shek O,

Over-heating of chimney.

Grass on fire.

Extinguished by Police and inmates.

Extinguished by Police and coolies,

80

2.00 a.m.

House No. 277, Des Voeux Road,

Trifling.

""

81

9 11.00 a.m.

On the hill between Chaiwan and Shek O,

Falling of a kerosine lamp,

Grass on fire.

Extinguished by Police and inmates.

Extinguished by Police and coolies.

""

82

16

""

5.10 p.m.

House No. 22, Pottinger Street,

Chimney on fire.

8888

83

""

17

F

7.45 p.m.

House No. 12, Hollywood Road,

Do.

84

30

Hillside above Aberdeen Road,

Grass on fire.

15

Extinguished by Police.

Extinguished by inmates.

Extinguished by Police and hired coolies. About 300 pine trees were destroyed.

$212.50

F. J. BADELEY,

Acting Superintendent of Fire Brigade,

681

25

5

No. 1902

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE VICTORIA GAOL, FOR THE YEAR 1901.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

PRISON DEPARTMENT, HONGKONG, 24th January, 1902.

SIR,--I have the honour to submit, for the information of His Excellency the Officer Adminis- tering the Government, the following report on the Victoria Gaol, for the year 1901.

2. The number of prisoners admitted to the Gaol under sentence from the Ordinary Courts was 4,858, besides 182 soldiers and sailors sentenced by Courts Martial. There were 29 persons admitted for debt, and 8 in default of finding security, making a total of 5,077. Of these, 679 were old offenders.

3. The corresponding numbers for the preceding year were respectively as follows :-

Convicted by the Ordinary Courts,

Courts Martial,

Debtors,

In default of finding security,

Total, including 702 old offenders,.......

..5,263

127

30

12

5,432

the

The daily average number of prisoners confined in the Gaol was 499, as compared with 486 for year 1900.

4. There were 334 prisoners convicted from the New Territory during the year, of whom, 25 were sentenced to 2 years and upwards.

There were 180 convicts in the Gaol on the 31st December, 1901, against 141 on the 31st De- cember, 1900, 96 on the 31st December, 1899, and 55 on the 31st December, 1898, showing an increase of 125% during the past 3 years.

The military and naval prisoners sentence by Courts-Martial and admitted to the Gaol during the year show an increase of 55% over that of the preceding year, and 93, in excess of those admitted in 1899. This increase is doubtless owing to the large number of soldiers and sailors serv- ing in North China during the military operations last year.

5. The number of prisoners admitted to the Gacl for offences not of a criminal nature was 2,345, made up as follows:--

Convicted under the Opium Ordinance,

576

":

25

Market Arms

123

"

10

21

1:

"

Vehicles

55

;;

})

21

Gambling

423

11

""

Sanitary Bye-Laws,.

153

""

Harbour Regulations,

137

Women and Girls Protection Ordinance,

15

11

for Drunkenness,

107

Trespassing,

24

**

31

Disorderly conduct,

138

་་

Vagrancy,

34

A

""

under Post Office Ordinance,

8

for Contempt of Court,..

12

as Rogue and Vagabond,.

190

""

for Mendicancy,

7

""

A

22

""

Assault, Obstruction,.

Cutting trees, Fighting,

153

62

.....

31

87

Total.......

.2,345

26

6. The following table shows the number of prisoners committed to the Gaol without the option of a fine, and in default of payment of fine-

Year.

Total.

Imprisonment without the option of a Fine.

Imprisonment in default of payment of fine.

Total.

Served the Imprisonment.

Paid full fine.

Paid part fine.

1901

4,369

2,051

2,318

1,226

554

38

!

7. There were 13 deaths (4 by suicide) and 3 executions during the year, and 15 prisoners were released on medical grounds.

8. The sanitary condition of the Gaol was good.

9. There were 2,411 punishments for breaches of prison discipline during the year, being an average of 4.83 per prisoner as compared with 2,344, with an average per prisoner of 4.82, for the preceding year. There were 14 cases in which corporal punishment was awarded during the year, 11 of which were (with the birch) sentenced by the Assistant Superintendent alone, and 3 with the cat'o-nine-tails, sentenced by the same Officer in conjunction with a Justice of the Peace.

10. The industrial employment of prisoners remains the same as last year.

There were 2,513,887 forms printed and issued during the year, and 6.197 books were bound during the same period. The value of the work done in the Printing Department amounted to $22,224.59. Deducting the cost of the paper, etc., used during the year from the net earnings, the net profit amounted to $18,849.15. The total profit on all industrial labour amounted to $24,783.47, as compared with $17,458.34 for the preceding year.

11. All minor repairs to the Gaol have been carried out by prison labour. The new wing men- tioned in the report for 1900 was completed and occupied by long-sentenced prisoners early in the year. The Warders' old quarters, which were altered and fitted up as a hospital during 1899, is not yet available for the sick prisoners, as the new quarters for the staff, which should have been com- pleted in 1900, are still in the hands of the contractor.

12. Owing to the excessive number of prisoners confined in the Gaol during the year, it was frequently necessary to locate 3 prisoners together in small cells constructed for the accommodation of one only; the capacity of each cell being 760 cubic feet. The overcrowded state of the Gaol is somewhat serious, particularly in the hot weather when sickness is prevalent. The building of a larger prison is receiving the attention of the Government.

13. The conduct of the staff has been good.

14. Mr. MAY proceeded to England on leave on the 5th September, 1901, from which date I assumed charge of the Gaol.

15. With the usual returns, I append, for the first time, a report showing expenditure for the staff, and maintenance of prisoners for the year 1901.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

The Honourable

The COLONIAL SECRETARY.

VICTORIA GAOL.

F. J. BADELEY, Acting Superintendent.

Return showing the Expenditure and Income for the Year 1901.

Expenditure.

Amount.

Income.

Amount.

$

C.

C.

Pay and Allowances of Officers, including

uniforms, &c., .......

47,369.05

Earnings of prisoners,

24,783.47

Paid by Military for subsistence of Military

Rent of quarters for Warders,

1,500.00

prisoners,

2,238.80

Victualling of prisoners,

13,600.56

Paid by Naval for subsistence of Naval

1,418.75

Fuel, light, soap and dry earth,

6,796.77

prisoners,

Clothing of prisoners, bedding, furniture, &c.,

3,835.99

Debtors' subsistence,

149.50

Consulate subsistence,

131.00

Waste Food sold,

46.60

Starch,...

58.49

Forfeiture,...

227.09

Actual cost of prisoners' maintenance,

44,048.67

Total,........

73,102.37

Total,.....

73,102.37

Average Annual Cost per prisoner, $88.27.

27

(A.)

Return of Reports for the talking, idling, short oakum picking, &c., in the years 1897, 1898, 1899, 1900, and 1901.

MONTH.

1897. Daily average number in Prison,

1898. Daily average number in Prison,

462.

510.

1899. Daily average number in Prison, 434.

1900. Daily average number in Prison, 486.

1901. Daily average number in Prison,

499.

January,

February,

200

170

60

58

164

161

113

73

97

126

March,

April,

May, June,

July,

147

165

95

82

127

154

213

192

73

214

191

223

69

90

224

166

241

134

90

124

142

282

65

138

162

August,

159

331

100

163

166

September,

132

274

121

159

140

October,

160

227

127

201

162

November,...

151

131

158

135

156

December,

140

100

90

127

51

Total.....

1,903

2,470

1,284

1,413

1,819

(B.)

Return of Offences reported of Prisoners fighting with or assaulting each other, or officers, for the years 1897, 1898, 1899, 1900, and 1901.

MONTH.

1897.

Daily average

1898. Daily average number in Prison, uumber in Prison,

462.

510.

1899. Daily average number in Prisou, 434.

1900. Daily average number in Prison,

486.

1901. Daily average number in Prison, 499.

January, February,

1

6

March,

April,

May,

June,

1

6

July,

6

August,

September,

2

9

October,

7

November,

5

December,

8

30 10

1839 30 co 10 m — 1-10 an

1

1

1

7

I

6

2

4

1

3

7

163300725

I

2

1

1

7

I

3

Total,...

34

66

45

43

28

(C.)

Return of Offences of Prisoners having Tobacco, for the years 1897, 1898, 1899, 1900, and 1901.

MONTH.

1897. Daily average number in Prison, 462.

1898. Daily average number in Prison, 510.

1899. Daily average number in Prison, 434.

1900. Daily average number in Prison, 486.

1901. Daily average number in Prison,

499.

5

January,

February,

March,

April,

1

1

3

4

4

May, June,

July,

7

1

7

2

9

2

2

7

10

2

August,

3

6

September,

1

3

5

2

October,

1

7

7

November,...

2

1

1

December,

1

4

2

CO 122 -—~~ 30 – 30 **

3

I

1

2

2

Total,.....

30.

45.

60

19

24

28

Dr.

1901.

39

(D.)

Abstract of Industrial Labour, Victoria Gaol, for the year 1901.

OAKUM.

Cr.

To Stock on hand, 1st January,....

$ 236.25 1901.

By Oakum sold during the year,

$ 2,204.50

Cost of Paper Stuff purchased dur-

ing the year,

1,257.54

Stock on hand, 31st December,

299.75

"

Profit,..............

1,010.46

Total.............$

2,504.25

Total,........ $

2,504.25

COIR.

1901.

To Stock on hand, 1st January,..

Cost of Material purchased during

the year.......

$ 982.08

683.06

1901.

By Matting, &c., sold during the year,. $1,863.42

Articles made for Gaol use,

32.84

Profit.......

1,138.27

Stock on hand, 31st December,

907.15

""

Total,.....$

2,803.41

Total,............$

2,803.41

NET-MAKING.

1901.

To Stock on hand, 1st January,..

Cost of Material purchased during

the year,.....

18.92

1901.

By Nets and Nettings sold and re-

paired,

35.00

18.08

Stock on hand, 31st December,

6.58

"

Profit,......

4.58

Tota,....

41.38

Total.......

.$

41.58

TAILORING.

1901.

To Stock on baud, 1st January,

$ 197.76

1901.

""

Cost of Material purchased during

the year,..

Profit,.....

974.50

429.10

By Articles sold and repaired,

Work done for Gaol,..............

Stock on hand, 31st December,

206.87

1,350.82

43.67

Total,...

1,601.36

Total,......

1,601.36

PRINTING AND BOOK-BINDING.

1901.

To Stock on hand, 1st January,........................

$ 20.86 1901.

By Printing done for outside,.

"

Cost of Material and Machinery

purchased during the year,

Profit,...

!

6,783.35

18,849.15

Printing, etc., done for Government,

Stock on hand, 31st December,

Total,............$ 25,653.36

$

226.80

21,997.79

3,428.77

Total,....... ..$

25,653.36

Dr.

1901.

WASHING.

To Stock on hand, 1st January,.

22.29 1901.

Cost of Material purchased during

""

the year,..

1,180.14

Profit,.

3,201.93

Total,.....$

4,404.36

1901.

}

To stock on hand, 1st January,

By Washing done for Prison, Govern- ment Civil Hospital and Police Officers at 1 cent per piece, Washing Prisoners' Clothing at 1

cent per piece,

Stock on hand, 31st December,

29

Cr.

$ 1,811.30

2,540.91 52.15

Total,...

.$

4,404.36

RATTAN WORK.

$5

4.65 1901.

30.17

17.16

,,

By Articles sold during the year,

Articles made for Gaol use,

Stock on hand, 31st December, .

$ 38.34

13.19

0.45

Total,............$

51.98

Cost of Material purchased during

"

the year,..

Profit,...

Total,.....

51.98

TIN-SMITHING.

1901.

To Stock on hand, 1st January,.

Cost of Material purchased during

the year,....

0.86

1901.

By Work done for outside,

2.46

34.51

"

Work done for Gaol,...

109.10

Profit,........

79.02

""

Stock on hand, 31st December,

2.83

Total,.....$

114.39

Total,...$

114.39

1901.

To Stock on hand, 1st January,..

""

Cost of Material purchased during

the year,.....

Profit,.

1901.

1901.

CARPENTERING.

$ 236.46

1901.

By Articles sold and repaired during

the year,....

160.59

Work done for Gaol,

""

Stock on haud, 31st December,

3.00

Total,....

..$

400.05

To Stock on band, 1st January,.

""

Cost of Material purchased during

the year...

Profit,......

GRASS-MATTING.

$

$

102.83

268.07

29.15

Total,...$

400.05

15.41

1901.

By Matting sold during the year,

5.21

27

31.85

Matting and Mats made for Gaol

during the year,..

49.62

19

Stock on hand, 31st December,

13.04

20.61

Total,..

..$

67.87

To Stock on hand, Ist January,

Cost of Material purchased during

""

the year,.

Profit,.......

Total,......

$

SHOE-MAKING.

Total,....$

67.87

$ 95.52 1901.

By Outside work during the year,..

71.71

976.01

30.19

Gaol work during the year, Stock on hand, 31st December,

1,008.65 21.86

1,101.72

Total,..........$

1,101.72

30

1901. By Surplus,

$24,783.47

RECAPITULATION.

$1,010.46 1,138.27 4.58

1901.

Oakum,

Coir,

Net-making,......

Tailoring,

429.10

Washing,

3,201.93

Rattan,

17.16

Tin-smithing,

79.02

Carpentering,

3.00

Grass-inatting,

20.61

Shoe-making, Printing,

30.19

18,849.15

Toral,............$

24,783.47

Europeans,

Indians,

Total,.....$ 24,783.47

Table showing the Number of Casualties in the Gaol Staff during the year 1901.

Establish- Resigned

ment. voluntarily.

Pensioned. Died.

Services dispensed Dismissed.

with.

Total Number of Casualties.

32

1

1

1

2

12

50

1

1

1

6

03

12

Return showing the Employment of Prisoners and the Value of their Labour.

Description of Employment.

NON-PRODUCTIVE,-

Crank-labour, shot and stone,—debtors, remands, sick and

under punishment,

IN MANUFACTURES,-

Book-binding,.....

Printing,

Printing, Labourers, Knitting,

Oakum Picking,

Coir Matting,

Grass Matting,.

Shoe-making,

Tailoring,

Net-making, string-making and ship's fender-making,

IN BUILDING,-

Bricklaying,

Carpentering and Fitting,

Painting,

IN SERVICE OF THE PRISON,-

Laundry,

Cooking,

Cleaning,

Hospital Cleaners,

White-washing,

Daily Average Number of Prisoners.

Males. Females. Total.

Value

of Prison Labour.

Total.

1

$

*A

201

201

17

39

12

77

18

2

9

17

3

...

:

01 10

17

745.60

39

1,825.20

12

374.40

2

28.60

82

469.04

18

514.80

2

17.16

9

308.88

21

900.90

3

42.90

5,227.48

1

I

8

8

£2.90 366.08

1

1

28.60

437.58

39

9

27

2

~

43

1,844.70

9

394.20

29

829.40

2

57.20

3125.50

482

17

499

$8,790.56

DATE.

Prison Offences for which Floggings

were inflicted.

>

Repeated refusals to

labour.

Wilfully making a dis- turbance while on punishment.

Personal violence to a

fellow Prisoner.

Personal violence to an Officer of the Pri-

son.

Total.

awarded by Prison Authori- Total number of Floggings

ties.

Total number of Floggings

awarded by Courts.

1901.

FLOGGING RETURN.

Table showing the Number of Strokes

awarded in each case.

Average Number of Prisoners

in Gaol.

By Assistant Superin-

tendent only.

By Assistant Supt. and

a Visiting Justice.

By Judge.

By Magistrate.

of Floggings ordered.

Table showing the Number

Total.

6

10

12

:.

:

сс

20

Total.

Total.

Birch.

3

1

4

:

1

4

10

14

1

:

8

14

10

6

10

FF.

:.

:.

4

19

15

7

:

:

:

3

10

4

January,

555

4

February,

509

March,..

436

4

April,

493

May,!.

501

4

:

:

:

:

1

6

1

14

1

I

00

2

14

June,

481

4

6

July,

476

1

I

13

15

2

August,

477

2

10

5

7

September,

:

6

9

October,

November,

December,

1

1

12

11

:

:

1

6

:.

2

6

8

:.

:.

:

...

5

:

:

Cat. Birch. Cat. Birch. Cat. Birch.

Cat.

I

6

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

15

25

3

10

Q

8

:

-

:

:

...

:.

:.

:.

3

:

:

:

:..

:

Totals, ........

11

3

35

65 114

2

4

57

1

50 114

14

:

86

:

:

.:.

2

4

:

I

D.

:

:

:

:

:

:

4

:

:.

:

10

-

31

No. 106.

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE HARBOUR MASTER FOR THE YEAR 1901.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

473

No. 18

1902

HARBOUR DEPARTMENT, HONGKONG, 3rd March, 1902.

SIR, I have the honour to forward the Annual Report for this Department for the year ending 31st December, 1901.

I. Number, Tonnage, Crews, and Cargoes of Vessels entered.

II. Number, Tonnage, Crews, and Cargoes of Vessels cleared.

III. Number, Tonnage, Crews, and Cargoes of Vessels entered at each Port.

IV. Number, Tonnage, Crews, and Cargoes of Vessels cleared at each Port.

V. Number, Tonnage, and Crews of Vessels of each Nation entered. VI. Number, Tonnage, and Crews of Vessels of each Nation cleared. VII. Junks entered from China and Macao.

VIII. Junks cleared for China and Macao.

IX. Total number of Junks entered at each Port.

X. Total number of Junks cleared at each Port.

XI. Junks (Local Trade) entered.

XII. Junks (Local Trade) cleared.

XIII. Summary of Arrivals and Departures of all vessels.

XIV. Licensed Steam Launches entered.

XV. Licensed Steam Launches cleared.

XVI. Vessels registered.

XVII. Vessels struck off the Register.

XVIII. Chinese l'assenger ships cleared by the Emigration Officer (Summary).

XIX. Vessels bringing Chinese Passengers to Hongkong from places out of China (Summary).

XX. Marine Magistrate's Court.

XXI. Diagram of Tonnage of Vessels entered.

XXII. Statement of Revenue collected.

XXIII. Return of work perforined by the Government Marine Surveyor.

XXIV. Return from Import and Export (Opium) Office.

SHIPPING.

1. The total tonnage entering and clearing during the year 1901 amounted to 19,325,384'tons, being an increase, compared with 1900, of 880,248 tons, and the same in excess of any previous year. Of this increase, 165.128 tons are due to the fact that steam launches trading to ports outside the Colony have been included this year, whereas in former years they have been returned separately.

There were 45,349 arrivals of 9,681,203 tons, and 45,171 departures of 9,644,181 tons. Of British Ocean-going tonnage, 2.917,780 tons entered, and 2,897,200 tons cleared.

Of British River Steamers, 1.697,242 tons entered, and 1,701,417 tons cleared, making a grand total of British tonnage of 9,213,639 tons entering and clearing.

Of Foreign Ocean-going tonnage, 2,637,552 tons entered and 2,609,902 tons cleared.

Of Foreign River Steamers, 48,545 tons entered and 49,503 tons cleared, making a grand total of Foreign tonnage of 5,345,430 tons entering and clearing.

Of Steam launches trading to ports outside the Colony, 82,564 tons entered and S2,564 tons cleared.

Of Junks in Foreign Trade, 1,631,272 tons entered and 1,634,896 tons cleared.

Of Junks in Local Trade, 666,248 tons entered and 668,699 tons cleared.

Thus--

British Ocean-going tonnage represented

Foreign Ocean-going

River

""

River

17

Steam launches

Junks (Foreign Trade)

""

(Local Trade)

>>

19

"

21

21

??

...30.1%

.17.2%

.27.5%

0.5%

0.9%

19

""

21

....16.9% 6.9%

9.9

;)

474

2. Five thousand three hundred and forty-nine (5,349) steamers, 60 sailing vessels, 1,542 steam launches and 17,736 junks in Foreign Trade entered during the year, giving a daily average of 67.6 as against 63.6 in 1900.

For European constructed vessels, the daily average entry would be 19.3 against 14.99 in 1900.

3. A comparison between the years 1900 and 1901 is shewn in the following Table :— Steam launches, however, are not included.

Comparative Shipping Return for the Years 1900 and 1901.

1900.

1901.

INCREASE.

DECREASE.

Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage.

British,. Foreign,

7,511 9,155,198 6,715| 9,213,639 3,429 4,866,969 | 4,092 5,345,502

58,441 796 663 | 478,533

Junks in Foreign

Trade,

35,425 3,221,856 35,394||||3.266,168

41,812 31

Total,

46.365 17,247,023 46,201 17,825,309 663 578,286

$27

Junks in Local!

Trade,

*

36,091

1,198,111 41,235 1,334,947 5,144 136,836

Grand Total,... 82.456 | 18,445,134 87,436|19,160,256 | 5,807 | 715,122

827

NET,.

4,980 715,122

:

1

* Including 13,724 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 460,196 tons.

† Including 15,386 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 495,332 tons.

4. For vessels under the British flag there appears from this table a startling decrease of 796 ships, but, taking from this the decrease of 781 river steamers, and 29 sailing vessels as described below, the result is a net increase of 14 ocean steamers. In tonnage, British shipping shows an increase of 58,441 tons; but if the decrease in river steamer and sailing ship tonnage of 113,193 tons and 69,876 tons respectively be taken into the calculation, this increase will amount to 241,599 tons in ocean-going

steam tonnage.

The decrease above referred to in river steamers may be explained as follows:-Four British river steamers (2 West River, 2 Canton) which ran in 1900, have not done so in 1901. During the former year they entered and cleared 949 times with a collective tonnage of 136,692 tons. Against this must be put 109 river steamers of 22,799 tons, which ran in 1901 and not in 1900. This leaves 59 river steamers of 709 tons to be accounted for, and this is explained by the fact that the larger river steamers have run fewer trips, and the smaller ones more trips.

It may here be mentioned that three coasting steamers were employed during part of the

year as transports: (transports are not included in this table). If we compare their figures for 1901 with those of 1900, it is found that, in consequence of their being so employed, they entered and cleared 73 times less in the latter year with a tonnage diminished by 71,173 tons. Certain other steamers not coasters, have also been taken off the run, as transports, and it is but a natural presumption that, had they not been so, their visits would have assisted to swell the figures of British shipping.

This will help to account for the small net annual increase in British ocean-going steamers. For vessels under Foreign flags, there is shewn an increase in both number and tonnage, viz., 663 ships of 478,533 tons. This is to be explained as follows:-

(I.) Foreign river steamers have increased by 405 ships of 81,476 tons, owing to three vessels having started running this year, viz., 1 French, 1 Portuguese, and 1 Chinese. (II.) Several small ocean-going vessels of German and French nationality (including some junks under French colours which were for a short time. treated as French ships) have come on the run during the year.

(III.). Ocean steamers on the Home run continue to increase in size.

One Corean steamer visited the port for trading purposes during the year, the first on rec

5. The actual number of ships of European construction (exclusive of river steamers and st launches) entering the port during 1901 was 682, being 337 British and 345 Foreign.

These 682 vessels entered 3,570 times, and gave a total tonnage of 5,555,332 tons.

475

Thus, compared with 1900, 27 less vessels entered 130 more times and gave a total tonnage increased by 288,310 tons.

:

STEAMERS.

Ships.

No. of Times entered.

Total Tonnage.

Flag.

1900. 1901. | 1900. 1901. 1900.

1901.

British,

332

3211,759 1,770 | 2,792,973 | 2,894,519

Austrian,

18

20

41

53

102,727

128,483

Belgian,

3

3

4

9

5,963

12,407

Chinese,

16

99

10

128,479

3,349

Corean,

:

1

796

Danish,

6

8

8

12

17,789

25,903

Duteb,

5

9

13

29

22,846

40,872

French,

19

22

232

206

229,954

209,094

German,

107

122

656

842

952,870

1,242,459

Italian,

3

2

13

12

19,782

17,988

Japanese,

83

65

314

336

649,288

692,981

Norwegian,

21

26

110

79

122,859

78,004

Portuguese,

2

3

38

49

Russian,

11

4

12

4

5,856 24,799

4,948

8,797

Spanish,

1

784

...

Swedish,

1

1

6

7.

5,934

6,923

United States,

12

19

53

89

87,206

130,476

No Flag,

4

1

4

1

593

80

Total,

643

5,169,919 5.498,903

632 3,362 3,510 | 5,169,919

SAILING VESSELS.

Ships.

No. of Times entered.

Total Tonnage.

Flag.

1900. 1901. 1900. 1901.

1900.

1901.

British,

31

16

40

19

48,963

23,261

Danish,

2

895

French,

16

337

7,040

German,

2

2

6,303

143

Italian,.

1

1

1

720

794

Japanese,

1

1

515

Norwegian,

1

1

315

United States,

25

22

27

22

39,056

25,191

Total,

66

50

78

60

97,104

56,429

6. The 337 British ships carried 2,569 British Officers and 28 Foreign Officers, as follows:-

British,

Swedish,

Danish,

Norwegian, German,

United States,

,

Total,..

.2,569

4

5.

15

.2,597

Thus, the proportion of Foreign Officers in British ships was 1.07% comprising 5 nationalities; an increase of 0.52°。, with a decrease of ships.

The 345 Foreign ships carried 2,336 Officers, of whom 218 were British, borne as follows:--

In Japanese ships,

Chinese

"

German

""

"9

United States

15

Dutch

"1

French

Russian

Portuguese

>>

...120

10

21

30

27

Ju

Total,..

218

476

The proportion of British Officers in Foreign ships was, therefore, 9.33°/。 distributed among 6: nationalities. A decrease of 2.57 % on 1900, with an increase of ships.

Of the crews of British vessels-

18.0% were British.

1.0%

81.0%

Other Europeans. Asiatics.

Of the crews of Foreign vessels—

1.2% were British. 29.0% Other Europeans.

69.8%

22

Asiatics.

This shows a slight increase of Asiatics with a corresponding falling off in a proportion of European.

TRADE.

7. The information under this heading is still less accurate than it might be if greater assistance was given by those from whom the particulars are obtained, and who alone are in a position to afford it. The following returns must, therefore, be received with due allowance for this apparent indifference to accuracy..

The principal features to be remarked in the reported trade of the Port for the year 1901 are:-

(i.) A decrease in the Coal imports of 12.3 %. (ii.) A decrease in the Cotton imports of 27.8%. (iii.). A decrease in the Rice imports of 8%. (iv.) A decrease in the Timber imports of 18.7%. (v.) A decrease in the Hemp imports of 42.3 %.

vi.) An increase in the General imports of 9.8 %.

(vii.) Also small increases in case and bulk Kerosine and in Liquid Fuel.

The net decrease in import cargo is 123,335 tons or 3.4 %.

In exports there appears to be an increase of 150,823 tons or 7.7 %.

In transit cargo, a decrease of 9,163 tons or 10.4%.

8. The total reported import trade of the Port for 1901 amounts to 24,687 vessels of 9,014,955 tons, carrying 6,347,285 tons of cargo, of which 4,212.700 tons were discharged at Hongkong. This does not include number, tonnage, or cargo of Local Trade junks.

COUNTRY.

CARGO.

SHIPS.

Tons.

Discharged.

In Transit,

CLASS I.

Canada,

21

Continent of Europe,

128

60,669 324,490

.19,975 76,219

Great Britain,

152

457,028

201,020

256,578 443,491

Mauritius,

1

828

300

Natal,.......

1

2,155

United States,.

127

316,462

219,220

71,087

CLASS II.

430

1,161,632

516,734

771,156

Australia and New Zealand,

India and Straits Settlements,

46

81,767

29,976

33,492

164

353,630

260,282

218,264

Japan,

412

906,576

831,933

328,782

Java and Indian Archipelago,. North and South Pacific,...

169

254,006

316,016

34,873

7

3,527

482

60

CLASS III.

798

1,599,506

1,438,689

615,471

North Borneo,

29

41,854

49,682

Coast of China,.

1,289

1,613,719

279,661

8,766 678,354

Cochin-China,

143

188,789

227,299

27,941

Formosa,

107

87,022

18,137

Philippine Islands,

223

285,038

96,122

5,200

Hainau and Gulf of Tonkin,

348

349,952

321,549

27,697

Siam,

203

227,820

349,955

CLASS IV.

2,342

2,794,194

1,342,405

747,958

River Steamers,-Canton, Macao and West River,

1,839

1,745,787

183,159

CLASS V.

Steam-launches trading to ports outside the Colony,

CLASS VI..

Junks in Foreign Trade,

1,542

82,564

12,315

17,736

1,631,272

Total,..

24,687

9,014,955

719,398

4,212,700

2,134,585

477

Similarly the Export Trade for 1901 was represented by 24,598 vessels of 8,975,482 tons carry- ing 3,036,907 tons of cargo, and shipping 542,947 tons of bunker coal.

COUNTRY.

CARGO.

SHIPS.

Tons.

Shipped.

Bunker Coal

CLASS I.

Canada,

21

60,669

29,388

Continent of Europe,

36

146,264

29,750

Great Britain,

85

309,476

81,860

8,176 1,655

Mauritius,

2

1,600

500

900

United States,

110

268,870

183,614

3,830

254

786,879

325,112

14,561

CLASS II.

Australia and New Zealand,

India and Straits Settlements,.

Japan,

Java and Indian Archipelago,.

Russia in Asia,

47

82,740

29,958

6,495

236

518,549

301,960

70,114

391

869,482

201,728

43,368

51

72,944

28,060

11,295

11

11,762

13,800

1,455

North Pacific,

5,091

1,264

2,090

745

1,560,568

576,770

134,817

CLASS III.

North Borneo,

Coast of China,.

Cochin-China,

Formosa,

Philippine Islands,

Hainan and Gulf of Tonkin,

Siam,

Kiaochow,

- Weihaiwei,

25

35,256

13,391

7,359

1,630

2,197,125

620,109

199,643

159

252,362

55,276.

43,259

41

14,011

27,133

1,645

164

205,585

176,946

33,805

408

313,991

105,253

46,788

117

129,885

35,910

34,210

2

4,472

70

890

5

6,968

9,900

1,210

2,551

3,159,655

1,043,988

368,809

CLASS IV.

River Steamers,-Canton, Macao and West River,

1,848

1,750,920

138,183

24,760

CLASS V.

Steam-launches trading to ports outside the Colony,..

CLASS VI.

Junks in Foreign Trade,

1,542

82,564

19,925

17,658

1,634,896

932,929

Total,.

24,598

8,975,482

3,036,907

542,947

9. During the year 1901, 10,807 vessels of European construction of 14,559,069 tons (net Re- gister) reported having carried 8,242,572 tons of cargo, as follows : --

Import Cargo,.

Export

Transit

""

17

Bunker Coal shipped,

P

.3,480,987

2,084,053

.....

.2,134,585

542,947

8,242,572

.

-

1

478

The total number of tons carried was, therefore, 56.6% of the total register tonnage (or 71.4 % exclusive of River steamers) and was apportioned as follows:--

Imports-

British ships....

Foreign do,

.1,865,586

.1,615,401

3,480,987

Exports-

British ships,

.1,230,842

Foreign do.,

853,211

2,084,053

Transit-

British ships,. Foreign do.,

....................1,162,192

972,393

2,134 585

Bunker Coal-

British ships,.

257,743

Foreign do.,

285,204

542,947

Grand Total,.....8,242,572

Trade of the Port of Hongkong for the Year 1901.

TONS.

No. of

Ships.

Discharged. Shipped.

In Transit.

Bunker Coal Shipped.

Total.

Registered Tonuage.

Passengers Carried.

167.324 Arr.

British Ocean-going,

3,569

1,706,003 1.121.587

1,162,192

285,091 1.224.873

5,814,980

104,300 Dep:

44,855 Km.

88.384 Art.

Foreign Ocean-going,

3,551

1,591,825

824,283

972,393

283.096

3.671,597 5,247,454

67,507 Dep.

24,919 Em.

British River Steamers,

3,146

159.583

109.255

Foreign River Steamers,...

541

23.576

28,928

22.652

2,108

291,490 3,398,659

54,612

98,048

616,867 589,455 Dep.

Arr.

17,426 Arr

17,678

Dep.

Total...

10,807

3,480.987 2.084,053 2,134,585

542,947

8.242,572 14.559.141

$90,001 Arr. 778,940 Dep.

69,774

Em.

Steam-launches trading to

ports outside the Colony.

8,084

12,315

19,925

32.240

165,128

43,287

Arr.

43.351 Dep.

Total..

13.891

3,493,302 2,103,978

2,134,585

542,947

8,274.812

933,288 14,724,269 822.291

Arr.

Dep.

69,774

Em.

Junks in Foreign Trade.......... 35,894

719,398

932,929

1,652,327

3.256.168

49,034

Arr.

49.575

Dep.

982,322

Arr.

Total,.....

49.285

4.212.700 3,030,907 2,134,585

542,947

9,927,139 17,990,437

871.866

top.

69,774

Em.

76,324 Arr.

Junks in Local Trade.......

41,235

202,489

82,727

Grand Total.......

90,520

4,415.189 3,069,631 2,134,585

542,947

235,216

1,334.947

89,309 Dep.

1.058.646 10,162,355 19,325,384 961.175 69,774

Arr.

Dep.

Em.

Total,

2,089,595

Į

1900.

IMPORTS.

EUROPEAN CONSTRUCTED VESSELS.

1901.

Increase.

Decrease.

479

No.

Tonnage. No.

Tonnage.

No. Tounage.

No.

Tonnage.

Steamers,

3,362

5,169,918 3,510

5,498,903

· 148

328,985

River Steamers,.

2,033

Sailing Vessels,

78

97,104

1,754,960 1,839

60

1,745,787

194

9,173

56,429

18

40,675

Total,......

5,473

7,021,982 5,409 7,301,119

148

328,985

212

49,848

Nett.......

279,137

64

Imported tons,

3,604,322

3,480,987

Beans,

Bones,

Coal,

As follows:-

Articles.

1900.

1901.

Increase.

Decrease.

Cotton Yarn and Cotton,.

Flour,..

Hemp,

Kerosine, (bulk),

29

(case),

Liquid Fuel,

Lead,

Opium,

Pitch,....

Rattan,

Rice,

Sandalwood,

Sulphur,

Sugar,

Tea, Timber, General,..

560

1,290

730

1,045,812

917,144

128,668

19,993

14,423

5,570

154,111

145,287

8,824

54,105

31,195

22,910

64,732

70,728

5,996

69,979

77,977

7,998

2,759

3,973

1,214

2,850

260

2,090

3.194

2,872

322

10,204

3,488

6,716

673,029

618,780

54,249

3,811

5,272

1,461

22 238,863

55

33

241,291

2,428

6,393

1,4573

82,311 1,172,094

66,860

4,920 15,451

1,278,619

106,525

Total,..

3,604,322

3,480,987

126,385

249,720

Transit,

2,143,749

2,134,585

9,164

Grand Total,..

5,748,071

5,615,572

126,385

258,884

Nett,..

132,499

:

480

EXPORTS.

1900.

1901.

Increase.

Decrease.

No.

Tonnage.

No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage.

No. Tonnage.

Steamers,

3,363

5,154,215

River Steamers,

2,030

1,753,464

Sailing Vessels,.

74

92,506

3,487 5,443,771

1,848 1,750,920

63 63,331

124

289,556

182

2,544

Il

29,175

Total,

5,467 7,000,185 5,398 7,258,022

124

289,556

193

31,719

Nett,..

257,837

69

2,084,053

Exported tons,

1,933,230

Strs.

Bunker Coal.

Strs.

Bunker Coal.

Strs.

Bunker Coal.

Strs.

Bunker Coal.

Steamers,

3,363

463,607

3,487 518,187

124

54,580

River Steamers,....

2,030

25,849

1,848

24,760

182

1,089

Total,......

5,393

489,456

5,335

542,947

124

54,580

182

1,089

Nett,..

53,491

58

1900,

1901.

Year.

RIVER TRADE.

Imports, Exports and Passengers.

Imports.

Exports.

Passengers.

197,606

183,159

124,343

138,183

1,253,378

1,241,426

IMPORTS.

Junks.

Foreign trade, 17,736 measuring 1,631,272 tons.

Local trade,

20,662

Total, ......38,398

Imported, 921,887 tons as under :-

Tea,

666,248

2,297,520

2.905 tons.

Fire Crackers,

Oil, Vegetable,

Rice,

Cattle, (1,478),...........

Swine, (25,524),

Earth and Stones,.

General,

...

2,309

895

667

$7

263 "" 1,510 .159,262

.754,076

**

""

Total,.............

.921,887

""

EXPORTS.

Junks.

Foreign trade, 17,658 measuring 1,634,896 tons.

Local trade,

20,573

*

668,699

Total, ......38,231

""

2,303,595

Exported, 965,727 tons as under :-

Kerosine, (1,376,452 cases

Rice and Paddy,

Earth and Stones,.. General,

10.

49,159 tons.

345,670

.110,598

..460,300

Total,......

..965,727

""

PASSENGERS.

1900.

1901. Increase. Decrease.

British vessels, arrivals,

155,889 167,324

11,435

Do.,

departures,......

106,360 104,300

2,060

Do., Emigrants,.......

53,385 44,855

8,530

Total,.........! 315,634 316,479 11,435 10,590

481

Nett,

845

Foreign vessels, arrivals,........

Do.,

departures,.....

Do.,

Emigrants,...... 30,258

95,646

58,738 67,507

24,919

88,384

7,262

8,769

5,339

Total,

184,642 180,810 8,769 12,601

Nett,

3,832

:

River steamers, arrivals,

639,589 634,293

5,296

Do..

departures,...... 613,789 607,133

6,656

Total, 1,253,378 1,241,426

11,952

Nett...

11,952

Junks, foreign trade, arrivals,

56,072

49,034

7,038

Do.,

departures,. 57,023

49,575

7,448

Total,....

113,095

98,609

...

14,486

Nett,

14,486

$

482

PASSENGERS,—Continued.

1900.

1901.

Increase. Decrease.

Total arrivals,

947,196 939,035

8,161

Do. departures,

835,910 828,515

7,395

1,783,106 1,767,550

15,556

Do. Emigrants,

83,643 69,774

13,869

Total,...

1,866,749 1,837,324

29,425

Nett,..

29,425

Diff. of Arrivals and Départures,

111,286 110,520

:

Emigrants,

83,643 69,774

Remainder + or

+27,643+ 40,746

Junks, local trade, arrivals,......

Do.,

departures,....

80,958 76,324

83,372 89,309 5,937

4,634

Total,.....

164,330 165,633 5,937

4,634

Nett,.......

1,393

REVENUE.

11. The total Revenue collected by the Harbour Department during the year was $251,597.39, being an increase of $5,558.27 on the previous year.

1. Light Dues,

2. Licences and Internal Revenue,

3. Fees of Court and Office,

Total,.

STEAM LAUNCHES.

$ 58,375.98

50,026.30 143,195.11

.$251,597.39

12. On the 31st December, there were 255 steam launches employed in the Harbour; of these, 122 were licensed for the conveyance of passengers, 110 were privately owned, 17 were the property of the Colonial Government, and 6 belonged to the Imperial Government in charge of the Military Authorities.

Two Masters' Certificates were suspended for three months, three for two months, two for one month, and ten Masters were cautioned, one Master and one Engineer's Certificates were cancelled.

#

Four hundred and ninety-two (492) engagements, and four hundred and thirty-five (435) dis- charges of masters and engineers were made from 1st February to 31st December.

Twelve steam launches were permitted to carry arins, &c., for their protection against pirates; of these, three were previously permitted and nine during this year.

?

EMIGRATION.

13. Sixty-nine thousand seven hundred and seventy-four (69,774) Emigrants left Hongkong for various places during the year; of these, 44,855 were carried by British ships and 24,919 by Foreign ships; 129,030 were reported as having been brought to Hongkong from places to which they had emigrated, and of these, 95,454 were brought in British ships and 33,576 by Foreign ships.

Returns Nos. XVIII and XIX will give the details of this branch of the Department.

483

REGISTRY OF SHIPPING.

14. During the year, 14 ships were registered under the provisions of the Imperial Act, and 2 certificates were cancelled.

MARINE MAGISTRATE'S Court.

15. Thirty-seven cases were heard in the Marine Magistrate's Court, refusal of duty on board ship and throwing ballast, &c., into the harbour were the principal offences.

EXAMINATION OF MASTERS, MATES AND ENGINEERS.

(Under Section 15 of Ordinance No. 26 of 1891.)

16. The following table will show the number of candidates examined for Certificates of Compe- tency, distinguishing those who were successful and those who failed:-

Grade.

Passed.

Failed.

Master,

23 23

45

First Mate,..

2

Only Mate,

Second Mate,

11

w:

3

Total,...

59

12

First Class Engineer,....

Second Class Engineer,.

24

44

20

පිය

Total,.....

68

23

MARINE COURTS.

(Under Section 13 of Ordinance No. 26 of 1891.)

17. The following Court has been held during the year :---

On the 24th December, enquiry respecting certain charges of misconduct brought by the Master against HARRY GORDON HAKBORD, Mate of the British Barque" Vale of Doon," Official No. 63,211, of Hongkong. The Mate's Certificate of Competency was suspended for six months.

SUNDAY CARGO-WORKING.

(Ordinance No. 6 of 1891.)

18. During the year, 439 permits were issued under the provisions of the Ordinance. Of these, 109 were not availed of owing to its being found unnecessary for the ship to work cargo on the Sunday, and the fee paid for the permit was refunded in each case, and 48 permits were issued, free of charge, to Mail Steamers.

The revenue collected under this heading was $44,800; this was $1,250 more than in 1900. The revenue collected each year since the Ordinance came into force is as follows:-

1892. 1893,

1894.

1895.

1896, 1897,

?

1898,

1899.

1900,

1901,.

$ 4,800

7,900

13,375

11,600

7,575

11,850

25,925

21,825

43,550

44,800

The large amount collected for these Sunday permits is worthy of remark and especially so in connection with the petition of a few years ago against the increase of Light Dues, in which the Secretary of State and others were asked to believe that, so precarious is the shipping trade of this important centre, that, a charge of 2 cents (Mexican) per registered ton would "tend to deter vessels from coming to the Port."

484

Now what do we see? That since 1897 (the year of the petition) the amount paid for Sunday permits has increased year by year until in 1901, in addition to the $58,375 paid by shipping for Light Dues at the rate of one cent per registered ton, we have a contribution of $44,800 from 282 ships aggregating 466,802 tons, or at the rate of 9 cents a registered ton, for the benefit of one day's work in the discharge or shipment of cargo. It is evident from this, I think, that there still remains some inducement for ships to come to Hongkong, and that the benefit to be derived thereby is not so small as to be influenced by the payment of dues even exceeding the paltry 2 cents above referred to.

It must be remembered that while dues are paid per ton of ship's register, freight is charged usually per ton of cubic measurement and that approximately a ship carries 1.875 of her registered tonnage: 2 cents therefore per ton of ship's registered tonnage represents only 13 cents per cargo ton, or, in other words, it only takes 14 cents of freight to pay 2 cents of Harbour dues.

A ship whose earnings on a round voyage are so small or so precarious that an expenditure of a sum representing less than one halfpenny a ton of her freight may make an appreciable difference in her balance sheet at the termination of her voyage, is not one likely to bestow much benefit on this or any other port, and I venture to think that the staying away of such evident pauperism would be a thing rather to be desired than otherwise.

SEAMEN.

19. Twenty thousand five hundred and eleven (20,511) Seamen were shipped and 23,189 dis- charged at the Mercantile Marine Office and on board ships during the year.

One hundred and ninety-two (192) "Distressed Seamen" were received during the year. Οι these, 69 were sent to the United Kingdom, 5 to Sydney, I to Vancouver, 2 to Bombay, 3 to Calcutta, 1 to Brisbane, 1 obtained employment on shore, 2 went as passengers to Shanghai, 1 to Singapore, 1 to Melbourne. 2 to Manila, 1 to the United Kingdom, 1 taken charge of by United States Consul, 4 disappeared, 1 dismissed, 7 died at the Government Civil Hospital, 1 remained at the Government Civil Hospital, 2 at the Sailors' Home, and 87 obtained employment.

Three thousand eight hundred and eighty-eight dollars and four cents ($3,888.04) were expended by the Harbour Master on behalf of the Board of Trade in the relief of these distressed Seamen, and $207 by the Colony.

the

MARINE SURVEYOR'S SUB-DEPARTMENT.

20. Return No. XXIII gives a report of the work performed by this Sub-Department during year

1901.

The tonnage of vessels surveyed during the year 1901 amounted to 376,539 tons, an increase of 49,253 tons over tonnage surveyed during 1900.

During the same period the number of licensed steam launches surveyed increased from 187 in

1900 to 217 in 1901.

The tonnage of licensed passenger launches surveyed during the year amounts to 12,668 tons. The revenue derived from the work of this Sub-Department for 1901 amounts to $15,991.04 against $15,036.59 in 1900.

In the Return the surveys and reports on Government Pumping Stations, Disinfectors, Steam Road Roller, Stone Crusher, Dredger and Pontoon Crane do not appear, Government Launches now number 16, they are surveyed twice a year and take up a considerable amount of time and attention of this Sub-Department.

LIGHT-HOUSES.

21. The amount of Light Dues collected is as follows:-

Class of Vessels.

Rate per ton.

No. of Ships.

Tonnage.

Total Fees collected.

Ocean Vessels,

Steam Launches,

River Steamers (night boats),... Launches plying exclusively to Macao and West River, by night,

River Steamers (day boats), Launches plying exclusively to

Macao and West River, by day,

Total,.....

1 cent

1

""

3,580 163 1,054

5,553,310 7,175 799,719

C.

55,533.10

71.75 2,666.45

Fre

""

Free

582 785

31,348 946,068

104.68

Free

797

44,041

6,961 7,381,661 58,375.98

T

485

Telegraphic and telephonic communication has been kept up with the Gap Rock, Cape D'Agui- lar and Waglan Island during the year. From Gap Rock station 885 vessels have been reported as passing and in addition 133 messages were received and 3,433 sent, including the daily weather report for the Observatory.

From Cape D'Aguilar station, 1,668 vessels were reported, and in addition 1,792 messages were sent and 12 received.

Forty-eight hours and twenty minutes of fog were reported from Gap Rock during the year, and the fog signal gun was fired 309 times. On no occasion was the relief delayed by the rough sea.

On the 2nd of March the Waglan Island Light-house was taken over from the Chinese Govern- ment, and arrangements were completed for signalling vessels. From the 18th July, 710 vessels were reported as passing inwards and in addition 35 messages were received and 28 sent.

The fog signal gun was fired 127 times. Owing to the telephonic communication being interrupted, 30 vessels were not reported. On one occasion the relief could not be effected for three days owing to the rough sea.

Government Gunpowder Depôt.

22. During the year 1901, there has been stored in the Government Gunpowder Depôt, Stone Cutters' Island:

No. of Cases. Approximate

Weight.

lbs.

Gunpowder, privately owned,

Do., Government owned, Cartridges, privately owned,.

Do., Government owned,

Explosive Compounds, privately owned,

Do.,

Non-explosives, privately owned,...

9,160

191,615

495

46,260

· 3,038

466,223

90

19,135

382

18,464

Government owned,

460

83,250

57

10,847

Do.,

Government owned,.

14

2,590

Total,.....

13,696

838,384

During the same period there has been delivered out of the Depôt :-

÷

No. of Cases. Approximate

Weight.

lbs.

For Sale in the Colony :-

Gunpowder, privately owned,

564

14,960

Cartridges,

do.,

299

77,195

Explosive Compounds, privately owned,.. Non-explosives, privately owned,.

225

11,417

51

10,035

For Export:-

Gunpowder, privately owned,

Cartridges,

do..

Explosive Compounds, privately owned,. Non-explosives, privately owned,...............

35

26

8,190

96

4,800

>

Total,.....

1,261

126,597

On the 31st December, 1901, there remained as follows:-

No. of Cases.

Approximate Weight.

lbs.

Gunpowder, privately owned,

Do., Government owned,

Cartridges, privately owned,..... Do., Government owned,

Explosive Compounds, privately owned,..

Do.,

8,596 240

176,655

4,620

2,713

380,838

27

2,565

61

2,247

Government owned,

436

80,660

Non-explosives, privately owned,......

6

812

Do.,

Government owned,

14

2,590

Total,.....

12,093

650,987

:

486

GENERAL.

23. The Harbour Office is now nearly completely shut in from a view of the Harbour; the pre- paration of the new site goes on slowly.

The problem of providing berthing acco:nmodation in the Harbour for the ever-increasing tonnage frequenting the Port is one that is getting more difficult each year, and though there may not be any very pressing necessity just at present, there can, I think, be no reasonable doubt that, with the constant advance in size, draught, and number, as well of Ships-of-War as of the Mercantile Marine, and of Foreign as well as British Shipping, the water space which, up to the present time has sufficed, will, before many years, be found quite inadequate.

The first note of warning has been sounded. Owing to the increase in size and number of His Majesty's Ships on the China Station, as well as of the Ships-of-War of Foreign nations, an to the reclamation to the shore of deep water by the extension of the Naval Yard, the Man-of-War anchorage, which formerly accommodated all Ships-of-War, British as well as Foreign, has recently been found at times insufficient for even our own ships, and the excess has had to be accommodated elsewhere, and thus while Foreign Ships-of-War are still, as formerly, berthed when practicable in the special anchor- age, this is frequently found impracticable, and their berths are assigned to them by the Harbour Master, a course also sometimes rendered necessary in the case of British Ships-of-War.

The necessity for providing special anchorages for the accommodation of Ships-of-War, coal ships and ships with gunpowder or dangerous goods, as well as for keeping three fairways clear for the passage of ships through the Harbour, curtails very much the available deep water space, and, in order to provide further berthing room without extending the anchorage to an inconvenient distance East and West, the question of deepening the comparatively shallow area lying between Yauinati and Stone Cutters' Island, and of removing the shoal patches off Quarry Bay and in some other parts of the Har- bour, will have to be seriously considered, and probably a system of more or less constant dredging provided for.

The water area within the Harbour Limits comprises approximately 7 square miles, of this about one-half is of a less depth than 44 fathoms at Low Water; Fairways and special anchorages take up another square miles, leaving only 24 square miles of deep water available for the very large and constantly increasing amount of shipping trading to the Port, and although a depth of 45 fathoms may seem an excessive requirement to-day, there is a universal tendency towards larger and deeper draughted ships, and it is probable that, at no very distant date, a considerable percentage of the ship- ping of the Port will not be able to do with a lesser depth. Nearly 2 square miles more of deep water could be added to our present space by increasing by one fathom the depth over the area be- tween Yaumati and Stone Cutters' Island.

