Sessional Papers - 1901

PAPERS LAID BEFORE THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL OF HONGKONG 1901

Table of Contents

1. Accession of King Edward Vii

Despatch Respecting Proclamation of

2. Blue Book for 1900

Despatch on

3. Botanical and afforestation

Report for 1900

4. Buildings Which Collapsed

Particulars of

5. Building Works

Professional Supervision of

6. Census for 1901

Report on

7. Chair and Jinricksha Coolies

Report of Commission on

8. Collapse of Houses in Cochrane Street

Depositions and Finding

9. Criminal Statistics

For 1900

10. D'Aguilar Light

Removal of, to Green Island

11. Death of H. I. M. Empress Frederick

Telegram of Condolence on

12. Drainage Systems: Plague Mortality

Despatch on

13. Education

Report for 1900

14. Education - Queen's College

Report for 1900

15. Finance Committee

Report of Proceedings of the Finance Committee (1901)

16. Financial Returns

Assets and Liabilities for 1900

17. Financial Returns

For 1900

18. Fire Brigade

Report for 1900

19. Food Supply

Report of Commission on

20. Gaol

Report for 1900

21. Harbour Master

Report for 1900

22. Land Court

Report for 1900

23. Legislative Council

Proceedings for 1901

24. Malaria

Clinical Report on

25. Medical

Report for 1900

26. Mosquitoes

Report on Examinations of

27. New Territory

Statement of Revenue and Expenditure

28. New Territory

Return of Fishermen Taking Coral and Shell from Sea adjoining

29. New Territory

Report on Survey of

30. New Territory

Report for 1900

31. Observatory

Report for 1900

32. Plague (Bubonic Fever)

Report on Epidemic of

33. Po Leung Kuk

Report for 1900

34. Police

Report for 1900

35. Post office

Report for 1900

36. Post offices in China, British

Revenue and Expenditure of

37. Public Works

Report for 1900

38. Public Works Committee

Discussion on Refuse Destructor

39. Public Works Committee

Report of Proceedings of the Public Works Committee (1901)

40. Registrar General

Report for 1900

41. Registration of Chinese Partners

Report of Committee on

42. Salaries of Subordinate officers

Correspondence Respecting increase of

43. Sanitary

Reports for 1900

44. Sanitary Condition of Hongkong

Correspondence, &C. on

45. Sanitary Experts

Telegrams Regarding appointment of

46. Sanitary Experts

Continuation of Correspondence Regarding appointment of

47. Standing Law Committee

Report of Proceedings of the Standing Law Committee (1901)

48. Volunteer Corps, Hongkong

Report for 1900

49. Water account

Statement of, for 1900

50. Water Supply, Hongkong

Correspondence Regarding intermittent System of

51. Water Supply, Kowloon

Report on

52. Waterworks (Kowloon) Gravitation Scheme

Correspondence Regarding

53. Widows and Orphans' Pension Fund

Report for 1900

 

.....

.. HONGKONG.

No. 39.

Governor,

155

No. 6

1901

HONGKONG.

DESPATCH RESPECTING THE PROCLAMATION OF THE

ACCESSION OF KING EDWARD VII.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

SIR,

DOWNING STREET,

31st January, 1901.

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your telegram of the 29th instant reporting that the Accession of King EDWARD VII had been proclaimed on that day in the presence of a large and enthusiastic concourse.

2. His Majesty the King highly appreciates the loyalty of the Colony of Hongkong.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient, humble Servant,

Sir HENRY A. BLAKE, G.C.M.G.,

&C.,

&c.,

&c.

J. CHAMBERLAIN,

HONGKONG.

155

No. 6

1901

DESPATCH RESPECTING THE PROCLAMATION OF THE

ACCESSION OF KING EDWARD VII.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

HONGKONG.

No. 39.

SIR,

Governor,

DOWNING STREET,

31st January, 1901.

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your telegram of the 29th instant reporting that the Accession of King EDWARD VII had been proclaimed on that day in the presence of a large and enthusiastic concourse.

2. His Majesty the King highly appreciates the loyalty of the Colony of Hongkong.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient, humble Servant,

Sir HENRY A. BLAKE, G.C.M.G.,

&c.,

&c.,

fc.

J. CHAMBERLAIN.

HONGKONG.

743

No.

DESPATCH BY HIS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR ON THE BLUE BOOK FOR 1900.

No. 382.

}

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

SIR,

41

1901

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 25th September, 1901.

I have the honour to forward the Blue Book for 1900. The statistics quoted in the Report of the Colonial Secretary show that the Colony is in a sound finan- cial position, and that its business, which is mainly that of a great transhipping port, continues to increase with the expanding trade of the East. The shipping returns show that during the year 1900, 82,456 ships of the aggregate registered tonnage of 18,445,133 tons, carrying 9,862,868 tons of cargo and 2,031,079 pas- sengers arrived and cleared.

2. But this considerable increase of shipping over the previous year by no means represents the enormous increase in the number of ships that entered the harbour during this year of abnormal activity. The Boxer troubles in the North broke out in June, and in July the first contingents of the China Expeditionary Forces began to arrive. Hongkong was practically the British base, and for months. the man-of-war anchorage was filled with British and Foreign warships and trans- ports. At first it was feared that there was no available space in which to accom- modate the Indian Brigades landed here to await the settlement of details as to future operations. I gave the Major-General Commanding Troops carte blanche to occupy every spot of ground on which a tent could be pitched, and sufficient accommodation was found in the immediate neighbourhood. I may add that the conduct of the Indian Troops landed here left nothing to be desired.

3. With the new road now being completed to Taipo, opening up the plains and hillsides of the New Territory, there is now ample accommodation for any number of troops likely to be required in the East.

4. It will be easily understood that with the paralysis of trade in the North on the outbreak of active hostilities the entire trade of China was affected, and the godowns in Hongkong and Shanghai were filled to overflowing with imported merchandise of which the Chinese merchants were slow to take delivery. In the month of September a rebellious movement was started in the district of Weichou north of the New Territory and Mirs Bay. The movement was not anti-foreign, and the insurgents refrained from interference with the villages in Tung Kun Dis- trict in which the Basel Missions were established, nor, so far as I could learn, were any atrocities committed by them. It was a movement of a section of re- formers that was not joined by the followers of KANG-YU-WEI. The disturbance lasted for about a fortnight and collapsed after several engagements with the Viceroy's troops under Admiral Ho, in one or two of which the rebels had some success. About four thousand lives were lost in the fighting, and the movement died out from the want of arms and ammunition, to prevent the smuggling of which the Police of Hongkong left nothing undone. The movement created con- siderable uneasiness in the district around Canton, one result of which was the transfer of a large amount of Chinese money to Hongkong for investment under the protection of the British flag. This may to some extent account for the increased sale of Crown land at enhanced prices during the year.

The Right Honourable

JOSEPH CHAMBERLAIN, M.P.,

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies,

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

744

5. This small rebellion was, no doubt, attempted in consequence of the pre- occupation of the Imperial Government in the North, possibly with a view of inducing the allied Powers to secure peace in the South by a promise to consider the question of internal reform when the time arrived for the imposition of terms of peace upon the Imperial Government. I have heard from fairly well-informed sources this explanation of the rising. Had the Canton district responded or had the Viceroy acted with less promptitude, the situation might have become very critical. The movement was distinctly anti-dynastic as there was in the South among the Cantonese a strong feeling against, not alone the reigning dynasty, but against the people of the Northern provinces-a feeling of hostility apparently reciprocated by the Northern Chinese, who were quite as ready to murder a Cantonese as an Amer- ican or European, and who look upon them as foreigners, if not foreign devils. I had an illustration of this when the Boxer movement developed in Tientsin. A number of Cantonese young men were engaged in business in Tientsin, and some had gone there to attend the Chinese Medical School. These young men were regarded as foreigners and found themselves in a position of great danger, and with no apparent means of escape. Some Chinese gentlemen here waited upon me, and, explaining the position, requested my good offices in assisting their return to Canton and Hongkong, saying that they were prepared to pay ten thousand dollars for the necessary expenses, as the lives of Cantonese would be in grave peril if the Boxers had any success. I telegraphed to His Majesty's Consul at Tien- tsin asking his assistance in repatriating the Cantonese, for which I undertook to be responsible to the extent of the sum named, and he very kindly made the neces- sary arrangements, forwarding bills for over nine thousand dollars which were at once paid by the Chinese gentlemen who had approached me. A deputation of the young men whose escape had been secured waited upon me to express their gratitude, and one and all were assured that had they fallen into the hands of the insurgents their lives would have been taken. The incident was mentioned in the Chinese newspapers in Canton and has, I hope, had some effect in strengthening the cordial relations that exist at present between the Government of the two Kwangs and this Colony.

6. Among the land sales effected during the year was a large area sold to Messrs. BUTTERFIELD & SWIRE who propose to build docks there, one of which will be capable of taking in the largest ship now afloat. The Hongkong and Whampoa Dock Company have applied for an additional area upon which the Company proposes to add another dry dock of equally large proportions, and as the Naval Yard extension now progressing includes at least one more dry dock of suitable capacity, the docking facilities of this port will in the near future equal, if not exceed, those of any port in the East.

7. The building of steam-launches proceeds apace, nearly one hundred having been constructed during the year. I question if, in any part in the world, better or cheaper steam-launches are built than those turned out in Hongkong. The extension of the boiler-making trade, due to this expansion of steamboat building, is now forcing itself upon our attention by complaints of the nuisance created by boiler-makers who have set up their noisy business in quiet quarters of the town and proceed to prosecute it day and night. It may be necessary to confine this trade to a particular quarter.

8. I regret to have to report the recrudescence of plague at the usual season,. the end of February. The epidemic began at the end of February, and lasted 27 weeks, ceasing in the first week in July. During that time there were 1,080 cases with a case mortality of 95.5 per cent. In 1899 the epidemic lasted for thirty-eight weeks with 1,428 cases and a case mortality of 96.1 per cent. In considering this annual recurrence of plague, the situation of Hongkong renders it peculiarly difficult to deal with the introduction of disease from without, for the relief gra- dually obtained in other places by the death of the susceptible can hardly be looked for here with a perennial influx of susceptible coolies from the surrounding

1

:

745

plague infected provinces. A few hours bring these people to Hongkong and nothing short of a ten days' detention of from two to three thousand persons who daily enter Hongkong would insure freedom from the introduction of plague by these visitors, while even if all are healthy there must be among them a propor- tion of susceptibles to feed the fuel on the appearance of plague.

9. One of the most important questions of the immediate future is the problem of reducing the surface population, the density of which in one health district of Victoria is, in round numbers, six hundred and forty thousand to the square mile, and this in a city crowded under the precipitous northern slope of the Peak range of hills that effectually shut off the south-easterly breezes of the summer months. The abatement of surface crowding by the resumption of houses and opening of streets and lanes will probably cost some millions of dollars, as the value of house property in Victoria is very great, houses being sold at from six dollars to thirty- five dollars a square foot; but the taxation of Hongkong is light compared with that of other Colonies, and sooner or later the question of the abatement of surface overcrowding must be vigorously dealt with.

10. The state of the New Territory taken over in 1899 has been fully dealt with in my despatch No. 304 of the 12th of last August. The Financial Accounts of this lately occupied concession afford no reliable basis for an estimate of its ulti- mate value. Up to the present we have been engaged upon making a good main road that will give ready access to the interior of the Territory, in building Police Stations and in preparing a cadastral survey, without which, arrangements cannot be made for the payment of Crown Rent and the settlement of land claims, after which I expect to see a rapid development of that portion of the district surround- ing the harbour of Hongkong where the taking over of the Territory has increased the value of land, in some instances literally a thousand-fold, but over every acre of which disputed claims await adjustment by the Land Court. The police ex- pense of the New Territory is also a heavy item, as armed robbery on land and sea is a very common offence, and our preventive patrol system is costly as compared with the somewhat drastic Chinese system of disregarding those local irre- gularities until they become intolerable, when a force is sent to punish the district by eating it out, or, if necessary, destroying a village or villages. Beyond affording protection and bringing home to the people the fairness and justice of the British system of government nothing can be done in the New Territory until the land claims have seen settled. When that has been done, nothing will remain to pre- vent its development on a sound and stable basis. The people are intelligent and industrious and, I am informed, that there is ample capital only awaiting the secu- rity of a valid title to be devoted to various agricultural and manufacturing ven-

tures.

11. At present the staple crops are rice, sugar, sweet potatoes and vegetables. Possibly the rice cultivation is as good as we can make it, but the sugar cultiva- tion is capable of great improvement, and I have reason to believe that seri- culture will be tried on a large scale, while I see no reason why, with the further propagation of succulent grasses already growing in the Colony, the hills north of the Kowloon range and the island of Lautao should not support a sufficient number of cattle to render Hongkong independent of the supplies now procured from the West and North Rivers.

12. Unfortunately during the year the large river steamers that traded between Hongkong and the West River treaty ports were withdrawn in consequence of the difficulties that beset them on account of the strained interpretation by the Imperial Maritime Customs of the inland navigation agreement. The Companies interested asked no more than that they should have the liberty to carry passengers to and from any place on the river, undertaking to confine the carriage of cargo and par- cels to the ports and stages already agreed upon, and being prepared, if necessary, to carry a Customs Official on board and to conform to every local regulation as to

746

inspection, &c. This proposal, which I made personally to the Viceroy LI HUNG CHANG when on his way to the North, to the Tsung-li Yamen, and to Sir ROBERT HART, was accepted by all three. It was referred to a Committee in Canton ap- pointed by the Acting Viceroy, and, for some reason that I have not discovered, it was recommended by them that the proposal should be rejected. I hope that the proposal may yet be accepted, as its adoption would be effective in checking the piracy so difficult to cope with on the West River, by affording to Chinese travel- ling to Canton with valuable property or returning with large sums of money a safe means of transit to their own towns in a British steamer carrying a regular guard.

13. On the 9th of November the Colony was visited by a very severe typhoon, the centre of which passed over the town and harbour. Although due notice had been given of its approach, there was but little precaution taken, as it was assumed that at this season no typhoon would be more violent than an ordinary gale at most. There had been besides several typhoons signalled during the sum- mer, the tracks of which went north or south of Hongkong, so people had become careless. The wind reached typhoon force about 10 o'clock at night, the smaller vessels having taken shelter from the north-easterly gale. At 4 a.m. the centre passed over the harbour and the wind suddenly veered to South-west when the boats, junks and steam-launches found themselves on a lee shore. At 7 o'clock, 10 launches and over 110 junks were sunk, and the harbour was a mass of wreckage. H.M.S. Sandpiper sank at her moorings, and a large dredger just out from England foundered. Over 200 lives were lost in those fatal three hours. As soon as a launch could live, I went along the shores of Kowloon ; the whole sea face of which was a mass of wreckage among which the Chinese were already hard at work to effect what salvage they could, and I found that the directors of the Tung Wah Hospital-a charitable Chinese Institution-had at once sent out two steam launches with all the appliances for affording immediate assistance. I men- tion the fact as I find a widespread idea that the Chinese among themselves are callous and uncharitable, an impression that is entirely opposed to my experience. After the hurricane a public meeting was held and a Committee formed to collect subscriptions. In a few days twenty-eight thousand four hundred and thirty-four dollars were subscribed, of which the Chinese subscribed twenty-one thousand three hundred and sixty-three dollars.

14. In the early part of the year the Colony had subscribed $153,555 to the South-African War fund so that within twelve months the European and Chinese people of the Colony voluntarily contributed to patriotic and charitable purposes the sum of $181,990 over and above the ordinary charities of the Colony, a sum equal to over 5 per cent. of the amount of the public revenue.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient, humble Servant,

HENRY A. BLAKE,

Governor, &c.

303

No. 13

1901

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE ACTING SUPERINTENDENT OF THE BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT FOR 1900.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

No. 11.

BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT, HONGKONG, 28th February, 1901.

SIR, I have the honour to submit for the information of His Excellency the Governor the Annual Report on this Department for the year 1900.

STAFF.

The Superintendent, Mr. C. FORD, F.L.S., left for home on the 31st March, on six months' leave, on account of sickness, and his leave was extended for another period of six months from the end of September.

The Assistant Superintendent, Mr. W. J. TUTCHER, was acting as Superintendent from the 1st April to the end of the year.

The Head Clerk, Mr. WoNG KwONG-MING, resigned ou the 31st March, and the Second Clerk, Mr. WONG LUNG-I, was promoted to the vacant post.

Mr. YAM KWAI-UN was appointed to fill the post of Second Clerk, and he commenced his duties on the 6th April.

The Head Foreman of the Gardens, HUI SAN-YAU, was removed from his office in February, under circumstances already reported in C.S.O. No. 346 of 1900, and LI KAU, who had been pre- viously employed in the Gardens for a great number of years, but who resigned on 31st December, 1899, was re-engaged and appointed as Head Foreman.

His

The Foreman of the Propagating Department, and one of our best men, LI SHING, resigned on the 15th July, having obtained a much better situation at Macao, at a salary of $15 per mensem. salary here was $9 per month. The man appointed to succeed him, HUI YUK-CHA, was a very capable man, and began his career in the Gardens as an apprentice. He left, however, after having been in the post about six weeks, for a more lucrative appointment at Matupi, at a salary of $25 per month, under an agreement for 3 years.

In addition to the above, the changes in the staff were very numerous, no less than 41 others, making a total of 45, leaving the service during the year, compared with a total of 18 in 1899. Of these, 30 left, 9 were dismissed, and 2 were sent to Gaol.

This rendered the carrying on of the work of the Department extremely difficult, as the men who were brought in to fill vacancies were just ordinary coolies without any technical training whatever, no others being obtainable at the wages offered.

It was thought that when the system of apprentices was instituted between 20 and 30 years ago, that in time the Department would be possessed of a staff of trained men, but unfortunately this has not been the case.

Of the many boys who have passed through their course of apprenticeship only five remain on the staff, the reason being that as soon as they have got a knowledge of their work they are able to obtain more remunerative posts elsewhere. The only way to remedy this is to give deserving men better wages.

Sickness amongst the Chinese Staff was very great as usual, there being a total of 559 days. Although this compares favourably with the previous year, with 858 days, it is still anything but satisfactory. Fifty-nine different men were sick, against 62 in 1899.

The apprentices have continued to attend the Police School during the year, by the kind permis- sion of the Hon. F. H. MAY, C.M.G., Captain Superintendent of Police.

BOTANIC GARDENS.

PLANT SALES.

Plant sales continue to increase, as during the year 3,451 plants were disposed of, being an increase of 641 over the previous year's sales.

Of these, nearly 3,000 were sold for decorative purposes, no less than 2,042 Maindenhair Ferns being included in this number, of which 1,370 were the ordinary Adiantum cuneatum.

*

304

The sale of plants was instituted in 1884 to supply the public with rare and newly introduced plants, (C.S.O. 1), but very few of the plants sold now, come under this category.

The introduction, propagation, and growing of plants for distribution for economic purposes is undoubtedly one of the first duties of a Botanical Department, but the cultivation and sale of plants for decorative purposes should be undertaken by private individuals.

The revenue from plant sales was $761.80, an increase of $135.20 over that for 1899.

LOAN OF PLANTS.

The number of plants on loan for decorative purposes was 3,651, being 584 less than in 1899. The revenue obtained from this source was $168.32, being $55.39 less than in the previous year. I should state that the Government does not make any profit out of the sale of plants and plant loans, the public getting them at a price which only covers the actual cost of production.

It would be a good thing if some enterprising Chinaman would take up both the sale and loan of plants, as no doubt he would be able to make a very satisfactory living out of the business.

PLANT HOUses.

The new plant house, No. 1, mentioned in last year's report, was completed during the year, and the Ferns from No. 3 transferred to it. It has proved an admirable structure as the Ferns have done exceedingly well in it. The Orchids have now been placed in No. 3. The centre house, No. 2, next requires to be taken in hand and reconstructed, and this will be done as soon as time and funds per-

mit.

WALKS.

The re-surfacing of walks with disintegrated granite and cement was continued so far as funds would allow, but much still requires to be done.

TYPHOON.

On the 9th and 10th of November, a severe typhoon passed over the Colony, doing much damage to vegetation generally. A special report on the damage done in the Gardens, as well as in the Plan- tations, was forwarded in Botanical and Afforestation Department Letter No. 35. Large trees in the Gardens suffered less than was to be expected, but shrubs and annuals came off badly.

The frequency of these storms (there was one in 1894 and another in 1896) retards the work of the Department considerably, as a fresh start has to be made in many directions after every severe

blow.

The chief donors were:-

INTERCHANGE OF PLANTS AND SEEDS.

Acclimatizing Association, South California.

Acclimatization Society, Queensland. Belilios, C.M.G., Hon. E. R.

Blake, G.C.M.G., H.E. Sir Henry.

17

H.E. Lady.

Botanic Gardens, Aburi, Gold Coast.

A

British Guiana.

Durban.

Jamaica.

Nagpur.

Government, Ootacumund.

J1

Penang.

>>

Royal, Calcutta.

9)

Saharanpur. Sydney.

The following were the principal recipients:-

Acclimatizing Association, South California.

Acclimatization Society, Queensland.

Agricultural Department, Saigon.

Botanic Gardens, Aburi.

British Guiana.

""

"}

10

Ceylon.

Durban.

93

";

"1

"

::

15

"}

"}

Jamaica. Penang. Royal, Kew. Sydney. Trinidad. Tokyo.

Brown, Edmund A., Province Wellesley. Conservator of Forests, Bengal.

Cooke, Mrs. R.

Draper, W., Egypt.

Edwards, C. C., Amoy.

Hahn, A.

Hodgins, Captain A. E.

Jardine, Matheson & Co., Messrs. Logan, J. C.

Public Museum, Milwaukee, U.S.A. Roebelin, C.

Ricketts, C. B., Foochow.

State Gardens, Baroda.

Veitch, Messrs. J. & Sons.

Cooke, Mrs. R.

Cundall, C. H.

French Convent.

Gascoigne, C.M.G., H.E. Major General.

Keswick, Hon. J. J.

Koebele, A., Honolulu.

May, C.M.G., Hon. F. H.

Mount Gough Police Station.

Public Museum, Milwaukee.

Roebelin. C.

The Magistracy,

Veitch, Messrs. J. & Sons, Chelsea. Victoria Gaol.

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305

RAINFALL.

The rainfall as registered in the Gardens amounted to 80.61 inches, as compared with 83.91 inches in 1899. The daily statistics are given in Appendix A.

VISITORS.

During the year, amongst others, the following gentlemen interested in Botany, Horticulture, &c., have visited the Gardens:

Mr. PETER BARR of the well-known firm of Messrs. BARR & SON, Bulb and Seed Merchants, London.

Mr. D. F. FAIRCHILD of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, who was here making investiga- tions in regard to economic plants, natives of China, likely to succeed in different parts of the United States.

Mr. B. HAYATA, a student of the Imperial University, Tokyo, who came for the purpose of study in the Gardens.

Mons. SAUVALE, an official of the new French Colony of Kwong Chau-wan, who came up to make enquiries as to the most suitable trees for planting at that place, and also as to what economic plants would be likely to succeed there.

Mr. E. M. WILCOX, Travelling Fellow in Economic Botany of Harvard University.

Mr. E. H. WILSON of Messrs. J. VEITCH & SONS, the eminent firm of Nurserymen, London.

MOUNTAIN LODGE GARDEN.

The old summer residence of H. E. the Governor, "Mountain Lodge," having been demolished, and another site chosen for the new structure, considerable alterations in the gardens there have be- come necessary. Beyond turfing the new banks, very little could be done during 1900, but it is hoped that the new building will be sufficiently advanced before the end of 1901 to allow of the gar- dens being completed.

PUBLIC RECREATION GROUND, KOWLOON.

120

A piece of land immediately to the north of Austin Road, and east of Garden Lots 21 and 48, comprising about 11 acres, was placed under this Department by C.S.O. 1, for converting into a public recreation ground, and a vote of $2,000 has been placed in the Estimates to commence the work in 1901. After the land had been placed under this Department, the Kowloon Bowling Club made an application for a piece of ground (30,000 square feet) on the site of the proposed recreation ground, and obtained a lease from the Government for the same. The original plans, therefore, of Mr. FORD, for draining and laying out the ground will have to be abandoned, and others substituted.

HERBARIUM AND LIBRARY.

Owing to the absence on leave of the Superintendent, no time could be devoted to herbarium work. My time was fully occupied in carrying on the practical work of the Department.

Annual Reports, Bulletins, &c. have been received from the following establishments, to the chiefs of whom our thanks are due:-

British Guiana, Calcutta, Ceylon, Durban, Haarlem, Jamaica, Kolonial Museum Haarlem, Milwaukee, Mysore, Lagos, New South Wales, Saharanpur, Straits Settle- ments, Sydney, Trinidad, Agricultural Departments of Cape of Good Hope, England, United States of America, Western Australia, University of California, Tokyo, Zanzibar, Forest Administration in Ajmer Merwara, Assam, Baluchistan, Bengal, Bombay, Burma, Central Province, Coorg, Hyderabad, Madras, North-West Provinces and Oudh, Pun- jab, and Imperial Department of Agriculture, West Indies.

The following works have been added to the library :--

Purchased:-

Flora Capensis, Vol. VII., Part III.

Gardeners' Chronicle.

Journal of Botany.

Botanical Magazine.

Presented :-

Forestry in British India, by Inspector General of Forests to the Government of India. Hand-list of Tender Dicotyledons cultivated in the Royal Gardens, Kew, 1899. Hooker's Icones Plantarum, by Royal Gardens, Kew.

Kew Bulletin,

do.,

do.

Icones Flora Japonica, Vol. I., Part I., from the Imperial University, Tokyo. Tentamen Flora Lutchuensis, from the Botanical Institute, Tokyo.

Natal Plants, Vol. 2, Part 2, and Vol. 3, Part 1.

306

FORESTRY.

Planting has been carried on in Hongkong, Kowloon and the New Territory. The planting in the New Territory has been confined to the new Road leading from Yaumati past Cheung Sha Wan to Shatin, and around the Police Stations at Taipo, Ping Shan and Au Tau. Statistics are given in Appendix B.

THINNING OF PLANTATIONS.

This branch of work has been carried on in various localities, a total of 34,706 trees having been removed, and sold for $824.45. The net revenue for forest products was $888.98. In Appendix C, particulars of the work are given.

PROTECTIVE SERVICE.

During the year, 623 trees were reported as having been illicitly cut down and removed. This is slightly less than the number (640) for the previous year. The Forest Guards brought forward 54 cases, and obtained 49 convictions, against 25 cases and 24 convictions in 1899.

FIRES.

The year has been fortunate as regards fires, only 25 being reported with a destruction of 2,067 trees, compared with 52 fires and 13,299 trees in the previous year. Eight of the fires did no damage to trees, only grass being burnt. A fire which destroyed 600 trees occurred near Tytam Reservoir, and was caused by a party of Europeans picnicking on 26th December. Many of the fires are undoubt- edly caused by the careless use of matches by pedestrians, and this is probably how the fire near Pok- fulum occurred, which destroyed nearly 800 trees. Statistics are given in Appendix D.

FIRE BARRIERS.

Old barriers were cleared to the extent of 21 miles, and new ones made to the extent of 14 miles.

CATERPILLAR PLAGUE.

In the beginning of the year, caterpillars (Metanastria punctata, Walker) were discovered on pine trees in various parts of the island, and the Superintendent at once made plans for coping with the pest by inviting Chinese coolies to collect, at a certain price per catty. The caterpillars were more prevalent on the Shun Wan peninsula, near Aberdeen, and on Aplichau Island than elsewhere, and at these places 7,030 catties, or nearly 44 tons, were collected, at a cost of $447, during March. In May they again became troublesome, and during that month and the following, 409 catties were collected at Aberdeen and Aplichau, and 500 catties at Kowloon. Towards the end of July, the second crop appeared at Kowloon, and during that month and August a further quantity of 226 cat- ties was collected.

BANIAN TREES IN QUEEN'S ROAD.

The widening of Queen's Road made it imperative that the large Banian trees (Ficus retusa) growing in front of Wellington Barracks and in front of the Naval Yard should be either cut down or transplanted. On account of the great age of the trees (they were probably growing there when Hongkong was a fishing village), it was a serious problem as to whether they would survive trans- planting, but I decided to make the experiment. Several of these were nearly a hundred feet high, with trunks 2 feet in diameter at 4 feet from the ground. I had them all lopped to within 15 or 20 feet from the ground, and then bound round with straw, before attempting to remove them. When their respective sites had been prepared, they were moved with balls of soil and roots, 8 to 12 feet in diameter, by means of wire ropes and derricks. After they were in position the soil was filled in around the roots; they were then watered and the trunks and branches kept constantly wet. Syring- ing was also carried on during removal. There were altogether 35 trees treated in this way, and I am glad to say that they are all starting to push forth new growths.

BRUSHWOOD CLEARING.

It having been proved conclusively that certain species of Anopheles were intermediate hosts of the malaria parasite, certain experiments were made, towards the end of the summer, with the object of lessening the numbers of these mosquitoes in well known fever districts. In connection with these experiments, the brushwood around the Military Sanatorium, Mount Gough, was cleared, for a space of three or four hundred yards, by the Military Authorities, so as to give the mosquitoes as little cover as possible. Similar work was likewise undertaken by this Department, by order of the Government, at Kennedy Town. It is hoped that this, in conjunction with the filling up of the breeding pools of the mosquitoes, will effect the desired result.

NEW TERRITORY.

TREE PLANTING.

Tree planting was commenced in the New Territory around the Police Stations at Ping Shan, Au Tau and Taipo, and on both sides of the Sham shui-po-Shatin Road, as previously mentioned. In all 81,154 trees were planted, particulars of which are given in Appendix B.

***

307

t

SUGAR CANE.

In February, 145 cuttings of seedling canes were received from the Assistant Superintendent of Forests, Penang, Mr. C. CURTIS, F.L.S., and about one half of these were planted in the Sookunpo Nursery, and the others at Ha Tsun; Mr. TANG HING-TONG having promised to make a trial of them. I regret to say, however, that only 15 plants were obtained from the whole lot of cuttings, as those put in at Ha Tsun all failed.

Another lot of 318 cuttings was received in July, from Mr. E. A. B. BROWN, Province Wellesley, through the instrumentality of Mr. CURTIS, and these were divided between Sookunpo and Ha Tsun as before. Those planted at Sookunpo have done very well so far, and as regards size are a great improvement on the ordinary Chinese cane. Only a few, however, of the cuttings put in at Ha Tsun succeeded.

As it was the middle of July before the cuttings were planted, the summer was too far advanced to permit of the full development of the canes.

Cuttings will be taken from them in the spring so that by next winter there should be a sufficient quantity of mature canes to test their sugar-producing qualities.

In September, a consignment of 2,200 cuttings, in five varieties, was received from Java, through the kindness of Messrs. JARDINE, MATHESON & Co. The cuttings arrived in excellent condition, great care having been taken in the packing.

They were planted at Ha Tsun, but owing to the lateness of the season they have not done well, only some two or three hundred plants surviving.

Mr. FORD thought it would be well to know the quantity of land under sugar cultivation in the New Territory, and the Foreman Forester who was sent over to make enquiries on the subject esti- mated it at over 7,000 acres.

EXPERIMENTal Garden.

As there is a considerable quantity of agricultural land in the New Territory, I would strongly recommend the establishment of an Experimental Garden for testing economic plants likely to succeed in the district. The Chinese themselves are not likely to take the initiative in introducing new indus- tries, but if this Department were to show them that certain plants could be grown with success, no doubt the natives would then take to cultivating such plants.

The Japanese in Formosa have already established experimental Stations, and the French at Kwong Chau-wan, and the Germans at Kiaut-chau have also under censideration similar schemes.

There are many kinds of fruits which could be grown, and if this were done we should not only have better varieties than those already in the market, but new kinds as well.

E

Agave sisalana is a plant likely to succeed here, and although Sisal Hemp is not such a good fibre as Manila Hemp, it is one which will well repay cultivation.

TREE CUTTING.

A great deal of tree cutting has gone on in the past year, and at present there are no means of stopping it. Nearly all the people who have been brought before the Magistrates in connection with this subject have produced papers, purporting to be leases from the Chinese Government, giving them power to cut down trees growing on the land mentioned in the leases. This not only applies to the common Pine tree, but to every other kind of tree growing within the areas mentioned. Before any- thing can be done to stop the practice the Land Court will have to decide the validity of the various leases.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

W. J. TUTCHER,

Acting Superintendent,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

Honourable J. H. STEWART LOCKHART,

Colonial Secretary,

&c.,

fc.,

&c.

308

Appendix A.

RAINFALL OBSERVATIONS MADE AT THE BOTANICAL GARDENS, DURING 1900.

RAIN GAUGE, ABOUT 300 FEET ABOVE SEA LEVEL.

Date.

Jan.

Feb. March. April. May. June. July. Ang. Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

:

:

.01

.08

:

:

.07

1,

2,

:

:.

3,

.19

4,

.48

5,

.01

6,

.14

7,

.01

8,

.08

9,

10,

:

11,

12.

:

:

:

:

:

A:

:

:

:

.98

:

.56

2.12

:

1.31

.08

.02

1.28

.02

.80

.24

.29

.66

.97

.32

.16

:

:

1.51

:

.02

.05

.01

.20

.01

:

.56

.13

:

.10

.12

.79

:

:

:

.54

.26

.74

:

:

:

:

:

:ལྔ

:

:

:

:

:

:

.18

:

:

:

:.

:

:.

:.

:

:

.02

.26

.40

.73

:.

:

13,

14,

15,

16,

17,

18,

19,

20,

21.

22,

:

.05

.02

:

:

:D

.31

.91

.01

.53

:

:

:.

5.89

3.14

.03

:

2.99

1.29

.04

1.03

1.02

.16

:

1.67

.02

.02

.89

.03

.21

.20

.06

4.55

2.42

.27

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

.10

:

:

1.93 5.06

:

.01

.01

2.45

.02

:

:

:

:.

:

:

.06

:

.01

.71

.16

1.04

.11

.15

.16

.01

:

:

:

.03

.19

:

:

.11

:

.09

.02

:

:

:

:ཁཆུ

.21

.02

.08

.15

.37

.25

.29

.01

.02

58

:

.01

.03

1.73

.01

:

.01

.01

.68

.01

1.10

23,

24,

:

:

:

.01

.06

.01

.17

.20

:

:

.02

.18

1.28

.16

.02

:

25,

26,

27,

:

:

:

.05

.06

.01

.06

.76

:

.03

.02

.29

29,

30,

28,

.02

.05

.04

.02

:

4.

:

.26

.75

:.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

.04

1.36

.67

.08

1.33

.30

:

:.

.01

5.76

.31

.82

.35

1.14

.01 1.20

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

.01

:

:

:

:

:

:

27.77 12.20 5.37 6.17 2.30

Total inches for the year=80.61. Observations made at 10 a.m.

6.92

.16

W. J. TUTCHER,

Acting Superintendent,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

31,

Total,......

.96 2.10

3.57

3.20

9.89

Aberdeen,

Bridges Strect, Cricket Ground,

Appendix B,

STATISTICS OF PLANTING OPERATIONS.

HONGKONG.

Locality.

Pinus

Massoni-

Cam- Eucalyp phor. tus.

ana.

Trista-

nia

conferta.

Pines Camphor

Arca

Mela- Alour- Ptero- Albizzia leuca. rites. carpus. Lebbek.

Grand

Bamboo. Celtis.

sown

Sown

in

Total.

in situ.

in situ.

Acres.

Glenealy, South,..

Macdonnell Road,

Mountain Lodge,

Parade Ground,

Roman Catholic Cathedral,

2

14

7

:

882

38

40

NEW TERRITORY.

:

1

13

426

:

44

18

3

501

4

:

:

38

13

426

14

44

18

4

5,010

5

4

5,580

46,265

2,255

662

81,154

3,857

273

120

244

80

51

34

4,625

9,844 890

124

269

46,265

2,255

49

59,147

5,721

47

80

353

159

73

1.2

6,433

5,350

47

488

2,063

143

30

...

64

8,121

2,795

...

33

2,828

5,010

2

Total,.

5,010

25

Superintendent's Tennis Ground,

Tytam,

Queen's Road,

Au Tau,...

Cheung Sha Wan,

Ping Shan,

Taipo,

Un Long,

Total,..

27,567

757

812

2,660

349

302

73

114

:

W. J. TUTCHER,

Acting Superintendent,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

309

310

Aberdeen, Aplichau,

Mount Kellet,

Pokfulam,

Protestant Cemetery,

Sanatorium, Mt. Gough,

Tree Prunings, Brushwood,

Date.

Appendix C.

SALE OF FORESTRY PRODUCTS.

Locality.

Pine Trees.

Quantity.

Amount realized.

C.

10,810

292.46

7,166

49.79

5,531

39.79

6,839

301.05

1,637

56.78

2,723

84.58

34,706

824.45

168,357 catties.

44,689

49.96

14.57

"2

Total Revenue for Forestry Products...

Appendix D.

888.98

W. J. TCTCher,

Acting Superintendent,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

STATISTICS OF GRASS FIRES.

Localities.

Number of Fires.

Number of Trees Destroyed.

1900.

January

21

Stanley,

March

10

Mount Kellet,

August October

15

Aberdeen,

1

Tytam,

1

Mount Davis,

>>

2

Parker,

31

22 Tung Tai Chau,

24

Association Rifle Ranges,

24 Mount Kellet,

"

30

Davis,

""

31

Kellet,

""

>>

31

Davis,

""

""

November

16

Pokfulam,

17

دو

Magazine Gap,..

17

Pokfulam Conduit,

27

"}

Wanchai Gap,

30

"

December 28

Tytam,

28

Stanley,.

>>

1

1

1

20 6

1

1

1

1

1

11

1

25

1

250

1

50

7

284

1

1

1

784

1

1

30

1

600

Total........

25

2,067

W. J. Tutcher,

Acting Superintendent,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

HONGKONG.

PROFESSIONAL SUPERVISION OF BUILDING WORKS.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of

· His Excellency the Governor.

683

34

No. 1901

To the Honourable

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, C.M.G.,

HONGKONG, 6th September, 1901.

7

Colonial Secretary.

SIR, In accordance with your letter No. 2171 dated 29th August, 1901, to Messrs. LEIGH & ORANGE, a meeting was held yesterday of the undersigned Civil Engineers, Architects and Surveyors, who represent the Firms who have been in practice for the longest periol in the Colony.

It was resolved to thank you for the opportunity given to express our ideas on the subjects mentioned in Messrs. LEIGH & ORANGE's letter to you of 19th August.

It was felt that the question of design and supervision of buildings was by far the most urgent and that we could defer the deliberation on plans for new houses until we had received copy of the Honourable the Acting Director of Public Works' Plan of Improved Chinese Dwellings, dated August 1st, 1901, which we would be glad to receive at your early convenience.

We trust you will not think we are going beyond our province in discussing questions which you had not expressly referred to us, but the seriousness and urgency of the matter is our excuse.

We beg to suggest that this question of professional practice and supervision of works might be dealt with speedily by the making of a special short Ordinance, and we trust the following (our unanimous opinion) may be of some assistance.

Suggestions.

1. Only qualified Civil Engineers, Architects and Surveyors to be allowed to practise in the Colony, and plans from only such persons to be accepted by the Government under the Building and Public Health Ordinances.

2. All building operations must be carried out under the supervision of a qualified Civil Engineer, Architect or Surveyor.

3. The Civil Engineer, Architect or Surveyor to have the power to employ, at the expense of the owner, such supervision as he may consider necessary.

4. The following persons to be admitted as qualified to practise, viz. :-

(a.) Members or Associate Members of the Institution of Civil Engineers, England.

(b.) Fellows or Associates of the Royal Institution of British Architects.

(c.) Any person who has carried on the profession of Civil Engineer, Architect or Surveyor

for 10 years continuously in the Colouy.

(d.) Any other persons who shall satisfy a Board (such as the Public Works Committee)

that they are properly qualified to practise.

For suggestion 1-

Reasons.

The numerous accidents and collapses of buildings that have taken place in recent years. Plans are now prepared by a number of so-called Architects, etc., and who, in our opinion, have not the qualifications nor the knowledge necessary to design and carry out work.

It is not unusual to see buildings being constructed with an utter disregard of stability and strength of materials.

We beg to draw attention to the Enquiry on the Cochrane Street disaster, where plans for an additional storey were admittedly prepared without the necessary precautions.

--

684

For suggestion 2-

It is not possible nor usual anywhere for the Authorities (ie., the Building Inspectors) to go thoroughly into every design, calculate all the strains on piers, walls, columns, beams, &c., and thus take the responsibility of checking plans, nor is it possible for the Building Inspectors to thoroughly supervise all buildings in course of construction: this can only be done by the Architect and the Overseer who is constantly on the works and under the orders only of the Engineer or Architect of the job.

The Government Inspection should be quite general, to see that the laws of the Colony are observed, and we think that with all buildings under the supervision of qualified men and absolutely no constructive work carried out without such supervision, the task of Government Inspection will be comparatively light and will not necessitate a large staff.

Considerable building operations are now being carried out without any Architect and conscquently without proper supervision, the owners not caring to pay for more than the plans and being satisfied

with inferior work,

It is probable that most of recent failures will be found to have occurred on buildings not under the supervision of properly qualified persons.

We again draw attention to the evidence given at the Enquiry into the Cochrane Street disaster which showed that there was no skilled supervision, and to the evidence of Mr. TOOKER when he is reported to have said that he believed if the building had been under the supervision of a European Architect, when the roof had been removed the Architect would have scen at once the bad state of the walls and the disaster would have been averted.

The large amount of building now being done by Chinese Contractors without the supervision of qualified persons is having a deplorable effect on quality of work and workmen and in consequence it is getting more difficult every year to get good work done.

For suggestion 3-

Owners often decline or are unwilling to pay for the services of an Overseer, and it is not the duty of an Architect to be constantly on the work and thus ensure continuous good work and material.

For suggestion 4-

We beg to assure the Government that there is no desire on our part to restrict any qualified person from practising in the Colony, but we know to our certain knowledge of plans being made and work carried out by men who, we honestly do not think, should be permitted to do so.

We have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servants,

WM. DANBY,

M. Inst. C.E.

PALMER & TURNER.

DENISON & RAM.

LEIGH & ORANGE,

M. M. Inst. C.E.

ו

707

No. 3s

38

>

HONGKONG.

PARTICULARS OF BUILDINGS IN THE COLONY WHICH COLLAPSED BETWEEN THE

30TH MAY, 1895, AND THE 14TH AUGUST, 1901.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

1901

708

PARTICULARS OF BUILDINGS IN THE COLONY WHICH COLLAPSED

Description of Build- ing collapsed.

Owner's Name.

Situation.

Date of Collapse.

Old Victoria Hotel,

57, Queen's Road East,

236 and 237, Praya West,.

30th May, 1895,

1st June, 1895,

6th June, 1895,

Li Sam Lam,

Part of the roof,.

Party wall.

Yu King Chung,

Executors

199. Hollywood Road,

24th July, 1895,

2nd Floor,.

122, Aberdeen,

15th Aug., 1895,

Mosque Shelly Street.

16th Jan., 1896,

22nd Jan., 1896,

22nd Feb., 1896,

281, Queen's Road Central,

Market Street, West End...............

Queen's Road Central, Nos. 152, 154 12th April, 1896, Cook-house,

and 156.

Market Street (3 houses),

18. Tai Tam,

11. Aberdeen,

105, Aberdeen,

13. Queen's Road Central,..........

Caine Road,................

4. Wai San Lane,

15th June, 1896,

27th July, 1896,

30th July, 1896,

8th Aug., 1896,

Roof,

30th Aug., 1896, Servants' quarters,

22nd Oct., 1896,

Yu Pui Wan and Yu Ip Chung,

of Yu Luk.

deceased, and Yu

King

Chung, Executor of Yu King, deceased.

Chan Yau Luk,....

Wan Choi,......

A. K. Moosdeen,.......

Li Chau, Li Yuen Wa and Li

Yuen Cheuk.

Ip Chuk Kai, Ip Fai Shek, Ip Shun Kam and Ip Pak Lung,

Chan Fan.....

Loy Sun,

Loy Sun.

Chou Dart Tong,

Norner.

35. East Street,

31st Dec.. 1896,

23rd March, 1897,

248 and 250 Queen's Road West,...... 28th July, 1897, Party wall,

22nd Nov. 1897, Cook-house,....

114. Third Street,

44. Queen's Road West,

10th Dec., 1897,

Second Floor,

92 and 94, Hollywood Road..............

15th Dec., 1897,

22, High Street,

11. D'aguilar Street,

14th Sep., 1898,

3rd Nov., 1898,

Cook house on 1st

floor, 1st Floor.

6. Tai Tam,

5th Dec., 1898.

311 and 313, Queen's Road Central,... 31st May, 1899,

73. Praya East,

16th June, 1899,

18th June, 1899,

23rd Aug., 1899,

25th Aug., 1899,

Part of the roof,

1st Floor Cook house,

46, Graham Street,...

55. Graham Street,...

71. Hollywood Road,

13. Wellington Street,

26th Sep., 1899, First Floor,

C. P. Chater, J. S. Moses and H. E. Bottoniley and A. T. Manger, Executors of C'. W. Bottoniley.

Chiu Ping & Chiu Kwok Shi....

Chan Yut Chiu & Tse Kit Man

(250), Foong Fai Kwong. E. Sharp,..

Tsang Yu Sham,

Chan Jun Chong,

Emanuel Raphael Belilios,

J. D. Lapraik, T. S. Lapraik, H. T. Thompson and T. (. Davis. Executors of J. S. Lapraik,

Lo Man Fung,

(1) Ho Tun Ming. (2) Chan

Yuen Koon.

H. W. Davis,

Ng Mui,

Wong Chuk Yau............

Mak Hook, Poon Kon Shau. Poon Yun Chun and Chan Ut Chiu, Chang Hong Wu, Cheung A Loi, Poon Soo. Lo Sing Luen & Cheung Mun Wong Shi.

<

1

709

BETWEEN THE 30TH MAY, 1895, AND THE 14TH AUGUST, 1901.

Deaths caused by Collapse.

Attributed Cause of Collapse.

Coroner's Enquiry.

Proscention instituted.

3 deaths.

State of decay.

Enquiry-3 per-

sons killed.

Nil.

Defective buildings after heavy rain..........

No record...........

-.

22

F

Soaked with heavy rains & wall gave

way.

Typhoon.

No record.......

1 death.

Shoring having given way

2 deaths and a

number injured.

Enquiry-1 man

killed. Enquiry-2 men

killed.

Nil.

No record......

1 death.

Nil.

Party wall dividing houses gave way.... Enquiry-one girl

No record......

killed.

2 deaths.

3 injured.

Enquiry---2 men

killed.

Defective buildings after heavy rain...

Nil.

No record......

4 deaths.

Nil.

"3

55

55

>>

710

PARTICULARS OF BUILDINGS IN THE COLONY WHICH COLLAPSED

Situation.

Date of Collapse.

Description of Build- ing collapsed.

Owner's Name.

13. Praya East,

Corner of Wilmer Street & Connaught

Road.

64. Second Street,

13th Nov.. 1899, Part of the roof,

The Hongkong Land Invest-

ment and Agency Co., Ld.

4th Jan.. 1900,

Portion of the veran-

dah. 22nd Feb., 1900, Kitchen,

41. Queen's Road Central,........

5th April, 1900, Roof,

50. Second Street,

2nd May, 1900,

Whole house,.....

Shed attached to Mahomedan Mosque,

Shelly Street,

14th May, 1900,

¦

Roof,

408 to 426, Des Voeux Road,

20th May, 1900,

Portion,

215, 216, 217 & 218 Des Voeux Road,... 2nd June, 1900,

Party wall,

Mahomedan Mosque,

1st July, 1900,

Back part,

4. 6. 8 and 10 New Street,

2nd July, 1900,

Back portions,.

468, Des Voeux Road,

3rd July, 1900,

:

House, old,

Young A Pak.

Su Hing Long,

Katie David,.

Mahomedan Community..............

Un Lai Chuen. Sang Won Man, Tso Cheong and Ip Tak. Hongkong Land Investment &

Agency Co., Ld.

Mahomedan Community.............

Reuben Meyer Nissim,

Yu King Sui,

China Navigation Co., Praya West.... 21st Aug., 1900,

21st Aug., 1900,

Verandah,

72, Third Street,....

26th Aug., 1900, | Cook-house,.

24. Third Street,...

9th Sep., 1990,

Old site of 13, Praya East,

10th Sep., 1900,

42. Hollywood Road,

25th Sep., 1900,

2. Wilmer Street,

11th Oct.. 1900,

Stanley Village Nos. 84 and 89,

23rd Oct., 1900,

19. Tai Tam Village,

4. 5 and 6, Stewart Terrace,

9th Nov.. 1900.

A house in course of erection on Hillside above Magazine Gap Road

61. Stanley,...

170, Queen's Road Central,

New Building near Harbour Office.

Praya Central

Block of Buildings, Praya East,

137 to 165, Third Street,

34. Station Street. Yaumati, .

Station Street, Mongkok,

Kramer Street, Tai-kok-tsui,.

Farm Lot Nɔ. 72.

Ma Tau Kok,

19. Tai Tam,

S4, Stanley,...

89. Stanley,....

10th Nov.. 1900. | House, old,

:

House, new,

Portion of,...

15 houses,

House,

Walls of house,

Walls of house in

course of erection, Two houses,....

Matshed,

Li Sing Sz, To Shing & Wong Yik (Tenants in Common.) Bruce Shepherd (Admin.)

The Hongkong Land Invest-

ment and Agency Co., Ld. Jacob Elias Sassoon,

Choi Chan (Executor),

Lam Chai and others,

Chan Fung,

The Hongkong Land Invest-

ment and Agency Co., Ld. H. W. Slade..........

Hu Shun Ko,

Ching Kwai.

Emanuel Raphael Belilios,

Leung He, 34. Station Street

North.

Li Kwong, 34 Station Street

South.

Dairy Farm Co.,

Chan Fan....

Chan Sze,

Wong Loong,

Kitchen......

Portion of

upper

storeys, Kitchen,

Cockloft,

2 houses,

Honse,

Servants' quarters,

Front wall,

BETWEEN THE 30TH MAY, 1895, AND THE 14TH AUGUST, 1901,—--Continued.

Deaths caused by Collapse,

711

Attributed Cause of Collapse.

Coroner's Enquiry.

Prosecution instituted.

Nil.

Defective buildings after heavy rain.

No record.

1 man.

No enquiry and no record of cause.

I man.

Carelessness in work of re-construction.

Nil.

No record.

Land slip at the rear.

7 men.

1 death and 1 injured. | Collapse caused a fire. Disintegration

Nil.

of mortar by filtration of rain water into wall, also heavy loads on floors. No record.

>>

Enquiry-7 persons killed.

Typhoon.

Bad condition of cross wall and recent openings having been made therein.

2 deaths.

2 deaths.

Nil.

No record,................

Enquiry-two persons killed. Enquiry-two persons killed.

1 death.

Heavy rain accompanied by Typhoon.

"

Nil.

7 deaths, 6 injured.

1 deaths, 1 injured,

Nil.

1 child.

1 man.

$ men.

3 head of cattle.

2 deaths.

Nil.

>>

Typhoon.

Typhoon. Houses undergoing re-cons-

truction.

Typhoon.

་་

House much shaken by Typhoon.

No record.

>>

}

712

Situation.

PARTICULARS OF BUILDINGS IN THE COLONY WHICH COLLAPSED

Date of Collapse. Description of Build-

ing collapsed.

Owner's Name.

158, Hollywood Road,

4th March, 1900, House, old,

Yik Chow Ming and Yip Chow

Lum.

Shop Nullah Lane,....

36. Ship Street,

7th April, 1901,

15th April, 1901.

Portion of.................

45 and 47. High Street,

15th June. 1901,

Part of back wall, old Cheung Sum Toy..........

building being pul-

led down. Houses

Lim Woo.

52, Shaukiwan,

53A. Queen's Road East,

25th June, 1901, Back wall

12th Aug., 1901, Part of the roof,

30, 32, 34 and 36, Cochrane Street.... 14th Aug., 1901,

Reuben Meyer Nissim.

Chan Tsun Cheung, Chan A Yee, Leung Sin Shi (Execu- tor) and Chan Jun Chong,

4

713

BETWEEN THE 30TH MAY, 1895, AND THE 14TH AUGUST. 1901,--Continued.

Deaths caused by Collapse.

Attributed Cause of Collapse.

Coroner's Enquiry.

Prosecution instituted.

2 deaths, 4 injured.

Decayed roof timbers.

Nil.

No record.

2 deaths, 1 injured. Carelessness in work of demolition.

3 deaths.

Nil.

43 deaths.

Bad foundation and weak state of base of western wall of No. 49, High Street helped by a portion of this wall having been pulled down and re-built, and also 2 additional win- dows having been opened therein. No record.

Old defective buildings after heavy rain.

Old building, defective brickwork... ..................

Enquiry-2 per-

sons killed & 4 injured.

Prosecution against Contract- or who is also part owner. Penalty of $100 imposed.

:

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF THE COLONY FOR 1901.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

715

No.

39

1901

REGISTRAR GENERAL'S OFFICE,

HONGKONG, 15th August, 1901.

SIR,--I have the honour to forward herewith, for the information of His Excellency the Governor, Mr. WODEHOUSE's Report on the Census of the Colony which was taken on the night of the 20th January last.

Mr. WODEHOUSE, who had been placed in charge of the Census, left the Colony before the tabulation was completed. This has taken somewhat longer than was anticipated, owing in part to the necessity of having to make a change in the clerical staff in the middle of the work and to the laboriousness of the task of compiling and tabulating the List of Occupations. The latter task involved a great deal of work, and I am afraid that the result is not satisfactory.

The Census of the New Territory was taken by the Police, and shews a population of 102,254 persons, of whom 17,243 live south of the Kowloon Range. No attempt was made to ascertain the occupations of the people or their exact ages.

The following Tables in addition to those specified in Mr. WODEHOUSE'S report have been com- piled:---

No. XXIII. Occupations of the Non-Chinese portion of the Community.

No. XXIV. Occupations of the Chinese.

No. XXV. Population of the New Territory.

The Honourable

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, C.M.G..

Colonial Secretary.

I have the honour to be,

Sir.

Your most obedient Servant.

A. W. BREWIN,

Registrar General.

REGISTRAR GENERAL'S OFFICE,

HONGKONG, 18th April, 1901.

The decennial Census of the Colony was taken on the night of Sunday, the 20th January.

2. It was considered advisable to hold it on the same day as in 1897 in order to facilitate the com- pilation of comparative statistics. In other respects, also, the date was a most suitable one, owing to the fact that China New Year fell on the 19th instead of the 2nd February, as in 1897, and did not there- fore, I consider, affect the numbers of the normal Chinese population. In 1891 the Census was taken on the 20th May, which date does not present the same advantages.

3. Certain preliminary returns were published on the 18th February. The greater part of the totals had already been checked, and the figures were, therefore, fairly accurate. The principal error was one of 4,900 in the Chinese floating population, which had been calculated from the totals furnished by the Water Police. Through some misunderstanding, the Gaol returns were not sent in until too late for insertion.

(2)

4. The Census of the City of Victoria was, as on previous occasions, taken by a staff of specially engaged Chinese enumerators under the direction of the Census Officer.

The Police were in charge of the Census of the Non-Chinese quarters of the City, the Chinese float- ing population, the out-lying villages and the Kowloon Peninsula.

5. In view of the experience gained in 1897, I decided to adopt the "double block" system, under which each Census block is worked by two enumerators, instead of one, the size of the blocks being correspondingly increased. The two enumerators work together, and not singly. This enables a great deal of time to be saved, as one man can interrogate the inmates of a house, while his companion takes down in writing the information thus obtained. It is also more acceptable to the enumerators, who, in the course of their work, have frequently to intrude on private families, and saves them a certain amount of embarrassment.

6. Those portions of the City of Victoria, which were told off to the Registrar General, were divided into 53 double sections, which were designed to contain as nearly as possible about 3,000 persons each. It was a matter of some difficulty mapping out these blocks, as the 1897 ones were more or less useless for the purposes of comparison, but on the whole they turned out very fairly correct.

I personally accompanied the Head District Watchman round each block, and ascertained the boun- daries, which practically precluded the enumerators from making the mistake of overlapping a neigh- bouring section, when distributing the schedules.

7. Out of 107 Chinese enumerators, 5 were members of the District Watchmen Force, the remain- der being engaged by the Census Officer. A good many of them had had previous experience of the

work in the Census of 1897.

Each pair of enumerators was accompanied by a District Watchman in uniform, whose duty it was to see that no houses were overlooked. Nearly the whole of the Force was thus employed. The distri- bution of schedules commenced on the 17th January, and, with a few exceptions, they were nearly all collected again before the 28th. Considering the very large number which the enumerators had to fill up themselves, this cannot but be considered a most creditable performance. The first section to be completed was one in Chungwan, numbered by YUNG KWONG-IP (who distinguished himself in the same manner in 1897) and NG PING-PO, who handed in their returns at 10 a.m. on the 23rd January. It is only fair to add that this section happened to be an usually small one, and that several other enumera- tors also completed their task later on on the same day.

The two Kennedy Town sections, which included over 10,000 persons, were enumerated by Head District Watchman LEUNG CHAU and 4 Watchmen, who performed this difficult task most satisfactorily. Their work compared most favourably with that of the rest of the District Watchmen Force, which somewhat disappointed me. I had considerably under-estimated the number of inhabitants in this locality, and it will probably be necessary to divide it into four double sections next Census.

8. Two European Police Sergeants, five Lance-Sergeants, four European Police Constables, eleven Chinese Constables and one Sergeant Interpreter were employed in taking the Census of those portions of the city, which were not done by the Registrar General's Department.

The work was done best in the Western district of Victoria, which was in charge of Sergeant SIM and Lance-Sergeant RITCHIE.

The work. however, of all the Police was admirable, and it is difficult for me to distinguish between individuals. They made their own arrangements as to dividing the portions of the city allotted to them inte. Census blocks, each of the latter being worked by one European accompanied by a Chinese Police Constable. They commenced distributing the schedules on the 16th January, and most of them had been returned to the Census Office before the 28th, or within a week from the date of taking the Census.

9. The number of persons in Victoria enumerated by the Police was 6,523 Non-Chinese and 19,668 Chinese. The average number of persons dealt with by each pair of Police Officers was 593 Non-Chinese and 1,788 Chinese. The work was done more quickly than in 1897, but in the next Census, 3 additional Europeaus and 3 Chinese will probably have to be employed.

10. The Census of the outlying villages was taken by the respective Police Officers in Charge. 11. Special preparations were made in the Kowloon Peninsula, in view of the rapid growth of that part of the Colony, and of the inadequacy of the enumerating staff in 1897.

Six European Police, three Indians, and ten Chinese were employed, in addition to whom thirteen civilian enumerators were engaged. The Peninsula was divided into 15 sections, with two enumerators to each. The hired enumerators were in every case accompanied either by an Indian or a Chinese Police Constable.

The work of distributing the schedules was commenced on the 17th January at 7 a.m., and by dint of working eight hours a day, the enumerators succeeded in finishing that task and re-visiting all parts of their districts before the night of the 20th January. The schedules were all collected again by 9 a.m.

3 ).

on the 25th January, which result is most creditable to all concerned. A large number of the schedules left in the outlying villages had to be filled up by the enumerators, and considerable inconvenience and delay was caused by people taking away the papers left at their houses to be filled up elsewhere, and finally not bringing them back to their own homes. In very few instances did the enumerators get back the same schedule which they had originally left at a house, and in one case a schedule delivered at Yaumati was collected at Hok Ün.

12. The Census of the Chinese floating population was taken by the Water Police. It was decided that this should be done in the day time and not at night (as in 1897). The principal objections to the latter course are that it is difficult to distinguish in the darkness which boats have been enumerated and which have not, and that the crews of the various craft have to be roused from their sleep, which causes considerable delay. On the other hand, the fact of the boats being continually on the move presents a serious objection to enumeration in the day time. Steps were taken to overcome this difficulty by stationing launches at each end of the Harbour to prevent boats entering and leaving while the Census was being taken. Several extra launches were engaged, in addition to those of the Water Police, and the work was practically finished in one day. Unless this is so, as pointed out by Mr. BREWIN in his Report on the 1897 Census, it is not easy to obtain accurate figures. Owing to the number of extra launches which had to be engaged, the regular Water Police could not provide enough men for the work. It had been suggested that Petty Officers of the Royal Navy might be employed, but on consideration I decided that it would be preferable to obtain the extra men from among the European Land Police Force, as a good many of them had had some experience of Water Police work, and would be better able to distinguish the various classes of boats.

The Harbour was divided into seven sections, a steamn launch and two gigs being told off to each, with the exception of No. 5 section (Western boundary of Harbour) which only had a launch. Each launch and boat carried a European Policeman and a Chinese Constable or Interpreter.

The bulk of the work was finished on the 20th January, but two launches were employed on the 21st until about 6 p.m. when no boats could be found, which had not been enumerated.

The principal difficulties encountered, besides that of the boats being continually on the move were (1) the ignorance of the boat people regarding their own ages; (2) the fact that members of the crew often did not happen to be on board when their boat was hailed by the Police, those remaining being unable to state the ages of the absentees; (3) mistakes in classifying boats by men who had not suffi- cient experience in Water Police work. The results, however, were most satisfactory, and it is probably the most accurate Census of the floating population that has been taken.

13. The Hill District was enumerated without assistance by Sergeant CLARK. It is too much work for one man, and two Europeans and two Chinese should be employed on the occasion of the next Census.

14. The arrangements made by the Police Officers in Charge at Stanley, Aberdeen, and Shaukiwan were good. Their task was by no means an easy one, as they had to enumerate the floating as well as the land population.

At Aberdeen, the boats employed in guarding the outlets of the harbour while the Census was being taken were on duty all night, and at the other villages, the Police were similarly hard worked.

At Shankiwan Inspector ROBERTSON managed to get the harbour boats to anchor in rows, so that there was no trouble in enumerating them. In this connection I might mention that the Water Police in Victoria Harbour had great difficulty in enumerating the boats west of Blake Pier and in Yaumati Bay, as they were so closely packed together that it was extremely hard to get in amongst them. It would be impossible, however, to adopt such an arrangement as was found suitable at Shaukiwan in the Harbour owing to the number of boats which ply for hire, and which could not be treated in this way.

15. The Census of Pokfulam was taken by Indian P.C. 613 BнOLA SINGH, who was assisted by a Chinese Police Constable. They performed the work most creditably, and their Census book, showing the rough totals and the number of schedules left at each house, was quite as well filled up as that sent in by any other Police Officer.

16. The Census of the British and Foreign shipping was taken by the Acting Boarding Officer, Mr. MACIVER, and the Inspector of Junks, Mr. COLLAÇO.

17. Officers appointed for that purpose by the General Officer Commanding the Troops and the Commodore in Charge enumerated the Naval and Military establishments.

18. The European and American resident civil population numbers 5,808 as compared with 5,532 in 1897, and 4,555 in 1891. These figures include Portuguese. The numbers of the latter community tend to decrease, and it is now composed of 1,948 persons as compared with 2,263 in 1897 and 2,089 * 1891.

1

(4)

The rest of the European and American population has increased by 591 since 1897 and by 1,394 since 1891. An accurate comparison cannot, however, be made with 1891 as the figures for that year do not include the European Police, some "temporary residents," or the inmates of the Gaol.

The British resident civil population numbers 2,708 as compared with 2,213 in 1897 and 1,448 in 1891. The larger number of military families, due to the strengthening of the British troops in garri- son, the Naval Yard Extension works and those of Messrs. Butterfield and Swire at Quarry Bay, and other large undertakings are factors in this increase.

The Americans have increased from 93 in 1891 to 198, the Germans from 208 to 337, and the French from 89 to 103. The Spanish number 126 as compared with 88 in 1891. The cosmopolitan nature of the community can be realised from the fact that there is hardly a nationality on the face of the globe which is not represented.

19. The Portuguese population has again, for the reasons stated by Mr. BREWIN in his Census Report for 1897, been separated in most of the Tables from the rest of the Europeans and Americans. It is inainly recruited from Macao, and only ten members of the community were born in Portugal. 1,095 or more than one-half were born in Hongkong, 746 in Macao and 60 in various ports in China. Several members of this community described themselves as being of Asiatic race. The great majority of the Portuguese have returned themselves as Portuguese subjects. British nationality is claimed by a very few.

20. Of the British population of 3,007 (inclusive of those on board the shipping in the harbour) 1,777 claim to be English, 655 are Scotch, and 251 Irish. 2,053 were born in the British Isles, 574 in Hongkong, 140 in Australia, and 74 in India. The percentage of adult females to males is 55, taking all those over 15 years of age as adults. The percentage in 1891 was 38 and in 1897, 48.

21. The Non-Chinese races, other than European and American, number 2,607 as compared with 2,502 in 1897 and 1,439 in 1891. No separate return was made of the various races in 1891, so the present figures can only be compared with those of 1897. The Indians number 1,453, the increase over 1897 being 60. 345 or 24 per cent. of this number are females. There are 484 Japanese as compared with 335 in 1897, and 266 Philippine Islanders as compared with 216 in the last Census. Of the remainder the Malays number only 66, there being 141 fewer than in 1897.

There are 2,139 Indian camp followers whom I have considered it advisable to include with the garrison. They are attached to that portion of the China Field Force, which is at present in garrison in this Colony.

22. The number of Eurasians was ascertained to be 267. This is 5 less than in 1897. It is a very difficult matter to obtain the true figures for this portion of the population. The large majority of Eurasians in this Colony dress in Chinese clothes, have been brought up and live in Chinese fashion, and would certainly return themselves as Chinese. Those who have called themselves Eurasians in this Census probably only represent the small minority who have been brought up as Europeans. Of the 3,589 Eurasians in the Singapore Census of 1891, the large majority were probably the children of Tamil, Malay or Indian mothers, and not of Chinese ones. They would most likely not have any objection to declaring themselves Eurasians. The Chinese consider the term one of reproach. If enumerators were instructed to find out the numbers of Eurasians themselves, it is obvious that this would inevitably lead to abuses, and would present great opportunities for the exercise of private spite.

23. The total Chinese land population of the Colony is 234,443, including 1,180 on board the foreign shipping in harbour, as compared with 201,528 in 1897 and with 178,960 in 1891. This repre- sents an increase over the latter year of 55,483, or nearly 31 per cent. The increase over 1897 is 32,915. The number of male adults (those over 15 years of age) is 158,930 and of females 42,737, the percentage of the latter to the former being 26.89. In 1891, the figures were 113,241 and 33,523 respectively, the percentage of females to males being 29.92. The number of Chinese families in Vic- toria has been ascertained to be 25,123, the figures in 1897 and 1891 being 21,740 and 14,120 respec- tively. This shows an increase over 1897 of 3,383, aud over 1891 of 11,003. As the increase in the Chinese population of the city since 1897 is only 14,765, the increase in the number of families cannot be considered entirely a real one. It is not probable that there has been any considerable increase in family life among the Chinese since 1897.

24. Of the Chinese land population 227,615 returned themselves as natives of the province of Kwong Tung, 179,296 of this number belonging to the Kwong Chau Prefecture. Of the various dis- tricts in the latter Tung Kun comes first with 28,844 persons.. The natives of Pun Ü number 28,587, of Na Hoi 27,221, of San On 22,412, and of San Ui 21,542. There were 1,088 natives of the pro- vince of Fokien, 151 of Kong So, and 125 of Chekiang. 2,354 persons, of whom more than half were women, claimed Hongkong as their home. The native place of 120 persons was not stated.

25. Of the 181,918 inhabitants of the Non-Chinese, while 175,056 are Chinese. Health Districts into which t

City of Victoria, 6,862 are Europeans, Americans, and other Table XV gives the Chinese population of each of the ten

end Table XIV shows that of the eight registration districts."

L.

( 5 )

There is a remarkable increase in the population of Kennedy Town and Shektongtsui, which now numbers 11,032 as compared with 4,282 in 1897 and 3,581 in 1891. If this increase is a real one, which there is apparently no reason to doubt, it is difficult to account for, although there are reasons which would account for a considerable portion of it.

There is a slight decrease in the Saiyingpun District, the numbers in 1901, 1897, and 1891, being 44,722, 45,570, and 34,559 respectively.

In 1891 there was a popu-

The Taipingshan District shows a small increase of 1,892 over 1897. lation in this quarter of 31,302, the decrease since that year being due to the destruction of the Chinese houses on the Taipingshan Resumption Area.

No. V District does not show any material change, the increase since 1891 being only 1,230.

The Chungwan District continues to grow, and the population has increased from 36,196 in 1891 to 51,243 in the present year. This represents an increase of 411⁄2 per cent.

The number of inhabitants of the Wantsai and Hawan Districts is 23,487. The number in 1891 was 16,944.

The total increase in the number of Chinese inhabitants of the city is thus 14,783 over 1897, and 36,287 over 1891. Out of the increase of 14,783 over 1897, 14,242 were males and only 541 females.

26. The European and American residents at the Peak number 412 as compared with 381 in 1897 and 213 in 1891. These figures do not include the European Police, of whom, however, there was only one living there on this occasion. The number of Chinese was 1,786, of whom some were work- men employed on new buildings. The increase over 1897 is 195.

The European and American children below the age of 15 numbered 47.

27. The number of Europeans and Americans residing in the Hongkong villages was 167. In this total are included the crews of a steamer at Aberdeen and of one at Shaukiwan. In 1897 the number was 125; in 1891 it was not stated.

28. The Chinese population of Shaukiwan numbered 9,159, which shows an increase of 1,721 over 1897, and of 1,867 over 1891.

29. 805 Chinese reside in the village of Stanley, and 2,787 in Aberdeen. The population of the latter village remains, therefore, practically the same as in 1897, while that of the former one has decreased by 239 since 1897, and by 77 since 1891.

30. The village of Pokfulam now contains 610 Chinese inhabitants as compared with 384 in 1897 and 269 in 1891.

31. The European and American population (including Portuguese) in British Kowloon numbers 668 as compared with 377 in 1897 and 183 in 1891. This remarkable increase is not confined to the Non-Chinese community, as the Chinese population now amounts to 42,976, having thus more than quadrupled itself in 20 years. The figures for the last four Censuses are as follows:-

1901,

1897.

1891,

1881.

Male.

Female.

Total.

32,860

10,116

42,976

.19,202

......14,499

7,240

26,442

5,498

19,9

9,02

The above figures are for British Kowloon proper, and do not include any portion of the New Territory.

The extraordinary growth of this portion of the Colony may be ascribed to several causes, among which may be mentioned the activity of the Hongkong and Whampoa Dock Company, and the estab- lishment of Cement works at Hunghom.

The great demand for steam launches at Manila, which has arisen since the American occupation, has also given a very considerable impetus to this trade during the last three years, nearly all the estab- lishments for building these vessels being situated on the Kowloon side of the Harbour.

The number of Chinese families in Kowloon is 6,718. The proportion of females to males is well maintained.

The number of European and American children below the age of 15 is 58. The Chinese below that age number 5,126.

32. The Europeans, Americans and other Non-Chinese on board the shipping in the Harbour numbered 1,001 as compared with 1,016 in 1891. Of the Europeans, 299 were British, 108 Germans, ́nd 35 Norwegians. There were 153 Americans. The large number of the latter is accounted for

F-

(6)

by the fact that an American mail steamer happened to be in port on the night of the Census. The Non-Chinese Asiatics numbered 355, and included 218 Japanese, 95 Indians, and 42 members of other Asiatic races.

In the 1897 Census the number of Japanese was 63. The increase is significant of the rapid growth of the Japanese Mercantile Marine during the last few years, although it is to a certain extent a matter of chance how many vessels of each flag happen to be in harbour on the day fixed for taking a Census. The British returns are less by the number of the crew of a steamer which left the harbour without returning the Census schedules which had been served on her.

33. The Chinese floating population amounted to 40,100 composed of 25,402 males and 14,698 females. This represents an increase of 8,348 over 1897, and 8,065 over 1891. 63 per cent. of the pupolation consists of males.

The remarkable increase is partly to be attributed, no doubt, to the increased efficiency of the steps taken to enumerate this portion of the population, which is never an easy task. Some description of the methods adopted on this occasion by the Water Police appears elsewhere.

The boats were divided into six classes:-Passenger Boats, Cargo Boats, Trading and Passenger Junks, Harbour Boats, Fishing Boats, and Steam-launches. The total number of vessels was 5,836, composed of 1,442 passenger boats, 1,424 cargo boats and lighters, 495 harbour boats, 236 trading and passenger junks, 2,309 fishing boats and junks, and 200 launches. The latter figure is a remark- able one, and is probably equalled in very few other harbours. In 1891 the various classes of vessels amounted in all to 5,220, the increase in 1901 being, therefore, 616.

The population of the Harbour was 28,329, of whom 11,558 were found in boats near the northern (Kowloon) shore, 13,022 along the southern (or Hongkong) shore, and 3,949 in the middle of the har- bour and at its eastern and western entrances. In 1891 the respective figures were 17,215 along the south shore and in the centre of the harbour, and 6,447 along the southern shore.

The floating population of the villages is as follows:-Shaukiwan, 5,439 persons on 624 vessels; Aberdeen, 5,251 persons on 947 vessels; Stanley, 881 persons on 119 vessels.

The number of boats at Shaukiwan is 19 fewer than in 1891, but the population appears to be 1,611 Aberdeen shows an increase of 230 boats and 1,274 persons, and Stanley one of 29 vessels and 313 persons.

more.

34. The number of Chinese families in the Kowloon Peninsula and in the villages of Stanley, Shaukiwan, and Aberdeen, was ascertained, as well as in the city of Victoria. The number of families in Kowloon was 6,718, and 2,804 in the above mentioned villages. There are 25,123 families in Vic- toria, so the grand total amounts to 34,645. The figures for Kowloon and the villages were not obtained in 1897 and 1891 and no comparison can therefore be made.

35. The number of European, American and other Non-Chinese children between the ages of 6 and 15 (inclusive) was 1,178. Of this number 889 were described as being students. 132 children below the age of 6 were returned as attending school, as were 56 who were above the age of 15. Iu the case of the European and Portuguese especially it is probable that nearly all the children between the age limits above mentioned are in the habit of attending school whether they were returned as doing so or not.

Of the Chinese population, the number of children between 6 and 15 years of age was 15,139 boys and 12,132 girls, making a total of 27,271.

As in the case of the Non-Chinese community, the number (6,576) of boys reported as being students is very much below the actual one. Nearly all Chinese boys, except of the lowest class, habit- ually attend school or have private teachers.

In the case of the girls it is different and the number of students among them would be very small.

36. The total number of Police Officers employed on the Census was 92, including 7 Sergeant Interpreters. There were 40 Europeans, 4 Indians, and the rest Chinese. In addition to the above, 13 civilian enumerators were engaged to assist in taking the Census of the Kowloon Peninsula. There were also 28 coolies and launch hands, who received a gratuity of from $1 to $2 each.

37. The Police were paid at the same rates as in 1897, with the exception that the Sergeant In- terpreters were given $8 instead of $5.50.

38. The Chinese enumerators engaged by the Census Officer were paid at the rate of $8 each, as compared with $4 in 1897. There was no difficulty whatever in obtaining suitable men, and I believe that 200 could have been found with ease, if necessary. They were all intelligent and of a good class and discharged their duties to my entire satisfaction. With regard to the compilation of statistics, all the copying and sorting was done by piece work, owing to the necessity of getting the work completed with the least possible delay. 44 men were employed at various times, the amounts earned ranging between about $70 and $6.

i

( 7 )

The Census staff proper was composed of 1 clerk at $40 a month, and 2 at $20. Two more clerks at $20 a month were added later on.

A few Grant-in-Aid school-masters volunteered to act as enumerators. A certain number of them. as well as many professional petition writers, filled up schedules for a small consideration. It is a question whether this practice should be encouraged or not. It results in the schedules being filled up properly without trouble to the enumerators, but, on the other hand, in the greater number of cases, the schedules are not brought back to the houses at which they were originally left, and considerable con- fusion and inconvenience results.

40. The eastern verandah on the ground floor of the Registrar General's Office was used as a Census Office. This arrangement was a great convenience to all concerned, the only drawback being that the space was a little confined.

41. A satisfactory and somewhat unusual feature of the Census was that no obstruction or opposi- tion was met with by any of the enumerators. As a rule the taking of a Census gives rise to the wildest speculation among the lower class Chinese as to its object. They are inclined to associate it in their minds with the idea of increased taxation, or some objectionable sanitary measure. The absence

of any trouble on the present occasion is probably attributable to the fact that the last Census was taken only four years ago, and the memory of it would still be fresh in the minds of the greater number of the Chinese population.

43. The total cost of the Census was $5,440.91.

44. In conclusion I wish to express my indebtedness to Mr. BREWIN for his assistance and advice. 45. The following Tables are appended to this Report:—

I.-The total Civil Population.

AI.—A Comparison between the Population in the years 1891 and 1901.

III.—The European and American Population according to race.

IV.-Birth Places of the Population of British origin.

V.-British Places of the Portuguese.

VI.-The Non-Chinese population other than Europeans and Americans.

VII.-The Ages of the European, American and other Non-Chinese Resident Civil

Population.

VIII.-The Ages of the Europeans, Americans and other Non-Chinese on board the Shipping.

IX.-The Ages of the Chinese.

X.-Native Places of the Chinese Land Population.

XI.-Natives of the Kwong Tung Province according to their districts.

XII.-Chinese Population of the Villages of Hongkong.

XIII.-Chinese Population of British Kowloon.

XIV.-Chinese Population of the Registration Districts of Victoria in 1891 and 1901.

XV.-Population of Victoria according to Health Districts.

XVI.-The number of Chinese Families in Victoria in the year 1891 and in 1901. XVII.-Number and description of Boats and Junks in the waters of the Colony, and the

number of persons on each class of boats.

XVIII.-The number of European, American and Non-Chinese Children between the ages of

6 and 15 years (inclusive).

XIX.--The number of Europeans, Americans, nd Non-Chinese who are described as being

Students.

XX. The number of Chinese Children between the ages of 6 and 15 years (inclusive). XXI.-The number of Chinese who are described as being Students.

XXII.-Military and Naval Establishments.

:

P. P. J. WODEHOUSE, Census Officer.

Floating Popu- lation.

The Harbour, Aberdeen,

Shaukiwan,

Stanley,

Total,.....

Grand Total,....... 2,981

LOCALITY.

Males.

Europeaus and Americans other than

Portuguese.

Females.

Total.

Males.

*S){BIG F

Total.

NON-CHINESE.

TABLE I.

TOTAL CIVIL POPULATION OF THE COLONY.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Males.

Females.

Total.

CHINESE.

TOTAL.

Races other than

Portuguese.

Indians.

the

Total.

Eurasians.

before mentioned.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Land Population.

Victoria,

The Peak,

1,646

231

1,092 2,738 |7941,007 | 1,801

8473281,175 | 474417 891

182 413

5

10

9

4 13 2

Hongkong Villages, .. British Kowloon,

134

5

339

33 167 6 203 542 62 64 126 198 13 211

11

54

54

423

3,7612,844 | 6,605

2

247

191 438

5:

91 166|257| 129,396

45,660

175,056| 133,248

48,670| 181,918

1,672

114

1,786

1,919

305

2,224

4

197

3

6

39 236 602 283 885 6 4 10

9,805

3,628

13,433

10,002

3,667

13,669

32,860

10,116

42,976

33,468

10,403

43,871

Stonecutters' Island,

...

12

12

12

12

Total,.. 2,350 1,510 3,860 | 867|1,081 |1,948 1,108 345|1,453 | 482|421

903

Mercantile Marine,]

631

i

638 8

8

95

95 |257 2

259

992

4,807 3,357 | 8,164 | 97 | 170 267|| 173,745 9 1,001 1 1,180

59,518 | 233,263| 178,649

63,045 241,694

1

1,180 2,172

9 2,181

Males.

Females.

Total.

Males.

:

18,932 9,597

28,529 18,932

9,597 28,529

2,940 2,311 3,010 2,429 5,439

5,251 2,940

2,311

5,251

3,010

2,129

5,439

520

361

881

520

361

881

...

25,402

14,698

40,100

25,402

14,698

40,100

1,517 | 4,498

8751,081

1,956|1,203 345 1,548 739 423 1,162 5,799 |3,366|9,165 98 170|268 | 200,327 74,216 274,543 | 206,223

77,752 | 283,975

Females.

Total.

LOCALITY.

TABLE II.

COMPARISON BETWEEN THE CIVIL POPULATION IN THE YEARS 1891 AND 1901.

1901.

1891.

MALES.

FEMALES.

MALES.

FEMALES.

TOTAL.

TOTAL.

Under

Over

Under Over

Total.

Total.

15.

15.

15.

15.

Under Over

15. 15.

Under

Over

Total.

Total.

15.

15.

Victoria,

571

1,561

2,132

612

1,131

1,743

3,875

612

1,821 2,433

662

1,435

2,097

4,530

The Peak,

20

111

131

29

53

82

213

47

189

236

58

128

186

422

European and American Civil Population

Hongkong Villages,.

15

124

139

14

24

68

177

British Kowloon,

22

Police,

22

22

95

117

21

45

66

183

86

308

394

187

262

656

95

117

22

18

40

157

Mercantile Marine, ....

740

740

24

24

764

639

639

646

...

[ Not included in the above,

59

68

127

127

Total,.....

635

2,602

3,237

743

1,339

2,082

5,319

760

3,081

3,841

809

1,781

2,590

6,431

Races other than Euro- ( Land Population,

124

850

974

150

315

465

1,439

285

1,356

1,641

288

647

935

2,576

251

251

1

1

252

353

353

2

2

355

pean, American and Chinese,.....

Mercantile Marine,

Not included in the above,

...

Total,.

...

...

...

...

124 1,101

1,225

150

316

466

1,691 |

285

1,709

1,994

288

649

937

2,931

Total Civil Population other than Chinese,...

759

3,703

4,462

893

1,655

2,548 7,010 1,045

4,790

5,835

1,097

2,430

3,527

9,362

Victoria,

Shaukiwan,

2,141

86,554 98,995

13,012 26,762

39,774 138,769

12,725

116,671|129,396 12,730

32,930 45,660 175,036

753 4,476

5,229

641

1,402

2,043 7,272

709

6,199

6,908

398

1,678

2,276

9,184

Chinese Land Population

Stanley,..

Aberdeen,

129

427

556

91

235

326

882

87

375

462

84

259

343

805

238

1,810

2,048

200

484

684

2,732

292

1,702

1,994

249

599

848

2,842

Pokfulam, ....

34

136

170

35

64

99

269

55

386

441

47

114

161

602

British Kowloon,

2,213

12,286

14,499

1,825

3,673

5,498

19,997

2,067

30,793

32,860

3,059

7,037

10,116

42,976

Mercantile Marine,

1,044

1,044

19

19

1,063

5

1,175

1,180

1,180

Not included in the above,

291

6,458 6,749

274

884

1,158

7,907

55

1,629

1,684

14

100

114

1,798

Harbour,

4,246

11,235 15,481

3,295

4,886

8,181

23,662

6,122

12,810

18,932

4,076

5,521

9,597

28,529

Floating Population

Shaukiwan,

802

1,457 2,259

641

928

1,569 3,828

1,241

1,769 3,010

915

1,514

2,429

5,439

Stanley,..

115

Aberdeen,

723

237

1,520 2.243

352

89

127

216

568

706 1,028

1,734

3,977

134 386 997 1,943

520

112

149

2,940

843

1,568

361

2,311

881

5,251

Total Chinese,

Grand Total,..

21,985127,640 | 149,625 22,744 131,343154,087

20,809

21,702

40,492

42,147 63,849 217,936

61,301 210,926 24,489 175,838 200,327

22,727

51,489

74,216 274,543

217,936 | 25,534 | 180,628 | 206,162 23,824 53,919 77,743 283,905

RACES,

TABLE III.

EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN POPULATION ACCORDING TO RACE,

MERCANTILE MARINE.

1

TOTAL.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Males.

Females.

Total.

RESIDENT POPULATION.

( 10 )

English,

Scots,...

971

678

1,649

134

135

1,103

679

1,784

379

177

556

99

99

478

177

655

Irish,

96

237

16

16

157

96

253

Welsh,

14

10

24

26

26

40

10

50

Other Natives of the British Isles not defined as above,

119

123

242

23

23

142

123

265

Total,

1,624

1,084

2,708

298

1

293

1,922

1,085

3,007

American,

101

97

198

147

6

153

218

103

351

Armenian,

9

9

:

9

9

Austrian,

10

16

26

10

16

26

Belgian,

7

7

7

7

14

14

Brazilian,

3

6

Chilian,

4

3

Danish,

14

7

Dutch,

11

1 -1 00 0

9

3

6

9

1

5

3

8

Finnish,

1

French,

79

24

103

German,..

232

105

337

Greek,

1

སྶ སྶ ཡ ཨྠ སྶ ཡ

21

8

22

7

29

3

14

4

18

2

3

3

79

:ཨེ

24

103

108

103

340

I

Hungarian,..

Italian,

1

2

28

33

61

2

2

Jewish,

Montenegrin,

99

66

165

I

Norwegian,

23

23

35

Peruvian,

1

I

2

Portuguese,

867

1,081

1,948

8

875

Koumanian,

Russian,

Spanish,

Swedish,

Swiss,

1

1

6

4

10

5

5

| ⊕ - རྞ ཤྩ ཕྱེ རྞ ཨྠ ཥ — —

105

445

1

1

2

3

30

33

99

66

333

63

165

1

1

58

58

2

1

3

1,081

1,956

1

1

4

15

51

126

75

ان

126

12

5

17

13

13

25

30

8

2

10

8

2

10

Total,

3,217

2,591

5,808

639

7

646

3,856

2,598

6,454

( 11 )

TABLE IV.

BIRTH-PLACES OF THE POPULATION OF BRITISH ORIGIN.

BRITISH POPULATION.

BRITISH POPULATION.

WHERE BORN.

WHERE BOrn.

Males. Females. Total.

Males. Females. Total.

England,

866

388

1,254

Brought forward,...

453

470

923

Wales,

36

15

51

Italy,

1

Scotland,

375

101

476

Japan,

13

Ireland,

110

45

155

Масао,

6

8

Channel Islands,

8

4

12

Malta,

10

19

Mauritius,

1

6

Total,...

1,395

553

1,948

Newfoundland,

2

New Zealand,

10

10

Norway,

1

2

15

I

Aden,...

Ascension Island,

Australia,

Austria,

Barbadoes,..

Batavia,.

Belgium,

Bermuda,

1

Borneo,

British Guiana,..

Burmalı,

1

Canada,..

13

Cape Colony,

1

Ceylon,

China,

Corsica,

Cuba,

Egypt,

58

3

I

1

1

2-*

2

Portugal,

1

Roumania,

82

140

Russia,.

3

:

Siam,

I

1

1

1

2

Sicily,

3

South America,

1

Spain,

~

3

Straits Settlements,

3

Sweden,

1

Switzerland,

1

Turkey,

} རུ? ཡཀ)

30

41

VO OH –

18

United States of America,..

10

3

West Indies,

3

6

At Sea,

71

Not stated,

:༤:༢༣༠M

11

18

I

1

I

21

3

10

2

:

Formosa,

France,

1

2

Gibraltar,

5

8

Hongkong,

282

292

574

India,..

43

31

74

Total,....

527

532 1,059

Carried forward,......

453

470

923

Grand Total,..... 1,922

1,085 3,007

Australia, China,

Goa,

Hongkong,

India,

Japan,..

Loanda,

Macao,

The Philippine Islands,

Portugal,

Siam,

Spain,

TABLE V.

BIRTH-PLACES OF THE PORTUGUESE POPULATION.

WHERE BORN.

Straits Settlements,

Timor,

United States of America,

Not stated,

!

Total,

1

MALES.

FEMALES.

TOTAL.

1

28

32

60

4

515

582

1,097

1

1

5

9

1

301

449

750

3

1

4

9

1

10

3

2

3

1

10:00 - - N

2

5

3

7

1

875

1,081

1,956

RACES.

RESIDENT POPULATION.

MERCANTILE MARINE.

TOTAL.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Males.

Females.

Total.

TABLE VI.

NON-CHINESE RACES OTHER THAN EUROPEANS AND AMERICANS.

...

:

( 12 )

14

21

6

9

I

I

:

1

1

1

1

:

1

95

1,203

345

1,548

218

421

281

702

28

55

39

94

12

16

12

208

70

278

:

:

:

:

:

1

1

1

1

2

2

9

3

12

3

4

7

:

:

:

:

Africans,

14

21

Arabians,

6

9

Asiatics (not defined), ............

Creoles,

1

1

:

:

1

1

Egyptians,...

1

Indians,.

1,108

345

1,453

95

Japanese, ........

203

279

484

216

Malays,

27

39

66

28

Persians,

12

4

16

Philippine Islanders,

196

70

266

12

Siamese,........

1

South Sea Islanders,.....

1

1

Turkish,

2

2

West Indians,

9

3

12

:

--Not stated.

3

7

:

:

Total,......

1,580

760

2,340

352

2

354

1,932

762

2,694

1

ΥΓ

F

TABLE VII.

THE AGES OF THE EUROPEAN, AMERICAN AND THE OTHER NON-CHINESE RESIDENT CIVIL POPULATION.

BRITISH.

OTHER EUROPEANS

AMERICANS.

EXCEPT Portuguese.

PORTUGUESE.

INDIANS.

THE REST

EURASIANS.

OF THE

NON-CHINESE.

TOTAL.

AGE.

Male.

Fe-

male.

Total. Male.

Fe-

male.

Total. Male.

Fe-

male,

Total. Male.

Fe-

male.

Total. Male.

Fe-

male.

Total. | Male.]

Fe-

male.

Total. Male.

Fe-

male.

Total. Male.

Fe-

male.

Total.

Under 1 year,.......

1 and under 5 years,

42 39

81

147

149

296

5

10

"?

107 124

231

10

15

"

55 89

144

21 610 1

15

20

52

66

118

20

25

164

96

260

16

19

25

30

""

308 139

447

22

30

.35

"

229

152

381

18

35

40

182

100

282

HIBERNOAN

4

9

18 25

23

48

15

19

34

1

3

4

4

10 26

99 99

198

31

57 91

99

193

59

45

104

9

12

21

20

16

36

11

42

361

356

717

20

62

89

91

180

48

49

97

13

33

46

20

22

42

6

324

345

26

669

29

55

82

92

174

31

28

59

36

39

75

25

15

40

259

294

12

553

37

22

59 114

108 222

51

48

99

46

60

60

72

132

35

332

370

702

73

34

107

96

112 208 228

41

269

21

27 75

132

207

40

87

658

455

44

131

1,113

75

109

184

228

44

272

14

91

77

30

168

813

95

443

40

135

78

1,256

88

166

151

26

177

11

53

28

81

18

625

356

981

67

26

93

47

60

107

93

12

105

40

I

45

150 41

191

10

54

23

77

35

57

92

56

6

62

45

50

1

"

67

27

91

9

11

27

52

39

16

00

439

226

665

27

13

40

329

145

474

18

45 29

52

81 30

50

39

1

55

49

23

26

4

27

75

9

186

112

31

298

14

45

36

73

109

29

37

55

60

1

12

"

32

17

9

21

49

8

21

165

32

297

23

21

46

67

19

23

60

65

18

"

23

6

13

104

5

10

65

70

39

5

ΤΟ

75

80

75

10 2

"

1

22~

79

183

12

80

85

""

99

85

90

""

90

95

""

1

1

I

3

240

00

23

34

57

13

15

1

7

72

47

119

13

23

36

14

36

30

66

6

6

I

21

12

33

1

1

4

12

1

2

101

6

1

95 and over,

Age not stated,

1

1

1

15 10

25

6

36

36

1

61

10

71

Total.

1,624 1,034 2,708 108 107

215 618 319

937

8671,081

1,081 1,948 1,108

345 1,453

99 169

268

470

416

( 13 )

886 4,894 3,521 8,415

:

TOTAL.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

TABLE VIII.

THE AGES OF THE EUROPEANS, AMERICANS AND OTHER NON-CHINESE ON BOARD THE SHIPPING.

BRITISH.

AMERICAN.

PORTUGUESE.

OTHER EUROPEANS.

INDIANS.

THE REST OF THE CHINESE

POPULATION.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

(14)

1

15

15

15

15

18

18

62

1

63

12223

:

39

37

:

:

:

22

22

2

คง

15

13

6

2

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:.

:.

:

32

1222

16

16

80

1

81

204

1

205

39

24

24

70

71

249

2

251

37

14

14

LLin

38

38

183

185

22

223

10

15

13

6

10

30

N

:

I

3

:.

:

1

1

:

8

183

183

95

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

5

10

21

21

99

99

1-

15

:

10

83

8.1

6

10

10

55

56

4

4

34

35

9

9

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

9

:

9

F:.

:

:

:

95 258

2 260 992 9 1,001

:

AGE.

Males.

Fe-

males.

Total. Males.

Fe-

males.

Fc-

Total. Males..

Total. Males.

males.

Fe-

males

Total. Males.

Fe-

males.

Total. Males. |

Fc-

males.

Total. Males.

Fe-

males.

Total.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:..

:.

:

:

Under 1 year,

1 year and under 5,

:

:

5

""

10,

:

10

"}

""

15,

15

20,

9

99

"3

201

25,

48

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

9

4

1

48

26

26

2

""

25

2 5

30,

78

>>

:

78

35

3333

1.

36

3

30

"

35

35,

58

1 59

36

1

37

25

35

40,

30

30

21

21

::

:

:

:

40

145

45,

22:33

87

37

9

1

10

45

13

F

50,

22

22

4

:

50

""

A

55,

10

10

2

วง

55

*

"}

""

60,

60

65,

4

1

""

>>

65

95

70,

:

:

Not stated,

3

8

ཀག

Total,...

298

299

150

6 156

00

AGES.

Males.

Females.

Total.

VICTORIA.

THE PEAK.

Males.

Females.

Total.

TABLE IX.

THE AGES OF THE CHINESE POPULATION.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Under 1 month,

10

11

21

10

12

22

10

12

I month and under 2 months,

179 127

306

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

22

11

17

7

15

22

192 153

845

192

153

315

}

year

and under 5 years,

3,094 3,064

6,158

3

275

9

291

569

947 1,014 1,961

4,319 4,378

8,697

1,646 1,682 | 3,328

5,965 6,060

12,025

years and under 10 years,

3,705 4,471

8,176

12

16 375 337

7121,113 1,062 | 2,175

5,205 5,874 11,079

2,036 1,800

3,836

7,241 7,674

14,915

10

15

5,737 5,057

10,794

28

4

32 493

347 840 1,473

967 2,440

7,781 6,375 | 14,106

5 1,997 | 1,623 | 3,620

9,733 7,998

17,781

>>

""

""

15

17

20

"3

"}

25

8 19 20

16,544,038 20,579

252

1-

259

9:4

3151,829 4,205

751 4,956

21,912, 5,111 27,023

83

83 2,776 1,490 4,266 24,771 6,601

31,872

"3

25

20,978 4,943|| 25,921

328

17

355 1,505

825 1,830 6,1131,2 9 | 7,332

:

28,924 | 6,504 | 35,428

278

:

278 3,353 1,365 4,718 | 32,555 | 7,869

40,424

30

20,550 4,766| 25,3:6

326

8

""

35

>>

30

85

40

45

888

35

40

>>

23

45

>>

50

"1

50

55

>>

55

138 139

14,757 4,841

19,598

""

12,234 3,276 15,5.0

לי

10,166 3,258

39

13,424

281 17

170

111

334 1,738

298 1,441

10 180 983

15 126

385 2,123 5,777 | 1,140 | 6,917

28,891 6,299

34,690 310

3103,316 1,365 | 4,711 | 32,047 | 7,664

39,711

3341,775 | 4,631

997 5,628

21,110 | 6,189

27,299

228

228 2,562 1,081 3,643|| 23,900 7,270

31,170

2811,264 2,976

770 3,746

16,363 | 4,337

20,700

132

:

132 1,745

787 2,532

18,240 : 5,124

23,364

235

746

981 2,261

614 2,875

13,284 | 4,122

17,406

80

"3

6,423 2,271

8,69-1 GO

9

69

505

177

682 1,293

419 1,712

8,281 2,876 11,157

42

39

80 | 1,762

803 2,565

15,126 4,925

20,051

42! 1,030

502 1,532

9,353 3,878

12,781

5,396 2,419

7,815

51

10

61

369

209

578

876

302 1,178

6,692 2,940

9,632

15

15

891

5471,438

7,598 3,487

11,085

2,826| 1,173

3,999

21

5

10

25

26

157

230

387

577

305 882

3,654 1,640

5,294

""

}}

60

65

งว

A

65

70

"5

""

70

75

""

"3

75

11

3

32 2 2 2

1,719

''

962 2,681

8

1

*

125

98 223

389

279

G68

:.

2,241 | 1,340

8,081

10

Q

0

430 293

723

4,089, 1,983

6,022

2

356

356

712

:

2,599 1,696

4,295

633

414

1,047

ww

19

287

227

514

1

>>

80

91

93

49

80

35

184

GO

:

61

49

110 114

99

23

39

62

62

86

11

20

31

27

129

~

10

15

16

8888

213

811 562

1,373

138

143

281

949:

705

:

1,65-1

148

878

653

726

108

133

241

481 486

967

39

66

129

29

72

2223

152

281

119

191

""

13

5

90

12

18

30

СТ

2

15

27

ོཚལ

14

43

87

173

195

568

21

35

=

154

250

42

50

15

22

55

57

>>

""

90

95

11

18

""

"}

95 and over,

Notated,

:

8,991

141

4,138 |

14

:

:

:

***

14

:

:

12

11

23

3333

2

N

1.1

13

27

:..

:..

:..

1

+

12

12

:

4,020

144 4,164

1,149

640 | 1,789 5,169

781

5,958

Total,..

129,396|45,660| 175,056 | 1,672

1141,786 9,805 3,628 13,433 |32,860 10,16 42,976 |

12

12

173.745 59,518 | 233,263 1,180

1,180 25,402|14,698 40,100 | 200,327 71.216–274,548

Males.

STONE CUTTERS'

HONGKONG

BRITISH

VILLAGES.

KOWLOON.

ISLAND, GREEN ISLAND,

TOTAL.

MERCANTILE MARINE.

FLOATING POPULATION.

TOTAL.

AND GAP ROCK.

Females.

15

Total.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Males.

Females.

Total.

(16)

TABLE X.

NATIVE PLACES OF THE CHINESE LAND POPULATION.

PROVINCES AND COUNTRIES.

MALES.

FEMALES.

TOTAL.

PROVINCES OF CHINA,-

Chebkiang,

Chihli,

Fabkien,

Honam,

རུ་

.99

26

125

16

23

39

841

247

1,088

11

4

15

Hunan,

84

16

100

Hupeh,

12

3

15

Kiangnan,

32

12

14

Kiangsi,

90

22

112

Kiaugsu,

131

212

343

Kwangsi,

177

128

305

Kwangtung,

171,019

56,596

227,615

Nganhwui,

8

8

Shansi,

3

3

Shantung,

43

54

Shensi,

2

Szchuen,..

1

8

28

31

Yunnan,

Other CounTRIES,-

America, Annam,

......

British Subject,

Corea,

མང་

2

2

10

12

22

24

29

53

4

Formosa, Germany,

20

Hongkong,

India,

Japan.

Luzon,

Macao,

Mongolia,

Portuguese,

Siam,

Singapore,

Not state,

1

1

1,082

1.309

2,391

13

3

16

2

4

}

I

97

186

283

1

1

2

9

13

+

4

10

12

109

22

120

Total,......

173,873

58,992

232,865

I

( 17 )

TABLE XI.

NATIVES OF THE KWANG-TUNG PROVINCE RESIDENT IN THE COLONY ACCORDING TO THEIR DISTRICTS.

Name of Prefecture and District.

Males. Females.

Total.

Name of Prefecture and District.

Males. Females.

Total.

Chiu Chau Fu-

Lo Ting Chau

Hoi-yeung,

658

66

724

Tung-on,

682

122

804

Fung-shun,

1

Sai-ning,

32

11

43

Chiu-veung,

1,054

28

1,082

Not stated,

54.

17

71

Kit-yeung,

16

10

26

Ju-ping,.

42

1

43

Total,.....

768

150

918

Wai-loi,

23

9

32

Tái-pó,

47

8

55

Ching-hoi,

464

30

494

Lui Chau Fu-

www.comm

Póning,

71

71

Hoi-hong,

8

Not stated,

1,923

180

2,103

Sui-kai,

15

Tsui-man,

2

3

Total,...

4,209

332

4,631

Not stated,

13

27

40

Ka Ying Chau—

Total,

26

40

66

Cheung-lok,

1,382

332

1,714

Hing-ning,

328

35

363

Ping-uen,

1

1

Nam Hung Chau-

Chau-ping,

11

1

12

Not stated,

694

106

800

Po-chenug,

Tsz-hing, Not stated,

:

1029

10 19

Total,......

2,416

474

2,890

Total,......

-H

King Chau Fu-

King-shau,

37

8

45

Man-cheung,

57

11

68

Shiu Chau Fu-

14

14

Kuk-kong,....

Ui-tung,

Lok-ui,

Lam-kó,

Cheung-fa,

Lok-cheung, Yeung-yuen,

:

Ling-shui,.

Not stated,

B

18

Total,......

156

38

183

1

Ying-tak, Not stated,

ཋ ཋ} ཨཋོ |

22

11

皆児に

28

20

61

Total,......

36

15

51

194

Ko Chau Fu→

Shiu Hing Fu-

Mau-ming,

16

Tin-pák,

4

Sub-i,..

19

Ng Chiu,

Shek-shing,

5

Not stated,

50

Total,.

