Sessional Papers - 1896

PAPERS LAID BEFORE THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL OF HONGKONG 1896

Table of Contents

1. Assessment

Report for 1896-97

2. Births and Deaths Registration

Report of the Law Committee Upon the Bill for

3. Botanical & afforestation

Statement of Disbursements for forestry Works

4. Botanical & afforestation

Report for 1895

5. British Trade

Committee's Reports on British Trade in Hongkong

6. Bubonic Plague

Report on

7. Bubonic Plague

Governor's Despatch on the incipience and Progress of the

8. College of Medicine

Committee's Report on the Chinese

9. Constitution of the Colony

Petition for an amendment of the

10. Criminal Statistics

For 1895

11. Education

Reports for 1895

12. Finance

Amended Statement for 1894

13. Finance Committee

Reports of Proceedings for 1896

14. Financial Returns

For 1895

15. Financial Returns

For 1895 (Amended)

16. Fire Brigade

Report for 1895

17. Flogging

Committee's Report on the Question of Flogging in Victoria Gaol

18. Gaol

Report for 1895

19. Government offices

Committee's Report on the Condition of the

20. Government offices (New)

Papers on the Question of

21. Harbour Master'S

Report for 1895

22. Legislative Council

Minutes of Proceedings for 1896

23. Light Dues

Correspondence Respecting the abolition of the Special, Gap Rock

24. Lighthouses

Statement Shewing annual Cost of and Revenue Derived from

25. Medical Department

Report for 1895

26. Military Contribution

Despatches on the Subject of the

27. Military Contribution

Despatch Respecting the

28. Observatory

Report for 1895

29. Po Leung Kuk

Report for 1895

30. Police

Report for 1895

31. Post office

Receipts and Expenditure for 1893-94

32. Post office

Report for 1895

33. Public Lighting

Reports on the Question of the

34. Public Works

Report on the Progress of Public Works During the First Half-Year 1896

35. Public Works

Report for 1895

36. Public Works Committee

Reports of Proceedings for 1896

37. Registrar General'S

Report for 1895

38. Revenue and Expenditure

Amended Statement of, for 1894

39. Salaries, Pensions and Exchange Compensation

Expenditure on account of, for 1895

40. Sanitary

Report for 1895

41. Sanitary Board

Papers Respecting the Reconstitution of

42. Taipingshan Works

Statement With Reference to

43. Taipingshan Works

Report on the Progress of the

44. Tung Wa Hospital

Commissioners' Reports on the Working of the

45. Volunteer Corps (Hongkong)

Reports on the, for Season 1895-96

46. Water account

Statement of, for 1895

47. Water Supply

Report on the

48. Widows' & Orphans' Fund

Report on the, for 1895

 

HONGKONG.

THE ASSESSOR'S REPORT ON THE ASSESSMENT FOR 1896-97.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

493

No. 3a

08.

ASSESSOR'S OFFICE,

21st July, 1896.

SIR,-I have the honour to submit my Report on the Assessment for the year 1896-97.

2. By order of His Excellency the Governor in Council I have made a new Valuation of the City of Victoria, the Hill District, Kowloon Point, Yaumati, Ma Ti, Hung Hom, Shau Ki Wan and Aberdeen.

3. The result of the new Valuation is that the Rateable Value of the Colony as a whole has been increased by $131,073 equivalent to 3.54 per cent.

4. Comparing the new Valuation with that for the past year (1895-96) the results are as under :-

(a.) In the City of Victoria an increase in Rateable Value of $86,852 equal to 2.74 per cent. (b.) the Hill District an increase of

""

(c.)

37

Kowloon Point an increase of.

(d.) Yau Ma Ti an increase of.......... (e.) Ma Ti a decrease of

13

(f.) Hung Hom an increase of.......

""

(g.) Shau Ki Wan an increase of.......

(h.)

Aberdeen an increase of

2)

16,775

18.41

22

""

8,355

7.79

""

15,921

36.17

""

">

741

33.22

""

2,355

3.04

>>

""

1,467

6.61

""

**

79

0.35 ""

5. In the Hongkong Villages, i. e., all the Villages or places on the Island excluding those mentioned in paragraph 4, there is an increase of $3,008 or 2.92 per cent., owing to new and improved

tenements.

6. In Kowloon Villages, i. e., the Kowloon Peninsula excluding places referred to in paragraph 4, there is a decrease of $2,998 or 4.62 per cent. arising from tenements pulled down, and an adjustment of the boundaries of Yaumati, whereby a portion of Ma Ti and a place known as Kung Chung have been transferred.

7. During the period from 1st July, 1895, to 1st June, 1896, Interim Valuations have been made as follows:-

In the City of Victoria.

67 new tenements, rateable valuable 67 improved tenements, rateable value Replacing Assessments, amounting to

$ 46,930

...............$ 30,880

21,820

9,060

172 Assessments cancelled, tenements pulled down

Increase in City of Victoria

In the Rest of the Colony.

$ 55,990 36,445

..$ 19,545

141 new tenements, rateable value

19 improved tenements, rateable value Replacing Assessments, amounting to

208 Assessments cancelled, tenements pulled down

Increase in Rest of Colony

$ 19,462

.$ 2,408

1,584

824

$ 20,286 4,751

$ 15,535

494

The total number of tenements affected by Interim Assessments being 657, and the increase in Rateable Value $35,080.

8. The number of reported vacant tenements inspected under section 35 of the Rating Ordinance has averaged about 250 monthly.

9. The usual tabular statements giving comparisons of the Valuation for 1895-96 and the new Valuation for 1896-97 are attached.

10. I have again to express my thanks to the Honourable the Director of Public Works for his courtesy in arranging for Mr. KING, the Land Bailiff's assistance being available in connection with the villages.

11. I resumed my duties on 16th November last upon returning from leave. Mr. MALSCH, who acted for me during my absence, left everything up to date, and had prepared all the necessary books and papers to enable me to at once commence upon the new valuation.

12. There has been no change in the staff, Mr. CHAN PUI, clerk, and Mr. IP YUK PUI, interpreter, having continued to perform their duties in a satisfactory manner. The former is at present acting for Mr. MOK MAN CHEUNG as Translator at the Supreme Court.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

The Honourable

A. M. THOMSON,

Acting Colonial Treasurer.

Table A.

THE CITY OF VICTORIA.

ARTHUR CHAPMAN,

Assessor.

No.

DISTRICT NAME.

VALUATION, 1895-96.

VALUATION, 1896-97.

INCREASE.

$

$

$

1 Kennedy Town,

20,985

39,635

18,650

2

Shek Tong Tsui,

115,079

116,941

1,862

3

Sai Ying Pun,

668,915

679,975

11,060

4

Tai Ping Shan,

267,335

279,660

12,325

5 Sheung Wan,

416,230

434,125

17,895

6

Chung Wan,

1,313,715

1,329,915

16,200

7

Ha Wan,........

140,945

143,160

2,215

Wan Tsai,

115,930

117,865

1,935

9

Bowrington,

39,335

42,230

2,895

10

Soo Kon Poo,.

62,405

64,220

1,815

$

3,160,874

3,247,726

86,852

Table B.

THE HILL DISTRICT, KOWLOON POINT, YAU MA TI, MA TI, HUNG HOM,

SHAU KI WAN, ABERDEEN AND OTHER VILLAGES.

DISTRICT OR LOCALITY.

495

VALUATION, 1895-96.

VALUATION, 1896-97.

INCREASE.

DECREASE.

The Hill District,..

91,075

107,850

16,775

Kowloon Point,

107,215

115,570

8,355

Yau Ma Ti,

44,005

59,926

15,921

Ma Ti,

2,230

1,489

741

Hung Hom,

77,225

79,580

2,355

Shau Ki Wan,

22,185

23,652

1,467

Aberdeen,

22,366

22,445

79

Rest of Hongkong Villages,

102,738

105,746

3,008

Rest of Kowloon Villages,

64,759

61,761

2,998

LOCALITY.

Table C.

THE COLONY OF HONGKONG.

VALUATION, 1895-96.

VALUATION, 1896-97.

INCREASE.

PERCENTAGE.

%

The City of Victoria,

3,160,874

3,247,726

86,852

2.74

Hongkong Villages and the Hill District, ....

238,364

259,693

21,329

8.94

Kowloon Peninsula,....

295,434

318,326

22,892

7.74

3,694,672

3,825,745

131,073

3.54

1

193

No. 15

96

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE LAW COMMITTEE UPON A BILL ENTITLED "AN ORDI- NANCE TO AMEND AND CONSOLIDATE THE LAW RELATING

TO THE REGISTRATION OF BIRTHS ANE DEATHS."

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

22nd April, 1896.

The Law Committee, having considered clause by clause, at a meeting at which all the members were present, the Bill entitled "An Ordinance to amend and consolidate the law relating to the Registration of Births and Deaths," has the honour to recommend that the Bill, as read a first time, be amended as follows:-

In section 8, by inserting, after the words "in which such child shall have been born," the words "or any person present at the birth.”

In section 9, sub-section (a), by substituting the words "Registrar General " for the word "Governor."

In section 9, sub-section (b), by adding at the end of that sub-section the following words:-

"For the purposes of this Ordinance every child by every Chinese male shall be deemed to be a legitimate child, and such Chinese male shall be deemed to be the father of such child."

In section 10, by striking out the words "in the space reserved for that purpose."

In section 11, sub-section (a), by substituting the words, "any occupier," for the words, "the occupier."

In section 11, sub-section (c), by substituting the words, "Registrar General,” for the word "Governor."

In section 12, sub-section (b), by amending that sub-section so as to read:

"A person shall not wilfully bury or procure to be buried the body of

any deceased child as if it were still-born.

Νο

person shall bury or procure to be buried any still-born child unless

there is delivered to him either :-

(i) A written certificate (and so on as in the present sub-section).'

In section 12, sub-section (e), by inserting after the words, " Colonial Surgeon," the words "or to some other medical officer appointed by the Governor for that purpose.

In section 21, by deleting (c) in the first line.

In section 23, by amending that section so as to read :—

"It shall be lawful for the Governor in Council to make, and when made to revoke, alter, or add to, such regulations as may be found necessary or desirable for the due carrying into effect of the pro- visions of this Ordinance, and from time to time to revoke, alter, or add to the forms given in the schedules hereto."

In schedules (E) and (F) by striking out the words "in the space reserved for that purpose."

27

In schedule (Q) by striking out the word "he" before the word "Died" and leaving a blank.

HENRY E. POLLOCK, Acting Attorney General,

Chairman.

227

No. 17

96.

No. 15.

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE BOTANICAL AND AFFORESTATION DEPARTMENT FOR 1895.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

BOTANIC GARDENS. HONGKONG, 2nd May, 1896.

SIR, I have the honour to submit for the information of His Excelleney the Governor the Annual Report on this Department for the year 1895.

GENERAL.

2. Freedom from typhoons and release from the great amount of work in contending with the caterpillar plague which characterised the previous year permitted greater attention being given to the general work of the department.

3. Although the production of revenue is not an object aimed at in conducting the work of this department, receipts gradually increase year by year. The work involved in connection with the sale of plants and forestry products, and additional work imposed in office routine, necessitates a propor- tionate contraction of work in other branches, as the staff remains stationary.

4. The total revenue for the year was :-

From Plant Sales.

Loan of Decoration Plants, Forestry Products,

649.75

128.00

657.97

$1,435.72

This money being paid into the general revenue account of the Colony means that, so far as the Gardens are concerned, the more money that is expended in the propagation and cultivation of plants for sale and loan the less is that available for ordinary maintenance of the Gardens.

BOTANIC GARDEN.

MUSICAL PERFORMANCES.

5. The Bands of the Rifle Brigade and the Hongkong Regiment were kindly allowed by their respective Colonels and Officers to play in the Gardens from 9.30 to 11 p.m. on moonlight evenings during the summer.

The number of visitors averaged about 2,000 on each night. Although about five constables were in attendance the visitors were not always confined as closely to the walks as desirable, and mischievous people took advantage of the opportunity to damage property to some extent, and thieves to steal plants.

HOT-WATER APPARATUs.

6. My recommendation in paragraph 12 of the Annual Report for 1894 that the glass-houses should be artificially heated in the cold season has been adopted. A boiler and four-inch diameter iron pipes were obtained from England and fitted before the beginning of the cold season. Houses and pits aggregating about 240 feet in length were fitted with two rows of piping. The whole apparatus has worked perfectly and provided exactly the heat required. Fires were used on 74 days and nights, for which five tons of coal were consumed at a cost of $37.78.

GARDEN SEATS.

7. A new lot of iron and teakwood seats of a more elegant pattern than the old wooden ones were provided in order to accommodate about 200 more visitors. The walks on the terraces are now as well furnished with seats as they can be without being a disfigurement to their surroundings.

DISTRIBUTION AND INTERCHANGE OF PLANTS AND SEEDS, &c.

8. The receipts were 1,534 plants, and 22 lbs. of seeds, in 387 packages and one wardian case, and 11 birds. The chief donors were :-- Ackroyd, E. J.

Acclimatizing Association, Southern California. Barton, J.

Bodinier, Rev. E.

Botanic Gardens, Adelaide.

""

>>

>>

Bangalore. Brisbane. British Guiana.

"}

2:

228

Botanic Gardens, Grenada.

29

>>

>:

17

;;

>>

""

Jamaica. Mauritius. Natal.

Royal, Calcutta.

Ceylon.

Royal, Kew.

Cundall, C. H., Manila.

Dammann & Co., Italy.

Trinidad.

Gillandies, Mrs.

Hodgins, Captain, S.S. Formosa. Horticultural Gardens, Nagpur, India. Mueller, Sir F. von.

Lloyd, Captain, S.S. Hankow. Peché, G., Moulmein.

Scharff & Shorting, California. Veitch, James & Son, Chelsea. Walker, Captain, S.S. Foochow.

9. In exchange 2,542 plants, and 19 lbs. of seeds in 255 packages and 1 wardian case were sent out. The principal recipients were:--

Acclimatizing Association, Southern California.

Barton, J.

Botanic Gardens, Bangalore.

"

""

""

British Guiana.

Jamaica.

D

Mauritius.

Natal.

Rio de Janeiro. Royal, Kew.

""

Saharanpur. Trinidad.

Bourne, F. S. A., Canton.

Byron, Rev. J., Sandakan.

Cooke, Mrs.

Cooper, Mrs.

Coxon, Mrs.

Cundall, C. H., Manila.

Dammann & Co., Italy. Dodd, Captain.

Dorabjee, N.

Hanbury, Marquis T., Mentone, Italy. Hill, W.

Hodgins, Captain, S.S. Formosa. Humphreys, J. D.

Lawrence, Sir Trevor.

Low, Hugh & Co., London.

Marsdon, Hon. J., Honolulu.

Mekling, H., Milwaukee, U.S.A.

Stephus, M. J. D.

Treseder, J. G., Sydney.

Veitch, James & Son, Chelsea. Woodin, E. L., Sandakan.

PLANT SALES.

10. The receipts amounted to $649.75, being an increase of $147.99 over those of 1894. The number of plants sold was 3,057, being an increase of 719 over the previous year's sales.

LOAN OF PLANTS.

year

11. The number of plants lent was 2,560, for which $128 was received. In the last clear when plants were lent free of charge upwards of 4,000 were lent. When the charge of 5 cents per plant was fixed it was based on a calculation of the cost of growing the plants, and of the number of times which they had been applied for when they were lent free. The receipts for the diminished demand do not cover the cost of growing the plants.

RAINFALL.

12. The year 1895 was one of an unusually small rainfall. At the Gardens only 53:55 inches were recorded, being 45-45 inches less than in 1893. July was the only month when the rainfall exceeded 7 inches. The daily returns are given in appendix A.

HERBARIUM AND LIBRARY.

13. The Rev. Father E. RODINIER presented 19 specimens of Hongkong plants collected by him- self which were not in the herbarium, some of them being new discoveries in this island.

14. A collection of 300 specimens of plants was obtained by purchase from Japan.

15. The number of specimens mounted and incorporated in the general and Hongkong collec-

tions was 420.

16. I have compiled a classified Catalogue of Books. &c., in the library, and it is now in the hands of the printer. Besides placing the books on official record this catalogue will greatly facilitate references.

17. The following is the list of books, &c., received during the year:-

Agricultural Journal of the Leeward Islands. Agricultural Bulletin of the Malayan Peninsula,

Garden and Forest Department, Straits Settlements.

Agricultural Ledger 1893-95.

Bulletin, Departinent of Agriculture, Brisbane,

1895.

Bulletin, Disease affecting the Orange Orchards of Wide Bay, and Insect Pests Preva- lent therein, 1894, No. 4 second series. Department of Agriculture, Brisbane, Queensland.

Extra Koloniaal Museum Nuttige Is-

dische Plantes.

Bulletin, (Grenada) of Miscellaneous Informa-

;)

>1

tion, 1895.

(Jamaica) of Botanical Department,

1895.

Kew) of Miscellaneous Information,

1895.

Koloniaal Museum te kaarlen Maart,

1895.

(Trinidad) of Miscellaneous Informa-

tion, 1894-95.

Catalogue of Plants in the Government Botanic

Gardens Sydney, New South Wales, 1895. Experiment Station Record of U.S. Department

of Agriculture, 1895. Vol. V, No. 12, Vol. VI, Nos. 2-10, and Vol. VII, Nos. 1-3. Handbook of Plants from Foreign Countries.

Santa Barbara, California, 1895.

Hand List of Ferns and Fern Allies. Royal

Gardens, Kew.

Hooker's Icones Plantarum. Fourth series, Vol. IV, Parts II-IV, and Vol. V, Part I, 1895. Hortus Fluminensis ou Breve Noticia Sobre as Plantas cultivadus no Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro, 1893.

Index Kewensis Plantarum Planeroganarum,

Part IV, 1895. Purchased.

Indian Forest Reports.

Forest Administration in the Andamans for

1893-94.

Forest Administration in Ajmere

**

19

"

* A

"

*?

17

11

"

29

19

Merwara, 1893-94.

in Baluchistan, 1893-94. in Bombay

Presidency including Sind, 1893-

94.

in Burma, 1893-94.

in Central

Provinces,

1893-94. in Coorg, 1893-94. of the Forest Survey Branch in India, 1893- 94.

in the Hyderabad Assign-

ed Districts, 1893-94. in Lower Provinces of

Bengal, 1893-94.

229

Forest Administration in Madras Presidency,

>>

""

1894.

in N.W. Provinces and

Oudh, 1894.

in Province of Assam, for

1893-94.

in Punjab, 1893-94. Manual of Forestry (Schlich's). Vols. III and IV. Monagraphia Phanerogamarum. Purchased. Occasional Papers of the Natural History Society

of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, 1887, 1888, Vol. II 1892, Vol. II No. 2 1894, and Vol. II No. 3 1895.

Official Guide to the Museums of Economic Botany. No. 2 Monocotyledons and Cryp- togams, Royal Gardens, Kew.

Reports of Bolanie Gardens, &c.

Board of Trustees of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, 1883, 1886, 1887, 1889-

94.

Botanic Gardens British Guiana and their Work

for the year, 1893-94.

Botanic Gardens and Forest Department, Straits

Settlements, 1894. Gardens, Grenada, 1893.

Royal, Calcutta, 1894-95.

""

21

11

>>

**

Ceylon, 1894. Trinidad, 1894.

Department of Agriculture, Brisbane, 1893-94. Manchester Museum, Owen College, with appen- dices from October 1st, 190, to December 31st, 1894.

Missouri Botanical Gardens, 1895. Proceedings of the Agricultural Horticultural Society of Madras, July and September 1894-95.

Proceedings of the Natural History Society and Wisconsin, March 1887 to December 1888. Progress and Condition of the Government Bota- nic Gardens, Saharanpur and Mussourie for the year ending 31st March, 1895. Record of Agricultural Experiment Stations of

the University of California, 1892-95. Transactions of the Queensland Acclimatization

Society for the period from July 8th to Sep- tember 9th, 1895.

Savanahs of Guiana, British Guiana.

Supplement to the Leeward Islands Gazette, 1894.

FORESTRY.

PLANTING.

18. The total number of trees planted was 55,664. They were placed in various localities extending from Pokfoolam Road in the west to Mt. Parker in the east, and Stanley in the south. The largest number in one place was at Stanley, in the vicinity of which 14,000 were planted. South of Quarry Bay stands next in order with 10,000 trees. In 1894 the pine trees near Quarry Bay sustained greater damage from the plague of caterpillars than trees in any other locality. Those planted to replace the losses consist of eight kinds, no pines being included.

19. The road between Aberdeen and Little Hongkong, which is unshaded almost throughout its entire length. has been planted on its margins with shade trees. The Pokfoolam Road, also, has received similar attention where required.

20. The usual statistics of planting are given in Appendix B.

THINNING OF PLANTATIONS AND SALE OF FORESTRY PRODUCTS.

21. Portions of plantations in about 14 localities were thinned.

22. The total amount realised for forestry products was $657.97. The statistics are given in Appendix C.

230

PROTECTIVE SERVICE.

23. Protection has become rather more difficult than formerly owing to the commission of depredations being conducted at early hours in the morning and late in evening when it is supposed the forest guards have not arrived on or have left their beats. This has necessitated the adoption of special precautions to deal with the evil. The punishments inflicted by the Magistrates are, I fear, in most cases, far from sufficiently deterrent. A 25-cents fine, or its equivalents of detention in Gaol---- the latter especially-is, probably, hardly regarded as a punishment.

24. About 1,100 trees were cut down by law-breakers in 1895, being an increase of 500 over the number for 1894.

25. The forest guards obtained 72 convictions, against 92 convictions in the previous year. The fines were $89.75 as compared with $145 in 1894. The highest fine was $5 and the lowest 25 cents. In the previous year the highest was $25 and the lowest $1.

FIRES.

26. There were 51 grass fires during the year, and 14,913 trees destroyed by them. The largest fire was at Little Hongkong where upwards of 9,000 trees were burnt.

27. At Repulse Bay six coolies were arrested by a Sikh constable for setting fire to grass, which destroyed 650 trees, while they were conducting ancestral worship at graves Each man was fined

$10.

28. Statistics of grass fires are recorded in Appendix D.

CATERPILLARS.

(Eutricha punctata, Walk.)

29. Vigilant observations were maintained for the detection of the re-appearance of caterpillars; early in April they were found in very small numbers in Hongkong in all the districts, except near Chaiwan, where they occurred in such vast numbers in 1894. Hand-picking was commenced on May 25th, and by June 14th all which could be found had been collected and destroyed, the total weight being only 38 catties.

In Kowloon, however, the caterpillars were abundant, and the collection of them and cocoons was continued from June 5th until July 9th when 912 catties of caterpillars and 39 catties of cocoons were destroyed. A second generation appeared, and operations for their destruction were commenced on August 13th and completed on the 31st, when 1,100 catties of catterpillars and 148 catties of cocoons were collected.

30. The cost of this work was $185.92.

31. So far as Hongkong is concerned the pest seems to be completely exterminated, as no trace of it has been seen since July 14th, 1895. Unfortunately the same cannot be said for Kowloon; there the caterpillars have been in great abundance this year, about 10 tons have been collected, and a new generation has developed which will require to be dealt with shortly. One satisfactory circumstance this year is that the collectors have seen their way to do the work at a greatly reduced rate.

32. Last year I accumulated interesting information on parasitical enemies to the Eutricha in its different stages. I have now specimens of parasites on the egg, pupa and larva, but no parasite on the moth has yet been discovered. All the parasites are species of wasp, that on the egg being an exceedingly small one, only about a line in length, another on the pupa is 2 lines, and three others on the same are each about 6 lines long. These were obtained by developing them in boxes.

33 My thanks are due to Mr. ÅLBERT KOEBELE, the able entomologist, for kindly identifying the genera of the parasites and for assistance in obtaining some of them. Mr. KOEBELE was staying some time in the Colony on a mission to the Far East to obtain parasitical insects for the Honolulu Government, for the purpose of destroying insect pests affecting various crops, a work in which he has been eminently successful in various parts of the world.

34. It is a curious coincidence that in 1894 the great bubonic plague and the great caterpillar plague occurred in Hongkong, while last year both were nearly absent, and this year they are again greatly in the ascendant.

In 1894 the long drought was supposed to be, to a great extent, accountable for these plagues, but last year was one of the driest on record, yet the scourges were in subjection, while this year when the bubonic plague, and the caterpillars have so greately increased there was an unusually heavy rainfall during the first three months of the year.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant.

CHARLES FORD, Superintendent,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

Honourable J. H. STEWART LOCKHART,

Colonial Secretary,

Siln

Sc.,

f..

Appendix A.

RAINFALL OBSERVATION MADE AT THE BOTANIC GARDENS, DURING 1893.

ABOUT 300 FEET ABOVE SEA LEVEL.

231

DATE.

Jan.

Feb.

March. April. May. June. July.

Aug.

Sept. Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

1,

.04

2,

3,

:.

:

4,

.08

5,

:

:

:

:

0.2

:.

:

:

:

:ལྷ

6,

7,

8,

:

9,

10,

.01

11,

.43

.05

.25

.15

.02

:.

:

:

12,

0.1

13,

0.1

14,

0.9

:

:

:

:

:

:

15,

0.3

.03

.20

16,

0.1

.01

.43

17,

0.7

.01

18,

22,

23,

ེ་ ོ་་འ ོ་

21,

19,

20,

.04

.19

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

.02

F:

:

:

24,

25,

26,

27,

28,

29,

30,

31,

:.

:

:

:.

:.

Total,...... .58

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

.05

:.

:

:

:

:..

:

:

:

:

.03

:

.24

.38

.01

.02

:

:

.04

.03

2.16

.23

.14

.22

3.84

:

:

:

:

.09

:

.36

:

:

:

:ལྦ

:

2.74

.03

.84

.86

:

:

.02

.15

:

:

.05

.13

.02

..04

.03

.04

.17

.03

.17

2.19

.18

:

.02

1.82

.15

.46

.04

:..

:

:

:

:

:

:.

.24

.02

:

.02

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

.05

.26

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

.04

.03

:

:

:

:

:

.05

.23

:

.14

.10

.26

.04

:

.45

.03

.14

.12

.04

.03

1.15

.28

.51

:

:

:

4:.

:

:

:

.41

.13

.81

:

:

:

.02

.42

.15

.15

.99

0.1

:.

:

2.39

.34

.27

:

.14

:

:

:

.03

.25

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:.

4:

8:

.16

.30

.19

.06

.10

.04

1.25

:

:

:

.07

.08

.69

.16

.59

.03

1.61

.12

6.91

1.79 .03

.01

:

.08

1.49

4.61

.86

.07

.16

.05

:

:

:

.95 1.48 3.18 5.09

:

:

:

:

:

.23

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:.

:

.03

:

.05

:

:

:

5.24 21.75 6.91

7.07

.53

.45

.31

Total inches for the year 53.55. Observation made at 10 a.m.

CHARLES FORd,

Superintendent.

Botanical & Afforestation Department.

}

Appendix B.

STATISTICS OF PLANTING OPERATIONS.

i

LOCALITY.

ana.

Pinus Cunning- Massoni- hamia sinensis.

sp.

Spondias Bischoffia Cedrela Tristanea javanica. conferta. odorata.

Liquidam-

Cinna-

bar

formosana.

Syncarpea laurifolia.

momuni

Celtis

sinensis.

"Banian."

camphora.

Wanchai Gap,

4,810

1,990

36

240

571

...

314

Bowen Road West,

133

...

...

Pokfoolam Filter Bed,

330

...

Do. Grazing Hill,

4,500

1,391

43

333333

70

Stanley,

13,928

156

...

Wongneichung,

1,911

Repulse Bay,

6,224

2,311

1,210

200

Aberdeen,

3,045

Quarry Bay,

6,113

202

1,175

1,296

55

North Point,

33

690

99

Mount Parker,

...

100

1222

100

170

961

170

20

100

Deep Water Bay,

100

100

Tytum,

18

100

100

Pokfoolam Road,

...

:

:

12

100

Upper Albert Rond,

Aberdeen and Little Hongkong Road,.

Kowloon Road,

Victoria Gap to Reservoir,

Bonham Road,

Caine Road,

Garden Road,.

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Area in

acres.

Grand

Total of

Trees.

6/2

7,961

133

330

6,004

14,084

1,911

...

8288

9,945

3,045

10,072

1,024

212

200

192

24

رات

546

43

43

10

10

...

24

51

51

25

6

...

30

36

36

...

8

3

16

...

3

...

16

Total,..

34,881

10,570

289

5,006

2,066

134

770

170

1,617

24

137

45%

55,664

232

CHARLES FORD,

Superintendent,

Botanical & Afforestation Department.

Aberdeen, Bowen Road, Bowrington, Causeway Bay, Mount Davis, Mount Gough, Mount Kellet,.. Kowloon,.....

Little Hongkong,

Pokfoolain,

Sookunpo Hill,

Various,

Wanchai,

Wongneichung,

Locality.

Appendix C.

SALE OF FORESTRY PRODUCTS.

Pine Trees.

Tree Pruning,... Brushwood,. Camphor Trees,

Total Revenue for Forestry Products,......

Date.

1895.

February 26 April 24 February 26

Aberdeen,

"

Aplichau,

""

Little Hongkong,.

December 27

March

3

26

April

10

December 12

April 17

May

14

December 18

39

April

October 20 21

December 28

>>

>>

North Point, Repulse Bay,

22

22

Sandy Bay, Sookunpo Hill,

Stanley,

January

28

Tin Wan,

May

14

Tytam Tuk,

October

27

West Point,

Appendix D.

STATISTICS OF GRASS FIRES.

Locality.

233

Quantity.

Amount realized.

$ cts.

681

6.78

593

13.56

73

19.83

10,348

148.27

1,698

14.73

56

.39

11,978

97.28

1,445

26.61

1,023

5.23

891

46.52

9,109

106.26

25

4.47

31

2.03

627

23.52

38,578

545.48

203,899 catties.

70,119

94.47

14.02

"

50

4.00

657.97

There were 33 other fires which did not destroy trees.

CHARLES FORD, Superintendent,

Botanical & Afforestation Department.

Number of Fires.

Number of Trees destroyed.

1

13

1

10

1

60

1

480

1

510

Į

10

1

9,020

1

690

1

20

1

1,675

1

500

1

650

200

15

35

100

920

5

18

14,913

CHARLES FORD,

Superintendent.

Botanical & Afforestation Department.

139

No.

9

96

HONGKONG.

STATEMENT OF DISBURSEMENTS FOR FORESTRY WORKS IN THE YEARS 1897 AND 1898.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

Statement showing Disbursements for Forestry Works in the years 1897 and 1898, for which contracts have been

already made, and those for which contracts now require to be made.

Estimated total cost.

To be disbursed in 1897.

To be disbursed in 1898.

APPROVED BY LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL, (C.S.O. No. 1818.)

C.

C.

C.

1. Rearing Trees to be planted in 1897,.......

900.00

900.00

2. Planting Trees being reared under No. 1,........

1,100.00

1,100,00

Contracts to be now made which require approval:-

3. Rearing and Planting Trees in 1898,....................

2,000.00

2,000.00

4,000.00

2,000.00

2,000.00

The works under heading 3 now require the approval of the Legislative Council in order that the contracts for them may be made; those under headings 1 and 2 have already been sanctioned and are now in progress.

CHARLES FORd,

Superintendent,

Botanical and Afforestation Department.

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE APPOINTED TO ENQUIRE INTO THE CONDITION OF BRITISH TRADE IN HONGKONG.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of

His Excellency the Governor,

REPORT.

1.--The Committee, appointed by His Excellency the Governor, in response to an inquiry from the Secretary of State asking whether there had been any and what dis- placement of British goods in this market, held their first sitting on the 29th February, and have since met thirteen times and taken the evidence of fourteen witnesses, which evidence has been supplemented by information gathered by the Secretary. A careful consideration of the whole has enabled the Committee to arrive at the conclusions given hereunder.

2. At the outset the Committee were confronted with the difficulty that, Hongkong being a free port, precise returns of trade cannot be made up in this Colony owing to the absence of any statistics of imports and exports (with the single exception of opium). The Committee have therefore limited their investigations to ascertaining where there has been displacement of British goods in this market by foreign manufactures, to what extent this displacement has been effected, and to what causes it has been due.

3.-It is apparent from the evidence that the displacement of British goods has been going on steadily for some years, but it has not been on a strikingly large scale nor have many great staples been very seriously affected. There are instances, how- ever, in which the British manufacture has been entirely ousted by foreign goods, as in the cases of Llama Braids and Aniline Dyes, while others, such as Spanish Stripes and Broad Cloths, have been in great measure replaced by similar goods imported from Germany.

4. In other cases, again, there have been attempts to cut into British trade in smaller wares, sometimes by foreign imitations, with, however, often only a qualified or temporary success. These articles were represented by Hosiery, Lamps, Paper, Um- brellas, Rubber Shoes, Soaps, Biscuits, Beer, Locks, Files, Needles, Cutlery, etc., in which Germany and Japan are the principal competitors with England.

5.-There has been a serious falling off in the imports of Metals from Great Britain, notably in that of Yellow Metal, which formerly was exclusively imported from thence. It is estimated that only about half the import of this Metal now comes from British makers, the inferior German metal being greatly aided by the lower rate of freight payable from German ports. The same remarks apply to the trade in Bar Iron, Nail Rod, and Scrap Iron, most of which is now imported from Belgium, the productions of which country are helped by cheaper cost of production and lower freights from Ant- werp. Pig Lead, which formerly was imported from England and Germany, now comes almost exclusively from Australia on account of lower cost of production.

The Committee are conscious it may be objected to the foregoing paragraph, that a portion of the evidence does not bear out the statement that dead weight cargo shipped direct from Great Britain arrives here at a disadvantage in freight compared with that shipped from Continental ports. The Committee were constrained, nevertheless, to accept the balance of evidence, which unmistakeably points to the conclusion arrived at; and, to more clearly elucidate the point, some tabulated examples of actual shipments have been obtained.

611

^

612

6. The trade in Arms and Ammunition and Gunpowder is monopolised by Continental manufacturers, owing to the much cheaper prices at which they can lay them down on this market.

7.—Certain branches of trade, such as those in Wire Nails and Window Glass, have always been in Belgian hands, the prices charged being apparently beyond the competition of all other producers. Not so, however, the trade in Candles, which has been completely wrested from England by Belgian makers, this being to a great extent due to superior packing.

8. The competition of Japan is only just commencing, but it promises to prove serious later on. Already the Japanese have secured almost a monopoly of the trade in Cotton Waste, Washing Soda, and Sulphuric Acid; they are competing in Cotton Goods, Paper, Ship's Lamps, and cheap substitutes for Cretonnes, Blankets, Towels, Soaps, etc. Among other items, they are exporting really well made Cotton Half Hose fifty per cent. below the cost of similar goods from Germany; and their Cement, though inferior in quality, is cheaper than any European cement that can be imported, competing even with the local product, which has the advantage of paying no freight or marine insurance.

9. The causes to which the displacement of British Goods in this market are to be assigned may be briefly stated :-

1.-Lower cost of production of rival foreign goods.

2.-Disinclination of British manufacturers to study taste of consumer.

3. The steadily falling value of silver since 1873.

4.--Lower freights outwards from foreign as compared with British ports.

5.-Cheaper railway transit to foreign ports of shipment.

The last two named causes apply more especially to inetals and heavy goods, and No. 4, the Committee regret to say, is due to the action of the Shipping Conference (consisting chiefly of British steam-ship owners) which, while maintaining freights from British ports, carry cargo at a much lower rate from Continental and American ports, thus giving foreign manufactures a virtual subsidy in their competition with British products.

In this connection the Committee wish to make special reference to the advantages conferred on American Cotton Piece Goods in the China market by the rates of freight charged by the Conference steamers from New York to Hongkong and Shanghai, which average from 25/- to 30/- per ton as compared with 57/6 from London and Liverpool outwards. The same remarks apply to the shipment of machinery from the United States to China, the freight for which is about forty per cent. lower than that from British ports.

In considering this phase of the subject the question seems to arise how far the Imperial Government would be justified in requiring of the 'onference a modification of their tariff before continuing a subsidy or other support to any shipping company which is a party to a compact that places British manufactures at a disadvantage with foreign rivals.

10. The Committee, moreover, feel bound to record their conviction that several of the witnesses were indisposed to speak freely on this subject of the Shipping Confer- ence; and they are of opinion that it is a question of such paramount importance to British Trade that it might fittingly for the subject of a searching investigation on the part

of the Home Government.

11. The Committee are satisfied that, apart from this preference to foreign cargo, shown by Conference steamers, the competition encountered by British goods is for the most part a fair business competition. There are occasional infringements of British Trade Marks and more frequent imitations of British goods by Continental makers, but in the majority of cases the imitation is sold as such on its merits, and in some instances

*

the foreign producers strike out new lines for themselves, and from small beginnings evolve a considerable trade. While the British merchant or agent in Hongkong appears to be well on the alert, and to very efficiently represent the Home manufacturer, the latter seems too often reluctant to alter his styles and methods, does not care to make a present sacrifice for future profit, and is apt to neglect small openings for a new trade. This is in marked contrast to the untiring efforts of foreign makers to study the market and adapt their goods to the requirements of the consumer.

12.-Turning to a consideration of the transit trade of the Colony, which the Committee take to mean the transhipment of goods here for the neighbouring countries, Japan, Siam, Indo-China, the Philippines, Netherlands Indies, etc., this trade exhibits a tendency to increase on the whole, with the present exception of that with Indo- China, which has latterly shown a decline. This decline is due to the high preferential duties recently imposed by our French neighbours, the effects of which are visible in the falling off in the export of Yarns and British manufactured goods to Saigon and

Tonkin.

13. When the provisions of the new Treaty with Japan come into force a most serious decline is expected to ensue in the export hence of refined sugar to that country under the revised tariff, and it is feared that this, the chief industry of the Colony, which has already been very adversely affected, may perhaps be permanently injured. Had the Hongkong Government been consulted before the alteration of the tariff was decided upon, it is probable some adjustment of the duties less unfavourable to this Colony might have been arrived at, and this important industry saved the check it must presently meet.

14. Whilst the words "The Transit Trade of Hongkong" are perhaps not intended to directly include the conduct of trade with the interior of China, yet the Committee feel it within the scope of their inquiry to point out here that this Transit Trade would be largely benefited and increased, were the Transit Pass system allowed by the Native Authorities in South China to work in accordance with the Treaty require- ments. Unfortunately, ever since the signature of the Treaty of Tientsin, Article XXVIII. of which confers this Transit Pass privilege on British subjects, the officials in South China have steadfastly and persistently sought to render it a dead letter, and so far their success has been most complete. If the Transit Pass system be enforced, and the inland waterways of the Two Kwang provinces be opened to foreign trade and steamer navigation, as the result of negotiations now proceeding, there is every reason to believe that a marked increase in British trade will soon be apparent.

15. Another subject not perhaps strictly within the scope of the present inquiry, but which has come before the Committee incidentally, and is closely associated with the British shipping trade, is that of the impediments placed in the way of British ships obtaining their fair share of the Chinese passenger traffic at certain of the neighbouring outports. This is due to their having to conform strictly to the regulations of the Chinese Passengers' Act, 1855, whereas foreign steamers are subject to no such regula- tions, and can in consequence carry double, or treble, the number of passengers permitted under the Act to a British vessel. Much lucrative trade is thus completely closed to British ships. The Committee therefore deprecate further legislation in the direction of making these passenger regulations more stringent, as the effect can only be to still more heavily handicap British Tonnage on the China Coast and lead to its supercession by Continental steamers.

HONGKONG, 22nd June, 1896.

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART,

Chairman.

W. C. H. HASTINGS.

N. J. EDE.

CHANTREY INCHBALD.

613

:

449

No. 27

96

HONGKONG.

GOVERNOR'S DESPATCH ON THE INCIPIENCE AND PROGRESS OF THE

BUBONIC PLAGUE IN HONGKONG DURING 1896.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

No. 117.

SIR,

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 6th May, 1896.

I have the honour to forward for your information the following account of the incipience and progress of the bubonic plague in this Colony during the current year, and of the measures which have been and are being taken to suppress it.

2. The first case of plague occurred on the 4th January, and from that date to the 29th January there were 45 cases, as reported to you in my despatch No. 26 of that date. These cases were merely sporadic, being confined principally to the western portion of the City.

Precautionary measures of the following nature, to prevent the disease from spreading, were adopted without delay

The Right Honourable

(i) Every person found to be suffering from the disease was at once removed to the hospital at Kennedy Town, situated in an isolated position at the extreme western suburb of Victoria, and was there placed under treatment.

(ii) The other inmates of the house in which the case had occurred and who were in close contact with the patient were segregate l on large and roomy junks locally known as "marriage boats," hired by Government for the purpose and anchored in the vicinity of Stonecutter's Island, where they were detained under observation for 10 days, 9 days having been ascertained to be the maximum period of incubation of the disease in 1894. Every attention was paid to the comfort of those segregated who, besides being fed at the expense of Government, were supplied with clothing, whilst their own was being disinfected by the Sanitary Board before being finally returned to them. After the period of 10 days had elapsed, they were at liberty, if still free from the disease, to return to the City, or to their own homes on the main- land. Only one or two persons developed the disease during the period of isolation, and they were of course at once removed to the Kennedy Town hospital for treatment.

(iii) The house in which the case occurred was at once closed and guarded by the Police until it had been thoroughly cleansed, disin- fected and white-washed under the supervision of the Medical Officer of Health attached to the Sanitary Board.

Mr. JOSEPH CHAMBERLAIN, M.P.,

Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies,

&C.,

&C.

&c., Downing Street,

London.

450

(2)

3. During the greater part of January, Canton was reported to be almost entirely free from the disease, but towards the end of that month it became more prevalent there. This fact materially altered the state of affairs and as, in view of the difficulty of restricting the passenger traffic from that port, from which Hongkong derives the greater part of its food supply, the Colony was in any case exposed to the danger of the introduction of cases from thence and as the number of persons in segregation amounted to over 200 and was rapidly increasing, the Sanitary Board resolved to abandon the system of isolation on marriage boats. It was accordingly decided that such of the inmates of infected houses as desired to do so should be permitted, after their clothing had been disinfected, to proceed to Canton, their departure being supervised by the Police, and a sufficient sum of money being given to each person to defray the cost of his passage and his necessary expenses during the voyage.

4. Towards the middle of February the number of cases occurring daily began to show an appreciable increase, and the disease ceased to prevail only in a single district, but appeared to be spreading over the whole City. Consequently on the 19th of that month it was declared by the Sanitary Board to be epidemic and from that date the Health Officer of the Port ceased issuing clean Bills of Health to vessels leaving Hongkong.

5. About the same time the ordinary staff of the Sanitary Board was increased by the appointment as temporary Inspectors of Nuisances of nine European Police constables who were entrusted with the duty of aiding in the supervision of the inspecting, cleansing and disinfecting of houses.

6. It is a somewhat remarkable fact that during the latter part of February and the first three weeks in March, while the disease was increasing in Hongkong, . Canton was reported to have become almost entirely free from it; the immunity it enjoyed being attributed by the Chinese to the cold weather which prevailed during that period.

7. It was, of course, not to be expected that the Chinese would submit with any great complacency to the compulsory inspection, disinfecting and cleansing of their dwellings, which cannot be carried out without causing some discomfort to those concerned, and though, I am happy to say, that they have shown themselves this year more ready than in 1894 to recognise the absolute necessity, in the interests of the public health, of the sanitary measures which have to be adopted, they nevertheless have displayed great unwillingness to come forward to report cases of plague coming under their cognisance. Innumerable have been the devices and subterfuges to which they have had recourse in order to remove patients and corpses from the Colony without the knowledge of the authorities, and, in many instances, with a view to avoiding enforced segregation, they deserted their houses, leaving victims of the disease dead or dying, the bodies not having been discovered till some days after death. One case was brought to light in which a corpse was being conveyed secretly out of the Colony as merchandise in a camphor-wood box.

8. In order, therefore, to allay the suspicions and apprehensions of the Chinese, who as a people are naturally timid, and to induce them to report cases with greater readiness, it was decided, towards the end of March, to permit them to remove their sick to Canton under certain conditions, a copy of which is enclosed, and this privilege was shortly afterwards extended to the removal of corpses. Although this concession has been availed of only to the extent of the removal to Canton of one patient and four bodies, I am of opinion that the grant- ing of it has tended to calm the minds of the native population and to discourage the concealment of cases from the knowledge of the authorities.

9. I am glad also in this connection to be able to state that although a good many of the well-to-do Chinese have removed their wives and families from the Colony, and although the attendance at most of the schools has greatly diminished,

Enclosure 1.

( 3 )

451

Enclosure 2.

there has been no general exodus of the population such as occurred in 1894, and business has so far not suffered to any appreciable extent, except perhaps from the imposition of quarantine by the Governments of Singapore and Batavia.

10. Early in April, the Sanitary Board recommended that, in view of the danger involved in sending inmates from plague infected houses to Canton, where the disease had by that time again assumed formidable dimensions, sheds should be erected in the Colony for their segregation while their clothing was being dis- infected. Three such sheds have accordingly been erected, one each in the Eastern, Western, and Central portions of the City, and are being used for the temporary housing of the inmates of infected houses whilst the latter are being cleansed and disinfected.

11. On the 6th April, I found it necessary to apply to His Excellency the General Officer Commanding for military assistance to aid in the work of house to house visitations and cleansing, and he was good enough to detail for that work 12 men from the Royal Engineers and subsequently 17 men from the Rifle Brigade and 3 Non-commissioned Officers who are cheerfully performing their difficulș work in a most efficient manner. They are being remunerated at the same rate as that fixed in 1894.

12. The search party visits and inspects each Chinese house in the Colony about once in every ten days, and from the 25th February to the 21st April no fewer than 3,200 houses, comprising 8,330 floors, each floor forming, with few exceptions, a separate dwelling were thoroughly cleansed, disinfected and, in many cases, also lime-washed by the "Whitewash Brigade." This work is still in progress. The total number of occupied Chinese houses in the City is 6,350, but as a number of these are occupied by well-to-do Chinese no interference on the part of the Sanitary Board is necessary. It is hoped that before long every house in the City requiring attention will have been cleansed and lime-washed.

13. Having described in detail the sanitary measures which have been taken cope with the disease, I now proceed to deal with the subject from a medical point of view.

to

14. I am informed by Dr. LowSox that the type of the disease is identically the same as in 1894, a full description of which is given in that officer's report, forwarded in my despatch No. 122 of the 16th April, 1895.

15. I enclose a return showing the number of cases and deaths to date, and the number of cases which have occurred during each week since the 4th January.

16. I may here mention that in order to ensure all possible accuracy in the statistics, the bodies of all Chinese whose deaths are registered but the causes of whose deaths have not been certified by a medical practitioner are examined before burial by the Medical Officer of Health. In proof of the necessity of this step I may state that that officer found that between the 8th February and the 30th April as many as 50 deaths from plague had been erroneously registered as due to other causes, principally Consumption, Bronchitis and Intermittent Fever.

ment.

17. The mortality generally, as compared with 1894, shows a slight improve- The total number of Chinese cases, up to noon on the 4th instant, was 675 and the number of deaths 602, or a little more than 89 per cent., whereas in 1894 the mortality among the Chinese who were treated in hospitals was 93 per cent. and it must also be borne in mind that in the latter calculation no account is taken of dead bodies found in the streets and sent at once to the burial ground, while the returns for the current year include all deaths from the plague. There are, however, grounds for believing that children are more liable to infection than was the case in that

year.

492

(4)

22 persons other than Chinese have contracted the disease during the current year. Their nationalities were as follows:-

Europeans, Indians,

6

...15

(including Mrs. JOSEPH and her family reported in my despatch No. 87 of 16th April, 1896).

Siamese,

1

Amongst the Europeans two Sisters of Charity from the Italian Convent have died, having contracted the disease from a case which occurred in that Con- vent. The third case was a Master Mariner named JAMES ERNEST CLOUD, living at a marine boarding-house, who, it is believed, contracted the disease on board 2 Chinese launch running between Hongkong and Kowloon. He, also, I regret to say, succumbed to the attack. The other cases were those of two children of Warder GIDLEY of the Victoria Gaol, one of whom died and the other recovered, and of an Austrian in the employ of Messrs. SANDER & Co. who is still under treatment at the Government Civil Hospital and is progressing favourably towards convalescence. The Siamese died, and of the fifteen Indians six died, four recovered and five are still under treatment.

18. Early in March it was deemed advisable, in view of the possibility of the disease assuming an epidemic form, to procure extra medical assistance, and by the courtesy of Admiral HorrMANN, I was fortunate enough to be able to secure the services of Dr. WILM of the Imperial German Navy, whose eminent attainments as a bacteriologist and intimate acquaintance with this particular disease, which he had previously studied here as well as under Professor Koch in Berlin, render him a most valuable acquisition to the Government medical staff. He arrived here from Japan on the 14th March, since which time he has been actively engaged in treating patients at the Kennedy Town hospital.

19. With regard to the origin of the plague there seems no doubt that it may be classed as a filth disease. It is confined chiefly to the poorer classes of the Chinese, whose dirty and insanitary habits foster its progress. The ordinary Chinaman of the poorer class in this Colony seldom thinks of cleaning his house, and the heaps of dirt and rubbish which the house-cleansing parties removes from one small floor of a house causes the spectator to wonder where the occupant can find room for himself. Many of the houses are, moreover, so situated and constructed as to afford an utterly inadequate supply of light and ventilation and the position is aggravated by the high reats which prevail in this Colony and which encourage overcrowding. The housing of the working classes in Hongkong is an important question the consideration of which should be no longer delayed. I accordingly propose shortly to appoint a Commission to enquire into and report on this matter.

20. It is also a noteworthy fact that the outbreak of the present year, as in 1894, was preceded by a prolonged scarcity of water. In 1894 the rainfall com- menced exceptionally late, and not until the supply of water in the reservoirs was nearly exhausted, while in 1895 the amount of rain which fell was so abnormally small (45.84 inches instead of the usual 90 inches) that it was necessary, in order to husband the supply until the rains of 1896, to place the Colony on a limited supply throughout the dry season of 1895-1896. On the other hand it must not be forgotten that the rainfall of 1894, when it did at last come, was accom- panied by a sudden and very great increase in the number of cases of plague, doubtless because the wet weather drove the Chinese within doors and increased the overcrowding in their houses. The rains this year began early and there is now no scarcity of water in the Colony.

21. With regard to the financial aspect of the situation I will address a further communication to you at a later date. In the meantime I will content myself with remarking that, although the measures which I have described neces-

( 5 )

453

sarily involve a considerable outlay, all possible economy is being exercised, bearing in mind the urgent necessity of complete and comprehensive action in suppressing at all hazards this fell disease, the annual recurrence of which cannot fail to affect prejudicially the prosperity of this Colony. That those measures are bearing good fruit may, I think, be fairly deduced from the figures of the return of cases, which cannot be considered alarmingly high when it is borne in mind that the disease is raging with great virulence in the City of Canton and on the mainland in the neighbourhood of the Colony, and that the population of the Colony has not been diminished by any such extensive exodus of the Chinese as took place is 1894.

22. In conclusion, I desire to state that the Members of the Sanitary Board and its staff deserve great credit for the efficient manner in which they are supervising and discharging duties of an arduous and disagreeable nature, but extra and anxious work has also fallen on other departments. I do not propose on the present occasion to mention the names of individuals deserving of special commendation. I consider that the staff at present employed in plague work aided as it is by departments of Government is sufficient to cope with the existing conditions, but so long as the disease is epidemic in Canton this Colony can never be free from grave anxiety. If the plague continues to rage in that City, may be necessary to endeavour to prohibit Chinese immigration into this Colony from thence, though I doubt whether it will be possible to devise steps for that purpose which will prove really effective. In any case nothing will be left undone which can in any way help to eradicate a disease which has already inflicted great loss and suffering on this Colony and which may perinanently affect its welfare unless it can be prevented from recurring.

it

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient, humble Servant,

WILLIAM ROBINSON,

Governor.

Enclosure I.

CONDITIONS SUBJECT TO WHICH PERSONS SUFFERING

FROM BUBONIC PLAGUE WILL BE PERMITTED

TO LEAVE THE COLONY.

1. Suitable ambulance boats shall be provided and they shall be towed astern of the S.S. Pasig, S.S. Tai On, or other river steam-boat to Whampoa and Canton, and shall on no account land any person or thing before arriving at Whampoa or Canton.

2. While in the waters of the Colony the ambulance boats shall fly the yellow quarantine flag.

3. While in the waters of the Colony the ambulance boats must lie within the quarantine ground, but they shall if required come to the China Merchants Wharf, Salyingpoon, at 4 P.M. of the day on which they are to be towed to Whampoa and Canton, or at such other time as the Medical Officer of Health may fix.

454

(6)

4. One ambulance boat if required shall leave the wharf every day at such hour as will permit of her being taken in tow, at a point west of the fairway buoy, by the afternoon steam-boat leaving for Whampoa and Canton.

5. Any person desirous of going to Whampoa or Canton by the ambulance boat must notify the Police before 2. P.M. o'clock (or such other hour as the Medical Officer of Health may fix) on the day he desires to leave,

On the receipt of such notification a medical man will visit the premises and if in his opinion the person is suffering from Bubonic Plague the medical man will give a certificate to that effect in the attached form.

6. All persons résiding upon the premises in which a case of Bubonic Plague occurs will be allowed as soon as their clothing has been disinfected to proceed on board a Canton steamboat under the supervision of officers approved by the Sanitary Board.

7. In all cases where persons suffering from Bubonic Plague have elected to proceed to Whampoa or Canton, after their departure, the premises in which they resided shall be fumigated, cleansed, lime-washed, and dealt with as the Sanitary Board may direct.

8. In all cases where persons suffering from Bubonic Plague have elected to proceed to Whampoa or Canton, the clothing and bedding which have been used by them shall be taken possession of by some officer authorised by the Board and destroyed, and such persons must be provided with a new suit of clothing and then removed in an ambulance to the ambulance boat and put on board.

9. No persons, except attendants and those in charge of the ambulance boat, will be allowed on board the ambulance boat without a certificate from a Registered Medical Practitioner approved by the Board, which certificate must be in the form appended hereto, and presented at the time of embarkation when asked for.

10. The ambulance boats on returning to the waters of the Colony shall proceed direct to the Quarantine Ground there to be dealt with as the Sanitary Authority may direct.

11. All food required for the use of the persons on board the ambulance boats shall be put on board when they are at the wharf receiving sick persons. None of the attendants or others on board will be allowed to leave the ambulance boats while they are in the waters of the Colony without the written permission of the Medical Officer of Health.

:

SANITARY BOARD ROOM,

Hongkong, 21st March, 1896.

HUGH MCCALLUM,

Secretary.

455

(7)

Enclosure 2.

A Return shewing (4) the number of cases of Bubonic Plague which have been reported as occurring in the Colony from the 1st day of January, 1896, to the date hereof, and (B) the number of deaths therefrom during the same period.

Number of cases reported up till noon of the 5th May, 1896,

715

14*

Number of cases reported during the past 24 hours,

Total number of cases reported to date,.

729

Number of deaths reported up till noon of the 5th May, 1896,

Number of deaths reported during the past 24 hours,

629

10

Total number of deaths recorded to date,..

€39

* 8 of these occurred in the City, 3 in British Kowloon and 3 in the Harbour.

SANITARY BOARD ROOM,

6th May, 1896.

HUGH MCCALLUM, Secretary.

WEEKLY ABSTRACT.

WEEK ENDED.

CASES. DEAths.

WEEK ENDED.

CASES. DEATHS.

4th January, 1896,

Nil.

Nil.

4th April, 1896,

63

11th

18

14

11th

""

18th

7

7

...

18th

**

11

>>

25th

8

9

25th

"7

"

...

2283

43

63

60

73

60

78

77.

>>

1st February,

18

16

2nd May,

80

63

8th

12

8

9th

""

**

""

15th

25

19

16th

"}

""

22nd

45

41

23rd

;}

>7

29th

37

30

30th

33

"?

""

**

7th March,

35

33

6th June,

*

14th

27

27

13th

*

""

**

21st 28th

42

31

20th

$

""

"

45

45

27th

29

""

!

269

No.-20

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON PLAGUE.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

HON. COLONIAL SECRETARY,

(Minute by the Acting Colonial Surgeon.)

I forward herewith for the information of His Excellency the Governor a short report by Dr. WILM on plague.

This will be supplemented by a further report after more exten·led investigations have been male with the apparatus which is expected shortly from Europe.

20th May, 1896.

No. so h.

130

I-CLINICAL SYMPTOMS AND PATHOLOGY.

J. M. ATKINSON, Acting Colonial Surgeon.

(a) Most of the cases began without prodromal symptoms. Europeans and servants of Europeans generally show a sudden development of the disease in the middle of work, having felt quite well up to the time of attack. The fever begins suddenly and prostration and the other well known symptoms of Plague rapidly set in. In from 1 to 5 or 6 days after the fever begins, the glands begin to swell-at least as far as they are perceptible by palpation. Some cases show prodromal signs, but they are the minority.

(b) Regarding the general symptoms in my experience there has been a marked facies in the disease. Congestion sometimes increased even to sugillation round the eyes and on the forehead and cheek bones ("Black Death”—Schwarze Tod)-apathy to surrounding events-a certain painful tension, caused by oppression, glowing hot injected eyes, soon sinking back into the sockets, the expression of extreme weakness, dry lips in the later stages of the disease covered with sordes, are the roughly described characteristics of the Plague face.

(c) The tongue is swollen, furred, sometimes dried up, brownish or black as the disease progresses, occasionally with racks or fissures and resembles the worst tongue of the third week of typhus or typhoid fever. In light attacks or in those with a very rapid course this dry stage does not develop so quickly.

(d) The other symptoms of the intestinal tract are want of appetite, great thirst, vomiting, constipation and in many cases later on diarrhoea with bloody evacuations. These symptoms may generally be explained by the fever, but in some cases they are apparently signs of alterations in the structure of the enteric mucous membrane. Indeed, in about 20% (30 in 150 cases), I found hemorrhages underneath the epithelium of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestine, in most cases as petechiae with circumscribed edges but occasionally diffuse. The lymphatic follicles and Peyer's patches were swollen in most cases, sometimes elevated and occasionally detached leaving ulcers without slough and with floating margins. Simple injection of the mucous membrane could be seen in nearly all the cases, but there were some in which the alterations were so general in the intestine that the whole disease seemed to be a primary infection of the intestinal tract, with subsequent infection of the blood, especially if there were no externally apparent localisations of the swollen glands. This occurred in 33 cases out of 150. Apparent or marked localisations are to be understood as painful swellings of the glands exceeding, say, the size of a bean.

(e) The respiration was dyspœnic if there was high temperature. In 20 cases out of 150 there was bronchitis and hypostatic inflammation. Homoptysis occurred in 15 cases (10%). Injection of the bronchial tubes and simple cedema occurred in nearly every case. The cases of bronchitis with bloody expectoration appeared to be more accidental localisa- ons of the Plague germ, as in most cases externally apparent buboes were observed. Pre-disposing catarrhs may have given a good soil for the growth of the bacillus. The bacillus never gave rise to destruction of the tissure here. Tuber- cular disease was only in one case evident. The mortality in bronchitis cases is the same as in non-bronchitis cases.

(ƒ) Fever was present in every case but varied greatly in amount. There was no regular typical curve of the fever to be made out as is usual in almost all the other infectious diseases. It rises in some cases to 106° F. whilst in others it may only reach 102° F. The height of the temperature is no measure of the severity of the disease as patients with little fever of short duration generally die as well. The duration of the fever generally lasts from a few hours to some weeks. In about 30% of the recovered cases, the fever of the infection lasted for about five or six days, and this may be regarded

270

as typical. It is high at the beginning and sinks slowly down, with frequent morning remissions. It may last as long as ten days. After this primary fever a secondary fever occurs in a majority of recovering cases. This is the "fever of absorption" and may lead to weeks of exhausting illness, and cases may die at this stage which were saved in the bottle of infection. This fever is very irregular in duration and height varying according to the extent of destruction and re-absorp- tion of the affected glands.

Herpes occurred in

(g) The skin is in all cases dry and hot. In some cases cold perspiration occurs just before death. There was never anything like a critical or lytic sweat observed. Petechiae of the body were only seen in two cases.

Wounds of the skin were rare and never irritated, no lymphan-

a few cases also.

Four so-called carbuncles were seen.

gitis being present.

() Nervous symptoms are caused by the fever and the overloading of the blood with infections materials. There is generally tremor, deafness, unconsciousness, delirium, in some cases of a violent character.

(i) The heart's action was always weakened, and in many cases dilatation of the right side occurred. Systolic mur- murs and other signs of weakness being apparent.

(k) The urine always showed the presence of albumen-the average being from 1 to 5 % of albumen. In the begin- Ling retention of urine was frequent. The kidneys were congested, the capsules often showing hemorrhages. Abscess of the kidney was never seen, neither was abscess of the liver. The gall-bladder was usually distended.

(1) The spleen was usually swollen and congested the malpighian corpuscles being prominent on the surface of a section.

(m) Having considered the general symptoms of Plague we now have to deal with the most prominent characteristic of Plague, namely, the swollen glands. These may either be superficial and palpable, or intestinal and internal, or a combination of both. The affection of the glands might be called Polyadenitis, Haemorrhagica Infiltrative, a multiple inflammation of the glands with hæmorrhagic infiltration of the glandular tissue, with a tendency to infiltrative periade- nitis, spreading from one gland to another centripetally and forming chains of infiltrated glands. Some of the glands break down. Infiltration may develop very quickly-even in a few hours-and may produce an extensive cellulitis in some cases. The time of development of palpable adenitis is irregular; it may be marked and evident in the first hours of the disease. Even large buboes may form in a few hours after a time when a person has felt absolutely in the best of health. On the other hand we frequently see a patient dying of plague without one being able to feel a single affected gland and only a thorough post mortem examination shows the slightly swollen glands, of lentil, pea or almond size, which show the plague bacillus by microscope and culture-tube. The plague gland in the Polyadenitis form is clinically in many cases indistinguishable from the gland of syphilis, scrofula and lymphadenitis of ordinary septic origin. In many cases the plague gland shows a boggy, gummatous fluctuation, very tender on pressure and complicated with a hæmorrhagic suffusion of the skin over it. Out of 150 cases admitted alive into Hospital the following table shows the localisation of the glandular swelling at the onset of the disease. There were 80 males, 22 females, and 48 children.