In the meanwhile the subject of improving the navigation conditions has received consideration. The principal obstructions to navigation at the Eastern end of the Harbour are, the Penguin Shoal off Quarry Bay, and a shoal in mid-channel South of Cust Rock. As neither of these carry a less depth than 27 feet at Low Water Springs, they are not at present a danger to the ships of the Mer- cantile Marine, though it is quite possible they may become so before long owing to the tendency. towards larger and deeper draughted ships.

But it has been pointed out that they are even now an obstruction to some of His Majesty's Ships which make Hongkong their headquarters.

A proposal of the Vice-Admiral and Commander-in-Chief to remove them by dredging was considered, and an estimate of the cost obtained, but this proved to be so large that it had to be aban- doned and some alternative found.

A beacon has been built on a 12-foot patch inside and to the Northward of the Lyeemun Pass, from which from the 1st January this year a red light has been displayed at night, a similar light is also shewn on the North side of the l'ass itself.

It is now proposed that a light shall be placed on Blackhead's Hill and another (automatic) on Cust Rock.

This can be carried out at a comparatively small cost, as the already approved scheme of shifting Cape D'Aguilar light to Green Island and Green Island Light to Cape Collinson will make the Cape Collinson's apparatus available for Blackhead's Hill, and a considerable improvement can thus be effected which will carry us on until the time arrives when the larger scheme of general improvement already referred to above can be carried out.

24. While on the subject of Harbour improvement, I desire to place on record, and to invite possible criticism of, a proposal which has already been before the Government in a special form, and I therefore reproduce it in this my Annual Report.

487

It will be almost universally admitted, I think, that the population of the town of Victoria is gradually growing beyond the numbers that can be satisfactorily and healthily housed, and while schemes are more or less tentatively put forward, having as a partial object the relief of this over- crowding, the real question of how and where to find good and sufficient housing room for our ever- increasing numbers has not really been tackled.

In 1894 we were somewhat suddenly made to face the fact that, the conditions of life amongst the very large numbers of Chinese of the lower class dwelling in Hongkong was such as to demand ame- lioration, and, since that memorable year, special efforts have been made with this object, and with these efforts has resulted an almost universal demand for more room.

Since the Island of Hongkong has practically little more room for the purpose, it seems remarkable that, just at about the time when the demand was forced upon us, the supply should have appeared in the acquisition of what is known as the New Territory.

Our boundary on the mainland was thrown back and more than 200 square miles added to Hongkong.

In this large tract of almost unoccupied land, we have to hand, at once, the remedy for overcrowd- ing in our City, and if we really mean business when we speak about relieving the pressure in the dwellings in Victoria, we must give all half-measures the go-by in favour of the one full measure of providing housing room whereby the surplus population can be accommodated on the other side of the Harbour. By this means a double purpose will be served, the unhealthy conditions now existing in Victoria will be removed and, at the same time, the New Territory will be opened up and developed, to the advantage of the Public Revenue and of the Colony generally.

But in order to accomplish this, it is absolutely necessary that we should have easy communica- tion with the other side, and by "easy" I mean something very different from the present Ferry

service.

Communication between Hongkong and Kowloon should be by means of a Bridge across the

Harbour.

The advantages to be derived by such a means of communication are so obvious, that they need hardly be alluded to. The mere thought of the difference between walking over to Kowloon direct, or riding over in a chair or a ricksha, or, better still, in the electric tramcar, compared with the present more or less comfortless passage in moderate weather and no passage at all in bad weather, should be sufficient to commend the scheme beyond question.

Nor is the scheme, in my opinion, anything less than a practical one, for there can be no en- gineering difficulty, I should say, in building a bridge about one mile long over water averaging in depth about 37 feet and with a maximum of 52 feet at Low Water.

Nor will such a bridge be any practical obstruction, or even inconvenience, to shipping.

The line I would propose would be from Pottinger Street to Tsim Sha Tsui and so striking Robinson Road, Kowloon.

The style of the bridge is not of importance at the present moment, but I would suggest one break in it, to be closed by a "swing" or a "draw" bridge, not for general use, but chiefly for the conve- nience of more or less disabled ships wishing to go into dock from the further side of the bridge.

The Harbour would be practically divided into two parts, the Eastern and the Western, and at the first glance, it might seem that, a ship in the Western half bound North, or a ship in the Eastern half bound South, would be seriously inconvenienced, but this is not really so.

To a given point in her voyage, the ship going North would, at a speed of 10 knots, sacrifice 45 minutes if she started from the West of the bridge and went out throngh Sulphur Channel, while the ship bound South and being to the East of the bridge would sacrifice even less.. How often one sees in the present day, ships spending almost as many minutes in "pointing" after they have left their buoy if they happen to be adversely swung, while, on the other hand, ships under similar circumstances can be seen leaving just as they would do it the bridge existed, that is to say, going out by Lyeemun Pass if bound South and vice versa.

By placing the bridge where I propose, the well established costing steamers of the Douglas S. S. Co. would have their Wharf on the Eastern half of the Harbour. Their first port being only about 175 miles distant, 45 minutes might be of importance to them.

It would necessarily be a low-level bridge both for the convenience of the approaches and for better security from typhoons. A clearance not exceeding 40 feet at high water would, I consider, be ample.

488

That the cost of such a bridge would be considerable is undoubted, but any reasonable expend- iture would be justified in a cause such as I have alluded to. Besides which, the bridge can be made remunerative by the imposition of a toll.

Not less than 6,000,000 passengers annually pass between Hongkong and Kowloon (3,000,000- each way) this number would probably be increased by one-half if a bridge existed.

Nine million (9,000,000) passengers at an average toll of 1 cent would be a substantial return on the money laid out, and this the direct return only, the indirect return, in the form of rates, &c., would probably be even greater, while the advantage to be gained in being able to carry telegraph cables, &c., across the bridge instead of in their present rather precarious position and the possibility of using the bridge as an aqueduct for a supply of water to Hongkong from the Kowloon range cannot altogether be overlooked.

IMPORT AND EXPORT (OPIUM) OFFICE.

25. The Return shows that during the year the amount of Opium reported was as follows:-

1900. Chests.

1901: Increase. Decrease. Chests. Chests. Chests.

Imported,

43,256

42,314

942

Exported,

38,721

40,26912

1,548

Through Cargo reported

but not landed,

17,557

12,150

5,4073

Fourteen thousand three hundred and twenty-five (14,325) permits were issued from this Office during the year, being a decrease of 319 as compared with 1900.

A daily memo. of exports to Chinese ports was during the year supplied to the Commissioner of Imperial Maritime Customs, and a daily memo. of exports to Macao was supplied to the Superintend- ent of Raw Opium Department of Macao.

Surprise visits were paid to 76 godowns during the year.

I have the honour to be,

The Honourable J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, C.M.G.,

Colonial Secretary,

&c.,

ģc.,

&c.

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

R. MURRAY RUMSEY,

Ret. Com., R. N.,

Harbour Master, &c.

I. NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, and CARGOES of I

BRITISH.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST,

TOTAL.

COUNTRIES WHENCE ARRIVED.

Cargoes.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Vessels..

Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Dis-

Transit. charged

Australia and New Zealand,

British Columbia,................

British North Borneo,...........

20

48,183 1,899

13

21,413

21

718 60,669 3,877

23,830 23,208

27,549 6,195 19,975

29

D cha

48,183 1,899 2

13

21

21,413 718 60,669 3,877

2

41

1,832 2,115,366 84,076 295,549 382,363 56,943 2,205) 85,940)

4

10,977

41

4

3

2,016

148

35

2,987

81

1,178

20

8.

Canuda,

Cape of Good Hope,

Coast of China,..

Cochin-China,

Continent of Europe,

Formosa,

Great Britain,

India and Singapore,

Japan,......

Java and other Islands in the Indian Archipelago,.

Macao.

Mauritius,

Natal,

North Pacific,

Philippine Islands,

Ports in Hainan and Gulf of Tonquin,

Sandwich Islands,

Siam,

United States of America,

South America.......

178

4,400 19,675 32

7,960 25,045 1,735 127 374,801 8,486 171,071 366,810) 102 223,897 10,082 172,818 123,041 186 402,962 10,167 394,700, 152,053 116 186,350 7.487 218,354 24,377

28,013 304 319,620 22,080

68,922 140 181,938 9.259)

55 63,433 2,908 93,650

197 219,198 10,601 2,0292,334,564 94,677|| 29

82

2,155 35

114!

2,600

27

44,504 1,676|

55

-

69,747 3,132 102,570

68 173,718 4,609 150,255

59,870

TOTAL,.

3,125 4,334,462 172,898|1,865,586|1,162,192|

1,859 $29

6,549

145

56,943 2,205| 178 10,977 27,061 1,878 127 374,801 8,480) 17 104 226,884 10,163||| 17: 187|| 404,140|10,187|| 39- 116 186,350 7,487 218 304 319,620 22,080

2,155 35

114

9

167 225,842 10.935

561

55

2:

65,292 2,937|

9%

8: 29:

69,747 2,132 102

70 180,267 4,754 150

235 280,560) 12,739) 3,360 4,615,022 185,637 1,865

II.-NUMBER, TONNAGE, Crews, and Cargoes

With CargoES.

BRITISH.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

COUNTRIES TO WHICH

DEPARTED.

Shippet.

Shipped.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Cargoes.

Bunker Vessels.

Coal.

Tons. Crews.

Bunker

Coal. Vessels.

Crews. Tons.

Bunker Vessels

Cargoes. Corl.

Australia & New Zealand,

28

45,308 2,598

24,570

1,695

British Columbia,

British North Borneo,

11

Canada,

21

15,937 60,669 3,853

769

3,574

3,680

8,081 118

169 7,636

1,200

540

29,388

33

16

938 23,573 21 60,669 3,853

53,389 2,716|

24,570 2,895

1:

3,574 29,388

4,220

Cape of Good Hope,

Coast of China,

2,180 2,685,452 101,131 452.667 104,125

ان

Cochin-China,

6

7,810

3231

7,350

2,029

23

63,006 3,448 35,152 1,042

99

4,120 2,2312,748,452 101,579 452,607 108,245| 13,239 10,515 89 7,350 8,486

42,962 1,365

BG

Continent of Europe,

Formosa...

18

10,181 2411

14,707

1,125

18

Great Britain,

58 211,796 5,865

70,340

1,155

India and Singapore,.

125 257,197 12,818) 220.589

39,098

151 25,921 683

5.223

Japan,

Java and other islands in the Indian

Archipelago,

11

16,469

Kiauchow,

Macao,

2 4,472 305 320,675 22,028 18,887

126 267,812 8,153 94,724 13,945

614

101

46 90.275 1.920|

2,455

10,181 58 211,796 5,805| 140 283,118 13,451|| 220,589 172 358,087| 10,073]

241

14,707

1,125

70,310

1,155

27

44.321

92

94.724

16.400 134

12,060

70

4,190

18

25,029

548

2,800

29

890 6.206

2

41,498 1,162 101 4,472 305 320,675 22,028

12,060)

6,990

13

Mauritius,

North Pacific,

215

Philippine Islands,

138 176,296 9,190

160 167,300

1

215

70 16,887

160

890 6,206 1,014

2

6

Ports in Hainan & G. of Tonquin,

37

36,517 2,020

8,952

30,822 4,367

7 14,222 308 24! 35,076 1,231

845 4,399

71,593 3,260

145190,518 9.498 167,3001

61

31,665

16

8,952)

8,766

314

10

Russia in Asia,

Sandwich Island,

Siam,

23

23,654 1,894

7,550

6,905

12,899

494

Sonth America,

United States of America, Wei-hai-wei,

46 112.620 3,616

6,968

243

88,054 2,510

9,900

21,272

335

3,175

550

32

1,210

...

36,553 1,888)

57 133,892 3,951| 2431 6,968

7,550

10,080

67

88.054 9,900,

3,060

47

1,210

TOTAL,..

3,1414,260,048 174,975|1,230,842||| 223,950

214 338,569 10,246 33.793 3,3855 4,598,617 185,221 1,230,842 257,743 15,148

1.-NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, and CARGOES of Vessels ENTERED at Ports in the Colony of Hongkong from e‹

BRITISH.

IN BALLAST.

FOREIGN.

IN BALLAST.

WITH CARGOES.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Vessels..

Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Dis-

charged Transit.

Dis- charged. Transit.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Dis- charged. Transit.

Vessels. Tons. Cre

29

48,183 1,899

23,830 25,208)

29

48,183 1,899) 23,830 25,208 17

13

33,584 1,454| 6,146 8,284

21,413 718 27,549 6,195 16 20,441 839 22,138 2,571 21] 60,669 3,877) 19,975

41 56,943 2,205| 85,940

4

2,016 143

2,987

81

1,178

201

24,377)

13 21,413 · 718 27,549 · 6,195 21 60,669 3,877|| 19,975)

1,852 2,115,366 84,076 295,549 382,363|

41

56,943 2,205 85,940|

41 10,977 178 4,400 19,675

25,045 1,735 7,960

32

127 374,801 8,480 171,071' 366,810| 102) 223,897) 10,082) 172,818 123,041) 186 402,962 10,167|| 394,700, 152,053Į 116 186,350 7.487 218,354 304 319,620 22,080| 28,043

197 219,198 10,601 2,029 2,334,564 94,677 295,549 382,363 13,964 1,735,848 208,723 841,197 295,991 4,886 580,671 61,3:

102 131,846] 6,992| 141,359| 27,941

123 313,258 7,697| 71,819 236,903

82,227 2,245, -29,949 76,681 60 126,746 3,882] 27,464 95,223 224 501,145 14,109 437.233 176,729 67,666 2,260| 97,662 10,496 81,454 16,676

828

10,977 173 4,400 19,675 35 27,061 1,878| 7,960 127 374,801 8.486 171,071 366,810 104 226,884 10,163 172,818) 123,041) 187 404,140 10,187| 394,700| 152,053| 116 186,350 7,487 218,354 304 319,620 22,080) 28,043

68

-56,679 3,062 10,177

255 3,282

}

21

25

24,377

53 922

44

29,744 3001

301

1,291'

21,185 3,66

G

2,155

35

1

2,155 35

114

1

114

9

2,246 102

482

GO

1,167

140 181,938| 9,259

55

68,922 2,600 63,433 2,908 *93,650

44,504 1,676Į

167

1,859 29

56

225,842 10.935| 68,922 65,292 2,937 93,650

2,600

28 29,493 1,095 27,220 292 284,650 10,134 227,899

2,600

28 29,703 1,10.

27,697

55

69,747 3,132 102,570|

55

68 173,718 4,609 150,255 59,870

6,549 145

69,747 2,132 102,570

70 180,267 4,754 150,255

59,870

148 158,073 7,118 247,385

57 136,195 4,520, 68,985

11,217

3,1254,334,462 172,898|1,865,586|1,162,192

235 280,560 12,739 3,3604,615,022| 185,637|1,865,581|1,162,192 16,1043,762,379 291,131 2,847,114 972,393 5,223 637,554 66,518

II.—NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, and CARGOES of Vessels CLEARED in the Colony of Hongkong for each Cou

CARGOES.

BRITISH.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

FOREIGN.

IN BALLAST.

Shippet.

WS.

Cargors.

Bunker Coal.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Bunker Coal.

Vessels. Tons. Crews.)

598 24,570 1,695

353 29,388

69 3,574

3,680,

8,081 118

7,636 169

1,200] 33

540

16

131

452.667 104,125

51

3231

7,350

2,029

E2

23

29

Shipped.

Cargoes.

53,389 2,716) 24,570 2,895 11 26,295 1,205 5,388 3,600

23,573 938 3,574 4,220

11,683 533 9,817 3,139 21 60,669 3,853 29,388)

63,006) 3,448 4,120 2,231 2,748,452 101,579 452.607

8,486 35,152 1,042]

42,962 1,365 7,350

Shipped.

Bunker Vessels.

Conl.

Tons. Crews.

Cargoes.

Runker Vessels.

Coal.

Tons. Crews.

Bunker Coal.

Vessels.

3

3,056 49

14

9

:

41 14,707

1,125

18

,65

70,340

1,155

18 220.589

39,098 15 25,921 623

5.223

53 94,724 13,945 46 90.275 1.920| 14 12,060 4,190 18 25,029 518

2,455

2,800

01

70

890

28 18,887

6.206

305 320,675 22,028

10,181| 241 14,707

1,125 58 211,796 5,865 70,340 1,155 140 283,118 13,451|| 220,589 44.321 172 358,087 10,073] 94.721 29 41,498 1,162 12,000

2 4,472 101

70 16,887

22

27

16.400

6,990 890 6,206

21.489 36| 146,264| 5,258

8,176 2,649 142 124,26 520 97,680 2.957) 11,520

500 92| 226,323] 6,259] 81,371 25,793! 184 341,577 11,091| 107,004|

24,423 13 18,977 455 16,000 3,685

47.926 29,750

108,245 13,239 2,089,496 225,389 1,189,237 100,586 5,772 410,759 53,191 89619,0112,5

10,5 15 89 158,291|| 7,179|

41 51,106 1,499 11,255 130

36

1 1,181 21

23

27

9,108 189 85 169,818 5,652 12,449 384

96

2,545

219 5

620

22

.....

1,014

9

160

1

9

30 167,300

30,822

29

8,952 4,367 24

14.222 308 35,076 1,231,

845 4,399

215

160 145190,518 9,498 167,300) 31,663| 61 71,593|| 3,260| 8,952) 8,766)

88,420 17,752||||| 50,355||

1.600 114 2,646 181 1.101

400

117

7,697 1,327

1,131

500

900)

2

1,800

2,230 150

790

8

16

12,535 725

9,646

1,970)

2.532 101

314

196,728 11,275

96,301

33,002

33

45,670

1,255

10 11.507 405 13,800 1,420

1

255

17

170 19 5,020

35 11

847 24

4

7,550, 6,905

12,899 494 3,175

88.054 2,510 11 21,272 335

9,900 1,210

550

اد

32 36,553 1,888| 7,550 10,080

57 133,892 3,951 88.054 3,060 6,968 2431 9,900 1,210

'51,230,842 223 950)

53 13

214 338,569 10,246|| 33.793 3,355 4,598,617 185,221 1,230,842 257,743 15,1483,631,087 300,014 1,806,065 251,388 6,095 745,778 64,617 33,816 21,243 4,57

47 126,817 5,075 95.560

67 72,076 3,019 28.356 19,715 18 21,256 643

770

4,415

85

8,691 133

· each Country for the Year ending 31st December, 1901.

:

489

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

TOTAL.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL..

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

rews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Dis- charged Transit

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Vessels.

Dis-

Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

charged Transit.

Dis-

charged. | Transit.

17

33,584 1,454| 6,146 8,284

46

81,767 3,353 29,976 33,492

46

81,767 3,353

29,976 33,492

***

16

20,441 838 221,33 2,571

29

21

41,854 1,556 49.682 8,766 60,669 3,877 19,975

29

41,854 1,556

49,682 8,766

21

60,669 3,877 19,975

1,378 18,850 2,316,520, 271.101 811,197

17

227

721

25

60 126.746 3,882]

64

102 131,846 6,992 141,359 124 313,513 7,714 71,819

59,961 3,289|

10,177 82,227 2,425| 29.949 76,681 87,464 95,223 225 502,456 14,173 437.233 176,729

53

67,656|| 2,260| 97,662 3,665 1,223 102,639 20,341}

295,991 15,796 4,851,212 292,799 1,136,746 678,354 5,082

27,941

143 188,789 9,197 227,299| 27,941j 236,903)

127 324.235 7,875 76,219 256,578

799,869 71,979

100

81,724 4,797 18,137

255 17 5,298 370

152

457,028 10,911 201,020 443,491

162

350,643 13,964 260,282 218,264

410

904,107 24,276 831.933 328,782

84

+

10,496

169 254,006 9,747 316,016

34,873

29.744

1,226 401,074 38,756

57,787

301

828 44

3001

T

828 44

300

1

62

3,413 164

482

60

2,246

102!

482

.60

1,105]

501

59,196 2.200, 27,200

2,600

168 201,831 10.354

292

284,660 10,131 227,899

27,697

148 158,073 7,118 247,385

57 136,195 4,520 68,965

96,122 347 348,093 13,042 321,549] 208 227,820 10.250 349,955

5,200

27,697

2,155 35 1,281 71 74,207 2,781 1,859 29

2,155

20,879 4,651,084 365,778 1,136,746 678,354

143 188,789 9,197 227,299 279,41 128 324,490 7,892 76,219 250,578 107 87,022 5,167 18,137 152 457,028 10,911 201,020 443.491 2,987 81 164 353,630 14,045| 260,282 218,264 2,469]

412 906,576 24,360 831,933) 328,782 169 254,006 9.747 316,016 21,185 3,665 1,527 422,259 42,421] 828 44 35

34.873

57,787

300

3,527 173

482

60

223

285,038 13,135|

96,122

5,200

348

349,952 13,071 321,549,

27,697

11,217

125 809,913 9,129 219,220 71,087

6,549 145

203 227,820 10,250 349,955

127 316,462 9,274 219,220 71,087

,518 21,3274,399,935 357,649 2,347,114 972,393 19,229 8,096,841 463,929 4,212,700 2,134,585 5,458 918,114 79,257 24,687 9,014,955 543,286 4,212,700 2,154,585

Country for the Year ending 31st December, 1901.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

TOTAL.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Shipped

Shipped.

Shipped.

Bunker

Tons. Crews.

S.

Cargoes.'

29,351 1,254 5,388 3,600 39

Bunker Vessels.

Coal.

Tons. Crews.

Cargoes.

Bunker Vessels. Tons.

Coal.

rews.

Coal. Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Cargoes. Coal.

bunker

74,603 3,80% 29,958 5,295

8

i

9 11,683 533 9,817 8,139

0 209,400 8,678

6 146,264 5,258

47,926 32,744 29,750 8.176 3,830 163 12,426

520 97,680 2,957 11,520

500

20 27,620 1,302 13.391 6,819 21 60,669 3,853 29,388

12,500,255 276,580 1,189,237 109,552 15,4194,774,948 322,120 1,641,904 204,711 5,823

95 166,104 7,502 55,276 23,518 36 146,264 5,258 29,750 8,176 41 12,830 388 85 309,476 8,822

11,137 167

7,636 169

1,200 47

540 25 21

82,740 3,970 · 29,958

6,495

33,256 1,471 13.391 7,359 (0,669 3,853 29.388

1

64

3235,431 6,448 81,371 23,793 511,395 16,743 107,004 26,968

31,446 839 16,000

27,133 1,645 81,860 217 483,520 19,077 301,960] 260 609,389 19,244 201,728

4,305

96,117 19,079

50,355

4001

24

35,466 1,069 28,060 2 4,472 101 1,819 409,095 39,780

1,655 64,891 19 38,368 7,875

473,765 55,639| 86,258 2,541

1,181 21

35,029 822 131 260,093 7,572

13,086 21,2425,248,718 377,159 1,641,904 217,797

159 252,362 10,043 19,741

55,276 43,259

36 146,246 5,258, 41 14,011 85 309,476 8,822

29,750

8,176

404.

27.133

1,645

$1,800

1,655

5,223

236

5,000

391

518,549; 19,899 301,960 869.482 26,816 201,728

70,114

43,368

27

37,478 982

3,420

51

72 944 2,001; 28,060

11,295

1,600 114

4.876 337

15,067 826

500

900 1,104 2.090 9,646, 2,140 242,398 12,530)| 96.301 88,022 11,762 422 18,800 1,455

98,332 3,662 28,360 24,130

131,978 5,208 95,560 770

1,600 114 2,861 190,

70 69,242 500

890 6,600

2

117

7,697 1,827

4,472 101 1,436 416,792 41,107

70

890

69,242

6,606

900

21

1,264

1,300

2,230 156

790

9

1,600, 5.09 346

114

500

900

1,264

2,090

154 188,8 9,915 176,946] 351 223,24513,304 105,258|

10 11,507

90 95,730 4,413

93 238,937 7,691 6,968 243

405

32,790 10 37,369 13,800 1,420

35,910 26,620

183,614 3,280 17

9,9001 1,210

16,754 409 80,746 2,486|

255

34,155 1,137

29.933 468

1,015 9,418

171

35

164 205,585 10,324 176,946| 408 313,991 15,790 105,253 11 11,762 422 13,800

33,805

46,788

1,455

7,590

550

117 129,885 5,550 35,910 34,210

110 268.870 8,159 183.614 3.830 6,968 243 9,900 1,210

34,376,865 364,631 1,806,065 285,204 18,289 7,891,185 487,989 3,036,907 475,338 6,3091,084,347 73.863

67,609) 24,598 8,975,482 541,852 3,036,907) 542,947

NAMES

OF PORTS.

Aberdeen,

Cheung Chaú,.

III. TOTAL NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, AND CARGOE

WITH CARGOES.

BRITISH.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

C

Vis.

Tons. Crews.

VIS.

Dis- charged.

Tons, Crews. Vls. Tons. Crews.

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

Transit.

Dis- charged.

Dis.

Transit.

charg

166

4,618 1,027| 2,

84

1,839 501

1,

Deep Bay,

Hunghom,

Sham Shui-po,

Shaukiwán,..

Stanley,.

396

...

8,376 2,221 6,i

2,397 255,024 24,739|||206,:

329

5,023 1,673 2.

25

829 179

1281

Tai 0, Tai Po,

Victoria,

3,044 989 1,

15

493

79

3,125 4,334,462172,898|1,865,586| 1,162,192|

Total,...... 3,125 4,334,402172,898 1,865,586 1,162,192

235 280,560 12,739 3,360 4,615,022|185,637|1,865,581 1,162,192) 12,564| 3,483,133 259,723|2,1:5, 235 280,560 12.739 3,3(0) 4,615,022185,687|1,865,581 1,162,192) 16,104| 3,762,379|291,131|2,347,

IV.—TOTAL NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, AND CARGOE

WITH CARGOES.

BRITISH.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH C

NAMES

OF PORTS.

Shipped.

Shipped.

VIs. Tons. Crews.

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

Cargoes.

Bunker Coal.

Bunker Coal.

Vls. Tons. Crews.

Vls. Tons. Crer

Cargoes.

Bunker Coal.

Aberdeen,

Cheung Chaú,...

Deep Bay,

49

1,017

45

698 2

164

6,545 1,1

Hunghom,

Sham Shui-po,

Shaukiwán,..

Stanley,.

Tai 0,

Tai Po, Victoria,

3,141 4,260,048 174,975 1,230,842||223,950|

2,447 285,809 26,2

379

17,754, 3,0

16

398

55

1,199

4

309

214 338,569 10,246 33,793 3,355 4,598,617 185,221 1,230,842 257,743 11,985 3,317,258|268,;

Total,...... 3,141'4,260,048′174,975'1,230,842|| 223,950 214 338,56910,246|||| 33,793 3,3554,598,617′185,221|1,230,842] 257,743|15,148 3,631.0187|300,(

III-TOTAL NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, AND CARGOES OF VESSELS ENTERED AT EACH PORT IN THE COLON

ISH.

FOREIGN.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

LAST.

TOTAL.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

S,

Crews. Vls. Tons.

¡Crews.

Vis.

Tons. Crews.

Vis.

Tons.

Crews. Vls.

Tons.

Crews.

Vis

Dis-

Transit.

charged.

Dis- charged.

Transit.

166

4,618 1,027

2,417

84

1,839

501

1,110

19 29

$92 146 185 303 135 113

5,210 1,173 2,142 636 1,110

Dis- charged.

2,417

Transit.

***

396

8,376 2,221

6,540

140

2,897 255,024 24,739 206,311|

329

5,023 1,673

2,744

240

670 536 4,954 1,818 206,079 20,402 4,215

12,630 2,004

13,330 2,891

6,540

461,103 45,141| 206,311

25

179 829

635

1061

321

569 30

17,653 3,677 2,744

935 211

635

1281 15

3,044 493

1,108

·267

18

431

140

146 15

493

3,475 1,129 79

989 79

1,108 267

15,0

19,

60 12,739 3,360 4,615,022185,6371,865,581 1,162,192) 12,564 3,483,133 259,7232,1:5,982 972,393 2,954 412,459 42,989 15,518 3,895,592 302,712 2,125,082 072,393 60|12.739| 3,360 4,615,022185,6571,865,581 1,162,192′ 16,104 3,762,379|291,131|2,347,114|| 972.393| 5,223| 637,554|66,51821,327 4,399,933|357,649|2,847,114 972,393

IV. TOTAL NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, AND CARGOES OF VESSELS CLEARED AT EACH PORT IN THE COLON

FOREIGN.

ITISH.

JALLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

ΤΟΤΑΣ.

Shipped.

Shipped.

Sh

Crews.

Bunker Coal.

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

Vls.

Tons.

Crews.

Vis.

Tons.

Crews.

Cargoes.

Bunker Coal.

Bunker

Bunker Coal.

Vls. Tons.

Crews.

Cargoes. Coal,

Cargoes

49

3,017

277

645

45

698

239

347

94 42

1,148 448

592 224

143 87

725 2,165 1,290

405

64 34

164

6,545 1,166

4,751

408

2,447 285,809 26,228 235,753,

7,774 1,972 1,763 175,145,16,984

572

14,319 3.138

4,75

4,210 460,954 43,212|| 235,75

379

16

17,754 3,000 14,837

398

251

3,473 1,174

105

135

13

466

116

55

415 1,199

309 45

39 10,246 33,793 3,355 4,598,017|185,221|1,230,842 257,743 11,985 3,317,258268,539 1,549,031 251,388 3,435 554,890 42,908 3910,246 33,793′ 3,355.4,598,617'185,221(1,230,842) 257,743 15,148′3,631,087(300,014|1,806,065) 251,388 6,095 745,778|64,617)

33,816 15,4203,872,248 311,5471,549,03

33,816 21,2434,376,865|364,681|1,806.06.

407

881

2,295

G85

159

1

55

6

6301

29 143

21,227 4,174

14,83

804

221

13.

3,494 1,100

40

364

15

الات

ORT IN THE COLONY OF HONGKONG, IN THE YEAR 1901.

OTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

TOTAL.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

rews.

Vls.

Tons.

Crews.

Vls.

Dis- charged.

Transit.

Dis- charged.

Tons. Crews. Vis.

Tons.

Crews.

Transit.

Dis- charged.

Transit.

1,173

2,417

166

4,618 1,027

2,417

19

592

146

185

5,210

1,173

- 2,417

636

1,110

84

1,839

501

1,110

29

303!

135

113

2,142

636

1,110

2,891

6,540

396

8.376

2,221

6,540

140

4,954, 670

536

13,330

2,891

6,540

5,141

206,311|

2,397

255,024

24,739

206,311

1,818

206,079

20,402)

4,215

461,103

45,141

206,311

3,677

2,744

329

5,023

1,673

2,744

240

12,630

2,004

569

17,053

3,677

211

635

25

829

179

635

5

106

32

30

935

211

1,129

79

1,108 267

128

3,044

989

1,108

18

431

140

146

15

493

79

267

15

3,475 493

1,129

2,744 635 1,108

79

267

12,712 2,125,982 972,393

15.089

7,817,595 432,521

3,991,568

2,134,585

3,189

693,019 55,728

18,878

8,510,614

489,349

3,991,568 2,134,585

17,6492,347,114 972,393 19,229 8,096,841 463,929| 4,212,700| 2,134,585

PORT IN THE COLONY OF HONGKONG, IN THE YEAR 1901.

5,458

918,114 79,257|

24,687 9,014,955 543,286 4,212,700 2,134,585

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

TOTAL.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Shipped.

Shipped.

Shipped.

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

Cargoes.

Bunker Coal.

Cargoes.

Bunker Coal.

Bunker Coal.

VIS. Tons. Crews.

Bunker

Cargoes.

Coal.

143

645

49

347

45

1,017 277

698 2391

645

347

164

630

29

143

9

379

17,754 3,000| 14,837

16

55

8

398 1,199 309

105

135

415 45

407

159

2,165 725 871 1,290 463

572 14,319 3.138) 4,751 4,210 460,954 43,212 235,753

21,227 4,174 14,837

804 221

135 3,494 1,100 407

159

6,545 1,166 4,751 2,447 285,809 26,228 235,753

7,774 1,972 1,763 175,145| 16,984

364 51

6 15,4203,872,248311,5471,549,031 285,204 15,126 7,577,406 436,514 2,779,873 475,338 3,649 893,459 52,254|

21,2434,376,865|364,631|1,806,065) 285,204,18,289 7,891,135 467,9893,036,907 475,338 6,309 1,084,347 73,863

9 67,609 18,775,8,470,865 488,7682,779,873 542,947

67,609 24,598|8,975,482'541,852 3,036,907| 542,947

94 42

1,148 448

592 224

87

143 2,165 725 1,290 463

615

347

408

572

14,319 3,138 4,751

4,210 460,95443,212| 235,753|

251

3,473 1,174

630

13

406) 116

29

21,227 4,174 14,837

804 221

135

88

2,295 685

143

3,494 1,100,

407

55

364

51

159

4.

2

V.-NUMBER, TONNAGE and CREWS of Vessels of each Nation ENTERED at Ports in the Colony of Hongkong in the Year 1901.

491

ENTERED.

NATIONALITY

OF

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

VESSELS.

Vessels.

Tons.

Crews. Vessels. Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

American,

97

140,158

5,916

14

15,509

764

111

155,667 6,680

Austriau,

53

128,483

4,045

53

128,483

4,045

Belgian,

9

12,407

391

9

...

12,407

British,

3,125

4,334,462

172,898

235

280,560

12,739

3,360

4,615,022

391 185,637

Chinese,

138

18,932

1,656

138

18,932

1,656

Chinese Junks,

12,738

1,139,588

162,778

4,998

491,684

59,531

17,736

1,631,272 | 222,309

Corean,.

1

796

31

I

796

31

Danish,

12

25,903

483

12

25,903

488

Dutch,

28

40,617 1,211

1

255

17

29

40,872

1,228

French,

326

243,378

18,540

2

210

32

328

243,588

18,572

German,

725

1,143,992

35,361

119

98,650

4,325

844

1,242,642

39,686

Italian,

13

18,782

836

13

18,782

836

Japanese,

321

679,713

28,114

15

13,268

854

336

692,981

28,968

Norwegian,

62

62,730

1,781

17

15,274

455

79

78,004

2,236

Portuguese,

83

10,456

1,517

83

10,456

1,517

Russian,

8,797

309

8,797

309

Spanish,

784

31.

781

31

---

Swedish,.

No Flag,

1

6,923 80

301

6,923

301

11

1

80

11

Steam launches trading to ports outside the Colony,

1,486

80,644

27,850

56

1,920

509

1,542

82,564

28,359

TOTAL,......

19,229 8,096,841 464,029

5,458

918,114

79,257

24,687 9,014,955 543,286

VI.-NUMBER, TONNAGE and CREWS of Vessels of each Nation CLEARED at Ports in the Colony of

Hongkong in the Year 1901.

CLEARED.

NATIONALITY

OF

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

VESSELS.

Vessels. Tous.

Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons.

Crews.

American,

Austrian,

Belgian,

88

130,986

5,687

16

16,725

811

104

147,711

6,498

34

3

88,170 4,464

2,683

17

34,462

1,260

51

122,632

3,943

146

6

7,943

242

9

12,407

388

British,

· 3,141 | 4,260,048 | 174,975

214

338,569

10,246

Chinese,

140

19,113 1,680

140

Chinese Junks,

11,904

1,272,046 | 172,074

5,754

362,850

49,573

17,658

3,355 | 4,598,617 | 185,221

19,113 1,680 1,634,896 221,647

Corean,.

1.

796

31

1

796

31

Danish,

11

24,049

458

1

1,854

25

12

25,903

483

Dutch,

18

25,122

756

11

15,750

473

29

40,872

1,229

French,

320

226,695 18,465

8

11,732

105

328

238,427

18,570

German,

718

1,093,450

34,242

125

146,517

5,388

843

1,239,967

39,630

Italian,

13

18,782

823

1

720

14

14

19,502

837

Japanese,

278

577,265

24,679.

55

110,875

4,202

333

688,140

28,881

Norwegian,

55

48,654

1,576

20

25,167

575

75

73,821 2,151

Portuguese,

63

7,936 1,257

20

2,520

260

83

10,456 1,517

Russian,

10

3,466

213

2

5,331

96

8,797

309

Siamese,

2

407

49

407

49

Spanish,

784

35

1

784

35

Swedish,.

6

5,934

268

1

989

32

6,923

300

No Flag,

2,747

94

7

2,747

94

Steam launches trading to ports outside the Colony,

1,486

80,628 27,847

56

1,936

512

1,542

82,564

28,359

TOTAL,.........

18,289 7,891,135 467,989. 6,309 1,084,347

24,598 23,056 8,892,918 541,852

492

VII.—Total Number, Tonnage, Crews, Passengers and Cargo of Junks ENTERED at each Port in the Colony of Hongkong, (exclusive of Local Trade), during the Year ending 31st December, 1901.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Ves- sels.

Tons. Crews.

gers.

Passen- Cargo Ves-

Discharged.

Tons. sels.

Tous. Crews.

Passen- Ves- gers. sels.

Tons. Crews.

! Passen-

gers.

Cargo Discharged. Tons.

Aberdeen,

166

4,618 1,027)

1

2,117

19

592 146

185

5,210 1,173

I

2,417

Cheung Cháu,

84

1,839

501

110

1,110

29

3031 135

27

113

2,142 636

137

1,110

Deep Day,

...

Hunghon,......

396

8,376 2,221

13

Sham Shui-po, 2,397

255,024 24,739

19

6,540 206,311 1,818

140

4,954 670

538

13,330 2,891

13

6,540

206,079 20,402]

191

4,215

461,103 45,141

210

206,311

Shaukiwán,

329

5,023 1,673

73

2,744

240

12,630 2,004!

20

569

17,653 3,677

93

2,744

Stanley,

25

829

179

60

635

5

Tai 0,

128

3,044)

Tai Po,

Victoria,

15 9,198

493 860,342131,370 37,190

989 396

79.

1,108

18

106 431 140

32

30

935

211

60

635

23

267 498,266 2,729 | 266,589 36,002 10,911

146]

15

3,475 1,129|

493

419

1,108

79

267

Total,... 12,738 1,139,58 162,778 37,862

719,398 4,998 | 491,684 59,531| 11,172

11,927|1,126,931|167,372 48,101 | 498,266

17,736 1,631,272|222,309| 49,034 719,598

VIII. Total Number, Tonnage, Crews, Passengers and Cargo of Junks CLEARED at each Port in the Colony of Hongkong, (exclusive of Local Trade), during the Year ending 31st December, 1901.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Ves- sels.

Tons. Crews.

l'assen- Cargo Ves-

Shipped. gers.

Tons. sels.

Tous. Crews.

Passen- Ves- gers. sels.

Tons. Crews.

l'assen- Cargo

gers.

Shipped. Tons.

Aberdeen,

49

1,017 277

645

94

Cheung Cháu,

45

698 239

48

347

42

1,148 448 592 224

143

52

87

2,165 725 1,290 463

100

645 347

Deep Bay,

...

Hungbow,......

164

6,545 1,166

4,751

408

Sham Shui-po, 2,447

285,809 26,228

123

7,774 1,972 235,753 1,763 175,145 16,984|

572

100

Shaukiwán,

379

17,754 3,000|

62

14,837 251 3,478

1,174

8888

4,210

14,319 3,138 460,954| 43,212;

4,751

223 235,753

630

21,227 4,174

150

14,837

Stanley,..

16

39- 105

135

13

Tai 0,

55

1,199

415

117

407

88

Tai l'o,

8

309

45

159

406 2,295 55

116

29

804 221

135

685

238

143

3,494 1,100

355

407

6

9

364) 51

159

Victoria,

8,741

958,317|140,599| 46,952 | 675,895 | 3,094| 171,96227,964]

1,795 11,8351,130,279 168,563 48,747 675,895

Total,... 11,904 |1,272,046|172,074 47,302 | 932,929 | 5,754|| 362,850 | 49,573||

2,27317,6581,634,896 221,647 49,575 932,929

IX.—Total Number, Tonnage, Crews, Passengers and Cargo of Junks ENTERED at Ports in the Colony of Hongkong, from Ports on the Coast of China, and Macao, during the Year ending 31st December, 1901.

East Coast,.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Tons. Crews.

Crews. Passen-

geis

Cargo Ves- Discharged.

Tons. sels.

Tons. Crews.

234

164,364 313 8,252 1,891

Passen-

Ves- gers. sels.

117 2,863 192,088 22,501

Tons. Crews.

l'assen-

gers.

Cargo

Discharged. Tons.

351 164,364

Ves- sels.

2,550 183,836 20,610

878,516 129,899 37,254 518,353 3,969 | 449,403| 50,926 10,92713,293 1,327,919 180,825 48,181 518,353

368

482 15,262

20 21,419

San On Dis- trict, West

9,324

River, &c., West Coast,

Macao,

6

15,262 421

114 12,984 3,095

21,419 295 21,045 3,619

14

877; 42,429 7,528

703 68,836 11,455

456 29,445 4,433||

408 47,791 7,836

Total,... 12,738 1,139,588 162,778 37,862 719,398 4,998 491,684 59,531 11,17217,7861,631,272 222,309 49,034 719,398

X-Total Number, Tonnage, Crews, Passengers and Cargo of Junks CLEARED at Ports in the Colony of Hongkong, for Ports on the Coast of China, and Macao, during the Year ending 31st December, 1901.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

East Coast,.. San On Dis-

trict, West

Ves- sels.

1,388

Tons. Crews.

67,856, 11,191

Passen- gers.

Cargo Shipped.

Ves- Tons. sels.

Tons. Crews.

l'assen- Ves- gers. sels.

Tons. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Cargo

Shipped. Tons.

167

113 36,156 1,615 135,883 12,994

3,003 203,739 24,185

280

36,156

9,405 1,110,542 146,276 46,943 | 828,132 3,711 | 204,860, 32,709,

!

River, &c.,

West Coast,

611

Macao,

500

38,891 5,695|

54,757 8,912

42,337 111 7,557 1,281

Total,... 11,904 1,272,046 172,074 47,302 932,929 5,754 362,850 | 49,573|

182 26,00+ 317 14,550 2,589

10

20

|

234 928 53,441 8,284

611 62,314 10,193

42,337

2,273 |17,658|1,634,896 221,647|||| 49,575 932,929

1,906 13,116 1,315,402 178,985 48,849 828,432

416 26,004

30

XI.-Return of Junks (Local Trade) ENTERED at each Port in the Colony of Hongkong, during the Year ending 31st December, 1901.

493

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Ves-

Tons. Crews.

sels.

Passen-

gers.

Cargo 'Discharged. Tons.

Ves- sels.

Tons. Crews.

gers.

Ves- Passen-

sels.

Tons. Crews.

Passen- Cargo

Discharged.

gers.

Tons.

Aberdeen,

116

6,179

1,117

4,581

22

1,034

210

138

7,213 1,327|

Cheung Cháu,

30

590

182

81

520

81

33

31

36

671

215

112

4,581 520

Deep Bay......

Hunghom,......

323

3,063

1,385

1

2,526

61

591

276

384

3,654 1,661

1

2,526

Sham Shui-po,

57

848

289

594

33

266

163

90

1,114

452

5

594

Shaukiwán,

110

3,239

815

1,816

97

1,046

798

30

207

7,285

1,613

34

1,816

Stanley,.

15

674

124

188

10

176

88

25

850

212

188

Tai 0,

23

430

168

7

323

4

116

75

1

27

546

243

8

323

Tai Po,

13

433

64

146

13

433

64

146

Victoria,

7,723 273,940 92,987 13,788

Total,... 8,410 289,296 97,131

13,886 | 202,489 12,252 376,852 | 81,065 62,438 20,662

644,482 172,409 76,164 191,795

666,248 178,196 76,324 | 202,489

191,795 12,019 370,542 79,422 62,376 19,742

XII.-Return of Junks (Local Trade) CLEARED at each Port in the Colony of Hongkong, during the Year ending 31st December, 1901.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Ves-

Tous. Crews. Passen-

sels.

gers.

Cargo Shipped. Tons.

Ves- sels.

Tons. Crews. Passen-

Ves-

gers.

sels.

Tons. Crews. Passen-

gers.

Cargo Shipped.

Tons.

Aberdeen,.

42

1,827

334

749

137

8,396 1,441

179

Cheung Cháu,

22

753

155

152

575

40

745 231

48

62

10,223 1,775 1,498 386

749

...

200

575

Deep Bay,.

Hunghom,......

58

406

309

319

290

2,260 |

1,104

348

2,666 | 14,13

319

Sham Shui-po,

43

475.

222

284

52

781

291

80

95

1,256

513

80

284

Shaukiwán,

47

1,693

366

910

99

2,020

749

30

146

3,713

1,115

32

910

Stanley,..

21

926

179

60

184

5

52

23

26

978

202

60

184

Tai 0,

10

234

84

11

150

20

347

142L

19

30

581

226

13

150

T'ai Po,

19

505

84

Victoria,

5,049 | 165,230 | 46,262|| 87,266

200 29,356 14,619 | 482,049 125,346

19

505

84

200

1,658 19,668 647,279 171,608) 88,924

29,356

Total,... 5,311 172,049 | 47,995 87,491

32,727 15,262 | 496,650 129,327

1,818 20,573 668,699177,322 89,309

32,727

XIII. SUMMARY.

FOREIGN TRADE.

NO. OF VESSELS.

TONS.

CREWS.

do.

British ships entered with Cargoes,

Do.

in Ballast,.....

3,125 235

4,334,462 280,560

172,898

12,739

Total,....

3,360

4,615,022

185,637

British ships cleared with Cargoes,

Do.

3,141

do.

in Ballast,.....

214

4,260,048 338,569

174,975

10,246

Total,...

3,355

4,598,617

185,221

Total British ships entered and cleared,.....

6,715

9,213,639

370,858

494

XIII. SUMMARY, Continued.

FOREIGN TRade.

No. of VESSELS.

TONS.

CREWS.

Foreign ships entered with Cargoes,

Do.

do.

in Ballast,

1,880 169

2,542,147 143,950

100,503

6,478

Total,....

2,049

2,686,097

106,981

Foreign ships cleared with Cargoes,

1,758

2,278,413

93,093

Do.

do. in Ballast,..

285

380,992

13,532

Total,....

2,043

2,659,405

106,625

Total Foreign ships entered and cleared,

4,092

5,345,502

213,606

Steam-launches entered with Cargoes,

Do.

do. in Ballast,

1,486

80,644

27,850

56

1,920

509

Total,.....

1,542

82,564

28,359

Steam-launches cleared with Cargoes,

1,486

80,628

27,847

Do.

do. in Ballast,

56

1,936

512

Total,...............

1,542

82,564

28,359

Total Steam-launches entered and cleared,

Junks entered with Cargoes,

3,084

165,128

56,718

12,738

1,139,588

162,778

Do. do. in Ballast,

4,998

491,684

59,531

Total,..

17,736

1,631,272

222,309

Junks cleared with Cargoes,

11,904

1,272,046

172,074

Do. do. in Ballast,

5,754

362,850

49,573

Total,.............

17,658

1,634,896

221,647

Total Junks entered and cleared,

35,394

3,266,168

443,956

Total of all Vessels entered,

Total of all Vessels cleared,

Total of all Vessels in Foreign Trade, entered and cleared,

LOCAL TRADE.

Do.

Total Juuks entered,................

cleared,

Total of all Vessels in Local Trade, entered and cleared,.....

Do.

Total of all Vessels in Foreign Trade, entered and cleared,

all do. Local Trade, entered and cleared,

Grand Total of all Vessels entered and cleared,

24,687 24,598

9,014,955

543,286

8,975,482

541,852

49,285 17,990,437

1,085,138

20,662 20,573

666,248

178,196

668,699

177,322

41,235

1,334,947

355,518

49,285

41,235

17,990,437 1,334,947

1,085,138

355,518

90,520 19,325,384

1,440,656

NOT TOWING.

XIV.—RETURN of LICENSED STEAM-LAUNCHES Entered in the COLONY of HONGKONG during the Year ending 31st December, 1901.

-རོ

TOTAL.

12,597

509,959

99,684 433,637

12,597

509,959 99,684 433,637

12,597

509,959 99,684 433,637

12,597

509,959| 99,684

433,637

PLACES.

. Cargo

Vessels. Tonnage.] Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Discharged Vessels. Tonnage Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Cargo

in tons.

Discharged Vessels. Tonnage. Crews. in tons.

Passen-

gers.

Cargo

Discharged in tous.

Within the Waters of the Colony,

42,556 |1,215,383| 384,791

Total,..

42,556 1,215,383 384,791

91,948 5,193,588 1,006,187 3,829,770

134,504 6,408,971 1,390,978,3,829,770

:

91,948 5,193,588 1,006,187 3,829,770

134,504 6,408,971 1,390,978 3,829,770

TOWING.

:

:

:

:

:

:

Kong Mun,

:

:

876

48,149

17,886 30,576|

6,216

876

48,149 17,886

30,576

6,216

Kam Chuk,

Wu Chow,

Macao,

Other Places,

49

1,752 456

6

140

46

1

28

7

78

34

470

106

1,754

26,360

4,381

457

8,520 11,009

679

83

3,506]

913

757

4,325

476

26,500

8,566

11,009

4,325

987

1,702

1,017

107

4,409

994

1,702

1,017

Total,

56

1,920

509

78

1,486

80,644 27,850 43,287

12,237 1,542

82,564 28,359

43,287

12 315

را

Grand Total,.

42,612 1,217,303 384,300

78

5,784,191 1,13

106,031 5,784,191 1,133,7214,306,694

12,237 |148,643 7,001,4941,519,021|4,306,694|

12,315

Within the Local Trade Limits,

Total,.

Outside the Local Trade Limits,-

Sam Shui,

4955

XV.—RETURN of LICENSED STEAM-LAUNCHES Cleared in the CoLONY of HONGKONG during the Year ending 31st December, 1901.