94

ANAHOO 13

5

21

Koiu,

3.687

443

4,130

7

11

Sz-ui,

1,926

338

2,264

2

21

San-hing,

537

529

1

Yeung-tsun,

7

S

11

Yeung-kong,

42

9

51

39

89

Yan-ping,

1,733

180

1,913

Kwong-ning,

69

71

60

154

Fung-chin,

Hoi-kin,

1

Kwang Chau Fu-

Hoi-ping,

5,358

829

6,187

Nám-hoi,

20,397

6,824

27,221

Hok-shán,.

3,058

531

3,589

Pun-ü,

18,271

10,316

28,587

Not stated,

1,063

232

1,295

Shun-tak,

8.825

2,814

11,439

Tung-kun..

20,235

8.609

28,844

Total,......

17,482

2,621

20,103

Heung-shán,

8,245

4,252

12,497

San-ui,

18,074

3,468

21,542

Tsang-shing,

1,450

462

1,912

Wai Chau Fu-

Tsing-uen,.

1,994

284

2,278

Kwai-shin,

9,329

3,068

12,397

San-ning,

6,734

1,049

7.783

Tsung-fa,

75

18

93

Pok-lo, Hoi-fung,

1,425

260

1,685

2,271

150

2,421

Sám-shui,

7,874

1,633

9,007

Luk-fung,

64

I

65

Lung-mun,

San-ou,

21

14

35

Ho-uen,

109

22

131

15,331

7,081

22,412

Lung-chin,

184

16

200

Fa-uen,

2,309

658

2,967

Wo-ping,

16

16

Not stated,

1,509

1,470

2,979

Cheung-ning,

Q

2

Wing-on,

116

16

182

Total,...... 130,844

48,952

179,296

Not stated,

1,774

319

2,093

Lim Chau Fu-

Total,......

15,290

3,852 19,142

Hop-po,.

11

10

21

Ling-shan,

J

Not stated,

59

30

89

Total,......

72

40

112

Fa Chau,

Lin Chau Fu-

Lin-ping Chau, Tah-hing Chau,.

Yam Chau,

101050

6

12

10

Yeung-shán,

1:、

3

Lin-shan,

Total,......

20

C

25

Not stated,

11

10

21

Total,......

16

13

29

Grand Total,...... 171,019

56,596 227,615

( 18 )

TABLE XII.

CHINESE POPULATION OF THE VILLAGES OF HONGKONG.

Villages.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Aberdeen,

764

318

1.082

Tin Tsz Tong,

13

9

Tin Wan,

30

Aberdeen Garden,

53

6

61

Aplichau,

748

321

1,069

T

Fu Hiu,

17

24

Wong Chuk Hang,

27

77

34

"

:

Little Hongkong, Old Village,

Brick Works,

Tai Shu Wan,

112

97

209

New Village,

52

4:1

101

99

100

3

Total,......

1,948

851

2,799

Tsinshniwan,

Stanley,

1

{)

285

235

320

Wongmakok,

27

21

48

Taitam,

21

Taitamtuk,

Hok-tsuiwan.

Deep Water Bay,

Tong Po,

58998

12

BB

65

29

94

19

3+

26

27

Total,......

408

323

791

Shek-0,

Chai-wan,

A Kung Ngam,

Shaukiwan

Futau Wat.

Kan Kan Uk,

Ma Shau Ha,

Chun Lung Uk, Tsin Shui Matau, Sai Wan Ho, Wongkoktsui, Shuitsin gwan, Quarry Bay. Tsut Tsz Mui, Sam Ka Tsin,

Total,......

Grand Total,

Villages.

Kaupuishek,

Matauwai,

Matauchung,

Matankok,...

Hampuilung,

Sanshán,......

Tokwawan.

Shekshán,

Hek-nen,

Taiwan,

Hunghom....

T-opaichai,

Yaumiati, Uenchau, Fopang, Mati,

...

Mongkoktsni, Taishekku,

Houantin, Mongkok, ... Taikok sui, Fuk:sunheung,

140

116

256

80

74

15+

150

54

213

2,164

1,174

3,338

30

32

62

G

11

83

46

129

158

97

255

489

251

740

286

164

420

654

3

637

722

1,712

163

1,875

293

138

431

42

14

نارة

6,987

2,332

9,819

9,403

8,506

12,909

TABLE XIII.

CHINESE POPULATION OF BRITISH KOWLOON,

Total.......

i

Males.

Females.

Total.

34

24

58

171

162

338

203

128

331

614

77

691

60

45

105

168

58

226

878

1.265

B31

90

221

1.754

467

9.221

24 7,789

16

40

2,069

9,808

42

22

12,387

4,472

64 16,859

304

150

454

67

64

B31

483

178

661

1,037

110

1,147

B6

GO

196

242

120

362

2412

647

3.059

2,965

5-6

3,551

1,009

184

1,193

82,860

10,116

42,976

( 19 )

TABLE XIV.

POPULATION OF THE REGISTRATION DISTRICTS OF VICTORIA IN 1891 AND IN 1991.

Districts.

1891.

1901.

Increase.

Decrease.

Nos. 1 and 2

3,581

11,032

1,45]

No. 3

34,559

44,722

10,163

No. 4

31,302

20,676

10,626

No. 5

12,067

13,297

1,230

No. 6

36,196

51,243

15,047

Nos. 7 and 8

16,944

23,487

6,543

Nos. 9 and 10.

10,599

10,599

134,649

175,056

51,033

10,626

Deduct decrease,

Total increase,.

10,626

10,407

TABLE XV.

POPULATION OF VICTORIA ACCORDING TO HEALTH DISTRICTS.

Districts.

Europeans, Americans

and Races other than Chinese.

Eurasians.

Total.

Males. Females. Total.

Males. Females.

Total.

Males. Females. Total.

Eastern Police District,

1,003

986

1,989

16

36

52

1,019 1,022 2,041

Central Police District,.

2,331

1,666

3,997

46

106

152

2,377

Western Police District,

418

186

604

29

23

52

117

1,772 209

4,149

656

3,752

2,838 6,590

91

165

256

3,843

3,003

6,846

Health Districts.

Chinese.

Males.

Females.

Total.

No. 1, 2,

7,844

2,755

10,599

18,124

5,234

23,358

3,

4,002

1,432

5,434

4,

16,739

7,448

24,182

5,

15,151

7,467

22,618

6,

14,810

4,003

18,813

7.

11,113

2,883

13,995

8,

14,980

1,543

19,523

9,

17,965

6,578

24,543

10:

7,940

3,092

11,032

128,668

45,430

174,098

Grand Total,

180,944

TABLE XVI.

NUMBER OF CHINESE FAMILIES IN THE TEN REGISTRATION DISTRICTS OF VICTORIA.

In 1991,....

In 1901,

14,120 families. .25,123

5

!

( 20 )

TABLE XVII.

CHINESE FLOATING POPULATION.

Number and Description of Boats and Junks in the Waters of the Colony and the Number of Persons

on each class of Boat.

DESCRIPTION

OF

VESSELS.

STANLEY.

ABER-

DEEN.

HARBOUR.

NORTHERN

SHORE.

SOUTHERN

SHORE.

POPULATION.

REST.

TOTAL.

Males. Females. TOTAL,

Passenger Boats,

Cargo Boat and Lighters,

Steam Launches,

Harbour Boats...............

:

110

2

580

542

208

1,442

3,800 3,285 7,085

1

42

482

785

114

1,424

2

51

.111

34

200

2,263

7,856 4,068 11,924

119 2,382

42

252

127

60

13

495

1,531 1,176

2,707

Total,.............

I

155

298

1,240

1,498

369

3,561

15,450

8,648 24,098

Fishing Boats.

118

787

318

648

81

87

2,039

7,574

5,678 13,252

Trading Junks,........

5

CC

8

99

100

24

236

2,378

372

2,750

Grand Total...................

119

947

624 1,987 1,679

480

5,836

25,402 14,698

40,100

TABLE XVIII.

THE NUMBER OF EUROPEAN, AMERICAN AND NON-CHINESE CHILDREN BETWEEN THE AGES OF 6 AND 15 YEARS (INCLUSIVE).

VICTORIA.

THE PEAK.

BRITISH KOWLOON.

TOTAL.

Males. Females. Total. Males. Females. Total. Males. Females. Total. Males. Females.

Total.

6 Years,

61

7

55

3

62

00

8

39

9

64

2 13 13 16

123

10

56

111

ск

10

55

94

N

~

121

"

10

50

59

109

1

1

10

10

N

11

54

48

102

1

-

12

44

49

93

1

2

29

13

56

59

115

1

1

1

14

41

41

82

:

15

56

59

115

**

:

1

1

O

10

7

6

13

12

3

**

73

73

146

64

9

131

3

43

60

103

67

69

136

6

11

56

65

122

N

CO

4

56

51

107

10

51

~

3

57

3

43

12 2 +

55

106

62

119

44

87

3

58

63

121

Total,...... 520

545 1,065

13

28

41

35

37

72

568

610

1,178

( 21 )

TABLE XIX.

THE NUMBER OF EUROPEANS, AMERICANS AND NON-CHINESE WHO ARE

DESCRIBED AS BEING STUDENTS.

Boys, Girls,

Total,.

TABLE XX.

...560 ..329

..889

THE NUMBER OF CHINESE CHILDREN BETWEEN THE AGES OF 6 AND 15 YEARS (INCLUSIVE).

6 years,

7

""

8

9

29

77

10

11

99

12

"2

13

"3

14

">

15

Total,.

Males.

Females.

Total.

977

1,122

2,099

1,013

1,166

2,179

1,104

1,329

2,433

1,025

1,103

2,128

1,138

1,302

2,440

1,204

1,204

2,408

1,626

1,523

3,149

1,556

1,184

2,740

2,206

1,139

3,345

3,290

1,060

4,350

15,139

12,132

27,271

TABLE XXI.

THE NUMBER OF CHINESE WHO ARE DESCRIBED AS BEING STUDENTS.

Boys, Girls,

Army, Navy,

Total,

TABLE XXII.

MILITARY AND NAVAL ESTABLISHMENTS.

Total,

TABLE XXIII.

...6,568

..1,260

..7,828

.7,640

...5,597

13,237

OCCUPATIONS OF THE NON-CHINESE PORTION OF THE COMMUNITY.

A

Accountant,

Actor,

Agent,

Architect,

C

22

Carpenter,

10

Cement Burner,

15

Chemist,

20

Circus,

1

Clerk,

Artificer,

Artist,

Auctioneer,

B

Clock and Watchmaker,

Commerce,

Banking,

Baker,

Barber,

Confectioner,

Consul,

Contractor, Coppersmith, Cotton,

Curio Dealer, Customs,

Blacksmith,

Boarding Master,

Boiler-maker,

Brakesman,

Dairy,

Book-seller and Stationer,

4

Docks,

Book-keeper,

12

Brewer,

Broker,

73

Draper,

Builder,

Domestic Servant. Draftsman,

Dressmaker,.....

A

6

3 27

4

.770

2

5

4

11

2

2

8

10

17

7

.109

9

5

15

(22)

OCCUPATION OF THE NON-CHINESE PORTION OF THE COMMUNITY,-

Eating-house Keeper,

Electricity,

Engine Driver,

------

Engineer,

Engineer, Civil,

Engineer, Mechanical,

Engraver,

Fakir,

Fireman,

Fisherman,

Fitter,

Foreman,

Gas,

Godowns,

Government Service, Gunsmith,

......

Hawker,

E

1

Optician,

12

Organist,

1

Overseer,

140

23

6

O

P4

F

1.

9

Painter,

Pensioner,

......

Photography, Pianist,

Piano Tuner, Plumber,

1

The Press,

9

Printer,

16

Publican,

R

G

5

Religion,

8

S

.558

1

Scientist,

Secretary,

H

Ship Builder,

Ship Chandler,

2

Shipwright,

29

Shop Employee,

I

Smith,

Shop Keeper,

Soda Water,.........

12

Stevedore,

1

Storeman,

Student,

Sugar Refineries,

Surveyor,

Hotels, Boarding Houses, &c.,

Insurance,

Interpreter,

J

Jeweller, Jockey,

T

Continued.

1

45

14

9

...

4

2

16

24

A

7

91

1

12

6

3

16

6

30

1

2

1

21

....560

......

38

9

Joiner,

Tallyman,

25

L

Tattooer,

21

Teacher,

38

Landowner,

Telegraph,

11

Law,

30

Time Keeper,

4

Librarian,

Tinmau,

1

Lithographer,

U

M

Undertaker,.........

Underwriter,

2

Manager,

Manufacturer,

Marine Surveyor,

Mason,

Mechanic,

Medicine,

Mercantile Marine,

Merchant,

36

1

V

3

2

Violinist,

1

Visitor,

24

26

Vocalist,

1

.175

..809

W

Milliner,

Miner,

Moulder,

Musician,

Occupations undefined,

Occupations not stated,

Waiter,

Watchman,

Wharfinger,

1 .202 7

79

789

1.--ADMINISTRATION.

Policemen,

299

Watchmen,...

177

Excise Officers,

48

( 23 )

TABLE XXIV.

OCCUPATIONS OF THE CHINESE.

MALES.

11. ARTICLES OF SUPPLEMENTARY

Furniture,

REQUIREMENT.

Toys and Curios,

Government employés,

127

Paper,

651

Books,

2.-DEFENCE.

Pictures,

Army,

1

Tools and Machinery,

Navy,

11

Watches,

12

Arms,

3.-SERVICE OF OTHER STATES.

Carving,

Civil,

Music,

ུ ཌཥྭཱ འ ཡཿ ཿ ཡ ཤཱ རྞ

107

10

77

351

11

33.

60

2

Miscellaneous,

4.-PROVISION, &C. OF CATTLE, &C.

Cattle and pig breeding,

34

1

42

737

168

168

12-TEXTILE, FABRICS AND DRESS.

5.—AGRICULTURE.

Market gardeners,

Miscellaneous,

Dress,

3,152

123

Cotton,

232

......

Farmers,

6. PERSONAL, HOUSEHOLD

592

Hemp, Jute and Coir,

87

487

Silk,

52

1,202

Miscellaneous,

AND

3,527

SANITARY SERVICE.

Cooks,

3,562

Personal Servants,

43,410

13.-METALS AND PRECIOUS STONES.

Tin, Zinc and Lead,

254

Washermen,

552

Brass,

42

Barbers,

1.196

Precious Metals and Stones,

773

Gardeners,

285

Iron and Steel,

51

Non-Domestic entertainment,

175

Gold, Silver and Stones,

1

Restaurants,

90

Miscellaneous,

3,920

...

Sanitation, .....

88

5,041

Scavengers, &c.,

118

Miscellaneous,

330

49,806

7.-PROVISION OF FOOD, DRINK, &C.

Vegetables,......

136

Glass and Chinaware,

Miscellaneous,

Fruit,

127

*

Opium,

148

Fish,

599

Bakers,

133

Poultry,

8

Grain and Flour,

14

Rice,

53

Tobacco,

222

Pork,

109

14. GLASS AND EARTHENWARE.

Earthen and Stoneware,

15.--WOOD, CANE AND MATTING.

Wood,

Cane and Matting,

Miscellaneous,

16.-DRUGS, GUмs, &c.

Druggists, &c.,

Photographic Materials,

11

14

54

79

5,927

968

21

6,936

435

1

Eggs,

17

436

Wine,

9

17. LEATHER, HIDES, &C.

Sugar,

57

European Boot Makers,

131

Beef,

55

Chinese Leather Boot Makers,...

149

Oil,

45

Miscellaneous,

108

Tea,

83

388

Foreign goods dealers,

189

18.-COMMERCE.

Chandlers,

208

General Merchandise,

310

...

Rice pounders,

189

Brokerage and Agency,

562

Miscellaneous,

294

Money, &c.,

122

2,725

Compradores,

148

8.-LIGHT, FIRING AND FORAGE.

Dealing, Unspecified,

15,783

Firewood,

56

16,925

Coal,

284

Gas lighters,

10

19. TRANSPORT AND STORAGE.

Miscellaneous,

60

410

9.-BUILDINGS.

Carpenters,......

46

Storage,

Water,

Messages,

Land,

303

2,205

69

1,525

Matsheds,

52

4,102

Stone-cutters,

1,648

Builders,

247

Masons,

1,896

20.-LEARNED AND ARTISTIC

PROFESSIONS.

Earth Coolies,

2,293

Religion,

Painters,

Miscellaneous,

10. VEHICLES AND VESSELS.

Boat Builders,

Ships and Boats,

974

Education,

131

Literature,.....

7,287

Law,

Medicine,

3

......

12

Other Sciences,

Carts, &c.,

69

Miscellaneous,

1

Engineering and Survey,

Music, &c........

Pictorial Art, and Sculpture,

..

85

128 262

11

1

410

......

39

73

97

143

1,164

( 24 )

OCCUPATIONS OF THE CHINESE,-Continued.

EARTHWORK AND GENERAL

LABOUR.

General Labour,

3.- -INDEFINITE AND DISREPUTABLE

MEANS OF SUBSISTENCE.

Miscellaneous,

Indefinite,

MALES.

23,785

24.-INDEPENDENT OF LABOUR.

Pensioner, Miscellaneous,

23,785

25.-Not stated,

3,261 9,938

Total.

13,199

I

187

488

34,590

34,590

173,745

FEMALES.

226

15.—WOOD, CANE AND MATTING.

Basket Weavers,

2

226

Mat Bag Menders,

13

Mat Bag Stitchers,

17

9

Rattan Workers,

11

851

43

.....

860

18.-COMMERCE.

Dealing, Unspecified.

334

334

4.-PROVISION. &C. OF CATTLE.

Cattle and Pig Breeding,

5.-AGRICULTURE.

Market Gardeners, Farmers,

6.- PERSONAL, HOUSEHOLD A ND

SANITARY SERVICE.

Hair Dressers,

Washerwomen,

Servants,

Wet Nurses,

Cooks,

House-keepers,

Nurses,

......

Sanitation,

7.-PROVISION OF FOOD, DRINK, &C.

Tea Pickers,

Ginger Scrapers,

Oil Skimmers,

Ground Nut Sheller,

Vegetable Sellers,

Fisherwomen,

Sugar Employees

Rice Grinders,

Dairy Employees

Market Lessees,

Rice and Oil Dealer,......

8.-LIGHT, FIRING AND FORAGE.

Firewood Sellers,

Match Box Makers,

Match Makers,

Lantern Makers,

11. ARTICLES OF SUPPLEMENTARY

REQUIREMENT.

Paper Rollers,

Artificial Flower-makers,

Embroiderer, ...

Pillow Makers,

12.-TEXTILE, FABRICS AND DRESS.

Seamstresses,

Tailors,

Spinners,

Weavers,

Foreign Hatmakers,

Grass Shoemakers,

Rope Spinners,

Bamboo Splitters,

Cotton Mill Employees,

37

39

6,066

261

254

1

4

19.-TRANSPORT AND STORAGE.

Water,

20.-LEARNED AND ARTISTIC

PROFESSIONS.

4

6,666

Midwife,

Teachers

C0100 ---

6

Doctors,

2

Nuns,

3

Priestess,

1

9

24

1

1

Preachers,

Temple Keeper,

Joss Stick Maker, Fortune Teller, Music.

51

51

1

53

21

1

9

1

1

1

98 C.

52

22.-EARTHWORK AND

GENERAL

LABOUR. General Labourers,

1,157

1,157

47

5

55

23.-INDEFINITE AND DISREPUTABLE

MEANS OF SUBSISTENCE.

Disreputable,...

3

3

Indefinite,

24.-INDEPENDENT OF LABOUR.

11

Beggars,

Property Owner,

9,220

Blind

46

Prisoners.

6

17

1

33

2,208 38,399

40,607

4

20

31

Grand Total.

59,518

9,827

( 25 )

TABLE XXV.

POPULATION OF THE NEW TERRITORY.

A.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Kowloon South of the range,

Kowloon City,

Other Villages,

Kowloon North of the range,-

Luk Yeuk,

3,164

1,924

5,088

7,973

4,182

12,155

1,166

1,054

2,220

Kau Yeuk,

2,350

2.181

4,531

Tsün Wan,

1,716

1,556

3,272

Lamma Island,

655

479

1,184

Lantao Island,

4,463

3,477

7,940

Cheung Chau,

1,793

941

2,734

Other Islands to the West of Hongkong,

1,287

638

1,925

Uen Long,.

12,560

10,683

23,248

Sheung U,

9,271

8,366

17,637

Luk Yeuk,

870

923

1,793

Sha Tau Kok,

6,312

5,273

11,585

Tung Hoi, ....

3,038

2,790

5,828

Islands to the East of Hongkong and in Mirs Bay,

726

443

1,169

Total,.......

57,314

44,010

102,254

Under 16 years of age,

16 years

and over,

Total,....

B.

C.

Males.

Females.

Total.

17,540

14,427

31,967

39,804

30,483

70,287

57,344

41,910

102,254

Number of houses,

.....25,584

Number of empty houses,

3,463

Number of occupied houses,

..22,121

Average number of inmates to each house,

4.6

HONGKONG.

803

47 No. 1901

REPORT OF THE COMMISSION APPOINTED BY HIS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR

TO ENQUIRE INTO AND REPORT ON THE QUESTION OF THE EXISTING DIFFICULTY OF PROCURING AND RETAINING RELIABLE

CHAIR AND JINRICKSHA COOLIES FOR PRIVATE

CHAIRS AND JINRICKSHAS.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of

His Excellency the Governor.

REPORT OF THE COMMISSION,

CONTENTS.

APPENDICES:

PAGE.

3-7

PAGE.

APPENDIX A.-Commission by His Excellency the Governor,

(1)

B.-Evidence,......

>>

C.-List of Questions circulated,

.(1 a)–(127)

(128)

>

X

D.-Return of Answers to Questions in Appendix C,

.(128)

E.-Selection of Answers to Questions in Appendix C,

.(129)

"

F.-Draft Bill,

.(139)

G.-Minute by the Hon'ble the Captain Superintendent of Police,........

..(142)

""

H.-Letter from the Hon'ble the Captain Superintendent of Police,

.(143)

"

1. Memo. by Chief Detective Inspector Hanson,.................

..(144)

""

J.-Mr. A. W. Brewin's Letter to the Secretary to the Commission,

..(145)

""

K.-Letter from His Honour Mr. Justice Sercombe Smith to His Excellency the

Governor,

.(146)

>>

L.-Reply by His Excellency the Governor to Mr. Justice Sercombe Smith, ...(147)

M. Mr. R. Chatterton Wilcox's Letter to Government,

....(147)

REPORT OF THE COMMISSION APPOINTED BY HIS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR TO ENQUIRE INTO AND REPORT ON THE QUESTION OF THE EXISTING DIFFICULTY OF PROCURING AND RETAIN ING RELIABLE

CHAIR AND JINRICKSHA COOLIES FOR PRIVATE CHAIRS AND JINRICKSHAS.

The undersigned, Members of a Commission appointed to inquire into and report on the question of the existing difficulty of procuring and retaining reliable private chair and jinricksha coolies, have the honour to report as follows:-

1. We have held 14 Meetings between 3rd September and 4th November, 1901, and have examined 30 witnesses.

2. We have ascertained the views, on certain points, of over 120 residents by means of a printed paper of questions, which forms Appendix C.

3. The answers to those questions show conclusively that there has been difficulty in procuring and retaining reliable private chair and ricksha coolies.

4. As to the causes of the existing difficulty, we find that the main cause of the difficulty in procuring such coolies is a demand for increased wages, which many non- Chinese refuse to pay.

5. We observe that there has apparently been no difficulty in procuring six hundred coolies from China to man the three hundred new public rickshas which have recently been licensed. Further, we observe from the annual reports of the Captain Superintend- ent of Police that in the year 1897, 7,164 drivers and bearers were licensed; in the year 1898, 8,252; in the year 1899, 8,923; and in the year 1900, 9,984, or an increase of 2,820 drivers and bearers in a period of 4 years, that is, an increase of nearly 40 per cent. in the number of drivers and bearers. These figures seem to show that the demand for public chair and ricksha coolies has been amply met, and lead us to the conclusion that there is an adequate number of men procurable for private service, provided the wages offered approach in amount the takings of the licensees of public vehicles.

6. We are of opinion that the price of lodging is not as a rule a serious factor in the matter, because private coolies are usually lodged, rent free, by their masters; and we think that the increased cost of food has been approximately met by the advance in wages which has occurred in the last five years.

7. The demand for wages exceeding $8 a month seems, in the main, due to the fact that the calling of a public chair or ricksha coolie, especially the latter, is more lucra- tive, and induces private coolies to leave to join the ranks of public coolies.

3. The evidence tends to show that no regular guilds of chair and ricksha coolies exist, but each lodging house seems to be an effective centre for combination.

9. The causes of the difficulty in retaining such coolies when procured are :-

-

A. That such coolies, in many cases, object to perform odd jobs, such as chit carrying, punkah pulling, tennis fielding, housework, &c., which they once did without demur.

B. That there is some doubt whether the law makes it penal for such coolies to neglect their duty, or to absent themselves from duty, or to leave service. without notice, or to disobey lawful and reasonable orders, &c., &c., although such a law exists in respect of domestic servants. (Vide section 3 sub-section 3 of Ordinance 14 of 1845.)

4

C.--That a knowledge of the earnings of public coolies makes private coolies discontented and induces them to leave private employ at the earliest opportunity.

D. That they sometimes object to give their whole time to their masters'

service.

E-That if they leave a master, they can usually find employment with

another master or obtain other work.

10. As to whether it is advisable and practicable to introduce any, and (if any) what legislation on the subject, our answer is yes, and we append a draft Bill which we think would meet the case. (See Appendix F.)

11. We are aware that the provisions of the Victoria Registration Ordinance No. 7 of 1866 affecting the registration of servants and repealed by Ordinance 13 of 1888, were not worked with much success. The reasons for this failure, were, we believe, the absence of photography, laxity in enforcing those provisions, indifference on the part of masters, the preference of personal convenience to the general advantage, the doubtful applicability of sub-section 3 of section 3 of Ordinance 14 of 1845 to other than domestic servants, the fraudulent transfer of certificates of registration, and, probably, the payment of a registration fee.

12. The draft Bill referred to in para. 10 provides, inter alia, for compulsory regis- tration at the Central Police Station, for the photographing of every private coolie, for the regulation of the conduct of private coolies, and for making it penal for masters to engage unregistered coolies and for unregistered coolies to seek or obtain employment in the same capacities.

13. We are decidedly of the opinion, which the evidence supports, that to be effect- ive, registration must be compulsory, universal, and in the hands of the Police Depart-

ment..

We think that the scheme of registration embodied in the draft Bill, will give both the Police and masters desirable and, we trust, effective control over private coolies.

14. In answer to question 6 of Appendix C. "Whether persons who engage un- registered private chair and ricksha coolies should be liable to a fine in the l'olice Court", there were 78 ayes, 26 conditional ayes, and 24 nays. The evidence of Mr. POATE shows that there was misapprehension as to the meaning of this question. When it was explained to him that it was not proposed to punish the master, and leave the coolie alone, he adopted the view of this Commission, that no scheme of registration could be successfully enforced if masters were not made liable for en- gaging unregistered coolies. If this is borne in mind, it is evident that the majority of "ayes" in favour of making such masters liable would probably have been greater; as it is, the proportion of "ayes" to "nays" is that of more than 3 to 1.

15. We recommend that registration shall be free, because the payment of a fee in former times may have conduced to render the former Ordinance nugatory, and because the existence of a fee may be made the ground for demanding higher wages.

16. Apart from the reason that the omission of the penal clause affecting masters will defeat the whole purpose of registration, we consider that it would be unjust to punish the coolie who offers his services and not also the person who accepts those services.

17. Generally, we think that registration will tend to weed out of the ranks of private coolies the bad characters sometimes met with, because persons unfavourably known to the Police would not be registered.

18. Some persons fear that registration will tend to limit the number of coolies now available, and therefore wish to be at liberty to engage unregistered coolies who may offer themselves. The limitation of numbers; it is said, will arise (1) from the

*

r

5

Police Department refusing to register as private coolies men known to be bad cha- racters, but who, quâ coolies, are capable servants, (2) from unwillingness on the part of private coolies to register.

In our judgment, if the result (1) anticipated by the sceptics concerning registra- tion is attained, it will prove an unmixed advantage to the community, which will thus be relieved of the presence of rogues masquerading as private coolies who, we should not be surprised, would also prove on inquiry to be to some extent at the bottom of the present difficulty.

As regards result (2) we believe that no persons who wish to become private coolies, would be deterred by free registration from entering private service.

By the draft Bill, which we have submitted, it is provided that a master may have in his employ for 48 hours unregistered coolies. This period of 48 hours will enable the coolie to become registered, and will give the master reasonable time to insist on the coolie being registered.

We do not oppose an enlargement of this period of 48 hours, but would point out that if the period is much enlarged, it will merely induce an aggravated condition of the present difficulty in retaining coolies.

19. As regards what other (if any) remedial measures should be taken, we suggest that the scale of fares for public rickshas, in Victoria and Kowloon, should be revised and reduced, at any rate so far as short time fares are concerned; for we are convinced that if the earnings of private chair and ricksha coolies could be placed more nearly on an equality with those of public ricksha coolies, the inducement to throw up private service for public employ would lose much of its force, the demand for higher wages would almost cease, and the difficulty of procuring and retaining private chair and ricksha coolies would be largely diminished, if it did not altogether disappear.

20. Chief Detective Inspector HANSON stated in his evidence that he had calcu- lated that it is possible for two men between them to make from $60 to $80 a month. with a public ricksha; and one of the public ricksha coolies examined stated that his nett earnings, after paying for food and rent, amounted to $10 a month. The evidence also shows that a coolie will pay a considerable sum for the goodwill of a public ricksha.

:

21. At present, the minimum ricksha fare is 5 cents for a quarter of an hour. If a person takes a ricksha from the Clock Tower to the Hongkong Club or Hongkong. Bank he must pay 5 cents.

This seems to be an unnecessarily large fare. We therefore advocate ricksha rates of 2, 3, and 5 cents for 5, 10 and 15 minutes respectively. Distance fares, as in the case of gâris, might also be introduced. The difficulty of carrying the necessary money can be overcome by adopting a system of checks for these several amounts. These checks should be saleable at the Treasury and Police Stations in the Colony and could be redeemed by the coolies on presentation at the Treasury in office hours.

Great care would have to be taken to guard against the acceptance, for redemption, of forged checks, not issued by the Treasury or a Police Station.

As it is a practice for Chinese engaging public chairs and rickshas to bargain for rates below the tariff rates, it is clear that licensed coolies are willing to take

passengers at reduced fares.

22. We are not aware whether the public revenue of $55,000 which was the sum. derived in 1900 from the licensing of carriages, chairs, &c. would be materially affected by our proposal, but we submit that, even though the public revenue from this particular source were decreased, it would be but a small consideration to pay for the advantages resulting from a supply of private chair and ricksha coolies.

23. We have not entered into the question of the probable effect of the reduction in public fares for short times and distances upon the number of public vehicles which might continue to ply, but we see no reason to think that the approximate equalisation

}

of the earnings of public and private coolies would tend to drive public vehicles off the streets, because we think that the earnings still procurable in Hongkong as compared with the earnings procurable in China, would continue to attract Chinese from the main- land.

24. It appears to us that the community's independence of private coolies' services would be aided by the establishment of a larger number of chair or ricksha stands or ranks. Take the Peak as an example. If stands or ranks for chairs were placed at such points as Plantation Road Station, underneath Craigieburn and at the bifurcation of the roads round Mount Kellett, it is obvious that this convenience would render Peak residents more or less independent of private coolies.

It would also aid in the same direction if the chair stand at Victoria Gap were on the public telephone system. An English-speaking Chinese should be put in charge who should depute certain chairs to go where wanted. The number and destination of the chair should be entered in a book kept by the Chinese in charge, and complaints of non-compliance with telephone messages should be sent to and investigated by the Captain Superintendent of Police.

25. We surmise that private coolies occasionally elude the vigilance of the Police and succeed in acting as substitutes for public coolies, or themselves employ what look like private rickshas in soliciting fares.

26. We recommend that the Police, when on ordinary duty, should more fre- quently, and especially at night, require chair and ricksha coolies to show their licences, and should arrest and charge all who do not produce their licences, or who produce licences not bearing the photograph of the person producing it.

27. We strongly recommend that one or more members of the Police Force, who might be called Inspectors of Public Vehicles (as there already is an Inspector of Weights and Measures) should be appointed and detached to exercise special supervision over all licensed public vehicles and coolies whilst they are plying for hire in the streets. These Inspectors should have travelling allowances and should be here, there, and every- where, calling on all kinds of vehicle coolies to produce their licences. This proposal is not intended to be in substitution for the recommendation that the Police on ordinary duty should constantly call for and examine the licences. It would be an additional help, we think, in cases where an unlicensed person is found plying a licensed vehicle, to make the licensed drawer, driver or bearer also liable to be heavily punished.

28. It appears from the evidence that the Chinese generally do not wish that any steps should be taken to register or otherwise control coolies in their employ: therefore, we have no recommendation to make on this point, though we venture the opinion that they will be likely to share in any benefits which may result from the adoption of our proposals.

29. If on consideration it is thought desirable, we see no objection to placing in the hands of persons approved by the Government the business of supplying private chair and ricksha coolies at a given rate of wages, and in accordance with a scheme submitted to the Government on 2nd August, 1901, by the Captain Superintendent of Police and annexed as Appendix G to this report. The rate of wages set forth in that scheme, however, might, in our opinion, be reduced, if the legislation and the remedial measures which we have submitted, are carried into effect.

30. Nevertheless, we are of opinion that our proposals, if carried out, might render a resort to such a scheme unnecessary, and that the market could be supplied without it.

31. As the preamble of the Commission issued to us recognises the existing difficulty of procuring and retaining reliable private chair and ricksha coolies, and we are of opinion that that difficulty, if firmly faced with a determination to remove it,

4.

$

7

would largely if not entirely disappear, we beg respectfully but emphatically to urge that our proposals be given a trial during the coming winter months, that no threats of opposition or rumours of a strike be allowed to thwart an attempt to remedy the prevailing difficulties and inconvenience, and that it should be fully recognised that a difficulty of this nature, arising in connection with the employment of Orientals, will only become aggravated, if not grappled with sternly and speedily. The community may have to face a brief dislocation of the private coolie service, but will, we think, be amply repaid for any temporary discomfort by the benefits expected to accrue.

32. In advance, we would earnestly deprecate any opposition to a fresh attempt to enforce registration on new lines and to make it effective by means of the penal clause, because such registration and such penal clause may not in the opinion of some prove effective and may involve slight personal trouble, inconvenience and loss of time.

33. We trust that all ranks and divisions of the non-Chinese community will be prepared to co-operate in order to make the legislation and measures, which we have proposed, effective and workable. If this co-operation, either from purely selfish consi- derations or out of mere sentiment, be withheld by an influential minority, it is to be feared that no remedial measures devised to meet the emergency can be successful.

We therefore hope that the wealthier members of the non-Chinese community will sink all considerations of personal inconvenience, dignity, trouble and loss of time, and will combine with the less favoured members of that community in lending their support to provide a remedy for the admitted evils which have given rise to this Com- mission.

HONGKONG, 6th November, 1901.

T. SERCOMBE SMITH,

(Chairman).

R. CHATTERTON WILCOX.

F. J. BADELEY.

(1)

APPENDIX A.

COMMISSION BY HIS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR OF HONKONG.

[L.S.] HENRY ARTHUR BLAKE,

Governor.

WHEREAS it is expedient that a Commission be appointed to enquire into and report on the question of the existing difficulty of procuring and retaining reliable chair and jinricksha coolies for private chairs and jinrickshas with special reference to the follow- ing points, viz.:-

(a.) What are the causes of the existing difficulty?

(b.) Whether it is advisable and practicable to introduce any, and (if any)

what legislation on the subject ?

(c.) What other (if any) remedial measures should be taken?

(d.) Whether any proposed legislation or other measures should embrace

coolies in the employ of Chinese and non-Chinese alike?

Now, therefore, I, Sir HENRY ARTHUR BLAKE, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George, Governor of the Colony of Hong- kong and its Dependencies and Vice-Admiral of the same, do hereby under the powers vested in me by Ordinance 27 of 1886, entitled the Commissioners Powers Ordinance, 1886, appoint you:-

1. THOMAS SERCOMBE SMITH,

2. ROBERT CHATTERTON WILCOX,

3. FRANCIS JOSEPH BADELEY,

to be a Commission for the purpose of instituting, making, and conducting such enquiry; And I do hereby appoint you the said THOMAS SERCOMBE SMITH to be Chair- man of such Commission; And I do hereby appoint LEO. D'ALMADA E CASTRO to be Secretary to such Commission; And I do hereby order and direct that for all or any of the purposes of this Commission two Members thereof inclusive of the Chairman shall be and constitute a quorum.

And I do further hereby order and direct that the said Commission shall, for the purpose of making the said enquiry, have all such powers as are vested in the Supreme Court of this Colony or in any Judge thereof on the occasion of any suit or action in respect of the following matters, viz. :—

(a.) The enforcing the attendance of witnesses and examining them on oath, affirmation or otherwise, as the Commissioners or any of them may think fit.

(b.) The compelling the production of documents.

(c.) The punishing persons guilty of contempt.

(d.) The ordering an inspection of any property.

And also the power, for the purposes of this Commission, to enter and view any premises. And I do hereby further direct that every examination of witnesses shall be held in private; And I do further direct that any person examined as a witness in the enquiry aforesaid who in the opinion of the Commissioners makes a full and true disclosure touching all the matters in respect of which he is examined shall receive a certificate under the hand of the Chairman or presiding Member of the Commission, countersigned by the Secretary, stating that the witness has upon his examination made a full and true disclosure as aforesaid, as provided by section 4 of the before mentioned Ordinance; And I do further require you to report to me the evidence and your opinion thereon; And I hereby charge all persons in the Public Service to assist you herein.

Given under my hand and the Public Seal of the Colony in Executive Council, this 28th day of August, A.D. 1901.

By Command,

Council Chamber, Hongkong, 28th August, 1901.

C. CLEMENTI,

Acting Clerk of Councils.

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APPENDIX B.

EVIDENCE.

3rd September, 1901.

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FRANCIS HENRY MAY sworn :-

The Chairman. You are head of the Police. Mr. May?

Witness.-Yes.

Q. And the licensing of public chairs, rickshas and gharries is in

A. Yes.

your hands?

Q.-Have you had any complaints from individuals about the difficulties of pro- curing reliable private chair and ricksha coolies?

A. Yes, I have had a great many.

Q. Can you give us an estimate of the number?

A.-I have had about a dozen complaints this year. That is, I have had a dozen applications for assistance in getting coolies. I have heard many complaints besides. Q.--How many years have you been receiving complaints and applications?

A.-I have had applications for assistance in getting coolics ever since I have been in the Police-for eight and-a-half years.

Q.-Have you found that they have increased in recent years?

A. Of course they have increased. There have been greater difficulties this year.

I have had these dozen applications I spoke of this year alone.

Q. Can you tell us any reason why the applications have been more frequent this year, or rather put it this way-can you give the Commission any reason why there has been more difficulty of late in obtaining these services?

A. Well, one reason is that the community is increased, the demand for coolies is greater, and the coolies are more or less limited in number. They are not under any control whatever, and they can do what they like. Another reason is that the cost of living has increased and wages are still going up. I would refer the Commission to my remarks on the subject in a Memorandum I wrote on this coolie question under date. of the 2nd of August.

Q. Do you know whether there is any Coolie Guild or Association of private chair and ricksha coolies?

A. There is no actual guild, but there are Clubs in these coolie houses that they go to.

Both licensed and private chair coolies all frequent coolie houses, and the men from different districts frequent the same house and form a sort of club, and there is no doubt that they determine among themselves whom they will serve and whom they won't serve, and what terms they will serve for, and they combine in these clubs to boycott people they don't like. But there is no regular chair coolie guild like other guilds at least, not that I am aware of. The Triad Society, however, plays a considerable part in this matter. There are two lodges of it in the Colony, and most of the chair and ricksha coolies belong to or at any rate will rally to one or the other to combine any purpose. I don't mean that they are actual premises occupied as lodges, but the Society exists though it is not active at present.

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Q.-Can you give us the name of any prime mover in these clubs or any heads of these clubs ?

A.-No, I don't think there are any. The men who keep the coolie houses have a good deal of influence with the coolies. The licensees of the chairs and rickshas also have influence-some of them a great deal of influence.

Q. Are these coolie clubs registered lodging houses?

A. Yes, they would be.

Q. Where do the coolies who are usually employed as private chair and ricksha coolies mostly come from?

A.-There are a great many Chiu Chau men, some Hoi Fung men, and there are Puntis or Canton coolies.

Q. Do you think that these coolies from distinct and different localities combine together, or is it merely that coolies of given localities combine together?

A. Only the coolies from a certain district would combine.

Q.-But do the coolies of Chiu Chau combine with the Puntis to raise prices and boycott persons?

A. Yes they would make common cause.

Q.-Have you had any instance of that brought under your notice?

A. Yes. In 1894, for example, they boycotted all the Plague workers including myself because Plague measures were generally unpopular. Since then I have been again boycotted because I would not intercede with the Magistrate on behalf of two of my coolies who were charged by the Police with creating a disturbance in the street.

-Have you moved the Government on this matter of registration of Chinese servants in European employ before?

A. I have recommended it ever since 1894. I think I have recommended it five times.

Q.-The first time was in 1894?

A.-As well as I remember, in 1894.

Q-Have any steps been taken?

A.-No; not as yet.

Mr. Wilcox. That was for registration of Chinese servants generally, was it not? A.-Registration of domestic servants. It was, I may say, referred to the unof ficial members of Council on one occasion and they were not in favour of it.

The Chairman.-Do you know their reasons?

A.-I don't know their reasons.

Q.-Was not the question also referred to the Chamber of Commerce ?

A. The last time it was referred to the Chamber of Commerce, and they were not in favour of it.

Q.-Did they give reasons?

A.-I can't say.

Q.-

That was the last time but one; I have raised it since then.

-What is the reason for raising it?

A. The reason for raising it is the complaints of persons in the Colony. My argument is that it is not my business to engage coolies for private individuals.

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simply do it to help people out of the difficulty. It is not part of the business of the Police. At the same time, if I don't render the assistance people would simply be without coolies and could not get them at all.

Q.-Do you think any action should be taken on Police grounds to obtain more control over this class of coolies, that is private chair and ricksha coolies?

A.-Well, the licensing of men like that would be certainly a useful thing.

Q.-Supposing any legislation was introduced, would you approve of legislation which was directed towards the registration of this class of coolies?

A.--Yes, they ought all to be registered and licensed.

Q.-Would you make registration compulsory and would you make non-registra- tion penal?

A.--Yes.

Q.-Would you approve of photographing such coolies?

A.--Yes, we would have to photograph them.

--Do you consider that a very useful method of controlling Chinese ?

A.--Yes. You must do it to enable you to identify them. anybody here yet trained in the identification by finger marks. have to photograph.

We have not got Therefore we would

Q.- -Do you approve of the registration being without fees as an encouragement to register? Do you think it would be an advantage if registration were without fees?

A.-I don't think so. I think the Chinaman generally values what he pays far more than what he gets for nothing.

-Should employers be liable to a fine for employing unregistered coolies?

A. Yes, certainly..

Q.-You remember the old Ordinance No. 7 of 1866 called the Victoria Registra- tion Ordinance, and you remember that sections 22 to 29 of that dealt with the question of registration of servants?

A. Yes.

Q.-Now, would you approve of legislation on the lines of those repealed sections? Do you think that is the kind of legislation that is wanted with the additions we have suggested about photographing the coolies and making it penal for employers to employ unregistered coolies?

A. Yes, that was what I recommended, that these sections should be re-enacted with the addition of compulsory photographing.

Q.--Have you found compulsory photography in other branches useful ?

A.--Yes; all the licensed ricksha coolies and chair coolies are photographed, and there is a black book kept of men who are complained of as obnoxious, and men who persist in breaking the rules of the road and rushing for passengers. If fines have no effect on them, we cancel their licences, and then we have got them in the black book and they can't get licences again. It has a good effect.

Q.-From your experience, would you anticipate any temporary trouble if a registration order were introduced and strictly enforced on the lines just mentioned ?

A.--Well, it depends upon how it is done. If you start in and state that all Chinese coolies must be registered and licensed to-morrow, you would be bound to have a strike and trouble.

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Q.-Then, I take it you think it would be better to allow a certain time within which all servants and coolies should be registered?

way.

A.-No, I don't think it is a question of time. What you want is to prepare the

Q.--What do you mean by "prepare the way

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A.-Well, I think, if these coolies were licensed and registered there ought to be a headman through whom you could work. Some man ought to be a headman of all these coolies and get coolies for you. No doubt, he would make something out of it, but if you got hold of such a man and got him to undertake to get you coolies, I think you might put the thing through without any strike. That is what I mean. If you went and tried to license them offhand without making any provision for a strike you would possibly have some trouble.

Mr. Wilcox.-Would it cause less trouble if you took them in detachments so to speak-a district at a time perhaps?

A. You would have to do the whole thing at once.

The Chairman.--Do you think it would be advisable to make any Ordinance that might be introduced come into effect in the winter time instead of the summer?

A.--I have always chosen that season in bringing the question up. My idea was to get the law passed and put into force in December when the weather is cool and people can do without chairs. You can smash any strike here inside of a month.

Q.--I quite agree with you that it is the best time of the year. Now, should there be a central registry office, separate from any Government Department, or do you think that the registration should be conducted in the Registrar General's Departinent or Police Office at the Central Police Station ?

A.--Well, I don't want to take any more work on the Police, but I think the Police Office is the proper place to have it done, because they would have the means of doing it better.

Q.-

-You think the Police is the proper department because they would do it better and have more power ?

A. They have more facilities for taking action when complaints reach them.

Mr. Wilcox. It might be a sub-department perhaps?

A. I would license them just like the licensed coolies. It simply means a Chinese Clerk and some more work for Mr. Badeley and myself.

Mr. Wilcox. In the Straits Settlements they have a sort of separate sub-depart- ment under the Municipality, and it works very well I believe.

Witness. Of course I only mean that, as things are at present, probably the most efficient department for this work would be the Police. I am not saying it is the best possible arrangement.

The Chairman.--What are your ideas as to how an Ordinance having such pro- visions could be enforced?

A.-Well, I think that, as we are situated here, the Police Department is the best. It is just like the licensing of dogs. The Police would have to run a coolie in for hiring himself without a licence and they might have to summons men also for hiring coolies who have no licence and so on. The Police Department is the proper one for that.

Q.-Sub-head (d.) under the Commission reads as follows-" whether any proposed legislation or other measures should embrace coolies in the employ of Chinese and non-Chinese alike." What is your opinion on that point?

A.-I see no necessity to extend it to Chinese.

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Q.---Have you had any complaints from Chinese about not being able to obtain

proper servants ?

A.-No, I have not.

Q. What is your opinion about fixing the rate of pay for these private servants in the same way as the rate is fixed for cargo boats, sampans and public conveyances?

Mr. Badeley.--It is not fixed at all. It is so much a job for them, not so much a

month.

The Chairman.What about regulating wages in the same way as fares are regu-

Have you thought of that?

lated?

A. Yes, the last proposal I made to the Government was to put the procuring of these coolies into the hands of a headman. I approached a man on the subject and one great difficulty in this question is the question of accommodation. The reason I mentioned earlier in my evidence that the coolies were practically limited in number is a fact and a reason for that is that there are not enough houses in the Colony to admit of this class coming here freely to live. Coolies won't come down from Hoi Fung to this place unless they can do so at very small cost. They have not got any money and unless they can find accommodation with some friends they won't come. That is one reason why the supply is limited. I approached this man and he said, "If you get the Government to put up some coolie houses and let them to me, on reasonable terms, I will undertake to supply you with any number of good, strong private ricksha and chair coolies at $9 a month each for hill and low-level work." That was on the assumption that he could rent the houses from Government at about 50 cents per head of coolie inhabitant. That is that with twenty coolies on a floor the rent would be $10 for the floor. Those are the rates of some time ago, before rents had gone so high. Then I said "Suppose Government are not disposed to go in for this capital expendi- ture and you have to find the houses?" He said "Well, I am prepared to build houses, but then I will have to charge $10." That is to say if you gave him a sort of direct offer for all these coolies, he would supply you with coolies for private service at $10 a head. He is a man whom I have had a good many dealings with.

Q. Do you mind giving us his name?

A.-I prefer not to give his name as he might get into trouble, but he is a man I have confidence in as to his ability to do what he says he will do.

Q-I suppose Mr. Badeley knows him?

A.—Yes, Mr. Badeley knows him.

Witness.-I think this scheme must have a headman in the saine way as I have got a headman at the Peak to run chairs there, and have got headmen for the rick- sha coolies and for the licensed chair coolies.

The Chairman.-Can you tell us what are the rates at present prevailing in regard to private chair and ricksha coolies-the rates of pay I mean?

A.--Well, they have risen considerably, and the coolies, I think, are trying, as far as I can see, to get them up still higher. I should say the rates now run from $8 to $11. I don't think there are many rates under $8.

Mr. Wilcox. There are very few at $11, I think.

Witness. I know a case at Queen's Gardens in which, unless I am misinformed, $11 are paid.

Mr. Badeley. Last summer, I think $9 was the highest at the Peak.

The Chairman.-Do you know of any special class of the community who are apt to give or who do give higher rates without there apparently being any unusual reason?

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A. Yes, I have not verified the statements that have been made to me, but I know there are people who don't care what they give to their chair coolies and run up rates by so doing. I may say that the other day, application was made to me for chair coolies at Seymour Terrace and I could not get them under $9. But some indoor work was required of them, and the applicant had already offered $9 before application was made to me.

Mr. Wilcox.-That is not so far up the hill. It is only a moderate distance. It is not like Queen's Gardens.

Mr. Wilcox. I would like to ask Mr. May if he knows and could give us any in- formation as to the number of cases in which coolies-chair coolies in private employ- have been convicted or charged with having committed burglary or run away with property belonging to their employers ?

A.-I could not give you the information offhand.

Mr. Wilcox.-No, I suppose not the exact number.

The Chairman.-Could you have a return made up in the Police Department and also by reference to the Magistrate's Department?

A. Such cases have come to my knowledge, but there have been more cases in the case of house servants. Of course, they have greater opportunities. i have had many cases in which house-boys and coolies have stolen from their employers and gone away and I have found them re-employed. I have even written to their employers and told them that they had got a thief for a boy and they say, "Well, so long as he does not trouble me, I don't mind."

The Chairman. This is beyond the scope of our inquiry.

Mr. Badeley.-I should like to ask Mr. May are private chair coolies and public ricksha and chair coolies drawn from the same source or are they separate?

A.-They belong to the same class.

Mr. Badeley.-Do they interchange? Does a man sometimes do private chair work and then take to running a ricksha, or do they stick to the one job?

A. They very often change. A private coolie will go and run a public ricksha three or four times a day and make some money.

Q. When men get their licences as public chair or ricksha coolies cancelled, do they sometimes go into private employ?

A. Yes, they sometimes do so.

Q.-Would the fact of largely increasing the number of public rickshas have a considerable effect in taking away the available men for private chair coolies?

A. Yes, it will.

-Do you think that has been largely instrumental in causing the scarcity?

A. Of course. We come back to the question of accommodation. If we had more accommodation, we would not have so much trouble. I feel sure of that.

Q. Can you tell us how much a public ricksha coolie can earn as compared with a private chair coolie? Is it a much more paying concern?

A.-It is a more paying thing to run a public ricksha. I can't enter into the figures for carrying a chair, but I don't imagine that is a very lucrative business, except at the Peak,

Q.-There is no restriction on the number of chairs?

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A.-No. But at the Peak, for the very same reason of want of accommodation for coolies there are not enough chairs. I wish to increase them but it means first adding a house, unless you flood the houses of residents with the public chair coolies.

Q. When you have had applications made to you to get chair coolies for people, have you always succeeded in getting them?

A. Yes. Whenever I have made a point of it I don't think I have ever failed.

Q. How do you set about getting them?

A.-I get

them through the headmen of the licensed coolies. people I have any control over.

These are the only

Q. Do you mean the men that have the ricksha licences, or the headman at the Peak?

A.-Generally, it is chair coolies that we have been asked for and I have brought pressure to bear on the licensees of public chairs. They are really the headmen.

Q. Do these men have a large number of chairs like they do rickshas?

A. Yes.

Q. Would it not be a good thing to extend that system? Perhaps there is not sufficient demand for chairs to make it a lucrative business to be a headman for chairs and give you a real hold of them as you have of the ricksha coolies?

A.-The number of public chairs is not limited and, except at the Peak, there has not been any great increase in the number of public licensed chairs for the last four or five years.

Q.-Is a chair coolie a different being from a ricksha coolie? Will a ricksha coolie take to carrying a chair?

A. Yes, sometimes they do that. Of course you get younger and stronger men

in the rickshas. The older men go to the chairs.

Q.-How long do these coolies last, only a few years? It kills them doesn't it?

-I don't know that. I never enquired.

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Q-When you set to work to get private coolies for anybody, do they want to know who they are for and haggle as to whether he is a well known bad master or good master?

A.-Well, I have never been able to find any cases of bad treatment where the coolies won't go to a man. I have had cases of being unwilling to carry exceptionally heavy people and so on, but it generally appears to be some petty thing. Very often outdoor coolies are asked to do household work, carry provisions up to the Peak and so on, and they object to these little additions to what they consider their sole duties of carrying.

you

The Chairman.-Do think the introduction of the tram and consequent leni- ency of masters towards their servants in providing them with tram tickets has had any influence in making the coolies more unwilling to work?

A. Yes, undoubtedly it has. They have become utterly spoiled. As regards my own servants, I make work for them. When they have nothing to do, I find something for them to do.

Mr. Wilcox. That is a general complaint, and it is commonly stated that the chair coolies are unwilling nowadays to do any work beyond carrying a chair.

Mr. Badeley. That is a part and parcel of the system of scarcity.

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The Chairman. In the old days at the Peak, when water had to be drawn from a well, they had to do it.

Mr. Badeley.-Suppose a large number of ricksha coolies were thrown out of em- ployment in consequence of the introduction of the tram would they take to the work of private chair coolies and help to relieve the scarcity, or would they leave the Colony?

A.--I think you would always get a large percentage of them to stop on.

Mr. Badeley.--And supposing you put on three or four hundred public rickshas on the market, would there be a rush of chair bearers?

A.-These 500 rickshas that are going on will aggravate the thing. It shows how few houses there are when the tenderers for these 500 rickshas bad considerable diffi- culty in satisfying me as to where they were going to put the men. In fact, there were no houses actually constructed in which these coolies could be put. The tenderers showed houses in course of construction for the bulk of the coolies, or said "Oh well, I will build houses, here or there or elsewhere." There isn't accommodation for the extra coolies.

Q.--Supposing there were coolies brought in from outside, would they come in in practically unlimited numbers, or would the present men try to keep them out by some method? Would there be anything to prevent a large influx if there was plenty of house room?

A. There would be an attempt to keep them out, therefore that is one of the reasons, apart from the question of management altogether, that you want a headman to work through. You want a man who will be interested in bringing them down. If you have no such man, these coolie clubs might combine together to keep the men

out.

Q.-Then your proposal comes to this, to grant a monopoly to one man to pro- vide private chair and ricksha coolies in the Colony?

A.—That would be the best way to do it. It is only on a small scale, the same system that all large merchants have followed for years. They all have their com- pradores, which simply means the medium who manages their Chinese staff and their Chinese business generally. In the same way you cannot get on with licensed rick- sha coolies and other coolies without having some responsible person to deal through. I tried one time granting ricksha licences at Kowloon to individual owners of vehicles. I thought that would be a good move, but it failed entirely. The men were always fighting together for the best vehicle stands and it was very difficult to control them.

Mr. Wilcox.-That system would do in England, but it is quite different with the Chinese.

Witness.They had some tremendous fights between some men who wanted always to be at the wharf and oust others-regular faction fights. I had to put them all away and have the licences under one man. The other system is all very nice on paper, but it won't work with Chinamen.

Mr. Wilcox. There is a tendency towards putting up prices in creating a mono- poly like that, is there not? Would the chair farmer, if we could call him so, not want to collect a dollar a month at least of the men's wages?

A.-I don't think he would want so much as that. He would of course make- something out of it?

Q. He would, I suppose, make something anyhow?

A.-You need not have one man. You could have two or three different men.

All the public chairs are not in the hands of one man.

if you like.

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The Chairman.-Do you want to add anything?

A.-I would only mention that I think the public chair and ricksha coolies here -of course they are abused a good deal-but I think on the whole, at any rate so far as the Police are concerned, they give satisfaction. I think, for instance, that you will find that property left in vehicles very rarely is not recovered. I have known as much as $450 brought out of a public ricksha and handed over to the Police. The sys- tem works well, and I don't see why the same system should not work with the private coolies. The fact is that the public coolies give us far less trouble than the private ones do.

Q.-Have you submitted any

scheme in all its details to the Government about the procuring of private chair and ricksha coolies? If so, would you give us the reference ? A.—I sketched a scheme. I had a telephone message to me from the Colonial Secretary's Office to bring down the papers. This is the last letter I wrote on the subject. It is in C.S.O. 2804 of 1900 and it is dated 2nd August this year.

Mr. Badeley.-Do you know of any private agencies for servants being started here?

A.--Yes, but they did not pay.

The Chairman.-For domestic servants?

A.--Yes.

Q-There has been no agency for private out-door servants?

A. Yes, all domestic servants. They did not succeed. Of course the thing must be made compulsory or it will never succeed.

This concluded Mr. May's evidence, and the Commission adjourned till Friday, 6th September, at 2 o'clock, when the evidence of Chief Detective Inspector Hanson will be taken.

6th September, 1901.

JOHN WILLIAM HANSON sworn:

The Chairman.-What is your office, Mr. Hanson ?

A.-Chief Detective Inspector, Sir.

Q.-As such Chief Detective Inspector, has the Captain Superintendent of Police requested you to procure private chair and ricksha coolies for individuals in the Colony?

A. Yes, Sir.

Q.-On how many occasions has he asked you?

A.-I think probably a dozen times.

Q.-Within what period?

A. Within the last eighteen months from the first occasion.

Q.-Were you asked to do it before you obtained the Office of Chief Detective Inspector?

A.-No, Sir.

Q.-It began then?

A. Yes, Sir.

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Q.-Have you had any difficulty in procuring such services when requested to

do so?

A.-I have had difficulty.

Q.- -What was the nature of your difficulty?

A.--First, I had some difficulty in obtaining them at all; second, I found that after procuring them they levanted after leaving the chit given them by me to report them- selves. Whether this was caused by influence brought to bear on them by the other servants of the house or by others outside, I am unable to say.

Q.-How do you proceed to get those coolies?

A.-In some cases I ask the Chinese staff at the Central Police Station to assist me, as they are more familiar with the men of the different districts. Then I apply to certain detectives to get them for me. In Hok-lo cases I apply to a headınan.

Q. What do you mean by headman ?

A. The man who has some little control over them. The men who are in the position of supervising coolies themselves.

Q.--Are these the men who bring the coolies to the Colony?

A.-No, but they may in some cases influence men to come when they require them themselves.

-Do you know any men in the Colony who are engaged in bringing coolies for private rickshas and chairs into the Colony?

A.-Not coolies for private chairs and rickshas specially, but I know of one man who supplies the labour market with coolies. The Kowloon Godown is largely supplied with Chiu Chau men.

Q.-Do you know anybody who supplies coolies for the purpose of private em- ployment?

A. That individual does some, because he procures some of the licensed coolies. we have; others I don't know specially.

Q.-Have you personally received complaints from members of the European com- munity who have difficulty in obtaining or procuring ricksha coolies?

A.-I have.

-I mean complaints apart from any that have been made to the Captain Superin- tendent of Police?

A. Yes, there were several instances. I referred them to the Captain Superin- tendent of Police also.

Q. Have you referred them all?

A.-I did not tell Mr. May about everyone.

Q. What was the nature of the complaints made by Europeans as a rule?

A.-In one case, a European offered a dollar increase of wages a month to two coolies as he employed them to do a little extra work in the way of picking up tennis balls. Even with the extra wages, they did not turn up. He said it was very hard; could I not help him with a view to getting new men ?

-Any other complaints of another nature?

A.-There was another case in which a cook left his mistress to do the day's cooking herself absolutely without any cause.

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-Are these indoor servants?

A. Yes, indoor servants.

Q.--Over how many years were these complaints made to you?

A.-The first time I had anything to do with it was after I was made Detective Inspector late in 1897 or early in 1898.

Q. Do you know if there is any Guild or Association controlling private chair and ricksha coolies?

A.-As regards the Hok-los I am inclined to think there is, from the influence brought to bear on them by the Triad Society.

Q.--That may be So,

but is there any organisation, guild or association?

A.-I have made inquiries and I can't find that there is any guild.

Q.-You know there are guilds in respect of other trades and callings?

A. Yes, Sir.

Q.-But you have never been able to find if there is any guild in connection with the private chair and ricksha coolies?

A.-Coolie koons exist, but these are private boarding houses.

Q.-Does the head of the licensed boarding house have any control over the coolies? Does he have any control over the money which the coolies in his boarding house will receive, or does he dictate to them which Europeans they are to serve, or which they are not to serve? Do you know of anything of that kind?

A.-They would use their influence in the case of one of their countrymen being discharged. They would interdict other coolies from taking up employment there again.

Q-Do you say that from knowledge?

A.-Almost from knowledge because there was a case in which I tried to get coolies from the same koon as I had got others who had been discharged, and I did not succeed; so I always thought it was the headman.

Q.-At present the class of men is not so good as it used to be. Can you give us the cause why there is greater difficulty in securing men at all, and why there is greater difficulty in securing reliable men?

A.-The difficulty in getting men, and that, I would submit, Sir, accounts partly for not getting good men, is the fact that here in Hongkong, things of late years have come to be so different to what they used to be in regard to the cost of living and such like and the Legislature have restricted the accommodation as to houses. Whereas they used to have cocklofts for 25 cents a month, now Government won't allow them, and it costs a coolie over a dollar for sleeping accommodation, housing has gone up so much.

Q.-You mean that the cost of food and lodging has gone up so much that they want greater wages than before, and that there is not house accommodation even if you could get a larger supply of coolies? Can you think of any other causes for the existing difficulty?

A.-I believe the emigration would have something to do with it, Sir, there being a greater field abroad for labour. If a man can do better down south he doesn't want to come to Hongkong. Manila would be a better field for labour.

Q.-You believe the acquisition of Manila has had a great effect?

A. Yes, certainly.

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to?

Q.-But there are as good fish still in China as there were before?

A. That is so, Sir.

-As regards the increased cost of living, what percentage do you put it down

A.—I think it is over 100° in the case of firewood.

It is now 16 bundles for a

dollar, a few years ago it was something like 33 bundles, so far as I can remember.

Q. What about rice, and pork and dried fish?

A.-Rice, I think, is 80% increase. Formerly one used to get a jar of lamp oil for $1.50 while one is now charged $2.50. If all these little items are jotted down, you will find there is a great difference now.

Q.-If you have thought about this matter, can you tell the Commission what remedies for this state of things have occurred to you as likely to be effective?

A.--If the Government were to provide housing accommodation for the coolies and charge them a fair rental, not allowing the rents to fluctuate but always having the same rental, they would know what they had to pay and could hear and be aware of the conditions on arriving in the Colony. I think that would help greatly.

that

Q.-Are there any other remedies that you have in mind-any local enactments you think could be beneficially passed?

A.--I think registration, Sir. If they were fairly treated on the lines I have in- dicated as to housing, it would be quite fair to ask them to give a guarantee for their good behaviour by being registered.

Q.-Could you give us some details of your scheme of registration if thought about it?

you have

A.-It could be ascertained how many coolies would meet the wants of the Colony to some extent.

Q.-Yes, but what would you embody in your scheme of registration ?

A.—I would offer certain wages for certain work and have a classification of ser- vauts of different kinds.

Q.-You would have a classification of servants and have different classes of work, and do

you indicate that the wages should be fixed for the different classes?'

A. Yes, Sir.

Q.—What about making registration compulsory?

A. In that case, Sir, if wages were fixed and were just, and attention paid to their other wants, registered servants only should be allowed to be employed.

Q.-You mean, I suppose, that maximum rates should be fixed?

A. Yes.

Q.-What method do you propose for keeping check over these coolies? For instance, how do you propose to identify them?

A. They must be photographed, otherwise one would not know them.

Q. In your experience, is photography a satisfactory and the best means of iden- tifying Chinese that you know of?

A. Yes, Sir.

Q.-Amongst the class of people with whom you associate, Mr. Hanson, do you think there would be any objection to its being made penal for a master to employ an unregistered servant? Have

you heard

any expression of opinion on that subject?

( 13 )

?

1

A.-I have heard the remark that some people have no difficulty with their I do not know whether these people would like to become subject to legis- lative enactments.

servants.

Q.-Have you heard any expression of opinion amongst your friends and acquaint- ances of the nature I have indicated?

A.-No, I have not heard any direct expression against such a course.

7

Q.-Have you heard any expression of opinion in favour of it?

A. Yes, in a general way I have heard it remarked over and over again that it is time something were done that way and not to be left entirely to the mercy of these

servants.

Q-But the point we are on now is as to whether the master should be subject to a fine if he engages an unregistered servant. Have you heard any remarks as to that, or could

you give us the result of your conclusions on that point?

A. I can't recollect any occasion in which I have engaged in conversation on that particular point.

Q.-Suppose a Registration Ordinance were brought in on the lines I have been suggesting to you, what do you think would be the result?

A.-There would be a strike-there would be an attempt to strike, I think.

Q.--On what do you base that opinion?

A-Photographing has been the cause of a strike in almost every instance. It occurred with the lodging-houses and with the guilds and in nearly every case.

-But these strikes were of short duration?

A. Yes, they must strike for the sake of saving face.

Q.-Yes, but they get a face; they don't lose one. You have a very good know- ledge of Chinese character, Mr. Hanson. At present there is no difficulty in procuring cargo-boatmen and lodging-house keepers to be photographed. I suppose the idea of striking has all passed over with them?

A.-It passed over after the thing was first introduced.

Q. What time of the year do you think would be the most convenient for the European population in which to start a system of registration?

A. It would be better to be left till the cold weather. I would not advise the hot weather.

Mr. Wilcox.-Less discomfort.

The Chairman.—Have you anything to do with the licensing of public chairs, etc.? A. No, Sir.

Q. Do you know if there is any objection on the part of chair-bearers and pullers of public rickshas and drivers of public gharries to be photographed ?

A.-Oh, no, Sir.

Q.-Have you any opinion as to which depart nent would be the best suited to work out the provisions of any Registration Ordinance?

A.-The Police Department, Sir.

Q.--Why is it the best?

A. Because if anything did go wrong they would know that the police would have to take them in hand. If any strike occurs the police will be called in and I think that the coolies, knowing that the police have it in hand, will think better.

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Q.-It means that you think that the Police Department is the best known executive department?

A. We have so much to do with them now. Our criminal staff is in touch with A.-We them and the licensing of public chair and ricksha coolies is already in the hands of the Police.

Mr. Wilcox. You say that you have no evidence of the existence of a guild in connection with chair and jinricksha coolies but think they were controlled at the club or koon. Do you think there is any organisation existing for the purpose of pre- venting the introduction into the Colony of a greater number of coolies than would suffice for the wants of the Colony and thus keep up the rate of wages?

A.—No, I have tried to get to the bottom of that, and I have not been able to elicit any information on that point.

Q.-You have not been able to elicit any information on the subject, but you don't say there is no such thing. It is possible?

A.-I fancy if there had been such a thing I would have known. I have tried hard to find out. Figures were given me and they can't come down to Hongkong as they used to before and lodge as many as they like in the houses at a time.

Mr. Wilcox.-That is so far as outside coolies are concerned, but there is something else to be said in regard to that. You say you would recommend that house ac- commodation should be increased or, at least, should be provided for coolies. Now I suppose you do not mean with reference to coolies in employment who have accom- modation, but you mean coolies seeking employment. Well, that would surely be a very limited number. I can't see for the life of me that the house accommodation

comes in.

Mr. Badeley. It seems to tend the other way. It seems to me that this want of house accommodation should drive men into employ where they get accommodation.

Mr. Wilcox. They get house accommodation in all private employ with but a few exceptions. Well, I don't see therefore that house accommodation is any strong argu- ment in the matter. I should like to know if you have any idea about private house accommodation to induce coolies to come down here in search of employment?

Witness.-Well, I was told of a certain coolie coming down here in search of em- ployment, and, being found in a common lodging house by a Sanitary Inspector in excess of the number allowed, he was charged at the Magistracy and went to gaol. After being liberated from gao! he went back and made it known at his native place that Hongkong was anything but a desirable place to go to in search of employment, that he did so and found himself in gaol in consequence.

Q.-1 bat is an interesting case bearing on the question of providing accommo- dation for coolies in search of employment. Is that what your recommendation amounts to ?

A.—Yes, so that they would be available when required.

Q.-I see you say there is a Hok-lo man who seems to be the head of a sort of organisation. You don't give his name though, and I don't suppose you wish to?

A-I don't wish to make any secret. He is a licensed man.

Mr. Badeley. You mean the Godown man ?

A. Yes, Ngan Wing Chi.

Mr. Wilcox. With regard to the food question, you say that the fact that food being so much dearer is one reason for coolies being scarcer and requiring higher wages?

A-Yes, they would rather stay in the country and almost starve than come down here and have to pay so much for living and be subject to so many restrictions.

J

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Q. Have you noticed that in later years robberies by servants have been much more frequent?

A.-Of late years we have been much better off than we were at one time. Gam- bling was responsible for much of the robbery by servants.

Q. Do you think that the public chair and ricksha employment has been the means of diverting many coolies from private employment?

A. Yes, I think so.

Q.-Do they make better pay ?

A. Yes, I have totted it up and find that two men can make from $60 to $80 a month with a public ricksha.

Mr. Wilcox.-It seems incredible.

Witness (continuing).—They have offered one hundred dollars for a ricksha.

-Then it would seem that the attractions of public vehicles are working aganst the supply for private purposes ?

A. Yes.

Q.-Have you thought of regulating the wages for chair and ricksha coolies ? A. Yes, I would have a tabulated list of wages.

Q.-Do you think that, under the registration scheme, it would be practicable?

A.-There is this difficulty of course that some employers work their coolies so much harder than others and consequently pay them much higher. There are other employers that can't afford to give them the rate of wages that others do and a hard and fast rate might deter some people from obtaining coolies.

Q.-There is another thing I have thought of. The coolies at the present time, especially chair coolies, refuse very frequently to do any work not connected with the carrying of a chair. In many cases coolies are asked to do light duties such as water- ing flowers, picking up tennis balls, going errands, and perhaps sweeping up the veran- dah and doing little jobs about the house. In many instances they have nothing to do but take their master to the tram or down below and then take their mistress down in the afternoon. In such cases it seems particularly hard that coolies should refuse to do light work. Would you suggest, if the registration of coolies were recommended, that their labours be defined or the work that they are liable to be called upon to per- form be defined ?

A.-I hardly think that is necessary, because the rule has obtained in Hongkong for many years that the chair coolies bring in water for the bath in the morning and sweep the verandahs and carry letters. It is an understood thing.

Q.-I know they absolutely refuse to do it sometimes; you know the old phrase "No b'long my pidgin"?

A. Yes; it has been more in vogue of late years than before.

-Don't you think it would be better that with registration they should under-

take to do a fair day's work for a fair day's wage?

A.-- You don't want to go into details with the coolies, but let them understand clearly that, in addition to carrying a chair, they shall do such duties as they may be

rform when requested to.

able to p

Mr. Wilcox.-Then there comes the question of establishing a coolie farmer. Would you suggest such a thing as that in order to bring coolies into the Colony to be available for employment? It might be an easy way of getting over the difficulty on the whole. The coolie would have to pay so much premium only.

( 16 )

A.-There is no doubt that if these people are put into the hands of one person the community will have to pay largely for that man's monopoly.

-There is always a danger in any monopoly, but if you can't get coolies it be- comes necessary sometimes to resort to such a medium. Are you in favour of it, Mr.

Hanson?

A.-I can't say that I am.

Q. Do you think that this question of the scarcity of chair coolies and ricksha coolies affects the Chinese in any way?

The Chairman.-Chinese residents. I mean do they feel the pressure at all?

A.-I have never heard, Sir. I bave had no complaints from Chinese.

Q.-So far as you know, the Chinese seem well able to take care of their servants?

A. Yes.

You know

Mr. Badeley. What do Chinese employers pay their ricksha coolies? pretty well what we have to pay, what then does one of these wealthy Chinese ricksha coolies?

pay his

A.-I can't tell you offhand. I think one man told me that he pay's- The Chairman.-If you can't answer the question you might enquire and answer in a memorandum and we will annex it.

Witness.-Yes.

Mr. Badeley. Are ricksha and public chair coolies interchangeable? I mean does a ricksha coolie go back to a chair or a chair coolie to a ricksha, or are they different classes?

A.-When the ricksha coolie gets broken up he goes and carries a chair for a time. The ricksha is the more lucrative.

Q. How many years can a man last at ricksha work; have you any idoa?

A.-I fancy a man ought to last about three years, but I can't be quite sure.

Q.-What would he do after? Would he take to a chair or go to some other cm-

ployment?

A.-I think they rather like the chair. There is some money in it.

Q.-Supposing there was a large number of additional public rickshas licensed, where would the new coolies come from? Would they come down from the country, or would all the private chair coolies leave their employment and rush to get them?

A. That would depend on the licensee of the rickshas, Sir.

Mr. Wilcox.

The licensee of the rickshas is the man who gets them?

A. Yes. He would want a certain sum from each coolie.

Q. Where do you think he would get them from?

A. If he had friends in private employ, he would get them.

Q.-Do you think it would take a good many private coolies away from their em- ploy if the number of public rickshas were increased?

A.-It might to some extent. It depends on how many of them might be friendly with the licensee of the public rickshas.

-If the profits of public rickshas were suddenly reduced, would public ricksha- inen take on work as private chair coolies or would they go back to their own country- supposing something happened to cause this decrease, such as this tram scheme?

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A. Some would go back to their own country and others would take on private employment.

The Chairman.-It has just occurred to me to ask you this. Supposing the diffi- culty of procuring reliable ricksha and chair coolies increased and we found no means by legislation of remedying the difficulty, don't you think that it would be very conve- nient for the public if we had more chair stations and more ricksha stations especially down below and at the Peak? Take the Peak, there is only one chair station. If you had another chair station near Mount Gough Police Station and if you had another where the road bifurcates round Mount Kellet, under such circumstances residents might well be prepared to do without private chair coolies. What do you think of that suggestion?

Witness.-In which case does it appear that there are not enough stations-not referring to the Peak?

The Chairman.--I have often wished that there was a chair station close by my house. I have sometimes been left without chair coolies.

of it.

Witness.--In the case of the Peak, certainly. I have had some experience myself

The Chairman.--I am not competent to speak of down below myself.

Witness.-There are so many down here already that your remarks do not apply.

Mr. Wilcox.--What about Kowloon ?

A.--Kowloon has been re-arranged. They used to stand by one another and have a fight after all the passengers had gone. This had to be stopped. One man got laid up and one or two rickshas got into the harbour.

The Chairman.--It seems to be your opinion that the occupation of public chair or ricksha coolie is more lucrative than that of private chair or ricksha coolie?

A.-That is so.

-Do you think it practicable to reduce the fares to such an extent as to make the difference between the earnings of public and private chair and ricksha coolies very slight indeed?

A.-It might touch some rather hard, Sir. Some during a month might make $60 between them but there are others who would not always be in a position to make so much.

The Chairman.-Would the other members of the Commission like Mr. Hanson to draw up a schedule of rates which he thinks might meet the suggestion in one of my latest questions?

Mr. Wilcox.-I think it is a useful suggestion. There is no doubt about it that Hongkong overpays its ricksha and chair men. Both in Shanghai and Singapore,-I won't say they are more orderly, but I believe they are--they are much lower paid and there are far more vehicles. In Singapore especially there are far more vehicles and they have run the tramways off the line. Now, I should be sorry to see that hap- pen here, but I certainly think our Shanghai experience should be utilised in Hongkong. They undoubtedly regulate the ricksha traffic better than we do because they get better served there through greater control over the Chinese or by making the com- petition keener.

Mr. Badeley. It is a question of Police more, I think.

The Chairman.-If a constable has to run after a coolie every time and take his name and number and then summons him at the Police Court, I think that is a very roundabout way of keeping order. It would be better if he had a switch.

!

( 18 )

Mr. Badeley. There is just one more question I would like you to answer.

You said that if they were to be registered, the l'olice would be the best department to do it in. Supposing it were done by the Registrar General, don't you think it would create a little less opposition? Would they not fall into line more readily if it were done at the Registrar General's Office?

A.-They would prefer to be registered through the Registrar General's Office because it would not leave us in such close touch with them.

Q.-Would it make the difference if it were done by the Registrar General's Office that it would save a strike, and, if it were done by the Police, it would make a strike?

A.--There would probably be a strike in either event.

Q.--Do you think they would be less likely to strike if the Police undertook it?

A.-That is my idea.

[Mr. Hanson agreed to make the memoranda suggested.]

The Commission then adjourned till Monday, 9th September, and it was agreed to summon Mr. Dyer Ball for that day.

9th September, 1901.

JAMES DYER BALL sworn:-

The Chairman.-How long have you been in the Colony?

Withess.I have lived permanently in Hongkong since February, 1875.

Q. Do you remember the Victoria Registration Ordinance No. 7 of 1866?

A.--I remember there was such an Ordinance.

Q.--Do you remember if that Ordinance was repealed by Ordinance 13 of 1888? A.-I can't tell you the number of the Ordinance. I suppose it was repealed because it ceased to be in existence.

Q.-During the period that it was in existence and you were in the Colony, did you engage servants under that Ordinance ?

A.-I did.

Q.-Regularly?

A. Yes, regularly.

Q-What class of servants did you manage to get?

A. Do you mean as to character and ability ?

Q.--As to ability?

-

A. They served me fairly well. I was satisfied with them as a rule. Of

I got a bad one sometimes.

Q.-Would you tell us how you proceeded under that Ordinance ?

Of course,

A.--After engaging a servant, I generally gave him 25 cents and sent him down with a chit to the Registrar General's Office to be registered. Then he returned with the ticket, which I took and kept as long as he was in my service.

( 19 )

When he left your service, what did you do?

A. I returned it to him, but if a servant misbehaved himself I sent it direct back to the Registrar General's Department, making any statement I liked as to how the servant had behaved.

Q.--Section 27 of the Ordinance No. 7 of 1866 says it shall not be lawful for any person other than Chinese to engage or employ any servants who are not provided with a certificate of registration, and by section 32 penalties are stated for breaches of this Ordinance. Do you remember any case in which persons who had engaged servants not provided with the certificate of registration were proceeded against under section 32 ?

A.--I know there were a few cases, but the Ordinance before it was repealed was allowed to be almost a dead letter.

-Do you know how that was?

A.-I fancy it did not work as satisfactorily as it was thought it might.

.—But why did it not work so satisfactorily as it was hoped to do?

A.--Well, if a servant behaved badly and left his employer, he would pass on his ticket to another man and the new man would come in and swear positively that he had been in the place marked on the ticket and that he was accustomed to do the work and so on, and the tickets were passed on regularly I believe. I could not swear to any particular case, but there was no doubt that they were passed on. Consequently, they formed no guarantee of the number of places the man had been in or of his character or ability.

Q.--And how do you think that the prevention of the transfer of register certifi- cates might have been effected?

A.-Well, I think there was a great want on the ticket and that was the want of a photograph so as to identify the men. There was no means of identifying a man who produced a ticket to you.

Q.-I understand that at present you are not employing chair coolies?

A.-I am not at present.

-Can you tell us your latest experience in regard to chair coolies?

A.--When I came back from England, a few years ago, I wanted to get four men and I found I could not do so. The men knew that I walked a great deal and knowing that I walked down town from the Peak, they were afraid of having to follow me and perhaps carry me a few hundred feet up and down, and I could not get men at all. I told them simply that I wanted four coolies and they asked me whether I was to walk down or go down in the Tram.

Mr. Badeley. They want people to go down in the Tram?

A. Yes. I then tried to get three men and then came down to two.

The Chairman.And kept them for the Tram only?

A.--Kept them for the Peak.

Mr. Wilcox. They absolutely refused to enter your service unless you went down by the Tram ?

A.-Well, the Chinaman does not put it in that way.

The Chairman.-Although you walked most of the way, yet they feared you might want to ride some of the way, both down and up. Do you think that was the reason why you had difficulty in engaging four coolies?

A.-No doubt it was.

( 20 )

Q.-Do you think, if you paid them exorbitant wages that they would have come to your service?

A.-Well, I paid the rate in vogue three years ago, namely eight and-a-half dollars.

Mr. Wilcox.--That was a good rate at that time.

The Chairman.--Were they satisfied with that?

A. They were quite satisfied. I don't remember them asking for more--the two of them at all events.

Q. Can you draw any comparison between the present chair and ricksha coolie and chair and ricksha coolies of former days as to their willingness and as to their strength and skill?

A.—I never heard anything in the way of objections in former days, that is, from 15 to 25 years ago. I never heard any objection made to carry a man up and down, to or from the Peak, once down and once up a day. The coolies objected, if any master or mistress had not consideration enough and asked them to carry them down a second time. They were only too glad to go up to the Peak and carry their master down to the office and up again at night for an extra dollar a month and the wages in those days were six dollars a month. By giving them an extra dollar, they were quite pleased.

Q.--Can you give us any suggestion arising out of the long experience you have bad as to how the present difficulties can be overcome?

A.-Well, the present difficulties have arisen from a number of causes. Of course the coolies can do just as well if not much better outside of private employment. I just jotted down a few figures this morning that might be interesting to the Coinmis- sion. I understand that there are no guilds for rick sha or chair coolies. That is what I am told positively.

Q.-Have you made direct inquiries on that point?

A.-I have made inquiries on that point.

Mr. Wilcox.-But there are clubs, are there not?

A.-Coolies club together. I cannot find out any more than that.

Q. Are there no clubs of certain districts?

are over nine in There have been

A.-I have not learned of anything of that sort. I suppose I should have been told when I was making these inquiries as I was very particular in the making of them. Coolies combine themselves together in these licensed coolie lodging houses for separate purposes. These lodging houses have been licensed of late years. Here is one of the licences for these lodging houses. [Produces licence.] When there the houses or floor of the house they must get one of these licences. known cases of 150 under one licence but that is not a common number. I find several tens are about the common number. Of course, before these licences came into vogue, coolies were quite free to do what they liked. We charge no fee for these licences in the Registrar General's Office nor is any fee charged in the Sanitary Department. We send Inspectors down to inspect the houses before the licence is granted, but of course, these licences have been one factor, I presume, in the present difficulties. Coolies were free to go where they liked, but now they are brought under restrictions. That has been necessary, and I don't see how it can be avoided. The rent difficulty is a very serious difficulty. These coolies have to pay a dollar a month, and there are cases where they have to pay two dollars. They share the rent when a number of them club together for a house.

The Chairman.-These are public chair coolies though.

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Witness.--Yes, but nearly all private chair and ricksha coolies belong to a coolie

house.

The Chairman.-Yes, but they don't live in the house and they don't contribute to the rent?

Witness.-About twenty years ago, rent was only half what it is now. Besides rent, food is dear. It is hard now, I believe, to get private chair coolies in town at nine dollars and at the Peak you have to pay ten dollars or perhaps twelve. The servants are very independent because they can get work so easily outside of private employ. That is a very important item that should, I think, be taken into consideration because a coolie, if he is not perfectly satisfied with his place in a private house can take a pole over his shoulder and go over to one of the godowns and earn fifteen or sixteen dollars a month.

Mr. Wilcox.-As much as that?

A.So I am told on good authority-sometimes a dollar a day.

The Chairman.-The mystery then is why they ever became private chair and ricksha coolies. If that was the state of things that existed when they became private chair and ricksha coolies, it seems to me strange that they should ever become private chair and ricksha coolies if there is this inducement-this chance of better pay.

Mr. Wilcox.-Perhaps one explanation for that would be the continuity of work.

Witness. They can be perfectly independent now in a way they didn't use to be a number of years ago.

A man can go out as a private chair and ricksha coolie and he will pay for his food and rent and have an average of 40 cents a day.

Mr. Badeley. --More than that.

Witness.--That is a low average very likely. More than ten dollars a month. The rickshas are beginning to have three relays of men for each ricksha now, so that a man has only eight hours to work at a stretch. When the eight hours are done, he is his own master, free to do what he likes, whereas, in private employ, he is liable to be called upon at any time from early morning till midnight. Street chair coolies are very much better off than private chair coolies because, after paying for food and rent, they have eight or ten dollars or thereabout. The private coolie with eight or ten dollars is not so well off as the street coolie. These all seem difficult points and it is hard to know what one could do to meet all these difficult things.

The Chairman. Have you any suggestions for dealing with these points to lay before the Commission?

A.-You spoke about a licence or ticket or whatever it is. I would suggest that every man should have a ticket and that he should have his photograph put on it. I don't know what we can do about the rent and the food. As regards the rent, of course we need more houses for the labouring coolies, cheap transit out of the centre of the town, houses built in the suburbs or on the other side of the harbour and cheap fares across. This might affect the question and do a deal of good.

Q.-Yes, but all that would only have the effect of putting more money into the pockets of the public ricksha coolies and chair bearers and would make the occupation of the public ricksha coolie and chair bearer still more lucrative as compared with that of the private chair and ricksha coolie. All the projects you have mentioned would only tend to decrease the house rent. They would not tend either to decrease the price of food, or to reduce earnings.

A.-No.

Mr. Wilcox.-All that would be beneficial to the public coolies.

( 22 )

The Chairman. And it would only emphasise the superiority of their position as compared with the position of a private chair and ricksha coolie. What do you think about the present rates for public chair and rickshas?

A. Well, if you bring down the rents, I think you ought to bring down their fares proportionately.

Q.-If these people are making ten to fifteen dollars a month per head, don't you think there is room for diminishing the rate of public fares?

ago?

A.-I think they are paid too highly.

Q. Can you tell us how the scale compares with what it did ten or twenty years

A.-Well, you will get it all in the Ordinance.

Q. What can you tell us from inemory?

A.-I am not sure as to the whole scale of fares, but it is just recently that the scale has been raised at the Peak; I could ride from my house to the Tram for fifteen cents; now it is twenty cents, and down town the scale has been raised too. This is not the first raising of the rates. There was a raising three or four years ago, and they have been raised three times during the last 25 years.

Mr. Wilcox.-Have you ever heard complaints made of chair coolies refusing pri- vate service unless they were guaranteed that they would only have to carry the wife or husband respectively?

A.-I know that chair coolies demand that they shall only carry the husband or the wife. Years ago a chair coolie in a merchant's family would not carry the amah when taking the baby out.

Q.-That was years ago, but latterly?

A. Yes, I have heard that such is the case.

Q.-You say that as much as two dollars is paid for rent sometimes by coolies. That, of course, applies chiefly to chair coolies and ricksha men on the streets but pri- vate chair and ricksha coolies are provided with quarters?

A. They are provided with quarters, but they all belong to these coolie houses and if they are out of employ they go there to sleep, and when they go down town for a night or two they sleep in these houses.

Q.-Don't you think the fact of their being provided with quarters should induce them to retain their employment?

A. Yes, but they have such high remuneration otherwise that deducting rent and so on they are better off than the man in private employ.

Q.-Yes, I see their interests overlap in many ways. I don't see that the ques- tion of rent has such an important bearing on the question. Is it not more likely that the higher rate of wages made by an outside chair or ricksha coolie influences the pri- vate chair coolies to leave their employment?

A.-Oh, I think it must.

The Chairman.-Doesn't the knowledge that their public confrères get so much stimulate them to demand higher wages in private employ ?

A.—It must work in that way. That is one of the chief factors in it. I think the food is another important element in it. The coolies have to provide their own food.

<

1

( 23 )

Mr. Wilcox.-Have you heard of any cases where coolies have been intimidated from entering employ or driven to leave their employment through intimidation?

A.-I have heard people say that, when they dismissed their coolies, they could not get any others and they supposed it was those who had been dismissed that pre- vented others from coming.

Q.-There are a good many cases in which there have been grounds for strong suspicion that coolies have been prevented from entering employment for some reason or other, probably because the old coolies had given the house a bad character. Is that so?

A. Yes, that is what is often done. The character of the house is given.

Q.-But you don't think there is any guild?

A.-This is not the only time I have made inquiries. I made inquiries a year and got the same answer. Most distinctly and emphatically I have been told that there are no guilds.

ago

Q.--In the event of registration being recommended and adopted would you think it desirable to do anything towards regulating the wages for ricksha and chair coolies?

A.--It seems a very difficult question for Government to fix any definite scale of remuneration for labour.

Q.-I suggested that because the difficulty has arisen from a sort of competition in the market for the services of those men. In some cases they get their ten and-a-half to twelve dollars and many families can't afford to give more than eight and-a-half or nine dollars. Do you think it is a matter of supply and demand?

A.-I rather pin my faith to supply and demand. Suppose you did fix a certain rate of wages, how would you enforce what you fix? The Government rate used to be six dollars a month. It is so still, I think.

Mr. Badeley.--No, it is seven-fifty now.

Witness.-Well, for many years it was six dollars.

Mr. Wilcox. You can't get them at that now, and it will be necessary to revise the rate again, I think. Do you think that anything could be done towards increasing the supply of coolies by means of or through a farmer or monopolist?

A.-I don't know. Monopolies don't seem to succeed very well as a rule. There seem to be plenty of men in the Colony. It is not exactly a want of men at present.

Q.-You are not inclined to believe there is a want of men?

A.-I don't think there is.

Q.-Only an unwillingness to work in that direction ?

A.-An unwillingness to do work they were willing to do before, and an unwil- lingness unless they get these enhanced rewards for their labour.

Q.--You are aware that there have been complaints that coolies have refused to do little jobs they have been asked to do?

A.-I don't know whether that is worse now. I know that all along there have been complaints. In some houses there were coolies who would not do anything but carry the chair.

the chair. Other families would get their coolies to do house work as well. I cy that has always more or less been a source of trouble.

t

The Chairman.-Do you think it is due to difference in the places where the me from? Do you think the dispositi Cantonese is so different from

( 24 )

that of the Hok-lo that the Cantonese are willing to work and do certain things that a Hok-lo would not do, or vice versâ?

A.-I fancy that the Cantonese are more inclined that way, although it does not always happen. The Hok-lo has more stamina than the Cantonese. Take the average Swatow man and the average Cantonese, and you find there is quite a difference in them. Then some of the Hakkas are very good. I remember once, years ago, riding nearly the whole way to Mountain Lodge with Hak-ka coolies and, so far as I remem- ber, they only stopped once the whole way. You can't get coolies to do that now. They seem to have lost the power to carry as they used to.

Mr. Wilcox.-Yes, I have noticed it myself.

Mr. Badeley. You have told us that private chair coolies can, at any time, leave their employ and get very big wages at the godowns and such places.

Witness.-Say about fifteen dollars, or a dollar a day in some cases.

Q.-What, in your opinion, determines that rate of wages for a godown coolie? Is it a matter of guild combination to keep it up or is it a matter of minimum living wage?

A.-I suppose wages have gone up in the Colony in every line of business.

Q.-Do these coolies employed in godown work combine to keep up the wages? A.-I am not aware that they do. I have not gone into that subject. There are strikes occasionally in Hongkong.

Q-What would be the lowest wage that a coolie can manage to live on if he has got to pay his own rent and food? What is the lowest wages paid in the Colony for an able-bodied coolie ?

A.-I think a coolie to live respectably and send home money to his family in the country would need about seven or eight dollars a month.

Q.-As a matter of fact they get a great deal more?

A. That is so. Supposing he gets lodging at a dollar--he wants to send some- thing home to his family-anything from seven to nine dollars one would think a coolie could get on splendidly with and have ample to send home.

The Chairman.-What is the average wage in China do you know? ordinary occupations not in European employ but in a Chinese village or town?

I mean

A.-I don't know what it is in Swatow, but in the country the wage is very little. A man is supported by his master and gets lodging and food and so on and he gets only a few dollars in addition.

Q.-Take the case of a man who is not supported by his master and has to pro- vide his own food and so on; what is his wage?

A.-Take Canton City-chair coolies are paid better than any other class of workmen. You have to pay more for chair coolies there.

Q.-How much does he get a month?

A.--I can't tell you exactly now. I could tell you what they thought ample wage twenty or thirty years ago.

Q.-What could he live on then?

A.--You could get a house coolie who knew nothing for three and-a-half-dollars, the same sort of man you would get here for chair coolies.

Q.--That represented the living wage?

A.-That represented the li· ·

ige.

( 25 )

Then he lived in the house?

A.--Yes, he lived in the house.

Q. What could a coolie live on in Hongkong now?

A.-I don't know what a coolie could live on, but it is absurd to suppose that

a Chinaman can live on two dollars now. A coolie would need three or four dollars

at the very least.

Mr. Badeley.-What would be the effect of reducing the fares of public rickshas and chairs? Of course they could be reduced by Government, but Government could not reduce the wages of privately employed men.

What would be the general effect

of a reduction in the fares ?

A.--I fancy you would have a good deal of trouble over it and possibly a strike.

Q.-Putting aside that, I mean the ultimate result. What would they do if their business was made much less lucrative? Would they go back to their country or would they become private chair coolies or would they swell the general labour market and reduce rates there?

A.--They might swell the market and reduce. wages as godown coolies. Some might go abroad to Singapore. Some might be contented to stay with private families.

Q.-Do you think the

of public vehicles is a determining factor at all for the general wages of the Colony? Is it a large enough business to have any appreciable effect?

pay

A. I think so. You see it is a betterment of a man's position, who is with a private family, whenever he choses to take it up.

Q.--Is the public vehicle business such a big concern, as compared with the gen- eral unskilled labour in the Colony that any difference in its conditions would have a widespread effect on labour conditions generally?

A. It would have some effect. How far I can't say.

Q. Do you think, if we reduced the fares, it would have a general effect on the general wages of the coolies in the Colony?

A. If you reduced them considerably, I should think it would.

Q.--The godown coolie, would he be able to keep up his present rate of pay if the fares of public vehicles were reduced considerably?

A.-I think it would have a tendency to bring his pay down a little, but how much I can't say. It would affect the house coolies first, I should think.

Q.--Did the articles about registration apply to chair coolies as well?

A.-Oh, yes. It applied to all domestic servants.

Q. What did the Registrar General's Office do ? Did they simply give a ticket or did they act as an agency bureau ?

A.--When you wanted a servant you did not send to the Registrar General's Office and say 'I want a servant'.

[The Chairman here quoted from the Ordinance the passage defining the word servant'.]

Mr. Badeley.-The Government never undertook the business of providing the public with servants?

A.-No; simply registration of servants, and complaints were sent down, if ser- vants had not been behaving properly, to the Registrar General.

( 26 )

Q.-Do you think it would do any good if a number of places for public chairs were placed all up the hillsides?

A. I think it would be a great convenience to the public. I think it would be a great benefit to the community if there were some ricksha stands for the Caine Road, the rickshas to keep on the upper levels, and go round to Pokfulam and Aberdeen.

The Chairman.-You want one from Government House to the Civil Hospital.

Mr. Badeley. It is not a very great hardship to come down to Queen's Road and do that journey.

Witness. I think they would find employment.

Mr. Badeley.—I was thinking more of chairs, because the people who are really at the mercy of these chair coolies are the people who live up on the hillsides.

Witness.I think it would be a very great convenience to the Peak residents to have one or two stands there. It is very awkward to send from Mount Kellett for a chair and get one back in time for a tram. It would undoubtedly be a convenience to

have one there.

The Chairman.-That question bears on the point as to how we can combat the private chair coolies.

Witness. I don't know whether, if there were a few more of those vehicles licensed, it might not have an effect upon the prices. For example, take a Saturday afternoon, and you come down to the Queen's Road at the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank, you have the greatest difficulty in finding a chair or ricksha.

Mr. Badeley. There is no limit to the number of public chairs. The Chairman-I don't quite follow you, Mr. Bail.

Witness.-If you had a greater number of vehicles plying for hire you reduce the profits, as the work would be distributed over a greater number of men.

Q.-But would not that diminish the number of coolies in private employ? A.-It might do so. It might also have the other effect of bringing down more men from the country.

Q. Is there anything you wish to add, Mr. Ball, anything you have not touched apon or would like to speak to us about?

A.-It seems to me that if this Ordinance were brought into effect it would have to be carried out strictly. For many years there was a very lax system of enforce- ment, and finally, after a few years, people gradually dropped off registering their ser- There was no police control for many years and the consequence was that bit by bit the Ordinance became a dead letter. I believe I kept it up as long as, or longer than, any one in the Colony. If we have an Ordinance again, it would be well that we have some sort of security for the servants.

yants.

The Chairman. But if they are bound to get security from some one, they will be charged a commission and that will be sure to add to the wages.

Witness.-Then if you have a security as in the case of a merchant's firm where the Compradore secures all the servants, the Compradore is responsible for them.

The Chairman.-We will have some of these Compradores before us and ask them a few questions. Have you any thing further?

A.-Any complaints about servants?

ought to be taken notice of.

That is a point in the Ordinance that

(27)

Q-Should there be a space on the registration ticket allowing room for com- plaints to be noted?

A. Something like a Seaman's Discharge. "Good" or "Indifferent" or some- thing of that sort. I think it would be advisable.

Mr. Badeley.--In

In whose hands was the inquisition? Did anyone go round spy- ing? Was there any sort of inquiry at all, or how did it come out that a man employ- ed an unregistered servant?

A. If any man went to the Court and complained of larceny or anything else committed by his servant, the Magistrate would ask him if his servant was registered. It came out in that way.

The Chairman.--There won't be any difficulty as regards that, it seems to me, because if it is known that one or two persons scattered about have been had up for employing unregistered servants, there will be no need to go and warn everybody. especially if the newspapers help.

Mr. Badeley.-Would it be feasible for any Government Departinent to run an agency as it were--keep a list of servants and supply them to people on application ?

A.—I suppose it could be done, but it almost seems beyond the functions of a Government Department. It has been tried once or twice privately but it has not succeeded.

Mr. Wilcos.--It might succeed if brought in touch with the police.

The Commission then adjourned till Thursday, 12th September, at 2.30 p.m., it being agreed to then take the evidence of Messrs. H. L. Dennys and C. C. Cohen.

12th September, 1901.

HENRY LARDNER DENNYS sworn:-

The Chairman. Mr. Dennys, how long have you been resident in this Colony?

A.-Well, I arrived in December, 1868.

Q.-You have lived here continuously off and on?

A.-Continuously, except when I have been Hoine.

Q. And you have had experience of the Victoria Registration Ordinance No. 7 of 1866 ?

A.I have.

Q. Can you give us your experience of the working of that Ordinance ?

A. The Ordinance was in full working order, I might say, when I arrived in the Colony, but after a few years it fell into absolute disuse.

Q. Do you know why that was so?

A.-There were several reasons. I should say one was that the Europeans could not or would not give up the time necessary to inquire into the validity of the ticket or certificate that was brought to them by servants, and another was that they considered the certificate a very useless article as it showed nothing as to the character of the persou. The servant might have been employed twelve or six months before and he had pro- bably been forgotten altogether by his former master if he was only a coolie or some- thing of that sort, and there was nothing on the certificate to show whether he was a good coolie or a bad coolie or anything else. I think these were the two leading reasons why the registration fell into disuse. The tickets were apparently interchange-

( 28 )

able. They could be handed from one man to another, and provided the man belonged to the same district and gave the name that was on the ticket, there was no means of identifying him unless you personally went to the Registrar General's Office, and even there you could get no further information. So far as I remember, there was no pho- tograph to any of these certificates. The Ordinance did not provide for it and I think I may say Mr. Cecil Smith, Mr. Tonnochy and Mr. Lister all took up the position that the master had no right to endorse on the registration certificate anything whatever except the day on which the servant left his employment. The Registrar General was supposed to put on the date when the coolie or servant was employed and the master was supposed to enter in the last column the date when the servant was dismissed or left and he was not allowed to put any remarks on the ticket.

Q.-

-Had he been allowed to put any remarks-good or bad-it would have been a more useful certificate ?

A. Yes, I think so.

Q.-What do you think would be the best way of preventing transfers ? A.-Photographing the coolies would help to prevent transfers.

-Do you know whether it was a common practice to take servants without cer-

tificates?

A. Very shortly after my arrival here, nobody bothered their heads about certi- ficates but took servants as they were whether they had certificates or no.

Q. Do you remember of anybody being prosecuted for a breach of the Ordinance? A.-I don't remember any European being prosecuted.

Q.-To what do you attribute the lack of prosecutions?

A.-To A. To the fact that it was found not to work satisfactorily. I mean that people would have availed themselves of the Ordinance if they thought it was of any use.

Q.--I understand from one of your last remarks that you think photography would be a means of checking transfers ?

A.-That would be one means of checking them.

Q. Can you suggest any other means?

A. Of course the matter may be looked at differently if you are considering the question of boys, but if you are simply considering the question of coolies, photography, to my mind, is of very little assistance.

Q.-Why?

A.-In my own experience in the Courts here I have seen two people swear dia- metrically opposite as to whether a photograph represented a person standing before the Judge. While the photograph remains the same, a man changes his looks after a few For instance, supposing a man goes into mourning for his father, he would have to grow his hair. Of course that entirely changes his aspect. There is also the change of clothes and change of get up.

years.

Q.-Would you

advocate the affixing of a finger mark?