Unilateral Inguino-Femoral, Bilateral Inguino-Femoral,

Unilateral Axillary,

Bilateral

Unilateral Cervical,..

Bilateral

??

Submaxillary Unilateral,

77

Bilateral,

Cubital Unilateral,

Multiple Buboes,...........

9 =

48%

6%

.13 = 8.5%

0 =

14

3

0 =

9%

1.3% 2%

0%

1 = 7.5%

4 = 2.7 %

33 cases (22%) were received without a proper bubo. In most of these cases multiple adenitis was found, the general size of the glands being that of a lentil. In the later stages of the disease other buboes formed in different localities and complicated the case. 90% of the cases showed swelling of the intestinal, bronchial and mediastinal glands in different stages.

(n) The mortality of patients admitted alive into Hospital was 80 %. The general mortality must be much greater, as most of the bad cases die before being discovered or in course of transference to Hospital. 76 % died during the first 65 days, 4 % died later on from the 7th to the 19th day. One may say that the former died from the severity of the disease itself, the latter from the after-effects, namely, exhaustion and suppuration. Death was generally caused by paralysis of the heart, in other cases from the brain mischief. The temperature at death is sometimes very high, sometimes subnormal. Convalescence is generally prolonged and often complicated by suppurative fever.

II.-MICROSCOPICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION.

Microscopical and bacteriological examination has been very much handicapped by the absence of a large amount of apparatus which is quite indispensable for full investigation in this branch of science, and most of the apparatus had to be supplied privately. The work can therefore be regarded as incomplete till more apparatus arrives from Europe. I can only give a few facts which already seem to be very promising for future work.

271

(a) The examination of the blood on reception of the patients into hospital was the first object for attention as the most easily procurable material for the diagnosis of doubtful cases. By the microscope alone I detected the bacillus in the blood in 32 cases out of 45 examined, i.e., 71% Cultivation of the blood on gelatine and agar agar gave 29 positive results out of 35 cases, and 6 cultivations were negative. This gives 83 % with positive results by cultivation. Of the first 32 patients 26 died, whilst of the latter 29 cases 25 died. These numbers show that one is able to find the bacillus in the great majority of severe cases in the early stage by careful microscopic examination, whilst still 10° more can be recognised by cultivation experiments. In one case streptococci were found besides,

(b) Examination of discharge from newly opened buboes and abscesses showed in all cases examined the presence of the plague bacillus. In about half the number of cases streptococci and staphylococci were found besides. The number of the bacilli generally correspond to the advancement of the swelling and destruction of the gland.

(c) The sputum of 12 plague patients suffering from bronchitis showed 11 positive results on cultivation. one cultivation was negative.

(d) In two cases of cultivation from the fur on the tongue the plague bacillus developed on gelatine.

(e) The culture examination of forces gave positive results in all of the 15 cases examined where well marked euteric symptoms were present. In 8 of these cases no externally apparent bubo was present.

(f) After post mortem examination the various internal organs were frequently examined, and in all cases the tissue of the spleen and in most cases the liver, the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestine, and the lungs gave positive results by culture and subsequent animal experiments.

All these examinations were made carefully and the positive results are beyond any doubt, and as they were made with imperfect apparatus the further experiments will prove more than this. I hope to be able to state whether or not the bacillus is present in the soil of the Colony at different places, in the dirt of infected houses, in the water and latrines, clothes of infected persons, &c.

I will now report shortly about the inoculations performed on different animals. Two pigs, three monkeys, one cat. six rabbits, seventeen guinea-pigs and three mice were operated on. The inoculated substances were diseased tissue and

pure

cultures-two spleen inoculations, seven gland inoculations, two inoculations of the fur of the tongue, one blood culture, two pus cultures, eight fœcal cultures, four sputum cultures. Four guinea-pigs and two monkeys died from plague without being inoculated,

Of eighteen animal inoculations in the abdomen seventeen gave positive results, that is to say, the animals died of plague. Implantation of diseased tissue and pure cultures into the stomach by feeding or introducing them into the œsophagus by glass tube was made in nine cases with five positive results. These cases died showing clinical and anatomical symptoms of plague whilst under observation and on the post mortem table. The other ones-two rabbits, one cat and one guinea pig-were sick for a week, showed irregular fever but recovered. The one case of subcutaneous inoculation which did not die was that of a pig, which showed local inflammation round the site of inoculation but no glandular swelling, and is now twenty-two days after-still alive but apparently not quite well. The seventeen sub- cutaneously inoculated animals which died were 4 rabbits, 10 guinea-pigs, and 3 mice. The five inoculated by the intestinal tract and killed were 1 monkey and 4 guinea-pigs. The death of the six cases which died without inoculation is to be attributed to some of them being purposely kept in cages in which plague animals had been kept and which had not been cleaned and washed in carbolic acid solution as usual, whilst the monkeys were kept under the cages of the other animals so that food, urine and fœces were freely allowed to bespatter their cages. Death occurred in the rabbits and guinea-pigs in from 2 to 6 days after inoculation. One monkey died in five days, the pig in twenty-two days, the mice in from twenty-four to forty-eight hours.

Remarkable points are that in all the cases of subcutaneous inoculation the tissue round the spot of abdominal incision was infiltrated and from there to the glands of the axilla and groin lymphangitic chords could be seen, and the glands of these two cases could be seen swollen as in human plagne cases. The glands in the mesentery were swollen in nearly all cases. The cases dying after feeding with plague tissues or pure cultures showed diarrhoea in one pig and one monkey, the stomach and intestine showed sugillation, catarrh and swelling of the mesenteric glands as well as of the external glands.

These observations justify the opinion that the plague can enter the body-

(1) By the skin.

(2) By the intestinal tract.

There were no cases in this epidemic which I saw where signs of local inflammation round wounds were evident and there are only two cases reported in Hongkong by Dr. Lowson and Dr. AOYAMA, in which plague with lymphangitis from cutaneous wounds the case of AOYAMA himself and NAKAHARA; but even here the opinions and reports differ. But as in- oculation has undeniable success the possibility certainly exists. Infection by the stomach is possible, as 56 % of the cases operated on by feeding experiments succeeded. This percentage means much more than the wounding experiments, as it approximates closely to the natural conditions of life, in fact gives a method of infection without artificial means. may thus argue that in many cases where the plague bacillies reaches the intestinal tract the disease may attack the body. This possibility is proved by the above experiments. Whether the healthy stomach is able to digest these gerins when introduced can only be answered after more animal experiments have been carried out.

We

Hongkong, May 20th, 1896.

DR. M. WILM.

479

HONGKONG.

No.-30.

96.

REPORT OF COMMITTEE APPOINTED BY HIS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR TO ENQUIRE INTO AND REPORT ON THE BEST ORGANIZATION FOR A COLLEGE OF MEDICINE FOR HONGKONG.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

HONGKONG, 15th July, 1896.

The Committee appointed by His Excellency the Governor to enquire into and report on the best organization for a College of Medicine for Hongkong have the honour to submit for His Excellency's consideration the results of their delibera- tions. They respectfully offer the following recommendations :--

1. That the title of the proposed College be "The Hongkong College of Medicine."

2. That a Governing Body be appointed, consisting of seven members ——

The Colonial Surgeon,

The Principal Medical Officer of Her Majesty's Forces,

The Deputy-Inspector-General of Royal Naval Hospital,

The Superintendent of the Alice Memorial and Nethersole Hospitals, and three others nominated by His Excellency the Governor; and that the Colonial Surgeon be President of the Governing Body.

3. That the Colonial Surgeon be ex officio Principal of the College.

4. That the Government secure the services of a medical man specially qualified to teach Anatomy and Physiology, who shall be a member of the Medical Depart- ment of the Colony, be Lecturer on the subjects named, and act as Superintendent and Secretary of the College.

5. That the Lecturers on other subjects be appointed by His Excellency the Governor on the recommendation of the Governing Body, and that they each receive an honorarium for their services. The sum of one hundred dollars per annum is suggested as a suitable honorarium.

6. That the minimum period of study be five years; and that before commenc- ing study all candidates be required to pass an entrance Arts examination, not lower than that of the sixth standard of the new Educational Code (Hongkong, 1893).

7. That all professional examinations be conducted by independent examiners appointed by the Governing Body, assisted by the lecturers on the subjects under examination.

8. That qualified students be given the title of "Licentiate in Medicine and Surgery of the Hongkong College of Medicine," to be contracted "L.M.S.H," and be registered as qualified to practise under this title in the Colony.

9. That qualified students of the existing College of Medicine for Chinese be permitted to register, if they desire it, under the new Ordinance; and that present students of that College be received into the proposed College without preliminary examination, and given credit for such time as they may already have devoted to medical study.

10. That regulations for matriculation, curriculum of study, professional examinations, sessions, fees, &c., be remitted to the Governing Body, when it has been formed.

480

(2)

11. That the Government Civil Hospital, Lunatic Asylum, Fever Hospitals, &c., be thrown open to the College for purposes of clinical instruction; and that the Authorities of the Military and Naval Hospitals, and of the Alice Memorial and Nethersole Hospitals, be requested to similarly place these institutions at the disposal of the College.

The Committee, having examined the plans for a College building prepared by Honourable E. R. BELILIOS, C.M.G., in connection with his generous offer to the present College of Medicine for Chinese, consider that such a building would be admirably adapted to the requirements of the proposed College, and that no better site could be obtained than that which he has offered, on account of its proximity to the Government Civil Hospital.

Finally, the Committee have estimated that an annual grant of $5,600 would be required to meet the expenses of the proposed College, as follows:——

$3,600, as salary of Superintendent, who would probably be provided with quarters in the College building.

$1,000, to provide honoraria for ten lecturers at the rate suggested.

$1,000, to cover laboratory expenses, the wages of coolies, and other incidental outlay.

PH. B. C. AYRES, (with reservations

attached.

Colonial Surgeon, Chairman.

GEORGE J. H. EVATT, M.D.,

Surgeon-Colonel A.M.S., P.M.O., H.M., Troops, China.

HO KAI

J. M. ATKINSON, ( with reservations

JOHN C. THOMSON.

attached.

Reservations by Dr. Ayres and Dr. Atkinson.

Having signed the report of the Committee appointed by His Excellency The Governor to enquire into and report on the best organization for a College of Medicine for Hongkong, dated July 15th, with reservations, we have to point out that we differ from the opinions set forth in paragraphs 7, 8 & 9.

We are of opinion that if" The Hongkong College of Medicine" is to be founded that the conditions as to entrance, examinations and course of study should be as far as practicable in accord with the conditions obtaining in England, otherwise the proposed Licentiateship will give a false impression of the qualifications of its holders and the credit of the College will, in the course of a few years, suffer in consequence.

5

It must also be borne in mind that if the College is successful after the first years

it is most probable that many of the men leaving annually will have to seek employment elsewhere than in this Colony, it is therefore equally to the advantage of the individual that the highest standard of efficiency should be adopted.

The sixth standard of the new Education Code (Hongkong 1893) does not include in its subjects either Latin or Euclid, and is therefore below the minimum standard required by the General Council under the Medical Act of 1886.

The proposal to allow lecturers on the subjects under examination to assist in such examination is a course not likely to commend itself generally.

481

(3)

It is doubtful whether as a rule the facilities afforded in this Colony with the addition of a lecturer in Anatomy and Physiology are sufficient to enable students to obtain during a 5 years' course the standard of efficiency required by the Generał Council under the Medical Act of 1886.

It must be borne in mind that one of the chief tendencies of Chinese partially trained in Western medicine is the wholesale use of narcotics.

The title of Licentiate in Medicine and Surgery, Hongkong College of Medicine, will be liable therefore in many cases to convey a false impression, and many of its holders will not be sufficiently qualified to practise medicine and surgery without supervision.

It appears desirable that two qualifications should be founded, viz., “native apothecaries," and "Licentiates in Medicine and Surgery." The qualifications, or rather conditions for the latter, being not less than those required by the General Council under the Medical Act; and that the proposed prospectus be referred to the Privy Council in order to ascertain whether they consider it sufficiently com- prehensive.

Dr. THOMSON admits that the present course of study and examination at the College of Medicine for the Chinese is not equal to the standard required by the general Medical Act of 1886, nor have all the students been required to pass any examination in Arts previous to their admittance to the College, and we would here remark that the College, as at present constituted, does not appear to us a

college"

" within the meaning of section 13 of Ordinance 6 of 1884.

46.

Qualified students of the existing College should therefore be required to pass the usual examinations before being allowed to register the qualification, and the present students desirous of continuing their studies in the new College should be required to pass the necessary entrance examination.

HONGKONG, 20th July, 1896.

PH. B. C. AYRES, Colonial Surgeon.

J. M. ATKINSON, Superintendent, Government Civil Hospital.

Minute of meeting of Committee appointed by Ilis Excellency the Governor to enquire into and report on the organization of a College of Medicine for Hongkong, held in the Legislative Council Chamber on Friday,

10th July, 1896, at 4.30 p.m.

Present:-Dr. AYRES, C.M.G.

Surgeon-Colonel EVATT, P.M.O.

Hon. Dr. Ho KAL

Dr. ATKINSON.

Dr. J. C. THOMSON, Hon. Secretary,

On the motion of Surgeon-Colonel EVATT, seconded by Hon. Dr. Ho KAI, Dr. AYRES was elected Chairman of the Committee.

Surgeon-Colonel EVATT moved, and

Hon. Dr. Ho KAI seconded-

That the title of the proposed College be "The Hongkong College of

Medicine."

482

Carried.

Dr. ATKINSON moved, and

Surgeon-Colonel EVATT seconded.

(4)

That a Governing Body be appointed consisting of seven members :

The Colonial Surgeon.

The P. M. O. of H.M. Forces in China.

The Deputy-Inspector-General of Royal Naval Hospital.

The Superintendent of the Alice Memorial and Nethersole Hospitals,

And three others nominated by His Excellency the Governor ; And that the Colonial Surgeon be President of the Governing Body.

Carried.

Surgeon-Colonel EVATT moved, and

Dr. THOMSON seconded-

That the Colonial Surgeon be ex officio Principal of the College.

Carried.

Dr. ATKINSON moved, and

Dr. THOMSON seconded--

That the Government secure the services of a medical man specially quali-

fied to teach Anatomy and Physiology, who shall be a member of the Medical Department of the Colony, be Lecturer on the subjects named, and act as Superintendent and Secretary of the College.

Carried.

Surgeon-Colonel EVATT moved, and

Dr. AYRES seconded--

That the Lecturers on other subjects be appointed by His Excellency the Governor on the recommendation of the Governing Body, and that they receive an honorarium for their services.

Carried.

Dr. THOMSON moved, and

Surgeon-Colonel EVATT seconded-

That the minimum period of study be five years; and that before com- mencing study all candidates be required to pass an entrance Arts ex- amination, not lower than that of the sixth standard of the new Educational Code (Hongkong 1893).

Discussion of this resolution was postponed, that the Code referred to may be submitted to the Committee.

The Committee adjourned until Tuesday next at 3.30 P.M.

Read and confirmed 14th July, 1896.

E. M. EVATT.

(5)

483

Minute of meeting of Committee appointed by His Excellency the Governor to enquire into and report on the organization of a College of Medicine for Hongkong.

held in the Legislative Council Chamber on Tuesday,

14th July, 1896, at 3.30 p.m.

Present:-Surgeon-Colonel EVATT, P.M.O.

Hon. Dr. Ho KAI.

Dr. ATKINSON.

Dr. J. C. THOMSON, Hon. Secretary.

Dr. ATKINSON stated that Dr. AYRES was unavoidably prevented from being present, and moved that Surgeon-Colonel EVATT be appointed Chairman of the meeting. Hon. Dr. Ho KAI seconded, and Surgeon-Colonel EVATT took the chair.

Minute of meeting of July 10th were read and confirmed.

The Educational Code of 1893 having been submitted to the Committee,

Hon. Dr. Ho KAI proposed as an amendment to the resolution consideration of which was postponed from the previous meeting-

That the standard of the entrance examination be left to the Governing

Body, and fixed by that Body from time to time.

Amendment not seconded.

Motion carried by 3 votes to 1.

Dr. THOMSON moved, and

Surgeon-Colonel EVATT seconded-

That all professional examinations be conducted by independent examiners appointed by the Governing Body, assisted by the lecturers on the subjects under examination.

Dr. ATKINSON moved as an amendment.

That lecturers do not take part in the examinations.

Amendment not seconded.

Motion carried by 3 votes to 1.

Hon. Dr. Ho KAI moved, and

Surgeon-Colonel EVATT seconded-

That qualified students be given the title of "Licentiate in Medicine and Surgery of the Hongkong College of Medicine," to be contracted "L.M.S.H.," and be registered as qualified to practise under this title in the Colony.

Dr. ATKINSON moved as an amendment-

That the qualified students be called "Native Practitioners" or " Apothe

caries."

Amendment not seconded.

Motion carried by 3 votes to 1.

Dr. THOMSON moved, and

Hon. Dr. Ho KAI seconded-

4

484

(6)

That qualified students of the existing College of Medicine for Chinese be permitted to register, if they desire it, under the new Ordinance; and that present students of that College be received into the proposed College without preliminary examination, and given credit for such time as they may already have devoted to medical study.

Dr. ATKINSON opposed the motion in its entirety.

Motion carried by 3 votes to 1.

Dr. THOMSON moved, and

Surgeon-Colonel EVATT seconded----

That Regulations for matriculation, curriculum of study, professional examinations, sessions, fees, &c. he remitted to the Governing Body, when it is formed.

Carried.

Surgeon-Colonel EVATT moved, and

Dr. ATKINSON seconded-

That the Government Civil Hospital, Lunatic Asylum, Fever Hospitals, &c. be thrown open to the College for purposes of clinical instruc- tion, and that the authorities of the Military and Naval Hospitals, and of the Alice Memorial and Nethersole Hospitals, be requested to do the same with these institutions.

Carried.

The Committee, having examined the plans for a College prepared by Hon. E. R. BELILIOS, C.M.G., in connection with his offer to the College of Medicine for Chinese, agreed that such a building would be admirably adapted to the requirements of the proposed College, and that no better site could be obtained than that which he has offered, on account of its proximity to the Government Civil Hospital.

The Committee estimated that an annual grant of $5,600 would be required to meet the expenses of the proposed College, as follows :-

$3,600, as salary of Superintendent, who would probably be provided with quarters in the College building;

$1,000, to provide honoraria for other lecturers, allowing for ten lecturers at $100 a year.

$1,000, to provide servants, and laboratory and other incidental expenses.

The Secretary was requested to embody the foregoing resolutions, &c., in a report to His Excellency the Governor, and submit the same for signature to the members of Committee.

485

(7)

(The Governor to Honourable E. R. Belilios.)

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 31st July, 1896.

SIR,

I have the honour to forward herewith for your information a copy of a report of the Committee appointed to enquire into and report on the question of a College of Medicine for Hongkong and to enquire whether you are prepared to extend your generous offer to give a site and to erect a building thereon to be used as a College to an institution placed under Government control, as recommended by the Com- mittee, or whether you have any modifications to suggest.

2. The recommendations of the Committee will, I feel sure, commend them- selves to you, as they are calculated to secure that permanence and continuity which are of primary importance to an Institution such as it is intended the College of Medicine should be, and I trust this will be an additional reason, if such be necessary, for inducing you not to withdraw your liberal offer, which cannot. fail to be of benefit to this Colony.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

The Honourable

E. R. BELILIOS, C.M.G.

His Excellency

WILLIAM ROBINSON,

Governor.

(Honourable E. R. Beliios to the Governor.)

HONGKONG, 4th August, 1896.

SIR,

I beg to acknowledge receipt of your favour of the 31st ultimo enclosing copy of a report of the Committee appointed to enquire into and report upon the question of the establishment of a College of Medicine for Hongkong and enquiring whether I am prepared to extend my offer to give a site and erect a building thereon to be used as a College to an institution placed under Govern- ment control as recommended by the Committee.

In reply I desire to state that circumstances have changed completely since my offer was made. That offer was made to an institution then struggling for existence, but warmly supported by Dr. CANTLIE and carefully administered by Dr. THOMSON. The former has left the Colony, the latter is relinquishing hospital work, and the other medical practitioners are too much occupied to take any keen interest in the institution.

My interest was largely made up of sympathy with the gallant efforts of the two doctors above named to found a College of Medicine for the Chinese.

The situation is now wholly changed. It has been shown by the recent out- breaks of bubonic plague in our midst and the insanitary condition of the city that the work of educating the Chinese in sanitation and a belief in Western medicine is a work that should be undertaken by the Government.

Under the changed conditions, therefore, I have finally resolved not to extend my offer to the College, much as it pains me to refuse assent to any suggestion coming from your Excellency.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

Sir WILLIAM ROBINSON, K.C.M.G.,

Governor,

&c..

&C..

&c.

E. R. BELILIOS.

Į

423

26

Enclosure 1.

Enclosure 2.

Enclosure 3.

Enclosure 4.

His Lordship

HONGKONG.

No. 98.

PAPERS ON THE SUBJECT OF A PETITION ADDRESSED TO THE HOUSE OF

COMMONS PRAYING FOR AN AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION

OF THE CROWN COLONY OF HONGKONG.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

No: 133.

(Despatch from the Governor to the Secretary of State.)

MY LORD MARQUESS,

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 5th June, 1894.

I have the honour to transmit to you a Petition which has been forwarded to me by the Honourable T. H. WHITEHEAD and which is addressed to the House of Commons and prays for an amendment of the constitution of the Crown Colony of Hongkong.

I have recently granted Mr. WHITEHEAD six months' leave of absence from the Legislative Council, and he is not only the prime mover in this Petition but the bearer of it to England. I think I am justified in saying that it owes its origin principally to the imposition upon the taxpayers, some three years ago, of the additional Military Contribution of £20,000 a year.

I enclose for your Lordship's consideration a report on this document by Mr. J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, the Acting Colonial Secretary, and also communi- cations from the Honourable J. J. KESWICK, M.L.C., Chairman of the Chamber of Commerce, and the Honourable E. R. BELILIOS, M.L.C., C.M.G., in which thesc gentlemen express their decided opinion that the prayer of the Petition should not be granted.

These papers will be of material assistance in enabling your Lordship to arrive at a decision upon the subject.

The second clause of the Petition seems to me to supply an answer to the several requests of the Petitioners.

It is impossible that Hongkong can have been otherwise than well governed if it has risen to the prosperous condition which the Petitioners claim for it, and that it has reached that pitch of prosperity under the "Crown Colony System" is indisputable.

I concur generally in the criticisms of Mr. STEWART LOCKHART. I believe that the Chinese, who are indifferently represented, and the Portuguese, who are not repre- sented at all, if a plebiscite could be taken, would be in favour of a pure autocracy; the Americans need not be counted, and the Britishers" with the exception of a few "unquiet spirits" would be satisfied to let matters remain as they are. That they are capable of improvement nevertheless, so far as "Municipal" questions are concerned, I admit. During twenty years, however, of Colonial Government, I have not yet been fortunate enough to come in contact with a Mayor and Council, excepting that perhaps of the comparatively small town of San Fernando in

THE MARQUESS OF RIPON,

Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies,

&c.,

&c.,

&c., Downing Street,

London.

424

(2)

}

Trinidad, which was capable of dealing with, and had sufficient time to deal with. purely local affairs, and even in that solitary case the Municipal Body was gene- rally in financial difficulties.

I do not think that in Hongkong a sufficient number of gentlemen of inde- pendent means and spirit and with sufficient leisure could be found to form a capable and energetic Municipal Council.

Personally I should not object to a slight addition to the Unofficial side of the Legislative Council in Hongkong, though I cannot admit the justice or truth of the Petitioners' plea, neither should I object to the appointment to the Executive Council of an Unofficial Member whose long residence and local knowledge would doubtless be of great assistance to the Executive in the preparation of measures to be submitted to the Legislative Council. Practically such assistance could always be obtained if the status quo were maintained, and I may state that I invariably consult the Unofficial Members before bringing into Council measures of purely local interest.

If your Lordship should desire to make or recommend any concession to the Petitioners, I would advise the appointment of an Unofficial Member with a seat in both Councils.

I am aware that there are serious objections to such a step, and that those objections have been pointed out by several of your Lordship's predecessors.

It must not be forgotten that the despatches containing those objections were addressed to Governors of Colonies where Houses of Assembly were in existence.

The difficulties in Barbadoes have been set at rest by the appointment of the Executive Committee which was established during my tenure of office there. In the Bahamas Unofficial Members are still seated at the Executive Council table.

If your Lordship should desire to make any such concession in the case of Hongkong, it would undoubtedly be a very popular, and I do not think, an alto- gether impolitic concession.

If this concession were accompanied by an acquiescence in my suggestion that until the present financial crisis is at an end, the extra £20,000 for Military Con- tribution might, from the 1st January, 1894, be paid in dollars at the rate in force when it was levied, I do not think that in future your Lordship's department would be troubled by any such petitions as the one I now have the honour to forward for your consideration.

I annex for your Lordship's information a "leader" from the North China Enclosure 5. Herald of the 25th May, on the "Petition of the Hongkong Ratepayers" which appears to be a very temperate and sensible criticism of the contents of that document.

I have the honour to be,

My Lord,

Your Lordship's

most obedient, humble Servant,

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

P.S.-The letters from the Honourables J. J. KESWICK and E. R. BELILIOs were

received by me after I had drafted this despatch.

W. R.

To the

( 3 )

Enclosure 1.)

425

Honourable The Commons of the

UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND IN

PARLIAMENT ASSEMBLED.

RESPECTFULLY SHEWETH :-

THE HUMBLE PETITION of the Undersigned Merchants, Bankers, Professional Men, Traders, Artisans, and other Ratepayers, inhabitants of the Crown Colony of Hongkong.

1. The Colony of Hongkong, situate in the China seas, at the south-eastern extremity of the great Empire of China, is one of the smallest, but by no means the least valuable or important, of Her Majesty's possessions outside of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

2. It is a little over 50 years since the Colony was founded on a barren rock, the abode of a few fishermen and pirates. To-day it is a City and Settlement with upwards of a quarter of a million inhabitants; a trade estimated at about Forty millions of pounds sterling per annum, and a revenue of some Two millions of dollars, wholly derived from internal taxation. Hongkong is a free port, through which passes upwards of Fourteen millions of tons of shipping per annum, and it ranks amongst the very first in the list of the great seaports in Her Majesty's dominions. It is the centre of enormous British interests, and is an extensive emporium of British trade in the China seas, and, while it remains a free port, it is destined to expand and develop, and to continue to be the centre of vast traffic and of constant communication between Europe, the Australian Colonies, the United States, and Canada on the one hand, and China, Japan, the Philippine Islands, British North Borneo, Java, Indo-China, Siam, the Straits, and India on the other.

3. Hongkong has attained to its almost unequalled commercial position, through the enterprise, skill, and energy of British Merchants, Traders, and Ship- owners; through the labours of Her Majesty's subjects who have spent their lives and employed their capital on its shores; through the expenditure of many millions of dollars in Roads, Streets, and Bridges; in buildings, public and private; in extensive Reclamations; in Docks, Piers, and Wharves; and last, but not least, in Manufactures of great and increasing value. The prosperity of the Colony can best be maintained by the unremitting exertions and self-sacrifice of your Peti- tioners and the valuable co-operation and support of the Chinese, and only by the continuance of Hongkong as a free port.

4. Notwithstanding that the whole interests of your Petitioners are thus inextricably and permanently bound up in the good Administration of the Colony, in the efficiency of its Executive, and the soundness of its Finance, your Petitioners are allowed to take only a limited part or small share in the Government of the Colony, and are not permitted to have any really effective voice in the management of its affairs, external or internal. Being purely a Crown Colony, it is governed by a Governor appointed by Her Most Gracious Majesty the QUEEN, and by an Executive and a Legislative Council. The former is composed wholly of Officers of the Crown, nominated and appointed by the Crown; the latter consists of seven Official Members, selected and appointed by the QUEEN, and five Unofficial Members, two of whom are nominated by certain public bodies in the Colony, while the other three are selected by the Governor, and all are appointed by Her Majesty.

1

426

( 4 )

5. The Executive Council sits and deliberates in secret. The Legislative Council sits with open doors, and its procedure appears to admit of full and unfettered discussion, but there is virtually no true freedom of debate. Questions are considered, and settled, and the policy to be adopted by the Government in connection therewith is decided in the Executive Council. They are then brought before the Legislative Council, where the Government-the Official Members being in a majority--can secure the passing of any measure, in face of any opposition on the part of the Unofficial Members, who are thus limited to objecting and protesting, and have no power to carry any proposal which they may consider beneficial, nor have they power to reject or even modify any measure which may in their opinion be prejudicial to the interests of the Colony.

6. In the adjustment and disposal of the Colonial Revenue it might be sup- posed that the Unofficial Representatives of the taxpayers would be allowed a potential voice, and in form this has been conceded by the Government. But only in form, for in the Finance Committee, as well as in the Legislative Council, the Unofficial Members are in a minority, and can therefore be out-voted if any real difference of opinion arises.

;

7. Legislative Enactments are nearly always drafted by the Attorney General, are frequently forwarded before publication in the Colony or to the Council for the approval of the Secretary of State, and when sanctioned are introduced into the Legislative Council, read a first, second, and third time, and passed by the votes of the Official Members, acting in obedience to instructions, irrespective of their per- sonal views or private opinions.

The Legislation so prepared and passed emanates in some cases from persons whose short experience of and want of actual touch with the Colony's needs, does not qualify them to fully appreciate the measures best suited to the requirements of the Community.

8. Those who have the knowledge and experience are naturally the Unofficial Members, who have been elected and appointed as possessing these very qualifica- tions, who have passed large portions of their lives in the Colony, and who either have permanent personal interests in it, or hold prominent positions of trust which connect them most closely with its affairs, and are therefore the more likely to have been required to carefully study its real needs, and to have thoroughly acquainted themselves with the methods by which these are best to be met. On the other hand the offices occupied by the Official Members are only stepping stones in an official career; the Occupants may be resident for a longer or a shorter period in the Colony, and for them to form an opinion on any question which arises, different from that decided upon by the Government in Executive Council, is to risk a conflict with the Governor, and they are therefore compelled to vote on occasions contrary to their convictions.

9. Your petitioners humbly represent that to Malta, Cyprus, Mauritius, British Honduras, and other Crown Colonies, more liberal forms of Government than those enjoyed by your Petitioners have been given: Unofficial seats in the Execu- tive Council; Unofficial majorities in the Legislative Council; power of election of Members of Council; and more power and influence in the management of purely local affairs in none of these Colonies are the Commercial and Industrial interests of the same magnitude or importance as those of Hongkong. Your Petitioners, therefore, pray your Honourable House to grant them the same or similar privileges.

10. Your Petitioners fully recognise that in a Colony so peculiarly situated on the borders of a great Oriental Empire, and with a population largely composed of aliens whose traditional and family interests and racial sympathies largely remain in that neighbouring Empire, special legislation and guardianship are required. Nor are they less alive to the Imperial position of a Colony which is at

*

}

1

(5)

427

once a frontier Fortress and a Naval Depôt, the head quarters of Her Majesty's Fleet, and the base for Naval and Military operations in these Far Eastern waters : and they are not so unpractical as to expect that unrestricted power should be given to any local Legislature, or that the QUEEN'S Government could ever give up the paramount control of this important Dependency. All your Petitioners claim is the common right of Englishmen to manage their local affairs, and control the Expenditure of the Colony, where Imperial considerations are not involved.

11. At present your petitioners are subject to Legislation issuing from the Imperial Parliament, and all local legislation must be subsidiary to it. Her Majesty the QUEEN in Council has full and complete power and authority to make laws for the Island, and local laws must be approved and assented to by the Governor in the name of the QUEEN, and are subject to disallowance by Her Majesty on the recommendation of Her Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies.

12. Your Petitioners recognise the necessity and propriety of the existence of these checks and safeguards against the abuse of any power and authority exer- cised by any local Legislature, and cheerfully acquiesce in their continuance and effective exercise, but respectfully submit that, subject to these checks and safe- guards, they ought to be allowed the free election of Representatives of British Nationality in the Legislative Council of the Colony; a majority in the Council of such elected Representatives; perfect freedom of debate for the Official Members, with power to vote according to their conscientious convictions without being called to account or endangered in their positions by their votes; complete control in the Council over local expenditure; the management of local affairs; and a consultative voice in questions of an Imperial character.

Your Petitioners therefore most humbly pray your Honourable House to move Her Most Gracious Majesty the QUEEN to amend by Order in Council the constitution of this Crown Colony, and to grant to your Petitioners, and to the inhabitants of Hong- kong in all time to come the rights and privileges herein before mentioned.

(Here follow 363 signatures.)

Enclosure 2.

Memorandum by the Acting Colonial Secretary (The Honourable J. H. Stewart Lockhart.)

YOUR EXCELLENCY,

In accordance with your instruction: I beg to make the following remarks on the petition to the House of Commons praying for an amendment of the constitu- tion of the Crown Colony of Hongkong.

.

The document professes to be the humble petition of merchants, bankers, professional men, traders, artisans, and other ratepayers, inhabitants of Hongkong.

The signatories amount to 363; of these 284 are British, 10 Anglo-Chinese, 3 Americans, 4 Portuguese, and 47 British Indians.

The petition is so loosely worded and in certain respects so contradictory that it is not altogether an easy matter to ascertain definitely what the wishes of the petitioners are or who are to be included in the alleged benefits for which the peti- tioners pray.

428

(6)

They, however, appear to be summed up in the last paragraph of the petition as follows:

1. The election of representatives of British nationality in the Legislative

Council.

2. A majority of such representatives in the Council.

3. Freedom of debate for the Official Members with power to vote as

they desire.

4. Complete control in the Council over local expenditure.

5. The management of local affairs.

6. A consultative voice in questions of an Imperial character.

As petitioners point out, Hongkong was founded over 50 years ago on a barren rock, the abode of a few fishermen. To-day the Colony has upwards of a quarter of a million inhabitants, a trade estimated at £40,000,000 annually, and a revenue of some two millions of dollars wholly derived from internal taxation.

As regards the population of Hongkong, the actual figures as ascertained at the last Census held in 1891 were 221,441; out of this total there was a Chinese resident population of 210,995; a resident British civil population of 1,448; a Portuguese population of 2,089; a German population of 208; and an American "population of 93.

Of the British resident population the number of male adults was 795; of the Chinese population the number of male adults was 127,690; that is to say, for every male adult Britisher in Hongkong there were 160 adult Chinese.

The male adult Britishers of this Colony (exclusive of Anglo-Chinese who are not a large class and who, as it is difficult to ascertain their numbers and as it is not possible as a rule to distinguish them from ordinary Chinese, whose views and sentiments they for the most part share, may be counted as Chinese) are composed of heads of and assistants in mercantile, banking, and shipping firms and stores.

The British population of Hongkong is by no means a permanent one as petitioners seem to suggest. The number of persons, to quote the words of the Petition, “who have passed large portions of their lives in the Colony," is very small. Their object in coming to the Colony is to acquire wealth and to return to Great Britain as soon as they possibly can.

It is true that fortunes are not now made so rapidly as formerly, and enforced residence abroad is under the present condition of things of longer duration than it once used to be. But even under these altered circumstances the British popula- tion of Hongkong is always changing. Heads of houses often leave Hongkong to superintend their business in other parts of China or at home, and mercantile assistants are being continually moved from agency to agency. During the last ten years the heads and staff of almost every firm in the Colony have been changed, in many instances, more than once. Undoubtedly there have been British residents who have devoted both time and labour to promoting the welfare of the Colony, but the instances of "self-sacrifice" of personal interests to the public good have been very rare. Indeed, merchants and others make no secret of the fact that the good of their firms is the first object of their consideration, and that everything, public or private, must yield to it; and they have little or no time to devote to outside matters not intimately connected with their own business relations. There is no leisured class in this Colony, which has the time, even if it had the will, to devote to matters of public interest.

It must also be borne in mind that the mass of the population of this Colony consists of Chinese. Between the Chinese and the British merchants there is

( 7 )

429

absolutely no intercourse except that of a commercial nature. Between the two populations there is a gulf almost as wide as there was a quarter of a century or even fifty years ago.

It is true that there are inore Chinese who can speak English than formerly, but the proportion they bear to the whole is infinitesimal, the large majority of the Chinese being as ignorant of our language as the British resident is of Chinese. Under such conditions as these it is not surprising that knowledge of Chinese, their customs and their peculiar requirements should be a sealed book to the British resident, whose intercourse with the Chinese is of the most limited nature, being almost exclusively confined to a discussion of markets, goods and prices carried on in a jargon called "pidgin" English. With such a medium of expression an interchange of ideas is practically impossible and is, indeed, rarely attempted. When therefore the petitioners in paragraph 8 of their petition describe the Un- official Members as the natural possessors of "knowledge and experience," it is impossible that they can mean "knowledge and experience" of the Chinese and Chinese requirements, for, of them, it is notorious that they are very ignorant.

It is not possible that under such circumstances they can in any way represent them. It perhaps may be this inability which leads the petitioners to seriously recommend that the Chinese should have no representatives, representation being monopolised by persons of British nationality, who are to "have complete control over local expenditure" to the payment of which they contribute but a very small share.

In considering the question of representation it is important to remember that, as petitioners state, "the traditional and family interests and racial sympathies of the Chinese who come to Hongkong largely remain in China," which is simply another mode of saying that the Chinese in Hongkong remain Chinese, a truism which is well-known even to the casual visitor to the Colony. But petitioners seem to forget that in calling attention to this undoubted fact they at the same time unfortunately remind us that representative institutions are not only unsuit- able but quite alien to the mind of the Chinese.

In China the patriarchal system still exists, the unit of society there is the family and not the individual. The modern idea of "one man one vote" is one which a Chinaman can hardly comprehend, and if he does succeed in grasping its meaning, it is an idea which does not appeal to him, as it is opposed to the constitu- tion of society and the theory of government in China. In China taxes are levied and expended by the Government, the people having no voice in or control over expenditure, and the Chinese population of this Colony would be quite content to live under the same system so long as the taxes were fairly levied and expended for the purpose for which they were collected, without any of that peculation which is so rife in their own country. Indeed, they would prefer this system to one which, if the prayer of the Petition is granted, would practically place the levying and expending of their taxes in the hands of a small body of British merchants who may be here to-day and gone to-morrow, and whom the Chinese would be most unwilling to recognize as their lords and masters. It would also weaken the Government in the eyes of the Chinese if its views could be over-ridden by a handful of British merchants.

Among the Chinese there are some residents whom residence abroad or con- nection with foreigners have imbued with notions differing from those held by the rest of their countrymen, but they are a small minority and are not representative of the Chinese view. The Chinese have lived in peace under the British flag in Hongkong for more than half a century; they are quite satisfied with the present form of Government under which the laws are fairly administered without distinc- tion of race; under which their peculiar customs and requirements receive every consideration; and under which taxes are justly levied and honestly expended.

430

(8)

Petitioners estimate the trade of this Colony at £40,000,000 a year, and among other reasons attribute the almost unequalled commercial position to which the Colony has attained "to the enterprise, skill and energy of British merchants," and state that "the prosperity of the Colony can best be maintained by the unremitting exertions and self-sacrifice of Petitioners and the valuable co-operation and support of the Chinese."

Whatever may have been the conditions of trade in this Colony in years gone by, it is a fact I believe acknowledged by British merchants themselves that the modern tendency is for the trade to fall more and more into the hands of the Chinese, though this could hardly be attributed to "self-sacrifice" on the part of the petitioners. The large British mercantile houses of former days are now either extinct or have considerably modified their former methods of conducting business. Instead of merchants now dealing in merchandise on their own account, their transactions are becoming more and more confined to buying or selling on con- mission for or to Chinese, and this, no doubt, is the reason why large mercantile houses do not increase, while smaller mercantile firms, working on a small capital, doing business as commission agents, are increasing. Without the Chinese traders of this Colony, its prosperity would soon wane, and it is in no small degree due to them that Hongkong has reached its present commercial position.

The following statistics will show how large and rapid has been the growth of the Chinese population

RETURN II.

CENSUS OF THE COLONY OF HONGKONG, 1857–1891.

CHINESE.-LAND,

CHINESE. Boat.

Men. Women. Boys.

Girls. Total. Men. Women. Boys. Girls.

Total.

1857,*

1858,..... 35,347 8,864 4,299

1859, 36,257 10,219 4,406

1860,.

43,132 11,315 4,859

1861,......... 58,598 15,308 6,417

1862,...... 63,056 14,252 6,420

1863, 59,819 16,969 8,029

1864,.

57.173 16,587 7,870

1865,.

..... 62,522 17,135 8,448

1866,.

3,311 | 51,821| 11,240] 4,496 3,893 2,296 21,925

3,561 54,443 13,918 6,537 6,265 4,117 30,837

4,276 63,882| 14,482 5,936 5,076 3,065 28,559

5,148 85,471 15,207 7,169 5,271 3,262 30,909

5,172 88,900 16,921 6,212 5,160 3,346 31,639

6,416 91,233 16,223 6.529 4,901 2,881 30,537

6,983 88,613) 14,556 6,188 5,448 3,142 29,334

6,685 94,790 14,421 6,053 3,945

2,466

26,885

58,507 14,761 5,899 5,433 84,600 13,872 5,627 4,692 2,763 26,954

1867, 60,724 17,667 7.299 6,907 92,597 10,564 4,722 3,558 2,479 21,323

1968-69,. 61,052 16,526 7,437 6,716 91,751| 10,397 5,7

5,777 3,494 2,861 22,529

1870-71, 61,028 17,143 6,765

6,765 6,799 91,735| 11,157 | 5,552

1872, 64,514 17,453

1876, 71,126 19,222 8,734 8,341 107,423 9,899 5,165

1881

78,778 21,640 10,922 10,361 121,701 12,674 6,401

1891

113,241 33,523| 16,118| 16,078 |178,960 | 14,449| 6,969 5,886 4,731 32,035

!

3,982 3,018 23,709

6,748 6,650 95,365 9,457 4,623

3,566 2,553 20,199

4,241 3,440 22,745

5,287 4,627 28,989

* Particulars not ascertainable.

With this increase in the population there has been a corresponding increase in the volume of trade carried on by Chinese not only with Europeans but also among themselves quite independently of Europeans, British or otherwise.

(9)

431

As regards the revenue of Hongkong, it is derived entirely from internal taxation, and amounted in 1893 to $2,078,135.

Most of the taxes fall almost entirely on Chinese. The only tax to which the British and other residents as a whole are subject in the same manner as the Chinese is the tax of 13% levied on the rateable value of house property in Victoria, a smaller rate being levied in out-stations.

This tax yields annually about $470,000, of which over $305,500 are con- tributed by the Chinese and the balance by all the other nationalities combined.

The petitioners, who are not in some instances British and who do not in many cases contribute directly to the taxes, claim "the common right of Englishmen to manage the local affairs and control the expenditure of the Colony." They have, however, carefully omitted to point out that the local affairs include Chinese affairs of which, as has been stated, they are generally ignorant and which the Chinese have shown no desire that the British merchants and other residents should manage, and to indicate that to the expenditure of the Colony of which they desire the control they contribute a very small portion.

Petitioners do not surely wish to maintain that Britishers have an inherent right to control all expenditure be their contributions to the revenue however small! It would be interesting to know in what period of our constitutional history such a right has been asserted or allowed.

As a matter of fact, if taxation is to be taken as the basis of representation, and, seeing that it is as ratepayers petitioners present the petition, it may be inferred that such is the basis they desire, residents of British nationality are at present over-represented in the Legislative Council. That Council now consists of six Official Members (all of whom, by the way, are ratepayers), exclusive of the Governor, and five Unofficial Members. Every one of these Unofficial Members, including the Honourable Ho KAI, is of British nationality. Of the five Unofficial Members two are natives of Great Britain, two are natives of India, and one is a native of Hongkong. The Chinese properly so called are not represented at all, for, though the Honourable Ho KAI is of Chinese descent, he is a native of Hong- kong and therefore of British nationality. But petitioners are not satisfied with the excessive representation they already possess; they now desire a majority of members of British nationality in the Legislative Council, which would mean at least an iu- crease of three members. They say they ought to be allowed "the free election of representatives of British nationality," but they do not suggest how this free election is to be conducted, nor do they state whether the right of election is to be restricted as to nationality. Seeing that the petition is signed by British, American, Portuguese and Chinese it might be inferred that the right of election is not to be in any way restricted, but is to be exercised by all ratepayers alike regardless of nationality. Were the franchise limited to persons of British nationality this would practically restrict the right of voting to the 800 adult British residents and to Anglo-Chinese subjects who are a very indefinite and by no means numerous class. Of these 800 adult Britishers not many have any interest or stake in the Colony beyond their own employment, and the Anglo-Chinese community, being as a class imbued with Chinese views and sentiments, it seems unreasonable to grant them a privilege which is withheld from the other Chinese, who form almost the whole of the population, who contribute by far the largest proportion of the taxation, and who have by far the largest interest of any nationality in the Colony. On the other hand if the right of election is to include aliens, Chinese numbers would swamp those of any other nationality; the Council would be constituted entirely as the Chinese might desire, and it would be quite possible for them to elect none but Anglo-Chinese Members. At present three of the Members of the Legislative Council are nominated by the Governor, one is elected by the Justices of the Peace, who are British subjects, and one by the Chamber of Commerce. The latter

432

( 10 )

institution is composed of persons of all nationalities, so that aliens now have a vote of which they would be deprived if the election of members of Council is to be confined to persons of British nationality.

Petitioners state that there is "no true freedom of debate" in the Legislative Council, and seem to imply that the views of the Unofficial Members are invariably disregarded. Every one who is acquainted with the bistory of Hongkong knows that the utmost freedom of debate is allowed on all matters brought before Council. A reference to the pages of the local Hansard will show how every measure is thoroughly debated before being adopted and what regard is paid to the views of the Unofficial Members. The same work bears witness to the ignorance of Chinese matters displayed by some Unofficial Members.

Petitioners seem to regard it as a grievance that Legislative enactments are drafted by the Attorney General. The Attorney General would, it is almost certain, be only too ready to allow members of Council or others ambitious of figuring as legal draftsmen and who are able to fulfil the object of their ambition to share with him his labours in this respect. But as it is part of his duties, for which he is paid, to draft Ordinances, it is only natural that he should do this work especially as volunteer draftsmen have still to be found. Unofficial members of Council have never yet suggested a Legislative measure which has not received the consideration of the Council, and within the last few years more than onc measure has been brought forward by an Unofficial Member and passed into law. As an example it is sufficient to mention the Share Bill introduced by the Honourable J. J. KESWICK and passed into law by the Legislative Council. On the other hand the Unofficial Members have not infrequently strongly opposed and striven to prevent passing into law measures which they have been afterwards compelled to acknowledge by incontrovertible facts as of great benefit to the Colony. When the Stamp Ordinance, which still exists, was introduced by Sir RICHARD MACDONNELL the Unofficial Members raised a hue and cry declaring that the Governor would ruin the Colony if the law were carried. The law was carried; the Colony prospers; and the revenue receives a valuable addition from its stamp duties. This simply illustrates that to err is as human on the part of Unofficial Members as of others.

The statement in the Petition that Legislative enactments "are frequently forwarded before publication in the Colony or to the Council for the approval of the Secretary of State" and then rushed through the Council without consideratiou is not in accordance with facts. No reason exists for such action seeing that to every Ordinance which has passed the Council a suspension clause can be added, suspending the carrying into force of an Ordinance until Her Majesty's confirmation For disallowance has been received. Unofficial Members themselves have frequently

requested the addition of such suspension clauses to Ordinances.

Reference has already been made to the knowledge and experience of Unoffi- cial Members which petitioners regard as theirs by nature; the length and object of their residence in the Far East have been touched upon; and allusion has also been made to their want of leisure to study any problems outside their own business sphere.

Petitioners' reference to the Official Members "whose offices are only stepping stones in an official career" and who may be resident in the Colony for a longer or shorter period is misleading.

There are at present in the Legislative Council six Official Members exclusive of the Governor.

(1) The Colonial Secretary whom even the Unofficial Members regard

as one of the best officers this Colony has ever possessed.

(2) The Attorney General whose work is of a technical nature and confined entirely to legal matters, which as a rule do not require local knowledge.

( 11 )

433

(3) The Registrar General who is the officer entrusted with the adminis-

tration of Chinese affairs and who requires a special knowledge of local affairs and requirements. The present holder of the post has been in the Colony fifteen years, and has held his present post for seven years.

(4) The Colonial Treasurer who is entrusted with the collection of

revenue, &c. and who has been in the Colony 13 years.

(5) The Director of Public Works who has been in the Colony seven

years.

(6) The Harbour Master who has been in the Colony ten years.

As a matter of fact the Official Members of the Legislative Council not only now are, but during the last twenty years have as a rule been long resident in the Colony, their residence being as a rule of as long duration as that of the Unofficial Members, who, as has already been pointed out, do not generally remain perma- nently in Hongkong.

Petitioners quote Malta, Cyprus, Mauritius and British Honduras as examples of Crown Colonies enjoying more liberal forms of Government than those enjoyed in Hongkong and add that "in none of those Colonies are the commercial and industrial interests of the same magnitude and importance as those of Hongkong." But Petitioners might at the same time have pointed out, as the late senior Un- official Member Mr. RYRIE used to say: "Hongkong is a place sui generis." In none of the Colonies mentioned are the conditions either of population or situation the same as those of this Colony, nor is the Imperial position of them like Hongkong which," to quote the words of the petitioners, "is at once a frontier fortress and "a naval depôt, the head quarters of Her Majesty's fleet, and the base for naval and military operations in these Far Eastern waters and of which Petitioners are not "so unpractical as to expect that the Queen's Government could ever give up the (4 paramount control.” But notwithstanding this disclaimer, petitioners who include not only British subjects but also Americans, Portuguese and Chinese pray for a consultative voice in questions of an Imperial character; and claim the com- mon right of Englishmen!

(*

The Petitioners also pray for unofficial seats on the Executive Council. There are obvious objections to giving a seat on the Executive Council to private indi- viduals with personal interests in the Colony. At the same time such a departure from the usual constitution of Crown Colonies would have its advantages. An Unofficial Member of Executive Council would form a link between the Executive Council and the Unofficial Members of the Legislative Council, which might lead to beneficial results in the adininistration of affairs, but such a member would have to be a resident of experience, well-known for his public spirit, and ready to subor- dinate his own interests and personal considerations to the general welfare of the Colony. Such residents, no doubt, there are in Hongkong, but it will not be casy to induce them to come forward, for, as has already been stated, British residents in this Colony are engrossed in their own occupations, which so monopolize their attention that they are not often able, even if they are willing, to give up much time to the discussion or consideration of matters of public importance, which do not immediately concern themselves or their business.

To sum up, the petition is signed by certain residents in Hongkong, includ- ing British subjects and aliens, who desire the free election of a majority of Unofficial Members, who are to be British subjects. Petitioners do not state clearly in whom the free election of such a majority of members is to vest, or what is to be the basis of representation. If representation is to be based on taxation and the right of election is to extend to all nationalities alike, the Chinese, who so largely outnumber all other nationalities, will be able to carry the clection of any member for whom they may vote. If the so-called free election of members be

434

( 12 )

restricted to British subjects, which is believed to be the real object of the Petitioners, the electorate will be confined to a handful of Britishers, numbering about 800 male adults, exclusive of the Anglo-Chinese, who are not a numerous class, whose sympathies are almost invariably Chinese, and who have at the pre- sent time a representative in the Legislative Council, the Honourable Ho KAI. These 800 Britishers are already represented in the Legislative Council by four Members, though the amount of the taxation contributed by them is very small when compared with that contributed by the Chinese, whose adult male popula- tion amounts to 127,690, but who are at present unrepresented and who, not being Britishers, under the new arrangements proposed by the Petitioners, will not be qualified for seats on the Legislative Council, which are to be reserved exclusively for persons of British nationality. If the Unofficial Members are to be in a major- ity, as Petitioners pray, the Chinese, who are unaccustomed to the principles of representation, and who have evinced no desire for its extended application in Hongkong, will have to witness the spectacle of the representatives of the Impe- rial Government being over-ridden and defeated by a majority elected from a small number of British residents-an object lesson which would certainly not tend to raise the prestige or strengthen the authority of British rule in the eyes of the Chinese.

The Petitioners desire to have complete control over local expenditure, to which they contribute but a small portion, and at the same time to exclude from having any voice in such control the Chinese, from whom most of the revenue of the Colony is derived.

They wish to have the management of local affairs, which must necessarily include Chinese affairs, of which most of the Petitioners are notoriously ignorant and which the Chinese have shown no desire to entrust to the management of an elected majority of representatives of British nationality.

The Petitioners, British and alien, ask for a consultative voice in questions of an Imperial character. What these may be it is somewhat hard to divine, but it is obvious that no alien should have any voice in such matters. Whether British subjects in Hongkong, including Anglo-Chinese, whose sympathies, as already pointed out, are as a rule Chinese, should be consulted on Imperial matters is a question which appertains to the Imperial Government, and may be safely left to it for an answer.

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, Acting Colonial Secretary.

26th May, 1894.

Enclosure 3.

(Honourable J. J. Kesunck to the Governor.)

HONGKONG, 5th June, 1894.

SIR,

In compliance with your Excellency's request, I have now the honour to state my views on the subject of the Petition to the House of Commons recently signed by a large number of persons in this community.

I now proceed to speak in regard to the substance of the Petition, but 1 will refrain from criticizing it clause by clause as it seems unnecessary. I challenge, however, its general statements which have been marshalled in such form as to

( 13 )

435

convey the idea that the petitioners and the Chinese community by a long period of self-sacrifice have made this Colony what it is, and that its prosperity can best be maintained by their unremitting exertions, by the self-sacrifice of themselves, "and by the co-operation and support of the Chinese."

While admitting the unquestioned importance to the Colony of its present citizens, Hongkong does not, as a matter of fact, owe its importance to the petitioners in any such exclusive manner, but to fifty-three years of enlightened and prudent government, to a long line of able and esteemed men and firms of all nationalities, to local industries, to Banks and Steamboat Companies-most of them with British capital-and to Chinese, all of whom moved by no sentiment but that of gain live here for the purposes of business exclusively. Europeans and Americans do not come here to sacrifice themselves for the Colony, but to make money, and as soon as they have enough they retire to their own countries.

The Chinese are essentially a changing element in the community, most of them being domiciled both in Hongkong and on the adjoining mainland. There could be nothing further from the fact than a contention that the Chinese residents in Hongkong are here as colonists interested in the place, its prosperity, and with its future, for, they have no sympathy with its Government, its laws, or its progress, apart from their individual interests.

A careful study of the Memorial will reveal that the framer of it had some difficulty in stating precisely what the grievances of the petitioners are, and he has failed to make any suggestion how the remedies prayed for are to be applied.

I think I may sum up the prayer of the petition in the following requests :-

1. The free election of Unofficial Members of Council.

2. A working majority of Unofficial Members of Council.

3. Complete control by the unofficial majority over the expenditure.

of the Colony.

4. Management of Local Affairs.

5. A consultative voice in matters of an Imperial character.

I will take each of these requests in turn.

A.-The free election of Unofficial Members of Council.

There is nothing that I can conceive of that might lead to more serious consequences to the good repute and usefulness of the Legislative Council than this proposal. Should this request be granted the Legislative Council would certainly have from time to time a most undesirable unofficial element who would not command public confidence, and the most important interests in the Colony would not be represented, but on the contrary, possibly be signalled out for discriminate treatment.

B.-A working majority of Unofficial Members of Council.

I do not contemplate for a moment the possibility of such a request being granted, and I base my opinion on the following considerations. Looking to the importance of Hongkong not only from a commercial point of view but also as a naval and military station, and to its proximity to China, to its Chinese inha- bitants who look upon it as China, and to the desire of China to resume it if opportunity afforded, I cannot imagine any Ministry (or House of Commons) parting with the absolute and certain control over it, always and readily exercis- able by the Imperial Government. Such control can only be effectively main- tained by retaining the existing form of local Government in the Colony, ¿.e., Gov- ernment through a Governor with the command of an official majority in the Legislative Council.

436

( 14 )

C.-Complete control by the unofficial majority over the Expenditure

of the Colony.

This is a proposal that some half dozen men representing, say, eight hundred ratepayers should dispose of the revenues derived from over 200,000 Chinese rate- payers and derived also from local industries and British capital.

Assuming that the Unofficial Members were all elected and that they had a working majority, it may be conceived what evils would arise in the local Legisla- ture if they could dispose of its revenue as they might elect.

If this prayer were granted it would be necessary in common justice to give the Chinese adequate representation based either (a) on numbers, or (b) on taxa- tion. In either case the Chinese must indisputably be given their full weight, in the case of (a) in respect of their numbers, or in the case of (b) in respect of the taxes paid by them. In either case where would British interests in Hongkong be ?

D.-Management of Local Affairs.

What are local affairs?

The drainage, roads, wharves, harbour, police, Treasury, Post Office, Educa- tion, in fact all departments of Government which it is proposed to hand over to an unofficial majority of persons. The evils that would spring from such a con- cession would destroy all confidence in the administration of affairs, and introduce the Colony to the municipal experiences of New York and San Francisco.

E-A consultative voice in matters of an Imperial character.

I do not understand what Hongkong has to do with matters of an Imperial character beyond her responsibilities as a Crown Colony of Great Britain, and it is not apparent to me in what way the Unofficial Members could exercise the pri- vilege prayed for if granted.

A distinction is made in words between local affairs and Imperial affairs, but in all cases where the discussion sets out with general phrases the difficulties are found when they come to be practically defined. In this case the petitioners agitating for power to manage a certain class of affairs ought to have specified with the greatest precision what those affairs are, otherwise how can any effect be given to their demand?

There is not much more that I can usefully add in the way of criticism of this very short-sighted, and, as I view it, mischievous Petition, which I have endeavoured to consider with an open, unprejudiced mind as to the motives which underlie it, and its substance, but I would perhaps do well to make a few general remarks on the whole subject.

A revolutionary change in the Government, even of a sinall Colony, requires the most cogent reasons to justify it, and the demand for popular Government ought at least to come spontaneously from the people who are aggrieved by the existing régime. In this case both these conditions are wanting. The grievance is not defined but is hidden away in hypothetical generalities, and there is nothing about the "movement" to show that it is the outcome of any genuine public feel- ing.

The proposal is crude and shapeless, and has not been thought out by the authors. They ask for representative Government, while carefully avoiding any specification of the electoral body or the mode of election, or the qualifications of the representatives. They wish to introduce an entirely new thing, but cannot get beyond the terminology appropriate to the existing régime.

( 15 )

437

The petitioners propose that the Unofficial Members of Council should be chosen by the people, but they fail to say by whom, or by what section, or by what process. These are matters of detail, but the petitioners have not grasped them, and in a proposed reconstruction of the Government to remedy alleged evils they were bound to state in what manner the end was to be accomplished, and to show that they would not open the door to greater evils than those they sought to

remiove.

Under a nominally popular Government as in that of New York, for example, (to which I have already referred), the greatest abuses may be perpetuated, and it is almost impossible to conceive a representative Government properly so-called put into operation in a peculiar place like Hongkong without the worst abuses cropping in. I can see room for and danger of the worst abuses! It is incumbent on those who agitate for a change to show how they mean to prevent such abuses, and to do this the petitioners ought to have laid bare their scheme in full detail.

I have an impression that if the promoter or promoters of this Petition had called the community together publicly and explained distinctly what they really wanted, the good sense of the persons who hurriedly signed the Memorial would have prevailed, and the Petition would not have gone further, nor the community have been thrown into gratuitous antagonism to the Government.

It may not be out of place if I now venture to express my personal opinion with regard to the number of Unofficial Members of Council.

I consider that for all practical purposes the present number of five is suffi- cient, but as there is a good deal of feeling expressed from time to time that those persons of European and American nationalities who are neither members of the Chamber of Commerce nor Justices of the Peace have no representative in Council, I would recommend that they should have one, and that their voting privileges should be based on the rents they pay.

I think that it would be of considerable assistance to the Government to have one Unofficial Member of Council of English birth in the Executive Council. Many questions continually arise in which knowledge and experience outside the circle of Government might be of considerable value, and add to the Executive strength.

In conclusion, I would strongly deprecate the addition to the Legislative Council of a second representative of the Chinese.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your Excellency's most obedient Servant,

70 His Excellency

Sir WILLIAM ROBINSON, K.C.M.G.

J. J. KESWICK,

438

DEAR SIR,

( 16 )

Enclosure 4.

(Honourable E. R. Belilios to the Governor.)

HONGKONG, 29th May, 1894.

I am in receipt of your letter of the 21st instant informing me that a petition to the House of Commons has been forwarded to you by Mr. WHITEHEAD with the request that you will send it to the Secretary of State, and asking me, as an old resident and a member of the Legislative Council, to give my opinion in regard to that petition. As you opine I am fully aware of the prayer of that petition, and it is no doubt within your knowledge that I declined to append my signature to it.

I avail myself with much pleasure of the opportunity now afforded me to set forth the reasons that prompted me to adopt a course in opposition to that taken by the majority of my unofficial colleagues in the Legislative Council.