TOWING.

NOT TOWING.

TOTAL.

PLACES.

Vessels. Tonnage. Crews.

l'assen-

gers.

Cargo

Shipped

in tons.

Vessels. Tonnage. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Cargo

Shipped

in tons.

Vessels. Tonnage. Crews.

l'assen-

gers.

Within the Waters of the Colony,

42,556 1,215,383 384,791

Total,

Within the Local Trade Limits,

Total,.

Outside the Local Trade Limits,-

Sam Shui,

Kong Mun,

Kam Chuk,

Wu Chow,

Macao,

Other Places,

Total,.

91,948 5,193,588|1,006,187,3,829,582||

42,556 1,215,383 384,791

91,948 5,193,588|1,006,1873,829,582

134,504 6,408,971 1,390,978,3,829,582||

134,501 6,408,971|1,390,978,3,829,582

12,597 509,959 99,68 433,721

12,597 509,959 99,684 433,721|

Cargo

Shipped

in tons.

12,597

509,959 99,684 433,721

12,597 509,959 99,684 433,721)

876

48,149 17,886

30,652

13,074

876 48,149

17,886 30,652|

13,074

49

1,752

456

114

34

1,754

4357

1,090

83

3,506

913

1,204

6

140

46

470

26,360

8,520

10,985

4,518

476

26,500

8,566

10,98,5

4,518

1

44

10

106

4,365

984

1,714

1,129

107

4,409]

994 1,714

1,129

56

1,936

512

Grand Total,....

42,612 1,217,319,385,303

:

496

114

1,486

80,628

27,847 43,351

19,811

1,542

82,564 28,359 43,351|

19,925

114 106,031 5,784,175, 1, 84,175,1,133,718|1,306,654|

19,811 148,643 7,001,4941,519,021 4,306,634 19,925

|1,519,021 4,306,65

A

XVI.-RETURN of VESSELS REGISTERED at the Port of Hongkong, during the Year 1901.

1

Remarks.

497

Official Regis- Horse

Name of Vessel.

Number.

tered Tonnage.

Rig.

Power.

Built of

Where built and when.

Atalanta, (str.),

109,857

37 37

Wood Hongkong, 1899.

Præsident,

102,240

767

Hoi Moon, (str.),

109,858

218

28

Barque Wood Stavanger, 1875.

Schooner Wood Hongkong, 1900.

Foreign name Præsident.

Sainam, (str.),

109,859

367 60

Hating, (str.),.....

109,860

697 450

Schooner

Steel Newcastle-on-Tyne,

1388.

Hattie E. Smith,

109,861

141

Louise J. Kenney,

109,862

215

Oro, (str.),

86,119

1,291 275

Wing Hang, (str.),...... 109,863

Zafiro, (str.),

Hongkong, (str.),

Bakan Maru, (str.),

Rubi, (str.),....

Hoi Ho, (str.),

278 42

114,737 1,611 340

109,864 380 37

109,865 286 40

114,776 1,612 340

109,866 364 40

Schooner Wood

Schooner Iron

Schooner Wood Hongkong, 1901.

Schooner

Steel Hongkong, 1900.

Schooner Wood Newbury Port, U.S.A.,

1869. Essex, Mass., U.S.A.,

1888. Newcastle, 1883.

Foreign name Hating since transferred to Vancou- ver, B.C.

Foreign nane Hattie E.

Smith.

Foreign name Louise J.

Kenney.

Foreign name Charles Ro-

gier.

Steel Port Glasgow, 1901.

Schooner

Wood Hongkong, 1901.

Steel Nagasaki, Japan, 1899. Forcign name Bakan Maru,

Steel Port Glasgow, 1901.

Wood Hongkong, 1901.

XVII. RETURN of REGISTRIES of VESSELS Cancelled at the Port of Hongkong, during the Year 1901.

Name of Vessel.

Official Number.

Regis- tered Tonnage.

Date of Horse

Registry. Power.

Rig.

Built of

Where built and when.

Reason of Cancellation.

Sai Kong, (str.),... 95,874'

259

Hating, (str.),..... 109,860 697

1897

1901 450 Schooner

45 None

[1888.

Wood Hongkong, 1897. Sold to Foreigners.

Steel Newcastle-on-Tyne, Transferred to Vancouver,

[B. C.

XVIII. SUMMARY of CHINESE EMIGRATION from HONGKONG to Ports other than in China, during the Year ending 31st December, 1901.

BRITISH VESSELS.

FOREIGN VESSELS.

GRAND TOTAL.

WHITHER BOUND.

Adults.

Children.

Adults. Children.

Adults.

Children.

Total.

Total.

Total.

M1.

F.

M. F.

M. F. M. F.

M.

M.

""

Japan Ports,

22

To Honolulu, Sandwich Island,

Mauritius,

260

100

276 569 105 185

台灣

"

San Diego, U.S.A.,

49

760 11

49

22

San Francisco, U.S.A.,

2.485

22

99

Straits Settlements,..

30,441 5,480|

,, Tacoma, U.S.A.,

233

Vancouver, British Columbia,

3,554

3

""

""

Victoria, British Columbia,

675

2331 344 3,557]

675

235

32 5 2,544 3,211 :8 31 16 3,296 5,096 975 520 37,416,16,9111.983|| 405|| 188 19,487 +7,352 7,463 1,380

345 077

225

3,554

910

588 829 188

13

17

864

285

3

293

780 760

11

780

40

49

GO

€3

21 5,840

708!

56.903

578

3,557

910

:

TOTAL PASSENGERS,

37,797 5,510 1,020 528 44,855 22,215 2,040 458 206 24,919 60,012 7,550 1,478

Total Passengers by British Vessels,

!

734 69,774

37.797 5,510 1,020 528 44,855

22,215 2,040, 458 206 24,919

Total Passengers by Foreign Vessels,

Excess of Passengers by British Vessels, .

15,582 3,470 562 322 19,936

-

498

K

XIX.-SUMMARY of CHINESE IMMIGRATION to HONGKONG from Ports other than China, during the Year ending 31st December, 1901.

+

BRITISH VESSELS.

FOREIGN VESSELS.

GRAND TOTAL,

WHERE

HERE FROM.

Adults.

Children.

Adults. Children.

Adults.

Children.

Total.

Total.

Total.

M.

F.

M. F.

M. F.

M. | F

M.

F.

M. F

From Bangkok, Siam..

845

$45 2,020

2,020

2,865

2,865

Mauritius,

"}

Callao, Peru,

Honolulu, Sandwich Islands,.

Java, &c.,

"

64

64

152

152

216

216

241 12

268

464

467

705

13

735

:

110

110

110

110

250

250

250

250

Melbourne,

341

341

86

87

427

428

New South Wales...

290

290

105

105

395

395

19

""

New Zealand, Ports,

47

47

47

47

}:

Portland, Oregon,

71 19

3

93

71

19

3

93

Queensland Ports...........

462

462

167

167

629

629

++

San Francisco, U.S.A.,.

2,187

65 40

30 2,322 4,335 87 46 51 4,519

6,522 152

86 81

6,841

>>

Seattle, U.S.A.,

250

250

250

250

*

South Australian Ports,

88

88

88

88

Straits Settlements,

Tacoma, U.S.A.,

"

Tasmania,

186

15

3,232

16

238

:

:

Vancouver, British Columbia,

Victoria, British Columbia,..

81,587 3,395 1,220 735 86,937 23,832 691 284 122 24.929 105,419 | 4,086 1,504 857 111,866

:.

:

186 497

15

4 3,258

238

23

497

683

15

3,232

16

23

261

683

15 3,258 261

TOTAL PASSENGERS,

89,894 3,507 1,276 777 95,454 32,291| 779 332 174 33,576 122,185 4,286 1,608

951 129,030

Total Passengers by British Vessels,.

Total Passengers by Foreign Vessels,

Excess of Passengers by British Vessels,

89,891 3,507 1,276 777 95,454

32.291 779 332 174 33,576

57,603 2,728 944 | 603 61,878

XX.-RETURN of MARINE CASES tried at the MARINE MAGISTRATE'S COURT, during the Year 1901.

DEFENDANTS HOW DISPOSed of.

NATURE OF CHARGE.

No. of Cases.

Assault,

Condition of Licence, Breach of (Junk), Condition of Licence, Breach of (Steam-

CO Q

No. of Defendants.

Imprisoned with Hard

Labour.

Imprisoned

in default of

20 00

Launch),

2

Drunkenness,

1

Harbour Regulations, Breach of (Junk), 1 Harbour Regnlations, Breach of (Steam-

213

Launch),

1

1

Harbour Regulations, Breach of (Str.),....... Obstruction of Fairways,

1

1

3

::

00: 10

3

N:

1182

::

...

1

1

47

01 00

5

4

14

:23

10

00 10

3

5

:

::

:

علم

4

∞o:

3

0010

5

37

50

15

29

3

Plying for Hire without a Licence (Boat), Plying without Certificates, Master and Engineer (Steam-Launch),...............

Neglecting, &c. to register Engagement and Discharge of Master and Engi- neer (Steam-Launch),...........

Refusal of Duty.

Rules of the Road, Failed to observe

(Steam-Launch),

Throwing Ballast, &c., into the Harbour,

Total,.....

:

: :

:

.:.

Amount of Fines.

10

60

1

::

:

1

30

3

* 10 12 13

25

15

12

1

35

60

3

$265

1873.

1874.

1875.

1876.

1877.

1878.

1879.

1880.

1881.

1882.

1883.

1884.

1885.

1886.

DIAGRAM of Tonnage entered at Hongkong, from 1867 to 1901, inclusive.

D LINE represents British Shipping Tonnage only.

UE LINE represents Foreign Shipping Tonnage only.

EEN LINE represents British and Foreign Shipping Tonnage.

LLOW LINE represents Junk Tonnage only, excluding Local Trade.

OLET LINE represents Steam-launch Tonnage only, excluding Local Trade. ICK BLACK LINE

represents

entire

Trade

in

British and Foreign Ships, Junks and Sleam-launches.

D

1887.

1888.

1889.

1890.

1891.

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

1896.

1897.

1898.

1899.

1900.

1901.

9,100,000

9,000,000

8,900,000

8,800,000

8,700,000

8,600,000

8,500,000

8,400,000

8,300,000

8,200,000..

8,100,000-

8,000,000..

7,900,000-

7,800,000

·7,700,000-1

7,600,000-

7,500,000..

7,400,000..

7,300,000.

7,200,000.

Toss.

1873.

187-4.

1875.

1876.

1877.

1878.

EEN LINE represents British and Foreign Shipping Tonnage.

1879.

ELLOW LINE represents Junk Tonnage only, excluding Local Trade.

1880.

1881.

1882.

1883.

1884.

1885.

1886.

"OLET LINE represents Steam-launch Tonnage only, excluding Local Trade.

UICK BLACK LINE represents entire

Trade

in

British and Foreign Ships, Junks and Sleam-launches.

*

1887.

1888.

1889.

1890.

1891.

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

1896.

1897.

1898.

1899.

1900.

1901.

9,100,000

9,000,000

8,900,000

8,800,000

8,700,000

$,600,000

8,500,000

8,400,000

8,300,000

8,200,000..

8,100,000

8,000,000

7,900,000.

7,800,000

7,700,000

7,600,000

7,500,000.

7,400,000.

7,300,000

7,200,000

7,100,000

7,000,000

6,900,000

6,800,000

6,700,000

6,600,000

6,500,000.

TONS.

6,400,000

6,300,000

6,200,000.

6,100,000

6,000,000

5,900,000.

5,800,000.

5,700,000

5,600,000

5,500,000

5,400,000

-5,300,000-

5,200,000

5,100,000

5,000,000

4,900,000

4,800,000

4,700,000

4,600,000

4,500,000

4,400,000

4,300,000

4,200,000

4,100,000

4,000,000

3,900,000,

3,800,000

3,700,000

3,600,000

3,500,000

3,400,000

3,300,000

3,200,000.

!

3,100,000.

·3,000,000

2,900,000

2,800,000

3,000,000

2,900,000

2,800,000

2,700,000.

2,600,000

2,500,000

2,400,000.

2,300,000

2,200,000

2,100,000...........

2,000,000

1,900,000

1,800,000

1,700,000

1,600,000

1,500,000

1,400,000

1,300,000

1,200,000

1,100,000

1,000,000

900,000

800,000

700,000

600,000

500,000.

400,000

300,000

200,000

100,000

90,000

80,000

499

TONS.

9,100,000

9,000,000

8,900.000

8,800,000

8,700,000

8,600,000

8.500,000

8,400,000

8,300,000

8.200,000

8,100,000

8,000,000

7.900,000

7 800,000

7,700,000.

--7,600,000.

7:500,000

7.400,000

7,300,000

1007.

1868.

1869.

18702

1871.

1872.

in‹

XXI-DIAGRAM of Tonnage entered at Hongkong, from 1867 to 1901, inc

RED LINE represents British Shipping Tonnage only.

BLUE LINE represents Foreign Shipping Tonnage only.

GREEN LINE represents British and Foreign Shipping Tonnage.

YELLOW LINE represents Junk Tonnage only, excluding Local Trade.

VIOLET LINE represents Steam-launch Tonnage only, excluding Local Trade.

THICK BLACK LINE represents entire Trade in British and Foreign Ships, Junk

1873.

1874.

1875.

1876.

1877.

1878.

1879.

1880.

1881.

1882.

1883.

1884.

1885. 1886.

1887.

1888.

1889.

1890.

1891.

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

7,100,000

7,000,000

6,900,000

6,800,000

6,700.000

6,600,000

6,500,000

6,400,000

6,300,000

6,200,000

6,100,000

6,000,000

5,900,000

5,800,000

5,700,000

5,600,000

5,500,000

5,400,000

5,300,000

5,200,000

5,100,000

5,000,000

4,900,000

4,800,000

4,700,000

4,600,000

4,500,000

4,400,000

4,300,000

4,200,000

4,100,000

4,000,000

3,900,000

3,800,000

3,700,000

3,600,000

3:500,000

م استان بان زود

3,600,000

3:500,000

3,400,000

3,300,000

3,200,000

3,100,000

3,000,000

2,900,000

2,800,000

2,700,000

2,600,000

2,500,000

2,400,000

2,300,000-

2,200,000

2,100,000

2,000,000

1,900,000

1,800,000

1,700,000

1,600,000

1,500,000

1,400,000

1,300,000

1,200,000

1,100,000

1,000,000

900,000

800,000

700,000

600,000

500,000

400,000

300,000

200,000

100,000

90,000

2,800,000

2,700,000

2,600,000

2,500,000

2,400,000

2,300,000-

2,200,000.

2,100,000"

2,000,000

1,900,000

1,800,000

1,700,000

1,600,000

1,500,000

1,400,000

1,300,000

1,200,000

1,100,000

1,000,000

900,000

800,000

700,000

600,000

500,000

400,000

300,000

200,000

100,000

90.000

80,000

Head of Receipt.

XXII-STATEMENT of the REVENUE collected in the Harbour Department, during the Year, 1901.

Amount.

Remarks.

1. Light Dnes, Ordinance 26 of 1891,

2. Licences and Internal Revenue not otherwise specified :-

Chinese Passenger Ship Liceuces, Ordinance 1 of 1889, Emigration Broker's Licences, Ordinance 1 of 1889,

Fines,

$ cts.

58,375,98

350,00

1,000.00

265.00

Junk Licences, &c., Ordinance 26 of 1891, from the New Territory, Junk Licences, &c., Ordinance 26 of. 1891,

8,944.80

Steam Launch Licences, &c., Ordinance 26 of 1891,

37,702,75 1,763.75

3. Fees of Court, of Office, Payments for specific purposes and Reimbursements-in-

aid :-

Cargo-boat Certificates, Ordinance 26 of 1891,......

2,466.00

Engagement and Discharge of Seamen, Ordinance 26 of 1891,

Engagement of Masters and Engineers of Steam Launhces, Ordinance 26

of 1891,

23,863.40

246.00

Examination of Masters and Engineers of Steam Launches, Ordinance 26

of 1891,

527.50

Examination of Masters, Mates and Engineers, Ordinance 26 of 1891,................ Gunpowder, Storage of, Ordinance 26 of 1891,

2,520.00

26,873.67

Medical Examination of Emigrants, Ordinance I of 1889, Printed Forms, Sale of, Harbour Regulations, Tide Tables, &c., Private Moorings and Buoys, Rent, Ordinance 26 of 1891,..... Registry Fees, (Merchant Shipping Act), Ordinance 26 of 1891, Steam Launches, Surveyor's Certificates, Ordinance 26 of 1891, Survey of Steam-ships &c., Ordinance 26 of 1891, Sunday Cargo Working Permits, Ordinance 6 of 1891,

Total,.....

XXIII.—RETURN of WORK performed by the GoVERNMENT MARINE SURVEYOR'S DEPARTMENT.

21,669.00

327.50

3,150.00

761.00

3,075.00

12,916.04

44,800.00

. 251,597.39

Years.

Passenger Certificate and

Inspection of Bottom.

Tonnage for Registration.

British Tonnage Certificate for Foreign Vessels.

Inspection of

Crew Space,

Lights and

Markings.

Minor Inspec-

tion.

Survey of Licen-

Steam-launches. sed Passenger

Survey of Boilers under Construction.

Inspection of Government

Launches.

1891,

108

38

1892,

122

51

1893,

136

74

1894,

124

62

1895.

102

64

CATAWA

4

5

1896,

142

68

6

1897,

158

79

24

1898,

164

83

10

1899,

144

61

10

1900,

151

83

1901,

157

92

3

6

171212 — 10 N O O

00 30 30 10 10 10 20 6 ∞ ∞

Examination

of Engineers.

Examination of

Chinese Engi-

neers for Steam-

*$30]unw[

Estimated Total

Number of Visits in

connection with fore-

going Inspection.

73

3

16

44

19

1615

85

10

16

60

96

1678

94

20

19

64

25

1659

116

11

28

54

18

1364

98.

18

34

57

24

1452

97

20

37

77

66

1409

1

109

41

35

96

51

1631

121

61

26

72

48

1729.

134

62

27

57

78

1602

8

187

73

47

99

124

1834

10

217

36

102

88

118

2031

XXIV.-IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OFFICE.

IMPORTS.

MALWA.

PATNA.

BENARES.

•PERSIAN.

chests.

chests.

chests.

chests.

TURKISH.

chests.

CHINESE.

TOTAL.

chests.

chests.

1900, 1901,

10,218

19,351

8,045

5,184

418

40

43,256

6,666

21,140

9,254

5,252

2

42,314

Increase,.... Decrease,

1,789

1,209

68

3,066

3,552

416

40

4,008

EXPORTS.

MALWA. chests.

PATNA.

BENARES.

chests.

chests.

PERSIAN.

chests.

TURKISH. chests.

CHINESE. chests.

TOTAL.

chests.

1900, 1901,

9,392

16,630

7,948

4,496

255

38,7214

7,427

19,733

8,804

4,116

189

40,269

Increase,......

3,103

856

3,959

Decrease,

1,965

380

66

2,411

Through Cargo reported in Manifests but not landed, {1909,

17,557 chests. 12,150

23

Decrease,...

5,407 chests.

501

502

Landing Permits,...

NUMBER OF PERMITS, &c., ISSUED.

1900.

1901.

Increase.

Decrease.

293

299

6

Removal Permits,

7,633

7.527

106

Exports Permits,..

6,718

6,499

219

Memo. of Exports to the Commissioner of Chinese

Customs,

553

602

49

Memo. of Exports to the Superintendent of Raw

Opium Department, Macao,

296

294

2

SUMMARY OF EXPORTS, 1901.

Malwa. Patna. Benares. Persian. Turkish. Chinese. chests. chests. chests. chests. chests. chests.

Total. chests.

Total

in piculs.

By Steamers to Amoy,

Bushire,

89

85

1,658

80

1,912 | 2.263.1

106

106

108.65

:

Busorah,

2

2

2.05

2

2.05

Bangkok,.

3

3.075

Cairo,

Chefoo,

7

5

38

50

58.6

Canton,

82012

5,016

947

2

6,785

7,978.15

Foochow,

1,137

656

262

374

2,429

2,621.95*

Formosa,

150

360

2,160.

2,671

2,827.

Haiphong,

8

9.6

Hankow,

14

47

68

78.8

Hoihow,

274

43

Kwong Chow Wan,

802

心思

317

380.4

2

5

812

972.925

London,

90

178

268

270.25

Macao,....

4,275

9

4,284

5,140.8

Merida,

New York,

34

3

3.075

9

9.1

Pakhoi,

37

54

91

109.2

Panama,

22

22

26.4

...

Philippine Islands,.......

1

1,078

1,099

2,174

2,608.425

Shanghai,

2,829

5,399

3,611

11,847

Swatow,

2,092

1,522

649

77

4,270

13,649.2

4,704.375

Sandakan,

6

25

31

32.825

Suez,

8

8

Straits Settlements,

2

160

42

1,236

5

1,445

8.2 1,516.8125

Wei-bai-wei,

12

3

By Junks to various adjacent Ports in China,

15 636

15.6

420

207

679.2

Total,...

7,427

19,733 8,804

4,1163

189

...

40,269 46,079.8125

The information in Column 8 above is on the following assumption

Patna and Benares, per chest,

Malwa, Turkish and Chinese, per chest,

Persian, per chest,......

.1.20 piculs.

.1.

""

...1.025 ""

627

No. 28

1902

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE QUESTION OF THE HOUSING OF THE

POPULATION OF HONGKONG.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

HONGKONG, May 14th, 1902.

SIR,

We have the honour to submit for the information of His Excellency a conjoint Report on the question of the housing of the population of Hongkong, and in compliance with the request of His Excellency in Council to prepare a Bill which might reasonably be expected to obviate the necessity for further Sanitary legisla- tion, for the next few years at least, we append a draft Bill on the lines indicated.

1. The insanitary areas in Hongkong have been formed, first, by the crowding together of too many houses on too small a space; secondly, by sanitary defects in the design of dwelling houses; and thirdly, by overcrowding of the inha- bitants in these houses.

CROWDING TOGETHER OF TOO MANY HOUSES ON TOO SMALL A SPACE.

2. The crowding together of too many houses on too small a space has been effected by the construction of narrow streets and lanes and by the omission to provide adequate open space in the rear of houses in the shape of back-yards and of back-lanes. The houses have thus been brought into close proximity to one another instead of being well separated with ample space between them. The conditions vary in intensity according to the age of the built over areas. The worst condi- tions are to be found where back to back houses have been constructed or where the lane between the rear of houses is not more than 6 or 8 feet wide. In either case neither light nor ventilation is accessible from the back, while only a very inade- quate amount is obtainable from the narrow street or lanc in front owing to the height of the houses being out of all proportion to the width of the street or lane. Similar unhealthy conditions occur when the rear of the house abuts on the hill- side with the additional circumstance that the house is rendered damp during the rains from percolation of water from the hill.

The best conditions are to be seen in the newest localities, more especially in Kowloon where the houses are separated from one another by wider streets and where back-yards or back-lanes and in some cases back-yards and back-lanes are pro- vided, but even here, though a great improvement on the old areas has been effected and, in that respect, the conditions are more healthy, yet as will be shown later the separation is not to such an extent as to prevent the areas when completely built over becoming more or less insanitary and bearing a resemblance in a minor degree to the insanitary areas of the older period. Between the old and the new localities there is every variety of density, and as the density of the houses approxi- mates more to the one or to the other, so do the insanitary conditions vary. Houses like individuals require a certain amount of space to themselves to be healthy, and

To the Honourable

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY.

.

628

if that space is encroached upon in any way and the houses are brought in close proximity to one another without compensating arrangements for adequate ventila- tion and exposure of the rooms to sunlight, it is only a matter of time for the locality to become unhealthy.

3. The necessary amount of separation of houses where property is valuable and where a large population is to be housed is usually secured by regularly laid out streets which bear a proportion in their width to the height of the houses facing them and by a definite proportion of back-yard and back-lane in the rear which also` bear in their width a relationship to the height of the house as well as to its roofed

over area.

The importance of the width of the street is readily appreciated because it faci- litates traffic and for that reason there is of recent years no difficulty as a rule in obtaining ample separation of houses facing a street, but the importance of the space behind houses and the necessity for a similar amount of space as exists in the street before another house is permitted to be built in the rear, is not so man fest and consequently there is always a tendency on the part of property owners to curtail this space; the greater their success in curtailment the more unhealthy does the locality become. Wide streets in front of houses, without wide spaces behind to separate them from the houses in the rear, do not provide sufficient air space to secure a healthy locality.

Crowding together of Houses under old Regulations.

4. The crowding together of houses on too small a space is well exemplified in Plate I, which represents an area, bounded by Hollywood Road, Queen's Road Central, Wellington Street and Aberdeen Street. The area of the block is 171,224 square feet, equal to 3.93 acres. It contains 142 houses comprising 470 floors. The area of streets upon which buildings front within this block is 19,890 square feet equal to 0.45 acres. The area of the back-yards and other open spaces around the buildings is 5,516 square feet, equal to 0.13 acre. Thus no less than 85 per cent. of the total area is roofed over, and if the open space of the streets and lanes be excluded, that around buildings only amounts to 3.2 per cent. It is obvious that the crowding together of houses in this block, could hardly be greater, and resump- tion for the purpose of opening out wider streets and improving the sanitary condition of the houses is urgently needed.

Plate II gives a sectional view of another block, which is bounded by Holly- wood Road, Cochrane Street, Lyndhurst Terrace and Pottinger Street. From the streets, which are moderately wide, the block has an excellent external appearance and is likely to give an erroneous impression of the interior which on inspection is found to be packed with houses, separated by narrow lanes. This Plate further illustrates the arrangement of basements which is so common throughout the City.

Plate III is another illustration of buildings being erected too close to one another. On a piece of land of 86 feet in depth two rows of houses have been built separated by a lane of 8 feet. The front houses face Queen's Road, and are four storeys in height. The houses in the rear, are also four storeys high, the two lower of which abut on the side of the hill and are below the level of the street known as Circular Pathway, while the two higher face, and are entered from, Circular Pathway. It is evident that each house obstructs the light and ventilation of the other and that the two lower stories of the houses at the back of the Queen's Road houses are practically basements.

It is seen from the plan that the space behind the Queen's Road houses is only 8 feet in the form of a lane. This 8 feet space gives, when a line is drawn from the building line of the houses in the rear at the level of the lane, to the back eaves of the Queen's Road houses, an angle of 82°, or the height of the houses is nearly 7 times that of the open space in the rear instead of being either equal to, or 1 times, or certainly not more than twice.

!

1

י

encroach

:

3

The usual angles taken for the rear, measured in the same way from the building line to the eaves of the opposite building vary between 45° and 63°, a fair standard being 56°. From the lines drawn on the plan, representing these angles, it is apparent there is no space for another house between the hill side and the rear of the four-storied houses in Queen's Road and the close proximity of the two rows of houses to one another renders both insanitary.

5. The preceding Plates deal with closely packed areas which have existed for many years and which have grown up either under old regulations or when there were none. They are typical of the general condition of such areas in different parts of the town. The following three Plates deal, not with the past but with the present; they represent areas on which buildings are now being erected and which are springing up under existing regulations. They show that existing regulations do not prevent crowding together of houses.

Crowding together of Houses under existing Regulations.

6. Plate IV. Inland Lot 799 is bounded on the north by Third Street which is 30′ 6′′ wide, on the south by Pokfulum Road which is 32′ 0′′ wide, on the west by Water Street which is 28' 8" wide, and on the east by Pokfulum Road which is 31' 0" wide. The lot consists of two blocks, containing 37 houses of which 21 are old, and 16 are new. The houses are 40 feet in height. The blocks are divided by a 16′ 0′′ private lane which is the frontage of 10 houses in the south blocks and which also forms the open space required by section 56 of Ordinance 13 of 1901 for the rear of the houses in the north block.

By this section of the Ordinance ten square feet for each foot of width is required at the rear of the houses facing Third Street as they are over 40 feet deep and less than 50 feet. The inclusion of the lane which is really the frontage of the houses on the south side in the calculation of open space for the rear of the houses in Third Street is unsatisfactory enough, but there appears to be nothing in the Ordinance when the houses in Third Street are re-built to prevent the private lane in the rear being encroached on, and the houses being thus brought nearer to one another, or to prevent the owner, should he make Pokfulum Road the frontage and entrance into the houses to contract the private lane, which is no longer a lane on which houses front, to 8 or 11 feet wide which would act as the open space in rear of such buildings and would conform with the existing provisions of the law.

it

7. Plate V, which shows the section of one of the houses in the south block, makes appear that there is between the lower floor of the house and the hill-side a moderately sized open area, throughout its entire width, but a reference to the

* 56.-(a.) Every domestic building hereafter erected in this Colony, (except in cases provided for by section 54 of this Ordinance, or coming within the terms of Articles of Agreement under the Praya Reclamation Ordinance, 1889) shall be provided by the owner with an open space in the rear in accordance with the following scale:-

Houses not exceeding 40 feet in depth, for each foot of width Houses exceeding 40 feet but not exceeding 50 feet in depth, for each foot of width Houses exceeding 50 feet but not exceeding 60 feet in depth, for each foot of width Houses exceeding 60 feet in depth, for each foot of width

An open space not less than

8 square feet.

10 square feet.

12 square feet. .14 square feet. (b.) In no case may any obstructions whatever be placed or erected in these open spaces, with the exception of a bridge or covered way on each storey when such bridge is necessary as a means of access to any part of the domestic building: such bridge shall not exceed three feet six inches in width unless the building exceeds twenty-five feet in width, in which case the bridge may be of a width not exceeding five feet. The building must also be provided on every floor with a window of at least ten square feet superficial area opening into such open space and the area of such window shall not be included in calculating the window area required by section 69 of this Ordinance.

(c.) Provided always that when the owners of a block of buildings agree to make and do make a lane opening at both ends upon a public thoroughfare and free from obstruction throughout both vertically and horizontally, the fore- going requirements shall be modified as follows:-

Houses not exceeding 40 feet in depth: a lane not less than

Houses exceeding 40 feet but not exceeding 50 feet in depth: a lane not less than.. Houses exceeding 50 feet but not exceeding 60 feet in depth: a lane not less than.. Houses exceeding 60 feet in depth: a lane not less than

6 feet wide. 8 feet wide. ...11 feet wide. .13 feet wide.

(d.) The buildings must be provided on every floor with a window of at least ten square feet superficial area opening into such open space. The area of such window shall not be included in calculating the window area required by section 69 of this Ordinance.

(e.) In computing the depth of a domestic building for the purposes of this section the depth of the kitchen shall be included in the computation of such depth in every case except when such kitchen is separated from the principal room or rooms of such building by an open backyard of at least six feet in depth extending the entire width of the back of such building and unobstructed except by a bridge on each floor not exceeding the width specified in sub-sec- tion (b.)

..

629

630

ground plan shows that this is not the case.

The houses are built in echelon fashion and thus one corner of the building is practically against the toe of the hill-side the open space being triangular in shape.

The total area of Inland Lot 799 covers 29,414 square feet. The area built over is 23,620 square feet. The area of private lane is 4,480 square feet. The area of open yard is 1,314 square feet. The total area of open space is 5,794 square feet. which is 19 per cent. of the total area, accordingly in this building lot a little over 80 per cent. of the ground is covered with buildings and if the area of the private lane be excluded not more than 4 per cent. of the built over area is devoted to open yards.

8. Inland Lot 816, which is also shown on Plate IV, is bounded on the north by Second Street which is 36′ 0′′ wide, on the south by Third Street which is 30′ 6′′ wide, on the west by Water Street which is 54′ 0′′ wide, and on the east by vacant land the average width of which is 19′ 0′′ and which is in separate ownership and may be built on. It consists of five blocks containing 38 houses, 40 feet in height, of which 24 are new and 14 are old. The 14 old houses face Second Street and comprise one block, 16 of the new houses face Third Street and comprise the second block, while the 8 other new houses have been erected in the intervening space between the row of houses in Second and Third Streets, and comprise the third, fourth and fifth blocks, separated laterally from each of the other blocks by 2 lanes which are respectively 6 feet and 9 feet wide.

The

The first and second blocks possessed each a space at their rear. before the building of the other blocks of sufficient size to secure an adequate amount of light and ventilation, but the erection of the blocks between them, has altered the character of the lot area, formed two objectionable narrow lanes in addition to two wider private lanes and has materially obstructed the light and circulation of air in the blocks. The building lot as regards crowding of houses upon it is very little superior to or different from older lots. only difference is that inside the lot six of the houses have small backyards, in compliance with section 56 of Ordinance 13 of 1901. There are also two cross private lanes in order to comply with the regulations as to height of buildings in relation to width of streets, the height of these houses being governed by Ordinance 15 of 1894 as the plans were submitted in 1900, before Ordinance 30 of 1901, re- stricting the height of houses to 1 times the width of the street, was passed. The same arrangement in regard to the crowding together of the houses, however, could have been made even under the Ordinance of 1901. There is moreover nothing in the Ordinance governing the height of houses to prevent the width of the street being taken as a part of the open space required by section 56. In this connection one of the private lanes which is the frontage of two of the interior houses and the width of which governs the height of the houses is also calculated as the open space required by section 56 to be provided in the rear of the houses fronting Water Street.

The total area of the Inland Lot 816 is

The area built over is

The area of private lanes is

The area of streets is

The area of yards is..

The total area of open space is

........30,826 square feet

.25,656 3,480

""

1,200

490

""

5,170

""

L

''

accordingly 83 per cent. of the total area is built over; and if the private lanes and streets be deducted less than 2 per cent. is devoted to back-yard.

9. Plate VI is Inland Lot 797 which shows buildings that conform to the Ordinances in regard to back-yards and open spaces in the rear. It consists entirely of new houses of which there are 36, but it is only another example on a small scale

?

5

of the insanitary areas that can be constructed, even when all the houses are new, under the existing regulations, with narrow streets and lanes, and too many houses crowded together.

The lot is bounded on the north by Third Street 30' 6" wide, on the south by a retaining wall to about the level of the second floor and above that by Pokfulam Road 32′ 0′′ wide, on the west by buildings, and on the east by a private street 15' 0" wide.

The total area of the lot is

The area built over is about......

Area of private streets is ....

Area of passages which also includes space in the

rear of houses required by section 56 of Ordi-

nance 13 of 1901

The area of open yard

.36,000 square feet.

.25,849

27

""

6,600

77

""

2,531

??

1,020

""

631

Contravene

s.f

*

The total area of open space is equal to 10,151 or 28°/。 of the total area, and the yard space excluding lanes is less than 3°。-

SANITARY DEFECTS IN THE DESIGN OF CHINESE HOUSES.

10. The defects in design of houses which contribute to their unhealthiness, are caused by their great depth without lateral windows, the position of the kitchen in relation to the dwelling house, the position of the back-lane in relation to the kitchen and the dwelling house, the construction of rooms or basements against or too close to the side of the hill and the division of rooms into cubicles. All of them serve to Obstruct the light and free circulation of air so necessary for a healthy dwelling.

Besides the close, narrow and ill ventilated streets and lanes, formed by the process of erecting too many houses on too small a space, the structure of the houses and of their interior, is not in accordance with sanitary principles The newer houses are often worse in this respect than the older, for at one time the tendency was to build shallow houses from which sunlight and fresh air were excluded in consequence of other houses being built later in too close proximity to them. As time has gone on the houses have generally become deeper and deeper, until there are being erected on the Praya Reclamation back to back buildings of from 75 to 90 feet each in depth with an extra 10 feet of verandah in each encroaching on the public street.

11. Plates VII and VIII are sections of houses on the Praya Reclamation. In both the buildings are 75 and 90 feet respectively without counting verandahs or balconies. The dwelling rooms in Plate VII are 55 feet long and 12 feet 6 inches wide, in Plate VIII they are 90 feet long and 13 feet wide.

There are no lateral windows.

In Plate VII there are windows in front opening into the verandahs and windows behind opening into a small back-yard, 12 feet in width which is the amount of open

space required by the Praya Reclamation Ordinance. Behind the back-yard is the kitchen which, owing to there being a kitchen for each floor, forms a building as high as the house, immediately in the rear of the small back-yard, the means of com- munication between each storey of the house and the kitchen being by a bridge 3 feet 6 inches wide. The design, it will be seen, is admirably adapted to exclude sunlight and fresh air. There is first of all the long narrow tunnel-like rooms, without lateral windows, which prevent a sufficiency of light reaching, during any part of the day, the greater portion of the room. There is next the small back-yard obstructed by the bridges leading to the kitchens, there is then the high building containing the kitchens abutting immediately on the back-yard, and forming with it a deep well, which only brings light and air to the upper storeys, and finally there is the verandah

632

6

in front. With a design such as this the rooms on the lower storeys are dark, and oppressively hot and close owing to obstruction of light and stagnation of the air,

12. On a further examination of Plate VII it will be seen that notwithstanding the provision of a back-yard to each house, the design practically leads to the formation of back to back buildings and when analysed resolves itself into 3 blocks of buildings, two of which are the dwelling houses and the third the kitchens forming the middle block, which is separated from the others by narrow spaces called back-yards. The benefits intended to be derived from the back-yard are counteracted by the high build- ing in the centre. With this obstruction removed a far greater amount of light and air would have been admitted into the different rooms, for the block of kitchens which form the obstruction occupy a space of 21 feet 6 inches in depth which, added to the two back-yards, would have made a combined open space in the rear of 42 feet in width which is a greater amount of space than is required by an angle of 56° and a good deal more space than that required by an angle of 63°. The houses on both sides are rendered insanitary by the three extra storeys of kitchen building.

If a kitchen or outhouses had been only required on the ground floor, which is usually the case with European houses in this Colony, and which at the most, are only 12 or 15 feet in height, the design of the kitchen building behind the back- yard and against that of the house in the rear would not have been objectionable except for the absence of a scavenging lane between then, because, out-buildings of the height mentioned would not have obstructed the light and air of the lower storeys of the dwelling houses when the main buildings above that height were separated from one another by a space of over 40 feet. The usual arrangement in Europe to facilitate scavenging, is to have behind the out-buildings an additional small back-lane and such a lane is especially necessary in tropical towns.

This back-lane has been in some instances adopted in Hongkong but, as the kitchens on each storey form a building sometimes of a height of nearly 60 feet, the back-lane does not serve to increase the area of open space available for light and ventilation between the backs of the houses, as is the case when it is between out-buildings of only 12 or 15 feet in height, but it only adds a fresh place for the deposit of filth. The back-lane, behind high kitchens even when the latter have windows facing the lane, which is often not the case, can at the best only affect the kitchens and not the dwelling rooms of the house while for scavenging pur- poses a lane of this kind is ineffectual because for it to be used as such everything would have to be thrown from the windows which is not a desirable practice to encourage. Seeing that in tenement houses, which practically means over 90 per cent. of Chinese houses, there must be a kitchen on each storey for the use of the occupants it is necessary to adopt some other position for the kitchen than that in the rear of the back-yard and this position must be such as not to obstruct the light of the dwelling room, while securing in the rear of the houses, by means of combined back-yards and a scavenging lane, a sufficient distance between opposite buildings to prevent the crowding together of buildings, and to secure an adequate amount of space for light and ventilation of the dwelling rooms

best not

But

Back-lanes situated behind kitchen buildings in the rear of back-yards do not light and ventilate the dwelling house. There are houses now being constructed' in the Colony which are not only provided with back-yards but also with 15 feet back-lanes, yet because of the position of the kitchen, the back-lane is rendered useless for the purpose of bringing light and a free circulation of air to the dwelling house, as the supply of light and air obtainable from the back-lane is obstructed by the high building containing the kitchens and never reaches the dwelling rooms of the house for which it was intended. The fact is both back-yard and back-lane are rendered ineffective because of defects in the arrangement and design of the house. This is exemplified in accompanying sketch A where the kitchen building is between the back-yard and back-lane.

:

•1520-

40.0%

15.0

4.

YARD

633

-15.0-

KITCHEN

SCAVENGING LANE

KITCHEN

YARD

65.0

Scale 1 inch

16 feet.

It will be seen that a fair amount of ground is given over to provide open spaces. The width of the two back-yards and the back-lane making a width of 45 feet, all of which is practically wasted by being broken up into three separate open areas by two rows of high buildings used as kitchens instead of being combined and thus forming one open space of 45 feet between the dwelling houses. The amount of space actually given up is equal to of the roofed over area together with a scavenging lane of 6 feet in width.

13. Plate VIII illustrates the necessity for limiting the depth of a dwelling house which is not furnished with lateral windows; the dwelling rooms shown are 90 feet in depth by only 13 feet in width, the open space in the rear of this tunnel being practically valueless for the lighting and ventilation of the dwelling rooms. In the Bill provision has been made that no building shall exceed forty feet in depth without lateral windows.

14. Plate IX shows the requirements as to rear space of a Chinese house of an ordinary height of 50 feet with a back-lane of 6 feet in width, for scavenging

purposes.

15. Plate X, which represents a type of house recently built in one part of Hunghom, indicates the direction in which improvements have already been made on the lines indicated.

The kitchen is attached to and forms part of the house. It extends to about half the width of the rear wall of the house which permits a window to be placed in the other half, which looks out into the open yard in the rear. Behind the kitchen is a smaller building which is a latrine for the ground floor. The yard in the rear is enclosed by a wall of about 8 feet in height with a door into a scavenging lane of 15 feet in width. It is not necessary to have scavenging lanes of this width, 6 to 8 feet would meet the requirements of the case, and the remain- ing space could be enclosed by a low wall and would serve to increase the area of the yard behind the house.

Basements and Buildings abutting on Hill-side.

16. In Hongkong the tiers of streets which run from east to west and which have been cut out of the hill-side favour the building of houses which on one side. of the street have their rear brought close to the side of the hill and which on the opposite side have the lowermost storey below the level of the street thus forming a basement. If the plots of land abutting on the street are of considerable width two rows of houses are built with a narrow intervening lane between the rows. It is very seldom that an adequate amount of space is provided between the rear of the house and the hill-side, or a good sized area between the street and the base- As a rule the rear of the house is brought close to or forms part of the hill- side and the basement has for one of its sides the retaining wall of the street or is built up in close juxtaposition to it, with a small area of a few feet encroaching on the street pathway and covered by a grating which is intended to give light and ventilation to the basement. If a building is in rear of the basement, which is frequently the case, the entrance of light and air is still further excluded from the basernent.

inent.

634

17. Plate XI gives a section of the buildings between High Street and Queen's Road West. It is on an area which is notorious for the number of cases of plague that occur in the houses every year. Before 1894 the basements were used for human habitation, but this has since been prohibited, and now they are used as stores and work-shops. They are, however, dark, ill ventilated, damp, insanitary and infested with rats. This year on plague breaking out in one of the houses an infected rat was found in the basement of the house in which the case occurred. As the block had a bad name for plague it was vacated and the inhabitants housed in a block of houses with no basements, with the result that there have been no further cases among the persons removed.

Houses containing basements of the kind described are always unhealthy, and more or less infested with rats, and are never dry during the rains.

Basements are also to be found in houses fronting streets which run down the hill-side. Whenever practicable these should be filled up.

In future houses, all basements should be abolished. There are many houses built without them so that there is nothing impracticable in demanding, in all new houses, the abolition of the basement.

If basements are to be allowed at all, which should be quite exceptional, they should be at least 8 feet away from the retaining wall of the street. The house being thus provided with an area in front of the basement can be entered by a properly constructed arched step-way. It is important that the basement thus formed shall have a wide back-lane or yard behind it.

Cubicles.

18. A Chinese tenement house is usually three or four storeys in height. Each storey consists of one long room with a kitchen attached. It is not a floor in the Euro- pean sense of the term, which often consists of half a dozen separate rooms. It is important to remember that a floor as referring to a Chinese tenement house, means a single room. It has been previously stated that this room is long and narrow extending from the front of the house to the back without lateral windows, and on account of its great depth is as a rule deficient in fresh air and exposure to sunlight. In order to make this room serviceable for more than one family, it is partitioned off into small cabins or cubicles. The partitions of the 4 or 6 cubicles into which the room is divided are by section 70 of Ordinance No. 13 of 1901,* not permitted to be higher than 6 feet.

*70. The following requirements shall be observed with regard to cubicles and partitions :—

(a.) In domestic buildings fronting streets of a width of less than fifteen feet, no cubicles or partitions

shall be erected, or if already existing shall be allowed to remain, except on the top floor. (b.) In domestic buildings fronting streets of a width of fifteen feet or over, no cubicles or partitions other than []"ping fung" (ie., shop divisions) shall be erected, or if already existing shall be allowed to remain, on the ground floor, and in the case of every such "ping fung" there must be a space between the top thereof and the ceiling or under side of the joists of the room of not less than four feet, which may be closed in only by wire netting, lattice work or carved woodwork, arranged in such a way as to leave at least two-thirds open and as far as practicable evenly distributed.

(c.) No cubicles or partitions shall be erected, or if already existing shall be allowed to remain, in any

kitchen.

(7.) Whore one cubicle only is hereafter erected or already exists in any room of a domestic building, no portion of the structure of such cubicle shall exceed eight feet in height; where two cubicles only are so erected or exist, no portion of the structure of either of such cubicles shall exceed seven feet in height; where more than two cubicles are so erected or exist, no portion of the structure of any such cubicles shall exceed six feet in height. In all cases, however, there must be a space between the top of every portion of the structure of such cubicles and the ceiling or under side of the joists of the room of not less than four feet, which may be closed only by wire netting, lattice work or carved woodwork, arranged in such a way as to leave at least two-thirds open, and as far as practicable evenly distributed.

() No cubicles whatever shall be erected in any room of a domestic building, or if already existing shall be allowed to remain, unless such room is provided with a window or windows opening directly into the external air and having a total area clear of the window frames of at least one- tenth of the floor area.

(f.) No portion of the structure of any cubicle except the necessary corner posts shall be nearer than two inches to the floor of such cubicle, and no structure shall be erected, of if already existing shall be allowed to remain, within any cubicle, which is of a greater height than the maximum height allowed by this section for any portion of the structure of such cubicle or which provides a cover or roof to the cubicle.

(g.) No partition shall be erected, or if already existing shall be allowed to remain, nearer than four feet to any window the arca of which is included in calculating the window area specified in sub- section (c.)

(4.) No cubicle used for sleeping purposes shall have a less floor area than sixty-four square feet, and a

less length or with than seven feet.

For the purposes of this section every sub-division of a domestic builling, unless such sub-division has a window or windows opening directly into the external air and having a total area clear of the window frames equal to one- tenth of the floor area of such sub-division, shall be deemed to be a cubicle.

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When a long and already ill lighted room is subdivided by three or four or even as many as five or six cubicles, the effect is that in only the cubicle next to the window is there any light or fresh air. The others are quite dark and the air is stagnant in them. In addition to the families which occupy the cubicles there are, as a rule, some beds in the remaining portion of the room on which the tenant and family or friends sleep. The amount of overcrowding which this arrangement causes is sometimes to encourage over 20 people to sleep in one room. None of the cubicles, except the front and back, have any windows except in the case of corner houses. Nothing will remedy this state of things but the abolition for all future houses of cubicles unless they have a window to each and the limitation of cubicles in existing houses to top floors, where skylights and special arrangements for ventilation can be introduced and perhaps to corner houses which have lateral windows opening into side streets of not less than twenty feet in width.

19. Plate XII illustrates the arrangement of cubicles in houses in Aberdeen Street and Square Street.

Verandahs.

20. The large masonry verandahs three and four storeys high encroaching on the public streets to the extent of 10 feet on each side lessen the width of the streets and at the same time darken the rooms of the houses, especially of the two lower floors. In all new streets, verandahs encroaching on the public way should not be allowed. Many houses have not these masonry verandahs, but have small balconies of a lighter structure on their own land.

Plate XIII shows a row of houses in the same street with balconies on their own land and another row with masonry verandahs encroaching on the public street. The houses with the balconies get their rooms better lighted and ventilated than those with the verandahs. There is no encroachment on and narrowing of the public way. Masonry verandahs projecting on to the street were first constructed as a concession and privilege. Now it is almost looked upon as a right which permits the builder to construct in a three or four-storied house 2 or 3 extra rooms at the expense of the Government, .., on Government land, because the verandahs become practically rooms of the house. If a builder desires to attach verandahs to his house he should be allowed to do so only on condition that the verandahs do not encroach on Crown land. Similarly so in regard to balconies. The erection of balconies on narrow streets only renders these streets narrower and should be discontinued.

General Statement regarding Design of Chinese Houses.

21. From the foregoing it will be gathered that the Chinese tenement houses in Hongkong differ in style from the European. They also differ from the ordinary Chinese houses in Canton or other Chinese city, where the buildings are not more than two storeys in height and often not more than one. By some gradual process of evolution they have taken on the worst features of both kinds of houses and none of their best. The tenement houses in Hongkong consist of several storeys, each storey containing one long room lighted at each end by a window but without lateral windows. Each room is subdivided into cabins called cubicles which accom- modate an entire family. The room on each floor communicates, in the rear by a bridge with the kitchen which is separated from the house by a small yard; and in front with a masonry verandah which encroaches on the public street and which being separated by partitions from the adjoining houses is used as an additional room for the house.

The length of room without lateral windows, the kitchen buildings in the rear and the smallness of the back-yard, by obstructing the free access of light and air cause the two lower storeys at least to be dark and badly ventilated. The verandahs in front still further increase this undesirable condition and the cubicles in the

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room intensify it to such an extent that none of the rooms are healthy habitations. The cubicle system leads to overcrowding in its worst form and, with the absence of light and fresh air, under its worst conditions, for with the existing design of buildings whenever there are more than two cubicles in a room even in the upper storeys the compartment is dark and devoid of fresh air. With darkness, absence of fresh air and overcrowding it is impossible to keep them clean.

New Designs.

22. In order to secure lateral windows to the rooms of Chinese houses and so provide a window for each cubicle, designs of various kinds have been sent to the Building Authority and several of these are now reproduced. They show that the problem is not an insoluble one and that the difficulties connected with the proper housing of the Chinese are not insurmountable.