A. The difficulty is to identify by finger mark.

Mr. Badeley. Would you say a new photograph for each change of employer?

A. The employers change so much here. There are very few Europeans that remain resident in the Colony for ten years at a stretch, and, when they go away for a year or eighteen months, after three or four years' residence, unless it is a superior ser- vant like a house boy, I don't think they would remember the face. I can't remember my own coolies.

-

>

( 29 )

Mr. Wilcos.--I think a great point is that the photograph on the registration ticket shall be a likeness of the person producing it.

them.

Witness. Of course that is the great object. It is to enable people to identify

Mr. Badeley.-Yes, but Mr. Dennys' point is that a man changes so much in ten years that nobody could identify him.

The Chairman.---Would a man's signature identify him?

Witness.-The Chinese handwriting is as clearly a mark of the writer as English handwriting is, but with reference to the coolie, he generally makes his mark, and if he does sign his name, may do it one way one time and another way the next time. Chinese often ask you how to sign their name. They don't generally have a signature in the sense that we have.

Q.--Within recent years, have you had any difficulty in obtaining reliable ricksha and chair coolies?

A.--In March last when I returned from England my coolics considered them- selves ill-treated and gave me notice that they were going to leave, saying that the work was too hard for them.

Q.-The work was not so hard as coolies had done before?

A.-Nothing like so hard as coolies used to do before the Tramway was invented. Q.-Have you thought of the causes of the difficulties experienced during the past few years?

A.—I think it is chiefly, as far as the chair coolies are concerned, the introduction of jinrickshas and the Tramway, and, of course, the increased cost of living. There is not the least doubt about the increased cost of living. I believe 1881 is the year that the Chinamen fix as the date when the prices went up. When the Princes were entertained here, the fishmongers put up the price of fish in order to pay for the Dragon, which was a most expensive affair, and the pork butchers put up the price of pork so as to pay for their Dragon. Their Dragon was a very costly one, covered with king-fisher's feathers and cost several thousands of dollars. Since then, the prices have always been going up and have never gone back.

Mr. Wilcox. They never do go back in China.

The Chairman.-Are you in favour, Mr. Dennys, of the passing of a law making it punishable for an employer to employ an unregistered servant such as a ricksha or a chair coolie?

A.-I am not really in favour of such a law.

Q.-You think it would involve personal trouble?

A.-It would involve personal trouble and it would create a feeling that we were interfering with the free right of contract. It is not law so far as I know in any other country. It is not the law in England of course. I think a large number of people would just do as they did in the old days. After a short time they would try to get their servants without any registration.

Q.-Supposing the Police were active?

A.-I personally do not think you can cure the evil by legislation. The only way to enforce it is by making it a penal offence to employ servants that are not registered. To make it effective you must have a penal clause.

Q.-You, yourself, are not in favour of compulsory registration?

A-I don't think it will assist much.

Q.-Can you give us your reason for that opinion?

( 30 )

A. At the present time it is impossible or almost impossible to get any European to sacrifice the time and trouble necessary in order to get a conviction against his coolies, and, if he does such a thing, he knows that that coolie will be tried according to English law and he will have very great difficulty in proving the offence. A long time would be wasted and he gets nothing in return for it at all. Even supposing he succeeds in prosecuting a coolie and getting a conviction, he is boycotted by other coolies or by the guild. It may be that he may get the coolies that have misconducted themselves fined, but he has probably, in consequence, to be without coolies for two or three months. If we had legislation, it would necessitate the employer himself going to the Registrar General's Office and that would entail a certain amount of trouble with the Registrar General. He would not take the trouble, of course, unless it were

made penal not to do so.

The Chairman.—I take it that the people who are agitating must foresee that if any remedies are to be introduced, they can't be remedies involving no trouble. have to be taken.

Mr. Wilcox.-Would it be better to put registration in the hands of the Police as an administrative department? Would that not make matters casier?

A. You would have every mau numbered? Did you say nobody was to have anybody but a licensed coolie?

Mr. Wilcox.--That is so.

Mr. Badeley.-But you would then just have the same amount of trouble. You would have to go to the Police Office and that would be as much trouble as going to the Registrar General's Office.

vants.

Witness.--The Commission knows, with reference to a large number of people in this Colony, that the engagement of coolies is practically in the hands of Chinese ser- Each of us may think that we are the master in our own house and that it is not the boy and we may go and engage coolies that have been with some friend of ours who would come up to our requirements personally, but within a week, if these coolies fail to give satisfaction to the boy, we shall have no peace in the house, and I think that is a thing very often forgotten. It is not as a rule the action of the master that the coolies complain of or are discontented with. Very often it is the action of the boy.

The Chairman.-If there was no difficulty in obtaining coolies, the boy would surely be able to pick up coolies who would work with him?

A. The boy may get coolies but they may not be coolies the master would approve of

any.

Mr. Wilcox.-Many boys refuse to appoint coolies and even refuse to recommend

Of late years, that has frequently been my experience.

Witness.-The coolies I have now have struck twice. They gave me notice a week ago, and notice the night before last, once because they said I was too heavy to be carried from Plantation Road Station to my own house, an eight minutes' walk. The second time was because they were kept out till half past ten at night. They had no other reason as far as I know.

Mr. Wilcox.--Have you ever heard of any coolie guilds?

A.-I have heard of them, but I do not know anything of them from my personal knowledge.

Q.-As far as experience goes and your information goes, you have no means of ascertaining if there are any coolie guilds-merely coolie houses?

( 31 )

A. As I understand it, coolie houses are really in some cases coolie guilds. The coolies from each different district, have their own coolie houses and in many ways these houses answer to what might be called guilds. They act as collectors for religious purposes connected with the province or district or whatever it may be and a coolie is out of employment, he will go to one of these coolie houses and get credit.

Q.--Oh, he can get credit?

A. He gets credit but it is not a guild in the sense of taking up their quarrels about anything or acting like a mutual benefit society at Home. They do not actually provide for coolies out of employ, so far as I can ascertain.

Q.-But this might happen, if a coolie or coolies have left an employer and con- sider they have a grievance against him they could go to their lodging house and get the employer boycotted in that particular house, but not in another, I suppose ?

A.--No, a Hok-lo coolie would not get the coolies of another district to boycott you. Mr. Wilcox.-I have had several cases brought to my notice lately with regard to amahs, boys and coolies where people have apparently been boycotted, but it is very hard to trace it. Probably the same agency is at work all round among the servants.

Mr. Badeley.--Suppose a new man offered to come into your employ who had not had employment before and had no registration ticket, I suppose you would have to take him to the Registrar General's Office and get him registered yourself?

A.--Send him down with a chit.

Q.-Did the Registrar General make any inquiries about him?

A.-None whatever.

Q.-So

-So you had no guarantee against him being a rascal?

A.--None whatever.

The Chairman. If an Ordinance was introduced, do you think it would facilitate matters if no fees were charged? By the old Ordinance, a fee of 25 cents was charged.

A.-I think that that would probably facilitate matters to a certain extent, because to a Chinaman 25 cents is a considerable sum. My own impression at the pre- sent moment is that it is more a question of supply and demand than anything else. A coolie can go-I am assured and I believe it is true-a coolie can go and earn more as an outside coolie than he can being employed in a European house. He can act as a street or cargo coolie and he will earn ten dollars a month. In a private house, he may be said to earn eight and-a-half dollars or so.

Q.-If it is as you say, why do they go into private employ at all?

A.-Because they are more comfortable in one way. They get comfortable quar- ters and are certain of their earnings.

Q. What do you think of a proposal to fix rates of pay for private chair and ricksha coolies in the same way as rates of pay for cargo-boatmen per day are fixed by Ordinance?

A. Honestly, I don't think it would work.

Q.-Why not?

Mr. Badeley.-There is a maximum fee of so much a day for cargo-boatmen but you can also pay them by the job.

A.-Do I believe it would be a good plan to have every bound to work at a rate not above a certain maximum wage? absolutely contrary to the modern idea of freedom of contract.

servant registered and It seems to me to be It would be simply

( 32 )

slavery—well, not slavery, but somewhat like my own profession where a solicitor is bound to do work at a certain rate. But then a solicitor has got to pass an examination and other people are not allowed to come into the profession. Any Chinaman can volunteer to be a servant and registration would be the only qualification. I don't think that you would find it answer very well.

[This concluded Mr. Dennys' evidence.]

CHARLES COLEMAN COHEN sworn:

The Chairman. Mr. Cohen, you have resided in this Colony for many years; since when ?

did

A.-I have resided here since 1857.

Q.-When you came to the Colony, there was no Registration Ordinance ?

A.-Not when I first came.

Q.-During the time before the Registration Ordinance was brought into effect you have any difficulty in obtaining good servants?

A.-None whatever.

-At moderate wages?

A.-At very moderate wages.

Q. Do you know what gave rise to the Victoria Registration Ordinance No. 7 of 1866 ?

A.-I don't know what gave rise to it.

-Do you remember how it worked?

A.-As far as I know, it worked very well.

Q.-So far as you remember, did the majority of residents here comply with the law and have their servants registered?

A.—Yes, certainly, and I think all respectable servants were only too glad to be registered.

Q.-A certificate of registration was in effect a certificate of respectability?

A. Yes. No respectable people ever took in servants without a registration ticket.

Q.-Section 27 of the Ordinance says [quoting it.]—Do you remember any person who was prosecuted for employing unregistered servants?

A.-There have been cases, but I don't remember who they were at present.

-Can you remember who instituted the proceedings, was it the Registrar Gen- eral or was it the Police ?

A.-I can't tell you.

Q.-Have you experienced any difficulty in recent years in getting private servants, ricksha and chair coolies?

A. Yes, we have had lots of trouble in getting coolies. They are continually going away and all kinds of riff-raff come in their places--not respectable ones.

Q. How do you account for the difficulty?

A. The demand is so great, I fancy. New men who have never carried a chair before come and offer for service.

Q.-Are there any other reasons?

A.—I don't know of any myself. They are getting much better wages now and, I don't suppose they pay any more for their living except house rent. They may pay a little more for food.

+

1

2.

>

( 33 )

Q. Are you in favour of a law making registration of servants compulsory-pri- vate chair and ricksha coolies?

A. Yes, certainly. I should commence with the house-boy first.

The Chairman.-But that is not within the scope of our inquiry.

Witness. I should certainly be in favour.

Q. Why did the old law apparently drop into disuse?

w

A.--I don't think it was looked after very much and people came and took servants without registration tickets, and so it crept on till it really got into abeyance altogether.

Q.--Apparently it was mainly the fault of the European masters?

A.--I should say it was the fault of the Government a good deal in not looking after it more than they used to do. I don't think anybody cared very much about the Ordinance.

Q. -The Government did not take care to see that the section 27 which I quoted to you was carried into effect? Had that something to do with letting it drop into disuse?

A.-Yes.

Q. Do you remember how these certificates of registration were dealt with, whether they were passed on from man to man ?

A.-I expect there must have been something of that sort going on.

Q.-Had

given?

you any means of identifying your men? Was there any character

·

A.--You were not allowed, I believe, to endorse anything on the certificate; only through the Registrar General, so far as I remember.

Q.-Then there was nothing to show, when a man came to you with a "character" whether it was given him by his previous master or lent to him by another servant?

A.-That is so. I think I remember a man getting into trouble for endorsing a bad character on a certificate.

Q.--Suppose Government were to introduce a Registration Ordinance, can you suggest to us any means by which it could be made effective?

A.-It would be a difficult thing I should say to know how to make it effective. They seem to object to photographing.

Q.-Do you think photography would be a good means?

A.-It would be a good means; the only means I should say.

---And you would make it penal for a servant to transfer a certificate ?

A.--Yes, of course; I think the community would fall in with it.

Q.-Do you think the community would fall in with a suggestion of this kind, viz. :—that if any master engaged an unregistered servant he (the master) should be liable to a penalty not exceeding, say, $25?

A. Yes, that would be the best thing to do.

Q.-It would be a good thing if we could get it. You move about a good deal, and do you think the people would agree to it?

A.--Well, you will always find someone against it, but I mean if the community would agree to it and put up with a little inconvenience at first, they would, I think, fall in with it.

( 34 )

--Have you talked with anyone about this?

A. No, I have not heard it mentioned.

Q.--Apart from compulsory photography and making it penal for a master to en- gage an unregistered or uncertificated servant, do you think we could do anything else to make registration effective?

A.-No. I have thought it over. and, to tell you honest truth, I don't see what else you can do. The Chinaman will always pass on his certificate of character. You engage a boy with a character, and very likely it is not the same boy the character

represents.

Q. Can you tell us how you engage your chair and ricksha coolies at present?

A. They hear that I have got no coolies and they come up. Sometimes the head boy goes down and gets them for me, but there are generally lots of coolies apply- ing, all sorts and conditions.

Q. Do they stay long in your employ? A.--Very seldom.

-Can you give us a reason for that?

A. I can't make out. After some months, they seem to have got so much money by them that they can afford to go away. We pay our coolies eight and-a-half dollars.

That is a good wage-no expenses except his chow-chow.

Q. What do you put down as the reason why they don't stay long?

A.—That is a thing I could never make out.

Q. Are there competing labour markets here?

It

A.-No, I don't know if that class of men go in for any other kind of labour. is difficult to tell with Chinamen. You pay a man high wages, and, without giving you any notice, he is gone next morning. I have kept their wages back for a week and they have gone off the same way leaving their week's wages behind.

Q.--Have they given any reasons at any time?

A.-No.

Q.-Have they complained in advance, and, giving their reasons, threatened to

leave?

A.-No.

Mr. Wilcox.-Referring to the question of the registration tickets that were form- erly issued, you said, which was very true, that nothing but the date was endorsed upon them. The date of the engagement and the date of the coolie leaving. On many tickets presented by some servants, ti ere would be a whole series of dates.

Is it not a fact that coolies and serv uts generally were expected by employers about to engage them to produce testimonials showing why they left their different masters?

A. Some probably did.

Q.-A careful employer would say: "I notice you were at so-and-so, why did you leave without a testimonial ?" or "Have you got a character?" and they would pro- duce it, would they not?

A. Some of them. It might be done and might not.

Q.-In many cases, you could identify it by the handwriting. The registration tickets, I take it, were exceedingly useful?

( 35 )

A.-I suppose they would be. It would have been a dangerous thing for the coolie because he could easily be found out by parties who knew the people. People were very lax then, but we did not have the trouble we have now. My cook brought three good characters the other day, but each of the names given him was totally differ- ent. He said each of the names were bis.

Q.-Did you take him on ?

A. Yes, we have him. We were obliged to have him as we had no cook, and he is a very good one, it turns out.

Q.-In those days, the registration tickets were in the hands of the Registrar General. He issued them and endorsed the dates ?

A.-I am not so sure about the endorsing. Parties endorsed themselves the date of leaving service.

Q.-Don't you

think it would be better in the event of registration being re-intro- duced that it should be conducted by the P'olice?

A.—Yes, I should certainly think so.

Q.-The Police being an administrative department and the Police having a know- ledge of a great many bad characters, and the fact being that a great many domestic servants now in employ are known to have been bad characters?

A. And they would not get certificates and that would do away with half of the servants in the place practically.

The Chairman.-In your opinion, it would be much more effective if the register was kept at the Central Police Station than in the old days when it was kept at the Registrar General's Office?

A. Yes, I would say so certainly. The Police are more likely to know bad characters. It is more a department for them to deal with.

Mr. Badeley.-Would they not fear it might stamp them all as rogues having to do with the Police?

A.-It might cause greater difficulty in getting men to be registered.

The Chairman.-It might have that effect at the start.

Mr. Wilcox.--Yes, our difficulty would be at the start, but then it would run smoothly after.

The Chairman.-But that would be got over if the Government and inhabitants were to stand firm. Do you think it would help if registration were without any fee? In the old days, the fee was 25 cents.

A. Yes; with a Chinaman that always tells.

Q.—I suppose that, as a rule, the master always paid it before?

A.-There was no trouble. I have known masters give coolies the registration feer and they have gone away and never been seen again.

The Chairinan.- That is another reason why there should be no fee.

Mr. Badeley. I suppose that in those days, Mr. Cohen, the foreign community was very small and everybody knew everybody else?

A. Yes.

Q.-And if a coolie brought you a character purporting to be from some last employer, the employer would be somebody you knew quite well and you could ask him ? You would have no difficulty in making inquiries, but now it is quite different?

( 36 )

A.-Very different from the old days when you could recognise the coolies and say: "That is Mrs. So-and-so's coolie."

Q.-In the days of registration, did the Registrar General help you to get servants when you were out of them?

A.--Yes, I think he used to do that occasionally.

-When you were hard-up for a servant, you used to go to the Registrar ?

A.-I think we did.

The Chairman.-I know I used to help when I was Assistant Registrar General. It was not part of my business though.

Witness. In the same way as I have written to Mr. Stewart Lockhart and asked for his help when he was Registrar General.

Mr. Badeley. What was done if a man left his employment and did not take up other employment? Was there anything in the Ordinance about that? Did he take his ticket with him, or did his employer keep it?

A. They would not run away without their certificates. They were very particular about them. Of course, it was their pass if they wanted further service.

[This concluded Mr. Cohen's evidence and the Commission adjourned to meet again on Tuesday, 17th September, 1901, it being agreed to take the evidence of Messrs. Byramjee and Osmund.]

CHARLES OSMUND sworn:-

17th September, 1901.

The Chairman-How long have you lived in the Colony, Mr. Osmund ?

Witness.-I was born here.

Q.-You were in the Government employ till a few years ago?

A. Yes.

Q.-You were in the Registrar General's Office?

A. Yes, I was in the Registrar General's Office as First Clerk.

Q.- Did you have anything to do with the Victoria Registration Ordinance. No. 7 of 1866, so far as Chinese servants were concerned?

A. Yes.

Q.-Just tell the Commission how it worked?

A.-It began on 1st January, 1867, and went on till it was repealed. I was in the Registrar General's Office the whole time.

Q.-Was that Ordinance a failure?

A.-It was a total failure.

Q. Why was it a failure so far as servants were concerned ?

A.-There was no security whatever in the retention of servants. They could

just come and go as fast as they liked and get registered.

Q.-There was no check?

A.-There was no check whatever.

Q.-No means of identification ?

}

+

( 37 )

A. None at all.

-Do you know whether Portuguese have any difficulty in obtaining and keeping private chair and ricksha coolies ?

A.-I don't think they have. There are very few of them that have chairs.

Q.-With those of them that employ chair and ricksha coolies, is the difficulty one. of obtaining chair and ricksha coolies or is it merely the difficulty of retaining them and keeping them long in their service?

A. It depends upon the kind of work they have to do, whether it is light or hard work, and whether masters treat them well. If servants are treated properly they will remain long in your service; if not, they will simply go away.

Q.-It appears that things are somewhat different now from what they used to be, that these servants are well treated yet they won't stay in your employ. Have you observed that difficulty with the Portuguese ?

A have thought of that; not much among the Portuguese community.

Q. What is your own experience?

A. I have had servants for a long time and they are still with me.

Q.-Chair coolies?

A.-No, not chair coolies.

-We are only speaking of chair and ricksha coolies, not of any others. I assume that there is no difficulty in obtaining servants of this class, but the difficulty is in retaining thein ?

A. I believe there is a scarcity.

Q.-If there is no difficulty in obtaining coolies, there is no scarcity, but the diffi- culty, I believe, is in retaining them?

A.-The difficulty is in retaining them. They would go into employ, but they

won't remain.

Q.-Can you explain to us the reason?

A.-I can't explain that.

Q.-That is a different state of affairs from what, once prevailed here, is it not ? A.-Such a thing was never heard of before as a difficulty in retaining coolies.

Q. -You don't offer any opinion as to the cause of this difficulty?

A.-I believe that they go away on purpose on account of the plague.

Q.-But now when there is no plague here?

A. Now that the plague has gone, I believe they are gradually returning to the Colony and the difficulty won't be felt for so very long.

Q -But in the winter time, the difficulty, so far as we know, is just as great as in the summer time?

A.-I am not aware of that.

Q.--But if the difficulty is as great in the winter as in the summer, can you give us any cause?

A.-No, I can't.

Q. Can you tell us how wages compare to-day with the wages paid by Portuguese ten years ago in regard to coolies?

A.

( 38 )

Yes. You could get good ricksha and chair coolies ten years ago ter six dollars a month and now you have to pay seven and eight dollars.

Q-Do the Portuguese lodge their coolies?

A.-In some cases.

Q.-In those cases where they are not lodged do they pay more?

A.-No, they don't pay more, so far as I know.

Q.-You can't account for coolies not serving so long as they used to?

A.-No, I can't.

Q.-In your experience, have you learned if there is any guild of private chair and ricksha coolies ?

A.-No, I don't think so.

Q.-- Did you ever hear of such a guild ?

A.- No.

Q.--Through the district watchmen ?

A.--No.

Q. Did you ever hear of the existence of such a guild through any other source ? A.-No.

Q.-You don't know from your own knowledge, and you never heard of it? A.-No, I never heard of it.

Q.-In the Magistracy, coolies are often convicted under sub-section 3 of Ordinance 14 of 1845? [Quotes.]

A. Yes.

Q. And I have known cases in which they have been fined as much as ten dol- lars and these fines have been paid. Now, I think it stands to reason that the coolies themselves don't pay that fine. Who pays it?

A. Their own people. Their own countrymen combine and pay it. The men of their own district, either Hak-kas or Chin-chus or of the other districts subscribe and pay the fine.

Q.-Is that a voluntary combination arising out of each case, or is it an organised combination?

A. I can't be sure about it, but I don't think it is an organised combination. Mr. Wilcox. You think it is more likely to be a sort of clan business?

A.-It is more clan, yes.

The Chairman. Has photography been useful, in your opinion, to facilitate the identification of coolics?

A. Yes, it has been useful.

Q.-Do you know any other means of identifying them?

A.-I could not suggest anything better. The house servants did not get photo- graphed.

Mr. Wilcox. But would it assist to make registration more valuable if the photo- graphs were attached to the registration tickets?

>

( 39 )

A.--It would, but the photographs would have to be renewed from year to year. The coolies change in features and in expression. They get very much altered, and young boys after a little service grow up and look quite different.

Q.--I don't think they change sufficiently much year by year, but it would be necessary to have new photographs from time to time. Do you know anything about coolie lodging-houses?

A. I know they lodge in one place.

Q. And do you know that the coolie lodging-house keeper stands in the light of a master of a club to them?

A.-Well, yes.

He is headman to them and he collects so much from each inan.

Q. Do private coolies go to these lodging-houses?

A.-There are lodging-houses where private coolies go as well.

The Chairman. Do they contract then for so much a month whether they live there or not?

A.-Well, that depends upon the arrangement they make, but I think those who do not live on the premises don't have to pay anything.

Q.-That is what we want to know whether they merely paid their proportion of rent whilst they were staying there?

A.-I do not know.

Q-You think the lodging-house keepers have considerable power with the coolies ?

A.-Undoubtedly they have. They look to the headman always for anything. They respect him.

Q.-Do you think the chair coolies are at any time intimidated or could be intimi- dated to the extent of being compelled to boycott an employer?

A.-I think they could.

Q.--Have you known any such cases?

A.--I have heard of cases but I can't refer you to them.

Q.-But you don't think there is any regular guild or even a regular club in the ordinary sense of the term?

A.- No.

.-Are you aware that there is a scarcity of coolies for private employ at present?

A. I have heard so.

Q.-And you don't think there is any particular cause for it except that they are going away on account of plague? You don't think the rate of wages earned in other occupations has an influence upon them?

A.—Well, there is this that they may be going away on account of high rent and the price of food going up and everything so dear. Some Chinese find it difficult to live here and they prefer, with the plague troubling them now and again, to leave the Colony and go back to their own country. What they are afraid of is that, if they get sick they will be taken to Hospital and they go away before they become sick.

-An explanation given to me for the exodus during the plague season is this, that they earn such high wages that they are able to go away and live on their savings of the six months without working during the months of the plague. I don't think that they go away on account of the plague altogether?

( 40 )

A.-Oh, they do go away on account of the plague.

Mr. Badeley.-Would private servants be more ready to run away on account of the plague than ordinary public chair and ricksha coolies?

A.-I don't think so. It is like this, a private chair coolie lives on the premises with his master. He is more likely to be found out when he is sick and runs more risk of being forced into Hospital.

The Chairman.-There would be a good deal of point in that if it were shown that there was a larger exodus of private coolies out of private employ in summer, during the plague months, than in winter.

Witness. It was during this year that I heard that the private chair coolies were going away in large numbers.

Q.-Does the plague here affect the number of public coolies for chairs and rickshas? Mr. Badeley.--For each ricksha there are plenty of applicants. Ricksbas are never

vacant.

Witness.--If a coolie get sick another man comes aud takes his place. It very often happens that he simply holds the number of the sick man.

Mr. Badeley.--Public coolies go away in large numbers and have substitutes for the time being. We issue a very large number of substitute ricksha drawers' licences,

Mr. Wilcox.--You were in the Registrar General's Office. Mr. Osmund?

A.-I was.

suppose you would know what number of guilds there were in the Colony?

A.-I don't remember.

Q.-Is it true that the guilds in Singapore are registered?

A.-I don't know that they are registered.

Q. Do you know if the Chinese who employ private chair and ricksha coolies have been affected in any way by the scarcity of coolies?

A.-I have never heard.

Q.-Do you know how they engage their servants?

A.--No, I never asked any of them.

Q.-Did they, during the time of the registration of servants by Ordinance, re- gister any of their servants?

A.-No, the Chinese did not.

Q. It did not apply to Chinese at all, I believe, but did they not voluntarily register? A.-Oh, no.

Q.--I believe the system they adopt is to get men down from Canton or from the country under guarantee?

A. They get their own country people.

www.

Mr. Badeley. You said servants would come and get registered over and over again. Do you mean to say that a man who had been registered and had reason to think that his employer did not think very well of him, sank his previous ticket and went and got registered again?

A. On two or three occasions they attempted it.

Q.-What would you do if you found them out attempting to do that? Was it any offence?

*

·

( 41 )

A.-No, there was nothing in the Ordinance against it. The excuse they gave was that they thought the old registration ticket was of no more use. When they were found out, that was the excuse. They said they thought they had to get a new ticket. because they had a new employer.

The Chairman.--They went and sold the other one probably?

A.—I have heard of a good many cases of passing on their tickets and selling them to other people.

Mr. Badeley. As regards the renewing of the photographs, would it be sufficient if they were renewed at each change of employment? It is suggested that they be changed every year.

A.-One man might change his employer after one or two months only. The same photograph would do for a couple of years. It might be left to the discretion of the employer or the Registrar to order another photograph. They could look at the man and see if there was any change in him as compared with his last photo. and, if so, get a new photo.

QDid you, when in the Registrar's Office, ever engage coolies for people?

A.-At one time, people would come to the Office and ask me whether I could get coolies for them. In two or three cases, I did get coolies for them, but it was just a sort of friendly business.

[This concluded Mr. Osmund's evidence.]

17th September, 1901.

BOMANJEE BYRAMJEE declared:

The Chairman.-How long have you been in Hongkong?

Witness. I have been here since 1864, Sir.

Q. Did you make use of the Victoria Registration Ordinance No. 7 of 1866, register your servants ?

A.—Yes, I registered my servants all the time the Ordinance was in force.

Q. Did you find the Ordinance of any use?

A.-Oh yes, it was a great benefit.

-Did you think the Ordinance on the whole a failure or success?

to

A.-Well, some people did not care much for registering their servants. They were rather careless and did not like to bother themselves, but to me it was not a bother because when a coolie came without his registration ticket, I used to send in my chitbook with twenty-five or fifty cents and get him registered.

Q.-After a bit it fell into disuse. Why did the people not take trouble over it? Can you give us any reason for that?

A.-I think the coolies themselves did not like to have this registration, because the employers would set a mark on the ticket for his bad conduct—absent from duty or something of that kind. They did not like that.

Q.-Taking you, Mr. Byramjee, as representing the Parsee community, can you tell us whether the Parsee community to-day have any difficulty in obtaining servants, and when they have obtained them, in retaining them?

( 42 )

A. Yes, I have myself had difficulty and many others. I have been here for 37 years and I have had coolies for as long as seventeen years in my service before the last one of them died. He became sick and I was afraid he might get plague and he himself wanted to go away, and he, being my servant for seventeen years, asked me for $25 and I gave him it. He went off with his brother. At that time there was a typhoon. In three days, his brother came back and said that, on account of the ty- phoon the steam-launch could not reach his country and the master of the steam-launch had brought her back to Hongkong and would not go back again. He said I must lend him another $30 to charter a private launch-the brother too had been in my ser- vice for fifteen years nearly. In 1895 I had to go to Bombay and during my absence one of these coolies went to my representative saying he wished to go to his country, but, when I came back, I found he was engaged running a street ricksha. I said Why did

you leave?" He said he could not agree with my representative. I said he must come back, but he would not come back, though his other brother was with me till the last moment. The brother came and asked this second loan of thirty dollars. I gave it to him and he came back and said his brother was dead and the money had all been spent on funeral expenses. He brought me a few eggs and said his mother had sent him. I said "All right; I don't want the eggs, but you have taken a loan of $30 from me and

you must return it to me, and come back to my service. He never returned, and I see him still running a street ricksha. In the year 1898, I had a little robbery from my drawing room, some ornaments were stolen, and I prosecuted the coolies, and they were sent to gaol for three or four weeks. Since then, I could not get any coolies. I have now coolies but I don't know their languages, very few people could understand them. On the 1st of this month I had two more coolies for nine dollars each, that is for chair work. They took my wife to the Bowen Road. Next day, at noon, I asked them to come to the foot of Ice House Street. They took me up. I live at No. 2, Seymour Terrace.

At four o'clock, my wife wanted to visit. They said "We can't give you chair.

We have carried master and we are tired." I have seen coolies- several of our brokers' coolies--they go to the coolie kun and you will see them in the street working with the street chairs and next day you will see them half dead or dozing when you want them.

Mr. Badeley. Do they go and carry public chairs?

A. Yes they do.

The Chairman. They must be licensed for that purpose.

Var

Witness. I don't know whether they take out licences or not; but I can assure you that it is quite true.

Mr. Wilcox.-I have heard that they take the place of the public chair coolies for the time being.

Witness.For the last two or three years, I have been taking chairs from Jardine's Office to my house. They used to carry me for fifteen cents. There is a strong com- bination now and I have given their names to Inspector Mackie, who forced me to pay twenty cents. I pay them their legal fare. I can well afford to pay twenty cents but it would be a great hardship on others if the charge went up so high.

The Chairman.—I take it that the Parsees here are experiencing difficulties in obtaining reliable servants?

A. That is so. Now-a-days the coolies are most awful.

Q.- -That being so, Mr. Byramjee, can you give us a reason for this difficulty? Why won't men stop in their employment?

A. They want such light work as carrying you once or twice not three or four times a day, and, after leaving your service, and you prosecute them, they don't like your service again.

>

(43)

Q.They have been spoiled by too good treatment in the Colony. Is that so? A. If you don't treat them as Chinese they will be vagabonds.

--Can you tell us any difference in wages between ten years ago and the pre- sent time ?

:

A.--When I came to China, Dr. Murray, the Colonial Surgeon-Mr. Wilcox will also be able to tell you; he is an old resident-was content with two coolies. Four coolies then were very rare. I paid for years ten dollars for the two, five dollars each, and then it went up to six, then seven and up to eight and now nine. I was paying eight dollars for my old coolies and now I am willing to pay nine, but they ask me for ten dollars. It would spoil them to give them so much, and now they ask from what hour to what hour you will be likely to want their services. I don't go very often to the theatre or to dinner parties but I may require the chair coolies in the evening sometimes, may be it might be to send for the doctor or something pressing of that sort and the coolies are not to be found. They don't stop in the house.

Q. How do you think this general difficulty of unwillingness to serve and wanting to make special terms can be overcome?

now.

A.--That is a matter of legislation, Sir.

Q. .—What we want is your views on the subject.

What do you think?

A.---All kinds of domestic servants, cooks, boys, etc., all fight shy of hard work There are some coolies who came to my employ and they would not work on Sundays. They say "To-day Sunday, no can makee pidgin." My coolies used to wash floors and clean windows until the last two or three years when we have had great difficulty.

Q-Have you heard anything of a guild or association to which private chair and ricksha coolies belong?

A. They have a guild, Sir.

Q.-Do you know where it is situated ?

A.-There are a good many of them, chiefly in Aberdeen Street and about Queen's College and in Pottinger Street and Gage Street.

Q.--But we are talking about special guilds. Do you know anything of them? A.-Well, I don't know, but there are several guilds.

Q.-You suspect there are. Do the Parsee community lodge their coolies?

A. Some of them do. I lodge my coolies and know other Parsees who do the same -Mr. Mody, for instance.

Q.-Do you know any

who do not lodge them?

A. Yes, there are several.

Q.-Do they pay them less wages because they do not lodge them?

A.-No.

Q.-Does the fact of a private coolie having lodgings provided for him by his master lessen the wages he will receive?

A.--No, it makes no difference at all because they can get a bunk outside for the matter of thirty cents.

The Chairman. They used to be able to do that.

Witness.-I should think about half-a-dollar or sixty cents now per bunk. It depends upon the locality. In East Point or West Point they would probably only pay from thirty cents to forty cents.

( 44 )

Mr. Wilcox.-When you speak of guilds, you speak of coolie lodging-houses?

A.

Yes, lodging-houses where they meet and conspire together.

Q.-The Ordinance terms guilds as bodies of persons banded together, with rules and so on?

A.-They are regulated, and they will make a combination. Suppose you prose- cute one of their number, they will sen d runners round to the coolies to tell them to keep away from you.

Q.-You firmly believe that there are combinations among them to boycott em- ployers?

A. Yes.

Q.-With coolies as well as with boys and other servants?

A.--With coolies there is a strong combination.

Q. Of course we are not referring to coolies only, but there are some other occu- pations ?

A.--Oh, they are all alike.

The Chairman.-Have you any experience of Bombay?

A. Yes.

Q.-Are there rickshas there?

A.-No, but they have them in Colombo.

Q.-Take the case of rickshas there―?

A.—I have only been a short time there with the steamer. In Singapore, there are several thousands of rickshas.

Q.-Do you think that the rates of public vehicles here are too high? There is no ricksha fare under five cents and no chair fare under ten cents.

A. The public ricksha fare is not any way too much according to the tariff. Q.-You can get a quarter of an hour for five cents, but there is no five minutes' fare, no ten minutes' fare.

say

A.-I know Chinese women with children and some baskets get into a ricksha and "I will give you so much to take me to so and so", and they take it.

Mr. Badeley. They go very slow though.

The Chairman.Do you think that, if we had tickets like they have in Shanghai, that they would do good?

A. I have no experience of Shanghai.

Mr. Wilcox.-Do you think the attraction of a public licensed chair and ricksha has a tendency to draw coolies away from private employ?

A.-I quite agree with you there.

-Do you think the licensed coolies make higher money?

A.-Well, they earn higher pay. I can assure you that there are certain chair and ricksha coolies, say, with a position like that at Jardine's Office or the Hotel Bar, make a good thing of it. Supposing you or I wanted a chair they would say "Have got master." If there was a chance of a gentleman in the bar, or a captain in Jardine's, they would not take you. If a drunken sailor came up they would take him up. So at the Grill Rooms and the same with Butterfield and Swire's Office, and they have a chance of robbing these people.

( 45 )

Mr. Badeley.—I don't think they rob much.

Mr. Wilcox. In connection with the registration, you are aware that it fell into disuse partly because it could not be rendered effective owing to coolies and other ser- vants personating one another?

------

Witness. Yes, I remember that. It was because the registration ticket was not retained by the employer; but latterly the employer used to retain it.

The Chairman.-Under the law it was the duty of masters to retain it, was it not?

A. Yes, but some people were careless. I had the experience myself. Suppos- ing the coolie is not a good character man, he brings a ticket from a good character man and then after a week or a fortnight the good character man wants the ticket back. It is most essential that the employer should retain the ticket.

Mr. Wilcox.-Do you think it would be advisable to attach photographs to the registration tickets?

A. Yes, I was going to say that that would be a very good means of identifying the right men.

Q.-Would you make it penal that employers should register their servants-that is, compel them to register their servants?

A. That is the only remedy.

The Chairman.--Do you think, Mr. Byramjee, that the Parsee community as a community would raise any objection to their being punishable if any of them employ- ed servants who were unregistered?

A.-Most of them are commercial people who employ compradores, and the com- pradore employs his own reliable assistants and the master has not much control over the servants.

The Chairman.—These are not coolies. What I am referring to is private chair and ricksha coolies.

Witness.-That will not affect the Parsee community in any way.

Q.-Would the Parsee community object to a law that if any non-Chinese engaged an unregistered servant he would be punishable?

A.-No; they would co-operate.

Mr. Wilcox.-I think they would.

Parsees have always been law-abiding citizens.

The Chairman. Don't you think that matters might be improved a good deal with respect to coolies ?

A. It is the fault of some of our citizens. Some are too good-hearted. The laws are too good and our gaols are like paradises to them.

Mr. Wilcox.—Have you heard any complaints as to the conduct of chair coolies in

their behaviour on the streets and their rudeness to ladies?

A.--Yes. I know of good many instances. There is great difficulty in obtaining coolies for private chairs. Mrs. Seth and Mrs. Hance and many others could tell. They have not had coolies for two or three months.

The Chairman. Do you know instances of private chair or ricksha coolies using foul language?

A. They do everything. When you employ them they give you a certain name. As for me, they used to call me tiger because they say I was ferocious. They give you every kind of name. If you ask them to sweep your rooms, you usually have to force them to do it; they abuse you at the same time and make use of most obscene language. Some coulies refuse to work on Sundays such as to wash floors and clean glass windows.

( 46 )

Mr. Wilcox.--I have heard complaints, during the last few years especially, of private coolies going along the street interchanging abusive language with reference to the ladies they are carrying or the masters who employ them, and making great noises. While the lady would perhaps say "coolie, be quiet," the coolie instead of being quiet goes on making more noise, is in fact rebellious and disorderly. Have you heard of cases of that kind?

A. It is now rather too common such conduct with coolies.

The Chairman.-What do you think of banishment as a means of punishment? A-Banishment is no punishment to then.

The Chairman. We would get rid of the bad ones at any rate then.

Witness. A great thing would be a good photograph and registration ticket to be retained by the employer.

Q. Do you think registration would be better in the hands of the Police?

A. Any way the Government thinks proper, either the Police or the Registrar General.

Q.--But which would be the better?

A. The Police I should say because they can easily detect them. When I want a chair to take me to tiffin they bolt from me. Inspector Mackie told me to take their numbers and I do so now.

[This concluded the sitting, and the Commission adjourned till Friday, the 20th, at noon, it being agreed to summon Messrs. Goosmann and Fuchs for that day.]

20th September, 1901.

JOHANN NICOLAS GOOSMANN sworn:-

The Chairman.-How long have you been in the Colony?

A.—I have been here now more than 28 years.

Q.-Where do you now live?

A. I live at the Hongkong Club.

Q.-Where did you live before that?

A. On the Praya.

Q. And before that? Have you lived on the upper levels-Seymour Terrace or any of those places ?

A. No, so I am afraid I shan't be able to give you very much evidence.

Q.-You don't keep private chair and ricksha coolies?

A.-I keep a private chair and four coolies.

Q.-May I ask what wages you pay

A.-I pay eight dollars to each.

Q.-Is that gross or nett ?

?

A.They have to do their own washing and they have to find their own lodgings,

etc.

( 47 )

-How do you engage your coolies-personally or through a compra lore?

A.-Oh, through the compradore.

Q-Have you always done so ?

A. All the time.

Q.-You are a member of Melchers and Co.

A. Yes.

Q.-Do the taipans and other gentlemen in Melchers engage their coolies in that way?

A. As a rule, I think they will always refer first to the compradore.

Q.-Have you ever found any difficulty in obtaining coolies through the compra- dore ?

A.-No. I am so fortunately situated that I am pretty nigh independent of them by living on the Praya, and they have very easy work with me.

I don't want my chair before one o'clock or two o'clock, just at tiffin.

Q.-Have you had any difficulty in keeping your chair coolies?

A.—Oh no, and if I had I would tell them all that if they are not satisfied they can go. They sometimes grumble.

Q.-What do they grumble at ?

A.- Perhaps somewhat late hours and that wages are not sufficient.

Q.

-Are you paying more wages now than you were paying ten years ago?

A. Yes, I used to pay $7, but, let me see, they used to live on the premises then.

I am in a peculiar position by sleeping on the Praya and the Office being on the Praya -they probably do other work than my work.

Mr. Wilcox. They probably do other work, so little time being occupied in carrying Mr. Goosmann. They do no house work for you nor anything else?

A. Only carrying me.

The Chairman.-You are in touch with the German community?

A. Yes.

Q.-Have you heard from them any complaints about the difficulty of obtaining and retaining private chuir and ricksha coolies?

A. -As regards that, I have heard a good deal. Mr. Haupt, who is living in Mac- donnell Roal, used to keep a chair with four coolies and he got so annoyed about the continuous bother with them, I asked him "Have you no longer a chair ?" He said "No, I have given it up; it is so much trouble. I always keep so much money in iny pocket and the coolies round the Club knowing I pay them freely are willing to take me, and I just take outside chair coolies."

Q.-Have the German ladies, for instance, been complaining to you ?

A. Yes. Let me see: Mrs. Schoenemann said to me the other day that these ricksha coolies were troublesome just now.

Q. Can you give us the names of some German gentlemen who live up the Hill?

A. Yes, there is from our office Mr. Roese. He is living in Belilios Terrace. Then there are Mr. and Mrs. Schoenemann who live in Elliot Crescent.

( 48 )

Q.-Now, Mr. Goosmann, suppose a law were introduced for either the licensing or registering of private chair and ricksha coolies, would you have any objection to its being made penal? That is, that a person should be liable to a fine at the Police Court if he engaged an unregistered or unlicensed private chair or ricksha coolie ?

At first there might be some trouble.

A.-I have no objection whatever. Q.-But the question is are Europeans to be made punishable if they engage coolies who are not registered?

A.-One would need to be always on the look out to see that they always had chair coolies. Suppose the Chinese were to strike work! But as regards my own person, I have no objection at all. Of course, I don't speak for others.

Mr. Wilcox.-But do you think that the German community would have any objection to the chair coolies being licensed or registered? They would not think it too much trouble, for instance, to do it, in order to secure better servants, would they?

A. I think they would be quite glad about it because things have come to such a pass.

The Chairman.--Suppose Mr. A. B. is found out to have servants in his employ who are not registered or licensed, Mr. A. B. is liable to be taken up to the Police Court and fined $25. That is the point I wish to make plain. Is there any objection to that?

A.—I don't see any. People say they can't get on with their servants, and so this must be tried.

Mr. Wilcox.-Registration, unless it is compulsory, would be of very little use? A.-You are quite right.

The Chairman.-Strict observance of registration on both sides-on the side of the master and on the side of the employee?

A. Yes, I perfectly understand. I don't know if it is true, but I was told that as regards the licensing of public rickshas the Government was not very liberal. Of course all of this crowd of private coolies has to be drawn from the public ricksha

men.

Mr. Wilcox. I don't know about that. We are trying to find out whether they are drawn entirely from the same class and we think that they are, but it is not quite clear.

A.-I see the coolies change of their own accord. I don't always have the same men; they arrange to a great extent among themselves. Originally, I engage them through the compradore but if one slips away another comes and takes his place.

Q.--In your opinion, the coolies whilst nominally being paid for their whole time- by you are practically working at other times, when they are not carrying you, for other people?

A. Yes, perhaps ordinary private chairs or rickshas.

Mr. Wilcox. Yes, that is the suspicion entertained by a good many people. Witness.-I know for certain that, once or twice after a coolie had left me, I saw him employed just as an or linary street coolie. Of course, I have one whom I always call the "olo" cool He has been with me for a long time and he does not change. The others change.

The Chairman.-The oftener they change the better for him because he gets his squeeze" every time.

you,

Mr. Wilcox. Their time is made up in various ways but, so long as they carry that is all you require?

I

( 49 )

Witness. I came here quite unprepared and had no idea what questions, you would ask me. You mentioned about gentlemen living up the Hill above Bowen Road. There is Mr. Grote. He also mentioned the other day about having trouble with his coolies.

The Chairman.-Do you remember the old Registration Ordinance being in force ?

A.--Yes.

Q. Did you engage coolies under it?

A.—Do you mean about twenty-five years ago? Oh, yes, there were, so far as I remember, little red slips and the coolies had to go to the Registrar and get these filled

up.

Mr. Wilcox. Their certificates were not red, but they may have had red slips to go with. But you had no more trouble in getting coolies then than now ?

A.--No. You see it was virtually in the infancy of the Colony and it was very easy to get servants.

The Chairman.-Do you know what they do in Kiauchau with regard to servants?

A.--No, I don't know. Mr. Schoenemann might be able to tell you. He has got rather important business there and he is sure to know.

Q.--Do you know the system in Shanghai ?

A.--No, I have never been in Shanghai but there are so many residents in the Colony who have been that you will have no trouble in finding out.

Mr. Badeley. You don't know what reason your coolies gave when they disap- peared?

Did they ever tell you why they left?

A.-They don't come and tell me. They are simply not there and another man is in their place. I have asked "What for new man ?" and the reply is "Other man got sick."

Q.-I think you said you had registered coolies?

A.-Not coolies. I was thinking then of boys.

The Chairman (reading definition of "Servant" in Ordinance 7 of 1866).--House boy, cook, cook's mate-sounds like Kipling doesn't it--amah, coolie, watchman, gardener, coachman, horse boy and boatman. The definition says nothing about chair- bearers. They were never registered.

Witness--That Ordinance was not enforced.

20th September, 1901.

ARNOLD FUCHS sworn:

The Chairman.Mr. Fuchs, how long have you been in the Colony?

A. Since June, 1886.

Q.-Of what firm are you now a member?

A.-Siemssen and Company.

Q. Where do you now live?

A.-Barker Road, at the Peak, fourth house on the right, next to Mr. Playfair's. Q.-Do you employ any chair and ricksha coolies ?

A. Yes, four coolies.

( 50 )

Q.-Chair coolies?

A.-They are chair and ricksha coolies together. I use more rickshas than chairs.

Q.--Do you keep them down the Hill?

A.-I keep them up the Hill.

Q-Then they don't come down with

you ?

t

A.-No, they sometimes go down to Hongkong and they always take the chair. Q.-May I ask you what you pay ?

A.-I pay eight and-a-half dollars a month.

Q. Anything outside of that for firewood or anything of that kind?

A.-They get their chow cooked with our firewood.

Mr. Wilcox.--That is a concession worth about half-a-dollar a month or more.

The Chairman.-How long have you been paying such wages to your coolies?

A.—I had to increase the wages to eight dollars and fifty cents when I removed up to the Peak.

When I lived at Queen's Gardens, I paid $7.50 and $8.

Q.--How do you engage your coolies?

A.-I get them through my Compradore.

Q.-Always?

A.--Yes, always.

Q.—And does every gentleman in the firm do the same thing?

A. As far as I know, yes.

Q.-Is that part of his contract with your firm?

A.-Our Compradore is employed under contract to get coolies for us.

Q.-Under that system, have you ever had any difficulties in getting coolies?

A. There is one difficulty; it is hard to get good coolies. The coolies are not so good as before.

Q. Has your Compradore ever said: "I am very sorry I can't get you coolies”?

A.--He has always been able to get them.

Q.-Do you know how he got them?

A.-I think he always gets them through the coolies in his office.

Q.-You say you have had no difficulty in getting coolies, but, having once got them, have you had any difficulty in retaining them?

me.

A.--I could not say I have had any difficulty in keeping them.

Q.-Have you any reason for that?

A.-I think the reason why my coolies stay is that they got a very easy job with

Of the coolies I have now with me I have had some for three or four years.

Q.--You are in touch, Mr. Fuchs, with the German community here?

A. Yes.

-Have any complaints reached your ears from the members of that community about private chair and ricksha coolies?

( 51 )

A. Yes, I know of one case of two doctors-Rohmann and Gerlach-at Kennedy Road, and they have now to pay ten dollars and yet the coolies don't care to stay very long because they have too much work. They get other coolies but, so soon as the new coolies learn that they have to go out at night, they won't stay.

Q. Why do they object to going out at night? Do they look upon the night time as their own to go out and make a little extra money by carrying public chairs?

A. Yes, that is probably the way.

Q. What is your idea as to the rate of fares here for public chairs and rickshas? Do

you think it is too high a rate?

A.-I think it is too high a rate and I think that is the reason why we have to pay so high wages now and have difficulty in getting coolies to carry us.

Q.-That is to say, that public employment is more lucrative than private employ- ment ?

A. Yes. I should think so.

Q-I think we probably agree with you on that point. Now, supposing the Government here introduced a law making the registration of ricksha and chair coolies compulsory on the part of the master as well as on the part of the coolies, would you personally have any objection? For instance, supposing you engaged coolies, and these coolies were not registered coolies, you would be liable to be punished for engaging coolies who were not registered.

Would you have any objection to that?

A.-I don't see that I would have any objection. about it.

There won't be much trouble

Q.-Would you not bave what I would call any sentimental objection ?

A. Certainly not.

Mr. Wilcox. You would not feel that you were being rendered liable to penal consequences? Of course, you would be liable to a fine for employing unregistered servants. but you would feel that it was your duty not to engage such and make yourself liable ?

A.-As soon as it becomes law in Hongkong, everyone will go in for it. There might, of course, be some objection, but it would be with the coolies.

The Chairman.-The point is whether the masters would object. It is no use bringing in an enactment of that kind if the community is against it. If you employ an unregistered servant, and if you are found out, you would render yourself liable to be brought up at the Police Court to show why you are keeping unregistered servants; in the same way as one might be charged with keeping an unlicensed dog.

Witness.-The coolies change sometimes. I have three or four coolies, and I find I have sometimes got a new coolie without my knowledge. It might be a bit risky for the master.

Mr. Wilcox. That would entail trouble on the Compradore.

Witness. What would you do in the event of a coolie going away and sending a substitute without your knowledge?

The Chairman.-The substitute would have to be a registered man.

Witness. In the case of a master being able to prove that the servant was there without his knowledge he should not be liable to any fine.

The Chairman.-Immediately you see a strange coolie, you say to him: "Show me your licence.'

""

|

( 52 )

Witness. I think we had better have it as a law for the coolies and not for the

masters.

The Chairman. That won't work because you could not depend upon the masters." They would employ whom they liked and there is no good registering coolies if people are at liberty to employ unregistered coolies.

Mr. Badeley.--Only the scallywags would be registered.

Mr. Wilcox.--There is a large section of the employers would not take the trouble unless registration were compulsory.

Witness. I would not mind the trouble.

The Chairman.-Suppose you gave a limit of three days to have a coolie in your employ registered?

A.-There is always a risk with coolies because they change so much.

Mr. Wilcox. They would not change. They would be bound down.

At present, a great deal of trouble arises from the fact that coolies interchange-they go from one employ to another, act as substitute, or go to a licensed vehicle and come back under some pretence or other, and in many cases, where employers employ four coolies, they don't notice the absence of one. That would not happen, I think, if they were registered. They would not care to risk it.

Mr. Badeley.--We must have registration compulsory on both sides. People who have good servants without registration would stick to them. Only the bad servants would be registered.

The Chairman.-I think you and other members of the community would be perfectly willing to undergo the trouble?

A.--I would not mind the trouble a bit.

Mr. Wilcox. So soon as it got into working order, I think you would find the registered coolies would become a body by themselves and would look down upon those who were not registered. They would have far better employment and would get the outsiders kept outside. They would make a coolies corporation of it, so to speak. Have

you heard

any complaints among the German community of insolence on the

part of coolies ?

A. Sometimes they are very insolent.

Q.-Have you noticed that they have been more insolent to their employers of late years than formerly?

A. I have not noticed it, but I have heard it. I know of lots of families who have had trouble, especially on the Peak and Magazine Gap.

Mr. Wilcox. In the neighbourhood of Queen's Gardens, I know changes have been very frequent.

Witness Mr. Lauts has had a lot of trouble. At present he has got no coolies. Our house is very comfortably situated. Of course, the coolies don't get much work to do and we don't have any trouble.

Q.-Have you heard of any cases of employers being temporarily boycotted?

A. Yes.

Q.-Lately?

A.-Mr. Lauts told me of a case in which a coolie was given in charge of the Po- lice and they could not get any coolies after.

( 53 )

7

Q. This boycott was removed?

A. They came back.

Q.

Do you think there is a guild?

A. Yes.

Q. Have you ever received any information leading you to suppose there is a guild of coolies ?

A.--I have no doubt there is a certain combination, otherwise they would not work as they do.

Q.-Yes, but you are not in possession of any special information on the subject of an organisation, club or guild existing among the coolies of the Colony?

A.--I do not know about private coolies, but outside coolies have a guild. Q.-But public and private chair and ricksha coolies are so much allied that if there is a guild for the one, there must be a guild for the other?

A. There must be.

Q-I suppose you are not in favour of any regulation for fixing the rate of wages? A.—Well, you see the wages are paid according to the work they have to do and according to the distance they have to go. People like Mr. Grote, who live far up the Hill, have to pay higher than the ordinary individual.

Q. Which is the more lucrative of the two-a public chair or private employ ?

A. I am quite sure that the public chair coolies make much more money than the private chair coolies. The scale has been increased, too, within the last few years.

The Chairman. I must say that I think that was mistaken policy. They make too much money and that tends to make them more independent.

Mr. Wilcox. I know they rush to carry these men-of-warsmen and soldiers.

Witness. Yes, and from them they get big fares.

The Chairman. Are you or are you not in favour of a fixed rate of pay for coolies in private employ-say a maximum rate?

A.-A maximum rate might be fixed, but you see, if this maximum rate is fixed, the coolies won't serve everybody.

Mr. Wilcox. It does not follow that all coolies would be entitled to receive the maximum rate. Doctors, who employ coolies at all seasons, might pay it, and, in the case of a broker who is rushing about all day it might be paid, but in the case of such as yourself who use them only to carry you to the tram or to the office a minimum scale might come in and more especially in the case of an employer who does not ask them to do any other work such as watering the garden or assisting to look after the flowers and various other things-looking after dogs, which they are frequently asked to do. Some coolies do actually nothing but simply carry their employers to and from business.

The Chairman.-I think, if we remember how hard a Chinese works in his own country, that there ought to be no difficulty in inducing him to do whatever he is told to do besides bearing a chair.

Witness. By coming to a proper arrangement with them, they have to do what- ever work they are asked to do. They have to pull the punkah, go to market and all these things. That is the reason we always arrange with the Compradore, who makes them understand that they have to do whatever they are called upon to do.

( 54 )

Mr. Badeley.--How are you to enforce a maximum rate of pay? make it penal on anyone who is found to be paying more?

Witness. I do not think that would work very well.

Are you to

[The Commission then adjourned till Monday, 23rd September, at 11 a.m., it being agreed to summon Mr. A. W. Brewin, Registrar General, for that hour, and Mr. J. T. Lauts for 11.45.]

23rd September, 1901.

ARTHUR WINBOLT BREWIN sworn :---

The Chairman.Mr. Brewin, you are Registrar General

A.--Yes.

Q.--And you have been Assistant Registrar General ?

A. Yes.

Q.-You got my note on Friday saying that the chief points on which we wished to examine you were the question of guilds and the question of which Department registration should be done in, if registration of private ricksha and chair coolies were introduced?

A. Yes.

Q.-Now, are hawkers and cargo-boatmen licensed at the Registrar General's

Office?

A. Yes, sampans as well.

-Is any other class of persons licensed by the Registrar General ?

A. No, these are all.

Q. Is photography employed as a means of identification?

A.-Yes.

Q.--Is this the best means of identification that

you

know of?

A.--It is the simplest.

Q.-

-Is it effective?

A.--Yes, quite effective.

Q-Is this method resented by the hawkers, cargo-boat people or sampan people?

A. Certainly not, as long as I have been connected with the office.

Q. -If compulsory registration of private chair and ricksha coolies were introduced, in which Government Department do you think it would be likely to be most effective?

A.-Either in the Police or in the Registrar General's Department

Q.-Have you a preference for either ?

A. Well, it has been the policy, you know, to remove registration to a certain extent from the Registrar General's Office. Chairs and jinrickshas used to be registered there.

Mr. Badeley.And arms dealers at one time?

A.--Arins dealers were once.

( 55 )

A

The Chairman.-Do you think the Police Department would be a better department for registering private chair and ricksha coolies?

A. I don't think there is much to choose, but I think it would be as well to have the control of all those coolies under one department, because private chair coolies are constantly leaving private employment and turning street chair coolies.

Q. Do you think that the Chinese themselves would prefer oue office to the other or do you think that is more a thing of the past ?

A.-Well, this will be a new thing, and of course we flatter ourselves that they prefer our office, the Registrar General's Office.

Q. Do you think it would make a difference of a strike or no strike according to the office in which they were required to be registered?

A.-I daresay any influence the Registrar General has could be brought to bear quite as well although the licences were issued by the Police Department.

Q.--I quite agree with you, and you think that, as licences of public chair and ricksha coolies are in the hands of the Police at this moment, the best thing would be to put the licences of these private coolies in the same hands?

A. Yes, I think that is the best course.

Q.-Is one of your reasons for that the fact that the people who supply public chair and ricksha coolies are the same persons who supply private chair and ricksha coolies?

Witness. You mean head coolies ?

The Chairman.-No.

licensees of rickshas.

There are certain persons supplied and employed by

Mr. Badeley.-Yes, it is like cabs are at home.

A man takes out licences for a

certain number of chairs and the coolies hire them from him.

The Chairman. Those persons who hire them are themselves licensed ?

Mr. Badeley.

Some of the chair coolies may have their own chairs.

Mr. Wilcox. I have known cases of chairs being cumshawed by private persons to their old coolies or former servants, so that is proof that the chairs are occasionally owned by the coolies themselves.

The Chairman.-Do you think that the fact that the Police deal directly with licensed persons who hold the right to sublet to other people, is argument in favour of putting registration or licensing of private ricksha and chair coolies into the hands of the Police? They seem to have the machinery ready there. Do you see what I mean?

Witness.-I see what you mean, but I do not know that the licence holders have much control over the coolies they engage. I thought that, with them, it was simply a matter of business. I should prefer to say that in reality no difference can be drawn between private and street coolies because street coolies are constantly going into private employ and going out of it again. The licensing of all these coolies (public and private) should be under one department.

Q.-Do you know of any guild, association, trade union or organization controlling the actions of private chair and ricksha coolies ?

A.-No; I have never heard of such.

-Have you recently investigated the matter?

A. Yes, I have made further inquiries.

:

( 56 )

-What are the results of these inquiries?

A.--I don't think there is any foundation for the suggestion that there is a union. Q.-Have you inquired of the District Watchmen ?

A. Yes, and of some Chinese gentlemen. There are only these clubs.

Q.-You have heard of cases of boycotting?

A. Yes.

Q.-Now, how is it possible to boycott unless an organization of some sort exists?

A. Well, these Hok-los are very clanny, and I have no doubt that great numbers of them come from the same district and they stick together very closely. I don't think there is any need to require an organization to account for the boycotting.

Q.-Do you think it is due to living in the same coolie house?

A.-Living in the same coolie house and being strangers in Hongkong, speaking a different language, associating together very much and being in the habit of joining associations for various purposes. I don't think, therefore, that there is any need for a special organization among them for dealing with wages and boycotting.

Q.-You think it is only the tendency of the Chinese to combine, and that is sufficient to account for it without any organization?

A. Yes.

Mr. Wilcox. They simply pass the word along?

A.

Quite so.

The Chairman.-I take it that you would be in favour of photographing these people ?

A.-Oh they must be photographed if you are going to license them.

Q.-You had not any experience, had you, of the working of the old Registration Ordinance which apparently ceased to operate in 1888---the Victoria Registration Ordinance, No. 7 of 1866 ?

A.--I had no experience of it.

Q-Personally, have you had any difficulty in procuring and keeping your coolies?

A.-I have had no experience.

Q-Don't you keep coolies?

A.--No.

Q.-llaven't you kept any at all within the last five years?

A-I have only kept some for a month. I found it much simpler and less troublesome just to engage them as I wanted them.

Q.--If you kept regular coolies, how would you engage them?

A. One of the servants would go out and get them.

Q.--One of your own domestic servants?

A. Yes.

Q.-You did not call in the aid of the District Watchman?

A.-No.

Q-Nor the shroff ?

A.--No; I engaged them in the ordinary way.

( 57 )

Q.--Have you formed any opinion as to the reason of the existing difficulty? It seems to be one not so much of procuring servants as getting them to stay with you when you have got them.

them. Have

Have you any idea as to the cause of that difficulty-why it is that servants won't stay?

A. One reason may be that outside coolies are making a very good thing out of it and I believe they have been these last few years, and, of course, when a coolie. resigns or loses his place, he can always go and stay in his house for a month or so without any great expenditure as he pays a regular subscription.

Mr. Wilcox.-Oh, is that so?

A. They pay a small subscription.

The Chairman.-Even although in private employ?

A. Yes.

-What sort of a house is it?

A.--It may be a lodging house or a small society.

The Chairman.-They pay a sort of absentee fee I suppose ?

A. Yes, it gives them a lodging and it is their subscription to religious ceremonies and that sort of thing.

Q. Are you personally and officially-put it both ways-in favour of compulsory registration of private chair and ricksha coolies, Mr. Brewin?

A.--Yes, I think it would be a good thing if they were registered.

Mr. Wilcox.-Do you think it would be desirable in addition to registering and photographing coolies to make any regulation as to wages, there being many complaints as to the forcing up of wages of late to a very high point-as much as ten, and eleven and even twelve dollars a month?

A.-No, I can hardly go as far as that.

Q.- -You don't think it would be well to interfere with the law of supply and demand?

A.-Not in that way,

I should think.

Q. Do you think that private chair coolies drift very much into the ranks of the outside licensed chair coolies?

A. While I lived in Caine Road, there was a chair coolie stand outside my door and I was always noticing these fellows turning up as private chair coolies. There may have been sixteen men there, and I am sure I have recognised five or six of them in uniform at different times and then they would come back to the public chairs in a

few months.

Mr. Wilcox. I have seen my own coolies plying for hire in the street.

The Chairman.Whilst they have been in your employment?

Mr. Wilcox.-No, after leaving. Then I have noticed them in some other person's uniform. You (witness) say that, when in private employ, they still continue a subscription to the lodging-house from which they originally came. That would seem to prove to me that it is an organised club.

A.--It is what you would call an association. I think it would be best described as a friendly society.

sary

Q-That gives the basis of an organization for the promotion of strikes if neces-

?

A. Undoubtedly.

——

( 58 )

Q. And it enables the coolies most effectively to establish a system of boycotting if they have a wish to do so?

Witness. Do you mean by having funds at their disposal?

Mr. Wilcox. Yes, having funds at their disposal and being able to communicate with other coolies. They can boycott if they wish to.

Witness.--I don't know if these funds could be used in that way. The funds are, I fancy, devoted to special purposes, and the only advantage the men have from being connected with these societies is that they can get lodging free when they are out of employment-for how long I don't know--and in case they died no doubt some money would be paid out towards burial expenses. For Triad and other purposes I think they would raise special subscriptions.

Mr. Wilcox.-Yes, that is very likely.

The Chairman.--Do you think that that absentee fee which would entitle them. to go to these lodging houses when they are out of employ, has been increased within recent years ?

A.-I have not heard of that, but it might well be the case. It is supposed to

cover rent.

Mr. Wilcox. And rent has gone up all round?

A. And rent has undoubtedly gone up.

Mr. Badeley. You issue cargo-boat and sampan licences and have power to can- cel them?

A. Yes.

Q.--Do you ever cancel them?

A. Yes, I cancelled some sampan licences a few months ago on complaints made by the Police.

Q.—Well, if a sampan man whose licence had been cancelled came to you later on applying for a fresh licence and said nothing about his having been previously licensed would

you spot him?

A.-I don't think I could.

Q.-You have no machinery for that?

A.-Oh yes, the photographs are there but there is such a very large number of them that nobody ever thinks of looking them up to see. I mean to say that, if a licence was cancelled in June and the man came for a new licence in September, the clerk, I don't imagine, would look through the photographs to find out whether he had been licensed before or not.

Q.-Would there be any difficulty about him doing that?

A.--No, there would be no difficulty but then there would be no difficulty either about the man sending another member of his family for the licence. A very large number of licences are given to women.

Q.--Supposing a coolie misbehaved himself and got dismissed, but afterwards sank all reference to his previous registration and started afresh, do you think you would have difficulty?

A.--I think you would. I think you would want something more than photo- graphs.

The Chairman.--What else would you suggest?

( 59 )

·

}

Witness.-You would need to have measurements.

Q.--But that would involve a reference to the books too?

A.-Yes, but you can classify measurements. You can't classify photographs. Mr. Badeley. They might object to that.

Witness. Yes, they might object.

The Chairman. They objected to photography at first because it was a novelty. When they once got used to it, they were like reasonable beings. They won't object to being measured.

tion ?

Witness.--We measured ricksha coolies once did we not and had a medical inspec-

Mr. Badeley.--We had a medical inspection, but it was no use. you issue are renewed at short intervals are they not?

A.--Every year.

Q.-That is the longest interval ?

A. Yes.

Q.-They have a fresh photograph for each new licence don't they?

The licences

A.—We take an old photograph sometimes. The hawkers I notice keep a pho- tograph on for more than one year.

Q.-In how many years do you think a Chinaman would become unrecognisable by his photograph--grow out of his photograph so to speak? How often would they require to be renewed say in the case of chair coolies ?

A.--I think, as far as photographs go, they would be serviceable for five years. The Chairman.-Supposing one of the coolie's parents died and he grew his hair, that would alter his appearance entirely?

A. That would make a little difference certainly. It is not so very easy either to identify a Chinaman by his photograph.

Mr. Badeley. They have a system in Singapore of using a looking glass and by this means they get a full face photograph and profile as well.

The Chairman.-They hold up their hands, too, don't they?

Mr. Badeley. Yes, the criminals do.

Witness. As far as the appearance of the men is concerned, I don't think there would be much difference in five years, but I don't know about the photograph.

Mr. Badeley. I presume the photograph would be kept by the employer.

Witness. Photographs won't fade if they are properly done, but I have had to refuse some because I saw they would not last.

Mr. Wilcox. There should be an understanding with the photographer.

Mr. Badeley. That is a matter of arrangement.

The Chairman. In regard to the prevailing rates for public chairs and rickshas, it seems pretty apparent by this time that one reason why private chair and ricksha coolies leave their employers is that the business of the public chair and ricksha coolie is more lucrative. Now, I don't know whether you have thought about it, but it has appeared to some of us that the fares of public chairs and rickshas are probably too high. Are you in favour of modifying these fares? For instance, it seems to me absurd that I, or anybody else, should have to pay five cents by ricksha and ten cents by chair

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( 60 )

to go from the Clock Tower to the Club. There is no fare under a quarter of an hour and it is in these short distances that the coolies make the money. Do you consider that the reduction of public chair and ricksha fares would tend to alleviate the present difficulty?

Witness. Do you think that would make people pay less? I think these ricksha men make a great deal of money out of people who don't think of anything less than twenty cents or fifty cents.

The Chairman.-These are mostly visitors during the winter time, but do you think the difficulty would be met by tickets or checks such as they issue in Shanghai, or might they not have the fare laid down between certain points? In the case of gharries, I think there is one scale of fares for distance and one for time.

A.-It would be easy to lay down fares for distance in Hongkong for rickshas.

Q.-But do you think that would help to make it less lucrative for public chair and ricksha coolies and thereby probably help the private chair and ricksha coolie difficulty?

A. Yes, I suppose it would,

Q.-On the other hand, there might be this effect of reducing the fares, that there might be a scarcity of public chairs and rickshas?

A. That is true.

The Chairman.-The thing would be to reduce the fares to such an extent as just to make it profitable to continue on the street, and at the same time not leave them so. high as to leave an inducement to private coolies to desert their employers.

Mr. Wilcox. I think that a good many of these excessive earnings are made in just one or two districts and matters might be adjusted by a little regulation as to certain coolies not being allowed to monopolise certain stands, as I believe they do at the present time.

Is that so? Do you know if certain coolies

The Chairman (to Mr. Badeley).—Is that so ? always frequent the same stands ?

Mr. Badeley.--I expect that they do. It stands to reason that they do so. They are not told off to certain ranks. I don't know what they do at home with cabs. Do they tell them off to certain ranks? I know London cabs are not allowed to crawl about for hire nor are the rickshas here. When they are not employed, they have to go to one or other of the stands laid down.

The Chairman.-Is there anything more you would like to tell us?

Witness.-I don't think I have anything else to say.

Mr. Badeley.--Do you know much about the wages earned by street coolies- godown and cargo coolies and so on?

A.---I am told that they make a lot of money in handling cargo. I understand cargo coɔlies are the best paid.

Q.-That is a more lucrative business than private chair employ?

A.-Oh yes.

Q.-Is it harder work?

A.--Yes, but not continuous work. I am told the men live better too.

Q.—Then it is very doubtful whether reducing public ricksha fares would have much effect in driving the men into private employ if cargo coolies are so well paid?

t

(61)

The Chairman.-If they come from the same class of people, that might be so. But have we any proof of the ricksha coolie becoming a cargo coolic?

Mr. Badeley.--Yes, Mr. Hanson gave us some evidence to that effect.

Witness.-These Hok-los are a close corporation. However they were affected, they would not go into any other business.

Mr. Badeley--You don't think private chair coolies go from that business to be cargo or godown coolies?

A.-I don't think they do, so far as Hok-los are concerned, and the majority of private chair coolies are Hok-los.

The Chairman.--They look upon it as a different trade? Chair bearing is one trade and cargo carrying another trade and they won't pass from the one to the other?

A.—What I was thinking of was that the trades are in the hands of different dis- tricts and outsiders can't get in.

Mr. Badeley.--In whose hands is the cargo carrying business?

A.-I could not tell you. Either the Tung-kun, or Sz Yap.

[This concluded the sitting, and it was agreed to meet again on the 24th Septem- ber, and take the evidence of a number of Chinese Compradores.]

24th September, 1901.

WEI YUK declared:-

The Chairman.-Where are you Compradore?

A.--I am Compradore at the Mercantile Bank.

-Where is your house?

A.-Macdonnell Road, near the end.

-Do you employ chair and ricksha coolies?

A.-I employ chair coolies and they pull the ricksha as well.

Q. What wages do you pay them?

A.-I pay eight dollars.

Q.-What does that include ?

A.-I give them oil, firewood and hot water for them to bathe themselves if they want it.

Q. -Do you give them free lodging?

A. Yes.

Q. Do you pay for their food?

A.—No.

Q.--Five years ago, how much did you pay?

A.-Five-and-a-half dollars or thereabouts, but I gave them board and lodging. Mr. Wilcox. What do you think the difference would be-about a dollar per

month?

rate ?

( 62 )

The Chairman.--How much do you consider the present rate greater than the old

A.-A dollar or a dollar fifty I think would be fair.

Q.--Have you had any difficulty in getting coolies?

A. No.

Q. Any difficulty in keeping them?

A. Not in my case.

Q-Now, you say you are Compradore to the Mercantile Bank. Do you engage coolies for the Bank?

A. Yes I do.

Q.-Is that in your agreement?

A.--No, Sir.

Q. Do you engage coolies for Mr. Yates?

A. If he requests me to do so.

Q. When was the last time you engaged coolies for your hong?

A-I believe five years ago.

Q.—It is not part of your agreement, but I hear it is part of some Compradores' agreements to do so. Is that so?

A.--You are not obliged to do so, but if you are asked you just do it as a favour.

Q.- -How do you set about doing it?

A.-I simply go to my chair coolies and tell them to ask their friends if there is any one who would like to come.

-Do you, as a Chinese gentleman, wish to have registration of private coolies in Chinese employ?

A.-I have given that question great consideration and I have also asked the opinions of many of my Chinese friends, and they come to almost the same opinion, and that is that registration of private coolies would not be a good thing. It would cost the coolies money and they would charge more than the present rate at which we engage coolies. If a chair coolie was ill-a licensed chair coolie—and he wanted someone to take his place for the time being he would have to get a licensed coolie who would

say, I want more because I am licensed.

Q. What is your opinion?

A.-I say no. It is a good thing in one sense but a bad thing in another. You can't tie the chair coolie to you, and when you want a substitute you will find great difficulty. I have considered the thing and I give the answer 'no'.

Mr. Wilcox.-Don't you think that difficulty could be got over, Mr. Wei A Yuk- that difficulty of substitutes-by the giving of temporary registration tickets? There being no fee whatever, the registration would be a simple matter. The man would only have to find a substitute, take him to the Registration Department, get him registered and come back.

A.--That is one point I would like to know particularly about. the fee, if there is any?

The Chairman.-There would be no fee.

Who is to pay

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( 63 )

Witness. I think that is better still and then if they come to register would they have to take someone with them to vouch for their behaviour?

Mr. Badeley. That is a very large question.

The Chairman.-That is another difficulty, but then I am of opinion that we shall not require security.

Mr. Wilcox.-There would be no security demanded as the servant who is in your regular employ and who brings the substitute would be his guarantee. He would not bring a bad man knowing that he was going to be registered. He would not ven- ture to offer a bad character like they do now.

Mr. Badeley. They get the biggest rascals for substitutes in case they should be taken on in their place.

Witness. If you ask your own servant to get you chair coolies and he does so and these coolies misbehave themselves would you attach blame to the servant who recom- mended them?

then

The Chairman.-No.

Witness.Well, if you don't, there is no occasion to license them, and if you do you lose the services of your good coolie. I need to get someone to recommend them to me. I don't know who they are, and chair coolies have no characters.

The Chairman. The fact of getting them to register will probably be a guarantee

of their character.

Witness.--That is a difficulty unless you get someone to recommend them, but then if you don't, registration is not much worth at all.

Mr. Wilcox.--We think it would be a check and it would deter bad characters from coming in because the l'olice would know them. At present, a great many men who have actually done time in the gaol are to be found serving in the households of respectable people.

The Chairman.-The Government has power to banish all these men.

Mr. Wilcox.-But a private individual has no means of knowing the characters of these people. They bring forged testimonials or rather testimonials that they have bought from other people. Do you see the difficulty?

Witness. But then, if we are to have registration, coolies will have to produce their photo.

Mr. Wilcox.---Are you aware whether there is a servants' or coolie guild in the Colony ?

A.—I don't know except as regards those people who work on board ship-hang shun kun--that is sailors or stokers, and they have their own house that they go to in Hongkong to stay when they have been discharged from their ships,

Mr. Badeley.These are licensed boarding houses.

Witness. Yes, they are clubs. They have all kinds of houses in Hongkong, and if there is no business to do, they go to their own particular house for lodging or if they are sick they can go there and be attended to. I believe that every month they sub- scribe something towards the upkeep of that house.

Mr. Wilcox. It is a kind of organization. It may be a friendly society?

A. Perhaps that is so. I have no experience of them.

Mr. Badeley. You don't know whether they are bound by any rules?

A.-In Gough Street and, I believe, in Peel Street you can get some Chu-chau men, but what rules they are bound by, I don't know.

( 64 )

Mr. Wilcox.-Do you think they are able to boycott an employer if they have a wish to do so.

A. If such a thing is done, it is not openly. I have not heard of any such thing. A.—If

į

FUNG WA CHUN declared:-

The Chairman.--You are Compradore to Shewan, Tomes & Co. and also to the National Bank of China ?

A. Yes.

Q.-What part of the city do you live in?

A.-Upper Richmond Road.

Q. And do you employ chair and ricksha coolies ?

A.-Chair coolies.

Q. How many?

A.--I employ four chair coolies.

Q.-What wages have you to pay them now?

A.-Eight-and-a-half dollars.

Q.--What does that include or exclude ?

A.-I have got to give them firewood and lodging.

Q. --You don't pay for their food?

A.-No.

Q. What did you pay about five years ago?

A.-Five years ago-I don't remember. Perhaps from $7.75 to $8.

Q.-Under exactly the same conditions?

A. Yes.

Q. Do you engage coolies for the members of your hongs?

A. For the National Bank; not for Shewan, Tomes.

Q.-Do you engage coolies for Mr. Playfair?

A. Yes, four chair coolies.

Q.-Is

-Is that part of

your agreement ?

A.-No, I only do it as a friendly act.

Q. How do you get hold of them?

A.--I send my head coolie out to get coolies. That is all.

Q.--Have you had any difficulty in getting coolies?

A.-No.

Q. Do you find they change about a good deal?

A.-Oh, yes they do.

Mr. Wilcox.-More than they used to do?

A. Yes, much more.

1

( 65 )

The Chairman. And do you, as a leading Chinese gentleman, want to have rick- sha and chair coolies in the employ of Chinese registered?

A.-I don't think so.

Q. Why not?

A.—If you register them they will charge more.

Q. Why? Suppose there was no fee for registration ?

A. Because there is so much work about in the Colony nowadays that they will go somewhere else if they are placed under restriction.

Q.-But if they can go elsewhere and get better work, why do they become chair coolies in the first place?

the

A.-It is very easy work for them.

Q.-But I asked you why you objected to registration and you said it would raise wages and that the coolies would be placed under restrictions. There would be no restriction in registration. Any other reason ?

A.-Because the other labourers are not registered.

Q. But public chair and ricksha coolies are registered or licensed?

A.-I am talking of those labourers engaged by contractors. An ordinary coolie if he works diligently can earn 40 cents a day. Most of them get 40 cents.

Q.-Is that an earth coolie ?

A.-An earth coolie gets 30 cents a day.

Q.-But these are unskilled labourers, are they not?

A.-Good ordinary labourers.

Mr. Badeley. Is an earth coolie about the lowest ?

A. Yes.

Q.-Then thirty cents will be the lowest wage ?

A. That is squeeze price.

The Chairman. That is not the wage the coolie gets, you can depend upon that. Witness. If the contractor engages permanent coolies, he does not have to pay so much. But, if he wants outside coolies he has to pay more.

These coolies you see on the street with a pole, every one of them makes forty cents a day. Other coolies make fifteen dollars a month and some even make more.

Mr. Wilcox.-Do you think there is any organization in the Colony for keeping up the rates of labour-an organization of headmen or guilds?

A.--No.

Q.-There is a very strong belief in certain circles that more coolies could be easily obtained if they were allowed to come into the Colony. Have you any reason

to think so?

A.-No, I have not heard that.

The Chairman. It would be a thorough Chinese practice, Mr. Fung Wa Chun, if they combined to keep up the price. You would not be surprised if you were told it was the truth, would you ?

A.-I think different parties of coolics combine to a certain extent. Those who get only eight dollars would refuse to work unless they got eight and-a-half, but I don't think they are led by any headmen.

Mr. Wilcox.

( 66 )

You are not aware of the existence of any headmen who make it

their business to bring in coolies to supply the market?

A.-I have not heard that.

Q-Or keep the supply below the demand?

A.-No, I have not heard.

The Chairman.-How do you account for it, supposing there is a less supply than a demand? There are lots of, millions of coolies in China who would be only too glad to come here and earn as much as seven and eight dollars per month?

A. That is a thing I don't see myself, Sir.

Q.-Mr. Wilcox suggests as a reason that there is an organised scheme for keep- ing the number of available coolies down?

A.-I don't think that is a reason. I have not heard anything about it.

Q.-What is the reason, do you know?

A.-Well, take my own chair coolies at eight and-a-half dollars. Nowadays food and everything else is much dearer than before so they have to pay at least three and- a-half or four dollars a month for their chow whereas before two and-a-half dollars was sufficient. When I first engaged coolies, their pay used to be seven dollars a mouth. From seven it rose up to eight and-a-half. Last year, for one month, I had to pay $9.25. This was in the plague time and I could not get any coolies. Mr. Tomlin, of the China Fire, is paying $9.50 now, if I am not mistaken. For Mr. Playfair's coolies, the Bank allows $8.50 each. It is not my business to engage coolies for him but I always like to do it for him and the Bank, as I tell you, does not pay more than than $8.50. Sometimes, I have had to pay half-a-dollar each man out of my own pocket for his coolies because he is a heavy man and lives up the Peak Road.

Mr. Badeley.-Doesn't he pay it out of his own pocket ?

A.-The Bank pays only $8.50 and as I don't want any trouble over the matter, I just tell the shroff to pay it out of my own pocket. Of course it is not business.

Mr. Wilcox.-I understand what the difference in the price of food means. I admit that, but allowing for that, don't you think there ought still to be sufficient at- traction in Hongkong to bring in plenty of coolies?

A. Yes.

Q.-You see the wages they get are much higher than formerly and they have the attraction of a busy place. There must be some reason for the difficulty?

A-I can't say there is any difficulty in getting chair coolies. When I want coolies, I can always get them but I have to pay more than formerly.

Q.-The very fact of your having to pay more points to two things-either the supply is smaller or there is a combination to keep up wages. Is that not so?

A.--I don't think there is any combination among chair coolies.

Q.-I don't say there is, but I am alluding to coolies and wages in general, you know?

A. Of course, if there is a combination, every employer would have to pay his coolies about the same rate; but some pay $9.50, some $9.25, others pay $8.50. I know some Chinamen pay only eight dollars a month.

Q. And do you think some pay less still?

A.

Yes, some pay $7.50. Before I never heard of such a thing as a coolic coming to his master and asking how inany trips he makes and does he dine out often or not.

(67)

Chair coolies nowadays say

"You

go back to house for tiffin ?"_ "Yes." "You go out very much dinner?"-" Yes."

Well," they say "No, I want nine dollars." Then if you say "No tiffin, but I may want you," they say "All right $8.50 can do."

The Chairman.-How does the pay of these coolies compare with the pay they get in China? And how does the work compare with the work they do in their own villages in China? Would not wages be lower and would not the work they would do be far more laborious than the work they would do here? Are they not at work in China "from early morn till dewy eve"?

A. Yes, the farmers are.

-But what are these coolies but the farming class?

A.—Yes, the farmers at home, some of them get three taels a month, that is $4.30 or $4.50 and in addition they get their chow. The master pays for it. Their home is near to them and they can go home in the evening, whereas in Hongkong their home is far away from them. If they want to see their families they leave the Colony twice a year and they get no wages during the time they are away. In their own country they see their own family every day and they don't like to leave them. I think it is only when a man can't make enough to live on in his own country that he leaves it.

Mr. Wilcox.-That is so.

Mr. Badeley. Do you know whether coolies here remit their earnings or part of them to their families?

A.-Oh yes.

Q.-Much of them ?

A.--Yes.

Mr. Wilcox.-Some of them squander most of their earnings in gambling, I suppose?

A.-Oh yes. I am talking generally, of course.

WONG PAK KUI declared:-

The Chairman.-What are you

?

A.-I am Assistant Compradore at Melchers.

Q. Where is your private house?

A.-I live at No. 59, Queen's Road Central.

Q. Do you employ chair or ricksha coolies?

A.-No.

Q.-Neither?

A.-No.

Q. How do you go about then?

A.-I engage a street ricksha.

Q.- You

or six months

A.-No.

say you do not keep coolies. Have you recently kept them-a year ago

ago ?

( 68 )

Q. Have you never engaged any ?

A.-No.

Q. Do you engage any for your masters in the firm ?

A. Yes.

-And when you engage coolies for them, how do you set to work and where do you go to find them?

A.-I tell the porter or gate keeper to look for coolies.

Q. And does he invariably get them for ?

A. Yes.

Q.-Have you ever had

any difficulty?

you

A. Yes, I have had some difficulty. When they thought that the master was bad tempered or the wages too low then they would not come.

Q.-Have you had difficulty on these two accounts?

We want facts.

Mr. Badeley. Have any coolies ever refused to come because the master was bad tempered ?

the

A.-On account of the wages being too low, they have refused to come..

The Chairman.-What wages do the gentlemen in your firm pay?

A.-A chair coolie gets eight or eight and-a-half dollars a month.

Q.-What are they paid now?

A.-Formerly they used to pay seven and seven and-a-half but now they get money I mentioned.

Q.-What about ricksha coolies?

A.-We don't engage ricksha coolies.

Q.-You are under a bond to your firm are you not ?

A. Yes.

Q.-Is it in your agreement or bond that it is part of your duty to engage coolies for your masters?

A. You see I am simply an Assistant Compradore and there is no stipulation in my agreement as to its being part of my duty to engage coolies.

Q. When did the Chief Compradore fall sick?

A.-Last evening.

Q.-Is he very seriously ill ?

A. No, not very

ill.

Q. When will he be well again?

A.-It is difficult to say.

-Do you think he will be well to-morrow?

A. Yes, I think so.

-Do you, as a Chinese gentleman, think that private chair and ricksha coolies

in Chinese employ should be registered or licensed?

A.—Well, I think if their wages are increased a little bit you would be entitled to register them. I think they would have to pay a certain fee for registering them- selves.

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( 69 )

-Suppose there was no registration fee, are you in favour of registering them? A.—I don't see any harm in having them registered if the Government thinks so. Q.--Suppose they were registered, do you think anyone who engaged an unregis- tered coolie should be liable to be punished?

A.--There is a difficulty in the way. If you fine the coolie, then the master, if the coolie has no money, will have to pay his fine. If you fine the master, then the master will have something to say about registration.

Mr. Badeley. When you have had to engage coolies for the gentlemen in your hong, do you make inquiries

make inquiries as to the work they have done before, what master they have been with before, what character they have and so on?

A.-I make no such inquiries at all.

LAU CHU PAK declared:--

The Chairman.-You are Compradore at A. S. Watson & Co. ?

A. Yes.

Q. Where is your residence ?

A.-My present residence is No. 353, Queen's Road West.

Q.--And do you employ ricksha or chair coolies?

A.-Ricksha coolies.

Q.-No chair coolies ?

A.-No.

Q. How many ricksha coolies do you employ?

A.-Two.

Q. What wages do you pay them?

A.-Nine dollars..

Q. What does that include?

Do you give them oil and fire?

A. Nothing at all.

Q. Do you lodge them ?

A. They live outside and buy their own food.

Q.-Five years ago what did you pay ?

A. Seven dollars.

Q.

-What accounts for the difference?

A.--I am not sure myself, but they say the high cost of living. Q.-Nothing else?

A. That is the only reason they have.

Q. Do you engage coolies for the gentlemen in Watson & Co.'s?

A. Yes.

Q.-Have you had any difficulty in getting coolies?

A. Recently, I have.

( 70 )

Q.-How many months ago ?

A. About six months ago.

Q.-What is the difficulty?

A.-They want high wages. They want more than ten dollars a month.

Q-Is it in your agreement that you shall supply them with coolies?

A.-No, that is only a friendly matter.

Q. How do you proceed to get them? You have succeeded sometimes and other times you have not?

A.—I simply ask the office coolie to go outside and get them.

Q. How does he set to work?

A. He goes amongst his friends.

Q.--You don't engage them directly yourself?

A.-No.

Q.--You ask another man and he works through another man?

A.--Yes.

Q. Do you, as a Chinese gentleman, wish to have your coolies registered or licensed ?

A. Yes, I am in favour of that.

Q.-Why are you in favour of it? Give us your reason.

A.--I think it will keep them in better order.

Q.-You say you are in favour of Chinese employed coolies being registered—are you in favour of a Chinese who employs unregistered coolies being liable to be punished at the Magistracy? For instance, suppose that you or your friend engage a coolie and the Police find out that he is an unregistered coolie, do you think you or your friend should be made liable to a fine of $5 or more because you have engaged an unregistered coolie? Do you understand what I mean?

A. Yes, I understand what you mean. I don't think you should make it compulsory for a man to engage a registered coolie.

Q.-What is the good of registration then if some people engage unregistered coolies ?

A.-Look at the matter in this light. Sometimes a friend recommends you a coolie who is unregistered.

Q.-Well then, but why does he not go and get registered, especially as there are no fees ?

A.-Oh, you are not to charge the coolies any fee for the licence! I think it is better then for them all to be registered. I am in favour of masters being punished if they engage unregistered coolies.

Mr. Wilcox. Do you think there is any coolie guild in the Colony-any organi- zation or combination?

A.-I am not aware of that.

Q.-Have you heard anything about a coolic headman being in such power as to be able to limit the supply of coolies in the Colony?

A.-No, I don't think they have that power.

(71)

The Chairman.-Is there any attempt to prevent coolies coming into the Colony?

A.-I have not heard of any.

Mr. Wilcox.-There is a difficulty in obtaining labour in the Colony-different sorts of labour. This is remarkable because on the mainland and in the province opposite there are millions of coolies who, one would suppose, would be ready and willing to come and work for higher wages. Why don't they come if there is no one to keep them back?

A. According to my experience coolies when they first came to the Colony were willing to accept lower wages than other coolies. Naturally in the course of time they were influenced by the other coolies who had been longer in the Colony.

The Chairman.-Wages have not risen in China?

A. Yes, in some cases.

Q.--In Canton ?

A.--Yes, in Canton and in the villages.

Q.-In Swatow?

A. I don't know as regards Swatow.

Q. In Fatshan?

A.-Yes, wages have risen there.

Q-Ten per cent. or how much?

A.-More than that.

Q. How much?

A.-About thirty per cent. in the villages.

Mr. Wilcox. That is a great deal.

The Chairman. What is your means of knowledge?

A.-In the country we get men to work the farms. for them. We can't get men under $3 to $4 now.

Q.-Have you got a farm in the country?

A.--Yes.

Q.-And do you know by actual experience?

A.-That is actual experience.

We used to pay from $2 to $3

Mr. Badeley. What is the cause of that rise, in your opinion?

A.-Food has risen in price in the country too.

Q.-Has emigration got anything to do with it?

A.-No, not enough labourers emigrate from the country to make any appreci- able difference. Well, I think it must have something to do with the rise too in the country. The coolies are given to understand that they can win a little more money by emigrating abroad. That makes the coolies scarcer and they earn higher wages.

The Chairman.-What class are the coolies in Hongkong? Are they drawn from the low class in China?

A.-Yes; but do you mean the agricultural or labouring class?

Q.-The labouring and agricultural classes.

A.-Oh, particularly the agricultural classes.

( 72 )

Mr. Badeley. Fishermen?

A.-Very few of them are fishermen ; you see these ricksha and chair coolies go through special training before they can engage in that work.

Q. Do you think the sanitary regulations here have a tendency to drive up the wages?

A.-Indirectly.

Q.-If there were no restrictions as to the number of coolies sleeping in any house, would coolies not come into Hongkong in unlimited numbers?

A. That has got something to do with it. Three or four years ago each man only paid 30 cents a month for his sleeping accommodation, now he has to pay a dollar.

Q.-The accommodation is absolutely limited. There is a certain number of coolie houses and each coolie must have a certain amount of cubic feet and beyond that there is no room for

any more. Is that not so?

A. Yes. Before, they used to have as many as they liked on a floor. Now, they only allow ten or twelve to one floor.

WONG LAI FU declared:-

The Chairman.-Where are you Compradore?

A.-Messrs. Siemssen & Co.

Q. Where is your residence?

A.-At No. 8, Lan Kwai Fong.

Q. Where is that?

A. D'Aguilar Street.

Q. Do you employ private chair and ricksha coolies?

A.-Ricksha coolies.

Q.-How many do you employ?

A.-One.

Q.-You don't keep a private chair?

A.-No.

Q. How much per month do you pay your ricksha coolie?

A.-Seven dollars per month.

Q. What else do you give him?

A.-Fire and lodging.

Q.-About five years ago, how much did you pay?

A. The same-seven dollars.

A.-The

Q.-Have you

had the same man all these years?'

A.- No.

Q. According to what you say then, there has been no change in the rate of

A.-Well, first of all, I got a coolie for six dollars, but he remained in my

for some time, and I increased his pay to seven dollars.

pay?

service

A

( 73 )

-How long had this man been in your service?

A.-He was engaged by the former Compradore. He had been ten or twenty years, but he has been promoted to be office coolie.

Q.

Do you engage coolies for your masters?

A. Yes; it is part of my duty under the agreement.

Q.—Can you tell us whether, in German firms, it is usually part of the duty of the Compradore to provide coolies? Is it in his agreement to do so?

A.-I am not able to speak as to other agreements.

Q. How do you manage to get coolies for your masters?

A-Well, I just send some of the old hands to go and engage new coolies.

Q.-The old coolies that left, you mean?

A.—No, there are two or three teams-one for the taipans and others for the clerks and so on. Supposing

Supposing the taipan discharges his men then I send the coolies who are employed by the clerks out to get fresh men.

Q.-And do you get them?

A. Sometimes I get them and sometimes I can't get them.

Q.-Sometimes you take longer to get them, but you always get them. That is

what he means?

The Interpreter.-Yes.

Witness. For the last few years I have always been successful in getting them. Q.-Supposing the coolies you sent out to get new coolies did not get them, would you dismiss them ?

A.-No; we don't dismiss the old coolies if they don't succeed in getting new coolies. There is always some difficulty in getting coolies during the plague time but the masters or taipans always give me time to get private coolies.

Q. And do you, as a Chinese gentleman, think it good to have private coolies in Chinese employ registered or licensed?

A. We leave it entirely to the Government to decide that.

Q-But we want to know what your opinion is ?

A.-I don't think it is right to force them to do so. Suppose you had a licensed ricksha coolie and he went out of your service, you might not be able to get another one. Mr. Wilcox.-You say you send the remaining coolies out to look for new coolies. Do they go to their coolie kuns or lodging-houses for them?

would

A.—I think they go to the coolie houses to get them. If I send them out, they

go and get their own countrymena Chow-chau man-to come. Q.-Is there a coolie guild?

A.-No.

Q.-Nothing like a Pork Guild?

A.-I don't think so. You engage a coolie and have a spare room in the hong he sleeps in the hong: otherwise he has to go outside and sometimes pay a dollar a month. If you engage a coolie, the first thing you ask is: "Have you a place to live in?" If he says "No" then you have to pay him extra to enable him to pay his rent or lodging. If you give him lodging, then you get him a dollar cheaper.

[This concluded the sitting. It was agreed to meet again on Thursday, 26th September, at 5 p.m., when the evidence of the headman of the Peak chair coolies and of the headman of the Kowloon Godown Company's coolies would be taken.]

(74)

26th September, 1901.

الله

NG A TONG declared :-

The Chairman.-You are headman controlling the Peak public chairs aren't

A. Yes.

Q.-How many

A.-Forty.

chairs are you licensed to maintain at the Peak?

Q. How much does each chair pay to you per moon?

A.—In winter each chair pays less than in summer.

Q.-Tell us how much they pay you in summer and in winter.

you

?

+

A.—For two coolies each moon in summer $1.20 each, including rent and water

service.

Q.-In winter?

A.-Eighty cents each-two men $1.60.

Q.-Is that for the whole winter?

A.-I take seven winter months each year and five summer months.

Q.-If there is an intercalary month that will be generally a summer month, is it not ?

Mr. Badeley.-Does he reckon by moons or by English months?

A.-By moons. In summer the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth moons.

The Chairman.-Now, how much does a chair bearer make every moon? Take the summer moons and then the winter moons.

A.-I can't tell you.

Q.-You don't know how much they make after paying you?

A. After paying me, they can make eight or nine dollars.

--All the year round?

A.-No, in summer.

Q.-Well, how much do they make in winter?

A.-Between five and six dollars.

Q. Do you keep the same number of chairs there in the winter as you do in the summer?

A.-In winter I keep fewer chairs-only thirty.

Q. For the money each of the coolies pays you, do you provide him with house accommodation ?

A.--Yes.

Q.-Do you feed them also, or do they feed themselves?

A.-They feed themselves.

Q. How much does it cost them per head per inoon for food?

A. They are great eaters. I think it will cost them five or six dollars each.

( 75 )

Mr. Wilcox.--What! five or six dollars each for chow!

A. Yes.

The Chairinan.--They all eat their food together don't they?

A.-No; two or three men mess together.

Q.--And you say it costs them five or six dollars each ?

A. Yes, six dollars sometimes.

Q. How much does it cost them for clothes? Do you supply them, or do they supply their clothing themselves?

A.-They supply themselves.

Q. How much does it cost them a year?

A.--Four dollars a year for clothing.

Q.--And what do you make out then that they can make a month nett after everything is paid--their profits?

A. At the most five dollars.

Q.-That is with good luck they can clear five dollars a moon ?

A. Yes.

Q.-Do you think the ever lose during the moon?

A. No, they never lose.

Q.--From what district do you get your coolies?

A.Haiphong.

Q-Is that your district?

A. Yes.

-

Q.-Do

you get men from your own village or your own district?

A.-I get them from my district not necessarily from the same village.

-How do you get them? Do you go yourself to fetch them or do

persons to fetch them, or how do you get hold of them?

you send

A. When a man of my district comes to Hongkong, I know that he can carry a chair, so I engage him.

Q.-Yes, but don't you go yourself into the country to get bearers?

A.-No.

Q.-Do you send men into the country to get bearers?

A.-No.

Q. Do you depend entirely on picking the men up as they come into the Colony? A. Yes. If a man comes to Hongkong and I know that he can carry a chair, I engage him on the spot.

Q. How then do you know whether he can carry a chair or not?

A.

or bad.

The men live not far froin me in my district so I know whether he is good

Q.--How do you know whether he can carry a chair or not?

A.-The bearers in my employ inform me.

(76)

Q. Do the men ever come to you directly without your being told by your own men about them? Do they ever come to you

"We want to be chair bearers," and say: or do you always meet them through the men who are already with you?

A. The men never come direct to me, they are always recominended by the bear- ers already in my employ.

Q. When they come to Hongkong, where do they go to live?

A.-There is a Haiphong man who keeps a lodging-house in Hongkong.

Q.--Do they go to that lodging-house?

A.-There are many, not only one.

Q.-And do they go to these houses?

A. They go to the house which is nearest to them.

Q.-And do they wait there till they get employment ?

A. When they have been there for two or three days, the men in my employ in- form me that so-and-so wants leave to go home and so-and-so has just come in from the country and is staying in the lodging-house, would I mind taking him?

Q.-Have you any difficulty in getting men for forty chairs in summer and thirty in winter?

A.--It is very difficult to get men sometimes.

Q.-Have you had difficulty this summer in engaging men ?

A.-It was very hard.

Q.--Have you ever been short of men for your forty chairs?

A.--Yes, sometimes I am six or seven chairs short.

Q.--And you have not been able to keep up the full supply all summer of forty

chairs?

A.--When they have worked one month or two months they come to me and say I have been summoned by my mother, or some other relative who is ill, and I want to go home now.

Q.--Don't they go home when they themselves are ill?

A. There is very little illness with them.

Q. Do the majority of them go home because their mother is ill?

A.-Sent for by their wives too.

Q.-What wages do your district men get in their own district? come to Hongkong what money can they make a month?

Before they

A.—I don't know. I left my country when I was 21 years of age. I don't know much about it now.

Q.--How old are you now?

A.-Forty-six.

Q.-Do your countrymen become private chair coolies ?

A.-It is very hard to be a private chair coolie until they have got their feet well trained.

Q.-But do they ever become private chair coolies?

A. Yes, there are several who are private chair coolies.

( 77 )

Q.-Do they prefer to be private coolies or public coolies?

A. When they know how to carry a private chair they prefer to carry a private chair.

-What is the difference between learning to carry a private chair and learning to carry a public chair?

A. Suppose two men carry a private chair, one of them must know the way, the roads and streets of Hongkong and the residents. He can't become a private chair coolie unless he understands what his master tells him to do. He must understand to take chits for his master, how to work for his master and he must know the times when he is wanted.

Q.-You think that is the reason then why they don't become private chair coolies ?

them.

A. They don't know how to carry a private chair, therefore the master dislikes

-That I can't understand because, if a man can carry a public chair, it seems to me that he can carry a private chair so far as carrying goes.

A. It is very hard to be a private chair coolie because the table boy comes and tells the chair coolie that master wants the chair at such and such time, and often it happens to be when they are taking their chow. They have to leave their chow then to attend to master.

you

Q.-You say you get your coolies from your native district, do

you think could supply chair and ricksha coolies to the non-Chinese community of Hongkong?

A.-I could not supply all.

Q.-How many could you supply, do you think?

A.--I can't supply all, but, if some high official of this Colony wants to engage a private coolie he can instruct the Captain Superintendent of Police, and I think I could supply six, or seven, or eight to him.

Q.-Do you think you could supply as many as 500 ? Don't you think that if you went back into your own country and told your people there that there was good employment in Hongkong for 500 chair and ricksha coolies at wages of $8 a month and lodging thrown in as well and private coolie clothes from their masters, don't you think they would soon come if they knew about the chance?

A. There is very little population in my district.

Q.-But 500 men would come away, would they not, if they got better wages than they were getting at home?

A.-In other villages which are more populous they might.

Q-I am talking about your district, not your village.

A.-It is a very small district.

Q.-There are 350,000,000 Chinese ?

A. When they are willing to come to Hongkong, their parents try to stop them, and when they are not willing their parents stop them.

Q. Do you say parents and relatives stop coolies from coming to Hongkong?

A. When they are willing and anxious to come, their parents can't stop them. I was informed by a coolie that so-and-so wanted to come to Hongkong with him but was stopped by his wife.

( 78 )

wages?

-But why does the wife stop him, when the man can come here and get better

A. Unless he is very economical he would spend all the money he earns in Hongkong.

Q.-Amongst the coolies at the Peak under your control, are there any who have been private chair coolies? Do private chair coolies come to you ?

A.-Very few come, about a dozen.

Q.-A dozen a year?

A.-Every season. My season is six months.

Q.--Why do they come to you? Why do they give up being private chair coolies? A. They come to me and say: "My legs are not strong enough to carry my master's chair."

Q.-Have any of your coolies left you to become cargo or godown coolies?

A.-No.

Q.--Have any of your chair coolies left you to become coal coolies?

A.-No.

Q. Are men who are coal and cargo coolies quite distinct froin men who are chair coolies ?

A.--Quite distinct.