I am of opinion that a somewhat larger share in, and control over, the adminis- tration of purely local affairs should be conceded to the British taxpayers of this Colony; but I think the petition goes too far. It contemplates the utter swamp- ing of the official element in the Legislative Council and the introduction of Un- official Members into the Executive Council. I am not prepared to advocate such a sweeping change. I consider that British Imperial interests must always be paramount here because this island is only a commercial depôt and coaling station -a mere fortified rock--on which there can be no permanent local interests of any magnitude. I am not aware of a single British resident who regards this island as his home; we are all birds of passage, giving place, every few years, to another set of, shall I say, commercial swallows. There is no planting interest; no estates handed down from father to son, as is the case in Mauritius, Cyprus, Malta, &c. where the settlement of the soil preceded the British Government, not as happened in this Colony, where the settlers followed the establishment of the administration and then consisted of trading hongs. It may be objected that the Officials are also only temporary residents, but they at any rate carry on a settled policy and are responsible to a higher authority, while the successors to the Unofficial Members may hold widely different views to those animating my colleagues and may represent a dwindled British interest.

In the event of a large increase in the number of Unofficial Members of the Legislative Council being conceded, I am very doubtful whether, even now, suitable

men

with the needed leisure could be found whose position would admit of their acceptance of the duties and responsibilities involved. Most of the remain- ing representative residents have their time so fully occupied that they would be compelled to decline the honour. But supposing that good legislators could now be found, I am by no means satisfied that there would always be fitting successors to them or that the interests we leave behind us here would be safe in their hands, that is, of course, supposing the unofficial element to be in the majority. Personally I confess I would prefer to trust in the future to officials of whose probity I need feel no doubt and of whose policy no speculation need be entertained to a body of elected representatives who might in years to come be returned to office largely by Chinese or mixed votes, pledged to a policy I could not approve and which might have disastrous effects for the Colony. There might come a time even when schemers would find it to their advantage to enter the Council, in order to promote projects for their own personal enrichment or aggrandisement. This has happened in some countries, and if the power became vested in the elected members of Coun- cil it might some day happen here. We cannot claim any monopoly of civic virtue. It is opportunity that often creates the boodler and the rogue. What better illustration of this can be given than the case of JABEZ BALFOUR--the coin-

1

( 17 )

439

pany promoter and absconder, whose extradition is now being sought from Argen- tine? I am not therefore inclined to vote for the provision of the opportunity. Perhaps some of the signatories to the petition have not looked quite so far ahead as I have. I have lived in this Colony for many years-the best part of a lifetime --I have seen repeated changes in the personnel of the community, and I have witnessed several important changes in the local conditions. There will be further changes, and they may not always make for the better.

Paragraph 2 of the Petition ascribes the prosperity and progress of the Colony to the enterprise, energy, and commercial acuineu of the commercial community, and undoubtedly much will, I trust,-being a merchant myself-be credited to them by the Imperial Government and the House of Commons. At the same time I think no small share in the growth of Hongkong's trade and importance is due to its stable government during the half century of its existence as a British Crown Colony.

As I intimated at the outset, I think that the unofficial element in the Legis tive Council might be increased, but I do not consider that it would be well for the Colony to allow it to attain a position whereby it could over-ride the Government. I at least do not forget that in the event of the Governor of the day proving arbi- trary or unreasonable the Colonists have always the resource of an appeal to the Secretary of State: this has rarely failed them in the past, and is not likely to prove less efficacious in the future. Moreover, and this is a consideration to which I think my fellow-colonists should attach some weight, the Officials in the Colonial Office have had a vast and varied experience of legislation in scores of colonies, where all kinds of conditions prevail, and they can and do afford the Colony great assistance in legislation, sending out drafts of Bills that have worked smoothly elsewhere to be adapted to local circumstances. The Colonial Office is also in some cases a useful restraint on local extravagance, and when it occasionally, from want of appreciation of local conditions, urges a needless outlay like that for the proposed New Gaol, it has been found possible by prudent Governors to postpone and ultimately avoid it.

I have no mind to try an experiment which might, in homely language, prove a leap from the frying pan into the fire. In England the majority of the people are now thanking God that they possess, in the House of Lords, a check upon rash and excited legislation, and I think that in this Colony we should not be impatient of what are not so much leading strings as safeguards for sound administration in a place where the vast bulk of the population consists of natives of the adjoining great semi-civilized and not too-friendly Empire.

Believe me,

To His Excellency

Sir WILLIAM ROBINSON, K.C.M.G.,

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

Dear Sir,

Yours very faithfully,

E. R. BELILIOS.

440

(18)

Enclosure 5.

(Extract from the “North China Herald" of the 25th May, 1894.)

The ratepayers of Hongkong, or such of them as have signed the petition to the House of Commons, which was printed in the N. C. Daily News of the 10th instant, have resorted to a strong measure for the redress of their constitutional grievances. In passing over all intermediary agencies, the Governor of the Colony, the Colonial Office, and even Her Majesty's Government, the petitioners have emphatically expressed their distrust of the powers that be, and have intimated that a case of such paramount importance can only be worthily dealt with by the ultimate depository of authority in the empire-the British people. It is undoubtedly a bold move, inasmuch as the slight passed on the local Officials will naturally arouse their opposition to the scheme, and if the petitioners fail to enlist the House of Commons in their cause they fail altogether, as the faculty of appeal has been deliberately dispensed with.

.

Of the severity of the grievance which it is sought by this exceptional effort to redress it would be impertinent for any but an experienced colonist to express an opinion. The petition itself gives no clue to it, for it confines itself to a priori inferences, showing by argument the evils which might be expected to arise from the anomalous partiality in the distribution of power which the actual constitution of the Colonial Government perpetuates.

Being

: But the anomalies of the British Constitution extend to all its offshoots. the product of expediency and experience alone there is scarcely any feature in it which can be correctly dignified with the name of a principle. It possesses the flexibility of an organic thing, and not the rigidity of an iron casting. It is never therefore successfully attacked on abstract grounds. Even hereditary legislators are safe until some specific wrong-doing is brought home to them, or, at the very least, formally alleged. So far, however, as can be gathered from the text of the Hongkong petition the wrongs of the petitioners are hypothetical; consequently the necessity of reform may easily lose itself in a haze of theoretical discussion.

Another weak point in the movement appears to us to be the somewhat, perhaps unavoidably, pointless conclusion of the petition. In the twelfth and last paragraph, where by the laws of construction of documents of that kind one would expect to find the force of the whole concentrated like the point of a steel shell, we find the wants of the petitioners somewhat spread out.

"They ought to be allowed the free election of representatives of British nationality in the Legislative Council of the Colony; a majority in the Council of such representatives; perfect freedom of debate for the Official Members, with power to vote according to their conscientious convictions without being called to account or endangered in their positions by their votes; complete control in the Council over local expenditure; the management of local affairs; and a consultative voice in questions of an Imperial character.'

This somewhat extensive order will be apt to appal the House of Commons, to which these innocent-looking propositions may open out the vista of another Home Rule Bill. Taken in detail, every one of them bristles with difficulties which no House of Commons can solve, and which must eventually be referred back for local solution. For instance the first, "the free election of representatives of British nationality." What, it will naturally be asked, is "free election ?" and by whom? and what exactly is British nationality? Is it synonymous with British race? The only allusion to any electoral constituency is in the caption of the petition itself, where the petitioners describe themselves generally as "ratepayers." The ratepayers, however, in Hongkong, as in Shanghai, are of all nationalities and races. And if they are all to unite in electing representatives who must be of British

}

}

( 19 )

441

nationality, a new anomaly may be introduced as little conducive to the welfare of the Colony as any that are to be got rid of. Obviously there is a difficulty here which the House of Commons is to be left to find out for itself, and then to overcome: the best way it can.

As to the freedom of conscience on the part of the Official Members of Council;" by what power or machinery is the House of Commons to secure this? An Official voting against the Governor would probably not consider himself any more secure for a governmental declaration that he was allowed freedom of speech. His promotion or his leave might be stopped, or his social relations embittered, without any one being required to give the reason. "The management of local affairs," would necessitate a definition of local affairs; which also would be required in order to distinguish the local from Imperial expenditure.

No doubt these difficulties are fully recognised by the petitioners, who may have purposely avoided details in order to gain a first hearing for their case in the abstract. And this may be good tactics. All depends on the agency by which the House of Commons is intended to be worked upon.

We have said that out of the British Constitution and its colonial offspring it is hard to deduce any fixed principles which may be safely applied universally; what are called principles being mostly word fetishes. If an exception may be made it would be in favour of the eternal principle of right that "taxation implies representation." To this principle the Hongkong ratepayers refer in a delicate and indirect manner, though some of their advocates in the Press take stronger ground:.

The difficulty of applying the principle in the circumstances was no doubt the reason why the petitioners laid such slight stress on it. They want British representatives, exclusively, but as the ratepayers are British only to the extent of per thousand of the population of the Colony, where would the representative government come in?

7

These and other difficulties, of theory and practice, will no doubt crumble away before the triturating force of free discussion. As to the broad question whether democratic government is suitable, desirable, or practical for so unique a. community as that of Hongkong, it would probably depend less on general considerations than on the personnel. "That which is best administered is best;" and the practical effect of any kind of government is very much a question of whò administers it.

The outside view of Hongkong, the view of visitors and short time residents. appears to be that it has on the whole been very well governed. The Colony compels the admiration of friend and foe alike. Undoubtedly there are and must be flaws. We hope never to live in a place which is free from them. But it is sometimes easier to perceive the slight evils we are actually suffering from than to realise the greater evils which may follow. If Hongkong had a homogeneous population of 250,000 Englishmen, or even of any kind of Europeans there would no doubt be a sufficient number of them eligible for public functions and competent to fairly "represent" the people. But out of seven hundred busy men the chances of getting the requisite number who will honestly devote the necessary time to un- paid public business must always be small. True, in every Council for the last fifteen years there has been one-rarely two-Unofficial Members who have not only given their time, but have entered heart and soul into the affairs of the Colony. But a continuous: succession of such men can scarcely be reckoned on. The fluc- tuating vigour of Chambers of Commerce, which usually depend on the personality of one man, is not of good augury for an honorary and yet efficient public repre- sentation. Even the example of directorates of local companies, which do pay, scarcely affords a certain guarantee of a perfectly effective representation.

There is one principle of more universal application than that of taxation and representation; it is self-interest. The one active man chosen out of a sinall cons+

442

( 20 )

tituency may be found in the long run to represent himself, his family, his firm, or his clique rather than the general public; and that is a danger to which small democracies are peculiarly liable. Even as regards Hongkong itself it has been said the only things in the job line ever perpetrated have been done, not by the Official but by the Unofficial Members of Council, whom it is desired to place in a permanent majority.

HONGKONG.

No. 135.

SIR,

(Despatch from the Secretary of State to the Governor.)

DOWNING STREET.

23rd August, 1894.

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch No. 133 of the 5th of June last enclosing a petition addressed to the House of Commons by various residents at Hongkong praying for an amendment of the constitution of the Colony.

2. This petition was forwarded to you by Mr. WHITEHEAD, Member of the Legislative Council, and though, among his colleagues in the Council, Mr. Keswick and Mr. BELILIOS have refused to sign it, it bears the signatures of Mr. CHATER and Dr. Ho KAI, both Members of the Council, of Mr. JACKSON, Manager of the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank, and of other leading residents. I am therefore bound to assume that it is the matured conviction of at least a considerable propor- tion of the most influential members of the community that constitutional changes are desirable at Hongkong and that for the present Crown Colony System should be substituted some measure of self-government. It is my duty to examine the arguments which have been brought forward, with care and attention; and I should be wanting in courtesy if I did not give a full answer to a petition, which is far reaching in its scope, and which has been strongly supported.

3. The petitioners have addressed themselves to the House of Commons, as they have of course every right to do. From this it is natural to infer that they consider that they have grounds for discontent, which the Secretary of State is unwilling or unable to remove, and that they wish to emphasise in a suitable and reasonable manner the objections which they feel to the existing system.

4. They ask that, subject to Imperial checks and safeguards, they may be granted-

(a) "The free election of representatives of British nationality in the

Legislative Council of the Colony.

(b) "A majority in the Council of such elected representatives."

(c) "Perfect freedom of debate for the Official Members with power to

vote according to their conscientious convictions."

(d) "Complete control in the Council over local expenditure."

(e) "The management of local affairs."

(f) "A consultative voice in questions of an Imperial character." They quote the Colonies of Malta, Cyprus, Mauritius and British Honduras as enjoying more liberal forms of government than that under which they are them- selves living at Hongkong. They lay stress upon the commercial energy which has raised the Colony to its present position of importance. They claim "the common right of Englishmen to manage their local affairs and control the expen- diture of the Colony where Imperial considerations are not involved."

443

!

}

( 21 )

5. Hongkong, when 53 years ago it became a British possession, was inhabited, I understand, by some 7,000 to 12,000 Chinese squatters and fishermen. Accord ing to the census of 1891 the population, in round numbers, amounted to 221,400, of whom 211,000, or more than nine-tenths, were Chinese. The Europeans and Americans numbered 8,500, and nationalities other than Europeans, Americans, and Chinese, 1,900. The census further analyses, as follows, the European and American population.

Out of the total of 8,500, the resident civil population amounted only to 4,200 the British military and naval forces numbered 2,900, and the remaining 1,400 represented merchant seamen, police, and others.

Of the 4,200 individuals, who constituted the European and American civil population, 1,450 only were returned as British. Of this number not more than 800 were adult males, and therefore presumably not more than 800 of them would be entitled to vote.

6. I shall revert to these figures shortly in connexion with the question of popular representation. Meanwhile it may be deduced from them that under the existing form of government the population of Hongkong has in half a century increased (say) twenty fold which is primâ fucie evidence, as you suggest in your despatch, that the Colony has been well governed, But a further deduction has also to be made, and that is that under the protection of the British Government Hongkong has become rather a Chinese than an European community; and the fact that the Chinese have settled in the island in such large numbers has not only been one main element in its prosperity, but also the most practical and irrefutable evidence that the government, under which a politically timid race such as the Chinese have shown every desire to live, must have at least possessed some measure of strength and of justice. How far Hongkong is a Chinese settlement, how far the Chinese have paid the taxes and contributed to the trade, is touched upon in Mr. LOCKHART's excellent memorandum which accompanies your despatch. He is clearly of opinion also that the tendency is for the trade of the Colony to pass more and more into Chinese hands.

I cordially welcome what is said in the petition as to the skill and energy of the British merchants who have been or still are residents in Hongkong, and I can testify with pleasure to their public spirit. But the fact remains that the over- whelming mass of the community are Chinese, that they have thriven under a certain form of government and that in any scheme involving a change of adminis- tration their wishes should be consulted and their interests carefully watched and guarded.

7. The communities with which Hongkong is in the petition unfavourably contrasted, as regards its mode of government, are Malta, Cyprus, Mauritius, and British Honduras. Hongkong, it seems to me, differs from all of these four dependencies of the British Crown alike in degree and in kind. It is smaller than any of them, it has no history or traditions, no record of old settlement or of political usages and constitutional rights. It has practically no indigenous popula- tion; and, if I understand right, it has few life-long residents, whether European or Chinese.

:

8. It is perhaps a fair account of Hongkong and its fortunes as a British Colony, to say that 50 years ago it was taken by and for the British Crown to serve Imperial purposes, and to safeguard British trade in the Far East.

Holding a commanding position at the mouth of the Canton river, endowed by nature with a fine harbour, which has been carefully kept as a free port, like the Sister Crown Colony of the Straits Settlements, strongly protected by an Imperial garrison and British ships of war, it has owed its prosperity to these

444

( 22 )

advantages, as well as to the policy of the Imperial Government, and to the fact that, being strongly guarded, it has attracted a large Chinese population who have found that under British rule their lives and their property have been safe.

I should be inclined to judge not merely that it has prospered as a Crown Colony but that it has prospered in great measure because it has been a Crown Colony.

9. It may, however, be contended that while the Crown Colony system was suited to the infancy of the Colony, it is now time that a larger measure of self- government should be conceded.

I therefore propose very shortly to examine the separate points as to which the petitioners suggest that some concession should be made.

10. They ask in the first place for "the free election of representatives of "British nationality in the Legislative Council of the Colony."

The words are somewhat ambiguous. They may mean that the voters should be of any nationality European, American, Asiatic or Chinese, provided that the representatives for whom they vote are of British nationality. The term British nationality again may be taken to mean either British subjects of all nationalities or simply persons who have been born or are the children of those who have been born in the United Kingdom. I assume, however, that what the words are intended to convey is that the English, Scotch and Irish in Hongkong should elect representa- tives of themselves to the Legislative Council. If this is the meaning then it is obvious from the figures which have been given above that considerably more than nine-tenths of the population will be entirely excluded from the franchise, that Europeans who are not of the category described, and Americans will be excluded as well as Chinese, and that among those British residents who alone will be, it is presumed, entitled to vote, the civil element, some proportion of which moreover consists of Government officials, will be swamped by the military and naval element.

It may be said that the naval and military forces should be debarred from voting on the ground that they are not resident in the Colony, but the same objection would apply also, though possibly in a lesser degree, to the civil population. Indeed, over and above any other arguments which can be urged against representative government in Hongkong, it appears to me that the transient character of the population is by itself a serious obstacle.

11. The second claim is the complement or rather the extension of the first. The petitioners ask not only that there shall be elected representatives in the Council, but that there shall be a majority of such representatives, in other words that, at any rate as regards legislation, the power shall be vested in a very small section of the population, and that more than nine-tenths of it shall be controlled by representatives of the small remainder.

12. The third demand is that the Official Members shall be allowed to speak and vote as they please. It is a demand which is familiar in the case of Crown colonies, but only one answer can be given to it, viz., that the paid servants of the Government cannot be left free to oppose the Government. I should be surprised to learn that the Officials themselves wished to be given this freedom.

It is in fact not peculiar to the Crown Colony system; it is of the essence of all administration that the paid supporters or components of a government should either vote for and when necessary speak for the settled policy of the government or else resign their places.

13. The fourth and fifth claims are to the effect that the Council, or rather the elected majority in the Council, should have complete control over local expenditure and the management of local affairs.

}

445

( 23 )

There is point no doubt in these contentions, in that the municipal institutions, which are to be found in Ceylon and the Straits Settlements, do not exist in Hong: kong, but the difficulty at Hongkong is and must be to draw a line between matters which might be entrusted to a municipal council and the business which must be reserved for the Colonial Government. In saying this I am aware that possibly or even probably a municipality would not meet the aspirations of the petitioners, and that they may place a wider construction upon the terms "local expen- diture" and "local affairs" than I have placed upon them.

14. One of the difficulties with which I am met in dealing with this petition arises from the fact that the words employed require to be more accurately defined before their meaning and the intention with which they are used can be fully gauged. This criticism especially applies to the last in the list of the petitioners' claims, viz., that they should be given a consultative voice in questions of an Imperial character. This sentence seems to point to some kind of Imperial Fede- ration, and it is possibly written with reference to the military contribution question which has not been without difficulty in various colonies including Hongkong. The subject raised is so wide and so vague that it would be useless to attempt to discuss it. The question of a general remodelling of the colonial system of Great Britain-for it would probably amount to no less-as it would necessarily become part of any scheme for a Federation of the Empire is a most interesting question; but one of too wide and far reaching a scope to be dealt with in regard to a single case alone. But I may state simply that under the existing system when questions arise which concern the various colonies, it has been the endeavour of my predecessors in office, and it is my own earnest endeavour, that the claims, the interests, and even the prejudices of each colony shall be adequately set forth, and fully and fairly considered.

15. To sum up, the petitioners ask nominally that Hongkong should be given self-government, and an elective system. In my opinion the place and its circumstances are wholly unsuited for what is proposed.

An Imperial Station with great Imperial interests, on the borders of a foreign land, the nucleus of wide reaching British interests in the Far East, must, it appears to me, be kept under Imperial protection and under Imperial control.

In saying this much I am assuming that the self-government would be worthy of the name, and that the elective system would include all ranks of the com- munity, but this is not what the Petition demands. Those who framed it and signed it would, I gather, desire to place the power in the hands of a select few, and to constitute a small oligarchy, restricted by the lines of race. To any such change I am opposed, I consider that the well-being of the large majority of the inhabitants is more likely to be safeguarded by the Crown Colony system, under which, as far as possible no distinction is made of rank or race, than by representa- tion which would leave the bulk of the population wholly unrepresented.

I can therefore hold out no hope that Hongkong will cease to be a Crown Colony.

16. It remains to consider whether any step can be taken which, while not interfering with the Crown Colony system, would slightly modify the existing con- stitution in the direction in which the petition points.

*** There appear to be three practical suggestions which are worthy of considera- tion-

(a) Increasing the number of the unofficial Members in the Legislative

... Council.

(b) Introducing an Unofficial element into the Executive Council.

(c) Creating a Municipal Council.

446

( 24 )

17. As regards the first of these three points, I am not inclined to add to the number of the Unofficial Members without at the same time increasing also the number of Official Members, for in a Crown Colony there must be a very dis- tinct preponderance on the Official side, and that the natural result of evenly balancing the numbers of Officials and Unofficials is friction and irritation.

With this proviso, there is, as far as I can judge, no strong objection to increasing the numbers of the Council, except that for practical working purposes the num- ber is already sufficiently large. If, however, an addition is made, it is difficult on equitable grounds to resist the conclusion that another Chinese representative should be appointed. On the other hand, this is contrary to the wishes of the petitioners as far as I understand them; and Mr. KESWICK who, in his interesting and temperate letter, which is enclosed in your despatch, advocates the appointment of an additional Unofficial Member to the Legislative Council, strongly deprecates "the addition to the Legislative Council of a second representative of the Chinese." The balance of argument therefore appears to be against any change in the present number and composition of the Legislative Council.

18. The second suggestion is that an Unofficial Member should be appointed to the Executive Council. The suggestion is made by Mr. KESWICK, and you state in your despatch that you have personally no objection to it, and that the conces- sion would be very popular and not altogether impolitic.

I can well realise that the addition of a gentleman of high standing and great local experience would be a gain to the Executive Council, and I shall be prepared to sanction the proposal if you still recommend it after further considering the following points.

In none of the three Eastern colonies at the present time is there any unofficial element in the Executive Council, and I am not clear that the step would in all cases be actively beneficial, whereas I am quite clear that the existing system has on the whole worked well, and that therefore there is no strong reason for dis- turbing it.

In the next place I note that Mr. KESWICK proposes that the Unofficial Mem- ber should be of English birth. It must, however, be taken into consideration that it would be invidious and inequitable to lay down that Chinese subjects of the Queen shall be debarred from appointment to the Executive Council, and therefore the possibility of the appointment being hereafter filled by a Chinese gentleman must be reckoned with.

In the third place, you state that practically unofficial assistance in the Ex- ecutive Council "could always be obtained, if the status quo were maintained" and you add that you "invariably consult the Unofficial Members before bringing into Council measures of purely local interest." There is therefore not likely to be much practical gain from the formal appointment of an Unofficial Member to the Executive Council.

It has occurred to me that possibly, instead of making any such appointment, some understanding might be come to that in the case of discussion of specified local subjects, at any rate so long as there is no municipality in existence at Hongkong, one or more Unofficial Members should be summoned to take part in the proceedings of the Executive Council, without giving them seats on the Council for all purposes. This is a point on which I shall be glad to have your opinion.

18. With regard to the institution of a municipal council, I frankly say that I should like to see one established at Hongkong. But there appear to be two practical difficulties in the way. The first is the present crisis.

The first is the present crisis. I am not prepared to sanction any important change of administration, until the future is tolerably clear and until the necessary measures for protecting the health of the Colony have

Governor

447

( 25 )

been finally decided upon and brought into operation. Then, in a clear field, it may be possible to create a municipal body with some prospect of success.

The second difficulty, to which allusion has already been made, is that of separating municipal from Colonial matters. I am not confident that that difficulty can be overcome, nor am I confident that a municipality would be welcome to and work harmoniously with the military authorities. Still it is possible that the Sanitary Board might be developed into a satisfactory Municipal Council controlling all or some of the revenue which is now derived from rates. Whether any scheme of the kind is feasible I would ask you carefully to consider at your leisure, and in the meantime you are at liberty, if you see occasion to do so, to give publicity to this despatch.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient,

humble Servant,

Şir W. ROBINSON, K.C.M.G.,

&c.

&c.,

&c.

HONGKONG.

No. 119.

(Despatch from the Secretary of State to the Governor.)

RIPON.

DownING STREET,

29th May, 1896.

SIR,

I have had under my consideration the correspondence which has passed in consequence of the petition for an amendment of the constitution of Hongkong which was addressed to the House of Commons in the year 1894 and on which my predecessor had not given a final decision before he left office.

2. I should have been glad to be able to communicate with you on the sub- ject at an earlier date but, as you are aware, the pressure of business at this

Department has been exceptional for some time past.

3. In his despatch of the 23rd of August, 1894, Lord RIPON stated that he could hold out no hope that Hongkong will cease to be a Crown Colony. Neither can I hold out any such hope, for I conceive that in the case of Hongkong, Repre- sentative Government on whatever form of franchise it might be based, and with whatever supposed safeguards as to the Executive power would be wholly out of place.

4. There remain two practical points to be decided. The first is whether the present constitution of the Legislative Council should be in any way modified. The second is whether an unofficial element should be introduced into the Execu- tive Council.

5. On the first of these two points my view is as follows:-I gather that the Legislative Council, as at present constituted, is large enough for practical pur- poses, and that an increase to its numbers is hardly likely to add to its efficiency to any appreciable extent. As Hongkong is to remain a Crown Colony no useful purpose would be served, but on the contrary a considerable amount of needless irritation would be caused by balancing evenly the unofficial members and the officials. But having regard to the fact that, in the absence of the Governor, the

1

( 26 )

Officer Commanding the Troops will in future administer the Government, I con- sider that it would be of advantage that he should be a member of the Legislative Council, and if he is added to it, I am willing to add one unofficial member to the unofficial bench. Who the latter should be and what special interest, if any, he should represent, I leave to the Governor to determine. I may observe, however, that the Chinese community is the element which is least represented while it is also far the most numerous, and that I should regard as valuable any step which tended to attach them more closely to the British connection, and to increase their practical interest in public affairs.

6. As regards the second point, namely, whether or not an unofficial element should be introduced into the Executive Council, I would observe that, whilst most of the larger Crown Colonies possess one or more Municipal Councils, subor- dinate to the Colonial Government, in Hongkong there is no such institution. Moreover, it seems impracticable to alter this state of things for this reason among others that the Colony and the Municipality would be in great measure co-extensive, and it would be almost impossible to draw the line between Colonial and Municipal

matters.

This being so, in my opinion the most practical course is to recognise that the Colonial Government is discharging Municipal duties, and that on that account representatives of the citizens may fairly be given a place on the Executive.

7. I therefore propose that the Executive Council shall in future include two unofficial members to be selected at the discretion of the Governor. It is obviously desirable that they should, as a rule, be chosen from among the unofficial members of the Legislative Council, and the choice should, and no doubt will be, inspired by consideration of personal merit, and have no reference to the particular class or race to which the persons chosen belong.

8. You will receive in due course amended Royal Instructions and in the meantime this despatch may be made public with an intimation that the subject has been considered from every point of view and that my decision is to be regarded as final.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient,

humble Servant,

J. CHAMBERLAIN.

Governor

Sir W. ROBINSON, K.C.M.G.,

fc.,

&c.,

&c.

I

No. 44.

HONGKONG.

RETURNS OF SUPERIOR AND SUBORDINATE COURTS FOR 1895.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of

His Excellency the Governor.

121

No.

96

SUPREME COURT,

HONGKONG, 3rd March, 1896.

SIR,—I have the honour to forward the accompanying Returns:-

1. Return of Criminal Cases tried in the Supreme Court of Hongkong during the year 1895. 2. Indictments and Informations during the year 1895.

3. Comparative Table showing the number of offences, apprehensions, and acquittals for

the last four years.

4. Return of all sums received as Revenue in the Registry of the Supreme Court during

the years 1894 and 1895.

5. Return of Criminal Cases that have been brought under the cognizance of the Supreme

Court during the last ten years.

The Honourable

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY,

&c.,

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

&c.,

&c.

J. W. NORTON KYSHE,

Registrar.

122

RETURN of CRIMINAL Cases tried in the SUPREME COURT of HONGKONG during the Year 1895.

SENTENCE.

co:

3

wi.

Number of Cases tried.

Number of Persons tried.

CRIMES.

Bribery,

Bringing a woman into the Colony for the purpose

of prostitution,

Burglary,

Forgery and Uttering forged Bill of Exchange,

1

1

1

Larceny,

Larceny in a dwelling house,

Larceny and Wounding,

Manslaughter,

Murder,

1

1

Robbery,

1

1

22:

Setting fire to a dwelling house,

Stealing in a dwelling house with menaces,

Convicted.

Acquitted.

Death.

:

God and 22:1

3

1

2

1

:

:

:

:

:

N

4

1

:

...

Death Recorded.

Hard Labour

over one Year,

Hard Labour one

Year and under.

Solitary Confinement- Number of Persons.

Privately Flogged-

Number of Persons.

No. of Cases.

No. of Persons.

No. of Cases.

No. of Persons.

CHARGES ABAN-

CABES

POFT-

DONED.

PONED.

::

:

Uttering a forged Bank Note,

: 10 00

Uttering counterfeit coin,

5

Wounding with intent to murder,

3

Wounding with intent to do grievous bodily harm,...

:

10 00

23

9

2

2

15

6

21

32

Of 39 Persons only

.32 were tried.

7 were not indicted which are included under the heading of "Charges Abandoned,”.

7

39 Persons.

Registry Supreme Court, Hongkong, 3rd March, 1896.

5

7

1

...

J. W. Norton Kyshe, Registrar.

INDICTMENTS and INFORMATION in the SUPREME COURT of HONGKONG for the Year 1895.

Including Attempts and Conspiracies to commit the several offences.

Showing how the cases tried in the Superior Courts ended.

(Each Prisoner tried counts as a separate case; where a large number of Prisoners have been convicted together, the fact is mentioned in a note.)

Total.

Murder.

Manslaughter.

Attempt at Murder.

Concealment of Birth.

Judgment for the Crown,

17

1

2

Judgment for the Prisoner,

1

Prisoner found Insane,

:

ΟΥ

5

Cases which fell through for

want of prosecution- absence of accused, and cases thrown out by the Grand

Jury (Attorney General),

Cases postponed,

:

:

26

2

:

:

CO

3

:

:

:

:

:

:

*7 Persons in all.

Registry Supreme Court, Hongkong, 3rd March, 1896.

:

:

Abortion.

:

:.

:

:

Rape.

Unnatural Crimes.

.:.

:

:

Robbery with violence.

Other offences against the

Person.

Offences against Property.

Miscellaneous Offences.

*5

1

:

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

1

:

10

**H

4

LO

5

1

1

5

10

J. W. NORTON KYSHE,

Registrar.

4

COMPARATIVE TABLE showing the NUMBER of OFFENCES, APPREHENSIONS, CONVICTIONS and AQUITTALS

for the last Four Years.

123

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

The Number of Convictions in the Superior Courts-

1. For Offences against the Person,

6

17

16

17

2. For Offences against Property,

1

4

16

4

...

3. For other Offences,

The Number of Persons acquitted-

2. In the Superior Courts,

1

Registry Supreme Court, Hongkong, 3rd March, 1896.

17

16

17

9

J. W. NORTON KYSHE,

Registrar.

RETURN of CRIMINAL CASES that have been brought under the COGNIZANCE of the SUPREME Court,

during the last Ten Years.

Charges Abandoned.

Cases Postponed.

Number

Number

YEAR.

of

of Convicted. Acquitted. Cases. Persons.

No. of Cases.

No. of Persons.

No. of Cases.

No. of Persons.

(e) 1886,

75

107

59

(f) 1887,

94

155

82

1888,

101

186

99

(g) 1889,

92

143

64

41

1890,

59

80

43

2042

16

36

17

47

28

24

7

my co iA 20 2

27 (e)

1

1

26

1

8

40

37

17

Total,

421

671

347

164

92

147

2

9

1891,

32

37

26

1892,

30

44

18

17

1893,

43

57

33

1894,

36

44

21

1895,

26

39

23

Total,

167

221

121

GEOTD 188

9

16

17

9

5

29867-

2446 LO

...

1

5

...

68

21

32

1

5

Average of 1st)

Period, ....

841

134

693

324

183

293/

11

Average of 2nd Period,....

331

443/

241

133

41

63

1

e. In one case the recognizance estreated.

f. In three cases the recognizances were estreated.

3. In one case the recognizance estreated, this case is included in the total, but not in any other of the above headings.

J. W. NORTON Kyshe,

Registry Supreme Court, Hongkong, 3rd March, 1896.

Registrar.

124

RETURN of all SUMS RECEIVED as REVENUE in the Registry of the Supreme Court during the Year 1895.

Original Jurisdiction,

Summary Jurisdiction, ...

Bankruptcy Jurisdiction,

Probate Jurisdiction,.........

Official Administrator's Commission,

Official Assignee's Commission,

....$ 3,832.87

5,585.75

660.90

2,032.20

5,218.56

84.18

Official Trustee's Commission,....

250.14

Appraiser's Fees, ........

Sheriff's Fees,

83.50

Bailiff's Fees,...................

1,434.50

Interest on Deposit of Surplus Cash,

2,177.78

Fees on Distraints,

1,751.00

Registrar of Companies,

2,524.25

Fine and Forfeiture,

Admiralty Fees,......

Land Office Fees,

Registry Supreme Court, Hongkong, 3rd March, 1896.

613.78

$26,249.41

5,814.51

$32,063.92

J. W. NORTON KYSHE, Registrar.

RETURN of all SUMS COLLECTED in the Registry of the Supreme Court for the Year 1895, and paid into Treasury.

1895.

1894.

REGISTRAR.-Court Fees paid by Stamps,

$12,214.47

$13,862.72

OFFICIAL ASSIGNEE.-5 % on amounts encashed paid into the Treasury,

OFFICIAL ADMINISTRATOR,

72.88

84.18

717.52

5,218.56

OFFICIAL TRUSTEE-2 % on amount of Trust on taking over up to $10,000, above $10,000 Commission 1 % on further amount, 1 % Commission on income,.

94.48

250.14

APPRAISER OF INTESTATE ESTATES.-2 % on Houses, Land, Goods, Furniture,

&c., 1% on Cash, Banking Account or Shares,

BAILIFF,

1,230.00

1,434.50

SHERIFF,

73.00

REGISTRAR OF COMPANIES,

1,220.75

83.50

2,524.25

INTEREST on Registrar's Balance at the Bank,

1,823.42

2,177.78

FINE AND FORFEITURES,

45.00

ADMIRALTY FEES,

1,088.16

613.78

$18,579.68

$26,249.41

LAND OFFICE FEES,

3,766.00

5,814.51

$22,345.68

$32,063.92

468.04

UNCLAIMED BALANCES under Ordinance No. 11 of 1888,

Registry Supreme Court, Hongkong, 3rd March, 1896.

J. W. NORTON KYSHE,

Registrar.

5,749

14

ABSTRACT of CASES under COGNIZANCE of the POLICE MAGISTRATES' COURT during the Year 1895.

CASES, HOW DISPOSED OF, AND THE NUMBER OF MALE AND FEMALE PRISONERS UNDER EACH HEAD.

Discharged.

Committed

for Trial at

the Supreme

Court.

Committed to Prison, or

Detained

pending Orders

of H. E. the

Governor.

Ordered to find Security.*

O.L

answer

any

Charge.

punished for

Witnesses

preferring false Charge or giving

Testimony.

wilful false

Undecided.

WRITS ISSUED BY THE POLICE MAGISTRATES DURING THE YEAR 1895.

Warrants.

HHHHTIN

TOTAL.

TOTAL

NUMBER

OF FIRE

ENQUIRIES

HELD

DURING THE YEAR 1895.

M.

F.

M.

F. M. F.

M.

F.

M.

F.

M. F. M.

F.

M.

F.

M. F.

M.

F.

† 17,016

18,898 |15,058 725

2,345 196

51

OD

111 58

121

19

12

199

C

...

***

17,897 1,001

3,835

90

77

215

9

1,316

207

:..

.18,898

TOTAL

NUMBER

TOTAL

NUMBER

OF

CASES.

OF

PRISON-

ERS.

Convicted

pur

Punished.

TOTAL MALES AND FEMALES,.

Consisting of Offenders not sentenced to Imprisonment.

† Including 182 cases undecided.

:

125

126

THE CASES CONSISTED OF:-

OFFENCE.

NO. OF CASES.

No. of

PRI- SONERS.

Animals-Cruelty to

Arms Consolidation Ordinance-Breach of

Arson,

Assault Common

27

27

OFFENCE.

Brought forward,

78

3

11

653

918

-Indecent

11

1

"

39

-On Females, and Boys under 14 years of age, -On Excise Officers in the execution of their

duty, and obstructing and resisting them, -On Police in the execution of their duty, and

obstructing and resisting Police,

1

82 Insulting or Threatening Expression-Using before Ma-

gistrate,..

Jurors-Neglecting to answer Coroner's Summons to

attend Inquest.

3 Larceny-As a Bailee,

No. of

NO. OF

CASES.

PRI- SONERS.

3,5114,979

6

6

-By Servant,.

114

.1

I

4

4

7

1+

"

-Simple.

940 1,046

-from Ships or Boats in the Harbour,

28

30

">

46

43

N* NO*NO

N6*200

52

-from the Person,

93

106

43

"

-in a Dwelling House,

1

-of Beasts or Birds, not the subject of Larceny

at Common Law,

5

—of Fruit or Vegetable production in a Garden,. Malicious Injury to Electric or Magnetic Telegraph,

Banishment-Returning after..

Births and Deaths-Breach of Ordinance for Registration

of..

Boats-Refusing to accept Hire when unemployed,.

"

-Demanding more than legal fare,

Breach of the Peace,

Bribery,

Building Ordinance-Breach of

Building-Occupying or allowing, to be occupied with-

out certificate from the Sanitary Board,

Building-Occupying or erecting, on land not being under

Burglary,

lease from the Crown,

Burial of Chinese Corpse elsewhere than in a cemetery

less than 6 feet deep,

""

Cargo-Boats refusing to accept bire,......

Cargo-Furnishing untrue particulars regarding the ge-

neral character of

Cattle Diseases Ordinance-Breach of.....

Cattle-Landing, during prohibited hours..

-Turned loose on Public Ways,.....

Child Stealing,

Chinese Territory-Crimes and Offences committed in Church or Chapel-Entering with intent to commit a

felony,.......

Closed Houses and Insanitary Dwellings-Occupying, or permitting to be occupied without the writ- ten permission of the Sanitary Board,

Cocklofts-Neglecting to remove,..

Coin-Offences relating to..

Common Kitchen-Using, as sleeping room, Common Lodging Houses--Unlicensed keeping of,

19

"

5

to Property:

43

45

4

Manslaughter,

3

10

Marine and Naval Stores Ordinance-Breach of Markets Ordinance-Breach of..

21

21

1.177 1,177

1

Menaces-Demanding Money by

5

1

Mendicancy,

249

249

194

194

Merchandise Marks Ordinance-Breach of.

9

142

1

Merchant Shipping Act-Offences against

Mezzanine Floors-Erecting, without permission from

the Sanitary Board,

2 Morphine Ordinance-Breach of

00 1100 EV O

Murder,

19

-Attempting to commit....

1 Night-Found in Dwelling House by-with intent to

11

commit Felony therein,

-Noises, by playing at the Game called Chai-Mui,.

-Noises by beating Drums and Gongs,

Notices in Chinese-l'osting, without permission, Nuisances-Allowing Dirt and Filth to remain on Pre-

mises or in immediate vicinity thereof, -Blasting Stones to the danger of Persons

13

13

FR

11

11

20

20

1

20

44

11

12

82

83

2 2 22***

11

2

20

12

82

83

** ** 2 ***

20

44

3

20

2

2

H.M.'s Army and Navy,

British Merchant Ships,

Women or Girls into or away from the Colony,

Defences Sketching l'revention Ordinance-Breach of

Desertion from Foreign Ships,

Desertion of Soldiers-Aiding and abetting in,

Disorderly Behaviour-Fighting and creating a disturb-

-While Drunk,

Dogs--Allowing unmuzzled ferocious, to be at large, &c.,

-Inciting, to attack persons, &c.,

and Property,

50

50

"

-Blowing Steam Whistles unnecessarily,

86.

86

11

-Boarding Ships without permission,

17

17

""

-Boats, making fast to ship under way,.

10.

10

11

-Boats. &c. breaming,..

327

328

"

"3

- Breach of Regulations for... Cutting and Wounding with intent to do grievous bodily

harm,

26

26

13

14

17

-Boats, obstructing Fairways,

Dangerous Goods Ordinance-Breach of

73

74

>>

Decoying Men or Boys into or away from the Colony, or imprisoning or detaining them for the purpose of emigration or for any purpose whatsoever,

52

20

22

""

23

34

11

-Boats mooring inshore, between the hours of 9 o'clock at night and gunfire in the morning,..

-Carrying or exposing Night Soil or Noxious Waters in the Streets in uncovered Buck- ets, and in open Boats along the Praya, -Depositing dead body on Crown Land, -Drains, &c.-Leaving open and unprotected,. -Hanging wet Clothes, &c., to dry over

114

114

71

71

130

130

1

1

1

1

Public Ways,.......

26

26

-Irrigating Land with excretal matter with-

""

1

1

""

in 50 yards of a Public Road, -Keeping Pigs, &c., without a Licence, -Latrine,

2

177

12

ཨཎྜསྐ

2

177

12

"

-Neglecting to clean out Dust Bins, and

ance,

594 1,101

249

249

13

13

throwing Rubbish, &c., into the Streets,... -Neglecting to abate, after notice had been

served by the Sanitary Board,

111

111

10

5

5

5

""

-Maliciously killing,.

1

-Obeying Calls of Nature in the Streets and

in improper places,

98

98

Unlicensed keeping of,

53

53

""

Domestic Servants-Misconduct as

58 58

Drunkenness,

108

108

-Obstruction of Wharves by Boat People,..... -Playing a certain Pastime to the annoyance

of the Public,

80 80

1

Embezzlement,.

11

11

""

Explosive Substances-Breach of Ordinance for Storage

17

of,

2

2

19

False Charge-Preferring- -or wilfully giving false evi-

dence,

14

14

""

Pretences-Obtaining or attempting to obtain Goods

or Money by

Falsification of Accounts,

Felony-Attempting to commit..

Firemen to Government Fire Brigade-Misconduct as.. Fire Works-Discharging without permits,

29

2182

36

1

"

2

239

239

Forged Bank Note, Cheque, &c.—Uttering,

5

29.

-Being in Possession of,

1

1

31

"

""

Instrument-Obtaining goods or money by,.

6

6

+

"

Forgery,

8

11

Furious Driving,

58

82

Gambling Ordinance-Breach of....

177

750

-Regulations-Breach of..

-Screeching Wheelbarrows,

-Throwing Rubbish into the Harbour or on

the Beach,

Obstruction of Roads and Streets, &c., by Hawkers,

Vehicle Drivers and Shopkeepers,.

| Opium Ordinance -Breach of Prepared

3 Passage-Obtaining surreptitiously a

Passes or Lights-Chinese out at Night without.. Pawnbrokers Ordinance-Breach of.

Police Constables-Assuming designation of,

-Rescuing or attempting to rescue Prisoners from Custody of

Post Office Ordinances-Breach of....

Preservation of Wild Birds and Game Ordinance-

22

14

93

93

*8 222 CA

14

2,111 2,255

-Breach of Raw

1,366 1,367

40

45

38 38

2,0522,052

5

5

1

-Misconduct as

1

1

en

3

13

13

Gaol Subordinate Officers-Misconduct as

4

4

Breach of

5

5

Girl under 12 years of age-Attempting to carnally know

and abuse,

1

1

Procuration of Girls under 16 to have carnal connexion

with other persons,

1

1

Harbour-Dredging at Anchorage of Ships of War in the

11

11

Public Gardens-Breach of Regulatious for maintenance

Regulations--Breach of

23

23

of good order and preservation of

House Breaking,

8

8

property in the

18

18

Immigration restriction Ordinance-Breach of

1

1

Quarantine Regulations-Breach of

9

9

Indecent Exposure of Person by Bathing or otherwise,. Inflammable Structures-Erecting, without permission

from Director of Public Works,

26

26

Receiving Stolen Goods,

18 23

2

2

Regulation of Chinese Ordinance-Breach of Recognisances-Breach of

3

3

144

141

Carried forward,...

3,5114,979

Carried forward,....................

13,218 14,974

CASES,—Continued.

127

NO. OF

No. of

No. of.

No. OF

Robbery-Highway,

OFFENCE.

Brought forward.....

River Steamer-Obtaining or attempting to obtain Pas-

sage without payment in,

Roads and Streets-Injury to

Rogues and Vagabonds-Gambling in the Streets,

""

CASES,

PRI-

SONERS.

OFFENCE.

CASES.

PRI-

SONERS

13,218 14,974

Brought forward,

13,566 15,337

Spirit Licences Ordinance-Breach of..............

35

36

19

19 Stones and other Missiles--Discharging to the Danger of

Persons and Property,

2)

2

7 Streams-Defiling,

12

12

Street Noises by Hawkers,

77

77

-As suspicious Characters,

96

96 Suicide-Attempting to commit

18

18

""

-Indecent Exposure of Person, -Wandering abroad and lodging

in the open air,

3 Title Deeds-Concealing,

1

1

Tramway Ordinance-Breach of......

6

59

59 Trees, &c.-Cutting and destroying,

102

102

Sanitary Regulations-Breach of

2

3 Trespass on Crown Land,

538

538

Scavenging Contract-Breach of

1

1 Unlawful Possession of Property,

356

425

Seamen--Forcing, or leaving, on shore,

1

"

"

of Trees, Shrubs, &c.,.

60

60.

-Refusal of duty by British,

14

14 Unlicensed-Boats, &c.,

118

118

Foreign,

6

13

-Hawkers,

1,378 1,378

-Remaining behind ships after having signed

the Articles,

-Private Vehicles,

10

10

"

1

1

34

-Steam Lighter,

11

1

Seamen's Boarding Houses-Unlicensed keeping of... Ships, &c.-Carrying passengers in excess of the number

allowed by Licence,

27

31

Leaving Anchorage during prohibited hours,. -Leaving Harbour without Clearance,

11

-Neglecting to have a Riding Light at night

on board...

-Not having certificated Master,

Shooting with intent to do Grievous Bodily Harm,

Slaughter-house Regulations-Breach of...

Small-Pox and other Infectious Diseases-Neglecting to

"

(Private),

Watchman-Misconduct as Private

43

report Cases of

Carried forward,..

27 Unwholesome Provisions-Exposing for Sale, or bring.

ing into the Colony,

31 Vagrancy Ordinance-Breach of

7 Vehicle-Offences (Public), .

44 Waterworks Ordinance-Breach of..

3 Weights and Measures Ordinance-Breach of

2 Wharf-Taking or disembarking Passengers from pro-

hibited

Women and Girls Protection Ordinance-Breach of Workmen-Intimidating

4

32

32

525

553

4

4

1

79

79

54

54

1

33

46

3

3

13,566 15,337

TOTAL,.

17,016 18,898

Magistracy, Hongkong, 30th January, 1896.

T. SERCOMBE SMITH,

Acting Police Magistrate.

ABSTRACT of CASES brought under COGNIZANCE at the POLICE MAGISTRATES' COURT during a period of

Ten Years, from 1st January, 1886, to 31st December, 1895, inclusive.

CASES, HOW DISPOSED OF, AND THE NUMBER OF MALE AND FEMALE PRISONERS UNDER EACH HEAD.

Committed to Prison or detained pending Orders of His Excellency the Governor.

To keep the Peace,

TOTAL NUMBER

Ordered to find Security.

YEARS.

OF

CASES.

Convicted and Punished.

Discharged.

Committed for Trial at Supreme

Punished for Preferring

Total

False Charge Undecided.

Number

Court.

to be of Good Beha- viour, and to answer any Charge.

or giving

of

False Testimony.

Defendants.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

M.

F.

M.

F.

M.

F.

M.

F.

M.

F.

M. F.

M.

F.

M.

F.

1886,

14,611 12,081 842

2,198

190

157

N

5

869

100 32

3

168

15,510 1,137

1887,

12,015 10,354 325

2,620 159

158

9

28

4

411

1888,

11,647 9,700 232

2,704 145

168

98

11

177

1889,

1890,

8,670

6,626 268 2,319 178

157

10

44

10

303

22

52

14

48

13,633

549

15

3

48

2

12,898 411

34 17

64

9,530 503

9,739

7,423 317 2,406 151

102

15

259

59

3

35

2

10,243 529

Total,..... 56,682 46,1841,984 | 12,247 828

742

27

190

25

2,019

260

69

3 363

7

61,814 | 3,129

Average per

Year,

|11,336-4 | 9,236 8 396-8 | 2,4494 | 1646

148-4

54 380

5:0

403.8

520

138 06 72.6

1.4

| 12,362-8) 625-8

1891,

13,676 13,438 534 1,906 134

40

12

153

1892,

11,920 11,771 327 1,927 151

40

5

191

1893,

10,727 10,049 306 1,532

1894,

10,447 9,465 302 1,716

1895,

17,016 15,058 725 2,345 196

283

75

102

7

1

242

95

63

Q

5

255

51

විස

232

~ ~ ~ N 5

19

1

143

2

15,693 689

20

7

28

13,969 602

36 17

23

11,972 420

23 10

1

16

11,530 423

77

12

199

17,897 1,001

Total....... 63,786 59,781 | 2,194 9,426 651

296 *11

29

1 1,073

175 47

1 409

2

71,061 3,035

Average per

Year,

|12,757-2 |11,956-2 438-81,885-2 130.2

59.2 2.2 5.8 0.2

214.6

35.0 9:4

0.2 81.8

04 14,212-2 | 607-0

Grand Total)

for the 10 120,468 105,965 | 4,178 | 21,673 1,474 1,038 Years,......

Average per

Year,

f

|12,046-8 |10,596-5 417-82,167-3147-4

38 219

26

3,092 435

116

772

9

132,875 6,164

103.8

3.8 21.9

2.6

309.2

43.5 11-6

0.4

77.2

0-9

13,287-5616-4

T. SERCOMBE SMITH,

Magistracy, Hongkong, 30th January, 1896.

Acting Police Magistrate.

128

MAGISTERIAL ENQUIRIES INTO DEATHS.

TABLE 4.-RETURN OF ALL DEATHS REPORTED DURING THE YEAR 1895.

FORMAL ENQUIRIES HELD.

BURIED WITHOUT FORMAL ENQUIRIES.

NATIONALITY.

Very much

Men. Women. Boys. Girls. Total. Men. Women. Boys. Girls. decomposed;

Total.

sex, not ascertainable.

Europeans and Americans, ...

10

:

I

11

2

1

3

Indians and Malays,......

2

:

:

2

السمسم

1

1

2

:

Chinese,..............

29

3

2

2

36

125

19 118 116

8

386

Total,........

41

GO

3

3

2

49

128

20

118 117

00

8

391

Total for 1894,

64

3

4

2

73

119

15 129 102

8

373

TABLE B.-RETURN OF FORMAL ENQUIRIES DURING THE YEAR 1895.

FINDING.

Accidental death,

Accidental death by drowning,.

Accidentally burnt to death,...

Accidentally drowned,

Europeans and Americans.

Indians.

Chinese.

Total,

Men.

Boys. Men. Men.

Women. Boys.

Girls.

1

5

1

1

...

:

:

Accidentally shot during regimental firing,.

Death by accidental drowning,........

Death by hanging self administered,

Death by hanging from the neck in pursuance of a sentence of death passed in accordance with law and duly carried out

upon the two deceased, Au Chun and Li Pong, on the morning of the 29th day of January, 1895,......

Death by misadventure,

Death from fever,

Death from fracture of skull caused by a log jamming deceased's

head against side of the steamer Iser,

Death from injuries sustained to the base of the skull,

Death from natural causes,

Death occasioned by injuries received through the collapse of a wall during the re-construction of a building after its destruction by fire,......

Death occasioned by peritonitis which was caused by a stab in the loins inflicted together, with other wounds, on the deceased by some person or persons unknown,

Death occurred in consequence of injuries received by falling through the hatchway of the 'tween deck to the lower hold, there being no evidence to show in what manner the fall was occasioned,

Death resulted from a revolver or pistol bullet wound; but under what circumstances inflicted there is no sufficient evidence to show,

Death resulted from a self-inflicted razor wound, apparently inflicted under the influence of depression of mind amount- ing to temporary aberration of reason,..

Death resulted from hemorrhage and shock occasioned by mutilation of the body and a wound on the left leg; but under what circumstances occurring there is no evidence to show,

Found drowned,

Hæmorrhage from a bullet wound self inflicted,..

Carried forward,..

:

1

...

*

1

-:-:

13:

:

:

1

past N

:

1

1

1

:::

:.

2

Jand

1

1

1

1

-::

:

1

1

2

1

1

116

:

:

:.

:

:

:

:

:

:::

1

...

::

1

1

1

1

1

1

3

1

3333

23

1

1

35

129

TABLE B.-RETURN OF FORMAL ENQUIRIES DURING THE YEAR 1895,—Continued.

FINDING.

Europeans. and Americans.

Men.

Indians.

Chinese.

Boys. Men. Men, Women. Boys. Girls.

Brought forward,.

Total.

7

1

2

23

1

1

35

338

:

:

::

:

:

-:

:

:

1

:

:

1

::

::

:

:

:

:

Rupture of spleen occasioned by a fall or blow said to have been administered to the deceased by a Chinese Constable not identified, but the evidence regarding which is too uncertain to be reliable.......

That deceased died of hemorrhage caused by wounds in the

neck and that such wounds were self inflicted,

That deceased died of pulmonary congestion,...... That deceased met his death by drowning (asphyxia from sub- mersion), having been in a boat which was capsized on 15th December last off Bay View Hotel, and that no evidence exists to show how the boat was capsized, ............. That deceased met his death by drowning (asphyxia from sub- mersion) on 25th December last, having fallen into the sea whilst in a state of intoxication, That the cause of death was internal hemorrhage caused by partial rupture of right pulmonary artery, but that there is no evidence to show how such rupture was caused, That the deceased, Yiu Kau, met his death by scalding due to an escape of steam whilst the feed pipe was being dis- connected on board the S.S. Ching Ping on the 11th December, 1895, in Victoria Harbour. The Court finds that the presence of steam in the feed pipe was due to the very defective state of the check valve, and considers that the Chief Engineer, Mr. Jervis, is censurable for not having examined the check valve during the year for which he has been on board S.S. Ching Ping,

The deceased came to his death by drowning while escaping

from the lawful custody of the Inspector of Nuisances,.. The deceased came by their deaths by suffocation or other injuries received from the collapse of the roof of the build- ing known as the Old Victoria Hotel, such collapse being due to the state of decay into which the building had lapsed, and the deceased at the time of their deaths being residents in the building at their own risk and without the know- ledge of the sole mortgagee,

The deceased died from injuries sustained by a fall resulting in fracture of skull, such fall taking place down the south steps of the Central Market leading into Jubilee Street, there being no sufficient evidence to show what led to the fall,

The deceased died under the effects of wounds on the head and person, suspicion pointing to their infliction by two Chinese named A Kau and Small-pocked Sam who have accordingly been charged with the murder of the deceased, Wilful murder against some person or persons unknown,

:

1

1

:

:

1

:

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

Total,............

:

1

1

:

1

1

1

:

:

1

1

1

:

:

-:

1

1

1

3

:

::

:

1

1

1

10

1

2

29

3

2

2

49

Found on

Found in

Land.

Harbour.

Known.

TABLE C-RETURN OF BURIALS WITHOUT FORMAL ENQUIRIES DURING THE YEAR 1895.

Chinese.

Europeans & Americans,

Indians. Very much

de- composed;

Women.

Boys. Girls. Men. Girl.

Men.

Woman.

sex not ascertain-

Total.

able.

Reason why no Formal Enquiry was held.

Men.

...

:

No suspicious circumstances,

97

13

13

6

2

1

1 1

No evidence and/or decomposed state of body,

Post Mortem satisfactory,

14

4 105 110

:

:

***

11

2

:

***

Cheung Tsun-sau was tried for murder of

deceased. P.M. Case 862/63 of 1895, Cheng Ki was tried for causing the death of deceased. P.M. Case 4591 of 1895,.

Total,....

1

2

:

:

:

:

Un-

known.

Known.

Un-

known.

134

77

29

15

13

00

8

241

196

45

...

13

12

1

...

...

:

00

125

19 118 116

2

1

1 1

:

Magistracy, Hongkong, 80th January, 1896.

1

1

2

:

2

:

:

8

391

90 225

18

58

T. SERCOMBE SMITH,

Acting Police Magistrate.

HONGKONG.

RETURNS OF SUPERIOR AND SUBORDINATE COURTS FOR 1895.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

187

No. 14

96

No. 71.

SUPREME COUrt, HONGKONG, 1st April, 1896.

SIR,-I have the honour to forward to you herewith the Return of Civil and Appeal Cases heard in the Supreme Court in 1895.

The Honourable

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY,

&l...

&c.,

&c.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

J. W. NORTON KYSHE,

Registrar.

1895.

CASES TRIED.

In

No. of

Jurisdiction.

Dependency in 1894.

cases

Total.

Debt

and Damages.

in 1895.

Settled

or withdrawn before trial.

Plaintiff.

Defendant. Non-Suit.

Original,

Summary,

Struck out, dismissed

and lapsed writs.

In

Dependency.

Debt and Damages recovered.

11

92

103

$ 551,182.00

20

35

1

10

37

$ 54,772.35

2223

2,219

2,241

$ 192,358.86

1,321

685

64

4

137

30

$ 85,975,00

1395.

APPEALS.

APPEALS COMMENCED.

APPEALS TRIED.

JUGDMENT.

JUGDMENT.

No. of Cases.

No. of Cases.

Appellant.

Respondent.

Pending.

Appellant.

Respondent.

Pending.

17

5

12

17

12

J. W. NORTON KYSHE,

Registrar.

188

189

Calendar of PROBATES and ADMINISTRATION granted by the SUPREME COURT of HONGKONG during the Year 1895.

Date of

Name of Testator or Intestate.

Time and Place of Death.

Grant.

Probate, Administration, with Will annexed, or Administration.

1895.

Name and Description of the Executor or Administrator.

Value of

Effects as set forth in the Commis- sion of Ap- praisement.

Jan.

:>

8 George William Hayden,

8 Helen Christina Joseph. 8 Thomas Henry Dalby,

10 Ng Kwai Kiu,

15 Baron Jean Miller Grandmaison,

8 Leong Yut Hoi,

24 Christian Friedrich Rapp,.

24

Woo Gon Chi,

99

24

Lan Kee Hing,

99

"

24

Ching Kwong Ming,

"?

24

Leung Wing Ki,

Feb.

4 Ernest Arnold Linck,....

Weymouth Street. London, 16th Oct., 1894, Hongkong, 14th Dec., 1894, Lutherworth, in the County of Leicester, England,

5th Apr., 1894,

Ho Chuen, Nam Hoi,

15th June, 1894, Hongkong, 27th Dec., 1894. Macao. 19th Oct., 1894, Hongkong, 25th Dec., 1891,

Whampoa, 13th June, 1894, Hongkong, 26th Dec.. 1894, Hongkong. 19th Aug., 1893, Tai Kok Tsui, Kowloon.

25th June, 1894, 14th Jan., 1895,

Canton,

Probate,

Do., Letters of Adm. with Expl. of the Will annexed,

Ada Hayden and George Dixwell Fearon,

executrix and executor,

Henry Hope Joseph,

Duncan Clark, the duly authorized attor- ney of Mary Ann Dalby, for the use and benefit of the said Mary Ann Dalby and until she shall duly apply for Probate of the said Will, power being reserved to make the like grant to William James Dalby, the other executor named in the said Will,

Letters of Adm., Pun Chan Tsün,

Do., Do.. Probate,

Letters of Adın.. Probate, Letters of Adm., Do.,

Probate,

Official Administrator,

Leong Sin Shi, widow and relict, John David Humphreys and Heiurich

Garrels,

Woo Leung Shi,

Tong Pak Suue, Official Administrator, Leung Kam Tsün,

$

1,300.00 7,900.00

2,918.66 100.00

200.00

6,000.00

22,572.00

900.00

600.00

14 Robert Fraser-Smith,

1894-Dec. 28 Li Un Shing,

Jan. 25 Ng Tun Yuen alias How Qua,..... Feb. 16 Henry Bridges Endicott,.

25 Chan King,

1994-Aug. 29 Charles David Bottomley,.

Feb. 18 Harry MacDonald Becher,

1894-Nov. 17 Li Yam,... Feb. 25 Ng Tat Cho..

Mar. 11 George Hughes,

11

11 Marcus Octavious Flowers, ...

"}

19 Leung King Ham,

"

19 Chan Yuen Koon,

"?

11 Samuel Walker,

29 John Copeland.

99

29 George William Snelling,

Apr. 19 Kwok Po Shan,

""

19 Henry Steele,

19 Wong Yau,

"

19 Cheung Wa, 19 Lee Choong,.

13 Robert Lyall,

Frederick Samuel Augustus Bourne,

power being reserved to the like grant to John Porter, the other exe- cutor named in the said Will, Official Administrator,

Hongkong, 9th Feb., 1895, Tsat Po, San Ui,

Letters of Adm., Do.,

Chun A-I...........................