23. Plate XIV represents an improved type of Chinese houses designed by the Honourable W. CHATHAM, Director of Public Works. It solves the cubicle question in the room, for it gives to each a window which will permit of sufficient amount of light and ventilation in the cubicle. The only objection to the building as a whole is that there is no provision for a back-yard, which is an important place for the inhabitants of the house if they are not to do their washing and carry on their general domestic work in the back-lane. Besides in a back-yard a water pipe can be placed for the use of the inmates instead of as now having a water pipe for every storey with extravagant waste and consequent scarcity in the dry

season.

24. Plate XV is a design sent in by WM. DANBY, Esq., M. Inst. C.E., to the Chairman of the Committee re the Housing of the Chinese, as far back as 10th July, 1894. It is an excellent design and plan not only intending to cover the question of cubicles but also that of the relation of houses to one another. We do not however agree with Mr. DANBY as to the number of persons he thinks these houses would contain and yet remain in a sanitary condition. He would allow 21 square feet for each person; 30 is the existing rule but it ought not to be less than 50 square feet. As Mr. DANBY's communication to the Housing Committee is important it is reproduced in the Appendix.

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25. Plate XVI represents a design by Messrs. PALMER & TURNER. It has many advantages in its arrangements especially with reference to the staircase which in the ordinary type of house is excessively steep and narrow as well as being dark, but the amount of yard or courtyard is not sufficiently wide for each house. Instead of being 11 feet it should be at least 15 with a certain amount in the rear extending the width of the house and courtyard.

OVERCROWDING.

26. There are two kinds of overcrowding in Hongkong-one produced by the close proximity of the houses, crowding the occupants of the houses on a small area; the other by too many inmates occupying one house.

Both of these may occur apart from one another but it is usual for them to be found together producing conditions of the worst kind. Plate I, showing a block of houses in Health District No. 5, furnishes an example of both kinds, for not only are the houses crowded together thus raising the density of population on the area, but the houses themselves are overcrowded with people. The interior of this block should be resumed and one or more streets cut through it so that the remaining buildings can be laid out on sanitary principles.*

There are many smaller areas like it, which can be rectified only by remov- ing every other row of buildings. The latter process would reduce the surface overcrowding, but it would not affect the overcrowding of the people in the

*Since this report was drafted a number of the houses in this area have been destroyed by fire and it is very important that advantage should be taken of the opportunity thus afforded to carry out the necessary reforms.-F. J. S.

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houses, which still remains. To prevent overcrowding it is accordingly necessary not only to limit the number of houses to be built on a given arca, but also to limit the number of people that shall occupy a room. The present limit of not less than 30 square feet is too low a standard and should be raised to 50 square feet.

No definite rules in regard to cubic space per head are laid down in England except with reference to common lodging-houses which are required by the bye- laws to be vacated, the windows freely opened, and beds stripped during certain hours of every day. But the Imperial Public Health Act defines as a "Nuisance" any house or part of a house so overcrowded as to be dangerous or injurious to the health of the inmates and it is left to the discretion of the Sanitary Authority on the advice of the Medical Officer of Health to determine what constitutes over- crowding; their decision is of course subject, in the event of legal proceedings, to the decision of the Magistrates who would be naturally guided by expert evidence.

In a tropical country and with an Eastern population whose tendency is to herd together, the conditions are so different from those obtaining in England that it is desirable not only to have definite rules laid down for all classes of native dwell- ing houses but also to fix the minimum at a proportionately higher level. This view was taken by one of us in 1882 and it was then recommended that 600 cubic feet of air space should be the minimum allowance per head; 50 square feet of floor space per head is the minimum recognised in India for all jails.

In order that the unbuilt over areas of Kowloon and the New Territory shall not get into the same insanitary and overcrowded state as the City of Victoria, it is important that they should be laid out on definite lines, and with this object in view it is recommended that a map should be drawn showing existing and projected streets and scavenging lanes planned out on lines which will ultimately when the areas are built on secure a healthy and well ventilated town.

PROPOSED BILL.

27. In preparing the draft Bill which has for its object the avoidance of the necessity for further sanitary legislation, for the next few years, it was soon found that the only practicable way of carrying out this proposal was to consolidate the whole of the Sanitary and Building Ordinances in one Bill, for the Public Health Ordinance of 1901 was found to contain many clauses relating to construction, some of which, in our opinion, most certainly need ́amendment. This consolidation however is quite in keeping with the construction of the Imperial Public Health Act of 1875 and subsequent amending Acts which deal not only with (sanitary administration out also with the regulation of streets and buildings and we are sure that to have all the provisions of the local law on sanitary and constructional matters within the pages of one Ordinance will prove very useful not only to the officials whose duty it is to see that the law is complied with, but also to the Architects and others who design and erect the buildings. The Bill is divided into six parts:-Part I being Preliminary, dealing mainly with definitions; Part II dealing with Public Health Administration; Part III with Building Cons- truction; Part IV with the rights of adjacent owners; Part V with the Resumption of Property by the Crown for sanitary reasons; and Part VI with Penalties and Contraventions.

In Part II provision is made, in the constitution of the Sanitary Board, for a Sanitary Commissioner, as we are convinced that the Sanitary Department should be administered by an officer who should devote the whole of his time to such duties, and who should be ex-officio the Chairman of the Board and Head of the Depart- This officer should be a medical man specially trained and skilled in sani- tary affairs, and responsible to the Government for the effigient administration of the Department. Certain duties which are now performed by the Medical Officer of Health, in the name of the Board, have been transferred to the Sanitary Com- missioner, but care has been taken not to encroach in any way upon the powers

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of the Board, as we consider that such a Board is capable of doing much good work on behalf of the Colony. The Bill accordingly imposes upon the Sanitary Commis- sioner the duty of dealing with all nuisances and sanitary defects of whatever nature. but leaves to the Board the power of granting licences, permits, exemptions, etc.. of controlling the policy of the Department and of advising the Government as to the sanitary needs of the Colony. We consider moreover that there should still be a Medical Officer of Health and an Assistant Medical Officer of Health who, with the Surveyor and the Colonial Veterinary Surgeon would continue to be the chief executive officers of the Board. It has morcover been deemed necessary to trans- fer the Port Health Officers to the Sanitary Department as their duties are essentially sanitary and their separation only tends to render inefficient the work of sanitary administration.

(

With regard to the Building clauses 'contained in Part III of the Bill, careful consideration has been given to the Report submitted by the local Architects, and many of their suggestions, have been adopted such for instance as the non-applica- tion of the Ordinance to buildings already planned (within certain limits of time) and contracted for, the right of an authorized architect to appear before the Execu- tive Council before his name is removed from the list, the question of the rights of adjacent owners, and other matters of smaller moment to which our attention has been directed by the said report.

With regard to the setting back of buildings in narrow private streets, it has not been thought necessary to go beyond the law of 1889, which required an open space of seven and a half feet at least as measured from the middle of the lane or street, to be left in front of any such new building.

The provisions of the European Reservation Ordinance of 1888 are incorporated (with some amendment of the boundaries) in Part III and it will be found that several of the clauses in this Part relating to construction only apply to build- ings outside such reservation, as they have been especially drawn to meet the conditions which obtain in Chinese tenement houses and others of that class.

With regard to the resumption of insanitary property, many blocks of build- ings throughout the City of Victoria will undoubtedly have to be gradually bought up by the Government and the areas laid out in a more sanitary manner, more open space around each building being an especial desideratum in many of the most congested areas, and we have accordingly incorporated in this Bill the clauses of the Crown Lands Resumption Ordinance which appear to follow closely the provisions of the Imperial Housing of the Working Classes Act and to provide all the neces- sary powers for the resumption of insanitary or obstructive buildings. In such cases compensation for resumption is always given, but the Bill does not propose to offer compensation to the owners for the erection of sanitary dwellings on land at present unoccupied, nor for the re-erection, on land already occupied, of dwellings of an improved type to those now in existence. The right of an owner of property to re-erect dwellings of an insanitary type, because his present dwellings are insanitary, should not be admitted.

In regard to the question of cubicles it should be specially noted that the Bill does not prohibit cubicles, but regulates them by requiring that every cubicle shall be provided with a window into the external air. As every cubicle is a dwelling compartment for one or more persons, and often for an entire family, it is only in accordance with the ordinary laws of sanitation to require that it shall be separately lit and ventilated by a window into the external air. The law has required since 1894 that every "habitable room" shall be so provided * and it is not in accordance with the spirit of that law that a dwelling-room with one or two windows, should be sub- divided into a number of rooms, each occupied by a family, of which only the roo:n

* Ordinance 15 of 1894, s. 8.---(«) Every person erecting a new building shall provide every habitable room therein with one window, at least, opening directly into the external air, and he shall cause the total area of such window or windows, clear of the window frames to be at least one-tenth of the floor area of every such room.

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at the front of the building and possibly the one at the back can have windows into the external air. No person can legitimately claim the right to house tenants in window- less rooms, merely with a view to increasing the rental of his property, and where such has been done, no claim to compensation should be entertained for the discontinuance of this dangerous practice.

Every inaterial amendment of the present law has, we believe, been enclosed within square brackets so that the reader may see at a glance what is new and what is not, and the following is a table showing the arrangement of the clauses, together with a brief resumé of the amendments with notes of the reasons why they have been incorporated in this Bill, where such reasons appear to be called for.

HONGKONG.

THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND BUILDINGS BILL.

ARRANGEMENT OF CLAUSES.

Section.

1. Short title.

PART I.

Preliminary.

2. (1) Repeal of Ordinances. (2) Bye-laws continued in force: (3) Rules and Regulations

continued in force. (4) Existing officers to continue to hold their appointments.

3. Contracts. Any contracts entered into under the existing building laws may be carried out under such laws if the buildings are commenced within three months of the approval of the plans by the Building Authority.

4. Government wells, buildings and works ex'mpt.

5. Rights or liabilities between landlord and imant.

6. Defintions. A number of new definitions have beeu included, which have been taken mostly

from the Imperial Acts.

7. List of" authorized architects." This clause has been framed with a view to preventing the

erection of buildings by incompetent persons.

PART II.

Public Health.

CONSTITUTION AND GENERAL POWERS OF THE SANITARY BOARD.

8. Constitution of the Sanitary Board. We have provided here for the appointment of a Sanitary Commissioner who shall be ex-officio Chairman of the Board. In order to pre- serve a majority of unofficial members on the Board we have been reluctantly compelled to provide that the Medical Officer of Health should cease to be a member of the Board, his seat being taken by the Sanitary Commissioner, although we consider that the services of the present Medical Officer of Health on the Board have been invaluable. In any case, however, the Medical Officer of Health should attend the meetings of the Board as their professional adviser, and chief executive officer.

9. Rules for clection of certain members of the Board.

10. Names of members to be gazetted.

11.

Substitute members.

12. Vacancies on the Board.

13. (1) Board meetings. (2) Quorum.

14. (1) Standing orders. (2) Appointment of select committees.

15. (1) Delegation of powers to Sanitary Commissioner or to select committees. (2) Failure to

comply with orders of Sanitary Commissioner or of select committer.

16. Emoluments and powers of Sanitary Commissioner.

17. Matters with regard to which the Board has power to make bye-laws. 18. Legislative Council to approve bye-laws.

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SANITARY STAFF AND ITS POWERS,

19. Constitution of Sunitary staff.

20. Evidence of appointment of any officer of the Board,

21. Power of Medical Officers of Health and Sanitary Surveyors to enter and inspect premises.

Proviso.

22. Power of Medical Officers of Health to enter and inspect without notice.

23. General power of Board's officers to inspect.

24. Special inspections to ascertain breaches of certain sections.

OBSTRUCTION OF MEMBER OR OFFICER OF THE BOARD.

25. Penalty for assaulting member or officer of the Board.

NUISANCES.

26. Definition of nuisance.

27. (1) Entry to inspect nuisances. (2) Notice of such entry to be given if objection is raised. 28. Penalty for refusing admission after due notice.

29. Sanitary Commissioner to serve notice requiring abatement of nuisance.

30. (1) Sanitary Commissioner may serve notice directing compliance with by-laws. (2) Pro-

ceedings without notice.

31. Board may review notice. This clause provides a right of appeal to the Board by any person

dissatisfied with the action of the Sanitary Commissioner.

32. On non-compliance with notice, complaint to be made to a Magistrate. Proviso. It has been thought advisable to give the Sanitary Commissioner power to abate certain nuisances forthwith, if the notice is not complied with, instead of making application to a Magistrate for an order and penalty; this power has been taken more especially in regard to nuisances intimately associated with the dissemination of plague.

33. (1) Power of Magistrate to make an order dealing with the nuisance. (2) Penalty. 34. (1) Order of prohibition of use, etc., of building unfit for human habitation. (2) Closure of premises which have become a nuisance to the neighbourhood. The latter clause is new, as there appears to be at present no powers for dealing with such premises, and it is possible that offensive or objectionable trades might be carried on in undesirable localities, and yet not fall within the definition of "Offensive trades" given in section 6

35. Penalty for contravention of order of Magistrate, or for defacing any copy of such order. 36. Form of notices.

37. Manner of serving notices.

COMMON LODGING-HOUSES.

38. Common lodging-houses to be registered and the keeper licens.

39. Penalty for false statements.

40. Inspection of common lodging-houses.

PUBLIC WASHERMEN.

41. Regulation of public washermen. This is a new clause to enable the Board to carry out its

duties in regard to the protection of the public water supplies.

FACTORIES, WORKSHOPS, ETC.

42. Establishment of factories or work-places,

43. Establishment of dangerous or offensive trades.

44. Nuisances in factories, workshops or workplaces.

45. Prohibition of occupation for domestic purposes of any building in which a dangerous or offensive trade is carried on. The four foregoing clauses are new; it is very desirable that cement works, white lead factories, alkali works and so on, should not be established in overcrowded parts of the Colony, nor that such premises should be occupied as dwellings without some control by the Sanitary Authority.

BASEMENTS.

46. Basements may not be occupied without permission.

47. Filling in of bisements which are insanitary. This is a new clause which appears to be very

necessary in connection with the question of the dissemination of plague by rats

OVERCROWDING.

48. Overcrowding defined. Overcrowding in European Reservation or Hill District.

49. Overcrowding prohibited.

50. (1) Steps to be taken to abate overcrowding. (2) Magistrate may make order for abatement.

(3) Subsequent inspection.

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51. Common kitchen not to be used as a sleeping room. 52. Calculation of cubic space in case of children. 53. Limit of fittings for sleeping accommodation.

In these clauses dealing with overcrowding

the minimum floor space per head has been increased from thirty feet to fifty feet, and the minimum cubic space from four hundred feet to six hundred feet, as recommended by one of us in 1882.

KEEPING CATTLE, SWINE, ETC.

54. Keeping of cattle, swine, etc., requires a licence.

55. Transport of animals, etc.

COMPENSATION FOR SLAUGHTER OF INFECTED ANIMALS,

56. Compensation for infected animals slaughtered,

57. Value to be fixed by Colonial Veterinary Surgeon.

DEPÔTS FOR ANIMALS.

58. Cattle Depôts to be provided by the Government.

59. Grazing may be prohibited.

SLAUGHTER-HOUSES.

60. Establishment of slaughter-houses and the letting thereof. 61. Prohibition of the establishment of private slaughter-houses. 62. Privilege of slaughtering animals.

63. Sub-letting prohibited.

64. Slaughtering except in slaughter-houses prohibited.

65. Unauthorized fees or charges prohibited.

66. Marking of animals for slaughter.

67. Only marked animals may be slaughtered for human food.

68. Forging marks a criminal offence.

69. Pussing of un-marked animals into a slaughter-hous: prohibited. 70. Stamping of beef and mutton.

71. Forging stamps a criminal offence.

72. Slaughter-houses open to inspection.

73. Establishment of markets.

74. Buildings in markets limited.

MARKETS.

Prohibiting establishment of unauthorized markets,

75. Letting of market buildings by the Registrar General.

76. Sub-letting prohibited.

77. Alterations to market buildings require sanction of Director of Public Works. 78. Repairs to market buildings by lessee may be ordered by Magistrate.

79. Sale of certain articles outside markets prohibited.

80. Seizure of unstamped meat by officers of the Board.

81. Exceptions to the prohibition of sales outside markets.

82. Unauthorized fees or charges prohibited.

83. Markets open to inspection.

UNWHOLESOME FOOD.

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84. Sale of unwholesome food prohibited.

85. Seizure of unwholesome food. Penalty.

86. Inspection of dairies. Power to prohibit supply of milk in certain cases.

87. Penalty for refusal to permit inspection.

88. Penalty for allowing infected persons to milk animals or assist in the conduct of the dairy

or reside therein.

REMOVAL OF INFECTED PERSONS,

89. Removal of infected persons to hospital.

90. Conveyance of infected persons in public vehicles. Penalty.

CEMETERIES.

91. Chinese cemeteries to be appointed. Penalty for improper interment.

92. List of authorized cemeteries. Penalty for burials elsewhere.

93. Closing of cemeteries by the Governor in Council.

RECOVERY OF EXPENSES BY THE BOARD,

94. Reimbursement of expenses to the Board. 95. Method of recovery of expenses by the Board..

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96. Granting of certifientes, etc.

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CERTIFICATÈS.

PART III.

Buildings.

BUILDING MATERIALS.

97. Building materials specified.

EXCEPTIONAL STRUCTURES,

98. Construction of exceptional buildings regulated.

99. Structures of glass, iron, etc., to be subject to approval of Building Authority. 100, Buildings in districts outside an urban district may be of wood.

101. Construction of walls regulated.

WALLS.

102. External and party walls, thickness of. The required thickness of external and party walls

has been slightly increased on the recommendation of the Director of Public Works. 103. Limitation of length of walls. Walls over 76 feet in height require approval of Building Authority. The alteration in the limit of height of walls from 80 feet to 76 feet has been made partly because the height of such walls is now measured from the level of the adjacent foot-path instead of as formerly from the top of the footings, and partly to accord with the provisions of section 185 sub-section (5) of the same Ordinance. In any case the Building Authority has power to permit walls of a greater height.

104. Thickness of cross walls to be two-thirds that of main walls.

105. Damp proof courses must be provided.

106. Construction of foundations.

107. Party walls to be carried up above roof,

108. Openings through party or external walls.

109. Lath and plaster walls prohibited. Such walls are most undesirable owing to the intimate: connection between rat-infested premises and plague, and the facilities which such walls give to the breeding of rats within the building.

Bonding for THE WALLS OF DOMESTIC BUILDINGS.

110. Bonding of walls provided for. This is a new clause inserted on the recommendation of the

Public Works Committee of the Legislative Council.

BRESSUMMERS AND LINTELS.

III. Bearings of bressummers and lintels.

CONCRETING of Ground SURFACES.

112. Prohibition of habitation of domestic buildings until impermeable floors have been provided.

Proviso.

113. Repairs to impermeable material over ground surface.

FLOORS.

114. Level of ground floors to be above level of ground outside. 115. Distance between floor timbers of contiguous buildings.

116. Floors to rest on corbels of brickwork or stonework.

į

117. Space to be left between floors defined. A space of nine feet only between floors in a tropical country is inadequate and the space has accordingly been increased in this clause.

118. Ventilation under boarded floors in the lowest storey. A space of a few inches only under a wooden floor is inadequate and the requirements of the law in this respect have accordingly

⚫ been increased to two feet six inches, thus rendering the space accessible and capable of

being kept cleansed and free from rats.

119. Regulations governing mezzanine floors.

120. Wooden floors to be made reasonably water-tight.

121. Cement skirtings required. This clause has been inserted so as to provide an additional

protection against rats in the Chinese quarter.

STAIRCASES.

122. Regulations governing tread and rise of stairs.

CEILINGS.

123. Ceilings prohibited outside European reservation. This is intended as a further protection.

against rats in the Chinese quarter.

124. Corbels to be of stone or brick.

CORBELLING.

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ROOFS.

125. Covering of roof to be of incombustible material.

126. Space between roof timbers of contiguous buildings. 127. Platforms on roof prohibited.

128. Roofs to rest upon brickwork or stonework.

WOODWORK.

129. Bond timbers or wood plates not to be built into walls. 130. Timber or woodwork near flue or chimney opening prohibited.

ARCHES.

131. Regulations governing construction of arches.

132. Material for coping, cornices, etc.

PROJECTIONS, ETC.

133. Eaves-gutters and rain water down-pipes to be provided.

134. Projections into public thoroughfares prohibited. Proviso in the case of public buildings.

VERANDAHS, BALCONIES AND AREAS.

135. Encroachments on Crown land prohibited. We are most emphatically of the opinion that all encroachments upon Crown land by means of verandahs, balconies etc., should be absolutely prohibited in future. Such structures very materially lessen the width of the public streets and are thus an important factor in the darkening of the lower floors of dwelling houses. All such structures should be provided by owners on their own land.

RESTRICTION ON PARTITIONS, OBSTRUCTIONS AND ENCLOSURES IN VERANDAHS AND BALCONIES.

136. Verandahs and balconies not to be enclosed. This clause is intended to cover all existing

verandahs and balconies on Crown land or over any street.

KITCHENS, FIREPLACES AND CHIMNEYS.

137. Kitchen accommodation must be provided in domestic buildings.

138. Limitation of extent of kitchens in tenement houses.

139. Construction of chimney of fireplace.

140. Fireplaces adapted for use of charcoal to have hoods.

141. Floors under oven, stove or fireplace to be incombustible.

142. Chimneys not to be fixed near woodwork.

143. Thickness and height of chimney above roof defined.

144. Corbelling and foundations of himneys regulated. 145. Thickness of back of chimney opening defined.

WINDOWS, CUBICLES AND ROOMS.

146. Windows in rooms required.

147. Limitation of depth of buildings. One of the most important causes of the insanitary condi- tion of many of the dwellings in this Colony is the excessive depth of buildings in relation to their width, and this clause is designed to prevent the further erection of domestic buildings of great depth without lateral windows. The enforcement of this clause may occasionally necessitate the resumption of a portion of a building-lot by the Crown, but in view of the insufficient width of many of the public streets in the Colony, and the lack of open spaces this resumed land can well be utilized to increase the width of the public street or streets abutting on such lot or be reserved as an open space for the improvement of the neighbourhood. The option of resuming any portion of a building-lot in connection with this clause should rest with the Government, as it is conceivable that the land may be laid out in several different ways, and it is only suggested that resumption might ensue when the building-owner can make no use whatever of a portion of his land. 148. Cubicles without windows prohibited in domestic buildings hereafter erected. Very little improvement in the sanitary condition of the vast majority of the Chinese dwellings in the Colony can be hoped for until this question of cubicles is dealt with in a rational manner, and we consider that it will be no great hardship to require all cubicles in buildings hereafter erected to possess windows into the external air.

149. Requirements as to cubicles in existing buildings.

The number of cubicles, not separately

lit by windows or skylights on any storey has been limited to two, and in lieu of the present sliding scale as to the height of the partitions, the Bill provides for a maximum height of six feet. The size of the cubicles has also been amended to accord with the proposed increase in the area of floor space to be allowed per head by clause 48 of this Bill.

150.. Obstruction of windows prohibited.

644

18

PRIVIES, WATER CLOSETS AND LATRINES.

151. Construction and dimensions of privies regulated.

152. Ventilation of privies and latrines and rendering of walls with cement. 153. Construction of floors of privies and latrines specified.

154. Frivies and latrines not to be connected directly with drain or sewer. 155. Direct connection of water-service with privies, etc., prohibited.

156. Kereptacle and seat in privy required.

157. Construction of water closets and urinals without permission prohibited.

158. Privies to be provided in factories and other industrial establishments. 159. Latrines to be provided for tenement houses.

160. Inadequate provision of latrines to be dealt with by Sanitary Commissioner.

PUBLIC LATRINES.

161. Sanction of the Board to be obtained before erection of a public latrine, 162. Application by Board to Government for additional public latrines. 163. Notification of intention to erect a public latrine.

164. Objections to such erection.

165. Resolution of the Legislative Council necessary where objection is made.

166. No injunction to be granted or suit to be brought in certain cases.

167. Existing Government public latrines protected from injunction.

168. Board to contral Government public latrines.

169. Saving clause preserving existing rights.

OPEN SPACES, SCAVENGING LANES, ETC.

170. (1.) Open spaces to be provided for existing buildings. (2) Buildings with two main front- ages. (3) Modifications in special cases. (4) Obst uctions in such open spaces prohibited.

171. Open space or area to be provided between new building and hill side.

172. Subsoil drainage of such open spaces or areas.

173. Structures in areas prohibited.

174. Open spaces in the rear of new buildings on land not yet sold by the Crown,

175. Open spaces in the rear of new buildings on land already sold by the Crown. The Bill provides that the open spaces in the rear of new buildings shall bear a definite proportion to the roofed over area of the buildings and if the mean of the three scales which now exist (namely section 54 of the Public Health Ordinance of 1901, section 56 of the same Ordinance, and the Schedule of the Praya Reclamation Ordinance No. 16 of 1889, all three of which should be now repealed) be taken, it will be found that the new scale is not much in excess of the existing ones. It will be observed moreover that the erection of one-storey kitchens, bath-rooms and latrines in the open spaces, or yards is permitted, which is an advantage not permitted by the existing sanitary laws.

176. Further provisions in regard to open spaces around buildings on land not yet sold by the

Crown.

177. Further provisions in regard to open spaces around buildings on land already sold by the Crown. It appears to be necessary, especially in connection with buildings abutting ou private streets, to provide for the preservation of the open spaces in front of buildings as well as in the rear.

PUBLIC STREETS.

178. Preparation of plan of projected public streets and lanes by the Building Authority. The Ordinance should definitely lay down that a plan is to be prepared of all pro- jected streets in the districts not yet built upon but which are available for purchase, so that intending purchasers of Crown land may be in a position to design their buildings to the best advantage.

PRIVATE STREETS.

179. New private streets to be approved by the Building Authority.

180. Width of new private streets regulated.

181. Space in front of new buildings in private streets.

182. Obstruction of streets by buildings prohibited.

183. Maintenance and lighting of private back streets and lanes,

184. Maintenance and lighting of private front streets and fanes,

HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS.

185. Limitation of height of buildings. It is essential that the height of all buildings hereafter erected (with perhaps one small exception,) should be limited to a maximum of one and a balf times the width of the street on which such buildings front, and in ease of land not yet

19

The

sold by the Crown, we advise that the height be limited to the width of the street. exception referred to relates to certain private streets which received special consideration in the Insanitary Properties Ordinance of 1894, and reference to these will be found in the proviso to sub-section (3).

186. Method of determination of height of buildings.

DRAINAGE WORKS.

187. Drains must be provided in new buildings.

188. All drainage works to be carried out by the Board or by persons approved by the Board.

189. Drains in existing buildings to be amended or reconstructed if defective.

190. Groups of buildings shall be drained in combination if so required by the Sanitary Commis-

sioner.

191. Owners to conneet drains with main sewers.

192. Suspected drains to be opened by an officer of the Board.

193. House drains required in villages and rural districts.

194. Open drains to be provided in rural districts, wherever feasible.

195. Sumps to be provided where there is no public drainage system.

196. Drain connections with Government main sewers to be regulated by the Director of Public

Works.

DESIGN OF BUILDINGS.

197. Erection of Chinese domestic buildings within European Reservation or Hill District pro-

hibited.

198. Building Authority to inspect any such building in respect of which a complaint is received. 199. Kestriction does not apply to the residence of Chinese within the European Reservation or

Hill District.

200. Preserving existing rights of the Government to regulate type of buildings to be erected.

OCCUPATION OF NEW BUILDINGS.

201. Occupation of new building without a certificate prohibited.

DANGEROUS BUILDINGS.

202. Shoring and fencing of a dangerous building.

203. Taking down of a dangerous building.

204. Shoring or taking down of a dangerous building at the cost of the owner.

HOARDINGS AND SCAFFOLDINGS.

205. Hoardings and scaffoldings in thoroughfares require permission of Building Authority,

MATSHEDS AND OTHER INFLAMMABLE STRUCTURES.

206. Inflammable structures may not be erected without permission.

BLASTING.

207. Precautions to be adopted when blusting stone, etc.

EARTH CUTTING,

208. Regulations as to earth cutting.

TIMBER YARDS.

209. Timber yards to be enclosed,

WELLS AND POOLS.

210. Wells may only be sunk with permission of Building Authority.

211. Excavations allowing stagnant water prohibited.

212. Closing of wells which are insanitary.

NULLAHS, STORM WATER CHANNELS AND Drains.

213. Building over drains without permission prohibited.

214. Covering in of nullahs prohibited.

215. Conditions to be imposed by the Director of Public Works.

216. Interference with any drain, nullah, catchwater or water channel prohibited.

BOUNDARY AND RETAINING WALLS.

217. Construction of boundary or enclosure walls.

218. Construction of retaining walls.

·645

!

646

20

PLANS, DRAWINGS AND NOTICES.

219. (1) Plans, drawings, etc., to be submitted in connection with all new works. Block plan to

be submitted. (2.) Copy of plans, etc., to be deposited with Building Authority. (3) Copy of plans, etc., showing drainage works to be deposited with Sanitary Board. (4) Misrepresentations in plans, etc., punishable. (5) Power of Magistrate to require com- pliance with the Ordinance. (6) Penalty.

220. Notice of commencement or resumption of works.

221. In case of emergency notice may be given after commencement of works.

ALTERATION OR ADDITION TO EXISTING BUILDING OR WORKS.

222. Certificate of authorized architect required before alteration or addition to existing building

or works.

REFERENCE OF PLANS TO THE SANITARY COMMISSIONER.

223. Plans and drawings respecting building or works to be referred to the Sanitary Commissioner.

POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE BUILDING AUTHORITY AS TO ENTRY AND INSPECTION.

224. Power to enter and inspect buildings and works.

STOPPAGE OR DIVERSION OF TRAFFIC.

225. Director of Public Works may stop or divert traffic.

226. Building nuisances defined.

BUILDING NUISANCES.

227. Notice to abate building nuisance. Proviso.

228. Magistrate's order enforcing abatement of nuisances by the Building Authority. Expenses

consequent thereon.

229. Recovery of expenses of abatement of nuisance by sale of materials.

}

230. Distress in case of non-payment of expenses.

231. Saving of other remedies for nuisances.

SERVICE OF NOTICE, SUMMONS OR ORder.

232. Method of service of notice, summons or order.

PART IV.

Rights of Building and Adjoining Owners.

233. Provisions concerning buildings on line of junction when adjoining lands are unbuilt on.

234. Rights of building owner in relation to party structures.

235. Requirements of adjoining owner in relation to party structures.

236. Notice to be given by building owner before works are commenced.

237. Differences between building owner and adjoining owner.

238. Right of entry of building owner.

239. Underpinning or strengthening of foundations of adjoining building.

240. Adjoining owner may require security to be given.

241. Expenses to be borne jointly by building owner and adjoining owner. Expenses to be borne by

the building owner.

242. Statement of expenses to be furnished by building owner.

243. Difference between building owner and adjoining owner as to expenses.

244. Failure by adjoining owner to express dissatisfaction to be deemed acceptance.

245. . Failure by adjoining owner to contribute to expenses leaves building owner possessed of sole

property.

246. Adjoining owner liable for expenses incurred on his requisition.

247. Preserving all other easements and rights in regard to party structures.

PART V.

Resumption.

248. Power of resumption by the Crown defined.

249. Constitution of Board of Arbitrators.

250. Notification of constitution of Board of Arbitrators.

251. No suit to lie but claims to be sent in writing to the Board of Arbitrators.

252. Consideration of claims.

253. Powers of the Board of Arbitrators.

254. Assessment of compensation where property is resumed. Proviso. Proviso where insanitary

property is resumed.

255. Notices by Board of Arbitrators.

21

256. No appeal from decision of majority. 257. Vacancies on Board of Arbitrators.

258. Re-grant af lands etc.

259. Compensation to bear interest until paid.

260. Notice of resumption to be conclusive evidence of a resumption for a public purpose. 261. Arrangement with owner to re-construct buildings.

262. Power of Board of Arbitrators to regulate proceedings.

263. Saving of rights of resumption under Crown Leases.

PART VI.

Contraventions and Penalties.

7

264

Contraventions.

265. Recovery of Penalties.

266. Penalty for building nuisances.

267. Penalty for refusing to obey Magistrate's order or for obstructing Building Authority. 268. Penalty for other contraventions.

269. Imprisonment in default of payment of penalties.

270. Linbility of Secretary or Manager of a Company. 271. Proceedings against several persons.

SPECIAL Powers of MAGISTRATE.

272. Closure of premises by order of a Magistrate.

273. Power of Magistrate to order removal of illegal structures. Appeal to the Governor-in-Council. 274. Appeal to the Governor-in-Council against decision of the Building Authority.

REGULATIONS.

275. Governor-in-Council may make Regulations.

APPLICATION OF ORDINANCE.

276. Ordinance not to apply to New Territories except New Kowloon unless Order in Council

shall so direct.

Enactments repealed.

SCHEDULE A.

SCHEDULE B.

Bye-laws governing Bakehouses; Basements; Cattle-sheds, Pigsties etc.; Cemeteries; Common

Lodginy-houses; Dairies; Depôts for Cattle, Pigs, Sheep and Goats; Disinfection of infected Premises; Domestic cleanliness and Ventilation; Drainage Entry and Inspection of Buildings; Importation of Animals; Latrines; Laundries; Night-soil carriers; Markets; Notification of infectious Disease; Overcrowding; Offensive Trades; Opium smoking Divans; Poisons; Prevention or Mitigation of epidemic endemic or contagious disease; Prevention of the dissemination of rats; Slaughter-houses; Removal of patients; Scavenging and Conservancy; Streets (private), Obstruction o); Water-closets.

SCHEDULE C.

Matshed Regulations.

SCHEDULE D.

Regulations us to obtaining Stone, Earth or Turf from Crown Land.

SCHEDULE E.

Rules for the election by the rate-payers of members of the Sanitary Board.

SCHEDULE F.

Form of notice to abate a Public Health Nuisance.

SCHEDULE G.

Form of notice of intention to commence or resume any building or works.

- SCHEDULE A.

Form of notice to abate a building nuisance.

647

648

22

We would ask that the Bill may be referred to the Attorney General so that its phraseology may be altered, where necessary, to the legal form, and any flaws in its construction rectified, and we believe that if the Government can secure its adoption by the Legislative Council with only such alterations as the Attorney General may deem necessary, the Colony will possess an Ordinance which will gradually secure a great improvement in its general sanitary condition, and will lead to the suppression of those diseases which are dependent upon overcrowding and insanitary conditions for their propagation.

We have the honour to be.

Sir,

Your obedient Servants.

OSBERT CHADWICK,

M. INST. C.E., M.I.M.E., C.M.G.

W. J. SIMPSON,

M.D., F.R.C.P.

SIR,

Appendix.

Mr. W. Danby to Chairman of Committee re the Housing of the Chinese.

HONGKONG. 10th July, 1894.

Having given much thought and attention for many years past to the practic- ability of introducing a better and more sanitary type of Dwelling House for the Chinese Working Classes of this Colony, I should be glad if you would lay the following suggestions, with accompanying plans, before the Committee, now sitting on the subject of House Accommodation for the Working Classes.

2. Before proceeding further, however, I may state, that I have probably designed and superintended the erection of more Chinese Houses in the Colony, than any other Architect, and am consequently well acquainted with their many defects, and the points on which improvements should be insisted upon, and also the objections likely to arise from property owners, when such improvements are first proposed. At the present time, so long as the plans of proposed Chinese Houses comply with the requirements of the existing Building and Public Health Ordinances, we Architects are powerless to introduce such improvements as we should like, if our clients refuse to adopt our suggestions, which they almost invariably do.

3. In preparing the accompanying design. I have adopted a somewhat different type of building, to what we have at present in the Colony, a departure to which at first sight some objections will probably be raised by some of the Chinese owners of property. I have, however, shewn and explained the general design to many Chinese, who after going into it, have expressed themselves much pleased with it, and are of opinion that it is a type of building which would eventually become popular with the Working and Coolie classes.

4. The plans sent herewith have been more especially designed for the large blocks of vacant ground at Kennedy Town, of which the Hon. C. P. CHATER is Crown Lessee, their respective numbers being Inland Lots Nos. 953-954 and part

23

of Inland Lot No. 906; the Committee will see, however, that the type of building now proposed, can easily be adapted to the new buildings which will have to be erected on the condemned area in Taipingshan, after the Government have resumed the ground, and laid it out on more sanitary and modern lines.

5. My suggestion is to erect blocks of model working class Dwellings, having large open area in the centre for light and ventilation, with streets and wide passages on the outside, and surrounding the premises on all four sides (cide Drawings) thus securing further light and ventilation.

6. On referring to Drawing No. 2 (which is a detail of Block 4 on Drawing No. 1) it will be noticed that the General Entrance to the premises is on the side facing the 50-feet Public Street, the Entrance will be 4 feet 6 inches wide opening into an Entrance Lobby (laid in cement concrete) 15 feet long and 14 feet wide, and leading direct into the large Open Area or Yard 39 feet long by 36 feet wide. The caretaker or concierge would reside in this lobby, for which there is ample room, at the front corner of the Blocks, and on the Ground Floor, two shops are shewn, for the sale of Chinese groceries, provisions, &c., &c.

7. At the opposite end of the Yard to the Entrance, a large cook-house (15′× 12′) and latrine accommodation is provided, one latrine for men only (15' x 12') and one for women and children (15' x 8')

The question of latrine accommodation is one to which I attach very great importance, hitherto it has almost invariably been neglected both by the Govern- ment and owners of property. In all Building Regulations both in Great Britain and other places, you will find provision made for the erection of privies, &c., and that by the "Building Owner." According to the existing Hongkong Ordinances, a building owner can, if he so wishes it, erect say 500 houses in one Block, and there is no provision in any of the Ordinances compelling him to provide suitable latrine accommodation for the occupants of the said houses. The present time, with the lessons taught us by the visitation of the Plague, and when it is proposed to re-construct certain portions of the City, is, in my opinion, a favourable opportunity for introducing new Regulations referring to this matter.

8. As before mentioned, a Special Latrine, with a separate Entrance is pro- vided for women and children. You will probably be informed that women will not go to such places; on enquiry, however, I find that such is not the case, the fact being, as I am creditably informed, that in the Public Latrines now opened in the City (and which latrines are few in number and some long distances apart), no special provision of any kind is made for women and children; they have either to make use of receptacles in their cook-houses or living rooms, or resort to the Latrines used by men.

I respectfully venture to suggest that your Committee should strongly recom- mend the Government to adopt measures for the improvement of this very unsatis- factory state of things.

9. The proposed latrines would have cement concrete floors, and the walls, for a height of 5 feet would be rendered with neat cement. They would have ample light and ventilation from large doors and openings at each end, thus securing a good current of air through each of them and owing to the ample light in them. there would be no difficulty in keeping them clean and free from offensive smells.

The floors of the cook-rooms immediately above them, would be constructed of cement concrete (carried on iron joists) and other materials impervious to

moisture.

10. All the cook-houses throughout the building would also be constructed in a manner similar to the latrines, with concrete floors, so that no water could percolate through them, they also would have ample light and ventilation on two

il

649

650

24

sides, each cooking range would also have a separate flue, which is not usually the case, the smoke from the lower cook-house generally finding its way into and filling the cook-house immediately above it. The new cook-houses, thus having plenty of light and ventilation, and good flues will easily be kept clean and sweet, especially as there will be no dark corners for dirt to accumulate.

11. An iron verandah, 6 feet wide in the clear (or 2 feet wider than the usual iron balconies now permitted in the public streets) is proposed to be erected in the "Open Yard" at the level of each floor, this verandah will give access to all the rooms on each floor.

12. An unusually good, wide and well ventilated, and well lighted general staircase is provided, the steps being of hard wood 4 feet wide (and with iron balusters) enabling the occupants to easily pass each other when ascending or des- cending. This staircase communicates with each floor of the building. I wish to draw the special attention of the Committee to this staircase, as one of the features of the proposed new buildings. The ordinary staircase in the usual type of Chinese houses in the Colony (including even good ones) is dark, rickety and very steep, in fact, absolutely dangerous: knowing them as I do, the wonder has been, more accidents have not occurred. I have on several occasions endeavoured to get a clause inserted in the Building Ordinances limiting the height and tread of steps in Chinese Dwellings as is done in the Building Bye-laws of Municipal Towns in England and other places. Ground in this City is valuable, in the future it will become more so, the ten lency will be to increase the height of new buildings, which means also the making of the staircases much steeper than they are now, and conse- quently more dangerous, as is now the case in nearly all 4-storied houses. The steps in the suggested new type of house, would be 12 inches wide and 6 inches rise. In some Chinese good houses, the tread is only 5 inches and height 9 inches. It requires practice, and a cool head, to descend a long flight of say 4 stories of such steps, especially when there is only a rope to hang-on too, or an apology for a hand rail. I had occasion some time ago, to show the late Mr. S. BROWN (Surveyor General) such a staircase, and it was only with the greatest difficulty we got him down safely. A recommendation from your Committee on this matter would probably be the means of a clause on the lines now suggested, being introduced into any new or amended Building Ordinance. The minu tread of steps in any house used for human habitation should be 8 inches and the maximum rise of the step 8 inches.

13. It will be noticed that each habitable room is unusually well lighted and ventilated, most of the rooms on each floor having large doors and windows on thre- sides, and the others on two sides, none of them having any obstructions of any kind. These would give the respective rooms an ext aordinary amount of light and ventilation in every direction, and it is a well known fact, that the more light and ventilation you have (even in Chinese houses) in rooms, especially such as are now referred to (which would be both living and sleeping rooms), the cleaner and sweeter they would be kept by the occupants, in addition to which, they would be more conclusive to the improved health and general tone of the people living there- in. Each room opens direct on to the 6-feet verandah, which would be for all practical purposes, an extension of the respective rooms abutting on to it.

It is also proposed to have iron balconies, 4 feet wide, on the first and second floors of such blocks as have a frontage to the 50 feet wide public streets.

14. If it would be thought desirable (of which I have no doubt in my own opinion) I have provided for Ablution Rooms on the first and second floors, as it cannot but be thought objectionable, that men, women, and children should have no alternative but to perform these necessary duties, either in the cook-house (which is required and used for other purposes) or in the presence of their fellow lodgers.

i

1

25

If we wish to encourage and promote clean habits and a more sanitary mode of living among the working and coolie class of Chinese residents in the Colony, let us, before condemning them for their dirty habits, give them the means of becom- ing clean and improving their objectionable mode of living, &c., &c.

15. The floors of all the ground floor rooms, would be of concrete, and the walls (external and internal) rendered for a height of 18 inches in neat cement.

16. The only underground drain in the Block, would be the one leading from the large gully, in the centre of the open yard. It would be laid in a straight line to the 20-feet private street, passing under the floor of the latrine, it would be of 6 inches diameter glazed earthenware socket pipes, pointed in cement, and bedded in concrete, having man-holes at each end for inspection and cleaning purposes.

17. Water would be laid into each cook-house and ablution-room, and a sinall stand-pipe, in the open yard for general purposes, which stand-pipe would also be used by the tenants generally (having a large enclosed open yard) for washing their clothes, &c., which would be done in the usual Chinese manner, a little soap and small wooden tub. If no provision of this kind is made, they have no alter- native but to resort to the side-walks of the public streets as is now the case.

18. The living rooms vary somewhat in size, they are so designed, however, that they could be easily let out to friends, clansmen, or married families, who may wish to live together.

19. Such a Block, as the one referred to on Drawing No. 2, Block A on Inland Lot No. 954, would accommodate 371 adults, allowing each adult 300 cubic feet and 21 superficial feet. The estimated cost of such a building (exclusive of the cost of the ground) is about $8,500.00 or, say, at the rate of $23.50 per adult.

20. Twenty-seven (27) Blocks of houses as described, can be erected on the three plots of ground referred to, viz.:-

Inland Lot No. 953,

>>

>>

954, 906,

Total.

No. of Blocks.

No. of Adults.

3,635

6

2,226

10

3,510

27

9,371

or at the rate of 2,136 adults per acre. The net actual building area of the three plots of ground is 419 acres.

21. I should like here to caution the Committee against being lead away by misstatements as to what is overcrowding. A letter by a well known Medical Gentleman (Dr. CANTLIE) appeared in the local papers a few days ago, in which he said: "In Britain 1,000 persons to an acre is the sanitary limit,* any number over that constitutes surface overcrowding as distinct from overcrowding," this statement is very vague and likely to do harm, and, in my opinion, no importance whatsoever should be attached to it, unless the writer of the letter gives us his au- thority for the statement, and how his figures were arrived at. Was the acre area mentioned the net actual area covered by buildings, or did it include streets, gar- dens, yards, parks, commons, &c., extending over many acres? The before men- tioned number of people that can be accommodated in the suggested new buildings, and allowing each individual 300 cubic feet, and also in a 3 storied building only, is at the rate of 2,136 adults per acre, and I am sure that the learned Doctor him- self would, or could not, by any possible means call it “overcrowding.”

*

Query.-W.J.S.

!

651

652

26

22. Some building owners and others may possibly think that the type of house, sketched out herein, is too good, and too expensive for the poorer classes of Chinese; if they go thoroughly into the question, however, I feel sure that they cannot but think $23.50 per adult is a very reasonable, if not cheap rate, for such a class of house as now proposed, and it will bear favourable comparison with the cost of the ordinary low, ill ventilated, ill lighted, dark and dirty type of existing Chinese houses, especially when consideration is given to the superior accommoda- tion provided in the new houses, in the matter of open yard, light, air, latrines, ablution rooms, good cook houses, verandahs and a good, safe, and well lighted general staircase. The occupants can secure more privacy, the sexes and married people can easily be kept separate, and in a much better manner than in the exist- ing houses. The concierge, living as he would be, in the Entrance Lobby would have a greater control over the inmates in every respect, he would be able to pre- vent tenants leaving without paying their rent, or removing their belongings un- known to the landlord. He would be able to supervise the general cleanliness and sanitary condition of the premises, and be in fact, the residential agent of the

owner.

23. It is generally understood that new, or amended Building Regulations are about to be introduced. This is an unusually favourable opportunity for the Gov- ernment to take a new departure in the matter of the erection of healthy houses for the poorer classes of Chinese, it would be a measure in which the Govern- ment would have the support of the whole of the community. I have, therefore, ventured to address your Committee on the subject, being one in which I have always taken a great interest, and the importance of which has been forced on the attention of the Government and community lately in a very strong and emphatic

manner.

24. With a view, therefore, of furthering this project, I would very respect- fully suggest that the Government be asked to erect one or more Blocks of houses such as are referred to herein, as an experiment. I feel sure, however, from my experience on the subject, that with proper management they will always be sought after and that the Government (or owner) will always command good tenants, and will eventually be able to dispose of the property at a reasonable profit.

25. This locality (viz., the west end of the City) is a far more popular district with the Chinese, than the east end, viz., Causeway Bay: they will not go so far east, especially when the bulk of the Chinese hongs and shipping offices are in the central and western portions of the City; this City is like most of the large towns and cities of Europe and America, which have almost invariably extended (and are still extending) westwards (this applies both to ancient and modern cities) the reasons for which, although so universal, has never, in all cases, been satisfac- torily explained.

26. I have not gone into the question of the cost of the ground, comprising Inland Lots Nos. 953, 954 and 906, as I understand information on this subject has already been laid before you.

Yours truly,

WM. DANBY, M. INST. C.E.

f

No. 1862.

1

No. 1

1902

HONGKONG.

IMMUNITY OF CHINESE IN CAPE COLONY FROM INFECTION OF PLAGUE.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE, HONGKONG, 30th July, 1901.

SIR,-I am directed by the Governor to inform you that His Excellency has observed a statement in the English papers to the effect that in Cape Colony the Chinese population has enjoyed immunity from infection during the late outbreak of plague.

2. His Excellency would be glad to know to what cause this immunity, if it exists, has been attributed.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, Colonial Secretary.

THE SECRETARY TO THE HIGH COMMISSIONER,

P.S. No. 808.

Cape Colony.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE,

CAPE TOWN, 6th November, 1901.

SIR,--With reference to your letter, No. 1862 of the 30th July last, addressed to the Secretary to the High Commissioner, regarding the alleged immunity from infection enjoyed by the Chinese population in Cape Colony, during the outbreak of plague, which was referred to this Office on the 25th September last. I am desired by the Governor to transmit, herewith, a copy of a report he has received from the Medical Officer of Health for the Colony and Director of Plague Admin- istration, on the subject.

I have the honour to be.

Sir.

Your obedient Servant,

H. W. B. ROBINSON, Private Secretary.

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY,

Copy.

MEMORANDUM.

Hongkong.

:

(Enclosure.)

OFFICE OF THE MEDICAL OFFICER OF HEALTH FOR THE COLONY,

33, PARLIAMENT STREET, CAPE TOWN, November, 1901.

ALLEGED IMMUNITY OF CHINESE FROM PLAGUE INFECTION.

(1.) With reference to the statement in the English papers to the effect that in Cape Colony the Chinese population has enjoyed immunity from infection of Plague during the present outbreak of the disease, and to the request of His

=

2

Excellency the Governor of Hongkong to be informed as to the cause of this alleged immunity, if it exists, I beg to state that :----

(2.) There are not at my disposal accurate data upon which to base a calcu- lation as to the relative number of Chinese at present residing in Cape Colony as compared with the rest of the population. The last Census of the population of the Colony was taken as far back as the year 1891, and according to these returns there were only two hundred and fifteen Chinese males (no females) residing in Cape Colony, but it is certain that this number has largely increased; exactly to what extent, however, it is impossible to say.

(3.) The number of cases of Plague which have been discovered up to the present among Chinese during the outbreak is only ten, all of whom were males, namely:

One at Cape Town,

Eight at Port Elizabeth, and

One at Uitenhage.

Of which number, seven have died, namely:-

Six at Port Elizabeth, and

One at Uitenhage.

Of the remainder-

One at Cape Town, and

One at Port Elizabeth, have been discharged cured; and

One at Port Elizabeth is still under treatment.

4.) A round enumeration of the Chinese, Asiatics (Indians) and Aboriginal Natives at Port Elizabeth, made during the last few days, has resulted in the discovery of 390 Chinese, three hundred and eighty-four being males and six females. Of 707 Indians, four hundred and ninety-one being males and two hundred and sixteen females; and of eight thousand eight hundred and thirty Aboriginal Natives. This enumeration of Aboriginal Natives is more likely, however, to be inaccurate than that of Chinese and Asiatics.