Q. In what way do you mean? Do you mean to tell me that a cargo or coal coolie does not become a chair coolie or a chair coolie does not become a cargo coolie? Is it your general knowledge that the chair bearer when he is not fit to be a bearer longer, goes straight home?

A. They don't go into another business.

Mr. Wilcox. You say that in summer the coolies make seven or eight dollars. Do they never make more than that?

...

A. Yes, they can make more than six or seven dollars sometimes.

Q.-But you said seven or eight. In winter you say-

?

A.---In winter, after deducting their expenses, they make four dollars nett profit.

Q. Do you know anything about coolie guilds ?

A.-I don't know much about them.

The Chairman.-How much do you

know?

A.-The only men I know are my own bearers at the Peak.

Mr. Wilcox.--What do you know about associations or guilds? are there

A.-My coolies at the Peak do not belong to any guild or association.

Q.- -What subscription do they pay to the lodging-house headman then?

A.-Seventy cents every man.

any?

The Chairman.-Supposing they lived with you the whole moon and didn't go to live in the down town coolie house?

A.-Twenty cents then each man.

Mr. Wilcox. That then is their subscription? Now what does this money go for? When they are not living there what is the twenty cents used for?

A.

(79)

When they are ill up at the Peak, if they want to come down, they can come down and live at the boarding house. There is a place there for them to boil medicines.

The Chairman. It is a contribution towards a sort of benevolent society.

Mr. Badeley. How long have you been running this business?

A. Since there was a tramway from the Peak.

Q.-That is about twelve years is it not?

A,-I don't know how long it is.

Q.-Were you an ordinary chair coolie at that time, or have you always been a head chair coolie man?

A. When I was 21 years old I came to Yaumati and worked there as a boatman, then I left the boat and worked at Samsuipo for six years as a lime burner. After I left the lime kiln, I worked a few years at Wing Sing street selling eggs. A man by name Lum Kam, came to me one day and said: "You have a little money, I know. You can come up to the Peak with me.' General Gordon said to Lum Kam: "Make

a start at the Peak with eight chairs."

Q.-There were no chairs there at the time?

A.-No, there were no chairs at that time.

Q.-You have never been a chair coolie at the Peak yourself?

A.-No.

Q.-Nor a ricksha coolie at any time?

A.-No.

Q.-You have sometimes got coolies for Captain May and his friends-private coolies-have you not?

A. If Captain May asked me to get some coolies for him I engaged them for him.

Q. Where did you get them for him?

A. If he is my fellow villager and he is a good man and has never been a thief and can do things properly, then I engage him.

Q.-Have you ever engaged them from among the men you are employing at the Peak, or do you get them from outside?

A. From outside.

Q. Which is the hardest day's work-the private chair coolie or the public chair coolie ?

A.-I think the public chair coolie because they want to earn more money, so they do more work.

Q.-A private coolie has an easier job, but you seemed to suggest to us before that a private chair coolie had the hardest job. What do you mean by that? You told us before that men left private employ and became public chair coolies because they could not carry their masters.

A.-A private coolie is bound to carry so many times a day whether he is weak or strong, but a street coolie can do as he likes.

Q. When they don't feel up to it they can lie off ?

A. Yes.

( 80 )

The Chairman.-Does a public ricksha coolie make more money than a public chair coolie ?

A. The public ricksha coolie makes more.

Q. Do your men pay you at the end of the moon or at the beginning of the moon? A. They pay me once a month.

Mr. Badeley. Do all the chairs belong to you?

A. All belong to me; some partners too.

Have you any system of fining if they damage a chair?

A.-No, I repair it myself.

Q.-Sometimes when Captain May asked you to get a private coolie for him had you any difficulty?

A. It was very hard.

hard. I had to get very good men for him.

!

NGAN WING CHI declared:-

The Chairman.-What do you do ?

A. Formerly, I was head coolie to the Kowloon Godown Company.

Q.And what do you do now?

A. I am head coolie to Jardine's Sugar Refinery, head coolie to the Tsimshatsui Godowns and headman of the Kowloon licensed ricksha coolies.

Mr. Badeley. Do you mean that you hold the licences?

A. Yes.

The Chairman. You are licensee of the Kowloon rickshas?

A.-Kwai Fuk and I are the joint licensees of the Kowloon rickshas.

Q.--And in addition to that you are head coolie at Jardine's Sugar Refinery?

A. Yes.

Q.-And you are also head coolie to the Hongkong an! Kowloon Wharf and Godown Company?

A. Yes.

Q-What do you mean by being head coolie; what are your duties?

A. My master asks me to go to Chu-chau to engage men to come to the Colony

to work.

Q.

That is for Jardine's and the Godowns ?

A. The manager of Messrs. Jardine & Matheson, and Mr. Osborne, of the Go- downs, ask me to do this.

Q.-I take it that your principal business is to engage coolies for the Godown Company and for the Sugar Refinery?

A. Yes.

Q. How many coolies are employed at Jardine's Sugar Refinery? A.-There are many coolies employed there-Chu-chau men 1,000.

4.

( 81 )

Q.-Do

you engage

all these Chu-chau men?

A.-No, they are engaged by different men.

Q.-How many have you engaged?

A. A hundred.

Q.-Is that all ?

A. Yes, that is all.

-There are other headmen then who engage the other coolies at Jardine's?

A. Yes.

Q. Can you give us the names of those men who engage the other coolies ? A.--An Englishman from Jardine's.

Q-You say you are one head coolie and that there are others. We want to know the names of the other head coolies..

A. One is Woo Ying Fo, another is Cheng Tai Yau. There are three head coolies only. All the rest are job labourers by the day.

Q. Coming to the Kowloon Godowns, are you the only man who engages coolies for the Kowloon Godowns, or are there others besides you?

men.

A. There are four coolie-houses. Formerly, I was the man who engaged all the

-Now there are how many on the job?

A. Now I sublet to four of my subordinates to look after.

Q.-You are responsible to the Godown Company?

A. Yes, I am responsible.

Q.-And how many coolies are engaged there regularly?

A. About 500.

----

-And these have been engaged by you ?

A.-My subordinates engaged them.

-You and your subordinates?

A. Yes.

Q.--Where do you get these coolies from for the Godowns and Jardine's ?

A.-I get them from Swatow and Chu-chau, not far from Swatow.

--That is up the river-Chu-chau-fu?

A.-That is one of the districts.

Q.-How do you get them? Do you go there to fetch them, or do you send emissaries to get them or do you wait till they come here?

A. Each band of coolies consists of 25.

Q. Do you go and get the coolies yourself, or do you send up to Chu-chau and Swatow to get them ?

A.-My brother went.

--Do you go yourself?

A.-Formerly, I used to go once a year. Now, I don't go at all.

1

Q-Well, who does go now?

A.-My subordinates.

( 82 )

Q.--And how many of them do you send up on that job?

A. Three or four.

Q. Do you send them at fixed times of the year?

A.-No.

Q. Whenever you want coolies, you send for them, do

you

?

A. Yes.

Q. And you get them therefore direct from the country? You don't wait till they come to Hongkong?

A.-No, I get them direct from the country.

Q.-Have you any difficulty in getting them?

A.-1 get some of the elders together, and guarantee that when they (the coolies) come to Hongkong I will not allow them to gamble or to go to bad houses.

Q.-Is that the only difficulty in the way? Having satisfied the elders on these points, have you any difficulty in getting the men?

A.-Besides that, I deduct half of his wages to send home to his relatives or his

parents.

Q. When you have guaranteed that they shall neither gamble nor whore and that they shall remit half of their wages home, have you any more difficulties in the way?

A. No other difficulties.

Q.-Having given that guarantee, the elders are satisfied and the men are allowed to go?

A. Yes.

---

Q.-Do

you provide the coolies you get with lodging?

A-Yes. I rent houses for them and I pay the rent.

Q.-Is that for Jardine's coolies as well as for the Godown coolies ?

A.-The Godown coolies are supplied with quarters.

Q.-But Jardine's coolies have to be provided with quarters outside, is that so?

A. Yes.

-Who feeds these coolies ?

A. -They mess together, and, at the end of the month, the expense is equally divided.

Q.-Who pays the expenses ?

A.-I, as being the head, pay them.

Q.-How much do the Godown coolies pay you a month for their rent and food?

A.-Formerly $8, now $10.

Q.-For food and rent each man pays you ten dollars?

A.-No, ten dollars is wages from the manager.

Q.-I am asking you how much the coolies pay you for house and food.

A. Sometimes $5, sometimes a little more.

7

( 83 )

Q. -What wages do the coolies receive from the Godown Company and from Jardine's gross wages?

A.-Jardine's wages vary.

Q.--Is it monthly pay or daily?

A.-Monthly pay,

Q.-It varies, you say. Give us the range from what to what?

A.-Eight, nine, ten, and twelve dollars.

Q.-At the Godown then, do they all get the same rate of pay or do they get different rates?

A.--Eight, nine and ten dollars.

Q. Any higher than ten dollars ?

A.--Forty men are now being paid by the manager to pile up goods in the Go- down. They each get twelve dollars a month.

it ?

Q.-That is a special job?

A.--Yes.

Q.-Do you find that public ricksha coolies become Godown coolies?

A. Yes, when they have got the strength.

Q.-If he has got the strength he will leave the ricksha and go to you, is that

A.-I am head coolie of different establishments, so I examine them once every three months. There are first class, second class and third class.

Mr. Badeley.

That is for the eight, nine and ten dollars, is it?

A. Yes. First class gets eight dollars, second class nine dollars, and third class ten dollars.

The Chairman.-Your answer to my question was that public ricksha coolies did leave the ricksha employ and go to the Godowns. Do they come to you asking for employment or do you go to them and tell them you have got employment for them?

A. They come to me.

Q. And do other coolies do the same thing?

A. Yes.

Q-Why do they do it? Is the pay in Jardine's and in the Godowns better than the earnings of the chair and ricksha coolie?

A. In whichever line of business they can make most money, they go.

Q.-They have a try. Do they frequently leave?

A. When they have not fulfilled the contract, they are not allowed to go. When they fulfil their contract, they go.

Q.-Having once gone to the Godown and Sugar work, do the ricksha and chair coolies tire of it and go back to their original occupation?

A. Yes.

Q. Is that frequently done?

A. It is frequently done.

(84)

Q.-Dọ you think you could supply private chair and ricksha coolies to the non- Chinese population of Hongkong?

A. If your Honour can protect me, I think I can.

Q. What do you mean by being protected?

A.-In Hongkong, I have been helping Captain May and Inspector Hanson for over ten years. The members of the Triad Society are very numerous. My plan is that when you want to engage a private ricksha coolie or private chair coolie, you have his photo. taken. If he refuses to have it taken, then banish him from the Colony.

Q.-Before he goes into private employ ?

A. Yes.

Q.-Do you think you could supply private chair and ricksha coolies to the Euro- pean community?

A. If your Honour wants me to do it then I will engage between ten and twenty subordinates to help me.

Q.-And you think you could do it?

A.--If your Honour is so kind to me I think I could do it properly.

Q.-And do you think you

could do it all right?

A. Yes. I would do it to the best of my energy.

Q.-And do you think you could do it successfully?

A. Yes, a man of my experience could do it successfully.

Q.-Could you give us an outline of your scheme?

A. There are 23 rickshamakers' shops in Hongkong and they can make 500 rickshas a year.

When the new rickshas are issued, the old rickshas are condemned and sold by auction. A coolie can buy one of these old rickshas for three dollars, and when he leaves his master's employ, he asks him for a recommendation or certificate and then goes on the street and plies for hire. When he is arrested, he says: "No, I am a private coolie. I am not plying for hire." When this kind of business can be stopped, the coolie has got no other business to look for and he is bound to go

into private employ.

Q. What you mean is that a private coolie can buy up a disused public ricksha and can paint it up to look like a private ricksha and then goes on the street with it ?

A. Yes.

Q.-You said just now that you thought you could provide private chair and ricksha coolics. How do you think you can get them? How many could you provide? Do

you think you could supply the non-Chinese community of Hongkong with 1,000 ricksha and chair coolies?

A. Yes.

-You could do it?

A. Yes. I can do at least 1,000.

you think you could

could get? Suppos-

The Chairman.-What is the largest number ing we were to put the whole thing into one man's hands and you were that man, how many coolies do you think could get ? Do

you

you think you

A. One thousand I think I can get easily.

could supply the Colony?

( 85 )

Q.-Could you

you supply the whole of the non-Chinese community with private chair and ricksha coolies ?

A. I would want some one to help me. I have counted them. There are 2,700. Q. Could you provide that number?

A. I don't think I can. Some of them are Puntis, some of them Haifong and other districts.

Q. Could you not get some of your own men-Swatow and Chu-chau men?

A.

I have always 1,000 men with me.

Q. What do you mean by that?

A.

Of fresh men, I think I can only get 1,000.

Supposing the whole job of providing private chair and ricksha coolies were placed in your hands, and nobody else allowed to do it, do you think you could provide the whole of them? Would not the present coolies come to you?

A. If you allow me to do certain things, I think I could do it.

-What would be your terms, and what would you want to do before making any promise?

home.

A-The first thing is that plague patients are to be treated in ny house or at

If any of your coolies contracted plague, you say they would have to be treat- ed in your quarters?

A. Yes. Ask the Government to provide a piece of ground and build a mat-

shed there.

Q.-I see.

They might be put into a place like that which they had at the Kow- loon Godown. What is the second thing?

A. The second thing is that when they come to be employed by me they shall have their photos. taken and when they are found to be of bad character, deport them. A third thing I would ask your Honour to abolish is the private chair coolie guild.

The Chairman (to Interpreter).—He doesn't say that. The third point is that he wants the monopoly taken from the man who is running the public chair coolies at the Peak. Give us the third thing again.

A. At the Peak, the public chair coolies have formed a private society or guild.

Q.-What do you want done with that?

A. Some time ago I was asked to engage twenty men to go to the Peak but the man at the Peak said to me: "You are not a member of the Guild, if you come here you will be beaten."

Q. Is that a private chair man or a public chair man?

A. The headman of the coolies. I told Inspector Hanson about it.

Q. What would you do next?

A. When their photos. are once taken, they are not to be allowed to run an unre- gistered ricksha should they leave their master.

Q.-What next?

A. According to the Hongkong regulations, there should only be two men for each ricksba, but now five or six men are on the same ricksha, by day running from 8

( 86 )

a.m. to 4 p.m., and by night running from 4 p.m. to 8 a.m. According to the Hong- kong regulations, the times for each coolie should be fixed in this way.

-That is the regulation, but what happens?

A. Two persons run one ricksha, but supposing I don't want to run to-day, I sell the day to another man.

Q. By mentioning that, do you mean that that system of more than two men running one ricksha stops them from going to private employ?

A. Yes.

Q. What is the next point?

A. When once employed by one gentleman, the coolie is not to be allowed to be taken on by another gentleman. Another point, I would ask your Honour to raise the wages a little bit.

Q.--What wages would you charge if

you supplied these men ?

A. First class eleven dollars, second class ten, third class nine.

-You divide them into three classes ?

A. The difference in money encourages them.

The Chairman (to Interpreter).—He said something about according to the amount of work they did.

www.w

The Interpreter. When they first go into service they should be allowed nine dollars and, when they work better, promote them to second class, and raise their wages to ten dollars.

Q.--We think that is a bit high. We think it would be much better if they did not get so much. It is higher than the present rate and, if you had control of all of the coolies, you could make a good thing of it and not charge so much, couldn't you? Although the price of food has risen, nevertheless we think that the prices that you mention are too high.

Witness. Five dollars for food and they perhaps have a wife and children to keep in the country.

rent to pay. Private employers give

Leave the rent out of the matter.

strong enough for the kind of work.

Q.-Yes, we know that, but they have no them quarters. Why don't you take a bit off?

A.-I can get cheaper men but they are not

Q.-If

If they are strong enough for godown work, they are strong enough for the work of a private chair or ricksha coolie.

A.—A private ricksha coolie must be a very young and strong man before he can do the work, because he can make five or six dollars a month up in Chu-chau.

Q. What at ?

A. As a farm hand.

Q.-Nine, ten and eleven dollars are a bit stiff, I think.

A. For my own part I can take a little less, but I don't think I can get better men unless the wages are better.

Q-But ten dollars is about the highest that is being paid now?

A.-No, twelve and thirteen dollars.

The Chairman. We have not heard of any at that figure.

1.

(87)

Mr. Wilcox. We have only heard of one person, a doctor, paying eleven dollars. That is the highest.

ning.

The Chairman. The average is about eight-and-a-half.

Witness. That is a reason why they come out to take the rest of the ricksha run-

Q.-What is the reason?

A. If they can get an unregistered ricksha to take a man down to Jardine's Bazaar, they take it.

$11?

Q.-Yes, but the average wages is $8.50 just now, and why do you want it up to

Does

Mr. Badeley. What he says is that the wages just now are inadequate. he mean to say that the wages they are paid as private chair coolies are not enough to live on ?

A. Yes.

The Chairman. That is absurd. I pay my coolies a good deal less than you want, and they live perfectly happy.

rent.

Mr. Wilcox.-Private coolies get their quarters and they don't have to pay any

Witness.-I know that.

The Chairman.--Tell him that we think nine, ten and eleven dollars is too high.

Witness. If I promise to take it on any cheaper, I can't get better men from Chu- chau. Good men would not come.

Q.-If the whole thing were in your hands, there should be no difficulty at all?

A. I want to get good men.

Q.-Exactly; we all want good men, but surely we can get good men without paying all that for them?

A. Formerly food cost two and three dollars a month, now it is five dollars. Q.-But the rise in wages has covered that?

A.-If I can't get such wages as I ask, and I go home to get men, the elders will say to them: "Better stay at home. There is no use going to Hongkong to work so hard for so little."

The Chairman. Ask him if he will give us a memorandum in Chinese showing us the whole of his scheme. We will have it translated, and tell him that his scale of wages should come down to at least eight, nine, and ten dollars a month.

Witness.-I ask your Honour to let Ngan Sung help me to draw up this scheme.

Mr. Badeley. You can come up to my office if you like.

The Chairman.-We will give him all the help we can.

Mr. Wilcox.-What steps are taken to keep up wages in Hongkong of coolies generally?

wages

A.—Which kind of coolie do you mean?

Mr. Wilcox. Any coolie-cargo coolies or chair coolies.

The Chairman.-Put it this way.. Is there anything to prevent them raising the

? Is there any society or combination for raising the wages?

A.-Last year they had, but not this year.

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Mr. Wilcox.-Well, what did they do?

A.-I think it still exists, but I am not quite sure.

Some time ago I was to rent

a piece of ground centrally in Queen's Road East to build coolie quarters on-

The Chairman.-He is not answering the question.

Witness.Many head coolies combined because they are under guarantee. They are members of the Triad Society.

Mr. Wilcox.--And do they keep coolies from coming into the Colony?

A. Yes, but not in this way.

Q-Well, how do they manage?

A.--If I come from Chu-chau and I am not a member of the Triad Society, I am not allowed to be admitted. I can't live in Hongkong. If they once get into the Triad Society and are found out by the Police, they are arrested. If they can't get into the Society in Hongkong, they can't live here peacefully. The members will strike them, so they choose not to come.

Mr. Badeley. How is it that people who are members of the Triad Society dare to come here if the Police are so formidable ?

A.-Formerly not many were deported, so they dared to come.

Mr. Wilcox.-Very few have been banished lately, so they are not afraid to come?

A.-No.

Mr. Badeley. That is not what he says. He means something about a raid having been made upon Triad people lately.

Mr. Wilcox.He says that if a man doesn't belong to the Triad Society he can't get employment as a coolie. Are there not plenty of coolies who would come to Hongkong if they could come and take up employment here?

A.-That is right. If they could come, they would.

Q.-There are a great number of coolies who would come from the country to get employment here, but they are afraid to come on account of the Triad Society?

A. Yes.

Q.-Is there any other combination or society?

A.-No other combination.

Q.- -Do not the lodging-house keepers and these kuns also prevent them from coming?

A.- No.

M

Mr. Badeley. Why should the Triad Society want to keep other coolies out of the Colony? What do they gain by that move?

A. Because they look upon them as not being members of the guild.

Q.-What is the object of the Triad Society? Never mind their nominal or political objects. What are their real objects in Hongkong?

A.-In China, they wish to raise a rebellion.

Q.-Yes, I know that, but what do they want to do here?

A.-I don't know their object-to get more members, I suppose.

Q. And what are they going to do? Supposing every coolie in Hongkong was a member of the Triad Society what would they do then? What are their objects in

(89)

Hongkong? Are their objects economical or political? Is it an organization to keep up wages? Is that one of its objects?

A.-I don't understand you.

Q.-Do they try to keep men out of the Colony? Providing newcomers were willing to enter the Society, would they welcome as many as ever liked to come, or do they try to keep the coolies away, to keep the numbers down and keep the prices up ?

A.-I don't know. They say, when a newcomer arrives in Hongkong, that he must enter the Society or he will be beaten.

Q.-And do the coolies who come to Hongkong enter, as a rule?

A. Yes, as a rule.

Q.-Have you known of any cases of Chinese being beaten ?

A.-Some of my fokis have been beaten over ten times.

Q. What do you mean by your fokis?

A.-Coolies engaged by me from Chu-chau.

Q.-They have been beaten by other coolies because they are not Triads?

A. Yes, because they are not Triads.

Q.-You pay your men in the Kowloon Godowns eight, nine and ten dollars according to class?

A.--Yes.

Q. How do you classify them? Do they begin at eight dollars and then get promoted to nine dollars and then to ten, or is it according as they work?

A. According to the amount of work they are capable of. If he is lazy, he only gets eight dollars. If he works hard, he will get nine and ten.

Q.-You send half their wages home to their parents?

A. Yes.

Q. Well, if a man was getting eight dollars and you send four of this to his family in the country, you only pay him four dollars?

A. Yes.

Q-But then he has only four dollars to live on, whereas you told us it cost him five or six dollars for food. How does he live ? Is it on minus a dollar a month?

extra.

A.-They work in the night time.

Q.-They do extra work?

A. Yes.

Q.-Then they can earn extra wages ?

A. If they work from seven to twelve o'clock of a night, they get twenty cents

Q.-Do most of them work this overtime ?

A. Yes, twenty days out of the thirty each month.

-You say you get them under contract. Are they bound to serve you a certain number of years?

A. Yes. The elders in the village agree to let them come down to me for so many years.

Q.-For how many years?

( 90 )

A. Some six months; some one year.

The Chairman.-Any of them longer than a year?

A. After one year they can do what they like.

Mr. Badeley. And do they ever go away to do other work before they have served their full year or six months?

A. If they leave my service within the contract time, I will go home and ask the elders to return the passage money I paid for him.

Q.-

-And has such a thing ever occurred?

A. Yes.

Q. And have the elders paid ?

A. Yes.

Q.-And the coolies that you employ for the rickshas, where do you get them

from?

A.-From Chu-chau and Swatow.

-Do you send to Chu-chau and Swatow to engage them, or do you engage them as they come into the Colony?

A.-I

A. I send my men up there to engage them.

Q. Are they under contract to you ?

A. Six months' contract.

Q.-And after the six months are up, what do they do? Do they go home to their country, or keep on working for you ?

A.-Most of them continue with me.

Q-Because they like to?

A. Formerly they liked to continue, but not now.

to leave.

Q.-Why?

After six months they want

A. Because over ten men have died because they had a long journey to run from Kowloon to Shatin. The journey over the new road kills them, and when they get home, they spit blood.

-So they don't like the new road?

Q.-

A.-No.

-And have you any difficulty in getting coolies for that job?

A. Yes. I have difficulty now in getting them. I have more than ten rickshas still that I could not get men for. Formerly the ricksha went as far as the five mile- post. Now it is going as far as the number eleven mile-post.

Mr. Wilcox. And they can't run such distances?

A.-No.

Mr. Badeley. Not even with three coolies?

A.—No, because they have to run for three hours, and they get no breath.

Q.-You are going to have all or some of the extra 300 rickshas that are to be put on, are you not?

A. Yes, all are to be given to me.

the

+

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Q-How are you going to get coolies for them?

A.-I have got 600 men already.

Q.-Where from?

A.-Swatow and Chu-chau.

Q.-Under contract?

A.-Not under contract as yet.

Q-But will there be any contract?

A.-When the rickshas have been issued, then they will sign a contract before the

elders.

Q.-For how long?

A.-Most of them will be for six months.

Q. How are you going to treat them? Will they pay you so much a day for the use of the ricksha, or will you pay them wages?

A.-They pay me so much a day for the use of the ricksha, and I let them have free quarters.

Q.-You are to provide the quarters ? A.-Ten rickshas require twenty men. men and they will all live on one floor or flat.

There will be a headman to each twenty

Was it very easy

?

Q-Had you any difficulty in getting these 600 men? A.—I had much difficulty this time. I had to give many dinner parties to the elders before I could get many of them to come.

Q. But surely the ricksha coolies make a lot of money. I should have thought it would have been very easy to get them to come?

A. The rickshas are too many now.

Q. Do you think they will make less or more?

A. They will make less.

Mr. Wilcox. The traffic is increasing all the time.

The Chairman.-There are more passengers. The Colony is growing every day. Witness. The rickshas have increased by more than half. The passengers have not increased by the same proportion.

Mr. Badeley.-How much does a public ricksha coolie make?

A.-Over ten dollars. If he is a diligent man, he can make fifteen. If he is a lazy man he can only make seven or eight dollars.

Q. -Do they make more money in some parts of the town than others? Are there certain men who have acquired a right to certain stands? Do certain men monopolise certain stands ?

A.-Not now. After I draw up this scheme they are only to run-

Q. I am not talking about your scheme at present, but what you know of the general conditions prevailing.

A. Those who stand at the Central Market belong to the Fook Yi Hing Com- pany, those who stand by No. 5 Police Station belong to the Man On Company. Now they can make more money in West Point than they can in Wanchai. Some nights they can't get passengers in Wanchai, but in West Point you can get many.

[This concluded the sitting, and the Commission adjourned sine die.]

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4th October, 1901.

WILLIAM JOSHUA SAUNDERS sworn:

The Chairman. You are Secretary of the Union Insurance Society of Canton, are you not?

A.-I am.

Q.—And have you been in the Colony since 1885 or 1886 ?

A. Since 1886.

Q.-We asked you to come here to-day because we wanted to know your views on two points; first, as to the advisability of registering or licensing private chair and ricksha coolies, and, secondly, on a somewhat debated point as to whether, in the event of registration being enforced, it should be made penal for a master to engage unlicensed or unregistered private chair or ricksha coolies. Now, in answer to the Circular of questions which we sent out, I think you stated that you had no difficulty in procuring private coolies?

A. I have never had any difficulty.

Q.-And have you had any difficulty in retaining them?

A. Whenever a coolie wanted to go I let him. I never tried to retain a coolie against his will.

Q.-Have

A.--None.

you had

any difficulty, when they went away, in replacing them?

Q.--How did you effect the replacing?

A.--I told my boy to get another coolie.

Q. -And he invariably succeeded?

A.--I think on certain occasions it has been one or two days before he got one.

Q. How do you procure your coolies as a rule?

A.-I generally procure them through the boy. Occasionally I have had to get

a new set because they all went away.

-Have you a Compradore?

A. We have an office Compradore.

Q. Do you ever apply to him for coolies?

A.-I have never had to go to him for coolies.

Q. Are you in favour of the registering or licensing of private chair and ricksha coolies?

A.-As far as I am concerned, at present, I am quite against it.

Q.-Will you give us your reasons for that?

A.--I know nothing about what the result of previous registration of servants has been here, but it is objectionable as being an interference with the liberty of contract. If it had been a paying thing it would have been done in England. Everybody wants to get their servants under their control. You may have evidence to show that it has paid in other places.

The Chairman. We have before us an Ordinance in force in Ceylon, dated from the '70s, for the registration of domestic servants only. Of course we all know there

4

( 93 )

was an Ordinance for the the registration of domestic servants in this Colony from 1866 to 1888. It was repealed in 1888, having fallen through for various reasons.

Witness.-It was not carried out.

The Chairman.-One main reason probably was the fact that the servants were not photographed.

Witness. I am not against registration if there is any particular reason shown me that it will pay.

The Chairman.-With regard to public chair and ricksha coolies, these are licensed, and only licensed men may ply for hire. It has been a success with them.

Witness. It is almost necessary with them is it not?

The Chairman.—Why should it not be successful in regard to private chair and ricksha coolies ?

A. Has it been successful as far as public chair and ricksha coolies go ? We are not very well served.

Q.-We are not absolutely well served, but it seems to me that, with a system of photography, registration is the best thing to be done.

-

A. A great many of them are absolutely unfit and have often to put you down lest they should die in the shafts.

Q-Cargo boat people are licensed, are they not?

A.-Cargo boat people are not registered themselves. Their boats are registered,

I hear.

Q.-The boat is registered and the owner of the boat is licensed.

A. The coolies working on board are not registered. There is nothing to prevent them having unregistered coolies.

well.

Mr. Wilcox. The registration of coxswains and engineers has acted extremely

Witness.-I don't know anything against registration. It is an experiment that, I should think, is bound to fail.

B

The Chairman.-In other matters it has not. I am pointing out that there has been licensing of owners of cargo boats, owners of sampans, of hawkers, and also of launch engineers and various other people, and, so far as we know, it is a system that suits the Chinese and has not proved a failure. So, from that, it is quite possible, we think, to have a system of registration of private chair and ricksha coolies. It may be of some use at any rate, even if it does not attain all the objects we would like. You said just now that probably it would be an interference with the liberty of contract. Take the case of the cargo boat and sampan people, doesn't the same objec- tion apply there? I am talking of the registration of the people simply.

A.-It seems to me that outside coolies would be better not to be registered and therefore unlimited in supply.

Q. Do you think that a system of registration worked by the Police would give the Police some control over the men ?

A.-I never felt that I wanted a policeman to have any control over my coolies.

Q.-There is a general feeling in the Colony, and I have no doubt about it, that some sort of control should be exercised. Certain individuals may not think that, but throughout the Colony, there is a feeling that greater control should be exercised.

A.-As far as I am personally concerned, I don't want any control.

1

don't

( 94 )

Q.-Assuming that other people are desirous that there should be better control, you think a system of registration worked by the Police would give more control?

A.-I have no doubt it would.

Q.-And if such control is wanted, don't you think it is desirable that it should be obtained?

A. As far as I am concerned, no; certainly not.

Q. What I mean is this: if there is a general feeling in the Colony that some such control ought to be had, don't you think it would be desirable that some means should be instituted to effect such control?

A.--I think it would be a very dangerous experiment indeed. It has often been tried to keep labour under control and it has failed, as I know. It is an interference with liberty and, if you fail in your experiment, you are in a weaker position ever afterwards.

Mr. Wilcox. As far as my experience of the old Ordinance is concerned, there was no difficulty with the coolies, but registration was allowed to become voluntary instead of being made compulsory, and unless such an Ordinance is made compulsory, it cannot have any effect.

The Chairman. But admitting that everything that has taken place in the past has been more or less a failure, we think we can see our way by different means to prevent a repetition of such failure.

A. I think, if you succeed, that control will be desirable, but I also think that all experiments interfering with fundamental principles are dangerous.

-You say it is dangerous because, in the event of failure, the position may be worse afterwards than before?

A.--I think so. There is a limited amount of these people and, if you weed them out, there will be an insufficient supply.

Q.-Don't you think that, if a certificate of registration were issued and kept by the master who could endorse a coolie's character on it, this would give masters better control over their coolies?

A.—I don't wish masters to have any more control over their coolies than they have already got.

Q.-Your opinion is a personal one?

A. And I object to certain people that I know being able to endorse bad charac- ters on certificates of registration.

Q. Any person who endorses a false character on a certificate would be liable to a libel action by the coolie, wouldn't he?

A. I don't know that the coolie would know that.

The Chairman.—I think the coolies in Hongkong know pretty well what their rights are in the Colony. I don't think there is a doubt that they would bring an action.

Witness. I don't think the average employer is fit to endorse a coolie's certificate. A lot of people I know do not treat their coolies in a proper way, and if they hit their coolie over the head and he goes away, they would endorse his certificate.

The Chairman. The coolie under such circumstances has always redress against such a man and is pretty quick to take the opportunity. In fact the feeling here is that no one must touch a coolie, for he knows his rights.

Witness.--I should like to have an opportunity of sacking my coolie if necessary without giving him a month's warning, and he could leave me without giving me a

1

( 95 )

month's warning. My usual reason for sacking him would be if he was not strong enough to carry me.

The Chairman.-Don't you see that you could make an arrangement with your coolie whereby he could take a day's notice, and, moreover, if he absented himself with- out leave or disobeyed a lawful order, you could dismiss him on the spot?

Witness.-Probably with a month's wages.

The Chairman.—I think you could arrange with him when you engaged him to give him a fixed notice. Take him on trial, say, for a week. You could always get over the difficulty that way.

Witness. When the coolie says his mother is dead and country, how are you to make him give a month's notice?

he wants to go to the You can't insist upon

a month's notice. If the coolie really does go back to the country that would be

a reasonable ground for giving up the month's notice.

t

The Chairman. If he is not able to prove it, you could keep his registration ticket till his return. In the meantime he would be on leave of absence.

Witness.--I think you want to be clearly certain that you will effect the objects and not experiment. I am against experimenting.

The Chairman.-If everybody were as satisfied as you are, this Commission would never have been appointed, but the ground of the appointment of the Commission is that there have been many and frequent complaints that there is something lacking in our methods of controlling private chair and ricksha coolies, to remedy which an attempt must be made, and that is the object of this Commission.

Witness.Is not the same thing lacking everywhere? Even at Home, servants are not what employers want them to be.

The Chairman.--We quite agree that the servant question is an acute question at Home, but we think that we might introduce legislation out here to deal with the ques- tion. The Chinese require to be dealt with in a peculiar way, and we might suggest certain effective means of removing or minimising the present trouble. Leaving the question of registration and whether it is desirable or not, I understand that you are strongly opposed to masters who employ unregistered coolies being liable to a fine. The question is whether they are willing to take a little trouble in the matter and to look at it from this point of view: "Well, it is a bit of trouble to us, but having regard to the general advantage of the community, is it not as well that we should put ourselves to a little personal inconvenience to help the majority?" On that point you ask whether everybody was not opposed to being fined? We sent out to the public a series of questions and in answer to question No. 6, we had a return of 76 persons who were in favour of a penalty being inflicted, 24 persons who were opposed to this, and 26 who agreed conditionally. The condition generally was to the effect that they agreed if we could guarantee a constant supply of coolies. So, from these answers, it seems that the large majority of 76 state that they are in favour of the idea, and would be willing to be liable to punishment if they engaged unregistered coolies.

Witness. Because they thought that otherwise they would not have registration. They don't want to be fined.

The Chairman.-They think that the system would not be complete without this. Witness.-If you want registration, I think it is necessary to fine people for employing unregistered servants.

The Chairman.-I take it that your answer is that, if registration is introduced, then you think, in order to give perfect effect to that registration, it must be made penal for the master to employ unregistered or unlicensed coolies? That is your view?

S

( 96 )

Witness. No. I have no means of judging.

The Chairman.-I say, assume that registration came to pass ?

Witness. I don't think it is necessary to assume.

Q.-Suppose that registration is introduced, I suppose that you will admit that it must be universally carried out or not at all, in order to be of any use?

A. All coolies must be registered of course.

Q.-If registration is introduced, does it not seem necessary that all coolies should be registered?

it.

A.—I would rather not express an opinion on that. I don't know anything about

Q.-Then if a person offers to engage unregistered servants and is allowed to do

so, don't you think that would impair registration and make it of no effect?

A. Not as regards employers that insist upon registered coolies only.

Q.-But if the object is to register all coolies?

A. Of course, if the object is to register all coolies, then register all coolies.

Q.--If universal registration is to be introduced, then masters who employ unregistered coolies should be punished by a fine, and unregistered coolies who enter employ should be liable to a fine?

A.--That is a question I would rather not have anything to do with. I don't think I am competent to give an expression of opinion on it. It seems logically to follow, but I have not studied it.

Q.-Suppose then that an unregistered coolie applies for and actually obtains employ- ment and renders himself liable to a fine, why should not the master who engages him not be liable also?

A.—As a master, I would object to it as being an interference with my liberty. I don't believe in registration for the reason that it leads to absurd results.

--Assume then that you agree that an unregistered coolie who enters into service or offers his services should be punished, don't you think the master who employs the servant should also be punished?

A.--No, I don't.

Q. Where does the justice come in? I am only putting an imaginary case to you. A.-I would rather not answer that question because it leads to absurd results.

Q. What am I to take as your main objection to making it penal for masters to employ unregistered coolies?

A.-Because I don't want to pay a fine. I don't want to be troubled going to the Police Court.

Q. What is your objection to being made liable to pay a fine? That can't be put forward as an argument.

A. I should like to employ unregistered coolies if there were any going about, and I don't want to be fined for it.

Q. What is your objection apart from the fact that you don't want to be fined? A.-None whatever, except that it is against liberty.

Q. What liberty?

A. Against my employing any one I like.

זי

( 97 )

Q. Do I take it that you consider such a penal clause as against the liberty of the subject or contract?

A. It is against the liberty of contract.

Q.-If the Police had better control over these men

A. But the Police don't do the work they already have so well as we would wish. No Government Department does do its work so properly or as well as it might be done.

Q.-I suppose that remark would apply to most commercial firms too?

A. Yes. A private individual is better able to get his own way than through the medium of a Government Department.

-There seems to be a feeling abroad that the private individual can't control his coolies, and now we are making efforts by means of this Commission to devise a means of controlling these coolies.

A. The same state of affairs has existed in every portion of the world and no country ever will be able to control its servants. It is not likely that we will be able to control them here.

Q-My own view is that one should not be stopped from experimenting because there is a possibility of failure. We think, on the other hand, that there is a probability of success, and I don't think one can say there is no chance of success in such a matter as this. Referring to your main objection with regard to the penal clause, liberty of contract, you know, don't you, that liberty of contract is already restrained in many cases ?

A.-It is.

Q.-So that at any rate we have prece lent on our side. I will give you as instances, the following:-No man can enter into a contract to commit a crime, no man can enter into an agreement to commit a civil wrong, or an agreement which is contrary to public policy. Now then, I put it to you that, in such cases, the basis of them is a desire to promote the public advantage, is it not? In such a case as the present, where the proposal to introduce a penal clause and to enforce registration is based on securing the advantage of the public at large, don't you think precedent has a good deal of force in the matter and that, after all, this interference with the liberty of contract must be looked at in the light of whether such interference is for the benefit of the public or not?

A.--I don't think you will find a precedent in the case of servants.

It is a very old question and must have come up several times, both here and elsewhere, and no country, so far as I know, has succeeded in effecting a remedy. It has been tried over and over again, I fear.

Q.-At any rate we have tried it with cargo boat people, public chair and ricksha coolies who may be viewed as public servants. The experiment with them has not failed, and I can't see why it should not succeed with private servants.

A.-As far as public coolies go, I don't think it is at all proved that it has been a

We should be better off if we had an unlimited number of them.

success.

Q.-You are going on another point now. It is the question of the restriction of the numbers, as the effect of licensing, which is quite a different thing. There is no proof that anything of the kind has happened.

A. The licensees have imported to the Colony a number of very unfit coolies. Q.-Do you mean to say that if there had been no licensing, we would have had more fit and able men brought into the Colony?

A.-I think so.

Q.-I cannot follow that. and such registration can't be and coolies alike-

(98)

Assuming that the registration is for the public benefit made thorough unless by making it penal for masters

A. I think I must leave it to somebody else to assume. right to assume.

I don't think I have any

Q.-Under section 26 of the Licensing Ordinance (No. 24 of 1898) you will find that a person who drinks in unlicensed premises is a person who renders himself liable to a fine. Well, evidently the object of that is that that person should be punished because he is encouraging an unlicensed person. Why should not a master who encourages an unlicensed or unregistered coolie to enter his service be equally liable to a penalty?

A. There is no particular reason.

Q.-I argue it this way that a person drinking in unlicensed premises is encouraging a man to sell drinks in an unlicensed house to the disadvantage of the community.

A. If the law is made, the man should be subject to a penalty, but the question is whether such a law should be made.

The Chairman.-What I mean is a law for the benefit of the majority.

Witness. But is it for the benefit of the majority?

The Chairman.—We think it is. It is competent for the State to make any law it likes.

Witness. I would obey the law under protest of course. If you are going to have a law, you must carry it out.

77

The Chairman.-In the Merchant Shipping Consolidation Ordinance, No. 21 of 1896, there is a "Table U" in the Schedule containing regulations for the licens- ing and controlling of boats, etc. The term "boats includes cargo boats, lighters, cinder boats, lighters, fishing boats, trading hulks, and rowing boats plying for hire of passengers only. The first of these regulations says that all the boats referred to in the regulations must be duly licensed, and then it goes on to say that no person shall engage or let out for hire any boat unless it has been licensed. Then comes section nine which reads that any breach of these regulations shall be punishable by a penalty not exceeding $100 or, in default, an offender shall be liable to three months' imprisonment. Now, there we have a distinct instance of a person who engages the services of an unlicensed boat being liable to a penalty. Doesn't that seem to be a precedent? That, according to what you said, is a direct abrogation of the right of unfettered contract.

A.-It doesn't prove that that Ordinance is a good Ordinance, nor does it prove that the proposed Ordinance is to be a good Ordinance.

The Chairman.-It proves that the persons who passed that Ordinance thought it

necessary.

Witness.No.

The Chairman.--Yes, it does. That Ordinance has been in force for a period of ten years and as it at present stands, it looks as though these regulations had worked with some degree of success, doesn't it?

Witness.--I suppose so.

The Chairman.-What I say then is that, in an analogous case, success would also be a likely result.

Witness.-I don't think success has attended these regulations. If you want a sampan to go to a ship, you can't get one.

4

1.

(( 99 )

The Chairman. That is not the regulation. You see it says no person shall engage an unregistered boat.

Witness.—If there are no registered boats there, you can't get them.

The Chairman.-If it is a licensed boat, it will willingly take a passenger.

Witness.-There is great difficulty in getting a sampan if you want to go to a ship. It is not proved to me that that Ordinance is necessary.

The Chairman. There is the presumption that the Ordinance, having been in force so long, has been a success in its working.

Witness.-No, it is not proved by that at all. Most of the Ordinances in force now had better be repealed, and every Ordinance that is repealed ought to have been repealed long ago.

The Chairman.-There is not the least doubt that for persons with good tendencies, the law is unnecessary, but we have to pass laws, not for the control of the well-disposed, but for the control of the evil-disposed. I suppose many of us have the same feeling as you have that laws are unnecessary so far as we are personally concerned.

Witness. I believe it is a fact that 75 per cent. of the laws that are passed are repealed.

The Chairman. That number may be partly repealed perhaps but re-enacted in most part.

Would not the effect of registration of coolies be that registered coolies would tend to keep away unregistered coolies?

A. Yes, I suppose it would, to a certain extent.

Q.-Then, in that case, don't you think it would be very likely that the penal clause against masters would have to be enforced?

A. There are times when you can't get a registered coolie perhaps, and you have to engage an unregistered coolie. Perhaps there will be a strike, and you will have to be fined. You don't want to force the coolies to work for you.

The Chairman.-We don't want to force them, but if they don't work under certain conditions, then they can go out of the Colony. When the lo lging-houses were registered we had threatened trouble, but that soon passed over.

Witness.I feel very much for the people who can't get coolies, but I think it is their own fault. There are very few houses at the Peak that have proper quarters for coolies, and coolies, I may say, like a comfortable place to live in as well as anybody else..

Mr. Wilcox.-I think you will find that if all the coolies had liberty to go down town to sleep, there would be less difficulty in getting coolies.

Witness. My coolies have perfect liberty to go down town if they choose.

The Chairman.-But they go down and may sleep in plague infected places.

WALTER POATE sworn:-

The Chairman.--You are senior partner in Hongkong of Messrs. Butterfield and Swire ?

A. Yes.

Q.-And how long have you been in this Colony altogether?

A.-Twenty-seven years.

( 100 )

Q.-In the answers which you were good enough to give us the other day, you say you have had difficulty in procuring private coolies ?

A.-Yes.

Q.-And you also told us you had difficulty in retaining your chair coolies ?

A. Yes.

Q-May we ask you how you procure your private coolies-through your Compradore, or boy, or how?

A.-Well, I generally had one old coolie come back and he would get other men ; sometimes the same men as I had before would come back. They change off and on.

Q.-But you don't get them through your Compradore?

A.—No, I have on occasions told the boy when we got to a dead-lock, to find out coolies from among his friends.

Q.-Have you often been at a dead-lock?

A.—Never more than a day or so.

Q.-Have your coolies often left you without giving notice or resigning?

A. Yes.

Q.-They gave no reason?

A.--No reason.

Q. Do you find your gang of coolies changing much?

A. Yes, continually changing.

Q.- -What we want you here this evening for is to get your opinion on two points. The first point is this: Are you in favour, or are you not in favour, of compulsory registration of private coolies? and the second point is: Are you in favour, or are you not in favour, of making it penal for masters to employ unregistered private chair and ricksha coolies? Now then, dealing with the first point-registration or no registration- will you tell us whether you are in favour of compulsory registration or whether you are not in favour of it?

A.--Well, I should be in favour of it under certain conditions. It is a very broad question to ask. There is registration and registration.

Q.--Supposing I give you an outline-all private chair and ricksha coolies must be registered; they must all be photographed; they must all have a certificate of registration—take these three broad points. Under these conditions, are you in favour of registration?

A.--If the registration costs a nominal fee.

Q.--It would be gratis. That is our idea; what then?

A.-I should certainly say that I should be in favour then.

Q.-Your answer on that point being favourable, it will save us putting a lot of questions to you. In your answer to the question: "Are you in favour of making persons who engage unregistered coolies liable to a fine at the Police Court?" you say: "No, I am not in favour of employers being fined. The coolies are the persons to be punished if registration is introduced. It is impossible for employers to keep the run of their servants as substitutes are often there without the employer's knowledge or consent.' We agree on the point that coolies should be punished but, at the same time, is the coolie who offers his services to be punished and not the master who accepts the services?

11

( 101 )

A.-Well, you might look at it in this way that the coolie might come to you with a fraudulent registration certificate and you might think he was all right and so

on.

Q.-But if he has got his photograph on it?

A.-There is not much likeness sometimes in a photograph.

Mr. Wilcox.-But they would be changed every year.

A.-They would! Would you mind letting me see what I wrote before? [Reads.]

The Chairman. You say there that you are in favour of the unregistered coolie seeking or obtaining employment being fined but not of the master, and I say to you, is it quite the right thing that the master who accepts the services of the coolie should not be fined? Is there any justice in that?

A.-There is nothing indicated in this printed question to bar a coolie from coming and offering his services, and it should not be possible for a coolie to do that. It is all put down here on the master and there is no reference to any penalty being attached to the coolie.

Q.- --What you mean is this, that if the coolie is to be punished, then the master should also be liable?

A. Yes, but only on that condition. It is not fair that the master should be the only person.

The Chairman. We never intended that at all. That being so, I don't think I have any more questions to ask.

Mr. Wilcox.-If it were not penal on the master, I am afraid it would become a dead letter because there are some very careless people.

Witness.-If, on the other hand, masters were the only people to get into trouble, it would not be fair on the master.

The Chairman.-Can you tell us the opinions of Mr. Law and Mr. Robertson on this point? Do they coincide with yours?

A.-I think they would be similar, but I could not say definitely.

Mr. Wilcox.-Do you remember the operation of the old law that fell into disuse

chiefly because there was no means of identifying the coolies?

A. Yes, that was so. Governor Pope Hennessy was here at the time, and I think that the Light and Pass Regulations were also abandoned at the same time.

Mr. Wilcox. I know when I came here it was in effectual operation, and so far as it went, it was a decided check on servants.

A.—It was a check, but then you had not the photograph.

The Chairman.-You have no objection such as undue interference with the liberty of contract?

A. This only refers to private coolies. It is not a case of public works or anything of that sort.

Q.-You don't see any objection on that ground at present?

A.-I confess I don't. You ask the question straight out, but some point might arise afterwards to qualify my opinion.

[The Commission then adjourned till Tuesday, 8th October, it being agreed to summons Messrs. G. W. F. Playfair for 2.30 p.m. and Mr. J. T. Lauts for 3 p.m.

( 102 )

8th October, 1901.

JOHANN THEODOR LAUTS sworn:

The Chairman.-You are a member of the firm of Lauts, Wegener & Co. ?

A. Yes.

Q-How long have you been in Hongkong?

A. For about twenty-three years.

Q-Where do you live now?

A.-Queen's Gardens, No. 3.

Q.-Have you got any chair coolies?

A.-Oh, yes.

Q.-Ricksha coolies?

A.-No.

Q. How many chair coolies?

A.-Four at present.

Q.-Have you any difficulty in getting them?

A.-Not with these four men.

Q.-Have you previously had any difficulty?

A.-I had difficulty when I kept chair coolies for myself. I keep the four now

only for

my wife and children.

Q. How do you manage now yourself?

A. I take outside chairs.

Q.-Up and down?

A.-Up and down every day.

Q. -Why have you given up keeping them?

A. Because I had too much trouble with them.

Q. What was the nature of the trouble?

A.-I had them leaving me without giving me notice.

Q. What did you do?

A.-I had them twice before the Police Court.

Q. When was that?

A.-About two years ago.

Q.-Any other reason?

A.-Increase of wages.

Q. What was the increase they asked for?

A. They asked me for $9.50. I paid them at the rate of $8.50 each. Q.-Are you paying $8.50 now?

A.-I pay $8.50 to my present coolies.

Q.-Are you in favour of a system of registration of private coolies ? A.-If it can be done.

( 103 )

Q.-If we got registration, are you in favour of making it penal for a master to employ unregistered coolies? Of course, we would make it penal for the coolies them- selves to go into employ without first being registered. Supposing you want to engage a coolie, and you engage an unregistered coolie, the coolie would be liable to punishment for having engaged himself to you and you would also be liable to punish- ment for taking him on.

A.--No; I would not be in favour of that.

Q.-Why not?

A.—I don't think it can be properly done.

Q.--Why can't it be done?

A.-I think the Chinese would object to it first of all. You would not be able to get any coolies at all.

Q.-They would object to what?

A.-To being registered.

Q.--Assuming that we can induce them to be registered, in that case don't you think that the master should be punished if he engages an unregistered coolie?

A.-I would not be in favour of it.

Q. Why not?

A. Because, why should a man be compelled to take a registered coolie?

Q-If we are to have registration, it would be for the public benefit, and every man should be compelled to help in the public interest. That is the reason why we want to prevent a man from engaging unregistered coolies except under a penalty. Do you understand now ?

A. Yes, but then there should be a sufficient number of suitable coolies. Cer- tainly the Chinese would resist registration. People would be obliged to take registered men and there would perhaps be no suitable coolies offering of the registered coolies.

Q.-But supposing there were coolies offering, why should they not go and re-

gister?

alty?

A.-Of course they would all register if you make a law.

Q.-Assume they are registered ?

A.-Then, of course, make it penal.

Q.--Then, in that case, you think that the master should be made liable to a pen-

A. Yes.

Mr Wilcox.--Unless the masters are rendered liable to penalty as well as the registered coolies, it would be impossible to make registration general. That is the

reason.

Mr. Badeley. What work do your coolies have to perform?

A. They carry my wife, they carry the children, they carry the governess, they clean the house and do all sorts of jobs.

Q. And do they find that easier work than carrying you up and down to the office?

A. They are quite a different set. Formerly I used to have eight coolies; now I have only four. I have always kept separate chair coolies for my wife and family.

( 104 )

Q.-But, from the fact that you have no difficulty with the ones that you keep for the wife and family, do you gather that they find the work lighter, or does it happen that you have a very good lot of men ?

A.-I had a good lot of chair coolies who left me suddenly without giving me any warning. I never found out why they left. After that, I had trouble with another set of coolies.

The Chairman.--Can you get coolies for yourself now ?

A.-If I pay $9.50 a month. I have had two of the coolies I have now for a couple of years in my service and I have never had any difficulty in getting two others.

Q.-And you are paying thirty-four dollars a month now for the four ?

A. Yes.

Q.-And what do you pay every day to go up and down?

I have heard of several The coolies don't like it and

A.-I use four coolies and I pay them 40 cents a trip.

Mr. Wilcox.-It is a steep ascent up to Queen's Gardens. cases of employers having difficulty owing to the climb. that is one reason given to us why they ask more money. I don't think it is a good reason, because there are other places nearly as steep, but it is notorious that the coolies in Queen's Gardens have nearly all struck for higher wages. that?

A.-It all depends upon where you get your coolies from. from Swatow, or half way from Swatow, they are very decent. Canton or Macao, or local coolies give a deal of trouble.

Q.- -Are your men from that district?

A. Our men are Swatow men.

I

suppose you know

If you have them Those coolies from

The Chairman.-Do you engage your coolies through the Compradore?

A. He has to guarantee them.

Q.-Does he get them for

you?

A.-I get them myself, or he gets them for me.

Q. Which is it? Supposing your coolies struck work to-morrow——

A.-I would ask my Compradore.

Q. And is your Compradore under engagement to provide you with coolies ?

A. No. He has to guarantee them. He is responsible for them.

-What does that mean?

A. In case they steal, he has to make it good.

Q.-Does he undertake to guarantee people he does not engage ?

A.-I was left with two coolies. These two coolies found me two others. I sent the two new men down to the Compradore and asked "Will you guarantee them ?" He said "Yes." That is all he has to do with them.

Mr. Badeley. He guarantees against theft?

A. Yes.

Q.-Does he guarantee against leaving without giving notice?

A.-No.

( 105 )

Mr. Wilcox.-Does he guarantee the boy and other domestic servants?

A. Every one."

Mr. Badeley. Do you know what wages are paid by other people in Queen's Gardens ?

A.--Some are paying nine and-a-half dollars, I think Messrs. Siebs and Harling are living next door to each other and the one pays higher wages than the other.

Mr. Wilcox.-Why?

A. Nobody knows why. They don't know themselves.

The Chairman.-You mean one house raises its prices and the other house has to go one better? It is like a game of poker.

A.--In Queen's Gardens the coolies once asked for higher wages and Mr. Hancock came and said "Don't pay higher wages because the whole terrace will have to pay higher wages.

The above mentioned two houses under the same roof have to pay different wages and they don't know why.

,,

Q. Are they aware of the fact?

A. Yes.

LO SZ declared :-

The Chairman.-What are you ?

A. I am a sort of coolie. I go to Yaumati daily and get some earth work to do, and besides that I do some private trading business of my own.

Q. Where do you live?

-My family house is in Gough Street.

Q.-Do you live in a lodging-house?

A.-I keep a lodging or coolie house at No. 20, Gough Street.

Q.-But you don't live there?

A.-No, I don't live there. I live in my family house.

-How many storeys is the house No. 20, Gough Street?

A.-Four, including the cock loft.

Q.-There is a basement?

A.-No, there is no basement floor, but there is a ground floor.

Q.-Ground floor, first, second and third floors. The third floor is the cockloft.

Do you rent the whole house?

A. Only the ground floor.

Q.-And you use it as a coolie lodging-house?

A. Yes.

Q. How long have you rented at as a coolie house?

A.-About twenty years.

Q.-Five years ago how many coolies used to live in that basement?

A. The most was 24 coolies.

( 106 )

Q. What is the largest number now?

A. It is nominally fourteen, but I have not got that number.

--How much a month did these 24 coolies pay you for rent each?

A. From thirty to forty cents five years ago.

Q.-Now, how much?

A. About a dollar or a little more than a dollar.

Q.-I want the exact sum please?

A. Say $1.20 to $1.30 each.

Q.-I want the exact amount every coolie pays you a month for rent. given us 30 to 40 cents five years ago, what is it now?

You have

A.-If I have the limited number coolies living there, then each pays about 80 cents and, if there are less than fourteen, each has to pay a dollar.

Q. You have no fixed price per month?

A.—There is an arrangement between the coolies, that they have to pay more in the event of my not getting a sufficient number to live there.

Q -What class of coolies inhabit your ground floor?

A.-Private ricksha and street coolies.

Q. Are there private chair and ricksha coolies who sleep on your ground floor?

A.-The majority of thein are street coolies, but a few of them are private ricksha

coolies.

-How much do these private ricksha coolies pay you a month?

A. They have to pay a uniforın rate.

Q. How much does a private chair or ricksha coolie, whose master provides him. with house accommodation, pay you?

A. Some of their masters have no accommodation for them and so it is that they live outside.

Q-Then those private coolies who are with you, are coolies whose masters don't lodge them?

A. Yes.

Q. Have you ever had private coolies on your ground floor whose masters did lodge them?

A. They don't live in my place, but simply visit it.

Q.-Yes, but if they have the privilege of visiting your place, do you charge them so much a month?

A.-No, if they have got lodging at their master's place, then they do not pay any rent for visiting my place.

Q.-Supposing a private coolie, who has lodging furnished him by his master, comes to your place to sleep, do you allow him?

A.-Well, I allow him to stop half a night or one night.

Q.-Does he pay for that?

A.-No, I don't charge anything, but sometimes they like to pay me something for passing a night there.

Y

L

( 107 )

Q.-Do you know of any lodging-house which is frequented by private coolies who pay to the proprietor or the landlord a fixed sum a month for the privilege of going there whenever they like ?

A.-Well, I know nothing about other people's business.

Mr. Wilcox.-Do they pay a subscription every month for religious ceremonies?

That is in the seventh moon. They do

A. They only subscribe once a year.

not subscribe monthly.

Q.-That is only to his kun?

A.-Oh, it is only the coolies who live in my house. They subscribe to no out-

siders.

Q.-Well, chair coolies who have been with you for some time and then get pid- gin to do and then come back again, pay all the time, don't they, a small sum every month?

If he

A.-There is no compulsion on my part or the head coolie of the house. likes, after he has got a billet, he may pay something towards the rent of the house..

Mr. Wilcox. You mean to say that, if they do pay, it is voluntary? A.—Well, I think his conscience prompts him to do so, but it is a voluntary sub- scription.

-Do you know any lodging kun where the coolies who frequent it do pay regular subscriptions?

A. Of course I have no personal knowledge about it, but, from what I heard, a man once got employment and continued to subscribe towards the rent for fear that he would be kicked out by his master and would have no place to live in.

now.

Q.-Do the coolies living on your floor belong to a coolie guild?

A.-No.

Q.-Quite sure of that?

A.-No.

Q.--Do any of them belong to the Triad Society?

A.-No.

Q.-Quite sure of that?

A.-No.

-Where do your coolies come from?

A. From Chu-chau and Swatow.

-Is there a Chu-chau coolie guild in the Colony?

A.-I don't know.

The Interpreter.-He wishes to tell the Commission why they pay so much rent

The Chairman.-All right.

Witness-In former days we paid only eight or nine dollars a month and now the rents are increasing month after month to twenty dollars and so on. A great number of people were allowed to live in that house before, but now it is a limited number.

Q. What rent do you pay for that ground floor?

A.-I used to pay $9.50 a month, but I have got notice that I would have to pay $20 a month beginning next month.

( 108 )

The Chairman.--How much did you pay five years ago ?

A.--About six dollars a month, from six to eight, then from eight to nine and-a- half and now the landlord wants to increase it to twenty dollars.

Q.-Who is your landlord?

A. He is a clerk in the Customs. His name is Kwok Mui.

Q.--Is he in the Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs in Queen's Road?

A.-Well, formerly he was here, but now he is in Canton.

CHAN A KUN declared:-

The Chairman.--What do

you

do?

A.-I am a chair coolie.

Q.-A private chair coolie or a public chair coolie ?

A.-A private chair coolie.

Q.--Who is your master?

A.--A Chinaman named A Kai in Peel Street.

Q.-What wages does he pay you?

A.--Ten dollars a moon.

Q.-Does he provide you with lodging?

A.-No. I live in a coolie house.

Q.-Where?

A.-No. 16, Gage Street.

-Who is head of that house?

A.--He is a Chinaman who lives on the top floor of the house. I don't know his name.

-And how many people are living on that floor?

A.-The Government only allows nineteen to live there.

Q.-What do you pay a month for rent?

A.-Thirty dollars a month and divide that amongst nineteen.

Q.-And how much a month do you pay ?

A.-I ask your Lordship to work that out--thirty by nineteen.

Q.-I don't want to work it out. A.-We pay $1.70 each.

-Does that include your food?

A.—I have to find my own food.

What do you pay a month as rent?

-Do you have it in the coolie house, and mess there?

A.-I cook myself, and whatever food I buy I get it from the market.

Q.-What does it cost you for food each month?

A.-Rice itself costs me $2.

Ý

( 109 )

Q.-Altogether what does it cost? You know how much it comes to.

A. From five to six dollars at the most. There is very little saving over.

Q.-Are there any private chair or ricksha coolies in the place where you are living, whose masters give them a lodging or who can lodge at their master's house?

A. Yes, there are some. Some of the coolies who are employed at the Peak stay there, and, when their master sends them down town to buy food and so on, they pass a night in the coolie house and return to the Peak in the morning.

cents.

Q.-Now, how much a month do these men pay for rent?

A.-He pays half of the amount I pay.

That is to say if I

pay $1.80, he pays 90

Q.-Suppose he only sleeps three nights there in the course of the month, how much does he pay then?

A. He pays the same. Even though he passes only three nights in the house, he has to pay half the amount that we have to pay.

Q. Where do the coolies in your place come from?

A. The whole of them come from Chu-chau.

Q-Are there any coolie guilds to which they belong?

A.-No.

Q.-Anything like a Pork Guild ?

A.-No. I am a newcomer and I don't know anything about guilds.

Q.-Don't people ever ask you for subscriptions?

A.--No.

Q.-Have

you not contributed to anything?

A.--No.

Q. How long have you been here?

A.-A little more than a year.

Q.-And you have not subscribed to anything during that time ?

A.-No.

Q.-Not on festival days?

A. Only once a year, that is in the seventh moon.

Mr. Wilcox.-Do you belong to any guild?

A.-I am not a member of any guild.

Q. Are you a member of the Triad Society?

A.-No.

The Chairman.-During the time you have been here, have any of the private chair coolies in your house reported their master as not being a good master ?

A.-No. They attend to their work daily and there is no talk against their

master.

Q.-Have any orders gone out from your house that certain non-Chinese masters are not to be served?

A.--No.

( 110 )

-Why are coolies not willing to serve non-Chinese masters ?

A. Because they are working for other masters and they get their living. Why should they go and accept another master?

The Chairman.-Why should they?

Why should they?

But they do it.

Witness.-Well, I don't think so. If one is out of employment and offer is made to him that there is a billet for him he will go at once but, unless it is regular employ- ment, he won't go.

Mr. Badeley. You say the floor you live on holds nineteen men?

A. Yes. We used to have more men but the Central Police Station would not allow it.

rent ?

Q-He means the Sanitary Board. Are there always as many?

A. We have been fined by the Magistrate.

Q. Are there always as many as nineteen there?

A. Well, only nineteen. That is the most.

Q. Are there always as many as nineteen?

A.

Sometimes there are less than nineteen. Some go home.

Q.-You say there are nineteen of you and between you you have to pay $30 as

A. Yes.

Q.-If there were only fifteen of you, would you still have to pay the landlord $30 or would you pay less?

A. We would have to pay $30 even if there were only fifteen of us.

Q.- -No matter how many there are in the house, you still have to pay $30 between you. Is that the rule ?

A. He doesn't care whether there are enough men or not, we have to pay the $30 always.

Q-Have you always lived in this place since you came to Hongkong?

A.-I have lived there ever since I arrived here.

Q. And have you always had to pay a dollar and something-the same amount of rent?

A. If we had nineteen in the house $1.70, but if a less number we had to pay more-perhaps $2 each so as to make up the $30.

The Chairman.Give us the name of the man to whom you pay rent.

A.-The landlord is a very wicked landlord. He lives on the top floor and he won't take small coins. He says: "Take them away and get me bank notes for them." I don't know his name.

Q. And does he leave it to one of you to collect the rent?

A.-No. We have to meet on a certain day and each pays so much and one man takes it up-stairs. There is no headman there. I would ask your Lordship to write to the Sanitary Board not to limit the number to live there. If they allowed us to have a greater number of men there, we would not have to pay so much then.

Q. How many would

you like?

A.-The place is quite big enough to accommodate thirty men, but the Police will not allow it. We had a cockloft and they ordered it to be pulled down.

!

CHENG A FU declared:-

The Chairman.-What do you do?

A.-I am a ricksha coolie.

Q.-Private?

A. No, a street coolie.

( 111 )

yet.

Q.-Where do

you live?

A.-Lyndhurst Terrace.

Q.-Are you a licensed ricksha coolie ?

A. Yes.

Q.-Have you got your licence?

A.-I left my purse with the licence in it at home.

Q.--What number Lyndhurst Terrace?

A.-No. 42.

Q.-Ground floor?

A.-No, first floor.

Q.--Are you the lessee of that floor?

A.-I am not.

Q.-Who is?

A.--My elder brother.

Q.-Where is he?

A.--He has gone home to the country.

Q. Is he a registered lodging-house keeper?

A. We only rented the place a month ago. We have not taken out a licence

Q.--And how many coolies live on your floor?

A.-Sixteen.

Q.-And do you all pay the same amount of rent?

A.-We all pay an equal share.

--How much do you pay yourself?

A.—I pay $1.30.

you pay that to your brother?

Q.-Do you pay

A.-Yes.

Q.--To whom does he

pay

it ?

A.-To the landlord, an Indian.

Q. What is the rent?

A.-Twenty dollars a month.

Q.-Divided amongst sixteen ?

A. Yes.

}

:

( 112 )

Q. What class of coolies live on your floor?

A.-They are street coolies.

Q.-They are not private coolies?

A.-No.

Q.--And how long have you been here ?

A. I have been in this Colony between two and three years.

Q. Where did you come from?

A.--From Chu-chau.

Q.--Are there plenty of your fellow-countrymen there who are willing to come to Hongkong to work?

A.-Well, I can't say whether they would like to or not.

Q.--You have been home and you know about your people at home.

A.-Well, I bave not asked their opinion.

Q. What made you come?

A. My elder brother asked me to come.

Q. What made him come?

A..

He came with his relative.

Q. Why didn't you stay at home?

A. If I could make a living, I would go back.

Q.-Is it much better living in Hongkong?

A.—It is much easier to make a living in Hongkong and earn some money to support my parents.

Q.-You say you are a public ricksha coolie. How much money

month?

do you make a

A. After deducting my board and lodging and other things, I think I save about ten dollars a month.

Q.-You, yourself?

A. Yes.

Badeley.-How

Mr. Badeley. How much does your food cost you?

A.-It costs me $5.50.

Q.--Your foki makes the same, does he?

A. Yes.

The Chairman.--Do you know many other ricksha coolies who make as much as

you do?

A.--I think some make about the same, some less and some more.

Q. Do you know any public chair coolies? Are any of them among your friends?

A.-I don't know any of the street chair coolies.

Mr. Wilcox. You are only a ricksla coolie ?

A. Yes.

P

.

( 113 )

Q.-And all the men in your house are ricksha coolies ?

A.-I am the only ricksha coolie living there.

-Are there no chair coolies in the house?

A.--No.

Q. What are they then?

A.-Market and street coolies.

-Do you know what chair coolies make?

A.-I know nothing about them.

Q.-Is there any ricksha coolie guild?

A.-No.

The Chairman.-Is there any Swatow coolie or Chu-chau coolie guild?

A.-No.

Q.-Don't you subscribe to any guild?

A. No. I am alone. I don't care for others' business.

Mr. Badeley. How long do you say you have been here?

A.-A little more than two years.

Q.-Have you been a ricksha coolie all the time?

A. Yes.

Q. Did you pay anything to anybody to get your licence?

A.-No.

Mr. Wilcox.-How did you come to be a ricksha coolie then?

A.-My brother bought a ricksha for me.

Mr. Baleley.-Is your ricksha your own then?

A. Yes.

Q.-How many more have you got ?

A.-Only the one.

Q. What is the number of it?

A.-No. 502.

The Chairman.-When did you buy it?

A. Some time in the tenth moon of last year.

Q. What did you pay for it?

A.-It cost me altogether seventy dollars.*

Mr. Wilcox. Had your brother got money before he came to Hongkong?

A.-No.

Q.-Did he borrow the money to buy you a ricksha?

A. Yes, he borrowed it.

[*Mr. Badeley made inquiries through the Police as to the statement of the above witness, Cheng A Fu, that he purchased his ricksha and paid seventy dollars for it. He learned that the seventy dollars was paid for the good vill of the run- ning alone and that the ricksha does not belong to him.]

:

( 114 )

Q. -How does he borrow the money?

A.-He borrowed it and paid interest at the rate of five cents

-From whom did he borrow it?

per dollar

per moon.

A. He borrowed from people at home-pig-keepers in the country.

Q.—He brought the money with him then?

A.—Well, the money was sent down here through a headman in the country. It is a sort of loan association, a dollar a share-and he collects the money from all the subscribers and he lends it out, and whatever interest there is at the end of the year, he distributes it among the subscribers.

Mr. Badeley.-Whom did you buy your ricksha from ?

A. From a man who has gone home.

Q. What is his name?

A. O Sui Kong.

The Chairman.-Was he a ricksha puller before you then?

A. Yes. He gave it up and sold the ricksha to me.

TO A CHEUNG declared:-

The Chairman.-You are a private chair coolie are you not?

A. Yes.

Q.-And to what coolie house down town do you belong? A.-Saiyingpun-Third Street.

-Do you contribute anything to that every month?

A.-Formerly, but not now.

Q.-Whilst you have been in my employ as a private coolie, have you been sub- scribing anything to this coolie kun in Third Street?

A.-Not after I joined your service, but before I joined your service I had to pay something.

Q. How much did you pay then?

A.-Eighty cents a month.

Q. What were you doing then ?

A.-I was then a licensed chair coolie.

Q.—And you paid 80 cents a month rent?

A. Yes.

Q. Can you go back to that coolie house and sleep any night now that you are in my employ?

A.-I think they would allow me to sleep there, because I had been in the house before and paid rent.

Q.-But are you not paying something like twenty or twenty-five cents now as a retainer ?

A.-Nɔ. I am not paying anything at all.

Y

:

( 115 )

Q.- -Your foki-my other chair coolie-does he pay anything?

A.-I know nothing about his affairs. He doesn't live in the same place with me.

Q.-He does, he lives in the same quarters with you ?

A. Yes, in the same quarters.

Q. Do you know of any coolies in private employ at the Peak who contribute anything each month to the coolie houses down below, either at Saiyingpun or Wanchai, or elsewhere?

A.-Well, I know nothing about the coolies employed at the Peak, but coolies employed down below have to pay rent.

[This concluded the sitting for the day. Mr. Badeley was requested to procure as witnesses a number of public chair and ricksha coolies for next sitting, which it was

agreed should take place on Thursday, 10th October, at 4.15 p.m.]

10th October, 1901.

KU KIU declared:-

The Chairman.-Are you a licensed chair coolie?

A. Yes.

Q. -How long have you been one?

A.-Over twenty years.

Q. Where do you lodge?

A. Near the Man Mo temple.

Q.

Do you rent a floor yourself?

A. I live there as a lodger.

Q. How much do you pay a month as rent?

A.-Seventy cents.

Q.-Have you lived in that same place for a number of years?

A.-I have only been a few months in that place.

Q. In other places where you have lived, how much rent did you pay, say five years ago?

A.-About 30 cents in Saiyingpun.

Q. What do you pay for your food per month?

A.-Six dollars.

Q. Do you pay six dollars now?

A. I mean now.

Q. How much did you pay five

years ago?

A.-Say four dollars a month.

Q.--How much do you make a month?

A.-About twelve dollars.

( 116 )

and

Q-Is that nett?

A.-My gross income is twelve dollars a month. Say $6 for house rent and chow my nett profit would be $6 a month.

Q.--Are you making more earnings now than you used to five years ago?

A.--I make more money than I did five years ago.

Q-Does your foki make the same amount as you do?

A. Yes.

Q.-Have you to contribute anything to any society every month?

A.-No.

Q-Not in the seventh moon? Don't you contribute to the festival? A.—We Hak-kas don't subscribe anything.

Q. Have you ever been anything except a chair coolie?

A. Before I became a chair coolie I was employed elsewhere.

Q. How many years have you been a chair coolie then? Q.-How

A.-Over twenty years.

Q. During that time you have not been a cargo coolie, nor a street coolie, nor a ricksha coolie?

A. I was with Captain Deane for a number of years.

Q.-Was that before you became a public chair coolie?

A. Yes. I was a private chair coolie to Captain Deane and several of the Ins- pectors, and after that I became a licensed chair coolie.

all?

Q.-Since you became a licensed chair coolie have you been in private employ at

A. No.

Q. Do you know any of your friends who have been in private employ as chair coolies? I mean those of your friends who are public chair coolies now?

A. No. I don't know of any.

Mr. Badeley.-What is the number of

A. No. 53.

your chair?

Q.-Does it belong to you or do you hire it?

A.-My foki and I bought it. It is our own chair.

LAU TSZ declared:-

The Chairman.—What are you?

A.

A public chair coolie.

Q. -What number?

A. No. 16.

Q. How long have you been a public chair coolie ?

A.-Seven or eight years.

+

Q.-Have you been anything else?

( 117 )

A. Yes, I have been a private chair coolie to His Excellency the Governor before.

Q-Before you became a public chair coolie, you were a chair coolie to His Ex- cellency the Governor. Which Governor ?

A.--I was employed as a chair coolie to the present Governor for one year and also as chair coolie to the previous Governor.

Q. How do you make out that? You have been a public chair coolie for seven years?

A.-Saving two or three years.

1

Q.-Have you been going back and forward from public to private and from pri- vate to public employ?

A.--I was in private employ but after that I took out a licence.

Q.-When you left the Governor what did you do?

A.-I was a chair coolie.

Q. What kind of a chair coolie?

A.-A public chair coolie.

Q. What did you do when you first came here?

A.-I was a private chair coolie to a taipan.

.—What made you leave private employ and go into public employ ?

A. I left private employ because I preferred to be a street coolie. Sometimes I wanted to get home and I could not get home.

Q. Are you making more money as a public coolie than as a private chair coolie ?

A.—I am making a little more money than I was making in private employ.

Q. What were your wages in private employ?

A.-Eight dollars a month.

Q.-And what do you make now nett?

A. I clear six to eight dollars a month nett.

Q.-What do you pay for food ?

A. Sometimes if I want more food I have to pay more.

Q. What do you pay a month as a rule?

A.-Six to seven dollars.

Q. How much do you pay for rent?

A. From eighty cents to a dollar. It all depends upon the number of coolies lodging in the house.

Q. How much did you pay for rent when you first became a public chair coolie ?: A.-Thirty to forty cents a month.

Q.-And what did you pay a month for food when you first became a public chair coolie ?

A. From four to five dollars.

-Do you pay a subscription to any society?

A.-No.

( 118 )

Q. Do you own the chair which you bear?

A. Yes, I bought it.

Q. What did you pay for it?

A.-Nine dollars and-a-half.

Q. Did you pay anything as goodwill to the man whom you succeeded ?

A.-Well, I only paid for the old chair $4.50, but I did not pay anything for the goodwill. I got my licence.

Q.-Do you always occupy the same rank ?

A. Yes. I am always at the same stand.

Q-Is there an arrangement amongst the coolies that certain coolies stand at cer- tain ranks ?

A. Well, I always stop at the same stand.

Q-Does anybody ever try to turn you away from it?

A.--No.

Q. When do you begin to work each day?

A. After five o'clock in the morning.

Q. When do you stop work? ....

A. From three to four o'clock.

Q. Do you go on again after that?

A.-No.

Q-Who takes your chair then? Do yot take it right off the street or does any body else use it?

A.-Nobody.

-Why did you come to Hongkong? Why did you not stay in the country?

A.-There was very little land for me to cultivate and I could not make my living, so I came here to make my living.

Mr. Wilcox.-Does another chair go on to your stand in the evening when your chair comes off?

A. Yes. There are a great number of chairs there, and directly one leaves another takes its place.

Q.-What did you leave Sir William Robinson's employ for?

A.-I was not strong enough.

The Chairman. He had eight coolies?

A. The Stewards at Government House were most troublesome men and me a lot of work to do.

gave

Mr. Wilcox. You say you were a chair coolie to Sir William Robinson and to the present Governor for a year. Did you enter Sir Henry Blake's employment after leaving Sir William Robinson's ?

A. No. I continued in service.

Q.-You left because you had too much work to do?

A. Yes.

·

( 119 )

The Chairman. Which is the harder work, carrying a public or carrying a private chair?

A.-Carrying a street chair is harder work, no doubt, but I get more money.

Q. Have you been anything else except a public and private chair coolie since you came to the Colony?

A.-No.

Mr. Badeley. Are some stands better than others?

A. Yes.

Q.-Which are the best stands ?

A.-Lyndhurst Terrace and the Clock Tower.

Q. Are you at one of these?

A.-I am at the end of Peel Street, near Staunton Street.

Q. -How is it determined among the coolies which stand a man shall frequent?

A. Because the coolies who have been frequenting the Clock Tower stand say they would not allow outsiders to come in.

Q. And I suppose you would not allow outsiders to come to yours?

A.-I don't mean to say I would not allow them. While I was there, they would not come in, but directly I retire they come in.

Q. If you wanted to get a better place in some of the stands, could you do it by paying some money to the men established there?

A.-Well, I don't think they would accept it. I can only afford to pay one, I can't

pay the whole lot. There are a great number of chair coolies there and I would have to pay the whole lot.

LI KWAI declared:-

The Chairman.-What are you ?

A.-I am a ricksha coolie.

Q.-What number?

A. No. 287.

Mr. Badeley. Do you mean that that is the number of your ricksha or your own number?

A.--The number of the ricksha.

Q. How long have you been a ricksha puller ?

A.-A little over a year.

Q. When did you come to Hongkong first?

A.-Two years ago.

Q. What did you do when you first came here ?

A.-I was a street coolie over at Kowloon side.

Q.-At the Godowns?

A. Yes.

I

( 120 )

Q.

Why did

you leave the Godowns ?

A.-I was not strong enough to carry the goods, so I became a ricksha coolie.

Q. How much do you make per month nett ?

A.-I make from five to six dollars nett.

Q.

-What do you pay for rent?

A. A dollar a month.

Q. What do you pay for food?

A. Three to four dollars-a little more than four dollars a month for food.

Q.-Have you ever been a private chair or ricksha coolie ?

A.-No.

Q. Do you belong to any particular ricksha rank? A.—Well, I can go from one stand to another.

Q.-You are not on any fixed stand?

A.-I don't belong to any particular stand, but I go about here and there.

Q.-May ricksha coolies frequent any stand they like?

A.

doing that.

Yes, I can stop at one stand and then go to another. I find no trouble in

Q.-You are not excluded from any given stand by other coolies?

A.-They don't object.

Q. Why did you come to Hongkong?

A.

-I had nothing to do at home. We are poor and that is the reason why I came to Hongkong.

Q.-You make more money in Hongkong than you did in the country?

A. Well, I earn something but not enough.

Q.-You earn more here than you do in the country, don't you ?

A.-Well, there was no work at all to do in the country and seeing that my parents were getting old I came over to this place to get a living and support them.

Q.--How much of the money that you clear every month do you send home?

A.

Sometimes three, four and five dollars.

Q. When you send five dollars, how much does that mean that you have cleared in a month ?

A.-Well, say six dollars or a little more.

Q. Do you subscribe to any association at any time of the year?

A. No.

Q.-Had you to pay a

goodwill for that ricksha you are running?

A.-No. I did not pay anything at all for the goodwill, but I have to deposit some money with the owner.

Q.-Does your foki make the same amount as you do?

A-I have no foki.

( 121

Q.

Are there two pullers to your ricksha?

A. Yes.

Q.-Well, don't know the other man ?

you

A.-Well, he is my foki, a new foki.

Q.-Does he make as much a month as you do?

A. I know nothing about his income.

Q. When do you go to work?

A.-Seven o'clock or a little past seven in the morning and then I cease to pull between three and four in the afternoon.

Q.-And then does the other man come on?

A. Yes.

Q.-Till when?

A.-I don't know at what time he stops.

Q. Do you ever go on night duty yourself?

A. Only daytime-no night work.

Mr. Wilcox.-Do you know whether many other ricksha coolies send money home? A.-Well, I know nothing about them.

Mr. Badeley. Where did you come from?

A.-Swatow.

Q. Did you come by yourself of your own accord, or did you come under contract? A.—I came down here of my own accord to make a living.

Q.- -Did any others come at the same time?

A.-A good many.

Q.-What made you come down? Who persuaded you? Who arranged it for you?

A. It is quite natural that, without any arrangement, one can come down here seeing their people are starving to death and in need of support. I came down here to make my living.

Q. Did you not come through the agency of the Godown head coolie ?

A.-No. I came down here and went over to Kowloon where my uncle was. He was No. 2 at the Godown and he found a job for me and then he went home.

Q.-Did he afterwards get you a job as a public ricksha coolie ?

A.-No. I got the licence myself without any help from him.

Q.-You did not have to pay anybody for it?

A.-Nothing except a sum of money as a deposit for the ricksha.

Mr. Wilcox.-Was your passage paid from Swatow?

A. Yes.

Q.-By whom was your passage paid?

A. My parents provided me with a passage to come down.

( 122 )

YAN PING HUP declared:-

The Chairman.-What are you?

A.-I am a ricksha coolie.

Q.-Your number?

A. No. 252.

Q. Is that your ricksha number?

A. Yes.

Q. How long have you been in Hongkong?

A.—I only arrived in the seventh moon of this year. I had been in Hongkong some time in the first moon, but the water and climate did not suit me, so I had to go home. I came back again in the seventh moon.

Q. What were you when you first came ?

A.-Well, I came down here with a view to getting employment as a ricksha coolie, but my health would not permit me to remain, so had to go back.

Q. Did you get employment?

A.-I got no employment.

-What do

you pay for your food per month?

A.-Why do you want to know that?

Q.

-How much do you pay for your food each month?

A.-Five or six dollars.

Q. And how much rent do you pay each month?

A. A dollar a month.

Q. What are your gross takings a month?

A.-Well, not very much-twelve or thirteen dollars a month.

Q.-Is that gross or nett?

Mr. Badeley.-Does that include what you pay for the hire of your ricksha, because you pay 32 cents a day for that I suppose ?

A.-I pay 200 cash a day for the use of the ricksha.

The Chairman.-What do you find yourself left with at the end of the month when

you have paid everything?

A. Seven or eight dollars after paying the house rent, chow, and hire of the ricksha.

Q.

Do you pay anything in the way of subscription to any society?

A. No. I am a newcomer. I am not a member of any society.

Q. Do you make more money out of your short distance runs than you do out of your long distance runs ?

A.—I do.

That is to say, if I come across a generous master he pays me more.

Q.-When you take Chinese, do they bargain with you ?

A. Yes, some of them do make a bargain, but some don't.

Q.-Suppose the ordinary fare is five cents, what will a Chinese bargain with you to carry him for ?

¡

Į

( 123 )

A. I will give you an instance. A Chinaman engaged my ricksha from Wanchai to Taihang. When I got there he gave me five cents.

gave me five cents. I said "Give me a little more " and he gave me a little more.

-What is the proper fare?

A. Ten cents.

Mr. Badeley. How did you manage to get your licence, did you have to pay any- thing to anybody for it?

A. I paid a man thirty dollars as tea money to get the licence for me. He has gone home to the country.

Mr. Wilcox.-Do all ricksha coolies have to pay this tea money when they take up a ricksha?

A. Yes.

Q.-As much as that, or sometimes more?

A.-Perhaps some more, and perhaps some less.

Q.-Do you send money home to your relatives?

A. Yes. I send every now and then some money to support my family, but I save very little.

Q.-You have a family at home?

A. Yes.

Q. Why don't you bring your family here?

A.-I can't afford it because house rent is very dear and I just make enough to support myself.

Q-And your family on the mainland ?

A. Yes. House rent is very dear. You have to pay from twenty to thirty dollars a floor.

The Chairman.-Why did you come to Hongkong?

A.-On account of poverty. There was nothing for me to do at home, so I came down here to pull a ricksha and earn my living.

Q. Are there lots of people in your parts who have nothing to do?

A. Yes, there are some very poor people.

LI KWAI re-called:-

The Chairman.-Do short distance journeys pay you better than long distance runs ? A.--It depends upon the ricksha hirer. If he thinks I am a hardworking man,

then he pays more usually. As a fact short runs make more money.

runs.

for?

Q.- -Do the major portion of your earnings come out of your short runs?

A. Yes. Sometimes we have to go a long distance, but the majority are short

Q.-Do Chinese bargain with you to carry them?

A.-Some of them do.

-If it would ordinarily be a five-cent fare, what would they bargain with you

A.-Some of them say, for instance, when the fare is five cents, they bargain with you for three or four cents, but when you demand the full fare, they pay.

( 124 )

Q. Do they bargain with you

beforehand?

A. Yes, they bargain with me beforehand, but I always keep myself to the proper fare.

Q.-Suppose you pulled a Chinese from the Fire Brigade Station as far as Arsenal Street, how much would he pay you for that?

A.-Well, say sixty cash, but I generally demand seventy. Of course, I must have a little margin, and if they offer me sixty cash I take it.

Q.-But that is more than the legal fare?

A. Sometimes I accept fifty cash.

Q.-That is five cents. That is the legal fare, isn't it?

A.-I can't force a man to pay. I say I want so much, he offers so much, and I accept it.

Q.—But the question is, don't you get Chinese who offer you less than fifty cash for the journey and you take it?

A. Yes, I sometimes accept less than five cents.

Q.-Don't non-Chinese very often pay you more than the legal fare?

A. Sometimes they pay more than the proper fare.

-Can you tell us which class of non-Chinese pay you more than the proper fare? Is it soldiers, sailors and visitors?

A.-Well, sometimes. On one occasion, I happened to take a sailor down to Arsenal Street to what is called "Blue Buildings." I thought he was to give me a good fare, but it turned out that he had not a cent in his pockets and I had to let him go for nothing. Sometimes soldiers pay me more and sometimes less, but I accept it.

You mean to say that you accept less than the legal fare?

Q.-You

A. Yes.

Mr. Badeley. Do you know whether there are many coolies plying unlicensed rickshas for public hire?

A.-I don't know.

Q.-You have never seen such rickshas?

A.-I have never seen any.

LAU TSIN declared:-

The Chairman.-What are you ?

A. I am a newcomer and a chair coolie.

Q. When did you arrive?

A. I have only been here about a month.

Q.-Had you been here before ?

A. I had not been here before.

Q. During the month you have been here, how much money have you made? A.-I have only made about three or four dollars nett.

[The examination of this witness was not proceeded with as he had not been long enough in the Colony.]

4

1

( 125 )

YAU A TIN declared:-

kong.

The Chairman.-What are you?

A.-I am a chair coolie.

-How long have you been in Hongkong?

A.-Over ten years.

Q. -What is the number of your chair?

A. It is No. 53.

Q.-Have you been a chair coolie all the time you have been in Hongkong?

A.--Yes.

Q. Do you mean a public chair coolie ?

A. Yes.

your rent?

Q.-Have you never been anything else? A. I have only been a street chair coolie.

Q. How much do you pay a month for

A.-Six hundred cash (about sixty cents) a month. Q.-Five years ago how much did you pay? A.-Thirty cents.

Q.--What

What do you pay now per month for your food ?

A.-A little over six dollars.

Q.-Five years ago how much did you pay?

A.—It was cheap then. It cost me a little over four dollars.

Q. What do you earn nett per month?

A.-Five dollars.

Q. —Do you now earn nett more per month than you did five years ago?

A. I made more money five years ago.

Q. How do you explain that?

A.--Well, I had more business five years ago, but now business has diminished. Q. Why is business dull?

A.-Because people are getting poor and they can't afford to take a chair.

Q.-Have you been on the same stand the whole time you have been in Hong-

A. Yes.

-Have you not changed your stand all these years?

A.-Only from one side of the street to the other.

Q.-Where is your street?

A. At the Central Police Station, top of Pottinger Street.

Q. Did you pay anything for your chair ?

A. Yes.

Q.-How much?

A.--My fuki and I paid eight dollars for it when it was new.

( 126 )

--Did you pay anything for the goodwill?

A. I only have to pay fees half-yearly and I pay nothing for the goodwill.

Q. Do you carry Chinese at all?

A. Both Chinese and Europeans?

Q.-Do Chinese bargain with you?

A. Yes.

Q.-Is the bargain money less than the legal fare as'a rule?

A.-Those who don't bargain pay more than the proper fare, but those who do bargain usually pay the proper fare.

Q.-In your experience, do non-Chinese pay you less than ten cents, if ten cents is the proper fare?

A.-Good gentlemen always pay me the proper fare.

Q.

-Do non-Chinese always pay the proper fare?

A. Yes.

Q.-Do Chinese pay you less than ten cents?

A. They always bargain first. Suppose they offer me five cents, I say "Go away, I won't carry you."

Q.-But supposing the fare is ten cents, do they always bargain with you for less?

A. The majority of them do, but I reject them.

Q.-But they do so all the same? They will offer you five or six cents, when you. could require ten cents?

A. Yes. Sometimes I accept less than the proper fare, but I generally call at- tention to the fact that the Government scale is so much.

Q. Why did you come to Hongkong?

A. I had nothing to do at home so I came to Hongkong.

Q-Do you pay any subscription to any society or association ?

A.-No.

Q.-Do you know of any public chair bearers that have become private chair bearers?

A.-Yes, some of my friends have done that.

Q.-Do you know of any private chair coolies who have become public chair coolies?

A. Yes.

Q.-Do you know of any chair coolies who have become cargo coolies?

A. Yes.

Q. Why have they left the chair business?

A.-Feeble, old men when they are not able to carry a chair, become cargo coolies. Mr. Wilcox.-Have you a family in China?

A. Yes.

Q.-Do you send money home?

A. Yes.

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Q-How much?

A. A dollar or so.

Q. Do you live in a coolie house?

A. Yes.

Q.-Do any private coolies live there?

A. Yes.

Q.--Do the private coolies pay so much a month to the lodging-house keeper?

A. Yes. They pay less.

Q.-How much do they pay?

A. If a public chair coolie pays sixty cents a month, the private coolie pays that is to say, he pays thirty cents.

half;

Q.-That is in the case of chair coolies who do not live there always. They are there only on certain nights. Is that it?

A. Yes, they only sleep there now and then.

Q.-That is a monthly subscription then to the lodging-house?

A-Yes.

Mr. Badeley. Do you know whether private chair coolies sometimes borrow public chairs and ply them for hire?

A. No. Private chair coolies are not allowed to do that.

Q.-But do you know whether they do it as a matter of fact?

A.-No.

The Chairman. Do you know whether any private coolies, whilst they still are private coolies, are in possession of licences as public coolies and leave their master's ser- vice at a given hour of the day to make up their earnings by bearing a public chair or pulling a public ricksha?

A.-I don't know of any.

[This concluded the sitting and the Commission adjourned sine die.]

LEO. D'ALMADA E CASTRO,

Secretary.

( 128 )

APPENDIX C.

PRIVATE CHAIR AND RICKSHA COOLIES COMMISSION.

As the Commission investigating the question of private chair and ricksha coolies cannot examine vivâ voce more than a limited number of witnesses, the Commissioners will be glad to receive, within three days, signed communications addressed: "Secretary, Commission, Supreme Court" containing answers to the following questions :-

Questions.

Answers.

1.-Have you had difficulty in procuring

1.-

private chair and/or ricksha coolies?

2. Have you had difficulty in retaining

2.-

private chair and/or ricksha coolies?

3. What are the causes of the difficulty

in 1 and 2 ?

3.-

4.-

years

5.-

4.-What wages are you paying now?

5.-What wages did you pay five ago?

6.-Are you in favour of making persons who engage unlicensed or unre- gistered private chair and ricksha coolies liable to a fine in the Police Court, if any system of licensing or registration is introduced?

6.-

Signature

Residence

APPENDIX D.

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS Nos. 1, 2 AND 6 IN APPENDIX C.

CHAIR COOLIES.

Yes.

No.

89.

Yes.

CHAIR COOLies.

Question 1.

RICKSHA Coolies.

Yes.

No.

29.

778.

22.

Question 2.

RICKSHA COOLIES.

No.

Yes.

No.

95.

21.

78.

19.

Yes.

78.

( 129 )

Question 6.

No.

24.

Yes: Conditionally.

26.

N.B.-The replies to Questions 4 and 5 shew that monthly wages paid five years ago ranged from $6 to $8.50 according to circumstances, and that present wages range from $8 to $12 according to circumstances.

APPENDIX E.

Selection of Answers to Questions in Appendix C.

G. C. ANDERSON, "Eilandonan," Mount Kellet.

1. No difficulty in procuring chair coolies for the Peak. Great difficulty in procuring ricksha coolies in Town.

2. Yes, with ricksha coolies, not with chair coolies.

3. The ricksha coolies were frequently absent when wanted, and, when spoken' to, they always demanded more pay; in consequence of this I discarded my private ricksha and now use the public ricksha.

4. For chair coolies at the Peak I pay $9.00 per month.

5.-$7.50 for chair coolies. $7.00 for ricksha coolies.

6.-Yes, anything to remedy the existing state of affairs. I would favour recog- nizing and regulating the Guilds, like Trades Unions in England.

THOS. ARNOLD, 4, Albany.

1.-Yes.

2.-Yes.

3.--(1.) Coolies said that they could make more money as street chair coolies.

(2.) Obiected to do any work in addition to that of carrying the chair which only occupied th..n about an hour each day.

Found them more bother than they were worth, so gave up employing them a year ago.

4.—At that time was paying $8.50 to $9.00 per month per man.

5.-$7.00 per month per man.

6.--Certainly not.

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FRANK COLLINS, "Dunford," The Peak.

1.-Yes.

2.-Yes.

3.-In June last, the coolies wanted an increase of $2.00 per month each. I refused, they left. Other coolies applied for the job, but all wanted $10.00 or $11.00 per month each, which I would not give.

each.

I engaged at beginning of this month (September) 2 coolies at $9.00 per month

4.-$9.00 per month.

5.-$7.00 per month.

6.-Yes. All servants should be registered.

WM. A. CRUICKSHANK, "Redhill," The Peak.

1.-Chair coolies-Yes.

2.-Chair coolies—Yes.

3.-Refusal of coolies to do anything but carry a chair. Last summer two chair coolies left because they were asked to carry up a box of claret to the Peak for our Mess, and for over a month I was "tabooed."

Jardine, Matheson & Co.'s Compradore was powerless to get two new coolies, not- withstanding his influential position.

The Compradore of Sugar Refinery obtained two when asked to do so, and the men came, agreed on wages, &c., and within two hours were intimidated and driven away.

4.-$8.00 per coolie. (Very easy situation, to and from tram.)

5.-$7.00.

6.--Certainly not, for the reason I do not believe the Government will succeed in making private servants register.

WM. DANBY, 5, Queen's Gardens.

1.-Yes.

2.-Yes.

3. Combination among chair coolies, especially among those in the neighbourhood of Queen's Gardens. On several occasious the whole district has been boycotted owing presume to the refusal of a resident to pay the increased wages demanded by the coolies.

I

4.-$9.50 and $8.50.

5.-$7.00.

6.-Yes.

W. CLEMENT DREW, 1 Canton Villas, Kowloon.

1.-Yes.

2.-Yes.

-

3. The coolies obtainable at Kowloon are practically no use whatever; in addition to this they are very insolent, especially to ladies, and the least complaint brings the

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reply that if you do not like it you had better get another man. Unless very stringent measures are taken, it will soon be impossible to obtain a private chair or ricksha coolie.

4.-Cannot get one under $9 a month.

5.-Seven dollars.

6. Certainly, unless this is done there might just as well be no registration at all, as the majority will not take the trouble unless they are compelled.

JAMES M. FORBES, China Sugar Refinery Co., East Point.

1.-Yes.

2.-Yes.

3. Outside ricksha labour more remunerative ever since the occupation of the Philippines by America.

4.-$9 per month.

5.-$7.50.

6. Most certainly.

A. FUCKEERA, Army and Navy Contractor, 20, Yee Wo Street.

1.-Yes.

2.-Not very much.

3.-(1.) Owing to house rent being very high, and the prevalence of plague, very few disengaged coolies remain in the Colony to look for employment. (2.) A strong, able-bodied coolie considers he can make more money by running a private ricksha on his own account, and hire himself and ricksha out to visitors, or Captains of merchant ships.

4.-Ten dollars.

5.-Eight dollars.

6.—No, necessities compel employers to engage the first coolie he can get, whether the man is licensed or otherwise.

R. MACLEAN GIBSON, London Mission House.

1.--Yes, chair coolies.

2. Yes, chair coolies.

3.-(1.) They demand more wages than I can give. (2.). I find that they are be- coming very insolent and even very reasonable demands are demurred at, with the result that I have often to dismiss them.

4.-Eight dollars per month.

5. Two years ago paid seven dollars per month. (Only came to Colony three and a half years ago.)

6.--Yes. (If registration is to be of any use there must be uniform action on part of employers of chair coolies or ricksha coolies.)

13

( 132 )

C. L. GORHAM, Barker Road.

1. Yes, sometimes.

2.--Occasionally.

3. Have had no difficulty with the office coolies, but at my house: 1st--they want to dictate terms; 2nd-they are very cheeky and lazy. D'ont want to do any- thing but carry the chair and pull the ricksha, and very little of that. When they are told to go to the East they send to the West.

4.--$9 per month.

5.--$7 per month.

6.---I am in favour of registering all servants-boys and cooks especially. If a comprehensive scheme of registration is adopted, I would be in favour of enforcing a fine against those who employ unregistered servants; but I am decidedly opposed to it, if it is only a question of chair and ricksha coolies.

W. D. GRAHAM, "Burrington," The Peak.

1.-No.

2.-No.

3.-Not having experienced it I cannot say.

4.--$8.50 per coolie.

5.-$7.

6.-No.

As long as my work is done, I don't care what my coolies do with their spare time, and when I employ outside coolies, I do not ask where they come from.

CHARLOTTE P. HANCE, 7, Seymour Terrace.

1.-Great difficulty.

2. Yes, they leave without any notice, or excuse.

3.-(1.) If a coolie makes a complaint against his employer, the Guild prevents others from coming to seek employment. (2.) They seem to have made a stand for higher wages. (3.) Coolies seem scarce; also those carrying outside or licensed chairs make so much money, that they will not enter private service.

4-$9 each coolie.

5.-$6.50 each coolie.

6.-Yes.

:

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J. W. HARRIS, Kowloon Wharf & Godown Co.

1.-Yes.

2.-Yes.

3. In No. 1 is that they ask too high a price for wages. In No. 2 is that as soon as they get their first month's pay they want to leave without giving a month's notice as agreed when I engage them. They are cheeky and lazy and if you check them for not doing their work properly, they want to leave at once. I have been to Police Station on several occasions, and once a Sergeant of Police at No. 2 Station told my

( 133 )

wife that she could not charge our ricksha coolie because he was not reckoned as a

servant.

4.-Nine dollars per month.

5.Seven dollars per month.

6.-Yes.

G. MONTAGU HARSTON, Queen's Gardens.

1.-Yes, the utmost difficulty in procuring both chair and ricksha coolies.

2. Yes, especially at the beginning of the summer.

3.—(1.) A demand for higher wages. (2.) Higher wages and lighter work being obtainable elsewhere in the Colony.

4.-$9 per month.

5.-Three and a half years ago I paid $7.

6. Yes, strongly in favour of such a measure.

WILLIAM HARTIGAN, "Scarteen," MacDonnell Road.

1.-Yes, frequently during the last two years.

2. Yes, much difficulty lately.

3.-Wages, objections to doing house work, such as washing verandahs, &c., and complaints of hard work and various other petty reasons.

rudeness.

4.—$8.50 per month.

5.-$7.00 per month.

6.-Yes.

T. F. HOUGH, C/o. HUGHES & HOUGH.

1.-No.

}

In some cases dismissed for

2. No.

3. Some time ago I used to keep private chair coolies, but had trouble with them; since then I have always employed an outside licensed chair. I employ two private coolies for my jinricksha, which I have generally finished with by about 5 p.m., after which hour have seen my private coolies carrying outside licensed chairs; whether the coolies have licences or not I do not know.

4.-$8.00 per month.

5.-$7.00 per month.

6.-Yes.

F. HOWELL, 20, Morrison Hill Road.

1. Yes, ricksha coolies.

2.-Yes.

3.-Cannot say; ón receiving their pay, they state that they are going home, although I have seen several coolies that were formerly in my employ, running public rickshas. At times they have provided a substitute just from the country; when used

1

( 134 )

to running the ricksha, he would leave; these have been Chin Chew men. My present coolie is a Hakka man, and understands very little Cantonese.

4.-Nine Dollars per month.

5.-Seven Dollars per

month.

6.—Yes, not only coolies, but boys, cooks and other servants.

JOHN A. Jupp, "Ian Mor," Peak Road.

1.-Yes.

2.-Not lately.

3.- The question of wages was the principal difficulty: until I paid $9.00 a month to each coolie I was unable to procure any. A number of coolies left my employ com- plaining of too much work; they seemed to think that if they carried me to my office in the morning and brought me back at night it was all they ought to be expected to do.

4.-$9.00 a month.

5.-$7.00 to $7.50 a month.

6.-Yes.

H. KUSAKABE & Co., "Edenhall," Lower Richmond Road.

1.-Yes.

2.-Yes.

3.- (1.) There is no place to apply for coolies. (2.) We don't know, but generally our coolies will not stay long.

4-$8.00 for one chair coolie when chair is carried by two coolies. $8.00 for ricksha coolie when we employ two coolies for one ricksha, but if one coolie only for a ricksha we have to pay $10.00 for one coolie.