Canton, Shanghai,

8th June, 1894, 8th Aug, 1843. 5th Jan., 1895,

Tsin Shan, Macao,

4th Jan., 1895,

Buxton, in the County of Derby, 10th July, 1893, Gunong, Paban, in the Ma-

lay Peninsula,

15th Sept.. 1893,

Canton, 24th Oct., 1893, Macao, 16th June. 1894, Brunswick House. Church Road. Hoie, in the County of Sussex, 5th Oct.. 1894, Eastbourne, in the County

of Sussex.

28th Jan., 1894,

Hongkong, 14th Feb., 1895, Canton, 8th Dec.. 1894, Oatland. Woking. in the

County of Surrey,

3rd Apr., 1894,

Do.. Letters of Adm. with Expl. of the Will annexed,

Official Administrator,

Godfrey Cornewall Chester Master, the

duly authorized attorney of Edwin Underhill Smith and Rufus Franklin Eastlack, for the use and benefit of the said Edwin Underhill Smith and Rufus Franklin Eastlack and until they shall duly apply for Probate of the Will to be granted to them,

Letters of Adm., | Che Kai, the lawful wife,

Expl. of the Will re-sealed, Do.,

Probate, Letters of Adm.. Expl. of the Will re-sealed,

Letters of Adm. with Expl. of the Will annexed,

Probate, Letters of Adm., Letters of Adm.

with the Will annexed,

Hongkong, 23rd Feb., 1895, | Letters of Adın., | Hongkong, 23rd Feb., 1895, Letters of Adm.

with the Will annexed, Probate, Letters of Adm. with Expl. of the Will annexed,

Hongkong, 20th Mar.. 1895, At Sea,

24th May, 1894,

Sam Shui Po, British Kow- loon, 9th Mar., 1895, Shaukiwan, 16th Aug., 1894, Hongkong, 10th Feb., 1878,

Singapore, 10th Feb., 1895,

Letters of Adm.,

Do.,

Letters of Adm. de bonis non, Letters of Adm. with the Will annexed,

Thomas Jackson,................

Victor Hobart Deacon,

Li Sing and Li Sam Chun,

Chan Tun Cho, a creditor,

8,000.00 500.0J

5,700.00

1,000.00

100.00

10,000.00

25,200.00 350.00

92,772.24

300.00

3.000.00

2.400.00

James Jones aud James Henry Mathews, £33,180.18.9

Bruce Shepherd, the duly authorized at- torney of the said Marcus Edwin Flowers, (the said Revd. Thomas Hauseman, the other exccutor having renounced Probate) for the use and benefit of the said Marcus Edwin Flowers and until he shall duly apply for and obtain Probate to the said Estate,

Leung Hui Shi, the widow, Chan Ching Shi, the widow, Victor Hobart Deacon, the substituted, depnted and appointed attorney of the said Ethel Kate Susannah Brooke for the use and benefit of the said Ethel Kate Susannah Brooke and until she should duly apply for and obtain Letters of Administration to the said Estate, Official Administrator, Do.,

Kwok Kam Tong and Kwok Wong Shi,... Thomas Jackson, the duly authorized at- torney of the said William Robert Bennett and Alfred Henry Dare for the use and benefit of the said William Robert Bennett and Alfred Henry Dare and until they should duly apply for Probate of the Will to be granted to them,

| Wong Cheung,.

Chu A-tsap, Official Administrator,

DO.,

£7,870.17.9 $ 4,500.00 9,000.00

11,675.00 100.00 10,500.00

400.00

6,000.00 700.00

30.00- 9,300.00

400.00

190

CALENDAR of PROBATES and ADMINISTRATION,

Probate, Administration

Continued.

Date of

Name of Testator or Intestate.

Time and Place of Death.

Grant.

with Will annexed, or Administration.

Name and Description of the Executor or Administrator.

Value of Effects as

set forth in the Commis- sion of Ap- praisement.

1895.

June 1 Peter Hunter,

May 9 Lam Tak Tsoi,

11

*

""

""

"

9 Wong Tsing Ngan alias Wong

Chuen.

9 José Miguel Victor de Figueiredo.

21 Li Yik Chi,

21} Ho Yat Cho,...

21 William Mann,

Belsize Road, in the County

of Middlesex.

23rd Nov., 1893, Chik Mi, Kwai Sin District, 14th Feb., 1894,

Fa Lung, Kwang Tung,

24th Mar., 1895. Hongkong, 18th Mar., 1895,

Hongkong, 10th Apr., 1895, Tại Leung Hang, Nam Hoi, 12th Dec., 1894, Yokohama, 2nd Oct., 1894,

Probate re-sealed,

William Henry Ray,

£16,076.9.8

Letters of Adm.,

Lam Tsün Shan,

$

500.00

Probate,

Wong Ming Chow, Wong Leung Shi and

Wong Chow Shi,

16,000.00

Do.,

Francisco Maria Xavier de Figueiredo,

17,000.00

Do.

Do.,

2,000.00 7,000.00

Letters of Adm. with Expl. of the Will annexed,

21 Alexander Pope Porter,

:

Tsukyi, Tokio, Japan,

17th Nov., 1893,

Do..

"

21

Tong King Sing,

""

21

'hoorja Mahomed Arab,

June 1

Yeong Liu alias Yeong Ü,

1

"

Francisco Simão Rangel,

11

Mak (han Nam alias Mak Mow

Ki.

11

Sui Shun Kwong,

"

12

Cheung Luk Ü,

May 28

Leung Shek Tin,

June 15

Chan l'ing Tso,

Jan. 24

May 9

Lum Tai otherwise Lam Nang

Mi otherwise Lam Shing Chi. Shek Ching Chuen, June 25 William Jones,..

25 William Thomas,..

93

""

2%| Yeung Hang Po,

11

28 Joaquim das Neves e Souza,

Tientsin, 7th Oct., 1892, Hongkong, 16th Oct., 1887,

Canton, 16th July, 1894, Hongkong, 15th May, 1895, Tai Hing, Nam Hoi,

3rd July, 1893, Canton, 29th Sept., 1893. Canton. 4th Mar., 1895, Hongkong, 26th Mar., 1895, Hongkong, 8th Mar., 1895, Chung Sik, Kwang Tung.

19th May, 1894, Canton,

16th Feb., 1895. Hongkong, 6th June, 1895, Hongkong, 6th June, 1895, Hongkong, 30th May, 1895, Macao, 28th Feb., 1894,

Letters of Adm., Letters of Adm. de bonis non, Do., Probate, Letters of Adm.,

Tang Yat Cho and Li Wing Sui, ....... Ho Nga, Ho Chong and Ho Kum,

William Hutton Potts, the duly author- ized attorney of the said Bartin Haigh Pratt for the use and benefit of the said Bartin Haigh Pratt and until he shall duly apply for Probate of the Will to be granted to him, William Hutton Potts, the duly author-

ized attorney of the said Charles Jacque Hess, for the use and benefit of the said Charles Jacque Hess and until he shall duly apply for Probate of the Will to be granted to him,. Tong Chi Piu, the eldest son, Official Administrator,

Yeong Cheong Shi, the widow, Maria Conceição Rangel,

7,800.00

2,250.00

2,500.00

4,000.00

2,500.00

Mak Cheong Tong,

3,500.00

Sui Ting Tai..

1,750.00

Cheung Sui Chuen, son..

12,000.00

Do..

Leung Chok Ping,

11,000.00

Do.,

Chan U-Fai, son.

35,000.00

Do.,

Li King Chun, Li Nam Chuen and Lam

Do..

Shin Tseung, Shek Kwok Yee,

14,000.00

5,960.00

60.00

Do.,

Do.,

2,600.00 100.00

Do., Frobate,

Letters of Adm., | Official Administrator,

Do.,

Do.,

Do.,

Agostinho Guilherme Romano, Consul

General for Portugal, the duly au thorized attorney of Felismina Pas- choa da Cunha das Neves e Souza, for the use and benefit of the said Felismina Paschoa da Cunha das Neves e Souza and until she shall apply for Letters of Administration,. Lew Wing Hang,

May 21

Chow Yung.

June 28 Agostinho d'Azevedo,

"

21 Wilhelm August Ferdinand

Schmidt,

July 24 Henry Charles Abbott Harris, Jan. 24 Isaac Bernard,..

July 27 Alfred Rowe,

27 Him Kee Alum,

Hongkong, 9th Apr., 1895, Hongkong, 2nd June, 1895,

Hongkong, 12th May, 1895, Amoy. 15th Mar., 1895, Huntingdon, England,

Canton,

19th May, 1894,

6,000.00

Probate, Do.,

4,000.00

Auria Angelica d'Azevedo,

4,000.00

Letters of Adm., Probate, Letters of Adm.

Caroline Johanne Georgina Schmidt.

4,500.00

Bessy Hewson Harris,

6,100.00

|

Victor Hobart Deacon,

43,902.85

with Expl. of Letters of Adm. annexed. 4th Aug.. 1894. Letters of Adm.

with Expl. of the Will annexed,

Frederic Burgess Smith, the duly author- ized attorney of the said Fanny Rowe and Fanny Elizabeth, for the use and benefit of the said Fanny Rowe and Fanny Elizabeth and until they shall duly apply for Probate of the Will to be granted to them, Official Administrator,

21,100.00

" 27 John David Kiley,

"

27 Lo Man On alias Lo Siu,

"

Aug. 10 Francis Simpson Ommanney,.

Foochow 7th Aug., 1894, Hongkong, 6th June, 1895, Hongkong, 26th Apr., 1895, Hongkong, 24th July, 1895.

Letters of Adm.,

Do.,

Do.,

Do.,

Do.,

Do.,

Do.,

16 Li Yuen,

Hongkong, 14th June, 1895,

DO.

Do.,

"

16 Chan Chak Po,

ད་

July 27 William Ross,

Aug. 8 George Whitlock,

"

23 Januario Antonio dos Remedios, Macao,

Hongkong, 13th Jan., 1895, Hongkong, 5th July, 1895, Devizeson, in the County of Welt, 20th Feb., 1895, 12th Nov., 1891,

Do.,

Chan Ko Shi,

Do.,

Official Administrator,

Probate

Godfrey Cornewall Chester Master,

"

23 Yam Wing,

10 | Ng Ho,.

27 David Moncrief Wright,

23 Lam Hi Ying,

"

23 Mok Chi Wing,

Sept. 4 Alice Marian Goddard,

Aug. 29 Edwin Byrne,

July 20 Foo Chui,

Hongkong, 23rd Mar., 1894. Hongkong, 23rd Nov., 1894, St. Andrew, Scotland,

2nd Jan, 1895, Canton. 10th July, 1895, Heung Shan.

sealed, Letters of Adm.,

Probate, Do., Letters of Adm.,

Agostinho Guilherme Romano, the duly authorized attorney of Carmelia Maria Xavier dos Remedios, for the use and benefit of the said Carmelia Maria Xavier dos Remedios and until she shall duly apply for Letters of Admi- nistration to the said Estate, Yam Kue,

Tso Cheong,

Robert John Hastings,

Lam Ku Hong,

Cheuk Hi Ting,

Probate, Do..

12th July, 1895, Hongkong, 21st Aug., 1895, Twickenham. England.

DO.

Official Administrator,

Do.,

Ernest Walter Tisdall,

5th Apr.. 1895,

Hongkong, 26th June, 1895, Letters of Adm., | Li A-king, the lawful wife of deceased,...

50.00 3,900.00

1,244.88

70.00

700.00

3,000.00

1,424.77

1,200.00

8,200.00

10,000.00

1,500.00

67,400.00

7,100.00

2,000.00

2,200.00

10.00

191

CALENDAR of PROBATES and ADMINISTRATION,—Continued.

Date of

Name of Testator or Intestate.

Time and Place of Death.

Grant.

Probate, Administration with Will annexed, or Administration.

Name and Description of the Executor or Administrator.

Value of Effects as ser forth in the Commis- sion of Ap- praisement.

1895.

Aug, 29 | Adolph Alexander Emile Meyer, Leipzig, in the Kingdom of Saxony, 20th July, 1894,

"1

17 Yeong Shuey Lun,

Sept. 9

Robert Francis,

Yung Chun, Shin Hing,

10th Aug., 1895, Shanghai, 12th Mar., 1895,

Probate,

Do.,

Letters of Adm. with Expl. of the Will annexed,

Nicolaus August Siebs, the duly author- ized attorney of the said Charlotte Meyer, for the use and benefit of the said Charlotte Meyer and until she shall duly apply for Probate of the said Will to be granted to her, Yeung Sai Ngam,

Cornelius Thorne, one of the executors, power being reserved to make a like grant to Anna Maria Francis, Francis Ellen Francis and John Graeme Purdon,

Tso Tak and Tso U,

Father Bernado Vigano,

Kwok Shop Luk....... Official Administrator,

Richard Howard Russell Burder, the duly authorized substitute attorney of the said Charles Henry King, for the use and benefit of the said Frederic Brooke and until he shall duly apply for Probate of the said Will and Codicil the said Richard Howard Russell Burder....

Nicolaus August Siebs,

8.750.00 140,500.00

14,415.00

19.000.00

14,300.00

4,200.00 200.00

1,150.00 43,000.00

18

Tso Lo Kiu.

}}

Hongkong, 26th Aug., 1895,

Do..

June 21

Venancio de Aranguren y La-

rando.

Hongkong, 22nd Apr., 1895,

Do.,

Sept. 18

Aug. 18

Fan A-Sing alias Fan Yuen Sing, John Digby French,

Oct. 7

Zachary Brooke Drage,

Canton, 31st July, 1895, Hongkong, 31st July, 1895. In the County of Somerset,

England,

11th May, 1893,

Do.,

|

Letters of Adm., Letters of Adm.

|

with the Will

and Codicil annexed,

"

pius.

""

19 Charles Sutton,

19 Walter George Dickson,

??

19 Hans Christian Heinrich Hop- Hongkong, 12th Dec., 1894,

Probate,

Nagasaki, Japan,

28th Apr., 1895,

Letters of Adm. with the Will annexed,

Edinburgh, 29th Dec., 1894, | Letters of Adm.

with the Will

and Codicil annexed,

William Hutton Potts, the duly author- ized attorney of Charles Davis Moss. for the use and benefit of the said Charles Davis Moss and until he shall duly apply for Letters of Adminis- tration the said William Hutton Potts, James Jardine Bell-Irving, the duly au

thorized attorney of the said Trustees, Helen Dickson, John Dickson, Thomas Gollie Dickson, David Scott Dickson and David Shaw, for the use and benefit of the said Trustees and until they shall apply for Probate of the said Will and Codicil of the said Estate,

950.00

22,141.50

Nov. 2 Donald Fraser,

Hongkong, 16th Oct., 1895,

|

Lelters of Adm., |

Official Administrator.

2,300.00

1891-July 27 Daniel Richard Francis Caldwell, Hongkong, 2nd Oct., 1875,

Letters of Adm.

George Arthur Caldwell and Eliza Emily

Nov. 7 Lau I-Sham..

26 | Ng Siu.

26 Gothfried Weber,

Oct. 19 Chow Ping,

Nov. 29 Fung Yam Shum,

29 Loo Toong Choi,

Doc.

3 Burjorjee Rustomjee Mody,

Honam, Canton,

30th Aug., 1891, At Sea, 27th Sept., 1895, Hongkong, 9th Nov., 1895, Hongkong, 19th Jan., 1895,

Chau Fa Un, Heung Shan, 7th Nov., 1895, Hongkong, 2nd Jan., 1880, Bombay, 31st Mar., 1895,

de bonis non, Probate,

Letters of Adm.,

Caldwell,

Ng Kwok To, the oldest son,

5,000.00

| Ng Kwon Ying,

300.00

Do.,

Official Administrator.

400.00

Do..

Chow Su Shi. Chow Leung Shi and Chow

Kam Wing,

Do..

Chau l-Kwai,

8,500.00 300.00

Do..

Yu Po King.....

|

18 John otherwise John Haddow Somerside, Belmont Avenue,

Macdonald.

Kew, Victoria,

28th Apr., 1895,

|

Letters of Adm. with the Will annexed,

Letters of Adm.

with Expl.

of the Will and Codicil annexed,

David Reuben Sassoon, the duly author- ized substitute attorney of the said Perozesha Burjorjee Mody, and until he shall duly apply for Probate of the said Will the said David Reuben Sassoon, Godfrey Cornewall Chester Master, the duly authorized attorney of the said Mary Kate Macdonald and George Harry Rimer, for the use and benefit of the said Mary Kate Macdonald until she should marry, and also for the use and benefit of the said George Harry Rimer. the executor named in the said Codicil, and until the said Mary Kate Macdonald, George Harry Rimer, Frederick Thomas Pearce Foster, James Thomson, Robert George Wippen. Charles Ford Mac- donald or any one or more of them shall apply for and obtain Probate of the said Will and Codicil, Spencer Allen Deacon, the duly author- ized attorney of the said Catherine Octaria Deacon, for the use and be- nefit of the said Catherine Octaria Deacon or until she shall duly apply for Probate of the said Will, the said Spencer Allen Deacon,

11,000.00

61,200.00

30 Albert Deacon,

11

Briggins Park, England,

31st Jan., 1895,

Letters of Adm. with the Will annexed,

30 Louis Mendel,

Hongkong, 4th Nov., 1895, | Letters of Adm., Official Administrator,

3,200.00 9,000.00

J. W. NORTON KYSHE,

Registrar.

Registry Supreme Court, Hongkong, 2nd March, 1896.

No. 7.

71

No. 3

96

HONGKONG.

REPORTS OF THE HEAD MASTER OF QUEEN'S COLLEGE AND OF THE EXAMINERS APPOINTED BY THE GOVERNING BODY FOR 1895.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of

His Excellency the Governor.

QUEEN'S COLLEGE,

HONGKONG, 28th January, 1896.

SIR.I have the honour to forward the Annual Report on Queen's College for the

year 1895. 1. The total number on the Roll for the year was 1,024. As the attendance in January was 577, the admissions reached the high figure 447; of these, 350 were new boys, there therefore remain 97 names of boys who returned from the 1894 Roll. In the last four months, no fewer than 89 new boys were admitted, nearly double the usual number, for the same period. After allowance has been made for the four days during which, with His Excellency the Governor's approval, the college was closed for the Oxford Local Examinations, the number of school days, 233, is normal.

2. In the past year, over 100 boys, on leaving this college, obtained situations; 3 in the local Civil Service, 43 in local Mercantile and Professional offices, 38 in the Chinese Service, and 33 at the Coast Ports and abroad generally.

3. $12,667 fees were collected in the course of the year. This is not only the largest amount thus paid into the Treasury as yet, but is so in spite of the facts, that the monthly averages in the first half of the year were nearly 100 attendances less than in 1894, and that a loss of $162 was incurred by the departure in October of 35 boys for Tientsin. Expenditure is apparently larger than last year, but this is due to the appearance in 1895 accounts of Arrears of Exchange Compensation, chargeable against 1894.

4. Three years ago (Gazette 1893, p. 165, par. 3) I pointed out that the normal conditions of the Central School were not ideal and that the continuance of these in a building with twice the attendances increases the difficulty fourfold; for it is evident that the consequences, attendant upon the annual change of one third of the total number of boys, grow more serious in a ratio which rapidly increases out of proportion to the mere access of numbers. If ordinary principles of promotion were under these circumstances adhered to, the natural result would be an annual reduction of the attend- ance in the Upper School, and a corresponding expansion of the Lower sections of the College including the Preparatory School. The fees in the Upper School being highest, there would be entailed a serious reduction in the revenue. Further the number of boys leaving annually would be doubtless augmented, as the present method of rapid promotion is welcome to them, at their age, as curtailing the length of their school career. As a typical instance I may cite the component parts of Class IV. C. where, in November last, 7 boys had in 1894 been in Class V, 11 in Class VI, 11 in Class VII and I in Class VIII; several of them having been promoted through intermediate classes in the previous half of 1895. No ideal education can thrive under such circumstances. What is to be noted is, that the system combines and harmonises the demand for fees, and the eagerness of boys to complete their education with the utmost speed. Any estimate of the value of the education given at this college, that ignores the above conditions, and makes no allowance for the fact that, in four or five years, the majority of our boys pass through eight standards, must arrive at erroneous conclusions.

5. A cry is heard from Wales, that it is impossible for boys, attending day-schools, who hear and speak nothing but Welsh out of school-hours, to attain to anything like ease and accuracy in speaking and writing the English language. As I do not think that sufficient allowance is generally made for the difficulties attendant upon the study of English by boys of Mongolian race, I was glad to find in Things Japanese," in the article on Education by Professor MASON, the expression of the same. argument I have often employed, which is to the following effect. If in England the examination in

72

English History, Grammar, Geography, Mathematics, &c. were entirely conducted, questions and - answers, oral and written, in the Latin language, only a slight idea could be formed of the difficulty experienced by Japanese and Chinese in examinations conducted in English; for after all, there is a certain amount of kinship between English and Latin in thought, roots, construction and expression, absolutely wanting between English and Japanese or Chinese. I also found from conversation with Professor MASON, at a health resort in Japan last summer, that the attainments of our boys after four or five years, compare very favourably with those of Japanese after a nine years' course; great proficiency in English Conversation, Grammar, Composition, &c. is the exception not the rule, being dependent on the natural abilities of the boys, not on the system of education.

6. The Second Master, Mr. MAY, returned from leave in April, and Mr. BARLOW in August; Mr. JONES went on leave in July. The office of Seventh Assistant Master was abolished, the Governing Body recommending a graduated scale of higher salaries for the Chinese Staff. Of the four Chinese Assistants, who, as mentioned in my last Report, taught classes in the Upper School in 1894 with such excellent results, two have left for higher salary; Mr. WAN going to a new university recently opened at Tientsin, and Mr. LEUNG obtaining transfer to the Public Works Department. The great bulk of our Chinese Staff now consists of junior men, and it is to be recorded to their great credit, that they have uniformly strenuously striven to sustain the standards of the classes entrusted to their charge.

7. The results of the Oxford Local Examinations are this year very disappointing, being far behind the most satisfactory ones of the two preceding years. It is not, however, possible to maintain an even standard of excellence for any length of time, especially in view of the difficulties resulting from irregular attendance, detailed above. There are, however, two redeeming features, which deserve to be noted. Out of the eight boys from this college, who received certificates, two obtained distinction. U HANG-KAM, already A.A. in 1894, aspired to distinction in Mathematics, and was successful, ranking 12 out of 23 Seniors, so honoured in all England. C. ELLIS was similarly 3 out of 12 in the list, distinguished in History in the Preliminary Examination.

8. It is much to be wished, that some plan could be devised for reducing the distracting noises, by which our work is continually interrupted. I refer especially to the nuisance arising from processions, which, I believe, are required to hush their music in the neighbourhood of the Supreme Court and other Public Buildings, but which seem to reserve their energies for our benefit. Just recently a new cause of annoyance has arisen, the dressing of rough hewn stones in Staunton Street. I have often suggested the blocking-up of the loop-holes in the boundary wall of the same street, as these apertures reveal an irresistible vista for cock-shy to the gamins of that district; during the examination, a small urchin threw quite a big stone into the Hall. A more serious subject for complaint is the immoral reputation of the immediate neighbourhood of this college; it being a matter of common knowledge that brothels and secret gambling dens abound, which prove a source of ruin to several of our scholars.

9. The usual Tables of Statistics are attached.

I have the honour to be,

Honourable J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, Colonial Secretary.

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

Oxon,

GEO. H. BATESON WRIGHT, D.D. OXON,

Head Master.

1895.

QUEEN'S COLLEGE.

Month.

Number of Scholars.

Number

of

Attendances.

Number of School Days.

Average Daily Attendance.

Remarks,

January,

577

6,794

13

522.61

February,

745

6,970

10

697.00

March,

773

18,077

26

695.27

April,

785

9,755

.14

696.78

May,

788

17,798

25

711.92

June,

747

16,423

24

684.29

July,

715

14,949

23

649.95

August,

646

3,095

5

619.00

September,

730

12,526

19

659.26

October,

729

15,774

25

630.96

November,

676

15,739

26

605.34

December,

630

12,916

23

561.56

Total,.

150,816

233

Total Number of ATTENDANCES during 1895, Number of SCHOOL DAYS during 1895,

Average DAILY ATTENDANCE during 1895,

Total Number of SCHOLARS at this School during 1895, .

.150,816.

233.

647.28

1,024.

GEO. H. BATESON WRIGHT, D.D. Oxon,

Head Master.

AVERAGE EXPENSES of each SCHOLAR at QUEEN'S COLLEGE during 1895.

Expenditure-

Cash Book,

.$29,901.24

Crown Agents,

3,416.76

Cash Book, Exchange Compensation,

4,125.81

Do.,

do.,

Arrears 1894, ..

2,640.99

Crown Agents, Adjustment of Exchange,

1,651.54

$41,736.34

Deduct-

School Fees,

Refund,

Salary of Master on loan to Kowloon,

.$12,667.00 1.00

516.00

Total Expense of the College,..........

$13,184.00

$28,552.34

Average Expense of each Scholar per No. on Roll,

Do.

do.

per Average Daily Attendance,.......

.$27.88 44.11

GEO. H. BATESON WRIGHT, D.D. Oxon, Head Master.

73

N.B.-The figures against Crown Agents are an estimate only, and will doubtless require to be corrected when

correct details reach the Treasury.

74

REPORT ON THE ANNUAL EXAMINATION HELD AT QUEEN'S COLLEGE

FROM JANUARY 3RD TO 16TH, 1896.

QUEEN'S COLLEGE,

HONGKONG, 31st January, 1896.

GENTLEMEN,--We have the honour of reporting to you the result of the Annual Examination held by us at Queen's College during the current month.

In accordance with instructions received from you we have examined, either by written work or orally, "all the subjects taught in the College including the Chinese school," with the exception of Shorthand which we understand is at an elementary stage--it being undesirable that boys commen- cing this subject should be subjected to any test in it until they have arrived at a certain standard of ➡ efficiency.

The examination occupied 11 days (January 3rd to 16th), exclusive of one day given to the Chinese school; and on 8 of these days the work was carried on in the afternoon as well as in the morning.

Papers were set in all the subjects offered except Reading, Conversation, and the Pupil Teachers' Practical Work, which were taken orally. Great care was taken to preserve, as far as possible, the standard hitherto adopted in the Annual Examinations, the questions being carefully chosen to test the knowledge which had been imparted to the boys in those portions of their subjects which they had been taught. Only in three instances was it pointed out by the Head Master that we had exceeded this limit, and then due allowance was made in the awarding of marks. The papers were generally slightly longer than usual, in order to give as much scope as possible; and it is hoped that the tabulated results on the mark sheets may afford some means of comparison between the work in this examina- tion and that of last year. We have, however, in order to avoid too severe a test, taken 40 per cent, instead of 50 per cent. for the minimum of marks necessary to obtain a "pass." It was thus possible for any boy, doing a little well, to pass.

In reporting upon the work of 566 boys it is impossible, without being inconveniently lengthy to give more than a general view of the examiners' opinion of the work done. To do this would necessitate a detailed report upon each class, or set of parallel divisions, and as this cannot be done we would draw attention to the mark sheets, which have been prepared to show not only the order of merit in each division, but also the percentage of marks obtained in each subject by each boy, and the percentage of passes in each subject in each division, as well as the actual number of passes and failures awarded to each boy.

ness.

With regard to the actual work, as might be expected in a school of this kind and size where some boys have been so long and some so short a time under tuition, the work showed great uneven- But what is less easily accountable is the fact that the boys in one class, not excepting the First, showed great disparity of knowledge or of power to reproduce it. There were a good many cases of conspicuous success, but there was also a lamentable amount of weak and inaccurate work. The best subjects were Writing, Algebra and Book-keeping, and the worst Conversation, Composition, Latin, Euclid.

Marks were assigned for Writing throughout the school, and this was very creditable and satis- factory.

In Reading and Conversation the examiners took all the boys, 5 or 6 at a time, in a separate room and devoted from 15 to 25 minutes to each group. Every boy read before the examiners at least twice, many three times; and conversations were engaged in between the examiners and the boys, or between the boys themselves in the presence of the examiners. The reading and conversa- tion in the First and Second Classes were very satisfactory, showing that the test applied was not too severe, and also that boys could be taught to read clearly and intelligently, and learn to converse with a fair command of idiom. But the majority of this work in the rest of the school leaves room for much improvement. We do not think it a good plan that reading should be taught by Chinese Masters, and we are of opinion that more time should be given to the cultivation of the habit of

75

composing and speaking simple sentences idiomatically. At the Head Masters' Conference in England held last month, it was resolved that "It is desirable that modern languages be taught more collo- quially than is customary in schools at present," and we think that much of the deficiency in speaking English which we noticed in the greater part of the school might be supplied if some time were given to the teaching of colloquial English. We do not see from the table of hours of work supplied to us that any time is given especially to this subject; the 24 hours a week put down for conversation appears to mean no more than that the boys are taught various subjects in English, by European or Chinese Masters, during that number of hours. We feel sure from our experience that no definite improvement can be effected in this matter unless especial attention is paid to it.

In the lower classes, where the number of pages of the reading book prepared was small, the boys had read the same piece so frequently that, on five out of six occasions when the examiners asked a boy to close his book and repeat four or five lines which he had just read, they were repeated verbatim with as much fluency as when the book was open before him. The consequence of this frequent reading of the same passage is that boys get into the habit of not looking carefully at the whole of a word, and when, in an unfamiliar passage, the eye catches sight of a word slightly similar to one better known, the boy pronounces the latter and seems totally unconscious that he is making nonsense of the sentence. We noticed a very common mistake, which ought to be remedied at once; nouns in the singular were read as plural and vice versa, tenses in the present as past and vice versa. The same mistakes occur in the written work of all the Classes.

The Dictation was taken in each Class, except in Class I., from the part of the reading book which the boys had prepared, in order that there should be no unfamiliar words in the piece chosen. And care was taken that the unfamiliar voices of the examiners should not in any way make the passage unduly difficult.

A boy was allowed to make six mistakes and yet to pass (errors in punc- tuation counting, and in spelling 1). In spite of this-and the portion on which marks were assigned was no longer than in previous years-there were too many failures; we think that a good many of these might have been avoided by more care on the part of the boys, and if English Masters only had been allowed to teach reading. Punctuation was very weak especially in the Middle Classes. The writing was good, and it was pleasing to find several perfect papers in Classes IV., VII. and VIII.

&

Composition. As in previous examinations the boys in Class I. were asked to write an essay. Three subjects were given (The Sports and Pastimes to be seen in Hongkong, The Peak Tramway, and The Benefits of Foreign Trade), and boys were invited to select one and write upon it. We were much pleased with the work in I.a.; two or three essays being excellent, and the mistakes in composition very few. In the other classes, II. to V., a short story was read out twice by an English Master, and an explanation of it given in Chinese by a native Teacher. The boys were then instructed to reproduce the story in their own words. A few boys acquitted themselves creditably, but the mass of the work was very poor. We do not feel sure that this is the best method of teaching Composition, as boys seem to try too much to reproduce the exact words they have heard; and they make this effort at the expense of the sense. Much attention is needed to this subject. We think it would be better to teach the boys to compose and write correctly short sentences relating to some simple subject chosen by a Master; afterwards to write longer ones and to combine them. Many papers were quite unintelligible.

Grammar.-We were satisfied with the work of I.A. and I. C,A., and also of II.A., where there was evidence of good teaching, and we found the analysis of sentences on the whole good. Much of the work of the other Classes was ruined by inaccuracy and by an inability to express correctly what had been learnt by heart. Too much dependence is put upon rote-work. It may be necessary

for a teacher to know that "an adjective is a word that may be joined to a noun to describe, to delimit, or to point to, that which we are naming by the noun," but it is not good to burden the memory of Chinese boys with such things unless it is desired to "sacrifice Education to Examination." Many boys had been taught to reproduce this definition, but the majority of them, in this and other cases, made nonsense of what they had tried to commit to memory. And when a boy in the Third Class, who has been in the school three years, writes such rubbish as “The common noun distinguishes as proper nouns the things, persons or places are given the name to it that is used for proper," it is time to consider whether the whole method of teaching Grammar from a text-book does not require revision. This is only a sample of the many unintelligible answers with which the majority of papers teemed. Such a provincialism (appearing in about 75 per cent. of the papers) as "shew" for the past tense of "to show " ought not to be possible, and the learning of difficult definitions and explanations

76

by heart, which are very evidently not understood, should be strongly discouraged. On the whole this very important subject is very feeble and disappointing in a school which aims at giving an English education to Chinese boys. “Some adverbs are elecquar" can scarcely convey any meaning to the boy who wrote it, and requires some ingenuity for its elucidation.

History. The English History papers exhibit a considerable acquaintance with the phraseology of the text-books, but when this is coupled with a very slight ability to explain its meaning it may be doubted whether the system of learning passages by heart is altogether conducive to a satisfactory knowledge of History. It is evident, however, that considerable trouble has been taken by the boys themselves or by their teachers, whereby a large number of facts have been committed to memory. The neatness also of nearly every paper was remarkable, and with few exceptions the writing was excellent.

Geography.-In this subject the memories of boys seemed overburdened with details crammed from books. They could repeat what they had learned, and when a question could be answered by doing so, they reproduced exactly paragraphs from their text-books. The general impression produced on reading the papers is that the teaching of geography might be greatly improved by the more frequent use of blank maps. In a number of instances sketch-maps of more than ordinary merit were drawn by boys in Class I. Few candidates gave satisfactory answers to the questions in Physical Geography.

Shakespeare.-Three Acts from " Henry V." were offered by Class I. The papers exhibit painstaking and careful work both on the part of Masters and boys. The best average was obtained in section I. C,A.; in this section every boy passed; one received 90 and another 82 per cent. marks. It is worthy of note that a question requiring candidates to summarise in their own words the argument of a long speech was answered by the majority with marked success.

Latin. Of the Latin papers the less said the better. In the divisions I. C,A. and I. С,в. one boy, and one only, came any where near the standard offered for examination. All the others failed in the very elements of grammar, where also, with two exceptions, the third divisions failed also. For boys who cannot recognise the parts of speech-far less parse the simplest words-for these to offer several sections of "Cæsar" is absurd. In no language more than in Latin are the early grammatical rules important; but we think it unwise that the study of this subject should be continued at present. Book-keeping.Classes I. and II. were examined in this subject. Papers from Class I. were very good indeed, and those from Class II. fair. The style throughout was satisfactory.

General Information.-A paper was set to Classes I. and II. only, affording scope for a variety of information upon current, local, and general topics. Though in accordance with the custom of previous years the marks awarded are used in calculating the total number of passes and failures we do not think it necessary to comment on the relative numbers. The questions at least gave an opportunity to boys of showing how far they understood the meaning of them, and how far they could express themselves when they had anything to answer. Some of the papers were fairly well done, but the majority of boys in Class II. produced many absolutely unintelligible answers. Some answers afforded the examiners considerable diversion amidst a mass of monotonous work.

Arithmetic.-Classes I.A., I. C,A., and II. C,A. on the whole did very creditably. We think that II. C,A. should be grouped with a higher Class than V. In several Classes there was a deplorable exhibition of careless and inaccurate working. An examiner expects to find the majority of boys able to do simple questions in vulgar fractions, decimals, practice, and reduction, where these come within the range of a Class's reading, but in Classes I. to V., except those mentioned above, there was a conspicuous failure in the work in these elementary rules. A few boys did very well indeed, showing that the subject has been successfully taught to them, but we expected to see greater average proficiency shown by a whole class. The papers were carefully set on the pages offered. Every question was correctly answered by one boy or another, but many papers were disappointing. The methods employed do not always seem to be the best. One noticed the old stumbling blocks-the place of the decimal point in division, the order of operation of various signs in compound fractions, cancelling in l.c.m., and the order of terms in proportion-causing boys to offend, as well as very long methods where shorter ones are available. The "unitary method" in proportion might be advantageously employed. Here and there a boy successfully grappled with a comparatively difficult problem, but on the whole the work was poor. The lower Classes, VI. VII., and VIII, with few

77

exceptions, did satisfactorily. Boys seem to be pushed on too rapidly, and before they have thoroughly mastered, so as to be able to accurately apply, the simpler rules. What is required is the use of a very large number and variety of examples carefully graduated and illustrating each rule, as it comes under notice. Few, if any, books contain a sufficient number or variety, but the masters ought to be able to supply them. If this be done there might be more thoroughness.

Algebra. This subject has evidently been carefully and well taught in Classes I., II. and III. Very creditable papers were sent up by I. A., II. A., III. A. B., and the majority of the work was charac- terised by neatness and accuracy. Only a few bad answers were sent in by ignorant or careless boys. The unevenness in the percentages of passes in different Classes is not due to difference in the difficulty of papers, for where the questions were, in the opinion of the examiners, thought to be unequal, due allowance was made in the marking. In contrast to the Arithmetic, there were here very few of the common blunders, and it is evident that the careful teaching has been appreciated. Without wishing to detract from the conspicuous merit of much of the work in this subject, we think that one of the causes of success is due to the fact that an accurate knowledge of English is not so essential here as in such subjects as Grammar, History, and Composition.

Euclid. The Euclid offered by Classes I., II. and III. is very disappointing. Any boy could have passed by doing accurate work on the First Book only; and yet but 44 boys passed out of 160 examined. Only six boys out of 45 in Class I. could write the sixth proposition correctly. With the exception of Class I. A., the whole work is very weak. There is very little grasp of the subject at all, and much evidence of attempted learning by heart: such attempts when they led, as they often did, to nonsense, were, as they deserved to be, severely marked; hence the low percentage of

passes.

Over and over again boys wrote, or attempted to write, a proposition which they were not asked to write; and very few could apply I. 4 and 8 properly. If boys cannot do better than they have done, we think it undesirable that any time whatever should be spent on this subject, except in a few special cases. But if it is taught, care must be taken to discourage in every way possible the rote-learning which destroys all the value and the beauty of geometry. Boys should not be pushed on, even to the middle of Book I., till they have mastered the early propositions. Much more use ought to be made of the application of such propositions as 4 and 8 to the simplest kind of problems, of which a master should be able to supply a large store. In writing out a proposition scarcely any boys paid any attention to punctuation-this may seem a small point but it is very essential if boys are to make any use of the arguments of Euclid. The method, too, of writing continuously in one paragraph is bad, but care should be taken, if the method of writing each sentence on a separate line be adopted, that each line is not necessarily begun with a capital letter. It was impossible to tell, in some cases, whether the argument was right or not in the mind of the boy; it was certainly not correct on paper. All the old confusion in the use of "but" and "and," "because and "therefore," and in the data and quærenda in the particular enunciations appeared again and again. There was a general lacking in neatness in writing and arrangement, and sometimes the figures were lettered differently from the arguments which referred to them. Euclid being such excellent and simple English Prose, it seems desirable that it should be taught, but at present the time spent upon it is, in the majority of cases, wasted.

English to Chinese.- A number of boys showed both knowledge of English and ability to write Chinese. In the middle and lower classes there was a good percentage of passes. The difficulty Chinese boys have in understanding the meaning of English words was, however, manifest in all classes. The following may serve as illustrations:-In Class I. 15 boys out of 26 mistook the word what used relatively for the same word used interrogatively. In Class II.B. 13 boys out of 28 mis- translated the word highroad, making it mean a road at a lofty elevation. In the lower and middle classes much work was spoiled by boys, who could read English, being unable to write Chinese. Characters having a sound and tone like the Chinese equivalents of English words in the passages set, but with totally different meanings, were used, often in such a way as to destroy all the sense of the passage. Thus in VIII.A. 17 out of 39 boys wrote in Chinese words meaning close or quiet instead of the word bees. In IV.A. 9 boys out of 39 wrote the word for yellow instead of another word of the. same sound and tone meaning locusts. In IV.B. boys were required to translate the phrase straight as an arrow; 4 wrote straight as fighting, 4 straight as scissors, and 1 straight as virtue. These are typical instances. In the paper of IIIB. the word creased occurred, and no boy attempted to translate it. The practice of many boys is to use reading books in which above the English words Chinese equivalents have been written. It is, we think, a practice to be condemned; but if it is continued, the Master should see that the characters written in the books are such as really translate the English.

78

Boys should be taught to think out carefully the meaning of the entire piece set for translation, and of its several parts in their connection, before putting pe: to paper. Some who failed rendered correctly a few detached sentences, and might with a little more care have passed.

Chinese to English.-In the Lower Classes many boys had committed to memory, and were able to reproduce, the renderings given to them by the Masters; whilst in the higher classes there were, in a few instances, laudable efforts at independent versions. The value of the answers would have been greater had candidates relied less on the English phrases learned in class, and more on the work done in the preparation of the lessons. That few boys are really competent to translate Chinese into English may be seen from the results of the extra prize examination. For this a sight passage was selected from the Chinese Classic of History. Twelve boys sent in papers. Two had really under- stood the piece and rendered it into fairly good English, securing 70 and 80 marks respectively out of a hundred. No other boy obtained more than 50 per cent.

Chinese School.-In the Chinese school marks were not awarded. All papers sent in were first examined and annotated by the native provincial graduate who assisted in this part of the examination. Those from each class were then distributed in three groups, according as they were adjudged to be of higher, medium or lower merit. There was a final selection of papers to show the best work done by each class.

The percentage of passes for the Chinese school is-Essay 30, Letter 45, Literature 30, Prosody 32, Antithetic Couplets 55.

Assuming that examinations in the Chinese school are to be conducted on lines similar to those laid down for the holding of such examinations throughout China, we would call attention to the following points :---

1. Papers should be stamped for identification. Boys should not be allowed to bring into the Examination Room pieces of writing paper not uniform in size purchased at differ- ent shops. Paper of the proper kind should on the day of the examination be issued to candidates who might be charged the cost price.

2. Boys should be required to write single characters in the proper spaces.

3. In the Chinese school answers should be written in the order of the questions.

Trigonometry.-One boy in I. C, b. took an easy paper in Trigonometry up to the Solution of Triangles, and produced accurate and fairly complete answers.

Pupil Teachers.-We examined the Pupil Teachers in their Practical and Theoretical Work, and were satisfied that they are able to give practical assistance to the Staff.

Drawing.-Classes IV., V. and VI. were examined in Map Drawing. The best work of each class is highly creditable. Some very good specimens of Freehand Drawing, the work of the best boys, were exhibited to the examiners, but no marks were assigned.

Finally, while we recoguise in the work of individual boys evidence of sound and careful teaching, the general efficiency of the work appeared to us to be small. We think that boys are pushed on too rapidly, and we feel sure that more attention should be given to the teaching and the study of English. We believe that much good might be effected, and the standard of efficiency raised, if the ability and energy of the European Staff were directed more to the Chinese boys. And we are not confident that it is for the welfare of the School, or in the interests of the education of the Chinese, that the Non-Chinese boys should be in separate classes, and consequently the whole time of two European Masters given entirely to them.

We are pleased to be able to report very favourably on the discipline of the School and the general orderly behaviour of the boys. Lastly, our thanks are due to the Head Master and the Assistant Masters for their ready coöperation with us in all matters where we needed their assistance.

We have the honour,

Gentlemen,

to be your obedient Servants,

R. F. COBBOLD, M.A.,

THOMAS W. PEARCE, Examiners.

To the

GOVERNING BODY OF QUEEN'S College.

79

QUEEN'S COLLEGE, HONGKONG. ANNUAL EXAMINATION, 1896.

EUCLID.

Class I. A.

1. Classify the different kinds of triangles (a) according to their sides, and (b) according to their

angles.

2. Prove that-If two angles of a triangle be equal, the sides also which are opposite to the equal

angles are equal to one another.

What is the corollary to this proposition?

3. If a side of any triangle be produced the exterior angle is equal to the two interior and opposite

angles, and the three interior angles of every triangle are together equal to two right angles.

4. If the square described on one of the sides of a triangle be equal to the sum of the squares described on the other two sides, the angle contained by these two sides is a right angle. Enunciate the converse of this proposition.

5. To divide a given straight line into two parts so that the rectangle contained by the whole and one part may be equal to the square on the other part. In what proposition in this construction first used in Euclid?

6. To draw from a given point without the circumference a straight line which shall touch a given

circle.

7. The opposite angles of any quadrilateral inscribed in a circle are together equal to two right angles. 8. To inscribe a circle in a given triangle.

9. Two circles intersect: prove that the common chord is bisected at right angles by the straight line

joining their centres.

10. Prove that the bisectors of the angles at the base of an isosceles triangle cannot meet at right

angles.

Classes I. B & I. Ca.

1. Define a straight line, a circle, a plane, a parallelogram, a triangle, and classify the triangles

according to their sides.

2. Prove that If two angles of a triangle be equal, the sides also which are opposite to the equal

angles shall be equal to one another.

What is the corollary to this proposition?

3. If a side of any triangle be produced, the exterior angle is equal to the two interior and opposite

angles.

4. Parallelograms on equal bases and between the same parallels are equal to one another.

5. If the square described on one of the sides of a triangle be equal to the sum of the squares described on the other two sides, the angle contained by these two sides is a right angle.

6. To divide a given straight line into two parts, so that the rectangle contained by the whole line

and one part may be equal to the square on the other part.

7. To draw from a given point without the circumference a straight line which shall touch the given

circle.

8. The opposite angles of any quadrilateral inscribed in a circle are together equal to two right angles. 9. Two circles intersect: prove that the common chord is bisected by the straight line joining their

centres.

10. Prove that the bisectors of the angles at the base of an isosceles triangle cannot meet at right angles.

1

Classes I. Cb. & II. A.B.

1. Define a straight line, a scalene triangle, a plane, a circle, a rhombus.

2. Enunciate Proposition 4 of Book I.

3. Prove that-If two angles of a triangle be equal, the sides also which are opposite to the equal

angles are equal to one another.

What is the corollary to this proposition?

4. To draw a straight line perpendicular to a given straight line of unlimited length from a given

point without it.

Why must we say of unlimited length?

5. Any two sides of a triangle are together greater than the third side.

6. If a side of a triangle be produced the exterior angle is equal to the two interior and opposite

angles.

7. If a parallelogram and a triangle be on the same base and between the same parallels, the

parallelogram shall be double of the triangle.

80

8. If the square described on one of the sides of a triangle be equal to the sum of the squares described

on the other two sides, the angle contained by these two sides is a right angle.

9. Two circles intersect: prove that, by joining the centres with one another, and with the points of

intersection. two equal triangles are thus formed.

10. Prove that if the bisectors of the angles at the base of an isosceles triangle meet within the triangle

they are equal to one another.

Class III. A.

1. Define-a straight line, a scalene triangle, a circle, a square.

2. From a given point to draw a straight line equal to a given straight line.

3. Enunciate Proposition 4 of Book I.

4. If two angles of a triangle be equal, the sides also which are opposite to the equal angles shall be

equal to one another.

5. If two triangles have the three sides of the one equal to the three sides of the other each to each

they shall be equal in all respects. (Proposition 8.)

6. To draw a straight line perpendicular to a given straight line of unlimited length from a given

point without it.

7. Any two sides of a triangle are together greater than the third side.

8. Two circles intersect: prove that if their centres be joined with one another and with the points of

intersection two equal triangles are thus formed.

Classes II. Ca. & III. B.

1. Define-a straight line, a scalene triangle, a circle.

2. From a given point to draw a straight line equal to a given straight line.

3. Enunciate Proposition 4 of Book I.

4. If two angles of a triangle be equal, the sides also which are opposite to the equal angles shall be

equal to one another.

5. To bisect a given rectilineal angle.

6. From the centres A and B describe two circles at a distance equal to half AB.

How would you show that the two circles are equal?

ALGEBRA. Class I. A.

1. Define-a progression, duplicate ratio, inverse variation.

2. Write down the factors of (i) a—ba; (ii) a® —b3 ; (iii) a° +l3 ; (iv) 4a3 + 1; (v) 20æ2 —43x − 1 2 ;

(vi) x2+ x2y2 + y*.

3. Find the continued product of—

(i) (a−b) (a+b) (a−b) (a2+b2) (x*+b1). (ii) (a+b+c) (a+b−c) (a−b+c) (a−b−c).

4. Divide a3 + b3 + c3 − 3abc by a+b+c. 5. Solve the equations :—

(i)

2 + 3 2x-9

X

3x+1

X

3

x 6

3

x 4

( ii )

+

X 2

x -7

X

4

5

(iii) 2x2+9x-35-0. x2 + xy + y2=39 | ( x − y)3 = -27

(iv)

6. Simplify (first arranging in cyclic order):-

za-b-c (a−b) (a−c)

c+a-2b

2c-a-b

(b−c) (b−a) ~ (a−c) (c—b)'

7. Write down the Arithmetical, Geometrical and Harmonic means between p and J

they are in geometric progression.

8. Find the sum of---

-2-2-2

+ 1 +

++

..to 15 terms.

and show that

(i)

(ii) (iii)

to 4 terms.

+

..to 4 terms.

9. Solve the quadratic ax2 + bx + c =

0); and if a and B are the roots show that a3 + ß3-

3abc-b3 a3

10. A spends half as much again as B who saves one third of his income. B spends £200 less than

A, who saves three times as much as B. Find their incomes.

81

1. Define ratio, proportion, surd.

Classes I. B. & I. Ca.

2. Write down the product of x2-9 by x2-16; and state why or why not each term in the product

is a perfect square.

3. What are the factors of (i) a3+b3; (ii) 27a3 - Sb3; (iii) 16a1-1; (iv) x2-10x+16;

(v) 9x2 - 32x-16; (vi) ab+be+cd + da.

2

4. Divide 6x-x3y—10x1y3 +31x3y3 — 14x2y1 — 9.xy3 + 12yo by 3x1+4x3y—5x2y2 + 3y*.

5. Find the H. C. F. of 2x2-5x2 + 5x−3, 2x3 − x2 −5x+3, 2x3-3x2+6x−9, and the L. C. M. of

3(a2—b2), 6(n3—b3), 9(a3¬2a2b+2ab2 —b3), and 12(a3−3a2b+3al2−b3), expressing it in factors. 6. Solve the equations :-

3 10

+

5

X

У

(i)

21

25

2

y

(ii)

x2 - 5xy+4y2

5418 (y-x).

7x 4

(iii)

1 +

3x 4

7x+4

3x + 4

7. Prove that a° 1, and simplify:

of

3/

x2

-3

8. Simplify

1

1

I

α

a-b

b

+

C

α

a2 + b2 + c2 (b−a) (c-b) (a−c)

9. A man walked 60 miles at a certain pace: when he had gone twice as many miles as the number of minutes in which he went one mile, he found he would be 6 hrs. 40 min. more on his journey. Find the pace at which he walked.

Classes I. Cb. & II. A.B.

-

1. What is a quadratic equation? And what do you mean by "cyclic order"? Give examples. 2. Add together a (b+c) − b (c−a),b (c+a) - c(a-b), and c (a+b) – a (b−c). 3. Subtract a (b−c) — b (c−a) from c (a-b) - a (b+c).

4. Find the square root of—

x-6x+4x3 + 9x2

-

12x + 4.

5. What are the factors of—(i) a3 – b3; (ii) a1 − 1 ; (iii) x2 + xy − 30y2; (iv) 6a2b + 3abc – 9bc2. 6. Find the H. C. F. of 3x2- x2 + 3x - 1 and 3x3- x2 - 3x + 1.

x2

7. Solve the equations-

3x 4

2x + 3

(i)

6x 5 4x + 9

(ii)

{

21x + 17y

173

18x5ly

114

8. Simplify

a + b (ca) (be)

+

(iii) 3x2-7æ – 6 = 0

b + c

c + a

(a − b ) ( c − a) + (b − e) (a − b)

9. Two different numbers are represented by the same two digits: the larger number is 21 times as great as its units figure: the difference between the two numbers is 12 less than the smaller number. What are they?

Classes II. Ca. & III. A.B.

1. What is a negative quantity ? And what are simultaneous equations?

2. Add together 3x-2y-5z, 4y-2x-8ż, 4x+3y-10x, x-y-6z, 5y+8z+9x, 32−9y-6x.

3. From a-7ab-5b+2 subtract -5a+6ab−3b+4.

4. Multiply 2a-3b+4c by 2a-3b-4c.

5. Divide 3x-4x3+4x2+8x−3 by x2-2x+3.

6. Simplify-

4 {3(b − 2α) – 2(c — 3b)} − 4 [a − 4 {2c - 3(b − 2a)}].

82

7. Solve the equations-

(i) 3 (x-4) - 4 (3−x) 4x-3.

(ii)

ƒ12x+7y = 69 110x-9y:

13

8. A boy is two and a half times as old as his brother.

difference between their ages will be 7 years.

When the elder is twice his present age, the Find the ages.

BOOK-KEEPING.

Class I.

1. Suppose that Andrew Archer writes to you, requesting you to discount a Bill for $500, which he encloses, and to pay the proceeds to Benjamin Brinkley, on his (Archer's) account, and that you do so deducting $30 for discount. Give a copy-

(a) Of Andrew Archer's Journal entries.

(b) Of Benjamin Brinkley's Journal entry.

(c) Of your own.

2. (i) Journalise the following transactions; (ii) Post into Ledger; (iii) Balance all the Accounts; (iv)

Draw out the Balance Sheet :-

Dec. 1. I have in hand cash $350. At the bank $5,000. Goods worth $2,300.

G. Ebbs owes me $210. W. Randall owes me $530. I owe H. Baldwin $640, and A. Soames $150.

Dec. 2. Bought goods for cash

5. W. Randall paid me $400 less 5 % disc. 6. I paid H. Baldwin $500 less 5 % disc....

9. Sold goods for cheque sent to Bank.........

$ 82.00

380.00

475.00

96.00

**

""

12. Sold goods to W. Randall.............

72.00

""

14. G. Ebbs has become insolvent, pays 60 % dividend on his debt

126.00

14. Bad debt.....

84.00

""

15. I paid A. Soames $150 less 5 % discount

142.50

29

30. Sold goods for cash this month

112.00

Paid as Wages $74. Rent $30

104.00

Drew for Private Expenses

50.00

(Estimated value of goods on hand $2,150.)

Show the following accounts :-Capital; Cash; Bank; Goods; Trade Expenses; Discounts;

Debts; Ebbs; Randall; Baldwin; Soames.

Bad

Class II.

1. On which side of a Cash Book must an amount paid away be entered? Explain.

2. At the end of the year which side of Stock account should be the greater if I am solvent?

3. From the following transactions extending over December 1895, you are required (i) To make Ledger entries; (ii) Prepare a Balance Sheet; (iii) Ascertain ny gain or loss on goods; (iv) Make out a Capital Account.

(Cash and Bank to be treated as one account.)

Dec. 1. Capital in Bauk

3. Bought goods of Tompkins & Co....

5. Sold goods to Lee & Co.

$2,250.00

1.750.00

450.00

""

""

10. Paid carriage of goods

""

15. Sold goods to Petersen Brothers

16. Lee & Co., paid me

I allowed them discount at 5 %...

$3

20. Paid Tompkins & Co.

36.00

210.00

380.00

20.00

1,140.00

""

receiving discount at 5%

22. Received from Petersen Brothers payment

allowing them discount

60.00

200.00

10.00

""

30. Sold goods for cash during the month

96.00

Sent to Bank

96.00

Rent $50. Rates $16. Wages $34

110.00

Private expenses...

40.00

(Value of goods on hand $1,885.)

83

GRAMMAR.

Class I. A.B.

1. What prepositions should be used after the following verbs :-arrive, assent, be desirous, dissent,

impose, be interested, interfere, be obliged?

2. Write down the present, past, and past participle of--cat, fly, forsake, hear, move, shoot, sing, slay,

weave.

3. What do you mean by a sentence, a subordinate sentence, syntax, concord? Give any rules of

syntax relating to pronouns.

4. What is the mood of a verb? Comment on the moods in the following:-

(a) Go, bid thy mistress, when my drink is ready, she strike upon the bell.

(b) To know her is to love her.

(e) I would I were a bird

(d) I am in trouble through having been angry.

(e) God bless you.

5. When can the word that be used as a relative? In what other ways can it be used? Give short

sentences in illustration.

21

6. Explain how there are "nine primary tenses ; give their distinguishing names, and an example

of each from the active voice of the verb to shake.

7. Re-write the following correctly

8. Analyse--

(a) Which of your hands are cleanest? Neither are clean at all. (6) Is it me whom you are waiting for?

(c) You read all those kind of books like I do.

(d) Every one of the boys lost their tempers.

(e) I do not like these sort of questions.

(f) If you know who it is, tell me who to pay.

(9) You take more trouble or at any rate as much as me.

(4) Being a holiday the coolies laid down and did no work.

(a) He spoke so quickly that I could not understand him.

(b) "The man who neither reverences nobleness nor loves goodness is hateful." (c) "There's a house a few miles from the city

7

I frequently linger outside,

Tis the home of a maid who is pretty,

A maid I would like for my bride."

Classes I. Ca. & II. A.B.

1. What parts of speech are-alike, along, also, alter, alas, aloe, although, aught.

2. What are transitive, intransitive and auxiliary verbs?

from the verb to write.

What are the principal tenses? Illustrate

3. Give the present, past and past participle of—show, lie, see, break, wear, strike, hold, build.

4. What is meant by the subject, predicate, and the object of a sentence? Pick out the subjects, pre-

dicates, and objects from-

(a) Do this for me.

(b) Tis an ill wind that blows nobody any good.

(c) The book you gave ine pleased me much.

5. Write the following correctly:-

(a) All those kind of practices never pay.

(b) Neither he nor his brother have finished.

(c) Who is that for?

(d) Each of the boys lost their tempers.

(e) I haven't only one, and that is so bad I can't hardly use it.

(f) Some sort of apples are better than other.

6. What do you mean by syntax, sentence, complex sentence, substantival clause?

7. Analyse, or parse the words in italics—

(a) I think it foolish to go.

(b) He is still standing where I left him.

(c) I like singing.

(d) Singing heartily he walked upstairs.

(e) Had he answered politely when asked, he might have escaped all blame.

84

Classes I Co. & II A.B.

1. Distinguish between proper and common nouns. How are proper nouns sometimes used as common

nouns and sometimes in the plural?

2. Give two examples of nouns having more than one plural with different meanings. Give the plural

of-bush, fish, stuff, staff, folio, negro, seaman, man-servant.

3. What is the difference in the use of his in

(a) This book is his,

and (b) This is his book.

Give the corresponding forms of all the possessive pronouns.

4. What is an intransitive verb? What are the principal tenses of a verb? Illustrate from the verb

to write.

5. Give the present, past, and past participle of-show, lie, see, break, wear, strike, hold, build.

6. What are the subjects, predicates and objects in the following:--

(a) Do this for me.

(b) The book you gave me pleased me much.

7. Write out the following correctly:-

(a) Those kind of practices never pay.

(b) Neither he nor his brother have finished.

(e) Each of the boys lost their tempers.

(d) Who is that for?

(e) I haven't only one, and that is so bad I can't hardly use it.

Classes II Ca. & IV A.B.C.

1. What is an abstract noun? What are the abstract nouns most closely connected with the following words?—grateful, royal, vicious, king, imperial, judge, poor, warm, ignorant, busy, decide.

2. Give the positive, comparative and superlative of-full, far, first, plentiful, worse, less, many, happy. 3. Put the following sentences actively:--

(a) The bills have all been paid already.

(b) If the boat had been upset, I should have been drowned.

Change the next sentence (c) by making it (i) negative, (ii) passive, (iii) interrogative.

(c) praise you freely.

4. Parse the words in italics in—Did you read that book to-day? I read this book but not that. The

book that I read was mine. I am sure that I read it all.

5. Give the present, past and past participle of make, break, bake, forsake, write, invite, bite, fight, grow,

sow, crow, go.

6. How are adverbs compared? What are the adverbs derived from real, particular, good, all, three. 7. Write out the following, underlining the adjectives once and the adverbs twice:--

"Right on our flank the crimson sun went down,

The deep sea rolled around in dark repose,

When like a wild shriek from some captured town

A cry of women rose.'

Analyse any simple sentence in the above.

Classes II Cb. & V A.B.

1. Define a common noun. How are proper nouns distinguished in writing? Give three examples of

compound nouns.

2. Write four pairs of short sentences, illustrating the use of the same word as two different parts of

speech, thus: He is still here (adv.).

The night is very still (adj.).

3. What is a relative pronoun? Write down as many as you know. What other kinds of

are there?

4. Give the other degrees of comparison of-full, far, first, plentiful, worse, less, many, happy, 5. Put the following sentences actively :-

(a) The bills have all been paid already.

(b) If the boat had been upset, I should have been drowned.

pronouns

6. What is an abstract noun? What are the abstract nouns derived from-white, royal, king, high, busy,

judge?

7. What parts of speech are the words in italics in-Did you read that book to-day? I read this book

but not that. The book that I read was mine. I am sure that I read it all.

Class VI. AB.C.

85

1. How many parts of speech are there? Name them, and give one example of each.

2. What is a noun? What different kinds of nouns are there? Is the room in which you work a noun ?

What part of speech is the word adjective?

3. Write down in two columns the masculine and feminine of the following:-man, lord, widow, horse,

bride, tiger, cock-bird, goose, she-goat.

4. Write down in two columns the singular and plural of-man, mouse, monkey, mass, mercy, sheep,

oxen, brethren, gases, vases.

5. What is the subject in each of the following?

(a) Where are you going?

(b) Bring me my hat.

(c) How far is it from the earth to the moon? (d) What a few marks you have given me? (e) Round goes the world.

6. What is the predicate in each of the following?

(a) The monkey ate the chestnuts.

(b) Time and tide wait for no man.

(c) The way was long.

(d) When are you going to finish your work?

7. Parse the words in italics in-"It is possible to speak about a thing without using a word for it."

Where is this sentence found? What is the meaning of the word thing.

Class VII. A.B.

1. How many parts of speech are there? Name them, and give an example of each.

2. What is a noun? What different kinds of nouns are there?

3. Write down the feminine of-man, boy, lord, master, husband, nephew, uncle, father.

4. Write down the plural of-house, fly, monkey, man, ox, thief, tooth, mouse.

➡5. What is an adjective? Write down six adjectives describing different articles in the room in which

you are.