(5.) Although these figures are quite insufficient for the purpose of arriving at a final conclusion, yet a rough indication of the relative incidence of the disease among Chinese, as compared with other races, and especially Indians, may be obtained. They give, in the case of Port Elizabeth, for the Chinese population a case incidence of over two per cent. of the community and a mortality (so far) of over one and a half per cent.; and a case mortality (so far) of seventy-five per cent. of total known attacks.

These rates may be compared with the incidence on Indians living in the same place, among whom four cases of Plague, all of whom have died, have been discovered, which give a case incidence and mortality of 0.57 per cent. of the In- dian community, and a case mortality of 100 per cent. of the attacks. They may also be compared with the rates for Aboriginal Natives living in Port Elizabeth, among whom forty-four cases of Plague have been discovered, of which number. twenty have died, fourteen have been discharged cured, and ten still remain under treatment; giving a casc incidence of a little less than a half per cent. of the Abc- riginal Native population.

As the final result of so many of the cases among natives at Port Elizabeth is not yet known, no useful rates of mortality can at present be obtained for these Natives, but it is of interest to compare the case mortality in different races among

כי

3

all cases of Plague which have so far occurred throughout the Colony (including Port Elizabeth).

This has amounted--

among Europeans to 34.1 per cent. on a total of two hundred and

fourteen cases;

among Aboriginal Natives to 42.7 per cent. on a total of one hundred

and ninety-two cases; and

among Coloured persons, chiefly consisting of half-castes and Malays, to

56.7 per cent. on a total of four hundred and thirty-six cases.

(6.) So far, therefore, as we can judge from the above figures both the inci- dence of the disease and the mortality, when attacked, is greater among Chinese than among other races.

(7.) It is impracticable to say how far these results have been influenced by inoculation with "Haffkine's Prophylactic," as, apart from the fact that our re- cords do not in every case state the race of the person inoculated, there are so many sources of fallacy in the application of inoculation figures that no reliable deduction can be made. Moreover the number of persons inoculated is so small compared with the size of the communities living in infected areas that, I think, under any circumstances but little effect can be attributed to the inoculation on the course of the epidemic as a whole. Perhaps an exception to this statement may be made in regard to the inoculation of the large body of Natives (between six and seven thousand) who were removed from Cape Town at the beginning of the outbreak and placed in a new Location at Uitvlugt in the vicinity of the city.

The total of inoculations to date, a large number of which, however, have been performed on Natives and Asiatics living in uninfected portions of the Colony, amount to twenty-nine thousand seven hundred and eighty-one, of whom six thousand three hundred and fifty-five were Europeans, and twenty-three thousand four hundred and twenty-six were Coloured, Asiatics, and Aboriginal Natives.

(Signed)

A. JOHN GREGORY,

Medical Officer of Health for the Colony

and Director of Plague Administration.

619

27

No. 1902

HONGKONG.

KOWLOON WATERWORKS GRAVITATION SCHEME.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

(Secretary of State to Governor.)

HONGKONG.

No. 437.

DOWNING STREET.

27th December, 1901.

SIR, I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch No. 454 of the 31st October, submitting an improved scheme for the Kowloon Water-works and to transmit to you a copy of a report by Mr. O. CHADWICK, C.M.G., to whom the question was referred.

2. I approve this scheme being carried out in the manner suggested in Mr. CHADWICK'S report.

3. I presume that the points,

that the points, on which he states that he is not quite clear, can await his arrival in the Colony, for which he proposes to start soon after the middle of January.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient, humble Servant,

J. CHAMBERLAIN.

Governor

Sir H. A. BLAKE, G.C.M.G.,

Se.. $.c..

&c.

(Enclosure.)

(Mr. Chadwick to Crown Agents.)

he HONGKONG-KOWLOON WATER SUPPLY.

7, CARTERET STREET,

i

GENTLEMEN,

WESTMINSTER, S. W.

20th December, 1901.

1. I have the honour to return, herewith, the plans and papers, concerning a proposed water supply for Kowloon, and I beg to report thereon as follows:-

2. The works, now proposed, are more extensive and will afford a larger supply than those originally projected by Mr. GIBBS, and described in his report, dated 8th January, 1900. I am of opinion that the rapid increase of population, stated by the Director of Public Works, fully justifies the additional cost of the more extensive scheme.

supply.

3. I feel some difficulty in reconciling the figures, concerning the augment Available ation of the supply, from 590,000 to 1,575,000 gallons a day, with the plan sent home, shewing the gathering-grounds and reservoir-sites. This plan shews a total area of 415 acres, which is only about one-third more than that to be utilised, under

620

2

Reservoir capacity.

Material

of dam.

The design of dam.

Dam to be

full height

at once.

the original scheme, and obviously would not produce a nearly three-fold increase in the yield. In the report of the Director of Public Works, paragraph 12 section 2, a "Catch-water" is mentioned. This, I presume, brings in the water from some area, amounting to 400 acres, not shewn on the plan, and therefore making a total of about 800 acres. Applying to this area the Hongkong data, quoted in my report of 17th August, 1900, the available daily supply would be 1,488,000 gallons a day, an amount agreeing substantially, with that estimated by the Director of Public Works, namely, 1,575,000 gallons a day.

4. According to the same data, a reservoir capacity equal to 200 days' consumption, will be required to maintain the supply. The now proposed reservoir is to contain 310 millions of gallons, so that, according to Hongkong experience. it should suffice to maintain the desired supply.

5. I am glad to learn that it is now proposed to construct a masonry dam. I do not consider that it would be safe to construct an earthen dam, of the height now proposed, nearly 100 feet. Indeed I hold the opinion, one shared I believe by most Engineers, that masonry (including concrete) should be preferred, whenever the conditions for its use, are reasonably favourable.

6. The section of the masonry dam is judiciously designed. I have inves- tigated the stresses, and I find that the conditions of stability, usually accepted, are fully satisfied, even when the reservoir is full to the very crest, in other words when the water-level, during a great flood is 4 feet above the cill of the waste-weir. The stresses per square foot are, speaking from memory, less than those which obtain in the case of the Taitam Dam.

7. I agree with the Director of Public Works, that the dam should be carried up to carried up, at once, to the full height. The saving, due to leaving off at a lower level, will be small. The reservoir capacity, even at the full height, is by no means excessive. The crest of the dam is to serve as a road or path. By completing the dam at once, this roadway can be constructed at its final level, and will not require subsequent alteration.

Foundations.

Waste-weir.

Draw-off arrange-

ments.

Outlet-cul- vert.

8. I presume that trial-pits have been sunk, along the centre line of the dam, and that the depths of foundation, shewn on the sheet of sections have been fixed in accordance with their indications. No longitudinal section of the dam is given, so I am unable to ascertain the intentions of the designers, in the matter of found- ations. I am however of opinion that in getting out the foundations, stepping should be avoided. The base of the foundations should, as far as possible, be an uniformly inclined line. Abrupt changes of level should be avoided, as far as possible, because sudden variations in depth tend to cause irregular settlement.

9. No drawing of the waste-weir has been sent to me, I am not therefore in a position to offer any opinion as to its sufficiency. The position of the waste-weir as indicated on the general plan, is satisfactory. The length of the waste-weir should be sufficient to discharge 4" of rain, falling on the gathering-ground which contributes directly to the reservoir, plus the maximum quantity of water that the catch-water channel can convey. The latter should be provided with overflows, at points where it crosses natural drainage channels.

10. The draw-off arrangements are satisfactory in principle. Some minor alterations in detail seem desirable. It is hardly necessary to go into this question at present, for the outlet apparatus will not be required, for some time to come.

11. It is worthy of consideration whether the sectional area of the outlet- culvert might not be increased with advantage, so as to provide water-way for the passage of rain-water during moderate floods. If, during a great flood the unfinish- ed dam is overtopped, no great damage will result. This is one of the great merits of masonry as against earth. An earth dam, if overtopped, would be des- troyed.

3

621

1

construction.

12. I recommend that the dam be constructed departmentally, and not by Method of contract, so as to ensure perfect workmanship, an arrangement adopted by Mr. MANSERGH, Past President Inst. C.E., in the case of the dams for the Birmingham Water-works. At any rate, most careful supervision will be required. Competent European foremen or inspectors must supervise the work continuously. All cement should be provided by the Government.

the mass of

the dam,

13. In the case of the Taitam Dam, the late Sir ROBERT RAWLINSON, K. C. B., Drains in directed numerous small drains to be formed in the mass of the concrete behind the inner lining of masonry intended to be water-tight, in order that should any water find its way through the said lining it would flow freely away, and not accumulate in any fissure or cavity, causing an upward hydrostatic pressure, tending to reduce the stability of the structure. I consider that this would be a wise pre- caution. In the case of Taitam it was not however adopted, because those in charge of construction thought that the concrete would be sufficiently porous, to prevent any such prejudicial accumulation. As a matter of fact, the Taitam dam leaks considerably through the mass of the concrete. I maintain that concrete should be impervious, the interstices between the stones being completely filled with mortar. Percolation through concrete tends to its disintegration. Mr. MANSERGH informs me, that in the case of the Birmingham Dams, he is not draining the whole mass of the concrete, in the manner recommended by the late Sir ROBERT RAWLINSON, but he is taking every precaution to render the whole inass absolutely homogeneous and impervious. The only drains which he introduces are to remove the land springs. found in the excavations for the foundations, and he has also provided single drain, at a low level, below the whole length of the dam, to remove any water which might by chance percolate through the water face, below the foundations, and this drain communicates with the out-let culvert.

area not to

14. The surface of the drainage area should be as little disturbed as possible, inainage

The main reason why he disturbed. the natural growth of herbage should not be broken up. the water of "Pokfolum Reservoir" is so turbid after heavy rain, is because so much bare soil is exposed, within its gathering-ground, owing to excavation for roads, and for building-sites.

15. In conclusion, I beg to record my opinion that the project for the water- supply of Kowloon is sound and one that may be sanctioned.

I have the honour to be,

Gentlemen,

Your obedient Servant,

OSBERT CHADWICK.

(Mr. Chadwick to Colonial Secretary.)

Re NEW KOWLOON WATER WORKS.

GOVERNMENT OFFICE, HONGKONG, 13th May, 1902.

previous

report

SIR,-I have the honour to report that I have visited the site of the proposed Confirming works in company with the Honourable the Director of Public Works and with Mr. Pour and GIBBS, C.E. I have also inspected the Plans, and fully discussed them with the approving said Engineers. I beg to confirm the opinion, which I have already expressed in a report dated 20th December, 1901, to the effect that the Design is in every way satisfactory; and that the Project is one that should be carried out forthwith.

design.

622

Composition of concrete.

4

2. There are, however, some points concerning which some modification or reconsideration appears to be desirable. One of these concerns the composition of the Concrete.

Three qualities of Cement Concrete are specified, for different portions of the work, composed as follows:-

Parts by Measure.

1st Quality. 2nd Quality. 3rd Quality.

Cement... Sand

Broken stones

1

2

4

1

2

5

1

2/1/201 6

Determina- tion of voids in

Now, I am of opinion that in making concrete, care should be taken to make the resultant mass thoroughly homogeneous and free from voids. To fulfil this condition, it is essential that the voids between the broken stone forming the matrix shall be entirely filled with cement mortar, and secondly that the interstices between the sand-grains shall be completely filled with cement. Most of the troubles which have occasionally been experienced in connection with concrete, are traceable to porosity. Portland cement, though

Portland cement, though practically insoluble when in solid mass, is not so when finely-divided. If water be caused to percolate through a porous mass of Portland cement and sand, the interstices between the grains not being fully filled with cement, the mass will disintegrate in time.

It has, therefore, been my practice, in case of important works like the present, not to resort to any arbitrary prescription, as to the composition of concrete; but to determine, experimentally, the percentage of voids in the matrix and in the sand. and then to fix the proportions in a scientific manner.

3. The proportion of voids in the broken stone may be determined as follows. Take a sample of the broken-stone, and soak it in water. Then drain off all water. broken stone. not actually absorbed. Take any water-tight vessel, such as a bucket or cask. Weigh it empty. Let its weight empty, or tare, be T, then fill with water, and let the weight of bucket and water be W, so that the nett weight of the contained water will be W-T. Empty out the water, and fill the bucket with stones. Weigh again, let the weight of the bucket and stones be S. Now add water, so as to fill the interstices, between the stones. Weigh again. Let the final weight (bucket, water

P-S

Percentage of Voids. W-T

Voids in

sand.

and stones) be P. Then

The percentage of voids in stones, broken to approximately uniform cubes, like road-metal, is about 50%. This may however be materially reduced by using assorted sizes, the smaller particles inserting themselves between the larger masses. Having determined the actual percentage of voids, a sufficient proportion of cement mortar must be provided, to fill them, when the cement and sand are mixed and moistened ready for use, in a plastic condition.

4. The voids in the sand which is to be mixed with the cement may be deter- mined in like manner. Usually they amount to about 33%, so that three of sand to one of cement, is about the poorest mixture that can be expected to be non-porous. It usually suffices however to determine, experimentally, the volume of plastic mortar which is formed by some given proportion of cement, sand and water. For example, take say one cubic foot of cement and two of sand. Mix with water, into a paste of proper consistency, and measure the resulting mortar in a cubic foot box. Usually two and one will give 2 to 24 of finished mortar. Suppose that the latter is the case, and that the percentage of voids, in the matrix, is 50%. Then the proper proportions will be 4: 2: 1.

The proposed mixtures may or may not fulfil the conditions of the case. This will depend upon the percentage of voids in the matrix. The first quality mortar seems likely to be homogeneous. One of cement and two of sand makes, usually, about two parts of mortar, which, with the usual voids, will suffice for 4

5

623

parts of broken stone. The second and third quality mortars seem less likely to be homogeneous. The best and only certain plan is to determine the proportions experimentally, according to the voids actually found in the matrix.

yellow earth

5. I attach so much importance to complete solidity that, if concrete propor- Use of red tioned as I have described, contains more cement than can be afforded, I should try with cement. the effect of adding good red earth, which is of the nature of Puzzolana. Recent experiments made in Germany, show that the addition of Puzzolana to Portland cement, improves its setting properties. Portland cement, in setting, liberates a certain proportion of hydrate of lime. When Puzzolana is present it combines forthwith, with the lime liberated, thus preventing effervescence and obviating porosity. In certain water-works in Mauritius a mixture of burned coral-lime, coral sand, red earth and a small proportion of cement, was used with success. It was also found that the addition of red earth to the cement and sand mortar, used for jointing pipes, completely obviated porosity, which was most difficult to avoid when sand alone was used. I think that it would be well worth while to experiment with various mixtures of stone, sand and cement, with and without red earth, the voids in any case being filled. If 9" cubes, of the several samples, were made, and sent home to me at the University College, I shall be happy to have them crushed, in the testing machine, belonging to the Engineering Laboratory. The exact strength of each mixture would then be known, and it could be allotted to the part of the work for which it proves suitable.

foundations.

6. In my original report, I recommended that foundations should not be Stepping stepped. I then referred to stepping in the longitudinal section of the dam. In the cross-section, at right angles to its length, stepping may, and in many cases should be resorted to.

of dam

-

7. It is desirable to construct a regular Drain or. Culvert running along the Construction whole of the length of the dam, at the lowest point of the foundation and located drainage of immediately behind the water-tight mass, forming the water-front or inner lining foundations. of the dam. This Drain will serve to collect and carry off any spring-water, that may be found during construction. It should have a free outlet at the lowest level possible, so that, should there be any failure to produce an absolutely water-tight junction with the soil or rock, it will effectively prevent any accumulation of water under full pressure, beneath the foundation, so as to exert a prejudicial upward pressure. If there be any other water-bearing springs or fissures, in any part of the foundation, their water should be collected and conveyed to the main drain or to the outlet channel from it, which should always be left open. If there be any leakage it is better that it should be visible and escape freely than that it should accumulate and perhaps do unseen and unknown mischief.

superstruc-

8. I trust that if the suggestions which I have made as to the composition of Drainage of concrete be adopted the whole mass of the dam will be homogeneous and water- sure of dam tight. Nevertheless I think that it would be a prudent precaution to provide open channels or drains, extending through the whole mass from the outer-face to with- in about 4 feet of the inner water-tight face. These drains might be of 3" Chinese stoneware pipes, of the commonest quality, spaced vertically and horizontally, about ten feet apart. These pipes can do no harm, they will cost little, and they may, if any local mistake be made in construction, be the means of relieving a congestion of water, which might be prejudicial. They will, at least, afford the means of localising any leakage, should one exist. I am fully aware that the pro- vision of drains, through the mass of a masonry dam, is not a common practice. Mr. MANSERGH is not doing so at the Birmingham water-works. But it is to be remembered that these works are being carried out in England, departmentally, and with an abundance of highly skilled supervision, and not by a Chinese con- tractor, and limited skilled inspection.

9. After discussion with Messrs. CHATHAM and GIBBS, I see no reason for The outlet altering the dimensions of the outlet culvert.

culvert.

624

The draw-off

valves.

Venturi meters to filter-beds.

Large Venturi meter for registering daily con- sumption.

Measure-

6

10. I am of opinion that it will be advisable to reduce the diameter of the out- let valves in the tower to 6", providing proper taper-pieces for connection with them. With suitably-formed taper-pieces the delivery will not be appreciably reduced, and the smaller valves will be much easier to open and shut, than the large, and much less liable to breakage, in so doing. Some arrangement for closing the outlets, outside the tower, in the event of breakage, should be provided. These matters can be arranged, when the indent for the iron-work is sent in.

11. The drawings of the filter-beds have not yet been completed. If they are designed, on the lines of those now in use in Hongkong, they will answer well. I recommend however that each filter-bed be provided with a separate Venturi- meter constructed in accordance with a special arrangement, adapted for the regula- tion of filtration. On my return to England I will be happy to obtain a quotation for these meters.

12. It would also be well to provide one large recording Venturi meter, for registering the daily consumption of water from the service-reservoir.

13. It is desirable to measure the flow of the streams close below the reservoir, ment of How during construction. The arrangements should be such as to admit of accurate

measurement, not only of dry weather flow, but also of moderate floods.

flow

of streams

during con- struction.

Construction

of service- reservoir.

Subsidiary filter-beds.

Probably the best arrangement would be one similar to that suggested for the measurement of the flow of Taitam stream; a large V notch for measuring small flows, and a wide square notch, for floods. It will be well also to have a self- recording water-level indicator, at each gauge.

14. The service-reservoir drawings are not yet complete. It is very properly to be roofed. I have recently used roofs composed of concrete on steel girders and joists supported by cast iron stanchions, an arrangement which has usually proved more economical than masonry arches and piers. Whether this would be the case, in the present instance, I cannot say. It would however be well to get out alter- native designs for the two classes of roofs. The proposed circular form lends itself to the site and naturally has the shortest length of wall, for a given capacity. I must however state that, owing to the difficulty in devising an economical cover- ing, I have rarely found circular reservoirs economical in first cost.

15. The principal filter-beds are to be placed near to the reservoir. It is proposed to intercept certain streams along the pipe track, between the filter-beds and the service-reservoir, and at each intake to construct a small filter-bed to filter the water of the stream, prior to its admission to the main.

I suggest the use of the Fischer Artificial Filter for these subsidiary beds. This filter consists of flattened bottles, made of porous material, composed of sand and glass, fused together. Each bottle is rectangular 3′ 3′′ × 3′ 3′′ × 4′′. These are placed upright, in a suitable tank. A large filtering-area is provided, with relatively small floor-space. The water surrounds the filter-plate and passes through its pores, to the interior cavity, whence it is drawn off by appropriate pipes. The main advantage of the Fischer Filter, in the present case, is the ease with which it can be cleaned, and managed. A small cistern is provided at an elevation of about 10 feet, into which filtered water is pumped. The cleaning of the filter is accomplished, merely by altering the adjustment of certain valves so as to reverse the direction of the flow through the filtering material. The filtered water enters the interior cavity, passes out through the pores of the material, and forces off the adhering slime, which is then sludged out of the filtering-chamber. I have experimented on one of these filters, in connection with some very dirty water, and found that it could be cleaned with the utmost ease. I do not assert that the Fischer Filter effects better, even as good, results as well-managed sand-filtration, but I am confident that it will give better results than an ill-managed sand-filter. I fear that it will be both expensive and difficult to secure good management, in the case of small scattered filters.

;

625

of flood

16. In the cases of intakes just referred to at which filter-beds are to be Interception provided, it would be well to provide an arrangement, by which the water of the waters. stream is automatically intercepted during floods, so as to prevent unnecessary clogging of the filter beds. This may easily be done by constructing weirs and notches with a receiving channel, below and parallel to the crest. The channel will be so proportioned that when the stream is delivering more than a certain quantity, the cascade or apron overleaps the receiving channel. This arrangement is illustrated in works on water-supply.

ment of

voir.

17. For the purpose of collecting statistics as to quantity of water which Measure- overflows, at the waste-weir of the reservoir, it will be well to provide means of overflow measuring the escaping water with some accuracy. Want of such measurement from reser- has greatly reduced the value of the data recorded at Taitam. This may be done, either by constructing special gauge weirs in the overflow channel, as already des- cribed for use during construction, or by using well-constructed iron-sluices in lieu of the stop-boards with which it is now proposed to crown the waste-weir, after the first three months of the wet season. I am of opinion, that it will be a good plan, in any case to have proper iron sluices, as there is to be a

iron sluices, as there is to be a bridge over the waste weir, from which they could be manipulated by means of some simple mechanism. By so doing, the stop sluices will always be to hand where required, and there will be no excuse for neglect to erect them when the time arrives for so doing. Moreover, I see no reason why these sluices should not be so contrived as to open automatically when the water rises to their upper edge. If so arranged, they might be left permanently in place.

To this end they should be carried on horizontal pivots, placed at one-third of their total height from their lower edge.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

OSBERT CHADWICK.

:

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE PRINCIPAL CIVIL MEDICAL OFFICER, FOR THE YEAR 1901.

721

No. 37

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

1902

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL, HONGKONG, 15th April, 1902.

SIR, I have the honour to submit, for the information of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government, the following Report on the working of the Medical Department for the year 1901.

I have to acknowledge my indebtedness to Dr. BELL for much of the information contained in this Report.

MEDICAL STAFF.

I returned from leave on August 4th, up to that date Dr. BELL had been acting as Principal Civil Medical Officer.

Dr. J. A. Lowson returned from leave on the 26th of December last. I regret to say that he had on arrival to be admitted to Hospital, his health not having improved during his absence.

He has since been invalided from the service.

Dr. Lowson was first appointed to the Medical Department in 1889, from that date until March, 1894, he performed the duties of Assistant Superintendent of the Government Civil Hospital and Lunatic Asylums and took charge of the Hygeia when occasion required.

During my first absence from the Colony on leave in 1894 the plague epidemic broke out, at this time he rendered yeoman service, sparing himself no labour or trouble in his efforts to combat this disease; his services at this anxious time will never be forgotten by the Colony, for these he was awarded the Plague Medal and received the thanks of the Government.

When at home on leave in 1896 his services were requisitioned by the India Government as an expert to advise re plague administration in that country.

It was during this work in India that is health broke down and he was under treatment in the Madras Hospital.

He returned to the Colony in 1898 and resumed his duties in the Department.

In 1900 he was appointed Acting Principal Civil Medical Officer when I left the Colony for the second time on home leave, and in August of that year his health again gave way and lung trouble developing he was ordered by Prof. KOCH, who happened to be in the Colony, to South Africa, from there he proceeded to Australia.

Since his return in December last he has improved considerably in health and he finally left the Colony for home on April 12th, undoubtedly his plague services here and in India have undermined his health and predisposed to the causation of the disease from which he is now suffering.

I take this opportunity of bearing testimony to the able services rendered by this Officer since his appointment in 1889, his work has always been marked by great ability and his cheery presence will be missed not only at the Hospital but in the Colony generally.

Dr. G. P. JORDAN left for a year's leave on the 15th March, arrangements having been made for Dr. SWAN to perform his duties as Health Officer of the Port, Dr. GIBSON acting as Deputy Health Officer.

Dr. J. C. THOMSON proceeded on three months' leave on the 31st of October.

The services of Lieutenant STEWART of the Indian Medical Service were available until the 27th July, he ably assisted Dr. BELL in the work of the Hospital, and we are much indebted to the Military Authorities for granting us the services of this officer.

We are also indebted to Dr. LAMORT, who was employed from the 1st June to the 31st July whilst Dr. THOMSON was on special duty at Kennedy Town Hospital, he again acted for him from the 1st November to the end of the year.

ANALYTICAL STAFF.

Mr. F. BROWNE, Government Analyst, returned from leave on the 27th March, Mr. T. J. WILD returning to his duties as Assistant Analyst.

50-30.7.02.

722

NURSING STAFF.

Miss BARKER, Matron, went on home leave on 30th March, Miss BARR acting in her place.

Miss TODD (Nursing Sister) resigned on the 30th March and was succeeded by Miss MILLINGTON (Private Nursing Staff).

Miss ROBINS (Private Nursing Staff) left for England on the termination of her agreement on 30th May.

Miss SHELBOURNE (Nursing Sister) arrived on the 4th June to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Miss BATCHELOR (Nursing Sister).

Miss MILLINGTON (Nursing Sister) was granted leave from 17th October to the 15th November. Nurses GLOVER and FORD were employed temporarily during the plague epidemic, from 16th June to 15th September and from the 10th July to the 9th October, respectively.

Miss MAKER (Nursing Sister) proceeded to Japan on two months' leave in July.

Miss WATSON (Nursing Sister) was granted two months' leave from 20th September.

Nurse MANNERS was granted leave from 1st September to 1st October.

Nurse HOGG went to Manila on a month's leave in October.

Miss RENWICK and Miss GOURLEY (Nursing Sisters) arrived on the 9th October to join the Nursing Staff, specially for plague work.

Nurse Mrs. U I' KAI was granted leave from 1st September to 1st November.

Mrs. ACKERS, Matron, Women's Hospital, returned from leave on 19th October.

Wardmaster LEE went on home leave on the 1st April.

Corporal NEWLING, R.A.M.C., and Private LAKE, R.A.M.C., were employed at Kennedy Town Hospital from the 1st April to the 27th July and from the 21st May to the 24th July, respectively, we are indebted to the Military Authorities for the loan of their services.

Wardmaster O'BRIEN arrived on 27th August.

CLERICAL STAFF.

Mr. CHU SZE YAN (Second Assistant Clerk) was promoted to a clerkship at Victoria Gaol on the 1st May, and Mr. UN SHIN TSEUNG was appointed in his place.

POLICE.

The admissions to the Hospital were slightly in excess of those of last year, the number being 937 as compared with 920, the strength of the Force being somewhat greater, viz., 884 as against 866.

Malarial fever contributed 407 admissions as against 390 in 1900. There has been a marked diminution in the number of malarial fever cases from the Police Stations in the New Territory: on comparing Tables III for the two years we find that the nine Police Stations in the New Territory to the North of the range of hills bounding Kowloon give the following figures:-

Police Station.

† Sha Tau Kok,

* Ping Shan,

Sai Kung,

* San Tin,

* Tai Po,

* Sha Tin, * Tai 0,

† Au Tau,

† Sheung Shui,

Average Strength.

1900.

Malarial Fever Admissions.

1901.

1900.

1901.

19

13

33

4

23

14

3

9

6

7

2

2

19

12

2

3

16

10

30

7

14

8

14

2

11

10

12

1

20

14

35

17

25

11

7

7

153

99

138

52

In other words there was a diminution in the percentage of malarial fever cases from 90 per cent. in 1900 to 52.5 per cent. in 1901.

This was undoubtedly occasioned to a great extent by the active prophylactic treatment which was commenced on May 1st last year and continued up to the 1st of November: this treatment varied at the different Police Stations; at those marked * KocH's method was used, one gramme of quinine being given daily for two days followed by an interval of five days without any quinine and so on; at those marked † a daily dose of three or five grains of quinine was given; whereas at Au Tau ‡ 3% grain of arsenious acid was given twice daily.

It must also be borne in mind that the Police were housed in permanent buildings in 1901.

.

723

The other diseases which occasioned the greatest number of admissions were dysentery 36, beri-beri 10 and enteric fever 4.

The admissions to the Hospital from the various sections of the Force is given in the following Table:

Year.

European.

Indian.

Chinese.

1892,

152

224

120

1893,

134

255

133

1894,

127

244

134

1895,

90

254

116

1896,

94

370

124

1897,

99

320

107

1898,

87

279

122

1899,

117

421

154

1900,

183

1901,

202

522 521

215

214

There were eight deaths during the year-four Europeans died of endo-carditis, typhoid fever, pneumonia and empyema, respectively. There were two deaths amongst the Indians from malarial fever, and two Chinamen died-one from beri-beri and the other from plague.

Sixteen were invalided, namely, three Europeans, ten Indians and three Chinese, the causes being dysentery, phthisis (four), asthma, sprue, hemiplegia, dropsy, chronic rheumatism, beri-beri, sciatica, tuberculosis, chronic synovitis and debility (two).

year.

Table I gives the admissions and deaths in the Government Civil Hospital during each month of the year.

Table II shows the rate of sickness and the mortality in the Force during the Table III gives the admissions to the Hospital for malarial fever from each station during the year. The following Table gives the total admissions to Hospital and deaths in the Force for the last ten years:-

Year.

1892,

1893,

-1894,

1995,

1896,

1897,

1898,

1899,

1900,

1901,

Admissions.

Deaths.

.496

7

..522

6

...505

15

.466

8

.588

14

...526

7

..488

19

..692

16

..920

4

..937

8

TROOPS,

There was an increase in the number of admissions to the Hospital as compared with 1900. From Table IV it will be seen that the mortality amongst the European troops was less and that amongst the Indian troops was higher than in the previous year.

The average daily rate of sickness was higher with in European and Indian troops, this being more marked in the latter.

Amongst the deaths in the British troops were two from enteric fever, two from bubonic plague and four from malarial fever, five dying of heat apoplexy.

The following Table gives the sickness and mortality amongst the Troops for the past ten years :—

Year.

1892,

1893,.

1894,

1895.

1896,

1897,

1898,

1899,

1900,

1901,

Admissions.

Deaths.

2,844

31

.2,927

28

.2,905

39

.3,099

28

.4,274

19

.4,455

15

.3,896

21

.4,714

29

.3,938

40

...5,359

67

GAOL STAFF.

Eighty-one members of the Gaol staff were admitted to Hospital during the year out of a total staff of 93.

There were two deaths and four were invalided, the deaths were one European from malarial coma and one Indian from phthisis; the invalidings were three Indians from phthisis and one Chinaman from rheumatism.

724

SANITARY DEPARTMENT.

There were thirty admissions as against fifteen in 1890. There were no deaths and none were in- valided.

GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL.

The total number of admissions to the Government Civil Hospital was 2,948 as against 3,030 in 1900, and 2,734 in 1899. The total number of out-patients was 12,663 as against 13,883 in 1899.

Attached to this Report are the following Tables:-

V. Showing the admissions and mortality in the Government Civil Hospital during the year 1901. VI. List of operations performed during the year 1901.

VII. Showing the rate of mortality in the Government Civil Hospital during the last ten years. VIII. Showing the admissions into and deaths in the Government Civil Hospital during each month of the year 1901.

IX. Showing the admissions and deaths in the Government Lunatic Asylum during each month of the year 1901.

X. Showing the number of patients in the Asylum and the disease for which they were admitted. XI. Showing the admissions and deaths in the Government Maternity Hospital during each month of the year 1901.

The following Table gives the number and classification of those admitted to the Government Civil Hospital during the past ten years:-

1892. 1893. 1894.

1895.

1896. 1897. 1898. 1899.

1900. 1901.

Police,

496

522

505

466

588

529

488

692

920

937

Board of Trade,

157

132

100

129

87

45

65

25

37

28

Paying Patients,....

378

467

491

198

632

603

741

764

891

830

Government Servants...

168

205

168

203

269

227

186

208

266

339

Police Cases,

232

247

272

319

244

299

306

306

347

348

Free Patients,

284

262

427

668

778

742

785

739

569

466

1,715

1,835

1,963 2,283 2,598 2,445 2,571 2,734 3,030 2,948

It will be seen that there is a decided increase in the number of Government Servants admitted, a slight increase in the number of Police and a marked diminution in the number of free patients admitted; this was accounted for last year by the fact that it is impossible to admit many cases which attend as out-patients and who should be in-patients owing to the large increase in the number of sick Police and Government Servants admitted, these two classes of patients alone contributing 276 more than in 1899.

The admissions into and deaths in the Hospital for the past ten years are as follows:-

Year.

1892,

1893,

1894,

1895,

1896,

1897

1898,

1899,..

1900,..

1901,...

Admissions.

Deaths.

.1,715

68

1,835

67

.1,967

· 101

..2,283

114

..2,598

143

.2,445

119

2,571

138

.2,734

114

.3,030

155

..2,948

153

The rate of mortality for the year was 5.18 per cent.

The average daily number of sick was 111.72 as against 110.95.

Women and Children.-The number admitted was 281 as against 325. It is to be hoped that the Victoria Hospital for Women and Children will be ready for occupation this year, the intention is to treat most of these cases there, one ward only being retained at the Government Civil Hospital for urgent cases and for those who could not be removed so far.

NATIONALITY.

Europeans.-960 were admitted during the year as against 943 in 1900. Indians.-834 were admitted as compared with 788 in the previous year.

Asiatics.-1,154 were admitted during the year, the figures being 1,154 as against 1,299 in 1890.

DISEASES.

The following diseases caused the greatest number of admissions:—

Fevers:-

Malarial, Enteric, Dengue, Febricula,.

....

.803

25

32

9

869

Venereal Diseases,

.189

Diseases of the Digestive System, .......189 Respiratory System, ...184

""

Dysentery,.. Injuries,..

..101 ........442

The following diseases caused the greatest number of deaths:-

Diseases of the Respiratory System,...... 28 Malarial Fever,

Effects of Malarial Fever,

Enteric Fever,

Dysentery,..

10

10

8

8

725

Injuries of various kinds caused 29 deaths.

Dengue.-There was an epidemic of this disease in the autumn months, thirty-two cases having been admitted to the Hospital. It was in all likelihood introduced from Singapore-cases at the com- mencement of the epidemic were mistaken for influenza but the initial and terminal skin eruptions quite distinguish it from this disease.

On examining the peripheral blood a rod shaped bacillus with rounded ends was found, one or two parts of the bacillus staining darker than the rest.

Attempts were made to obtain a growth on blood serum, gelatine agar and glycerine agar, but all failed with one exception.

From this case, with a well marked secondary eruption, a growth was obtained on glycerine agar, this was inoculated into a guinea pig which died in eighteen hours, (probably from the cold weather); but from the spleen and heart of this guinea pig cultures were obtained which contained similar bacilli to those found in the blood.

Many cases were complicated with malaria.

Enteric Fever.-There were 25 cases under treatment with 8 deaths, 11 of these were imported cases and 3 occurred amongst members of the Police Force.

Cholera.-There were no cases suffering from this disease during the year.

Dysentery.-There were 98 cases with 8 deaths.

Diphtheria.-Two cases were admitted, one had been ill for some days before admission and although tracheotomy was performed the patient succumbed, to all appearance she was progressing favourably when she died suddenly of heart failure; the second, who evidently contracted the disease from the first, recovered, he was brought in as soon as the disease appeared. Both were treated with antidiphtheritic

serum.

Beri-beri.-There were 41 cases under treatment, as against 29 in the previous year, with 4 deaths. Malarial Fever.-803 cases have been treated as against 674 last year, all were diagnosed by microscopical examination of the blood, and the results are:-

Malignant (Malignant Tertian) and Estivo-autumnal, Tertian Simple,

Quartan Simple,

Mixed infection,..

..86·30%

8.21%

1.12%

4.35%

It will be seen that

Table XII gives the varieties met with during each month of the year. malaria prevails all the year round, but less in the dry winter months. This is probably due to the fact that we never get any long spell of cold weather, even in the coldest months hot summer-like days in- tervening.

Also it is rare that the hill streams completely dry up so that the mosquito never dies out.

CEREBRAL MALARIA OR MALARIAL COMA.

Six cases of this nature were admitted with three deaths, in none was the temperature high, in other words this form of malarial infection does not at any rate here produce hyperpyrexia, the behest temperature being met with in those suffering from simple tertian.

APYREXIAL FORMS OF MALARIA.

These are difficult to explain on the theory that it is the liberation of the toxins when the spores sporulate which produces fever.

We had at least six cases during the year, where malarial parasites were found in the blood, but there was no rise of temperature, three of the six were suffering from the malignant type, one had mixed infection, simple tertian as well as the malignant, and there were also two cases in which quart- an parasites were present without any fever, in one of these two the parasites were sporulating.

Malaria seems to complicate most of the diseases met with here. This is not to be wondered at when it is remembered that nearly every one contracts malarial fever and it is an undoubted fact that given one attack of malarial fever any illness or injury which reduces the vitality of the patient predisposes

2

726

to a return of the malarial parasites in the blood, e.g., during the year nearly every patient's blood was examined microscopically, and Dr. BELL found the following results:-

Dysentery. Out of 101 cases 66 showed the presence of malarial parasites.

Phthisis. Out of 68, parasites were found in 35 cases, in many cases of phthisis the fever is malarial as on the administration of quinine, it frequently subsided.

Enteric Fever.-13 out of 25 gave malarial parasites.

Liver Abscess.-3 out of the 6 cases showed the presence of malarial parasites.

Dr. BELL has fully discussed this subject in a report on malaria written last summer in which he

has given the results of the experience of himself and Lieutenant STEWART, I.M.S.

Liver Abscess.—6 cases were treated during the year with no deaths, three were operated on success- fully, two burst into the lung and recovered, the diagnosis being made from the history and the presence in the sputum of hepatic cells.

Appendicitis.-There were 7 cases as against 6 last year, one only was operated on, they all

recovered.

Tetanus.-2 cases occurred, both proved fatal.

Antitetanic serum obtained from the Pasteur Institute at Paris was used in the first case and seemed to modify the spasm. In the second case the man was knocked down by a heavy sea on the voyage between Singapore and Hongkong and sustained a compound fracture of the right thigh. The limb was amputated and it was observed just before the operation that there was some slight trismus, tetanus rapidly developed after the operation, tetanus bacilli were found in the wounds, this case is returned in Table under injuries.

used.

Bullet Wounds.-There were not so many as usual, 9 only being admitted as against 18 in 1900. Poisoning.-There were only 2 cases during the year, in both opium was the poisonous agent

Surgical Operations.-There were not so many as usual during the year, the numbers being 188 as against 225 in 1900. We had to treat many more malarial fever cases in the surgical wards than is generally the case.

used.

Lithotomy.-3 cases, all successful.

Strangulated Hernia.-One case, which recovered.

Anaesthetics.—Chloroform was given 193 times during the year, Junker's Inhaler being generally

Fractures and Dislocations:-The following were treated during the year :-

Fracture of the Skull,

Jaw,..

..14 cases with 8 deaths.

1 ""

""

Arm,

Fore-arm,

"}

""

""

11

11

Clavicle, Leg,.....

Dislocation of the Elbow,

""

""

Hip,.... Shoulder,

1

5

9

1

.13

1

1

>>

""

""

>>

91

2

""

Vaccinations.-644 vaccinations were performed during the year with the following result:—

Successful. Unsuccessful.

Primary Cases,

Re-vaccinations,

248

14

234

148

Total.

262

382

644

Fees.-The total fees received during the year in the Medical Depratment was:-

Hospital Fees,

Private Nursing Fees, Certificates,

.$32,443.55

865.00 650.00

$33,958.55

Buildings. A scheme for fitting the Hospital with electric light has been drawn up during the year, the necessary expenditure has been sanctioned, and before next summer it is expected that this will be installed.

A new operating theatre is very much required.

LUNATIC ASYLUMS.

Tables IX and X show the admissions and deaths that have occurred during the year and the disease for which the patients were admitted. There were nineteen less admissions than in 1890. A report on the working of the Asylum is attached.

J

727

Room for outdoor exercise has been obtained by enclosing the vacant ground to the South of the European Asylum.

Staff-Wardmaster LEE proceeded home on leave.

MATERNITY HOSPITAL.

Table XI gives the admissions and deaths in the Hospital during each month of the year, there were 54 admissions, the same number as in 1900.

The two fatal cases were Chinese, one came in with retained placerta and died of septicæmia, the other died from malarial coma (see note of the case in the Appendix).

Eleven were wives of Government Servants, 27 private paying, and 16 free.

PRIVATE NURSING INSTITUTE.

The term of engagement of the private nurses having terminated in May the Government decided to discontinue their services.

"Stouford."-Stowford is still rented in order to find accommodation for three of the Sisters and the two probationers. It is to be hoped that the much needed extension of the Nursing Quarters will soon become practicable.

GAOL.

The following Table gives the number of admissions to the Gaol and the daily average number of prisoners for the past ten years:—

Total No. of Admissions

to the Gaol.

Daily Average

No. of Prisoners.

1892,

.5,046

515

1893,

..4,010

458

1894,

.3,913

455

1895,

.5,014

472

1896,

.5,582

514

1897,..

5,076

462

1898.

5,427

511

1899,.

4,789

434

1900,

5,432

486

1901,.

.5,077

499

Undoubtedly the Gaol is not now large enough for the Colony's requirements.

The new Warders' Quarters is rapidly approaching completion, when finished the new Hospital will be available for patients.

TUNG WAH HOSPITAL.

There were 21 less cases treated than in the previous year.

It will be noticed also that the number of those under so-called Western treatment has not in- creased but diminished, e. g. :—

1900, 1901,

Western Treatment.

.32 % ....30.4 %

Chinese Treatment. 57.7% 69-6 %

It must also be remembered that those attending the out-patient department are not seen by the European doctors but by the so-called Native doctors.

PUBLIC MORTUARY.

An interesting report by Dr. BELL on the post mortem examinations during the year is attached. Two thousand two hundred and fifty (2,250) bodies were brought to the Mortuary as against 1,702 in 1900.

In 1,035 of these plague was the cause of death and as is pointed out 36-6% occurred in bodies found in the streets or harbour whose addresses were unknown and I agree with Dr. BELL that some radical measure must be taken to stop this surreptitious deposition of plague bodies in the streets.

KENNEDY TOWN INFECTIOUS HOSPITAL.

The building has been thoroughly painted and colour-washed throughout and the verandahs on the top floor enclosed with iron railings.

Two hundred and sixty-seven (267) patients in all were treated during the year, 42 being cases of small-pox, 15 cholera, which all came in February from Bangkok by the s.s. Cheung Chau, and 204 were suffering from plague.

The report of the visiting medical officer is attached.

Evidently the presence of plague bacilli in the blood of those affected must vary in different epidemics as in 1896; in 81% of the cases plague bacilli were found and this by such an experienced bacteriologist as Dr. WILM.

728

As it appears evident that this Hospital will be required yearly for plague patients, a permanent nursing staff was requisitioned for from home consisting of two Nursing Sisters and two Wardmasters, this is a much better arrangement than being dependent on the Military, and any nurses we can obtain for extra help in epidemic times, the services of these officers are utilised in the other Hospitals of the department when not required at Kennedy Town Hospital.

Another Assistant Surgeon has been obtained from England so that there can, in future, be a resid- ent medical officer at Kennedy Town Hospital during epidemic times-a much needed requirement.

HOSPITAL HULK "HYGEIA."

This ship was improved during the year by fixing more skylights on the floor of the upper deck, by this means the lower deck is better lighted; arrangements were made for improving the ventilation. of the lower deck.

VACCINE INSTITUTE.

The Vaccine Institute has been satisfactorily maintained, Dr. CLARK taking over charge when the Colonial Veterinary Surgeon left on leave.

The lymph has given every satisfaction.

The amount paid into the Bank for the sale of lymph was $263.00.

VACCINATIONS.

The following vaccinations were performed during the year:-

Government Civil Hospital,

Victoria Gaol,..

Tung Wah:-

644

.2,880

Alice Memorial Hospital

771

Victoria,

.1,826

Aberdeen,

46

Stanley,

24

Shaukiwan,

25

Hung Hom, Yaumati,

7

24

1,952

6,247

ANTI-MALARIAL MEASURES.

During the year much has been done in combating mosquitoes.

In February a systematic filling up and draining of the pools in the nullahs at Kennedy Town near the old Tung Wah Mortuary, adjoining Nethersole Hospital and in the neighbourhood of the Upper Richmond Road, was instituted.

A supply of Professor CELLI's larvicides was obtained in May, these were extensively used in the ravines in the neighbourhood of the Richmond Estate at West Point during the summer months; the results were not altogether satisfactory as anopheles larvæ were found in pools in which they had been applied; it is just possible that these were not used in sufficiently large quantities.

It was proved that they were not so effective as kerosene in killing the larvæ, the drawback to kerosene is that it destroys the potability of the water to which it is applied whereas Professor CELLI's larvicides do not impure the water.

I fear it is a hopeless task to endeavour to keep the untrained nullahs free of pools especially in the rainy season when malarial fever is rife, the nullah beds, owing to the rains and weathering effects. of the atmostphere, are continually changing, fresh pools being formed from day to day.

The only effectual remedy is to train the nullahs; this however is a very expensive operation, .., it would cost $10 for a lineal foot for the larger nullahs and $8 per foot for the smaller ones, on this basis training the nullahs to the West of the Richmond Estate would cost $15,000.

Much, I understand, has been done in the way of training nullahs in the neighbourhood of the houses within the built area of the City, but to train all the nullahs on the outskirts of the City is a formidable task, and it is for Government to determine whether this extensive operation should be undertaken.

In a flat country it is comparatively easy to get rid of these pests but in a mountainous island like this it is quite another matter.

There are so many fissures and natural excavations along the hillsides where mosquitoes breed in large numbers that I doubt myself whether, even if the nullahs were trained, it would be practicable to exterminate these insects; however it would certainly diminish their numbers.

In October last I carried on some experiments with the help of Inspector WATSON, in order to ascertain which oils, etc., were most destructive to the larvæ. We experimented with the following mineral oils:--

Snowflake. Comet.

300° mineral Colza and Jeye's fluid.

"

729

The results were as follows: Snowflake.-On adding one teaspoonful to 1 gallons of water in a circular vessel teeming with larvæ, we found that they were all dead in two hours.

Comet-Under the same conditions no larvæ were dead in two hours, although they were much less active, in 10 hours they were all dead.

300° Mineral Colza.-A few of the larva were dead in two hours, several alive after 24 hours. On adding a tablespoonful instead of a teaspoonful to the water, the following results were obtained :—

Snowflake. All the larva were dead in ten minutes.

Comet. About same effect as a teaspoonful of Snowflake.

Colza.-A number alive after six hours.

Snowflake is much more destructive than Comet, it also spreads more rapidly on the surface of the water; with the Colza the oil does not spread so well on the water.

One tablespoonful of Snowflake was tried in a water run round a cress bed and all the larva sank within 5 minutes.

In stagnant water Jeye's fluid is by far the most effectual larvicide, one teaspoonful to 1 gallons of water with the same surface as was used before killed the larvæ in 2 minutes.

Twenty drops in the same quantity of water killed them all in six hours, it also has this effect that it kills all the larvæ in the water whereas the oils only kill those on the surface, it is useless in running water as it mixes with it and does not float on the surfaces.

To show the difficulty there is in ridding certain neighbourhoods of this Colony of anopheles I would refer to the extensive operations carried on in the spring of last year at the Military sanatorium, Magazine Gap, at the suggestion of Dr. YOUNG, a Civil Medical Officer attached to the China Expedi- tionary Force, to free this place of malarial fever.

Two hundred men of the Indian Regiment were detailed to carry out the necessary work under Dr. YOUNG's supervision, the hills were cleared for a distance of 300 yards of all brushwood and under- growth, several bogs were drained and the anopheles pools in the nullah were filled up.

Notwithstanding all these measures, however, fever was so prevalent there in the autumn months that the station had to be vacated by the Troops.

NEW TERRITORY.

Dr. Ho NAI Hor has continued to reside at Tai Po and has performed the duties of Resident Medical Officer in the New Territory, the distances he has to travel are very great and it is practically impossible for him to do justice to the large resident population there, the question of appointing another medical officer to reside in the West of the New Territory say somewhere in the Shap-Pat- Heung Valley will soon have to be considered. I attach the annual report on the work of the medical department in the New Territory.

In an Appendix I give a report by Dr. THOMSON regarding the mosquitoes which occur in the Colony of Hongkong, this has entailed an immense amount of labour and has, as was to be expect- ed, confirmed the fact that where malarial fever is rife there anopheles abound.

In Appendix 1 is given the notes of several cases of interest which have occurred in the Hospital during the year.

Appendix B contains the report by Dr. THOMSON, already referred to, regarding the mosquitoes that occur in the Colony of Hongkong.

Attached are the reports of:-

1. The Medical Officer to the Lunatic Asylums.

2. The Medical Officer in charge of the Public Mortuary.

3. The Medical Officer in charge of the Infectious Diseases Hospital.

4. The Medical Officer to Victoria Gaol.

5. The Medical Officer to the Tung Wah Hospital.

6. The working of the Medical Department in the New Territory during 1901.

7. The Report of the Government Analyst.

In conclusion my thanks are due to the several members of the staff for their assistance rendered during the past year, and I take this opportunity of thanking all those who in the past year have remembered the patients by forwarding them flowers, books, periodicals, &c.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

J. M. ATKINSON, M.B. (Lond.) D.P.H. (Cant.) Principal Civil Medical Officer.

The Honourable

THE COLONAL SECRETARY,

3

&c.,

&c.

&C.,

Central,

No. 2,

No. 5,

No. 6,

No. 7,

No. 8.

Tzat Tzs Mui,

Shaukiwan,

Aberdeen,

Stanley.

l'okfulam,

Gap,

Mount Gough,

Water, Yaumati, Hunghom.. Shi Tau Kok. Ping Shang, Tung Ching, Sai Kung,.. Sun Tin.... Kowloon City, Tai 0. Un Long, Sha Tin, Tai Pó,

Au Tau,

Shek O,

Sheung Shui,

730

POLICE.

Table I.-Shewing the ADMISSIONS into and DEATHS in the GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL during each Month of the Year 1901.

EUROPEANS.

INDIANS.