5.-We don't know.

6. We hope a system of licensing or registration is introduced, but we are not in favour of making persons liable to a fine, as we are not sure whether all the good coolies will register or not, and probably we can get honest coolies among those who have no licence.

D. R. Law, "Formosa," The Peak.

1.It is not an easy matter to secure reliable coolies.

2. Yes, they come and go as it pleases them.

3. The great demand and the restless spirit engendered thereby. When employ-- ment is easily procured and there is no incentive to behave and retain their situations, the coolies take offence at the smallest provocation (?) and leave first favourable opportunity, very often at much inconvenience to their employers. Were situations difficult to obtain this would disappear. The fact is demand is greater than the supply.

4.-$8.50

5.-$7.50.

( 135 ) .

6.—No, punish the coolie for not having a licence. If it is made obligatory for the coolies to obtain licences (at a small cost) before they can secure employment, they will very quickly fall into line if the Government keep a stiff front and refuse to listen to the many protests that are sure to follow legislation.

B. LAYTON, 1, Gough Hill, The Peak.

1.-Yes.

2.-Yes.

3.-Request for higher wages, or unjustifiable complaints of overwork-work done by chair coolies at l'eak in former times without demur. At Peak, coolies remained in same employ for years. Carry water from various wells for the supply of household; carry one down from Peak to Victoria in morning; up again in afternoon; carry me out to dinner and back from time to time; assist in house work when requested. To-day, carry to Tram, perhaps back; object to night work, refuse to assist in house

work and want Tram tickets!

4.- Chair coolies $8.50 per man. 5.-Chair coolies $7.50 per man.

6.-Yes.

R. K. LEIGH, 1, Hillside, The Peak.

1.-No.

2.-Yes.

Ricksha coolies $9.00 per man. Ricksha coolies $7.50 per man.

3.—In my opinion the difficulty is caused by the fact that during the Summer months the outside chair and ricksha coolies make more money than the private coolies, besides being their own masters. This causes them to be very independent and to leave on the slightest pretext. There is seldom any difficulty with coolies during the winter months.

4.-$8.00.

5.-$7.00.

6. Yes, if a proper system is enforced.

F. MAITLAND, "Nettlewood."

1.-Yes.

2.-Yes.

3.-Increase of wages.

4.-$9 per month.

5.-$7 per month.

6.-Yes.

T

GODFREY C. C. MASTER, 12, Queen's Road Central and No. 4, Morrison Hill.

1.-Yes.

2.-Yes.

3. I think the Coolie Guild. I can in connection with my own coolies give an instance as to how I think the Guild interfered with my private chair coolies.

4.-$9 per month and 25 cents for firewood.

A

!

¡!

.

5.-$7.50, no firewood.

( 136 )

6. Certainly, so long as equally good servants at the same rate of wages can be engaged from amongst registered coolies. Unless there is some restriction imposed against engaging unregistered coolies, many will not take any trouble in the matter.

K. W. MOUNSEY, No. 2 "Goolistan," Conduit Road.

1.--Private chair and ricksha coolies-wages are so absurdly high in comparison with the work required of them that I prefer to employ the outside men.

2.---- When I did employ private chair and ricksha coolies, it was impossible to retain them for any length of time.

3. Want of combination on the part of employers to keep wages within a reason- able figure, and a disinclination on the part of the Magistrates to convict coolies when charged before them on the ground that they are not domestic servants.

4.--None to private coolies, their wages are too high. $10 a month for an outside chair whenever I want it.

5.-$7 per month per coolie.

6. Certainly. It was on account of a series of reports which I made to Mr. May that he brought forward the registration scheme again the other day. See my letter to him about a year ago.

F. POWELL, Commodore, Commodore's Bungalow, The Peak.

1.--Yes.

2.--Yes.

3.- They ask for higher wages than I consider sufficient. Those I get are weakly and lazy, it takes four of them to carry me to my house when two outside chair coolies do it. They leave either without notice at all or on the most frivolous excuses, and expect to do little or no work.

4.--$8.50 a month.

Each coolie has a waterproof and a blanket.

5.--$7.50 a month and as above.

6.-Yes.

A. G. ROMANO, "Duart," Arbuthnot Road, No. 15.

1

1. Very difficult to obtain private chair coolies.

2. Yes, they constantly change and have new substitutes in their places.

3. No. 1 because they prefer to ply for hire their chairs or they ask high wages.

No. 2 because they find excuses to go home to leave their places for substitutes.

4.-Nine dollars each coolie per month.

5.-Seven dollars each coolie per month.

6.-Yes.

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( 137 )`'

GEO. J. B. SAYER, 2, Kimberly Villas, Kowloon.

1.-Yes.

2.-Yes.

3. The coolies obtainable at Kowloon are of an inferior class and are practically no good for the work; they are independent and cheeky, more especially to ladies, which makes it impossible to retain their services. I have had over ten years' experience and submit that some stringent measures should be taken to ensure a proper service.

4.-Not obtainable under nine dollars.

5.-Six to seven dollars.

6. Most decidedly.

E. H. SHARP, "Homestead," The Peak.

1.-No.

2.-No.

3.-I gather that there is a considerable shortness of chair and ricksha coolies in the colony. Those therefore in private employment probably choose the easiest places, and the ambitious go to outside work where they can make more money.

4.-$8 a month with $1 extra to the No. 1.

5.-$7.50 a month with $1 extra to the No. 1.

6. This does not seem feasible unless enough licensed or registered coolies can be assured to go round.

A. H. SKELTON, "Tarawera," Upper Richmond Road.

1. No, simply because I've had a really good No. 1 man who has saved me all trouble.

2.-No, for the reason given above.

3.-

4.—$8.50 (chair) 4, and find them in firewood.

5.- Did not have them then.

6.-Certainly, by all means, as that in my opinion is the only way to make the system work satisfactorily.

J. J. SPOONER, Opium Farm.

1.--Yes, great difficulty.

2. In retaining the original ones I engaged-Yes. I find that after a short time I am put off with substitutes.

3.--The principal cause in No. 1 is wages and refusal to do any house work, such as chopping firewood and washing floors and windows. The difficulty I find in retain- ing coolies is about the hours of work: mine come at 9 a.m. and finish from 6.30 to 7

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( 138 )

p.m.; I give them from an hour and a half to two hours in the middle of the day for tiffin. They contend that 7 p.m. is too late.

4.-$8.50 and the coolies do nothing but ricksha work.

5.-$8 and every Sunday the coolies scrubbed the floor, cleaned the windows, &c.; during the week they chopped firewood or did any odd jobs required about the house.

6.-Most certainly.

i

H. E. TOMKINS, "Treverbyn," The Peak.

1 and 2.-No.

4.-$8.50.

5.-$7.00.

6.-Unnecessary. Everyone would require their coolies to be registered if the system was introduced.

GEO. L. TOMLIN, "Cringleford," 45, Robinson Road.

1.-Yes.

2.-No.

3.-(1.) The extortionate rate of wages demanded by chair coolies. I keep four of them. (2.) No difficulty so far, for the simple reason that they have never been called upon to do anything extra since I have had them (7 weeks), but I feel they are masters of the situation and that they will strike the first time they are told to do something extra, for instance, take me out to dinner, &c.

4.-$9.50 but providing them with no quarters.

5.-$7.00 with quarters, $7.50 without quarters, and much stronger men too. 6. Certainly, provided a satisfactory system can be introduced.

T. H. WHITEHEAD, Manager, Chartered Bank of I. A. & China, "Charter House."

1.—Yes.

2.--Yes.

3.-The Manager's four chair coolies absconded on 31st May last without giving any notice and without any reason assigned. It was not possible to secure other coolies until end of July. They simply declined service, and public chair coolies were not always readily or easily obtainable.

4.—The head coolie $12 and three others $10 each per month.

5.-Head coolie $8.50 and three others $7.50 each per month.

6. Yes, if any thoroughly effective system of licensing or registration can be introduced.

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APPENDIX F.

J

A BILL

ENTITLED

An Ordinance to provide for the Registration of

Chair and Jinricksha Coolies in private employ.

WHEREAS it is expedient to provide for the Registration of Chair and Jiuricksha Coolies in private employ :

Be it enacted by the Governor of Hongkong, with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council thereof, as follows:-

1. This Ordinance may be cited as "The Private Coolie Ordinance, 1901.”

2. In this Ordinance, the word "coolie " means a Chinese employed by a non-Chinese as the bearer of a chair or the puller of a jinricksha.

The word "master coolie.

means a non-Chinese employing a

3. A Register of Coolies shall be kept at the Central Police Station, and shall be under the control of the Captain Superintendent of Police.

4.-(1.) Every person, who, at the commencement of this Ordinance, is employed as a coolie, shall, within thirty days next thereafter, attend at the Central Police Station and furnish the Captain Superintendent of Police with the following partienlars, to be entered in such Re- gister:-

(a.) Names.

(b.) Age.

(c.) Whether chair bearer or jinricksha puller or both. (d.) Name and address of master.

(e.) Native place.

(f) Such other particulars as the Captain Superintend-

ent of Police may require.

(2.) He shall also furnish two copies of his photograph, one to be inserted in the Register, the other to be attached to the Certificate of Registration.

5. Every person, who, after the commencement of this Ordinance, shall wish to engage himself as a coolie, shall attend at the Central Police Station and supply the par- ticulars and photographs mentioned or referred to in section

4.

6. Any person coming within the meaning of the pro- visions of sections 4 and 5, shall, after supplying the requisite particulars and photographs, receive from the Captain Superintendent of Police, a numbered Certificate of Registration in the form given in the Schedule hereto, or such other form as may, from time to time, be approved by the Governor-in-Council, provided always that it shall be competent for the Captain Superintendent of Police, in his discretion, to refuse such Certificate of Registration to any person.

7. The Certificate of Registration shall be issued gratis, and shall contain on the face thereof, the particulars, except (d.), required by section 4 to be entered in the Register. There shall be endorsed on such Certificate, the names and. addresses of all masters and the periods of service with each master, and there shall be a column for remarks by a Magistrate. Moreover, the face of the Certificate shall bear the Police Department seal of which a portion shall be impressed upon the photograph.

8. Every registered coolie shall, within thirty-six hours of every change of service, report the same at the Central Police Station, and produce his Certificate for the purpose of having the name and address of his new master endorsed thereon.

9. Every coolie, within three days of entering into service, shall deliver to his master his Certificate, which shall be kept by that master and shall be returned to the coolie upon his discharge from service.

(

140)

10. If the master shall lose, destroy, wilfully deface or refuse to deliver to the coolie upon discharge, the Certifi- cate delivered to him as aforesaid, it shall be lawful for the Captain Superintendent of Police, upon complaint by a coolie and after due inquiries as to the facts, to issue to such coolie a duplicate of such Certificate, and to recover at the Magistracy from the master so acting, a sum not exceeding Five Dollars on the issue of the duplicate: pro- vided also, that if any coolie shall lose his Certificate and shall satisfy the Captain Superintendent of Police that he has not improperly parted with it, it shall be lawful for the Captain Superintendent of Police to issue a fresh Certifi- cate to such coolic, whereupon, the previous Certificate shall be deemed to be cancelled, and any person found to be making any use whatsoever of the cancelled Certificate shall be liable to a fine not exceeding Fifty Dollars.

11. On the expiration of Thirty days after the coming into operation of this Ordinance, it shall not be lawful for a master to engage or employ, for any period exceeding forty-eight hours, any coolie who has not been registered under the provisions of this Ordinance, and has not pro- duced his Certificate of Registration to such master, and it shall not be lawful for any coolie who is not registered under the provisions of this Ordinance and does not pro- duce a Certificate of Registration at the time of seeking employment, to offer his services to any master or to enter into the employ of any master. Any master or coolie acting in contravention of this section, shall be liable to a fine not exceeding Twenty-five Dollars or, in default of payment, to imprisonment for a period not exceeding one month.

12. Where any agreement of service exists between a master and an unregistered coolie, such agreement, whether in writing or otherwise, shall not be enforceable in any Court of Law, either by the master or by the coolie.

13. In the absence of any contract to the contrary, every registered coolie shall, by his contract of service, be deemed to have contracted to perform such services as carrying notes, running errands, acting as tenuis coolie, and per- forming such other light duties inside and outside the house as he may be called upon by his master to perform.

14. In the absence of any contract to the contrary, the contract of service existing between master and coolic shall be deemed to be a contract of service for one calendar month at the least.

15. Every person employed as a registered coolie who shall neglect his duty, or absent himself from his duty without the leave of his master, or shall leave his master's service without giving one calendar month's notice to his master, or shall disobey any lawful or reasonable order of his master, or shall use any abusive or insulting language to his master, or shall behave abusively or insultingly to his master, or shall continue to speak in loud tones after having been once requested by his master to desist, shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding Fifty Dollars, or, in default of payment, to imprisonment, with or without hard labour, for a period not exceeding three months.

16. Coolies, whilst accompanying their master, or carry- ing their master's chair, or pulling their master's jiuricksha, shall observe absolute silence, and no coolie shall at any time or under any circumstances shout or bawl to other persons. Any person infringing the provisious of this section shall be liable to a fine not exceeding Ten Dollars or to imprisonment, with or without hard labour, for a period not exceeding fourteen days.

For the purposes of this section aud section 15 the word "master" shall include every non-Chinese adult relative or guest living or being on the premises of such master.

17. Every coolie is prohibited from taking out a licence to ply any public vehicle.

18. Every coolie, whether registered or unregistered, con- victed of an offence against this Ordinance for which no special penalty is provided, shall be liable to a fine not exceeding Fifty Dollars or to imprisonment, with or without hard labour, for a period not exceeding three months.

19. Every registered coolie more than once convicted of an offence against this Ordinance, shall forfeit his Cer- tificate of Registration, and shall not again be registered as a coolie, and no uuregistered coolie convicted of an offence against this Ordinance shall be registered under this Ordi-

nance.

( 141 )

SCHEDULE.

CERTIFICATE OF REGISTRATION.

No.

This is to certify that

whose photograph is hereunto annexed, has been duly registered a a Coolie under the provisions of "The Private Coolie Ordinan ce 1901."

PHOTOGRAPII.

Seal of the

Police

Department.

A. B.,

Captain Superintendent of Police.

Date

Particulars required by Section 4 of the above named

Ordinance.

Names.

Age.

Whether Chair Bearer or Jinricksha Puller

Native Place.

or both.

(Back of Certificate.)

Masters.

Period of Service of Coolie.

Remarks by Magistrate.

Name. Address. From To

( 142 )

APPENDIX G.

Minute by the Honourable the Captain Superintendent of Police, in C.S.O. 2804/1900.

Honourable COLONIAL SECRETARY,

The difficulties that European residents are finding with their Chinese servants, especially chair and ricksha coolies, have become more accentuated than ever during the last five months.

I have had appeals for help in getting chair and ricksha coolies from a number of residents during that period including the following:-Mr. J. Hastings, Mr. J. F. Reece, Mr. J. S. Harston, Mr. Gumpert, Commodore Powell, His Excellency Major- General Gascoigne, the Colonial Secretary, Mrs. Hance and various others whose names I cannot call to mind. I have also assisted by engaging coolies for Government House.

I have been making some enquiries into the causes of the difficulty, and I find that they are as follows:-

(a.) Want of control.-I can get coolies for people, because I have means of getting at a headman of licensed coolies who has influence with, and knows where to look for, coolies. A private individual's house boy or No. 1 chair coolie, either will not or cannot find inen in a market where labour is undoubtedly scarce.

(b.) Want of house accommodation for coolies out of and waiting for employ.

-This limits the supply.

(c.) The dearness of rent and of living generally.-This also limits the supply, for coolies can't afford to come down from the country seeking employ- ment, unless they are assured beforehand that they have some house to go to live in and are possessed of what is, to them, not inconsi- derable sum of ready money.

Thus in 1898 it cost a chair coolie $3.75 a month to live in a coolie house for chair coolies. They all live in these houses while looking for and when out of work, and, even when employed, frequent these houses to see their countrymen, and in many cases to sleep at night.

This sum was made up as follows, and I have set against the items the cost for the same accommodation and food at the present time :-

· 1898.

1901.

Rent

Rice

.$0.25

$1.00

1.20

1.60

Provisions

1.50

1.50

Firewood and Oil Shaving

... 0.60

0.90

0.20

0.20

$3.75

$5.20

I find that the large local employers of labour have had to raise the rate of wages of their Chinese employees during the last few months, and that the rise is not altogether attributable to Plague.

I am not at liberty to state the figures, which were supplied to me confidentially. To remedy this unsatisfactory state of things I have to recommend as follows:-

(a.) that Government build a number of houses on Mr. Chathain's model-

dwellings model in Taipingshan or other convenient locality;

?

( 143 )

(b.) and rent them to a headman of coolies at a moderate rental which will, at

the same time, give Government a fair return for its money. Thẻ! headman mentions a rental of 50 cents per head of coolie accommodated; in the house, or $10 a floor capable of accommodating 20,coolies, as what he considers a reasonable rental

(c.) the rate of wages for the coolies supplied by the headman to be $9 a

month for Peak or Lower Levels;

(d.) licensing and registration of all the coolies supplied by the headman in

the same manner as coolies for public vehicles and chairs are licensed;

(e.) enactment making it penal to employ an unlicensed coolie.

If Government is not prepared to build the coolie houses, the headman will build them himself, if he can come to reasonable terms with Government as to cost of site, etc. But in the event of his building, he must charge $10 a month per coolie.

In my opinion it would, for many reasons, be better for Government to build.

I think something ought to be done. It is no part of the duties of the Captain Superintendent of Police to engage coolies for residents, and applications are now made so frequently that I shall soon have to decline my good offices. The service involves time and worry.

F. H. MAY, 2/8/01.

P.S.-I advise that if licensing is decided on, as I hope it will be, the coolies be tackled first. When they have been dealt with, in-door servants can, if desired, be wheeled into line.

APPENDIX H.

F. H. M.

Letter from the Honourable the Captain Superintendent of Police.

DAMPFER "PRINZESS IRENE,'

7th September, 1901.

""

SIR,

I would like to add to the evidence I gave before you on the 3rd instant, the following remarks in view of possible objections to putting a monopoly of supplying private chair and jinricksha coolies into the hands of one or more persons.

The licensing of these coolies would, in itself, give large and much needed control over them, and if it were adopted, it would probably be found that the coolies, like those for licensed public vehicles, would get licensed through headmen of their own.

Coolies of this class who come to the Colony to look for work are strangers to the place, and rarely have any money to keep them while looking for work. What would probably happen would be that they would ask the keeper of the lodging-house where their clansmen stop in the Colony and whither they would go on first arrival, probably under the guidance of some clansman who had been here before, or perhaps some head- man of licensed chair and jinricksha coolies, to put them in the way of getting licensed and to pay the necessary fee; and thus, in course of time, a set of headmen would spring up who would make a living cut of supplying the market with private licensed coolies, just as there are headmen who supply the Colony with its licensed coolies:

7

4

( 144 )

I would point to the example of the manner in which public chair coolies get licensed. Hardly any of them have even the small capital necessary to own and ply a chair of their own. They look to headmen to supply them with the chairs, their photographs and their licences. These headmen are the licensees of the chairs, and it is the same with the public jinrickshas.

The system which I sketched in my memorandum of the 2nd August would give a more complete control, but the next best thing to it is licensing without a monopoly of the supply of coolies.

To forestall a possible strike, some one or two of the present headmen of licensed coolies could be easily influenced by the Acting Captain Superintendent of Police to

· undertake to induce a number of the coolies who are in the Colony to submit to the licensing, or to bring into the Colony and get licensed number of coolies to take the place of the strikers.

Once the ice was broken, the licensing would go on smoothly, if a firm front were shown.

:

:

His Honour

Mr. Justice SERCOMBE SMITH,

Chairman of Commission to enquire

into licensing of private coolies.

APPENDIX I.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

F. H. MAY.

Chief Detective Inspector Hanson's Memo. to Mr. F. J. Badeley, Acting Captain Superintendent of Police.

CENTRAL STATION,

23rd September, 1901.

SIR,

I have the honour to submit the following details, the result of enquiries about the pay of chair and ricksha coolies in the private employ of Chinese residents :

(1.) The master of the "Hang Yuen" tailors' shop in Queen's Road Central pays for chair and/or ricksha coolies $10.00 each per month and lodges them.

(2.) Mr. Ho Fook, Compradore of Messrs. Jardine, Matheson & Co., pays four chair and/or ricksha coolies $9.00 each per month and lodges them. He supplies them with oil and firewood.

(3.) Mr. Fung Wa Chun has four coolies. Two old hands act as house- coolies in addition to being chair coolies and get free board and lodging and $9.00 each per month. The other two, newer hands, get $9.00 each per

month and free lodging but not board.

(4.) The Yan Wo Co. pays two coolies $6.50 each per month and free board

and lodging.

(5.) Mr. Li Tsz Ming, a rich man living at

a rich man living at "Greenmount," pays two coolies $6.00. each per month and provides free board and lodging.

:

( 145 )

(6.) The master of the "Nam Yai Lang" shop in Queen's Road Central pays

two coolies $6.00 each per month and gives free board and lodging. (7.) Dr. Lui Hin Tong, who has some practice amongst Portuguese also as well as Chinese, pays two chair coolies, who have to turn out on occa- sion at night also in addition to their day work, $14.00 each per month, but no board or lodging.

(8.) Dr. Lau Pun Shek, pays two coolies $7.50 each per month and board,

but no lodgings.

(9.) Dr. Chu Ng Cho pays two coolies $12.00 each per month but no board

or lodgings.

(10.) Hü Sun Chün, Compradore at the Government Civil Hospital, pays two

coolies $6.00 each per month and free board and lodgings.

With regard to the question of lowering the fares, I believe that, owing to the in- crease about to be made in the number of licensed rickshas, it is not advisable to deal with the matter in that way now. But I would suggest that the city from East to West be divided into sections and that a run over each section be charged for so much. They could be made one-cent rides.

As a matter of fact Chinese bargain with the coolie for a ride from one place to another for less than the legalized fare.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient. Servant,

F. J. BADELEY, Esq.,

Acting Captain Superintendent of Police,

&c., &c., &c.

APPENDIX J.

-

J. D. HANSON,

C.D.I.

SIR,

Mr. A. W. Brewin's Letter to the Secretary of the Commission.

REGISTRAR GENERAL'S OFFICE,

HONGKONG, 23rd Mny, 1901.

I shall be obliged if the Commissioners will permit me to add the following remarks as supplementary to the evidence which I gave this morning.

2. Practically there should be no difficulty in identifying coolies who have had their licences cancelled even without measurement. When everything is in working order the number of licences cancelled ought to be few and the men's photographs would be kept in a separate bor posted up in the licensing office.

3. One of the Commissioners mentioned chair coolies asking for ten or eleven dollars a month as wages. This is a little out of the way, but not much if for the Peak. A Chinese gentleman who has chair coolies told me two or three months ago that he paid eight and a half dollars a month, and that he did not think chair coolies could be obtained for less. This would make ten dollars a month for the Peak not so unreason-

able.

(146)

4. The last time I thought of engaging private chair coolies was some months ago. I offered eight and a half dollars. Two sets of men came to see about the place, but they made so many conditions and required so many particulars about the work that I gave up the idea of engaging them.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient servant,

THE SECRETARY

to the Chair and Jinricksha Coolies Commission.

APPENDIX K.

A. W. BREWIN.

SIR,

His Honour Mr. Justice Sercombe Smith to His Excellency the Governor.

31st August, 1901.

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of Your Excellency's Letter No. 172/G. of the 29th instant, inviting me to serve as Chairman of a Commission to in- quire into the question of the registration of private chair and jinricksha coolies in this Colony.

2. Whilst I gladly comply with Your Excellency's request, I beg to suggest that the scope of the inquiry should be extended to include all classes of Chinese servants and labourers in European employ.

3. The reasons for this suggestion are:--

(a.) That the in-door servant question is as acute as the out-door servant,

question.

(b.) That, with but little additional labour, the Commission could include

the in-door servant question within its inquiries.

(c.) That any legislation resulting from the inquiry and Report of the Com- mission and affecting only out-door servants may be resented by the out-door servants as being invidious.

4. If I recollect aright, the question of the registration of Chinese domestic ser- vants was recently referred to the Hongkong General Chamber of Commerce, the Committee of which reported adversely to the proposal.

5. With all respect for the reply of the Chamber of Commerce and the decision of the Governuent thereon, I would point out that the opinion of the Committee of that Chamber upon the question of how to control native servants, is hardly authoritative, and that, in all probability, the Members of that Committee were mostly exempt from the inconveniences which ordinary householders experience in respect of all classes of Chinese servants.

6. Under the Compradore system, heads of the firms of which the aforesaid Com- mittee is mainly composed, have an easy method of engaging and controlling native servants, which is not available to the average householder.

7. The Committee of the Chamber, moreover, forms a very small portion of the Community and its opinion on a matter involving no technical skill and outside the purposes of the Chamber, should, I submit, be no bar to an extension of the inquiry so as to embrace the question of the registration of all classes of Chinese servants-a ques- tion which affects and interests a large najority of the European Community, and especially the poorer classes of that Community.

1

:

>

( 147 )

8. May I also point out that any objections advanced by the Chamber against the registration of Chinese domestic servants must equally apply to the registration of purely out-door Chinese servants, and that if the objections are fatal and valid in one case, they must be fatal and valid in the other case.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your Excellency's most obedient Servant,

His Excellency

THE GOVERNOR.

APPENDIX L.

T. SERCOMBE SMITH.

His Excellency the Governor to His Honour Mr. Justice Sercombe Smith,

No. 174/c.

SIR,

GOVERMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 2nd September, 1901.

I have the honour to acknowledge with thanks your letter of the 31st ultimo sug- gesting that the scope of inquiry into the question of the registration of private chair and jinricksha coolies should be extended to include all classes of Chinese servants and labourers in European employ.

2. I have, however, to inform you in reply that I do not propose to extend the scope of the Commission as issued.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your Honour's most obedient Servant,

His Honour

Mr. JUSTICE SMITH.

HENRY A. BLAKE, Governor, &c.

SIR,

APPENDIX M.

Letter from Mr. Wilcox to Government.

HONGKONG, 30th August, 1901.

I beg to acknowledge receipt of your letter of yesterday's date inquiring whether I would be willing to serve on a Commission it is proposed by His Excellency the Governor to appoint for the purpose of inquiring into the question of private chair and jinricksha coolies in this Colony.

In reply, will you please inform His Excellency that I shall be happy to serve on such a Commission; but I beg respectfully to suggest that it is most desirable, in the interest of the general community, that the scope of the inquiry should be widened to embrace at any rate all domestic servants, if not outside coolies as well.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

R. CHATTERTON WILCOX.

Hon. J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, C.M.G.,

Colonial Secretary.

!

687

No. 36

1901

HONGKONG.

DEPOSITIONS TAKEN BY THE MAGISTRATE SITTING AS CORONER, AND FINDING IN THE ENQUIRY INTO THE DEATHS WHICH OCCURRED IN THE

COLLAPSED HOUSES IN COCHRANE STREET.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of

HONGKONG TO WIT.

His Excellency the Governor.

Inquiry No. 20 of 1901.

In charge of the Case-Inspector David Douglas Cuthbert.

Information of witnesses severally taken and acknowledged on behalf of Our Sovereign King EDWARD the Seventh at the house known as the Police Court in Victoria, in the said Colony, on the 30th day of August in the year of Our Lord One thousand nine hundred and one, before Francis Arthur Hazeland, Esq., Gentleman, Magistrate for the said Colony.

LIU Mur declared and examined:-

I am a married woman. I lived at No. 32, Cochrane Street, third floor. The house was a family house. The house had four storeys. There were different families occupying the different floors. On the 3rd floor there were 19 people. On the night of the 14th August, at 11 p.m., the house suddenly collapsed. My husband was in the same cubicle with me. My husband was killed. My mother and two daughters were also on the same floor. They were all killed. My husband's name was Leung Sang. He was head coolie at the Ordnance.

DAVID DOUGLAS CUTHBERT SWorn and examined :--

I am Inspector of Police. I was requested to make enquiries of those who were killed by the col- lapse of Nos. 32 and 34, Cochrane Street. Forty-three dead bodies were recovered from the ruins. I produce list of 41 persons who are missing from these two houses. There are also 3 whom I have not been able to ascertain the names of. Two of these three were visitors and the third was the husband of a woman living in the house. I am of opinion that all the 41 on this list were killed by the collapse.

GEORGE WATT sworn and examined:

I am Police Sergeant 11. On the night of the 14th instant at 11 p.m. I was in Queen's Road at the bottom of Cochrane Street. I heard noise of something falling. I ran up the street and found that No. 32 and No. 34, Cochrane Street had collapsed and also the verandah of No. 30 had also fallen. I went up to No. 30 to get the people out. While I was there, fire broke out in No. 32. A minute or two later the fire brigade arrived and extinguished the fire.

HO HEUNG CHI declared and examined :-

I am a draughtsman in Messrs. Palmer & Turner, Architects. On the night of the 14th August I was asleep at No. 32, Cochrane Street, second floor. In the second cubicle there was a friend of mine sleeping there. His name was Ho Sun. He was an apprentice. I was asleep and I heard a crash. Then the house collapsed.

PERCY THOMAS CRISP sworn and examined :--

I am Inspector of Buildings. On the 15th August at 9 a.m. I was called to the collapse of Nos 32 and 34, Cochrane Street. I examined the débris and found that all the floor joists were in a sound condi- tion. The brickwork of the top floor, which was added a year ago, seemed to be good work. I saw the red brick bonding and it was good. In my opinion the cause of the collapse was due to the faulty party wall of the old work. I found, from the part of the party wall remaining, it was quite hollow. I have no doubt this party wall was built hollow. The heavy rains soaking into the two layers of Shanghai tiles caused a very great weight to come on to the party wall, which split in two owing to its being hollow.

JOHN BELL Sworn and examined :—

I am Medical Officer in Charge of the Mortuary. I produce list of the bodies received at the mortuary on 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th and 22nd August, sent by the Police from the collapsed buildings at No. 32 and No. 34, Cochrane Street. I have also placed on the list the cause of death.

HUGH POLLOCK TOOKER Sworn and examined :—

I am Acting Assistant Director of Public Works. These two houses, Nos. 32 and 34, Cochrane Street, standing on Inland Lot No. 1 section A, were constructed, as far as we can ascertain, in the year 1878, and there appears to be no record in the office of any alteration or addition until the latter end of 1900, when plans were submitted under the Building Ordinance and notices given on prescribed form. One dated the 3rd November, 1900, is in respect of No. 32, Cochrane Street, and the other dated the 7th-

(2)

December, 1900, is in respect of 34, Cochrane Street. Both plans were prepared by Mr. E. M. HAZELAND, and the notice dated the 3rd November, 1900, describes the work as follows:-" To make additions and re-build cross wall, add verandah." The notice dated the 7th December describes the work as follows:— "Additions and re-building cross wall, &c." Both notices are signed by CuAN TSUN CHEUNG, as owner, and the addition spoken of consisted principally of another storey. They were originally 3-storied houses. These plans were scrutinized by myself, and found to be in accordance with the Building Ordinance, and were then forwarded to the Medical Officer of Health and were returned by him saying that he was satisfied they were in accordance with the Public Health Ordinance. This Ordinance (15 of 1894) provides for the height of houses in relation to the width of the street. This additional storey complied with that Ordinance. I visited the collapse on the morning of the 15th August and found that Nos. 32 and 34 had completely collapsed, and in No. 30 the front wall had fallen out, and the sites of Nos. 32 and 34 were covered with débris and also the street in front, and also the balcony of No. 31, which was of iron, was considerably damaged and a quantity of débris was on the verandah. I made a careful exami- nation of the remaining walls and of the débris. I found that the portion of party wall between 32 and 34 was badly constructed although the bricks of which it was composed were good. I mean by badly constructed that the wall was badly bonded and the heart of the wall was composed of small pieces of blue brick. The heart of the wall was hollow and was filled in with small pieces of brick. This could not be perceived except by an interior inspection of the wall. The party wall between Nos. 30 and 32 and between 34 and 36 were standing at that time and exposed to view, and it could be perceived that these walls were more or less of the same construction as the party wall between 32 and 34. After careful examination, I formed the conclusion that it would be impossible for anybody to say definitely what part of the building first collapsed. I further concluded that the mischief had been going on for some time and that the showery weather we had before the accident-hot one hour, and then a heavy shower -- would have caused considerable contraction and expansion of the material, and acting on these old walls would have considerably tended to the collapse. All the timber in the floor that I examined was sound and good and the top floor appeared to be supported on hard-wood joists. I believe, from the way the floors were lying, that the party wall between Nos. 32 and 34 was the first part of the building to col- lapse. The failure of this wall would have caused the floors to tumble down and the shock would have been quite sufficient to throw the front wall out. I attribute the accident generally to the bad state of the old brickwork of the whole building. The old Building Ordinance No. 8 of 1856 placed no res- triction on the use of blue bricks but it required that all walls should be solidly built.

ERNEST MANNING HAZELAND sworn and examined :-

I am Civil Engineer and Architect. Some time in November and December, 1900, I was asked by Mr. Chan Tsun Cheung to prepare plans for an additional floor with verandahs to houses 30, 32 and 34, Cochrane Street. I sent one of my assistants to measure the premises up. He reported the walls were sound and plumb and thick enough to add an additional storey in compliance with the Building Or- dinance and Public Health Ordinance. Plans were prepared and submitted to the Public Works Department for approval. These plans were approved by the Public Works Department and I gave the plans to the owner. I had nothing to do with carrying out the alterations and additions to these premises. I was not engaged to superintend the work. I was formerly Assistant Engineer in the Public Works Department. My principal duties while in the Public Works Department were to carry out the provisions of the Building Ordinance. If I had the least suspicion that these walls were unsound I would not have sent these plans to the Public Works Department.

HUGH POLLOCK TOOKER recalled:-

I would wish to bring to the notice of the Court that in all the cases coming before the Court of collapses, the plans were prepared by European Architects, but in each case, they said that they had no power to supervise the construction. I believe if the work had been under the supervision of a European Architect, as soon as the roof was pulled off, he would have seen the bad state of the walls and would have doubtless pointed out the necessity of re-building them. Section 76 sub-section 3 of the Building Ordinance gives the Director of Public Works or any officer deputed by him power to enter any house, building or tenement where he has reasonable grounds for believing that within any house, building or tenement there are works being completed or carried out in contravention of this Ordinance.

Adjourned to 2.15 p.m.

F. A. HAZELAND,

30th August, 1901, at 2.15 p.m.

Police Magistrate.

JOHN MITFORD ATKINSON sworn and examined :-

I am Principal Civil Medical Officer. I produce list of bodies received on the 14th and 15th August sent by the Police from the collapsed buildings at Nos. 32 and No. 34, Cochrane Street. I have also placed on the list the cause of death and the approximate age.

F. A. HAZELAND,

Police Magistrate.

(3)

LIST OF DECEASED PERSONS PUT IN BY INSPECTOR CUTHBERT.

No.

Names.

Age.

Sex.

Occupation.

Former Address.

I

Fung Ki,

63

2

Chaii Kim,

3

Chai Chi,

Wong Tat,

20

Chai Fong,

20

Chai Sau,

21

Leung Cheung,..

8

Chau Tak,....

9

A-Kap Tsai,

21

10

Wong Iu,

11

Cheng Su,

12

Visitor,

.about

13

Ho Siu,

14

Wong Chong,

15

Wong Leung,

16

Ho Tang Hip,

ོལྤ ོ ོ ོ ེ ེའལལ ུ བྱཱ ལ

M.

Blacksmith,

19

M.

""

17

M.

"

M.

19

M.

No. 32, Cochrane Street, ground and first

floors.

27

M.

""

23

M.

19

M.

M.

Fishmonger,

35

M.

"

15

M.

42

M.

Farmer,

Father of No. 11.

12

M.

Tailor,

40

M.

Coolie,

No. 32, Cochrane Street, second floor.

40

M.

Fishmonger,

32

F.

17

Ho Sing Tai,

F.

18

Ilo Ling,

F.

19

Kong Tak,

18

M.

20

Wong Su Man,...

30

F.

21

Leung Sum,

37

M.

Coolie,

Married woman,

Coolie,

22

Kwok Kam Chi,

58

F.

Widow,

23

Leung Woon,

10

F.

24

Leung Chap Ho,

1

F.

25

Pang Kaü,

25

M.

Coolie,

No. 32, Cochrane Street, third floor.

26

Pang Kan,

13

F.

27

Pang Nai,

9

F.

28

A-Kaü,

60

M.

Coolie,

29

A-Shü,

28

M.

30

A-Sze,

30

F.

31

Name unknown,

..about

30

M.

32

Chu Sham So,

25.

F.

Kept woman,

33

Lau So,

45 M.

Stallholder,

34

A-Chun,

25

F.

Married woman,

35

Visitor,

.about

40

F.

Unknown,

36

A-Shap,

50

F.

Widow,

37

A-Kum,

24

F.

Spinster,

38

Cheung Nui,

F.

39

Chan Kau,

15

M.

""

Married woman,

Coolie,

Husband of No. 30.

Central Market.

No. 34, Cochrane Street. First floor.

Needle woman.

99

No. 34, Cochrane Street, 2nd floor.

40

Chan Yit,

6

F.

11

Wong Chiu,

M.

Ship's Cook,

No. 34, Cochrane Street, 3rd floor.

LIST OF BODIES RECEIVED AT MORTUARY FROM COCHRANE STREET

DISASTER AND SEEN BY DR. BELL.

Sex.

Age.

Date.

50,

M.

40,

M..

17.8.01,

M..

32,

M..

18.8.01,

(M..

18,

30,

?

M..

50,

M..

15,

M..

15,

F.

L

F.

17,

?

M.

30,

F.

19.8.01,

40,

M.

45,

M.

M..

F.

M.

20.8.01.

M..

?

22.8.01,

Cause of Death.

Burns. Burns.

Suffocation.

....Injuries.

Multiple injuries.

99.

40,

40,

?

Total,......... 23 bodies.

Injuries.

..Injuries-very decomposed.

J. BELL.

Medical Officer in Charge of Mortuary.

(4)

LIST OF BODIES RECEIVED AT GOVERNMENT MORTUARY FROM COCHRANE STREET DISASTER AND SEEN BY DR. J. M. ATKINSON.

Dates received at Mortuary.

August, 14,.....

Sex.

Approximate Age.

Cause of Death.

F.

5

Multiple injuries.

M.

30

F.

40

""

Suffocation.

30

,,

"

14,.

14,

15,...

15,

15,.. 15,......

15,.

ད ི་

29

"

"

40

99

25

M.

40

15,..

15,

F.

13

30

2

25

8

*7

Multiple injuries.

??

Suffocation. Multiple injuries. Suffocation. Multiple injuries.

15,..

>>

""

29

19

"?

15,

15,..

15,

15,

15,. 15,.. 15,....

M.

20

35

Ι

29

2

"

50

19

M.

40

""

45

29

""

""

15,...

35

Total 20 bodies.

August 30th, 1901.

J. M. ATKINSON, Principal Civil Medical Officer.

THE CORONER'S ABOLITION ORDINANCE SUPPLEMENTAL ORDINANCE, 1889.

I hereby certify that on the 30th day of August, 1901, I held, under the provisions of Ordinance 17 of 1888, an enquiry as to the cause of 43 deaths in the City of Victoria in the Colony of Hongkong and that the following particulars were then disclosed :---

1. Name of Drceased.

1. Fung Ki,.....

2. Chau Kim.

B. Chau Chi

4. Wong Tat,

5. Chau Fong 6. Chau San, 7. Leung Cheung, 8. Chau Tak,

9. A Kap Tsai,

10. Wong Iu,

11. Cheng Su,

12. Visitor,

13. Ho Sin,

14. Wong Chong,...

15. Wong Leung,.. 16. Ho Tang Hip,

17. Ho Sing Tai, 18. Ho Ling...

19. Kong Tak,

20. Wong Su Man,

21. Leung Sam,

2. Occupation and Residence.

.Blacksmith.

.Fishmonger.

Farmer, (Father of No. 11)

.Tailor.

.Coolie.

Fishmonger.

Nil.

Nil.

.Nil.

...Coolie.

Married woman.

.Coolie.

.Widow, Nil.

32. Cochrane Street,

ground and 1st floors,

32, Cochrane Street, 2nd floor.

22. Kwok Kam Chi,

23. Leung Woon,

24. Leung Chap Ho,

25. Pang Kau,

26. Pang Kan,

27. Pang Nai,

28. A Kau,

29. A Shu,..

30. A Sze,

31. Unknown,

.Nil.

.Nil.

.Coolie.

.Nil.

.Nil.

Coolie.

""

Married woman.

..Coolie, (Husband of No. 30).

32, Cochrane Street. 3rd floor.

1

32. Chu Sham So. 33. Lau So,

34, A Chun. 35. Visitor, 66. A Shap. 37. A. Kum. 38. Cheung Nui. 39. Chan Kau. 40. Chan Yit,

41. Wong Chiu.

(5)

Kept woman.

.Stall holder, Central Market.

Married woman. Unknown.

Widow, Needle woman. .Spinster,

.Nil.

Ship's cook.

No. 34. Cochrane Street, 1st floor.

No. 34. Cochrane Street, 2nd floor.

No. 34. Cochrane Street, 3rd floor.

(NOTE.-Only 41 persons have been traced by the Police as missing from Nos. 32 and 34, Cochrane Street. The extra 2 bodies sent to the mortuary were probably passers by or people sleeping on the pavement of the two houses.)

3. Where found and when and under what circumstances? Found under the débris of houses Nos. 32

and 34. Cochrane Street. which collapsed on the 14th August, 1901.

4. Date of death. 14th August, 1901.

5. Cause of death.-Burns, Suffocation, or Injuries.

NOTE.—The following are the names, residence and callings of the witnesses examined :---

(a.) Liu Mui, married woman, 32, Cochrane Street.

(6.) David Douglas Cuthbert, Inspector of Police.

(c) George Watt, Police Sergeant No. 11.

(d.) Ho Heng Chi, draughtsman to Messrs. Palmer and Turner, Architects.

(e.) Percy Thomas Crisp, Inspector of Buildings.

(f.) John Bell, Medical Officer in charge of the Mortuary.

(g.) Hugh Pollock Tooker, Acting Assistant Director of Public Works. (h.) Ernest Manning Hazeland, Civil Engineer and Architect.

F. A. HAZELAND,

Police Magistrate.

ADDITIONAL DEPOSITIONS of witnesses taken by the above-named Magistrate in the re-opened enquiry into the above-mentioned deaths on the 20th, 21st and 23rd September, 1901, and adЛi- tional Finding of the said Magistrate.

20th September, 1901.

Present, Mr. F. BOWLEY, Crown Solicitor.

Mr. Bowley, Crown Solicitor, who appeared to conduct the examination of witnesses, said his Worship, on 30th August last, held an enquiry into the Cochrane Street disaster, and, as he understood from the certificate attached to the depositions, his Worship found that the causes of the deaths of the 43 people were burns, suffocation or injuries. It had been considered desirable that further evidence should be taken in connection with this inquiry, and he submitted that his Worship was there as Coroner and Coroner's Jury, and his Worship had all the powers and duties of the Coroner, and it was in his Worship's discretion to sit there with or without a jury. Consequently, he (Mr. Bowley) took it that his Worship was now sitting as Coroner and Coroner's Jury. The object was now to find out not the immediate cause of death, but what was the actual cause that led to the accident. The duties of a Coroner in England were laid down in Jervis' Office of Coroner as follows:-

"The coroner should therefore inquire as to the circumstances of the death; where and when the "deceased died or was found dead; by whom he was last seen alive; who was present, or who first "saw the body after death; whether any known illness existed; whether any negligence or blame is

alleged against anyone."

.

It was perfectly clear, Mr. Bowley continued, from the evidence that had already been taken that the cause of death was the falling of certain houses, and he submitted that the question now to be inquired into was what was the cause of the fall of these houses and whether it was caused by the negligence of any persons. He proposed to call certain witnesses, who had been heard before, in order to add to their evidence, and to call several new witnesses. He thought they might take the evidence already taken as part of the evidence of the inquiry.

CHAN CHUN CHEUNG declared and examined by Mr. BOWLEY :—

I am dealer in matches in Hung Hom. I manufacture matches. I live at 42 and 44, Stanley Street. I own 32 and 34, Cochrane Street. On the 25th or 26th October, 1900, I agreed to buy 32, Cochrane Street. I completed the purchase on the 22nd December, 1900. I agreed to buy 34,

(6)

Cochrane Street, on the 6th or 7th November, 1900. The purchase was completed on the 8th Nov- ember, 1900. When I agreed to purchase these two houses they had only three storeys. The price of 32, Cochrane Street, was $9,900, and the price of 34, Cochrane Street, was $9,800. I looked at the houses and found that another storey could be added and then I agreed to buy. Before I agreed to buy 32. Cochrane Street, I did not consult any one as to the feasibility of adding another storey. I have built 20 or 30 houses myself. I got a man to act as contractor for the building of these 20 or 30 houses. I have never built a house without employing a contractor. I never consulted Mr. Rain about 32 or 34, Cochrane Street. Last year I got Mr. Ram to do some work for me. I frequently went to the office. I never spoke to Mr. Rain or Mr. Gibbs about 32 and 34. Cochrane Street. The first architect I consulted about 32, Cochrane Street, was Mr. Hazeland. One or two days after the agree- ment to buy I consulted Mr. Hazeland. I told Mr. Hazeland I had bought No. 32, Cochrane Street, and I asked him to look at the house to see if the walls were strong so that I might add another storey. I asked Mr. Hazeland at his office. I did not ask him anything else. I told him if the floor could be added to make a plan for me. Mr. Hazeland then said he would go and look at it. After a few days I again went and saw Mr. Hazeland. Mr. Hazeland said--It could be done, the walls were strong.

He said he would make a plan for me and get permission. The alterations I wanted were to the back-yard. The back-yard ran across the house, the kitchen was behind it. There were bridges on the upper floors to the kitchens. As the house stood originally there were two internal cross walls. I wanted these two cross walls to be pulled down and a single cross wall put up instead. The kitchen was to be put on one side of the house and the back-yard on the other side. The new cross wall was not on the same line as the old cross walls. The new wall was to be be- tween the lines of the two old walls. The room in consequence would be slightly deeper. I also wanted a new storey added. Mr. Hazeland prepared the plans for the alterations. The plans were shown to me before they were sent. I signed the notice to the Director of Public Works that I intended to commence the work. This is a notice I sent in.

This is a notice I sent in. [Notice put in and marked 4.] This is the plan which was sent in with Notice A. [Plan put in and marked B.] The addition of the new floor involved the addition of a new verandah. I have seen this plan before. Mr. Hazeland prepared it for me. [Plan put in and marked C.] Plan C is a plan of the verandah in detail. There was already a verandah to the 1st and 2nd floors. Some time after I received a permit from the Public Works De- partment. The permit was handed to me by Mr. Hazeland. He handed me also plan B. [Permit put in and marked D.] I had purchased No. 34, Cochrane Street, before I had received permit D. After I had completed the purchase of No. 34, Cochrane Street. I went and saw Mr. Hazeland. Mr. Hazeland said the alterations would be the same as No. 32, Cochrane Street. He prepared plans for me. This is the plan of No. 34, Cochrane Street. [Plan put in and marked E.] I signed this notice.

[Notice put in and marked ] Mr. Hazeland afterwards handed me a permit. [Permit put in and marked G.] Plan E was also handed to me with Exhibit F. I do not remember if there was an enlarged verandah plan to No. 34, Cochrane Street. I believe Mr. Hazeland handed me a copy of Exhibit C, but I am not sure. After Mr. Hazeland had handed me these plans he had nothing further to do with the matter. The fee for each house was $40. I employed Pun Wo of the Wo Ki to do the work. I started work on both houses at the same time.

He was

The 1st floor and ground floor of 32, Cochrane Street, were let to the Tong Yik blacksmith shop. They were the tenants before I purchased the house. They paid me $50 a month for the two floors. When I purchased the house the 2nd floor was unoccupied. The blacksmith shop did not remove during the alterations. The blacksmith had a forge on his premises. The blacksmith made verandah iron and made brackets like those on plan 6. He also did other work. When I bought No. 34, Cochrane Street, the tenant of the ground floor was Wui On, building contractor. still there at the time of the accident. He paid $34 rent a month. There was a cockloft on the ground floor to store beams and planks. I do not know where the fokis slept. On the 1st floor when I bought it, the tenant was Ng Yau. It was used as a family house. The monthly rent was $24. Ng Yau was the tenant at the time of the accident. The 2nd floor was let to Yi Hing. It was used as a seamen's boarding-house. During the repairs the Yi Hing moved away. After the alteration the Yi Hing came back and occupied the 3rd floor. They paid $28 a month. At the time of the accident the 2nd floor was occupied by Ip Chuk Sang. It was a family house. The tenant of the ground floor and 1st floor remained during the alterations. During the accident the family houses were divided in cubicles. At the time of the accident there were the following cubicles on each

floor:-

2nd floor, 3rd

32, Cochrane Street,

........4 cubicles, 1 sitting room.

4

34, Cochrane Street.

....5 cubicles.

1

1st floor, 2nd

::

3rd

.4

22

No cubicles.

1 sitting room.

(7)

The 2nd floor of No. 32, Cochrane Street, at the time of the accident, was let to a man whose name I do not remember. He was a new tenant. The floor was used as a family house. The rent was $22 a month. The tenant of the top floor of No. 32, Cochrane Street, at the time of the accident, was Leung Sam. It was used as a family house. The rent was $26 a month. The Wo Ki have

done work for me before. I made no written contract with the Wo Ki. I agreed with him as to the price. The price was $2,350. This was to be cost of the whole of the alterations. Before I agreed on the price I showed plans B and E to the contractor. I went to see how the work was getting on. Sometimes I went once a day to see the work, sometimes two or three times a day. and sometimes once in a few days. I gave orders to the contractor as to how he should do the work. I handed the plans to the contractor. The alterations were carried out in accordance with these plans. I followed these plans in every detail. I see a new cross wall on the ground floor in Plan E. I put

in an arch instead of the cross wall. I put in the arch to let in the air. The tenant afterwards put up a partition instead of the arch. I did not get permission from the Public Works Department to put in an arch instead of the cross wall. On the section in Plan EI see four brick arches dividing the kitchens from the yard. I did not put in these brick arches. I did not obtain from the Public Works Department permission to dispense with the four brick arches. I also see on Plan E a chimney to the four cook-houses and a chimney stack on the top of the house. I did not build the chimney nor the stack because they were useless. On the top of the roof of the cock-house on the top floor Ì put a small house a few feet high in order to go on to the roof. It is only a few feet high, so I did not get permission from the Public Works Department. I have never seen a small recess in the party wall in the ground floor of No. 34, Cochrane Street. In No. 32, Cochrane Street, I made similar deviations from the plans as were made in No. 34, Cochrane Street. In order to build this additional storey it was necessary to raise the party walls. There were three walls.

There were three walls. I had to take the coping off these three walls. I had to take off between 1 and 2 feet of the old walls. I saw the old walls before the additions were made to them. I found the bricks of the old wall to be blue bricks. I examined the old walls carefully. Most of the bricks were whole bricks. Small pieces of bricks were used to fill up. In my opinion the party walls were strong enough to bear the additional floor. After I uncovered the walls I did not call an architect to see if the walls were good or not. When the walls were uncovered I did not see any Government Inspector come and inspect the wall. The ridge of the old roof was across the house. The party wall-the centre was higher than it is at the two ends. I did not take down the top of the party wall until it was level. This applies to all three walls. The bricklayer took out some bricks from out of the wall and put in some new bricks to form the corbelling. The top of the roofs were covered with two layers of Canton tiles. I did not intend to sell these two houses. These alterations were completed in the last decade of the 12th moon (from 8th to 18th February, 1901). I collect my own rents. I go to each floor each month. On the day of the collapse I went to both houses and to each floor. This was at 4 p.m. The blacksmith was working at his shop. I did not see any brackets fastened into the wall of the blacksmith's shop. I saw some tables and stools on the verandah of the 1st floor of No. 32, Cochrane Street. I saw this from the street. I saw no cracks or any other sign that the building was in a dangerous condition when I went that afternoon. I took down the front wall sufficiently far in order that I could put in the brackets for the verandah, and built it up again. There were three brackets on the top verandah. The wall was cut down level. I don't remember how much I took down of the back wall.

PUN Wo declared and examined by Mr. BOWLEY :—

I was

I am contractor, carrying on business as the Wo Ki. My shop is at 3, Sing Wong Street. I have no partners. I am 36

I am 36 years of age. I have been carrying on the Wo Ki for 11 or 12 years. formerly an apprentice bricklayer. Chan Chün Cheung employed me last year to do some alterations to No. 32 and No. 34, Cochrane Street. I agreed with him as to the price. The price was $2,350. Before agreeing on the price I saw the plans. I understand an English plan. In Plan B the follow- ing is the new work:-A new cross wall including foundations; to take down the old roof and raise the party wall to put on the beans of the third floor; to build up the front wall: to build in the brackets with cement; to build two new door frames in the front wall; to put a new roof on the roof was to be covered with flat tiles to take down two cross walls in each house; to take down the old cook-houses and build 8 new cook-houses; to build a wall with arches in it between the cook-houses and the yard, the last mentioned walls would require foundations. The cross wall on the ground storey in the plan is 14 inches but I built it 18 inches. There is a difference between the plans of No. 32 and No. 34, Cochrane Street. In No. 32 the internal cross wall shows one arch on the ground floor and two windows on each of the upper floors. In No. 34 there is an arch on each floor. On each plan there is shown a new chimney and a stack. The work on these two houses was one joh. I did the whole work myself. I employed the bricklayers, carpenters and blacksmiths. I superin- tended the work myself. I only had these two plans to go by. I had no copy of plan C. I did the work according to the old verandah. The old party wall went up to a point in the centre. had to take off the coping. I did not take down the party wall until it became level. The junction between the new work and the old was on a slope. I made the new bricks fit into the old bricks. In laying bricks I do not make one brick cover the other-the different joints should be covered with

I

(8)

I

another brick. Good bricks are sometimes of different sizes. If you buy 1,000 bricks, there are 700 whole bricks and 300 half bricks. The half bricks are good bricks. When I took off the coping I found there were whole bricks and half bricks in the walls. Every joint that I saw of the old wall was covered by a brick. The wall that I built was better than the old wall. When I built the new wall I used the old bricks. The Government (Naval Yard) does that. I have seen them doing it. I do not know why the wall collapsed. I thought it was safe to put the weight on. I would not dare to have done it if it was not safe. I do not know the weight which was being put on this wall. I saw that every part of the wall was safe. I made a careful examination of the lower part. scraped off the whitewash from the wall to see if it was safe. I scraped off some whitewash from the blacksmith shop. I cut a hole in the blacksmith shop. I removed 3 bricks in length and 4 bricks in height. I wanted to see if the wall was good. I removed the bricks on or about the 22nd or 23rd December. I did not show the hole to Chan Chün Cheung or anybody else. The hole was filled up at the completion of the work. The hole was made near the kitchen door of 32, Cochrane Street, outside the kitchen door, the street side of the kitchen door. It was 2 or 3 feet from the ground and was 7 or 8 feet from the kitchen door. I had to make the hole in order to make the new wall join the old one. The hole was 9 inches deep. When I was building there was no recess cut into the party wall of house No. 34 ground floor. I only made one hole to see if the wall was In order to insert the cor-

a good wall or not. I judged the three walls by the hole which I made. belling on the top floor I cut into it and inserted new bricks. Chan Chiin Cheung frequently came to see the work. He told me to do it according to the plan and to put in good material. The small house on top of the cook-house was built by me. This small house was 7 feet high. It was built of brick. There was one on each house. Chan Chin Cheung told me to build this house. Chan Chün Cheung told me not to put in the internal cross walls. also told me to build the arch instead of the cross wall. house. I built a chimney in No. 32 but not in No. 34. 34. I did not build a latrine on No. 34. The cost of the beams was the same as the brick wall. The cost of the arch would be about the same as building the wall. I did not see any Government Ins-. pector come and view the building during the alterations.

ERNEST MANNING HAZELAND sworn and examined :--

He said the cross walls were useless. He The arch was on the ground floor of each The stack was not built in No. 32 nor No.

I had nothing to do with No. 30, Cochrane Street. Chan Chün Cheung came and asked me to see if the walls of No. 32 were strong enough to take another storey. I told him I would let him know about it. I sent Mr. Pearson to look at the walls. I told him to see if they were sound. I did not tell him to cut into them and examine them thoroughly. I did not tell him to examine the foundations. Mr. Pearson said that the walls appeared sound and good. I believe I informed Chan Chin Cheung. I cannot remember. Chan Chun Cheung instructed me to prepare plans for an addi- tional storey and to alter the cook-houses. I had the house measured by Mr. Stuart, a draughtsman in my employ. The plans were made by Mr. Stuart under my supervision. Plan B is the original plan of the alterations in No. 32. I sent the plans to the Public Works Department. I subsequently obtained permit D and handed it to Chan Chin Cheung. Plan C was prepared in my office and was sent by me to the Public Works Department. I sent plan B with a tracing. After I had handed plan B and permit D to the owner I had nothing more to do with that house. As far as I remember, the same course was taken with regard to No. 34. I sent Pearson to examine the wall of No. 34. Stuart made plan and I got that passed in the same way. I did not go to these houses until after the collapse. You can tell from the outward appearance if the wall is really bad. It is possible for both the external faces to be perfectly good and yet the wall might be hollow in the middle. It is a prudent course to examine the foundations before putting on an extra weight. I did not calenlate the extra weight to be put on these walls. I cannot say offhand what would be the pressure on the lower part of the party wall. Pearson has been an overseer in the building trade for 25 years. He was overseer working under the Building Ordinance in the Public Works Department for 5 or 6 years. He has had no practical training as an engineer or architect. For 7 or 8 years I was carry- ing out the provisions of the Building Ordinance in the Public Works Departinent. Pearson was my overseer in the Public Works Department for 4 or 5 years. I was working under the supervi- sion of Mr. Tooker when he was in the Colony. All that Stuart had to do was to measure up the work. I believe there were two cross walls in each house with a yard between. It is not always the practice in submitting plans to show the old work as well as new. I would pass it when I was in the Public Works Department if the alterations were stnall but not if they were large. These plans do not show the old work. The pulling down of the cross wall would not weaken the party wall if the new cross wall was to be built in nearly the same position. The length of the party wall between the cross wall and front wall is 36 feet 4 inches. Unless the approval of the Director of Public Works is obtained no party wall is to exceed 35 feet. In this case it was approved. In the plan of No. 34 the depth is given at 34 feet 6 inches. There is an error in the dimension of one of them. This party wall is the extreme height allowed by the Ordinance. If it was half an inch higher it would have to be thicker. In the plan of No. 32 the length of the party wall is taken from the footing which is 6 inches below the floor. The proper way to ascertain the footing is to make a hole in the floor. In the Building Ordinance it is laid down that the old portion is to comply with the Ordinance as well

(9)

as the new. It is not possible to ascertain if a wall complies with section 10 of the Ordinance as amended without opening the wall. There is a provision in the Building Ordinance that black bricks shall not be used in the lower storey without the approval of the Director of Public Works. When there has been an addition to an old house it has not been the practice to require other than blue bricks in the lowest floor. There was nothing in the plans to show what bricks the walls were built of. Without a personal inspection it is not possible to say whether the building complies with the Ordinance. When I was in the Public Works Department and plans were submitted it was taken for granted that the buildings complied with the Ordinance. I saw the honses after the accident. My opinion of the cause of collapse was that there was a quantity of iron stored on brackets fastened to the party wall between 32 and 34, Cochrane Street. At the present time there are some small brackets on the party wall still standing. Also the place being a blacksmith's shop, hamnering away at heavy ma- terial would tend to shake and weaken the wall. If there was a quantity of iron stored in the front verandah of the 1st floor it might have pulled out the front wall and pulled out the party wall. The roof rests on the party wall. If the front wall fell it would probably pall out the party wall as the two would be bonded together and tied together with tie rods. I think that it is more probable that the party wall collapsed first. The remains of the party wall have the appearance in places of two nine-inch walls built together. The ideal bricklaying is that if you put a knife into any joint you strike a brick. The vertical joints are several courses deep. In the remains of the party wall there were several broken bricks and pieces of bricks used. As a rule it is safe to build a new house with old bricks. I have no diploma as an architect or civil engineer. All my experience has been gained in the Public Works Department here.

Adjourned until to-morrow, 20th instant, at 10 a.m.

21st September, 1901.

F. A. HAZELAND,

Police Magistrate.

FREDERICK PEARSON SWorn and examined :-

I am employed by Mr. Hazeland, Architect, as Clerk of Works and General Assistant. I was formerly an overseer in the Public Works Department. I was there for 6 years. While in the Public Works Department, I was Inspector of Buildings. I left the Public Works Department in June, 1900. I joined Mr. Hazeland in July, 1900. When I was in the Public Works Department the officials in charge of the Building Ordinance were Mr. Tooker, Mr. Hazeland and myself. The first thing I did last year in connection with No. 32, Cochrane Street, was to examine the walls. I was told by Mr. Hazeland to do this. I keep no diary or record of the work I do. I made this examination some time in November last year. I do not remember the date. The instructions Mr. Hazeland gave me were that the owner wanted to put another storey and I was to ascertain if the walls were in accord- ance with the Building Ordinance. Mr. Hazeland did not tell me to cut into the wall nor examine into the foundations. He did not tell me the weight of the additional storey. I found the wall all right. I ascertained the wall was all right by looking at them. I also found the thickness of the wall was in accordance with the Building Ordinance. I measured the thickness of the walls. I examined all the walls and could not find any cracks whatever. The houses were occupied at that time. I did not get the tenants to remove any of their property. I could examine the walls without anything being removed. I could see the wall in the blacksmith's shop without anything being re- moved. Against the party wall of the blacksmith's shop there was some sheet iron. I went to the next house and examined the party wall at the same spot on the other side of the party wall.

I did not remove any of the dirt or whitewash from the wall. I did not use a plumb line. I could see with- out a plumb line that the walls were plumb. There was no indication of any crushing. I could not see the whole of the party wall from the ground floor to the coping because the floors were in the The inspection of No. 32 took me 20 minutes. I reported the state of the walls to Mr. Hazeland verbally. I afterwards made an inspection of No. 34, three or four weeks later. My inspection of No. 34 was similar to No. 32. I reported No. 34 in the same way. There are certain stipulations in the Building Ordinance with respect to foundations. I could not tell whether the foundations were in accordance with the Building Ordinance. When I was in the Public Works Department, when an architect sent a plan for additions or alterations, the foundations were never shewn. It was never re- quired by the Public Works Department to be shewn. I am familiar with section 10 of the Building Ordinance requiring walls to be solid, properly bonded and to be put together with good material. I could not tell without opening the wall whether it complied with the section. It has never been re- quired in the case of an old building when alterations or additions are to be made that the bricks of the ground floor are to be rel brick. This wall was blue bricks. In my opinion the collapse was probably caused by the outlet being blocked and the water, owing to the rain, could not get away. The same thing happened to the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank at the Queen's Road entrance. I was Assistant Surveyor for years to the Cape Government Railway Line. I served no apprenticeship. I was

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taken on 18 years ago by the Government for the Tai Tam Works under Mr. Price. When the Tai Tam Works were over, I was employed by Danby, Leigh and Orange, Palmer and Turner and W. Danby before I joined the Public Works Department.

JOHN LORRAINE STUART sworn and examined:-

I am draughtsman to Mr. Hazeland. I have been with him since March or April last year. I had no previous experience before I joined this office. I measured No. 32, Cochrane Street, last year in November, I measured No. 34, Cochrane Street, later. I made plans B and E. I did not make the tracing or the original of it. The following were the measurements I made:-The depth and width of the goound floor, yard and also kitchen, also the height of the ground, 1st and 2nd floors. It took a quarter of an hour to measure each house. The dotted lines of the section of plan B represent the foundations of the internal cross walls. The foundations are new works. The new work is shown in red, pink and burnt sienna. New iron is shown in blue. New foundations are shown in blue and yellow. The old work is shown in neutral tint in plan B, indigo in plan E. The new work consists of new cross walls, new cook-houses, new internal cross wall and a new storey with a new verandah to it. The chimneys are new. In each plan the footing of the party wall is shown 6 inches below the party wall. This is what Mr. Hazeland told me to put down. I did not measure it. The measure- ment on the ground floor in plan E of 34 feet 6 inches is an internal measurement. The measure- ment on the ground floor in plan B of 36 feet 4 inches is intended for external measurement although marked as an internal measurement. This is a mistake. I think the two houses are of the same depth. In each of these two houses there were two cross walls formerly. I do not think it necessary to show the old cross wall. I forgot to show the foundation of the new internal cross wall in plan Ë. I did not think it necessary to show the old foundation of the old wall. I did not see the old founda- tion. Mr. Hazeland told me to make the new party wall 50 feet from the foundation. It is not necessary, in my opinion, to show any staircase. Mr. Hazeland saw the plan but did not take any notice of the plan properly. I measured the width of the street. The total time I spent in each

house was 15 minutes.

JOSÉ MIGUEL XAVIER SWOrn and examined :--

I am Associate Member of the Institute of Civil Engineers. I am Assistant Engineer of the Public Works Department. I have been in the Department for 14 years. I took charge of the Building Ordinance work under Mr. Tooker on the 1st May, 1900, on the resignation of Mr. Hazeland. 1 had Mr. Pearson as overseer under me and part of a Chinese Clerk's services. Mr. Pearson re- signed on the 15th June, last year. After Mr. Pearson resigned, I had the whole of the Chinese Clerk's time. The Chinese Clerk did the clerical work. I had no overseer after the 15th June, 1900. I gave up the Building Ordinance work on the 9th November last. Between the 15th June and the 9th November last year, I was single-handed. Besides the work under the Building Ordinance, 1 had three or four works-Public Works Extraordinary. For 5 months I had the supervision of all the private works in the Colony without any assistance. It was not possible to exercise an effective supervision over the works under the Building Ordinance. I reported this matter to Mr. Tooker, my superior officer, about the end of June. On the 9th November, I handed over the work to Mr. Crisp under instructions of Mr. Tooker. This notice A passed through my hands. The plan B was attached to notice A. It was simply passed through me to note and to be forwarded to the Medical Officer of Health. It was not my duty to examine the plan to see that it complied with the Building Ordinance except when I was particularly requested to do so. It is Mr. Tooker's duty to see that the plan complies with the Building Ordinance. I have never been to No. 32, Cochrane Street. It is not necessary to go and see the building. It is sometimes done. It is not necessary because the plan gives all the necessary information. We take it for granted that a plan submitted by a regular architect that the information in the plan is correct. There is nothing in plan B to show if the walls are red or blue bricks. There is nothing in the plan to show that the walls are properly bonded and solid throughout. There is nothing in the plan to show that there is a foundation to the old wall. I took Mr. Crisp round and showed him the various districts in the Colony. I did not show him the particular works.

PERCY THOMAS CRISP Sworn and examined :-

I am Inspector of Buildings. I arrived in the Colony on 8th November, and arrived at the Public Works Department the same day at 12 noon. I went out with Mr. Xavier on the 10th Novem-

ber and went out for a fortnight, part of the time with Mr. Xavier, and part of the time by myself. I see by notice A that I measured the width of the street. I think it was on the 13th November. I never went into No. 32, Cochrane Street, either before or during the alterations. I had too much to do. I was strange to the Colony and did not know the names of the streets and it took me a consider- able time to get through my work. In fact until up to Christmas, I did not do any inspection. On the 14th May this year I made a note of the fact that the verandah of No. 32 had been completed. did this at the request of Mr. Tooker. I saw from the street that the verandah was completed. With the exception of measuring the street and of noting that the verandah was completed, I made no inspection of 32, Cochrane Street. On the 14th December, I measured the width of the street in

I

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connection with No. 34, Cochrane Street. With the exception of measuring the street, I made no inspection whatever of No. 34, Cochrane Street. Since my arrival in the Colony, I have been the only inspector or overseer of private buildings for the whole Colony. I have nothing to add to my former evidence as to the cause of collapse. Since I last gave my evidence I have found among the débris, iron rods with a nut at one end which had evidently been used for a shelving or cockloft for storing iron pipes, &c. The iron rods are bolted through the floor joists throwing extra weight on the floor. This was in the blacksmith's shop. This is a common thing in the Colony in blacksmiths' shops. The floor joists have therefore to carry many hundredweights more than they were intended to carry. The wood work entering the wall from the wooden bearers causes cutting about of the party wall, and the extra vibration of the business of the smith might have contributed to the collapse. Sketch H is a sketch of a shelf which I suspect was in this blacksmith's shop. With defective walls it is not safe to have a blacksmith's shop on the ground floor of a tenement house. In my experience in England I have never seen a smith's shop under a tenement house.

Remanded until Monday, 23rd September, 1901, at 10 a.m.

F. A. HAZELAND,

Police Magistrate.

>

LEUNG TUNG declared and examined :-

24th September, 1901.

I am managing partner of the Tung Yik blacksmith shop. We now carry. on business at 41, Wing On Street. Up to the time of the collapse we carried it on 32, Cochrane Street. We were a year and a half at No. 32, Cochrane Street. We made verandah brackets, railings, and water pipes. The brackets were the heaviest things we made. I supplied building contractors with iron building materials. All the work was done on the ground floor. The forge was in front of the kitchen in the back part of the shop. The forge was nearer to No. 34, Cochrane Street. The bellows were between the wall and the forge. I could not pass between the forge and the wall. The staircase was on the 34, Cochrane Street side: Against the wall and between the staircase and the forge was a long working bench. The anvil was in the middle of the room. The anvil was 3 feet in front of the forge. The forge had a back and a hood. The forge was not moved at the time of the actual alter- ations-but the hood was. The alterations made my shop deeper. During the alterations the staircase was moved out two feet. I was away at the time of the accident. I went away on the 12th August and returned on the 18th August. Most of my material was stored on the ground floor in the middle of the shop. I stored a quantity of short pipes against the wall-the wall of No. 30. On No. 34, there was no room to store the pipes. I had no brackets against the wall of No. 34. I had brackets stored against the wall of No. 30 only. There were things against the wall of No. 34. They were sundry things. Most of the things were stored on the No. 30 side of the wall. The kitchen on the ground floor was used for storing sundry iron goods. The cooking was on the 1st floor. In the front part of the 1st floor my family lived in a cubicle and in the back part of my shop my fokis lived. In the verandah there were a few stools. There was no iron stored on the verandah." I had no spare anvil on the 1st floor. These verandah brackets are made of flat iron bars about 3 inches wide. I only bent the iron bars in the shop. The iron bars were made in England. I had to cut them, bend them in the proper shape and drill holes into them. The bars were half an inch in thickness. had 20 fokis, they all slept at No. 32. Nine of my fokis were killed,

HENRY GARROD sworn and examined by Mr. BOWLEY :-

I

I am Police Sergeant 33. At about 11 p.m., on the 14th August last, I first saw the fallen houses in Cochrane Street. When I got there, there was a fire in the north-east part of No. 32. It appeared to be on the ground floor. It took the best part of an hour to put the fire out completely. The front walls and the verandahs had fallen out on the road. There was about 10 feet in height at the back of the party wall left, and the rest had fallen into the house. The floors had also fallen at an angle. The higher portion of each floor being against the standing walls. I was on special duty for 10 days clearing up the débris. The supports of the verandahs I found on the side channel où the east side of the street. They had fallen right down. There were no signs of any material being stored on the verandah. The whole of the material on the ground floor was turned over in searching for corpses. I found a quantity of iron rods and iron pipes in the blacksmith's shop. It was on the north side of No. 32. There was no indication of iron stored on the south side. I noticed a work- ing bench on the south side. If there had been a quantity of iron on the south side I would have noticed it. There was no indication of a cockloft as sketched in Exhibit H on the ground floor of No. 32.

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LEUNG TUNG re-called:-

I had no cockloft as sketched in Exhibit A on the ground floor of No. 32.

CHAN CHUN CHEUNG re-called :-

The cockloft for storing beams and planks on the ground floor of No. 34 was from one party wall to the other. The cockloft was 10 odd feet deep. The small half of this cockloft was filled with timber. The cockloft was there when I bought the house. I did not notice a similar cockloft in the blacksmith's shop. I moved the staircase one or two feet out. The cubicles were put up by the tenants. After the alterations were completed, cubicles were erected on the 2nd and 3rd floors of No. 32, and on the 2nd floor of No. 34. The head of each staircase rests against a beam. The beam went right across the house from party wall to party wall. This beam is larger and stronger than the ordinary beam. The beams on the 1st and 2nd floors had to be moved.

HUGH POLLOCK TOOKER Sworn and examined by Mr. BOWLEY :

I carry out the duties of the Director of Public Works under the Building Ordinance. I have carried out those duties since April, 1890. The work has increased enormously, since that date. From the time I took over the duties up to June, 1900, the staff consisted of an assistant engineer and myself. For a number of years Mr. Hazeland was my assistant and on his resignation Mr. Xavier. Before Mr. Hazeland took over the duties I had Mr. Sample as an assistant. I had the whole of his time for Building Ordinance work. Mr. Hazeland followed Mr. Sample in January. 1892. Both Mr. Hazeland and Mr. Xavier were sometimes called off for other work. Until Mr. Pear- son resigned in June last year he gave the whole of his time to the work. After Pearson resigned there was no overseer. Mr. Xavier handed over the whole of his work to Mr. Crisp. The staff which assisted me was reduced from an assistant engineer and an overseer to an overseer only. The work had increased enormously, practically three times. I have made representation to the Head of my Department repeatedly about the insufficiency of my staff. I have been able to give less and less time to the Building Ordinance work because my other work has considerably increased and my staff has been reduced. I received notice A, plans B and C early in Novem- ber last. The first thing I do is to see if the plans comply with the Building Ordinance. I then pass them to the Medical Officer of Health to see if they comply with the Public Health Ordinance. This was done on the 6th November. He wanted the width verified. I sent Mr. Crisp to verify the width. This was found to be correct and I issued permit D. The permit is returned with the original plan to the architect, and I retained the tracing of the plan.◄ Plan C had to go up to the Governor for approval. The detail plan for the verandah is filed in the office. I also received on the 7th December notice F and plan E. I examined the plan myself and passed it to the Medical Officer of Health. Mr. Crisp was sent to measure the street on the 19th December. Permit G was issued by me. I did not inspect either of these houses before the accident. Except Mr. Xavier and Mr. Crisp there was no other officer who could inspect these buildings. No officer did inspect these buildings. There was no examination of any kind whatsoever of these buildings by any officer of the Department either before or after the approval of the plans. Except with the approval of the Director of Public Works the old part of the buildings in which alter- ations are to be made must comply with the new Building Ordinance. Except with the approval of the Director of Public Works the walls of the lower storey must be of red brick, and except with the approval of the Director of Public Works, no party wall can exceed 35 feet in length except with a "return or cross wall. On these three points the Director of Public Works has a discretion. With respect to the last point, I have a direction not to enforce that requirement in any case.

This order was made in consequence of representations made by certain architects in this Colony. With respect to the solidity of the wall, the bonding of the brick work, the thickness of the walls and the foundations, there is a discretion in the Director of Public Works as regards old buildings --but not as to new buildings. With respect to old buildings the Director of Public Works has a discretion whether he will allow alterations and additions or not. I am acquainted with section 75, but would rather not express an opinion on the section. Plan B only shows the line of the top of the foundations of the old walls. I would take from plans B and E that there were foundations. is the universal practice of architects not to show foundations of old walls, because it is unreasonable to expect the whole foundation to be opened up. It is the universal practice of the Public Works Department to approve of a plan submitted by an European architect without knowing whether the foundations are good or bad. This has been the practice for the last 12 years. The plans do not show whether the walls are of blue bricks or red bricks. The plans do not show if the bricks are properly bonded or solidly built. A plan could not show that except on a large scale which the Ordinance does not require. It is desirable before exercising any discretion of approving of alterations and additions to old work to make a personal inspection. It is not possible to inspect foundations without opening them up. It is not possible to see if a wall is pro- perly built without opening it up and cutting into the wall. It is possible for an 18-inch wall to consist of two 9-inch walls without any bonding between them. Plan B shows that the wall is to be raised 50 feet high from the footing to the top. This is the maximum height allowed for this thickness of wall. It is shown in plans B and E that the houses are built fronting a sloping street.

It

1

+

up

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The

In the

In the The removal of the stair-

Looking at plan B it is necessary that the lower party wall should be a greater length than the other unless its foundations are deeper. The elevation of the front of the house on plan B shows the upper party wall to be at least 50 feet by scale. Looking at that plan B it does not appear that in all probability the lower party wall is higher that 50 feet. Each wall in plan B is practically up to the same height. The floor level of No. 32 is a foot above the top of the footing of the foundations. plan is therefore inaccurate. If the wall was made the same height as shown on the plan it would be 50 feet 6 inches. If the wall had been drawn correctly it would have shown that the wall would have been over 50 feet high when completed and therefore would not have been in accordance with the Ordinance. In plan E the party wall is shown as 50 feet high from a line 6 inches high below the If the wall had been floor level. The footings are 3 feet 10 inches below the level of the floor. built in accordance with the plan it must have been 53 feet 4 inches and therefore not of the thick- ness required by the Ordinance. It is never the practice for the Public Works Department to open

the foundations. We always rely on the architect to find out the depth of the foundations. case of houses built on the slope, I would not expect foundations to be of an average depth of six inches below the floor. As a rule the least depth would be six inches. It depends upon the nature of the ground. It is usual in submitting alterations and additions to show all the existing works as well as the new.

There is nothing in These plans (B and E) do not show the existing work. the plans to show 2 cross walls. This is an important omission.

This is an important omission. There is nothing in the plans to show that the staircases are to be moved. In plan E no staircases are shown at all. plan E there are no foundations shown to the internal cross walls. case would probably weaken the party wall. No detail drawings of the verandah of No. 34, Cochrane Street, have been submitted. The owner of No. 32, Cochrane Street, did not sign an agree- ment with respect to the verandah. That was the only reason why I sent Mr. Crisp to look at the verandah in May. I did not send him there to inspect it. I read an article in the China Mail in August, 1899, on jerry buildings, which gave rise to considerable discussion. There have been collapsos before and since August, 1899. We had a discretion and could have told the architect that we would We were not have approved of the plans unless the buildings and foundations were opened up. bound to approve of these plans unless we knew that the plans were not in accordance with the Ordi- nance. I do not know if we had even the power to do that. There is nothing in the Ordinance to - say that we inust approve of the plan within a certain time. I noticed after the collapse the following deviation of the works from the plaus. In No. 34. Cochrane Street, there is a large archway instead of a wall with a door in it. There is no internal cross wall as shown in the plan. There are no chimneys according to the plan. There is a pipe flue to serve the ground floor only. The pipe flue is not shown on the plan. There is a recess in the party wall between No. 34 and No. 36 in the cook- house on the ground floor. It is 2 feet 6 inches square and 9 inches deep. It appeared to be fairly I believe it new. On the roof was a superstructure built of brick work-7 feet high 5 feet square. had been used as a cook-house. Alongside of this cook-house there was another superstructure which had been partly broken away. In No. 32, Cochrane Street, there was an arch instead of a cross wall. The internal cross wall is not there at all. There are no chimneys there as shown in the plan. There The side is a similar superstructure as in No. 34 only not quite so high. It looked like a cook-house. of the superstructure appeared to be built on the party wall between the two houses. Superstructures of this sort built on the party wall are not considered as part of the main wall for the purpose of increasing the thickness. I think these deviations might have contributed to the collapse

I do not

If think the want of chimneys had anything to do with the collapse nor the superstructure on the roof. the cross wall had been built it would live strengthened the buildings. I am still of the same opinion I do nor think the as to the cause of collapse as was given in my evidence on the 30th vibration of the Blacksmith's shop had very much effect on the house. In my opinion the party wall would have no down sooner or later without the additional storey. Each of these houses would, after the alteration, be allowed to house 55 persons under the Public Health Ordinance. During the year 1960 plans were deposited for raising 189 houses with an extra storey, Plans were approved for the whole of these 159 houses. I arrived in the Colony in April, 1830.

Larrived in the Colony in April, 1890. I was placed in charge of the Building Ordinance and also works carried out under Works Annually Recurrent Expenditure. That included Maintenance of Government Buildings. Maintenance of the Public Cemeteries, Mainte- nance of the Praya Wall and Piers, Maintenance of Light-houses, Maintenance of Rouds all over the Colony, Lighting the City with gas, Maintenance of the Public Recreation Ground, and orlar works of a miscellaneous kind which cropped up from time to time. Mr. Brown was then Surveyor General and my stuff consisted at that time of an assistant engineer, two overseers for roads, three overseers for buildings, one overseer in charge of the cemeteries and one overser for Building Onliance work, he-ides two or three native foremen. Mr. Cooper succeeded Mr. Brown in 1891, and he gave me then another assistant engineer and added Maintenance of Telegraphs to my work. This staff was main- tained until I went on leave in March, 1897. I returned to the Colony in March, 1898, and Mr. Ormsby was then Director of Public Works. He told me I would have to do with one assistant engineer. That was Mr. Hazeland, and nearly all his time was engaged in Building Ordinance work. Mr. Ormsby added to my work Maintenance of Buildings in the New Territory and Maintenance of Telegraph in the New Territory. I was invalided home in the Autumn of 1898 and returned to the Colony in December, 1899. My staff then consisted of one assistant engineer, two overseers of roads,

August

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I

4 overseers of buildings, an overseer of the cemeteries, an overseer for the Recreation Ground, and a few native foremen. The principal overseer of Government Buildings (Mr. Gowenlock) resigned. and his appointment was not filled up at the time. It was not until the 1st November, 1900, that an assistant overseer was appointed locally and he was put upon Government Building work. In the meantime the principal overseer on roads in October, 1900, went home on sick leave and died on the passage home. His place was not filled up until a few days ago. I was left with one overseer for roads and telegraphs in the Colony, one for telegraphs in the New Territory until the beginning of 1901. was then given the assistance of an assistant overseer. He was a sick man and could do very little. He was taken ill in February, 1901. I was again left with one overseer for roads and telegraphs until about the middle of the year when I got the assistance of Mr. Carroll who was formerly overseer on sewers. He worked with ine for about a month and got sick and had to go home ou leave. I then again was left with one overseer on roads and telegraphs. Just recently another overseer was appointed on roads and two more Portuguese foremen. When Mr. Crisp arrived, Mr. Xavier handed over his duties under the Building Ordinance to Mr. Crisp. Mr. Ormsby told me to do this.

WILLIAM CHATHAM sworn and examined by Mr. BOWLEY:--

I am Acting Director of Public Works. I was absent from the Colony from May, 1900, to March, 1901. I have never had anything to do with the Building Ordinance except as Acting Director of Public Works. I had nothing to do with these houses until after the collapse. I have inspected the remains of the honses since the collapse. I am of opinion that the cause of collapse was due to the bad construction of the party wall between the two houses. The addition of the new storey helped to contribute to the collapse. The foundations of this party wall have been opened. The foundations appeared to be good, strong enough to hear the weight of the wall. The ground under the founda- tions was good. If I was consulted as to the feasibility of adding another storey, I would have examined the walls carefully, knowing that the building was an old one. I would examine the walls externally first to see the nature of the material and the bonding of the walls as far as it was visible. It would be necessary to remove the whitewash. I would have considered it necessary to have examined the walls internally. I would then consider what weight would come on the walls if added to them. It would have been a prudent thing to do to open the foundations. Light smith's work would not have created any effect on the wall, if he had no machinery attached to the wall. The taking down of cross wall and altering the staircase would have a disturbing effect on the walls with which they were connected.

F. A. HAZELAND,

Police Magistrate discharging the duties of Coroner.

Exhibit A.

THE BUILDING ORDINANCE, 1891.

Notice of intention to commence works,

HONGKONG, 3rd November. 1900.

To the DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC WORKS.

I hereby give you notice pursuant to The Building Ordinance. 1889, as amended by Ordinance No. 7 of 1895. of my intention to commence the following works, viz. :

To make additions and re-build cross wall; add verandah; in accordance with the accompanying plans.

No. of Lot, Inland Lot No. 1 Section A remaining portion.

Name of Street. Cochrane Street.

No. of House. 32.

Special or material particulars.-

Name and address of owner, or occupier, or agent. Co. E. M. Hazeland.

(Signed)

CHAN TSUN CHEUNG, Signature of owner.

(Statement of Capacity in which the party signs.)

T

A. (, H.

(Signed) H. P. T.

6.11.00.

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Copy of minutes on Exhibit A.

Is the width of the street correctly given?

(Signed) F. W. C.

7.11.00.

Width of street 25 ft. 3 ins, and 25 ft. 6 ins.

(Signed) P. Crisp.

CRISP.

Noted.

(Signed) F. W. C.

14.11.00.

17.11.00.

Ackt. 1540.

Exhibit D.

No. 1540.

PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT,

HONGKONG. 17th November, 1900.

Notice has been duly received from Chan Tsun Cheung of intention to make additions and to re-build cross wall in house No. 32, Cochrane Street, on Inland Lot 1 Section 4 Remaining Portion in accordance with plan deposited in this Department by Mr. E. M. Hazeland.

The work is to be carried out in accordance with the terms of the Building Ordinance No. 15 of 1889 as amended by Ordinances 25 of 1891 and 7 of 1895.

I approve of the above plan as being in conformity with the Building Ordinance No. 15 of 1889 as amended by Ordinances 25 of 1891 and 7 of 1895 and for no other purpose.

The person on whose behalf this plan is submitted to me must satisfy himself that the building or work delineated in the plan will not, if carried out, infringe any of the provisions of the various Ordinances and Bye-laws relating to Public Health and in Particular that it will not infringe any of the provisions of Ordinance 15 of 1894 or any Bye-law made thereunder.

(Signed) H. P. TOOKER,

pro. Director of Public Works.

Exhibit F.

THE BUILDING ORDINANCE, 1891.

Notice of intention to commence works.

To the DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC WORKS.

of

my

HONGKONG, 7th December. 1900.

I hereby give you notice pursuant to The Building Ordinance, 1889, as amended by Ordinance No. 7 of 1895.

intention to commence the following works, viz :—

Additions and Re-building cross wall, &c. in accordance with the accompanying plans,

No. of Lot, Inland Lot No. 1 Sec. a Subs, 2.

Name of Street, Cochrane Street.

No. of House, 34.

Special or material particulars.—

Name and address of owner, or occupier, or agent.

(Sd.)

CHAN TSUN CHEONG. Signature of owner.

(Statement of Capacity in which the party signs.)

M.O.H.

Copy of minutes on. Exhibit F.

(Signed) H. P. T.

8.12.00. Is the width of the street correctly given?

(Signed) F. W. C.

11.12.00.

Mr. CRISP.

To measure width of street.

(Signed) H. P. T.

13.12.00.

Found street measures 25 feet 1 inches one end.

25 feet 24 inches the other.

ALOH.

(Signed) H. P. T.

14.12.00.

Noted.

(Signed) F. W. C.

17.12.00.

(Signed)

P. C.

14.12.00.

No. 164.

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Exhibit G.

PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT,

HONGKONG, 19th December, 1900,

Notice has been duly received from Chan Tsun Cheung of intention to re-build cross wall and to make additions to house No. 34, Cochrane Street, on Inland Lot 1 Section 1 Sub-section 2 in accordance with plan deposited in this Department by Mr. E. M. Hazeland.

The work is to be carried out in accordance with the terms of the Building Ordinance No. 15 of 1889 as amended by Ordinances 25 of 1891 and 7 of 1895.

approve

of the above plan as being in conformity with the Building Ordinance No. 15 of 1889 as amended by Ordinances 25 of 1891 and 7 of 1895 and for no other purpose.

The person on whose behalf this plan is submitted to me must satisfy himself that the building or work de- lineated in the plan will not, if carried out, infringe any of the provisions of the various Ordinances and Bye-laws relating to the Public Health and in Particular that it will not infringe any of the provisions of Ordinance 15 of 1894 or any Bye-law made thereunder.

(Signed)

H. P. TOOKER.

pro. Director of Public Works.

Mr. Bowley then proceeded to review the evidence. He said it was quite clear, as he mentioned in re-opening the enquiry, that the deaths of these unfortunate people were caused by the collapse of the houses, and he took it that the object of the enquiry was to find out why the houses collapsed. In his opinion they had had overwhelming evidence from several expert engineers that the real cause was the faulty construction of the party wall between the two houses. That being so, the enquiry really limited itself to the finding out of the cause of the falling of the party wall, and his Worship would doubtless be of the opinion that its fall was brought about to a very great extent, if not altogether. by the addition of an extra storey comprising heavy beams and brick work. There were, perhaps, minor canses, such as the soaking of rain into the building and the vibration caused by the work in the blacksmith's shop. but in spite of these, Mr. Bowley said he would submit that the main cause of the collapse was the addition of the new storey to this old building, which was erected in 1878, and was originally a three-storey house. Built, as houses were in those days, of blue brick, it had somehow or other stood the wear and tear of usage and climate for some twenty-two years. Recently it changed hands, and the purchaser, seeing what was going on everywhere in the Colony, thought he would do the same as other house-owners and add another storey. Before carrying out his idea, he took professional opinion as to its feasibility, and went to work to find out if the walls were strong enough. The architect, who must have known how old the building was, did not take warning by the many collapses that had previously taken place, and thought it sufficient to send an overseer to look after the matter, with no instructions to make a careful examination of the building, but simply to look at the walls. The overseer went there and spent twenty minutes in each house. He never thought of looking at the founda- tions, or even of scraping away the whitewash from any part of the walls, and did not even plumb them except with his eye. He did not cut into them to ascertain their solidity-he simply looked at them. Then along came the draughtsman to measure the houses. He spent fifteen minutes of his valuable time there, and took three measurements-breadth, depth, and height of each floor. From these three measurements he drew up the elaborate plans that had been produced in Court, each of them absolutely incorrect in several respects. Then the plans were made out, omitting some important information that should have been included. They did not show two old cross walls that had to come down, and no foundations whatever except to the new wall. The height of the wall itself was mere guess-work—in one plan no staircases were shown at all. These plans were thought to be sufficient to send up to the Public Works Department, where they were given a cursory glance to by that very much overworked official, the Executive Engineer under the Building Ordinance. They then went to the Medical Officer of Health, whose only doubts were as to the height of the walls in respect of the width of the street. Accordingly an overseer was sent to measure the width of the street to satisfy the Medical Officer of Health, and the Director of Public Works, or, rather, Mr. Tooker on his behalf, issued a permit for the alterations and additions proposed. It had been pointed out in the evidence that the Ordinance required amongst other things that all walls shall be built solid, of good bricks properly bonded together, and that the lower storey must be built of red brick and so on, and under the Ordinance the Director of Public Works had absolute discretion in the matter of granting or refusing permits for additions Or alterations to old buildings, unless the old building complied in every respect with the Building Ordinance. Yet no one in the Public Works Department ever took the trouble to find out whether the requirements of the Ordinance as to such alterations and additions were being fulfilled. From the beginning to the end no one ever thought of going and looking at the foundations, and it appeared as though the foundations had nothing whatever to do with the matter. Nobody even knew whether there were foundations or not until the opening up took place. The elaborate machinery of the Ordinance having been got through in this farcical way, the plans, after the formal approval of the Director of Public Works, were handed to the contractor or architect, and then the work of hacking and cutting this

poor old party wall was commenced, till by degrees this death-trap, warranted to hold 55 people, was erected. No one ever inspected the work, from the commencement to the finish. This was a

(17)

matter which not only concerned the tenants; it concerned the man in the street, who supposed that the Public Works Department in this Colony protected him against houses falling upon him. The Ordinance said that "the Director of Public Works shall inspect a building during alterations." It was the duty, Mr. Bowley submitted, of the official in charge to refuse to sign these permits until he had satisfied himself on all points. It was no excuse in law because a man had no time to do a certain duty, that that duty should remain undone. If he had no time to inspect the building, it was in his power to refuse to sign the permit, or he might have referred the matter to the Government and thrown the responsibility on it. Instead of that, these plans were signed without any inspection being made by anyone. It was not as if this was a new thing. Houses had been falling down in the Colony in recent years in a most extraordinary way, and notice had been taken of the fact in the public newspapers and elsewhere. That was enough to put anyone on their guard to be more careful. He submitted that the persons to blame in the matter of the collapse were: In the first place, the architect on whose professional knowledge the owner relied, who gave it as his opinion, without making any examination at all, that the houses were fit and good; secondly, the official responsible in the Public Works Department, who, without making any examination whatever, passed the plans; and thirdly, the head of the Department, who had allowed the staff in charge of the duties of the Building Ordinance to dwindle down gradually, although the work was increasing, until it consisted of Mr. Crisp. He had actually taken away the assistant engineer in charge of building work and appointed nobody save one overseer, who had just come out to the Colony and hardly knew the streets. In this way an Ordinance which had been very carefully framed had been allowed to dwindle down to a mere farce. Mr. Bowley, in conclusion, asked his Worship to bring in a verdict, in addition to his previous finding, that the deaths of these people were due to the adding of a new storey to the rotten party wall, and that the architect who recommended the addition and the Department which sanctioned it were guilty of gross negligence.

FINDING.

The evidence on this Inquiry does not disclose what was the immediate cause of the collapse of No. 32 and No. 34, Cochrane Street, on the night of the 14th of August, 1901.

The following conditions and circumstances, in my opinion, probably contributed to the said col- lapse:

(1.) The existence of a blacksmith shop on the ground floor of No. 32, Cochrane Street. It

was proved in evidence that vibration has a tendency to weaken the walls of a house. (2.) On the ground floor of No. 34, Cochrane Street, was a cockloft used by the tenant, who

was a contractor, for storing beams and planks.

(3.) The defective construction of the party wall between No. 32 and No. 34, Cochrane Street. It was proved in evidence that the said party wall was badly bonded and that the heart of the said wall was hollow and filled in with small pieces of bricks.

(4.) The existence of an extra storey which was put on each of the said houses six or seven

months prior to the said collapse.

(5.) That the showery weather prior to the collapse-hot one hour and then a heavy shower- would have caused considerable contraction and expansion of the material, and acting on the old walls would have considerably tended to the collapse.

(6.) That there was a deviation by the owners from the approved plans while altering the said two houses. The principal deviation being the building of an arch instead of a wall and the total absence of internal cross walls.

Putting myself in the position of a Coroner's jury, I make the following suggestions or riders :---

(a.) That the existence of blacksmith's shops under tenement buildings be prohibited. (b.) That all cocklofts used for storing heavy material be also prohibited.

(c.) That all buildings or work under the Building Ordinance be carried out under the

superintendence of a European Architect.

(d.) That the provisions of section 72 of the Building Ordinance, which casts upon the Director of Public Works the responsibility and duty of approving only of such alterations and additions to old work or buildings as will render the building with the said alterations and additions absolutely safe (except in cases where the whole of such work or buildings including the old portion of the structure when completed complies with the provisions of the Ordinance) be carried strictly into effect.

(c.) That the provisions of section 75 of the Building Ordinance, which casts upon the Director of Public Works or officers deputed by him the imperative duty of entering, inspecting and surveying every building work during its progress, for securing the due observance of the provisions of this Ordinance be carried strictly into effect.

(f.) That the staff of the Public Works Department at present employed to carry out the provisions of the Building Ordinance is insufficient and ought to be increased without delay.

F. A. HAZELAND,

Police Magistrate discharging the duties of Coroner.

25th September, 1901.

HONGKONG.

RETURNS OF THE SUPERIOR COURT FOR THE YEAR 1900.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of

His Excellency the Governor.

141

No. 1901

4

:

SUPREME COURT, HONGKONG, 7th January, 1901.

SIR,-1 have the honour to forward the following Annual Returns :---

1.-Return of all sums received as Revenue in the Registry of the Supreme Court during

the year 1900.

2.-Return of all sums collected in the Registry of the Supreme Court for 1900, and paid

into the Treasury.

3. Comparative table showing the number of offences, apprehensions, convictions and

acquittals for the last four years.

4.- Return of Criminal cases that have been brought under the cognizance of the Supreme

Court during the last ten years.

5.-Indictments and Informations in the Supreme Court for 1900.

6. Return of Criminal cases tried in the Supreine Court during 1900.

7.- List of changes in the holders of Offices.

8. Return of Estates of Intestates for the second half year ending 31st December, 1900.

I have the honour to be,

The Honourable,

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY.

Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

J. W. NORTON KYSHE,

Registrar.

RETURN of all SUMS RECEIVED as REVENUE in the Registry of the Supreme Court during the Year 1900.

Original Jurisdiction,

Summary Jurisdiction,

Bankruptcy Jurisdiction,

$ 4,342.10

3,515.25

562.74

Probate Jurisdiction,

Official Administrator's Commission,

Official Trustee's Commission,

3,587.70

3,384.38

120.17

Sheriff's Fees,

Bailiff's Fees,

Fees on Distraints,

Registrar of Companies,

Fines and Forfeitures,..

Miscellaneous Receipts,

Official Receiver in Bankruptcy,

Admiralty Jurisdiction,

Land Office Fees (including $1,892 account New Territory),

Registry, Supreme Court. Hongkong, 7th day of January, 1901.

100.50

684.00

1,110.25

4,581.00

510.00

0.95

883.62

153.00

$ 23,535.66 16,699.25

$ 40,234.91

J. W. NORTON KYSHE,

Registrar:

142

RETURN of all SUMS COLLECTED in the Registry of the Supreme Court for the Year 1900, and paid into the Treasury.

REGISTRAR.-Court Fees paid by Stamps,

OFFICIAL ADMINISTRATOR, -5% on amounts encashed and paid into the

Treasury,

1899. $ 12,207.65

1900. $ 13,271.04

5,551.74

3,384.38

OFFICIAL TRUSTEE-2% on amount of Trust on taking over up to $10,000,

above $10,000 commission 1 %, 1% commission on income,

576.35

120.17

FINES AND FORFEITURES,

MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS,..

BAILIFF,......

SHERIFF,

REGISTRAR OF COMPANIES,

OFFICIAL RECEIVER IN BANKRUPTCY,

694.00

684.00

119.00

100.50

5,638.00

4,581.00

510.00

286.71

LAND OFFICE FEES (including $1,892 account New Territory for 1900), .

$ 25,073.45 11,988.50

$ 37,061.95

0.95 883.62

$ 23,535.66 16,699.25

$ 40,234.91

J. W. NORTON KYSHE,

Registrar.

Registry, Supreme Court, Hongkong, 7th day of January, 1901.

COMPARATIVE TABLE showing the NUMBER of Offences, APPREHENSIONS, CONVICTIONS, and ACQUITTALS for the last Four Years.

The Number of Convictions in the Superior Courts--

1. For Offences against the Person,

2. For Offences against Property,

3. For other Offences,.

The Number of Persons acquitted—

2. In the Superior Courts,

1897.

1898.

1899.

1900.

24

19

49

54

10

17

5

73

18

10

12

*4-2

7

28

15

21

18

Registry, Supreme Court, Hongkong, 7th day of January, 1901.

J. W. NORTON KYSHE,

Registrar.

RETURN of CRIMINAL CASES that have been brought under the COGNIZANCE of the Supreme Court, during the last Ten Years.

Postponed.

Charges Abandoned.

YEAR.

Number Number

of

of Cases. Persons.

Convicted. Acquitted.

No. of Cases.

No. of Persons.

No. of Cases.

No. of Persons.

:

1891,

32

1892,

30

1893,

43

1894,

36

1895,

26

55585

37

26

9

2

2

44

18

17

4

57

33

16

44

21

17

6

39

23

9

-986N

...

...

Total,....

167

221

121

68

21

32

1

10

5

1896,

64

60

27

26

4

(a) 1897,

(b) 1898, 1899,

52

67

39

17

11

11

36

54

39

10

4

65

98

77

12

8

(e) 1900,

43

91

73

14

4

6119 H

1

1

5

4

..

Total,......

260

370

255

79

31

35

1

1

Average of 1st

Period,.... J

333/3

441

241

133

-

62/

}

1

..

Average of 2nd į

Period, ....

52

74

51

15素

61

7

11

O

a. In one case the recognizance estreated.

b. In two cases the recognizance estreated.

c. In two cases the recognizance estreated.

Registry, Supreme Court, Hongkong, 7th day of January, 1901.

J. W. NORTON KYSHE,

Registrar.

143

INDICTMENTS and INFORMATIONS in the SUPREME COURT of HONGKONG for the Year 1900.

Including Attempts and Conspiracies to commit the several offences.

Showing how the cases tried in the Superior Courts ended.

(Each Prisoner tried counts as a separate case; where a large number of Prisoners have been convicted together, the fact is mentioned in a note.)

Total.

Manslaughter.

Attempt at Murder.

Concealment of Birth.

Murder.

73

14

:

O

:

Judgment for the Crown,

Judgment for the Prisoners,

Prisoner found Insane,

Cases which fell through for want of prosecution or ab- sence of accused, and cases thrown out by the Grand Jury (Attorney General), ...

Cases postponed,

4

:

3

:

:

:

Rape.

Unnatural Crimes.

Robbery with Violence.

Other Offences against the Person.

Offences against Property.

Miscellaneous Offences.

Abortion.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

37

12

7

12

...

7

2

4

1

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

91

2

3

:

1

:

:

:

1

:

:

1

Ι

1

44

15

8

17

SENTENCE.

Charges

Cases

Abandoned. Postponed.

Registry, Supreme Court, Hongkong, 7th day of January, 1901.

J. W. NORTON KYSHE,

Registrar.

RETURN of CRIMINAL CASES tried in the SUPREME COURT of HONGKONG during the Year 1900.

Number of Cases tried.

Number of Persons tried.

CRIME.

12

Assault with intent to rob,

Attempting to commit the abominable crime of

buggery,

Being a member of an unlawful society, Bribery of a public servant,.