6. Point out which is noun, adjective, pronoun, verb, adverb, preposition in the following:-

"Far away near a desert island a sailor thought of his home."

ARITHMETIC.

Class I A.B.

1. How can we tell without actual division whether a given number, such as 498960, is divisible by

2, 3, 6 and 11 ?

2. Simplify 1122 of 11-1425 ÷ (32÷31 − 3).

3. Reduce to a decimal, and from your work show how to write down 2, 3, &c. as decimals.

Hence find the value of 1-714285 of £7. 15. 108-71428571 of £23. 7. 81 + ·0428571 of £77. 18. 11.

4. Find the cube root of 91672844229.

5. At what rate per cent. simple interest will £210. 8. 4 amount to £320. 17. 8 in 7 ?

years

6. A tradesman marks his goods at 20% above the cost price, and sells them at 10% discount; if

he has to pay a tax on his receipts at 10d. in the £, what is the net gain per cent. ?

7. If the prices of two teas differing by ld. per pound are raised 25 % and 20% respectively they

become equal, what are they?

8. A certain rectangular sheet of paper measures 4ft. 5 in. by 3ft. 4 in. How many such pieces would be required to cover the walls of a room 15ft. 9 in. long, 12ft. high, and 14ft. 24 in. wide leaving a wainscot 2ft. 6 in high at the bottom, and a cornice 8 in. deep at the top.

9. The true discount on £258. 11. 11 for 18 months is £14. 12. 9; find the rate of simple interest

per annum.

10. A debtor's estate is sufficient to pay his creditors 48 % after allowing 20% of his estate for the cost of its administration. One creditor, however, waives a claim of £1000 and it is found. that the estate will pay 60%. Find the amount of the estate.

86

Classes II A.B. & I Ca.

1. Simplify 2·07 – 1·025 — ·123 + 2·07 ;

also reduce

2. Simplify()

(b)

to a decimal and multiply it by '03.

3140 of 3278

4917

4719

4 + 33 ÷ 21

1

=

23 × 31 - 43

2 .

£257. 18. 4. How many

3. An equal number of gunieas, half-guineas, pounds, and pence make up £257. 18. 4.

are there of each ?

4. Find the square root of 3254416 and of 6985. 5. After spending of my money I give away

r

much had I at first?

of the remainder, and have £1. 11. 1 left. How

6. If 4 men working 8 hours a day earn £12 in 16 days, how many men working 10 hours a day

will earn £15 in the same time? And what is the hourly wage of each man?

7. By selling a horse for £63 I gain 5 %; what should I have gained if I had sold it for £3 more? 8. Find the simple interest on £417. 9. 4 from February 13th in leap year till the last day of August

in the same year, at 7 per cent. for that year.

Classes III A B. & I Cb.

1. Find the sum of the prime numbers between 40 and 80; and determine its greatest common

measure with the sum of the prime factors of 5005.

2. Into how many equal parts, of £7. 6. 31 each, can £5071. 13. 22 be divided so as to leave

£3. 7. 61⁄2 over?

3. Simplify 2·07 + 2·07 – 1·025 − ·123.

4. Reduce to a decimal, and divide it by 2·7.

5. Simplify

T6

4 + 32 ÷ 21

43

23 × 34 - 43

1

24

£257. 18. 4. How many

6. An equal number of guineas, half-guineas, pounds, and pence make up £257. 18. 4.

are there of each ?

7. Find the square root of 3254416.

8. If 4 men working 8 hours a day earn £12 in a certain time, how many men will earn £15 in the

same time working 10 hours a day?

Class IV A.B.C

1. Find the g. c. m. of 22977 and 20608; and the 1. c. m. of 11, 21, 77, 63, 39, 143, 273. 2. Simplify (a) 2 of 13 + 48 of 23

2층

(b) 21 of 43 + 24

(c) 21/ 12 ÷ 43 × 23

3. Reduce £3. 4. 93 to the decimal of £5; and find the value of 1.397083 of £5.

4. Divide ·1043868 by 12:427, and 1043-868 by 12427, and multiply 036 by 0336.

5. A room is 22ft. 8 in. long, 22ft. 3 in. wide, and 10ft. high; find the area of the walls allowing

5 square yards for windows, &c.; and the cost of painting at 74d. per square yard.

6. Find by practice (or otherwise) the cost of 245 articles at £4. 18. 103 each.

Classes V A.B. & II Ca.

1. Multiply 17856 by 25704, and divide the product by 3689.

2. Reduce 24871325 inches to miles, &c.

How many half-guineas are there in £2100 ?

3. Five men contribute £295. 13. 41, £847. 3. 114, £692. 19. 9, £354. 17. 10, and £489. 12. 7

to a common fund. What would each have if it were divided equally among them?

4. Divide 2876057 by 135, using the factors 3, 5 and 9; and show how the remainder is obtained. 5. Find the g. c. m. of 22977 and 20608;

and the 1. c. m. of 11, 21, 77, 63, 39, 143, 273.

24

6. Simplify (a) 23 of 1 + 4 of 23

(b) 21 of 43 + 23 (c) 2/1/ 13 ÷ 43 × 2#

=

Classes VI A.B.C. & II Cb.

87

1. Multiply 945 by 189, and divide by 315.

2. Multiply £86. 2. 74 by 239.

3. Reduce (a) 23975 farthings to £. s. d., and (b) 74 Acres 3 Roods 19 sq. poles 23 sq. yds. to sq.

yards.

4. Divide £39469. 19. 84 by 453.

5. What is the largest number less than 1000 in which 29 is contained an exact number of times? 6. There are three cables measuring-

M.

F.

P.

Y.

F.

I.

29

5

13

1

2

9.

6

7

12

3

2

3 /

S7

5

18

4

2

5/1/2

what is the total length? And what is the total weight in tons, &c. at 10 lbs. per linear yard?

Class VII A.B.

1. Add 6284, 59732, 37, 80957, 29378, 597, 87629.

2. Find the difference between 56892872 and 58948763.

3. Multiply 7988035 by 5792.

4. Reduce 23975 farthings to £. s. d.

5. Multiply £68. 12. 54 by 59.

6. Thirty-seven men have £919. 19. 04 between them in equal sums; how much has each man? And

how much is the sum possessed by 19 of them greater than the sum possessed by the rest?

Class VIII A.

1. Write in figures (a) Ten million, (b) Eleven hundred thousand; and in words 12002010012. 2. Subtract 39865821

29784377

3. Multiply 4890 by 5460.

4. Divide 91790 by 137.

5. Three schools contain 777 boys each, 21 boys are absent from the first, 89 from the second, and

98 from the third; how many are present altogether?

6. Au army consists of 14 regiments; each regiment is 916 strong; each man has 87 rounds of

ammunition of which 29 cannot be fired. How many shots could they all fire?

Class VIII B.

1. Write in figures (a) Two thousand and forty-nine, () Forty-nine thousand and two, (c) Two

million, two hundred and forty-nine thousand,

2. Add

and in words (d) 1100000, (e) 30400506.

292 3467

39

3. Subtract

458027 9785

4. Multiply 489 by 546.

39865821 29784377

5. Find the difference between the sum of the six even numbers next above 121, and the sum of the

five odd numbers next above these.

6. How many boys are there present in a school of 23 classes, when from each class of 32 boys 5 are

absent ?

88

Class VIII C.

1. Write in figures (a) Ten thousand, (b) One million, (c) Eleven hundred ;

and in words (d) 12345, (e) 5040302.

;

2. Add

39

292

3467

9785

458027

3. Subtract

9876543 3456789

4. Add together all the odd numbers between 120 and 140.

5. Four boys have 17 dollars each; if 3 of them club together how much more have they than the

other one?

LATIN . Class I. Ca.

1. Give the Genitive Plural, Gender, Ablative Singular, and English of-auriga, quercus, genus, gens,

grus, gener, anser, res.

2. Supply the other parts of comparison to-celer, alacer, plus, pius, nequius, imus, gracilis, magnificus,

dubius.

3. What is the difference between-hic, is idem, ipse, ille, iste. Give the whole Accusative Singular of

each.

4. Decline the Reflexive Pronoun.

How is it used? What does the name mean,

5. Write the Infinitive, Perfect Indicative Active, Supine, and English of-fero, pendo, pendeo, figo,

veto, cupio, vinco, vivo, vincio.

6. Give one example with English of-(i) Deponent, (ii) Semi-Deponent, (iii) Quasi-Passive Verbs. 7. Put into Latin-

(i) My son, you cannot dig in the garden.

(ii) He says he is not older than your brother.

(iii) You may (licet) go home, for summer is pleasant in the country.

(iv) My son married the sister of Roscius, and my daughter the friend of Caius. (v) Nothing is finer than courage; but brave soldiers are too often foolish.

8. Put into English-

(i) Aliquid amari in poculo erat.

(ii) Sol multis partibus major est quam luna.

(iii) l'uellam quidem totum diem culpat, puerum autem laudat.

(iv) Quid Romae faciam? Oportet me a. d. III. Kal. Apr. rus ire.

9. Translate these pieces from Cæsar Bell. Gal. I., parsing the words in italics :-

(i) "His rebus fiebat, ut et minus late vagarentur, et minus facile finitimis bellum inferre possent: qua de causa homines bellandi cupidi magno dolore afficiebantur. Pro inultitudine autem hominum, et pro gloria belli atque fortitudinis, angusto se fines habere arbitrabantur, qui in longitudinem millia passuum ducenta et quadraginta, in latitudinem centum et octoginta patebant.'

(ii) "Helvitii, ea spe dejecti, navibus junctis ratibusque compluribus factis, alii vadis Rhodani, qua minima altitudo fluminis erat, nonnunquam interdiu, saepius noctu, si perrumpere possent conati, operis munitione et militum concursu et telis repulsi, hoe conatu destiterunt."

Class I. Cb.

1. Give the Gender, Dative Singular, Genitive Plural, and English of-acus, vis, ficus, poeta, porta,

portus, nix, nox, ars, artus.

2. Write down six nouns, with their meaning, used in the plural only.

3. Give the rules for forming the comparison of Adjectives, with an example in every instance; and

supply the other parts to the following:-nequius, imus, plus, summus.

4. Put into Latin words-33, DCC, "six each," "I am nineteenth."

5. What is the difference between-hic, is, idem, iste, ipse, ille? Give the Accusative and Genitive,

Singular, Neuter, and English of each.

6. Put into Latin-

(i) My son, the trees in our garden, have much fruit.

(ii) The enemy's camp was surrounded by our forces.

(ii) He says he is not older than your brother.

(iv) Let us imitate the wise and good, for no one can be happy without virtue.

89

7. Put into English-

(i) Unus ex philosophis haec docuerat.

(ii) Aliquid amari in poculo erat.

(iii) Multi flores in campis vere jucundo videntur, et poma mitia auctumno in arboribus pendent.

8. Translate these pieces from Cæsar Bell. Gal. I., parsing the words in italics :-

(i) "His rebus fiebat, ut et minus late vagarentur, et minus facile finitimis bellum inferre possent qua de causa homines bellandi cupidi inagno dolore afficiebantur. Pro multitudine autem hominum, et pro gloria belli atque fortitudinis, angusto se fines habere arbitrabantur, qui in longitudinem millia passuum ducenta et quadraginta, in latitudinem centum et octoginta patebant."

(ii) "Eo opere perfecto, praesidia disponit, castella communit, quo facilius, si se invito transire conarentur, prohibere possit. Ubi ea dies, quam constituerat cum legatis, venit, et legati ad euin reverterunt, negat, 'Se more et exemplo Populi Romani posse iter ulli per Provinciam dare; et, si vim facere conentur, prohibiturum ostendit."

Class II. Ca.

1. (a) Give the Ablative Singular and Plural, and Genitive Plural of-Regnum melius.

Felix magister. (b) And the nominative and genitive singular, and genitive Plural of "The swift_arrow."

"": The

red head."

2. Give the Gender, Dative Singular, Genitive Plural, and English of-finis, res, acus, vis, culter, ficus,

poeta, porta, portus, nix, nox, ars, artus.

3. Write down six nouns used in the Plural only, with their English.

4. Give the rules for forming the comparison of adjectives, with an example in every instance.

5. Put into Latin words-33, DCC, "Six each." "I am the nineteenth."

6. Give the Accusative and Genitive, Singular, Neuter, and English of―hic, is, iste, idem, ille, ipse. 7. Write in full with the English-

(i) Imperfect Subjunctive Passive of amo.

(ii) Future Infinitive Passive of moneo. (iii) Perfect Subjunctive Active of rego. (iv) Future Simple Active of audio.

8. Put into Latin-

(i) My son, the trees in our garden have much fruit.

(ii) The eneny's camp was surrounded by our forces.

(iii) Let us imitate the wise and good, for no one can be happy without virtue.

9. Put into English-

(i) Unus ex philosophis haec docuerat.

(ii) Natura atque opere urbs munita est, Cæsar igitur in Galliam profectus, ea aestate

copias flumen transduxit.

(iii) Multi flores in campis vere jucundo videntur, et poma mitia auctumno in arboribus

pendent.

1

GEOGRAPHY.

Class I.

1. Draw a map of South America, inserting the chief bays, capes, rivers, and mountains, with the

divisions into countries, and not more than two towns in each country;

or

Draw a map of Europe, and insert the political divisions, with the chief town of each.

2. Write a short history of Gibraltar, and point out the special value to England of-

Malta, and Hongkong.

3. Mention the rivers which flow into the Baltic, the Black Sea, and the Bay of Bengal. 4. Where and what are the following:-

Tierra del Fuego. Madagascar. Damascus. Acre.

Agra.

Athos.

Alaska.

Rosetta.

5. Give the meaning of axis, zenith, meridian, longitude.

6. What do you know as to the formation of coral islands?

7. What circumstances determine the velocity of current in a river?

Marsala.

Yeddo.

Calabria.

Cadiz.

90

Class II.

1. Draw a map of England inserting only the following names :-

The Wash. Land's End.

I. of Wight. Whitehaven.

Cotswold Hills. Newcastle-on-Tyne. Colchester.

Derby.

2. Name 5 counties South of the Thames, and give the county town of each.

Ouse R. Liverpool. Sheffield. Shrewsbury.

3. In what counties are the following places and what do you know about each place:

www

Hastings.

Stratford-on-Avon. Kunnymede.

Salisbury.

Evesham. Marston Moor.

4. In what districts of England is the woollen manufacture carried on? In what districts are the hop

gardens? Where are the chief potteries?

5. State precisely where are the following:-

Snowdon. The Peak. Wrekin.

6. What rivers run into the Humber?

Plinlimmon.

Ingleborough.

The Chiltern Hills.

Class III.

1. Draw a map of Holland and Belgium interesting only the following places

Texel.

Rhine.

Mons.

Antwerp.

Ostend. Waterloo.

Zutphen. Schelde R.

Luxemburg. Fontenoy. Leyden. The Hague.

2. Write down the boundaries, chief rivers, and five important towns of any two of the following

countries:-

Germany.

Austria.

Hungary.

3. Where are the following places and what are the chief exports from each?

Spain.

Lyons. Innsbrück. Barcelona.

Odessa. Copenhagen. Christiansand. Genoa.

Astrakhan.

Cologne. Mechlin. Adrianople.

Cadiz.

4. Trace the course of a ship from Venice to London, and mention the capes it would pass on the

voyage.

5. Mention any differences you know of between the form of Government in Russia and the form of

Government in France.

6. Name the colonial possessions of Denmark.

Class IV.

1. What are the divisions of the Chinese Empire?

2. Give a list of the sea-board provinces of China with their capitals.

3. Describe the largest province of China Proper with special reference to situation, population, and

products.

4. Trace the course of the Yangtsz. Mention some of its tributary streams.

5. What and where are-

Chusan. Newchwang. Chingtoo.

Si-ngan. Tai-wan.

Soochow.

Pescadores. Pei-ho.

Woosung.

6. State briefly the situation, the direction, and extent of two mountain ranges in China. Give the

names of two large lakes, which discharge part of their waters into the Yangtsz.

Class V.

91

1. Explain the terins-pole, delta, isthmus, archipelago, watershed.

2. Mention some countries on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea, and mention also the capitals of

these countries.

3. Describe the boundaries of Austria.

4. Where are the following islands? To which country does each belong?

Java.

Malta.

5. What and where are the following?

Cuba.

Jamaica.

Cape Horn. Hainan.

Euphrates. Pyrenees.

Minorca.

Madeira.

St. Vincent.

Tanganyika.

Elbe. Winnipeg.

6. Name the principal Bays, and Gulfs, of the Indian Ocean.

Babel-mandeb. Cyprus. Nile. Good Hope.

;

Class VI.

1. How do we know that the earth is round? Why does the earth appear flat to us?

2. What is an ocean, a sea, a gulf, a roadstead, a channel, a creek, an estuary?

3. What is the difference between an island and a peninsula? How can a peninsula become an

island?

4. Define a river basin, and tell how rivers are formed. Explain what is meant by banks, sources,

and bed of a river.

5. Give the names of three well known capes, three mountains, and one volcano.

HISTORY.

Class I A.B.C.

(Six questions to be done, among which must be those marked.*)

1. Explain-Benevolences, Extinction of Villenage, Tudor Dynasty, Heretics, Bill of Attainder,

Impeachment, a monarchy, taxes, a protector, an usurper, Habeas Corpus.

* 2. Who were The Lollards, The Lords Ordainers, Wycliffe, Wat Tyler, Joan of Arc, Empson,

The Woodvilles, John Knox, Lady Jane Grey, Sir Walter Raleigh, Somerset?

3. Trace briefly the course of the Reformation in England, naming the chief individuals concerned,

the measures passed, and the state of public feeling.

4. What was Edward I.'s claim to the throne of Scotland? and how did he enforce it?

5. Trace the progress of the French wars in the reigns of Edward III. and Henry V., naming, and

describing, if you can, the principal battles.

6. Which do you think had the better right to the throne, Lancaster or York? And why? Give a

list of the chief battles during the Wars of the Roses, saying by which side each was won. 7. Write a short character of either (i) Richard III., or (ii) Wolsey.

8. Who were the great foreign rivals of Henry VIII. ? and how did he come in contact with each of

them ?

9. Write a short account of Mary Queen of Scots.

Class II. A.B.

(Six questions to be done, among which must be those marked.*)

* 1. In what reigns were the following persons or events?-John Knox, Archbishop Laud, Buck- ingham, Thomas Cromwell, Hampden, Cranmer, Colonel Pride, The Field of the Cloth of Gold, Lady Jane Grey, Blake, Duke of Monmouth, Lord Strafford, Wolsey, Flodden, The Gunpowder Plot, Sir Walter Raleigh, Marlborough, Milton, Battle of Spurs, John Bunyan, Judge Jeffreys.

* 2. Explain-A monarchy, an usurper, a protector, a commonwealth, Benevolences, Dauphin, Papal

Supremacy, Act of Conformity, Shipmoney, Habeas Corpus.

3. Do you consider the execution of Charles I. just, or unjust? Give your reasons in full.

4. Write a short character of either (i) Elizabeth, or (ii) James I.

5. What was the cause and the result of the Spanish Armada? Name several of the leaders. 6. Why did James II. lose his crown?

7. What do we mean by the Reformation?

8. Write a list of the sovereigns in your period, giving the dates of accession and death; and the

relationship of each to the immediate predecessor and successor.

92

Classes II. C & III. A.B.

(Five questions to be done, among which must be those marked.*)

* 1. What is the meaning of ?-Feudal system, Monarchy, Anarchy, House of Anjou, Civil War, an usurper, Crusades, a pretender, intrigues, Prince of Wales, Constitution, Provisions.

2. Who were--John Balliol, Becket, Wallace, Simon de Montfort, Perkin Warbeck, Cœur de Lion Earl of Warwick, Wycliffe, Wat Tyler, Prince Arthur, The Black Prince, Queen Maud, Sir Walter Tyrrel, Beauclerc, Longshanks, Joan of Arc?

3. In what reigns were the following?-Barons War, Battle of Bosworth, Crecy, Agincourt, Magna

Charta, Bannockburn, Poitiers, Domesday Book.

4. Write a short character of Richard I. or Henry V,

5. Give in their order the principal battles in the Wars of the Roses, and say by which side they

were won.

6. What right had Edward I. to the throne of Scotland; and how did he enforce it?

7. What right. to the throne of England had-William I., William II., Henry II., Edward IV.,

Henry IV., Richard III?

DICTATION AND TRANSLATION INTO CHINESE.

Class I.

It is noble to seek truth, and it is beautiful to find it. It is the ancient feeling of the human heart, that knowledge is better than riches; and it is deeply and sacredly true.

To mark the course of human passions as they have flowed on in the ages that are past; to see why nations have risen, and why they have fallen; to speak of light, and heat, and the winds; to know what man has discovered in the heavens above and in the earth beneath; to hear the chemist unfold the marvellous properties which the Creator has locked up in a speck of earth ;-it is worth while in the days of our youth to strive hard for this great discipline.

A life of knowledge is not often a life of injury and crime. Whom does such a man oppress? With whose happiness does he interfere? In the pursuit of science he injures no man, and in the acquisition he does good to all.

Class II. A.

It is evidently the continent most thickly covered with cities and towns; and with high-roads, canals, and railways, weaving the towns into a living and ever-busy net-work. There civilisation has struck its roots deepest, and stretched its branches widest. There the arts and sciences have reached their highest development. There the great mechanical inventions which have knit the world into one vast inter-dependent society have had their birth; and commerce, manufactures, and agriculture have been brought to the greatest perfection. Europe has laid the whole world under contribution for the supply of her physical wants. In return the whole world has been laid under obligation to her for not less real benefits.

Class II. B.

It is so with all the crafts, and they are inseparably dependent one on another. The mason waits on the carpenter for his mallet, and the carpenter on the smith for his saw; the smith on the smelter for his iron, and the smelter on the miner for his ore. Each, moreover, needs the help of all the others--the carpenter the smith, as much as the smith the carpenter; and both the mason, as much as the mason both. This helplessness of the single craftsman is altogether peculiar to the human artist. Amongst the lower animals it is not seen; and they have never heard of such a doctrine as that of the division of labour.

DICTATION.

Class II. C.

Shot is made by pouring melted lead through a colander, from a great height, into water beneath. In the descent, the shot becomes globular, from the same cause that drops of rain assume that form in falling. In various manufacturing towns shot of all sizes is made on a large scale, more or less as follows. High towers, which the workmen can ascend, are hollow, so that from the top molten lead may be made to fall as a shower into water beneath. The opposition of the air causes the roundness, and the coldness of the water does the hardening at once.

93

DICTATION AND TRANSLATION INTO CHINESE.

Class III A.

(Translate the first part only. End with the words "length of time."

At low water the sand becomes firm, and may be walked on in safety; but as the tide rises the water saturates the mass of sand and transforms it into a pulp of the consistency of mud. It is when in this state that the Sands are most dangerous; not only because ships that then strike on them gradually sink into the ooze, but also because then the sand shifts from place to place, so as to render charts useless for any length of time.

Three lightships are placed to warn sailors of their approach to this dangerous shoal; one at the northern extremity, one at the southern extremity, and one ou a point about the middle of the western side.

Class III. B.

(Translate the first part only. End with the words "of the law.")

The Charter, creased with age and injured by fire, but with John's seal hanging to it, is still to be seen.

When it is looked into, it seems to do very little. It bound the king not to demand money from his people without the consent of the great vassals and of the burghers of the cities; it required that no one should be made an officer of justice unless he had a knowledge of the law, and that the chief court of justice should not move about with the king, but be always in one place.

Nor was the king to sell, refuse, or delay justice to any man, nor to seize the person or goods of any freeman without the lawful judgment of his peers,-i.e., equals—according to the law of the land.

Class IV. A.

(Translate the first part only. End with the words "front ranks.”)

Sometimes the people turn out of the village which the locusts are approaching, and attempt to stem the torrent. They dig trenches, they kindle fires, they attack them with branches of trees, they sweep them back with brushes; but all to no purpose. The trenches become filled with living locusts, the fires are smothered with dead ones, and the vast column moves on in complete ignorance of the fate of the front ranks.

As for attempting to brush away this terrible enemy one might as well expect to sweep back the flowing tide with a broom. Even the direction of the march cannot be changed. A common instinct seems to carry them right onward. They pursue their line of march with the regularity of a dis- ciplined army.

Class IV. B.C.

(Translate the first part only. End with the word “fatigue.”)

The wise Romans made excellent roads, extending through all parts of their empire; and some of them can yet be traced in English, running along as straight as an arrow. One of these is Watling Street, so often mentioned in history. After the fall of the Roman Empire their roads were neglected, and they fell into decay, and the traveller could hardly proceed without great danger, or, at least, without great fatigue.

All at once your horse plunged into a marsli, or you came to a river, and the bridge was broken down; and when you tried to ford the stream, your horse might get out of his depth, and then he and his rider would be nearly drowned.

Class V. A.

(Translate the first part only.

End with the words “her cottage window.”)

There was once a poor old widow, who, finding it hard work to get her living at home, thought she would like to go to the gold-diggings in Australia. So she crossed the sea to that far-off country. The only treasures she possessed she took with her. One of these was a pet skylark, which had been used to live in a small wicker cage, outside her cottage window.

When she got to Australia, she hired a hut, and got her living by washing the gold-diggers' clothes and cooking their dinners. Day after day, the lark sang his happy song beside her door. She listened and it cheered her at her work. Some of the gold-diggers listened too.

|

94

Class V. B.

(Translate the first part only. End with the word "free.")

Down sank the shark in the clear water and swam right below the ship. Turning on its back, it opened wide its jaws and swallowed both bait and hook. A strong pull at the rope by the sailors fastened the hook deep in the shark's body. At once the creature struggled desperately to get free.

But the rope was strong, and the men held fast and pulled with a will. The shark was caught at last and killed. Then once more the ship spread her sails to the breeze and bounded on her way This method of catching the shark is often practised on board ships sailing in the

across the sea.

Tropics.

say

(Translate the first part only.

Class VI. A.

End with the words "remained without the latch.")

The farmer's wife was always telling him that he ought to get the latch mended; but he used to that it would cost six-pence, and that it was not worth while. He said that the children might as well be driving the sheep and poultry in and out of the yard and the field as be doing nothing. So the gate remained without the latch.

One day a fat pig got out of its sty, and, pushing open the gate, ran into the field, and thence wandered into a thick wood. The pig was soon missed.

Class VI. B.

(Translate the first part only. End with the word “straw.”)

The fly has no jaws or teeth with which to chew its food, but it has something which does quite as well. Its lips are made into a fine tube, and it sucks up its food, just as we have often sucked up water through a straw.

I am sure you must often have wondered how a fly can walk up the walls of a room or along the ceiling. On its feet it has a great number of small hairs which have the power of sticking to the wall, and thus it can hang, back downwards, quite easily.

Class VI. C.

(Translate the first part only. End with the words "give him some.")

A poor woman, in one of the cities of India, had a stall in the market-place, where she sold fruit. An elephant used to go by, and always stopped to look at her stall. She knew how fond the elephant was of fruit; and she used, now and then, to give him some. One day the elephant fell into a passion with his keeper. market, trampling down everything before him.

He broke loose, and ran through the

Class VII. A.

(Translate the first part only.

End with the words “pick up.")

One day the window was open, and the bird flew out. Its master thought it was lost; but it soon came back. After that, it was allowed to fly in and out as it pleased. It always took care to be in at meal times, when there were crumbs for it to pick up.

Summer and winter passed away, and still the bird never tried to leave its master. It might be out for hours, but it always came back.

Class VII. B.

(Translate the first part only.

End with the words "lays its eggs.") water the swan builds its nest.

It is made of dry

Among the bushes and high grass near the

sticks or rushes and is placed on the ground. Here the swan lays its eggs.

As soon as the young ones are hatched, away the little creatures run to the water! They need no school and no teaching, for God has made them so that they can swim at once.

95

Class VIII. A.

(Translate the first part only. End with the word "hive.”)

The bees are at work. They have been up a long time. Make haste, that we may go and watch them near the hive. It is good for you and for me to rise with the sun, and the birds, and the bees. Now, kneel down, and thank God that He has kept you all through the night. Ask him to bless you, and keep you safe all day long.

Class VIII. B.C.

(Translate the first part only.

End with the words "one, two, three."

This is the tree where the bird has its nest. Let us look in it now. Here it is. I can see three young ones in it-one, two, three. How soft and warm they are! We may look at them, but we must not take them out.

SHAKSPEARE.-HENRY V. Class I.

1. What is Shakspeare's authority for the historical events of this play?

2. State briefly, in your own words, the argument of the Archbishop of Canterbury in support of

Henry's claim to the French throne. Add your opinion as to its validity.

3. Explain the allusions in the following passages : ----

Within this wooden (). Assume the port of Mars.

The Gordian knot of it he will unloose.

I am not Barbason, you cannot conjure me.

That can be with a nimble galliard won.

Figo for thy friendship.

4. State the meaning of--

scambling, lazars, crescive, gloze, intendment, miscreate.

And the sense in this play of

executors, marches, exhale, tike, noble.

5. Who were Nym, Bardolph, Bates? What do you know about Falstaff from other plays of Shaks-

peare ?

6. Henry V. has been called "Conqueror of others and of himself." Illustrate this saying by one or

more apt quotations from the play.

or

By an estimate, in your own words, of the King's character.

GENERAL INFORMATION.

Answer briefly, writing not more than four lines on each question.

1. What is Constitutional History?

2. Who wrote The Pickwick Papers, The Waverley Novels, Hamlet, The Odyssey? 3. What is the Encyclopædia Britannica?

4. What are the Public Newspapers in Hongkong, and by whom are they edited? 5. What do you understand by "Western Civilisation"?

6. Whence is the Hongkong Regiment recruited ?

7. What is "Municipal Government”?

8. What do you mean by "Phonetic Spelling"?

9. Of what different nationalities are the Policemen in Hongkong?

10. What do you understand by Plaintiff and Defendant ?

11. What is Thunder? and what is a Rainbow?

12. How could you tell the time of day without a watch or clock?

13. How could the water supply of Hongkong he increased?.

14. What is the latitude of Hongkong, and of the South Pole?

15. A certain relationship exists between the three numbers in each of the following groups 3, 4, 5

and 5, 12, 13. What is it? Write down another similar group. ·.

16. Who is the "Hero of a hundred centuries”?

96

PUPIL TEACHERS.

1. What do you understand by (a) The History of Education; (b) Elementary Schools? 2. In what particulars does the English system of education differ from the Chinese?

3. What is Discipline? Upon what does it chiefly depend?

4. Give materials for a lesson (2 of an hour) in Geography, choosing your own subject, and specifying

whether the lesson is first, elementary or otherwise.

5. Write a short essay (not more than one page) upon-

either "Teaching embraces both culture and instruction."

оро

"All education must be first moral, secondly intellectual."

or "The teaching of words and things must go together hand in hand."

6. What useful hints have you received, or observed, for yourself, to improve your lessons in (a) Read-

ing, and (b) Arithmetic?

7. What do you mean by "Explanation Lessons" as given in Queen's College?

8. What are the principal means of gaining and holding the attention of a class?

9. What are your chief difficulties in teaching?

COMPOSITION, Class I.

You are asked to write on one subject only.)

1. Write an account of the Sports and Pastimes (Chinese and non-Chinese) to be seen in Hongkong.

2. Describe the Peak Tramway.

Or

or

3. Write an Essay on the Benefits of Foreign Trade.

Class II.

The Smith that made a Hiss.

There was once upon a time a poor bungling man who called himself a smith, but who know nothing of his craft. He took a good piece of iron and set to work to make a horse-shoe. He made the iron red-hot, and he hammered and hammered away, all to no purpose. It would not turn into a shoe! So he changed his mind and said-"Oh, never mind! It will make a very good nail." He put it into the fire again and made it red-hot. And again he hammered away, but it would not turn into a nail! "Well, never mind!" said he, "if it won't make a nail it will make a very good hiss!" So again he put it into the fire, and when it was red-hot he plunged it into a vessel of water where it made a loud hiss! And this was all he had been able to do after several hours hard work!

We must learn to work definitely, with a purpose, and without waste, either of power or material.

Class III.

The Painter and his Picture.

One day when Sir James Thornhill was painting the inside of the dome of St. Paul's Cathedral, he paused in his work and stepped back to the edge of the platform to look at what he had done. Intent upon his work, he had completely forgotten where he was, and in another moment would have fallen backwards from the platform and been dashed to pieces on the pavement below. But a friend who was with him, perceiving his danger, caught up a brush, and, filling it with colour, made a large blotch upon the picture. The artist sprang forward to protect his work, and his life was saved, though at the expense of his picture.

It is well for us that some of our plans are overthrown and spoiled. and mercy in thwarting human designs.

God often shows His wisdom

Class IV.

The Dispute on the Shadow of the Ass.

A traveller once journeyed, riding on a hired ass, along a road exposed to the full heat of a burn- ing sun. Not finding so much as a bush under which to take shelter, the thought struck him that it would not be a bad plan to dismount and seat himself in the shadow of the ass. The owner of the donkey, who had accompanied him, objected to this arrangement, declaring that when he hired out the animal to him the shadow was not included in the bargain. A fierce dispute arose between the owner of the ass and its rider, and at last from words they came to blows which finally resulted in an action at law.

It is a mistake to dispute about trifles. Quarrels about little things may lead to serious conse-

quences.

ן

97

Class V.

The Arab and the Camel.

Once a camel came to the door of a tent and thrust in his nose.

Not being resisted he thrust in his feet. There being no hindrance he came half way in. After a while he got all the way in.

Then the Arab said to the camel-" This tent is too small for two." "If so, you had better leave."

Said the camel to the Arab-

TRIGONOMETRY.

1. Shew that the sum of the numbers of degrees and grades contained in any angle is equal to 19

times their difference.

2. Explain the meaning of sind; and prove that sin {(2n-1) π + A} -sin 4.

-

3. While sailing west I observe two lights north of me: after sailing two miles their bearings are

60° and 30°, respectively, with my course.

How far are they apart?

4. Prove geometrically, or otherwise, that—

(a) cos (A--B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B.

(B) tan (A+B)

tan Atan B 1-tan A tan B

(y) sin A + sin B

2 sin

A+ B

2

COS

A-B

2

5. Find expressions for the sine and cosine of 34 in terms of the sines and cosines of A.

6. Determine cos in terms of sinA, when A lies between 270° and 450°.

7. Prove that-

2

(a) cos 4A 8 cos1 4

(B) (cot A + tan 2A)'

=

8 cos2 A + 1.

cot2 A (1 + tan2 2A).

(y) sin (y-ẞ) sin (8-a) + sin (a-y) sin (8-ß) + sin (ß-a) sin (8—y) = 0.

8. Solve, giving the solution in general terms,

sin x + cos x

√2.

α.

9. Explain what is meant by 4 = sin-1

and prove

1

that sin-1 + cot-1 3

√5

10. In any triangle prove that-

4

(a) sin A + sin B + sin C = 4 cos coscos

(b) sin 4 sin B: sin C:: a:b: c.

:

2

11. Express the cosine of an angle of a triangle in terms of the sides.

Find the radius of the circle inscribed in a triangle in terms of the sides and area of the triangle.

12. Show how to solve a triangle, having given two sides and the included angle.

Find A and B when a 21, b = 11, C 34° 42′ 30′′; having given log 223010300, L tan

72° 38′ 45′′ = 10-5051500.

HONGKONG.

THE EDUCATIONAL REPORT FOR 1895.

:

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

369

No. 23

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT,

HONGKONG, 21st May, 1896.

96

SIR,-I have the honour to forward to you the Annual Report on Education for the year 1895.

کی

:

2. GENERAL EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS.-The total number of Educational Institutions of all descriptions known to have been at work in the Colony of Hongkong during the year 1895 amounts to 236 Schools with an enrolment of 10,721 scholars. Three-fourths of these, viz., 8,156 scholars attended 123 Schools under Government, the remaining one-fourth, viz., 2,720 scholars, attended 113 Schools entirely independent of Government. As to the Schools under Government, the vast majority, viz., 106 Schools with 5,684 scholars are Voluntary Schools aided and supervised by Govern- ment under the Grant-in-Aid Code, whilst the remainder, viz., 17 Schools with 2,472 scholars, are Government. Schools established and maintained by the Government. Ainong the remaining Schools there are 107 Kai-fong Schools with 2,200 scholars, established and maintained by the Chinese com- munity without reference to, or aid from, the Government, and 6 private Schools under European management and equally independent of Government.

.

3. DECENNIAL STATISTICS OF SCHOOLS UNDER THE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT.—The total number of Schools subject to supervision and examination on the part of the Education Department (exclusive of Queen's College and Police School) amounted in the year 1895 to 121 Schools as compared with 90 Schools in the year 1885 and 39 Schools in the year 1875. The total number of scholars enrolled in this same class of Schools during the year 1895 amounted to 6,792 scholars as compared with 5,833 scholars in the year 1885 and 2,606 scholars in the year 1875. During the decade from 1875 to 1885, there was an increase of 51 Schools with 3,227 scholars, but during the last decade (1885 to 1895) the increase amounted only to 31 Schools with 957 scholars.

4. TRIENNIAL STATISTICS OF SCHOOLS UNDER THE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT.-In the year 1893 there were (exclusive of Queen's College and Police School) 125 Schools with 7,594 scholars under the supervision of the Department. In the year 1894 (the year of the plague) the number was reduced to 118 Schools with 7,246 scholars, and in 1895 the number of scholars was still further reduced to 6,792 scholars in 121 Schools. The sole cause of this decline is a continued exodus of Chinese families, caused first by fear of the plague and subsequently through reluctance to submit to the house to house visitations of European sanitary officers.

5. COMPARATIVE STATISTICS OF GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS AND GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS UNDER THE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT.-The above mentioned 121 Schools (with 6,792 scholars), under the super- vision of the Education Department during the year 1895, may be roughly divided into 15 Govern- ment Schools (wholly maintained and controlled by the Government) with 1,108 scholars, and 106 Mission Schools (subsidized by the Government on the basis of the Grant-in-Aid Code) with 5,684 scholars. The Government Schools, while abstaining from religious teaching in the Christian sense of the word, provide (in the case of Chinese Schools) the moral-religious teaching of Confucianism because it is inseparable from the teaching of the Chinese classical language; and (in the case of Anglo-Chinese Schools) add English teaching such as is given in Board Schools in England. The Mission Schools, whilst giving a religious and distinctly Christian education, are inspected and examined by the Government and receive annual grants, without any reference to specifically religious teaching, simply on the basis of the detailed results exhibited by the examination of every individual scholar in the subjects required under the respective standards fixed by the Code of Regulations for Educational Grants-in-Aid. Strictly speaking, therefore, none of the Schools under the supervision of the Government are absolutely secular Schools, though the Government Schools may be said to be non-Christian Schools, nor does the Government make any payment or give any grant directly in support of religious teaching. The Hongkong Code has neither a secular nor a religious bearing, but, as it only fixes the subjects for examination and leaves the choice of books and selection of teachers and methods of teaching absolutely unfettered, and as the Government is prepared to subsidize Schools (which fulfil the conditions of the Code) established by the adherents of any religion whatsoever represented in the Colony, the Code has, since the year 1879, when its exclusively secular provisions were abolished, satisfactorily reconciled all the conflicting educational and religious interests of a com- munity which represents a greater variety of nationalities and religions than any other part of Her Majesty's possessions.

370

6. ÅTTENDANCE IN SCHOOLS UNDER THE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT.-In my report for 189. I referred to the havoc wrought in that year by the outbreak of the plague and I shewed how greatly the attendance was reduced in those Schools which maintained their existence throughout that terrible ordeal. Throughout the greater part of the year 1895 the attendance continued to inake rapid strides towards recovering its previous position, indicating a return of the families which had fled from the Colony in 1894, but in the fall of the year 1895 a wide-spread epidemic of fever impaired the attendance once more very considerably for several months. The minimum daily attendance equalled in 1893 fully 64.92 per cent. of the maximum daily attendance. In 1894 it fell, owing to the plague, to 38.80 per cent. and in 1895 it rose again to

60.77 per cent. So also the average daily attendance, which in 1893 equalled 78.19 per cent. of the enrolment and which fell in 1894 to 61.41 per cent.. rose again in 1895 to 76.95 per cent. These figures clearly show that the exodus of families, caused by the plague in 1894, was in the year 1895 nearly, but not fully, made good by a return of the fugitives.

7. Local DistriBUTION OF SCHOOLS IN GENERAL.-Taking the distinction of secular and religious teaching in the modified sense which it has locally obtained, it may be noted that there were, in the year 1895, altogether 6.180 scholars receiving in 111 Schools a Christian religious education and❤❤ 4,696 scholars in 125 Schools under quasi-secular instruction. The subjoined table, indicating the number of secular and religious Schools provided for each district, shows that, with the only exception of the sparsely inhabited extreme west end of the City (Kennedy Town and Shek-tong-tsui), which at present is furnished with religious Schools only, all the other districts in town and villages are equitably supplied with both kinds of Schools. Kowloon Peninsula has now ample and satisfactory school accommodation. The only part of the Colony which is still left unsupplied is the Peak settlement, as the attempt made in the preceding year (1894) to open a private School there has failed. If the Government would provide a piece of ground or, better still, ground and a building, there would be little difficulty in establishing a Peak School on the model of the British Kowloon College.

Table shewing the local distribution of Secular and Religious Schools in the year 1895.

Districts

exclusive of the Peak Settlement.

I. & II. Kennedy Town and Shek-

tongtsui,

III. Saiyingpun,

IV. & V. Taipingshan & Sheung-

W811,

VI. Chungwan,....

Govern-

Kaifong.

Grant- in-

ment.

Aid.

Private. Private.

Grand

Total.

Total.

Total.

Secular Schools.

Scholars.

Secular Schools.

Scholars.

Rel. Schools.

Scholars.

Secular Schools.

Scholars.

Rel. Schools.

Scholars.

Secular Schools.

Scholars.

Rel. Schools.

Scholars.

Schools.

Scholars.

of all

Descriptions.

Schools

2

...

:࿉

:

7 224

167 13 250 14 797

:

28 539 10] 543

41,744 27| 555| 35|2,440|

2 220 12 280 11 548

1

:

VII. & VIII. Hawan & Wantsai,.

IX. & X. Bowrington & Sookon-

pou,

1

62 2 40 3

125

XI. Villages of Hongkong,........

XII. Villages of British Kowloon,.

222 11 218 10 374

1

57 14 318] 16| 633

:

:..

:

2122232

:

:

52

8

276

8

27

:.

15 417

14

797

29

1,214

24

29 563 10 543

39 1,106

2246

31 2,299

37 2,686 68 4,985

2 198 14 500 13

746

27 1,246

3

102

CO

3 125

6 227

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:.

:

18

440

10

374

28 814

15

375

16 633 31 1,008

Totals,......

17 2,472 107 2,200|106|5,684 1 24 5 496 125 4,696111 6,180 |236 10,876

S. EDUCATIONAL EXPENDITURE OF THE GOVERNMENT.-The sum total of disbursements made by the Government for educational purposes during the year 1895 ($73,775.24 as compared with $79,268.14) amounted, after deducting school-fees and educational refunds paid into the Treasury ($13,635.00 as compared with $11,896.19 in 1894) to $60,140.24, as compared with $67,371.95 in 1894. This decrease in nett expenditure is entirely due to the effects which the outbreak of plague (in 1894) had in reducing the earnings (paid in 1895) of the Grant-in-Aid Schools. The details of educational expenditure incurred in the year 1895 are as follows:-Office of Education Department

·

371

(including rent of office) $6,011.13; Queen's College (after deducting School fees and refunds) $21,665.92; Belilios Public School (after deducting school-fees) $2,787.59; fifteen other Departmental Schools $5,433.34; 106 Grant-in-Aid Schools $20,388.75; Physical Training $192.00; Government Scholarships, $2,867.80. The nett cost of education ($60,140.24) amounted in 1895 to 2.37 per cent. of the total Colonial Revenue (as compared with 2.07 per cent. in 1894, and 3.22 per cent. in 1893). As the total number of scholars under instruction in the Colony, during the year 1895, at the expense or with the aid of the Government (Police School excepted) was 7,816, the education of each scholar cost the Government $7.69, as compared with $7.66 in 1894 and $7.75 in 1893. In the several classes of educational institutions in the Colony, the cost to Government of the education of each scholar under instruction was as follows:-in Queen's College, $27.88; in Belilios Public School, $19.09; in the Departmental Schools, $5.64; in the Grant-in-Aid Schools $3.60. The Managers of those 106 Grant-in-Aid Schools who received from the Government in 1895, as Grants-in-Aid based on the definite results ascertained by the individual examination of each scholar (in the previous year), the sum of $20,388.75, expended during the year 1895 on those Schools, out of the resources of their respective Societies, supplemented in the case of seven Schools by school-fees, the sum of $56,213.04.

9. NATURE OF THE EDUCATION GIVEN IN THE SCHOOLS OF THE COLONY.-The vast majority of the residents of this Colony being Chinese, and having neither domestically nor commercially any use or demand for any but a Chinese education, the nature of the education given in the majority of local Schools is largely confined to the teaching of the Chinese classical language. This sort of teaching has considerable educative value, firstly, because it uses for its medium a dead language, as remote from Chinese vernaculars as Greek or Latin is from English, secondly because the Chinese classics are powerful exponents of that which takes, in the case of a Chinaman, the place of religion (as well as of a comparatively pure code of ethics), and thirdly because Chinese teachers sincerely believe in, and are instinct with, the spirit of their classics. This system of teaching, which by itself (as in the case of the Kaifong Schools) limits the mental and moral vision to the horizon which confined the mind of Confucius twenty-four centuries ago, cramps the intellect, stunts the growth of moral feeling and bends the will into antagonism to everything non-Chinese, is, in the case of our 106 Grant-in-Aid Schools, happily balanced by the teaching of Christianity and by the spirit of modern civilisation. Thus it is that even those Grant-in-Aid Schools which confine their operations to giving a classical (but Christian) Chinese education in the Chinese language only, are nevertheless administering a powerful and healthy educational stimulus. As to those local Schools (Grant-in-Aid Schools and Government Schools) which give a European education in the English language (or in Portuguese), it may be observed that their organisation, books, methods and European trained teachers are indeed admirably adapted to the religious and moral idiosyncrasies of children of European and Indian descent in this Colony, but that they have neither books, nor methods, nor organisation suitable for the mass of the Chinese children of this Colony. This defect is strongly felt by the Chinese population, and restrains the growth of a popular demand for an English education on the part of Chinese residents. Not until this defect is remedied will there be any possibility of ac- complishing the desire which at present animates the Government, viz., to promote English rather than Chinese education among the native population of Hongkong. During the year 1895, two thirds of our local Schools gave a Chinese education and one third a European education.

4

10. FEMALE EDUCATION.-Leaving the Police School with 340 scholars (men) out of considera- tion, but including Queen's College with its 1,024 scholars, the relative numbers of boys and girls under instruction in the Colony are found to have stood, in the year 1895, as under:-Government Schools 1,752 boys and 380 girls; Grant-in-Aid Schools, 3,091 boys and 2,593 girls; Kaifong Schools, 2,170 boys and 30 girls; Private Schools, 67 boys and 453 girls. (In other words, among the whole number of scholars under instruction in the Schools of the Colony in the year 1895, the girls numbered only 32.80 per cent., as compared with 32.49 in the plague year 1894, and 37.90 per cent. in the year 1893.

The only Schools in the Colony, attracting a fair proportion of girls, are the Grant-in-Aid Schools, in which the number of girls under instruction during the year 1895, amounted to 45.61 per cent.) That this is a very nearly normal proportion, may be inferred from the fact that, when the last Census was taken (in 1891), there were, among 29,899 children of school-going age in the Colony, 14,151 girls or 47.32 per cent.

11. NUMBER OF UNEDUCATED CHILDREN IN THE COLONY.-It is impossible, until the next Census is taken, to guage correctly the number of uneducated children in the Colony, as the official estimate of the population with regard to the year 1895 (244,930 people) makes insufficient or no allowance for the untold numbers of women and children who fled from the plague in 1894. There are no data to determine the proportion of fugitives who returned to the Colony in the year 1895. Certain it is that the Schools of the Colony suffered severely in consequence of an extraordinary retrogression of the population. Taking, however, the published estimate of the population, such as it is, for a basis, Table XIII., appended to this Report, indicates that as many as 22,038 children of school-going age (6 to 16 years failed to attend school in the year 1895, viz., 10,076 boys and 11,962 girls. But as it is certain that a considerable number (say one half) of these boys and girls 6 to 16 years of age, though indeed not attending any School in 1895, owing to their having left school without going

372

through the full ten years course, had previously been under instruction for some 3 or 4 years, all that can be said is, that the official returns, such as they are, indicate that some 10,076 boys and 11,962 girls remained imperfectly educated and that probably half of this number escaped the educa- tion net altogether and may be put down as remaining uneducated.

12. RESULTS OF THE ANNUAL EXAMINATION.-The work done by Queen's College in the year 1895 has been examined and reported upon (Government Gazette of 15th February, 1896,) by independent special examiners appointed by the Board of Governors. As regards the Depart- mental Schools, Tables II. to VII., appended to this Report, supply the most important particulars. The detailed results of the annual examination of the Grant-in-Aid Schools will be found summarized in Tables X. and XI., where the grants allowed, and the percentage of scholars passed in each School, in 1895, are stated and compared with the results of the preceding year, and in Table XII. which records the percentage of passes gained in each subject. I subjoin, however, some special observations with regard to some of these Schools.

13. BELILIOS PUBLIC SCHOOL-The annual examination of this Institution shewed highly satisfactory results. The staff of both divisions (Upper and Lower School) has been considerably increased and the school materials have been improved by the addition of special helps for object lessons. These improvements have been effected without exceeding the limits of expenditure fixed when retrenchment was aimed at to the verge of efficiency. In the Upper (European) School the (attendance has steadily increased, indicating the growing popularity of this Institution, and the lessons given (in addition to the ordinary English subjects) in singing, instrumental music and physical drill are much appreciated by the parents of the children. It is only to be regretted that Chinese parents who send their sons to English Schools have not yet woke up to the recoguition of the bearing which an English education has upon the true interests of their daughters.

14. DEPARTMENTAL DISTRICT SCHOOLS.-The number of these Governinent Schools has been con- siderably reduced within the last few years with a view to retrenchment. There are, in the first instance, 5 Anglo-Chinese Departmental Schools left, giving to the Chinese residing in the outskirts of the town (Saiyingpun and Wantsai) and in the principal villages (Wongnaichung, Stanley and Yaumati) the opportunity of securing for their sons an elementary English education, coupled with Chinese classical teaching. The teachers of these Schools are natives who have had no special technical training. The examination shewed, however, fairly good results in three of these Schools. If volun- tary effort would take up the work in these places, the Government might well confine its efforts in the sphere of Anglo-Chinese education to the working of Queen's College. Besides these five Anglo- Chinese Schools, there are, in the second instance, six small Departmental Government Schools, giving a purely Chinese education, at a very low cost, in isolated villages (Tanglungchau, (Hakka), Shekou, Wongmakok, Aplichau, and Pokfulam) where there is no other School within a radius of three miles. These Schools which, with one exception, are located in cottages of the poorest sort, are doing useful work and are much appreciated by the poor people for whose benefit the Government, in the absence of private effort, maintains these Schools.

15. GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS. To replace Schools swept away by the plague, ten new Schools were started, under the provisions of the Grant-in-Aid Code, at the beginning of the year 1895. All through the year (1895) the 106 Grant-in-Aid Schools laboured (with the exception of one School) successfully to efface the injuries they had received through the plague in 1894. Unfortunately, within a few weeks before the examinations were held, the epidemic of fever, above referred to, once more thinned the attendance and seriously impaired the monetary results of the examinations. However, with an enrolment of 5,656 and an average attendance of 3,736 scholars, these Schools brought as many as 3,553 scholars under examination. The results were, in the Chinese Schools most affected by disease, below the average of former years, whilst in the Schools for European children a considerable advance was made in the matter of efficiency and earning power. The sum total earned by the 105 Schools as grants for the year 1895 ($18,187.62 paid to the Managers and $6,062.02 paid to the Teachers) was, however, not only within the limit of the amount voted by the Legislature, but left the sum of $1,007.61 to lapse into the Treasury. The Diocesan School, St. Joseph's College and the Victoria English Schools specially distinguished themselves by a considerable increase in the proportion of scholars brought under examination in the higher (secondary) subjects, and the results obtained in mathematics and in English composition gave evidence of methodical and painstaking class teaching. The British Kowloon College, after passing through serious reverses, entered in the fall of the year into regular and steady work, which yielded at the annual examination good results, such as encourage the hope that the institution will soon be able to dispense with the special help which was necessary to tide it over its initial difficulties. As to those Grant-in-Aid Schools which give a Chinese education in the Chinese language, and contribute, though much needed by the local Chinese population, com- paratively little aid towards a promotion of modern civilization, it has been recognized by the Govern. ment that, though the local Chinese Girls Schools require yet to be multiplied, the existing Chinese Boys Schools are now sufficiently numerous to answer all the claims for a purely Chinese education which the native population may justly put forth. But, whilst continuing therefore those purely Chinese Schools which have already been admitted to participation in the privileges of the Grant-in-

373

Aid Code, and even willing, in view of the backward condition of Chinese female education, to give grants to additional Chinese Girls Schools where needed, the Government is determined henceforth to seek to stimulate English rather than Chinese education. His Excellency the Governor (Sir WILLIAM ROBINSON) accordingly made an announcement in Legislative Council (25th November, 1895), which it is desirable to place here on record. "I am of opinion," His Excellency said, "that too much attention has hitherto been paid to purely Chinese subjects. With a view, therefore, of promoting a more general knowledge of English amongst the Chinese, the Government proposes in future to sub- sidize only those schools in which special attention is paid to the teaching of the English language and modern subjects. It is hoped that this will tend to educate the rising generation of Chinese to more enlightened views and ideas, and to dispel the ignorance and blind superstition, which have proved, and still are proving, such a stumbling block to the promotion of their moral and physical well- being." The following Notification (No. 497 of 26th November, 1895) published in Government Gazette of 30th November, 1895, gave effect to the foregoing weighty words of His Excellency the Governor. "With reference to clause 6 of the New Code of Regulations for Educational Grants-in-Aid dated the 19th August, 1893, and published in the Gazette by Government Notification No. 310, notice is hereby given that His Excellency the Governor in Council has been pleased to direct that, until further notice, no school for boys opened after the date of this notification shall receive any grant-in-aid, unless such school shall give a European education in the English language besides com- plying with the other requirements of the Code." It is to be hoped that Managers of Grant-in-Aid Schools will see their way to adopt, more extensively than they have hitherto done, the plan of seek- ing to elevate the Chinese people of this Colony by means of English rather than Chinese teaching.

16. OXFORD LOCAL EXAMINATIONS.--The results of the Oxford Local Examinations, held in Hongkong in July 1895, were as under:-I. Preliminary Examinations. Honour's List, Diocesan School, 1; Pass List-Victoria English School 5 passes; Queen's College, 1 pass; Diocesan School, 1 pass. Candidates who, having exceeded the limit of age, satisfied the Examiners,-Diocesan School, 2 passes; Victoria English School, I pass. Successful candidates who obtained distinction,--Queen's College, 1 (English History). Details:-candidates presented, 33; examined, 31; passed in preliminary subjects, 12; passed in religious knowledge, 22; in English History, 29; in an English Author, 20; in Geography, 21; higher arithmetic, 1; in mathematics, 11; in drawing, 14. Total of certificates issued to candidates of proper age, 9; to candidates beyond the limit of age, 3.-II. Junior Division. Honour's List, none. Pass List, Diocesan School 5 passes; Victoria English School, 4 passes; Queen's College, 1 pass; Private Tuition, I pass. Candidates who, having exceeded the age of 16 years satisfied the Examiners,-Queen's College, 2 passes; Diocesan School, 1 pass; Victoria English School, 1 pass. Details of examination results of Junior Division:-presented 37; examined, 34; passed in preliminary subjects 26; passed in religious knowledge, fully 14, partly 5; passed in English, fully 19, partly 8; passed in mathematics, 12; passed in drawing 6; Total of certificates issued to candidates of proper age, 11, and to candilates beyond the limit of age, 4.---III. Senior Division. Honour's List, none. Pass List.-Diocesan School, 3 passes; Queen's College, 2 passes; Victoria English School, 1 pass; Private Tuition, 1 pass. Candidates who, having exceeded the limit of age, satisfied the Examiners,-Private Tuition, 1 pass. Details, candidates presented, 13; examined, 11. Candidates passed, in preliminary subjects, 11; in religious knowledge, fully passed 3, partly 2; in English, fully 9, partly 1; in mathematics, 9. Total of certificates issued to candidates of proper age, 7; to candidates beyond the limit of age, 1. The foregoing results may be summarized as follows:-candidates examined, 76, certified as passed, 35, failed 41; passes obtained, by Diocesan School, 12 passes; by Victoria English School, 12 passes; by Queen's College, 6 passes; by Private Tuition, 3 passes.

17. BELILIOS MEDAL AND PRIZE EXAMINATIONS.-There have been no examinations for the Belilios Medals during this year (1895). The fund is only $3,000 and was established primarily for rewarding acts of bravery in connection with the saving of life, and only to assist in the educational progress of the Colony in the second place. The annual income is small and in previous years there have been greater demands on it than it could stand. The Trustees hope to be able next year to resume operations, but with some diminution in the money value of the prizes.

18. PHYSICAL TRAINING.-Eight of the local Schools continue the physical drill which is a popular exercise even in Girls Schools. The drill instructor, supplied by the Military Authorities, is giving great satisfaction especially since the Military Authorities courteously set the drill instructor free from certain duties which formerly interfered with the regularity of his attendance in the Schools. The Cadet Corps is being drilled in sections, a supply of wooden rifles having been sent to the three Schools interested.

19. INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION.-The R. C. West Point Reformatory, aided by the Government under the Reformatory School Ordinance and otherwise, and the Kindergarten School of the Basel Mission, which receives no Government aid whatsoever, are the only Industrial Schools of the Colony. Sewing machines have been supplied, by a local business firm, to a number of Chinese Girls Schools in which regular instruction is now given in the use of sewing machines.

374

20. MEDICAL EDUCATION.-The College of Medicine for Chinese is quietly continuing its work of imparting a knowledge of Western medicine and surgery to its dozen or so of students. It is hampered by the lack of a properly equipped building for teaching purposes, and by the non-recogni- tion of its certificates by the Legislature, but efforts are being made to secure the removal of both these obstacles to the progress of medical education in the Colony. Dr. J. C. THOMSON returned to Hongkong in March, and resumed the oversight of the students as Secretary to the College, and in October His Honour Sir FIELDING CLARKE, whose term of office had expired, was succeeded as Rector by the Honourable J. H. STEWART LOCKHART.

21. SCHOLARSHIPS.-The draft of the revised Government Scholarship Scheme, referred to in previous reports, is still under the consideration of the Government. The last Scholarship, granted in 1893, involved in 1895 an expenditure of $2,867.80. As to non-official Scholarships, Queen's College had, in the year 1895, the benefit of 4 Belilios Scholarships, 2 Morrison and 1 Stewart Scholarship. St. Joseph's College had the benefit of 2 Belilios Scholarships. On 11 Medical Scholarships connected with the College of Medicine for Chinese, the Trustees of Belilios Trust Funds Nos. 1 and 3 paid, during the year 1895, the sum of $725, in addition to a sum of $360 paid to Queen's College and St. Joseph's College.

1895.

22. I enclose the usual Tables (I to XIII) summarizing the educational statistics for the year

I have the honour to be,

Sir.

Your most obedient Servant,

The Honourable J. H. STEWART LOCKHART,

Colonial Secretary.

E. J. EITEL, Ph. D. (Tubing.), Inspector of Schools and Head of the Education

Department.

}

TABLE 1.-NUMBER of SCHOLARS attending Schools under the EDUCATION DEPARTMENT during the Year 1895.

375

No.

Name of Schools.

Scholars attending Government Schools.

Scholars attending Grant-in-aid

Total Scholars

in Schools. Attendance.

1 2 3

1 American Bord Mission, Bridges Street (Boys),...

56

5€

2

"

""

Queen's Road West (Boys),

46

46

3

37

""

Hawan (Girls),...

33

32

13

"

Chungwan (Girls),

37

37

""

Yaumati (Girls),

36

36

8

Aplichau (Boys),

Basel Mission, High Street (Girls),

Shamshuipo (Boys),

43

43

88

88

26

26

""

"

22

**

9

11

10

Shaukiwan (Boys), Tokwawan (Boys),

""

11

>>

Matauchung (Boys),

12 13

Mongkok (Boys),..

14

(Chinese) (Girls),

15

16

17

"

18

ད་

19

20

"

21

""

"

23

99

24

""

25

*

Third Street (Girls),

26

"

27

19

Hunghom (Girls),

28

63

63

40

40

24

24

36

36

وو

A

""

32

22

33

32

34

35

36

">

37

};

38

""

39

";

Pottinger Street (Girls),

40

Stanley School (Girls),

""

41

J

42

"

43

44

45

46

""

Yaumati (Boys),..

47

Shcktongtsui (Boys),...

48

,,

49

II

22

""

(Boys),

50

*

Hunghom (Boys),

51

Hospital Chapel (Boys),

52

"

53

31

54

}}

55

}}

56

22

57

11

58

"J

59

60

""

61

>

62

"

63

64

33

65

1,

66

29

67

29

30

31

Belilios Public School (English) (Girls),

Berlin Foundling House School (Girls),

Berlin Ladies Mission, Queen's Road West (Boys),

""

C. M. S. St. Stephen's Chinese School (Boys),

""

""

"

Pottinger Street (Boys),"

Saiyingpun (Boys),

St. Stephen's Baxter Memorial (Girls),

Lyndhurst Terrace (Girls),

Yaumati (Mixed),

Quarry Bay (Girls),

Little Hongkong (Boys), Aberdeen School (Boys),

Victoria Home and Orphanage (Girls),

St. Stephen's (Anglo-Chinese) (Boys), Morrison English School (Boys),.