CHINESE.

MONTHS.

TOTAL Admissions. Deaths.

TOTAL

Admissions.

Deaths. Admissions.

Deaths. Admissions. Deaths.

Remaining on the 1st Jan.,

1901,.

6

00

3

January,.

13

10

February,

11

9

Marchi,

15

1

23

.9

17

3

19

46

47

1

April,

16

35

11

62

May,

20

41

19 -

80

June,

23

47

14

8+

...

July,

18

44

17

1

79

1

August,

24

1

47

24

95

1

September,

15

54

23

92

October,

14

November,

17

NS:

60

24

98

2

72

37

123

December,

10

38

17

(15

Total,......

202

521

214

1

937

00

J. M. ATKINSON,

Principal Civi1 Medical Officer.

Table II.—Shewing the RATE of SICKNESS and MORTALITY in the POLICE FORCE during the Year 1901.

AVERAGE STRENGTH.

TOTAL SICKNESS.

TOTAL DEATHS. RATE OF SICKNESS.

RATE OF MORTALITY.

European.

Indian.

Chinese. European. Indian. Chinese. European. Indian.

Chinese.

European. Indian.

Chinese.

European.

Indian.

Chinese.

126

354

404 202 521 214

2

160.31 147.17 52.97

3.17 0.56 0.49

J. M. ATKINSON, Principal Civil Medical Officer.

Table III.-Shewing the ADMISSIONS to HOSPITAL from the POLICE for MALARIAL FEVER

from each Station, during the Year 1901.

Average

STATIONS.

Strength.

92

January.

1

February.

March,

August.

September.

October.

November.

December.

Total.

13

10

13

21

16

29

149

3

9

3

42

8

~~: C-N: Nouri nanRewadBeauti N63

17

24

11

20

10

6

Kennedy Town,

Total,

28

18

13

24

26

25

42 i 50

46

51

66

18

407

J. M. ATKINSON, Principal Civil Medica! Officer.

YEAR.

Table IV.-Shewing the RATE of SICKNESS and MORTALITY of the TROOPS SERVING in HONGKONG during the Years 1900 and 1901.

AVERAGE STRENGTH.

ADMISSIONS INTO HOSPITAL.

DEATHS.

AVERAGE DAILY RATE OF SICKNESS.

731

RATE OF MORTALITY PER 1,000 OF THE

STRENGTH.

White. Black. Total. White. Black. Total. White. Black. Total. White. Black. To tal. White. Black. Total.

1900, 1,484 1,785 3,269 1,986 1,952 3,938

1901, 1,673 2,677 4,850 2,465 2,894 5,359 16

23 17

40

51

67

123.98 78.56| 202.54 15.40 9.52 24.92

139.48 147.33 286.81 9.60 19.05 28.65

G. A. HUGHES, Lt.-Col., R.A.M.C., P. M. O., China and Hongkong.

Table V.-Showing the ADMISSIONS and MORTALITY in the GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL during the Year 1901.

GENERAL DISEASES.

ADMISSIONS.

DEATHS.

TOTAL.

TOTAL.

Euro-

peans.

Indians & Asiatics, Coloured including Persons.

Japanese.

Euro- peans.

Indians & Asiatics, Coloured including Persons. Japanese.

Small-pox,

1

Measles,...

1

1

Rubella-ynonyms: Rotheln, German Measles. Epidemic Rosel

Kash.

1

1

Dengue.

12

Plague,

B

Influenza.

6

Diphtheria,

2

Simple continued Fever-Synonym ; Febricula,

Enteric Fever-Synonym: Typhoid Fever,

:26:;:

15

30

8

16

17

9

32

10

24

Choleraic Diarrhoea-Synonym: Cholera Nostras, Dysentery,

54

36

3

93

Beri-beri-Synonym: Kakki,

6

37

43

Malarial Fever,

231

357

199

787

1

Hvala -⠀

10

PHAGEDENA-

*

a. Sloughing Phagedoena,

I

Erysipelas,..

Pycemia...

Tetanus...

Tubercle,

∞ =

12481

92

42-

comcom

:

Leprosy-Synonym: Elephantiasis Grœcerum,

SYPHILIS-SYNONYM: POX-

« Primary, ard chancre or infecting sore, b. Secondary, or Constitutional,

29

3

15

47

28

26

62

Vegetable

**

.,

15

ནཾ》

Vegetable Poisons, Heat,

c. Inherited,.

Gonorrhoea-Synonyms: Clap, Blennorrhagia, Diseases dependent on Animal Parasites,

"

Effects of Animal Poisons.

3

3

18

71

B

1

HO

ALCOHOLISM-

Delirium Tremens,

Rheumatic Fever-Synonym: Acute Rheumatism,

Rheumatism,

Gout,

OSTEOARTHRITIS-SYNONYMS: ÅRTHRITIS NODOSA, ARTHRITIS

DEFORMANS. HEUMATOID ARTHRITIS,.

New Growth, Non-malignant,

Ancemia,

Malignant,

IDIOPATHIC ANŒMIA-SYNONYM: PERNICIOUS ANŒMIA, Congenital Malformation..

Debil ty,

LOCAL DISEASES-

Diseases of the--

Nervous System,

Eye,

Ear.

Circulatory system,

Respiratory,

Digestive.

Lymphatic.

Urinary ystem

Generative System...

Male Organs,

Female Organs,

Organs of Locomotion,

Connective Tissue,

>kin,

Injuries,

Under Observation,

53

5

27

8610

1

60

878-

14

69

KAL

2

21

20

:**

3

14

1478

SAT

30

24

90

144

3

10

14

28

47

11

3

16

88

12

**********

44

192

42

180

23

16

46

27

4

15

46

N

17

10

32

24

10

39

3

2

22

14

$4

20

19

39

348

15

33

475 60

2

1

1

10

2

5

29

10

30

33

TOTAL,

1,016

834

1,098

2,948

52

60

145

J. M. ATKINSON,

Principal Ciril Medical Officer.

}

732

Table VI.-LIST of OPERATIONS performed during the year 1901.

SURGICAL OPERATIONS.

Removal of Tumours,-Buboes, Incision,

Scraping,

Sebaceous Cyst,

Fibroma of Face,

37

19

Palate,

Angioma of Face,

OPERATIONS.

DEATHS.

32

20

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

`1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

I

1

1

1

Wounds, of Foot,

of Scrotum,

Papilloma,

Condylomata,

of Wrist (suturing tendons),

of Hand,

Bullet Wounds,

of Abdomen,

Eye Operations,-Cataract,

Hypopyon, Entropion,

Ptosis,

Operations on Head and Neck,-Harelip,

Tracheotomy,..

Operations on Respiratory Organs,-Paracentesis Thoracis,

Empyema,....

Operations on Genito-Urinary Organs,-Hydrocele,

Operations on Digestive Organs,-Piles,

Circumcisions, Lithotomy,...... Urethral Calculus, Fungus Testis,

Fistula in Ano,

Hepatic Abscess,

Appendicitis,

Strangulated Hernia,..

Abdominal Section,

Paracentesis Abdominalis,

Operations on Organs of Locomotion,-Amputation of Thigh,

**

""

""

Leg, Arm,

Forearm,

Foot,

Toes and Fingers,

18

1-30 01:00 00

Necrosis,.. Ulcer of Leg,

Plantar and Palmar Abscess,. Abscess,

Operations on Cellular Tissue,-Whitlows,

Opening Knee Joint,

3

1

1

7

3

3

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

7

I

3

11

21

1

Total,...

188

6

J. M. ATKINSON,

Principal Civil Medienl Officer.

Table VII.-Shewing the RATE of MORTALITY in the GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL during the last 10 Years,

Rate to Total Number of Rate to Number of Europeans Rate to Number of Coloured Rate to Number of Asiatics

Admissions.

Admitted.

Persons Admitted.

t

Admitted.

1892,

Per cent.

3.96

P'er cent.

Per cent.

Per cent.

1892,

2.92

1892,

3.28

1892,

5.74

1893,

3.65

1893,

1.57

1893,

2.28 1893.

7.34

1894,

5.14 1894,

8.71

1894,

3.51

1894,

7:30

1895,

4.99 1895,

2.47

1895,

1.32

1895.

8.85

1896,

5.50 1896.

3.65

1896,

1.84

1896,

8.88

1897,

4.86

1897,

3.63

1897,

2.61

1897,

6.56.

1898,.

5.36

1898.

5.07

1898,

2.07

1898,

6.59

1899,

4.16

1899,

4.06

1899,

2.27

1899,

5.22

1900,

5.16

1900,

3.81

1900,

3.93

1900,

6.77

1901,

5.18

1901,

4.58

1901,

4.31

1901,

6.32

J. M. ATKINSON,

Principal Civil Medical Officer.

Table VIII.-Shewing the ADMISSIONS into and DEATHS in the GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL during each Month of the Year 1901.

733

EUROPEANS.

COLOURED.

CHINESE.

MONTHS.

Total Admissions.

Total Deaths.

Admissions. Deaths.

Admissions. Deaths. Admissions. Deaths.

Remaining on the 1st

January, 1901,

42

1

15

4

27

January,

71

48

92

February,

57

46

54

March,

61

April,

May, June,

82

70

86

July,

94

August,

94

September,

82

October,

78

November,

81

December,.

62

・4555464631

46

2

8+

53

84

73

92

75

65

71

94

68

1.

93

83

121

99

120

100

141

12

57

1

87

Total,

960

44

834

36

1,154

73

alaBaaer ~ ∞ ∞ ∞ ~ 2 00 13

84

7

211

14

157

6

191

7

219

9

235

15

226

15

259

17

255

12

286

9

297

15

322

19

6

206

8

2,948

153

J. M. ATKINSON,

Principal Civil Medical Officer.

Table IX-Shewing the ADMISSIONS into and DEATHS in the GOVERNMENT LUNATIC ASYLUMS

during each Month of the Year 1901.

EUROPEANS.

COLOURED.

CHINESE.

MONTHS.

Total Admissions. Deaths.

Total

Admissions. Deaths. Admissions. Deaths. Admissions. Deaths.

Remaining on the 1st

January, 1901,

5

January,

February,

March,.

April,

May,

June,

1

1

1

July,

August,

September,

October,

1

1

November,

∞ONNO 00 CO 6) G7 to to co ∞ «H

8

December,

*∞VOVN¤veauvo

1

13

1

1

1

1

Total,......

8

6

1

76

6

90

7

J. BELL,

Medical Officer in charge of Asylums.

Table X-Shewing the NUMBER of PATIENTS in the ASYLUM during the year 1901, under the respective Diseases.

Mania,

Delusional Insanity,

Dementia,

Melancholia,

Idiotcy,

EUROPEANS.

INDIANS.

CHINESE.

TOTAL.

Male.

Female.

Male.

Female.

Male.

Female.