Demanding money with menaces,

Forgery,

Housebreaking and receiving stolen goods,

Importing counterfeit coins,

Larceny,

Larceny as a clerk,

Manslaughter,

Murder,

Obtaining money by false pretences,

1

1

:

:

:

:

Perjury,

Rape,

Robbery,

10

Robbery with violence,.

37

Throwing corrosive fluid with intent to burn,

HAD WONW: wwi NNN

Ni uni wii-p

-i ~Hi NN:

37

28

I

Unnatural offence,..

Women and Girls'

Protection Ordinance, 1890,

Offences under.....

1

حت

3

5

Wounding with intent to do grievous bodily harm,

:

J. W. NORTON KYSHE, Registrar.

43

87

71

14

2

:

59

10

28 4

4

Of 91 Persons

.87 were indicted.

Four were not indicted, which are included under the heading of "Charges Abandoned,” 4

91 Persons.

a. & b. In two cases the recognizance estreated.

Registry, Supreme Court, Hongkong, 7th day of January, 1901.

144

LIST of CHANGES in the Holders of Offices, and Appointments, Creation of New Offices, Changes in Salaries and Allowances in the Department of Supreme Court, during the Quarter ending 31st December, 1900.

Name of the Officer who

Office.

formerly held the appointment, and annual Salary.

Name of the Officer who is now appointed and annual Salary.

Assistant Land Officer.

New Appointment.

George Herbert Wakeman, $3,600.

Date of appointment, authority, and annual Salary.

14th September, 1900. C.S.O. 640 of 1900. $3,600.

If it is a new office, state date of such

appt. and annual Salary.

New appointment. 14th September, 1900. $3,600.

J. W. NORTON KYSHE,

Registrar.

Registry, Supreme Court, Hongkong, 7th day of January, 1901.

RETURN of ESTATE of INTESTATES for the Second Half-year ending 31st December, 1900. (Ordinance 3 of 1897 Section 28.)

Amonnt received on

Deductions for Disburse-

Account of

ments.

Balance on closing Account.

Disposal of Balance.

Estate.

$

C.

C.

C.

Charles Baines,

9.73

0.49

9.24

Paid into the Government

Treasury.

Mrs. M. L. M. Burke,

195.30

14.52

180.78

Do.

C. T. Dale,

40.99

4.05

36.94

Do.

F. D. Maclean,

179.42

12.72

166.70

Do.

...

Mrs. Emma Moore,

42,085.48

9,575.03

32,510.45

Do.

Malla Singh,

100.00

34.35

65.65

Do.

Jehangheer Hormusjee,

55.00

2.75

52.25

Do.

Jehangier Hormusjee,

55.00

2.75

52.25

Do.

B. M. Noorodin,

22.00

1.10

18.90

Do.

J. Umiashankar,

James Dodd,

F. Dittmann,

22.00

1:10

18.90

Do.

78.01

3.90

74.11

Do.

20.02

1.00

19.02

Do.

J. B. Plinston,

124.47

6.75

117.72

Do.

Veemin,

10.00

0.50

9.50

Do.

Kaiser Singh,

5.00

2.50

2.50

Do.

Niels Jargen Nielsen,

711.01

167.75

543.26

Do.

Wong Doch Shiu,.

374.50

18.73

355.77

Do.

Ruby Dwyer,..

375.62

74.25

301.37

Do.

Daniel Haywood,

298.77

73.75

225.02

Do.

Ebrahim Kahn,.....

4.02

4.02

Do.

Registry, Supreme Court, Hongkong, 7th day of January, 1901.

J. W. NORTON KYSHE,

Official Administrator-

439

22 No. 1901

HONGKONG.

RETURNS OF THE SUPREME COURT FOR THE YEAR 1900.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

RETURN of CIVIL and APPEAL CASES brought under the cognizance of the Supreme Court of Hongkong.

during the Year 1900.

CASES TRIED.

Judgment.

Settled

In Depend-

No. of

or

Debt

Debt

with-

JURISDICTION.

ency in

Cases

Total.

and

drawn

in

Damages..

before

and Damages recovered.

1899. 1900.

Trial.

Original,

54

91

145

Summary,

50

1,071

1,121

*$427,081.85

169,896.86 440

25

14

1 50

:

$46,738.29

361 37

10

147 76

61,125.91

* Not including two cases wherein the amounts claimed were £5,425 and £9,687.10.0 respectively.

Registry, Supreme Court, Hongkong, 21st March, 1901.

No. of Cases.

APPEALS COMMENCED.

1900.

APPEALS.

J. W. NORTON KYSHE,

Registrar.

APPEALS TRIED.

Judgment.

Judgment.

No. of Cases.

Appellant.

Res- pondent.

Pending. Withdrawn.

Appellant.

Res- pondent.

Pending. Withdrawn.

3

3

Registry, Supreme Court, Hongkong, 21st March, 1901.

فت

3

1

J. W. NORTOn Kyshe,

Registrar.

>

440

CALENDAR of PROBATE and ADMINISTRATION granted by the SUPREME COURT of HONGKONG during the Year 1900,

No.

Date of

Name of Testator or Intestate.

Time and Place of Death.

Grant.

Probate, Administration with the Will annexed, or Administration.

Value

Name and Description of the Executor or Administrator.

sword

under

1900.

1899

191 July 12 Chiu Mee Quan alías Chiu | 16th July, 1898, San Ui,

A Sien alias Chiu Tsz Kee

Probate,

China,

Chiu Kan alias Chiu Pat Kan alius Chin Shan Yan alias Chiu Kit U, one of the Executors,

17,000.00

123 Jan. 20 | Ku Kam Pan

1899

27th Aug., 1896, Heung

Shan, China,

Do..

Young Shi, lawful widow and relict and.

sole Executrix,

60,000.00

1899.

1859

12 Dec. 15

126 1899

22

Yeung Lai Shi.......

Granville Sharp

15th July, 1899, Hongkong. | Letters of Adm., Yeung Ming Shan, the lawful and natu-

"

16th Aug.. 1899, Norwich,

England,

Probate,

ral son, Edmund Hamilton Sharp, one of the

Executors,

200.00

1,080,000.00

Do.

Do..

Double Probate, | Sotheby Godfrey Bird, one of the Exe-

cutors,

Do.

Probate,

1900.

July 12

Feb. 27 Ling Tow alias Ling A Tow. 16th Aug., 1899, Pun U,

China,

1900 Jan. 13 Edward Ford Duncanson... 17th Apr., 1899. Kent,

2 Feb. 28 Wong Kwan Tong alias

Wong Quan Tong

3 Jan. 18 Alexander Morrison

+

11 Cheang U Tin

5

11 | Cheung Hoi

G

10 Bunt Singh

D

:)

>>

9

10

11

:>

12

A

30 Leong Tak......

20 Lam Tsoi alias Lam Tak

Kwong

22 Hans Waldemar Schmidt ...

30 Chung Pong alias Chung

Put Chiu

30 Lo Sing Luen

30

13 Feb. 16

1818

Reginald Grey Turner

Yeung Yan Po....... John Ambrose Clarke..

14 Donald Fraser

14

5

:

15

16

13

Pow Shee

17

16

18

***

16

19

37

20

A

Fan Hok To......... Richard Daniel Jones...

21 Delfino de Noronha

21 Charles Holmes

21 Mar. 6 John Whitehead

22 Feb. 26 Claudia Compaguotti..........

England,

17th May, 1899. Shun Tak,

China,

20th May, 1899, Inverness,

Scotland,

26th Oct., 1887, Cantón,

3rd Jan., 1900, Hongkong, 20th Oct., 1899, Hongkong,

26th Sept., 1893, Shun Tak, 22nd Feb., 1900, Hongkong,

10th Oct., 1899, London,

14th Dec., 1899, Hongkong,

6th June, 1899, Heung

Shan,

17th Nov., 1889, Manila,

6th Sept., 1889, An Hui, 26th Dec., 1899, Hongkong,

9th June, 1897, Kobe, 30th Mar., 1898, Macao, 15th Mar., 1895, Nam Hoi, 29th Nov., 1899, at sea,

6th Feb., 1900, Hongkong,

6th Sept, 1899, Macao,

2nd June, 1899. Hainan, 30th Jan.. 1900, Hongkong.

23

26 Kwan Hoi Chuen

22nd Aug., 1899, Hongkong.

21

25

28 Jocelyn Antonio Gutierrez... 28th Jan.. 1900, Hongkong,

28 Francis Norman Firth

26

28

Ip Tsz Fong

27 Apr. 11 Pang Ling...

28 Mar.

9 Robert John Stainton......

29

30

31

32

33

:

16

Lai Chi San

20

Edward Burnie

11th Dec. 1899, Mounthill,

Kent, England,

12th Dec., 1899, Hongkong, 10th Feb., 1900, Ho Nam,

Canton.

Letters of Adm. with Exem- plification of Probate of the Will and Codicil

..unexed, Probate,

Ling Ying Cho alias Ling Cho and Ling Choi Cho alias Ling Tsoi, the Exe- cutors.

Alexander George Wood. Attorney of Thomas Jones Gibb Duncanson, Eli- zabeth Oliver, and Joseph Wingyett Hunt, the Executors.

Letters of Adm., Cheang Leung Shi, the lawful widow

Probate,

Letters of Adm., | James William Norton-Kyshe, Official

17,000.00

45,000.00

Wong Lut Wan, sole Executor,

3,700,00

Do..

Patrick Duncan Mactavish and Alex-

ander James Stewart, the Executors..

8,117.65

and relict,

900.00

Cheung Lin Tai, one of the Executors,

132,000.00

Administrator,

150.00

Do., Probate,

Leong Kit, natural and lawful brother,.. Lam Tak Wai, sole Exccutor,

10,000.00

400.00

Do.,

Willian Harwood, the surviving Exe.

cutor,

4,110.00

Do..

Letters of Adm. with the Will annexed, Probate,

Chung Ip Cho, the Executor,

1,500.00

| Lo Kam Fung, Lo Pong and Lo Tim,

the sole next of kin and grandsons,

10,000.00

John Thomas Macleod, one of the Exe-

cutors...

5,000.00

Yeung Yau Kwai, the Executor,.

75,000.00

300.00

Probate, Do., Do..

600.00

Ng Cheung, sole Executor,

51,000.00

Fan Chan Shi, sole Executrix.....

300.00

Letters of Adm.,

James William Norton-Kyshe. Official

Administrator,

400.00

Probate,

Do.,

Letters of Adm., | James William Norton-Kyshe, Official

Administrator,

John Hall, the Executor.

Henrique Lourenço Noronha, Leonardo

Noronha, José Pedro Braga, and An- | tonio Joaquim Basto, Executors,

Letters of Adm. | George Alonzo Derby, Attorney of George

with the Will C. Blethen, the Executor,

annexed,

Do., Letters of Adm.,

Probate,

Letters of Adm.,

Letters of Adm.

with Exem- plification of Probate of the Will annexed, Probate, Do.,

Henry Whitehead, Administrator, Luigi Maria Piazzoli. Bishop of Clazo- mené, holding the Ecclesiastical Ap- pointment of "The Vicar Apostolic of the Roman Catholic Church in hongkong."

Kwan Luk Shi and Kwan Foug Kuk, the

Executrix and the Executor,.. Mathilde Maria Gutierrez, the lawful

widow and relict..

John Charles Peters, Attorney of Ella

Denoon Firth, sole Executrix,

Ip Sai On, one of the Executors.. Pang Ho shi the Executrix.... .

15th May, 1898, Yokohama, | Letters of Adm., | Herbert Johnson Gedge, Attorney of Fran-

Japan,

cis Charles Stamton, Sibbria Julia Grey, Adeline Matilda Osborne, Cle- mentina Stainton, Emily Stainton, Winifred Mary Robinson and Ethel Blanche Roberta Marshall, natural and lawful brother and sisters, James William Norton-Kyshe, Official

Administrator,

138,500.00

5,900,00

3,800.00

100.00

18,500.00

150.00

26,200.00

7,500.00 1,500.00

2,600.00

Do.,

Do.. Probate,

Lai Hok Po, natural and lawful son, Janet Burnie, William Joshua Saunders, and Francis Maitland, three of the Executors, ...

5,000.00 8.600.00

132,400.00

1,000.00

17,500.00

::

9 Thomas Charles Shepherd... 7th Nov.. 1899, Hongkong,

29 Annie Giffen Buyers

June 22 Tsang Tsun Fat alius Tsang

Shiu Ting

11th Feb., 1900, Tung Koon. 11th Feb., 1900, Hongkong,

26th Aug.. 1899, Chiefoo,

4th July, 1899, Hongkong,

Do.. Letters of Adm. with the Will annexed,

William Bowie Buyers, the Executor, Tsang Fai Pang alias Tsang Fo Kwai,

natural and lawful son.

Date No. of

Grant.

1900.

441

CALENDAR of PROBATE and ADMINISTRATION,- -Continued.

Name of Testator or Intestare.

Time and Place of Death.

Probate, Administration with the Will annexed, or Administration.

Name and Description of the Executor or Administrator.

Value

sworn

under

$

C.

Probate, Do.,

Im Chu Shan, the Executor.

2,300.00

Leung Wong Shi and Lau A Ngan, the

Executrixes,

13,000.00

·Do.,

Fung Kong Un, the Executor.

27,700.00

Li Wong Shi, the lawful widow and

relict.

1,100.00

Harold Kennard Holmes, one of the na-

tural and lawful children,

18,600.00

Lo Kwan Tong

Leung Chung alias Leung

Lai Ching

Fung Tang alias Fung Pat

Hing

|

7th Sept, 1899, at sea,

18th Feb., 1900, Canton,

34 Apr. 11

35 Mar. 30

36

30

26th Feb., 1900, Kau Kong,

China,

37 Apr.

38

4 Henry James Homes

3rd Dec., 1899, Hongkong,

Li Yik Loong

10th Dec., 1899, Hengkong, | Letters of Adın.,

Letters of Adm. with the Will annexed limited to the getting in and protection of the estate, the payment of debts and the delivery over of the estatej to the repre- sentative of Mrs. Jeanie Foster Holmes, Probate,

39

24

Cheung Tseung Kat alias 15th Sept., 1899, Hongkong,

Cheung Kwong

Li Shui Ping, the Executrix,

2,000.00

40

**

9 Angus Campbell

20th Oct., 1899, Sydney,

Letters of Adm. with the Will

James William Norton-Kyshe, Official

Administrator,

1,400.00

and Codicil

annexed,

41

42

7 | Alexander Lawson Walker.

10 James John Clerihew......

31st Mar., 1900, Hongkong,

Letters of Adm., | James Walker, the lawful and natural

brother,

1,000.00

3rd Apr., 1900, Hongkong,

43 May 14

2

**

11

Tsang Yee Mui Cheong Yow Po and.

Chicong Chan Shi

45 Apr. 20 Bertie Waiter Morrell

July, 1891, Penang, 27th Feb., 1886, Hongkong,

6th Mar., 1900, Hongkong.

11th Mar., 1900. Hongkong, Presumably on or about

Do.,

Probate.

Ursulina Clerihew, the lawful widow and

relict,

100.00

Tsang Foo, the Executor,

2,600.00

Cheong A Kai, their lawful and natural

Letters of Adm.,

SOIL

4,000.00

Do..

James William Norton-Kyshe, Official

Administrator,

4,000.00

46

20

John C. Smith.

5th May, 1900, at sea,

Do.,

Do..

500.00

47

20

Leung Shun Ting

14th Mar., 1900, Hongkong,

Do.,

Leung Lun Sui and Lenng Ming Sui, the

natural and lawful sons...

7,000.00

48 May 2 Vallancey Robinson

6th Oct., 1899, at sea,

Do.,

James William Norton-Kysle, Official

Administrator.

350.00

49

50

5

2 Ng Ching Yau

Wong Ka Sui alias Wong |

Sut alias Wong Chun Tong alias Wong Fuk Yu

3 Fook Sing alias Lau Sz 24th Mar., 1900, at sea.

Choi alias Lau Hon Sang

10th Apr., 1900, at sea, 27th Nov., 1899, Chiu Chow,

Kwong Tung, China,

Do.. Probate,

Do..

200.00

Wong Sui Ham, one of the Executors.

68,500.00

51

"

Letters of Adm., Lau Hon Chun, the lawful and natural

brother,

200.00

52

3

Henry Liston Dalrymple

2nd Apr., 1900, Hongkong,

58

8 Fernanda Trinidad........

17th Nov., 1899, Manila,

Do.,

Letters of Adm. with the Exem- plification of the

James William Norton-Kyshe. Official

Administrator,

17,000.00

José Maria Basa, Attorney of Don Esco- lastico Fernandez Simon, sole Exe- cutor,

23,400.00

Will annexed,

5+

55

15

::

Siu Chi alias Sin Kwong | 23rd Apr., 1900, Hongkong,

Ip

Probate,

Sin Wing Han, the Executor,

13,000.00

**

29

Tong Ku Chun alias Tsun

Shiu Tong

12th Oct., 1898, Canton,

7,500.00

56

:

16

Studholm Brownrigg Terry.

6th Apr., 1900, Hongkong,

57

""

23

Fung Yuk Cho......

19th Oct., 1899, Hongkong,

ros

Probate,

James William Norton-Kyshe, Official

Administrator,

800.00 15,000,00

58 June 9

Fan U Wei alias Fan Che 26th Nov.. 1877, Nam Hoi,

alias U Wei

Yuen Cheuk Hing alias

Yuen Pik Wan Chan On alias Chan Hi Tai alias Chan Yau Ting alias Chan Ngok Sheung

Hung Hau Poo

59 May 23

60

26

61 July 21

62

28 Chiu Shing Wai

63 June

1 Jean Le Borgne

64

1 U In

65

= 28 38

66 Nov.

8 Edward William Batt

Charles Smith Sherwood

67 June 4 Claude Edmund Romanet alias Edmund Romanet

15th Dec., 1897, Canton,

Letters of Adm., | Tong Chiu Ki alias Tong In Lui. one of

the lawful and natural sous..

Letters of Adm. with the Will annexed

Fung Yik, the Executor.

Fan Chan Shi. the lawful widow and

relict,

Chan Ki alias Chan Chiu Fung, the Exe-

cutor.

Letters of Adm., Hung Chi Po, the cldet natural and

lawful son,

26th Feb., 1900, at sea,

(de bonis non), Letters of Adm.,

Yuen Lau Shi, the lawful widow and

relict.

300.00

11th Feb., 1900, Canton,

Probate,

145,100.00

5,700.00 500.00

10,000.00

250.00

4.700.00

7,500.00

20th Sept., 1896, San Ui, 15th May, 1900, Hongkong,

9th May, 1900, Hongkong, 28th Dec., 1899, Brighton,

England,

9th Aug., 1899, Broughty

Ferry, Scotlandl,

17th Jan., 1897, Sennecey Le Grand, France,

Probate.

Letters of Adm.. James William Norton-Kyshe. Official

Probate, Do.,

Do..

Chiu Yuk Kwong, the Executor..

Administrator,

U Sin, the Executor,

Ellis Elias and Thomas Smith. the Exc-

cutors,..

Robert Valentine Scroggie, David Brand and Robert Shepherd, the Executors,.

Letters of Adm., | Alfred Parker Stokes, Attorney of C'haries

Richard Wehrung and Paul Albert Schlumberger, the representatives of Lucie Romanet, sole and single in- heritor,

68

28 Lap Fun alias Lau Foon

69

""

Lam Ching Wan

70

4 Tsun Cho

""

71

9 Cheung Cheong Ming......

25th June, 1899, Heung

Shan, China,

5th Mar., 1899, Canton, 8th May, 1900, Pun U, 27th June, 1899, Fat Shan,

1,900.00

Probate,

Li Nang and Li Ki, the Executors..

46,800.00

Do., Do., Letters of Adm.,

Lam Chong Wan, the Excentor,

28.500.00

Tsun Cheuk Wing, the Executor,....... Cheung Chan Shi, the lawful widow and

400.00

relict,

500.00

442

Date

No.

of i Grant.

CALENDAR of PROBATE and ADMINISTRATION,— -Continued.

Name of Testator or Intestate.

Time and Place of Death.

Probate, Administration with the Will annexed, or Administration.

Name and Description of the Executor or Administrator.

Value

sworn under

*

1900.

72 June 9

Mary Tang Shi

14th Apr., 1900, Hongkong, |

-73

England,

74

30 Carl Dietrich Wilhelm Beur-

1st Dec, 1899, Hanover,

mann

75

22 Nicol Moncur

76

29 Albert Smith

30th May, 1899, at sea,

1st Apr., 1900, at sea.

77

28 Adolphe Endtner

10th Dec., 1899, Switzer-

land,

$

79

3 Chan Kwok Shi...

D

5th May, 1900, Kwai Sin.

25 Charles Frederick Harton... 10th Mar., 1900, Middlesex,

Letters of Adm., John Joseph Liu A-Yee, the lawful hus-

band,

Frobate,

Letters of Adm. with the Will annexed, Letters of Adm.,

Letters of Adm. with the Will annexed, Letters of Adm.,

78 July 28 William Shephard Wetmore. 28th May, 1898, New York, Letters of Adm.

Henry Francis Robert Brayne, Attorney

of Anna Cryder Wetmore, the Exe- cutrix.....

Chau Yung and Chan Yeung, the Exe-

cutors,.

500.00

William Henry Harton, one of the Exe-

cutors.

28,800.00

Ernest Goetz, Attorney of Margarethe

Buermann ncé Grobrugge, the lawful widow and relict,

17,000.00

Charles Wedderburn Dickson, Attorney

of Nicol Moncur, the father, Herbert Johnson Gedge. Attorney of Mary Sutherland Smith, the Executrix,.

11,100.00

2,400.00

Herbert Johnson Gedge, Attorney of Marie Krauss Endtner, the lawful widow and relict.

58,400.00

with the Will

annexed,

2,800 00

Probate,

4,700.00

80 June 28

Anna Josefa Carneiro de 10th Mar., 1900, Macao,

Lecaroz

Do..

Juan Lecaroz, the universal heir,

200.00

81 July

Chui Tsz alias Chui Chung

Fan alias Chui Wing Fung alias Chui Chup Sam.

6th May, 1900, Heung.

Shan, China,

Do..

Chui Tsung Fat, one of the Executors.

20,600.00

82

83

??

Abdool Razak Madar

13 Thomas Shelford....

9th June, 1900, Hongkong,

Do..

Ismail Pillay Madar and Wei A-Yuk, the

Executors,

6,100.00

12th Jan, 1900, Guildford,

England,

Do..

Jessie Fullarton Shelford. i eonard Ed- mund Shelford, Allan Fullarton Baird and William Heard Shelford, the Executors,

8,300.00

84

12 Frederick Dallas Barnes

30th Nov., 1899, Kent.

England,

. Do..

Marion Barnes and James Philip Barnes,

es

998 Sama

86

9

Moses Papier

11

89

11

>>

90

11

11

23

92 July 12

93

11

Thomas Hore

Ho Tai

11 Mary Louisa Moore-Burke...

91 Aug. 14

Thomas Brown.. Li Yuk

Kwok Yu

Ho Tak On alias Ho Cheuk Ting alias Ho Cheong Luk

12 Hon Chun Yue

19th June, 1900, Hongkong, 1st July, 1900, Hongkong, 30th June, 1898, Pun U,

3rd May, 1900, Hoi How,

22nd June, 1900, Hongkong,

7th Feb., 1900, San Ui. 11th June, 1885, Hongkong, 6th Nov., 1899, Nam Hoi,

China,

26th May, 1900, at sea,

Letters of Adm, | Ho Pui Tong, one of the lawful and na-

Hon Wong Shi. the lawful widow and

Do.,

Annetta Papier, sole Executrix,

Do..

Do..

Letters of Adm.,

the Executors.

Maria Antonia da Silva. sole Executrix,,

Ho Wong Shi, the Executrix,

James William Norton-Kyshe. Official

Administrator.

125,800.00

2,800.00

500.00

2,000.00

200.00

Do., Do..

Do..

300.00

Frobate,

Li Ng Shi, the lawful widow and relict.. Leong Tai, the natural and lawful son,

5,000.00

1,600.00

tural sons.

35,000.00

Do.,

relict,

800.00

94

28

Fung Ming Shan olias Fung | 15th Nov., 1898, Canton,

Do.,

Fung Tam Shee, the lawful widow and

5

95

3

23

Chew Tsung Sau...

relict,

21,500.00

16th June, 1894, Hongkong,

Do.,

Tsung Hung Shi, the lawful widow and

relict,

2,000.00

96 Sept. 7

Wong Chan Shi .....

97 July 23

7th Dec., 1899, Hongkong, Humphrey Walter Richards | 30th June, 1900, at sea,

Probate.

Wong A-Ting, sole Executrix.

18,000.00

Letters of Adm.

Chan Leong Shi, guardian of Chan

(durante minore

Ching,

9.500.00

æstate).

198

20 Emma Moore

:

6th Jan, 1900, Brixton,

England,

99 Sept. 24

100 July 23

Tsang Kon Shan

Leung Wai Pang...

2nd June, 1900, Hongkong,

23rd July, 1899, Nam Hoi,

China,

101 Aug. 10 Lau

Tseang alias Chong

Lau

102 July 27 Robert John King

103 Sept. 19 Martha Vicencia de Noro-

nha

26th May, 1900, San Ning,

China, 25th July, 1899, Sydney,

N.S.W.

2nd Feb., 1900, Macao,

Letters of Adm. | James William Norton-Kyshe, Official

with the Will annexed, Letters of Adm..!

Letters of Adm. with the Will annexed (de bonis non), Probate.

Do..

Lucy Eliza King, George Chatfield King, Frank Edwin Dixon and Charles Stuart King, the Executrix and Exe-

cutors.

Letters of Adm., | Agostinho Guilberme Romano, Attorney of Theclo Francisco d'Azevedo, Lucio Galdino d'Azevedo, João Francisco d'Azevedo and Francisco Maria Xa- vier de Souza, the next of kin. James Duke Monro and George Gordon

Administrator.

28,500.00

Tsang Tang Shi, the lawful widow and

relict.

500.00

Leong Kwok Shi and Leong Ngan shi,

sole heneficiaries.

3,900.00

Lau Lam, the Executor.

113,600.00

1,400.00

3,000.00

Alfred Edward Wrottesley

104 Aug.

105

"

106

107 108

3 Harry Douglas Monro

7 Joseph Jaques ..........

10

>;

Aurelius Holmes

10 Lum Pang Po

13

109 Sept. 5

110 Aug. 13

lil

21

Tong Fook Siew alias Tong

Fuk Shan

Stephen William Goggin Tsang Nam Shan alias Tsang Tse Sheung alias Tsang Shau

112 Sept. 14 Ong Ka Tiong

Died at sea,

23rd July, 1900, Hongkong, 21st July, 1900, Ho Nam,

Canton,

7th July, 1899, Cholon.

Cochin-China,

Letters of Adm. with the Will annexed,

1st Sept., 1899, Standa-

lane, Peebles, Scotland, 23rd Jan., 1900, Leaming- ton Spa, England, 15th July, 1900, Macao, 21st July, 1900, Hongkong, 26th Oct., 1899, at sea,

Probate,

Monro, the Executors,

2,100.00

·Do..

Sarah Jaques, sole Executrix.

629.400.00

Do..

George Hoyes, sole Executor,

20,000.00

Do..

Lum Wong Shi, sole Executrix,

27,200.00

Do.,

Charles Rowland Haydock Hill and Ar-

thur James Taylor, the Executors,

3,300.00

Letters of Adm., | Tong Chin Chiu, the lawful and natural

son,

15,000.00

Probate, Do..

Margaret Goggin, sole Executrix,

6,300,00

Tsang Man Shi, sole Executrix,

9,800.00

Un Lai Chun, Attorney of Tan Ho Seng and Tan Yow Wee, the Executors,

156,100.00

CALENDAR of PROBATE and ADMINISTRATION,—Continued.

443

No.

Date of

Name of Testator or Intestate.

Time and Place of Death.

Grant.

Probate, Administration with the Will annexed, or Administration.

Name and Description of the Executor or Administrator.

Value

sworn under

C.

13th May, 1900, Canton,

121

""

122 123

19

19

20

124 Nov. 6

125 Oct. 25

20 Li I

20 Li Tun Fuk

20 | Chu Sz

Wong Sam

Li Kwan Fong alias Li

Ying Foo George Herbert Townsend...

24th July, 1897, Hongkong, 26th Nov., 1890, Hongkong, 30th Nov., 1894, Hongkong,

17th June, 1900, Hongkong,

24th Oct., 1899, Hongkong,

8th Oct., 1883, Hongkong, 13th Aug., 1900, Hongkong, 29th May, 1899, Hongkong,

8th Feb., 1900, Bombay,

1900.

113 Aug. 30| Li Un alias Li Woon alias 17th June, 1900, Sun Ning,

Li Wun 114 Sept. 4 Lee Yuen

4 Lo Tsz Chung

115

3

Lee Yau

11

116

"

117

20

Lam Sz

118

19

Li Fuk

119

19

Lai Sz

,,

120

""

Probate,

China, 18th May, 1900, Sun Chow, | Letters of Adm., 28th June, 1900, Canton,

Do.,

Li Sheung, the Executor,

Lam Fun, the lawful daughter-in-law, Lee Yeung Shi, the lawful widow and

relict.

Lo Man Leung and Lo Man Chong, the

Executors,

2,000,00

10,900.00

300.00

Probate,

39,000.00

Letters of Adm.,

Do., Do..

Lam Yau, the lawful and natural son. Li Lok Shi, the lawful widow and relict,.i Lai Cheung Shi, the lawful widow and

relict.

350.00

900,00

600,00

Do..

Li A-Fook, one of the lawful and natural

children,..

400.00

Do..

Li Chan Shi, the lawful widow and re-

lict,

1,300.00

Do.,

Do.,

Do..

Chu Fat, the lawful and natural son,.. Wong Loy, the fawful and natural son.......... Li Loi, the lawful and natural son,

150.00

700.00

700.00

8,200.00

126 Sept. 20 Ng Ching Yow..

24 Kwan Sut Wai

127

*:

128 Oct. 13 Arthur Anderson....

129

130

*

1 Francisco Antonio

meida

2 John Chalmers

Letters of Adm. with the Exem- plification of the Probate of the Will annexed. Letters of Adm.,

Probate,

John Charles Peter, Attorney of Alfred

Markham Townsend, the Executor,...

12th Apr., 1900, at sea.

3rd July, 1900, Canton,

16th Oct., 1900, Chefoo,

Ng Lam Shi, the lawful widow and re-

lict.

300.00

Kwan Fung Chiu and Kwan Fung Kam,

the Executors,

5,000.00

Letters of Adm. with the Will annexed,

Edward Jenner Hogg, the Administrator,

1,710.00

Letters of Adm., | Simplicio Antonio d'Almeida, next of kin,

9,000.00

Probate.

Frederick Samuel Augustus Bourne, At-

1.500.00 14,400.00

d'Al- 28th Apr., 1900, Macao,

131

??

132

"2

8 Charles William Baird 18 Henry Liston Dalrymple

22nd Nov., 1899, Chemulpo,

26th Dec., 1899, London,

2nd Apr., 1900, Hongkong,

Do.. Letters of Adm.,

133

22 José Maria de Outeiro

11th Aug., 1900, Macao,

Do..

134

135

6 Charles Pentney Skinner

24 Albert Croad

27th Sept., 1900, Hongkong.

29th Dec., 1899, Bedford,

Do.,

Letters of Adm. with the Will anncred.

136

24 Chung Ah Sam

137

31 Felismina Paschoa da Cu- 26th May, 1899, Macao,

nha das Neves e Souza

13th June, 1900, Hongkong, Letters of Adm.

(durante minore

138 Nov. 6 Prosper Giquel alias Prosper 19th Feb., 1886. Cannes,

Marie Giquel

139 Oct. 19 Chan Kun Shau

140

29

30 Chan Yuk Tong alias Chan

Cho

141 Nov. 1 João Antonio da Costa

142 Oct. 29 Catharino Manuel do Rozario

France,

29th Oct., 1899, Tsai Pin,

China.

Sth Sept., 1900, Sai Chiu,

China,

14th Feb., 1900, Macao,

æstate),

torney of John Alexander Chalmers, sole Executor,

Allen Fullarton Baird, Executor, William Liston Dalrymple, Administra- tor,-Letters of Administration grant- ed to the Official Administrator on the 3rd May, 1900, having been re- voked,.. José da Silva, Attorney of Antonio José d'Arriaga Brum da Silveira, Barbara Maria d'Arriaga Fonseca, Maria Del- fina de Outeiro e Silva, and Sophia Ricardina de Outeiro e Silva, the law- ful next of kin....

Elizabeth Anne Skinner, the lawful widow

and relict. William Henry Poate, Attorney of Frc- derick Edgar Wilkinson, the Exe- cutor, Liu Kun Mui, the lawful mother and guardian of Chan Chun Fat, Chan Ying Fat and Chan King Fat, grand- sons of the deceased,

Letters of Adm., | Agostinho Guilherme Romano, Attorney of José Ribeiro and Leonél Cardoso, guardians of Emilia Adelaida das Neves e Souza,

2,600.00

200.00

25,100.00

1,300.00

4,000.00

Letters of Adm. with the Will annexed,

Marie Anne Elizabeth de Rougé, the lawful daughter and Residuary Le- gatee,

8,610.00

Letters of Adm.,

Chan Un Man, the lawful and natural

son,

Do.,

Chan Un To, the lawful and natural son..

6,850.00 250.00

Do..

5th June, 1896, Hongkong,

Do..

143

29 John Braithwaite Plinston

144 Nov. 13 Chiu Tsoi Wan 145

A

2 Chan Heung Chow.... 5 Li Sing alius Yuk Hang 2 Francis David Maclean.

...

146

22

147

148

""

2 Malla Singh

149

>>

10 U Ting Kwan

150

""

151

11

7 Leong Loi Kam 29 Li Wong Kiu

152 Dec. 6 Margaret Nolan

20th Oct., 1900, Hongkong,

22nd Nov., 1899. San Ui,

1st Oct., 1900, Shun Tak, Sth May, 1900, Hongkong, 7th Aug., 1900, Hongkong,

12th Sept., 1900, Hongkong, 15th Oct., 1900, Hongkong,

13th Apr., 1900, Hongkong, 1st July, 1900, Hongkong,

Do.,

Probate, Letters of Adm.. Probate, Letters of Adm.,

Chiu Nang Kin, sole Executor, Chan Au Shi, the lawful widow and relict, Li Ling Shi, the Executrix,

4th July, 1900, Hongkong, Letters of Adm., Nicholas George Nolan and Thomas Alex-

Ernesto Francisco do Rozario, attorney of Maria Anna da Costa Siqueira and Constança Leocadia da Rocha, the natural and lawful sister, William Frederick Gardner, guardian of José Libanio Emanuel do Rozario and Maria Vicencia do Rozario, the lawful and natural children. James William Norton-Kyshe, Official

Administrator,

1,700.00

1,500.00

250.00

900.00

9.200.00

220,000.00

James William Norton-Kyshe, Official

Administrator,

180.00

Do., Probate,

Do.,

100.00

Do.,

Do.,

Ho Shi, U Ting Kam and Ho Kwan Nam,

the Executrix and Executors, Wong A-Mi, sole Executrix,...... Cheung Li Shi and Li Chan Shi, the

Executrixes,

2.500.00

500,00

3,700.00

ander Nolan, the lawful and natural sons,

4,000.00

444

CALENDAR of PROBATE and ADMINISTRATION, -Continued.

No.

Date of

Name of Testator or Intestate.

Time and Place of Death.

Grant.

Probate, Administration with the Will annexed, or Administration.

Value

Name and Description of the Executor or Administrator.

sworn

under

C.

1900.

153 Nov. 20| Li Kam alias Li A Kum

4th Oct., 1900, Hongkong,

Probate,

Leung Lok Shang, sole Executor, -

182,000.00

alias Li Mni alias Lec A Moey alias Leung Kwai

154

20 | Cheng Sum Tsung

13th Ang., 1900, Canton,

Letters of Adm., Cheng Hing Hin, the lawful and natural

son,

500.00

155

29 | William Harry Jackson................[

156

29 | Woo Man Po

157 Dec.

Ng Kwai Shang

158

*

15 Lo King U

139

160

161

::

22 Ling Ku Ting

10 Daniel Haywood.........................

1st Oct., 1900, Hongkong,

15th Apr., 1881, Saigon,

20th Nov., 1900, Hongkong,

1st Nov., 1900, Canton,

26th Jan., 1899, Pun U, 19th Nov., 1900, Hongkong,

Do..

James William Norton-Kyshe, Official

Administrator,

250.00

Do.,

Wong Woo Shi, the lawful and natural

daughter

1,000.00

Do..

Probate,

Ho Yow Tsol, the lawful widow and re-

lict,

1,500.00

Leung Yau Po and Lui Kwan Po, the

Executors.

50,300.00

Letters of Adm., Do.,

Ling Chap Hin, the next of kin, James William Norton-Kyshe, Official

Administrator,

550.00

1,600.00

10

Niels Jargen Nielsen alias | 31st Oct., 1900, Hongkong,

Nil Nielsen

Do.,

Do..

800.00

162

8

Aileen Cameron alias Laura | 12th Nov., 1900, Hongkong,

Do..

Do.,

1,000.00

Montfort

163

8

Ruby Dwyer

15th Nov., 1900, Hongkong,

164

14

Wong Yiu Yik.....

14th Sept., 1900, Hongkong,

Do.. Probate,

Do..

500.00

165

13

Arthur William Upton

166

18 Samuel Brown...

A

29th Jan., 1899, Reno County, U.S.A.

15th May, 1900, Hongkong, | Letters of Adm.,

Do.,

Wong Hi Kwai, sole Executor,

James William Norton-Kyshe, Official

Administrator,

Victor Herbert Deacon, Attorney of Alfred Brown, the natural and lawful bro- ther,

6,000.00

100.00

167

20 Jose Maria Sebastino Ma- | 31st Oct., 1900, Manila,

chado alias Jose Maria Sebastian Machado

Do..

Felippe José Machado, father.

1,400.00 1,000.00

168

28 Wong Doch Shui alias Wong 9th June, 1896, at sea,

Do..

Tak Shan

James William Norton-Kyshe, Official

Administrator,

400.00

Registry, Supreme Court, Hongkong, 14th February, 1901.

J. W. NORTON-KYSHE, Registrar.

¡

HONGKONG.

445

No. 23

1901

RETURNS OF THE SUBORDINATE COURT FOR THE YEAR 1900.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of

His Excellency the Governor.

3

446

TOTAL

TOTAL

NUMBER

OF

NUMB R

OF

CASES.

PRISON-

ERS.

14,081

Convicted

pue

Punished.

ABSTRACT of CASES under COGNIZANCE of the POLICE MAGISTRATES' COURT during the Year 1900.

CASES, HOW DISPOSED of, and the Number of Male AND FEMALE PRISONERS UNDER EACH HEAD,

Discharged.

Committed

for Trial at

the

Supreme

Court.

Committed

M. F.

M.

F.

M. F.

16,696 13 149

501 2,416 235 131

5

LO

to Prison, or

De ained

Orders

pending

of H E. the

Governor.

M. F.

11

Ordered to find Security.*

To keep the

Peace.

To be

of good

Reha-

viour.

To

answer

conded.

Abs-

Witnesses

punished for preferring False Charge or giving

Testimony.

wilful False

Undecided.

Total Number

of Prisoners.

WRITS ISSUED BY THE POLICE MAGISTRATES DURING THE YEAR 1900.

Arrest.

Distress.

Warrants.

ΤΟΤΑΙ

TOTAL

NUMBER

OF IRE ENQUIRIES

HELD

DURING THE YEAR 1900.

any

M. F.

M:

F.

Charge

M.

M. M.

F.

M.

F.

M.

F.

152

20❘ 49

10

1

13

3 77

815,932 764

5,174

67

1

111 30 1,522

210

2

7,117

1

...

16,696

TOTAL MALES AND FEMALES,

Consisting of Offenders not sentenced to Imprisonment.

THE CASES CONSISTED OF:

447

OFFENCES.

Arms and Ammunition Ordinance, 9 of 1900,—

Ammunition-Being in possession of,

Arms-Carrying or having possession of, without a li.

cence.

-Selling to unauthorised persons,

2)

- Dealing in, without a licence,

11

"

and Ammuniti n for removal-\ot labelling, ...

1.

chasers,.

و,

Sale Book-Failing to enter the names of pur-

-Removing without permit,

Bribery and Certain other Misdemeanors Punishment

Ordinance, 3 of 1898,-

Offering or accepting a bribe by a public servant, Banishment and Conditional Pardons Ordinance, 8 of

1882,-

Banishment-Returning after,

Board of Ship Liquor Sale Ordinance, 18 of 1886,– Spirituous Liquors. Selling on board Ships.

Building Ordinances, 15 of 1889, 25 of 1891, 7 of 1895, and

11 of 1898,-

No. of CASES.

NO. OF

PRI SONERS.

OFFENCES.

NO. OF CASES.

XO. OF PRI-

SONERS.

Brought forward,

1,503

1,527

11

12

110

120

1

1

Defences Sketching Prevention Ordin nce, 1 of 1895.-

Battery or Fort - Entering, or found in the imme. diate vicinity thereof, with sketching instru- ment,

te

3

1

22

22

92

12

13

2122

Dogs Ordinance. 9 of 1893 and 4 of 1899,

Dogs Unlicensed keeping of,

Extradition Acts of 1870 and 1873,

Offences under,

Forgery Ordinance, 6 of 1865

10

98

98

2

14

15

Forged instruments-Obtaining goods or money by,...! Forged documents - Uttering, with intent to defraud: Forging,

1

Forts Prot ction Ordin nce. 10 of 1891,-

31

31

Batter, Fieldwork, or Fortification-Entering with-

out a written permit.

3

Fugitive Offenders Act, 1881,—

2

Offences under,

1

1

Gambling Ordinance, 7 of 1891

Breach of Regulations made under-By allowing

matsbed latrine in a dirty condition,

Common Gaming House-Keeping, or playing in, Lotteries - Dealing in,

115

1,272

19

20

»

12

12

Street Gambling,

252

252

Blasting stones to the danger of Persons and Pro-

perty,

Watchmen to Street Gamblers-Acting as,

4

16

16

Lotteries announcing the result of.

2

Cutting earth, or turf. and extracting stones from

Crown Land,...

Good Order and

leanliness Ordinance. 14 of 1845,

71

71

Animals-Cruelty to,

15

Drain-Connecting, with the Government Main

Bonfire-Making

Sewer without obtaining a permit,

2

2

Breach of the Peace,

40

41

Ground Surface-Failing to concrete,

91

91

Cattle turned loose on public ways,

Hoardings and Scaffoldings-Neglecting to erect

during repair of Buildings,

Disorderly behaviour,

671

1,201

10

10

Inflammable Structures-Erecting, without permis-

Dogs-Allowing unmuzzled ferocious, to be at large,. Domestic Servants- Misconduct as,...

11

sion of the Director of Public Works,

15

15

Plans of Building-Neglecting to submit, to the

Director of Public Works,

Firearms-Discharging, to the danger of the Public, Furious driving,

༢ 1}

48

48

55

Privy-Not having proper ventilation of,

Indecent exposure of person by bathing, or other-

wise,

10

་་

Encroachment on Crown Land, .

Ruinous, and Dangerous Condition,

Cattle Diseases Ordinance, 17 of 1×87,—

Cattle-Landing at prohibited wharf, &c......

Carcase of animals,- Digging after burial,

Pigs-Keeping, for the purpose of being slaughtered

in a place other than a properly const.ucted Government Depôt,

-Keeping, in a way which caused needless or avoidable suffering to them.

Chinese Emigration Consolidation Ordinance, 25 of 1889,- Decoying Men or Boys into or away from the Colony,. Chinese Extradition Ordinance 26 of 1889 and 23 of

1897,-

Chinese Territory-Crimes and Offences committed

in.

Closed Houses and Insanitary Dwellings Ordinance, 15 of

1894,-

Breach of Bye-laws made under (Window Obstruc-]

tion).

Backyards-Neglecting to keep, clear of obstruction,. Basement flors-Inhabiting.

Cubicles-Breach of Regulations for,

Domestic buildings -Not having impermeable floors

provided.

Ground Surface, &c.-Domestic buildings-Offence

as to,

Houses-Neglecting to cleanse and limewash,

Premises-Neglecting to keep in clean and whole.

some condition.

Bye-laws-Breach of,

Coinage Offences Ordinance. 10 of 1865.-

Counterfeit Coins-Uttering, or being in possession

of.

Bringing such counterfeit into the Colony,..

Common Law,—

Bribery.

Indecent and obscene prints- Exposing for Sale, Piracy, with violence.

Suicide-Attempting to commit,

....

Dangerous Goods Ordinances, 8 of 1873 and 8 of 1892 and

39 of 1899,--

Dangerous Goods-Boat conveying, without proper

precaution,.........

-Carrying, uncovered in boat.

Nais nces-Allowing dirt and filth, &c., to remain

expossd,

10

5

Nuisances-Hanging wet clothes, &c., over Public

73

ways,

46

46

Nuisances-Throwing rubbish, &c., into the Streets.. Obstruction of Roads and Streets by Hawkers, and

354

354

>hopkeepers,.

1.353

1,353

1

2

2

Offensive weapons, &c. Being in possession of-for

unlawful purpose..

Stones-Throwing to danger of the public,. Unlawful possession of property,

1

I

6

6

398

482

10

12

of trees. shrubs. &c.,

39

46

Wantonly or unnecessarily making noises calculated

to annoy, or alarm persons in or near or adjoin- ing any public road or thoroughfare,

2

2

Guupowder Ordi anc». 1 of 1848, —

Breach of, Manufacture and Storage of.

3

3

Insanitary Properties Ordinance 34 of 1899,-

Cocklofts, Mezzanine floors—Allowing to remain,..

149

149

7

70

* 32 2 8284

2 82 8234

7

70

Neglecting to provide an open space in the rear of

building.......

293

293

Kellet Island Ordinance. 12 of 1898

Ve sels not to anchor or loiter within 50 vards of, Larceny and Other Similar Offences Ordinance, 7 of

1865 and 3 of 1886,-

2

2

392

Burglary.

Burglary with violence, Embezzlement,

False preten cs- Obtaining, or attempting to obtain,

goods or money by.

Felony-Attempting to commit,

-Foud in Dwelling house, &c., by night,

with intent to commit,

Housebreaking,..............

Larceny-Accessory before the fact,

-as a builee.

22

12

13

1

1

"

1

*}

-by servants.

1

Common.

1,012

1,219

:1

5

"

-from a dwelling house,....

19

21

11

11

from the person.

57

64

!!

- from the person with violence,

10

12

--on high seas.

>

—of cattle or other animals.

- W 25 co co to

37

48

1 2 ཀ ཀ

28

22

26

26

10

**

සප

10

3

Garden.

.

-Conveying or exposing for Sale,

without attaching labels to

-of fruit or vegetable productions in

Larceny and embezzlement by members of Partner-

ship. Ordinance 3 of 1886,

1

1

"

11

cases or vessels containing the

same,

-Ships, &c., neglecting to hoist a

Red Flag when laden with,

Menaces-Demanding money by,.

11

15

13

13

Robbery from the person,

2

5

with violence.

19

61

21

21

Stolen goods-Receiving.

77

107

-Storing without a licence,

77

"}

-Storing of, contrary to licence,

"

-Lighting fires on board junk

while laden with Kerosene,

Licensing Consolidation Ordinance, 21 of 1887.-

Hawking within the prescribed limits of Market

-Ulicens d.

138

138

482

482

3

Public Vehicles-Breach of Regulations.

2

- 49

"3

-Soldering contrary to licence,..........

1

1

-Demanding more than legal fare,

21

30

Carried forward............................

1,503 | 1,527

Carried forward,

7,510

9,702

448

CASES,-Continued.

No. of

OFFENCES.

Brought forward.....

Licensing Consolidation Ordinance, 21 of 1887,—Cont.

Public Vehicles-Carrying no lights between sunset

**

11

and sunrise,

not keeping Rule of the Road,

--Obstruction of Streets by,

CASES.

No. of

PRI- SONERS.

NO. OF

7,510 9,702

OFFENCES.

Brought forward,.......

Merchant Shipping Consolidation Ordinance, 26 of 1891,

9 of 1892 and 21 of 1895,—Continued.

No. of PRI-

CASES.

SONER &.

9,533 | 11,835

24

24

Fishing Boat-Unlicensed,

20

20

5

5

Boat-Anchoring in prohibited place........

6

=

318

382

-Negligence or Misbehaviour of

drivers,

1

1

Master of vessel, having upwards of 200 lbs. of Ex- plosive on board, neglecting to furnish Harbour Master with particulars immediately,

19

-Refusing to accept hire when un-

Nuisances in Harbour,

19

employed.

73

98

12

12

24

24

71

71

18 260

3

3

19

7

7

20

20

1

*

19

167

167

1617

5

2

10

14

14

12

172

12 3x-

Quarantine Regulations-Breach of,

Seamen-Absenting from duty, from British or

>>

Foreign Ships,

-Desertion of, from British or Foreign Ships,.

- Remaining behind Ships after having signed

the Articles,

-Boarding House, Chinese-Keeping, un-

licensed,

Ships, &c.—Anchorage or Harbour-Leaving without Clearance or during prohibited hours, -Cargo, &c.-Furnishing untrue particu-

lars of,

# R

-Firearms-Discharging,

.....

-Gunpowder-Possession of more than

15 lbs. on......

-Lights-Neglecting to exhibit at night,... -Not having certificated Master or En-

gineer,

--Passengers-Carrying, in excess,..

-Anchoring, without an Anchorage pass....

Steam Launch-Exhibiting side lights not fitted with

"

inboard screens between sunset and sunrise,

&c.-Refusing to pay fare of, -Unlicensed,

Steam Whistles-Unnecessarily blowing,

Telegraph Cables-Anchoring within the limits of

Wharves Obstruction of, by boat people,

22 223

62

66

**

10

10

3

3

1

1

32

32

>>

"

60 10

3

11

19

፡፡

"

12

*

::

29

-Refusing to complete journey,

- Refusing to pay fare of,

-Unlicensed, plying with,..

-Using, for conveyance of merchan-

dise, or dead bodies or persons suffering from infectious diseases,. -Drivers of-Unlicensed, -Plying for hire without being pro- perly equipped with protection to passengers against sun and rain,

-Taking up stand unauthorized by

Capt. Superintendent of Police, -Plying for hire within a prohibited

district,

Billiard Table,-Keeping without a licence,

Liquor Licences Ordinance, 24 of 1898,-

Eating Houses-Offences against,

Chinese Restaurant-Licensee keeping a public bar

on the premises,

Intoxicating Liquors-Selling without licence...

Public House-Intoxicating Liquor, Selling during

prohibited hours in......

-Permitting disorder in,

-Supplying intoxicating liquor to

drunken persons,

Magistrate's Ordinance, 10 of 1890, 12 of 1895, 22 of 1898

3

3

12

1

172

3

28

area of.

and 16 of 1900,—

55

-41

-18

55

Disorderly behaviour while drunk,

227

227

Naval Stores Ordinance, 9 of 1875,-

Drunkenness,

158

158

False Charge-Preferring-or wilfully giving false

Anchorage of Ships-of-War-Dredging or searching

stores,

31

34

evidence,

Recognizances-Breach of,

Malicious injuries to property Ordinance, 8 of 1865,-

Arson,

Injuries to property,

Injuries to trees or vegetable productions in Garden.. Injuries to trees,

8-9- 25

16

16

67

67

Marine and Naval Stores-Dealers in, not keeping

books according to Schedule,..

1

1

Marine and Naval Stores- Dealers, being in posees.

1

1

sion of H.M. Property.

1

1

81

Naval Yard Police Deserting Ordinance, 1 of 1875,-

1

2

Absenting or Deserting,

3

3

55

55

Nuisances Ordinance, 10 of 1872 and 11 of 1900,-

Markets Ordinances, 17 of 1887 and 23 of 1890,-

Articles of food for man-Exposing for Sale, in a

place other than a Public Market,

Chai Mui-Night noises by playing at the Game

known as,

56

56

167

167

Fish, &c.-Selling in Markets, not being holders of

stalls,

Rough dressing, &c., of granite in or near a Public

place,

2

2

16

16

Street Cries by Hawkers,

105

105

:

31

Market Stalls unlet, making use of,

-Bye-laws, Breach of―(Neglecting to clean

stalls. &c., in),.

- Obstructing the avenue of,

-Selling flesh meat in-Other than slaught-

ered in Slaughter House, and not inspected by an Inspector of Markets and marked by him as being fit for human food,..

Sign-board-Faiġing to have-in front of lan, Unwholesome provisions-Exposing for Sale, or bring-

ing, into the Colony,

Seamen-Disobeying lawful orders of Masters in

British Ships,

3

Offences against the person Ordinance, 4 of 1865,-

Assault-Causing grievous bodily harm,..

6

9

55

2155

221883

22

-Common,

689

911

55

-Destructive

>>

Substance-Throwing

with

1

17

17

11

11

intent to do grievous bodily harm,... -Indecent,

-Unnatural Offence-Committing or at-

tempting,..

-Upon a person with intent to resist or pre-

vent lawful apprehension,

Child Stealing,

1

14

Merchant Shipping Act, 1894,—

Cutting and wounding with intent to do grievous

bodily harm,

25

35

35

17

17

Cutting and wounding with intent to commit mur-

Seamen-Neglect or refusal of duty by, in British

der,

1

Ships,

1

Manslaughter,

Surreptitious Passage-Obtaining,

Merchant Shipping Consolidation Ordinance, 26 of 1891,

9 of 1892 and 21 of 1895,--

1

Murder,

Rape,--Attempting to commit,.

Shooting with intent to do grievous bodily harm,

Workman, &c.-Intimidating,

4 Opium Ordinance (Prepared), 21 of 1891 and 4 of

1894,-

Excise Officer-Assault on,

Prepared Opium-Being in possession of, without

having valid certificates,

34 Opium Ordinances, 22 of 1887 and 22 of 1891 and 27 of

14

1

1

4

4

A

Boarding Ships without permission,

14

14

Boats-Concealing the number of,

4

-Demanding more than legal fare,.

3

ܕ:

Establishing on fereshore above low-water-

10

mark for a longer period than was abso- lutely necessary during stress of weather,.

5

3

6

916

916

-Making fast to ship under way, -Mooring inshore between the hours of 9 o'clock at night and gun-fire in the morn- ing,

34

1900,-

Breach of Raw,

36

36

84

84

-Passengers, landing after hours at probibited

Opium Divan Ordinances, 15 of 1897 and 1 of 1898,-

Breach of,

7

wharf,

:>

Refusing to accept hire, when disengaged,

24

""

-Refusing to show Licences to Police,.....

"

-Refusing to stop or go alongside Wharf when

called upon by Police,........

Boats, &c.—Unlicensed,

Boat Licences- Breach of conditions of,

Cargo-boat Licence-Breach of conditions of, Fairways-Obstructing, .

Fishing Boat Licence-Breach of conditions of,

THE DEPOSI

24

7

66

66

10

63

63

11

11

THE TOO°*=

7

9

10

T 7 Passenger Ship Ordinance, 22 of 1890,—

Persons found on board-with intent to obtain a passage without the consent of owners, &c., Pawnbrokers Ordinances, 3 of 1860 and 20 of 196,—

Breach of, for not giving true accounts by applicant.. Pawnbrokers-Acting as, without a licence,

-Failing to give up articles when producing the ticket described therein,

22

22

22

$101

1

1

Carried forward,.

9,533 11,835

Carried forward..........

|11,840 | 14,390

W LONG W

CASES, Continued.

No... OF CASES.

No. of PRI-

SONERS.

11,840 14,390

9

10

10

OFFENCES.

Brought forward,.

Peace and Quiet Ordinance, 17 of 1844,-

Breach of.

Piers and Wharves Ordinance. 18 of 1894,-

Private Wha ves - Trespass o'..............

Police Force Consolidation Ordinances, 14 of 1887 and

22 of 1895,-

Police Constables-Wisconduct as,

Police Force Regulation Ordinance, 9 of 1862,—

Police Constables -Assault on, in execution of duty,.

-Obstructing, or resisting, in the

31

"

discharge of their duties,

-Designation, etc., of, .

-Harbouring.

Post Office Ordinances. 1 of 1887. 22 of 1889, 1 of 1894,

19 of 1896. 5 of 1900 and 24 of 1900,— Regulations of transmission of Chinese correspon-

dence.-Breach of,.......

Forging, altering or imitating Po tage stamps....

Post Office-Neglecting to deliver to- etter bags

and correspondence, on arrival,.........................

Infringing of the exclusive privilage of the l'ost

Master General,

Private Vehicle Ordinance. 13 of 1895,-

Private Vehicles- Freach of Regulations for,

19

"

-Not keeping Rule of the Road, -Unlicensed.

Private Vehicle Ordinance, 6 of 1899,-

Breach of,

10

10

83

114

12

25-

19

2

1

Cusing damage by negligence or misbehaviour.

Public Buildings, Gardens. &c.—Regulations for main- tenance of good order and preservation of pro- perty in. Ordinance 8 of 1870.—

OFFENCES.

449

No. of

No. of ~PRI

CASES. SOMERS.

Brought forward..........

Regulation of Chinese Buria's, and Prvention of certain Nuisance Ordinance. 12 of 1855,-Continued. Trespass on Crown Land,

Regulation of Chinese People. Ordinance 8 of 1858.—

Building-Occupying or erecting, on land not being

under lease from the Crown,

Mendicancy,

"

Regulation of Chinese Ordinance. 13 of 1888, (amended

by 6 of 1897) and 12 of 1900 -

Bills--Posting, without permission from Registrar

General,....

Drums and Gongs-Night noises by beating, Fireworks-Discharging, without permits..

Householders neglecting to report change of te-

nants,

|12,868 | 15,456

51

51

2225

72

21

21

12

12

2

6

སམྦྷཝཱ

201 204

ོཌ

13

13

1

1

30

30

41

w2 Bus

15

3

12

1000 21

15

3

3

41 3

Procession, organising in the public street without a

permit.

River Steamers Ordinance, 18 of 1895.—

Passage - Obtaining, or attempting to obtain, without

payment. in River Steamer.

Rogues and Vagabonds, 5th of Geo. IV. Chapter 83, s.

Rogues and Vagabonds-As suspicious characters.

"

་་

"

-Being in possession of house-

breaking implements, -Found in dwelling house, &c. for an unlawful purpose,. -Indecent exposure of person.. -Wandering abro id and lodg-

ing in the open air,

Sale of Food and Drugs Ordinance, 18 of 1896,—

Breach of,

Slaughter-Houses Ordinances, 17 of 1887 and 25 of

19

3

N

207

207

1

1

00 m

8

1

1

23

23

10

5

Public Gardens-Breach of Regulations for.

24

24

Wong Nei hung Recreation Ground Regula

tious-Breach of,

1895,-

1

1

Prison Ordinance, 7 of 1899,-

Removing meat from S1 urhter-House to a market

other than in a covered vehicle.

Breach of,

1

1

Public Health Ordinances, 24 of 1887, 12 of 1891 and 4 of

1895,--

Slaughter ouse Rye-laws-Breach of,

Stone Cutiers' Island Ordinance, 11 of 1889.-

888

28

888

28

50

.50

Fort-Ente ing,

1

1

Bakehouse Bye-law

aws-Breach of,

20

20

Stowaways Ordinance 7 of 1897,

-

Common Kitchen Using, as sleeping room, Common Lodging Houses Regulations-Breach of, Common Lodging Houses-Unlicensed keeping of, Drain, &c.-Leaving open and unprotected, Domestic buildings-Occu ying, without a certifi-

cate from Sanitary Board,

14

14

Breach of,

16

16

30

30

31

31

4

4

The Small Tenements Recovery () dinɩnce, 27 of 1897.... The Triad and Unlawful Societies Ordinance, 8 of 1887,-

Breach of,

30

30

9

9

The Uniform Ordinance. 1 of 1895.-

3

3

Military Uniform-Wearing..

3

3

Excretal matters-Irrigating land with, near Public

Road.

Vagrancy Ordinance. 25 of 1897,-

2

2

Vagrants.

54

51

Latrine Regulations-Breach of,

9

.....

Verandahs erected over Crown Lands Ordinance, 4 of

Laundries-Using, as sleeping rooms,

10

10

1888,-

Laundries-Unregistered,

1

Enclosure of,......

81

81

Laundries-Overcrowding,

5

5

Waterworks Ordinence, 15 of 1897, (amended by 5 of

Night Soil or noxious waters-Carrying, during pro-

hibited hours, or depositing in the Streets....... Night Soil or noxious waters-Carrying in an un-

covered bucket,

80

80

1892, 6 of 1895. 19 of 1897 and 30 of 1898),- Breach of.

-

Wasting Water,

10 10

1

1

Weights an 1 Measures Ordinance, 8 of 1885, -

Offensive Trade Establishment-Breach of Bye-Laws

made under.

Breach of,

5

75

75

47

47

10 10 1

14

Overcrowding--In tenement house,..

15

Overcrowding-In Opium Divan.

Pigs, &c.--Keeping, without licence,

46

+420

14

15

Duty of Examiners of Weights and Measures-Ob-

structing,

2

46

Women and Girls Protection Ordinances, 9 of 1897 and

14 of 1900,-

Plague and other infectious diseases-Neglecting to

report cases of,

10

10

Decoying women or girls into or away from the

Colony,

23

48

Person-Not approved of by Sanitary Board to carry

out house drainage works.

Detaining, harbouring. or receiving women or girls

3

3

for the purpose of prostitution,..

Factories, &c.,-Not providing proper privy accom-

modation for persons employed therein... Cattleshed Bye-laws-Erecting or connecting with

dwelling house-Breach of,

Disorderly House-Keeping a,

1

1

Indecent assault upon any female,

Procuration of Girls under 16 to have carnal con-

2

2

nexion.

4

4

Sanitary Board Notice-Not complying with.

371

371

Officer-bstructing or resisting.....

1

Purchasing. pledving, or selling women or girls for

the purpose of prostitution,

3

20

3

Cowshed-Using for human habitation,

8

Failing to comply with an order of the Magis-

trate,

Permitting women suffering from contagious disease

to remain in brothels,

46

46

t

Registration of Births and Deaths Ordinance, 16 of 1896,

(amended by 20 of 1898), -

7 Women and Girls Protection Ordinance-(amended by

31 of 1899),

Dead Bodies-Unlawful removal of,

6

7

Brothels lodging-houses for prostitutes-Order made

for closing of,

126

126

Regulation of Chinese Burials, and Prevention of certain

Nuisances Ordinance, 12 of 1856. ·

Obeying calls of nature in the streets or in improper

places,........

64

64

Brothels lodging-houses for prostitutes-Not comply. ing with Magistrate's order to discontinue the use of. Person trading in prostitution,

2

10 2

Carried forward,...

|12,868 15,456

TOTAL,..

14,081 | 16,696

>

450

ABSTRACT of CASES brought under COGNIZANCE of the POLICE MAGISTRATES' Court during a period of

Ten Years, from 1st January, 1891 to 31st December, 1900, inclusive.

CASES, HOW DISPOSED OF, AND THE NUMBER OF MALE AND FEMALE PRISONERS UNDER EACH DEAD.

YEARS.

TOTAL NCM FR

OF

IASES.

Convicted and Punished.

Discharged.

Commit- ted for Trial at

the Governor.

2

3

4

6

7

8

Committed

to Prison or detained pending Or- der of His

Supreme Excellency

Court.

Ordered to find Security

To keep the Peace, to be of Good Beha- viour, and to answer any Charge.

10

1** tt་R }་་་ }}}{

and absconded

Escaped itore

9

12

11

being brought

for Dialat the Ma-

{gistracy 13 14

Escaped.

Punished for l'eterring

Total

False Charge Undecided.

Nurber

or giving

False

of Defendants.

Testimony,

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

M.

F.

M.

F.

M.

F

M. F.

M.

F.

M. M

F M. M.

F.

M.

F.

Mf.

F.

1891,

13,576 13,438

534

1,906

134

40

12

153

1892,

11.920

11,771

327

1,927

151

40 4

20

5

191

28 28

19

20

:

:

:

:

:

1

143

2

15.693

639

7

28

13.969

502

1893.

10,727

10,049

306

75102 1,532

2

7

1

242

36

17

23

11972

420

1894,.

10.447

9,465

1895,

17,016

302

15,058 725

95 1,716

2,345

63

2

5

255

23

10

1

16

11 530

423

198 51

3

232

77

12

199

17,897 1,001

***

Total 63 786

59 781 2,194

9,426

651 296 11

29

11.073175

***

:

:

47

1

409

2

71 06

:

Average per }

Year,

12,757.211,956.2438.81,885.2

130.2 59.22.2 58 0.2214.6 35.0

1

:

9.4

0.2 81.8

04

14.2122

=

1896,

17,767

16.659

797

1,371

1897.

15,185

10,237

548

203

1,481 151 73 12

1898,

13.311 12,663

834

1,196

93

2 2 8

62 21

-

232

1

183

65

3

209

He 00 an

72

28

10

5

115

1

18 468 | 1,100

:

88

25

4

43

1

25

00

8

142

23

79

12.079 807

14,304

985

1899,

10,158

9,007

511

1,527

114 128

Co

3

2

1

90

1900,.

14.081

13,149

501

2,416

235131

5

11

211

223

12

1

17

2

28

10 800

646

20

1

13

3

77

Co

15,932

764

Total,...... 66 532

61,715 3,191

7,991

796 459 44

17

2

925 235

N

1

108

22

441

20

71,584 302

Average per

Yes,

13.306 4 12.343 0 638.2 1,598 2

159.2 91.8 8.8

3.4 0.4 185.0 47.0 0.4 0.2

...

0221.6 4.4 88.2 4.0

4,3.6 65 | 860 4

Grand Total

for the 10 Yers,

130,318 | 121,496 5,885 | 17,417 |1,447|755 | 55

46

31,098 4th

1 175 23

850

22

142,644 4.362

Average per

Year,

13,031.8 12,149.6538.51,741.7 144.7 75.5 5.5

4.6 0.3 199.8 41.0 0.2 0.1

:

01 15.5

2.3 85.0

2.2

14,264 4 | 430.2

A

HONGKONG.

REMOVAL OF CAPE D'AGUILAR LIGHT TO GREEN ISLAND.

275

No. 2

1901

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His

Excellency the Governor.

No. 390.

SIR,

to.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE,

HONGKONG, 25th August, 1900.

I have the honour to forward copy of an extract from the Harbour Master's report for the year 1892 in which he originally suggested the improvement in lighting the approaches to this harbour by the interchange of the lights referred The estimated cost of removing Cape d'Aguilar Light to Green Island and the latter light to Cape Collinson having been ascertained to be $5,600 and $7,000 respectively, owing to the necessity of reconstructing the towers at both places to make them suitable for the lights which were designed for different elevations as is shewn in the attached paper of descriptive particulars, I took the opinion of the Chamber of Commerce as to whether the expenditure involved would be justified by the advantage gained.

2. In their reply of the 10th instant, a copy of which I append, they stated that after having obtained the opinion of experts they believed the advantages would greatly outweigh the cost, and further suggested the substitution of revolv- ing or flash lights for fixed ones (which the lights it is intended to use are) provided the cost involved were not excessive.

3. I attach a copy of a report on this suggestion by the Acting Harbour Master, who is in favour of the proposal, but before taking further steps in the matter I think it would be well to consult Captain RUMSEY, who is now in England. If he is in favour of the substitution of the lights suggested by Mr. BASIL TAYLOR I have to ask that you will obtain the opinion of Messrs. CHANCE BROTHERS of Birmingham, the makers of the lights, as to the feasibility and cost of converting the lights.

4. In the meantime I shall submit with the Estimates a sum to cover the cost of the construction of a new tower, 200 feet above sea level, on Green Island, to take the D'Aguilar Light.

5. I do not propose to recommend that the work of shifting the Green Island Light to Cape Collinson should be proceeded with next year; and the placing of the Collinson Light at Kowloon Point is probably not now necessary.

If it is not found to be necessary the light could be sold, and it might be well to ascertain from Messrs. CHANCE whether it would be worth sending the apparatus to England for sale or whether they would allow this Government anything for it.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient, humble Servant,

HENRY A. BLAKE,

The Right Honourable

JOSEPH CHAMBERLAIN, M.P.,

&c.,

SC.,

&c.

Governor.

276

HONGKONG.

No 42.

SIR,

DOWNING STREET,

1st February, 1901.

With reference to your despatch No. 390 of the 25th August last, relating to the proposed improvement in lighting the approaches to the harbour of Hongkong, I have the honour to transmit to you a copy of correspondence on the subject, as noted in the margin.

2. Messrs. CHANCE BROTHERS anticipate no difficulty in converting the Cape D'Aguilar and Green Island Lights from fixed to occulting lights. They have pointed out that the apparatus which they supplied for Green Island in 1874 was supplied with a set of condensing prisms, which they presume will not be used when it is transferred to Cape Collinson.

3. Messrs. CHANCE BROTHERS have in preparation a drawing, which will be transmitted direct to you by the Crown Agents for the Colonies when it is re-. ceived, with the purpose of ensuring that the dimensions are furnished correctly.

4. The firm are unable to make any offer for the gun-metal portion of the Cape Collinson light, except at scrap price; and they presume as good a price could be obtained in Hongkong as in England. The apparatus has been in use for 25 years, and the optical portion is therefore probably slightly discoloured, and for this reason unsaleable.

5. It does not appear that any vote for the construction of a new tower on Green Island has been placed on the 1901 Estimates; and it will, therefore, be necessary to take a vote in Council, if it is decided to accept Messrs. CHANCE BROTHERS' offer and proceed with the transfer and conversion of the lights.

I have the honour to be,

Sir.

Your most obedient, humble Servant,

Governor

Copy.

SIR H. A. BLAKE, G.C.M.G.,

&c.,

&C.,

&c.

J. CHAMBERLAIN.

THORNEHILL, KIDBROOKE Grove,

BLACKHEATH, October 12th, 1900.

SIR,

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter with enclosures dated 9th instant on the subject of the Hongkong Lights, desiring my views upon a suggestion by the Acting Harbour Master thereon.

I am of opinion that if the Lights in question can be fitted with a flashing or occulting arrangement at no very great cost it would be an advantage and I con- sider that the intervals proposed by Mr TAYLOR are suitable.

I would like to suggest that an opinion be obtained from Trinity House as to any practical disadvantage which might result from placing the Lights in question at a somewhat higher or lower elevation than they were designed for.

Green Island Light is now 95 feet above high water, it will hardly be practic- able to keep it at that height when it is moved to Collinson where the point on which the buildings stand is higher than 100 feet.

Again D'Aguilar Light though designed for 200 feet might perhaps be for all practical purposes as efficient if placed on Green Island at a lesser height and thereby a saving of expense in the construction of the tower. In neither case is it necessary that after the change these Lights should show to their designed limit of 23 and 14 miles respectively.

I have, &c.,

(Signed)

R. MURRAY RUMSEY,

Harbour Master, &c., Hongkong.

P.S.-The enclosures to your letter under reply are returned herewith as

directed.

The Under Secretary of State for the Colonies.

R. M. R.

277

Copy. 334900/900.

SIR,

DOWNING STREET,

23rd October, 1900.

I am directed by Mr. Secretary CHAMBERLAIN to transmit to you, to be laid before the Elder Brethren of the Trinity House, a copy of correspondence, noted in the margin, respecting a proposal to improve the lighting of the approaches to the harbour of Hongkong by transferring the light on Cape D'Aguilar to Green Island, and the Light at the latter place to Cape Collinson.

2. In this connexion I am to refer to your letter of the Board of Trade of the 13th October, 1899, and to ask that the Elder Brethren may be so good as to advise Mr. CHAMBERLAIN, having regard to paragraph 3 of Commander RUMSEY'S letter, whether they anticipate any practical disadvantage from placing the lights in question at different elevations to those for which they were designed.

3. I am to ask that the despatches from the Colony, which are sent in original, may be returned with your reply.

The Secretary to the

CORPORATION OF TRINITY HOUSE.

I

am, &c.,

(Signed)

R. L. ANTROBUS.

1

Copy. Ex. 4301.

SIR,

TRINITY HOUSE, LONDON, E.C., 10th November, 1900.

I am directed by the Elder Brethren to acknowledge the receipt of

your letter dated 23rd ultimo (33490/1900), forwarding copy of correspondence relative to the lighting of the approaches to the Harbour of Hongkong.

In reply I am to acquaint you, for the information of Mr. Secretary CHAMBER- LAIN, that the Elder Brethren have given the matter their careful consideration, and are of opinion that it would be a decided improvement to the lighting of the approaches to Hongkong if Commander RUMSEY's proposals as to Green Island and Cape Collinson were carried out. They would therefore recommend that a new tower be erected on Green Island adjacent to the present one, and the disused lan- tern and apparatus from Cape D'Aguilar fitted therein, the focal plane of the light to be 110 feet above high water, so that it may have a range of visibility of 16 miles, and they are further of opinion that the light should be occulting, giving one occultation of three seconds' duration every 20 seconds.

They also recommend that the fourth Order Lantern and Apparatus now in use at Green Island be transferred to Cape Collinson, and a new structure erected there for the purpose, adjacent to the present building, the focal plane of the light to be the same as at present, viz.:-about 200 feet, and the Elder Brethren are of opinion that this light also should be occulting, giving one occultation of three seconds' duration every ten seconds.

In reply to your enquiry as regard the elevation of the lights, I am to state that for practical purposes their effect will not be impaired if exhibited at the heights named above.

If it is decided to adopt the suggestion as to the lights being occulting, I am to request that this may be stated when the requisition for the supply of the neces- sary machinery is made.

The original documents accompanying your letter are returned herewith as requested.

The Under Secretary of State, Colonial Office.

I am, &c.,

(Signed) CHAS. A. KENT.

278

(Copy.)

4th December, 1900.

CAPE D'AGUILAR FIRST ORDER LIGHT.

Occulting gear for changing the present Fixed Light into an Occulting Light, to produce occultations at intervals to be decided upon, comprising :-Clockwork com- plete, with driving chain, and spare chain, lead driving weights, snatch block and back balance chain, sheet-iron dropping cylinder, over-gead gear springs, chains, brackets, adjustable clip brackets, bushed brackets for overhead gear, pawl for crank disc spare chains, two spare spiral springs, two spare chain pulleys, one spare double ended lever, one spare trigger, spare screws, &c.

To be set up and tested in our Works.

Packed and delivered f.o.b. in London for the sum of £130 (One hundred and thirty pounds).

GREEN ISLAND FOURTH ORDER LIGHT.

Occulting Gear, &c., exactly as above.

Packed and delivered f.o.b. in London for the sum of £125 (One hundred and twenty-five pounds).

We should require to know the period desired for the occultation, how many seconds dark and how many seconds light. Also the diameter of the burner to ensure correct size of the dropping cylinder.

A weight tube for conducting the driving weights should be provided in the

tower.

CHANCE BROTHERS AND COMPANY, LIMITED.

A.

F. No. 3162.

1

747

No. 42

1901

HONGKONG.

TELEGRAM OF CONDOLENCE ON THE DEATH OF HER IMPERIAL MAJESTY THE EMPRESS FREDERICK OF GERMANY, AND ACKNOWLEDGMENT BY HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY THE EMPEROR OF GERMANY.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

Telegram from the Governor to the Secretary of State.

RESOLUTION PASSED BY LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL.

[13th August, 1901.]

That the Members of Legislative Council of Hongkong desire humbly to express to His Majesty the King and His Imperial Majesty the German Emperor the sorrow with which they have received the intelligence of the death of the Dowager Empress Frederick of Germany, Princess Royal of England, and their deep sympathy with their Majesties in their bereavement.

BLAKE.

SIR,

German Consul to Governor, Hongkong.

KAISERLICH DEUTSCHES KONSULAT,

HONGKONG, the 8th of October, 1901.

On the recent death of Her Imperial Majesty the Empress FREDERICK of Germany Your Excellency has had the kindness, in the name of the Legislative Council of Hongkong, to express to His Majesty the EMPEROR of Germany the sorrow with which the intelligence of the death of the Empress FREDERICK was received here and the sympathy of the Legislative Council with His Majesty in his bereavement. My Government directs me to inform Your Excellency that your telegram came to the hands of His Majesty the Emperor and that the latter sends his Imperial thanks to the Hongkong Legislative Council for its sympathetic expression of condolence.

Asking Your Excellency kindly to inform the Legislative Council accordingly.

I have the honour to remain,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant.

OTTO GUMPRECHT, Imperial German Consul.

Το

His Excellency the Governor,

Sir HENRY BLAKE,

Hongkong.

ها

No. 438.

Enclosure 1.

Enclosure 2.

Enclosure 3.

SIR,

HONGKONG.

DRAINAGE SYSTEMS: PLAGUE MORTALITY,

783

44 No. 1901

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

The Governor to the Secretary of State.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE,

HONGKONG, 25th October, 1901.

With reference to my Despatch (No. 254 of the 13th of last July,) forward- ing petition on the question of Hongkong Sanitation and especially calling attention to the system of drainage that has been adopted, it may be interesting to attach Extracts from the Reports made by Mr. MANSERGH in 1898, upon the surface drainage system of Colombo, and in 1890 on the surface system in Melbourne, by which it will be seen that surface drainage has its dangers and disadvantages. I also enclose an Extract from the Times of India showing that heavy as was, un- happily, the mortality of Hongkong in 1900, from the results of the plague epide- mic, the total death rate, including plague mortality, of 24.12 per mille contrasts very favourably with the 97.02 per mille shown by the Bombay returns.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient humble Servant,

The Right Honourable

J. CHAMBERLAIN, M.P.,

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies,

&c.,

&C.,

&c.

HENRY A. BLAKE, Governor.

(Enclosure 1.)

Extract from Report on the Drainage of Colombo by James Mansergh, 1898.

After I had left Colombo some discussion appears to have arisen with regard to underground sewers, and the water carriage system generally, which culminated in the passing by the Municipal Council of the following resolution some time in the beginning of April, 1897-

"This Committee is opposed to the introduction into Colombo of closets or latrines on the water carriage system.

"Further the Committee considers that all drainage should- wherever possible-be carried in open surface drains, and that no sewers or drains underground should-except where absolutely necessary-be pro- vided."

I think I may say that if such a resolution had been put into my hands when it was first intimated to me that the Ceylon Government desired my advice, I should probably have declined the commission.

Things have, however, now gone too far and I must prepare my report in accordance with the instructions contained in your letter of the 10th July, 1896, and this being so, I had better deal at once with the Council's resolution.

(2)

This resolution refers to two separate and distinct matters, and it will be more convenient to discuss first that which comes last in order, viz., the objection to underground sewers and the desire "that all drainage should wherever possible be carried in open surface drains."

1st. My first remark is that the system of open surface sewers is one that cannot be carried out in Colombo so as efficiently to get rid of the evils and nui- sances which now exist, for

2nd. The primary object of all sewers is to remove as speedily as possible from the vicinity of human habitations the fouled water supply and other liquid refuse; and if a proper system is constructed in Colombo it will, I doubt not, ultimately be utilised to carry away a great part of the solid and fluid dejecta of the population.

3rd. This speedy removal-so essential to the maintenance of safe sanitary conditions cannot be effected by any channels or conduits whether open or closed which are not laid with sufficient falls to ensure their having self-cleansing veloci-

ties.

4th. It is impossible owing to the configuration of its site to construct in Colombo drains on the surface that will conform to this requirement.

The only way to secure self-cleansing sewers in many of the roads is to cut down into them and so create falls steeper than those of the surface, and this must be done in places to the extent of many feet, so that it would be absolutely im- possible to have such sewers open, for the inconvenience would be intolerable, and the cost prohibitive.

5th. Underground sewers are therefore indispensable and if these are designed on proper pinciples and constructed of suitable materials and in a workmanlike manner there is no reason in my opinion why private closets and public latrines should not be adapted to the water carriage system.

6th. This opinion is, I regret, in direct opposition to that of the Council as expressed in their Resolution, but it appears to me that I should not be adequately performing my duty if on that account I failed to advise on this matter to the best of my judgment.

7th. In England there are still a few towns which have the old fashioned cesspits and others where the excreta is dealt with by some form or other of the pail system, but these methods are steadily giving way before the introduction of the ordinary water closet or the slop-closet by means of which the water supply, fouled in every possible way, is carried off by the sewers.

8th. I am free to admit that it may not be possible in Colombo to adopt the water carriage system to so great an extent as is being done at home, but I am quite clear that it would be a mistake to condemn the whole town for all time to any method which involves the retention of human excrement in or adjoining the houses a moment longer than is absolutely necessary.

The foregoing unexaggerated description of the existing arrangements shows that the present system (if system it can be called) is one under which the personal and household filth of the people is retained in, under, and around their dwellings for a time, and to an extent, which can have only one result, viz., a death-rate probably twice as high as it need be and a corresponding amount of sickness and domestic misery.

Further it is a system in which the method of disposal of so much of the filth as is removed, is crude, unscientific and disgustingly objectionable.

So far as my experience qualifies me to give an opinion I have no hesitation in saying that the remedy for these evils is to be found in the provision of a com- plete scheme of underground sewers by means of which all this filth can be speedily removed from the dwellings of the people and discharged into the sea where it can- not do

any harm nor give rise to any nuisance.

+

>

(3)

(Enclosure 2.)

Extract from Report on the Sewerage and Sewage Disposal of Melbourne by James Manseryh, 1890.

PRESENT SANITARY CONDITION.

Having now described in general terms the boundaries, area, physiography, and present population of the district to be dealt with I will say a few words about its sanitary condition.

In doing so I will make no excuse for quoting freely from the very admirable and exhaustive Reports of the "Royal Commission appointed in March, 1888, to enquire into and report upon the sanitary condition of Melbourne." My appointment is one of the outcomes of the Commissioners' investigations and recommendations, and therefore my report may be considered in a sense a sequel to their reports, and to be read after them.

I have deemed it advisable, however, to incorporate herein so much of the evidence they have collected, and the opinions they have formed, as will serve as part of the basis for my advice, and will render my story logically complete in

itself.

I can confirm the statements contained in the Commissioners' Reports from the personal inspection of public roads, rights of way and private property both inside and out all over the Metropolis.

I sailed down the Yarra from near Dight's Falls to Hobson Bay and walked along every tributary on the district, and I carefully inspected several of the localities where typhoid and diptheria had specially prevailed.

Everyone is conversant with the arrangement under which practically all the fouled liquids of Melbourne flow in open gutters on the surface of the public

streets.

The Commission's detailed description is as follows:-

·

"The liquid refuse is conducted in the first instance into the street channels. It consists of urine, a small quantity of night-soil, kitchen water, bath water, soap suds from the wa-hing of clothes, the drainage from stables and cow-sheds, the waste liquids and washings of trades and manufactories, mixed to a varying degree with the surface water from the streets and house roofs. The amount of the refuse is also constantly varying. At one time the street channels are full to overflowing, at another many of them are dry."

"The channels are open, and constructed of stone pitchers. As a rule the pitchers have sand, or sand and tur, between the joints; in a few instances only is lime mixed with the sand, or is cement used, so as to render the channels impermeable. In a very few cases tar (miscalled asphalte) channels have been made."

*

*

"In many of the suburbs a large proportion of the channels are still unmade; the liquid sewage from the houses passes sluggishly along natural channels in the ground, here and there accumulating and stagnat- ing, and everywhere soaking into and polluting the soil. In sandy dis- tricts the liquid house refuse is largely allowed to lose itself in the sand around the houses. The channels which have been made are not at all accurately levelled with a sufficient fall, and not infrequently the flow is

(4)

checked by solid refuse which collects in them. Under such circum- stances the sewage lingers in the channels and undergoes decomposi- tion. The permeable joints of the pitchers allow great contamination of the soil beneath. This evil is greatest where blocks of houses are intersected by branching lanes and passages in which channels, having often only a slight fall, may be traced for long distances, uniting together and bending at various angles before they reach the main channel in the street. In some instances these complicated channels in the blocks can- not reach the streets directly; a length of underground piping is neces- sary, which commences at a catch-pit, covered by a grating. During heavy rains, solid refuse of all kinds is swept down the channels and accumulates over the gratings, and the drainage then overflows the lanes and yards. Thus the soil is constantly being polluted in greater or less degree; and in the crowded portions of the Metropolis, where the evil is greatest, the floors of the houses are often close to the ground so that the mischief is intensified. In certain places crude forms of under- ground drainage have been introduced to remedy the ill conditions of groups or terraces of houses; but it is questionable whether the remedy so applied does not involve greater dangers to health than the open nuisance originally existing."

(C

Owing to the careless manner in which the pan-closets are con- structed, without impermeable floors, and owing to the use of old and worn-out receptacles, the soil under them is frequently polluted. In some parts, also, the soil has not yet completely recovered from the contamination that was produced during the existence of cesspits. In the low-lying parts of the Metropolis the subsoil is exceedingly damp, so that the walls of tenements suffer."

"The stagnant decomposing drainage also gives off offensive emana- tions which pollute the air. The underground sewers are not sufficiently ventilated, offensive gases escape through the various openings, and accumulations of a black and very offensive silt frequently occur, which is removed through manholes. During this process of removal the smell from the sewers is very offensive, and the air is necessarily polluted."

In the course of their enquiries the Commission put the following question in writing to the Clerks of the various Municipal Councils in the Metropolitan area :

"Are there separate drains for the slops and liquid refuse of the houses ?"

To this question the reply, in 17 cases out of 18, was in the negative.

With regard to the 18th I am a little dubious, but practically it may be assumed that this arrangement of open gutters conveying chamber slops and other foul liquids in the open is universal.

Over a great part of the Metropolitan area the fall in the channels is fairly good, but in some parts of South Melbourne, and notably in Port Melbourne, they are of necessity laid with terribly flat gradients, and as a consequence the fluids stagnate and become a source of great offence.

Under Mr. THWAITES' supervision this state of things is now being materially improved.

It is to be hoped that in laying out—in the future—any such low-lying districts as parts of South Melbourne, and Port Melbourne, arrangements will be made to prevent houses being erected with their ground floors at so slight an elevation. above sea level in Hobson's Bay as they are in those towns.

A

( 5 )

The besodden condition of the subsoil can now be remedied only by pumping the water out of it by artificial means; it would have been infinitely better to have raised the sites high enough to provide natural drainage by gravitation.

I believe there is no necessity whatever for me to labour the open-gutter part of the question.

During the whole time I was in Melbourne I hear many expressions of disapproval of this system, and not a word in its justification, and I take it for granted that public opinion is quite ripe in favour of a radical change.

In some of the more densely populated districts, such as Melbourne City, Collingwood, Fitaroy, Prahran, and Richmond, underground sewers have been constructed to collect the contents of the open channels and convey them to the river.

The principal of these are in Swanston, Elizabeth and King Streets, in Melbourne City, discharging into the Yarra; in Arden Street, North Melbourne, discharging into Moonee Ponds Creek; the Reilly Street, partly open, drain through Fitzroy and Collingwood into the Yarra; and the Palmer Street main in Richmond also into the Yarra.

In Collingwood there are about five miles of underground sewers; and in Richmond considerable works were in course of construction at the time of my visit, and I went over them with Mr. ALFRED CLAYTON, the City Surveyor.

I examined the outfalls of all these sewers, and found that the liquid being discharged was to all appearance quite as offensive and polluted a compound as the sewage of a fully water closeted town.

(Enclosure 3.)

Extract from the "Times of India" of the 21st September, 1901.

HONGKONG AND THE PLAGUE.

It is now seven years since the island of Hongkong underwent its first visita- tion of plague. It does not augur well for the future immunity of the colony that after enduring several severe outbreaks, it has just passed through another epidemic more virulent than any of the earlier ones. The disease began to assume an epidemic form towards the end of April, reached its height in June, and rapidly declined in July. The worst statistics were recorded during the first week in June, when the number of cases reached 212, with 206 deaths. These figures will appear exceptionally light to stricken Bombay. Even allowing for the far smaller population-the new census report puts the total number of the inhabitants of the colony at 283,000-it is obvious that, by comparison, Hongkong has escaped al- most mildly. Since 1894, the island has only had nine thousand reported cases of bubonic plague, with a mortality averaging from 89 to 96 per cent. The citizens of Hongkong appear to regard these returns as constituting sufficient reason for making agonizing appeals to the Secretary of State for the Colonies concerning the local Administration. If Hongkong had been compelled to endure the far worse experience of Bombay and other Indian cities, its public men would probably have learned to accept its unisfortunes more calmly. The rate of mortality in Hongkong was appreciably higher than in Bombay, but the incidence of the disease was far less. During the single year ending in May, 1900, the city of Bombay.

( 6 )

out of an average population of 740,000, recorded 18,310 plague attacks, out of which there were 13,928 deaths. These mortality figures represent correctly diagnosed cases. If suspicious cases are added, the plague mortality is brought up to 25,645. But this is not all; for in that same disastrous year there were 46,000 deaths set down as due to ordinary causes; and as these "ordinary" deaths were 22,000 in excess of the normal annual death-rate, it may be assumed that some of them were also due to plague. The total number of deaths from all causes in Bombay during 1899-1900 was 71,801, representing a death-rate of 97.02 per

mille.

If the Hongkong community realised the terrible significance of these figures, it would congratulate itself that the colony had been so fortunate. Proportion- ately, far more money was spent in Bombay, the preventive arrangements were far more elaborate, and the population was probably more amenable to precautionary measures, and in particular to inoculation. Moreover, we are inclined to think that there was, and still is, not much essential difference between the sanitary con- dition of Bombay and Hongkong. Yet Hongkong has not, in seven years, had to face a total plague mortality of 10,000. Under the circumstances, the sudden agitation in Hongkong about the inefficiency of the Government preventive mea- sures strikes the observer at a distance as rather amusing, and to some extent ungrateful. If the far wider experience of plague now available in India may be taken as a criterion, the Hongkong Government is entitled to a large amount of credit for having kept its plague epidemics within such narrow limits. The Hong- kong public may be recommended to study the history of plague in Western India. They will then discover that public bodies in India realised in less than seven that petitions and "representations" had no effect on the plague mortality, years and that business men ultimately came to the conclusion that the measures for fighting a disease of which so little is known, were best left in the hands of Government and their skilled advisers.

In one respect the last Hongkong epidemic presented a feature for which no parallel can be found in India. In six weeks, in the not very large European community, twenty-five persons were attacked and nine died. Possibly it was the unexpected revelation that Europeans were less immune than was supposed, which caused the residents in Hongkong hurriedly to draft a formidable petition to the Secretary of State. The majority of their grievances are of purely local interest, and need not be specified here. They complain that nineteen years ago a sanitary expert was brought out from England to enquire into the sanitation of Hongkong, and that "with a few exceptions the whole of his recommendations have been ignored." A memorandum signed by Mr. STEWART LOCKHART, C.M.G., Colonial Secretary, and two other members of the Administration, makes short work of this rather reckless allegation. By no stretch of imagination can Hongkong be des- cribed as sanitary; but Mr. LOCKHART and his colleagues clearly demonstrate that at any rate Mr. CHADWICK'S recommendations have been carried out, save only those which would have imposed an impossible strain upon the limited resources of the colony. The petitioners have artlessly placed before Mr. CHAMBERLAIN an assertion made by Dr. J. A. Lowson in 1895 about the ease with which a plague epidemic could be. "got under rapidly if men in sufficient number could be got to do the work." Upon such windy observations as this their case seems to be based. We in India know something about the armour-plated self-confidence of the Hong- kong plague experts; but apparently these prophets are still enjoying unusual honour in their own country.

The one strong point in the petition is the appeal for the appointment of a Commission to investigate and report upon the sanitary condition of the colony. The implication of lack of confidence in the Hongkong Government contained in this request has, however, been largely discounted; for a similar suggestion has been forwarded to the Colonial Office by Sir HENRY BLAKE, the Governor. The

1

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1

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scheme for an elaborate enquiry into Hongkong sanitation is, indeed, one in which all parties may join; but the criticism on the plague administration is another matter. Doubtless the Government made many mistakes; blunders have been perpetrated by all executive authorities called upon to face an outbreak of plague. But careful examination of the reports conveys the impression that the measures taken were reasonably adequate; and the Government are at least entitled to be judged by results, which, to those who know what plague has meant to India, will appear remarkably successful. Before the Hongkong public devoted themselves to their favourite pastime of attacking the local administrators, they might have looked farther afield. At present they seem unconscious of the littleness of their fancied woes.

It may be added that Sir HENRY BLAKE, unlike the community over which he rules, appears to have studied carefully the lessons of the Bombay epidemics. In an interesting despatch to the Secretary of State, he mentions that he recommended the tentative adoption of the Bombay system of permitting patients to remain in their houses to be nursed by their friends under proper res- trictions. The Sanitary Board, from some inscrutable reason, declined to accept his suggestion. Sir HENRY BLAKE adds his personal belief that removal two or three miles to a hospital lessened the chances of a patient's recovery. In this respect, of course, his view is entirely borne out by the experience gained in Bom- bay. Another lesson derived from Bombay by the Governor was utilised without demur. Instead of disinfecting only the floor on which a case occurred, the whole house was ordered to be disinfected, as is done here. It seems surprising that such an obvious precaution was not locally originated. But they are sometimes curiously conservative in Hongkong. We gather from the local papers that there are still prominent personages in that eccentric island who decline to believe in the malignancy of the anopheles mosquito.

481

No. 26

1901

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS. FOR THE YEAR 1900.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

EDUCATION Department,

HONGKONG, 24th April, 1901.

SIR-I have the honour to submit the following report on the schools under my supervision during the year 1900.

2. GENERAL STATISTICS.-Table No. V shews the changes which have taken place in the number and class of schools and in the number of scholars during the last ten years, and enables a comparison to be made with the years 1870 and 1880. Compared with the year 1899 there is, except in the Government English Schools and in the Grant-in-Aid Portuguese Schools, a decrease in the enrol- ment in each class of school. In the case of the English Grant-in-Aid Schools this may be accounted for by some schools, hitherto free, charging fees. In the case of the Chinese Schools it is partly due to an actual decrease in the number of schools at work during the year as although there is a nominal increase of one on the roll of Grant-in-Aid Schools there is an increase of nine in the number of schools temporarily closed. The following Tables enable a more detailed comparison to be drawn between the year 1890, the year 1893-the last normal year, as the statistics for every year since have been affected by the Plague--and 1900.

1890.

Government and Grant-in-Aid Schools.

CHINESE.

ENGLISH.

PORTUGUESE.

TOTAL.

Schools. Scholars. Schools. Scholars. Schools. Scholars.

Schools. Scholars.

Victoria,

51

3,140

15

2,489

4

280

70

5,909

Villages of Hongkong, ... 19

484

189

22

673

Kowloon,

16

487

1

39

17

525

Tota!,......

86

4,111

19

2,716

4

280

109

7,107

CHINESE.

1893.

Government and Grant-in-Aid Schools.

ENGLISH.

PORTUGUESE.

TOTAL.

Schools. Scholars. Schools. Scholars. Schools. Scholars. Schools. Scholars.

Victoria,

68

4,034

20

3,014

4

186

92

Villages of Hongkong, ...

10

273

114

:

12

22

7,234

387

Kowloon,

21

932

1

53

22

985

Total,........

99

5,239

23

3,181

4

186

126

8,606

482

CHINESE.

1900.

Government and Grant-in-Aid Schools.

ENGLISH.

PORTUGUESE.

TOTAL.

Schools. Scholars. Schools. Scholars. Schools. Scholars. Schools. Scholars.

Victoria,

49

2,959

23

3,005

4

161

76

6,125

Villages of Hongkong, .

18

728

1

72

19

800

Kowloon,

14

486

I

70

15

556

Total,.......

81

4,173

25

3,147

4

161

110

7,481

A comparison between the two years 1890 and 1900 shews a decease of 5 in the number of Chinese Schools and an increase of 62 in the number of scholars in attendance at them. There is an actual decrease under every head except that of the number of scholars in the Hongkong Village Schools. The increase under the latter head is due to the closing of Government Schools in small isolated villages and the opening of Grant-in-Aid Schools in the larger villages. Thus in 1890 there were three schools in Shaukiwan with an enrolment of 147 scholars, in 1900 five schools with an enrolment of 244. The decrease in the number of English Schools in the Hongkong villages is caused by the closing of the Government English Schools at Stanley and Shaukiwan. The decrease in the number of scholars attending Portuguese Schools deserves notice. With 1893 of course 1900 com- pares still worse.

There is a decrease under every head except in the number of English Schools and in the number of schools in the villages of Hongkong. In 1892 a number of Government village schools were closed and in the following year the Grant-in-Aid Schools which ultimately took their place had not been opened. The free Chinese Schools in Victoria have been very adversely affected by the general rise in rents. There is a demand for more Chinese Schools in the Kowloon Peninsula and unless it is met by the Managers of Grant-in-Aid Schools it will be the duty of the Government

to undertake the work.

The subjoined Table shews the present position of the unaided schools for Chinese (Kai-fong Schools) compared with their position in 1893.

Victoria,

Villages of Hongkong,...

Kowloon,

Total,.....

Unaided Schools for Chinese.

Schools.

1893.

Scholars.

Schools,

1900.

Scholars.

110

2,039

104

1,934

17

252

131

17

305

15

379

144

2,596

126

2,444

The schools in Victoria have maintained their position very well and the only way I can account for the loss under "Villages of Hongkong" is by the increase in Grant-in-Aid Schools there during the last seven years. In future care should be taken that the Grant-in-Aid Schools do not interfere unduly with these Unaided Schools, and the masters of the latter schools should be encouraged to report cases where their pupils have been attracted from them by the opening of Free Grant-in-Aid Schools.

3. SCHOOL ATTENDANCE.-The average Daily Attendance in 1900 was 4,630. That in Grant- in-Aid Schools alone was 3,871. The corresponding figures for 1899 are 4,418 and 3,683, and for 1890, 5,105 and 3,373.

I cannot find any very clear evidence of attendance having been affected by the report which was current towards the end of May that a child was to be sacrificed to strengthen the foundations of a railway bridge. The scare was only partial and very soon passed away, but not before it culminated

T

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483

in a serious commotion at Aberdeen on the night of the 31st May, when the boats in harbour fired off their guns under the impression that an attempt was to be made to carry off their children. It is satisfactory to learn that the influence of the Sisters on the children attending their school at Aberdeen was so great that the children instead of absenting themselves from school went there for protection. I visited Aplichau and Stanley one or two days after the disturbance. At Aplichau the attendance was a little below normal. One girl who returned to afternoon school when I was there did not dare to come further than the top of the staircase and when some allusion was made by the mistress in conversation with me to the rumour she ran off again. At Stanley the boys attended school, but most of the girls were absent.

4. RESULTS OF THE ANNUAL EXAMINATION.-I reported fully on the results of the examinations of Government District Schools in my letter No. 27 of the 5th March. The results of the examina- tions of the Grant-in-Aid Schools will be found in Tables VI, VII and VIII, in which the actual number of passes and failures in each standard and the percentage for each school will be found.

In 1900 there were 136 scholars examined in the three highest standards of the Grant-in-Aid Schools in class III compared with 155 in 1899. But as the total number examined was only 988 as against 1,166 in 1899, there is relatively no falling off.

5. BELILIOS PUBLIC SCHOOL.-The Headmistress, Mrs. BATEMAN, returned from 19 months' leave in October. The annual examination of the school was held on the 18th, 19th and 20th July, and my report on it will be found in Letter No. 61 of the 7th August. There were 155 scholars present in the English Division as against 99 in the previous year. Of these, 53 were in the Upper School and 102 in the Infant School. The corresponding figures for 1899 were 50 and 49. Out of 194 scholars on the register 33 were British or Americans and 65 were Chinese. There were 39 Eurasians. Miss LONG, the senior pupil teacher, resigned her post at the end of November, and the Headmistress reports that after asking several of the former pupils of the school to undertake the duties she could meet with no success, until Miss CHUN YUT as a personal favour consented to take charge of the classes until such time as a teacher could be found to take the position permanently. So far no one has been found and the prospect of finding anyone seems as far off as ever. The examination of the Chinese Division was held in October, a more suitable time for judging the work done during the year than July. The number examined was 128 compared with 87 in the previous year.

6. GOVERNMENT DISTRICT SCHOOLS.-The number of schools remains the same.

The average daily attendance at the Chinese Schools was 274 and at the English 484 compared with 249 and 484 respectively in 1899. The work in the English Schools was interfered with by changes in the teaching staff. The attendance at the Yaumati Government School has doubled, and will no doubt continue to increase. The erection of a school building, the need for which was referred to in my last report, has been sanctioned. The system of partial payment by results has worked most satisfactorily, and there is a very marked improvement in those schools in which it is in force.

7. GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS.-The number of schools on the roll is 97 compared with 96 in 1899. The following schools were closed during the year: —

1. The Roman Catholic Mission Nova Escola Portugueza, a School for Portuguese children.

2. The London Missionary Society Kau-ü-fong, girls' school for Chinese (Class I).

3. The Victoria English School for girls (Class III).

The following new schools have been opened

1. The Church Missionary Kau-ü-fong, girls' school for Chinese (Class I).

2. The London Missionary Training Home for girls, a school in Class II for giving a Euro-

pean education in Chinese.

3. The French Convent School, a school of very old standing for European girls.

4. The Diocesan Girls School, a Church of England School, principally for Eurasian girls. The schools formerly maintained by the Female Education Society have now passed under the management of the Church Missionary Society. Out of the 97 schools on the roll only 80 were examined. Of the remaining 17, 2 were dispersed before the date of examination; the premises occu- pied by them became unsafe for habitation and they were unable to find new quarters. Eight of the others are closed owing to difficulty in procuring teachers; another is closed pending the erection of a permanent school building, and the others are unable to find suitable quarters. A special grant equal to 30 per cent. of the rent is now made to schools occupying leased premises and will, I hope, afford the free Chinese Schools in Victoria some relief, but rents are rising with such extraordinary rapidity that I question whether this extra grant will induce teachers to re-open the schools which have been.