Diocesan Home and Orphanage (Boys),

F. E. S. Bouham Road Chinese Division (Girls),

High Street (Girls),

Queen's Road West (Girls),

Shektongtsui (Girls),

146

146

234

234

...

26

26

44

44

Mongkoktsui (Boys), Tsattszmui (Boys),...

No. 2 (Boys),

42

42

16

27

27

72

72

52

52

108

108

77

77

GO

60

40

40

43

13

53

53

24

24

31

31

22

22

34

34

53

53

82

82

119

119

167

167

32

32

34

34

40

40

10

10

28

28

39

39

Shaukiwan (Girls),...........

Tokwawan (Girls),

Bonham Road English Division (Girls),

L. M. S. Square Street (Boys),

Wantsai Chapel (Boys),

34

34

22

22

...

30

30

*

78

73

72

72

62

62

48

48

Saiyingpun I Division (Boys),

59

59

...

64

64

31

31

...

52

52

68

""

"

69

""

70

Wantsai Chapel (Girls),

་་

71

""

72

17

Taibing (Girls),

78

""

74

"

Lokying

Shektongtsui (Girls),..........

Saiyingpun 2nd Street I Division (Girls).

72

Ui-hing Lane I Division (Girls).

II

Tanglungchau No. 1 (Boys),

22

No. 2 (Boys),

Shaukiwau (Boys), Taikoktsni (Boys),..... Square Street, (Girls), Li Yuen Street (Girls), D'Aguilar Street (Girls), Matauwai (Boys), Third Street (Boys), Chinese Street (Girls), Kau-u-fong (Girls), Tanglungehau (Girls), Aberdeen Street (Girls),

20

20

37

37

دو

II

(Boys),

(Girls),

88

88

48

18

44

44

37

$7

58

58

53

53

38

38

75

76

30

30

66

66

28

28

43

43

24

24

80

80

30

30

57

57

86

86

Staunton Street (Girls),.

Taipingshan English School (Boys),

31

31

28

28

43

43

23

>>

(Boys),

32

32

Carried forward,.

423

3,467

3,890

376

TABLE I.-NUMBER of SCHOLARS attending Schools under the EDUCATION DEPARTMENT during the Year 1895,—Contd.

No.

Name of Schools.

Scholars Scholars attending attending Government Grant-in-Aid Schools. Schools.

Total Scholars

in

attendance.

Brought forward,...................

423

3,467

3,890

75

Pokfulam (Boys),

76

7.7

""

78

""

79

""

80

II

وو

29

>>

""

(Girls),

81

""

Yaumati (Girls),...

82

22

Shaukiwan (Girls),

83

""

Hunghom (Girls),

84

>1

85

>>

86

>>

St. Joseph's College

""

87

""

European

88

>

89

"

22

90

""

Bridges Street English

""

91

39

Portuguese

""

(Girls), (Girls),

92

22

93

"

94

""

95

"

""

English

96

وو

97

"

""

18

18

R. C. M., Cathedral School (Boys),......................

Bridges Street Chinese Division (Girls), Hollywood Road School (Girls),

Holy Infancy School I Division (Boys),

53

53

41

41

61

61

39

39

57

57

72

72

43

43

19

49

Italian Convent Chinese School (Girls),

Sacred Heart School Chinese Division (Girls),

63

63

40

40

22

"

(Boys),

46

46

(Boys),

258

258

Italian Convent English Division (Girls),

Portuguese,, (Girls),

215

215

72

72

22

22

56

111

"

112

""

>>

113

114

22

وو

وو

Lascar Row (Boys),

وو

(Girls),

115

""

>>

Graham Street (Girls),

116

39

>>

Kennedy Town (Boys),

117

31

29

Wantsai (Boys),.

118

**

""

119

Wongmakok (Boys),

Nova Escola Portugueza (Girls),

Sacred Heart School English Division (Girls),

St. Francis Portuguese Division (Girls),

Victoria Portuguese School Portuguese Division (Mixed),

98 Saiyingpun (English) (Boys),

99.

100

101

102

103

104

105

106

107-

"

(Chinese) (Boys),

Sheko (Boys),

St. Paul's College School (Boys), Stanley (Anglo-Chinese) (Boys), Taitamtuk (Boys),

Tangluugchau (Hakka) (Boys), Victoria English School (Boys),

""

>>

(Girls),

British Kowloon School (Mixed),.

108 Wantsai (English) (Boys),.

109

""

(Chinese) (Boys),

110 Wesleyan Mission, Spring Gardens (Boys),

Wellington Street (Boys), (Girls),

56

35

35

21

21

24

24

وو

(Girls),

English

:

45

45

22

22

(Mixed),

:

26

26

167

(54)

167

32

32

77

46

46

13

13

62

62

162

152

67

67

51

51

220

(179)

220

42

42

114

114

50

50

50

50

27

27

65

65

31

31

57

57

Lyndhurst Terrace English School (Boys),

120 Wongnaichung (Anglo-Chinese) (Boys),. 121 Yaumati (Anglo-Chinese (Boys),..........

74

74

10

10

60

60

57

57

Total,.......

1,108

5,684

6,792

TABLE II.—NUMBER of SCHOLARS attending GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS under the EDUCATION DEPARTMENT and EXPENSES of each SCHOOL during the year 1895.

No.

Name of Schools.

Boys.

Girls.

Total.

Expense.

1

Aplichau,

B3

48

163.11

6789 OIL CON

2 Belilios Public School (English),

146

146

2,787.59

"

وو

""

(Chinese),.

234

234

800.40

Pokfulam,

18

18

132.00

Salyingpun (English),

167

(Chinese),

>>

Sheko,

167

1,014.49

(54)

228.00

32

32

120.00

10

Stauley (Anglo-Chinese),

Taitamtuk,

Tanglungchau (Hakka),

46

46

325.68

13

13

132.00

62

62

180.00

11

Wantsai (English),

220

1,037.51

12

""

(Chinese),

(179)

220

376.20

13

14

Wongmakok,

Wongnaichung (Anglo-Chinese),

10

10

132.00

60

60

395.45

15

Yaumati (Anglo-Chinese),

57

57

406.50

Total,.

728

380

1,108

8,220.93

377

TABLE III.— AVERAGE EXPENSE of each SCHOLAR at Government SCHOOLS under the EDUCATION DEPARTMENT and at the GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS during the year 1895. *

1.-EXPENDITURE OF GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS.

(Cost of working the Schools irrespective of cost of erection or repairs of Buildings.)

1. BELILIOS PUBLIC SCHOOL.

Expenditure,

Deduct School Fees, refunded,

.$ 3,239.59

452.00

-$2,787.59

2. OTHER DEPARTMENTAL SCHOOLS, (no School Fees).

Cost to Government, in 1895,

$ 5,433.34

II.—EXPENDITURE ON THE GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS.

Total Cost to Government, in 1895,..

$ 20,388.75

III.-AVERAGE COST OF EACH SCHOLAR.

(Calculated by the Eurolment.)

Average Cost, to Government, of each Scholar :--

1. at Belilios Public School (not including cost of building), 2. at Other Departmental Schools,

3. at Grant-in-Aid Schools,

IV.—AVERAGE COST OF EACH SCHOLAR.

(Calculated by the Average Daily Attendance.)

Average Cost, to Government, of each Scholar :--

1. at Belilios Public School (not including cost of building), 2. at Other Departmental Schools,

3. at Grant-in-Aid Schools,

19.09

..$

5.61

3.60

35.56

$5

7.79

.$

5.45

*NOTE.-The Cost of the Inspectorate of Schools ($6,011.13), being connected with both Grant-in-Aid Schools and Government Schools, is not included.

1

No.

TABLE IV.-ENROLMENT and ATTENDANCE at Government Schools under the EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

1 Aplichau,

during the year 1895.

Name of Schools.

2 Belilios Public School (English),

3

"

39

(Chinese),

Pokfulam,

5 Saiyingpun (English),

6

""

(Chinese),

Sheko,

Stanley (Anglo-Chinese),

Taitamtuk,

10

Tanglungchau (Hakka),

11

Wantsai, (English),

12

""

(Chinese),

13

Wongmakok,

14

Wongneichung (Anglo-Chinese),

15

Yaumati (Anglo-Chinese),................

Average Monthly Enrolment.

Average Daily Attendance.

20.25

15.71

82.83

78.38

144.33

114.46

13.91

11.44

110.41

103.36

35.81

34.14

25.08

24.23

83.66

31.37

10.16

8.67

34.50

31.26

144.16

133.77

113.58

111.04

9.50

8.78

42.91

38.82

33.75

29.57

Total,......

854.84

775.00

378

TABLE V-MAXIMUM and MINIMUM ENROLMENT and DAILY ATTENDANCE at GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS under the

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT during the year 1895.

No.

Name of Schools.

Maximum Monthly Enrolment.

Minimum

Monthly Enrolment.

Maximum Daily Attendance

Minimum Daily Attendance

(Monthly average). (Monthly average).

1

Aplichau,

30

9

26.00

5.89

2

Belilios Public School (English),.............

97

77

82.50

68.00

3

"

"

""

(Chinese),.....

165

88

139.06

85.09

4

Pokfulam,

18

CD

8

15.46

8.00

5

Saivingpun (English),

125

71

112.08

57.91

6

(Chinese),

41

17

41.00

11.07

7

Sheko,

26

23

26.00

20.77

8

Stanley (Anglo-Chinese),................

38

27

36.55

25.92

Taitamtuk,

11

9

10.02

7.21

10

Tanglungchau (Hakka),..

40

23

36.62

19.16

11

Wantsai (English),

168

102

154.07

96.18

12

(Chinese),

137

75

125.88

72.09

13

Wongmakok,

10

9

9.56

8.00

14

Wongnaichung (Anglo-Chinese),......

47

40

43.72

35.25

15

Yaumati (Anglo-Chinese),

40

29

35.34

25.44

Total,..

993

607

893.86

545.98

TABLE VI.-NUMBER of DAYS on which the GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS under the EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

were taught during the year 1895.

No.

Name of Schools.

School Days. No.

Name of Schools.

School Days.

1 Aplichau,

252

9

Taitamtuk,

257

07

Belilios Public School (English),

244

10

Tanglungchau (Hakka),.

256

3

"}

>>

>>

(Chinese),

246

11

Wantsai (English),

246

4 Pokfulam,

254

12

>>

(Chinese),...

247

5

Saiyingpun (English),

247

13

Wongmakok,

256

6

(Chinese),

244

14

Wonguaichung (Anglo-Chinese),,

245

Sheko,

255

15

Yaumatı (Anglo-Chinese),.........

250

Stanley (Anglo-Chinese),

247

379

TABLE VII.-SUMMARY of ENROLMENT and ATTENDANCE at the GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS for the last twenty-five years.

YEARS.

Total Enrolment

for the

year.

Maximum Daily Attendance (Monthly Average).

Minimum Monthly Enrolment.

Minimum Daily Attendance (Monthly Average).

1871,

1,292

937

741

571

1872,

1,480

1,157

837

665

1873,

1,838

1,326

852

760

1874,

1,932

1,271

974

836

1875,

1,927

1,312

988

863

☐ 1876,

2,171

1,383

1,057

925

1877,

2,148

1,446

1,212

1,035

1878, ....................

2,101

1.324

1,100

936

1879,

2,043

1,356

1,027

904

1880,

2,078

1,468

1,082

937

1881,

1,986

1,384

1,093

956

1882,

2,114

1,444

1,062

988

1883,

2,080

1,414

1,138

990

1884,

1,978

1,420

1,066

911

1885,

1,988

1,424.

1,061

926

1886,

1,893

1,544

1,040

886

1887,

1,814

1,552

1,126

1,000

1888,

1,933

1,653

1,139

1,040

1889,

2,293

1,992

1,190

1,118

1890,

2,514

1,999

1,494

1,370

1891,

2,540

1,909

1,403

1,291

1892,

1

2,622

2,101

1,536

1,407

1893,

2,356

1,829

1,443

1,317

1894,

1,282

1,039

420

320

1895,

1,108

893

607

545

380

TABLE VIII.-NUMBER of SCHOLARS attending Schools receiving GRANTS-IN-AID (under the Provisions of the Scheme of 1893), expenses incurred and amount of Grant gained by cach in 1895.

Class of School.

Name of Schools.

Boys.

Girls.

Total.

Expenses incurred in

Amount of Grant gained

1895.

for 1895.

I

American Board Mission, Bridges Street (Boys),

56

56. $

210.00

130.06

!!

Queen's Road West (Boys),

46

46

228.00

158.77

"

19

Háwan (Girls)......................

33

33

168.00

120.52

Sheungwan (Girls),

37

87

67.72

""

**

Basel Mission, Shamshuipo (Boys),

Yaumati (Girls),

36

36

145.40

26

26

182.48

108.71

""

>>>

Shaukiwan (Boys),

63

63

236.62

225.59

""

""

"

Tokwawan (Boys),

40

10

176.45

139.38

"

22

""

Matauchung (Boys),

24

24

148.13

58.72

*

"

15

22

*

"

**

12

**

Mongkok (Boys),...........

Berlin Ladies Mission, Queen's Road West (Boys),

"

C. M. S. St. Stephen's Chinese School (Boys)....

36

36

40.45

44

4.1

$9.95

135.45

Mongkoktsui (Boys),

42

12

115.84

Tsat-tsz-mui (Boys),.........

27

27

60.36

72

72

303.94

238.25

!,

No. 2, (Boys),

52

52

333.15

194.54

"

"

Pottinger Street (Boys),

108

108

306.15

300.70

"

Saiyingpun (Boys),

77

77

284.21

183.45

.,

St. Stephen's Baxter Memorial (Girls),.

60

60

245.21

135.69

*

Lyndhurst Terrace (Girls),

40

40

264.85

124.66

$1

Third Street (Girls),

43

43

214.18

146.18

11

11

Yaumati (Mixed),

40

13

53

201.82

125.05

"

"

Hunghòm (Girls),

24

24

169.31

103.33

""

Quarry Bay (Girls),

31

31

152.50

49.52

""

Little Hongkong (Boys),

22

22

114.16

55.64

"

"}

"

""

"

"

19

99

19

!!

""

7

"

44

:

19

19

"

";

(Boys),

"1

Hunghòm (Boys),

";

"

Hospital Chapel (Boys);

"

Shektongtsui (Girls),..

""

""

"J

II.

99

??

>>

Ui-hing Lane 1. Division (Girls),

"

II.

""

21

(Girls),

"

21

**

>>

""

!!

"

";

99

21

""

""

"

*

རྩྭ་

""

"

""

!!

"

34

Aberdeen School (Boys),

F. E. S. Bonham Road Chinese Division (Girls),

High Street (Girls),

Queen's Road West (Girls),

Shektongtsui (Girls),..

Pottinger Street (Girls),

Stanley School (Girls), Shaukiwan (Girls),... Tokwawan (Girls),.

L. M. S. Square Street (Boys),

Wantsai Chapel (Boys), Yaumati (Boys),

Shektongtsui (Boys),

Saiyingpun I. Division (Boys),

II.

34

34

166.03

121.10

32

32

764.93

228.45

34

34

181.13

100.71

40

10

212.80

111.20

10

10

174.30

41.35

28

28

264.40

72.23

39

39

133.63

142.38

34

34

204.20

125.09

22

22

101.00

90.11

73

73

373.19

250.58

72

72

398.18

317.68

62

62

329,35

201.27

48

48

224.23

189.46

59

59

373.36

253.83

64

64

326.19

227.04

31

31

240.43

61.47

52

52

270.59

203.26

20

20

160.70

56.58

Saiyingpun, Second Street 1. Division (Girls),

37

37

244.40

102.30

(Boys),

88

88

283.31

268.19

48

48

295.17

226.06

44

"

"

""

""

"

}

99

Tanglungchau No. 1 (Boys),

:

No. 2 (Boys),

Shaukiwan (Boys),...

Taikoktsui (Boys),

Square Street (Girls),

Li-Yuen Street (Girls),

D'Aguilar Street (Girls), Matauwai (Boys), Third Street (Boys), Chinese Street (Girls), Kau-ü-fong (Girls), Tanglungchau (Girls), Aberdeen Street (Girls), Wantsai Chapel (Girls),

Staunton Street (Girls), Taihang (Girls),

R. C. M. Cathedral School (Boys),

Bridges Street Chinese Division (Girls), Hollywood Road Chinese School (Girls), Holy Infancy School J. Division (Boys),

44

179.68

143.54

37

37

225.20

133.65

58

58

253.99

187.36

53

53

278.26

202.45

38

38

210.59

162.51

75

75

280.11

223.30

30

30

244.42

113.61

66

66

299.65

258.98

28

28

180.60

122.05

43

43

166.07

24

24

76.04

SO

80

262.41

284.79

30

30

150.58

91.84

57

57

367.74

248.90

86

86

381.19

267.29

31

31

230.39

84.68

28

28

53

$9.00

77.79

41

11

255.00

152.56

61

61

399.00

249.48

39

120.00

32.59

II.

#

!!

#

Yaumati (Girls),

"1

(Girls),

57

57

420.00

234.91

72

72

535.00

151,86

"

Shaukiwan (Girls),.

43

43

268.00

163.30

!!

"

Hunghòm (Girls),

49

49

447.00

133.60

">

Italian Convent, Chinese School (Girls),

63

63

371.69

19

Sacred Heart School Chinese Division (Girls),

40

40

128.51

Wesleyan Mission Spring Gardens (Boys),

42

42

228.00

171.03

!!

"

多多

Wellington Street (Boys),

114

114

408.50

264.43

53

"

19

17

::

(Girls),

50

50

170.00

139.55

"

""

""

Lascar Row (Boys),

50

50

228.00

163.40

12

>>

>>

"1

(Girls),

27

27

191.00

130.18

"

"

24

39

""

"

*

III

"

19

St. Paul's College School (Boys),

22

";

Graham Street (Girls)...

Kennedy Town (Boys),

II Basel Mission High Street (Girls),.

Berlin Mission (Girls),

C. M. S. Victoria Home and Orphange (Girls),

St. Stephen's Anglo-Chinese (Boys), Morrison English School (Boys),

W. M. Lyndhurst Terrace, English School (Boys),

Diocesan Honic and Orphanage (Boys),

F. E. S. Bonham Road, English Division (Girls),

L. M. S. Taipingshan, English School (Boys),

Lok-ying English School (Boys),

Wantsai (Boys),

57

57

217.00

197.97

65

65

225.00

209.40

31

31

178.00

130.03

88

88

679.81

423.98

26

26

982.00

246.88

53

53

2,088.58

376.46

82

82

546.64

439.84

119

119

1,408.74

180.49

74

74

498.00

233.29

77

77

607.00

295.42

167

167

14,470.73

1,275.46

30

615.12

279.91

45

43

857.23

236.94

32

32

282.65

167.65

Carried forward,..

2,595

1,977

4,572

40.240.44

16,582.98

381

Name of Schools.

Class of

School.

TABLE VIII-NUMBER of SCHOLARS attending Schools receiving GRANTS-IN-AID.-Continued.

Boys.

Girls,

Total.

Expenses incurred in

1895.

Amount of Grant gained

for 1895.

Brought forward.........

2,595

1,977

4,572

$40,240.41

$16.582.98

III

R. C. M. St. Joseph's College Chinese Division (Boys),.

46

46

206.70

"?

17

:

European

(Boys)..

258

258

3,643.95

2.431.97

10

27

Italian Convent English Division (Girls),.....

215

215

2,671.00

1.460.37

19

>>

";

K

"

"

"

12

""

"

""

17

11

"

Victoria English School (Boys),

19

(Girls),

""

English

-

Portuguese Division (Girls), ́

Bridges Street English Division (Girls),

Portuguese Division (Girls),

Nova Escola Portugueza (Girls),...

Sacred Heart School, English Division (Girls),

St. Francis Portuguese Division (Girls),

Victoria Portuguese School, Portuguese Division (Mixed)...

72

72

622.00

382.45

22

22

513.00

137.68

56

56

274.00

308.83

35

35

389.85

183.18

(Girls),

English

4

"}

(Mixed),

152

British Kowloon School (Mixed),

30

PR: CHAPE

21

69.33

24

24

221.00

99.78

45

45

535.00

186.32

18

22

120.77

1,139.95

20

26

195.65

152

67

67

5,962.85

1,068.82

599.57

21

51

215.24

3,091

2,593

5,684

56,213.04

24,249.64

TABLE IX.-ENROLMENT, ATTENDANCE and NUMBER of SCHOOL DAYS at the GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS during 1895.

No.

Name of Schools.

ment.

Maximum Minimum Monthly Monthly Enrol- Enrol-

ment.

Average Average Maximum Minimum Daily Daily Attend- Attend-

Average Monthly Enrol-

Average Daily

Number

Attend- ance for

of

School

ment.

ance.

ance.

the Year.

Days.

1234 10 30 1

American Board Mission Bridges Street, (Boys),

56

46

52.33

42.26

51.36

48.12

247

"1

Queen's Road West (Boys),

42

29

40.00

27.66

37.45

35.55

254

19

Háwan (Girls),

33

22

29.44

17.96

31.09

26.05

270

"}

Chungwan (Girls),

36

22.

31.73

17.80

32.63

27.44

263

"1

Yaumati (Girls),

32

16

29.37

9.46

27.36

24.80

244

Basel Mission, Shamshuipo (Boys),

26

23

22.92

12,91

24.60

20.42

241

7

9

10

11

12

"

13

??

Shaukiwan (Boys),

62

45

56.30

25.36

59.18

49.18

261

Tokwawan (Boys).

39

27

33.26

24.55

34.70

27.26

241

#

31

Matauchung (Boys),.

24

16

19.92

8.00

21.70

15.44

243

Mongkok (Boys),

34

21.

25.53

13.66

23.20

18.91

193

Berlin Ladies Mission, Queen's Road West (Boys),

14 C.M.S., St. Stephen's Chinese School (Boys),

44

30

41.53

19.19

40.40

34.90

249

Mongkoktsui (Boys),

41

33

34.22

24.00

37.33

29.69

212

Tsat-tszmui (Boys),.......

26

16

23.31

11.77

22.45

18.72

255

72

49

59.69

:

46.24

58.90

52.04

276

15

"

No. 2 (Boys),

52

33

50.96

30.06

43.18

41.58

256

16

19

Pottinger Street (Boys),

82

42

74.46

39.88

67.83

63.90

265

17

"

Saiyingpun (Boys),

54

38

16.88

30.40

17.91

40.90

256

18

St. Stephen's Baxter Memorial (Girls),

38

20

33.77

20.00

30.85

27.88

272

19

Lyndhurst Terrace (Girls),

26

13

25.04

10.37

22.58

20.83

275

20

Third Street (Girls),

38

26

28.04

17.50

33.27

24.37

272

21

"

Yaumati (Mixed),

40

27

31.16

29.33

31.00

26.60

276

22

Hunghòm (Girls),

21

16

18.20

9.14

19.81

16.17

263

23

Quarry Bay (Girls),

24

10

18.69

8.77

19.50

15.04

271

24

""

Little Hongkong (Boys),.

22

16.16

2.00

16.66

11.29

262

25

Aberdeen School (Boys),

32

20

26.23

13.05

28.09

21.21

245

26 F.E.S., Bonham Road, Chinese Division (Girls),

31

23

27.18

21.33

28.45

25.91

207

27

High Street (Girls),

32

23

27.00

11.33

28.27

21.43

258

28

"

Queen's Road West (Girls),.

33

13

29.23

13.00

27.08

24.40

272

29

Shektong-tsui (Girls),

10

9.11

4.68

9.18

7.70

254

30

31

:)

32

33

Pottinger Street (Girls),

Shaukiwan (Girls),

Tokwawan (Girls),

34 L.M.S., Square Street (Boys),

Wantsai Chapel (Boys),

Yaumati (Boys),

Shektong-tsui (Boys),

Saiyingpun, I. Division (Boys),

24

15

20.53

7.04

20.36

16.46

251

Stanley School (Girls),

38

28

35.70

20.94

32.91

26.76

258

31

25

24.33

16.00

26.83

21.19

265

16

19.81

14.31

18.90

17.22

263

71

52

64.19

12.35

60.63

55.16

251

CATHE

Matauwai (Boys),

Chinese Street (Girls),

35

""

36

""

37

19

38

""

39

II.

*

"

(Boys),

40

Hunghom (Boys),

41

"

Hospital Chapel (Boys),

42

Shektong-tsui (Girls),

43

44

"?

45

99

Ui-bing Lane, I. "Division (Girls),

46

II.

13

(Girls),

47

**

48

"

49

"

50

"1

51

52

53

55

56

68

59

60.81

46.08

63.36

56.36

247

62

41

52.26

26.93

58.27

46.54

242

48

14

38.59

8.11

42.72

30.93

233

59

42

52.08

29.33

53.63

45.17

251

58

44

46.13

32.43

52.45

42.58

252

31

23.81

7.46

21.45

16.94

223

48

36

41.11

23.77

43.80

38.52

235

12

8

11.54

1.02

12.41

10.16

284

Saiyingpun, Second Street, I. Division (Girls),

II.

34

وو

(Boys),

79

44

44

""

Tanglungchau No. 1 (Boys),

No. 2 (Boys),

Shaukiwan (Boys), Taikoktsui (Boys).. Square Street (Girls),

Li Yuen Street (Girls),.

D'Aguilar Strect (Girls),

Third Street (Boys),

37

39

21

53

38

59

30

47

28

11

11

29

24

HERRERS

24

30.55

19.11

30.09

24.60

204

58

60.03

32.00

67.81

48.89

226

28

41.78

20.58

40.80

37.12

244

36

41.92

31.00

42.54

40.09

242

29

34.63

23.16

33.72

28.80

266

30.70

16.53

32.41

26.73

259

80

51.03

27,50

46.90

41.71

259

23

36.28

20.27

35.36

33.03

253

47

51.00

83.47

53.53

42.61

255

23

29.52

21.43

26.36

25.22

255

29

39.73

28.26

42.00

34.95

268

25.07

9.00

25.36

20.11

244

38,15

23.00

$7.90

34.14

264

16

20.69

13.68

21.54

19.08

259

Carried forward,...

2,271

1,501

1,977.62 1,136.69

2,003.05 1,692.80

382

ENROLMENT, ATTENDANCE and NUMBER of SCHOOL DAYS at the GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS,--Continued.

No.

Name of Schools.

Maxiuum Minimum Monthly Monthly Enrol Eurol-

ment.

ment.

Average Average Maximum Minimum Daily Daily Attend- Attend-

ance.

Average Monthly Enrol- ment.

Average Daily Attend-

Number

of

School

ance.

ance for the Year.

Days.

Brought forward,

2,271

1,501

1,977.62

1,136.69

2,003.03

1,692.80

57

L.M.S., Kau-u-fong (Girls),

66

23

62.08

26.10

56.33

53.08

285

58

"

Tanglungchau (Girls),

18

15

15.88

11.03

15.75

13.69

279

59

Aberdeen Street (Girls),

40

23

34.84

21.62

36.81

30.31

272

60

Wantsai Chapel (Girls),

83

51

63.76

38.37

67.45

48.58

269

61

63

Staunton Street (Girls), Taihang (Girls)..

R.C.M., Cathedral School (Boys),

22

11

18.63

8.28

16.66

14.36

274

24

16

20.00

11.00

18.05

16.00

212

30

12

28.39

11.66

25.91

25.58

259

64

>

65

:)

66

་་

Bridges Street, Chinese Division (Girls),. Hollywood Road, Chinese School (Girls), Holy Infancy School, I. Division (Boys),.

39

29

36.80

27.00

35.83

32.13

260

56

33

53.16

27.57

48.00

42.47

257

24

13

20.91

9.48

20.75

17.19

258

67

II.

**

22

(Girls),

52

31

50.76

27.40

45.50

39.83

271

68

Yaumati (Girls),

55

24

45.43

20.82

41.83

34.72

285

69

Shaukiwan (Girls),

43

30

37.83

21.05

39.75

33.60

266

70

Hunghòm (Girls),..

45

21

41.37

19.14

38.00

31.70

271

71

17

Italian Convent, Chinese School (Girls),

56

53

55.65

51.10

55.16

53.88

268

72

"1

Sacred Heart School, Chinese Division (Girls),

36

21

30.92

20.25

32.16

28.03

260

73

Wesleyan Mission, Spring Gardens (Boys),

42

18

35.80

8.08

37.72

30.07

247

74

Wellington Street (Boys),

95

64

93.05

44.66

$1.72

72.87

248

75

"

(Girls),

46

31

42.42

21.27

37.81

34.11

251

76

"?

Lascar Row (Boys),

50

33

45.80

23.26

43.90

36.81

249

77

"

19

"

(Girls),

25

13

22.70

10.50

22.09

19.36

245

78

79

Wantsai (Boys),

Graham Street (Girls),.

55

39

46.96

25.20

18.63

41.94

246

41

28

37.12

23.28

38.08

34.81

273

80

Kennedy Town (Boys),

31

18

27.57

14.26

28.10

24.07

255

81

Basel Mission, High Street,

80

65

70.20

56.72

70.36

61.98

260

82

Berlin Mission (Girls),

26

25

25.23

22.00

25.54

23.85

262

83

C.M.S., Victoria Home and Orphanage (Girls),

17

39

45.11

38.03

41.20

39.95

248

84

85

St. Stephen's Anglo-Chinese School (Boys), Morrison English School (Boys),

72

55

65.60

45.19

64.00

57.81

257

64

35

49.76

20.90

50.00

40.49

234

86

Wesleyan Mission, Lyndhurst Terrace, Eng. Sch. (Boys),

49

28

45.63

21.25

42.54

37.29

247

87

St. Paul's College School (Boys),

48

20

45.95

19.25

£0.90

39.12

239

88

Diocesan Home and Orphanage (Boys),

124

83

108.77

72.72

111.25

100.46

244

89

F.E.S., Bonham Road, English Division (Girls),

28

24

26.62

17.63

27.00

24.91

230

20

L.M.S., Taipingshan English School (Boys),

43

29

37.05

24.76

37.81

32.92

230

91

Lok-Ying English School (Boys),..

30

20

29.00

17.96

26.77

25.65

202

92

R.C.M., St. Joseph's College, Chinese Division (Boys),...

38

20

35.47

14.70

30.58

28.70

216

93

19

European Division (Boys),.

214

180

197.44

170.33

202.45

187.97

223

94

"

Italian Convent, English Division (Girls),

190

171

174.27

116.23

180.06

158,87

226

95

11

>>

Portuguese Division (Girls),

68

48

56.38

38.00

56.90

48.95

226

96

Bridges Street, English Division (Girls),

17

97

11

$5

Portuguese Division (Girls),

55

98

19

Nova Escola Portugueza (Girls),

26

21

99

"

100

Sacred Heart School, English Division (Girls), St. Francis, Portuguese Division (Girls),..

18

21

101

"

English Division (Girls),

28

23

102

**

Victoria Portuguese School, Port. Div. (Mixed),.

20

103

>>

Eng. Dir. (Mixed),.

25

105 106

104 Victoria English School (Boys)," (Girls), British Kowloon School (Mixed),

106

56

37

21

******

13

15.68

9.80

15.25

12.68

273

39

53.16

25.07

49,75

41.33

273

24.40

11.90

25.00

21.18

249

14

14.45

10.17

15.81

12.83

223

13

21.00

8.44

16.66

14.28

258

25.16

17.21

26.25

21.82

257

16.22

8.47

15.50

12.77

227

21.94

6.20

21.25

18.65

227

99.80

76.88

97.00

87.82

257

40

52.70

37.47

19.08

46.07

257

29.69

16.66

31.08

25.24

770

Total,..

4,856

3,256

4,298.04

2,612.00 4,285.59

3,736.91

:

TABLE X.-RESULTS of the EXAMINATION of the GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS

Ordinary Subjects.

Stand. II.

Stand. III.

Stand. IV.

Stand. V.

NAME OF SCHOOL.

Class of School.

1.- American Board Mission, Bridges Street, (Boys).

44

41

8

11

2.-

3.-

4.-.

5.-

Queen's Road West, (Boys)

36

34

5

15

""

19

19

91

Hawan, (Girls), .

25

25

6

4

Chungwan, (Girls),

23

21

5

1

29

29

15

Yaumati, (Girls),

24

24

10

3

6. Basel Mission, Shamsluipo, (Boys),

I

59

59

43

8

7.

**

Shaukiwan, (Boys),.

I

27

27

7

11

8.-

55

Tokwawan, (Boys),..

I

16

16

7

9.- 10.-

>

"

Matauchung, (Boys),

I

17

14

9

M

"

12,

13.--

喃喃

·

55

15.-

"

16.

#

Mongkok, (Boys), ..

11.-Berlin Ladies Mission, Queen's Road West, (Boys),

14.-C. M. S., St. Stephen's Chinese School, (Boys),

Pottinger Street, (Boys),

34

30

10

10

8

Mongkoktsui, (Boys),

35

33

11 8

6

Tsat-tszmui, (Boys),.

20

19

3

6

3

46

46

10

17

36

34

20

10

No. 2, (Boys),

62

60

18

29

11

40

39

9

16

17.-

Saiyingpun, (Boys),

18.

St. Stephen's Baxter Memorial, (Girls),

26

24

11

9

2

19.- 20.- 21.

"

Lyndhurst Terrace, (Girls),.

23

22

8

4

2

25

25

5

11

6

Third Street, (Girls),

19

32

32

Yaumati, (Mixed),

18

17

3

22.

Hunghom. (Girls),

19

18

5

23.-

"

Quarry Bay, (Girls), ·

15

13

2

24.

"1

Little Hongkong, (Boys).

25

25

9

25.-

Aberdeen School, (Boys),

27.-

28. 29. 30.-

"

"1

19

31.-

43

32.-

11

33.-

*

35

**

36.-

11

Yaumati, (Boys),

37.-

11

38.

34

26.-F. E. S., Bonham Road. Chinese Division, (Girls),

High Street, (Girls),

Shektongtsui, (Girls),..

Pottinger Street, (Girls),

Stanley School, (Girls),

Shaukiwán, (Girls), Tokwawan, (Girls), .

34.-L. M. S., Square Street, (Boys),

Wantsai Chapel, (Boys),

Shektongtsui, (Boys),

Sairingpun I. Division, (Boys),

I

26

26

I

25

22

Queen's Road West. (Girls),.

I

22

21

11

9

9

16

15

I

29

29

10

MAN: Cmime

***

11524∞∞ONO

4852980 00 — 03 —

::

10

8

:::

GWALE: FEL:::::al E:::::

::::::::::::::*::::~

10

No. of Scholars Presented.

No. of Scholars Examined.

Stand. I.

Stand. II.

Stand. III.

Stand. IV.

Stand. V.

Stand. VI.

Stand. VII.

Stand. I.

Stand. II.

Stand. III.

::

Stand. IV.

::::

Stand. V.

:::::::

Stand. VI.

Stand. VII.

7217

Stand. I.

Ordinary Subjects.

Special Subjects.

NUMBER OF SCHOLARS Who Passed.

13

35

11

11

15

7

17

3

5

4

26

26

5

6

:

17

17

4 4

50

47

12

13 21

2

65

61

22

20 2:1

18

55

50

9

15 14

45

43

8

9

19

52

51

9

13 21

49

45

13

5

3

12

16 14

39.

II.

(Boys),

19

15

15

3

11

40.-

重要

Hunghom, (Boys),

42 42

6

10 21

41.-

"

Hospital Chapel, (Boys),

42.

43.

44.

59

45.-

*1

46.

*

35

47.

19

48.

11

49.

"

Shektongtsui, (Girls),.

Saiyingpun, Second Street, I. Division, (Girls),

Ui-hing Lane, I. Division (Girls),

II.

Tanglungchau, No. 1 (Boys),

H

No. 2 (Boys),

Shaukiwan, (Boys),

12

11

1

5 4

26

25

5

2 4

3

II.

(Boys),

62

58

16

11 19

4

15

37

37

7

16 5

9

13

(Girls),

40

37

13

6

30

28

8 10

37

36

9

14 12

21

51

45

9

23 10

38

36

12

50.

99

Taikoktsui, (Boys),

51.

#

Square Street, (Girls),

50 50

18

2*

11 11

:::::::::::::::::

16 1 4

21

22

21

7

4

2

3

52.

Li-yuen Street. (Girls).

41

53.

"

D'Aguilar Street, (Girls),

40

3 11

11

6

I

28

28

8

7 10

54.-

"

Matauwai, (Boys),

I

34

32

6

10

14

2

55.

"

Third Street, (Boys),

56.

55

Chinese Street, (Girls),

I

21

20

7

શ્ર

7

2

57.

"

58.- 59.- 60.-

"

Kau-ü-fong, (Girls),

Tanglungchan, (Girls),

Aberdeen Street. (Girls),

I

49

12 47

13

5

I

16

16

3

6

1

36

36

6

8

12

20

"

Wantsai Chapel, (Girls),

I

53

51

23

13

20

15

15

7 3

61.-

Staunton Street, (Girls),

62.-

11

Taihang, (Girls),

63.-R. C. Mission, Cathedral School, (Boys).

21

21

5

64.-

31

65.-

11

66.- 67.- 68.- 69.- 70.-

Bridges Street, Chinese Division, (Girls), Hollywood Road, Chinese School. (Girls). Holy Infancy School, I. Division, (Boys),

30

28

12

5

39

39

11

10

10

5

II.

59

Yaumati, "(Girls),

35

(Girls),

33

33

27

27

17

30

29

5

Shaukiwan, (Girls),

**

Hunghom, (Girls),

29

29

12

71.-

"

72.-

Italian Convent, Chinese School, (Girls),.. Sacred Heart School Chinese Div., (Girls),

46

46

6

7

24

21

14

73.--Wesleyan Mission, Spring Gardens, (Boys)................

I

36

34

6

17

22

74.-

Wellington Street, (Boys)..

I 64

60

15

75.

(Girls),

28

27

10 9 5

"

76.

Lascar Row (Boys),.

I

38

38

3

7 18

CO7ND NO LO MA

• 1× 10 10 00

12

11

6

15

9

13

5

7

11

10

31

G

10

77.

"

15

Lascar Row (Girls),

23

23

5

11 7

78.

"

Wantsai, (Boys),

49

47

25

79.

"

"

80.

"

81.--

85.--

وو

Graham Street, (Girls),

81.-Basel Mission, High Street, (Girls),

82.-Berlin Mission, (Girls),

83.-C. M. S. Victoria Home and Orphanage, (Girls),

St. Stephen's Anglo-Chinese, (Boys),

Morrison English School, (Boys),..

86.-Wesleyan Mission, Lyndhurst Terrace, Eng. Sch., (Boys),. 87.-St. Paul's College School (Boys)...

35

33

15

Kennedy Town, (Boys),

I

29

29

10

10

020

11 9

II 63

62

2+

II 26

26

3

II 38 38

1

10

III 57

55

36

3

HI 29

26

17

III 35

31

26

III

33

30

16

6

88.-Diocesan Home and Orphanage, (Boys),

III 85

82

7

13 13 15

89.-F. E. S. Bonham Road, English Division, (Girls), 90.-L. M. S. Talpingshan, English School, (Boys),..

III

2 24 24

5

III

32

31

21

91.-

>>

Lok-ying,

(Boys),..

III

20

20

5

92.-R. C. M., St. Joseph's College, Chinese Division, (Boys),

III 30

30

18

4241

: : : : : : :05:

+

1

13

3

62 ::

5

93.- 31-4.-

1

(Boys), European Italian Convent, English Division, (Girls),..

III

179

177

24

29

32 27

HI 125

25 124

26

15

20 24 18 13

95..

55

96.

Portuguese Division, (Girls), Bridges Street, English Division, (Girls),

III

41

39

16

15

III

14

14

2

5

97.

"

DR.

"

Portuguese Division, (Girls),. Nova Escola Portugueza, (Girls),

III 35

35

20

9

II 22

21

9

99.-

11

100.- 101.- 102,-

"

Sacred Heart School English Division, (Girls), St. Francis, Portuguese Division, (Girls),

8

2

III 11

11

5

English

")

(Girls),

III

21

21

9

:::::::::::::::::::::

40

29 19

2

56 21

:::::::

::::::::::::::::::

30

46

50

:::::::::::::::::::

103.-

19

104.- 105.- 106.--British Kowloon School (Mixed),

13

*

"

+

Victoria Port. School, Port. Division, (Mixed),..

Eng. Division, (Mixed),. English School, (Boys), (Girls),

III 17

17

10

:

III

21

21

III 63

63

10

III 36

36

III 20

19

6

•4342

19 31

9

36

25

15 12 2

12:

::::

-

2

Stand. VI.

NUMBER OF SCHOLARS WHO FA

Stand. VII.

Stand. I.

Stand. II.

2

: : : : :* :* : : : : :* :* :~:::::::::*::::::*

::::

5

6

ខ 2

4

4

4

18

:::::27: : :*

:::::::::::::::

45

::

2

::::::::::::*

10

::

1

: : : : : : : : : :HAN : :HERE ENN :* : 1H CO

16

3

3

8

10

9

6

11

2

1

2

2

: : : : : : : : :¢

1

2

::

: : : :* ::~*:*:

commi∞ no com co 201

2

::

to 00: : : :

3

2

:::::::::::::

זזז ז. י)

Spe

Ls in 1895, under the provisions of the Scheme of 19th August, 1893.

383

31

20

10 11

28

3

22

18

6

20.42

57

49 18

26

27.26

21

13

15.44

21

10

18.91

27

28

34.90

30

25

29.69

33

12

18.72

43

18

52.01 30

33

16

18

41.58

59

46

6

63.90 54

34

40.90

23

2

27.88 33

18

20.83 24

24

1

21

1

24.37 15 41

24

8

6 11

26.60 27 20

16

10 1

16.17

11

7

15.04 15 20

10

11.29 6

25

21.21 27

25

25 1 25.91

9

22

21.43

21

24.40

21

9

7.70

18

12

3

16.46

12

24

5

3 15

26.76 18 40

20

6

21.19 15 24

17

47

2 45

17.22 55.16 36 52

18

62

2 35

56.36

39

11

46.54

36

7

30.93

44

7

20 20 45.17 27 52 126

44

1

19

12 42.58 39

14

1

36.91

9

37

5

10

10.16

3

14

11

5

8

24.60

15

10

50

8 17

17

48.49

37

13 2

26

11

25

3

10

18

2

35

1

31

5

42

3

46.90

27

34.

2

33.03 36

40

10

26

13

42.61

54

19

2

25.22

21

37

3

31.95

9

25

20.11

30

10 16

4.14

18

16

1

17 19.08

21

40

24

16

53.08

36

15

13.69 9

35

26 3 30.31

47

4

28

15

4 48.58 14.36

69

21

15

25.58 15

24

32.13

36

38

24

42.47

33

5

17.19

23

23

39.83

30

26

1

9

34.72 51

25

4

15

2

33.60

21

8

16

31.70

27 36

44

2

41

2

53.88

18

23

1

16

28.03

42

32

2

30.07

18

55

5

72.87

66

24

3

34.11

30

28

10

36.81

9

23

19.36

15

4.5

2

41.91

75

33

34.81

45

28

24.07 30

58

61.98 96

23

3

12

23.85

12

2

39.95

4

54

1

57.84 216

21

5

40.49 102

31

3

37.29 156

29

1

39.42

96

10

5

73

9 118

27

100.46 42

20

4

24.91

12

31

32.91

144

18

2

25.65

30

24

6

28.70 108

14

12

19

11 165

12 173

56

110

14

187.97 144 158.87 150

39

13

1

48.95 12.68

12

34

1

41.33 120

::::::::::

21

21.18 54

7

12.83 12 40

11

20 1

16

I

21

14.28 30 48 21.82 54 12.77 18.65

48

2

56

7111

14

87.52 60 48

36

38

46.07

18

19

25.24

36

MOCNICE.

48 60

::: :::** : : : :2:****

ANGN.

8

::

:::::::::::::::

NOMA: ~:: 87ggõõZANAõ?::

10

320 324 280 384 162

208 150 120 96

*J8N::::::::::::::

96 140 192 126

36

82NAAJZAÕ¤gé:

36

6

11

5

1

2

::::*:::::::*:::

:::::::::::::::::::::

Z7wmRkACC:

2123

*** : : : : :*** :* THM:::::::::*:

::::::::::9*::

::::::::::::::::::::::::

: : : : : : : : : : :&A:::

: : : : : :88: ::PER :22

37.12 21 64 30 40.09 21

52 36

28.80 21 32 60

24

66 80 120

27

60 84

24 36 114

NUN.CHE885.8808~~ENNE. OFF EEN: Ag: 8: *: : : ::: : 2-::: BRUN: ::DEX::::: 88::::::: HRKER:

***::::::*:988 : 180

14

:::::

24

40

7

56

8

8

6

14

100-

:::::::::::::

23

8351122134287311514

: : : : : :999 :222;

CANM.MON~388778A:

12

16

.00

24.80 45 36

18

48.12

24

16

35.55 15

60

26.05 18 20

27.44 15

8

Stand. III.

Stand. IV.

Stand. V.

Stand. VI.

Stand. VII.

Passed.

Failed.

Passed.

Failed.

Special Subjects.

Ordinary

Special Subjects. Subjects.

Average Daily Attendance during the Year.

Stand. I.

Stand. II.

HREINK Stand. III.

H: 88H: NJE: ~~~RE::::; &&~: _::*

::::::::::::::::::::

::: :::::::

::::::::::::::::::@ ::::: :** : ¦ ¦ ¦∞ ∞ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :*:*:*

*::::::::::::: ZZE: „¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ œ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦¦ ¦¦ ¦

::::: ::: :::::::

*:

īទ្ធី : :

1.50

7.50

.75

6.50

2.50

3.75

10.50

4.50

10.50

3,00

7

2.50

2,25 11

1.50

6.00 3.75

2

5,50 8.25

32

7.50 5.25

8.50 3.00

#A

Stand. IV.

Stand..V.

Stand. VI.

Stand. VII.

:::: Stand. I.

$

W

6A

Stand. II.

Stand. III.

Stand. IV.

Stand. V.

Ordinary Subjects.

O FAILED.

TOTALS.

SUMS TO WHICH THE SCHOOL IS ENTITLED.

Special Subjects.

Needle Work.

*::::

::::

| | | 0

Stand. VI.

Stand. VII.

Capitation Grant.

30 32

129 32

44

4.00

7,50

5.00 3.75

12

4

::

40

32

9 24

68

80

116

1.50 3.75 9.75 17.50 8.25

3.00

1.50

22.50

| | | | | | 69

:: Very Good.

Good.

: Fair.

24.06

130.06

32.51

97.55

17.77 158.77

39.69

119.08

7.50

13.02

120.52

30.13

90.39

4

6.50

13.72

67.72 16.93

50.79

4

1.50

12.40 145,40

36.35

109.05

10.21 108.71

27.17

81.54

24.59 275.59 13.63 139.3S 7.72 58.72 9.45 17.45 14.84 115.81 9.36 60.36 26.00 238.25

56.39

169.20

34.84 104.54

14.68

44.04

40.45

10.11

30.34

135.45 33.86

101.59

28.96

86.88

15.09

45.27

59.56 178.69

Total Grant earned in 1895.

Amount due to Teacher.

Amount due to Manager.

24 36

36

6.00 12

16

6.00

9

6.00 7

2.00 2.50 0.50

21 12

1.50 2.25 2,50 3.75

20.79 194.54 48.63 145.91

31.95 300.70 75.17 225.53 20.45 183.45 45.86 137.59 13.94 135.69 33.92 101.77 10.41 121.66 31.16 93.50 12.18 146.18 36.54 109.64 13.30

10.50

1 50

8.08

6

1.00

12

125,05 31.26 93.79 103.33 25.83 77.50 7.52 49.52 12.38 37.14 5.64 55.64 13.91 41.73

32

10.10

121.10 30.27 90.83

16

8 36

10 1.50

3.00

27 32

41

12

16

3.50

3.00

16

1.00 9.00

7.50

::::

61

84

44

38.52 18 40 126

20

24

8

24

24

44 48

114

26.73 27 56 72

92

44

64

6 28

8

16

24

44

66

40

24 28

40

84

28 12

52

30

1.00 6.00

4.50 6.75

24

18 32 72

24

10.00 3.75

52

18 49

10.00 6.00

12 24

8

20

30

20

36

5.50 4.50

40

42

63

7.50

6.75

12

12

36

42 14

24

6.50

7.50

8

8

20 30

18

2.50 3.50

3.00

6.00

4

18

28 54

84

48

5.50 5.00 23.25

3.75

20

14

16

3.00

7.50

36 102

72

: : : : :" : : :~: :EN :::*::::* : : : : : :-* :*:::::::::::::::

9

6.00

19.50

10

0.50

12.95

228.45 57.11 171,34

:::

1.50

1.50

1.50

1854532

10.71

100.71

25.17 75.54

6.00

12.20

111.20

27.80

83.40

1.00

3.85

41.35

10.33 31.02

5.00

8.23

72.23

18.05 54.18

3.00

13.28

142.38

35.59 106.79

13 3.00

10.59

125.09

31.27

93.82

0.50

8.61

90.11 22.52 67.59

27.58

250,58

62.64 187,94

28.18

317.68 79.42

238.26

23.27 201.27 50.31 15.46 189.46 47.36 142.10 22.58 253.83

150.96

63.45 190.38

21.29

227.04

56.76

170.23

8.47

61.47 15.36 46.11

19.26

203.26

50.81

152.45

0.50

5.08

56.58 14.14

42.44

12

3.50

12.30

102.30

25.57

76.73

1.50

24.44

268.19

67.04

201.15

1.50

16 5.50 212.50

18.56 226.06

56.51

169.55

20.04 143.54

35 88

107.66

14.40 133.65

33.41

100.24

187,36

1

6.00

12.00

12 9.50 3 4.00 11 8.50

13.36 23.45 202.45 50.61 151.84 16.51 162,51 40.62 121.89

223.30 21 30

55.82 167.4S 12.61 113.61 28.40 17.48 258.98 64.74

46.84

140,52

85.21

194.24

10.05 122.05

30.51

91.54

..

17.07 166.07

41.51

124,56

1

3.50

27.00

18

1.00

6

12 2.00

10.50 15

3.00

9.00

3.00

21.00

15

3.00

7.50

16.50

1.50 10

36

12.00

28

108

41

10 4.50

36

8

6.00 20

40

102

1.50 23

48

24

50

14 21.00

42 64 90

50

44 12

21.00

16

88

30

24

:: _: &: E: M: : 26: 30 Pa

5.50

9.54 76.04 19.01 57.03 26.5: 6.84 15.15

14

16.00

24.29

7

2.50

284.79 71.19 213.60 94.84 23.71 71.13 248.90 62.22 186.68 267.29 66.82 200.47 7.18 84.68 21.17 63.51

15

3,50

16

8.00

21.23

152.56 249.45

12,79 77.79 19.44 58.35 16.06

38.14

114.42

62.37

187.11

8.59 32.59

8.14

24.45

1.00

19.91

234.91

58.72

176.19

11

5.00

17.36 151,86

37.96 113.90

0.50

10

4.50

29

3 00

0.50

15.03

10

4.50

32.12 96.39 171.03 42.75 128.28 36.43 264,43 66.10 198.33 17.05 139.55 34.88 104.67 18.40

16.80 163,30 40.82 122.48 15.85 133.60

33.40 100.20 26.94 371,69 92.92 278.77 14.01 128,51

5.00

4.00

163,40 40.85 122.55 9.€8 130,18 32.54 97.64

197,97 20.97

49.49 148.48 17.40 209,40 52.35 157.05

12.03 130,03

32.50

4.00

46.48

423,98 105.99

97.53 317.99

7

17.88

246.88

61.72 185.16

3 50

29.96 376.46

282.35 94.11

57.84

439,84 109.96

329.88

40.49

180.49

45.12

135.37

40

37.29

233 29

58.32 174.97

84 16

39.42 295-42

73.85

221,57

48

130 156 210

208

108

30

80 87

100.46 1,275.46

318.86

956.60

40

48

36

25.50 5

0.50

24.91 279.91

69.97

209.94

40

20

72

232

46

100 168

96 252 208

90

40

72

48

48

56

19

40

72 112

96 36

9

188

62 108 100

30

36 8

| ∞ | | | | | | ||

$4

97.50 42 10.50

9.00

10.50 14 1:00

4.50

4.50 3

9.00

5: wi au FAR

8.00

23 4.00

32.94 236.94 25.65 167.65 28.70 206.70 187.97 2,431.97 158.87 1,460.37 48.95 382.45

59.23

177.71

41.91 125.74

51.67 155.03

607.99 1,823.98

365.09 1,095.28

95.61

286.84

4

12,68 137.68 34.42

103.26

69.33

6.00 6 0.50

41.33 308.83 21.18 183.18 12.83 14.28 99.78 21.94 74.84 21.82 186.32 46.58 139.74 12.77 120.77 30.19 18.65 195.15 87.82 1,068 82

77.20

231.63

45.79

137.39

17.33

52.00

90.58

48.91 146.74

267.20

801.62

25

2 50

24

14

48

46.07 599.37 25.24

149.9

449.68

:

215.24

53.8L 161.43

TOTAL,..

-$24,249.64 6,062.02 18,187.62

7

TABLE XI.—PERCENTAGE of SCHOLARS who passed in the GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS during the last two Fears.

385

No.

Name of Schools.

1894.

1895.

Increase.

Decrease.

1 American Board Mission, Bridges Street (Boys),

87.50

56.09

31.41

2

39

""

Queen's Road West (Boys),

84.00

91.17

7.17

*

17

Háwan (Girls),

95.23

80.00

15.23

""

Chungwan (Girls),

47.61

""

""

Yaumati (Girls),

96.55

....

6

Basel Mission, Shamshuipo (Boys),

77.27

91.66

11.39

7

"

""

8

""

>>

Shaukiwan (Boys), Tokwawan (Boys),

100.00

96.61

....

3.39

95.45

96.29

.81

9

""

Matauchung (Boys),

91.66

81.25

10.41

10

55

Mongkok (Boys),.

71.44

11

12

"

13

"

14

15

33

16

""

17

Berlin Ladies Mission, Queen's Road West (Boys),

C.M.S., St. Stephen's Chinese School (Boys),

Pottinger Street (Boys),

Salyingpun (Boys),

94.11

93.33

Mongkoktsui (Boys),

75.75

Tsatszmui (Boys),

63.15

91.66

93.47

1.81

No. 2 (Boys),

94.73

97.05

2.32

100.00

98.33

1.67

96.87

87.18

9.69

18

St. Stephen's Baxter Memorial (Girls),

100.00

95.83

4.17

19

Lyndhurst Terrace (Girls),.

100.00

$1.81

18.19

20

""

Third Street (Girls),

96.55

96.00

.55

21

29

Yaumati (Mixed),

96.53

75.00

21.53

22

""

Hunghòm (Girls),

68.75

94.11

25.36

23

""

Quarry Bay (Girls),

100.00

61.11

38.89

24

1

Little Hongkong (Boys),

27.27

76.92

49.65

25

99

Aberdeen School (Boys),

96.15

100.00

3.85

26

F.E.S., Bonham Road, Chinese Division (Girls),

96.42

96.15

.27

27

28

29

وو

30

""

Pottinger Street (Girls),

31

""

32

""

33

59

34

35

""

36

37

""

38

""

High Street (Girls),

Shektongtsui (Girls),

Stanley School (Girls), Shaukiwan (Girls), Tokwawan (Girls),

L.M.S., Square Street (Boys),

Wantsai Chapel (Boys), Yaumati (Boys),

Shektongtsui (Boys),

Saiyingpun, I. Division (Boys),

100.00

100.00

Queen's Road West, (Girls),

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

81.81

80.00

1.81

71.87

82.75

10.88

80.00

76.92

3.08

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

96.22

96.87

.65

83.92

78.00

5.92

96.00

83.72

12.28

78.68

86.27

7.59

39

II.

""

">

25

(Boys),

89.74

97.77

8.03

40

Hunghòm (Boys),

83.87

93.33

9.46

41

42

Shektongtsui (Girls),

43

44

45

46

II.

وو

47

25

48

49

50

35

Taikoktsui (Boys),

51

""

52

""

53

""

54

>>

55

56

57

58

59

60

""

61

29

62

""

63

>>

Hospital Chapel (Boys),.

Saiyingpun, Second Street, I. Div. (Girls),.

Ui-hing Lanc, I. Division (Girls),

Tanglungchau, No. 1 (Boys),

No. 2 (Boys),

Shaukiwan (Boys),

Square Street (Girls),. Li-yuen Street (Girls),

D'Aguilar Street (Girls),

Matauwai (Boys), Third Street (Boys), Chinese Street (Girls), Kau-ü-fong (Girls), Tanglungchau (Girls), Aberdeen Street (Girls), Wantsai Chapel (Girls), Staunton Street (Girls),. Taihang (Girls),

R.C.M., Cathedral School (Boys),

08.18

88.09

9.91

100.00

90.90

9.10

91.66

56.00

35.66

و,

II.

"

(Boys),.

80.75

$6.20

5.45

....

95.74

100.00

4.26

""

(Girls),

83.33

70.27

13.06

80.33

89.28

8.95

100.00

97.22

2.78

91.11

93.33

2.22

80.76

94.44

13.68

81.48

80.00

1.48

100.00

90.47

9.53

97.67

92.50

5.17

55.88

89.28

33.40

93.75

80.00

84.00

85.10

1.10

100.00

93.75

6.25

100.00

97.22

2.78

88.52

92.15

3.63

100.00

100.00

86.36

93.33

71.42

21.91

64

""

65

66

Bridges Street, Chinese Division (Girls), Hollywood Road, Chinese School (Girls), Holy Infancy School, I. Division (Boys),

87.23

85.71

1.52

83.01

97.33

14.32

77.77

100.00

22.23

67

II.

"

(Girls),

83.33

100.00

16.67

68

"

Yaumati (Girls), .

86.95

96.29

9.34

69

Shaukiwau (Girls),

97.86

86.20

11.16

70

>>

Hunghòm (Girls),

98.38

72.41

25.96

71

Italian Convent, Chinese School (Girls),,

95.65

72

Sacred Heart School, Chinese Div. (Girls),

95.83

73

Wesleyan Mission, Spring Gardens (Boys),

94.41

94.11

.33

74

35

Wellington Street (Boys),

89.74

92.50

2.76

75

""

>>

(Girls),

93.75

88.88

4.87

76

12

A

>>

Lascar Row (Boys),

100.00

73.68

26.32

Class

of

School.

No.

386

Name of Schools.

TABLE XI-PERCENTAGE of SCHOLARS who passed in the GRANT-IN-AID Schools,--Continued.

1894.

1895.

Increase.

Decrease.

77

Wesleyan Mission, Lascar Row (Girls),

92.30

100.00

7.70

78

""

Wantsai (Boys),

97.14

95.74

1.40

79

>>

"

Graham Street (Girls),

$9.66

100.00

10.34

80

"

81

82

Berlin Mission (Girls), .

83

84

""

85

39

77

Basel Mission, High Street,.

C.M.S., Victoria Home and Orphanage (Girls),

Morrison English School (Boys),

Kennedy Town (Boys),

91.30

96.55

5.25

100.00

93.51

6.46

96.15

88.46

7.69

80.95

94.73

13.78

St. Stephen's Anglo-Chinese (Boys),

97.22

98.13

.96

100.00

80.76

19.24

86

87

W.M., Lyndhurst Terrace. English School (Boys), St. Paul's College School (Boys),

100.00

91.17

8.83

90.90

96.66

5.76

88

89

Diocesan Home and Orphanage (Boys),.

90 L.M.S., Taipingshan English School (Boys),.

97.55

89.02

8.53

F.E.S., Bonham Road, English Division (Girls),

93.75

83.33

10.42

88.88

100.00

11.12

91

""

Lokying English School (Boys),

70.00

90.00

20.00

92 R.C.M., St. Joseph's College, Chinese Division (Boys), .

80.95

80.00

.95

93

European Division (Boys),

94.83

92.65

2.18

94

""

95

96

97

98

27

99

100

"

101

25

21

Italian Convent, English Division (Girls),..

""

Bridges Street, English Division (Girls),

"

Nova Escola Portugueza (Girls),

Sacred Heart School, English Division (Girls), . St. Francis, Portuguese Division (Girls),

English Division (Girls),

96.15

88.70

7.45

Portugnese Division (Girls),

95.65

100.00

4.35

84.84

92.85

8.01

Portuguese Division (Girls),

88.57

97.14

8.57

91.30

100.00

9.70

....

87.50

100.00

100.00

86.66

95.23

8.57

102

**

103

"

""

Victoria Portuguese School, Port. Div. (Mixed), Eng. Div. (Mixed),

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

104

Victoria English School (Boys),

83.33

88.88

5.55

105

""

(Girls),

95.23

100.00

4.77

106

...

100.00

Name of Schools.

British Kowloon School (Mixed),

TABLE XII-PERCENTAGE of PASSES in the various subjects in which the GRANT-IN-AID SCHOOLS were examined in 1895.

Reading.

Writing

position.

or Com-

Arith-

metic.

Gram-

mar.

Geogra-

phy.

Elemen-

tary

Science.

History.

Repeti-

tion.

(Chinese.)

Expla-

nation.

(Chinese.)

Compo-

sition.

(Chinese.)

I.