1

12

10

24

~~~

3

35

14

56

1

7

Total,..

7

1

CO

6

51

25

90

J. BELL,

Medical Officer in charge of Asylums.

MONTHS.

MONTHS.

734

Table XI-Shewing the ADMISSIONS into and DEATHS in the GOVERNMENT MATERNITY HOSPITAL during each Month of the Year 1901.

EUROPEANS.

JAPANESE.

CHINESE & INDIANS,

Total Total Admissious. Deaths.

+

Admissions. Deaths. Admissions. Deaths. Admissions. Deaths.

Remaining on the 1st

January, 1901,

January,

February,

March,.

12+

1

1

April, May, June,

July,

August,

10 10 ON

September,

October,..

1

November,

1

December,

+

OWLOW 00 10 on f10-03 (9

9

6

Total,..

22

10

20

2

5+

January.

February.

J. M. ATKINSON,

Principal Civil Medical Officer.

Table XII. Shewing Varieties of MALARIAL FEVER, uncomplicated and associated with other Diseases, occurring monthly at the GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL during 1901, and Percentage of Cases to Number of Patients in Hospital.

March.

April.

May.

June.

July.

August.

September.

October,

November.

Quartan, ..

1

1

1

3

3

] 1

Simple Tertian,

6

5

7

Maliguant,

58

33

27

55

64

85

Mixed Infection,

3

* 186

3

4

5

10

8

6

4

67

115

109

106

121

114

32

919

4

7

3

1

3

39

Total,

70

34

60

74 94 123 122

119; 133

125

41

1,036

Percentage,

33.1726.11 17.80 26.0231.4841.59 | 43.62 | 47.8441.60 44.77

38.82 19.90 35.14

J. M. ATKINSON, Principal Civil Medical Officer.

Appendix.

HEPATIC ABSCESS DUE TO MALARIA-OPERATION-RECOVERY.

An officer of the Garrison was admitted to hospital on the 7th December suffering from fever of 3 days' duration. The patient was a strong young man with only 3 months' foreign service, all in this Colony. He had never had dysentery or malaria before and was a very abstemious person.

His tongue was furred, temperature 103.4 with enlargement and tenderness of the liver. Blood slide showed numerous malignant quotidian parasites. Under quinine in various forms and doses and saline purgative he improved somewhat, the chart however being very irregular 100 to 101 or 104, occasionally normal all day and parasites being sometimes present (4th, 13th, 22nd February and 8th March) and at other times absent (12th, 18th, 19th and 24th January and 25th February). The liver dulness diminished considerably but still remained enlarged somewhat and tender in one spot. On the 28th Febuary an exploratory puncture showed the presence of pus and the usual operation was performed. After the operation the temperature still kept up in an irregular manner rising to 100.8 or 103 in the evening- a small piece of necrosed rib was removed and on the 1st April the temperature fell to normal and kept so throughout. The patient began to mend and put on weight and left for home on the 1st May with a small sinus still discharging.

Remarks.-The cause of the liver abscess seems to have been the malaria which was very obstinat notwithstanding frequent and large doses of quinine. The presence of parasites in the blood w rather puzzling and took one's attention off the hepatic condition.

December.

Total.

2

15

2

6

1

735

F

Pro NEPHROSIS DUE TO CALCULUS-WITHOUT PAIN OR FEVER.

A German aged 56 was admitted on the 21st of December. Patient looked ill and seemed much older than the age he gaye. He stated that he had been suffering from dysentery in Manila and had come over to get stronger. His stools were liquid and bilestained and were about 5 or 6 a day and this diarrhoea throughout was quite unaffected by treatment. His blood showed no malaria and he com- plained of no pain anywhere throughout the illness. His temperature varied between 96 and 98.4 during his illness. His urine was examined on several occasions and was always normal save on the last occasion, 6 days before death, when "a faint trace of albumin" was reported. He slowly became more and more drowsy but was easily roused for his food and medicine. His lips and mouth were frequently covered with thrush. He passed his motions in bed throughout. Towards the end he became delirious and very irritable. The case was seen by several medical men and the diagnosis of auto-intoxication confirmed, the absorption probably taking place from an old dysenteric ulcer. The treatment consisted in liquid diet, stimulants and various antiseptics. He died on 17th February.

Post mortem.-Intestines much atrophied but no signs of dysentery. Liver cirrhotic. Heart and lungs normal. Right kidney enlarged and lobulated. Left kidney had a small stone firmly blocking the ureter, pelvis dilated and full of pus, the abscess cavity extending into the substance of the kidney.

MALARIAL COLITIS SIMULATING APPENDICITIS-RECOVERY.

A German soldier was brought to hospital by his medical attendant to be operated on for appendicitis on the 2nd April. He had been ill for three days with constipation, fever (102°), furred tongue and offensive breath. The abdomen was very tympanitic and tender more especially over McBurney's point. His bowels had not acted for four days, his temperature was 102.4, pulse 110. On the following day he was still very tympanitic and tender and the least pressure in the neighbour- hood of the appendix elicited much pain. There was frequent vomiting and dulness in both flanks. His temperature was 101.4 and a blood slide showed numerous non-pigmented ring-formed parasites (malignant quotidian). After several doses of saturated solution of magnesium sulphate the bowels acted copiously and the stools were full of "jelly like" material. Under quinine grs.

Under quinine grs. 5 every 4 hours and saline purgatives he slowly improved, vomiting ceased, tongue cleaned and the distension and tenderness disappeared and the temperature became intermittent in the morning and 101° in the evening. The quinine was reduced to 5 grains terdie but in 48 hours the symptoms recurred, pain more especially in R. iliac fossa extending to the region of the bladder and the stools were again full of "jelly like" mucus. The quinine was ordered to be given every 3 hours, hot fomentations applied to the abdomen and a quiniue enema (30 grains) given every night. In 48 hours the patient was much improved and the temperature fell to normal and remained so. Dulness and a sense of resistance in the R. iliac fossa continued for some few days but eventually cleared up. Patient was discharged quite well on the 1st May.

GENERAL PARALYSIS OF THE INSANE-RECOVERY AFTER THREE YEARS.

A German sailor was admitted to the Asylum from the Gaol on 9th April, 1898. He had been several times in Gaol for petty thefts (kleptomania) and on the last occasion the Medical Officer considering he was "silly" transferred him to the Asylum. For several months he was under obser- vation without any definite symptoms save that he was decidedly silly, laughing constantly and for no apparent reason, &c. He was sent to a general ward in the Civil Hospital where in a day or two com- plaints were made, by the other patients, of his stealing all and everything he could find and hiding them away, sitting up all night writing (the writing being unconnected and mostly rubbish), putting on several suits of clothes, &c. On re-admission to the Asylum he rapidly became worse, noisy and violent and full of delusions. His ideas were all of an extravagant type. He was at times Emperor of Germany, Queen of England, President U.S.A., &c., owned stores and stores of money, millions of ships, &c. He required a bullock for each meal, barrels of beer and 1,000 of cigars. This stage lasted for a long time and for over two years he was the noisest lunatic we have ever had, incessantly talking and shouting and hardly ever sleeping. He became very dirty in his habits and very troublesome as he had a delusion the walls and floors were covered with arsenic and it was his business to clean them with his head and mouth and it was extremely difficult to prevent him doing this. At times he ceased to be violent and noisy and was extremely liberal to his attendants, giving them gold, silver, jewels and ships, &c. His pupils were unequal and presented the Argyll-Robertson phenomenon. No history of syphilis was obtainable though on the chance he occasionally had Iodide of Potassium but as he resented any medicine under the impression they were poison, it was not persisted in. His weight fell from 162 lbs. to 124 lbs. but he slowly regained it towards the end and weighed 172 lbs. when he left. Slowly his violent attacks diminished in frequency, his appetite returned, and his delusions ceased to be marked up to 11th Novemher, 1900, when he had a series of fits of an epileptic nature with a very feeble pulse. After this the cure became more rapid and more marked so that in July he was allowed out daily and went round visiting his friends, the Consul, &c. and returning daily to the Asylum. He lǝft on August 22nd, 1901, for Germany looking well and apparently free from all delusions.

Remarks. A cure from this disease being very rare, the case is recorded. There was no doubt of the diagnosis as he was seen by several medical men who all agreed as to the nature of the illness.

736

The improvement was so gradual and so marked that one is justified in looking upon it as a cure and not a remission.

MALIGNANT MALARIA WITH OBSTRUCTIVE JAUNDICE.

A European sailor from a coasting steamer was admitted on 28th June. His temperature was 100, conjunctive jaundiced, left lobe of liver very tender and constant vomiting, a blood slide showed numerous malignant quotidian parasites. The jaundice became rapidly general and the vomiting very persistent, under hypodermics of morphia the latter symptom subsided but the patient became delirious and rapidly sank, dying on the 2nd July. The temperature was normal in the morning and 104 in the evening of 29th, normal all day 30th, 105 in the morning and 102 in the evening of 1st.

Post mortem.-Jaundice deeply marked all over. Gall bladder slighly distended but no obstruction could be made out. Brain congested and excess of fluid. Spleen enlarged and soft. Smear from this organ teemed with malarial parasites.

CHRONIC PANCREATITIS-JAUNDICE-Death.

An engineer was admitted from a steamer on the 30th May, 1901, deeply jaundiced and dying. The only history obtainable was that he had had jaundice for over a year but had been doing his duty up to a few days before his admission. He was deeply jaundiced all over, temperature 101, quick almost uncountable pulse and great dyspnoea. He was put to bed and given stimulants but died a few hours after, passing a large tarry stool just before death.

Post mortem.-Gall bladder was much distended and full of bile, intestines full of blood. Pancreas very much enlarged and hard being about double the average size and weighing eight ounces. The head was firmly adherent to the common bile duct and intestines. Section of pancreas was stained and showed a large increase in the connective tissue but no recent hemorrhages.

MALARIA COMA-PREMATURE BIRTH-DEATH.

A Chinese prisoner in about the 8th month of pregnancy was suddenly seized with a fit at the Gaol on 1st June, 1901. When seen she was quite unconscious, with contracted pupils, deep stertorous breathing, insensitive conjunctivæ and small feeble pulse. Under the idea she was suffering from uræmia she was transferred to the Maternity Hospital. On arrival she was in much the same condition, temperature 100, and passing her urine unconsciously. By means of a catheter a specimen was obtained-1015, acid, trace of albumen-3.3% urea. The following day she was slightly better and could be roused by loud shouting and tried to do what she was told (put out tongue, &c.). The urine contained albumen with blood corpuscles and blood casts. Labour came off naturally, the child, however, being dead. On the 3rd the temperature was 103, urine normal, patient again more uncon- scious-a blood slide showed large numbers of malignant quotidian parasites. Ten grains of quinine hypodermically were given night and morning but without any drop in the temperature which on the 4th went up to 106.8. As the patient was quite unconscious and evidently sinking, lumbar puncture was performed and the tube left in for 48 hours. Under ice packing the temperature fell to normal. at mid-night. The blood next morning was still full of malaria though the patient was much better and more easily roused. The quinine was increased to 15 grains twice daily hypodermically and a mixture of Tinct Ferri mXV and Quinine gr. II given every two hours. The patient, however, slowly became more unconscious, the temperature ranging between 101 and 105 till the 7th when she died, temperature 106. Throughout urine and fæces were passed unconsciously.

Liver cirrhotic,

Post mortem.-Heart and lungs normal save for some old adhesions at right base. 22 lbs., kidneys normal but much congested, spleen 5 oz., brain soft and congested but no increase in the fluid either at base or in ventricles, blood smear from spleen teemed with parasites.

INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION DUE TO STRICTURE OF RECTUM.

A married European female, aged 31, was admitted to hospital on August 21st. She was quite well up to the 20th, when she was seen by a medical man who prescribed a pill (Pil Hydrarg grs. III. Pil Coloc Co. grs. IV.) for vague abdominal pain and vomiting. On admission her temperature was 102.4, with furred tongue, tympanitis and tenderness all over the abdomen, but more especially in the right iliac region, malignant malarial parasites were found in the blood. Her previous medical history was good though there was a history of an attack of dysentery in 1895 but no abdominal trou- ble since. The vomiting continued throughout, the rejected matter consisting of green "spinach like " material and never feculent. Bowels did not respond to enemata, salines or small repeated doses of calomel. On 24th she was examined under chloroform but nothing definite could be found to account for the symptoms. There was no dulness in the right iliac fossa and nothing was felt per rectum. 25th her condition was the same and as the tympanitis was distressing and the vomiting continued a small trocar was inserted into the intestines and a quantity of fœtid gas escaped with a certain amount of relief. On 26th, as her condition was decidely worse laparotomy was performed. The intestines were much congested and distended, there was no appendicitis and no cause was found to account for the distension. She slowly sank and died the same day.

On

Post mortem.-No peritonitis or appendicitis. Intense enteritis. The whole of the small intestine and the large intestine as far as the sigmoid flexure were distended and at the lower end of the sigmoid flexure a stricture was found, the intestine being contracted to the size of a goose-quill. On cutting through this constriction it was found to be due to the cicatrisation of a dysenteric ulcer with thick- ened and indurated edges. There was no tubercular disease anywhere.

1

737

Remarks. The case is interesting on account of the obscurity of the cause of all the abdominal symptoms. The temperature was accounted for to a certain extent by the presence of malarial parasites (malignant tertian) in the blood. Although the patient was a delicate woman her condition could hardly be attributed to the aperient she had taken. The puncture of the intestine with the smallest trocar in Potain's aspirating case afforded relief and did not induce the slightest local inflammatory trouble.

HEPATIC ABSCESS-OPERATION FOLLOWED BY GUMMA OF THE LIVER-RECOVERY,

A French sailor, 42 years of age, was admitted on June 7th, having been ill 15 days with fever. His temperature on admission was 101°, liver much enlarged with distinct fluctuation in front. The abscess was opened, the walls stitched to the skin and a tube inserted. It healed rapidly but the tempe- rature still ran an intermittent course, being normal in the morning and 102° or 103° in the evening. On the 13th, malignant parasites were found in the blood and 5 grains of quinine given every four hours. This brought the fever down to normal in a few days and he soon put on weight and was waiting for a passage home when on July 29th the temperature again rose with parasites in his blood (after he had been out on leave for the first time). There was also a distinct tumour of the liver below the ribs which was hard and not tender on pressure. Notwithstanding quinine every 3 or 4 hours the temperature still continued an irregular course, rising to 100° and occasionally to 103° in the even- ing. On August 11th, he was aspirated but no pus found. A distinct specific history having been obtained he was put on Potass Iodid grs. xv terdie. The temperature almost immediately fell to normal and continued to, and the swelling slowly but markedly disappeared. He left for Europe on 9th September looking and feeling well, his weight having risen from 8st. to 8st. 7lbs. and without any trace of hepatic enlargement.

INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION DUE TO PLAGUE-DEATH.

An English boy aged 11 was admitted to hospital on the 9th September. He had been taken ill two days previously with a sharp pain in the abdomen for which a dose of castor oil was prescribed which however only set up vomiting immediately after being taken. On admission his temperature was 1023, foul tongue and pain in abdomen, chiefly in right iliac fossa where there was a distinct sense of resistance on pressure. His temperature continued between 102 and 104 till the 11th, with great abdominal distension and pain. On this day a papular eruption was seen chiefly on forehead and back of ears. In the evening slight delirium was noticed for the first time. On the 12th the condition was much the same with frequent vomiting (bile and blood), very fœtid breath, epistaxis and abdominal distension, and from this onwards no further action of the bowels occurred. There was dulness in both flanks. The stools were liquid and bile-stained. There was distinct tenderness and dulness in the right iliac fossa where a distinct tumour could now be felt. In the evening the enema contained only a trace of fæces. The morning temperature was 100° and a few malignant malarial parasites were found in the blood. The evening temperature was 101.8 and the pulse varied between 88 and 92. The case became slowly worse, pulse 120 to 130, vomiting, constipation and great distension, and a trace (2) of albumen in the urine till the 14th-8th day of illness-when the temperature rose to 105, and the patient succumbed.

Post mortem. Small intestine normal. Spleen hard and firm. No appendicitis. Large intestine (cœcum) swollen with hæmorrhagic extravasation into the walls for about 3 inches causing almost complete obstruction. Mesenteric glands swollen and hæmorrhagic. Retroperitoneal extravasation well marked. Slight amount of bloody fluid in abdominal cavity. Spleen and glands full of typical plague bacilli, a culture of which was injected into a guinea pig and produced death with plague bacilli in internal organs.

Remarks. No idea of plague was ever thought of in diagnosing this case which was looked upon at first as being one of malarial colitis or appendicitis, and the patient was treated accordingly with saline purges and hypodermics of quinine. Fortunately for various reasons no operation was attempted. Authorities on plague mention the possibility of mistaking the disease for appendicitis but such a case as this is worth recording owing to the very definite tumour and complete obstruction produced.

COMPOUND FRACTURE OF FEMUR-AMPUTATION-DEATH FROM TETANUS.

A European sailor was knocked down by a heavy sea on the 10th December and sustained a compound comminuted fracture of the lower end of the right femur. On arrival here, six days after the accident, the man was brought to hospital. The wound was thoroughly cleaned, some jagged ends of bone removed and an endeavour made to save the limb. As the temperature chart pointed to septic infection, amputation was decided upon, and assisted by Staff Surgeon NOLAN, R. N., and Surgeon WALLIS, R. Ñ., at 11 a.m. on the 20th, the limb was removed. Just previous to the operation the patient complained of stiffness in the jaw muscles and inability to open his mouth. To our regret smears taken from three places in the wound showed tetanus bacilli. The patient stood the shock fairy well and at 1 p.m. was conscious, the spasms short and frequent, and the pulse fairly strong. At 4 p.m. he had a severe spasm which almost raised him off the bed, and died suddenly.

Remarks.-The extreme rarity of tetanus following operations here makes this case worth record- ing. It is extremely difficult to account for his having been infected on board a ship as the bacillus is generally looked upon as an earth germ and the steamer had not been carrying manure, horses or other animals as cargo. Immediately after the injury everything seems to have been done to keep the wound clean and the limb at rest by means of Carbolic lotion and an improvised splint.

5

738

1

REPORT REGARDING THE MOSQUITOES THAT OCCUR IN THE COLONY OF HONGKONG.

HONGKONG, 15th February, 1902. SIR,I have the honour to submit, for purposes of the Annual Medical Report, the results of a systematic examination and classification of the mosquitoes that prevail in Hongkong and its Depend- encies, on which I was engaged during the twelve months ending 30th September, 1901.

For somə months previous to September, 1900, I was working at the subject as I had opportunity, but my field of observation was limited to the Colony itself until in that month the Honourable F. H. MAY, C.M.G., Captain Superintendent of Police, kindly consented to my proposal that I should be supplied with at least one dozen mosquitoes from each of the Police Stations throughout Hongkong itself and the New Territory once a week for a year. As the Police Stations are approximately equally scattered over the whole area, the mosquitoes that were sent to me may be assumed to fairly satisfactorily represent the actual relative prevalence of these insects in this locality..

2. I distributed a number of glass test-tubes to each of the thirty-six Police Stations, with general instructions for the catching and transmitting of the insects in such a way as to avoid injury to them. They were to be caught by means of the glass tubes, killed by a whiff of tobacco-smoke, and sent enclosed in match-boxes to the Central Police Station, from which they would be duly forwarded to me. It was requested that about two-thirds of each consignment should be caught in the evening, or from mosquito-curtains in the early morning, and the remainder from species seen flying about in the day time; and further that no selection of any kind should be made, the first dozen or so caught on any given date being sent.

The arrangements made have been carefully carried out by the officers in charge of the stations, with few exceptions; and I beg to express my thanks to the Captain Superintendent of Police, Chief- Inspector MACKIE, and the officers of the Police Force for their hearty co-operation in this research.

3. During the twelve months, 1st October, 1900, to 30th September, 1901, 32,266 insects were sent to me from the Police Stations. Of these, 31,390 proved to be mosquitoes; the others were chiefly insects belonging to cognate families, such as fungus gnats (Mycetophilida), midges (Chironomide), sand flies (Simulidae), &c.

1,169, .., 3.7 per cent. were Anopheles, of three species, and 30,221, i.e., 96.3 per cent. were Culex, of twelve species. As is shown in Appendix II, the number of species of Culex is probably considerably larger, some that I describe as varieties being perhaps distinct species.

4. I enclose a Table (Appendix I) showing in detail my observations during the year as regards the various Police Stations. I show for each station the number of specimens received, the number of Anopheles and Culex respectively, and the names of the species of both that have come from the station. I describe the different species by letters corresponding to those used in the Systematic Account of Hongkong Mosquitoes given below (Appendix II). Similar tables showing the same facts, but without the names of species, for each month and each quarter of the year are included in my quarterly reports on this subject, which have appeared in the Government Gazette.

5. The monthly percentage of Anopheles and Culex has been as follows:-

Anopheles.

Culex.

Mosquitoes examined.

Number.

Per cent.

Number.

Per cent.

October,

401

106

26.4

295

73.6

November,

796

50

6.3

746

93.7

December,

2,342

138

5.9

2,204

94.1

January,

3,380

143

4.2

3,237

95.8

February.

2

2,524

35

1.4

2,489

98.6

March,

1,586

49

3.1

1,537

96.9

April,

3,501

115

3.3

3,386

96.7

.May,

5,476

116

2.1

5,360

97.9

June,

3,562

111

3.1

3,451

96.9

July,

2,582

138

5.3

2,444

94.7

August,

2,296

88

3.8

2.208

96.2

September,

2,944

80

2.7

2,864

97.3

Last Quarter, 1900,

3,539

294

8.3

3.245

91.7

First Quarter, 1901,

7,490

227

3.

7,263

97.

Second Quarter, 1901,

12.539

342

2.7

12.197

97.3

Third Quarter, 1901,

7,822

306

3.9

7.516

96.1

The Twelve Months,

31,390

1,169

3.7

30,221

96.3.

739

6. In considering the percentage of Anopheles in the foregoing table, two modifying circumstances require to be allowed for. The percentage for October, 1900, is too high, owing to the fact that I was then receiving an unduly large number of insects from the more malarial Police Stations, and less in proportion from the more healthy stations. And on the other hand, the percentage of Anopheles shown for August and September, 1901, is probably much below the average for the Colony as a whole during those months, owing to the fact that from the end of June vigorous measures for the destruction of the larvae and breeding-places of these insects were in operation in the neghibourhood of all my collecting stations. I drew up a series of simple instrutions on this subject, as brief and elementary as possible, and these were embodied in a General Order to officers in charge of Police Stations by the Captain Superintendent of Police (v. Appendix III). They were carried into effect more or less thoroughly, and, while the Police reaped the benefit, my statistics were vitiated in the direction I have indicated. Allowing for these modifying circumstances, it will be found that the prevalence of the Anopheles mosquito runs quite parallel with what we already know of the prevalence of malaria in the Colony. Both are at their minimum in February, and at their maximum between the months of July and October.

7. No Anopheles were found among mosquitoes sent to me from the following stations:-

No. 5, No. 6, No. 7, No. 8, Kennedy Town, Mount Gough, Shaukiwan, Tsim Sha Tsui,

Stone Cutters' Island, Hung Hom, and Kat 0.

8. The following Table shows the stations from which Anopheles were sent to me, and the per- centage of Anopheles among the total mosquitoes received from those stations:-

Anopheles.

Culex.

Mosquitoes examined.

Number.

Per cent.

Number.

Per cent.

No. 1 Station,

1,261

6

0.5

1,255

99.5

No. 2 Station,

575

1

0.2

574

99.8

No. 3 Station,

1,178

1

0.1

1,177

99.9

Pokfulam,

852

21

2.5

831

97.5

Aberdeen,

688

7

1.

681

99.

Stanley,

963

15

1.6

948

98.4

Shek O

748

116

15.5

632

84.5

Tsat Tsze Mui,

600

47

7.8

553

92.2

Yaumati,

1,066

1

0.1

1,065

99.9

Fuk Tsun Heung,

558

1

0.2

557

99.8

Kowloon City,

1,717

1

0.1

1,716

99.9

Sha Tin,

572

43

7.5

529

92.5

Sai Kung,

552

8

1.4

544

98.6

• •

Tai Po,

809

191

23.6

618

76.4

Sha Tau Kok,

4,401

414

9.4

3,987

90.6

Sheung Shui,

815

10

1.2

805

98.8

San Tin,

837

14

1.7

823

98.3

Au Tau,

1,841

113

6.1

1,728

93.9

Ping Shan,

245

12

4.9

233

95.1

Tai O,

399

38

9.5

361

90.5

Tung Chung,

226

78

34.5

148

65.5

Ch'eung Chau,

4,704

1

00.2

4,703

99.98

Lamma,

604

30

5.

574

95.

|

+

9. In Appendix II I describe systematically the mosquitoes that prevail in the Colony, examin- ing in each case the wings, legs, head, appendages, thorax, abdomen, and size. The size I express in millimetres (inch). It will be noted that, so far as Hongkong is concerned, the wings of Anopheles are in all species spotted, and those of all forms of Culex unspotted.

There are three species of Anopheles--a sub-species of Anopheles Sinensis, and two species which have been recognised as new species, not thus far observed elsewhere, by Mr. F. V. THEOBALD, Ento- mologist at the British Museum, to whom I submitted them. He has named one of them Anopheles Maculatus from its markings, the other Anopheles Minimus from its minute size. The former I at first belived to correspond to Anopheles Costalis of West and South Africa, but there are specific differences. I need not here enter into descriptive details, which I have set forth at length in the Appendix.

Anopheles Sinensis breeds chiefly in the rice-fields and the ditches surrounding or draining them, the other two chiefly in the ravines; but they do not confine themselves exclusively to their usual habitats.

740

As to the relative prevalence of the three species of Anopheles, I am not able to speak as regards the 294 Anopheles which I received during the last quarter of 1900, but of 875 received during the three quarters of 1901 included in this research, 483 were Anopheles Sinensis, 249 Anopheles Macu- latus, and 143 Anopheles Minimus.

10. I have differentiated twelve species of Culex, which I describe at length in the Appendix. There are probably considerable more, as some of the varieties of certain species which I describe may be regarded by entomologists as distinct species. I do not attempt to follow THEOBALD in his new classification of mosquitoes, just published in the Tropical Journal, into twenty-four different genera, breaking up the old genus Culex into some twenty new genera, based on the arrangement of the scales which cover the insects. For instance, he now decribes Culex Scutellaris and Culex Obturbans, two of the most common of the Hongkong mosquitoes, as Stegomyia Scutellaris and Armigeres Obturbans.

Culex Fatigans, Culex Scutellaris, Culex Obturbans, and Culex Concolor have been described before. Culex Anulus, Culex Scriceus, and Culex Reesii are new species, and have been named by Mr. THEOBALD from specimens which I submitted to him. Culex Reesii he has so called from our mutual friend Dr. D. C. REES, lately Superintendent of the London School of Tropical Medicine, who put me in communication with Mr. THEOBALD. The insects which I have indicated by the letters, "n" "o", "p", "r", "r", and "s", I, have carefully described, but not named. "p" may be Culex Fuscanus ; the others are, I think, new species but this question I shall remit to Mr. THEOBALD at the British Museum.

?

Culex Scutellaris is the black and white striped mosquito so common all over the Colony during the day time; Culex Fatigans and Culex Reesii are the equally common brown mosquitoes, to be found everywhere and at all seasons in the evening; Culex Obturbans is the very large dark mosquito, also very widely prevalent. The others are less abundant, but for the most part occur pretty generally throughout the Colony.

It may be noted in passing that Culex Fatigans is the most usual intermediate host of the blood parasite, Filaria Nocturna, the cause of Elephantiasis and its kindred diseases, by no means uncommon. in this locality.

While Anopheles as a rule only use for breeding purposes clean water in more or less natural collections, the various species of Culex lay their eggs wherever stagnant water exists, in broken dishes, empty tins, flower pots, water tanks or barrels, drain traps, and the like. Nothing is too dirty to have its appropriate mosquito developing in it. Culex Obturbans is the most loathsome of all in its larval state, finding its most favourable conditions in decomposing urine.

11. I do not propose to enter here into details of prophylaxis against these insects, which I have dealt with in special reports: but direct attention to certain observations which I made during the winter,

I found the larvæ of Anopheles in the nullahs throughout the whole winter, in scarcely diminished. numbers, though there were few in the pupa stage, and development at that season is evidently very slow or arrested.

I was able to note the effects of severe cold at the beginning of February. On 1st February, I had made a careful examination of the Kennedy Town nullah, and found Anopheles larvæ plentiful. On the 3rd there was a sudden rapid drop in the temperature, and when I examined the stream again on the 5th there were few larvæ to be seen. It seemed as if they had been killed by the cold. But for- tunately I had some larvæ under observation at the time in a glass jar in my verandah. Under the influence of the cold these became torpid or sluggish, and most of them seemed dead. On the 7th, however, the sun shone out brightly, and the seemingly dead ones as well as the others became quite lively again. It is probable, therefore, that much of the diminution in numbers of the larvæ in the ravines during the winter is more apparent than real, since they are most easily recognised in ordinary circumstances by their very characteristic movements when disturbed.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

JOHN C. THOMSON, M.D., M.A.

Dr. J. M. ATKINSON,

Principal Civil Medical Officer,

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

1

APPENDIX I.

PREVALENCE OF MOSQUITOES, DURING THE YEAR ENDING 30TH SEPTEMBER, 1901.

NAME OF STATION.

ANOPHELES.

CULEX.

3741

Specimens received.

Other Genera.

Number. Species. Number.

Species.

Central Station,

Nil.

No. 1 Station,.

1,360

No. 2

576

No. 3

1,334

No. 5

107

No. 6

71

100011

a b

1,255

b

574

efhikn efhiknr

99

1

1,177

efhiknor

156

107

ehir

71

ehino

No. 7

462

447

efhik

15

No. 8

63

62

efhiko

1

Kennedy Town,

764

716

efhikn

48

Mt. Gough,

63

61

efhi

2

Pokfulam,

872

21

a b c

831

efhikmnor

20

Aberdeen,

735

7

b

681

efghikmur

47

Stanley, Shek O,

Shaukiwan,

Tsat Tsze Mui,

980

15

a be

948

efhiknor

17

750

116

a

632

efhimno

2

1,579

1,538

efhikmnor

41

607

47

a

b c

553

efhikn

7

Tsim Sha Tsui,

678

676

efhikn

2

Yaumati,

1,069

1

a

1,065

efghiknrs

3

Fuk Tsun Heung,

572

1

.a

557

efhiknor

14

Stone Cutters' Island,

81

80

ehkon

}

Hung Hom,....

729

*25

efhinor

Kowloon City,

1,726

a

1,716

efhiknor

Sha Tin Gap,

Nil.

Sha Tin,

662

Sai Kung,

648

Tai Po,

819

191

Sha Tau Kok,........

4,428

414

Kat 0,....

709

ུ།

43

a b c

529

efghiknops

90

8

a b c

544

efghikn

96

a h C

618

efhinnopr

10

a b c

3,987

efhiknopr

27

696

efhi

13

Sheung Shui,

829

10

a b

805

efhikmnor

14

San Tin,

916

14

a b c

823 efhiknor

79

Au Tau,

Ping Shan,

Tai O,

Tung Chung,

Cheung Chau,..

Lamma,

1,853

113

a b c

1,728

efhikmnor

12

251

12

a b

233

efghikn

6

408

38

a b c

361

efhiko

9

233

78

a

148

efhikm

4,704

1

b

4,703

efhikn

628

30

a b c

574

efhiknor

24

Total,.......

32,266

1,169

a b c

30,221

efghikmnoprs

876

Less,....

876

Net Total,.

31,390

APPENDIX II.

AN ACCOUNT OF HONGKONG MOSQUITOES.

A.-Anopheles Sinensis (Wiedemann).

Sub-species; Annularis.

Wings spotted. Dark brown costa, with two lighter interruptions. Dark brown spots irregularly placed on wing field. Legs brown. White-banded at joints. White bands at apices of tarsi.

Antennæ and palpi brown. Proboscis darker brown.

Thorax brown. Linear markings of a deeper brown.

Abdomen brown, unbanded.

Length, 5 mm.

B.-Anopheles Maculatus.

A new species.

Wings spotted, transparent. Four linear black spots along costa, with three pale intervals. Also faint linear spots on wing field at points on course of veins.

Legs black, white-banded. White bands at apices of tarsi.

Antennæ grey. Palpi black, white-banded, and white-tipped. Proboscis dark-brown, with pale tip.

Thorax brown, with grey-white tomentum.

Abdomen brown, unbanded.

Length, 4 mm.

6

742

C.-Anopheles Minimus. A new species.

At first sight appears simply a dwarf variety of Anopheles Maculatus.

it is exceedingly minute.

All its markings are less distinct, and

Wings spotted, transparent. Four linear black spots along costa, with three pale intervals.

wing field. The black is not so deep as in the previous species.

Legs black, white-banded. Faint white bands, at apices of tarsi.

Also faint linear spots on

Antennæ grey. Palpi black, white-banded, and white-tipped. In some specimens the palpi are brown and unbanded. Proboscis dark brown, with pale tip.

·

Thorax brown, with linear darker markings.

Abdomen brown, unbanded.

Length, 2 mm.

E-Culex Fatigans (Wiedemann).

Wings unspotted. Transparent.

Legs brown. Unbanded.

Antennæ, palpi, and proboscis brown.

Thorax brown, with golden scales, and with a median and two lateral dark bare lines.

Abdomen banded. Segments brown, with white bands at bases.

Length, 4 mm.

F-Culex Anulus.

A new species.

Wings unspotted. Dark veins.

Legs brown.

White-banded at joints. White bands at apices of tarsi.

Antennæ grey. Palpi brown. Proboscis brown, with broad white band at the middle of it. Thorax brown, with lighter linear markings.

Abdomen brown, with white bands at bases of segments.

Length 3 mm.

G.-Culex Sericeus.

A new species.

Wings unspotted, brown, transparent, with prominent veins.

Legs brown, unbanded.

Antennæ grey. Palpi and proboscis brown.

Thorax brown, with golden-yellow tomentum.

Abdomen speckled, blackish brown, with yellowish white bands at bases of segments. Length, 5 mm.

Wings unspotted. Greyish brown.

H.-Culex Reesii.

A new species.

Legs yellowish brown. Unbanded.

Antennæ grey. Palpi brown, with black tip in male. Proboscis brown.

Thorax brown, with faint linear marking.

Abdomen speckled, blackish brown, with faint pale bands at bases of segments.

Length, 4 mm.

I-Culex Scutellaris. (Walker).

(Stegomyia Scutellaris. Theobald.)

There are several varieties of this insect, differing markedly in size. There is also one in which the median white line, while present on the head, is absent from the thorax, which is a very dark brown. Probably some of these would by entomologists be described as different species. The one I describe may be regarded as the type.

occur in different parts of the Colony.

Wings unspotted. Greyish, with dark scales on veins

Legs dark, with whitish femur, and with white bands at bases of tarsi.

Antennæ grey. Palpi white-tipped in female, with four white bands in male. Proboscis black. Head and thorax with median white line, with silvery white spots on sides of thorax.

Abdomen black, with silvery white bands at bases of segments.

Length, 4 mm.

K.-Culex Obturbans. (Walker.)

(Armigeres Obturbans. Theobald).

The different varieties

Mr. Theobald recognised the specimens of this which I sent him as Culex Obturbans, but many of the specimens agree more closely with the Culex Ventralis of Walker. It may be that sub varieties of both, approaching each other in charac- teristics, are present in the Colony. They are both large species. While I adopt the name Culex Obturbans, the following description of the insect, as it is now in large numbers before me, is very like the description of Culex Ventralis in Giles's Handbook of Mosquitoes.

Wings greyish, unspotted. Veins black, with fringe of large scales. Legs almost black, unbanded.

Femur pale underneath.

Antennæ grey. Palpi brown. Proboscis black.

Thorax brownish black, unadorned above, with white spots on sides.

Abdomen black, dorsally unbanded, but with pure white bands on under surface.

Length, 65 mm.

In some specimens the thorax and abdomen are more brown than black.

M.-Culex Concolor. (R. Desvoidy.)

Wings unspotted, clear, transparent.

Veins almost nude.

Legs yellowish, unbanded.

Antennæ pale brown. Palpi brown. Proboscis yellowish.

Thorax reddish brown, with three indistinct brown hairy lines.

Abdomen yellowish brown, with pale yellow bands at apices of segments. Length, 7 mm.

N.

Probably a new species.

Wings smoky, owing to thick black scales on veins, unspotted. Legs black, unbanded.

Antennæ, palpi, and proboscis black.

Thorax black.

Abdomen dark brown.

Length, 5 mm.

Unbanded

0.

Probably a new species.

743

Wings unspotted, transparent, with dark seales on veins.

Legs black, with white bands on bases of tarsi.

Antennæ grey.

Thorax brown.

Palpi black, and in the male with white band at middle. Proboscis dark brown.

Abdomen brown. Unbanded.

Length 4 mm.

There is a variety of this insect with a darker thorax and abdomen, greenish-black in colour.

Probably Culex Fuscanus (Wiedemann;.

Wings unspotted. Dark owing to thick covering of large scales on veins.

Legs brown, uubanded.

Antennæ grey. Palpi and proboseis brown.

Thorax brown, with grey tomentum.

Abdomen black, with faint grey bands at bases of segments.

Length, 4 mm.

R.

Under " r "I have included two small dark species, which to the naked eye look alike, but show marked differences on examination with a lens. I shall describe them as "r" and "r"

R.-Probably a new species.

Wings unspotted. Veins thickly covered with dark scales. Legs dark brown, unbanded.

Antennæ, palpi, and proboscis dark brown.

Thorax very dark brown. Fine linear markings of grey hairs. Abdomen black. With faint grey bands at bases of segments. Length, 3 mm.

R1.

Probably a new species.

Wings unspotted, transparent. Veins almost nude.

Legs dark reddish brown, unbanded.

Antennæ, palpi and proboscis black.

Thorax black. Faint pale linear marking.

Abdomen black, unbanded.

Length, 4 mm.

S.

Probably a new species.

Wings unspotted, greyish, with dark scales on veins.

Legs dark, with whitish femur, and white bands at bases of tarsi.

Antennæ greyish. Palpi white-tipped in female, with white bands in male. Proboscis black. Thorax dark reddish-brown, with white spots on sides.

Abdomen black, unbanded.

Length, 24 mm.

APPENDIX III.

Directions for the Destruction of the Larvæ of Mosquitoes, embodied in a General Order to Officers in charge of Police Stations, 22nd June, 1901.

>

The one great principle to act on is to prevent or abolish all stagnant water.

Careful search should be systematically made in the neighbourhood of all dwellings for any vessels that might contain stagnant water from rain or any other source; and arrangement should be made to keep them empty, or to have them emptied, or the water changed, once a week.

If running streams or ravines be anywhere near a station, efforts should be made to confine the water to a central channel. Side pools should be filled up; rock hollows should be smoothed out by cement or concrete, or a channel should be made from them by means of hammer and chisel; and a ready exit, or drainage under ground, should take the place of all oozings of water from the ground surface.

Where this guiding principle cannot be applied, or until it can be applied, still or stagnant water surfaces should be systematically inspected for the presence of larvæ of mosquitoes, and measures adopted to destroy them. This is most conveniently done in this locality by sprinkling the water surface with kerosene oil. The oil spreads in a very thin layer over the surface, and prevents the larvæ from rising to breathe the air, which results in their speedy death. About one tea-spoonful of oil to each square yard of water surface is sufficient, and, if there is little movement of the water, once a week is often enough.

As the colour of the larva assimilates itself to the colour of the water it inhabits, the larvæ cannot usually be easily seen in the water pool itself It is necessary to dip up the water with a rapid dip of a large spoon or a saucer.

744

Enclosures.

GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL,

HONGKONG, 1st January, 1902.

SIR,-I have the honour to forward the Annual Report on the Government Lunatic Asylum for

the year 1901.

Table IX shows the admissions and deaths that have occurred during the year and Table X the diseases for which the patients were admitted.

The total number admitted was 90 as against 109 in 1900.

Europeans.-No females were admitted during the year. The American female admitted in April, 1895, is still in the Asylum and quite incurable mentally. The German Sailor admitted in April, 1898, and the Austrian in 1900 have both recovered and been sent home. The former's case being of great interest has been inserted in the Appendix. No deaths occurred amongst the Europeans.

Indians.-One died as the result of debility in a chronic imbecile.

Chinese.—The admissions this year were 76 as against 97 in 1900. There were 6 deaths, 22 patients were sent to Canton and 43 handed over to their friends.

I am glad to say no accidents occurred during the year.

Wardmaster G. R. LEE proceeded on leave in March and was succeeded by Mr. GRIFFITHS.

The buildings are in a good state of repair but require colour washing and painting outside, as this has not been done for many years. The fireplaces in lieu of gas stoves, suggested in last year's report, have been built and are a great improvement.

The improvements suggested by you, whereby more room for outdoor exercise for the patients, will be available, are being carried out.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

THE PRINCIPAL CIVIL MEDICAL Officer.

J. BELL,

Medical Officer in charge of Lunatic Asylum.

GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL,

HONGKONG, 31st January, 1902.

SIR,-I have the honour to foward the Annual Report on the work done at the Public Mortuary during 1901.

On May 12th I took over charge from Dr. THOMSON.

Owing to the want of accommodation, especially noticeable in plague epidemics, an improvement was made by adding a few more tables and a better water supply. In view of the fact that even now there is only accommodation for 16 bodies, I trust the extension, sanctioned last year, will soon be carried out, if possible before the next plague epidemic.

The Chinese Caretaker has continued in charge and done his work very satisfactorily, and, I am glad to say, escaped any infection.

Attached Table gives the causes of death as certified.

General Remarks.-Only 15 Eurpoeans were brought to the Mortuary out of 2,250. The rest. were Chinese, Indians, Portuguese and Japanese-the Chinese of course predominating. Of the total number 45.5 per cent. were found in the streets or harbour, i.c., without their addresses being known. During the plague epidemic a few rats were examined occasionally with a view to ascertaining whether they had died of plague. The numbers were unfortunately very small, but in May and June those I examined gave a death-rate of 24% due to plague. In September, at the suggestion of Dr. KINYOUN (United States Marine Hospital Service), a large number were examined with his kind assistance and the result showed a plague death-rate of 5.10%. Subsequently I examined 100 every month and it is interesting to note that the subsidence of plague amongst human beings corresponds to that amongst rats, October giving 2%, November 1% and December nil. This investigation will show whether the plague epidemic amongst rats precedes or not the epidemic amongst mankind.

Special Remarks. Plague. This disease heads the list by a very large number-1,035 out of 2,250. Of this number no less than 36.6% occurred in bodies found in the streets or harbour and consequently without their address being known. This percentage continues high throughout the year and does not seem to be affected in any way by any measures taken or any concessions made. The percentages month by month were:-

January 42.8, February 33.3, March 39.4, April 44.4, May 35.04, June 34.5, July 34.3,. August 45.4, September 59.09, October (no cases), Nevember 100. This question has been frequently discussed as militating seriously against checking the disease in the early months of the year, but it is.

745

not easy to suggest a remedy. Cremation is now carried out for this disease all over the world and it is perhaps more needed here as our space, for disposing of bodies dying from epidemic diseases, is extremely limited. I would much like to see a crematorium attached to the Mortuary as it would save much unnecessary handling and carrying about of bodies which, especially in the summer months, is anything but pleasant and an attempt to popularise this method might be made by thus disposing of all unclaimed bodies.

The largest number of cases occurred in May (428). There were 12.18% of non-bubonic cases. At the beginning and during the height of the epidemic by far the largest number of cases were of the bubonic type whilst from July onwards the septicemic variety prevailed. The percentage of septicemic cases were month by month :-

January, February, March,

April, May,

June, July,

August,..

September,

...Nil.

.Nil.

.Nil.

.11.1 per cent.

5.3

8.6

>>

35.8

>>

.72.7

100

27

October,

November,

December,.

No cases.

100 per cent. .Nil.

The routine examination of the spleen blood of every case sent in has been extremely useful in detecting cases sent in as one of drowning, accident, &c. and especially amongst the bodies so decomposed as to prevent the cause of death being ascertained.

In the latter cases it is thus possible to exclude plague as a cause of death.

Two cases may be cited as showing the necessity of being careful in this matter. A girl was sent in, found by the Police floating in the harbour, and her mother stated she last saw her alive asleep on the sampan where it was presumed she fell off and was drowned. A spleen smear, however, showed it to have been a case of plague. A boy was sent in who had fallen downstairs and dislocated his neck. His neck was dislocated but his spleen was full of plague bacilli and his house was accordingly disinfected. Another interesting case was that of a Chinaman who had been bitten by a rat a few days previous to his death. The bite on the thumb, the lymphangitis up the arm, and the axillary bubo full of plague

bacilli were all well marked.

Enteric Fever.-From these figures (3) it does not seem as if this disease was very prevalent amongst the Chinese though it must be borne in mind that in a long illness of this kind no doubt many cases are removed to their own homes on the mainland.

Malarial Fever.—Exclusive of plague about 5% of the deaths come under this heading. Next year, I am inclined to think, the figures will be higher as the "unknown' cases from the convents will no doubt come in fair numbers under this heading as well as some of the "unknown" cases found in the streets. In connection with this disease I may mention that the parasites, spores and crescents in the spleen rapidly disappear after death being apparently disintegrated by the post montem bacilli and I found this to occur in one case inside of 40 hours. Probably therefore many of the cases under the heading "unknown" may be malarial. I have also found signs of recent malaria (spores, &c.) in smears taken from brain, liver and kidney as well as spleen and this may have a practical use inasmuch as the liver and kidney disintegrate much slower than the spleen so that in some of the "unknown" bodies one may be able in future to ascertain whether or not death was due to malaria for, as I have already stated, 30 or 40 hours after death all traces of recent malaria have disappeared from the spleen.

Septicamu.-2 cases out of the 9 were puerperal. The cases where death was due to some com- plication of labour only amount to 8, a small number, though they were all preventable in the sense that proper supervision or skilled aid might have saved the mother's life.

Ttmus.-Four of these cases were reported by my predecessor, two of them being tetanus neanotorum but no note was made as to the presence of the tetanus bacillus in the wounds. The curious and interesting fact about this disease is that the bacilli very like tetanus bacilli may be found in numbers in the spleen in certain decomposed bodies-both rat and human-in which death has not been due to tetanus but the disease itself is extremely difficult if not impossible to diagnose post mortem. "The "bacillus in the disease itself does not appear in the internal organs or blood-and lesions in internal

organs both of human beings and animals which have succumbed to tetanus are very trifling.' (Flexner.) Why the bacilli are found after death in other diseases is difficult to explain nor do I think any one has so far noted its occurrence so that possibly it may be a peculiarity of the tropics. So far I have found them chiefly in acute septic diseases (plague, endocarditis, &c.) and in one case of apoplexy in a chronic alcoholic subject. In the only two cases of tetanus reported by myself I found the bacillus easily and in numbers in the unhealed end of the umbilical cord in both cases.

""

746

Tuberculosis (Abdominalis).—The bulk of cases were amongst infants and chileren, only two cases being over 12 years of age. At the present stage of the Tuberculosis question these cases are of great interest. The Chinese do not feed on milk, butter or beef and therefore there can, in their case, be no question of direct inoculation of the intestines by the ingestion of tubercle bacilli in their food.

DISEASES OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.

These account for 17% of the mortality (exclusive of plague) and are very prevalent both amongst adults and children. Most of the "Empyema" cases might have been saved if they had only applied

for assistance early.

DISEASES OF DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.

Peritonitis.-4 of these cases were due to appendicitis, the abscess having ruptured into the peritoneal cavity, and 2 were due to perforation of duodenal ulcers. The cause of this latter disease is very obscure. In each case there was only one large ulcer about the size of a twenty-cent piece and neither of the cases had suffered, as far as one could see, from burns.

Jaundice-In only one of these cases were any gall stones to be found so that the bulk of them were as far as one could judge catarrhal nor were there any evidences of recent malaria.

INJURIES.

Wound of Chest.-This was caused by a stab, the intercostal artery being omit severed and the chest full of blood.

Wound of Wrist.-The radial artery was cut and apparently no aid being at hand the woman bled to death.

Ruptured Spleen (12).-It is a pity these cases do not seek advice early as in most of them surgery might have saved a fatal termination. Some of them, from the history of the case, had survived for hours after the injury. One of them was due to a buffalo accident--rare in Hongkong-but I was not able to ascertain whether the animal tossed the man only or whether he was gored. In connexion with the spleen a curiosity may be recorded here as tropical practitioners are more used to large spleens than otherwise. The smallest spleen I have ever seen, at any rate in an adult, I found in an old man of 52. It weighed 3 ounces and was 2 inches long. It was not a supplementary organ and no other glands in the body were in any way enlarged.

Ruptured Heart.-One of these, a case of a body aged 12 who, swinging on a gate at the Race Course, brought the structure down on himself. No bones were broken nor was there any external bruising but the auricle was torn and the pericardiun was full of blood. He lived about 10 minutes.

Ruptured Liner.-2 cases were in children about 1 month old. There were no bruises or fractured ribs in either case. The abdomen was full of blood. As the children were found in the streets or sent from the Convent no history was obtainable, a regrettable fact as this accident seems to be very rare at this early age.

Worms (reflex action).-This occurred in a boy aged 12, in my predecessor's time, but as there are no notes of the case, it is impossible to explain the exact cause of death. This cause must be very rare, however, though round worms are extremely common amongst the natives here and do the most extraordinary things.

Premature and still birth.-No doubt a good many of these are due to plague in the mother as the bacilli were found in the spleen in several cases late in the epidemic. Unfortunately I did not examine the early ones in this manner. Even with a plague epidemic on, many of these cases must represent difficulties in labour with the mother, perhaps ending fatally, though what becomes of them it is not easy to say as we have only had 8 cases in the mortuary where death was the result of child-birth.

Unknown.-153 seems a large number but the practice of dumping the bodies on to the hillside or into the harbour leads to a delay before they are found and as decomposition sets in so rapidly here it is out of the question in most cases to give any cause of death. All spleens are, however, now examined so as to be sure, if possible, that plague was not the cause of death and in the plague epidemic it has been the practice to bury them as plague so as to be on the safe side. These are cases in which a crematorium would be most useful. I would like to mention one very useful practical hint, for which I am indebted to Dr. KINYOUN, in connection with this work. I refer to the use of the dye-Thionin. It has two advantages over all others owing to its having no time limit and where one has to examine many specimens, especially at the monthly survey of rats, this is very important, and, secondly, owing to its being a differential stain for plague bacilli. These take on a faint blue colour in contrast to the dark blue of the other bacilli. These advantages have been most useful in the work. It, however, does not last, so it is not so good for permanent specimens.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

J. BELL,

Medical Officer in charge of Post-mortems.

THE PRINCIPAL CIVIL MEDICAL OFFICER.

Table.-RETURN of CAUSES of DEATH as certified from the GOVERNMENT PUBLIC MORTUARY during 1901.

747

GENERAL DISEASES.

Brought forward 1,743

Small-pox,

42

Peritonitis,

11

Plague,

.1,035

Gall Stones,

1

Typhoid Fever,

3

Cirrhosis of Liver,

2

Dysentery,

1

Jaundice,

22

Beri-beri,

64

Cystic Disease of Omentum,

1

Malarial Fever,

71

Malarial Cachexia,

7

Septicæmia,

9

Diseases of Urinary System.

""

(Puerperal),

2

Tetanus,

2

Chronic Bright's,.

4

""

(Neanatorum),

4

Tuberculosis,

19

Diseases of Female Organs.

Abdominalis),

53

Syphilis (Congenital),...........

7

Alcoholism,

1

Extra Uterine Pregnancy,

2

Malignant new Growth,

1

Placenta Previa,

1

Ancemia,

Debility,

63

9983

16

Postpartum Hæmorrhage,

2

Ruptured Uterus,

1

LOCAL DISEASES.

Injuries.

Diseases of Nervous System.

Multiple,

58

Fractured Skull,

25

Meningitis,

Fractured Spine,

1

3

Dislocation of Neck,

5

Apoplexy,

3

Gunshot Wounds,

+

4

Epilepsy,.

1

Wound of Chest (Stab),..........

1

Wrist,

1

""

""

Disrases of Circulatory System.

""

""

Brain (Stab),

1

Leg,

1

Valvular and Fatty Disease,

45

Ruptured Spleen,

12

Pericarditis,

9

Heart,

2

""

Acute Endocarditis,.

6

"}

Liver,

3

Aortic aneurism,

6

Effects of Heat.

Diseases of Respiratory System.

Heat Stroke,

Phthisis,

40

Burns,

2

14

Pneumonia,

39

Pleurisy,

7

Poisoning.

Bronchitis,

26

Broncho-pneumonia,

78

Empyema,

17

Opium Poisoning,

10

Gangrene of Lung,

1

Fish

3

""

Worms (reflex action),

1

Diseases of Digestive System.

Premature Birth, .

Still birth,

68

36

Diarrhoea,.

Enteritis,

Carried forward................... 1,743

Hanging,

53

9

Drowning, Asphyxia,

Unknown,

·

4

35

20

153

Total.......

2,250

J. BELL,

Medical Officer in charge of Post-mortems.

748

INFECTIOUS DISEASES HOSPITAL, KENNEDY TOWN, HONGKONG, 21st February, 1902.

Sir, I have the honour to report for the information of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government regarding the Infectious Diseases Hospital at Kennedy Town for the year 1901.

I enclose a Return of Diseases and Deaths in the Hospital during 1901.

Small-por.-There were 42 cases, with 12 deaths. Many of the fatal cases were Chinese suffering from the confluent form of the disease, and at an advanced stage of the illness at the time of admission. I find Salol of great value in the treatment of Small-pox, when its use is commenced early. It allays irritation of the skin, aborts the eruption, causing it to die away for the most part without sup- puration, usually prevents the secondary fever entirely, and hastens the general course of the disease. It is less useful if not given until after suppuration of the vesicles has become established. I give ten grains every three hours at first, but find it desirable to rapidly diminish and discontiuue the drug when the disease is under control, as, if long continued, it tends to produce a warty condition of the skin of the face.

Cholera.-All the cases of Cholera occurred at the end of February, and came from the S.S. "Cheung Chew." Most of the fifteen patients were in a state of collapse at the time of arrival, and of the ten fatal cases eight died within a few hours after admission.

Plague.-204 Plague patients were under treatment, and of these 156 died. This gives a mortality of 76.5 per cent., a little less than that of the previous year-77.5 per cent. As in former epidemics, the mortality was very heavy among Chinese and much lower among Europeans. The comparative racial mortality was as follows:-

Cases.

Deaths.

Europeans,

24

8

Mortality. 33.3 %

Portuguese, Chinese,

16

12

75

""

136

121

89

Other races,

28

15

53.6

204

156

76.5 %

The following table shows the distribution of the buboes:--

Cases.

Deaths.

Femoral,

95

65

Inguinal,

18

16

Axillary,

24

21

Cervical,

6

5

Parotid,

3

2

Multiple,

20

13

No apparent bubo,

38

34

204

156

There was only one case of pneumonic plague properly so called, but pneumonic symptoms supervened in three other cases which had also buboes.

After very careful observation of the effects of the administration of Carbolic Acid throughout the whole of last year's epidemic, I am of opinion that it does not in any way modify the course of Plague, and is useless as a method of treatment.

To test the diagnostic value of microscopic examination of the blood in Plague, apart from the question of the exclusion of Malaria, I examined a single stained film from each of 278 consecutive cases, partly from the Plague Branch of the Tung Wah Hospital Plague bacilli were present in only 30, and were absent in 241. In many of the latter, especially when going on to a fatal issue, bacilli were present in the blood at later stages of the disease; but the figures above given show that the value of blood examination is more important for purposes of prognosis than for diagnosis.

The Staff Mr. E. ABBOTT, the Wardmaster in charge at the beginning of the year, died of Phthisis in the Civil Hospital on 21st April. Corporal T. NEWLING, R.A.M.C., lent by the Military Authorities, reported for duty on 1st April, and acted as Wardmaster throughout the Plague epidemic until he was recalled on 27th July. Private B. P. LAKE, R.A.M.C., assisted him from 28th May to 24th July; and Mr. LI YIN SZE, a student of the College of Medicine for Chinese, was also employed as Assistant Wardmaster from 22nd April till the end of August. Mr. C. F. O'BRIEN arrived from England, and assumed duty as Wardmaster on 27th August.

i

3.4

749

When female patients were under treatment in the European wards, Sisters were detailed from the Civil Hospital staff for duty at Kennedy Town.

The staff of Chinese "boys," amahs, and other employés was increased and diminished as was found necessary to meet the varying conditions that existed in course of the year.

During my absence on leave in November and December, and until my return to the Colony 5th instant, Dr. R. LAMORT acted for me as Medical Officer in charge of this Hospital.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

Dr. J. M. ATKINSON,

Principal Civil Medical Officer,

$c., &c., &c.

JOHN C. THOMSON, M.D., M.A., Medical Officer in charge.

RETURN of DISEASES and DEATHS in 1901 at KENNEDY TOWN HOSPITAL.

DISEASES.

Remaining in Hospital at end of 1900.

YEARLY TOTAL.

Total Cases Treated.

Admissions. Deaths.

Remaining in Hospital at end of 1901.

Remarks.

GENERAL DISEASES.

Small-pox,

Cholera,

Plague,

Malarial Fever-

Malignant Quotidian

Beri-beri,

Leprosy, Pneumonia,

42 15

204

156

2013

12

43

10

=

15

201

4

1

1

Under observation.

6

1

1

Under observation.

Total,....

7

267

179

274

JOHN C. THOMSON, M.D., M.A.,

Medical Officer in Charge.

Report of the Acting Medical Officer of Victoria Gaol.

VICTORIA GAOL, HONGKONG, 6th January, 1902.

Sir, I have the honour to forward to you for the information of His Excellency the Governor the Annual Medical Report on the condition of Victoria Gaol during the year ending the 31st December,

1901.

The health of the staff has been good in spite of the fact that the new Officers' quarters have not yet been opened to them. The health of the inmates has also been satisfactory.

Six lepers were sent to Canton, one of which, however, returned to the Colony and had to be sent back again.

There were a hundred and fourteen cases in which corporal punishment was inflicted during the year, fourteen by the Prison Authorities and a hundred from the sentence of the Courts; none required any medical after-treatment.

Overcrowding of prisoners is still a serious question. Four and even five men have at times to be put in the same cell, thus reducing the space for each to some 250 cubic feet, whereas the Public Health Ordinance, 13 of 1901, requires that the individual allotted space should be of 400 cubic feet.

The temporary hospital is also at times overcrowded. The Officers' quarters which were altered and fitted up some two years ago for the Gaol Hospital is yet unavailable for the prisoners, being still occupied by the Indian Gaol Staff. The present temporary hospital is most inadequate, offering no proper accommodation or facilities for the treatment of patients.

8

.

750

The daily number of prisoners complaining sick is most variable from time to time, malingering fully accounting for these variations.

In spite of the prevalence of dengue fever in the Colony in November, no case occurred amongst the prisoners.

year.

There were fifteen prisoners discharged on medical grounds during the Permission was obtained from His Excellency the Governor to transfer a pregnant female prisoner to the Government Civil Hospital, as she had suddenly become comatose, she was found to be suffering from malignant malaria and died shortly after, having given birth to a still-born child.

I append the usual Tables.

Dr. J. M. ATKINSON,

Principal Civil Medical Officer,

&c.,

&C.,

&c.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

R. LAMORT, Acting Medical Officer.

Table I.-RETURN of DISEASES and DEATHS in 1901 at VICTORIA GOAL HOSPITAL, Hongkong.

DISEASES.

Remaining in Hospital

Yearly Total.

at end of 1900.

Total Cases Treated.

Remaining in Hospital

Admissions. Deaths.

at end of 1901.

Remarks.

GENERAL DISEASES.

Dysentery,

Malarial Fever :—

Beri-beri,

Malignant,

Syphilis, Primary,

""

Secondary,

Erysipelas,

Gonorrhoea,

Alcoholism,

Rheumatism,.

Anemia,

Debility,

LOCAL DISEASES,

Diseases of the Nervous System.

Functional Nervous Disorders

Epilepsy,

Mental Diseases :--

Dementia,

Diseases of the Eye,

"

""

Ear,

99

"

Circulatory System,.

A

19

Respiratory

99

""

Digestive

79

,,

""

""

""

Urinary

""

Lymphatic

Organs of Locomotion,.

Cellular Tissue,..

""

Skin,

Injuries, Local,..

Under Observation,

Parasites,

Total..

* 28

28

1

97

2

98

5

1

5

7

7

7

7

1

1

6

2

2

3

co

3

27

1

30

:

1

1

3

3

3

2

2

11

1

13

11

3

11

51

1

51

9

9

6

6

I

25413

10

348

*

1

43

6

15

}

3

9

358

* In addition to the nine deaths from natural causes, there were three executions.

R. LAMORT,

Acting Medical Officer.

~

Table II.-Showing the RATE of SICKNESS and MORTALITY in Victoria Gaol during the Year 1901.

DAILY AVERAGE NUMBER OF :—.

RATE PER CENT. OF:

751

Daily Average Deaths due Number of all

TOTAL NUMBER OF:-

Prisoners Admis-

admitted sions to to Gaol. Hospital.

Cases, includ- -ing Skin Diseases, treated in the Cells.

Sick Admissions.

Deaths due to Disease.

Pri- Sick soners in

in Hos- Gaol, pital

not in

Daily Average Number of to Hospital Sick in Hospital

Hos- pital:

to Total Admissions

to Daily Aver

to Gaol age Number of

Prisoners.

to

Daily A Average Admissions

Number

of Prisoners.

Sick in Gaol

i

to Total

to Gaol.

to Disease

5,077

348

1,316

499

8.59

34.72

6.85

1.72

8.68

0.18

R. LAMORT, Acting Medical Officer.

Table III.-Showing the NUMBER and RESULTS of VACCINATIONS in Victoria Gaol.

Year.

during the past ten Years.

Number of Prisoners

Successful.

Unsuccessful.

vaccinated.

Number of those

Not inspected,vaccinated who

owing to early

Discharge from

showed Marks

Gaol.

of previous Vaccination.

2,618

1892,

2,625

1,985

640

1893,.

1,417

763

654

1,325

1894,.

747

242

505

746

1895,

942

455

487

941

1896,

831

631

200

831

1897,

2,830

1,678

1,016

136.

2,410

1898,

4,507

2,875

1,252

380

4,181

1899,

3,378

2,004

1,063

311

3,069

1900,

2,638

1,765

666

207

1,916

1901,.

2,880

2,150

337

393

2,549

R. LAMORT,

Acting Medical Officer.

Table IV.-Showing GENERAL STATISTICS connected with VICTORIA GAOL and the GAOL HOSPITAL

during the past ten Years.

Year.

Admissions to the Gaol.

Daily Average

Number of Prisoners.

Number of Cases treated in Hospital.

Number of less serious Cases, including Skin Diseases, treated in the Cells.

Deaths due to Disease.

1892,................

5,046

515

312

723

6

1893,

4,010

458

272

523

2

1894,

3,913

455

271

614

5

1895,

5,014

472

231

948

7

1896,

5,582

514

507

740

10

1897,

5,076

462

342

455

1898,....

5,427

511

298

1,033

1899,

4,789

434

503

1,778

1900,

5,432

486

495

1,523

1901,..

5,077

499

348

1,316

:

R. LAMORT,

Acting Medical Officer.

752

TUNG WAH HOSPITAL, HONGKONG, 22nd Feburary, 1902.

SIR,-I have the honour to submit for the information of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government the Annual Report of the Tung Wah Hospital for the year 1901.

The number of patients in the wards at the beginning of the year was 125; 2,989 were admitted during 1901, making a total of 3,114 cases; 1,899 were discharged; 1,071 died; leaving 144 in the Hospital at the close of the year.

The admissions during the past ten years have been as follows:—

1892,

.2,455

1893,

2,255

1894,

2,354

1895,

2,732

1896,...

.2,041

1897,..

..2,776

1898.

2,898

1899,

.2,542

..2,981

..2,989

1900, 1901,..

Of the 2,989 Admissions, 547 were transferred for treatment to other institutions, as follows:-. 18 to Government Civil Hospital, 7 to the Lunatic Asylum, 130 to Kennedy Town Infective Diseases Hospital, and 392 to the Tung Wah Plague Branch Hospital at Kennedy Town.

Of the fatal cases, 296 were in a dying condition at the time of admission.

There remains a net total of 2,146 actually treated in the Tung Wah Hospital, of whom 652, i. e., 30.4 per cent. were under European treatment, and 1,494, i. e., 69.6 per cent. under Chinese treatment.

483 dead bodies were brought to the Hospital mortuary to await burial. 84 of these, and also 63 bodies of persons who died within the Hospital itself were sent to the Government Public Mortuary for

internal examination.

1

Free burial was provided by the Hospital for 1,930 persons.

The number of visits to the out-patient Department was 77,842.

449 destitute persons were temporarily housed and fed.

1,952 persons were vaccinated at, and in connection with, the Hospital.

As in previous years, the Tung Wah Hospital was used throughout the Plague epidemic of 1901 as a convenient centre for the diagnosis and observation of Plague cases, a large airy ward close to the Receiving Ward being set apart for this purpose.

The matshed Plague Branch was re-opened for the admission of patients on 4th May, and was in use until 30th July. The number of admissions was 393; of whom 41 were discharged cured, 2 escaped from the Hospital, 1 was transferred to the Government Hospital, and 349 died; this gives a mortality of 88.8 per cent.

A second Branch Hospital was opened near Yaumati, on 1st July, but the epidemic rapidly decreasing there were no admissions and it was closed on 10th July.

The new Hospital buildings to form an extension of the existing Hospital on the opposite side of Po Yan Street are now nearing completion; and on 19th November His Excellency the Governor laid the foundation stone of a permanent Infective Diseases Branch of the Tung Wah Hospital on a site adjoining that of the Government Hospital at Kennedy Town.

A considerable number of surgical instruments were got out from England in course of the year. Dr. CHUNG was absent on sick leave from 19th August to 17th December; and Mr. Ho Ko TSUN, a student of the Hongkong College of Medicine for Chinese, who had already been employed from 1st June to assist Dr. CHUNG in the extra work involved by the Plague epidemic, acted for him during his absence. During my own absence from the Colony from the 31st October to the end of the year Dr. LAMORT acted as Inspecting Medical Officer.

I attach the following Tables:-

I. A Return of Diseases and Deaths during the year 1901.

II. Showing the proportion of cases treated by European and Chinese methods respectively.

III. Showing General Statistics relating to the Hospital during 1901.

IV. Showing Vaccinations at, and in connection with, the Tung Wah Hospital during 1901.

I have the honour to be,

}

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

JOHN C. THOMSON, M.D., M.A.,

Inspecting Medical Officer.

Dr. J. M. ATKINSON,

Principal Civil Medical Officer,

&c.,

fc.,

&r.

"

"

Table I.--RETURN of DISEASES and DEATHS in 1901 at TUNG WAH HOSPITAL, Hongkong.

DISEASES.

GENERAL DISEASES.

Remaining in Hospital at end of 1900.

Yearly Total.

Total Cases

Remaining in Hospital

Remarks.

Admissions.

Deaths.

Treated.

at end of 1901.

Enteric Fever,

Small-pox,

Dengue, Influenza,

Whooping-cough,

Dysentery,

Plague,.....

Malarial Fever:

1. Quartan,

and

2. Simple Tertian

23

23

4

4

9

9

1

7

6

2

40

22

42

1

609

110

609

3

40

1

43

1

3. Malignant Tertian, and

10

5

460

117

465

5

4. Malignant Quotidian,

Malarial Cachexia,

7

4

7

1

Beri-beri,

36

412

219

448

50

Tetanus,

وو

Erysipelas,

Pyæmia,

Septicemia,

Tubercle,

Leprosy, Tubercular,

Syphilis, Secondary,

malignant,

8

2

8

1

1

1

16

16

16

9

9

9

5

9

1

1

2

42

9

44

Rheumatism,

New Growth, non-malignant,.

1

39

40

34

2

3

10

6

10

+

Anæmia,

Debility,

20

8

20

2

2

31

22

33

LOCAL DISEASES.

Diseases of the Nervous System.

SUB-SECTION 1.

Diseases of the Nerves,-

Meningitis,

SUB-SECTION 2.