1

484

closed. Landlords are averse to leasing their premises for longer periods than a month, and teachers are chary of incurring an expenditure from which no return can be expected till the end of the year. It is only the other day that the reply of a landlord to an application from the Manager of a Grant-in- Aid School for a year's lease was one month's notice to quit, and the result is that a useful little girls' school has disappeared. All landlords are not like that and I am pleased to be able to report an instance of a landlord foregoing a large increase in rent in order to enable a school to continue its work till the end of the year and thus earn the Government Grant.

Mr. J. G. DA ROCHA again acted as assistant examiner in Portuguese, and Mr. G. A. WOODCOCK as assistant examiner in drawing.

8. STAFF. From the 8th August to the 19th September, I was absent from the Colony on vaca- tion leave, and Mr. J. DYER BALL acted as Inspector of Schools. Mrs. BATEMAN, the Headmistress of the Belilios Public School, returned from leave on the 14th October. The Senior Pupil Teacher, Miss LONG, resigned on the 30th November, and Miss EILEEN CHUN YUT was appointed temporarily. Miss ELLA KING, the temporary assistant teacher, resigned on the 31st January, and Miss OLSON held the post until the 15th October when she was succeeded by Miss SIMONS.

9. Mr. CHAU KING-NAM was appointed master of the Shek-6 School vice Mr. CHAU KONG-SHEUNG deceased. Mr. Ho YUI-TS'ÜN resigned the post of master of the Wongnaichung School on the 31st May and was succeeded by Mr. YEUNG KÜN. Mr. SOONDERAM, Headmaster of the Wantsai Govern- ment School, resigned on the 25th October after twenty years' service and was succeeded by Mr. CHʻAN CHIU-LAI, assistant master at Saiyingpun. Mr. TSUI FU-wÊN was appointed to the post of assistant master of the Saiyingpun School, vice Mr. CHAN promoted.

10. The Tables of Statistics attached to the Report are drawn up in the same form as last year.

I have the honour to be,

The Honourable

T. SERCOMBE SMITH,

Acting Colonial Secretary.

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

A. W. BREWIN,

Inspector of Schools.

4

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TABLE I.—Summary of Statistics relating to all Schools under the Inspectorate of Schools in the Year 1900.

485

Number of Schools.

NUMBER OF SCHOLARS ATTENDING SCHOOLS.

Amount Average

Expenses. of

Grant.

Maximum Minimum Daily Monthly Monthly Attendance. Enrolment. Enrolment.

Boys. Girls. Total.

Government Schools,

$

C.

C.

English,

5

591

308

899

5,641.01

484.8

698

433

Chinese,

236

291

527

2,149.18

274.8

412

225

Total,...... 12

827

599

1,426

7.790.19

759.6

1,110

658

Grant-in-Aid Schools,

English,

20

1,759

489 2,248

Portuguese,

21

140

161

Chinese,

74

1,782 1,864 3,646

68,312.25 10,701.81

1,045.54

11,535.43 12,143.84

1,314.3

1,755

1,149

916.06

104.0

137

100

2,452.3

3,200

1,795

1

Total,

98

3,562

2.493

6,055

80,893.22 | 23,761.71 3,870.6

5,092

3,044

Grand Total,...] 110 4,389

3,092

7,481

88,683.41 23,761.71

4,630.2

6,202

3,702

TABLE II.—Statistics regarding Attendance at Government Schools during the Year 1900,

and the Cost of each School.

NUMBER OF SCHOLARS ATTENDING SCHOOLS.

Maxi-

Amount

Name of School.

Expenses. of

Grant.

Boys.

Girls.

Total.

Number Average

of Daily School Attend- Days. ance.

Minimum

mum

Monthly Enrol-

ment.

Monthly

Eurol-

ment.

Aplichau School (Chinese),.......

Belilios Public School (English),

"

(Chinese),

Pokfulam (Chinese),..

Saiyingpún (English),

(Chinese),

Shek-ó (Chinese), .

Tanglungchau (Chinese),...

Wantsai (English),

(Chinese),

36

:

16

167

61

Wongnaichung (English),.............

Yaumati (English),

..

:

36

192.00

308

308 2,592.54

291

291 1,068.00

:

:

:

:

:

27

45

282

51

72

70

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

16

129.00

167

1,126.01

61

192.00

27

104.18

45

144.00

282 1,087.92

51

240.00

1242

72

399.59

70

514.95

:

:

:

Total,......

827

599 1,426

7,790.19

256

20.1

26

16

240

142.7

195

150

232

¡ 135.1

219

109

249

13.0

16

11

240 112.9

140

106

241

35.7

48

21

253

21.8

26

24

242

20.8

30

18

241

145.3

236

116

242

28.3

47

23

241

38.4

61

32

239

45.5

66

29

:

:

:

759.6

1,110

658

486

TABLE III-STATISTICS regarding Attendance at GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS during 1900, and the Cost of each School.

Number of Scholars attending Schools.

Name of Schools.

Ex-

penses.

Boys. Girls. Total.

Amount of Grant.

Number Average

of Daily School Attend- Monthly Monthly Days. ance.

Maxi- Mini-

mum

mum

Enrol- Enrol- ment. ment.

American Board Mission, Bridges Street, (Boys),

106

106

$ 390.50

$ 298.11

230 75.22

104

64

17

"

Queen's Road West, (Boys), Hawan, (Girls).

Chungwan, (Girls),

86

86

322.00

255 39.43

58

26

Tsat-tszmui, (Boys),

59

52

233.46

255 39.43

58

26

#

25

Mongkoktsui, (Boys),

Basel Mission, Shamshuipo, (Boys),

"

C.M.S., St. Stephen's Chinese School, (Boys),

17

"

19

"

Pottinger Street, (Boys),

Saiyingpun, (Boys),

St. Stephen's Baxter Memorial, (Girls),

85

85

410.63

386.39 223

69.25

81

60

Shaukiwan, (Boys),

Tokwawan, (Boys),

No. 2 School, (Boys).

56

56

395.18

229.39

250

41.28

51

43

125

125

430.13

432.35

235

87.20

121

89

129

129

448.12

261.01

257

79.03

114

70

53

53

388.88

149.10

223

32.20

f1

31

65

354.33

126.75

223

30.00

26

52

52

374.23

66.32

241

22.14

18

77

77

252.98

149.43

214

31.37

74

35

Lyndburst Terrace, (Girls),

Third Street. (Girls).

Yaumati, (Boys),

Hunghom, (Girls).

"

Quarry Bay. (Boys),

Aberdeen School, (Boys),

69

69

388.62

260.06

255 39.13

59

35

66

66

200.80

203.28 244 32.57

58

33

30

30

15

29

:

Aplichau, (Girls).

Bonham Road, Chinese Division, (Girls),

Queen's Road West. (Girls),

High Street, (Girls),

2:

Saiyingpun, Praya, (Girls),

Pottinger Street, (Girls),

26

66

ཚེ ཁ ེ བ ོ

212.75

118.50

247 23.00

26

15

149.08

26.31

235

8.62

12

29

128.95

40.09

272

12.18

21

11

26

142.05

55.38

219

9.77

19

12

66

435.01

467.97

216

45.94

55

34

:

63

63

319.74

121.88

269

23.77

41

40

40

291.56

192.28

233

28.57

40

30

"

??

Yaumati, (Boys),

1

II.

(Boys),

Hunghom, (Boys).

Shektong-tsui, (Girls),

37

19

">

Third Street. (Boys),

"

""

""

Tanglungchau, (Girls),

Aberdeen Street, (Girls),

17

Wantsai Chapel, (Girls),

""

Staunton Street, (Girls),

**

Stanley School, (Girls),

Shaukiwan, (Girls),

Tokwawan. (Girls)..

Yaumati, (Girls),.

Kau-ü-fong, (Girls),

L.M.S., Square Street. (Boys),

Wantsai Chapel, (Boys),

Shektong-tsui, (Boys),

Saiyingpun, I. Division. (Boys),

Hospital Chapel, (Boys),

Saiyingpun, Second Street, I. Division, (Girls),

II.

Ui-hing Lane, I. Division, (Girls),

Tanglungchau No. 1, (Boys).

No. 2, (Boys),

Square Street, (Girls),

Taikoktsui, (Boys),

Matauwai, (Boys),

Shaukiwan, (Boys),

D'Aguilar Street, (Girls),

77

77

205.75

96.67

264

32.85

50

26

48

48

246.88

167.40

254

25.30

34

22

38

38

198.69

109.40

234

21.81

34

22

32

32

179.93

98

9.14

28

34

34

185.60

61.74

246

18.48

30

•*******g

26

+

13

61

69

(Boys),

II.

(Girls),

"

65

:

7༅:;:;:;:

81

330.80

311.82

241

52.65

71

31

64

323.46

196.77

211

38.05

260.00

241.87

202

37.24

69

350.28

218.34

240

49.18

51

265.63

135.34

252

33.18

17889

64

24

59

17

69

41

46

28

75

323.00

263.14

262

46.79

71

35

12

12

133.50

30.97

270

6.95

10

7

64

64

251.68

178.55

228

35.61

56

24

104

333.95

311.13

241

50.76

89

48

64

64

356.74

287.77

253 47.05

57

47

25

25

184.00

45.00

206 15.01

25

3

99

463.53

412.36

262 65.22

82

47

65

193.93

147.08

232 26.07

11

90

90

399.00

292.79

264 51.58

68

41

::

40

39

40

189.50

178.64

39

140.00

233 200

29.78

21.21

:..

:8888

39

12

39

8

:

215.71

48

48

350.87

182.14

267

25.78

39

16

66

66

470.01

191.82

248 39.15

64

36

30

30

277.47

110.72

262 21.44

29

22

11

R.C.M., Bridges Strect, Chinese Division, (Girls),

Aberdeen School, (Girls),.

42

42

129.66

173.65

257 30.31

12

14

48

48

136.00

128.88

263 27.76

42

18

"1

Holy Infancy School, (Mixed),

40

39

79

337.71

303.85

246 55.21

70

38

Yaumati, (Girls),

51

51

276,50

150.28

274 25.07

46

24

Shaukiwan. (Girls),

41

41

216.50

148.00

268

33.00

40

15

Hunghòm, (Girls)......

61

330.00

188.48

258 40.47

55

21

Italian Convent, Chinese School, (Girls),

80

80

396.97

458.66

268 74.82

77

73

Sacred Heart School, Chinese Division, (Girls),

36

36

115.00

97.32

257

22.15

31

22

Wesleyan Mission, Spring Gardens, (Boys),

64

64

312.00

240.80

257 46.10

60

29

**

Wellington Street, (Boys),

95

95

316.00

282.28 231

61.57

87

62

"

"

(Girls),

77

77

319.00

160.64

241 43.28

73

35

Lower Lascar Row, (Boys),

58

58

:

273.50

187.16

253 33.83

48

17

:

"

Wantsai School, (Boys),

Graham Street, (Girls),..

53

53

315.00

243.32

249 37.65

51

31

11

Basel Mission, High Street. (Girls),

64

64

797.87

378.82

251 43.76

55

44

L.M.S., Training Home for Girls.

Berlin Foundling House School, (Girls),

C.M.S., Victoria Home and Orphanage, Chinese Division, (Girls),

C.M.S., St. Stephen's Anglo-Chinese, (Boys),

30 30

1.014.36

315.23

232 28.98

30

30

47

47

2,183.S!

332.37

234 35.83

+1

32

44

+1

230

::

Morrison English School, (Boys)..

80

230 2,184.47 80 1,785.42

261.58 245 32.11 1,029.25 224 159.25 242.80 219 44.80

39

20

230

117

68

29

Victoria Home and Orphanage, English Division, (Girls),

Wesleyan Mission, Lyndhurst Terrace, English, (Boys),

61

61

636.00

St. Paul's College School, (Boys),

240

240 3,226.17

Diocesan School, (Boys)...

265

265

C.M.S., Bonham Road. English Division, (Girls),

L.M.S., Taipingshan, English, (Boys),

East Point. (Boys),...

R.C.M.. Cathedral School, (Boys)...

St. Joseph's College School, (Boys),

18

18

81

81

21,873.48 540.60 837.06

156.86

22.86 1.042.25 235 136.25 1,683.13 243 156.13

101.46

222 367.21 220 57.21

36

19

181

92

193

136

11.46

14

9

78

51

224

224

2,211.60 652.00

360

360 17.623.17

1.788.00

221 110.00 218

217.00

172

76

253

210

Carried forward,

3,3231,8825,205 $62,453.40 $19,106.80

2357.2 4,425 2.534

TABLE III-STATISTICS regarding Attendance at GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS,—Continued.

487

Number of Scholars!

attending Schools.

Name of Schools.

Ex- penses.

Boys. Girls. Total.

Amount of Grant.

Number Average

of Daily School Attend- I' Monthly Monthly Days. ance.

Maxi- Mini-

mum

mum

Enrol- Enrol-

ment. ment.

Brought forward,

R.C.M., Italian Convent, English Division, (Girls),

l'ortuguese Division, (Girls),

| 3,323 |1,882 |5,205 |$62,453.40 |$19,106.80

3357.2

1.425 2,534

287 287 2,803.24

1,909.72

219 188.72

63

63

321.05

396.43 219 42.93

")

")

French Convent, (Girls),

:)

Bridges Street, English Division, (Girls).

25

Portuguese Division, (Girls),

"

>>

39

39

239.11

215

33.11

26

26

180.63

149.50

265

16.00

42

42

296.81

181.16

265

22.16

>

Sacred Heart School, English Division, (Girls),

St. Francis, Portuguese Division, (Girls),

42

42

800.70

225.10

227

29.60

25

25

100.74

146.01

243

19.01

وو

English Division, (Girls),

39

237.51

161.91

243 29.41

"

Victoria Portuguese School, Portuguese Div., (Mixed),

21

10

31

192.46

231

19.96

326.94

21

English Div., (Mixed),

10

16

Victoria English School, (Boys),

208

208

(Girls),

5,578.68

113.03 228 11.53 655.66 271 77.66

120

Diocesan Girls School, (Girls),

32

32 8,093.52 284.82

216 23.32

ཤྲཱ སོ ཆེ རྨི ཀྲྀཧྨ:ལིཾ

232

192

54

45

39

29

16

25

26

15

31

15

9

85

28

22

}

Total,

3,562 | 2,493 6,055 ($80,893.22 |$23,761.71

3870.6 5,092

3,044

TABLE IV.-Average Expense of each Scholar at Government Schools under the Inspectorate of Schools and at the Grant-in-Aid Schools during the Year 1900.*

I-DIRECT EXPENDITURE ON GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS.

(Cost of working the Schools irrespective of cost of erection or repairs of Buildings.)

1.-BELILIOS PUBLIC SCHOOLS,-

Expenditure,

Dednet School Fees,

2.-OTHER DEPARTMENTAL SCHOOLS,-

$3,514.54 922.00

$ 2,592.54

Cost to Government, in 1900,

.$ 5,197.65

II.—EXPENDITURE ON THE GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS.

Total Cost to Government, in 1900, ........

.$ 23,644.37

III.—AVERAGE COST OF EACH SCHOLAR.

(Calculated by Enrolment.)

Average Cost, to Government, of each Scholar,-

1. At Belilios Public School,..

2. At Other Departmental Schools, 3. At Grant-in-Aid Schools,

IV.-AVERAGE OF EACH SCHOLAR.

(Calculated by the Average Daily Attendance.)

Average Cost, to Government, of each Scholar,

8.41

4.64

3.90

1. At Belilios Public School,

2. At Other Departmental Schools,

3. At Grant-in-Aid Schools,

18.16

8.42

6.10

*The above expenditure does not include the cost of Direction, Inspection or Repairs to Buildings, nor, in the case of Grant-in-Aid Schools, Building Grants.

TABLE V.-Summary shewing the Number of Schools under the Inspectorate, and the Number of Scholars attending them during the last Eleven Years and in the Years 1870 and 1880.

Government.

YEARS.

Total.

1870........

1880.. 1890..

1891......

1892....

1893..

1894.

1895..

1896..

1897....

1898.

1899.

1900..

English.

2-rooowEBBEN Chinese.

Chinese.

SCHOOLS.

Grant-in-Aid.

Government.

English &

Portuguese.

Grand

Total.

Total.

English.

Chinese.

SCHOLARS.

Grant-in-Aid.

Total.

English.

Portuguese.

Total.

Chinese.

Grand Total.

Boys. Girls.

Percentage of Expen- diture on Education to Revenue.

24

24

24

29

35

23

28

63

28

35

15

61

76

111

577

28

35

16

65

81

116 623

1,302 | 1,302 2111,289 862 809 1.432 1,135

1,302 1,191 111

1.52

1,500 147 1,439 1,055

252 116

184

28

34

19

76

95

129 678

17

24

21

81

102

13

19

22

77

99

15

23

83

106

15

23

81 104

15

22

78 100

23

77 100

23

73

12

23

74

25

96 108

97

882

1,560 1,259 186 125 731 613 1,344 1,477 186 118 710 572 1,282❘ 1,529 201 121 696 412 1,108 1,527 209 119 755 380 1,135 1,553 214 115 798 467 1,265 1,532 193 115 891 554 1,445 1,869 190

886 558

153 1,444 2.353 109 899 527 1,426 2,248 161

1,409 1,808 3,308| 2,609 3.485 4,656| 6,095| 3,771 | 2,324 3,803 5,132| 6,564| 3,773 | 2,791 4.210 5,655 | 7,215 4,228 | 2,987 4,587| 6,250|7,599|4,332| 3.262 4,234| 5,964| 7,246| 4,131| 3.115 3,948 | 5,684 | 6,792| 3,819 2,973 3,381 | 5.178| 6,313 | 3,613] 2,700 3,797 5.522| 6,787| 3,752 | 3,035 3,823 5,882 | 7,327 | 4,219| 3,108 3,810 | 6,316| 7,760| 4,502| 3,258 3,646 | 6,055 | 7,481| 4,389| 3,092

699

2.96

2.80

3.26

3,29

3.22

2.07

2.37

2.52

2.18

1.66

1.24

1.90

488

TABLE VII.-Percentage of Passes in cach Standard in euch Class of School, at the Annual Examination of the Grant-in-Aid Schools in 1900.

ORDINARY SUBJECTS.

SPECIAL SUBJECTS.

NEEDLEWORK.

Standard.

J.

II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. Total.

I.

II. | III. IV. V. VI.

VII. Total. Failed. Fair.Good.

Very

Good.

Class I,....

94

91 94 96 90 93 90 94

87

82

87 95 88 100

100 83

13.5

40.0 36.0 10.3

s

Class II,

100 100 100 | 100 | 100, 100 100 100

:

:

60 100

100

$5

13.1

51.7 34.2 1.00

Class III,

97

25

$3

L

O

96

97

90 94 85

68

94

83 78 69

79 77

3.00

30.0 43.0

24.0

:

Class of

Schools.

TABLE VIII.--Percentage of Passes in the various subjects in which the Grani-in-Aid Schools were examined in 1900.

Name of Schools.

Total.

I. American Board Mission, Bridges Street (Boys),

98.48 100.00

98.48 50.81

100.00 100.00

";

21

"

"

,་

Queen's Rd. West (Boys), Háwan (Girls)..

5

22

"

وو

Chungwan (Girls),

::

"

??

>>

"

97

??

"

"

5:

**

>>>

那哆

19

"2

35

Tsat-tsz-mui (Boys), Mongkok-tsui (Boys),

Basel Mission, Shamshuipo (Boys),

C.M.S., St. Stephen's Chinese School (Boys),

No. 2 (Boys),

Pottinger Street (Boys),

Saiyingpun (Boys),

St. Stephen's Baxter Memorial (Girls),

Lyndhurst Terrace (Girls),

97.61 100.00

Shaukiwán (Boys), Tokwawan (Boys),

97.22 98.61 88.09 | 100,00 96.59 98.86 95.91 100,00

97.61 | 100.00

95.83 90.16 90.47 74.28 97.72 92.10 95.91 92.10 100.00 100.00 100.00 96.55 96.42 100.00 100.00 66.66

100.00

100.00 100.00 80.00

F

100.00

100.00 100.00 100.00

100.00

100.00 91.66 83.33

100.00 100.00 50.00

100.00 100.00

100.00 100.00

100.00 75.00

86.66 100.00

"

Third Street (Girls),

86.66 28.57 $6.20 100.00 82.75 76.19 97.35 100.00 97.29 96.15 100.00 100.00| 100.00 100.00

100.00 100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00 | Failed

100.00

100.00 100.00

100.00

17

Yaumati (Boys),

"

"

Hunghom (Girls),

100.00 100.00 100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00

Quarry Bay (Boys),

75.00 100.00 75.00

19

Aberdeen School (Boys),

90.90 100.00

91.66

Aplichau (Girls),

100.00 100.00| 100.00| 100.00

??

Bonham Road, Chinese Division (Girls),

100.00 100.00 | 100.00 100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00 |

100.00 100.00

100.00 100.00 100.00 | 100.00

27

39

High Street (Girls),

་་

Queen's Road West (Girls),

"

Saiyingpun Praya, (Girls),

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

19

>>

>>

Stanley School (Girls),

17

17

17

17

"

:>

""

""

爷爷

19

Yaumati (Boys),

"

"

"1

11

Pottinger Street (Girls),

Shaukiwan (Girls).

Tokwawan (Girls),

Yaumati (Girls),

Kau-ü-fong (Girls),

L.M.S., Square Street (Boys),

Wantsai Chapel (Boys),

Shektongtsui (Boys),

Saiyingpun, 1. Division (Boys).

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

100.00

54.83. 77.41 64.51 16.12

100.00

100.00 100.00 100.00 96.66

100.00

100.00 100.00

100.00 100.00

96.77 | 90.00 16.66 100.00 100.00 100.00

100.00 100.00 100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00

92.30 100.00 92.30

100.00

94.73 100.00 94.73

84.78

100.00

100.00 96.88 | Failed

97.56 100.00 100.00 100.00

97.50 | 100.00

100.00 100.00

11

"

??

13

II.

་་

3.

(Boys).

Hunghom (Boys).

97.56 92.30 97.72 97.72 97.72 60.97 83.87 100.00 83.87 92.30

100.00

100.00 100.00

50.00

100.00 100.00

100.00 100.00

""

""

"

**

11

"

"

11

"

11

>>

"1

Hospital Chapel (Boys),

Shektongtsui (Girls).

Saiyingpun, Second Street. I. Div. (Girls),.......

II. (Boys)... Ui-hing Lane, "I. Division (Girls),

II.

Tanglungchau No. 1 (Boys),

No. 2 (Boys),

Square Street (Girls),

Taikoktsui (Boys), Matauwai (Boys)...................

Shaukiwan (Boys), Third Street (Boys),

D'Aguilar Street (Girls),

Tanglungchau (Girls),.

98.18 98.18 98.18 87.50 85.71 100.00 85.00 88.23 100.00 91.17 76.66

$7.50

100.00 100.00 {

100.00 66.66| 100.00 Failed 100.00 92.85 100.00

91.07 100.00 91.07 77.08

100.00

100.00 100.00 |

26.66

(Girls),

93.87 100.00 93.87 100.00 81.81 81.81 81.81 100.00 100.00 100.00 98.07 97.05 100.00 97.05 93.93

100.00

100.00 100.00

100.00

100.00 100 00

83.35

100.00 100.00

98.27 100.00 98.27 97.67

100.00

100.00 100.00

96.96| 100,00 96.96 83.33

9.09 45.45 9.09

100.00

100.00 100.00

100.00 50.00

**

""

Aberdeen Street (Girls)...

19

Wantsai Chapel (Girls),

96.87 100.00 96.77 91.30 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00

""

Staunton Street (Girls).....

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

100.00 100.00

"

R.C.M., Bridges Street, Chinese Division (Girls),

100.00 100.00 96.55 92.30

100.00

100.00 100.00

""

""

Aberdeen School (Girls),

89.28 100.00 89.28 100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00

"

"2

Holy Infancy School (Mixed),

94.33 100.00

83.01 100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00

""

Yaumati (Girls).

100.00 10 1.00

96.00 96.00

100.00

100.00 100.00

"

Shaukiwan (Girls),

76.47 100.00 73.52

86.95

100.00

100.00 100.00

+

;;

タケ

""

"

15

17

>>

"

27

*

""

Hunghom (Girls),

Sacred Heart Sch., Chinese Division (Girls)..

Wesleyan Mission, Spring Gardens (Boys),

Wellington Street (Boys).

"

90.24 100.00 90.24

88.88

100.00 100.00

Italian Convent, Chinese School (Girls),

91.80 96.72 95.08

83.60

76.29

100.00 97.14

88.88 100.00

88.88

80.00

100.00

100.00

100.00 | 100.00

68.00

90.00 | 98.33

90.00

45.45

100.00

92.59 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

28.57

(Girls),

100.00

100.00 | 100.00

>>

""

""

Lower Lascar Row (Boys),

97.50 100.00

97.50 92.85

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

J1

"

>>

Wantsai School (Boys),

91

Graham Street (Girls),

97.22 100.00 93.54 72.22

100.00

100.00 100.00 100.00

NAME OF SCHOOLS.

TABLE VI-RESULTS of the EXAMINATION of the GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS in

1900, under

NUMBER OF SCHOLARS WHO PASSED.

Class of School.

No. of Scholars Presented.

No. of Scholars Examined.

Stand. I.

Stand, II,

Stand. III.

Stand. IV.

Stand. V.

Stand. VI.

Stand. VII.

Ordinary Subjects.

Stand. I.

Special Subjects.

Stand. II.

Stand. III.

Stand. IV.

Stand. V.

Stand. VI.

Stand. VII.

Stand. I.

1.- American Board Mission, Bridges Street, (Boys),

2.-

"

3.-

39

4.-

་་

11

"

11

5.-

32

Queen's Road West, (Boys) Háwan, (Girls),

Chungwan, (Girls),

Tsat-tszmui, (Boys),

6.-

8.- 9.-

$1

1.

*

Mongkoktsui, (Boys),

7.—Basel Mission, Shamshuipo, (Boys),

Shaukiwan, (Boys),.. Tokwawan, (Boys),.

I

10.-C. M. S., St. Stephen's Chinese School, (Boys),

11.-

55

"

No. 2, (Boys),

12.

ל

Pottinger Street, (Boys),

13.

Saiyingpun, (Boys),

14.

"

St. Stephen's Baxter Memorial, (Girls),

15.

Lyndhurst Terrace, (Girls),.

16.

""

Third Street, (Girls),

17.-

་་

Yaumati, (Boys),

18.--

+

Hunghom, (Girls),

19.

"

Quarry Bay, (Boys),

20.-

Aberdeen School, (Boys),

21,

Aplichau, (Girls),..

High Street, (Girls),

22.-C. M. S., Bonham Road, Chinese Division, (Girls),

23.

24.-

"

25.-

19

26.

27.-

28.

"

29.-

">

20.- >

$1.-

Queen's Road West, (Girls),

Saiyingpun Praya, (Girls),.

Pottinger Street, (Girls),

Stanley School, (Girls),

Shaukiwán, (Girls),

Tokwawan, (Girls),

Yaumati, (Girls),

Kan-i-fong, (Girls),

32.-L. M. S., Square Street, (Boys),

Wantsai Chapel, (Boys),

Yaumati, (Boys),.

Shektongtsui, (Boys),

Saiyingpun I. Division, (Boys),

::: I8BSARSKM (N*29* :

46

74

44

89

53

30

29

16

30

37

33

22

12

10

10

43

43

8::10:20¤#RAKAHN INTER

69

66 33 23

9

:::

31

13

19

42 8

15

88 40 23

51

ไป

49 15 18

31

29 14

9

14

81

17

7

7

15 4

1

1

9

13

37

10

11

32

14

6

:: 2 ::

17 20 10 10 Ja

10

33.-

34.-

19

35.-

"

36.

37.

55

II.

95

(Boys),

38.-

"3

Hunghom, (Boys),

39.- 40.-

55

Hospital Chapel, (Boys),

Shektongtsui, (Girls),.

41.-

11

42.

Saiyingpun, Second Street, I. Division, (Girls),.

II.

"

"

(Boys),

43.-

11

Ui-hing Lane, I. Division (Girls),”

44..

*

"

45.

11

46.- 47. 48.- 49. 50.-- 51.- $2.-- 53.- >> 54.

44

>1

و«

>>

>>

"

55.-

A

56.-

II.

Tanglungchau, No. 1 (Boys),

"

No. 2 (Boys),

Square Street, (Girls),

Taikoktsui, (Boys),

Matauwai, (Boys),.. Shaukiwan, (Boys), Third Street, (Boys), D'Aguilar Street, (Girls), Tanglungchau, (Girls), Aberdeen Street, (Girls),

Wantsai Chapel, (Girls),

Staunton Street, (Girls),

57.-R. C. M., Bridges Street, Chinese Division, (Girls),

Aberdeen School, (Girls), -

(Girls),

:

INAMAN 12 :***** :**ARAICHA: MA : :8825*****8*98** :8

21

21

5

32

32

16

31

8

5

30

28 18

22

21

8

13

5

13 17

.00

4)

22

9

43

41

15 5 15

4-4

44 18

13 12

31

7

58

8

39

79

50

73

36

59

33

I

33

32 14

I

36

34

20

19

I

30

29 11

53

28 13 7

53 19 12

25 11

88: 588 03 00 0 2 10:

: FS:: ***=58.8:

23

16

ધન

15

4

5

18

13

18

1

17

7

17

7

34

16

4

56

15

6

10

49

25

7

27

2

70

21 16

21

21

17

10 | 3

34

20 10 3

29

2

I wi

29 17 8

3

26

16

33 13

13

14

11

1

2,075 1,989 724 546 399 134

12 7 11

15

11

15

13

34

34

17

12

41 19 11

17 3

61

14

5

12 15 15

18

18

4

4 5

2

46

46 15 13 18

17

60 19 20

5

4

34

33

21

40

14 17

17

36

36

3 12

16

9 4

9 636 1330 190 66 22

:::::

4

58.-

即多

59.-

15

Holy Infancy School, (Mixed),

GO.

>>

Yaumati, (Girls),

61.- 62.-

**

Shaukiwan, (Girls),

G3.- 64.-

>>

66.-

"

67.-

"

68.-

*

69.-

70.-

>

Hanghòm, (Girls),

" Sacred Heart School Chinese Div., (Girls),.

65.-Wesleyan Mission, Spring Gardens, (Boys)...

Wellington Street, (Boys),

Lower Lascar Row (Boys),

Wantsai School, (Boys),.. Graham Street, (Girls),

Italian Convent, Chinese School, (Girls),.

(Girls)..

5

2

::

Total,.

38 15

~

41 44

2233

71.- Basel Mission, High Street, (Girls),

II 44

43

72.--Berlin Foundling House School, (Girls), 73.-C. M. S., Victoria Home and Orphanage, Chi. Div., (Girls), II 74.-L. M. S., Training Home for (Girls),

II

30

30

35

35

II

30

30 10

རྒྱུུ ང་ ས་ =

7 4 2 3

4

14

540 10

4

3 6 Ꮳ

GADU KA

4

4562

2300

3522

1

::::

::::

3

:00 ::

: : :

3 5

Total,

139 138 33 28 25 17 12 6 17

75.-C. M. S., St. Stephen's Anglo-Chinese, (Boys),

III

126 120 72 28 13

00

7

76.- 77.-

33

Morrison English School, (Boys),..

III

41

36 21 6

~~

2

*

Victoria Home and Orphange, Eng. Div., (Girls), III 78.--Wesleyan Mission, Lyndhurst Terrace, Eng. Sch., (Boys),.

III

20

20 12 4 3

79.-St. Paul's College School (Boys),.

80.-Diocesan School, (Boys),

115 137

107 30 32 35 10

131 25

26

83.-

East Point, English School, (Boys),

"

85.-

86.-

*

87.

15

88.

89.-

"

Bridges Street, English Division, (Girls),

90.-

"

Portuguese Division, (Girls),.

91.-

"

92.

>>

93.

"

94.

>

95.

81.-C. M. S., Bonham Road, English Division, (Girls),

82.-L. M. S., Taipingshan, English School, (Boys),

84.-R. C. M., Cathedral School, (Boys),

St. Joseph's College School, (Boys), Italian Convent, English Division, (Girls),.

Portuguese Division, (Girls), French Convent, (Girls),..

III

10

10 2 2 3

51

46 27

ANGUA

23

දුල

: : : : : :

:

::

3

c

: : en:

::::

:

::::

:

30 38

::::::

10

:

67

56 14 12 14

را

9

III

156

153 24 36 26 26

19

111 157 156

33 34 31 26 15 10

17 20 14

6

III

+1

+

Sacred Heart School English Division, (Girls), St. Francis, Portuguese Division, (Girls),

English

(Girls), Victoria Port. School, Port. Division, (Mixed),. Eng. Division, (Mixed),.

96.-Victoria English School, (Boys), 97.--

(Girls),. 98.-Diocesan School, (Girls),

མད:ཀྱི ཕ་ད

35

35

29

17

18

18

23

23

15

15

19

17

22

22

12

12

: હકક ગ

8 8 11

25 7 7

17 10 5

9

10

III 52 III

50

13

.

III 25

24

3

5 2 4 3

::::

17

Total,

Grand Total,..

1,147 1,093 330 246 223 123 71

3,361 3,220 1,087 820 647 274 121

33 15

54

8:

75 65 56 47 10

41 636 330 190 141 93 66 58

51 53 27 19

4

6

00

8

7

: : : : : : :

::

:

ka: : : :

.

::

Stand. II.

NUMBER

rdinary Subjects

Stand. III.

Stand. IV.

Stand. V.

13

1188 & 8:

@ GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS in 1900, under the provisions of the Scheme of 19th August, 1893.

OLARS WHO PASSED.

Special Subjects.

NUMBER OF SCHOLARS WHO FAILED.

Ordinary Subjects.

Stand. I.

Stand. II.

Stand. III.

Stand. IV.

Stand. V.

Stand. VI.

Stand. VII.

Stand. I.

Stand. II.

.....

Stand. III.

Stand. IV.

Stand. V.

Stand. VI.

Stand. VII.

Stand. 1.

31

13

3

19

5

18

1 6

17

7

11

17

29

2

26

16

14

N. NI

2

10

5

::::::::::::

::::: mi

::::

:::::

TOTALS.

Special Subjects.

Needle Work.

Ordinary Special

Subjects. Subjects.

30

2

3

1 2 2

:::::::::

:

Stand. II.

Stand. III.

:::::

Stand. IV.

Stand. V.

.

.

Stand. VI.

Stand. VII.

65

31 30

Passed.

Failed.

Passed.

Failed.

Failed.

Fair.

Good.

Very Good.

Average Daily Attendance

during the year.

in 1900.

Examination Grant.

25

36

32

22

10

10

43

: $650 B: CSEREASON: : : : &

:

$

75.22

260.50

37.61

298.11

36

55

5 26

3 70

2

28

22

13

16

25

::::ARBANTER

:: Capitation Grant.

Total Grant carned.

39.43

213,75 19.71

233.46

69.25 351.75

41.28

34.64 208.75 20.64

3 6.39

229.39

87.20

388.75 43.60

432.35

36

79.03

: 21.50

39.51

261.01

32.20

133.00 16.10

149.10

30.00

111.75

15.00

126.75

10

22.1-4

53,25 11.07

66.32

5

31.37

133.75 15.68

149.43

1

39.13

240,50 19.56

260.06

23

* 10

32.57

187,00

16.28

203.28

43

10

EA

4 5

23.00

107.00 11.50

118.50

8.62

22.00 431

26.31

12.12

34.00 6.09

40 09

5 3

9.77

50.50 4.88

55.38

17 13

45.94

445.00 22.97

467.07

21

14

8

23.77

110.00 11.88

121.88

32

25

28.57 178.000 14.28

199.2-

12

17 14 5

$2.85

28

29

25.30

80.25 16.42 154.76 12.65 167.40

96.67

21

21.81

98.50 10.90

109.40

:

12

8

18.48

52.50

9.24

61.74

54 3 39

$2.65

285.50 26.32

311.82

41

39 1 30

43 1 25

26 5 24

38.05

177.75

19.02

198.77

36

57.21

223 251

18.62

241.87

49.18

193.75

24.59

218.31

$3.18

118.75! 16.59

135.34

54

1 28

:ལ་

46,79

239.7: 23.39

263.14

6 1

6.95

30 4 23

35.61

27.50 160.75 17.80

3.47

30.97

178.55

51 5 37

50.76

285.75

25.38

311.13

46

42

16

15

47.05

264.25

23.52

287.71

9

2

2

15.01

37.50

7.50

15.00

70

65 22

379.75

32.61

412.36

33

31

26.07

134.00

13.08

147.08

57

42

24

30

51.58 267.00 25.79

292.79

32

25

10

29.78 21.2]

163.75 14.89

178.64

:

31

21

5

12

13

25.78

34

14

16

16

2

39.15

169.25 12.89 172.25 19.57

182.14

191.82

19

6 13

21.44 100.00

10.72

110.72

29

24

2

11

9

30.31

158.50

15.15

173.65

25

3 17

3

27 76

115.00

13.88

128. 8

15

13

12

3

50

3 31

14

55.21

270.25

27.60

03. 5

25

24

5

25.07

137.75

12 53

150.28

26

8

20

37

24

12 15 15

56

5

51 10

ow w

33.00

131.50

16.50

148.00

5

2

17

4

2

4

::

: : : ::

16

2 12

3

1

::

::

Ni

wi No: 0000

46

17

ہیں

49.47 74.82 421.25 37.41 22.15 86.25 11.07 46.10 21.75 23.05

168.25 20.23

188.48

458.66

97.32

240.80

F

20 21

33

8

61.57 251.50 30.78 43.28 139.00 21.64 160.64

282.28

39

26

2

33.83 170,25 16.91

187.16

1636 1330.:190 66

223

7 6 41 44

23

23 5

*

2

1 100 85

27

35

13

.00

14

12

37.65 224.50 18.82 243.32

Ca

co

3

1,876 113 1,248 220

94 278 250

72 2,052.979,737.00 1 015.84 10,752.84

::::

:

:

:

::::

:

::::

3

: : :

3

: : :

:: cri

::::

:

3 3 5

:

::::

::::

:

::::

:

:

:

::::

:

::::

::::

::::

::::

::::

::::

::::

:::

43

18

30

11

2

35

30

::

17

1

4

8 43.76 346.00 32.82 378.82 7 15 28.98

21.73 293.50

315.23 35.83 305.50 26.87 322.37 32.11 240.50 24.08 264.58

S

:

:

138

:

11

10

2

1

15

59

39

110.68

1,185.50 105.50 1,291.00

: : : : : : :

:::::::

30 38 27

6

9

17

20

: : : : : : : : :2*

::::::::

120

3

wi ::: w:::::

:::::::::

4

::::

::

17

:::::: : : :

14

+2: ::

::

::::::::127 :~

20

| 159.25 44.80

¡

19

107

22.86 136.25

122-

29

9

43

3

11.46 57.21

870.00 159.25 1,029.25 198.00 44.80 242.80

184.00 22.86 156,86 906.00 136.25 1.042.25 156.13 1,529.00 156.13 *1,683.1

99.00 11.46 101.46 310.00 57.21 367.21

3141

2 153

35

22

17

18

23

14

16

22

·51352 + O 2

55 1 15

110.00

12 60 25

217.00

542 00 110 00 1.571.00

652.00

217.00

1,788.00

3 11

32

188.72

1,72 .00

188.72 1,909.72

8

4:'.93

3:3.50

42.98 396.43

3

#3 11

206.00

33.11

239.11

16.00

133 50

16.00

149,50

22.16

159.00 2.16

181.16

29.60

195.50 29.60

225.10

19.01

127.00 19.01 146.01

29.41

132.50 29.11

12

43

::

19

ai si

40

19.96 11.53 101.50, 11.33 113.03 77.66 578.00 77.66 655.66

161.91 172.50 19.96 192,46

75

68 56 47

636 330 190 141 93 66 58 51

10

9

14 4 6

:

14 19 25

12 1,039 54 248

53 27 19 8 7 8 100

85

27 19 24 25

70 9

12 3,053 167 1,507 292 104 381

23.32 261.50 23.32 284.82

88 11 73 1.428.37 10,289,50 1,428.37 11,717.87 .40 184 33,622.02 21,212.00 2,549.71 23.761.71

489

**

NAME OF SCHOOLS.

1.- American Board Mission, Bridges Street, (Boys),

2.-

}

3.-

4.-

5.- 6.-

8.--

9.-

>>

""

"

Queen's Road West, (Boys) Háwan, (Girls),

Chungwan, (Girls),

Tsat-tszmui, (Boys),

Mongkoktsui, (Boys),

Class of School.

No. of Scholars Presented.

NUMBER OF SCHOLARS WHO Passed.

No. of Scholars Examined.

Stand. I.

Stand. II.

Stand. III.

Stand, IV.

Stand. V.

Stand. VI.

Stand. VII.

Stand, 1.

Stand. II.

Ordinary Subjects.

69

66

33

28

46

10

31

Special Subjects.

Stand, III.

Stand. IV.

Stand. V.

Stand, VI.

Stand. VII.

Stand. I.

Stand. I.

::::

::

NOM

Ordinary Subje

:::

Stand. III.

:::::::*:

Stand, IV.

Saiyingpun, (Boys),

15.-

Lyndhurst Terrace, (Girls).

16.

Third Street, (Girls),

17.

Yaumati, (Boys),

18.

T

Hunghòm, (Girls),

19.-

وو

Quarry Bay, (Boys),.

20,

Aberdeen School, (Boys),

Aplichau, (Girls),..

7.-Basel Mission, Shamshuipo, (Boys),

Shaukiwan, (Boys),.. Tokwawan, (Boys),..

10.-C. M. S., St. Stephen's Chinese School, (Boys),

11.-

"

12.-

>>

13.

5

14.

No. 2, (Boys),

Pottinger Street, (Boys),

St. Stephen's Baxter Memorial, (Girls),

14

42

**

8

89

88: 40

23

53

49 15

30

29

1.4

29

16

30

37

33

R: RECH

28

15

7

ACCU

13

58.-

>>

34.

**

35.

"

36.

"

37.

**

21.-

22.—C. M. S., Bonham Road, Chinese Division, (Girls),

23.

13

24.

25.-

"

26.

"

27.

17

28.

29.-- 20.

>>>

$1.-

High Street, (Girls),

Queen's Road West, (Girls),

Saiyingpun Praya, (Girls),.

Pottinger Street, (Girls),

Stanley School, (Girls),

Shaukiwán, (Girls),

Tokwawan, (Girls),

Yaumati, (Girls),

Kan-ii-fong, (Girls),

32.-L. M. S., Square Street, (Boys),

33.-

;

Wantsai Chapel, (Boys),

Yaumati, (Boys),.

Shektongtsui, (Boys),

Salyingpun 1. Division, (Boys),

IL.

""

(Boys),

38.

1

Hunghom, (Boys),

39.-

»

Hospital Chapel, (Boys),

40.—

"

Shektongtsui, (Girls),.

41.

"T

42. 43.- 44.-

"

>>

+1

45.-

*

46.-

**

47.

>

48.

"

49.

50.-

>>

5

51.-

52.- 53.- 54.

>>

>>

"

Salyingpun, Second Street, I. Division, (Girls),

Ui-hing Lane, I. Division (Girls),

II.

(Girls),

Tanglungchau, No. 1 (Boys),

>>>

No. 2 (Boys),

Square Street, (Girls),

Taikoktsui, (Boys),

Matauwai, (Boys),.. Shaukiwan, (Boys), . Third Street, (Boys), D'Aguilar Street, (Girls), Tanglungchau, (Girls), Aberdeen Street, (Girls),

>>

(Boys),.

II.

55.-

**

Wantsai Chapel, (Girls),

56.-

Staunton Street. (Girls).

57.—R. C. M., Bridges Street, Chinese Division, (Girls),

وہ

Aberdeen School, (Girls),

9

12

10

43

10 13

13

59.--

7

Holy Infancy School, (Mixed),

60.--

A

>>

Yaumati, (Girls), .

61.- 62.-

دو

Shaukiwan, (Girls),

"

Hunghòm, (Girls),

63.- 64.

13

Italian Convent, Chinese School, (Girls),.

"

66.-

11

"

Sacred Heart School Chinese Div., (Girls),.

65.-Wesleyan Mission, Spring Gardens, (Boys)..

Wellington Street, (Boys)..

67.

*

(Girls)..

68.

>>

J

Lower Lascar Row (Boys),

69,

"

"

Wantsai School, (Boys),..

70.-

>>

Graham Street, (Girls),

Total,

71,- Basel Mission, High Street, (Girls),

72.--Berlin Foundling House School, (Girls), 73.-C. M. S., Victoria Home and Orphanage, Chi. Div., (Girls), II 74.-L. M. S., Training Home for (Girls),

====

II

44

43

12

II 30

30

35

35

II

30

30

10

2746

**** :***PRIRHA : ¦aa ¦ ¦¤ãÃ?********8*4 8

21

32

31

30

28

22

21

1252 30 07

16

5

61

57 13

17

16

41

30

22

8

9

43

41 15

15

4-1

44

18 13

12

34

31

15

4

23

50

14

}}

73

70 21

16 21

36

34

20

10

59

58

29

17

33

36

20

30

24

28

53

25

25

34

43

62

18

46

63

34

45

36

: : : :FRODIT:8

34

19

28

13

53

34 17

4

19

11

61

14 9

18

4

46

13 15

18

GO

19

20

#

33 21 î

40

14 17

S

36

12

3

16

2

|2,075|1,989 724 546 399 134

385

15

2

• 00

:::

w

2

14

27

17

29)

26 16

5. to

F:: UNN: SEE: Z: ::: 5:

18

7

13

12 10 ::

23:

12 : : : :

15

5

17

4

9

4

9 (636 1330. 190

66

22

K-

6

41 44

223

5

1443

7

11 4

14 5

acco

3

3

4

6

305203

4562

Total,

139 138

33

28

28

25

17

12

6 17

::::

::::

::::

:

: : :

3

: : :

:: Gi

::::

::::

3

3

LAD

:

:

::::

>

*

76. 77.-

Morrison English School, (Boys),..

80.-Diocesan School, (Boys),

83.-

East Point, English School, (Boys),

75.-C. M. S., St. Stephen's Anglo-Chinese, (Boys),

Victoria Home and Orphange, Eng. Div., (Girls), III 78.--Wesleyan Mission, Lyndhurst Terrace, Eng. Sch., (Boys),,

79.-St. Paul's College School (Boys),..

81.-C. M. S., Bonham Road, English Division, (Girls),

82.-L. M. S., Taipingshan, English School, (Boys),

>

84.-R. C. M., Cathedral School, (Boys),

III

126. 120 72 28 13

III

41

36

6 21

III

115

III 137

III

III

85.

++

86.

"1

87.

"

88.

St. Joseph's College School, (Boys), Italian Convent, English Division, (Girls),.

Portuguese Division, (Girls), French Convent, (Girls),.

HI 157

III 35

III

89.

17

Bridges Strect, English Division, (Girls),

111

90.

>>

"

Portuguese Division, (Girls),.

III

91.

>

92.

Sacred Heart School English Division, (Girls), St. Francis, Portuguese Division, (Girls),

93.

39

*

English

94.

"

95.

1%

**

(Girls). Victoria Port. School, Port. Division, (Mixed),. Eng. Division, (Mixed),.

UI

III

97.-

96.-Victoria English School, (Boys),

(Girls),.

III

III

98.-Diocesan School, (Girls),

III

•A SABAAAARARN22 .3

20

20

12

107 30 32 35 10

131

25

10

10

2

51

46 27

67

56

14

12

156 153

24

156 33 34

35

8

20

25

7

17

17

10

18

18

23

23

15

15

19

17 7

22 10

12

12

52

50

* TAONO :20HZZO 1-20 20 20 110 01 00 :

72

:::

4

23 19

3

2

10

14 6 9

6

36 26

26 19

17

: : : : : : : :?8

::::::::

30

38

::::::

3

20

31

26

15

10

11

$

7

3

4

2

13

17

25

24

3 5 2

3

2

Total,

1,1471,093 330 246 223 123

71

Grand Total,.

3,361

3,220 1,087 $20 647 274 121

33 15

54

::

:

:::::

9 14

75

41 636 330 190 141

6S 56 47 10 9

93 66

14

58 51 53

27 19

Education Department, Hongkong, 7th March, 1901.

* Less reduction $12.00 (See C.S.O. 1480 of 1900.)

SCHOLARS WHO PASSED.

Special Subjects.

NUMBER OF SCHOLARS WHO FAILED.

Ordinary Subjects.

Special Subjects.

TOTALS.

Needle Work.

Ordinary Special

Subjects. Subjects.

37

85

47

29

13

2

25

36

32

22

6

10

10

43

1958: CCC-09: ::: &

: .

65

31

30

Passed.

Failed.

Passed.

''{{1}Y

Failed.

Fair.

Good.

Very Good.

Average Daily Attendance

during the year.

Examination Grant.

Capitation

Grant.

Total Grant earned in 1900,

$

75.22

260.50

37.61

298.11

36

39.43

55

26

70

36

28

1

213,75!

19.71 !

233.46

69.25 351.75 34.64 3>6.39 41.28 208.75 20.64 87.20 388.75! 43.60 79.03 121.50 39.51 32.20 133.00 16.10

229.39

432.35

261.01

149.10

22

1

10

30.00 22.14

111,75 15.00 55.25 11.07

126.75

66.32

16

5

31.37 133.75 15.68

149.43

14 22

39.13

240.50 19.56

260.06

23

10

32.57

187.00! 16.28

203.28

5

23.00

107.00 11,70

118.50

8.62

22.00

131

26.31

12,12

34.00

6.09

40 09

9.77

50.50

4.88

55.38

3

10

17

45.04

445.00 22.97

467.97

::::

31

.

30

Stand. VII.

Stand. J.

Stand. II.

Stand. III.

Stand. IV.

Stand. V.

Stand. VI.

Stand. VII.

Stand. I.

Stand. II.

Stand. III.

Stand. IV.

Stand. V.

Stand. VI.

Stand. VII.

Stand. I.

Stand. II.

Stand. 111.

Stand. IV.

Stand. V.

Stand. VI.

Stand. VII.

1s

51

16

5

10

17

17

1

7

:::

:

21

29

26 16

10

9

17

2

7

4

17

9

ལ་

4

9 636 1330.:190

66

NGCLA | G

::::

::::

:

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32

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54

3 39

39 1 30

41

36

43

1 25

26

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23.77

110.00 11.88

121.88

28.57

178.00! 14.28

192.2×

$2.85

80.25! 16.42

96.67

25.30

154.75 12.65

167.40

21.81

98.50.

10.90

109.10

18.48

52.50

9.24

61.74

:2.65

285.50

26.32

311.82

38.05

177.75

19.02

196.77

37.21

993 25

18.62

241.87

49.18

193.75

21.59

218.31

2

€3.18

118.75

16.59

135.6.1

5-1 1 28

46.79

239.7:

23.39

263.14

6 1

5

6.95

27/0

3.47

30.07

30

4

23

2

12

35,61

160.75

17.80

178.55

51

5 37

46

42

16

9

1

5

":

50.76

285.75

25.38

311.13

47.05

264.25

23.52

287.77

15.01

37.50

7.50

15.00

70

51

33

31

57

1 42

21 30

25

10

:: :::

65 22

379.75

32.61

412.36

26.07

134.00 13.08

147.08

51.58

267.00 25.79

292.79

29.78 21.21

163.75 14.89

179.64

2

3

4 1

1 100

85 27

::::

:

::::

::::

10

5

:

31

12

25.78 169.25 12.89

182.14

34

14

16

16

39,15

172.25 19.57

191.82

19

9

6

13

21.44

100.00 10.72

110.72

29

24

11

30.31

158.50 15.15

173.65

25

17

5

27 76

115.00 13.88

128.8

50

31

55.21

276.25

27.60

::03.5

25

24

25.07 137.75

12 53

150.28

26

20

33.00 131.50

16.50

148.00

37

4 24

40.47 168.25 20.23 188.48 458.66

co

3

56 5 51 10

16

12 3

46

17 8

46.10

74.82 421.25 37.41 22.15 86.25 11.07 21.75 23.05

97.32

240.80

51

6 20 21

33

::::

:

::::

:

: : : :

39

26

35

13

3

6

14

1,876 113 1,248 220

94 278 250

43

30

35

30

:::~

4

5 17

224.50 18.82 243.32

9,737.00 1 015.84 10,752.84

346.00 32.82 378.82 1 7 15 28.98 293.50 21.73 315.23 17 12 35.83 305.50 26.87 332.37 32.11 240.50 24.08 264.58

61.57

282.28 43.28 139.00 21.64 160.64 33.83 170.25 16.91 187.16

12 37.65

72 2,052.97

18 ! 8 43.76

251.50 30.78

:

:

138

11

10

1 15 59 39

110.68

:

1,185.50 105.50

1,291.00

120

29

19

107

:::::

159.25 870.00 159.25 1,029.25 44.80 128.00 44.80 242.80

22.86

136.25

134.00 22.86 906.00 136.25

156,86

117

شروع

019427834

2 122.

9

43

3

55 1 15

3141

12 60 25

2 153

3 11

4

35

15

22

3

17

18

23

14

16

22

12

5

43

40

19 5

29

1:6.13

1,529.00 156.13

1.042.25 1,683.13

11.46

90.00 11.46

101.46

57.21

310.00

57.21

367.21

110.00

542 00

110 00

217.00

1.571.00

217.00

652.00 1,788.00

3358:

188,72

1,72 .00

188.72

1,909.72

4:.93

343.50

42.93

396.43

#311

206.00

33.11

239.11

16.00

183 50

16.00

149.50

22.16

159.00

2.16

181.16

29.60

195.50

29 60

225.10

19.01

127.00

19.01

146.01

29.41

132.50 29.41

161.91

19.96 172.50 19.96 11.53 101.50 11.53 77.66 578.00 77.66 655.66

192.46

113.03

ti

23.32

261.50 23.32 284.82

2

:::

::::

2

::::

:

:::::

::::

:

::::

:

::::

:

::::

10

12 1,039 54 218

70 9

88 121

73 1.428.37 10,289.50 ̊1.428.37 |11,717.87

167 1,507 292 104 381 40 184 3,622.02 21,212.00;

002,549.71 23,761.71

56

47

10

9

4 14

6

14

19

25

93 66

999

58 51

53

27

19

8 7

8 100 85 27

19

24

25

12

5

3,053

:::::

59

75

636 330 190 141

9

14

* Less reduction $12.00 (See C.S.O. 1480 of 1900.)

A.

T

W. BREWIN,

f Unh

7,

Class of

Schools.

Name of Schools.

TABLE VIII.—Percentage of Passes,—Continued.

Total.

II. Basel Mission, High Street (Girls).

""

Berlin Foundling House School (Girls).

C.M.S., Vict. Home & Orphanage Chi. Div. (Girls),. L.M.S., Training Home for (Girls),

III. C.M.S., St. Stephen's Anglo-Chinese (Boys),

Morrison English School (Boys),

Vict. Home & Orphanage Eng. Div. (Girls),. Wesleyan Mission, Lyndhurst Ter. Eng. Sch. (Boys),. St. Paul's College School (Boys),... Diocesan School (Boys), .

""

"

""

"

""

""

C.M.S., Bonham Road, English Division (Girls), L.M.S., Taipingshan, English School (Boys),

East Point

"

R.C.M., Cathedral School (Boys),

"

"

""

"

"

21

99

"

27

21

19

"1

1

"

91

"

11

"

(Boys),

St. Joseph's College School (Boys), Italian Convent, English Division (Girls),... Portuguese Division (Girls), French Convent (Girls),...

11

Bridges Street, English Division (Girls),

Portuguese Division (Girls), Sacred Heart School, English Div. (Girls),.. St. Francis, Portuguese Division (Girls),

English Division (Girls),

Victoria Portuguese Sch., Port. Div. (Mixed), Eng. Div. (Mixed),

་་

Victoria English School (Boys), (Girls), Diocesan Girls School (Girls),

100.00

491

100.00 100.00 87.17 100.00 100.00 100.00 83.33 100.00 100.00 100.00 80.00 97.14 100.00 100.00 96.66 100.00 100.00 97.50 80.55 88.88

100.00

88.88

100.00 100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00 75.00

100.00

$7.50

$100.00 16.66

100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00

98.33 96.66 100.00 61.11 86.11 75.00

95.83

61.53

95.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 93.90 100.00

95.00 100.00

90.00 100.00

100.00

:

100.00 100.00 100.00

90.00 100.00

97.95 97.70 88.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 80.00 100.00 90.00 | 100.00

87.87

93.47 97.82

91.30

95.65

81.81

98.21 100.00

87.23

96.42 100.00

95.23

77.77

92.15 92.81 86.08 98.76 99.36 93.54 100.00 | 100.00 88.00 100.00 88.00 100.00 100.00 88.23 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 90.90 93.33 86.66 93.33 94.11 100.00 70.58 100.00 95.45 100.00 100.00

92.81 98.47 96.15 97.75 97.56 97.14 100.00 100.00 64.00 88.88 88.23 100.00 100.00 | 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

91.30 100.00 | 100.00 93.33 100.00 100.00

96.87

14.28 | 41.17

78.94

33.33 | 50.00

93.75

100.00

94.11 100.00 | 100.00

100.00

95.45 100.00 | 100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00 100.00

100.00

86.00 100.00

$0.00

79.16 100.00

86.66

90.00 92.10 79.16 75.00 82.60 100.00

73.91 80.00 | 80.00

80.00

100.00

100.00 86.66

79.16

75.00 82.60) 100.00

311

No. 14

1901

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE ACTING HEAD MASTER OF QUEEN'S COLLEGE AND OF THE EXAMINERS APPOINTED BY THE GOVERNING BODY FOR THE YEAR 1900.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of

His Excellency the Governor,

1. The total number on Roll was 1,440 being nearly 100 more than last year; and this number could have been exceeded had the Roll been large enough to have admitted of more entries being made, and the class-rooms of a more expansive nature. This shews that an entrance into this Insti- tution is eagerly sought after, in spite of the fees being, in the higher part of the school, $36 per annum, and in addition to which each boy has to provide himself with all books used in the school, which in some classes means an extra expenditure of about $10 on the part of each scholar in the upper classes.

The average daily attendance was 990 as against 887 last year. The highest monthly attend- ance was reached in April, when there were 1,126 pupils in attendance. The highest average daily attendance was also in April, viz., 1,049. The largest number of boys present on one day was 1,079, on 25th July.

2. The revenue from fees was $29,037 being an increase of $1,792 on last year.

The gross expenditure has been increased owing to the increase of salaries, granted under C.Ö.D. 280 of Ï899, and also by an increase of compensation on the same, and the adjustment of exchange in England; yet owing to the great increase in the average daily attendance the expense of each scholar has been decreased by $1.28.

3. On my return to duty, from leave of absence, I took over charge on the 1st May from Dr. WRIGHT, the Head Master, who then went on leave. I found the staff weakened by Messrs. Joxes and WOODCOCK (seconded for duty at the Supreme Court and Sanitary Board respectively), and Messrs. BARLOW and MACHELL, away sick-the former detained in Singapore Hospital, and the latter in Colombo Hospital.

Fortunately the services of Messrs. JAMES CHEUNG and J. HATMER were still available, and they were very good substitutes for two of the absentees, and thus the College has not suffered as much as it otherwise would have done. Unfortunately, just at that time Mr. DEALY, the Acting Second Master, was away also on sick leave for about a week, so that with the great increase in the number of boys, it was no easy task to arrange for the work of the school, and I had personally to give all my attention for some time to one individual class, and the general supervision had, for the time, to be greatly relaxed.

Messrs. BARLOW and MACHELL returned to the Colony on 15th May, but neither was in a fit condition to resume duty in full, and the result was that Mr. BARLOW after a few days on half duty, was ordered to the Hospital where he practically remained till 13th July, when he was recommended to go home for a period on medical certificate.

Mr. MACHELL was far less fit for work than even Mr. BARLOW, and within a few days, he too had to be admitted into the Hospital where his disease became so acute that it was found necessary to retire him from the service, and he was sent home in August.

The continued absence of these two Masters was totally unlooked for, and thus the staff was further reduced. So great then were the difficulties I had to contend with, that I had it seriously under my consideration to apply for permission to temporarily decrease the number of pupils. How- ever, as Messrs. CHEUNG and HATMER gave me to understand that, under certain conditions, they would continue to act till the end of the year, and I had permission to employ some of the 1st class students as Acting Pupil-teachers, I was able to struggle on.

Relief from England in the shape of a successor to Mr. MACHELL has been anxiously looked for, but up to the present no one has been appointed; but I am expecting a new Master before long.

Thus throughout the year the school has been seriously understaffed, and had it not been that Messrs. CHEUNG and HATMER were able to remain, a reduction in the number of pupils would certainly have been necessary, and that would have meant a greater expense to the College. My thanks are also due to the whole staff for their assistance in these trying circumstances.

312

The school has suffered a great loss in the compulsory retirement of Mr. MACHELL, for he was not only a very energetic and efficient teacher, but was also always to the front in matters of recreation for the boys. He had been on the staff since 1892, so that his severance from the College will be all the keener felt.

4. The results of the Oxford Local Examinations are as follows:-Of the 8 juniors 5 passed, one of whom was a Chinese. Of the 9 Preliminary Candidates only 2 passed, one of these being a Chinese.

5. Of the four free scholars who were admitted this year, FUNG PAH-LIU (from Sai-ying-pun School) gained the Junior Morrison Scholarship, as the head boy of the Lower School.

6. During the year under review, great strides have been made in recreation and sports. I am happy to be able to state that a greater interest has been taken in sports generally by the Chinese, who have now got both Foot-ball and Cricket Clubs of their own, and I am further pleased to note from the "Yellow Dragon" that 2 or 3 Chinese boys are included in the College 1st Cricket Eleven.

Mr. TANNER is to be thanked for encouraging sea-bathing among the boys, and for starting a Club open to all who were willing to pay the fee, and of which many availed themselves.

The outcome of this was Aquatic Sports promoted by Mr. RALPHS, and held for the first time in the history of this school, and here again some of the Chinese shewed great proficiency.

In response to a general wish expressed by the Non-Chinese students, Mr. RALPHS (having first consulted Sir JOHN CARRINGTON, Colonel of the Hongkong Volunteers, on the matter) undertook to raise a Cadet corps which, with some of the former students, numbered close upon 30. Drills were carried on, and in November the corps was inspected by Sir JOHN CARRINGTON, who spoke very favourably of the appearance and drill of the boys, and stated that a scheme would be presented to the Government for sanction to attach the corps to the Volunteers. The decision is still awaited.

Another subject which I hope is under the consideration of the Government and which I trust ere long will be un fait accompli, is the building of a suitable Gymnasium.

An increased interest is shewn in the "Yellow Dragon," which is still in a flourishing condition.

7. I examined the Lower and Preparatory Schools according to the standing order of the Governing Body, and make the following Report :-

о

In the Lower School 397 were examined and 368 or 93 °。 passed.

In the Preparatory School 310 were examined and 294 or 95 ° passed, making a total of

707 examined, out of which 662 or 94 °。 passed.

о

Compared with last year 101 more boys were examined and 133 more passed.

As will be seen from the attached Table C., Classes IVc. and VIIID. were by far the weakest. This is explained in IVc. by the fact that that class was constituted for the most part of the lowest boys promoted from the lower classes and even some from the Preparatory School.

The VIIID. was constituted of new boys who have been but a comparatively short time in the school, and in Grant- in-aid Schools might be exempt from examination.

I was struck by the readiness with which questions were answered in the "Conversation" exa- mination even in the lowest classes, so long as I stuck to the exact matter of the book; and here the innate retentive powers of the Chinese came out strongly, for many of the boys had committed great portions of their reading lessons to memory. As soon, however, as I went off the straight path difficulties cropped up, and there was great stumbling.

8. Our warmest thanks are due to the donors of prizes whose names were published in the public papers when an account of the prize-giving was published,

9. The usual Tables A. and B. are attached.

X

ALFRED J. MAY, M.R.A.S., & F.E.I.S., Acting Head Master.

CLASS.

Total Number

1900.

QUEEN'S COLLEGE.

Month.

Number of Scholars.

Number of Attendances.

Number of School Days.

Average Daily Attendance.

Remarks.

January, February,

859

14,867

18

1,044

5,134

00 10

825.94

5

1,026.8

March,

1,088

27,791

27

1,029.0

April,

1,126

14,693

14

1,049.5

May,

1,108

27,161

26

1,044.65

June,

1,071

23,635

24

984.79

July,

1,008

20,802

22

945.56

August,

907

3,562

4

890.5

September,

1,109

19,600

19

1,031.5

October,

1,083

25,614

25

1,024.56

November,

1,063

24,954

25

998.16

December;

1,027

20,927

22

951.23

Total,...

228,740

*

Total Number of ATTENDANCES during 1900,

Number of SCHOOL DAYS during 1900,

Average DAILY ATTENDANCE during 1900,

Total Number of SCHOLARS at this School during 1900,

231

990.23

.228,740 231

990.23

1,440

AVERAGE EXPENSE OF EACH SCHOLAR AT QUEEN'S COLLEGE DURING 1900.

Expenditure,-

Cash Book,

Do.,

Exchange Compensation,

Crown Agents,

Do.,

Adjustment of Exchange,....

Deduct,-

School Fees,

Sale of Books,

Total Expense of College,..

Average Expense of each Scholar,-

Per Number on Roll, .......

examined.

Total Number

passed.

Percentage of

Passes.

Per Average Daily Attendance,..

$10.17 14.80

RESULTS OF EXAMINATION OF LOWER AND PREPARATORY SCHOOLS, WITH PERCENTAGE

OF PASSES IN EACH SUBJECT.

C. to E.

E. to C.

Reading.

Conversation.

Dictation.

Arithmetic.

IVA.,

56

56

100

B.,

33

32

97

858

98

100 100 100

100.

88 89

98

97

100

100

97

91

Сод

56

44

79

60

79 100

98

60

VAO

57

56

98

95

100 100

91

75

B.,

55

45

82

71

69 100

96

31

VIA.,

57

56

98

97

97

100

97

98

B.,

54

54

100 98

85

100

98

94

C.,

29

25

86

83

69

100

97

93

WIN****

91

97

55

29 73

84

98 82

45

89 58

72 100 98.

77

94 92

38

79 79

KURN**N2

93

84

82

94

50

43

91

84

71

44

56

85

69

VIIA.,

35

35

100 100

100

100

:

B.,

34

34

100 100

88

100

· C.

33

33

100 100

94

100

100

86 100

94

85

91

94

64 100

:::

D.

33

28

85 85

81

100

70 45 88

VIIIA.,

36

36

100

100 100

100

97

97

B.,

44

44

100 100

100

98

100 100

...

C.,

43

43

100

98

98

98

95

84

D.,

52

41

79

87

81

65

56

59

Writing.

97

93

93

61

Grammar.

Preparatory School.

.$32,317.12

5,093.30

2,674.44

3,649.79

$43,734.65

.$29,037.00 44.85

$29,081.85

$14,652.80

Geography.

Composition.

Map.

Lower School.

:

313

314

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE,

HONGKONG, 9th February, 1901.

SIR, We have the honour to present, for the information of the Governing Body, our report on the Upper School of Queen's College.

2. We have examined 250 boys of whom only a few have shown any grasp of the subjects in which they were examined.

3. Reading.-On re-considering the mark-sheets, we are of opinion that the marks awarded were in general far too high. As, however, the examination in this subject was necessarily oral, we have not been able to modify the marks originally awarded. It was obvious that in many cases the boys, while reproducing the sounds correctly, had no comprehension of what they were reading, while in other cases the enunciation was so defective, that, though we were able to understand the boy, so long as we followed his reading with our eyes on the book, without this aid what he read conveyed no meaning to us.

4. Conversation.-In this subject as well as in reading we can only endorse the remarks made by the examiners appointed by the Governing Body for 1897. We would recommend that in future the oral examination should not be held till after the examiners have had the opportunity of seeing the written work of the candidates. This is the universal custom in examinations both in English schools and universities and is necessary as a guide to the examiners in forming a just estimate of a boy's ability. The mark sheets as they now stand do not represent our final judgment on the conversational powers of the candidates; but again it has been impossible to revise them. Such fragmentary conver- sation as we were able to elicit was stilted and stereotyped; little knowledge of English idiom was evinced.

5. Dictation. In this subject all the Chinese forms with the exception of III A., and III B., which obtained respectively 60% and 51 % of passes, were disgraceful. The top form I A.B. obtained 30% of passes; no boy in the class obtained full marks, while 13 out of 20 obtained no marks at all. The next form II A. obtained 38 % of passes. In this form 3 boys out of 56 obtained full marks, and 6 boys no marks. The third form II B. only obtained 20% of passes, 16 boys out of 26 obtaining no marks, whereas one boy was awarded full marks. The subject for dictation in this form was Fuller's definition of the true gentleman as personified in Admiral Sir FRANCIS DRAKE. One boy has rendered the opening words as follows :-"The quaint old bullock sums up in a few words the character of the true gentleman in the descripsing that of a great animal Sir FRANCIS DRAKE." This may be taken as typical of the performances of this form. Of the 2 forms whose percentage of passes just exceeded that of failure, III A. shows 19 zeros among 53 boys. It is worth mention that 5 boys out of 27 in III A. obtained full marks. The Non-Chinese were generally good.

Arithmetic.-Of the Chinese forms not one gains a percentage of passes; II A., with a percentage of 43, being the best, and III B., with a percentage of 11, the worst. This cannot be considered satis- factory, even in view of the fact that the paper which was set to the top form was distinctly difficult. The work of Ho SHAI WING in I A.B., and of TSANG KWAN WA in II B., was especially noticeable, while in II A., four boys obtained 90 marks or over. Many of the failures were due to carelessness on the part of the boys in taking down the questions wrongly.

Of the Non-Chinese forms all except N. 2, whose performance was far from good, produced cre- ditable work. In N. 1 ISMAIL's paper was excellent, and 2 boys in N. 3 were awarded full marks.

Translation (a) English to Chinese.-Three classes-I A.B., II A., and III.A.-show percentages of passes, but in general the work was slovenly and small attention was given to detail or shades of expression. The work, however, of 2 boys--HUNG HING KAM in I A.B., and LAU TSUI LAN in II B. was admirable not merely by contrast.

(b) Chinese to English.-Examination in this subject was made ridiculous by the fact that the boy's merely reproduced a crib-translation. Mistakes, and they were many, were due to failure of memory, or to unintelligent reading of the crib, and there was therefore no real test of the boy's ability to translate Chinese into English. Our opinion on this branch of study is rather contained in our report on the special translations, which formed a new feature in this examination.

Special Translation—(a) Chinese into English.-This subject is not in the ordinary curriculum, but at the suggestion of the Inspector of Schools a paper was set to all the Chinese boys in the Upper School with a view of testing their ability as interpreters. We, therefore, intentionally set stiff papers. The results were disappointing. In translating Chinese into English the percentage of passes was 29%, 4%, nil, 8 %, and nil in the fornis I A.B., HI A., II B., III A., and III B., respectively.

315

>

>

རྩྭ

It is a

Many of the boys seem ignorant of the nature of a petition, and very few can translate one. surprising fact that scarcely any boys knew the English equivalent for the Chinese title of the Regis- trar General. We append a few of the attempts at rendering it :-

Lord of Wa Mang.

Your Regisstresous General.

Your Honour Colonel General.

Office of the Pritty.

Dear Restoni General.

The Benefactor.

Colonel Registerer.

The Governman, &c.

While the Chinese character Hat () is constantly mistaken for a man's name and is variously rendered :-

Mr. Lord Hard.

Our Lord master Lord Hart.

Sir Lord Hut, &c.

The boys did not seem to understand the meaning of idiomatic sentences in their own language, and have little conception of the distinction between sense and nonsense.

(b) English into Chinese. The percentages of passes were 15 %, 6 %, nil, nil, and 2 %, in I A.B., II A., II B., III A., III B., respectively. Very few boys were able to write correctly the characters of their own language. In fact, Chinese appeared a foreign language to them and they left us with the impression that, while learning little English, they were rapidly forgetting Chinese.

In all, 5 boys-HUNG KWOK LEUNG, HUNG HING KAM and HO SHAI WENG (in I A.B.), WONG SHING SHEUNG and CHAN SUI ÜN (in II A.)-have passed in both papers, while 5 boys-FUNG MUN CHAK and CHUNG TAT MAN (in I A.B.), NG CHI KWAN (in II A.), Ho YAU SIK and Ü SHING (in III A.)-passed in translating Chinese into English, and 2 boys-U KWAN PO (in II A.) and Ho SHAI SUN (in III B.)-passed in translating English into Chinese. The performance of II B. obtaining no passes in either paper, was lamentable in the extreme.

History was very weak. The boys labour under the initial difficulty of expressing their thoughts. For example-" Acre was a town in Jerusalem it was taken by the French and made him king 88 years" (III A.); "Cromwell was a statement in England" (II A.); "Mayflower was denoted the Plantagenate Kings of the Crown" (II A.); "The Bank of England are many manufacture towns and a great number of sea port and also very rough" (III B.). Ignorance of history adds to the confusion-"The way how Lady Jane Grey came to the throne was that she married, the Dauphin (Philip II) (N. 2); "Ironsides is a brief and generous nobleman" (HII B.); “Magna Charta was a great charta was a famous outlaw man who lived in the Sherewood Forest. He robbed the rich but help the poor" (N. 3); "Act of Security was used to make some matter secure" (II A.); "Pil- grimage of Grace was a book written by John Bunyan during his confinement in Bedford jail (II A.). Ignorance of the elements of geography leads to such statements as "India on the continent of Europe has been subject to England" (II B.); "Bank of England has beautiful mountain ranges high peaks" (II B.). A boy asked to give the provisions of the Treaty of Union says--"Tea was brought to England by the Dutch from China; tobacco and pottatoes was brought to England by Drake." In conclusion we must point out that in 3 forms (N. 2, II A., and II B.) not a single boy has passed. However, 3 boys-SILAS in N. 1, HUNG HING KAM in I A.B., and CHAN SZ Yui in III A.-showed considerable historical knowledge.

Geography was worse. Out of 9 forms only 3 have obtained a percentage of passes. We hasten, however, to express our regret that the papers for I A.B., and N. 1 and 2 were not set strictly on- the syllabus, and we have, therefore, adopted the suggestion of the Headmaster that " for purposes of settling the order in these classes, and for prize winners, this subject be not counted." Of the remain- ing forms, in N. 3, N. 4, and III A, no boys have passed, while II A, II B, and III A, show 12 %; 12% and 35% of passes respectively. The only boy who showed a competent knowledge of the subject was TAM WING KWONG.

For example the following was given as an answer to the question "What are the boundaries of Bulgaria?" :---

N.

Arctic Ocean.

E.

Ural Mountain, Ural River and Caspian Sea.

S.

Caucuses Mountains, Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea.

W. Atlantic Ocean.

316

Of the 5 questions set to III B., a certain boy only attempts one to which he replies as follows:-

Trafalgar Kattegat Sevastopol

is a cape in Baltic Sea.

White Sea.

>>

>>

Arctic Ocean.

>>

Marengo

Arctic Ocean.

11

55

Copenhagen

? 1

15

Hanover

Baltic Sea.

71

.་

Vittoria

Mediterranean Sea.

Mediterranean Sea.

**

""

Luebeck

Arctic Ocean.

22

"1

Bergen Metz Fontenoy

Arctic Ocean.

17

23

North Sea.

1)

North Sea.

11

:.

"1

We cannot

This paper may be taken as a fair specimen of much rubbish which was submitted to us, explain the curious tendency of many boys to make the Arctic Ocean a lumber-room for unrecognized localities.

Shakespeare-The play offered was Henry V and the only 2 forms which took this subject were N. 1 and I A.B. They obtained respectively 66% and 24% of passes. The non-Chinese form was as a whole very much superior to the Chinese form, though the paper of HUNG HING KAM in the latter form was most excellent. In N. 1 the paper of GHULAMALI was equally good. Shakespeare, however, appears to be beyond the understanding of Chinese boys.

??

-

Grammar. --In N. 1 the percentage of passes was very high, and the boys showed a sound know- ledge of the subject. The papers of II A. and III A. were also good, but the other forms were mediocre, if not bad. In N. 4 the feminine of "deer" is variously given as swine, antelope, stag, deeress and heifer; of "marquis" as marquichess, marquiness, mergius, marquess, and marquii; of "peacock” as weathercock and henpeacock; of "fox" as foxess, bitch and victim. In II A.B. the masculine of "bitch" appears as wizard, tib, buck, fox, wretch, witzer, show, tom and tom-bitch; of "hen" as boak and cork; of "mare as maress, scullion, dota, filly, ewe, hare, staline, hiefer, ballien, ram, stallon; and of "sow" as sow-pig, bore-pig, sower, big, swine, bor, pock, sore, bull, belle, and horse. In III A.B. the plural of "formula" is given as formulix, formulea, formulii, formulous, formule, formuless, formulx, formuliis, formulee, formuli, formulars and formulaes; of "dictum" as dictumoes, dictumes, dictia, dictans, data, dictumess, dictaa, dictumaa, dictor, dictumies. "Concord" is defined to be "that which does not depend upon anything else." The comparative and superlative degrees of "ill" are given as "sick," "sickness."

Composition. In classes I A.B. and N. 1 the test was essay-writing, and the boys were given a choice between three subjects. The Chinese boys seem to have little idea of how an essay should be written, and the difference between them and the non-Chinese boys is strikingly shown in the per- centages which are respectively 10% and 75 %. In N. 1 GHULAMALI's style and appreciation of his subject was noticeable. The repeated use of the personal pronoun by many of the boys was very offensive, and such sentences as "There are many others proofs of the use of newspapers. Please excuse. I am ignorant -are in essay-writing to be deprecated.

27

In the other classes a short story was slowly read to the boys and they were required to repro- duce it from memory. N. 2, II A. and III A. show percentages of passes, and the work of SOLOMON, WONG PAK HING, and Ho YAN SIK was creditable, but in many cases evidently little was understood and even less was reproduced. N. 3 and II B. were particularly bad. On this subject we must again refer to the comments of the examiners of 1897.

Mensuration.This subject was only offered by I A.B. We have to thank Lt. BAGNALL-WILD, R.E., for both setting and correcting papers. The percentage of passes is 50. Two boys-Chung TAT MAN and HUNG HING KAM-obtained full marks, whereas 2 other boys obtained no marks at all.

Algebra. There was a great difference in the standard of the papers set to the different forms. The Chinese boys on the whole show greater capacity for mathemetics than the Non-Chinese. We were especially struck by the work of CHUNG TAT MAN (I A.B.), who seems to us very promising. In N. 1, ISMAIL was creditable, while in III A. and III B, 6 and 7 boys respectively obtain full marks. The discrepancy between boys, not necessarily at the top and bottom of a given form, is astonishing; for example in I A.B. where several boys do cerditably, 6 boys fail to reach double figures; while in III B. the variation is between full marks and no marks. This is apparent in almost every subject.

In a searching paper Much of the mathema- know the meaning of

Euclid. Again the Chinese boys proved superior to the Non-Chinese. HUNG HING KAM (I A.B.) gained full marks, answering 2 riders correctly. tical work is very neat. But boys who fail frequently show that they do not such elementary terms as base, triangle, angle, etc. For example one boy concludes by stating that "the base of the triangle is equal to 2 triangles. Q. E. D." We

We were far too often informed that

CLASS.

317

""

"the whole is greater than its part; which is absurd.' 2 given straight lines cut off a part equal to the less :-

X

A

Such proofs of I. 3 as "from the greater of

B

Y

cut off from XY equal to AB"-should be energetically discouraged.

Shorthand. In this subject we are at the outset met by the absurdity of dictating to the boys a paragraph of 126 words at a rate which enabled a certain boy of N. 2, to take down the dictation in long hand. The time allowed for this effort was one and a half hours, and we recommend that in future this should be considerably reduced. We understand, however, that the paper set was quite beyond the capacity of N. 2.

Physiology and Science.--The same paper was set to N. 1 and N. 2, but, as the results show that N. 1 has a percentage of 37 in both subjects, whereas the percentages of N. 2 are 7 and 13 respec- tively, we recommend that the standard for the lower form should be reduced. The boys' knowledge of English does not warrant their answering physiological and scientific questions. It is a platitude and no description of the human dental system to say-" When you have tooth-ache, you must see a dentist"; "Sugar is bad for teeth"-a style of answer to which many boys confined themselves.

General Intelligence.-Three forms (N. 1, N. 2, I A.B.) offered this subject; but the intelli- gence displayed was not general. Samples of it are these:-"The Zebra is a wild animal it is some- thing like a sheep. It will devour men, women or cats, etc." "A kangaroo is a tame animal and is something like a boy. It is not a wild animal. It cannot walk or talk." "A kangaroo is a little animal like a cat. They like death. We often see them in topics." "King of birds means a kan- garoo." "A kangaroo is like a rat with a hole in its stomach." "Treaty ports mean Rugby, Swimming, Racing, Cricket, Rounders, Aiming." "England's colonies consist Duke, Earl, Baron, etc., and also Bishops." "Sir Joshua Reynolds was the leader of the Jews after Moses' death. "Professor Pasteur famous for training horses at a Circus." "Alexander the Great King of England in the 9th century.'

"Alexander the Great, Roman Emperor, famous for building ships."

"Jaines Watt is famous for translation of the Bible."

M

""

Book-keeping. The first 3 Chinese forms offered this subject: but only II A. obtained a per- centage of passes. The latter part of the paper was evidently beyond the powers of the boys in II B.

We append the usual table of percentages.

We have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servants,

PERCENTAGES OF PASSES IN EACH SUBJECT IN EACH CLASS.

Chinese-English.

English-Chinese.

Chinese to English English to Chinese. Special Translation,

Reading.

Conversation.

Dictation.

I A.B.,

II A.,.......

II B.,.......

III A.,

II B.,

N. 1,

N. 2,

N. 3,

N. 4,

30

58

20

23 2 20

:

+ 2 8 8 8

67

45

...

:

:.

:

Grammar.

Composition.

History.

Geography.

Shakespeare.

Arithmetic.

Algebra.

Euclid.

C. CLEMENTI.

S. B. C. Ross.

Mensuration.

Physiology.

Science.

Shorthand.

Book-keeping.

General Intelli-

gence.

50 29

15

100 100 30

69

6

100 100 38

39 0

0

97 93 20 54 12

67 8

0 100 100 60

49

2

93 90 51

:

:

:.

:

:

:

:

:

100 100 91

100 100 57

100 100 91

91 100 73

9 0

0

37

91

2 10 12 9 5

75 73

3333

19 10

15

0 24 30

0 12

43

0 12

75 60

40 21

82 19

19 35

co co i 83

57

31

58

37

2 0

11

75

59

66 0

75

25

* 82 8

2 5 0 5 8 18

29 24 50

84

50

97 82

80 44

50

0 75 0

19

:

:

:

28 18

55

24

27

13

:

:

93

60

55

:.

:

:..

:

30

15

:

:

888

63

24

:

:

F

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

67

9:3

67 81

13 7

:

:

:

59

0

:

No. 27.

SIR,

283

No. 11

1901

HONGKONG.

FINANCIAL RETURNS FOR THE YEAR 1900.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His

Excellency the Governor.

TREASURY, 30th March, 1901.

I have the honour to transmit the following returns :--

1. Revenue and Expenditure for the year 1900.

2. Comparative Statement of Revenue and Expenditure for 1899 and 1900.

3. Return of Deposits not Available.

4. Return of Advances Outstanding.

5. Statement of Expenditure from the Praya Reclamation Fund.

6. Statement of Assets and Liabilities.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

The Honourable

THE ACTING COLONIAL SECRETARY.

C. McI. MESSER, Acting Treasurer.

*

COLONY OF HONGKONG.

RETURN OF REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE DURING THE YEAR ENDED 31ST

REVENUE.

Amount Total Estimated. Revenue.

More than Less than Estimated. Estimated.

$

LIGHT DUES,

LICENCES AND INTERNAL REVENUE NOT OTHERWISE SPE-

52,000

$ 55,379.38

(.

$ (. 3,379.38

$

C.

CIFIED:--

Arms Ordinance,.

20,350

20,186.50

136.50

Emigration Brokers' Licences,..

Assessed Taxes,

Auctioneers' Licences,

Billiard Tables and Bowling Alleys Licences,

Boarding-house Licences,

Boat Licences,

Cargo Boat Licences.

Carriage, Chair, &c., Licences,..

Chinese Passenger Ships Licences,

Chinese Undertakers' Licences,

Dog Licences,

Fines,

555,000

595,136.93

40,136,93

1,500

1,800.00

300.00

1,150

1.100.00

2,100

1,787.51

50.00 312.49

10,150

10,172.55

22.55

12,310

11,667.30

642.70

17,610

55,294.10

7,684,10

350

345.00

5.00

140

150.00

2,500

2,893.50

10.00 393.50

800

800.00

35,000

67,467.47

32,467.47

Forfeitures,

7,000

12,912.15

Hawkers' Licences,

9,400

10,129.50

5,912,15 729.50

Junk Licences,

30,000

44,459.80

14,459.80

Kerosene Oil Licences,

630

656.00

26.00

Marine Store Dealers' Licences,

5,625

6,255.00

630.00

Marriage Licences,.

700

1,050.00

350.00

Money Changers' Licences,

650

560.00

90,00

Opium Monopoly,

372,000

372,000.00

Opium Divan,

Pawnbrokers' Licences,.

1,645 40,000

1.775.00

130.00

47,150.00

7,150.00

Shooting Licences,

300

720.00

420.00

Special Fruit Licences,

452.00

452.00

Spirit Licences,

106,250

Stamps,..

370,000

107,254.50 1,004.50

471,331 47101,331.47

Steam-Launch Licences,

1,000

1,466.50

466.50

FEES OF COURT OR OFFICE, PAYMENTS FOR SPECIFIC PUR-

POSES, AND REIMBURSEMENTS IN AID :-

Bills of Health,

2,800

2,769.00

Births and Deaths, Registration of..

390

319.90

31.00 70.10

Cargo Boat Certificates,

2,200

2,193.00

7.00

Cemetery Burials,

1,110

1,328.28

218.28

Cemetery Fees from Public Cemeteries for Chinese,

1,200

1,587.75

387.75

Chinese Gazette, Sale of

35

52.00

17.00

---

Companies, Registration of

5,300

4,581.00

Convict Labour and other items,

5,270

2,971.28

719.00 2,298.72

Certificate to Chinese entering America,

11,000

11,100.00

100.00

Deeds, Registration of

:

8,500

14,554,25

6.05.25

Engagement and Discharge of Seamen,

22,500

22,297.00

203.00

Examination of Masters, &C.,

2,100

2.980.00

880.00

Fees of Court,

14,000

14,059.04

59.04

Fees on Grant of Leases,

1,200

1,305.00

105.00

Fees for testing Petroleum,

350

390.00

40.00

Gaol Expenses,-Recovery from Diplomatic, Naval and Mi-

litary Departments, Seamen and Debtors,....

1,900

2,129.95

229.95

Gunpowder, Storage of......

12,500

27.944.35

Householders, Registration of

1,800

2,262.25

15,414.35 462.25

Imperial Post Office, Contribution from

7,300

5,387.39

Lock Hospital, Grant-in-Aid from Admiralty,

1,040

1,000.06

1,912.61 39.94

Medical Certificate,

Medical Examination of Emigrants,

Medical Registration Fees,

20,000 10

180.00 25,460.50

180.00 5,460.50

Medical Treatment of Patients in the Civil Hospital,

28,000

80.00 31,837.96

70.00 3,837.96

Maintenance of Gap Rock Lighthouse, Contribution from

Chinese Imperial Government towards the

750

750.00

Official Administrator and Trustee,.

6,000

4,388.17

Official Signatures,

500

424.00

1,611.83 76.00

Printed Forms, Sale of

200

228.00

Private Moorings and Buoys, Rent for

3,000

3,030.00

28.00 30.00

Queen's College, Fees from Scholars,

28,000

29,037.00

1,037.00

Registry Fees,

400

521.00

121.00

Refund of Police Pay,

1,650

2,032.99

382.99

Refund Cost of Police and other Stores,.

500

812.58

312.58

Sick Stoppages from Police Force,

800

2,541.34

1,741.34

Steam-Launches, Surveyor's Certificate,

1,800

2,675.00

Survey of Steam-Ships,

11,000

12,361.59

875.00 1,361.59

School for Girls. Fees from Scholars,

Sunday Cargo-Working Permits,

Trade Marks, Registration of

825 16,000 5,100

922.00 43,550.00

97.00

27,550.00

3,342.48

1,757.52

POST OFFICE:--

Postage,...

335,000

325,603.33

9.396.67

RENT OF GOVERNMENT PROPERTY, LAND AND HOUSES:-

Buildings,

Laundries,

560 1,200

747.00 1.210.00

187.00 10.00

EXPENDITURE.

Charge on Account of Public Deht, Pensions,

Governor and Legislature.

Colonial Secretary's Department, Audit Department,..........

Treasury,

Stamp Office,

Public Works Department,.

Post Office,

Registrar General's Department,

Harbour Master's Department,

Lighthouses,

Observatory,

Botanical and Afforestation Department,

Legal Departments,

Ecclesiastical,

Education,

Medical Departments,

Magistracy,

Police,

Sanitary Department, Charitable Allowances, Transport,

Miscellaneous Services, Military Expenditure, Public Works, Recurrent

COLONY OF HONGKONG.

AND EXPENDITURE DURING THE YEAR ENDED 31ST DECEMBER, 1900.

Total Revenue.

More than Less than

Estimated. Estimated.

EXPENDITURE.

Amount

Total More than Less than Estimated. Expenditure. Estimated. Estimated.

$

$

$

$ C.

55,379.38

3,379.38

20,486.50

136.50

595,136.93

40,136.93

1,800.00

300.00

1,100.00

50.00

1,787.51

312.49

Charge on Account of Public Debt, Pensions,

Governor and Legislature.

Colonial Secretary's Department,

Audit Department,.

Treasury,

Stamp Office,

160,808.00

$ C. 153,363.07

$ C.

$ C. 7,444.93

170,000.00

166,730.19

3,269.81

42,303.00

47,109.83 4,806.83

40,563.00

47,261.02 6,698.02

10,000.00

11,702.53 1,762.53

26,564.00

30,839.94 4,275.94

Public Works Department,.

91,402.00

$7,413.06 6,011.06

10,172.55

22.55

Post Office,

259,124.00

235,263.08

23,860.92

11,667.30

642.70

Registrar General's Departinent,

13,471.00

13,058.53

412.47

55,294.10

7,684.10

Harbour Master's Department,

345.00

5.00

Lighthouses,

76,248.00 82,929.00 13,670.00 13,472.59

6,681.00

197.41

150.00

10.00

Observatory,

13,676.00 16,963.79 3.287.79

2,893.50

393.50

Botanical and Afforestation Department,

18,914.40

21,519.95 2,605.55

800.00

Legal Departments,

71,182.00

81,475.24 10,293.24

67,467.47

32,467.47

Ecclesiastical,

2,200.00

1,805.00

395.00

12,912.15

5,912.15

Education,

74,807.00

79,993.76 5,186.76

10,129.50

44,459.80

729.50

14,459.80

Medical Departments,

114,137.00

125,256.34

11,119.34

Magistracy,

18,400.00

20.914.59 2,514.59

656.00

26.00

Police,

495,876.60

475,054.97

20.821.63

6,255.00

630.00

Sanitary Department,

124,746.00

130,816.01

6,070.01

1,050.00

350.00

Charitable Allowances,

5,260.00

4,140.00

1,120.00

560.00

90.00

Transport,

3,000.00

372,000.00

Miscellaneous Services,

201,999.00

5,080.51 2,080.51 426.591.28224,592.28

1,775.00

130.00

Military Expenditure,

633,208.00

655,686,11 22,478.11

47,150.00

7,150.00

Public Works, Recurrent

207,200.00

210,740.85 3,510.85

720.00

420.00

452.00

452.00

107,254.50 1,004.50

471,331 47 101,331.47

1,466.50

466,50

2,769.00

31.00

319.90

70.10

2,193.00

7.00

1,328.28

218.28

1,587.75

387.75

52.00

17.00

4,581.00

...

2,971.28

11,100.00

100.00

719.00 2,298.72

14,554.25

6,05.25

22,297.00

203.00

2.980.00

880.00

14,059.04

59.04

1,305.00

105.00

390.00

40.00

2,129.95

229.95

27,944.35

15,414.35

2,262,25

462.25

5,387.39

1,000.06

1,912.61 39.94

180.00

180.00

25,460.50

80.00 31,837.96

5,160.50

70.00 3,837.96

750.00

4,388.17

424.00 228.00

1,611.83 76.00

28.00

3,030.00

30.00

29,037.00

1,037.00

521.00

121.00

2,032.99

382.99

812.58

312.58

2,541.34

1,741.34

2,675.00

875.00

12,361.59

1,361.59

922.00

43,550.00

97.00 27,550.00

3,342.48

1,757.52

325,003.33

747.00 1 210.00

9.396.67

187.00 10.00

Ionice,

Sanitary Department, Charitable Allowances, . Transport,

Miscellaneous Services,. Military Expenditure, Public Works, Recurrent

Marine Store Dealers' Licences,

5,625

6,255.00

630.00

Marriage Licences,

Money Changers' Licences,

Opium Menopoly,

700

1,050.00

350.00

650

560.00

90.00

Opium Divan,

Pawnbrokers' Licences,.

Shooting Licences,

372,000 1,645 40,000

372,000.00

1.775.00

130.00

47,150.00

7,150.00

300

720.00

420.00

Special Fruit Licences,

Spirit Licences,

106,250

452.00 107,254.50

452.00

1,004.50

Stamps,...

370,000

471,831 47 | 101,331.47

Steam-Launch Licences,

1,000

1,166.50

466.50

FEES OF COURT OR OFFICE, PAYMENTS FOR SPECIFIC PUR-

POSES, AND REIMBURSEMENTS IN AID:

Bills of Health,

2,800

2,769.00

31.00

Births and Deaths, Registration of..

390

319.90

70.10

Cargo Boat Certificates,

2,200

2,193.00

7.00

Cemetery Burials,

1,110

1,328.28

218.28

Cemetery Fees from Public Cemeteries for Chinese,

1,200

1,587.75

387.75

Chinese Gazette, Sale of

35

52.00

17.00

Companies, Registration of

5,300

4,581.00

Convict Labour and other items,

5,270

2,971.28

719.00 2,298.72

Certificate to Chinese entering America,

11,000

11,100.00

100.00

Deed, Registration of ..........

8,500-

14,554.25

6,954.25

Engagement and Discharge of Seamen,

22,500

22,297.00

203.00

Examination of Masters, &c.,

2,100

2.980.00

880.00

Fees of Court,

14,000

14,059.04

59.04

Fees on Grant of Leases,

1,200

1,305.00

105.00

Fecs for testing Petroleum,

350

390.00

40.00

Gaol Expenses,-Recovery from Diplomatic, Naval and Mi-

litary Departments, Seamen and Debtors,..

1,900

2,129.95

229.95

Gunpowder, Storage of......

12,500

27.944.35

15.444.35

Householders, Registration of

1,800

2,262.25

462.25

Imperial Post Office, Contribution from

7,300

5,387.39

...

Lock Hospital, Grant-in-Aid from Admiralty,

Medical Certificate,

1,040

1,000.06

1,912.61 39.94

180.00

Medical Examination of Emigrants,

Medical Registration Fees,

20,000 10

25,460.50

180.00

5,460.50

Medical Treatment of Patients in the Civil Hospital,

Maintenance of Gap Rock Lighthouse,—Contribution from

28,000

80.00 31,837.96

70.00

3,837.96

Chinese Imperial Government towards the

750

750.00

Official Administrator and Trustee,..

6,000

4,388.17

Official Signatures,

500

424.00

1,611.83 76.00

Printed Forms, Sale of

200

228.00

28.00

Private Moorings and Buoys, Rent for

3,000

3,030.00

30.00

Queen's College, Fees from Scholars,

28,000

29,037.00

1,037.00

Registry Fees,

400

521.00

121.00

Refund of Police Pay,

1,650

2,032.99

382.99

Refund Cost of Police and other Stores,..

500

812.58

312.58

Sick Stoppages from Police Force,

800

2,541.34

1,741.34

Steam-Launches, Surveyor's Certificate,

1,800

2,675.00

875.00

Survey of Steam-Ships,

11,000

12,361.59

1,361.59

School for Girls, Fees from Scholars,

825

922.00

97.00

Sunday Cargo-Working Permits,

Trade Marks, Registration of

16,000 5,100

43,550.00

27,550.00

3,342.48

1,757.52

POST OFFICE :-

Postage,....

-335,000

325,603.33

9.396.67

RENT OF GOVERNMENT PROPERTY, LAND AND HOUSES :-

Buildings,

560

Laundries,

1,200

Leased Lands,.

250,000

Lands not Leased,

15,000

Land Revenue, New Territory,

100,000

747.00 1,210.00 280.102.69 6,276.05 289.80

187.00 10.00 30,402.69

8,723.95 99,710.20

Markets,

81,000

83,356.35

2,356.35

Piers.....

16,000

25,571.77 9,571.77

Stone Quarries,

21,000

24,130.00 3,130.00

Slaughter House,

46,000

48,960.00 2,960.00

Sheep, Pig and Cattle Depôts,..

12,000

11,833.61

166.39

MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS:-

Condemned Stores, &c.,

2,000

Interest for use of Furniture at Government House,

145

497.01 470.60

1,502.99

325.60

Night Soil Contracts,

30,381

30,384.00

Other Miscellaneous Receipts,

20,000

Profit on Subsidiary Coins,

100,000

16,025.73 191,533.40

3,974.27

91,533.40

TOTAL, exclusive of Land Sales and Water Account,...$2,943,4793,235,329.61 425,151,99 133,301.38

LAND SALES,

WATER ACCOUNT-Ord. 16 of 1890,

TOTAL,..

Treasury, Hongkong, 15th March, 1901.

250,000 816,222.92 566,222.92

132,000 151,034.87 19,034.87

3,325,479 4,202,587.40 1,010,109.78|133,301.38

Public Works, Extraordinary,.

TOTAL,......

.625

6,255.00

630.00

700 650

1,050,00

350.00

560.00

90.00

,000 372,000.00

,645

1.775.00

130.00

.000

47,150.00

7,150.00

300

720.00

£20.00

452.00

452.00

.250

107,251.50 1,004.50

.000

471,331 47

101,331,47

.000

1,466.50

466.50

.800

2,769.00

31.00

390

319.90

70.10

,200

2,193.00

7.00

.110

1,328.28

218.28

.200

1,587.75

387.75

35

52.00

17.00

.300

4,581.00

270

2,971.28

719.00 2,298.72

,000

11,100.00

100.00

+

500. 14,554,25

6,054.25

500

22,297.00

203.00

100

2.980.00

880.00

000

14,059.04

59.0+

200

1,305.00

105.00

350

390.00

40.00

900

2,129.95

229.95

500

27,944.35

15,414.35

800

2,262.25

462.25

300

5,387.39

1,912.61

040

1,000.06

39.91

180.00

180.00

000

25,460.50

5,460.50

10

80.00

70.00

J00

31,837.96

3,837.96

750

750.00

000

4,388.17

1,611.83

500

424.00

76.00

200

228.00

28.00

000

3,030.00

30.00

000

29,037.00

1,037.00

100

521.00

121.00

350

2,032.99

382.99

500

812.58

312.58

300

2,541.34

1,741.34

300

2,675.00

875.00

J00

12,361.59

1,361.59

$25

922.00

97.00

100

£3,550.00

27,550.00

100

8 3 9888888888

00

3,342.48

1,757.52

100

325,603.33

9.396.67

60

747.00

187.00

1,210.00

10,00

280,402.69 30,402.69

6,276.05

00

289.80

8,723.95 99,710.20

83,356.35

2,356.35

00

25,571.77 9,571.77

00

24,130.00 3,130.00

00 48,960.00 2,960.00

00 11,833.61

166.39

8988

00

45

197.01 470.60

1,502.99

325.60

84

30,384.00

16,025.73

3,974.27

00

191,533.40

91,533.40

793,235,329.61425,151.99 133,301.38

816,222.92 566,222.92

00

00 151,034.87 19,034.87

...

794,202,587.40 1,010,409.78 133,301.38

4444444

Sanitary Department, Charitable Allowances, Transport,

Miscellaneous Services, Military Expenditure, Public Works, Recurrent

124,746.00

5,260.00

3,000.00

140,001

130,816.01 4.140,00

6,070.01

1,120.00

5,080.51: 2,080.51

201,999.00 426.591.28224,592.28

655,686.11 22,478.11

633,208.00 207,200.00 210,740.85

8,510.85

Public Works, Extraordinary,

$ 2,888,759.00 | 3,155,241.24' 324,004.41 57,522.17

331,100.00

473,205.89 142,105.89

TOTAL,.......

..$ 3,219,859.00 3,628,447.13 166,110.30 57,522.17

C. McI. MESSEK,

Acting Treasurer.

d

COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF THE REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE OF THE COLON

REVENUE.

1900.

INCREASE.

DECREASE.

EXPENDITURE,

C.

Charge on Account of Public Debt,... l'ensions,.

Governor and Legislature,

Colonial Secretary's Department,

Audit Department,

Treasury,

Stamp Office,

Public Works Department,

Post Office...

Registrar General's Department,

Harbour Master's Department,

Lighthouses..