American Board Mission, Bridges Street (Boys),

""

""

17

Queen's Rd. West (Boys);

92.85 59.52 97.05 91.17

100.00

94.44

100.00 100.00

**

"

27

Háwan (Girls),

100,00 80.00

100.00

100.00 100.00

#

""

""

Chungwan (Girls),

71.45 47.61

100.00

100.00 100.00

"

>

#

Yaumati (Girls),

96.55 100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00

99

Basel Mission, Shamshuipo (Boys),

100.00 91.66

75.00

100.00

100.00 Failed

"

22

**

Shaukiwán (Boys),

98.30 98.30

100.00

""

Tokwawan (Boys),

96.29 100.00 68.09

100.00

"

";

>>

"Matauchung (Boys),

87.50 87.50

100.00 100.00 Failed 100.00 100.00 100.00

33.33

**

"}

":

99

ور

"

22

""

11

"

"

""

"3

"

Mongkok (Boys),

Berlin Ladies Mission, Queen's Road West (Boys),

C.M.S., St. Stephen's Chinese School (Boys),

Pottinger Street (Boys),

Saiyingpun (Boys),

Lyndhurst Terrace (Girls),.

78.59 85.71

...

100.00 93.33

Mongkoktsui (Boys),

87.87 78.77

100.00

100.00 100.00

100.00 100.00

...

Tsat-tszmui (Boys),

100.00 63.15

100.00 93.47 69.56

100.00

No. 2 (Boys),

100.00 97.05

61.29

100.00

100.00 98.33 88.46

100.00 85.71 100.00 100.00 50.00 100.00 100.00 66.66 100.00 100.00 | Failed

97.43 89.74

100.00 100.00

...

St. Stephen's Baxter Memorial (Girls),

100.00 91.66 91.66

100.00

100.00 100.00

100.00 81.81

100.00

100.00 100.00

"1

Third Street (Girls),

100.00 96.00 95.23

100.00

100.00

Failed

#9

Yaumati (Mixed),.

90.63 84.37 31.25

93.75 100.00 100.00

"

13

Hunghòm (Girls),

100.00 94.11

100.00

100.00 100.00

""

19

Quarry Bay (Girls),

94.44 66.66

100.00 100.00

"?

"

Little Hongkong (Boys),

100.00 53.84

100.00

100.00 85.71

50.00

Aberdeen School (Boys),.

100.00 100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00

F.E.S., Bonham Road, Chinese Division (Girls),

100.00 95.76

100.00

100.00 100.00 100.00

High Street (Girls),

100.00 100.00

100.00 100.00

21

9:

;"

Queen's Road West (Girls),

100.00 100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00

+1

Shektongtsui (Girls),

100.00 100.00

100.00

19

وو

"

19

"

"

99

13

99

""

"1

Pottinger Street (Girls),

Stanley School (Girls),

Shaukiwan (Girls),

Tokwawan (Girls),

L.M.S., Square Street (Boys),

Wantsai Chapel (Boys), Yaumati (Boys),

Shektongtsui (Boys),

Saiyingpun, I. Division (Boys),

100,00 73.33

100.00

100.00 100.00

***

100.00

79.31

100.00

100.00 90.90

100.00 76.92

Failed

100.00 100.00

100.00 94.11

100.00

100.00 100.00

100.00 100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00 100.00

100.00 98.46 100.00

100.00

100.00

96.00

80.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

83.72

100.00

· 95.23 100.00 100.00

100.00 87.85 39.39

100.00 100.00 Failed

II.

99

""

19

51

(Boys),

""

Hunghòm (Boys).

"

Hospital Chapel (Boys),

..

Shektongtsui (Girls),

100.00 97.77 80.64

Failed

100.00 100.00 100.00

93.33 100.00

100.00

95.23 90.47

100,00

100.00 91.66

100.00 100.00

Saiyingpun, Second Street, I. Div. (Girls),..

100.00 56.00 38.46

100.00

100.00

80.00

II.

"

94.82 (Boys),....

89.65 50.00

100.00

100.00 95.76 60.00

II.

:

Ui-hing Lane, I. Division (Girls), (Girls),

100.00 97.29 86.66

100.00

100.00 100.00

94.59 70.27

100.00

100.00 100.00

1

Class

of

School.

Name of Schools.

TABLE XII-PERCENTAGE of PASSES,-Continued.

Reading.

Writing

or Com-

position.

Arith-

metic.

Gram-

mar.

Geogra-

phy.

387

#1

I.

}:

L.M.S., Tanglungchau No. 1 (Boys),

"

"

No. 2 (Boys),

Shaukiwan (Boys), Taikoktsui (Boys), Square Street (Girls),

92.85 100.00 100.00 100.00 93.33

92.85

35.71

86.11

100.00

100.00 94.44

92.00 80.00 66.66

*

19

Li Yuen Street (Girls),

100.00 85.71

83.33

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 ! Failed 100.00 100.00

100.00 100.00

98.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

+1

D'Aguilar Street (Girls),..

100.00 90.00

100.00

100.00

100.00 Failed

!!

>>

Matauwai (Boys),.

100.00 89.28

100.00

""

;"

""

19

13

་་

+

11

22

19

>

Third Street (Boys),. Chinese Street (Girls), Kau-ü-fong (Girls), Tanglungchau (Girls),.. Aberdeen Street (Girls), Wantsai Chapel (Girls),

83.75 100.00 100.00 80.00

38.46

100.00 100.00

0.55

100.00 100.00

95.74 $2.97

90.00

97.87 100.00

100.00 93.75

33.33

100.00 100.00

100.00 97.22

89.28

100.00

100.00 95.15

75.00

**

Staunton Street (Girls), Taihang (Girls),

100.00 92.15 87.50 100.00 100.00

62.50

100.00 100.00 | 100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00

39

**

R.C.M., Cathedral School (Boys),

Bridges Street, Chinese Division (Girls).... Hollywood Road, Chinese School (Girls), Holy Iufancy School, I. Division (Boys),

100.00

79.01

100.00 100.00

96.42 89.28 100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00

89.23 71.87

100.00 100.00

97.43 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

II.

(Girls),

100.00 96.96 100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00 | 100.00

17

Yaumati (Girls),

100.00 96.29 56.25

100.00

100.00 100.00 50.00

11

"

Shaukiwan (Girls),

100.00

82.72 88.23

100.00

100.00 100.00 | 100.00

32

**

Hunghòm (Girls),

100.00 68.96 88.88

100.00

100.00 100.00

31

"

"

"

"

"1

"

**

19

Italian Convent, Chinese School (Girls)...

Wesleyan Mission, Spring Gardens (Boys),

Wellington Street (Boys).

Lascar Row (Boys),

"

100.00 91.30 95.34

100.00

100.00 100.00 100.00

Sacred Heart School, Chinese Division (Girls)..

100.00 91.66 88.88

100.00

100.00 100.00

100,00 94.11

100.00 100.00

95.00 96.66

(Girls),

(Girls),

"

Wantsai (Boys),

96.29 85.18

100.00

100.00 100.00 |

97.36 100.00

..

86.84 86.84

100.00 100.00

97.87 97.87

100.00 100.00

100.00 100.00

19

""

""

ii.

III.

11

St. Stephen's Anglo-Chinese (Boys),

,,

"

St. Paul's College School (Boys),

13

"

19

12

11

"

"

17

""

"

"1

""

":

91

Graham Street (Girls),

Kennedy Town (Boys),

Basel Mission, High Street,

Berlin Mission (Girls),

C.M.S., Victoria Home and Orphanage (Girls),

Morrison English School (Boys),

Wesleyan Mission, Lyndhurst Terrace Eng. Sch. (Boys), 100.00

Diocesan Home and Orphanage (Boys),

F.E S., Bonham Road, English Division (Girls), L.M.S., Taipingshan, English School (Boys),

Lok-ying,

R.C.M., St. Joseph's College, Chinese Div. (Boys),

European Div. (Boys),

Italian Convent, English Division (Girls),

Portuguese Division (Girls),. Bridges Street, English Division (Girls),

>>

Portuguese Division (Girls),

Nova Escola Portugueza (Girls),.

Sacred Heart School, English Division (Girls), St. Francis, Portuguese Division (Girls),

English Division (Girls),

100.00 96.96

100.00

100.00 100.00

100.00 96.55

100.00 100.00

100.00 96.77 97.43

92.85

100.00

100.00

100.00 80.76 $0.76

100.00

100.00

86,66

100.00 86.84 86.84

95.45

100.00

100.00

98.18

100.00

98.18 73.07

100.00

(Boys).

100.00

71.42 100.00 100.00 93.33

85.71 97.56 89.02

97.22 100.00 100.00 93.83 83.33 $7.50 $1.25 95.23 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 85.71 100.00 95.00 85.00 100.00 | 100.00 83.33 76.66 86.66 81.81 54.54 99.49 92.09 96.04 86.06 95.08 100.00 83.87 70.16 95.89 95,95 100.00 100.00 100.00 94.87 87.17 87.50 100.00 92.85 78.57 85.71 100.00 91.66 100.00 94.23 82.85

86.66 100.00 95.28 85.71 100.00 100.00

$7.50 62.50

92.72 100.00 100.00 80,76 50.00 76.47 93.33 92.85 75.60 86.36

100.00

100.00

90.90 90.90

100,00

95.23

90.47

100.00 | 100,00

66.66

"5

39

Victoria Portuguese Sch., Port. Div. (Mixed),. Eng. Div. (Mixed),.

100.00

88.23

76.47

100.00

95.23

""

Victoria English School (Boys),

(Girls), British Kowloon School (Mixed),...................

100.00 100.00 100.00 98.41 80.95 92.06 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00| 100.00| 100.00 100.00 100.00 89.47 94.73 100.00 100.00

100.00 | 100.00

66.66

TABLE XIII-NUMBER of UNEDUCATED CHILDREN in the COLONY in the year 1895.

Estimated Number of Children of local school-age (6 to 16 years) in the Colony, in 1895:--

Boys, Girls,

......17,156 ................. 15,418

32,574

Number of Scholars in Schools of all descriptions in the Colony, in 1895:-

Boys.

Girls.

Total.

Government Schools,

1,752

380

2,132

Grant-in-Aid Schools,....

3,091

2,593

5,684

Kaifong Schools,.....

2,170

30

2,200

Private Schools,

67

453

520

10,536

Uneducated or imperfectly educated Children in the Colony, in 1895, ............22,038

E. J. EITEL, Ph. D., (Tub.),

Inspector of Schools and Head of the

Education Department.

AMENDED STATEMENT FOR 1894.

ASSETS AND LIABILITIES,

ON THE 31ST DECEMBER, 1894.

59

ASSETS.

C.

LIABILITIES.

C.

Subsidiary Coins,

5,000.00 Drafts drawn by the Crown Agents, inĮ

transit,

400,000.00

Deposit in Bank,

150,000.00 | Deposits not available,.

5,977.43

Praya Reclamation Deposit Account,

100,000.00

Balance in Bank at Current Account,.... 358,886.99.

Refund of Taxes,

4,000.00

Deposit in England at call,...........

1,157,350.99 Officers' Remittances, not yet paid,

2,480.25

Money Orders, not yet paid,..........

5,941.72

Balance in hands of Crown Agents,

26,808.73

Amount due to Post Offices, London,

Italy, France, &c.,

40,500.00

Subsidiary Coins in transit,.....

200,000.00

Pensions due to Civil Officers,

16,000.00

Arrears of Taxes,

15,138.22

Do. to ex-Police Constables,......

6,400.00.

Arrears of Crown Rent,

66,460.04

TOTAL LIABILITIES,......$

581,299.40

Advances to be recovered,.

21,592.74

Balance,

1,419,938.31

TOTAL ASSETS,......$ 2,001,237.71

$2,001,237.71

Treasury, Hongkong, 4th January, 1896.

A. M. THOMSON, Acting Colonial Treasurer.

No. 1.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

AT A MEETING HELD IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBER, HONGKONG,

On the 11th February, 1896.

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary, (JAMES HALDANE STEWART LOCKHART), Chairman. the Acting Attorney General, (HENRY EDWARD POLLOCK).

"?

""

the Acting Colonial Treasurer, (ALEXANDER MACDONALD THOMson).

;;

the Director of Public Works, (FRANCIS ALFRed Cooper).

""

the Harbour Master, (ROBERT MURRAY RUMSEY, R.N.).

35

C.S.O.

""

""

""

the Acting Captain Superintendent of Police, (WILLIAM CHARLES HOLLAND

HASTINGS, R.N.).

CATCHICK PAUL CHATER.

HO KAI, M.B., C.M.

THOMAS HENDERSON WHITEHEAD.

EMANUEL RAPHAEL BELILIOs, C.M.G.

JAMES JARDINE BELL-IRVING.

The Committee met at the request of the Colonial Secretary.

The Minutes of the last Meeting, held on the 14th December, 1895, were read and confirmed. Read the following Minute under the hand of His Excellency the Governor :—

3269 of 1895.

WILLIAM Robinson.

The Governor recommends the Council to vote a sum of Seven thousand Dollars, ($7,000), for the construction of a new Steam Launch for the Health Officer of the Port.

Government House, Hongkong, 24th January, 1896.

The Committee unanimously agreed to recommend that the vote be passed.

The Committee then adjourned.

Laid before the Legislative Council this 10th day of March, 1896.

Read and confirmed on the 2nd April, 1896.

F. J. BADELEY, Acting Clerk of Councils.

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART,

Chairman.

No. 2.

37

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

AT A MEETING HELD IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBER, HONGKONG,

On the 2nd April, 1896.

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary, (JAMES HALDANE STEWART LOCKHART), Chairman. the Acting Attorney General, (Henry Edward Pollock).

";

17

the Acting Colonial Treasurer, (Alexander MaCDONALD THOMSON).

**

the Director of Public Works, (Francis Alfred Cooper).

"1

the Harbour Master, (ROBERT MURRAY RUMSEY, R.N.).

the Acting Captain Superintendent of Police, (WILLIAM CHARLES HOLLAND

HASTINGS, R.N.).

CATCHICK PAUL CHATER.

Ho KAI, M.B., C.M.

THOMAS HENDERSON WHITEHEAD.

EMANUEL RAPHAEL BELILIOS, C.M.G.

22

JAMES JARDINE BELL-IRVING.

""

The Committee met at the request of the Colonial Secretary.

The Minutes of the last Meeting, held on the 11th February, 1896, were read and confirmed. Read the following Minute under the hand of His Excellency the Governor :-

C.S.O.

591 of 1896.

WILLIAM Robinson.

The Governor recommends the Council to re-vote the following sums:---

1. $2,215.40, being the unexpended balance of the vote of $6,000 for the erection of

the statue of Her Majesty The QUEEN.

2. $1,464.99, being the unexpended balance of the vote of $5,000 for additional

Quarters at the Central Police Station.

Government House, Hongkong, 14th March, 1896.

The Committee unanimously agreed to recommend that the above votes be passed. The Committee then adjourned.

Laid before the Legislative Council on the 8th July, 1896.

Read and confirmed on the 22nd July, 1896.

F. J. BADELEY, Acting Clerk of Councils.

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART.

Chairman.

1

No. 3.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

AT A MEETING HELD IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBER, HONGKONG,

On the 22nd July, 1896.

39

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary, (JAMES HALDANE STEWART LOCKHART), Chairman. the Acting Attorney General, (HENRY EDWARD POLLOCK).

C.S.O.

>>

??

"!

ܕ;

the Acting Colonial Treasurer, (ALEXANDER MACDONALD THOMSON).

the Director of Public Works, (FRANCIS ALFRED COOPER).

the Harbour Master, (ROBERT MURRAY RUMSEY, R.N.).

the Acting Captain Superintendent of Police, (WILLIAM CHARLES HOLLAND

HASTINGS, R.N.).

CATCHICK PAUL CHATER,

HO KAI, M.B., C.M.

THOMAS HENDERSON WHITEHEAD.

EMANUEL RAPHAEL BELILIOS, C.M.G.

#:

JAMES JARDINE BELL-IRVING.

The Committee met at the request of the Colonial Secretary.

The Minutes of the last Meeting, held on the 2nd April, 1896, were read and confirmed. Read the following Minutes under the hand of His Excellency the Governor :--

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

310 of 1896.

C.S.O.

2949 of 1895.

C.S.D.

96 of 1896.

The Governor recommends the Council to vote a sum of Ten thousand Dollars, ($10,000), for the erection of a Landing-stage at Kennedytown, in connection with the Sheep and Swine Depôts.

Government House, Hongkong, 16th July, 1896.

WILLIAM Robinson.

The Governor recommends the Council to vote a sum of One thousand and Fifty-nine Dollars and Sixty Cents, ($1,059.60), for expenses incurred in connection with the erection of the Statue of Her Majesty the QUEEN, being difference between the amount spent ($9,559.60) and the amount voted ($8,500).

Government House, Hongkong, 14th July, 1896.

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

The Governor recommends the Council to vote a sum of Ten thousand Dollars, ($10,000), for the improvement of Street Lighting.

Government House, Hongkong, 20th July, 1896.

The Cominittee unanimously agreed to recommend that all the above votes be passed.

BILL ENTITLED 66

AN ORDINANCE TO AUTHORISE THE APPROPRIATION OF A SUPPLEMENTARY SUM OF ONE MILLION TWO THOUSAND TWO HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-FIVE DOLLARS AND SEVEN CENTS TO DEFRAY THE CHARGES OF THE YEAR 1895.”

The various items in the above Bill were considered separately, and the Committee unanimously agreed to recommend that the Bill be passed by the Legislative Council.

The Committee then adjourned.

Laid before the Legislative Council on the 5th August, 1896.

Read and confirmed on the 5th August, 1896.

F. J. BADELEY, Acting Clerk of Councils.

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART,

Chairman.

No. 4.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

AT A MEETING HELD IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBER, HONGKONG,

On the 5th August, 1896.

41

PRESENT:

The Ionourable the Colonial Secretary, (JAMES HALDANE STEWART LOCKHART), Chairman. the Acting Attorney General, (HENRY EDWARD POLLOCK).

C.S.O.

the Acting Colonial Treasurer, (ALEXANDER MACDONALD THOMSON).

">

"}}

the Director of Public Works, (FRANCIS ALFRED COOPER).

29

19

""

.

""

55

the Harbour Master, (ROBERT MURRAY RUMSEY, R.N.).

the Acting Captain Superintendent of Police, (WILLIAM CHARLES HOLLAND

HASTINGS, R.N.).

CATCHICK PAUL CHATER,

Ho KAI, M.B., C.M.

THOMAS HENDERSON WHITEHEAD.

EMANUEL RAPHAEL BELILIOS, C.M.G.

JAMES JARDINE BELL-IRVING.

The Committee met at the request of the Colonial Secretary.

The Minutes of the last Meeting, held on the 22nd July, 1896, were read and confirmed. Read the following Minutes under the hand of His Excellency the Governor :—

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

1738 of 1896.

C.S.O. 1677 of 1896.

The Governor recommends the Council to vote a sum of Ten thousand Dollars, ($10,000), to cover the expenditure of the Tytam Water Works extension during the current year.

Government House, Hongkong, 31st July, 1896.

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

The Governor recommends the Council to vote the following sums to meet certain expenses in the Sanitary Department:-

For Incidental Expenses,

For Scavenging the City and Villages, For the Maintenance of Markets,

Total,....

$1,000

4,200

375

.$5,575

C.S 0.

748 of 1896.

*C.S.O.

1807 of 1896.

Government House, Hongkong, 3rd August, 1896.

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

The Governor recommends the Council to vote a sum of Five thousand Dollars, ($5,000), to cover the amount under-estimated in respect of Refunds of Revenue.

Government House, Hongkong, 4th August, 1896.

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

The Governor recommends the Council to re-vote the sum of Four hundred and Fifty-four Dollars and Thirty-seven Cents, ($451.37), for the, purchase of Conservancy Buckets.

(The above is the unexpended balance of the sum previously voted ) Government House, Hongkong, 4th August, 1896.

The Committee unanimously agreed to recommend that the above votes be passed. The Committee then adjourned.

Laid before the Legislative Council on the 5th August, 1896.

Read and confirmed on the 3rd December, 1896.

F. J. BADELEY, Arting Clerk of Councils.

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART,

Chairman.

No. 5.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

AT A MEETING HELD IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBER, HONGKONG,

On the 3rd December, 1896.

43

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary, (JAMES HALDANE STEWART LOCKHART), Chairman. His Excellency the Major-General Commanding, (Major-General WILSONE BLACK, C.B.). The Honourable the Acting Attorney General, (HENRY EDWARD POLLOCK).

the Acting Colonial Treasurer, (ALEXANDER MACDONALD THOMSON).

39

the Director of Public Works, (FRANCIS ALFRED COOPER).

??

the Harbour Master, (ROBERT MURRAY RUMSEY, R.N.).

""

"}

the Captain Superintendent of Police, (FRANCIS HENRY MAY, C.M.G.). CATCHICK PAUL CHATER.

HO KAI, M.B., C.M.

THOMAS HENDERSON WHITEHEAD.

EMANUEL RAPHAEL BELILIOS, C.M.G.

WEI YUK.

""

ABSENT:

The Honourable JAMES JARDINE BELL-IRVING.

The Committee met at the request of the Colonial Secretary.

The Minutes of the last Meeting, held on the 5th August, 1896, were read and confirmed. Read the following Minutes under the hand of His Excellency the Governor :-

C.S.O. 2192 of 1896.

C.S.O.

2343 of 1896.

C.S.0.

2319 of 1896.

C.S.0. Confidential. 40 of 1895.

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

The Governor recommends the Council to vote a sum of Three thousand Dollars, ($3,000), to meet the expenditure for the sewerage of the City of Victoria.

Government House, Hongkong, 25th September, 1896.

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

The Governor recommends the Council to vote a sum of Ten thousand Dollars, ($10,000), to meet the probable further expenditure in connection with the Water and Drainage Works for the current year.

Government House, Hongkong, 15th October, 1896.

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

The Governor recommends the Council to vote a sum of Four thousand Dollars, ($4,000), to meet the expenditure for the erection of a Matron's House at the Gaol and other alterations necessary to convert a portion of the buildings into a Female Prison.

Government House, Hongkong, 15th October, 1896.

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

The Governor recommends the Council to re-vote the sum of Twenty thousand Dollars, ($20,000), for the construction of a new Floating Fire Engine.

Government House, Hongkong, 20th October, 1896.

44

C.S.O.

258 of 1896.

C.S.0.

546 of 1896.

C.S.0.

1902 of 1896.

C.S.O. 1924 of 1896.

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

The Governor recommends the Council to vote a sum of Three thousand Dollars, ($3,000), in aid of the vote for "Miscellaneous Works" (Public Works Annually Recurrent).

Government House, Hongkong, 10th November, 1896.

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

The Governor recommends the Council to vote a sum of Eight hundred and Eight Dollars and Fifty Cents, ($808.50), for the purchase of Blank Charges and Friction Tubes for use at the Fog Signal Station, Gap Rock.

Government House, Hongkong, 10th November, 1896.

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

The Governor recommends the Council to vote a sum of Five hundred Dollars, ($500), in aid of the vote for "Repairs to Epidemic Hulk Hygeia" (Harbour Department).

(Note.-Increased cost due to re-mooring the hulk after the recent typhoon.) Government House, Hongkong, 10th November, 1896.

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

The Governor recommends the Council to vote a sum of Twenty-five thousand Dollars, ($25,000), to meet the following expenses during the current year:-

Repairs to Buildings,

""

Roads, City of Victoria,

"}

**

""

Out of Victoria, Kowloon,

$18,000.00

5,000.00

1,000.00

1,000.00

$25,000.00

C.S.O.

5059 of 1896.

C.S.O. 2502 of 1896.

C.S.0.

#554 of 1896.

C.S.O. 3285 of 1890.

Conf. C.S.O.

7 9 of 1: 96.

C.S.O. 2644 of 1896,

Government House, Hongkong, 10th November, 1896.

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

The Governor recommends the Council to vote a sum of Two thousand Dollars, ($2,000), in aid of the vote for "Incidental Expenses" in the Police Department.

Government House, Hongkong, 10th November, 1896.

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

The Governor recommends the Council to vote a sum of Six hundred and Fifty Dollars, ($650), in aid of the vote "Incidental Expenses," Sanitary Department, for the current year.

(Note.-Increased cost due to the enforcement of Bye-law No. 6 under the provisions of Ordinance No. 15 of 1894.)

Government House, Hongkong, 10th November, 1896.

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

The Governor recommends the Council to vote a sum of Three hundred Dollars, ($300), in aid of the Votes (a) Forage for Horses, $160; and (b) Meals for Prisoners in Cells, $140; for November and December, 1896.

Government House, Hongkong, 10th November, 1896.

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

The Governor recommends the Council to vote a sum of Three hundred and Thirty-six Dollars, ($336), for the Salaries of the Chinese Staff at the New Kowloon Animal Depôt.

Government House, Hongkong, 10th November, 1896.

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

The Governor recommends the Council to vote a sum of Five thousand Dollars, ($5,000), for raising the Praya Wall at Shektongtsui opposite Marine Lots Nos. 126, and 177 to 183.

Government House, Hongkong, 18th November, 1896.

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

The Governor recommends the Council to vote a sum of Seventy thousand and Two hundred Dollars, ($70,200), for expenses incurred in connection with the plague.

Government House, Hongkong, 18th November, 1896.

45

C.3 0.

2700 of 1898.

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

The Governor recommends the Council to vote a sum of Three thousand Six hundred and Five Dollars and Ten Cents, ($3,605.10), to meet the following expenses :--

C.S.O.

2759 of 1896.

Health Officer's Office.

Coal, &c.,........

$ 120.00

Government Civil Hospital.

Provisions,

1,800.00

Surgical Instruments,

285.00

Medical Comforts,

300.00

Light and Fuel,

.....

800.00

120.00

150.00

30.10

$3,605.10

Washing,

Incidental Expenses,

Water Account,

Government House, Hongkong, 25th November, 1896.

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

The Governor recommends the Council to vote a sum of Four thousand and Six hundred Dollars, ($4,600), to cover the amount under estimated in respect of "Miscellaneous Services Other."

Government House, Hongkong, 30th November, 1896.

The Committee unanimously agreed to recommend that the above votes be passed.

The Committee then adjourned.

Laid before the Legislative Council on the 7th December, 1896.

Read and confirmed on the 7th December, 1896.

F. J. BADELEY, Acting Clerk of Councils.

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART,

Chairman.

No. 6.

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FINANCE COMMITTEE,

AT A MEETING HELD IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBER, HONGKONG,

On the 7th December, 1896.

47

PRESENT:

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary, (JAMES HALDANE STEWART LOCKHART), Chairman. His Excellency the Major-General Commanding, (Major-General WILSONE BLACK, C.B.). The Honourable the Acting Attorney General, (HENRY EDWARD POLLOCK).

""

}}

13

""

":

the Acting Colonial Treasurer, (ALEXANDER MACDONALD THOMSON).

the Director of Public Works, (FRANCIS ALFRED COOPER).

the Harbour Master, (ROBERT MURRAY RUMSEY, R.N.).

the Captain Superintendent of Police, (FRANCIS HENRY MAY, C.M.G.). CATCHICK PAUL CHATER.

Ho KAI, M.B., C.M.

THOMAS HENDERSON WHITEHEAD.

EMANUEL RAPHAEL BELILIOS, C.M.G.

77

WEI YUK.

1)

ABSENT:

The Honourable JAMES JARDINE BELL-IRVING.

The Committee met at the request of the Colonial Secretary.

The Minutes of the last Meeting, held on the 3rd December, 1896, were read and confirmed.

Read the following Minute under the hand of His Excellency the Governor :-

C.S.0. 2633 of 1896,

WILLIAM ROBINSON.

The Governor recommends the Council to vote a sum of One thousand Four hundred and Fifty Dollars, ($1,450), in aid of the vote "Expenses of the Volunteers.'

Government House, Hongkong, 7th December, 1896.

The Committee agreed to recommend that the above vote be passed.

BILL ENTITLED "AN ORDINANCE TO APPLY A SUM NOT EXCEEDING TWO MILLIONS THREE HUNDRED AND FIFTY-NINE THOUSAND SEVEN HUNDRED AND EIGHTY-NINE DOLLARS TO THE PUBLIC SERVICE OF THE YEAR 1897.

The various items in the above Bill were considered separately, and the Committee agreed to recommend that the Bill be passed by the Legislative Council.

The Committee then adjourned.

Laid before the Legislative Council on the 14th December, 1896.

Read and confirmed on the 3rd May, 1897.

J. G. T. BUCKLE, Acting Clerk of Councils.

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART.

Chairman.

HONGKONG.

FINANCIAL RETURNS FOR THE YEAR 1895.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

143

No. 11

96.

No. 14.

SIR,-I have the honour to transmit the following returns :-

1. Revenue and Expenditure for the year 1895.

TREASURY, 19th March, 1896.

2. Comparative Statement of Revenue and Expenditure for 1894 and 1895. 3. Return of Deposits not available.

4.

Do.

Advances Outstanding.

5.

Do.

Assets and Liabilities, 1895.

6.

Do.

Public Works Extraordinary chargeable against the Loan.

7. Statement of Expenditure from the Praya Reclamation Fund.

I have the honour to be,

The Honourable

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY,

&C.,

&C.,

&'c.

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

A. M. THOMSON, Acting Treasurer.

REVENUE.

COLONY OF HONGKONG. COLONY

RETURN OF REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE DURING THE YEAR ENDED

Amount Total Estimated. Revenue.

More than Less than Estimated. Estimated.

EXPENDIT:

LIGHT DUES,

LICENCES AND INTERNAL REVENUE NOT OTHERWISE SPE-

$ 96,000

$ C. 107,315.91

$ C. 11,315.91

$ C.

CIFIED:-

Arms Ordinance,..

200

230.00

30.00

Assessed Taxes,

Auctioneers' Licences,

Billiard Tables and Bowling Alleys Licences,

Boarding-house Licences,

Boat Licences,..

Cargo Boat Licences,

Carriage, Chair, &c., Licences,..

Chinese Passenger Ships Licences,

Chinese Undertakers' Licences,

Dog Licences,

370,000

404,105.75

31,105.75

1,800

2,100.00

300.00

1,100

1,000.00

100.00

175

2,193.75

2,018.75

5,850

6,123.25

273.25

10,300

11,425.00

1,125.00

40,000

42,308.00

2,308.00

400

325.00

75.00

160

160.00

2,500

2,370.50

129.50

Emigration Brokers' Licences,.. Fines,

1,200

1,000.00

200.00

22,150

36,229.03

14,079.03

Forfeitures,

1,150

4,149.06

2,999.06

***

Hawkers' Licences,

5,200

6,597.00

397.00

...

Junk Licences,

25,000

31,534.50

6,534.50

Marine Store Dealers' Licences,

900

2,745.00

1,845.00

Marriage Licences,........

300

331.00

31.00

Money Changers' Licences,

540

535.00

Opium Monopoly,

295,133

295,133.34

.34

Pawnbrokers' Licences,..

39,000

39,000.00

Shooting Licences,

100

110.00

10.00

Spirit Licences,

67,500

65,143.50

Stamps,....

185,000

206,040.48

21,040.48

Steam-Launch Licences,

2,500

1,228.50

2,356.50

1,271.50

FEES OF COURT OR OFFICE, PAYMENTS FOR SPECIFIC PUR-

5.00

Charge on Account of Public Debt. Pensions,

Governor and Legislature,

Colonial Secretary's Department, Audit Department..........

Treasury,

Public Works Department,. Post Office,

Registrar General's Department,

Harbour Master's Department, Lighthouses,

Observatory,

Stamp Office,

Botanical and Afforestation Depar Legal Departments,

Ecclesiastical,

Education,

Medical Departments,

Magistracy,

Police,

Gaols,...

Fire Brigade,

Sanitary Department, Charitable Allowances, Transport,

Miscellaneous Services, Military Expenditure, Public Works Recurrent,

POSES, AND REIMBURSEMENTS IN AID

Bills of Health,

Births and Deaths, Registration of.....

2,200 110

1,932.00 102.15

268.00 7.85

Cargo Boat Certificates,

1,600

1,951.00

Cemetery Burials,

600

968.21

351.00 368.21

Cemetery Fees from Public Cemeteries for Chinese,

2,200

1,475.60

724.40

Chinese Gazette, Sale of

50

45.00

5.00

Companies, Registration of

1,200

2,524.25

1.324.25

Convict Labour and other items,

Deeds, Registration of

3,000

4,726.75

1,726.75

Discharge of Crews and Seamen,

7,500

8,622.00

1,122.00

Examination of Masters, &c.,

2,090

2.020.00

...

70.00

Fees of Court,

16,000

16,064.50

Fees on Grant of Leases,

400

$70.00

64.50 470.00

Gaol Expenses,-Recovery from Diplomatic, Naval and Mi-

litary Departments, Seamen and Debtors,.

Gunpowder, Storage of......

Householders, Registration of

3,800 1,200

23,114.52 1,209.25

...

19,314.52

9.25

Imperial Post Office, Contribution from

Lock Hospital, Grant-in-Aid from Admiralty,

Medical Examination of Emigrants,

21,000

21,612,25

612.25

Medical Registration Fees,

10

10.00

Medical Treatment of Patients in the Civil Hospital,

...

Official Administrator and Trustee,......

1,000

Official Signatures,..

300

Printed Forms, Sale of

Private Moorings and Buoys, Rent for

100 2,520

Queen's College, Fees from Scholars,

Registry Fees,

300

5,552.88 271,00 282.50 2,640.00

...

249.00

4,552.88

29.00

D

182.50

120.00

51.00

Refund of Police Pay,

Refund Cost of Police and other Stores.......

...

Shipping Crews and Seamen,.

8,500

9,716.40

1,216.40

Sick Stoppages from Police Force,

...

Steam-Launches, Surveyor's Certificate,

1,500

1,575.00

75.00

Subsistence Money of Seamen and others in Victoria Gaol,

***

Survey of Steam-Ships,

10,000

9,240.21

759.79

-

School for Girls, Fees from Scholars,

...

Sunday Cargo-Working Permits,

Trade Marks, Registration of

7,000 900

11,600.00 562.64

4,600.00

337.36

POST OFFICE:-

Postage,.....

185,000

244,449.71 59,449.71

:

RENT OF GOVERNMENT PROPERTY, LAND AND HOUSES :—

Buildings,

360

2,225.80

Cattle Shed....

Laundries,

2,580 330

2,220.00

350.00

1,865.30

...

20.00

...

360.00

Leased Lands,..

200,000

230,803.46

30,803.46

Lands not Leased,

6,088

8,419.01

2,331.01

Markets,

62,000

63,574,35

1,574.35

Picrs,..

3,500

4,367.09

$67.09

Stone Quarries,

15,000

8,100.00

6,900.00

Slaughter House,

40,000

40,440.00

440.00

Sheep and Pig Depôts,

12,000

4,883.80

INTEREST,

30,000

5,936.78

7,116.20 24,063.22

MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS:-

Condemned Stores, &c.,

1,000

2,032.35

1,032.35

Interest for use of Furniture at Government House,

150

144.40

5.60

:

COLONY OF HONGKONG. COLON

JE AND EXPENDITURE DURING THE YEAR ENDED 31ST DECEMBER, 1895.

it

Total ced.] Revenue.

More than Less than

EXPENDITURE.

Estimated. Estimated.

Amount Total More than Less than Estimated. Expenditure. Estimated. Estimated.

00

$ C. 107,315.91

$ c. $ C. 11,315.91

8888888888888888888638888

00

230.00

30.00

404,105.75

34,105.75

2,100.00

300.00

1,000.00

100.00

75

2,193.75

2,018.75

Charge on Account of Public Debt,

Pensions,

Governor and Legislature,

Colonial Secretary's Department, Audit Department...

Treasury,

Public Works Department,. Post Office,

$ 114,710

$ C.

110,374.21

$ 4,335.79

C.

94,000

112,776.97 18,776.97

41,339

44,053.36 2,714.36

33,276

33,385.39 109.39

...

10,000

8,678.89

1,321,11

22,700

26,205.04

3,505.04

...

88,696

85,447.66

3,248.34

179,776

194,240.27 | 14,464.27

6,123.25

273.25

Registrar General's Department,

22,333

17,099.41

5,233.59

00

11,425.00

1,125.00

Harbour Master's Department,

62,321

68,256.24

5,935.24

00

42,308.00

2,308.00

Lighthouses,

15,388

15,563.34

175.34

30

325.00

75.00

Observatory,

13,237

13,433.55

30

160.00

Stamp Office,

4,328

4,027.40

2

00

2,370,50

129.50

Botanical and Afforestation Department,

18,770

17,346.83

00

1,000.00

200.00

Legal Departments,

68,882

78,754.83

9,872.83

50

36,229.03

14,079.03

Ecclesiastical,

2,200

1,830.00

50

4,149.06

00

5,597.00

2,999.06 397.00

Education,

64,170

60,140.24

***

Medical Departments,

65,994

74,291.62 8,297.62

196.55

300.60 1,423.17

...

370.00 4,029.76

...

00

31,534.50

6,534.50

Magistracy,

25,232

21,413.12

3,818.88

2,745.00

1,845.00

...

00

331.00

31.00

535.00

33

295,133.34

.34

39,000.00

110.00

10.00

65,143.50

2,356,50

206,040.48 21,040.48

1,228.50

1,271.50

5.00

Police,

Gaols......

Fire Brigade,

Sanitary Department,

Charitable Allowances, Transport,

Miscellaneous Services, Military Expenditure, Public Works Recurrent,

164,500 170,284.98 5,781.98

227,547

217,451.51

10,095.46

54,951

51,125.66

3,825.34

20,098

17,169.30

2,928.70

74,676

84,082.10

9,406.10

5,200

3,955.16

1,244.84

2,000

4,743.65 2,743.65

150,707

232,243.49

81,536.49

396,000 366,156.71

29,843.29

88388 8888888

10

22

1,932.00 102.15 1,951.00 968.21 1,475.60

45.00 2,524.25

**

...

268.00

7.85

351,00 368.21

724.40

5.00

1.324.25

sen

4,726.75

1,726.75

8,622.00

1,122.00

2.020.00 16,064.50

70.00

870.00

64.50 470.00

...

23,114.52

1,209.25

...

19,314.52 9.25

00

10

22 8888 8

00

00

00

20

00

...

21,612.25

...

5,552.88 271,00 282,50 2,640.00

249.00

...

612.25

10.00

4,552.88

29.00

...

182.50

120.00

51.00

..

00

00

00

00

8 8 8 88

9,716.40

1,575.00

9,240.21

11,600.00 562.64

1,216.40

...

...

75.00

759.79

4,600.00

337.36

100

244,449.71 59,449.71

.60

2,225.30

1,865.30

80

2,220.00

360,00

.30

350.00

...

20.00

100

230,803.46

30,803.46

188

8,419.01

2,331.01

000

63,574.35

1,574.35

500

4,367.09

867.09

000

8,100.00

6,900,00

000

40,440.00

440.00

000

000

4,883.80 5,936.78

...

000

150

2,032.35 144 40

1,032.35

...

7,116.20 24,063.22

5.60

Opium Monopoly,

Pawnbrokers' Licences,.

295,133 39,000

295,133.34

.34

39,000.00

Shooting Licences,

100

110.00

10.00

Spirit Licences,

67,500

65,143.50

2,356.50

Stamps,..

185,000

Steam-Launch Licences,

2,500

206,040.48 1,228.50

21,040.48

1,271.50

FEES OF COURT OR OFFICE, PAYMENTS FOR SPECIFIC PUR-

POSES, AND REIMBURSEMENTS IN AID :—

Bills of Health,

Births and Deaths, Registration of..........

2,200 110

Cargo Boat Certificates,

Cemetery Burials,

1,600 600

Chinese Gazette, Sale of

Companies, Registration of

Cemetery Fecs from Public Cemeteries for Chinese,

Convict Labour and other items,

2,200 50

1,200

1,932.00 102.15 1,951,00 968.21 1,475,60 45.00 2,524.25

268.00 7.85

351,00 368.21

...

*

1.324.25

724.40 5.00

...

***

Deeds, Registration of

3,000

4,726.75

Discharge of Crews and Seamen,

7,500

8,622.00

1,726.75 1,122.00

Examination of Masters, &c.,

2,090

2.020.00

...

Fees of Court,

16,000

16,064.50

Fees on Grant of Leases,

400

870.00

64.50 470,00

70.00

Gaol Expenses,-Recovery from Diplomatic, Naval and Mi-

litary Departments, Seamen and Debtors,..

...

Gunpowder, Storage of......

3,800

Householders, Registration of

1,200

23,114.52 1,209,25

19,314.52 9.25

***

Imperial Post Office, Contribution from

...

Lock Hospital, Grant-in-Aid from Admiralty,

Medical Examination of Emigrants,

Medical Registration Fees,

Medical Treatment of Patients in the Civil Hospital,

Official Administrator and Trustee,.

Official Signatures,.

Printed Forms, Sale of

Private Moorings and Buoys, Rent for

Queen's College, Fees from Scholars,

Registry Fees,

...

21,000 10

21,612,25

612,25

10.00

1,000

5,552.88

4,552.88

300

271.00

29.00

100

282,50

182.50

2,520

2,640.00

120,00

***

300

249.00

51,00

Refund of Police Pay,

...

Refund Cost of Police and other Stores,...

Shipping Crews and Seamen,..

8,500

9,716.40 1,216.40

Sick Stoppages from Police Force,

...

Steam-Launches, Surveyor's Certificate,

1,500

1,575.00

75.00

:Subsistence Money of Seamen and others in Victoria Gaol,

Survey of Steam-Ships,

10,000

9,240,21

759.79

School for Girls, Fees from Scholars,

Sunday Cargo-Working Permits,

7,000

Trade Marks, Registration of

900

11,600.00 562.64

4,600.00

337.36

POST OFFICE :——

Postage,..

185,000

244,449.71

69,449.71

:

RENT OF GOVERNMENT PROPERTY, LAND AND HOUSES:--

Buildings,

360

Cattle Shed,..

2,580

2,225.30 1,865.30 2,220.00

360.00

Laundries,

330

350.00

20,00

Leased Lands,.

200,000

230,803.46

30,803.46

Lands not Leased,

6,088

8,419.01

2,331.01

Markets,

62,000

63,574,35

1,574.35

Piers,....

3,500

4,367.09

867.09

Stone Quarries,

15,000

8,100.00

6,900,00

Slaughter House,

40,000

40,440.00

440.00

Sheep and Pig Depôts,

12,000

4,883.80

INTEREST,

30,000

5,936.78

7,116.20 24,063.22

MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS:—

Condemned Stores, &c.,

1,000

2,032.35

1,032.35

Interest for use of Furniture at Government House,

150

144.40

5.60

Night Soil Contracts,.

23,280

24,690.00 1,410,00

Other Miscellaneous Receipts,

12,000

82,979.88 70,979,88

Profit on Subsidiary Coins,

80,000 152,600.88 72,600.88

...

Tire Drigaue,

Sanitary Department, Charitable Allowances, Transport,

Miscellaneous Services, Military Expenditure, Public Works Recurrent,

TOTAL, exclusive of Land Sales and Water Account,...$ 1,942,526 2,275,577.69 |377,896.61| 44,844.92

LAND SALES,

WATER ACCOUNT-Ord. 16 of 1890,

61,000 130,471.79 69,471.79

Public Works, Extraordinary,

76,000 80,179.41 4,179.41

...

TOTAL,...

$2,079,526 *2,486,228.89 451,547.81 44,844.92

ΤΟΤΑΙ

* Not including appropriations in aid $49,047.55 which have been deducted from the Expenditure.

Public Works Extraordinary chargeable

Treasury, Hongkong, 18th March, 1896.

}

535.00 295,133.34

5.00

.34

39,000.00

Fire Brigade,

Sanitary Department, Charitable Allowances,

20,098

17,169.30

2,928.70

74,676

84,082.10 9,406.10

5,200

3,955.16

110.00

1,244.84

10.00

Transport,

2,000

65,143.50

2,356,50

Miscellaneous Services,

4,743.65 2,743.65

150,707 232,243.49 81,536.49

206,040.48

21,040.48

Military Expenditure,

396,000

366,156.71

1,228.50

29,843.29

1,271.50

Public Works Recurrent,

164,500

170,284.98 5,781.98

1,932.00

102.15

268.00 7.85

1,951.00

351.00

968.21

368.21

1,475.60

45.00

2,524.25 1.324,25

4,726.75

1,726.75

8,622.00 1,122.00

...

724.40 5.00

2,020.00

70.00

16,064.50

64.50

$70.00

470.00

...

23,114.52 1,209.25

19,314.52 9.25

...

*

...

21,612,25

5,552.88 271,00 282.50 2,640,00

612.25

...

10.00

4,552.88

29.00

182.50 120.00

}

249.00

51.00

...

1

9,716.40 1,216.40

}

1,575.00

9,240.21

75.00

759.79

11,600.00 562.64

4,600.00

337.36

}

244,449.71

59,449.71

:

2,225.80

1,865.30

2,220.00

360.00

350.00

20.00

230,803.46

30,803.46

8,419.01

2,331.01

63,574,35

1,574.35

4,367.09

$67.09

8,100.00

6,900.00

40,440.00

440.00

4,883.80

5,936.78

7,116.20 24,063.22

2,032.35

1,032.35

144.40

5.60

24,690.00

1,410.00

82,979.88 70,979.88

152,600.88

72,600.38

2,275,577,69 | 377,896.61| 44,844.92

130,471.79

69,471.79

Public Works, Extraordinary,

80,179.41 4,179.41

2,043,031 2,134,530.96 | 163,518.83

24,670 837,842.05 S13,172.05

72,018.87

*2,486,228.89 451,547.81 44,844.92

TOTAL,..

2,067,701 | 2,972,373.01 976,690.88 72,018.87

d from the Expenditure.

Public Works Extraordinary chargeable against the New Loan, $

318,500

186,970.87

131,529.13

A. M. THOMSON,

Acting Colonial Treasurer.

145

COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF THE REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE OF THE COLON

REVENUE.

INCREASE.

DECREASE.

EXPENDITURE.

C.

Charge on Account of Public Debt,.... Pensions,.

Governor and Legislature,

Colonial Secretary's Department,

Audit Department,

Treasury,

Public Works Department,

Post Office,.

Registrar General's Department,.....

Harbour Master's Department,

Lighthouses,..

Observatory,

Stamp Office,

Botanical and Afforestation Departm

Legal Departments,

Ecclesiastical Department,

Education,

Medical Departments, Magistracy,

Police,

Gaols,...

Fire Brigade,..

Sanitary Department,

Charitable Allowances,

Transport......

Miscellaneous Services, Military Expenditure, Public Works, Recurrent, Public Works, Extraordinary,

1894.

1895.

$

C.

LIGHT DUES,

LICENCES AND INTERNAL REVENUE NOT OTHERWISE

92,909.31

$ C.

107,315.91

$

C.

14,406.60

SPECIFIED :-

Arms Ordinance,..

140.00

230.00

90.00

Assessed Taxes,

394,424.43

404,105.75

Auctioneers' Licences,

1,500.00

2,100.00

9,681.32 600.00

Billiard Tables and Bowling Alleys Licences,

850.00

1,000.00

150.00

Boarding House Licences,

175.00

2,193.75

2,018.75

Boat Licences,

6,151.00

6,123.25

27.75

Cargo Boat Licences,

10,038.00

11,425.00

1,387.00

Carriage, Chair, &c., Licences,

39,436.55

42,308.00

2,871.45

Chinese Passenger Ships Licences,.

260.00

325.00

65.00

Chinese Undertakers' Licences,

160.00

160.00

Dog Licences,

2,737.50

2,370.50

367.00

Emigration Brokers' Licences,.

1,200.00

1,000.00

200.00

Fines,

22,055.80

36,229.03

14,173.23

Forfeitures,

8,564.69

4,149.06

4,415.63

Hawkers' Licences,.......

4,723.50

5,597.00

873.50

Junk Licences,

25,147.55

31,534.50

6,386.95

Marine Store Dealers' Licences,

930,00

2,745.00

1,815.00

Marriage Licences,

121.00

331.00

210.00

Money Changers' Licences,

545.00

535.00

10.00

Opium Monopoly,......

340,800.00

295,133.34

45,666.66

Pawnbrokers' Licences,.

14,700.00

39,000.00

24,300.00

Shooting Licences,

130.00

110.00

20.00

Spirit Licences,

49,348.00

65,143.50

Stamps,.

169,039.55

206,040.48

15,795.50 37,000.93

Steam-launch Licences.....

2,785.75

1,228.50

1,557.25

FEES OF COURT OR OFFICE, PAYMENTS FOR SPECIFIC

PURPOSES, AND REIMBURSEMENTS IN AID :-

Bills of Health,.

1,917.00

1,932.00

15.00

Births and Deaths, Registration of..

108.55

102.15

6.40

Cargo Boat Certificates,..

1,786.00

1,951.00

165.00

Cemetery Burials,..

588.35

968.21

379.86

Cemetery Fees from Public Cemeteries for Chinese,

1,753.90

1,475.60

278.30

Chinese Gazette, Sale of..

46.00

45.00

1.00

Companies, Registration of

1,220.75

2,524.25

1,303.50

Convict Labour and other items,

3,467.51

3,467.54

Deeds, Registration of

3,016.00

4,726.75

1,710.75

Discharge of Crews and Seamen,

7,772.40

8,622.00

849.60

Examination of Masters, &c.,.

1,832.50

2,020.00

187.50

Fees of Court,

14,643.13

16,064.50

1,421.37

Fees on Grant of Leases,.

605.00

870.00

265.00

Gaol Expenses,-Recovery from Diplomatic, Naval, and

Military Departments, Seamen and Debtors,

900.25

900.25

Gunpowder, Storage of

10,214.03

23,114.52

12,900.49

Householders, Registration of

1,229,00

1,209.25

Imperial Post Office, Contribution from

8,421.45

Lock Hospital, Grant-in-Aid from Admiralty,

951.41

19.75 8,421.45 951.41

Medical Examination of Emigrants,

15,028.50

21,612.25

6,583.75

Medical Treatment of Patients in the Civil Hospital,...

15,890.66

15,890.66

Maintenance of Gap Rock Lighthouse, Contribution

from Chinese Imperial Government towards the...

750.00

750.00

Official Administrator and Trustee,.

884,88

5,552.88

4,668.00

Official Signatures,.

257.00

271.00

14.00

Printed Forms, Sale of

133.50

282.50

149.00

Private Moorings and Buoys, Rent for.

2,520.00

2,640.00

120.00

Queen's College, Fees from Scholars,

Registry Fees,

Refund of Police Pay,

Refund Cost of Police and other Stores,...

11,562.00 353.00 1,628.88

1,187.73

***

11,562.00

249.00

104.00

***

1,628.88

1,187.73

Shipping Crews and Seamen,

8,744.20

9,716.40

972.20

Sick Stoppages from Police Force,

891.14

891.14

Steam-launches, Surveyor's Certificate.

1,755.00

1,575.00

180.00

Subsistence Money of Seamen and others in Victoria

Gaol,

262.75

...

262.75

Survey of Steam-ships,

9,286.43

9,240.21

46.22

School for Girls, Fees from Scholars,

329.00

329.00

Sunday Cargo-Working Permits,.

13,250.00

11,600.00

1,650.00

Trade Marks, Registration of

852.30

562.64

289.66

POST OFFICE:--

Postage,

192,172.42

244,449.71

52,277.29

RENT OF GOVERNMENT PROPERTY, LAND AND HOUSES:-

Buildings,

1,283.00

2,225.30

942.30

Cattle Shed,

2,580.00

2,220.00

360.00

Laundries,

320.00

350.00

Leased Lands,

228,555.67

230,803.46

Lands not Leased,

7,571,45

8,419.01

Markets,

55,578.81

63,574.35

30.00 2,247.79 847.56 7,995.54

...

Piers,

4,261.29

4,367.09

105,80

Stone Quarries,

15,250.00

8,100.00

...

Slaughter House,..

40,584.00

40,440.00

Sheep and Pig Depôts,

4,883.80

4,883.80

INTEREST,

37,051.95

5,936.78

7,150.00 144.00

31,115.17

MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS :—

Condemned Stores, &c.,

1,531.56

2,032.35

Interest for use of Furniture at Government House,.

368.10

144.40

500.79

...

223.70

Night Soil Contracts,

23,280.00

24,690.00

1,410.00

Other Miscellaneous Receipts,

50,428.07

82,979.88

32,551.81

Profit on Subsidiary Coins.

133.824.13

152.600.88

18.776.75

THE REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE OF THE COLONY OF HONGKONG IN 1894 & 1895.

1895.

INCREASE,

DECREASE.

EXPENDITURE.

1894.

1895.

INCREASE.

DECREASE.

$

C.

$ C.

$

c.

c.

$ C.

C.

C.

107,315.91

14.406.60

Charge on Account of Public Debt,. Pensions,.

221,812.64

110,374.21

111,438.43

100,077.28

112,776.97

12,699.69

230.00

90.00

404,105.75

9,681.32

2,100.00

600.00

Governor and Legislature,

Audit Department,

Treasury,

44,401.76

44,053.36

Colonial Secretary's Department,

37,453.04

33,385.39

9,343.39

8,678.89

348.40 4,067.65 664.50

23,287.05

26,205.04

2,917.99

1,000.00

150.00

Public Works Department,

85,956.36

85,447.66

508.70

2,193.75

2,018.75

Post Office...

183,352.15

194,240.27

10,888.12

...

6,123.25

27.75

Registrar General's Department,..

23,185.21

17,099.41

6,085.80

11,425.00

1,387.00

Harbour Master's Department,

60,819.71 68,256.24

42,308.00

2,871,45

Lighthouses,...

14,657.73

15,563.34

7,436.53 905.61

325.00

65.00

Observatory,

13,653.79

13,433.55

160.00

Stamp Office,

4,351.40

4,027,40

220.24 324.00

2,370.50

367,00

Botanical and Afforestation Department,

24,637.21

17,346.83

7,290.38

1,000.00

200.00

Legal Departments,

75,619.30

78,754,83

3,135.53

36,229.03

14,173.23

Ecclesiastical Department,

1,840.00

1,830.00

10.00

4,149.06

4,415.63

Education,

79,262,95

60,140.24

19,122.71

5,597.00

873.50

Medical Departments,

84,143.05

74,291,62

31,534.50

6,3$6.95

2,745.00

1,815.00

331.00

210.00

535.00

10.00

295,133.34

45,666.66

39,000.00

24,300.00

Magistracy,

Police,

Gaols,....

Fire Brigade,.

Sanitary Department,

Charitable Allowances,

22,184.96

21,413.12

9,851.43 771.84

218,208.68

217,451,54

757.14

55,695.29

51,125.66

4,569.63

20,367.72

17,169.30

3,198.42

61,566.36

84,082.10 22,515.74

4,973.47

3,955.16

1,018.31

110.00

20.00

Transport,.

1,927.31

4,743.65

2,816.34

65,143.50

206,040.48

15,795.50 37,000.93

Miscellaneous Services,

277,329.00

232,243.49

45,085.51

Military Expenditure,

381,127.13

366,156.71

14,970.42

1,228.50

1,557.25

Public Works, Recurrent,

155,358.71

170,284.98

14,926.27

Public Works, Extraordinary,

12,503.35

837,842.05

825,338.70

1,932.00

15.00

102.15

6.40

1,951.00

165.00

968.21

379.86

1,475.60

278.30

45.00

1.00

2,524.25

1,303.50

3,467.54

4,726.75

1,710.75

8,622.00

819.60

2,020.00

187,50

16,064.50

1,421.37

870.00

265.00

23,114.52 1,209.25

12,900.49

900.25

...

19.75 8,421.45 951.41

21,612.25

6,583.75

...

15,890.66

750.00

5,552.88

4,668.00

271.00

14.00

282.50

149.00

2,640.00

120.00

11,562.00

249.00

104.00

1,628.88

1,187.73

9,716.40

972.20

891.14

1,575.00

180.00

262.75

9,240.21

46.22

329.00

11,600.00

1,650.00

562.64

289.66

244,449.71

52,277.29

2,225.30

942.30

2,220.00 350.00

360.00

230,803.46

30.00 2,247.79

8,419.01

847.56

63,574.35

7,995.54

4,367.09

105.80

8,100.00

40,440.00

7,150.00 144.00

4,883.80

4,883.80

5,936.78

31,115.17

2,032.35

500.79

144.40

223.70

24,690.00

1,410.00

82,979.88 32,551.81

152,600,88

18,776.75

Shooting Licences,

Spirit Licences,

Stamps...

Steam-launch Licences...

130.00

49,348.00

110.00 65,148.50

20.00

169,039.55

206,040.48

15,795.50 37,000.93

Transport,.

Miscellaneous Services,

2,785.75

1,228.50

1,557,25

FEES OF COURT OR OFFICE, PAYMENTS FOR SPECIFIC

PURPOSES, AND REIMBURSEMENTS IN AID:—

Military Expenditure, Public Works, Recurrent, Public Works, Extraordinary,

Bills of Health..

1,917.00

1,932.00

15.00

Births and Deaths, Registration of.....

108.55

102.15

6.40

Cargo Boat Certificates,.

Cemetery Burials,.

1,786.00 588.35

1,951.00

165.00

968.21

379.86

Cemetery Fees from Public Cemeteries for Chinese,

1,753.90

1,475.60

278.30

Chinese Gazette, Sale of....

46.00

45.00

1.00

Companies, Registration of

1,220.75

2,524.25

1,303.50

Convict Labour and other items,

8,467,5+

3,467.51

Deeds, Registration of

3,016.00

4,726.75

1,710.75

Discharge of Crews and Seamen,

7,772.40

8,622.00

849.60

Examination of Masters, &c.,.

1,832.50

2,020.00

187.50

Fees of Court,

14,643.13

16,061.50

1,421.37

Fees on Grant of Leases,.

605.00

870.00

265.00

Gaol Expenses, -Recovery from Diplomatic, Naval, and

Gunpowder, Storage of

Military Departments, Seamen and Debtors,

Householders, Registration of

900.25

900.25

10,214.03

23,114.52

12,900.49

1,229.00

1,209.25

Imperial Post Office, Contribution from

8,421.45

19.75 8,421.45

Lock Hospital, Grant-in-Aid from Admiralty,

951.41

951.41

Medical Examination of Emigrants,

15,028.50

21,612.25

6,583.75

Medical Treatment of Patients in the Civil Hospital,..

15,890.66

15,890.66

Maintenance of Gap Rock Lighthouse,-Contribution

from Chinese Imperial Government towards the.....

750.00

750.00

Official Administrator and Trustce,......

884.88

5,552.88

4,668.00

Official Signatures,..

257.00

271.00

14.00

Printed Forms, Sale of

133.50

282.50

149.00

Private Moorings and Buoys, Rent for.

2,520.00

2,640.00

120.00

Queen's College, Fees from Scholars,

11,562.00

11,562.00

Registry Fees,

353.00

249.00

104.00

Refund of Police Pay,

1,628.88

1,628.88

Refund Cost of Police and other Stores,...

1,187.73

1,187.73

Shipping Crews and Seamen,

8,744.20

9,716.40

972.20

Sick Stoppages from Police Force,

891.14

891.14

Steam-launches, Surveyor's Certificate.

1,755.00

1,575.00

180.00

Subsistence Money of Seamen and others in Victoria

Gaol,

262.75

...

262.75

Survey of Steam-ships,

School for Girls, Fees from Scholars,

9,286.43 329.00

9,240.21

46.22

329.00

Sunday Cargo-Working Permits,.

13,250.00

11,600.00

1,650.00

Trade Marks, Registration of

852.30

562.64

289.66

POST OFFICE :-

Postage,

192,172.42

244,449,71

52,277.29

RENT OF GOVERNMENT PROPERTY, LAND AND HOUSES:-

Buildings,

1,283.00

2,225.30

Cattle Shed,

2,580.00

2,220.00

Laundries,

320.00

Leased Lands,

228,555.67

230,803.16

Lands not Leased,

7,571.45

8,419.01

Markets,

55,578.81

63,574.35

Piers,

4,261.29

4,367.09

350.00

942.30

...

30.00 2,247.79 847.56

7,995.54 105,80

360.00

Stone Quarries,

15,250.00

8,100.00

...

Slaughter House,..

40,584.00

40,440.00

7,150.00 144.00

Sheep and Pig Depôts,

4,883.80

4,883.80

INTEREST,

37,051.95

5,936.78

31,115.17

MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS :-

Condemned Stores, &c.,

1,531.56

2,032.35

500.79

Interest for use of Furniture at Government House,.

368.10

144.40

223.70

Night Soil Contracts,

23,280.00

24,690.00

1,410.00

Other Miscellaneous Receipts,

50,428.07

82,979.88

32,551.81

Profit on Subsidiary Coins,..

18,776.75

TOTAL exclusive of Land Sales & Water Account,.2,129,553.31 |2,275,577.69 286,099.68 140,075.30

133,824.13 152,600.88

LAND SALES,

WATER ACCOUNT,

71,294.38 130,471.79 59,177.41 77,680.56 80,179.41

2,498.85

TOTAL,..............

..$2,278,528.25 *2,486,228.89 347,775.94

140,075.30

TOTA

Deduct Decrease,

Nett Increase,

Treasury, Hongkong, 18th March, 1896.

140,075.30

207,700.64

* Not including Appropriations in Aid $49,047.55 which have been deducted from the E.

110.00 15,143.50

20.00

Transport,..

06,040.48 1,228.50

15,795.50 37,000.93

Miscellaneous Services,

1,927.31

4,143.65

2,816.5±

277,329.00

Military Expenditure,

232,243.49

45,085.51

1,557.25

Public Works, Recurrent,

381,127.13

366,156.71

14,970.42

Public Works, Extraordinary,

155,358.71

170,281.98

14,926.27

12,503.35 837,842.05 825,338.70

1,932.00

15.00

102.15 1,951.00

6.40

165.00

968.21

379.86

1,475.60

278.30

45.00

1.00

2,524.25

1,303.50

3,467.54

4,726.75

1,710.75

8,622.00

849.60

2,020.00

187.50

!6,064.50

1,421.37

870.00

265.00

23,114.52 1,209.25

12,900.49

...