Functional Nervous Disorders,——

Apoplexy,

Paralysis,

Epilepsy,

Neuralgia,

SUB-SECTION 3.

Mental Diseases,-

9

12

10

12

17

:::

3

34

6

15

10 10:

17

15

37

5

6

1

Mania,

Dementia,

Delusional Insanity,

4

5

1

2

2

Diseases of the Eye,

1

Circulatory System,

2

75

55

77

2

""

""

""

Respiratory Digestive

441

289

447

23

99

161

80

168

3

""

Lymphatic

3

16

19

3

"

Urinary

7

45

24

52

2

99

Generative.

95

""

"

""

""

Male Organs,.

11

11

2

"

""

Female Organs,

1

2

3

""

**

Organs of Locomotion,

Cellular Tissue.

9

15

3

24

8

6

26

32

2

""

Skin,

15

39

2

54

12

Injuries, Local,

14

265

17

279

11

Poisons,

2

2

Parasites,

2

2

Total

125

2,989

1,071

3,114

144

753

Transferred to Kennedy

Town.

Transferred, unless ac-

tually dying, to Ken- nedy Town.

JOHN C. THOMSON,

Inspecting Medical Officer.

754

Table II.-Showing the Admissions and Mortality in the TUNG WAH HOSPITAL during the Year 1901, with the proportion of cases treated by European and Chinese methods respectively.

Enteric Fever,

Dysentery,

Plague,......

609

Malarial Fever: Benign,

Malignant,

Cachexia,

Beri-beri,

105

Erysipelas,

:-~808~20-

ADMISSIONS.

DEATHS.

European Chinese Treatment. Treatment.

Total.

European Chinese Treatment. Treatment.

Total.

General Diseases :-

* Small-pox,

23

23

Dengue,

Influenza,

Whooping-cough,

* *

3

1

3

15

96

6

Pyæmia,

1

Septicæmia,.

Tetanus,

Tubercle,

Leprosy,

Syphilis, Secondary,

Rheumatism,

New Growth, non-malignant,

17

malignant,

""

Anæmia,

Debility,

10

ΤΟ

-372300

1

:1 21:g 5ཨ:}}}ནྡྷ

1

1

6

7

5

6

37

40

2

20

22

609

110

110

25

40

1

1

364

460

24

93

117

5

7

2

2

4

307

412

37

182

219

2

8

1

1

2

1

12

16

7

9

142

1

12

16

7

9

6

9

5

ن

1

9

42

22

39

2

7

10

10

20

21

31

JAN wi

3

6

4

6

4

8

15

22

Noooo:

9

"

"

""

""

Local Diseases:-

Diseases of the Nervous System,

Eye,

Circulatory System,

31

50

81

10

31

41

8

8

30

45

75

18

37

55

"

95

Respiratory,

19

81

360

441

46

243

289

**

">

Digestive

19

57

104

161

22

58

80

">

Lymphatic

9

7

15

""

Urinary

19

26

45

10

19

24

Generative

"

male,.....

8

3

11

female,

}

1

2

"

Organs of Locomotion,

9

6

15

Cellular Tissue,

11

15

39

26

Skin,

21

15

39

Injuries, Local,

97

168

265

8

Poisons,

2

1

3

2

2

17

1

Parasites,..

1

:

Total,......

1,339

1,650

2,989

310

761

1,071

Less moribund cases,

140

156

296

140

156

296

Less transferred elsewhere,

1,199 547

1,494

2,693

170

605

775

547

Total Treated,..........

652

1,494

2,146

170

605

775

* Transferred at once, unless actually dying, to Kennedy Town.

JOHN C. THOMSON, Inspecting Medical Officer.

Table III. Showing GENERAL STATISTICS relating to the TUNG WAH HOSPITAL during the year 1901.

Remaining in

Dead

Free

Bodies Burials

brought to

Remaining

Patients.

in Hospital at end of

Ad- missions.

Total Cases

Dis-

Deaths.

charged. Treated.

Hospital at end of

Out- Vaccina- Patients. tions.

Destitute Persons sheltered. Mortuary for Poor

Hospital provided

1900.

1901.

for Burial. Persons.

Male,

Female,

110 2,458 2,568

1,547

897

124 55,005 1,047

449

327

15

531

546

352

174

20 22,837

905

156

Total,

125

2,989

3,114

1,899

1,071

144

77,842 1,952

449

483 1,930

JOHN C. THOMSON,

Inspecting Medical Officer.

Table IV. Showing VACCINATIONS at fand in connection with, the TUNG WAH HOSPITAL during the year 1901.

Hongkong.

Shaukiwan.

Aberdeen.

Stanley.

Yaumati.

Hunghom.

Total.

1,826

25

46

24

24

7

1,952.

JOHN C. THOMSON,

755

Inspecting Medical Officer.

GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL, 1st March, 1902.

SIR,-In reply to Circular No. 71 of 1901, I have the honour to forward you a report on the working of the Medical Department in the New Territory during last year.

I have the honour to be,

The Honourable,

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY.

Sir, Your obedient Servant,

J. M. ATKINSON, Principal Civil Medical Officer.

GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL, HONGKONG.

There has been a marked diminution in the number of malarial fever cases from the Police Stations in the New Territory during the year 1901.

On comparing the admissions to the Hospital for this class of diseases for the last two years we find that the nine Police Stations to the North of the range of hills bounding Kowloon give the follow- ing figures:-

Average Strength. Malarial Fever

Admiss ons.

POLICE STATIONS.

1900. 1901. 1900. 1901.

Sha Tau Kok.

19

13

33

4

Ping Shan,

23

14.

3

9

Sai Kung,.

San Tin,

Tai Po,..

Sha Tin,

6

7

2

2

19

12

2

3

16

10

30

7

14.

8

14

2

Tai 0,

Au Tau,

Sheung Shui,

11

10

12

1

20

14

35

17

25

11

7

7

153 99

138

52

In other words the percentage of malarial fever admissions to Hospital from the New Territory dropped from 90% in 1900 to 52.5% in 1901.

This was undoubtedly occasioned to a great extent by the active prophylactic treatment which was commenced on the 1st May, 1901, and continued up to 1st November of that year.

This varied, at those Stations marked *. Prof. KocH's method was used, viz., one gramme of quinine being given daily for two days followed by an interval of five days without any quinine and so on; at those marked a daily dose of three or five grains of quinine was given; whereas at one Station‡, viz., Au Tau grain of arsenic was given twice daily.

The result of this prophylactic treatment is still further shewn by a Table marked A which I attach showing all the cases of malarial fever at the Police Station in the New Territory from March to December, 1900, and 1901, and the prophylactic treatment adopted.

This return includes the cases treated by the Resident Medical Officer in addition to those sent in to Hospital.

From this it will be seen that quinine is the best prophylactic, and of the two methods, if anything, the daily administration of a small dose has been followed by the best results.

Another important factor in this diminution is that the Police were in 1901 housed in permanent buildings at Sha Tau Kok in 1900 the Police were under canvas.

Recognised precautions were more fully taken against malaria, the neighbourhood of the Police Stations was kept as free as possible of Anopheles, the Police were instructed how to recognise Anopheles

>

.

756

pools and were shewn the methods of destroying the larvae, all standing collections of water were as far as possible got rid of and many trees, Eucalyptus and others, were planted.

In August shortly after my return I visited the New Territory accompaned by the Captain Super- intendent of Police; we inspected Tai Po and Sha Tau Kok.

I recommended that the numerous paddy fields adjoining the Police Station at Sha Tau Kok should, if possible, be resumed and reclaimed, there is constantly stagnant water on them which forms excellent breeding place for Anopheles.

I also recommended that, to better drain the swampy grounds around the Police Stations, a number of Eucalyptus trees should be planted, what is required is to plant these trees on the damp areas at the base of the hills not on the slopes of the hills..

Again, in October with the Acting Captain Superintendent of Police, I visited Cheung Chau, Tai O, Ping Shan and Au Tau.

As plague has been prevalent at Cheung Chau, I recommended that steps be taken to kill off the rats which are still prevalent there; this has been done.

We arranged for the transfer of the Lepers from the swampy island near Au Tau Police Station to the buildings erected for their habitation on the hillside opposite to their old abode, they have since been transferred and are visited weekly by the Resident Medical Officer.

""

Attached is a return marked B from Dr. THOMSON's report on the "Examination of Mosquitoes' showing the number of mosquitoes examined by him from the several Police Stations during the year ending 30th Stepember, 1901-this conclusively shows, as was to be expected, that at the station where most malarial fever cases occur the proportion of Anopheles found is also greater.

I also enclose the report of the Resident Chinese Medical Officer. In my opinion there should be at least two resident medical officers-one for the East and another for the West of the New Territory, that one in the West might be stationed at Un Loong or Ping Shan, and the one in the East as at present at Tai Po, the work is much too arduous for one, the distances he has to travel are very great and it is practically impossible for him to do justice to the large resident population; in addition to this he can never get away on leave.

Another important requirement is a registration of births and deaths.

It must be remembered that all the Chinese living in the New Territory are British subjects and several cases of infanticide have already occurred; in order to check the native practice of abandoning their female children, some such measure is necessary.

I would suggest that each Police Station should be a place for registration.

J. M. ATKINSON, Principal Civil Medical Officer.

Table A.-Showing Cases of MALARIAL FEVER at POLICE STATIONS in NEW TERRITORY fram March to December, 1900 and 1901, and the PROPHYLACTIC TREATMENT adopted.

Stations.

March. April. May. June.

Septem- ber.

October.

Novem- Decem- Average

ber. F ber. Strength.

Increase or Decrease

July. August.

1900 1901 1900 1901 1900 1901 1900 1901 1900 1901 1900 1901 1900 1901 1900 1901 1900 1901 1900 1901 1900 1901

1900 1901 1900 1901

:

after Prophylactic Treatment.

Tai Po.*

4

San Tin,*

44

Ping Shan,*

Sha Tin,*

Kowloon City.*

Tai 0.*

Sha Tan Kok,†

3

Sheung Shui,t

Au Tau,‡

1

2

1:1

KHAH IN MO M

Ni N FUNN

and unwa

4 16 7 31

2 22

2

3

2

6

10

17

724

52

30

15

18

12 00

4

8

17

11 10 4

19

Prophylactic treatment was started on May 1st, 1901.

* Quinine 5 grs. thrice daily for 2 days followed by interval without any quinine and so on.

Quinine 3 or 5 grs. once daily.

Arsenic gr. twice daily.

B.-EXAMINATION OF MOSQUITOES.

** :: 201000

Bra - na

16 10

19 12

23

14

11

8

1+1 1

81

9

12

15

16

7

11

10

10

2 19

13

76

25

11

5

20

29

Specimens

received.

Anopheles.

Culex.

Sha Tau Kok,

Ping Shan,

4,428

14.

3,987

251

12

233

Sai Kung, San Tin, Tai Po,

648

8

544

916

14

823

819

191

618

Sha Tin,

662

43

529

Tai O,

251

12

233

Au Tau,

1,853

113

1,724

Sheung Shui,

829

10

805

757

GOVERNMENT LABORATORY,

April 9, 1902. SIR,-I have the honour to submit a statement of the work done in the Government Laboratory during the year 1901.

2. The work was greater in amount than in any previous year. It may be summarized as follows:-

Description of Cases.

No. of Articles

examined.

Toxicological (includes 15 stomachs),

Articles for blood stains,.

Waters, Petroleum,

....

Food and Drugs Ordinance,

Rice,..

Coal,.

Ores,

Sugar,

Chinese drugs,

Opium extract,

Dross opium,

Leprosy cure,

Chloride of lime,

White metal,

Cement,

Mortar,.

Fumigating candle,

Egg preservative,

Lime,

Milk,.

Red earth,

Articles for fire enquiry,

Clothing for nitric acid stains, Tooth powder,.

Condensed milk,

Naphtha,

Sheet,

Mineral water,

Medicinal powders,

Total,..

TOXICOLOGICAL.

108

60

59

265

37

10

4

6

1

71

2

1

1

6

1

3

2

1

I

3

34

2

12

7

1

3

1

1

1

3

707

3. The toxicological cases investigated comprise 15 cases of suspected human poisoning. The poison found in eight cases was opium; and in one case the active principle of Gelsemium Elegans was isolated. In one case of wholesale poisoning a woman put native arsenic in coarse powder amongst some cooked fish. Violent vomiting and great prostration only were caused to the six persons who ate the food. From the remnants of the fish 27 grains of arsenic were separated. The coarseness of the powdered arsenic had doubtless greatly interfered with the desired result.

WATERS.

4. The results of the analyses of samples taken each month from the Pokfulum and Tytam Re- servoirs, and from the Kowloon service, indicate that these supplies continue to maintain their excellent qualities. Towards the end of the year Yaumati was supplied from a new service-the Cheung Sha Wan supply. The results of the analysis of this source shows the water to be well suited for potable purposes. In an Appendix will be found particulars of the monthly analyses of the public supplies, and of the other waters.

THE DANGEROUS GOODS ORDINANCE, 1873 AND 1892.

5. Of Petroleum and Petroleum Fuel, 265 samples were examined. imported was sufficiently high to pass the 73° F. limit.

10

The quality of the oil

759

THE FOOD AND DRUGS ORDINANCE.

6. Thirty-seven exhibits were examined. The following table shows the results of the examin- .ation of 32 samples taken for the purpose of analysis by the Police and by the Sanitary Board:-

Beer, Brandy,

Tea,

Milk,

Bread,

Coffee,

Whisky,

Description.

No. of Samples.

No. found Genuine.

10 3

8

2

1

6

No. found Adulterated.

10

ONIONHO

()

3

0

2

0

5

3

0

1

6

7. A number of various kinds of food were examined for the public at the specially low fees laid down in the Ordinance.

8. The result of the systematic method of taking samples by the Police has been that the sale of adulterated liquor has practically ceased in the Colony.

RICE.

9. In connection with the food supply a series of examinations was made of the cheapest kinds of rice to be obtained in the Colony. The amount of albuminoids in Chinese rice is very high. This is of much interest as in calculating out the diets for Chinese engaged on hard labour it had been found that if the percentage of albuminoids in rice be taken at five (the figure hitherto adopted) a much larger ration of more albuminoid substances such as fish was theoretically required by these per- sons than practically was found to be needed. The figure 7.12 (mean of the percentage of albuminoids of the first 9 specimens) is now used for ascertaining the proportion of rice required by persons en- gaged in various capacities. The analyses are recorded in the Table. Sample No. 9 was bought as being good rice. It will serve as a standard. Sample No. 10 was sent from the Po Leung Kuk for an ex- amination of its quality.

ANALYSES OF TEN SAMPLES OF CHINESE RICE.

The results are expressed as parts in 100 parts of the sample.

· No.

Whence obtained.

Price paid, 1 catty.

Appearance of grain.

Colour of powder.

Album-

Vege-

Mois-

ture.

Ash. Fat.

enoids or Starch. table N. x 6.33.

fibre.

2

34, Nullah Lane,

4 cents.

Sprinkling of pow-

der.

White. 13.78 .72 .30

8.64 71.83 4.73

256, Jardine's Bazaar,...

3 cents

8 cash.

Sprinkling of pow- der. Some integu-

Pale yellow.

13.13 1.09 .56

5.56

71.19 8.47

ment present.

3 | 134, Wing Lok Street,

4 cents

As (2).

Do.

13.38 1.10 .21

6.58

73.38 5.35

1 cash.

4 9, Cochrane Street, .

3 cents

Much integument.

Gray. 12.95 1.77 .38

6.64 72.71 5.55

6 cash.

525, Pokfulam Road,.

4 cents 2 cash.

Sprinkling of pow-

White. 13.15 .64 .35

7.82

75.71 2.33

der.

6 6, Pokfulam Road,

2 cents

Do.

Do.

14.13 .73 .50

7.08

75.95 1.61

8 cash.

7 | 132, Wing Lok Street,

3 cents

Do.

Do.

13.47 .59 .30

7.08

76.93 1.63

7 cash.

88, Gough Street,

4 cents.

Do.

Do.

13.42 .40 .15

7.51

77.18 1.34

9288, Queen's Road, W., 5 cents.

Clean translucent

Do.

13.25

.38 .34

7.21

76.68 2.14

grain.

10 Po Leung Kuk,

Do.

Do..

11.95

.47

.43

7.40

79.50 .25

1.

759

BLOOD STAINS.

10. No less than sixty articles consisting of clothing and weapons were examined.

BUILDING MATERIALS.

11. Samples of lime, mortar, cement, and red earth have been sent for analysis. A good sample of Chinese red earth contained the following constituents in 100 parts:-

Silica,.. Alumina, Ferric oxide, Water,

.63.8 ...20.8

4.4

.10.0

99.0

The analysis showed the material to be derived from granite, of which some of the constituents had been removed in the process of weathering. Viewed under the microscope the earth was seen to be almost entirely in sharp crystals. Such red earth if used instead of sand for mixing with lime would form a strong and durable mortar.

LIME.

12. Although it is not difficult to prepare good lime, it appears that much of that used in Hongkong has been so much exposed to atmospheric conditions as to be greatly impaired for building

purposes.

CHINESE DRUGS.

13. Seventy-one were sent to the laboratory for identification, and, in the case of mixed drugs, for the presence therein of noxious constituents.

EXAMINATIONS FOR THE PUBLIC.

The

14. A considerable number of articles of various kinds have been examined for the public. list comprises ores, coals, liquor, milk, lime, cement, petroleum, opium, medicine, chloride of lime, and

For these examinations the public have paid $1,380.50 in fees.

water.

SPECIAL REports.

15. Special reports have been supplied on:

A

Disinfection of No. 5 District.

Quicklime.

Phosphorus.

Dross opium.

Condensed milk.

Naphtha.

Mortar from fallen houses.

Sulphuric acid.

Chinese medicines for an abcess.

Aqua fortis.

Classification of certain articles for trade-marks.

Cracker factory.

Analyses for the public.

Gunpowder Bill.

Petroleum fuel. Asbestos.

16. Value of the work done.-The value of the analyses performed as determined from the tariff of charges published in Government Notification No. 664 is $5,282.50. This amount does not include the value of the analyses undertaken in connection with the Special Reports (See para.15); also, there is much other work in connection with the laboratory for which nothing has been set down.

17. Library. A few standard works have been ordered so as to bring the library up to date.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

FRANK BROWNE, PH. Cн., F.C.S.,

(for some time a Demonstrator in the Laboratories of the Pharmaceutical Society,)

Government Analyst.

THE PRINCIPAL CIVIL MEDICAL OFFICER.

760

HONGKONG PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES.

Results of the Monthly Analyses.

Results expressed in grains per Imperial Gallon, (1 in 70,000).

.

1901.

Total Solid

Supply.

Month.

Matter dried at 100° C.

Chlorine. Ammo-

nia.

Saline Albume- Oxygen

Nitrogen Sugar test for noid absorbed Nitrites. in the detection Ammo- in 4 hours

Nitrates. of Sewage. nia. at 80° F.

Poi-

sonous Metals.

Pokfulum...... 5.0

.8

က

Absent. Absent.

.009

Absent. Absent. No trace of Sew- Absent.

age indicated.

January

Tytam

4.3

Kowloon

3.3

co co

.6 .6

22

35

.006 .003

""

55

""

23

""

"

"

;་

""

Pokfulum......

4.3

.9

February...

Tytam

3.3

.7

Kowloon

3.3

.6

976

.008

22

>>

""

☺ ☺ ☺

.007

""

A

.004

.020

33

""

AAR

""

""

"

""

Pokfulum...... 4.0

.9

March

Tytam

3.6

.7

Kowloon

2.5

.5

Pokfulum..

5.1

April

Tytam..

3.1

.6

Kowloon

3.8

.6

978966

.012

Absent.

""

""

"

.004 .

""

>"

29

""

""

**

.002

.008

""

A

.85

>>

"

""

Y Y Y

.010

.016

""

"

15

.004

Absent.

>>

>>

3

.004

.008

""

19

"2

Pokfulum...... 4.8

May

Tytam.

Kowloon

Pokfulum.....

June

Tytam.

Kowloon..

GRE WOR

.65

.027

.008

""

""

"

""

6.1

.7

.027

.008

""

29

3.7

.6

.004

.016

""

""

""

10

4.7

.7

.017

.008

""

"

4.7

.7

""

3.7

.6

.0014 .010 .0014

"

.003

""

RAR

""

.008

""

.016

""

Pokfulum....

5.0

.6

July

Tytam...

4.0

.6

Kowloon

3.0

.6

666

Absent.

.020

.008

""

.020

.008

"

""

.015

.016

""

""

"

☺ ☺ ☺

>>

""

""

""

Pokfulum..... 5.0

.7

August...

Tytam.

5.0

.6

Kowloon

3.7

.6

766

.013

.008

""

""

.013

""

99

.008

35

وو

.003

.016

>>

AAA

"

99

""

Pokfulum....

5.0

.6

""

""

.010

.016

September

Tytam..

4.7

.65

.003

""

Kowloon

3.3

.6

""

""

.007

Pokfulam...... 5.2

.7

Tytam.

3.8

.6

October

Kowloon

3.2

.6

766

.017

""

""

☺ ☺

""

.008

.016

☺ ☺ ☺

""

""

.012

"

""

.013

""

"

""

29

A

.013

Absent. .016

**

AAA

Cheung Sha

Wan

3.7

.6

""

23

.010

"

39

.008

25

>>

Pokfulum......

5.0

Tytam.

3.7

November

Kowloon

4.3

co co co

.6

.010

""

.008

>>

"

.6

.010

>"

.6

""

"

.010

.008 .016

""

AAA

Cheung Sha

Wan

3.7

.6

""

15

.017

225

.008

A

Pokfulum.....

4.6

.8

Tytam.

4.3

.6

December... Kowloon

3.3

.6

9966

.006

.008

""

"

*

""

.006

.012

""

""

>>

.003

.016

22

""

""

""

Cheung Sha

Wan

4.0

.45

15

.003

.012

"

WATERS.

Results expressed in Grains per Imperial Gallon, (1 in 70,000).

Total

Oxygen Nitrogen

Solid

Saline

Albume-absorbed

in

Sugar test for the detec-

Poisonous

Date.

Situation.

Depth.

matter Chlorine.

dried at

100° C.

noid in 4 Ammonia. Ammonia. hours at

· 80° F.

Nitrates Nitrites.

General Remarks.

and

tion of Sewage.

Metals.

Nitrites.

1901.

Jan. 24

Well at Jardine's Gardens (Ver-

milion Factory,.................................

Feb. 15 Well at Sha Tau Kok between

99

15

some Chinese vegetable gar-

dens,........

Well at Sha Tau Kok at the bottom of a hill,

April 23 Spring at Li-chi-kok,

May 3 Spring at Sai Kung,

June 5

Well at No. 14 Des Voeux Road' Central,

:

:

:

18.3

2.4

.010

.010

.003

.030 Absent.

No trace of Sewage indicated.

Absent.

2.6

.7 Absent. Absent.

.019

Absent.

>>

,,

4.8

.5

.002

55

""

5.0

.5

.0014

.030

.008

""

4 feet.

6.3

1.4

.0056

.0014

.013

.008

>>

...

2.9

.0112

.0147

"

"3

Present.

Sewage indicated. grain of lead {a's per gallon.

}

Odour, Phosphorous. Animalcula present.

July 17

Well at Hunghom West,

18 feet.

9.7

2.0

.0056

.0028

.013

.288

Absent.

17

>>

Well at Hunghom at the backĮ of the market, .........

37 feet.

15.7

4.2

.0252

.0112

...

.253

,1

17

""

Well in Dock Street, Hunghom,.. 21 feet.

9.3

1.8

.0056

.0028

.010

.172

""

Aug. 7 Well at Sa Mun Station,

6.0

...

1.1

Absent.

.0028

.027

Absent.

35

Oct. 29

Well at Tai Po,.........

5.0

.6

.0014 .0014

...

(No trace of Sewage indicated.

Sewage indicated.

(No trace of Sewage indicated.

Absent.

Odour unpleasant.

"3

55

"

ད་

35

761

}

35

No.

7

Appendix I.

HONGKONG.

COMMITTEE OF INQUIRY INTO THE ADEQUACY OF THE STAFF OF THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government.

We, the undersigned, were appointed by His Excellency the Governor to be members of a Committee of Inquiry into the Adequacy of the Staff of the Medical Department of the Colony.

2. We have accordingly proceeded on the lines laid down by the Government, and have conducted our inquiry with special reference to :~

(1.) The numerical strength of the staff of the Medical Department.

(2.) The position and duties of the Principal Civil Medical Officer. The following is a list of witnesses from whom we have taken evidence in the course of our inquiry

The Principal Civil Medical Officer and Superintend-

ent of the Government Civil Hospital, ............Dr. J. M. ATKINSON.

The Acting Assistant Superintendent of the Govern-

ment Civil Hospital,

The Medical Officer of Health,

The Deputy Health Officer of the Port,

.Dr. J. BELL.

..Dr. F. CLARK.

..Dr. J. H. SWAN.

Dr. R. M. GIBSON of the Alice Meinorial and Nethersole Hospitals.

A copy of the evidence given by them accompanies the report, which we beg to submit below for the consideration of His Excellency the Governor.

We have taken the second question which was to be dealt with first, as it is essential to determine the position of the Principal Civil Medical Officer before dealing with his

staff.

REPORT.

Question 2.-The position and duties of the Principal Civil Medical Officer.

Answer. We are of opinion that the Medical and Sanitary Departments should be wholly separate and that the Medical Officer of Health should be independent of the Principal Civil Medical Officer. The Medical Department should be under the juris- diction of the Principal Civil Medical Officer who, however, should not be an adminis- trative officer only, but should retain his present position as Superintendent of the Gov- ernment Civil Hospital. The Sanitary Department should be under the administration of the Medical Officer of Health subject to the control of the Sanitary Board.

Question 1.-The numerical strength of the Medical Department.

Answer.

After mature consideration we have come to the conclusion that the

staff as at present constituted and consisting of :-

1 Principal Civil Medical Officer, who is also Superintendent of the Govern-

ment Civil Hospital;

3 Assistant Surgeons;

1 Health Officer of the Port;

1902

36

is not sufficient to carry on the work of the Medical Department efficiently. In our opinion, 7 Medical Officers are required

1 Principal Civil Medical Officer;

4 Assistant Surgeons; and

2 Health Officers of the Port;

the two last named being Government Officers, who should devote their whole time to Government work and should be forbidden to engage in private practice either ashore or afloat.

We have ascertained in the course of our investigations how much time is taken

up

with Government Medical work in the various branches of the Department, and we beg to submit the subjoined list of duties in tabular form to be assigned to the several officers, one for epidemic and the other for non-epidemic times.

LIST OF DUTIES OF OFFICERS IN THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT.

Epidemic Period.

1 Principal Civil Medical Officer.

4 Assistant Surgeons.

2 Health Officers of the Port.

Government Civil Hospital, Lunatic Asy-

lum and Maternity Hospital.

Victoria Gaol, Tung Wa Hospital, Mor- tuary, Visit the Subordinate Gov- ernment Officials in Hongkong.

Kennedy Town Hospital, and Hygeia

(if brought over.)

(i.) The Port.

(ii.) Kowloon Plague Hospital and Mor- tuary, Police and Subordinate Gov- ernment Officials in Kowloon. (iii.) Government Civil Hospital, or as detailed by the Principal Civil Medi- cal Officer.

The Principal Civil Medical Officer and

Superintendent.

2 Assistant Surgeons.

1 Assistant Surgeon.

1 Assistant Surgeon.

2 Health Officers of the Port-one to reside in Kowloon and do duties as in (ii.); the other as in (iii.) when not engaged in duty in the Harbour.

Non-Epidemic Period.

Government Civil Hospital, Lunatic Asy- lum, Maternity Hospital, and Mor-

tuary.

Victoria Gaol, Tung Wa Hospital, Visit the Subordinate Government Of ficials.

(i.) Port.

(ii.) Kowloon. In charge of the Mor- tuary. To visit the Subordinate Government Officials and Police in Kowloon.

(iii.) Work as detailed by the Principal

Civil Medical Officer and Hygein.

The Principal Civil Medical Officer and Superintendent; 3 Assistant Surgeons.

1 Assistant Surgeon.

2 Health Officers of the Port-one to

reside in Kowloon.

We are of opinion, from evidence given, that, speaking generally, one of the above 7 officers could always be away on leave, his duties being arranged for by the Principal Civil Medical Officer.

T

}

We further consider that some closer supervision should be exercised over, or new rules drawn up for the regulation of, the absence on leave of the officers of the Govern- ment Medical Department with a view to at least arranging for the presence in the Colony during Plague time of the nearest approach to the full staff.

There should always be a Medical Officer on duty at the Government Civil Hospital, and during his tour of duty he should not be permitted to leave the Establishment un- less for an urgent professional call.

We would suggest that the two Health Officers of the Port divide the Port duties between them, and that during his hours of duty, the officer on duty should always be available for the Port work. One of the two should reside at Kowloon, and during the hours he is not on duty for Port work he should attend to the Kowloon Plague Hos- pital and Mortuary, and the Government subordinate officials resident at Kowloon. During the hours when the other of the two is not on duty for Port work, he should be employed at the Government Civil Hospital or as the Principal Civil Medical Officer may require. This latter officer might easily attend to the Hygeia during non-epidemic times when he is not engaged on Port duty.

It was stated by Dr. ATKINSON in the course of his evidence that "it is the inten- tion of the Government to have a medical inspection of all ships entering the Harbour." In framing our opinion as to the above mentioned staff for Port work, we have not allowed for the carrying out of this intention, which would necessitate a much larger staff.

In conclusion, we consider that it is imperatively necessary that during epidemic. times one Medical Officer should reside at the Kennedy Town Hospital.

We have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servants,

Hongkong, 31st December, 1901.

The Honourable

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY.

W. B. DREW, D.I.G., R.N., (Chairman.)

G. A. HUGHES, M.B., M.ch.

F. O. STEDMAN, M.D., B.S., London.

C. S. SHARP.

R. L. RICHARDSON.

37

(5)

COMMITTEE OF ENQUIRY

INTO THE ADEQUACY OF THE STAFF OF THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT

OF THE COLONY.

FIRST MEETING.

Council Chamber.

Monday, 4th November, 1901.

PRESENT:

Deputy Inspector General DREW, R.N., (Chairman).

Colonel HUGHES, D.S.O., R.A.M.C.

Dr. F. O. STEDMAN, M.D., B.S., London.

C. S. SHARP, Esq.

R. L. RICHARDSON, Esq.

E. D. C. WOLFE, Esq. (Secretary).

The Chairman.-Gentlemen, I presume it is clear what the Committee has been appointed for. It is to look into the adequacy of the Medical Staff of the Colony. As the instructions were not very definite, I wrote to the Colonial Secretary, and he sent me Appendix 1. a letter which I have here (No. 2796 of the 31st October). Now what we are going to enquire into is: (1.) the numerical strength of the Staff of the Medical Departinent; and (2.) the position and the duties of the Principal Civil Medical Officer. I enquired whether we were to look into the question of salaries, and the Colonial Secretary replied in the negative. There are a lot of documents on the subject of the Medical Department which, I think, should be read. I will ask the Secretary to read them, with a view to leading up to the main questions.

The Secretary then read a letter-dated the 6th of June from Dr. J. BELL, Acting Appendix II. Principal Civil Medical Officer, applying for another Assistant Surgeon. (No. 169).

The Chairman.-You had now better read this despatch from His Excellency to the Secretary of State.

Appendix III.

Appendix IV.

The Secretary then read despatch No. 218 of the 10th of June from His Excellency to the Secretary of State, forwarding the Acting Principal Civil Medical Officer's appli- cation, and recommending it for approval for reasons stated.

This was followed by Colonial Office Despatch No. 259 of the 7th August from the Secretary of State for the Colonies, approving of the appointment of a new Assistant Surgeon, who was to be appointed on a 3 years' agreement and not permanently.

The Chairman.-This Assistant Surgeon has now been permanently appointed, I understand. But still another Assistant Surgeon is required. (Vide Appendix V, the Principal Civil Medical Officer's Report of the 18th September).

Colonel HUGHES.-Is that the Assistant Medical Officer of Health?

The Chairman.-No.

Mr. RICHARDSON.-Is he to do duty at the Hospital?

The Chairman.-I don't exactly know what his duties are to be. Dr. ATKINSON will be asked to furnish us with this information.

39

40

Appendix V.

Appendix VI.

( 6 )

The next document is the Principal Civil Medical Officer's Report of the 18th Sept- ember, referring to C.O.D. 259 of the 7th of August and dealing fully with the needs of the Medical Department.

The Chairman.-I think we need not enter into the statements relating to the pay of Medical Officers here and in the Straits Settlements, as that matter does not concern us. Do you wish to go into it?

Colonel HUGHES-I don't think there is any necessity to do so.

The Chairman.-We now come to a paper containing an application for house allowance in lieu of free quarters by the Principal Civil Medical Officer, dated the 19th of September. Do you wish to have it read?

Colonel HUGHES.

Mr. SHARP.-No.

NO.

A Minute was then read, dated 19th September and written by the Colonial Secretary to His Excellency, on the subject of Colonial Office Despatch 259 (Appendix IV) and the Principal Civil Medical Officer's Report of the 18th September (Appendix V), and proposing that a Committee should be formed to enquire into the needs of the Medical Department.

Appendix VII.

This was followed by His Excellency's Minute of the 20th of September in reply to the Colonial Secretary, and going into the subject matter of the Principal Civil Medical Officer's Report of the 18th September (Appendix V).

Appendix,VIII.

The Chairman.-Finally, there is a letter No. 331 of the 21st October (C.S.O. 3203) from the Principal Civil Medical Officer requesting that the Female Venereal Ward be converted into a Ward for Destitute Chinese and Indians and that the Matron of the Female Venereal Ward be pensioned off. We had better read it though I don't know why it is included. I don't see that it comes within the scope of the enquiry at all.

The only other business that remains to-day is to make some arrangement as to what procedure this Committee ought to adopt. I propose that, when we meet again shortly, we ask Dr. ATKINSON to give evidence, and, later on, Dr. BELL. Dr. THOMSON is away. Our enquiries will be limited to the number of Medical men wanted in the Colony, exclusive of the Sanitary Department.

Colonel HUGHES.-I understood the Colonial Secretary to say the Sanitary Depart- ment was to be included.

The Chairman.-What is Dr. CLARK ? Is he the Medical Officer of Health?

Colonel HUGHES.-Yes.

The Chairman.-Then the business resolves itself into two things-the position of the Principal Civil Medical Officer, and what his duties ought to be, and the number of Assistants he ought to have under him. We have to give our opinion as to whether be is to be an Administrative Officer, and have control of all the other Medical Officers, or not, and to state what his duties should be.

Dr. STEDMAN.-We shall have to have Dr. CLARK's views on the Sanitary Board. Colonel HUGHES.--- Why?

Dr. STEDMAN.-Because his views on the matter ought to be considered.

Mr. RICHARDSON.-He can state whether he thinks the Sanitary Board ought to be subordinate or not.

The Chairman.-We will ask him to attend..

It was agreed to meet again on Wednesday afternoon at four o'clock, and to request Dr. ATKINSON to attend.

The Committee then adjourned.

(7)

SECOND MEETING.

Council Chamber.

Wednesday, 6th November, 1901.

PRESENT:

Deputy Inspector General DREW, R.N., (Chairman).

Colonel HUGHES, D.S.O., R.A.M.C.

Dr. F. O. STEDMAN, M.D., B.S., London.

C. S. SHARP, Esq.

R. L. RICHARDson, Esq.

E. D. C. WOLFE, Esq., (Secretary).

The Chairman.-I propose to have the minutes of the last meeting read.

The Secretary read the minutes of the First Meeting.

The Chairman.-The next thing to do is to call in Dr. ATKINSON.

Dr J. M. ATKINSON was then called before the Committee.

The Chairman.-Dr. ATKINSON, you are the Principal Civil Medical Officer? Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes, I am.

The Chairman.—Excluding the Sanitary Department and the Health Officers of the Port how many medical officers are working under you?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Three Assistant Surgeons-Dr. LowsON, Dr. BELL, Dr. THOMSON— and in addition Dr. JORDAN who is Medical Officer of Health for the Port.

Colonel HUGHES.-And the Assistant?

Dr. ATKINSON.—There is no Assistant. Dr. SWAN is the Deputy Health Officer of the Port, but he is not a salaried officer.

Dr. STEDMAN.-He does not give his whole time to the work?

Dr. ATKINSON.--No, he does not give his whole time.

Colonel HUGHES.-There are four Assistant Surgeons.

Dr. ATKINSON.-There will be when the extra Assistant Surgeon arrives, whose appointment has been sanctioned by the Secretary of State.

Colonel HUGHES.-Then there will be four Assistant Surgeons?

The Chairman.-There are not four yet. There is one coming out.

five is not that so?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes.

You want

The Chairman.-Would you please describe to the Committee the duties which devolve upon you?

Dr. ATKINSON.—I may say that, at present, one Medical Officer, Dr. Lowson, is away on leave, and consequently part of his duties fall upon me. I perform the admin- istrative work of the Medical Department, that is to say, all letters concerning the staff, correspondence, with the Government, Heads of Departments, mercantile firms and others, and in addition to that I have charge of wards.

The Chairman.-How many?

41

42

',

(8)

Dr. ATKINSON.-I have the main block of the Government Civil Hospital and the Maternity Hospital.

Colonel HUGHES.-How many beds are there?

Dr. ATKINSON.—In the main block there are sixty-eight beds.

Colonel HUGHES.-What is the total number of beds in the Government Civil Hospital?

Dr. ATKINSON.—One hundred and sixty-six in the Government Civil Hospital. In addition there are the Maternity Hospital, the Lunatic Asylum and Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital.

Colonel HUGHES.-How many beds are there in the Maternity Hospital?

Dr. ATKINSON.-There are twelve.

The Chairman. Are you superintendent at the Government Civil Hospital in addition to being Principal Civil Medical Officer ?

Dr. ATKINSON.Yes, when I was appointed in 1897 I was informed that I should be Principal Civil Medical Officer and would be responsible for the charge of the Gov- ernment Civil Hospital.

Colonel HUGHES.--Of the three Assistants, how many do duty in the Hospital?

Dr. ATKINSON.-One.

Colonel HUGHES.-What are the duties of the other two?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Between them they perform the duties of Visiting Surgeon to the Tung Wah Hospital, Medical Officer to the Public Mortuary and Medical Officer of the Gaol, and in addition they attend the subordinate Government officials at their homes.

Colonel HUGIES.-What is the Tung Wah Hospital ?

Dr. ATKINSON.-It is a Chinese institution.

Colonel HUGHES.-Does the Medical Officer do any work there ?

Dr. ATKINSON. He attends as Visiting Surgeon, and may be there from one and a half to two hours a day.

Dr. STEDMAN. How many beds are there?

Dr. ATKINSON.-There are 170 beds at the Tung Wah Hospital.

Colonel HUGHES.--One Assistant Surgeon assists at the Government Civil Hos- pital, another at the Tung Wah Hospital and the Gaol, and what does the other do?

Dr. ATKINSON. He does work where it is required. For instance, he does the work at the Public Mortuary and attends at Kennedy Town Hospital.

do?

Colonel HUGHES.-The Government is getting another one out. What will he

Dr. ATKINSON.-If my suggestions are carried out, his duties will be devoted to work in the Hospital.

Colonel HUGHES.-And you still want another one?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes, it must be remembered that there will always be one officer away on leave. Although there are three Assistant Surgeons, there are practically only two. This fifth officer I have recommended for the work at Kowloon. A plague hos- pital and a public mortuary have been erected there, and in addition there are the Government officials at Kowloon to attend; we have four Police Stations there and a

(9)

number of other officials there, the Observatory and Sanitary Inspectors. In addition we require one of the Assistant Surgeons to be resident at Kennedy Town Hospital during plague epidemics.

Colonel HUGHES.-What will he do when plague is not epidemic?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Assist wherever he is required and reside at Kowloon.

Dr. STEDMAN. Have you any idea of the average number of patients at the Gaol ?

Dr. ATKINSON.-There are not many patients at the Gaol Hospital. I should say something under 20. The officer has to examine in addition every fresh prisoner, cer- tify as to his ability for hard work or otherwise, see any prisoners who complain of being sick, and attend the officers of the Prison and their families. every prisoner on whom corporal punishment is to be inflicted.

Dr. STEDMAN-How many hours is he employed at the Gaol ?

He has to examine

Dr. ATKINSON. As a rule about an hour to an hour and a half daily, in addition once a week he makes an inspection of the Gaol.

Dr. STEDMAN. Have you any idea of the number of visits the doctor will have to pay to the subordinate officials under $2,000 a year?

Dr. ATKINSON.-It varies so.

Dr. STEDMAN. Have you any idea of the number of subordinate Government officials?

Dr. ATKINSON.-It averages, I think, 450; including Chinese this was the number in 1895.

Dr. STEDMAN.-Excluding their families?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes.

Dr. STEDMAN. And he would have to attend the families too if they were sick?

Dr. ATKINSON. Yes, and they are scattered about-some living at the West and others at the East end of the Town.

Colonel HUGHES.-Is this work and the Gaol enough for one man?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes, I think so.

The Chairman.-Who did the work at Kenne ly Town during last summer?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Dr. THOMSON; he was deputed for that work, and another Medi- cal Officer was obtained temporarily to perform the other duties, viz., act as Visiting Surgeon to the Tung Wah, Medical Officer to the Gaol and attend the subordinate officials.

Dr. STEDMAN. He is still doing this work, is'nt he?

Dr. ATKINSON. Yes, he is now doing this, as Dr. THOMSON has gone away on leave.

Colonel HUGHES.-Is this anything like what you want? One Principal Civil Medical Officer, one Superintendent and one Assistant at the Hospital ?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes.

Colonel HUGHES.-One man for the Gaol and subordinates, one for Kennedy Town and one for Kowloon. That is five Assistants; there are only three now?

Dr. ATKINSON.—Yes, it must be borne in mind we really require an extra man because there will always be one away on leave.

Mr. SHARP.-Who looks after Kowloon now?

43

44

( 10 )

Dr. ATKINSON.-No one at present, but as I have already said there is a plague hospital and a mortuary there, next summer there will be a great deal of work to do.

Mr. SHARP.-But is'nt there a Police Station there?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes, there are four. It is a pretty wide area and very difficult to work from this side.

man?

The Chairman. But at present there is not work enough in Kowloon for one

Dr. ATKINSON.-No, he would be in the Department and would have to perform whatever duties were required, there are still the Government Officials resident at Kowloon whom he would attend.

Dr. STEDMAN. The growth of Kowloon does not affect the Medical Department except as to subordinate officers there. There is a private practitioner living there, and therefore the Medical Officer, as I understand it, is only called upon to attend subordinate officers who may choose to reside in Kowloon?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes, that is what is done now. This year a mortuary has been erected and also a plague hospital. The plague hospital was only finished at the close of the summer, but next year if the plague is anything like as severe as it has been during the past three years we shall have patients there daily.

Dr. STEDMAN.-There is one question more with regard to Kowloon. us there were 450 subordinate officials who can claim Medical attendance. include those residing at Kowloon ?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes.

You told Does that

Dr. STEDMAN.-If so many subordinate officials live in Kowloon, the Medical Officer's work on this side must be greatly reduced in that respect ?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes.

Dr. STEDMAN-Can you find out how many subordinates live in Kowloon at the present time?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes, I can ascertain. The number 450 is approximately the total number in the service.

The Chairman. Have you control over the Sanitary Department-the Sanitary Medical Officer--at present?

Dr ATKINSON.-I am President of the Sanitary Board.

Colonel HUGHES.-Not as Principal Civil Medical Officer?

Dr. ATKINSON-NO.

The Chairman.-You have no control over the Medical Officer of Health for the Town?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Only as an Executive Officer of the Sanitary Board.

Colonel HUGHES.-As President?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes.

Colonel HUGHES.-Not as Principal Medical Officer of the Colony?

Dr. ATKINSON. He was appointed as an Assistant Surgeon in the Medical Depart- ment, but was seconded to the Sanitary Board.

Colonel HUGHES.-Quite a different Department altogether from the Medical?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes, it is so at present. He has been called upon occasionally to assist in the Medical Department but only when there has been great stress of work.

(11)

Colonel HUGHES.-He does not assist in the Medical Department?

Dr. ATKINSON—Only on a few occasions when he has answered urgent calls at the Gaol.

The Chairman.-How much of your time is taken up daily, say, at the Govern- ment Civil Hospital? I mean your executive work at the Hospital looking after the wards and patients.

Dr. ATKINSON.-It is difficult to answer this question; in addition to the admin- istrative work the ward work occupies me three or four hours daily, there is in addition operative work and urgent calls night and day.

Colonel HUGHES.-What assistance have you now?

Dr. ATKINSON.-One Assistant Surgeon-Dr. BELL.

Dr. STEDMAN.-There is a Second Medical Officer for the Port arranged for, is there not?

Dr. ATKINSON-Yes.

Dr. STEDMAN. That has been definitely settled?

Dr. ATKINSON.—Yes, the Government have recommended the appointment of an additional Health Officer for the Port, but the Secretary of State has not made the appointment yet.

Colonel HUGHES.-The Colonial Government has sanctioned another Assistant Surgeon for the Medical Department, has it not?

Dr. ATKINSON.—Yes, but that has nothing to do with the additional Medical Officer of the Port.

Dr. STEDMAN.

They have sanctioned another Health Officer for the Port?

Dr. ATKINSON. —Yes, one has been sanctioned, but we have not been informed that he has been approved by the Secretary of State.

Colonel HUGHES.-The Assistant Surgeon is sanctioned ?

Dr.. ATKINSON.-The Assistant Surgeon is sanctioned; the Second Health Officer is recommended, and not sanctioned.

Dr. STEDMAN.-I was going to ask about the Second Health Officer of the Port. Seeing that one man does all the work now with a great deal of private practice besides, if there were two would not the Second Officer be able to look to what is required in the Medical Department at Kowloon ?

Dr. ATKINSON.-I don't think so, because it is the intention of the Government to have a Medical inspection of all ships entering the Harbour, and if this is the case there must always be a Doctor on duty afloat from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. It was pointed out that if this was so it would be absolutely necessary to have two Officers appointed for this work.

Colonel HUGHES.-What are Dr. JORDAN's duties? For instance, supposing a Canadian Pacific Steamer comes in?

Dr. ATKINSON.-He has to visit every ship which arrives from infected Ports, he or his deputy also boards every steamer which arrives, but not immediately on arrival; there is other work as he has to examine all emigrants that leave the Colony for certain ports and that keeps him occupied two days a week for some hours.

Colonel HUGHES.-Examining them what for?

Dr. ATKINSON.-To see if they are suffering from any infections disease or not. Colonel HUGHES.-How long does that occupy him?

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Dr. ATKINSON.-Two or three hours twice a week.

The Chairman.-Has Dr. JORDAN private practice in addition to his other duties?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes.

Dr. STEDMAN. He practically does nothing. His deputy does it all. go to the ships himself?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Sometimes.

which he does.

Does he

There is in addition the official correspondence,

The Chairman.-Will the Second Port Health Officer who is going to be appointed be permitted to have a private practice?

Dr. ATKINSON.-No, it is definitely laid down that he is not to be allowed private practice.

Colonel HUGHES.-I should think a Second Port Health Officer resiling at Kow- loon would meet the case..

Dr. ATKINSON.-There would be a difficulty with regard to that. He would have to be afloat at certain hours. There must be some one constantly on duty, because ships are arriving all day long from 6 a.m. till 6 p.m. If he is engaged in seeing patients at Kowloon, how can he inspect a ship which has just arrived, say from Bangkok?

Dr. STEDMAN. The same thing holds good to a greater extent in the other case, because there is only one man for the Port who has considerable private practice besides.

Dr. ATKINSON.-The Medical inspection of all ships arriving in the harbour, im- mediately after their arrival, is not carried out now.

Dr. STEDMAN. As one man has done this work up till now and has engaged in private practice besides, the question is, if there are two Medical men would not the second have time to do the small amount of Government work in Kowloon as well as his work afloat?

The Chairman.-If you had two Officers, whose duties were given entirely to the Colony, it could be easily done.

Dr. ATKINSON.

his deputy does.

Although Dr. JORDAN does not do much Harbour work himself

Dr. STEDMAN. Then his deputy has a private practice which must often take him away when he is wanted.

The Chairman.-Probably this new man who is coming out will do all the work afloat if he has nothing else to do except boarding ships.

Colonel HUGHES.-That is not the man coming out; it is the Assistant Surgeon, whose appointment has been sanctioned.

Mr. SHARP.-The Second Health Officer of the Port is only applied for?

Colonel HUGHES.-But a Fourth Assistant Surgeon has been sanctioned.

The Chairman. And also this additional Medical Officer ?

Dr. STEDMAN. That has been sanctioned by the Colonial Government, but not by the Home Government. Is it proposed to inspect in any way all the come from Canton and Macao ?

Dr. ATKINSON.-It never has been done, excepting in 1894.

Dr. STEDMAN. It would be almost an impossibility.

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passengers that

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Dr. ATKINSON.-I should think it is impracticable, there are so many ways for the Chinese to evade this inspection, by coming in junks or some of the other river steamers. It would be a great advantage if it could be carried out in epidemic times, I mean by that when plague is prevalent at Canton and Macao.

The Chairman.--Supposing that the Principal Civil Medical Officer was a purely administrative officer and his duties as regards the Hospital were only of a consultative character, would that take up all his time?

Dr. ATKINSON. He is at present President of the Sanitary Board as well. The administration work of these two departments would be quite enough to occupy all his

time.

Colonel HUGHES.-But if plague broke out would he go and visit and report upon it, or would the Medical Officer of Health?

Dr. ATKINSON.-No, not necessarily, the Medical Officer of Health would do this, but he might be called upon by the Government to report.

The Chairman. Supposing you had control of all the Health Officers of the Port, then you would be responsible for everything that takes place in the Medical Depart- ment ?

Dr. ATKINSON.-That is so at present.

The Chairman. If you were purely an administrative officer would it not be desirable to have the whole of the Medical Officers of the Department under you ?

Dr. ATKINSON.—Yes, it is practically so now. I think it would be advisable to have it definitely stated that all the medical officers of the Department should be under the Principal Civil Medical Officer.

Colonel HUGHES.-The Medical Officer of Health reports direct to the Governor ?

Dr. ATKINSON.-The Governor communicates with him direct, but the Medical Officer of Health is supposed to communicate ordinarily through the Secretary of the Sanitary Board.

Colonel HUGHES.-The Secretary is an officer of the Sanitary Board.

Dr. STEDMAN.-Would'nt it be more natural if the Health Officer of the Port were subordinate to the Sanitary Department, for is he not primarily responsible to the Sanitary Department?

Dr. ATKINSON.-lle is not responsible to the Sanitary Department, but he is under the orders of the Principal Civil Medical Officer. The Medical Officer of Health was practically appointed a member of the Medical Department, and when he arrived in the Colony he was seconded for special work to the Sanitary Department, but he is still, I take it, liable to be called upon to do other duties, if exceptional circumstances should require it.

Dr. STEDMAN. He was brought out from Europe as Medical Officer of Health.

Dr. ATKINSON. The letter of appointment stated he was an Assistant Surgeon in the Medical Department.

Dr. STIDMAN. But he had given up all his general practice in England in favour of sanitation before he left, and he was appointed to be a sanitary expert.

Dr. ATKINSON-That is so.

Mr. SHARP.-Don't you think there would be great confusion if the Medical Officer of Health for the Town was put under the Principal Civil Medical Officer ?

Dr. ATKINSON. In what way?

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Mr. SHARP. Supposing there was a case in which the Sanitary Board carried a resolution, with which you as President of the Board disagreed; if the Medical Officer of Health were under the Principal Civil Medical Officer you might afterwards as Principal Civil Medical Officer override the resolution by ordering the Medical Officer of Health to carry out the particular matter concerned in the resolution as you con- sidered right?

Dr. ATKINSON.-I do not see that the occasion would arise. As President of the Board I should not do this. The only question would be when the Department is short- handed and I might say to him "I want you to assist somewhere else," of course this would only occur very exceptionally.

Dr. STEDMAN-He has never had any time to spare. The Department has been so busy.

Dr. ATKINSON. His time has been and is now fully occupied.

Dr. ATKINSON.-The Health Officer holds an anomalous position because he is an executive officer of the Board and also a member of that Board. He practically carries out all the work which the Board advises, yet he is himself a member of the Board!

The Chairman.--The present Health Officer is to a certain extent independent of the Principal Civil Medical Officer of the Colony.

Dr. ATKINSON.-Independent, in what way ?

The Chairman.-That is what I want to find out. Is he, in any way ?

Dr. ATKINSON.-His duties are definite, as an Assistant Surgeon in the Medical Department he is under the Principal Civil Medical Officer, but he was, as I have said before, seconded to the Sanitary Board for special work, and in the position of Medical Officer of Health for the Town he is not under the Principal Civil Medical Officer.

Dr. STEDMAN.-I think the Sanitary Board ought to be entirely separate from the Medical Department, and the Medical Officer of Health ought to be responsible only to the Sanitary Board.

The Chairman.-Do you agree with that, Dr. ATKINSON?

Dr. ATKINSON.-I think it would be better if all the Medical Officers were under the Head of the Medical Department. The Health Officer of the Port is now under the Principal Civil Medical Officer. It has been so as long as I have had any knowledge of the Colony.

Dr. STEDMAN. Because when that appointment was created there was no Sani- tary Board. Is that not so?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes, the Sanitary Board has been in existence since 183.

The Chairman.-I take it that at present the Medical Officer of Health for the Town has plenty to do?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes, quite enough.

Dr. STEDMAN.He has just got an assistant.

The Chairman.—But Dr. CLARK is going away.

The Chairman.-If the additional Health Officer of the Port lived at Kowloon could he do the duties of that district in addition to the work afloat?

Dr. ATKINSON. He might be able to do it, but it is not what I should advise. There might be delay, and objection might again be raised by the Chamber of Com-

merce.

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Colonel HUGHES.-You would not want the Assistant Port Officer to sail about all day waiting for ships.

Dr. ATKINSON.-He would be on duty for six hours at any rate-one officer would be on duty from 6 a.m. to 12, and another from 12 to 6 p.m.

Colonel HUGHES.-Every day?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes.

Colonel HUGHES.-Is Dr. JORDAN afloat for six hours ?

Dr. STEDMAN. He visits ships as they come in.

Colonel HUGHES.-During the epidemic of plague last summer Dr. THOMSON did the Gaol, Kennedy Town, and the Tung Wah Hospital?

Dr. STEDMAN.—No.

Dr. ATKINSON.-There was another officer appointed.

Dr. STEDMAN-The French Doctor?

Dr. ATKINSON.-When Dr. THOMSON was performing the Kennedy Town Hospital work Dr. LAMOKT did the other work, viz. :-Tung Wah, Gaol Hospital and visiting Government Officials.

Colonel HUGHES.-Where does Dr. THOMSON get the time to hunt mosquitoes?

Dr. STEDMAN.—He does not hunt them, they are sent to him from the various Police Stations, and he simply examines them.

Colonel HUGHES.-How did he find time to go to the New Territory ?

Dr. ATKINSON.—That was before the epidemic, I think.

Mr. SHARP.-I suppose in plague time Kennedy Town would take up his whole time?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes.

The Chairman. I see that in addition to these Medical Officers, you suggest a scheme whereby the medical requirements of the outlying districts like Shaukiwan, Quarry Bay, Aberdeen, Stanley and the New Territory may be met.

Dr. ATKINSON.—Yes, I have suggested to the Government that soine such system as that at Singapore might be adopted, whereby Native Apothecaries holding some such qualification as the Licentiate of Madras University might be obtained.

Eight such Native Apothecaries are employed at Singapore, and they have been proved very efficient.

The Government there annually gives four scholarships of the value of £250 to the students at the Government Schools who pass highest in the Seventh Standard and in at least two extra subjects, an examination corresponding to the Senior Cambridge Local University examination.

Those who pass highest in the examination become Government Scholars, and are sent to Madras University where they are trained, the course lasting four years.

The Chairman.-Why should it take four years ?

Dr. ATKINSON. Because that is the prescribed period of the course of training

The Chairman.-What sort of men, are these Chinese?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes, Chinese, Indians, Europeans, or any nationality I under- stand can compete.

Dr. STEDMAN-What are their duties?

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Dr. ATKINSON.-When qualified they return to Singapore, and are employed by the Government Medical Department signing a bond to serve for 15 years, one is boarding officer to the ships, another Medical Officer to the Pauper Hospital, a third in charge of the Quarantine Station, and so on.

The Chairman.-Is the Hygein still used as a Hospital Ship?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes.

The Chairman.-They say here it is no longer so used.

Dr. ATKINSOs.-The Governor has decided that it is still to be utilised as a Hos- pital Ship.

The Chairman.-Who do you employ on board ?

Dr. ATKINSON.-One of the Medical Officers of the Department.

Dr. STEDMAN. -Have there been any sick there during the past year?

Dr. ATKINSON. Two in the past year, I think. In previous years, we have had as many as thirty patients on board. In 1894, 1896 and 1897 it was utilised for cases of cholera, plague and small-pox. If a ship should arrive, say, with cholera on board, the patients would be at once taken to the Hygeia instead of being treated in a hospital on shore. When it is in use it must be remembered that it takes three-quarters of an hour to get there.

Dr. STEDMAN. Do you think the school for Chinese medicine is turning out a success? Do

Do you think the course of education at the Chinese College of Medicine here is satisfactory; that the men are sufficiently well qualified to be put on to Government duties ?

Dr. ATKINSON. I don't think they can be sufficiently well trained here as the facilities are not sufficient for thoroughly training medical students.

Dr. STEDMAN. Are the scholars sufficiently well trained in anatomy?

Dr. ATKINSON.-No, they cannot be, as there are no bodies to dissect.

Dr. STEDMAN.-Can they read and write English sufficiently well to understand lectures, and have they to pass an entrance examination?

Dr. ATKINSON. In former years-I am referring to eight or nine years ago-when the college was started there was no entrance examination at all, and the students had a very scanty knowledge of English, and how they were taught physiology, pathology and medicine without a knowledge of the language in which they were taught, I don't. know.

Mr. SHARP. As far as I can see in the staff you propose every man would be wanted during summer when plague occurs, and during the other part of the year it would be fairly easy work for all.

Dr. ATKINSON.-That is so, but it must be remembered that as one Medical Officer will now nearly always be away, there will be plenty of work for the rest even in the winter.

Colonel HUGHES.-They would not be overworked as they now are.

Dr. ATKINSON.-It must be borne in mind that the pressure comes at the worst time of the year, namely, the summer.

Colonel HUGHES.-Number 18, in the Colonial Estimates, headed "Medical Depart- ments," gives the Medical Staff, and goes on to give the Civil Hospital Staff-apothe caries, analysts, and so on-messengers, cooks, stokers, etc. Are those adequate?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes, I think they are.

[

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Colonel HUGHES.-That establishment is adequate?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes.

Colonel HUGHES.-Does not require any increase?

Dr. ATKINSON.-No.

The Chairman.-Or decrease?

Dr. ATKINSON.-There is one decrease, the Matron of the Female Venereal Wards; I lately recommended this to the Government, as the Contagious Diseases Act has been repealed, we have no further use for her as there are no patients in the Venereal Wards, or next to none.

Colonel HUGHES.-That is the only one?

Dr. ATKINSON.—Yes.

Colonel HUGHES.-It is an adequate staff of subordinates, servants, etc.?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes.

Dr. STEDMAN.-When Dr. AYRES was Colonial Surgeon, didn't he visit the subor- dinate officers who were living about the town?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes, but the work of the Department has very much increased since then, and he did no Hospital work.

Dr. STEDMAN.-If you were freed from your present duties at the Hospital and were only consultative Medical Officer to the Government Civil Hospital, do you think you would have time to visit the subordinates about the town as well as to attend to your duties as administrative officer?

Dr. ATKINSON.-I don't think this is a duty that should be expected of the Head of the Medical Department.

Colonel HUGHES.-What work is done at the Gaol?

Dr. ATKINSON.-There is the general examination of prisoners who come in, stating what work they are fit to do, and as to their ability to stand certain punishments, &c.

Colonel HUGHES.-Just like a Military prison?

Dr. ATKINSON.-There are between 500 and 600 inmates, and once a week the Medical Officer has to make a general inspection, and he is also liable to be called to attend the Prison Office and to be sent for in cases of urgency.

Colonel HUGHES.-You, as Principal Civil Medical Officer could not relieve him at all?

Dr. ATKINSON.-No, I think there is quite enough work otherwise for the Prin- cipal Civil Medical Officer.

Dr. STEDMAN.-Could you as Principal Civil Medical Officer do the necessary supervision of the Tung Wah Hospital? That does not seem to be very heavy.

Colonel HUGHES.-It is only inspection?

Dr. ATKINSON.-It is only the ordinary inspection that the Principal Civil Medi- cal Officer is expected to exercise over all the hospitals in the Colony.

The Chairman. You are responsible for Kennedy Town Hospital?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes.

Colonel HUGHES.-Outside the Hospitals what administrative work do you per- form ?

Dr. ATKINSON.-None as Principal Civil Medical Officer.

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Colonel HUGHES.-The questions of house sanitation all go to Dr. CLARK?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes, excepting that the Government consult the Principal Civil Medical Officer on all Health matters, he is the Medical Adviser to the Government.

Colonel HUGHES.-If you had control of everything, sanitation and everything else, and were responsible for the whole Colony, you would have a lot to do. Now you only have the administration of the Hospital, and no outside work.

Dr. ATKINSON.-As Principal Civil Medical Officer that is so, but I think it would be better were the Sanitary Department made a Sub-department of the Medical Depart-

ment.

The Chairman.-I suppose all candidates for Government service have to be medi- cally examined ?

Dr. ATKINSON.-The Police are all medically examined before joining.

Colonel HUGHES.-Who looks after the Police ?

Dr. ATKINSON.-The Government Medical Officers.

The Chairman.-Outside who looks after them?

Dr. ATKINSON.-The Medical Officer who attends subordinate officials.

Dr. STEDMAN.-That is to say if they are able to go as out-patients to the Hospital they do so and if they are not and are sufficiently sick they either come into hospital or are visited by a Medical Officer at their homes ?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Very often they are treated at their own houses,

Colonel HUGHES.-Do you have to go to No. 2 Police Station?

Dr. ATKINSON.—Yes, one of the Medical Officers may have to attend there.

Colonel HUGHES.-Attend Policemen and their families ?

Dr. ATKINSON.—Yes.

Dr. STEDMAN. Are there 450 subordinate Government Officials?

Dr. ATKINSON.-That was the number in the last return we had, but I will ascer- tain the exact number, our last return of such officers is not up to date.

Dr. STEDMAN.-You attend all the Sanitary Inspectors, Road Surveyors, and all

that class of men ?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes, one of the Medical Officers does.

Colonel HUGHES.-The Medical Officer of Health has to do that?

Dr. ATKINSON.-No, he does not attend them.

The Chairman.-If there is a serious accident do you have to go out to it?

Dr. ATKINSON.-One of the Medical Officers has if the patient is too ill to come to Hospital.

Colonel HUGHES.--Supposing a man malingered, and your Medical Officer of Health said so, or vice versâ, there might be friction?

Dr. STEDMAN.-I think Dr. ATKINSON would be wholly supreme. If he decided he was malingering it is a case of malingering. If you imagine another case where Dr. CLARK said the Government Civil Hospital was deficient as to drainage and Dr. ATKINSON said it was all right, I should say Dr. CLARK was supreme, as it would be a sanitary matter.

?

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"

Colonel HUGHES.-It is not satisfactory. Of course the Principal Civil Medical Officer would be responsible for the state of the drains in the Hospital. He is supposed to have efficient knowledge.

Dr. STEDMAN.-Is the Lunatic Asylum often occupied to its full extent?

Dr. ATKINSON.-There are 17 there now.

Colonel HUGHES.-The hospitals are pretty full.

Dr. ATKINSON. They are generally full; our accommodation at the Government Civil Hospital is very inadequate, we have frequently to turn patients away.

The Chairman.-A great deal of your time is taken up by bacteriology.

Dr. ATKINSON.-Yes, at present.

Dr. STEDMAN. That is already arranged for?

Dr. ATKINSON.-The Government have requisitioned for a Bacteriologist. Dr. STEDMAN.-How many maternity patients do you have in a year?

Dr. ATKINSON.-It is constantly increasing. Last year we had 51 lying-in cases. Colonel HUGHES.-To what hospital do you send patients suffering from scarla- tina and small-pox?

Dr. ATKINSON.-Small-pox is treated at Kennedy Town. scarlatina, it is practically never met with here.

The Chairman.-There is nothing else you can think of?

Dr. ATKINSON.-No.

We have no cases of

[The Commission then adjourned. At the next meeting, on Tuesday, the 19th November, at 4.30 p.m., Dr. BELL and Dr. CLARK will be requested to attend as witnesses.]

^

THIRD MEETING.

Council Chamber.

Tuesday, 19th November, 1901.

PRESENT:

Deputy Inspector General DREW, R.N., (Chairman).

Colonel HUGHES, D.S.O., R.A.M.C.

Dr. F. O. STEDMAN, M.D., B.S., London.

C. S. SHARP, Esq.

R. L. RICHARDSON, Esq.

E. D. C. WOLFE, Esq., (Secretary).

Dr. BELL called, gave the following evidence :—

The Chairman.-Dr. BELL, you are Senior Assistant Surgeon ?

Dr. J. BELL.-No, I am Number 2. Dr. Lowson is Senior Assistant Surgeon.

The Chairman.-Are your duties limited entirely to what you do in the Hospital, or have you any duties outside ?

Dr. BELL.-The Public Mortuary and the Hospital.

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The Chairman.-How much of your time is taken up at the Public Mortuary and the Hospital?

Dr. BELL.-Practically all my time. I go to the Mortuary at 7 A.M. and then to the Lunatic Asylums, and then spend the whole morning at the Hospital.

The Chairman.-You also have most of the bacteriological work to do ?

Dr. BELL.-I do most of it.

The Chairman. In fact, you have a great deal to do altogether.

Dr. BELL.-Yes, my duties take me nearly all day. I am always available, and sometimes have to attend at the Gaol, or see a subordinate officer who is sick.

The Chairman.-Any other duties ?

Dr. BELL.-Nɔ.

The Chairman.--I suppose you could not be sent for to attend at any other place? Dr. BELL.-Oh, yes.

The Chairman. You are always liable to be called upon if wanted ?

Dr. BELL.-Yes.

Colonel HUGHES.-Dr. LowSON is on leave?

Dr. BELL. Yes.

Colonel HUGHES.-What sort of leave?

Dr. BELL.-Half-pay.

Colonel HUGHES.-Sick leave?

Dr. BELL.-Yes.

Colonel HUGHES.-How long has he been sick?

Dr. BELL. He went away last August twelve months.

Colonel HUGHES.-He has not been replaced?

Dr. BELL.-No.

Colonel HUGHES.-In the ordinary course of things when would he be replaced? Dr. BELL. He would never be replaced until he resigned or was pensioned.

Colonel HUGHES.-And no substitute is provided?

Dr. BELL.-No.

Colonel HUGHES.-Are you alone in the Hospital?

Dr. BELL.-There are two of us, Dr. ATKINSON and myself.

Colonel HUGHES.-Have you ever been alone?

Dr. BELL.-Yes. I was alone all last year. My assistant left at 1 P.M., after which time I was in sole charge.

Colonel HUGHES.-On duty every night?

Dr. BELL.-Yes.

The Chairman.-Until Dr. ATKINSON returned from leave ?

Dr. BELL.-Yes.

Colonel HUGHES.-You were Principal Civil Medical Officer besides ?

Dr. BELL.-Acting Principal Civil Medical Officer.

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Colonel HUGHES.--Did that ever take you outside of the Hospital ?

Dr. BELL.-No.

Colonel HUGHES.-Never outside ?

Dr. BELL.-No.

Dr. STEDMAN.—Did you not attend at the Sanitary Board Offices ?

Dr. BELL.-Yes, and occasionally at the Infectious Diseases Hospital.

Colonel HUGHES.-Did you get any correspondence?

Dr. BELL.-Oh, yes, I had to do all that; not only for the Hospital, but for the Medical Department altogether.

Colonel HUGHES.-How much of your time was taken up with this?

Dr. BELL.-It is difficult to say. I used to do most of the correspondence at night, so as to have it ready for the clerks in the morning.

Colonel HUGHES.-Were you ever called out to Kennedy Town?

Dr. BELL.-Yes.

Colonel HUGHES.-How often?

Dr. BELL.-I should think about two or three times.

Colonel HUGHES.-What for?

Dr. BELL.-To attend people who were ill when Dг. THOMSON was not there, or had just left.

Colonel HUGHES.-You always had to go?

Dr. BELL.-Oh, yes.

Colonel HUGHES.-Have you ever been called out to the Gaol ?

Dr. BELL.-Yes.

Colonel HUGHES.-Often ?

Dr. BELL.-No, not very often.

Colonel HUGHES.-Whose duty was it to attend subordinate officers last summer?

Dr. BELL.-I suppose it was partly my duty, and partly the duty of the Gaol Surgeon. When the epidemic was at its height, Dr. THOMSON was taken off all duties and put on at Kennedy Town solely.

Colonel HUGHES.-Where did he live ?

Dr. BELL.-At the Hongkong Hotel, at first.

Colonel HUGHES.-No private quarters ?

Dr. BELL. He occupied the Assistant Superintendent's quarters from September, 1900, to August, 1901.

Colonel HUGHES.-During the epidemic you were liable to be called out; in fact there was nobody else?

Dr. BELL.-There was nobody else. There was only a temporary officer, purely for the Hospital, and when Dr. THOMSON went on duty at Kennedy Town we had another man on at the Gaol.

Colonel HUGHES.-Did he look after the subordinates ?

Dr. BELL.—He was in charge of the Gaol and subordinates until he was put on to Kennedy Town Hospital solely.

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Colonel HUGHES.--Who did the Tung Wah Hospital?

Dr. BELL.-Dr. THOMSON.

Colonel HUGHES.-And Kennedy Town?

Dr. BELL. Yes.

Colonel HUGHES.-Who did the Gaol after Dr. THOMSON was relieved?

Dr. BELL. Dr. LAMORT.

Dr. STEDMAN. When did Dr. ATKINSON go away on leave?

Dr. BELL.He went away on leave in March, 1900.

Dr. STEDMAN.-What leave did he nominally go away for?

Dr. BELL. For a year.

Dr. STEDMAN.--He should have been back in March, 1901 ?

Dr. BELL. Yes.

Dr. STEDMAN. That was the time the epidemic was getting severe (or, I should say, just beginning)?

Dr. BELL.-Yes.

Dr. STEDMAN.-Dr. Lowson went away on sick leave in August, 1900?

Dr. BELL. Yes, he went away in August, 1900.

Dr. STEDMAN.—And Dr. ATKINSON was not brought back ?

Dr. BELL-No.

Dr. STEDMAN. But, on the other hand, given extension of leave?

Dr. BELL. Yes.

Dr. STEDMAN.-So that if Dr. ATKINSON had been brought back instead of being granted an extension of leave, a good deal of the difficulty last summer would not have occurred; of course, some of it would?

Dr. BELL. We should have had an extra officer.

Dr. STEDMAN.Is Dr. THOMSON away on leave now?

Dr. BELL.-Yes, three mon