Observatory,

Botanical and Afforestation Departu

Legal Departments,

Ecclesiastical Department,

Education,

Medical Departments, Magistracy,

l'olice, Gaols...

Fire Brigade,

Sanitary Department,

Charitable Allowances,

Transport,..

Miscellaneous Services, Military Expenditure, Public Works, Recurrent, Public Works, Extraordinary,

1899.

c.

LIGHT DUES,

LICENCES AND INTERNAL REVENUE NOT OTHERWISE

52,406.93

$ 55,379.38

C.

$ 2,972.45

C.

SPECIFIED :-

Arms Licences,

Assessed Taxes,

381.00

20,486.50

20,105.50

519,184.42

595,136.93

75,952.51

Boat Licences,

Auctioneers' Licences,

Billiard Tables and Bowling Alleys Licences,

Boarding House Licences,

Cargo Boat Licences,

Carriage, Chair, &c., Licences,

Chinese Passenger Ships Licences,.

1,500.00

1,800.00

300.00

1,100.00

1,100.00

2,143 75

1,787.51

356.24

10,053.30

10,172.55

119,25

11,471.20

11,667.30

196.10

46,225.40

55,294.10

9,068.70

275.00

345.00

70.00

Chinese Undertakers' Licences,.

140.00

150.00

10.00

Dog Licences,

2,709.00

2,893.50

184.50

Emigration Brokers' Licences,..

$00.00

$00.00

Fines,.

Forfeitures,

35,030.67

67,467,47

32,436.80

14,045.60

12,912.15

1,133.45

Hawkers Licences,.......

9,537.50

10,129.50

Junk Licences.

36,924.00

44,459.80

592.00 7,535.80

Kerosene Oil Licences,

625.00

656.00

31.00

Marine Store Dealers' Licences,

5,805.00

6.255.00

450.00

Marriage Licences,

Money Changers' Licences,

670.00 485.00

1,050.00

380.00

560.00

75.00

Opium Monopoly,

372,000.00

3.2,000.00

Opium Divan Licences,

1,750.00

1,775.00

25.00

Pawnbrokers Licences,

Shooting Licences,

Special Fruit Licences,

41,100.00 520.00 315.00

17,150.00

6,050.00

720.00 152.00

200.00

137.00

Spirit Licences,

82,504.50

107,254.50

24,750.00

Stamps,...

360,999.15

471,831.47

110,332.32

Steam-Launch Licences,

1,093.50

1,466.50

373.00

FEES OF COURT OR OFFICE, PAYMENTS FOR SPECIFIC

PURPOSES, AND REIMBURSEMENTS IN AID :-

Bills of Health,..

2,640.00

2,769.00

129.00

Births and Deaths, Registration of..

330.50

319.90

10.60

Cargo Boat Certificates,..

2,046.00

2,193.00

147.00

Cemetery Burials,.

1.128.25

1,328.28

200.03

Cemetery Fees from Public Cemeteries for Chinese,

1,175.00

1,587.75

412.75

Chinese Gazette, Sale of..

34.00

52.00

18.00

Companies, Registration of

5.638.00

4,531.00

1,057.00

Convict Labour and other items,

4,567.41

2,971.28

1,596.13

Certificate to Chinese entering America,

17,175.00

11,100.00

6,075.00

Deeds, Registration of

.........

9,968.50

14,554.25

4,585.75

Engagement and Discharge of Seamen,

21,877.80

22.297.00

Examination of Masters, &C.,.

2,357.50

2,980.00

419.20 622.50

Fees of Court,

...

13,045.45

14,059.04

1,013.59

Fees on Grant of Leases.

920.00.1

Fee for testing l'etroleum,

455.00

1.305 20.

390.00

385.00

65.00

Gaol Expenses,-Recovery from Diplomatic, Naval, and

Military Departments, Seamen and Debtors,

2,385.70

2,129.95

255,75

Gunpowder, Storage of

14,276.41

27,944.35

Householders, Registration of

1,877.50

2,262.25

13,667.94 384.75

Imperial Post Office, Contribution from

9,113.55

5,387.39

Lock Hospital, Grant-in-Aid from Admiralty,

1,026.92

1,000.06

3,726.16 26.86

Medical Certificate,

180.00

Medical Examination of Emigrants,

19,245.75

25,460.50

180.00 6,214.75

Medical Registration Fees,

50.00

Medical Treatment of Patients in the Civil Hospital,...

25,253.39

80.00 31,837.96

30.00 6,584.57

Maintenance of Gap Rock Lighthouse,-Contribution

from Chinese Imperial Government towards the...

750.00

750.00

Official Administrator and Trustee,..

6.414.80

4,388.17

Official Signatures,

Printed Forms, Sale of

636.02 274.00

424.00

2,026.63 212.02 46.00

228.00

Private Moorings and Buoys, Rent for.

3,000.00

3.030.00

Queen's College, Fees from Scholars,

27,245.00

Registry Fees,

520.00

29,037.00 521.00

Refund of Police Pay,

1,744.15

2,032.99

30.00 1,792.00 1.00 288.81

Refund Cost of l'olice and other Stores,...

755.54

812.58

57.04

Sick Stoppages from Police Force,

1,241.98

2,541.34

1,299.36

Steam-launches, Surveyor's Certificate.

1,920.00

2,675.00

755.00

Survey of Steam-ships,

11,678.61

12,361.59

682.98

School for Girls, Fees from Scholars,

772.50

Sunday Cargo-Working Permits,

21.825.00

Trade Marks, Registration of

4,719.00

POST OFFICE;—!

:-Postage,

317,909.36

922.00 43,550.00 3,342.48 325,603.33

149.50

21,725.00

1,376,52

7,693.97

RENT OF GOVERNMENT PROPERTY, LAND AND HOUSES :-

Buildings,

Laundries,

592.00 1,200.00

Leased Lands,

248,441.77

747.00 1,210.00 280,402.69

155.00 10.00 31,960.92

Lands not Leased,

9,022.13

15,298.18

Land Revenue, New Territory,

M.

80.901.38

6,276.05 289.80 83.356.35

289.80 2.454.97

OF THE REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE OF THE COLONY OF HONGKONG IN 1899 & 1900.

1900.

INCREASE.

DECREASE.

EXPENDITURE,

1899.

1900.

INCREASE.

DECREASE.

$ 55,379.38

C.

C.

$

C.

2,972.45

20,486.50

20,105.50

595,136.93

75,952.51

1,800,00

300.00

1,100.00

1,787.51

Charge on Account of Public Debt,.. Pensions,.

Governor and Legislature,

Colonial Secretary's Department,

Audit Department,

Treasury,

Stamp Office,

158,819.38

$ C. 153.363.07

$

c.

$

c.

170,646.26

166,730.19

5,456.31 3.916.07

48,889.22

47.109.83

1.770.39

32,187.34

47,261.02

15,073.68

9.518.72

11,762.53

2,243.81

22,381.83

27,069.58

4,687.75

3,689.97

3,770.36

$0.39

356.24

Public Works Department,

93,909.77

97,413.06

3,503.29

10.172.55

119.25

l'ost Office,.

237,902.76

235,263,08

2,639.68

11,667.30

196.10

Registrar General's Department,

14.148.22

13,058.53

1,889.69

55,294.10

9,068.70

Harbour Master's Department,

62,933.00

$2,929,00

19,996.00

345.00

70.00

Lighthouses..

11,864.44

13,472.59

1,698.15

150.00

10.00

Observatory,

13,068.32 16.963.79

3,895.47

U

2,893.50

184.50

Botanical and Afforestation Department,

18,293.87

21,519.95

3,226.08

0

$00.00

Legal Departments,

-83.711.52

81.475.24

2,236.28

67,467.47

32,436.80

Ecclesiastical Department,

1,810.00

1.805.00

5.00

12,912.15

1,133.45

Education,

75,152.57

79,993.76

4,841.19

10,129.50

592.00

Medical Departments,

113,663.19

125.256.34

11,593.15

0

14,459.80

7,535.80

656.00

81.00

0

6,255.00

450.00

Gaols,...

1,050.00

380.00

560.00

75.00

3.2,000.00

1,775.00

25.00

0

17,150.00

6,050.00

Magistracy,

l'olice,

Fire Brigade,.

Sanitary Department,

Charitable Allowances, Transport,.

Miscellaneous Services,

21,353.58

20,914.59

438.99

263,965.71

393,485.12

129,519.41

58.447.14

63,329.02

4,881.88

17,244.42

18,240.83

996.41

122,605.05

130,816.01

8,210.96

4,101.64

4,140.00

38.36

9,636.96

5,080.51

513,033.54

426,501.28

4,556.45 86,442.26

720.00

200.00

Military Expenditure,

649,388.53 655,686.11

6,297.58

452.00

137.00

Public Works, Recurrent,

198,464.65 210,740.85

12,276.20

107,254.50

24.750.00

Public Works, Extraordinary,

131,660.76 473,205.89

341,545,13

471,381.47

110,332.32

1,460.50

373.00

2,769.00

129.00

319.90

10.60

0

2,193.00

147.00

5

1,328.28

200.03

0

1,587.75

412.75

52.00

18.00

4,581.00

1,057.00

1

2,971.28

1,596.13

10

11,100.00

Â

14,554.25

4,585.75

.0

22.297.00

.0

2,980.00

419.20 622.50

6,075.00

5

14,059.04

1,013.59

10.

1.305 10

385.00

10

390.00

65.00

OHORN

0

255.75

2,129.95

27,944.35

12

2,262.25 5,387.39 1,000.06

13,667.94 381.75

3,726.16

26.86

180.00

10

65 vi

5 25,460.50

180.00 6,214.75

80.00

'9 31,837.96

750.00

4,388.17

12

424.00

5=36×S ∞ AUS 8 8 8 8 8 8

812.58

2,541.34 2,675.00

57.04 1,299.36

755.00

682.98

149.50

21,725.00

1,376.52

I 12,361.59 922.00 43,550.00 3,342.48 325.603.33

0

747.00 1,210.00

7 280,402.69

ه برام

6,276.05 289.80

83,356.35

7,693.97

155.00 10.00 31,960.92

9,022.13

289.80

2,454.97 19.791 31

228.00

3.030.00

29,037.00 521.00

2,032.99

30.00 6,584.57

30.00 1,792.00

1.00 288.81

2,026.63 212.02 16.00

286

Opium Monopoly, Opium Divan Licences, Pawnbrokers' Licences, Shooting Licences,

Special Fruit Licences,

372,000,00

1,750.00

41,100.00

1.775,00 47,150.00

520.00

315.00

720.00 152.00

Spirit Licences,

Stamps,

Steam-Launch Licences,

82,501.50

107.254.50

360,999.15

171,881,47

137.00 24.750.00 110,332.32

25.00

6.050.00 200.00

Chaitame Anowances, Transport...

Miscellaneous Services, Military Expenditure, Public Works, Recurrent, Public Works, Extraordinary,

1,093.50

1,466,50

873.00

FEES OF COURT OR OFFICE, PAYMENTS FOR SPECIFIC

PURPOSES, AND REIMBURSEMENTS IN AID :—

Bills of Health,.

2,610.00

2,769.00

129.00

Births and Deaths, Registration of..

330.50

319.90

10.60

Cargo Boat Certificates,..

2,046.00

2,193.00

147.00

Cemetery Burials,.

1.128.25

1,328.28

200.03

Cemetery Fees from Public Cemeteries for Chinese,

1,175.00

1,587.75

412.75

Chinese Gazette, Sale of..

34.00

52.00

18.00

Companies, Registration of

5,638.00

4.531.00

1,057.00

Convict Labour and other items,

4,567.41

2,971.28

1,596.13

Certificate to Chinese cntering America,

17,175.00

11,100.00

6,075.00

Deeds, Registration of

9,968.50

14,554.25

4.585.75

Engagement and Discharge of Seamen,

21,877.80

22.297.00

419.20

Examination of Masters, &c.,

2,857.50

2,980.00

622.50

Fees of Court,

13,045.45

14,059.04.

1,013.59

Fees on Grant of Leases,.

920,00.

1.30500

$385.00

Fee for testing Petroleum,

455.00

390.00

65.00-

Gaol Expenses,-Recovery from Diplomatic, Naval, and

Military Departments, Seamen and Debtors,

2,885.70

2,129.95

255.75

Gunpowder, Storage of

14,276.41

27,914.35

Householders, Registration of

Imperial Post Office, Contribution from

Medical Certificate,

1,877.50

2,262.25

13,667.94 384.75

9,113.55

5,387.39

Lock Hospital, Grant-in-Aid from Admiralty,

1,026,92

1,000.06

3,726.16 26.86

180.00

180.00

Medical Examination of Emigrants,

19,245.75

25,460.50

6,214.75

Medical Registration Fees,

50.00

80.00

30.00

Medical Treatment of Patients in the Civil Hospital,...

25,253.39

31,837.96

6,584.57

Maintenance of Gap Rock Lighthouse,-Contribution

from Chinese Imperial Government towards the.... Official Administrator and Trustee,..

750,00

750.00

6,414.80

4,388.17

Official Signatures,

636.02

424.00

Printed Forms, Sale of

2,026.63 212.02 46.00

274.00

228.00

Private Moorings and Buoys, Rent for.

3,000.00

3,030.00

30.00

Queen's College, Fees from Scholars,

27,245,00

29,037.00

1,792.00

Registry Fees,

520,00

521.00

1.00

Refund of Police Pay,

1,744.15

2,032.99

288.81

Refund Cost of l'olice and other Storcs,.

755.51

812.58

57.01

Sick Stoppages from Police Force,

1,241.98

2,541.34

1,299.36

Steam-launches, Surveyor's Certificate.

1,920.00

2,675.00

755.00

Survey of Steam-ships,

11,678.61

12,361.59

682.98

School for Girls, Fees from Scholars,

772.50

922.00

149.50

Sunday Cargo-Working Permits,

21,825.00

43,550.00

21,725,00

Trade Marks, Registration of

4,719.00

3.342.48

1,376.52

POST OFFICE :-Postage,

317,909.36

325,603.33

7,693,97

RENT OF GOVERNMENT PROPERTY, LAND AND HOUSES:

Buildings,

592.00

Laundries,

1,200.00

747.00 1,210.00

Leased Lands,

248,441.77

280,102.69

155.00 10.00 31,960.92

Lands not Leased,

15,298.18

6,276.05

9,022.13

...

Land Revenue, New Territory,

289.80

289.80

Markets,

80,901.38 83,356.35

2,454.97

Piers,

12,780.46

25,571.77

12,791.31

Stone Quarries,

18,600.00

24,130.00

5,530.00

Slaughter House,...

45,000.00 48,960.00

3,960.00

Sheep, Pig and Cattle Depôts,

11,673.21

11,833.61

160.40

MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS:-

Condemned Stores, &c.,

2,239.24

497.01

1,742.23

Interest for use of Furniture at Government House,.

170.60

170.60

Night Soil Contracts,

30,384.00

30,384.00

Other Miscellaneous Receipts,

60,307.76

16,025.73

44,282.03

Profit on Subsidiary Coins,..

168,553.25

191,533.40

22,980.15

TOTAL exclusive of Land Sales & Water Account,. 2,865,759.76 | 3,235,329.61

442,579.60

73,009.75

LAND SALES,

WATER ACCOUNT,

617,824.72

126,558.77

816,222.02

198,398.20

151,031.87 24,476.10

TOTAL,.....

.$ 3,610,143.25 | 4,202,587.40

665,453.90

73,009.75

Deduct Decrease,

Nett Increase,

Treasury, Hongkong, 15th March, 1901.

73,009.75

592,144,15

....

9,636.96 513,033.54

30

50

ča če se E

50

47,150.00

6,050,00

720.00

200.60

452.00 107,254.50

137.00 24.750.00

15 471,831.47 110,332,82

iransport,. Miscellaneous Services, Military Expenditure,

Public Works, Recurrent,

Public Works, Extraordinary,

1,466.50

373.00

00

2,769.00

129.00

50

319.90

10.60

00

2,193.00

147.00

25

1,328.28

200.03

00

1,587.75

412.75

00

52.00

18.00

00

4,531.00

1,057.00

f1

2,971.28

1,596.13

00

11,100.00

6,075.00

50

14,554.25

4.585.75

80

22.297.00

419.20

50

2,980.00

622.50

15

14,059.04

1,013.59

≈õõŏ×88-5888888 883 BUSES 88

00.

1.305M0

$385.00

00.

390.00

65.00*

70

2,129.95

255.75

27,944.35

13,667.94

30

2,262.25

381.75

55

5,387.39

3,726.16

02

1,000.06

26.86

180.00

180.00

75

25,460.50

6,214.75

00

39

80.00 31,837.96

30.00

00

30

+

00

00

00

29,037.00

521.00

1,792.00

1.00

15

2,032.99

288.84

54

812.58

57.01

98

2,541.34

1,299.36

2,675.00

755.00

12,361.59

682.98

50

922.00

149.50

10

43,550.00

21,725.00

)0

3,342.48 325,603.33

1,376.52

7,693.97

747.00

750.00 4,388.17

424.00

228.00

3,030.00

6,584,57

30.00

2,026.63 212.02 46.00

17

18

2972

6,276.05

289.80

1,210.00 280,402.69

155.00 10.00 31,960.92

289.80

...

9,022.13

..

18

2000ã

83,356.35

2,454.97

25,571.77

12,791.31

10

24,130.00

5,530.00

48,960.00

21 11,833.61

3,960.00 160.40

497.01 470.60

1,742.23

470.60

30,384.00

16,025.73

44,282.03

191,533.10

22,980.15

63,235,329.61 442,579.60 73,009.75

2 816,222.92 198,398.20

7 151,034.87 24,476.10

5,480.51

4,556.45

426,591.28

649,388.53 655,686.11 198,464.65 210,740.85

86,442.26

6,297.58

12,276.20

131,660.76

473,205.89

341,545.13

54,202,587.40

665,153.90

73,009.75

TOTAL,..

.$ 3,162,792.36 | 3,628,447.13

571,514.89 108,860.12

73,009.75

592,444.15

:

Deduct Decrease,

Nett Increase,

108,860.12

465,651.77

C. McI. MESSER,

Acting Treasurer.

:

287

By whom deposited.

1st January; 1900.

Statement of Deposits not Available received and paid in the Colony of Hongkong during the year 1900.

Outstanding

on

Outstanding

Deposits received during the

Total.

year.

Deposits repaid during the year.

on

31st Dec., 1900.

$

$

$

Intestate Estate,

987.99

224.65

1,212.64

7.40

Sikh Police Fund,

3,379.00

2,401.00

5,780.00

359.00

Police Fine Fund,

80.22

768.97

849.19

632.29

1,205.24 5,421.00 216.90

Chinese Recreation Ground,

2,859.43

1,161.22

4,020.65

701.36

Estate of Deceased Policemen,

170.89

170.89

Tender Deposit,

3,025.00

213,805.00

216,830.00

185,665.00

Post Office Fine Fund,

77.62

Suitors' Fund,

74,635.40

53.10 190,301.86

130.72 264,937.26

2.00

157,511.16

Widows and Orphans' Fund,

71,007.39

19,000.08

90,007.47

1,214.23

Custom Duties on Parcels,

Praya Reclamation Fund,'

117.67 271,321.26

406.96

524.63

271.94

211,651.77

482,973.03

268,797.91

3,319.29

170.89 31,165.00

128.72 107,426.10 88,793.24

252.69 214,175.12

Sale of Land,

2,300.00

2,300.00

2,100.00

200.00

Miscellaneous,

15,899.00

5,000.00

20,899.00

5,030.04

15,868.96

Board of Trade,

3,034.92

3,034.92

2,317.94

716.98

Gaol Library,

103.90

103.90

103.90

Licence Fee Deposit,

1,296.00

1,296.00

1,171.00

125.00

Deposit for Expenses of erecting 3 Lamp-posts Į

on Inland Lot 199,

290.00

290.00

290.00

Treasury, Hongkong, 8th March, 1901.

€0

443,664.77

651,695.531,095,360.30

625,781.27 469,579.03

A. M. THOMSON,

Treasurer.

288

Outstanding

To whom advanced.

1st January, 1900.

Statement of Advances made and repaid in Hongkong during the year ended 31st December, 1900.

on

Advances

repaid during the year ended 31st Dec., 1900.

Advances made during the year ended 31st Dec., 1900.

Total.

Outstanding Balance on 31st Dec., 1900.

$

$

$

Money Order,

32,768.08

336,562.05

369,330.13

Government of Singapore,

Supreme Court,

Captain Superintendent of Police,

210.00 100.00 25.00

2,412.00

2,622.00 100.00

ƒ 331,033.46 * 1,441.91 2,127.00

36,854.76

495.00 100.00

Praya Reclamation,.

88,476.50

Crown Solicitor,

Sanitary Department,

Postmaster General,..

274.76

80.00 10,818.50 200.00 27,500.00 788.51

105.00

99,295.00

80.00 $9,061.97

25.00 10,233.03

200.00 27,500.00

200.00 27,500.00

1,063.27

714.65

348.62

Captain Hasting's Contribution to Jamaica Wi-

33.69

34.19

dows and Orphans' Fund,

Treasury,

500.00

34.19

500.00

it

0.50

500.00

Director of Public Works Department,

1,500.00

1,500.00

1,500.00

H. B. Lethbridge, Widows and Orphans' Fund, .

16.06

159.96

176.02

159.90

16.12

Superintendent, Fire Brigade,

200.00

200.00

200.00

Belilios Donation,

1,000.00

3,000.00

4,000.00

4,000.00

J. H. Dandy,

165.71

165.71

165.71

Sugar-cane Mill,

284.37

0.64

285.01

285.01

Superintendent, Botanical Department,..

800.00

G. P. Tate,

H. P. Tooker,

New Territory,

Post Office, Money Order,

J. Peak,

Mrs. L. V. Musso,

W. Machell,

Mr. and Mrs. Cook—Passage,.

Mr. Griffiths,

Private Lanes,

P. T. Crisp,

Ed. Kelly,

H. M. S. "Protector.".

J. H. Gidley,

W. Curwen,

G. T. Taylor,

W. T. Hast, E. A. Johnson,.

900.00

2,750.00

629.51

470.00

629.51 470 00

800.00 3,650.00

...

800.00 3,650.00 629.51

470.00

10,000.00

10,000,00

10,000.00

51.34 29,453.88

51.34

51.34

29,453.88

29,453.88

360.00

1,020.00

360.00

360.00

1,035.73

1,035.73

15.73

69.10

69.10

21.00

2,595.67

2,595.67

48.10 2,595.67

69.10

69.10

69.10

20.00

20.00

20.00

3,755.50

94.12

} 3,849.62 3,849.62

Cr. 16.60

96.24

96.24

96.24

192.48

192.48

192.48

192.48

192.48

192.48

192.48

192.48

192.48

* Loss in Exchange,

Do.,

124,849.99

435,953.97

560,803.96 509,125.57

51,694.99

Less credit balance,.....

.$

16.60

.$1,441.91 |

0.50

=$1,442.41

Treasury, Hongkong, 8th March, 1901.

++P

Profit in Exchange...

Do

$

51,678.39

.$15.73 )

94.12

=$109.85

A. M. THOMSON, Treasurer.

PRAYA RECLAMATION FUND.

STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURE TO 31ST DECEMBER, 1900.

1890.

1891.

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

1896.

1897.

1898.

1899.

1900.

Total Estimated Expenditure. Cost.

Balance

to be spent.

Balance

spent

in Excess

of the

Estimated

Cost.

Private Marine Lot Holders.

$

$

$3

#

$

S

Section No. 1,*.

Do. No. 2,.. Do. No. 3,.. Do. No. 4,..

6,051.44

3,113.67

6,552.99 7,019.62

Do. No. 5,.-. Do. No. 6,.. Do. No. 7,..

9,187.60 14,215.46

7,128.44 42,019.54 43,791.64 24,984.84 46,758.18 63,318.02| 14,086.90| 24,596.23 29,091.12 32,355.42 29,025.13 55,887.63 34,580.26 49,612.81 35,455.12 36,245.99 6,202.29 5,754.83 11,705.77 10,903.57 6,548.41 65,661.55 | 112,573.89 33,075.47 31,593.99 36,697.68 48,599.71 43,961.02 25,030.76 14,247.88 1,822.21 7,063.88 55,691.67 39,144.85 11,964.17 31,946.66 28,704.10 7,998.26 201,022.08 227,392.11 26,370.03

5,004.19 3,428.36 14,169.36 8,670.52 63,670.23| 62,780.32 49,058.88 58,331.35 15,581.31 304,097.58 329,686.00 25,588.42 7,876.47 14,630.92 27,669.30 5,666.04 53,029,15 57,374.26 29,767.10.50,382.14 52,327.67 52,553.60 67,275.01 418,551.66 528,788.60 | 105,236.94 21,788.35 31,817.59 77,925.38 9,600.81 51,701.26 44,549.27 27,309.82 27,919.28|(1) 12,423.70 7,630.77 296,949.93 316,268.44 19,318.51

357,155.46

423,260.67 66,105.21

2,343.63

255,240,31

251,176.20

4,064.11

4,206.01

421,699.40

459,378.56

37,679.16

Less... 4,064.11

276,234.16

Total,...$106,850.19 204,450.45 332,808.10 114,032.85 240,561.81 | 272,503.71|228,333.44 233,308.93198,358.66 205,164.46 134,060.12 2,254,716.42 2,530,950.58 280,298.27: 4,064.11

Government.

Section No. 4,. 443.53

1,418.47

Do. No. 5,...| Do. No. 6,...] 755.45 Do. No. 7,...

814.38 1,260,26

303.87

2,520.24

1,400.02

32,304.19

4,213.30

2,119,82 48,472.28 111,086.04

1,003.11

233.81 9,727.49 5,464.26 774.39 16,858.62 1,697.95 544.73 637.44 1,036.00 1,541.61 12,473.23 10,156.55 5,709.57 12,954.74

3,393.29

3,290.36 5,661.37 4,678.83 1,406.59 33,284.75 18,515.52 (2) 3,337.25 1,094.88 3,005.03

38,734.40 5,449.65

11,741,06 3,430.13 5,888.25 8,925.85 2,178.44 2,827.40

60,799.84

67,194:90

6,395.06

27,281.30

46,818.00

19,536.70

244,560.76

259,218.77

14,658.01

Total,...$ 34,921.64 53,206.92 118,679.42 14,324.94 11,802.19| 18,171.01 36,819.23 28,536.42

9,761.28 | 24,486.58| 16,589.97 365,926.65 411,966.07 46,039.42

Grand Total,.$ 141,771.83 257,657.37 451,487.52 128,357.79 252,364.00 290,674.72 265,152.67 261,845.35 208,119.94 229,651.04|150,650,09 2,620,643.07 2,942,916.65 322,273.58

*This includes Marine Lots Nos. 188, 189 and 190 which belong to the Government.

(1) Expenditure, Transfers,

.$21,242.23

36,958.53

(2) Expenditure, Transfers,

..$ 8,486,01

9,858.96

Cr. Balance.

$15,716,30

Cr. Balance.

.$ 1372.95

C. McL. MESSER,

Acting Treasurer.

Treasury, Hongkong, 20th March, 1901,

289

290

Dr.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR 1900.

LOAN ACCOUNT.

To Inscribed Stock Loan at 33% interest,

to be paid off on the 15th April, 1943,...| £341,799.15.1

Cr.

By Sinking Fund.

£16,485.13.2

ASSETS AND LIABILITIES,

ON THE 31ST DECEMBER, 1900.

ASSETS.

C.

LIABILITIES.

C.

Subsidiary Coins,

958,000.00 Military Contribution,

54,405.78

Coins in transit,

970,000.00

Contribution towards Barrack Services

for 1900,...........

$5,000.00

Arrears of Taxes,

804.32

Deposits not available,..

469,579.03

""

""

Crown Rent,

36,332.14

Refund of Taxes,

2,300.00

27

""

Land Revenue, New Territory,

98,400.00

Officers' Remittances,

16.867.15

Miscellaneous,..

1,890.00

Money Order Remittances,

25,548.87

Advances,

51,678.39

Transit Charges, General Post Office.....

7.336.00

Suspense House Service,

103.00

Civil Pensions,

17,500.00

Profit, Money Order Office,...

8,000.00

Police Do.,

14,200.00

Water Account,..........

881.91

Private Drainage Works,

292.36

Suspense Account,

398.73

Public Works,......

34,779.46

Miscellaneous,.......

9,500.80

X

Balance Overdrawn,

328,393.35

TOTAL ASSETS,.......$ 2,126,488.49

TOTAL LIABILITIES,......$1,025,702.80

BALANCE,...$1,100,785.09

$2,126,488.49

* Not including $40,415.82, value of Silver at Mint.

Treasury, Hongkong, 29th March, 1901.

C. McI. MESser, Acting Treasurer.

E

:

HONGKONG.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS FOR 1900.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

ASSETS AND LIABILITIES,

ON THE 31ST DECEMBER, 1900.

No. 37

1901

ASSETS.

C.

LIABILITIES.

C.

Subsidiary Coins,

958,000.00 Military Contribution,

54,405.78

Coins in trausit,

970,000.00 Contribution towards Barrack Services

for 1900......

45,000.00

Arrears of Taxes,

804.32

Deposits not available,..

469,579.03

Crown Rent,

36,332.14

»

Refund of Taxes,

2.300.00

,, Land Revenue, New Territory,

98,400.00

>

Officers' Remittances,

16,867.15

Miscellaneous,................

1,890.00

Money Order Remittances,

25,548.87

Advances, ....

51,678.39

Transit Charges, General Post Office,...

7336.00

Suspense House Service,

103.00

Civil Pensions,

17,500.00

Profit, Money Order Office,...

8,000.00

Police Do..

14.200.00

Water Account,.

881.91

Private Drainage Works,

292.36

Suspense Account,

398.73

Public Works,.......................

34,779.46

Miscellaneous,...

9,500.80

Balance Overdrawn,

328,393.35

TOTAL ASSETS,.......$2,126,488.49

TOTAL LIABILITIES,......$1,025,702.80

BALANCE, *...$1,100,785.69

*Not including $40,415.82, value of Silver at Mint.

1

Treasury, Hongkong, 29th March, 1901.

$ 2,126,488.49

J

C. McI. MESSER. Acting Treasurer.

706

Dr.

ESTIMATED BALANCE OF THE ASSETS OF THE COLONY ON THE

31ST DECEMBER, 1901.

Estimated Revenue on Account of 1901,!.

$3,858,620.00

on Land Sales of 1901,.....

"

Total Estimated Revenue,

400,000.00

.$4,258,620.00

Estimated Expenditure, Ordinary,.

Extraordinary,

.$3,480,324.06

420,000.00

39

Total Estimated Expenditure, .$3,900,324.06

Estimated Revenue in Excess over Expenditure,....$ 358,295.94

Balance on 1st January, 1901,

Plus Revenue in Excess of 1901 Expenditure,

$1,141,201.51*

358,295.94

Estimated Balance of 1901 Assets,......$1,499,497,45

* Value of Silver at mint as per Assets of 1900,

Credit Balance of 1900 Assets,

40,415.82 1,100,785.69

$1,141,201.51

ESTIMATED LOAN ACCOUNT, 1901.

To Inscribed Stock Loan @ 34% interest to

be paid off on the 15th April, 1943, ...... £341,799.15.1 By Sinking Fund,.

Dr.

To Inscribed Stock Loan @ 34% interest to be paid off on the 15th April, 1943,

LOAN ACCOUNT, 1900.

£341,799.15.1 By Sinking Fund.......

Treasury, Hongkong, 23rd September, 1901.

Cr.

£20,376. 6.6

Cr.

£16,485.13.2

C. McI. MESSER,

Acting Treasurer.

HONGKONG.

No.

291

12

1901

REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF FIRE BRIGADE FOR THE YEAR 1900.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

POLICE OFFICE,

HONGKONG, 14th February, 1901.

SIR, I have the honour to submit the following report on the Government Fire Brigade for the year 1900.

2. There were 51 Fires and 74 Incipient Fires during the year. Details regarding each are attached. The Brigade turned out 61 times during the year.

The estimated damage caused by the fires was $130,599.73 and by the incipient fires $729.10. A prosecution for arson is at present proceeding in respect of the fire at No. 235 Queen's Road West on the 20th December.

3. A list is attached shewing the number of fires that have occurred during each of the last 10 years with the estimated value of property destroyed in each case.

4. The water in the mains was not turned off at any time during the

year.

5. I attach a list of places where Fire Despatch Boxes are kept, and copy of a report by the Engineer on the state of the Fire Engines, which are all in good order.

6. The quatricycle despatch box obtained from Messrs. MERRYWEATHER & SONS last

proved useful and given satisfaction.

7. Two fires occurred in the Harbour during the year.

8. The conduct of the Brigade during the year has been good.

year has

9. On the 1st January, 1900, the Nam Pak Hong Fire Brigade was re-organised and placed under the immediate supervision of the officers of the Government Fire Brigade.

The Nam Pak Hong now maintain, at their own cost, six trained firemen, while two firemen of the Government Brigade reside in the station house with them in order to be ready to turn out imme- diately on an alarm of fire.

10. The Assistant Superintendent acted as Superintendent from February the 9th to September the 28th, while I was acting as Colonial Secretary.

I have the honour to be,

The Honourable

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY,

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

F. H. MAY, Superintendent of Fire Brigade.

List of Places where Fire Brigade Despatch Boxes are kept.

Government House.

2 Boxes. No. 7 Police Station.

1 Box. No. 1 Police Station.

3 Boxes. Engine House at No. 2 Police Station. 1 Box. Naval Dock Yard.

1

Box.

1

""

1

Clock Tower.

1

""

1

Government Offices.

1

99

19

1

1

"}

1

""

1

No. 7 Queen's Garden, Engineers' Mess. Central Police Station.

1 Box.

>>

1

#1

2 Boxes.

2 Boxes.

1

1 Box.

""

1

"

1

Staunton Street at Sing Wong Street. Water Lane at Queen's Road Central.

1

Wellington Street at Lyndhurst Terrace. Government Civil Hospital.

2 Boxes.

A A

Bonham Strand West, at West End. Gas House, West Point.

Fat Hing Street, at Queen's Road West. Ko Shing Theatre.

Government Lunatic Asylum. Nam Pak Hong Fire Station. Man Mo Temple.

No. 5 Police Station.

Kennedy Town Hospital.

Collinson Street.

No. 463 Queen's Road West.

292

List of Telephones to which the Police can have access to communicate with Central Station

Fire breaking out.

in the event of a

Hongkong and China Gas Company, East and

West Point, from 7 A.M. to 9 P.M. Tung Wá Hospital, Po Yan Street. Man On Insurance Office, Queen's Road West.

Hongkong Hotel, Praya Central.

Royal Naval Yard, Queen's Road East. Mr. J. KENNEDY's Causeway Bay.

Electric Light Company, Queen's Road East.

HONGKONG, 18th February, 1901.

SIR,--I have the honour to forward berewith a report on the state of the Government Fire Engines for the year ending 31st December, 1900.

STEAMER No. 1.

(Floating Engine by Shand & Mason.)

This Engine has been three years in service, it has done some good work at fires during the year, has been docked and overhauled and the hull, engine and pump are now in good order and condition.

STEAMER No. 2.

(Land Engine by Shand & Mason.)

This Engine has been twenty-two years in service (Boiler three years), it has been regularly tested at drill for drivers, and is now in good order and condition.

STEAMER NO. 3.

(Land Engine by Shand & Mason.)

This Engine has been twenty-one years in service, it has been regularly tested at drill for drivers, and has also done some good work at fires during the year. It is now in good order and condition.

STEAMER NO. 4.

(Land Engine by Shand & Mason.)

This Engine has been nineteen years in service, it has been regularly tested at drill for drivers and is now in good order and condition.

STEAMER NO. 5.

(Land Engine by Shand & Mason.)

This Engine has been fourteen years in service, it has been overhauled during the year, and is now in good order and condition.

All the Manual Engines and gear, hose reels, ladders and supply carts have been kept in good repair, and are now in good order.

The Honourable

F. H. MAY, C.M.G.,

Superintendent,

I have the honour to be,

Government Fire Brigade.

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

JOHN W. KINGHORN,

Chief Engineer, Government Fire Brigade.

?

No.

DATE.

FIRES, 1890.

SITUATION OF FIRE,

January

5

No. 7, Station Street,

7

3

"}

18

No. 33, Tung Man Lane, No. 229, Praya West,.

26

No. 8, Lyndhurst Lerrace,

>7

28

No. 23, Bonham Stand,..

February

10

No. 18, Gage Street,.

14

No. 8, St. Francis Street,

May

2

No. 68, Bonham Strand,

9

19

The Hongkong Dispensary,

""

10

23

">

11

July

7

No. 32, Square Street,

12

September

9

No. 12, Kwong Un Street, East,.

Blackhead & Co., Praya Central,.

13

22

No. 38, Gilman Bazaar,

""

14

15

""

16

November 11

15

December 15

No. 47, Bonham Strand,

No. 69, Upper Station Street, No. 112, Queen's Road Central,

TOTAL,.......

No.

DATE.

FIRES, 1891.

293

NO. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

Wholly. Partly.

ESTIMATED

AMOUNT OF PROPERTY

DESTROYED.

3

1,000

1

500

1

8,000 10,000

400

300

]

550

41,000

100,000

1

3,000

J

500

1

30,000

I

100

1

2,000

250

:

6,000

203,600

No. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

Wholly. Partly.

ESTIMATED AMOUNT

OF PROPERTY

DESTROYED.

123

4

8

January February 8 April

>>

30.00 10 1

5

Nos. 170 and 172, Third Street,

No. 353, Queen's Road West,

No. 41, Hillier Street,

The Hongkong and China Bakery, Morrison Hill Road,

East Point,

10 30 1 00

5

May

5

No. 331, Queen's Road Central,

6

7

8

11

""

July

December 19 No. 57A, Wanchai Road,

No. 280, Queen's Road Central, No. 72, Station Street, Yaumati,

10

5

3,000

1

700

1

1,500

1

1,000

22

11,500

12,000

1

1,800

1

600

TOTAL,..

.$

32,100

No.

DATE.

FIRES, 1892.

No. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

Wholly. Partly.

1

ESTIMATED AMOUNT

OF PROPERTY

DESTROYED.

1

January 10

No. 9, Queen's Road Central,

2

18

Bonham Strand,

co

3

16

No. 528, Queen's Road West,

1

$ 40,000 8,000

6,000

""

21

No. 81, High Street,.

I

100

April

1

No. 26, Sai Wo Lane,.

1

1,000

10

No. 17, Queen's Road West,

1

400

12

11

No. 104, Queen's Road West,

1

1,500

""

May

22

No. 17, Tank Lane,

1

250

9

June

21

No. 29, Centre Street,

1

100

10

3

11

18

12

21

14

13

15

16

July August

"J

September 15

December 8

20

2205

No. 49, Queen's Road West, No. 48, Queen's Road West, No. 80, Queen's Road West, No. 333, Queen's Road Central, No. 14, Jubilee Street,

No. 16, East Street,

No. 91, Wing Lok Street,

1

5,000

1

300

1

3,000

4

.000

1

5.900

TOTAL,.........

500

600

.$

75,550

291

No.

DATE.

FIRES, 1893.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

No. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

Wholly. Partly.

ESTIMATED AMOUNT

OF PROPERTY

DESTROYED.

1

January

7

No. 73, Hollywood Road,..

1

$

800

2

11

No. 79, Nullah Lane,

1

300

"}

18

No. 2, Square Street,

1

10

"

February

11

No. 68, Jervois Street,

1

10,000

13

No. 101, Wing Lok Street,

1

6,000

>>

March

22

No. 22, Holland Street,

1

1

40,000

7

26

No. 301, Queen's Road West,

2

8,000

JJ

8

April

13

No. 87, Jervois Street,

1

2,000

9

25

No. 15, West Street,.

1

800

>>

10

27

No. 1, In On Lane,

2

19,000

"3

11

May

13

No. 344, Queen's Road Central,

2,000

12

June

16

No. 406, Queen's Road West,

1

2,000

13

16

No. 28, Taz Mi Lane,

700

14

July

3

No. 191, Hollywood Road,

I

15

14

No. 19, Gough Street,

1,500

150

16

19

>>

No. 280, Queen's Road West,

1

1

1,000

17

20

""

No. 12, Tung Loi Lane,

1

20,000

18

August

16

No. 337, Queen's Road West,

1

300

19

17

No. 32, Queen's Road West,..

1

2,800

""

20

25

No. 155, Second Street,

1

20,000

وو

21

5

22

18

وو

23

>>

24

October

25

26

September

30

12

November 11

11

No. 248, Hollywood Road, No. 127, Bonham Strand......... No. 14, Li Shing Street, No. 115, Praya West,

No. 7, Ezra Lane,

1

400

1

4,000

5,000

1

5,500

""

No. 58, Square Street,

10 00

1

20,000

1

3,000

27

16

No. 5, Pan Kwai Lane,..

1

1,000

"

28

21

""

No. 9, Tannery Lane,

40

29

23

""

No. 314A, Queen's Road Central,

1

8,000

30

26

No. 22, Tsz Mi Lane,

1

5,500

15

31

December 4

No. 31, Wing Fung Street,

1

10

32

5

No. 131, Bonham Strand,

2

"

2,000

33

9

27

No. 11, Bonham Straud,

2

5,000

31

10

No. 240, Queen's Road West,

1

9,000

""

35

13

No. 99, Praya West,.....

1

400

"

36

25

""

No. 100, Queen's Road West,

1

2,000

TOTAL,.

FIRES, 1894.

208,210

NO. OF BUILDINGS

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DESTROYED.

ESTIMATED DAMAGE.

Wholly. Partly.

IN CO TO CO

1

January

9

12.30 p.m.

No. 56, First Street,

11

"}

8.45 p.m.

No. 13, U Lok Lane,

16

1.25 a.m.

"J

February

7.55 a.m

6

""

14

22

25

"J

8

March

3

9

28

"

10. April

4

11

17

""

12

28

9 a.m.

22

13

30

"

14

May

1

15

15

16

June

3

3 a.m.

17

3

""

18

July

1

10.25 p..

19

August

14

10.30 a.m.

20

21

3.45 a.m.

>>

21

October

2

2 a.m.

22

3

11.30 p.m.

"

23

11

""

6.20 p.m.

བལ ོ

24

24

25.

31

10 p.m.

""

26

27

November 30 December

7.40 p.m.

1

10 p.m.

28

1

""

29

13

>>

5.30 p.m.

1

800

1.40 p.m.

4.50 p.m. 7 p.in. 7.30 a.m. 9.25 a.m.

9.20 p.m. 10.30 a.m.

2 a.m.

7 p.m.

3 a.m.

3.10 a.m.

12.10 a.m.

11.20 p.m.

No. 273, Queen's Road West,. No. 26, Market Street,

No. 57, Queen's Road West, No. 28, Upper Station Street, No. 86, Queen's Road West, No. 17, Salt Fish Street,. No. 17, Upper Lascar Row, No. 136, Boulam Strand, No. 211, Hollywood Road, No. 63, Wanchai Road,

No. 122, Queen's Road Central, No. 116, Queen's Road Central, No. 137, Queen's Road West,. No. 15, Jervois Street,

No. 228, Queen's Road Central, No. 123, Queen's Road Central, No. 59, Square Street, No. 68, Jervois Street, No. 9, Sai On Lane,

No. 21, West Street, No. 2, Ship Street,

No. 127, Queen's Road West, No. 115, Queen's Road Central, No. 32, Bonham Strand,

No. 207, Queen's Road Central,

No. 183, Hollywood Road, No. 22, Queen's Road West,

TOTAL,......

1

400

1

1,200

21

2,500

2

1,000

1

300

1

50

2

1,500

1

5,000

6

1

150,000

Ι

2,000

1,500

30 -

3

1

55,000

18,000

4,500

2,500

20,000

3,000

500

1

18,000

1

:

:

200

:

800

1

200

1

15,000

3

4,600

1

2,000

8,000

1

1

2,000

F:

1

100

323,650

7

--

}

FIRES, 1895.

295

1 2 3 4 10 30 1-∞o ✪

January

6

7.45 p.m.

12

9.30 p.m.

">

18

""

5.45 p.m.

4

18

39

6.45 p.m.

5

21

""

9 p.m.

6

6

9.15 p.m.

7

10

1 a.m.

"

8

20

27

1.20 p.m.

9

March

2

6.40 p.m.

10

3

,,

7 p.m.

11

24

8 p.m.

12

26

8.30 p.m.

13

30

2.50 a.m.

""

14

April

6

3.25 a.m.

15

11

12 Noon.

16

18

7 p.m.

17

24

10.15 p.m.

""

18

June

14

3.05 a.m.

19

July

29

20

29

27

21

22

1 a.m. 3.45 a.m.

23

6

8.30 a.m.

""

24

October

5

12.50 a.m.

No.

DATE.

TIME.

February

RA

August 5 September 6

4.50 a.m. 12.30 a.m.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

House No. 230, Queen's Road Central,. House No. 4, Wellington Street, House No. 189, Queen's Road Central,. House No. 15, Mercer Street,

...

House No. 337, Queen's Road West, House No. 73, Bonham Strand, House No. 149, Queen's Road Central, House No. 3, Wai Tak Lane, House No. 228, Queen's Road West, House No. 7, Li Shing Street,.. House No. 96, Bouham Strand, House No. 212, Queen's Road West, House No. 352, Queen's Road Central, House No. 1, Queen's Street,

House No. 144, Queen's Road West,

House No. 34, Bonham Strand,

House No. 19, Jervois Street, House No. 76, Jervois Street, House No. 34, Winglok Street, House No. 3, Station Street, House No. 70, Jervois Street,

House No. 4, Praya Central, premises of

Messrs. Wieler & Co.,......

House No. 12, Nullah Terrace, Quarry Bay, House No. 169, Hollywood Road,

NO. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

Wholly. Partly.

N

ESTIMATED DAMAGE.

1

$ 6,000

1

4,000

1

2,000

1

9,000

1,000

1

6,000

1

30

1

200

2

3

12,000

1

3,000

3

Unknown.

3,000

5,000

5,000

3,000

1,000

12,000

Not known.

5,000

800

22,000

I

100

1

700

1

3,000

25

6

8.20 a.m.

Matshed at Quarry Bay,

1

500

>>

26

15

""

11.15 p.m.

House No. 149, Queen's Road Central,

100

27

30

12.45 a.m.

American ship Wandering Jew, Victoria

""

Harbour,

150,000

28

November 21

7.35 p.m.

House No. 111, Praya West,

1

6,000

29 December 13

11.15 p.m.

A matshed at Kun Chung,

1

30

13

"

4.30 p.m.

A squatter's hut on the Hillside at the

back of Shaukiwan Station,

1

200

25

es as co co c

31

16

1 a.m.

House No. 110, Praya West,

1

8,000

">

32

17

ì a.m.

""

33

23

>>

34

24

>>

35

30

6 p.m. 1.10 a.m.

1.35 a.m.

House No. 247, Queen's Road Central, House No. 285, Queen's Road Central, Houses Nos. 347 & 340, Queen's Road West, House No. 40, Queen's Road West,.....

1

15,000

00

3

2

4,000

5,325

5,000

27

297,980

TOTAL,

FIRES, 1896.

NO. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

ESTIMATED DAMAGE.

Wholly. Partly.

I January

15

7.45 p.m.

16

""

8.20 p.m.

25

6

""

6

77

7

8

""

11.05 p.m.

February 1

10.30 p.m.

12.30 a.m.

I a.mi.

2.45 a.m.

House No. 30, Wing Lok Street,. House No. 63, Queen's Road Central,. House No. 205, Queen's Road West,

2

2

$ 9,000

30

1,000

House No. 302, Queen's Road West,

2,600

House No. 56, Jervois Street,

6,000

House No. 57, Queen's Road West,.

16,000

House No. 133, Praya West,

1

6,000

8

26

4.25 a.m.

House No. 309, Queen's Road Central,

1

5,000

39

9

March

9

4 a.m.

House No. 367, Queen's Road Central,

5,000

10

April

1

5.10 a.m.

House No. 3, Wing Lok Street,

8,000

11

1

4.45 a.m.

House No. 288, Queen's Road West,

4,000

27

12

6

4.20 a.m.

House No. 21, Salt Fish Street,

8,700

""

13

8

4.15 a.m.

House No. 13, Wing Woo Street,

1

2,000

>7

14

22

1.15 a.m.

House No. 48, Praya West,

1

3,000

**

15

24

3.15 a.m.

House No. 13, Cochrane Street,

1

600

""

16

26

8.45 a.m.

House No. 31, Belcher's St., Kennedy Town,

3,500

27

17

27

10.15 a.m.

House No. 238, Hollywood Road,

1

2,000

18

29

""

9.50 p.m.

House No. 115, Praya West,

1

2,300

19

May

9

1.10 a.m.

House No. 12. Sutherland Street,

1

50

20

14

10.15 p.m.

House No. 73, Jervois Street,

2

6,000

21

June

5

9.20 p.m.

House No. 3, Tsz Mi Lane,

1

1,290

22

15

7.30 a.m.

Licensed Cargo Boat No. 69,

4,500

23

29

3.30 p.m.

24

August 14

3.10 p.m.

On Board the British barque Glen Caladh, House No. 10, Ship Street,

25 October

28

26

27

""

28

29

30

10 21

November 5 21

December 8

2.10 p.m.

12.40 a.m. House No. 109, Queen's Road West,

3.20 a.m. House No. 138, Queen's Road West,

8.30 p.m. 1 a.m.

House No. 18, New Street,

House No. 10, Queen's Road West,.

House No. 63, Bonham Strand,

House No. 137, Wing Lok Street,

Unknown.

600 7,000

27

TOTAL,

25

1

200

1

1,000

200

Trifling.

105,595

296

FIRES, 1897.

No.

DATE.

TIME.

10

11

123 41 CNSDOH~~

January

12

10.30 p.m.

18

10.15 p.m.

""

February 3

4.20 a.m.

11

"

1.20 p.m.

15

9.15 a.m.

>>

28

1.35 a..

SITUATION OF FIRE.

On board the S.S. Fausang..... House No. 138, Jervois Street, House No. 213, Praya West, House No. 24, Cross Serect,.

Government Offices, Lower Albert Road,. House No. 124, Jervois Street,

No. OF BUILDINGS

DESTROYED.

Wholly. Partly.

ESTIMATED DAMAGE.

500

1

25,000

1

17,000

1

300

200

1

20.000

April

1

1.20 a.m.

House No. 14, Cross Street.............

1

1

4,000

8

3

12.30 a.m.

House No. 128, Queen's Road Central,

1

200

29

9

11

2.24 a.m.

21

5.25 a.m.

House No. 351, Queen's Road Central, House No. 90, Jervois Street,

2

24,000

3,000

21

10.15 p.m.

On board S.S. Belgic,

3,000

12

25

1.55 a.m.

House No. 95, Wing Lok Street,.

5,000

""

13

May

1

7.40 p.m.

House No. 8, Cross Street,

i

700

14

20

1.45 a.m.

House No. 71, Jervois Street,

13,050

""

15

June

15

2.30 a.m.

House No. 114, Jervois Street,

3

34,000

16

July

23

10 p.m.

17

27

11.55 p.m.

29

18

August

3

4.15 p.m.

19

22

2.05 a.m.

>>

20

September

4

1.15 p.m.

Hongkong Hotel, Queen's Road Central, House No. 248, Queen's Road West, House No. 15, Praya Fuk Tsun Heung,... House No. 213, Queen's Road West, House No. 16, Tung Loi Street,

300

300

7,000

600

6,900

600

21

18

7.15 a.m.

House No. 49, Quarry Bay,

22

19

""

12.20 p.m.

23

November 24

11.35 p.m.

24

24

7 p.m.

25

28

7.10 a.m.

26

December

22

1.15 p.m.

House No. 5, "Wild Dell," House No. 64, Third Street, House No. 53, Stanley Village, House No. 122, Second Street, II. M. Naval Yard,

1

300

1

1,200

5

10

3,000

}

5,000

2,000

TOTAL,

.$

177,150

FIRES, 1898.

No.

DATE.

TIME.

1

January

22

2

26

19

3

February

264

5

3.10 a.m.

3.55 p.m. 4.40 p.m.

No. OF BUILDINGS

SITUATION OF FIRE.

House No. 21, Lyndhurst Terrace, Government Asylum, Eastern Street, House No. 46, Praya Central,

DESTROYED.

Wholly. Partly.

ESTIMATED DAMAGE.

1 $ 500.00

150.00

200.00

1

1

4

11

">

9 p.m.

House No. 125, Wanchai Road,

1

4,000.00

5

25

""

3.35 p.m.

Matshed at British Kowloon,

Unknown.

March

12

12.40 a.m.

House No. 2, Graham Street,

1,000.00

April

11

3 a.m.

House No. 288, Queen's Road West,

1

600.00

May

10

11.10 p.m.

House No. 295, Queen's Road West,

1

700.00

9

June

1

7.05 p.m.

House No. 67, Praya Central,

100.00

10

August

10

3 p.m.

House No. 22, Belchers Street,

7,000.00

11

September 10

2

p.m.

12

October

10

13

15

16

436

14 December 9

12

"

13

6.15 p.m. 10 a.m.

November 18

5.30 p.m.

5.50 p.m.

Matshed at the Peak,

House No. 2, West Street,

7.30 a.m. House No. 76, Praya East,

House No. 56, Jardine's Bazaar, House No. 136, Queen's Road East, Hut at Shaukiwan,

TOTAL,......

:

200.00

2

11.628.74

1

200.00

1

I

10

5

.$

2,500.00 800.00 5,423.00

35,001.74

+

;

FIRES, 1899.

297

No.

DATE.

TIME.

NO. OF BUILDINGS

SITUATION OF FIRE.

ESTIMATED DAMAGE.

House No. 33, Wing Wo Lane, House No. 35, Wongneichung, House No. 234, Hollywood Road,

House No. 28, Nullalı Terrace, Quarry

Bay,

House No. 143, Wanchai Road,

House No. 226, Queen's Road Central, Hunghom West,

House No. 61, Queen's Road West, On board German Steamer Sabine Rick-

mers, Tai-Kok Tsui Wharf,

House No. 118, Hollywood Road, House No. 100, Wellington Street,... On board the British Steamer Amara,

Wanchai Anchorage,

1234

161-00g

January 7

13

3.40 p.m. 10.30 p.m.

>>

20

10.30 p.m.

27

29

2 p.m.

February

10

8.45 p.m.

March

17

2.30 a.m.

House No. 3, Wai Sun Lane,

18

7.30 p.m.

>>

19

12.30 p.m.

""

9

April

19

1.25 a.m.

May

2

7.15 a.m.

11

123 45

10

11.05 p.m.

"

23

21

June

10

8.25 p.m. 11.50 a.m.

16

14

""

15

21

"J

16

July

18

4.30 a.m. 7.35 p.m. Midnight.

17

August

8

3 a.m.

10

18

8 p.m.

""

19

11

1 a.m.

""

20.

12

27

21

September 10

6.15 a.m.

22

October

5

6.15 p.m.

23

5

9.50 p.m.

""

24

11

9.20 p.m.

House No. 28, Praya West,..........

"

25

November 8

8.30 p.m.

26

9

6 a.m.

""

27

December

1

6.35 p.m.

28

29

30

31

AAAA

13

26

2322

6:30 a.m.

6.20 a.m.

8.50 p.m.

8.30 p.m.

House No. 1, Ship Street,

12.15 a.m.

Nos. 24 and 25, Praya Kennedy Town,... House No. 205, Queen's Road Central, Praya Kennedy Town near Chater Street, House No. 65, Queen's Road West, No. 2 Store, Kowloon Dock,

House No. 83, Station Street, Yaumati,.. House No. 373, Queen's Road Central,... McDonald Road,

House No. 256, Des Voeux Road, House No. 235, Queen's Road Central,

House No. 1, Duddell Street,

On board S.S. Poseidon in Victoria

Harbour,

Lam Lo Mi Village, Kowloon City,

Nga Chin Loong Village, Kowloon City, House No. 76, Jervois Street,

Godowns next to Hing Lung Lane,

TOTAL,...

DESTROYED.

Wholly. Partly.

I

00001 10

1

CA

$

1,000

100

1

1,500

2

1,500

50

3,000

30,000

1

mat- shed

160

1

200

40

1

3,000

1

300

27,500

I

150,000

1

2,500

I mat-

shed

1

200 2,880 1,500

600

:

301

1

I

19,000

1 mat-

shed

Unknown.

I

1

2,500

6,500

12,000

150

40,000 154

180 23,000

500,000

300

.$

$29,814

: N

2

13 huts

1

1

3

::

FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1900.

No. of

298

No.

DATE.

TIME.

1

Jan. 1

12 Noon.

5

6

N

3 + 10 0

6

7.15 a.m.

House No. 25, West Street,

BUILDINGS

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DESTROYED.

ESTIMATED

DAMAGE.

Wholly Partly.

House No. 29, Praya, Kennedy Town,

1

$ 265.00

1

:

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

>>

8.15 p.m.

House No. 22, Western Street,

13

5.30 a.m.

13

""

5.45 p.m.

16

2.15 p.m.

Fishing Boats at Kau Pai Kang Village, Matshed at East Road, Tsim Sha Tsui, Matshed of Dairy Farm at Pokfulam,

6 boats

1

mat-

I shed

mat-

shed

19

2.30 p.m.

House No. 22, Ma Tao Kok,

1

40.00

a fire.

Accident.

8

20

7.00 p.m.

Shed at Sha Po Village, Kowloon City,

9

25

3.15 a.m.

""

10

29

2.10 a.m.

11

30

11.19 a.m.

House No. 18, Cochrane Street,

Caretaker's Matshed at Coffee Plantation Cemetery, House No. 335, Queen's Road Central,..

by mat-

1 mat-

sheds

Unknown

Accident.

shed

1

7,500.00

1

2,000.00

>>

12

31

8.10 a.m.

House No. 10, High Street,

1

Do.

Unknown.

200.00 Caused by firing crackers.

"}

B Feb.

2

7.10 p.m.

House No. 11, Shing Hing Lane, West Point,.

2

3,300.00 Upsetting of a kerosine lamp.

14

15

16

17

4367

4

??

10.30 p.m.

10

"

2.25 p.m.

House at Ma On Kong Village, Pat Heung, Matshed opposite Harbour Office,

I

15.00

Accident.

1 mat-

100.00

Unknown.

shed

16

5.15 p.m.

Carpenters' Matshed at Hung Hom Cement Works,

5 mat

sheds

>>

22

2.00 a.m.

House No. 25, Queen's Road West,

1,100.00

1,700.00

وو

18 March 1

11.40 p.m.

House No. 11, Hollywood Read,

ེབོ བ་

19

9

""

20

11

21

20

""

22

28

1.00 a.m.

29

23

31

24 April

25

26

1

9.15 p.m.

12

2.30 p.m.

House No. 230, To Kwa Wan,

16

>>

3.00 p.m.

Hung Hom Docks,

27

21

>>

28

29 May 4

29

""

7.30 p.in.

An unoccupied House in IIn Mi Lane, Ping Shan, A Stack of breaming grass on the Aberdeen Road,

9.00 p.m.

A Stack of grass at Hung Hom West,

30

29

7.30 a.m.

House No. 36, Upper Lascar Row,

""

Carried forward,.

3.00 p.m.

7.50 p.m.

12.15 a m.

5.00 p.m.

House No. 77, Wellington Street,

House No. 128, Winglok Street, House No. 324, Queen's Rond Central,. House No. 287, Queen's Road West,

House No. 7, Wild Dell Buildings, "Bluff," Plantation Road, Peak.

:

:

:

:

1

50.00

Do.

I

800.00

Do.

1

1,000.00

Do.

Carelessness while worship- ping.

300.00 Overheating of flue.

100.00 Falling of a kerosiue lamp.

40.00

Incendiarism.

3,000.00 | Unknown.

3,000.00 | Upsetting of a pot of tar on

30.00 | Unknown.

Caused by burning joss-sticks. Unknown.

1,500.00 Overheating of a stove.

30.00

Unknown.

15.00 Overheating of a pipe. Unknown Unknown.

1

1

300.00

Do.

I mat-

Unknown

Do.

shed

1

80.00

Do.

220.00

Do.

30.00

Do.

1

400,00

Do.

No insurance effected.

Insured in the Chun On Insurance Co. for $1,000.

Insured with the Meiji Fire Insurance for $2,000.

Not covered by insurance.

18 cows burnt to death.

Not insured.

Do,

Do.

Insured in the Meiji Insurance Co. for $6,000. Insured in Butterfield & Swire for $1,000. No insurance.

Covered by insurance in the South British In- surance Office to the extent of $1,000.

Not insured.

Do.

Premises insured in Holliday, Wise & Co. for $2,000. A woman Leung Tai was burnt to death.

Insured in the Union Assurance Society for $1,000.

Insured in the Tung On Insurance Office for $1,300.

Covered by insurance in the Mitsui Bussan Kaisha Insurance Co. for $11,600.

Insured in Meiji Fire Insurance Co. for $2,000.. Insured in Schellhass & Co. for $5,000,

Not insured.

Do.

Do.

Do.

*

No insurance,

Do.

Covered by insurance in the Atlas Assurance

Co.

+$

27,115.00

FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1900,—Continued.

No. OF

!

BUILDINGS

No. DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DESTROYED.

ESTIMATED

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

Wholly Partly.

31

cos ∞

June 21

32 July

12.40 a.m.

3

8 50 p.m.

Brought forward, House No. 237, Queen's Road West,. House No. 240, Des Vœux Road West,

33

13

7.30 p.m.

House No. 1A, Connaught Road,

34

16

2.35 a.m.

House No. 11, Tai Wong Lane, ·

35

21

3.45 a.m.

House No. 274, Queen's Road Central,

36 Aug. 29 37 Sept. 13

38

39

>>

6.00 p.m.

Cargo Boat No. 374,

10.00 p.m.

Cargo Boat No. 61,

1 cargo

boat

cargo

boat

::

16

11.45 a.m.

19

9.45 p..

Matshed at Yau Ma Ti Village,.

40

25

Matshed at Sai Kung.

Squatters' Matshed at Tai Hang Village near Yau

Ma Ti,

17 mat-

sheds

mat-

sheds

";

75

41

42

""

43 Oct. 13

44 Nov. 13

28

10.15 p.m.

29

7.30 a.m.

2.00 a.m.

House No. 58, Jervois Street,

Boat-building Matshed, Mong Kok Tsni,

Matshed at Robinson Road, Tsim Sha Tsui,

132 mat

sheds

» mat-

sheds

I mat- shal

1

43.00

8,000.00

1,679.73 Unknown.

3,950.00 Do.

937.00

Do.

200.00

Do.

100.00

30,000.00

1

1,000.00

8,700.00

Do.

Do.

Do.

27,115.00

200.00 Overheating of some tobacco. . 150.00 | Capsizing of a lamp.

60.00 | Unknown.

Overheating of a stove.

Insured in Siemssen & Co.'s Office for $5,700. Covered by insurance in Butterfield & Swire's Office.

Not insured.

Do.

Insured for $9,000 in the Norwich Union Fire Insurance Society, Agents, David Sassoon Sons & Co.

500 cases of Kerosine Oil were destroyed. 1,500 damaged cases of Kerosine Oil were des- troyed.

3.50 a.m.

House No. 122, Jervois Street,

45

16

,,

8.40 p.m.

"

46

47 Dec. 2

48

>>

27

8.30 a.m.

2.44 a.m.

9

6.50 p.m.

House No. 26, Sai Woo Lane,

House No. 93, Market Street, Hung Hom, House No. 275, Queen's Road Central,-

House No. 9, Beaconsfield Arcade,

:

1

:

49

10

93

Matshed at Valley Road,

50

15

9.20 p.m.

Matshed at Yau Ma Ti,

51

20

1.50 a.m.

House No. 235, Queen's Road West,

TOTAL,..

1 mat-

shed

mat-

sheds

Accident while worshipping.

Unknown,

Not insured.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

1:34

Insured in the Union Insurance Society for $12,000.

19,000.00 | Exploding of a kerosine lamp. Insured in the South British Fire and Marine

1,500.00 Accident.

800.00 Caused by burning joss-sticks. 2,500.00 | Exploding of a kerosine lamp.

4,000.00 Supposed to have been cansed by a kerosine lamp.

400.00 | By a spark from cook-house fire.

265.00

Do.

20,000.00 | Exploding of a lamp.

Insurance Co. for $14,000; Chun On Fire Insurance Co. for $4,000; Tung On Fire Insurance Co. for $3,000.

Insured in the Tung On and Sun Insurance Co.'s for $4,000 each.

Not insured.

Insured for $10,000 with the North German Fire Insurance Co.

Insured for $3,000 with the Hongkong Fire Insurance Co., and $4,400 with the Com- mercial Union Insurance Co.

Not insured.

Do.

Covered by insurance.

130,599.73

:

F. H. MAY,

Superintendent of Fire Brigade,

299

INCIPIENT FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1900.

300

No.

DATE.

TIME.

6.10 p.m.

9.00 p.m.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

House No. 6, Ah Chung Lane,

DAMAGE.

Trifling

$20

$3

...

1 Jan.

2

5

Cook House at Seymour Road,

""

12

";

6.30 p.m.

House No. 3, Stauntou Street,

12

""

8.00 p.m.

House No. 11, Kwong Un Street East,.

14

5.30 p.m.

House No. 30, Stanley Street,.

15

""

3.30 p.m.

House No. 36, West Street...

$0.50

15

""

4.30 p.m.

Roadside between Kun Chung and Yau-Ma-Ti,

17

""

6.00 p.in.

House No. 157, Hollywood Road,

18

5.43 a.m.

House No. 11, Upper Lascar Row,..

>>

10

18

""

6.30 p.m.

House No. 42, Queen's Road West,

11

20

""

4.00 p.m.

12

21

6.30 p.m.

>>

13

30

"

14

Feb.

1

12.20 p.m. 3.00 a.m.

Some wood on Praya Central,

15

House No. 14, Albany Road, ....

">

16

Small Matshed at Hung Hom Cement Works,

""

17

A Stack of Grass at Hung Hom West,

""

18

19

20

* * * *

""

21

22

وو

— 00 00 10

8

10

11

19

27

23 Mar. 4

X

30 June 2

6.00 p.m.

8.00 p.m.

4.30 p.m.

6.00 p.m.

8.45 p.m.

8.00 p.m.

6.23 p.m.

Hillside near the Tung Tau Chau Cemetery,

Hillside at the Junction of Valley and Leighton Roads, Cook-house of Messrs. D. Sassoon & Co.'s Office,

Cook-house at the Ko Shing Theatre,

House No. 52, Staunton Street, Hillside at Liu Pok near San Tin,

House No. 6, Ice House Street, House No. 48, Stanley Street,.... House No. 133, Praya Central, Hillside at Ku La Wan Mount Kellet,

Chimney on fire.

CAUSE.

Some firewood accidentally caught fire.......... Bed curtains accidentally caught fire. Chimney on fire.

Flue of cook-house caught fire. Venetians of a window caught fire. Grass on fire.

Accident with burning joss sticks. Chimney on fire.

Do.

Grass on fire.

Do.

Chimney on fire.

Trifling

Unknown.

Chimney on fire.

$100

$5

$20

Trifling

>>

24

10

93

4.30 p.m.

25 Apr.

10

7.30 p.m.

House No. 28, Upper Lascar Row,

26

18

""

8.00 p.m.

House No. 8, Jubilee Street,

27

29

10.00 a m.

House No. 153, Des Voeux Road,

""

28 May

9

12.15 am.

House No. 17, Eastern Street,

Trifling

29

25

2.15 a.m.

House No. 71, Second Street,

";

8.30 p.m.

House No. 343, Queen's Road Central,

31

6

32 July

12

10.30 p.m.

8.30 p.m.

House No. 145, Third Street,

$3

House No. 481, Queen's Road West,

33

21

House No. 103, Queen's Road Central,

""

34

31

7.40 p.m.

House No. 349, Queen's Road West,

35 Aug.

10

10.05 p.m.

No. 9 Store Arsenal Yard,

36

15

""

3.00 p.m.

On Street, Wanchai,

37 Sept.

4

House No. 126, Praya East,

6

""

8.30 p.m.

House No. 287, Des Voeux Road,

8

House No. 150, Hollywood Road,

House No. 20, Bridges Street..........

19

""

House No. 30, Gage Street,......

Carried forward,..

$226.50

38

39

40

41

""

9

4.20 p.m.

3.18 a.m.

......

Small Matshed adjoining Yuk Hu Temple Loung

Some firewood caught fire. Accident.

Overheating of the cooking stove Chimney on fire.

Grass on fire.

Chimney on fire.

Do.

Accident.

Grass on fire.

Flue on fire.

Explosion of a kerosine tin.

do.

Carelessness with lighted joss sticks. Do. Falling of a kerosine lamp. Unknown.

Falling of a kerosine lamp. Do.

Chimucy on fire.

Falling of a kerosine lamp. Unknown.

Sparks from joss candles..

REMARKS.

Put out by inmates and Fire Brigade. Put out by Police.

Put out by Police and immates.

Do.

Do.

Put out by inmates and a Sanitary Inspector. Extinguished by Police.

Put out by the inmates.

Do.

Put out by inmates and Police.

Extinguished by the Police and hired Coolies. Extinguished by Police.

Extinguished by inmates.

Put out by Police and Coolies.

Extinguished by Firemen.

Extinguished by the employees.

Put out by the Coolies with a Manual Engine from the Match Factory.

Put out by Police assisted by Coolies.

Put out by occupants.

Put out by villagers.

Put out by Fire Brigade.

Put out by inmates.

Do.

Put out by Police. Twenty young trees were burnt.

Put out by inmates.

Do.

Put out by occupants.

Do.

Do.

Put out by Police and occupants. Put out by Police and inmates. Put out by inmates. Put out by Firemen. Put out by inmates.

Put out by Police and Firemen.

Put out by a Fireman on duty. Put out by inmates.

Do.

$20

Trifling

Upsetting of a kerosine.

$40

Overheating of an oven.

$10

Unknown.

Chimney on fire.

Trifling

Mosquito curtain accidentally caught fire.

Put out by inmates.

Put out by Police and inmates. Put out by Firemen.

INCIPIENT FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1900,-Continued.

No. DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

Brought forward,..

$226.50

42 | Sept. 19

43

22

44

23

"

1.55 a.m.

7.05 p.m.

6.20 p.m.

At the back of House No. 178, Third Street, House No. 2, Pan Kwai Lane,.

$30

Unknown.

Trifling

Exploding of a keresine lamp.

45

25

2.43 p.m.

46

27

1.30 a.m.

""

47 Oct. 3

10.00 a.m.

A House at Sai Kung Village, House No. 38, Wing On Street, House No. 16, Gage Street,...... A Matshed at Tai 0,

$8

Accident.

$20

Do.

48

M

49

16

17

9.00 a.m.

1.00 a.m.

House No. 44, Jardine Bazaar, Cargo Boat No. 367,....

Trifling

$150

$200

""

50

21

""

4.00 p,m.

51

22

12 Noon.

U.S.S. Monterey, lying at Hung Hom Docks, Hillside at Tung Tao Chow, Stanley,

Unknown

">

52

23

11.11 p.m.

Kwong King Painter Shop, Staunton Street,...

Trifling

Unknown.

53

""

25

""

6.00 p.m.

House No. 129, Shaukiwan,....

$1

Accident.

54

26

3.30 a.m.

Matsheds at Hung Hom Docks,

Trifling

Do.

>>

55

26

"}

1.30 p.m.

Hillside off Chamberlain Road,

Grass on fire.

56

27

11.00 a.m.

Foreshore, West of Stanley Village,

$10

Do.

""

57

31

12.30 p.m.

Hillside near Pokfulara Road,

228 28 ga!

58 Nov.

1

2.00 a.mi.

House No. 20, Belchers Street,

$3

59

1

Noon.

Hillside between Ki Ling Ha and Yung Shu Au Vil-

""

Grass on fire.

lage at Sai Kung,

60

3

""

y

61

62

63

64

65

66

""

5

00 10

8.05 a.m.

Back part of House No. 148, Des Voeux Road,

$10

Unknown.

10.00 a.m.

Hillside between Tai Mong Tsai and Cham Chuk

""

Wan Village, Sai Kung,

6

""

6.20 p.m.

A small Grocery Store at Sau Tin,.

4.44 p.m.

House No. 68, Lower Lascar Row,..

16

12 Noon.

Hillside between Pokfulam and Mount Barracks,.

"}

17

""

1.30 p.m.

Matshed at Wong Nai Au, Tai Po,

$6

18

11.00 p.m.

Koshing Theatre,

67

22

6.00 a.m.

House No. 11, Gough Street,

$50

68

27

Hillside North of Wanchai Gap Road,

""

69 Dec.

6.

4.12 p.m.

House No. 46, Hollywood Road,.

Trifling

Accident.

70

14

1.40 a.m.

House No. 127, First Street,

$5

Do.

71

19

5.55 a.m.

House No. 137, Second Street,

$1.60

Do.

""

72

26

""

2.00 p.m.

73

""

26

4.00 p.m.

Hillside near Ki Shi Wan, Stanley,

Hillside half way between Tai Tam Tuk and Tai Tam Reservoir,

Grass on fire.

Do.

74

31

3.00 a.m.

House No. 206, Hollywood Road,

Unknown.

Exploding of a kerosine lamp. Accident.

Unknown.

Supposed to have been caused by sparks from the funnel of Steam Launch Kwong Ying which was towing her.. Unknown.

Grass on fire.

Do.

Upsetting of a kerosine lamp.

Grass on fire..

Accident with burning joss sticks. Chimney on fire.

Grass on fire.

Unknown,

Accident with a lighted cigarette. Accident.

Grass on fire.

Put out by Firemen,

Put out by inmates.

Put out by Police and villagers. Put out by Firemen. Put out by inmates.

Put out by Police and villagers. Put out by inmates.

Put out by the Crew of the Junk and Firemen,

Put out by European employees and Ship's Crew. Put out by Police and hired Coolies. Put out by Police and inmates.

Do.

Put out by Dock employees. Put out by Police.

Put out by Police and villagers.

Put out by Police and hired Coolies. Put out by Police and inmates.

Put out by villagers.

Put out by Firemen.

Put out by villagers. Put out by Police. Put out by inmates.

Put out by Police and Soldiers.

Burnt itself out.

Put out by Police.

Put out by inmates.

Put out by Police.

Put out by Firemen.

Put out by inmates and Police.

Do.

Put out by Police and hired Coolies.

Put out by men from Tai Tam Reservoir. number of fir trees were damaged.

Put out by inmates.

A large

לי

TOTAL,..

$729.10

F. II. MAY, Superintendent of Fire Brigade.

301

FOOD SUPPLY COMMISSION.

SIR,

HONGKONG, 18th December, 1900.

We have the honour to enclose herewith our Report as Members of the Food Commission together with a copy of a letter we have addressed to its Chairman Mr. J. J. FRANCIS, Q.C.

We have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servants,

EDWARD OSBORNE.

A. M. MARSHALL.

F. MAITLAND.

FUNG WA CHÜN.

To the Honourable

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, C.M.G.,

Colonial Secretary,

HONGKONG.

WILLIAM HARTIGAN.

HONGKONG, 18th December, 1900.

DEAR SIR,

Understanding that you will not be able to prepare the Food Commission Report for some time yet, we have forwarded our Report to Government (as per enclosed copy) as we do not wish to be parties to any further delay in the matter and desire that, as far as we are concerned, the Commission should be considered at an end.

Yours truly,

EDWARD OSBORNE.

A. M. MARSHALL.

F. MAITLAND.

FUNG WA CHÜN.

WILLIAM HARTIGAN.

J. J. FRANCIS, Esq., Q.C.,

Chairman, Food Commission.

173

(2)

REPORT BY THE UNDERSIGNED, MEMBERS OF THE FOOD COMMISSION APPOINTED 19TH MAY, 1900.

(1.) A number of meetings were held, witnesses examined, and a mass of information obtained from Steamship Lines, Hotels, The Gaol, The Government Civil Hospital, Military Authorities, and other sources.

(2.) An advertisement asking information from householders was inserted in the local

Papers, to which 8 persons (ladies) replied.

(3.) The following table shows the percentage of rise in the wholesale and retail prices

in 5 years:

Articles.

Bread,

Wholesale.

Retail.

20 per cent.

Fish,

13 per cent.

50

Beef,

33

33

"J

Mutton,

25

45

""

2:

Eggs,

50

80

23

"9

Fowls,

45

40

""

""

Ducks,

50

50

݂ܕ

>>

Potatoes,

25

Firewood,

90

95

""

Ground Nut Oil,

...110

100

>>

Rice

33

33

">

(4.) Beyond natural fluctuations of supply and demand, the main causes of this increase

have been :-

(a.) Depreciation of Silver.

(b.) Increased Cost of Rice.

(c.) West River Piracy.

(d.) Increased Rents.

(e.) Enforcement of Sanitary Laws.

(5.) The augmentation of the Military and Naval forces in Hongkong and Manila has contributed towards a rise in certain commodities, as the sources of supply are limited and take time to accommodate themselves to the increased demands.

(6.) Whilst it is difficult by means of direct evidence to prove that a combination exists with the object of keeping up the price of meat, the fact that practically the whole supply is in the hands of two men, who acknowledge being supported by a syndicate, and from whom other market butchers buy, must tend to crush other individual effort and enterprise, give them a monopoly, and enable them to regulate prices as they please. The fact also that the two individuals put forward as owners of this large business in a trade which has a world-wide reputation for being most lucrative, swore they have been losing money in it during three consecutive years, and that during the whole course of their examination they were manifestly prevaricating and concealing the truth, makes all evidence on this point most unreliable.

7.) We consider that Market rents are not excessive (except in particularly choice

situations) and have not contributed to the increase.

At the same time we regard rents as a tax on food, and think they should be kept as low as possible.

$

.

i

( 3 )

:

(8.) Our enquiries have failed to suggest any practical remedies of real value, and, bearing in mind the many objections there are to legislative interference in trade affairs,

we can only make the following recommendations:---

(a.) That increased Market accommodation be provided and meanwhile, in order to relieve pressure on existing Markets, that fruit and vegetables be sold outside in licensed shops.

(b.) That Markets be used for the sale of perishable food only, Biscuits, Hams, Tinned Meat, Jams and such like stores should not be sold

in Markets, as the letting of stalls for such purposes tends to crowd out the legitimate vendors of fresh produce.

(c.) That further endeavours be made to stamp out piracy.

(d.) The cheapening of rents by opening new building areas with means of

conveyance by tramways and ferries.

(e.) The reduction of Market rents to such level as will provide just sufficient

funds to cover interest on capital and working expenses.

Markets should not be a source of profit.

(f.) The encouragement of foreign ladies to make their own purchases by having the Markets kept clean and by clearing the passages of loafers.

(9.) We recommend that an attempt be made to encourage the villagers of the New Territory to breed cattle by providing them with funds for the purchase of stock (to be repaid when the animal is brought to market) or with heifers from a Government stockyard.

(10.) We also recommend that an attempt be made to induce them to grow vegetables and rear poultry, and suggest that attached to each Police Station should be a European gardener whose business, assisted by Chinese, it would be to cultivate vegetables as an object lesson to surrounding natives and to provide them with seed imported by Government.

(11.) We specially recommend that trials be made in the New Territory (Shatin Valley

for instance) in growing Potatoes.

The best Potatoes sold in Hongkong are those grown at Macao, and it does not appear unreasonable to suppose that what will grow near Macao will grow equally well in the New Territory.

(12.) We desire to state in conclusion that the delay in the publication of the Food Commission Report has been due to the Chairman of the Commission being unable to afford the time for the prosecution of the enquiry and the preparation of the Report.

Hongkong, 18th December, 1900.

EDWARD OSBORNE.

A. M. MARSHALL.

F. MAITLAND.

FUNG WA CHÜN.

WILLIAM HARTIGAN.

SIR,

( 4 )

HONGKONG, 20th December, 1900.

?

I have, within the last hour, received from Messrs. Osborne, Marshall, Maitland, Fung Wah Chün and Hartigan, Members of the Food Supply Commission of which I have the honour to be Chairman, a copy of a report signed by them and sent in to you with a covering letter dated the 18th instant, of which they also sent me a copy. I received from them at the same time a joint letter addressed to myself, of which it appears they have also sent you a copy.

I have no objection to make to the report they have sent in to you on the subject- matter of the inquiry. It embodies in brief the conclusions at which we unanimously arrived. I should have had very much pleasure in signing it if they had asked me to do so.

I only wish to correct one trifling mistake in the last paragraph which runs as follows:-

"

"(12) We desire to state, in conclusion, that the delay in the publication of "the Food Commission Report has been due to the Chairman of the "Commission being unable to afford time for the prosecution of the "enquiry and the preparation of the Report."

There was no delay in the prosecution of the inquiry. The members were unable to sit for more than two days in the week for a couple of hours each day and the taking of evidence was proceeded with with all due diligence and was completed in July last. The delay has been in the preparation of the draft report, and I regret to say, that my time was so fully occupied with my own business that I could not get it completed in time to satisfy the impatience of my colleagues. I am unable myself to see that there was any very great urgency. I was preparing a very full and detailed report, two- thirds of which had been completed and approved by Mr. Marshall, to whom I sent it a short time ago, with a request that he would, as I was so full of work, finish it for me, he being fully acquainted with my views and concurring in them.

Instead of doing so, a meeting of the other members of the Commission was held to which I was not summoned and the report prepared which has been sent you.

I probably ought not to have accepted the appointment as a Member or Chairman of the Commission knowing how fully occupied I am in my profession at all times.

If I have put the Government to any inconvenience by so doing I apologize to the Govern- ment and to the public.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

The Honourable

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY,

St.

*

&c.,

&c.

JNO. J. FRANCIS.

(4α)

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE,

HONGKONG, 27th December, 1900.

}

No. 2319.

SIR,

In reply to your letter of the 20th instant, I am directed by His Excellency the Governor to send you the enclosed report of the Members of the Food Commission and to request that, in accordance with the terms of the Commission issued to you, all the evidence taken before the Commission may be forwarded to me by you as its Chairman. I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, Colonial Secretary.

J. J. FRANCIS, Esq., Q.c.

:

SIR,

HONGKONG, 2nd January, 1901.

I have the honour to acknowledge receipt of your letter No. 2319 of the 27th December last, forwarding me copy report of Members of the Food Commission and requesting me to forward all the evidence taken by the Commission.

I beg to hand you herewith all the papers and correspondence connected with the proceedings of the Food Supply Commission.

1. The Commission. 2. Correspondence. 3. Notes of Evidence.

4. Minutes of Meetings.

5. Draft Report as prepared by me, but not completed.

I have also to hand you Mr. Jabez Potts' memo. of fees due him for his services as short-hand writer to the Commission. Will you be so good as to let him have a cheque

for the amount $206.80.

The Honourable

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient humble Servant,

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY,

Fc.,

Je..

3c.

JNO. J. FRANCIS.

"DAILY PRESS " OFFICE, HONGKONG, 27th December, 1900.

HONGKONG FOOD COMMISSION Dr. to JABEZ POTTS.

Tung Wing's evidence, July 3rd :-

Taking note

.....$ 10.00

Transcribing same, 82 folios at 40 cents per folio (72 words)

32.80

Lee Sing's evidence, July 9th :-

Taking note

10.00

18.00

Transcript, 45 folios

Mr. Ladds' evidence, July 10th :-

Taking note

Transcript, 121 folios

10.00

48.40

Forward,................

$129.20

(46)

Brought forward,....

.$129.20

10.00

35.20

10.00

22.40

Total............

$206.80

Mr. Dyer Ball's evidence, July 17th:-

Taking note

Transcript, 88 folios.........

Mr. Brewin's evidence, July 23rd:--

Taking note

Transcript, 56 folios ...

No. 50.

SIR,

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE,

HONGKONG, 9th January, 1901.

With referrence to your letter of the 2nd instant, forwarding papers and correspond- ence connected with the proceedings of the Food Supply Commission, I am directed to inform you that what His Excellency requires is a verbatim record of question and answer given in evidence, in accordance with the mandate of the Commission, without which the Report would be useless.

2. This was directed in the Commission and is what His Excellency asked for. I am to return the draft Report, which is incomplete, as several blanks are left for figures. I presume these figures are given in the evidence upon which the report is

assumed to be made.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

J. J. FRANCIS, Esq., Q.c.

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, Colonial Secretary.

SIR,

HONGKONG, 17th January, 1901.

I have the honour to state, for the information of His Excellency the Governor, in reply to your letter No. 50 of the 9th January, that it is impossible for me to supply a verbatim record of question and answer given in evidence before the Food Supply Commission as that method of taking evidence was not adopted by the Commission.

The evidence taken was recorded in the usual fashion in which it is taken by all Judges and Magistrates, and in legal proceedings generally, and no special instructions were given me, or are contained in the Commission requiring the evidence to be taken down by question and answer.

All the evidence taken has been forwarded to you.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

The Honourable

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY,

HONGKONG.

J. J. FRANCIS.

7

:

!

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( 5 )

FOOD SUPPLY COMMISSION.

EVIDENCE OF J. T. COTTON, GIVEN BEFORE THE FOOD COMMISSION, JUNE 25TH AND 26TH, 1900.

Q.--How long have you held the post of Inspector?

A.--I have been an Inspector since 1st January, 1895, one year in the Slaughter- house, and three years and three months as Inspector of Nuisances, and the remainder of my time as Inspector of Markets.

Q. How many Slaughter-houses are there?

A.-Two-one at Kennedy Town and one at Hung Hom.

-What animals are killed in the Slaughter-houses?

A. Cattle, sheep and swine.

Q. What was the average number slaughtered daily during 1899? A.-From 60-70 cattle, 15-20 sheep, and from 300-400 swine.

-What is the average weight of the cattle imported?

A.~(1) From Huifung the cattle average about 600-700 catties, live weight.

(2) From Canton and Lin Chow from 400-500 catties.

(3) From New Territory about 200-300 catties.

-What is the mode of procedure on admission to the Slaughter-house?

A. The cattle are slaughtered and dressed by the employees of their respective owners, who pay a fee of 40 cents to the Government Contractor for slaughtering all cattle over a picul, and 20 cents for cattle weighing under a picul. The Contractor also gets the offal, blood and hair of all animals.

Q.-Does the Contractor get the skins of the sheep?

A.-No, the Contractor only gets the blood.

Q. What is paid for slaughtering sheep and pigs?

A. The same as for cattle, but in the case of pigs the Contractor kills and dresses them at his own expense.

Q. How many cattle butchers are there?

A.-Seven or eight.

Q. Who imports the cattle?

A.-Sing Kee and Tung Wing import the cattle through their agents in Canton. Q.-Does the Hongkong Butchery import cattle?

A. Yes, as Sing Kee trades under the name of the Hongkong Butchery.

Q.-Are these two men the only importers?

A. The other butchers buy from cattle dealers from Tung Kung who bring the cattle to Hongkong and sell them in the Depôts.

Q. How long does it take cattle to come overland?

A. From 10 to 12 days from Huifung.

Q.-Are any cattle brought by sea?

(6)

Yes, by junks in winter when the North-East Monsoon is blowing. Q.-From where are they brought?

A.-Huifung.

Q. How many in a junk?

A. From 50 to 60.

Q. How long does it take to bring the cattle by junk?

A.--Two to three days.

Q. What is done with the cattle on landing?

A.-

They are at once taken to the Depôts where they are charged at the rate of 2 cents per day.

Q.-Who feeds them?

A.-They are fed at the expense of their owners.

Q. Where are the Depôts situated?

A.-One at Kennedy Town, one at Hunghom.

Q..

-What is the average daily number of cattle in the Depôts?

A.--400 in Hongkong of which 100 belong to the Military, and 20 in Hunghom.

Q. How many cattle are imported from Canton by steamer?

A. From 100 to 150, three times a week.

Q. How are they disposed of?

A.-They are sold privately in the Depôt.

Q.-Are there many buyers?

A.-No, most of the animals are bought by two men.

Q.-Can meat be sold outside the Market?

A.-No, except in places specially licensed by the Governor-in-Council. Q.-How many animals are slaughtered daily for the Military?

A-Six to eight.

Q. What Markets are supplied with meat from the Central Market? A.--Six Markets in the City, 3 in Kowloon and 7 in Shaukiwan. Q.-From whom do the other butchers in the Market get their meat? A.-Sing Kee and Tung Wing.

Q. -Is it possible to import cattle from Haifong?

A. Yes, but very few cattle are imported from this place.

Q.-Are there sufficient butchers to supply the Colony with meat?

A. Yes.

Q.--What is the rent of the stalls?

A. The stalls are let by the Honourable the Registrar General and I am unable to say.

Q.-Is there any benefit in obtaining a licence to sell meat outside the Market?

A.-No.

-Are many animals killed outside the Depôt ?

A.-No, because it is illegal to do so, if the animal is for sale.

Q.-How is the meat brought into the Market?

A. Generally by quarters.

j.

(7

-Where does the meat go from the Slaughter-house?

A. All meat goes first in vans to the Central Market and is distributed from there.

Q.-Is there a watchman in charge of the Central Market?

A.--Yes, but the other Markets are without watchmen.

SHEEP.

Q.--Can you suggest any means to bring down prices to former level?

A.-No.

Q.-How are the stalls let?

A.-By tender.

Q.-Is the competition bonâ fide?

A.-Yes, to the best of my belief.

Q.-Do the existing holders combine to keep up the price of mutton?

A. Yes, I believe they do.

Q.-Can one man have more than one stall?

A. Yes, as many as he likes.

Q.-What is the number of men employed in these stalls?

A.-Seven or eight.

Q. What is the price of cattle, live weight?

A.-Cattle bought from dealers 64 cents per catty for good animals, bought for Manila 10 cents a lb.

Q.-What is the cost per head of cattle after landing and including delivery at the Market?

A.-$1 to $1.50.

Q.--What is the original cost of a head of cattle?

A.-$32.

Q. What is the weight of beef procurable from one animal?

A. About 500 lbs.

Q-From what place do the sheep come?

A.-Shanghai.

Q. What is the price of mutton?

A.-20 cents per ib.

Q.-How are the sheep obtained?

A.-Orders are sent to Shanghai.

Q.-What is the daily average of sheep in Depôt?

A.-1,500.

Q.-Do we supply other places with sheep?

A.--Yes, French Cochin-China and the coast ports.

Q.-Do we send any to Manila?

A.-No, but we do send a few to Borneo.

Q.--What is the average live weight of sheep?

A.--50 to 70 catties.

Q.-What is the cost price?

(8)

A. The present cost price is $11 a picul, formerly sheep could be bought for $8 a picul.

Q.-At whose risk are they brought to Hongkong?

A.--At the Shanghai dealer's risk.

Q. Can any one obtain sheep from Shanghai?

A. Yes, any one.

Q.-What is the gross profit of animals imported and slaughtered for food?

A.-14 per cent.

Q. Who is in charge of the scales and weights in the Market?

A.-The Police.

Q. How do you ascertain the prices of the articles in the Market ?

A. I get the prices from the butchers.

Q. How many pigs are slaughtered daily?

A.-350 to 400.

Q. How many pork-butchers are there in the Colony?

A.-200 to 300.

Q. Is there any guild in connection with the meat supply?

A. Yes, a butcher's guild.

Q.--How does the fact that meat can only be sold in the Market, affect the supply? A.-I do not think it has any effect upon the supply.

Q.-From what places are swine imported?

A.-Huifong, Canton, Hoihow, Pakhoi.

Q.-In case of a blockade, how long would the food supply of Hongkong last? A.-Four months.

Q.-From what place or places would this four months' supply come?

A.-The New Territory and Hongkong.

Q.-What is the price of pigs?

A.-Those from Huifong, Hongkong and the New Territory are sold at $16 per picul, while those which come from Hoihow are sold at $12 per picul.

Q. How is it that the Hongkong pigs fetch $16 a picul while those from Hoihow are only worth $12?

A. This is caused by the inferior folder given to the pigs which come from Hoihow.

-Are the Market charges for both kinds of pork the same?

A. Yes.

Q. Can pigs be bred in the New Territory?

A. Yes.

Q.-What kind of food would be given to them in the New Territory ?

A.-Slops, sweet potatoes and pea nut vine leaves.

Q. Which are the best places for breeding pigs in the New Territory?

A.—In the Saikung district to the East of Kowloon City.

Q.-Is there any inconvenience in taking the pigs to the Market from the New Territory?

A.-No.

:

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(9)

Q.-Is the Hongkong Butchery under European control ? A.-No.

Q.-Is there a beef or mutton butcher's guild?

A.-No, there is only a pork butcher's gu ild.

Q.--Which is the best district for pasturage in the New Territory? A.-The Chunwan district.

-What became of your Report on the New Territory?

A.-I think it was published in the Blue Book, but I am not sure. Q.--On what districts did you report ?

A.--On all the districts.

Q.--Where are the principal villages in the New Territory?

A.--Round the base of Tai Mo Shan except on the Eastern side.

Q. What means can you suggest to improve the breed of the cattle in the New

Territory?

A. -Introduce a better class of bull from Huifung and Haifong.

Q. Where are the best cattle found in the New Territory?

A.-Shap Shap Tung, Kau Tin Wo and Sham Chun.

Q.--What work do the cattle in the Territory do?

A.-Ploughing.

Q.-Is grass used for

any other

purpose besides feeding cattle?

A. It is burnt as fuel.

Q.-Is there a scarcity of grass in the New Territory at any time during the year?

A. Yes, during the months of November, December and January.

Q.--Do the dealers in Hongkong buy the best kind of cattle?

A.-No, they do not get the best.

Q.-How do the dealers buy the cattle, by the head or by weight?

A. By the head and not by weight.

Q.-Did the demand from Manila increase the price of meat?

A. Yes, and the price has not been reduced again.

-Do many Europeans visit the Market?

A.-Very few.

Q. --Do you not think it would be better if more Europeans visited the Market? A. Yes, as they buy through compradores who pay twelve cents a catty and charge 14 cents a b.

Q.-What is the present price of bran in Hongkong?

A.-$2.15 when bought from Shanghai.

Q.-What is the average weight of the pigs imported into the Colony? A.-75 catties.

Q. How are the pigs from the New Territory conveyed to Hongkong?

A. They are brought in baskets, in barrows or by hand.

Q. Can you suggest a better means of bringing them to Hongkong? A.-A light railway.

Q.- -How do you account for the recent increase in the price of pork? A. The quarrels in Hainam.

ཉི

( 10 )

?

Q. How long were you in Hainam?

A. Two years.

Q. What was the price of pigs in Hainain when you lived there?

A.-$8 to $10 per picul.

Q. What are the custom duties on pigs exported from Hainam?

A.-20 cents per head when I lived there, but it has now been increased to 40 cents. Q.-Do you

know whether any duties are paid on exported Chinese cattle?

A. -I know of no such duties.

Q. Do you speak Chinese ?

A. Yes.

Q.--Is there a duty on vegetables exported from Canton ?

A.--Yes, about 1 cent per picul.

Q.-From whom do the hawkers buy their vegetables?

A. From the wholesale dealers.

Q.--What is the amount of business done by the vegetable wholesale dealers per month ?

A.--About $6,000.

Q.-From what place does our largest supply of chickens and vegetables come? A.--Two-thirds from Cauton, and one-third from the New Territory.

Q.-Is it possible for the New Territory to entirely supply Hongkong with veget-

ables?

A.--Yes.

stalls.

Q.-Has the price of fish risen?

A.-No.

Q.-Is any fishing done in the harbour?

A. Very little now owing to the increase in the number of launches.

Which is the largest fishing village in the New Territory?

A.-Taiho.

Q.--How is the fish brought from Aberdeen, Stanley, and Shaukiwan? A.-By land.

Q.--Has the salt-fish increased in price?

A.--Yes, 1 cent per catty.

---Can you suggest any means to reduce the price of provisions?

A. By introducing Co-operative Stores.

Q. What is the price of cattle in French Cochin China?

A.--$23 a picul.

Q.--Do you think prices would be reduced if you had more stall space ?

A.-I think prices would be reduced if there were more beef, pork and vegetable

Q. How many fowl stalls are there in the Market?

A. I think there are too many fowl stalls.

Q.-Are there any other provisions besides fresh provisions sold in the Market? A. Yes, tinned provisions.

>

( 11 )

Q.- -How many compradores' shops are there in the Market?

A.-12-13.

Q.-Is there much competition for the vacant stalls in the Market?

A. Yes, there are hundreds of applicants.

Q.—If these applicants were granted outside licences, would it reduce the price of provisions?

A. Yes, I am of the opinion it would.

Q.-Who gets the pigs from Hoihow?

A.-One man gets the pigs and sells them to the eight men at the Government Depôt, and all butchers must buy from one of these eight men.

Q. What is the admission fee of pigs into the Depôt?

A.-Five cents per head.

-How long are the pigs generally kept at the Depôt?

A.-About three or four days.

Q. Are the pork dealers of Hung Hom the same men as those at Kennedy Town?

A.-No.

Q.-Is any fee paid for admission into the Hung Hom Depôt ? A.-No, as there is no proper provision for pigs there.

Q. What is the price of pigs in Macao?

A.-Pigs bought in Hoihow for $8 are sold in Macao for $12.

-What is the mortality in pigs brought from Hoihow? A. Three per cent.

*

3.

(12)

EVIDENCE OF TUNG WING, GIVEN BEFORE THE FOOD COMMISSION,

JULY 3RD, 1900.

Interpreter, Mr. LI HONG MI.

The Chairman (Mr. Francis).-This is Tung Wing?

Answer.-Yes.

Q-He is keeper of No. 1 stall in the Central Market?

A. Yes.

T

Q.-Butcher's meat stall?

A. Yes.

Q-Does he sell anything else but butcher's meat on this stall? A.-No.

Q.-How long has he been a butcher engaged in this business?

A.-At first I commenced as a paid butcher. I have been in this line of business 20 or 30 years.

Q. How long has he been selling on his own account?

A.-For about ten years.

Q.-Always in the Central Market?

A. Yes.

Q.-Does he rent his stall in the Central Market from anyone ?

A.-No.

Q.-Does not he pay rent to anybody?

A. To the Government.

Q.-Only to the Government?

A.---Yes.

Q. How many years has he had a stall in this new present Central Market?

A.-For the last five or six years.

Q.-What rent does he pay for his stall?

A.-$35.75 per month.

Q.-Does he rent more stalls than one?

A.-Only one.

Q.-Does he rent any other stall for any other business?

A.-No.

Q.-Has he got any partners in his business as butcher in that stall?

A.-I am sole owner; I have no partners.

Q.-Has he any partners or fokis who have got other stalls in the Market? A.-No.

Q-Has he got any share in any other stall in the Market ?

A.-I have bad a paid servant who had a stall some two years ago, but not at present.

# L

t

( 13 )

Chai.

Q. -What is the name of that paid servant ?

A.-His name is A Kin, but I don't know exactly what his surname is—I think

Q.-

A.

Where is Chai A Kin now ?

In this colony; he held that stall for about a year and then gave it up.

Q. Where is he now?

A.--His family house is in Taipingshan, but I don't know the name of the street. Q.--Where is his business shop?

A.-Since he gave up this stall he has had no business.

Q.-Have you a share in any other stall in the Central Market, little or big?

A. -No.

-Think again. Are you quite sure you have not got a share in any other stall? A.-Yes.

Q.-No interest at all?

A. None at all.

Q.-Has he got a stall himself in any other market or in any other name?

A.-No.

Q.-What rent did you pay the first year you went into the new Market ?

A.-The same rent.

-Had he a stall in the old Central Market?

A. Yes.

Q. How much rent did he pay for the stall in the old Market ?

A.-The same rent.

Q.-How long have you got the stall for ?--a month, or six months, or a year ?

A.-There was no time fixed; I was to pay the rent monthly.

Q.-But the new stall; did you take it for 12 months or three years ?

A. It is a monthly tenancy.

Q.-They can turn you out at the end of any month?

A. Yes, the Government has power to turn me out at the end of any month, but it would be very unfair for the Government to do so.

Q.-Did the Government put every stall up by auction or how did they fix the price?

A. Yes, it was put up by auction, and a man named Wat Yui Kut tendered for the stall. He offered $35.75. Then afterwards he removed into the Central Market, where he carried on business until he failed. Then I took it up.

-You took the stall over from Wat Yui Kut and not from the Government ?

Q.-

A. Yes.

Q.-What

What year?

A. That was six years ago.

Q-Had you a stall before you took one from Wat Yui Kut?

A. Yes, I had a stall in the new Market. It was No. 19, and I gave that up and took over this stall.

Q.-Whom did you give it up to?

A.--To the Government.

( 14 )

Q. Are you sure?

-

A. Yes.

Q.--You did not sell it to somebody else?

A.-No.

Q.-Well, now, the people who get these stalls from the Government rent them to other people at an increased price--get a stall for $35 and rent it to somebody else for $50 or $60 ?

A.—As far as I am concerned I do not sub-let to anybody else. I don't know any- thing about other people.

Q-You know perfectly well what the other people in the Market are doing, you know what rent they are paying?

A.—As far as I am concerned I do not sub-let my stall; but some other people may have done.

Q.-What does the Kai Fong say about it.

A.-They instituted an enquiry lately and said some people had rented stalls from the Government and sub-let to somebody else.

Q.-That was true, was it not?

A.-There was some truth in it.

Q.-What was the most rent paid for a stall you ever heard of; what was the name of the man who paid $65 for his stall?

A.-I never paid $65, and I don't know anybody else who has done so. I have paid $35.75, and I think my rent is the highest.

Q.-Is there a Butcher's Guild or Association?

A.-No.

Q.-No Association among the butchers ?

A.-There is no Butchers' Guild, but the butchers are constantly subscribing to- wards the Tung Wah Hospital and the Po Leung Kuk.

Q.-Who is the head man among the butchers?

A. They have no head man.

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