900.25

...

19.75 8,421.45 951.41

21,612.25

6,583.75

15,890.66

5,552.88

4,668.00

271.00

750.00

14.00

149.00 120.00

A

...

11,562.00 104.00

282.50 2,640.00

...

249.00

...

1,628.88

1,187.73

9,716.40

972.20

891.14

1,575.00

180.00

262.75

9,240.21

46.22

329,00

11,600.00

1,650.00

562.64

289.66

'44,449.71

52,277.29

2,225.30

942.30

2,220.00

360.00

350.00

30.00

30,803.46

2,247.79

8,419.01

847.56

63,574.35

7,995.54

4,367.09

105.80

8,100.00

7,150.00

40,440.00

144.00

4,883.80

4,883.80

5,936.78

...

31,115.17

2,032.35

500.79

144.40

223.70

24,690.00

1,410.00

$2,979.88

32,551.81

152,600.88

18,776.75

275,577.69

286,099.68 140,075.30

130,171.79

59,177.41

80,179.11 2,498.85

.486,228.89

347,775.94 140,075.30

TOTAL,.............

140,075.80

207,700.64

2,299,096.00 2,972,373.01

903,580.52.

230,303.51

Deduct Decrease,...........

Nett Increase,

uding Appropriations in Aid $49,047.55 which have been deducted from the Expenditure.

.$ 230,303.51

.$

673,277.01

A. M. THOMSON, Acting Colonial Treasurer.

Statement of Deposits not Available received and repaid in the Colony of Hongkong during the year 1895.

By whom deposited.

Outstanding

147

Outstanding

on

1st January, 1895.

Deposits received during the year.

Total.

Deposits repaid during the

on

31st Dec.,

year.

1895.

Intestate Estates,.............

.46.08

175.91

221.99

7.25

214.74

Estates of Deceased Policemen,.

169.97

...

169.97

169.97

Sikh Police Fund,

3,072.00

489.00

3,561.00

1,683.00

1,878.00

Fine Fund from Police,

148.80

931.59

1,080.39

679.09

401.30

Chinese Recreation Ground Fund,.

720.64

2,008.13

2,728.77

1,888.66

840.11

Tender Deposit Account,

1,570.00

12,750.00

14,320.00

13,150.00

1,170.00

Miscellaneous,

249.94

7,241.45

7,491.39

641.90

6,849.49

5,977.43 23,596.08

29,573.51

18,049.90

11,523.61

Treasury, Hongkong, 13th March, 1896.

A. M. THOMSON, Acting Colonial Treasurer.

Statement of Advances made and repaid in Hongkong during the year ended 31st December, 1895.

To whom advaaced.

Outstanding made during

on

1st January,

1895.

repaid during Balance on Outstanding

1895.

Advances

Advances

the year ended

Total.

the

31st Dec.,

ended year 31st Dec.,

31st Dec.,

1895.

1895.

Money Order,

Government of Singapore,

16,584.34

198,736.00

215,320.34

192,384.03

(6) 2,741.35

20,194.96

Director of Public Works,

,, Mauritius,

Supreme Court,

Captain Superintendent of Police,

Praya Reclamation, .....

Superintendent, Fire Brigade,

Treasury,

Botanical Department,

208.50 50.00

453.27

661.77 50.00

661.77

49.06

(7)

0.94

100.00

100.00

25.00

1,987.99

6,829.94 200.00 1,5000.00

25.00 8,817.93

200.00

1,987.99 200.00

100.00 25.00 6,829.94

1,500.00

1,500.00

500.00

500.00

500.00

...

230.00

230.00

230.00

W. Bidgood,.....

55.03

(1)

5.72

60.75

60.75

Mrs. Ackers,

350.00

350.00

220.00

130.00

C. W. Duggan,.

185.96

(2) 7.10

193.06

193.06

P. C. Fiffe,

425.54

425.54

208.08

217.46

Postmaster General,

940.05

4,555.56

5,495.61

5,495.61

G. A. Yvanovich,

1,213.45

1,213.45

472.66

740.79

A. Watson,

96.97

364.60

461.57

293.23

168.34

W. M. B. Arthur,

145.45

(3) 0.53

145.98

145.98

...

C. C. Bowring,....

624.41.

627.45

627.45

(4)

3.04

Crown Solicitor,

Sanitary Department, G. T. O'Brien,

Examination Papers,

A. Chapman,

439.50

439.50

439.50

4,189.65

4,189.65

4,189.65

577.96

577.97

577.97

(5)

0.01 1.29

1.29

1.27

((8) 0.02

:

927.53

927.53

186.42

741.11

21,592.74

220,921.65

242,514.39

213,366.79

29.147.60

(1) $5.72

(6) $2,741,35

(2) 7.10

(3) 0.53

(4) 3.04

5) 0.01

$16.40 Profit in Exchange.

(7)

.94

(8)

.02

$2,742.81 Loss in Exchange.

Hongkong, 18th March, 1896.

A. M. THOMSON, Acting Colonial Treasurer.

148

FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR 1895.

LOAN ACCOUNT.

Dr.

To Inscribed Stock Loan at 3% interest,

Cr.

Sinking Fund. Nil.

to be paid off on the 15th April, 1943,... £341,799.15.1

ASSETS AND

AND LIABILITIES,

ON THE 31ST DECEMBER, 1895.

ASSETS.

C.

LIABILITIES.

$

C.

Subsidiary Coins,

573,000.00 Military Contribution,

59,015.44

Deposits not available,..

11,523.61

Deposit in England at call,................

211,334.89 Praya Reclamation Deposit Account,

186,000.00

Do.

Contribution,.....

40,000.00

Balance in hands of Crown Agents,

107,154.69 Refund of Taxes,

3,350.00

Officers' Remittances, not yet paid,

1,274.94

Arrears of Taxes,

1,714.81 Money Orders, not yet paid,.

Transit Charges,.........

5,942.38

4,100.00

Arrears of Crown Rent,

50,002.00❘ Pensions due to Civil Officers,

Do. to Police,

11,780.00

8,750.00

Advances to be recovered,..

29,147.60 Balance overdrawn,

83,243.73

TOTAL LIABILITIES,.

414,980.10

Balance,

557,373.89

TOTAL ASSETS,......$ 972,353.99

"

Balance of 1893 Loan,.....

Less Balance of Assets and Liabilities,

Treasury, Hongkong, 17th March, 1896.

1895.

$ 972,353,99

.$729,282.28 557,373.89

$171,908.39

A. M. THOMSON, Acting Colonial Treasurer.

PUBLIC WORKS EXTRAORDINARY CHARGEABLE AGAINST THE NEW LOAN.

Central Market,.................

Erection of Queen's Statue,

$34,373.19

Slaughter-House, Sheep and Pig Depôts,

Gaol Extension,

New Water Mains,

Sewerage of Victoria,

Water Supply, Kowloon Peninsula,

Tytam Water Works Extension,

Kowloon Cattle Depôt,......................

Village Water, Drainage and Sewerage Works,...

Treasury, Hongkong, 13th March, 1896.

3,784.60

13,036.79

18,449.02

3,362.57

29,666.63

27,291.09

37,590.09

6,486.86

12,930.03

$186,970.87

A. M. THOMSON, Acting Colonial Treasurer.

PRAYA RECLAMATION FUND.

STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURE TO 31ST DECEMBER, 1895.

Expenditure in Expenditure in Expenditure in Expenditure in Expenditure in Expenditure in 1890.

1891.

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

Total

Expenditure.

Estimated

Cost.

Balance to be

spent.

Private Marine Lot Holders.

Section No. 1,

7,128.44

42,019.54

43,791.64

24,984.84

46,758.18

63,318.02

228,000.66

423,260.67

195,260.01

Section No. 2,

55,887.63

34,580.26

49,612.81

35,455.12

36,245.99

6,202.29

217,984.10

251,176.20

33,192.10

Section No. 3,

6,051.44

65,661.55

112,573.89

33,075.47

31,593.99

36,697.68

285,654.02

459,378.56

173,724.54

Section No. 4,

3,113.67

6,552.99

7,019.62

1,822.21

7,063.88

55,691.67

81,264.04

227,392.11

146,128.07

Section No. 5,

5,004.19

9,187.60

14,215.46

3,428.36

14,169.36

8,670.52

54,675.49

310,486.00

255,810.51

Section No. 6,

7,876.47

14,630.92

27,669.30

5,666.04

53,029.15

57,374.26

166,246.14

523,788.69

357,542.46

Section No. 7,

21,788.35

31,817.59

77,925.38

9,600.81

51,701.26

44,549.27

237,382.66

316,268.44

78,885.78

Total,..

$ 106,850.19

204,450,45

332,808.10

114,032.85

240,561.81

272,503.71

1,271,207.11

2,511,750.58

1,240,543.47

Government.

Section No. 4,

Section No. 5,

Section No. 6,

443.53

814.38

1,260.26

303.87

233.81

9,727.49

12,783.34

38,734.40

25,951.06

1,418.47

2,520.24

4,213.30

1,003.11

774.39

1,697.95

11,627.46

84,906.90

78,279.44

Section No. 7,

755.45

32,304.19

1,400.02

2,119.82

544.73

637.44

1,036.00

6,493.46

46,818.00

40,324.54

48,472.28

111,086.04

12,473.23

10,156,55

5,709,57

220,201.86

259,218.77

39,016.91

Total,....

$ 34,921.64

53,206.92

118,679.42

14,324,94

11,802.19

18,171.01

251,106.12

429,678.07

178,571.95

Grand Total,.......

$ 141,771.83

257,657,37

451,487.52

128,357.79

252,364.00

290,674.72 1,522,313.23

2,941,428.65 1,419,115.42

Hongkong, 13th March, 1896.

A. M. THOMSON,

Acting Colonial Treasurer.

149

}

No. 14.

HONGKONG.

FINANCIAL RETURNS FOR THE YEAR 1895.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of

His Excellency the Governor.

417

No.

25

96

TREASURY, 30th June, 1896.

SIR, I have the honour to transmit the following returns:-

* 1. Revenue and Expenditure for the year 1895.

* 2. Comparative Statement of Revenue and Expenditure for 1894 and 1895.

* 3. Return of Assets and Liabilities, 1895.

*

4.

Do.

Public Works Extraordinary chargeable against the Loan.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

The Honourable

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY,

gc.,

$.C.,

fc.

* Amen led.

A. M. THOMSON, Arting Treasurer.

COLONY OF HONGKONG.

RETURN OF REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE DURING THE YEAR ENDED

REVENUE.

Amount Estimated.

Total Revenue.

$

LIGHT DUES,

LICENCES AND INTERNAL REVENUE NOT OTHERWISE SPE-

CIFIED:

96,000

$ 107,315.91

C.

Arms Ordinance,.

200

230.00

Assessed Taxes,

370,000

404,105.75

30.00 34,105.75

...

Auctioneers' Licences,

1,800

2,100.00

300.00

Billiard Tables and Bowling Alleys Licences,

1,100

1,000.00

Boarding-house Licences,

175

2.193.75

2,018.75

Boat Licences,....

5,850

6,123.25

273.25

Cargo Boat Licences,

10,300

11,425.00

1,125.00

Carriage, Chair, &c., Licences,....

Chinese Passenger Ships Licences,

Chinese Undertakers' Licences,

Dog Licences,

40,000

42,308.00

2,308.00

400

325.00

75.00

160

160.00

2,500

2,370.50

129.50

Emigration Brokers' Licences,.. Fines,

1,200

1,000.00

200.00

22,150

36,229.03

14,079.03

Forfeitures,

1,150

4,149.06

2,999.06

Hawkers' Licences,

5,200

5,597.00

397.00

Junk Licences,

25,000

31,534.50

6,534.50

Marine Store Dealers' Licences,

900

2,745.00

1,845.00

Marriage Licences,

300

331.00

31.00

Money Changers' Licences,

540

535.00

5.00

Opium Monopoly,

295,133

295,133.34

.34

Pawnbrokers' Licences,..

39,000

39,000.00

...

Shooting Licences,

100

110.00

10.00

Spirit Licences,

67,500

65,143.50

2,356.50

Stamps,...

185,000

206,040.48

21,040.48

Steam-Launch Licences,

2,500

1,228.50

1,271.50

More than Less than Estimated. Estimated.

C. $ C.

11,315.91

100.00

EXPENDIT

Charge on Account of Public Debt Pensions,

Governor and Legislature,

Colonial Secretary's Department, Audit Department,..........

Treasury,

Public Works Department,. Post Office,

Registrar General's Department,

Harbour Master's Department,

Lighthouses,

Observatory,

Stamp Office,

Botanical and Afforestation Depar

Legal Departments,

Ecclesiastical,

Education,

Medical Departments,

Magistracy,

Police,

Gaols,......

Fire Brigade,

Sanitary Department, Charitable Allowances, Transport,

Miscellaneous Services,. Military Expenditure, Public Works Recurrent,

FEES OF COURT OR OFFICE, PAYMENTS FOR SPECIFIC PUR-

POSES, AND REIMBURSEMENTS IN AID :-

Bills of Health,

Births and Deaths, Registration of...

2.200 110

1,932.00

102.15

268.00 7.85

Cargo Boat Certificates,

1,600

1,951.00

Cemetery Burials,

600

Cemetery Fees from Public Cemeteries for Chinese,

2,200

968.21 1,475.60

351.00 368.21

724.40

...

Chinese Gazette, Sale of

50

45.00

5.00

Companies, Registration of

1,200

2,524.25

1,324.25

Convict Labour and other items,

Deeds, Registration of

3,000

4,726.75

1,726.75

Discharge of Crews and Seamen,

7,500

8,622.00

1,122.00

Examination of Masters, &C.,

2.090

2.020.00

70.00

Fecs of Court,

16,000

16,064.50

Fees on Grant of Leases,

400

870.00

64.50 470.00

Gaol Expenses,-Recovery from Diplomatic, Naval and Mi-

litary Departments, Seamen and Debtors,...

Gunpowder, Storage of......

3,800

Householders, Registration of

1,200

23,114.52 1,209.25

19,314.52 9.25

Imperial Post Office, Contribution from

Lock Hospital, Grant-in-Aid from Admiralty,

Medical Examination of Emigrants,

21,000

21,612.25

612.25

Medical Registration Fees,

10

10.00

Medical Treatment of Patients in the Civil Hospital,.

...

Official Administrator and Trustee,..

1,000

5,552.88

4,552.88

Official Signatures,..

300

Printed Forms, Sale of

100

Private Moorings and Buoys, Rent for

2,520

271.00 282.50 2,640.00

29.00

182.50 120.00

Queen's College, Fees from Scholars,

Registry Fees,

300

249.00

61.00

Refund of Police Pay,

...

Refund Cost of Police and other Stores,..

Shipping Crews and Seamen,.

8,500

9,716.40 1,216.40

Sick Stoppages from Police Force,

Steam-Launches, Surveyor's Certificate,

1,500

1,575.00

75.00

Subsistence Money of Seamen and others in Victoria Gaol,

Survey of Steam-Ships, .

10,000

9,240.21

759.79

School for Girls. Fees from Scholars,

...

Sunday Cargo-Working Permits,

7,000

Trade Marks, Registration of

900

11,600.00 562.64

4,600.00

337.36

POST OFFICE:—

Postage,..

185,000

244,449.71

59,449.71

F:

RENT OF GOVERNMENT PROPERTY, LAND AND HOUSES:-

Buildings,

360

Cattle Shed,.

Laundries,

Leased Lands,.

Lands not Leased,

2,580 330 200,000 6,088

Markets,

62.000

2,225.80 1.865.30 2,220.00 350.00 230,803.46 8,419.01 63.574.35

360.00

20.00

30.803.46

2,331.01

1,574.35

Piers...

3,500

4,367.09

Stone Quarries,

15,000

8,100.00

Slaughter House,

40,000

40,440.00

$67.09

440.00

6,900.00

Sheep and Pig Depôts,

12.000

INTEREST,

30,000

4.883.80 5,936.78

7.116.20 24,063.22

MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS:-

1000

0.020 2-

1024 X

COLONY OF HONGKONG.

E AND EXPENDITURE DURING THE YEAR ENDED 31ST DECEMBER, 1895.

Total

More than Less than

d. Revenue.

C.

$ 107,315.91

Estimated. Estimated.]

ረ.

$

C.

$ 11,315.91

EXPENDITURE.

Amount Total More than Less than Estimated. Expenditure. Estimated. Estimated.

$

230.00

30.00

404,105.75

34,105.75

2,100.00

300.00

1,000.00

100.00

2.193.75

2,018.75

Charge on Account of Public Debt, Pensions,

Governor and Legislature,

Colonial Secretary's Department,

Audit Department,........................

Treasury,

Public Works Department,.. Post Office,

114,710

$ 110,374.21

C.

$ C.

$ 4,335.79

C.

94,000

112,776.97 18.776.97

41,339

44,053.36

2,714.36

33,276

33,385.39

109.39

10,000

8,678.89

1,821.11

22,700

26,205.04

3,505.01

88,696

85,447.66

3,248.34

179,776

194.240.27

14,464.27

6,123.25

273.25

Registrar General's Department,

22,333

17,099.41

5,233.59

11.425.00

1,125.00

Harbour Master's Department,

62,321 68,256.24 5,935.24

42,308.00

2,308.00

Lighthouses,

15,388

15,563.34

175.34

325.00

75.00

Observatory,

13,237

13,433.55

196.55

160.00

Stamp Office,

4,328

4,027.40

300.60

2,370.50

129.50

Botanical and Afforestation Department,

18,770

17,346.83

1,423.17

1,000.00

200.00

Legal Departments,

68,882

78,754.83

9,872.83

36,229.03 14,079.03

Ecclesiastical,

2,200

1,830.00

370.00

4,149.06

2,999.06

Education,

64,170

60,140.24

4,029.76

5,597.00

397.00

Medical Departments,

65,994

74,291.62 8,297.62

31,534.50

6,534.50

Magistracy,

25,232

21,413.12

3,818.88

2,745.00

1,845.00

Police,

227,547

217,451.54

10,095.46

331.00

31.00

Gaols,...

54,951

51,125.66

3,825.34

535.00

5.00

Fire Brigade,

20,098

17,169.30

2,928.70

295,133.34

.34

Sanitary Department,

74,676

84,082.10 9,406.10

39,000.00

110.00

65,143.50

Charitable Allowances,

5,200

3,955.16

1,244.84

10.00

Transport,

2,000

4,743.65 2,743.65

2,356.50

Miscellaneous Services,

150,707

232,243.49 81,536.49

206,040.18 21,040.48

Military Expenditure,

396,000

366,156.71

29,843.29

1,228.50

1,271.50

Public Works Recurrent,

164,500

170,284.98 5,784.98

1,932.00

268.00

102.15

7.85

1,951.00

351.00

968.21

368.21

0

1,475.60

724.40

45.00

5.00

2,524.25 1,324.25

4,726.75

1,726.75

...

8,622.00 1,122.00

-0

2,020.00

70.00

0

16,064.50

64.50

870.00

470.00

0

23,114.52

0

1,209.25.

19,314.52 9.25

...

0

21,612.25

612.25

0

10.00

0

5,552.88

4,552.88

271.00

29.00

0

282.50

182.50

2,640.00

120.00

...

0

249.00

51.00

-0

9,716.40

1,216.40

20

1,575.00

75.00

00

9,240.21

759.79

...

70

11,600.00

4,600.00

50

562.64

337.36

00

244,449.71 59,449.71

30

10

Z z ŏ s š š ŏ8588

2,225.30 1,865.30 2,220.00

360.00

350.00

20.00

00 230,803.46 8,419.01

30,803.46

2,331.01

63.574.35

1,574.35

4,367.09 8,100.00

$67.09

6.900.00

00 40,440.00

440.00

30

4.883.80

30 5,936.78

7.116.20 24,063.22

- COV

وانات المان بالالبال

Marriage Licences,..

Money Changers' Licences,

Opium Monopoly,

Pawnbrokers' Licences,..

Shooting Licences,

Spirit Licences,

Stamps,..

Steam-Launch Licences,

FEES OF COURT OR OFFICE, PAYMENTS FOR SPECIFIC PUR-

POSES, AND REIMBURSEMENTS IN AID :-

5.00

I CO

Gaols,..

Fire Brigade,

Sanitary Department, Charitable Allowances, Transport,

Miscellaneous Services, Military Expenditure, Public Works Recurrent,

300

540

295,133

39,000

331.00 535.00 295,133.34 39,000.00

...

31.00

.34

100

67.500

185,000

2,500

110.00 65,143.50 206,040.48 1,228.50

10.00

2,356.50

21,040.48

1,271.50

Bills of Health,

Births and Deaths, Registration of..

2.200 110

Cargo Boat Certificates,

Cemetery Burials,

1,600 600

1,932.00 102.15 1,951.00

268.00 7.85

351.00

Cemetery Fees from Public Cemeteries for Chinese,

2,200

968.21 1,475.60

368.21

Chinese Gazette, Sale of

50

Companies, Registration of

1,200

45.00 2,524.25

724.40 5.00

1,324.25

Convict Labour and other items,

...

Deeds, Registration of

3,000

4,726.75

1,726.75

Discharge of Crews and Seamen,

7,500

8,622.00

1,122.00

Examination of Masters, &c.,

2.090

2,020.00

70.00

Fees of Court,

16,000

16,064.50

64.50

Fees on Grant of Leases,

400

870.00

470.00

::

Gaol Expenses,-Recovery from Diplomatic, Naval and Mi-

litary Departments, Seamen and Debtors,..

Gunpowder, Storage of......

3,800

Householders, Registration of

1,200

23,114.52 1,209.25

19,314.52

9.25

Imperial Post Office, Contribution from

...

Lock Hospital, Grant-in-Aid from Admiralty,

Medical Examination of Emigrants,

Medical Registration Fees,

Medical Treatment of Patients in the Civil Hospital,.

Official Administrator and Trustee,.....

Official Signatures,.................

Printed Forms, Sale of

Private Moorings and Buoys, Rent for

21,000

21,612.25

612.25

10

10.00

...

1,000

5,552.88

4,552.88

300

271.00

29.00

100

282.50

2,520

2,640.00

182.50 120.00

...

300

249.00

51.00

Queen's College, Fees from Scholars,

Registry Fees,

Refund of Police Pay,

...

Refund Cost of Police and other Stores,....

Shipping Crews and Seamen,.

8,500

9,716.40 1,216.40

Sick Stoppages from Police Force,

Steam-Launches, Surveyor's Certificate,

1,500

1,575.00

75.00

Subsistence Money of Seamen and others in Victoria Gaol,

Survey of Steam-Ships,.

10,000

9,240,21

769.79

School for Girls, Fees from Scholars,

...

Sunday Cargo-Working Permits,

7,000

11,600.00

4,600.00

Trade Marks, Registration of

900

562.64

337.36

POST OFFICE :—

Postage,......

RENT OF GOVERNMENT PROPERTY, LAND AND HOUSES:-

185,000

244,449.71 59,449.71

Buildings,

360

2,225.30 1,865.30

Cattle Shed,..

2,580

2,220.00

360.00

Laundries,

330

350.00

20.00

Leased Lands,.

200,000

230,803.46

30.803.46

Lands not Leased,

6,088

8,419.01

2,331.01

Markets,

62.000

63.574.35

1,574.35

Piers,.

3,500

4,367.09

$67.09

Stone Quarries,

15,000

8,100.00

6.900.00

Slaughter House,

40,000

40,440.00

440.00

Sheep and Pig Depôts,

12,000

4.883.80

INTEREST,

30,000

5,936.78

7.116.20 24,063.22

MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS:-

Condemned Stores, &c.,

1,000

2,032.35

1,032.35

Interest for use of Furniture at Government House,

150

144 40

5.60

Night Soil Contracts,

23,280

24,690.00

Other Miscellaneous Receipts,.

12,000

82,979.88

Profit on Subsidiary Coins,

80,000 152,600.88

1.410.00 70.979.88 72,600.88

TOTAL, exclusive of Land Sales and Water Account,...$ | 1,942,526 2,275,577.69 |377,896.61

44,844.92

LAND SALES,

WATER ACCOUNT-Ord. 16 of 1890,

61,000 130,471.79 69,471.79 76,000 80,179.41 4,179.41

Public Works, Extraordinary,

TOTAL,.....

2,079,526 *2,486,228.89 | 451,547.81

44,844.92

TOTA

* Not including appropriations in aid $49,047.55 which have been deducted from the Expenditure.

Public Works Extraordinary chargeable

Treasury, Hongkong, 30th June, 1896.

331.00 535.00

31.00

5.00

295,133.34

.34

39,000.00

110.00

10.00

65.143.50

2,356,50

206,040.48

21,040.48

1,228.50

1,271.50

Gaols,..

Fire Brigade,

Sanitary Department, Charitable Allowances, Transport,

Miscellaneous Services, Military Expenditure, Public Works Recurrent,

1,932.00

102.15

1,951.00

268.00 7.85

351.00

968.21

368.21

1,475.60

724.40

45.00

5.00

2,524.25 1,324.25

4,726.75

1,726.75

8.622.00

2,020.00

16,064.50

870.00

23,114.52

1,122.00

64.50 470.00

70.00

::

19,314.52

1,209.25

9.25

...

21,612,25

612.25

*10.00

5,552.88

4,552.88

271.00

29.00

282.50

182.50

2,640.00

120.00

249.00

$1.00

9,716.40

1,216.40

1,575.00

75.00

9,240,21

769.79

11,600.00

4,600.00

562.64

337.36

244,449,71

59,449.71

:

2,225.30

1.865.30

2,220.00 350.00

360.00

20.00

230,803.46

30.803.46

8,419.01

2,331.01

63.574.35

1,574.35

4,367.09

867.09

8,100.00

6.900.00

40,440.00

440.00

4.883.80

6,936.78

7.116.20 24,063.22

2,032.35

1,032.35

144 40

5.60

24.690.00

82,979.88

152,600.88

1,410,00 70.979.88 72,600.88

275,577.69377,896.61

44,844.92

130,471,79 69,471.79

Public Works, Extraordinary,

80,179.41 4,179.41

,486,228.89451,547.81

from the Expenditure.

44,844.92

51,951 51,125.66

20,098

17,169.30

3,825.34 2,928.70

74,676

84,082.10

9,406.10

5,200

3,955.16

1,244.84

2,000

4,743.65 2,743.65

150,707 232.243.49 81,536.49

396,000 366,156.71 164,500 170,284.98 5,784.98

29,843.29

2,043,031 | 2,131,530.96 | 163,518.83 72,018.87

24,670

841,626.65 816,956.65

TOTAL,

2,067,701 2,976,157.61 | 980,475.48

72,018.87

Public Works Extraordinary chargeable against the New Loan, $

318,500 183,186.27

135,313,73

A. M. THOMSON,

Acting Colonial Treasurer.

419

COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF THE REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE OF THE COLON

REVENUE.

1894.

1895.

INCREASE.

DECREASE.

EXPENDITURE

C.

200.00

4,415.63

6.40

Charge on Account of Public Debt,.. Pensions,.

Governor and Legislature,

Colonial Secretary's Department,

Audit Department,

Treasury,

Public Works Department,

Post Office,.

Registrar General's Department,..

Harbour Master's Department,

Lighthouses,..

Observatory,

Stamp Office,

Botanical and Afforestation Departn

Legal Departments,

Ecclesiastical Department,

Education,

Medical Departments, Magistracy,

Police, Gaols,.....

Fire Brigade...... Sanitary Department, Charitable Allowances, Transport,.......

Miscellaneous Services, Military Expenditure, Public Works, Recurrent, Public Works, Extraordinary,

C.

C.

C.

LIGHT DUES,

LICENCES AND INTERNAL REVENUE NOT OTHERWISE

92,909.31

107,815.91

14,406.60

SPECIFIED —

Arms Ordinance,..

140.00

Assessed Taxes,

394,424.43

230.00 404,105.75

90.00

Auctioneers' Licences,

1,500.00

2,100.00

9,681,32 600.00

Billiard Tables and Bowling Alleys Licences,

850.00

1,000.00

150,00

Boarding House Licences,

175.00

2,193.75

2,018.75

Boat Licences,..

6,151.00

6,128.25

27.75

Cargo Boat Licences,

10,038.00

11,425.00

1,387.00

Carriage, Chair, &c., Licences,

39,436.55

42,308.00

2,871.45

Chinese Passenger Ships Licences,

260.00

325.00

65.00

Chinese Undertakers' Licences,

160.00

160.00

Dog Licences,

2,737.50

2,370.50

367.00

Emigration Brokers' Licences,.

1,200.00

1,000.00

Fines,

22,055.80

36,229.03

14,173.23

Forfeitures,

8,564.69

4,149.06

Hawkers' Licences,...

4,723.50

5,597.00

873.50

Junk Licences,

25,147.55

31,534.50

6,386.95

Marine Store Dealers' Licences,

930.00

2,745.00

1,815.00

...

Marriage Licences, .

121.00

331.00

210.00

Money Changers' Licences,

545.00

535.00

10.00

Opium Monopoly,....

340,800.00

295,133.34

45,666.66

Pawnbrokers' Licences,.

14,700.00

39,000.00

24.300.00

Shooting Licences,

130.00

110.00

20.00

Spirit Licences,

49,348.00

65,143.50

Stamps,...

169,039.55

206,040.48

15,795.50 37,000,93

Steam-launch Licences...

2,785.75

1,228.50

1,557.25

FEES OF COURT OR OFFICE, PAYMENTS FOR SPECIFIC

PURPOSES. AND REIMBURSEMENTS IN AID :-

Bills of Health...

1,917.00

1,932.00

15.00

Births and Deaths, Registration of..

108.55

102.15

...

Cargo Boat Certificates,.

1,786.00

Cemetery Burials,

588.35

1,951.00 968.21

165.00 379.86

...

Cemetery Fees from Public Cemeteries for Chinese,

1,753.90

1,475.60

Chinese Gazette, Sale of..

46.00

45.00

278.30 1.00

Companies. Registration of

1,220.75

2,524.25

1,303.50

Convict Labour and other items,

3.467.51

3,467.54

Deeds, Registration of

3,016.00

4,726.75

1,710.75

Discharge of Crews and Seamen,

7.772.40

8,622.00

849.60

Examination of Masters, &c.,.

1,832.50

2,020.00

Fees of Court,

14,643.13

16,064.50

Fees on Grant of Leases,.

605.00

870.00

187.50 1,421.37 265.00

Gaol Expenses,-Recovery from Diplomatic, Naval, and

Military Departments, Seamen and Debtors,

900,25

900.25

Gunpowder, Storage of

10,214.03

Householders, Registration of

1,229.00

23,114.52 1,209.25

...

12,900.49

Imperial Post Office, Contribution from

8,421.45

...

19.75 8,421.45

Lock Hospital, Grant-in-Aid from Admiralty,

951.41

951.41

Medical Examination of Emigrants,

15,028.50

21,612.25

6,583.75

Medical Treatment of Patients in the Civil Hospital,....

15,890.66

15,890.66

Maintenance of Gap Rock Lighthouse,--Contribution

from Chinese Imperial Government towards the...

750.00

750.00

Official Administrator and Trustee,..

884.88

5,552.88

4,668.00

Official Signatures,..

257.00

271.00

14.00

Printed Forms, Sale of

133.50

282.50

149.00

Private Moorings and Buoys, Rent for.

2,520.00

2,640.00

120.00

Queen's College, Fees from Scholars,

11,562.00

11,562.00

Registry Fees,

353.00

249.00

104.00

...

Refund of Police Pay,

1,628.88

1,628.88

...

Refund Cost of l'olice and other Stores,..

1,187.73

...

1,187.73

Shipping Crews and Seamen,

8,744.20

9,716.40

972.20

Sick Stoppages from l'olice Force,

891.14

891.14

...

Steam-launches, Surveyor's Certificate.

1,755.00

1,575.00

180.00

Subsistence Money of Seamen and others in Victoria

Gaol,

262.75

262.75

Survey of Steam-ships,

9,286.43

9,240.21

46.22

School for Girls, Fees from Scholars,

Sunday Cargo-Working Permits,..

Trade Marks, Registration of

329.00 13,250.00 852.30

329.00

11,600.00

1,650.00

562.64

289.66

POST OFFICE :—

Postage,

192,172.42

244,449.71

52,277.29

RENT OF GOVERNMENT PROPERTY, LAND AND HOUSES:

Buildings,

1,283.00

Cattle Shed,

Laundries,

2,580.00 320.00

2.225.30 2,220.00 350.00

942.30

360.00

Leased Lands,

Lands not Leased,

228,555.67 7,571.45

230,803.46

30.00 2,247.79

...

8,419.01

847.56

Markets,

55,578.81

63,574.35

7.995.54

Piers,

4,261.29

4,367.09

105.80

Stone Quarries,

15,250.00

8,100.00

Slaughter House,..

40,584.00 40,440.00

Sheep and Pig Depôts,

4.883.80

4,883.80

INTEREST. .

37,051.95

5,936.78

7,150.00 144.00

31,115.17

MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS :—

Condemned Stores, &c.,

1,531.56

2,032.35

500.79

Interest for use of Furniture at Government House,.

368.10

144.40

223.70

Night Soil Contracts,

23,280,00

24,690.00

1,410.00

Other Miscellaneous Receipts,...

50,428.07

82.979 88

32.551.81

HE REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE OF THE COLONY OF HONGKONG IN 1894 & 1895.

1895.

INCREASE.

DECREASE,

EXPENDITURE.

1894.

1895.

INCREASE.

DECREASE.

C.

C.

c.

C.

$ C.

C.

7,315.91

14,406.60

Charge on Account of Public Debt,..

221.812.64

110,874.21

111,438.43

Pensions,.

100,077,28

112.776.97

12,699.69

Governor and Legislature,

44.401.76

44,453.36

230,00

04,105.75

2,100.00

90.00 9,681,32

600.00

Colonial Secretary's Department,

37,453.04

33,385.39

...

Audit Department,

9,343.39

8,678.89

348.40 4,067.65 664,50

Treasury,

23,287.05

26,205.04

1,000.00

150.00

2,917.99

Public Works Department,

85,956.36

85,447.66

2,193.75

508.70

2,018.75

Post Office,.

183,352.15

194,240.27

10,888.12

6,123.25

27.75

Registrar General's Department,.

23,185.21

17,099.41

11,425.00

1,387.00

6,085.80

Harbour Master's Department,

60,819.71

68,256.24

12,308.00

2,871.45

7,436.53

Lighthouses,..

14,657.73

15,563.34

905.61

325.00

65.00

Observatory,

18.653.79

13,433.55

160.00

220.24

2,370.50

367.00

Stamp Office,

4,351.40

4,027.40

324.00

Botanical and Afforestation Department,

24,637.21

17,846.83

1,000.00

200.00

7,290.38

Legal Departments,

75,619.30

78,754.83

36,229.03

14,173.23

3,135.53

Ecclesiastical Department,

1,840.00

1,830.00

4,149.06

10.00

4,415.63

Education,

79,262.95

60,140.24

5,597.00

873.50

19,122.71

Medical Departments,

84.143.05

74,291.62

31,534.50

6,386.95

9,851.43

Magistracy,

22,184.96

21,413,12

2,745.00

1,815,00

771.84

331.00

210.00

535,00

10.00

Fire Brigade,

5,133.34

45,666.66

$9,000.00

24.300.00

110.00

20.00

15,143.50

06,040.48

15,795.50 37,000.93

1,228.50

1,557.25

Police,

Gaols,....

Sanitary Department,

Charitable Allowances,

Transport,.

Miscellaneous Services,

Military Expenditure, . Public Works, Recurrent, Public Works, Extraordinary,

381,127.13

218,208.68

217,451.54

757.14

55.695.29

51.125.66

4,569.63

20,367.72 17,169.30

3,198.42

61,566.36

84,082,10

22,515.74

4,973.47

3,955.16

1,018.31

1,927.31

4,743.65

2,816.34

277,329.00

232.243.49

45,085,51

366,156.71

14,970.42

155,358,71 170,284.98

14,926.27

12,503.35 $41,626,65

829,123.30

1,932.00

102.15

**

15.00

6.40

1,951.00 968.21

1,475.60

165.00 379.86

278.30

45.00 2,524.25

1.00

1,303.50

...

3,467.54

4,726.75

1,710.75

8.622.00

849.60

2,020.00

187.50

-6,064.50

1,421.37

870.00

265.00

900.25

23,114.52 1,209.25

12,900.49

19.75 8,421.45

951.41

21,612.25

6,583.75

16,890.66

750.00

5,552.88

4,668.00

271.00

14.00

282.50

149.00

2,640.00

120.00

...

11,562.00

219.00

104.00

***

1,628.88

1,187.73

9,716.40

972.20

891.14

1,575.00

180.00

262.75

9,240.21

46.22

329.00

1,600.00

1,650.00

562.64

289.66

4,449.71

52,277,29

2.225.30

942.30

2,220.00

360.00

30,803.46

350.00

...

30.00 2,247.79

8,419.01

847.56

33,574.35

7,995.54

4,367.09

105.80

8,100.00

7,150.00

10,440.00

144.00

4.883.80

4,883.80

5,936.78

31,115.17

2,032.35

500.79

144.40

24,690.00

32.979 88

32,551,81

223.70

1,410.00

Pawnbrokers' Licences,..

Shooting Licences,

14,700.00 130.00

39,000.00

24.300.00

Spirit Licences,

49,348.00

110.00 65,143.50

20.00

Stamps,..

169,039.55

206,040.48

15,795.50 37,000.93

Steam-launch Licences..

2,785.75

1,228.50

1,557,25

FEES OF COURT OR OFFICE, PAYMENTS FOR SPECIFIC

PURPOSES. AND REIMBURSEMENTS IN AID:-

Charitable Allowances, Transport,...

Miscellaneous Services, Military Expenditure, Public Works, Recurrent, Public Works, Extraordinary,

Bills of Health..

1,917.00

1,932.00

15.00

Births and Deaths, Registration of..

108.55

102.15

6.40

Cargo Boat Certificates,.

1,786.00

1,951.00

165.00

Cemetery Burials,

588.35

968.21

379.86

Cemetery Fees from Public Cemeteries for Chinese,

1,753.90

1,475.60

278.30

Chinese Gazette. Sale of

46.00

45.00

1.00

Companies. Registration of

1,220.75

2,524.25

1,303.50

Convict Labour and other items,

3.467.51

3,467.51

Deeds, Registration of

3,016.00

4,726.75

1,710.75

Discharge of Crews and Seamen,

7,772.40

8,622.00

849.60

Examination of Masters, &C.,.

1,832.50

2,020.00

187.50

Fees of Court,

14,643.13

16,064.50

1,421.37

Gunpowder, Storage of

Fees on Grant of Leases,.

Gaol Expenses,-Recovery from Diplomatic, Naval, and

Military Departments, Seamen and Debtors,

Householders, Registration of

Imperial Post Office, Contribution from

605.00

870.00

265.00

900.25

900.25

10,214.03

23,114.52

12,900.49

1,229.00

1,209.25

8,421,45

19.75 8,421.45

Lock Hospital, Grant-in-Aid from Admiralty,

951.41

951.41

Medical Examination of Emigrants,

15,028.50

21,612.25

6,583.75

Medical Treatment of Patients in the Civil Hospital,...

15,890.66

16,890.66

Maintenance of Gap Rock Lighthouse,-Contribution

Official Administrator and Trustee,...

from Chinese Imperial Government towards the...

Official Signatures,

750.00

750.00

884.88

5,552.88

4,668.00

257.00

271.00

14.00

Printed Forms, Sale of

133,50

282.50

149.00

Private Moorings and Buoys, Rent for.

2,520.00

2,640.00

120,00

Queen's College, Fees from Scholars,

11,562.00

11,562.00

Registry Fees,

353.00

249.00

104.00

Refund of Police Pay,

1,628.88

1,628.88

Refund Cost of l'olice and other Stores,..

1,187.73

1,187.73

Shipping Crews and Seamen,

8,744.20

9,716.40

972.20

Sick Stoppages from Police Force,

89).14

891.14

Steam-launches, Surveyor's Certificate.

1,755.00

1,575.00

180.00

Subsistence Money of Seamen and others in Victoria

Gaol,

262.75

262.75

Survey of Steam-ships,

9,286.43

9,240.21

46.22

School for Girls, Fees from Scholars,

329.00

329.00

Sunday Cargo-Working Permits,.

13,250.00

11,600.00

Trade Marks, Registration of

852.30

562.64

1,650.00 289.66

POST OFFICE :—

Postage,

192,172.42

244,449.71

52,277.29

RENT OF GOVERNMENT PROPERTY, LAND AND HOUSES:

Buildings,

1,283.00

Cattle Shed,.

2,580.00

Laundries,

320.00

2.225.30 2,220.00 350.00

942.30

...

360.00

Leased Lands,

228,555.67

230,803.46

Lands not Leased,

7,571.45

8,419.01

30.00 2,247.79 847,56

Markets,

55,578.81

63,574.35

7,995.54

Piers,

4,261.29

4,367.09

105.80

Stone Quarries,

15,250.00

8,100.00

Slaughter House,...

40,584.00

40,440.00

7,150.00 144.00

Sheep and Pig Depôts,

4.883.80

4,883.80

INTEREST,

37,051.95

5,936.78

31,115.17

MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS :-

Condemned Stores, &c.,

1,531.56

2,032.35

500.79

Interest for use of Furniture at Government House,

368.10

144.40

223.70

Night Soil Contracts,

23,280,00

24,690.00

1,410.00

Other Miscellaneous Receipts,

50,428.07

82.979 83

32,551,81

Profit on Subsidiary Coins,..

133,824.13

152,600.88

18,776.75

TOTAL exclusive of Land Sales & Water Account,.| 2,129,553.31 | 2,275,577.69

286,099.68

140,075.30

LAND SALES,

WATER ACCOUNT,

71,294.38 77,680.56

130.471.79 80,179.41

59,177.41 2,498.85

TOTAL,.....

2,278,528.25*2,486,228.89

347,775.94 140,075.30

To

Deduct Decrease,

Nett Increase,

Treasury, Hongkong, 30th June, 1896.

140,075.30

207,700.64

* Not including Appropriations in Aid $19,047.55 which have been deducted from the

000.00 110.00 143.50

040.48

24.300.00

15,795.50 37,000.93

Charitable Allowances,

4.973.47

3,955.16

20.00

1,018.31

Transport,.

1,927.31

4.718.65

2,816.34

Miscellaneous Services,

277,829.00

232.243.49

45,085,51

Military Expenditure,

381,127.13

366,156.71

228.50

1,557.25

14,970.42

Public Works, Recurrent,

155,358.71

170,284.98

14,926.27

Public Works, Extraordinary,

12,503.35 $41,626.65

829,123.30

932.00

15.00

102.15

6.40

951.00

165.00

968.21

379.86

475.60

45.00

278.30 1.00

.524.25

1,303.50

A

3,467.54

.726.75

1,710.75

.622.00

849.60

,020.00

187.50

,064.50

1,421.37

870.00

265.00

900.25

,114.52

12,900.49

,209.25

19.75

8,421.45

951.41

,612.25

6,583.75

15,890.66

750.00

,,552.88 271.00

4,668.00

14.00

282.50

149.00

,640.00

120.00

11,562.00

249.00

104.00

1,628.88

1,187.73

,716.40

,575.00

972.20

891.14

180.00

262.75

1,240.21

46.22

...

329.00

1,600.00 562.64

1,650.00

289.66

1,449.71

52,277,29

2.225.30

942.30

360.00

1,803.46

3,419.01

1,220.00

350.00

...

30.00

2,247.79 847.56

3,574.35

7,995.54

1,367.09

105.80

3,100.00

7,150.00

0,440.00

144.00

...

1.883.80

4,883.80

5,986.78

31,115.17

2,032.35 144.40

1,690.00

500.79

223.70

1,410.00

2.979 88

32,551,81

2,600.88

18,776.75

5,577.69 286,099.68 140,075.30

0.471.79 59,177.41

0,179.41

2,498.85

36,228.89 347,775.94

140,075.30

TOTAL,.....

140,075.30

207,700.64

2,299,096,002,976,157.61 907,365.12

Deduct Decrease,

Nett Increase,

ling Appropriations in Aid $49,047.55 which have been deducted from the Expenditure.

230,303.51

677,061.61

230,303.51

.

1

ASSETS.

Subsidiary Coins,

ASSETS AND LIABILITIES,

ON THE 31ST DECEMBER, 1895.

421

C.

LIABILITIES,

573,000.00 Military Contribution,

Deposits not available,......

(.

59,015.44

11,523.61

Deposit in England at call,.....

·

211,334.89 Praya Reclamation Deposit Account,

186,000.00

Do.

Contribution,......

!

40,000.00

Balance in hands of Crown Agents,

107,154.69 Refund of Taxes,

3,350.00

Officers' Remittances, not yet paid,

1,274.04

Arrears of Taxes,

1,714.81 Money Orders, not yet paid,.

5,942.33

Transit Charges,.........

4,100.00

Arrears of Crown Rent,

50,002.00 Pensions due to Civil Officers,

11,780.00

Do. to Police,

8,750.00

Advances to be recovered,.

29,147.60

Balance overdrawn,

83,243.73

TOTAL LIABILITIES,......$

414,980.10

Balance,

557,375.89

TOTAL ASSETS.......$ 972,358.99

Balance of 1893 Loan,.... Less Balance of Assets and Liabilities,

Treasury, Hongkong, 30th June, 1896.

1895.

972,353.99

.$733,006.88 557,873.89

$175,692.90

A. M. THOMSON, Acting Colonial Treasurer,

PUBLIC WORKS EXTRAORDINARY CHARGEABLE AGAINST THE NEW LOAN.

Central Market,

Slaughter-House, Sheep and Pig Depôts,

Gaol Extension,

New Water Maius,

Sewerage of Victoria,

Water Supply, Kowloon Peninsula,

Tytam Water Works Extension,..

Kowloon Cattle Depôt,....

Village Water, Drainage and Sewerage Works,

Treasury, Hongkong, 30th June, 1896.

$34,873.19

13,036.79

18,449.02

3,362.57

29,666.62

27,291.09

37,590.00

6,486.85

12,930.03

$188,186.27

A. M. THOMSON,

Acting Colonial Treasurer.

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE ACTING SUPERINTENDENT OF FIRE BRIGADE FOR 1895.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of

His Excellency the Governor,

63

2

No. 96

FIRE BRIGADE DEPARTMENT,

HONGKONG, 27th January, 1896.

SIR, Herewith I have the honour to forward the annual return of fires and fire alarms for the year 1895.

During six months of the year the supply of fresh water was cut off, being turned on only on an alarm of fire and its use dispensed with as soon as salt water was obtained.

The amount of coal used by the Brigade during 1895 was 29 tons as against 13 in 1894.

The floating fire engine used 191⁄2 tons flushing drains in April, working at fires, (on one occasion for two days at a fire on board the Wandering Jew, American ship) going and coming from shelter at Causeway Bay during typhoon season, and keeping up steam day and night whilst the water was

cut off.

There were 35 fires in 1895 as against 29 in 1894:-

1894.

1895.

No of buildings destroyed

No of buildings destroyed

Estimated Damage.

Estimated

Damage.

Wholly.

Partly.

Wholly.

Partly.

22

31

$323,650

23

33

$ 297,980

and one Ship damaged by fire.

There were 87 incipient fires in 1895 as against 106 in 1894.

Damage.

1894.

$8,432.50

1895.

$788.25

List of places where Fire Despatch boxes are located and copy of Mr. KINGHORN's report on the state of the Engines attached.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

WM. C. H. HASTINGS, Acting Superintendent, Fire Brigade.

The Honourable J. H. STEWART LOCKHART,

Colonial Secretary.

64

1. No. 1 Police Station.

List of places where Fire Despatch Boxes are located.

2. Engine House in Wanchai Road.

3. Engine House in Albany Street. 4. Royal Naval Yard.

5. Government Offices.

6. Government House.

7. House No. 7, Queen's Gardens. 8. Clock Tower.

9. Central Fire Brigade Station (4). 10. Central Police Station.

11. No. 9 Police Station.

12. House No. 1 Seymour Terrace. 13. Man Mo Temple.

14. Nam Pak Hong Engine House in Bonham

Strand.

15. Ko Shing Theatre.

16. Government Civil Hospital. 17. No. 7 Police Station.

18. The Gas Works Premises.

WM. C. H. HASTINGS, Acting Superintendent, Fire Brigade.

HONGKONG, 23rd January, 1896.

SIR, I have the honour to forward herewith a report on the state of the Government Fire Engines for the year ending 31st December 1895.

STEAMER No. 1.

(Floating Engine by Merryweather & Sons.)

This Engine has been 28 years in service (the Boiler one year). Since the beginning of the dry season in October last it has been almost continually under steam, and did some hard work at the fire on the Wandering Jew; it has also done some good work by feeding the land engines at several fires, and it is now in good order.

STEAMER No. 2.

(Land Engine by Shand & Mason.)

This Engine has been 17 years in service and is now stationed at Wanchai; it has been regularly tested at the monthly drills for drivers, and is now in good working order.

STEAMER NO. 3.

(Land Engine by Shund & Mason.)

This Engine has been 17 years in service. It has been mostly kept as reserve and used in relieving the other engines when required. It is now in good working order.

STEAMER No. 4.

(Land Engine by Shand & Mason.)

This Engine has been 14 years in service. In the month of April last, while working at a fire in Queen Street the top of the discharge air-vessel was fractured and had to be renewed, the time occupied by the repairs was three days.

Since then it has done good service at fires and is now in good working order.

STEAMER No. 5.

(Land Engine by Shand & Mason.)

This Engine has been 10 years in service. It has done some good work during the year, has not been disabled at a fire and is now in good working order.

The Assistant Engineer and Drivers have given every attention to their duties.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

The Honourable W. C. H. HASTINGS, R.N.,

Acting Supt., Govt. Fire Brigade.

JOHN W. KINGHORN, Engineer, Govt. Fire Brigade.

No.

DATE.

TIME.

INCIPIENT FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1895.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

ESTIMATED

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

1

Jan.

5 a.m.

7

10.10 p.m.

House No. 24, East Street,

House No. 21, Circular Pathway,

Unknown.

$10

""

""

10

11 p.m.

House No. 11, Old Bailey Street,

11

""

14

دو

18

4 a.m.

8.45 a.m.

7.55 p.m.

Grass Stack at Stanley,

$50

House No. 134, Third Street,..

Trifling

Chimney on fire.

Unknown.

Accidental.

19

""

8

23

11.50 p.m.

""

9

28

9 a.m.

House No. 306, Queen's Road West,........ House No. 120, Station Street, Yau Ma Ti, House No. 17, Bulkeley St., Yau Ma Ti, Grass on Hillside near Tin Wan,

Falling of a kerosine lamp.

"

>>

Accidental.

Unknown.

""

""

10

30

""

1 p.m.

Grass on Hillside at Aberdeen,

11 Feb.

6.45 p.m.

House No. 40, Praya Central,...

Trifling

12

2

12.30 p.m.

Kennedy's Horse Repository, Causeway Bay,

$40

""

13

22

""

4 p.m.

House No. 31, First Street,....

14

23

7.30 p.m.

Grass on Hillside at Kai Lung Wan,...

>>

Upsetting of a kerosine lamp.

Children playing with fire.

Accidental.

Unknown.

}}

15

26

8.30 p.m.

House No. 12, Knutsford Terrace, British Kowloon,.

"}

""

16

26

2 p.m.

Grass on Hillside at Aplichan,

""

""

17

March 3

18

7.30 a.m.

1.20 p.m.

House No. 37, Station St., Yau Ma Ti,

$2

Accidental.

>>

19

10.15 a.m.

Grass on Hillside at Little Hongkong, House No. 3, Seymour Terrace,

...

}}

20

17

7.30 p.m.

Matshed at Sai Wan Ho,........

21

22 April 10

22

6 p.m.

Grass on Hillside near Shek 0,

:

Grass on Hillside at Little Hongkong,

W

23

10

3 p.m.

Grass on Hillside at Stanley,

"}

24

13

1.30 p.m.

>>

25

21

3.30 p.m.

Grass on Hillside near Tung Lo Wan, Grass on Hillside at Coffee Plantation,

"}

26

21

""

A

10.45 p.m.

Matshed at Quarry Bay,.

$230

27

28

وو

9.30 p.m.

House No. 2, Cochrane Street,

28

29

30

May

""

>>

1

5.15 a.m.

House No. 145, Winglok Street,

$100

2

7.5 p.m.

4

2.30 p.m.

House No. 376, Queen's Road West,. House No. 4, Tai Wo Street,

31

14

2 p.m.

32

20

"

9 p.m.

33

as as a 20 0

June

5

9.30 p.m.

34

19

4.30 a.m.

Grass on Hillside at Tai Tam Tuk, House No. 50, Wellington Street, Kitchen of No. 197, Queen's Road West, House No. 19, Sai Wo Lane,

...

""

35

22

19

6.30 p.m.

House No. 141, Winglok Street,

$10

36

28

10 p.m.

وو

37

31

Midnight.

House No. 233, Queen's Road Central, Matshed No. 20, Ho Mun Tin, Yau Ma Ti,

Trifling

Unknown,

""

388

38 July

7

8.45 p.m.

House No. 378, Queen's Road Central,....

39

17

2.30 a.m.

House No. 122, Queen's Road East,

Trifling

Trifling

Unknown.

Overheating of flue.

Upsetting of a lantern.

Unknown.

""

>>

Burning of joss paper while worshipping at graves. Unknown.

""

Chimney on fire.

Unknown.

Upsetting of a kerosine lamp.

Accidental.

Unknown,

Sparks from the chimney of adjoining kitchen. Sparks from a candle,

Carelessness with a lighted cigar,

Incendiarism,

Unknown,

..་

Sparks from the adjoining cook-house,

A large number of trees destroyed. False alarm.

A number of hemp bags damaged. Insured in Northern Fire Insurance Office for $4,000.

Some clothes caught fire.

One tin of kerosine was found on the roof of the matshed and one on the ground floor of the shed apparently having been fired by a slow match. A man named Lam Pat was badly burnt about the face and body. One man and one woman were arrested in connection with this case. Man got 2 years hard labour and the woman was discharged.

Some mat bags took fire in the back part of the shop.

Insured in the Mitsui Bussan Kaisha Co. for $1,500.

65:

No. DATE.

TIME.

INCIPIENT FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1895,-Continued.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

ESTIMATED

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

66

25.

وو

10.50 p.m.

40 | July 24

41

2.45 a.m.

House No. 203, Queen's Road West, House No. 15, Western Street,

42

28

House No. 40, Winglok Street,

""

43

29

7.30 a.m.

House No. 76, Praya East,

>>

44

31

12.15 a.m.

House No. 371, Queen's Road Central,

""

46

46

O AAR BA

Aug.

1

1 a.m.

9

23

6.30 p.m.

A pile of shavings at No. 33, Centre Street,.. House No. 254, Queen's Road West,

$20

47

9

دو

3.30 p.m.

Partition of No. 6, Possession Street,

Trifling

48

19 10 p.m.

House No. 15, Hillier Street,

49 Sept.

3

7.10 p.m.

Bedding, and curtain at No. 13, Elgin Street,

$10

50

6

""

11.15 p.m.

House No. 185, Queen's Road Central,

51

52

0800 80 000

13

53

20

""

54

35

222 2

10 10.20 p.m.

4 a.m.

First floor of No. 8, Leung Ü Fong,

Bed curtains at No. 44, Station Street,

$8

3.30 p.m.

The ends of the beams of roof of No. 246, Queen's Road West,

$5

55

56

57

58

59

AAAA

20

""

2222

19

20

20 10.20

Oct. 6

7 p.m.

8.30 p.m.

5.30 p.m.

p.m.

House No. 1, Tak Hing Alley,

Trifling

Mosquito curtain at No. 20, Pokfulam Road,

$1.50

Accidental,

House No. 14, Gage Street,

...

Cotton screen at No. 42, Second Street,

$3

20

11.30 p.m.

2.10 a.m.

Partition of cook-houses Nos. 83 & 85, High Street,..

Wharf,

+

60

61

62

223328

21

8 p.m.

"Fairlea," Bonham Road,

Nov.

2

11.30 a.m.

4.

""

4 p.m.

House No. 30, Cross Street,

63

5

"}

64

11

""

4 a.m.

6.20 p.m.

Cargo boat No. 172, Victoria Harbour,

House No. 201, Hollywood Road,

65

13

>"

10.45 p.m.

House No. 51, Queen's Road East,

Trifling

$5

Trifling

""

66

67

88 38

"}

""

68

69

"

22 83

15

20

23

11.15 p.m.

11.30 a.m.

"Hang Fa Lau" No. 325, Queen's Road Central, House No. 89, Wanchai Road,

""

Child playing with fire,

""

A matshed at To Kwa Wan,

$10

Burning of joss paper,

""

25

70

Dec.

11.45 a.m.

6.10 p.m.

71

7

5.5 p.m.

Chimney at Hongkong Dispensary, House No. 50, Queen's Road West, House No. 57, Queen's Road East,

Ignition of soot,..............

Trifling

Attempted arson,

""

Sparks from cook-house,

On board the marriage boat No. 1,526, off Yau Ma Ti

Grass on the Hillside near Wanchai Gap,

75 cents.

$8

Accidental.

Carelessness with joss sticks,

"}

Overheating of chimney, Explosion of kerosine lamp,.

Chimney on fire,

Falling of a kerosine lamp, Accidental,.

Overheating of an oven, Chimney on fire,

Chimney on fire,

Child playing with fire, Unknown,

Accidental,.

Exploding of a kerosine lamp. Unknown,

Child playing with fire, Faulty cooking arrangement,

Bursting of a kerosine lamp, Unknown,

Sparks from chimney,

Extinguished

McEwen.

by

Sanitary

Extinguished by the inmates.

"

Inspector

Extinguished by Police Sergeant-Major and inmates.

The Brigade turned out, and it was extin- guished by firemen.

Extinguished by occupants. Extinguished by Police.

Extinguished by Police Sergeant 80 Moffatt. Extinguished by inmates.

Extinguished by Chinese Constable 311 and occupants.

Put out by inmates.

Put out by Police and occupants. Extinguished by the occupants.

Extinguished by Police and Water Boat.

Extinguished by Police and coolies. Extinguished by Police and inmates. Extinguished by occupauts.

Extinguished by occupants.

Extinguished by occupants and Chinese Constable 179.

Extinguished by occupants and Police. Extinguished by occupants and Police Con-

stable 50.

Extinguished by Police Sergeant 17 and

villagers.

Extinguished by firemen. Extinguished by inmates.

Trifling

Unknown.

Some shavings on the roof caught fire through sparks falling on them from a neighbouring flue. Igniting of a small quantity of kerosine thrown on the cook-house floor. Spontaneous combustion,

...

Incendiarism,

No insurance effected.

A quantity of paper saturated with kerosine and a bundle of matches were found under the cockloft stairs-also a rope had been made fast to the verandah of 1st floor as a means of escape. Five men were arrested for the offence but were discharged.

No. DATE.

TIME.

INCIPIENT FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1895,—Continued.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

ESTIMATED

CAUSE.

DAMAGE.

Trifling

Sparks from cook-house,

Accidental,..

35

Unknown, ....

Worshipping at graves,

Carelessness with lighted tobacco.

Unknown.

Falling of a lamp, .

Unknown,

Burning of joss paper. Unknown,

REMARKS.

Extinguished by inmates. Put out by Police and inmates. Put out by Police and coolies.

A large number of trees were damaged.

Insured in the Queen Fire Insurance Co. for $5,000.

A number of trees were damaged.

Extinguished by Police Sergeant 80 and a gang of coolies.

Put out by Police.

Put out by Police and inmates.

One man was arrested for the offence but was discharged.

Chimney on fire,

Accident with a lamp. Attempted arson,

Chimney on fire.

WM. C. H. HASTINGS, Acting Supt., Fire Brigade.

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

81

23460K 80

72 Dec. 10

House No. 2, Cameron Villas,

14

9.40 p.m.

House No. 112, Shau Ki Wan,

"1

14

Noon.

Grass on the Hillside above Aberdeen Road,

""

18

3 p.m.

""

18

>>

8 p.m.

Grass on Hillside above Shallow Water Bay, House No. 10, Graham Street,

...

19

12.20 p.m.

""

21

>>

9 p.m.

Grass above Kennedy Road, House No. 11, D'Aguilar Street,

$100

21

>>

23

"}

288

2 p.m.

10.20 a.m.

23 2.15 p.m.

Grass on Hillside at Stanley Military Cemetery, House No. 305, Queen's Road West,....... Grass on the Hill above the Pokfulam Conduit,

""

25

* * * * * *

8.30 p.m.

"

83

84

85

86

26

"J

5 p.m.

A shed on the foreshore at Mong Kok Tsui, Grass on the Hillside at Aplichau,.

$100

Unknown.

>>

26

33

6.45 p.m.

House No. 32, Bonham Strand,.

28

3.15 a.m.

House No. 46, Wanchai Road,

"}

31

3.30 p.m..

House No. 12, West Street, .........

""

87

31

7.45 p.m.

House No. 354, Queen's Road West,.

::

:

15

FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1895.

No. of

BUILDINGS

DESTROYED

ESTIMATED

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

Upsetting of a kerosine lamp,

Upsetting of a kerosine lamp, $9,000 Bursting of a kerosine lamp, $1,000 Unknown,

Insured in the Office of Messrs. Schellhass & Co. for $10,000.

Insured in the China Fire Insurance Com- pany for $12,000.

Insured in the Office of Messrs. Carlowitz & Co. for $1,500.

Insured in the Office of Messrs. Schellhass & Co. for $9,000.

Insured in the Northern Assurance Com- pany for $5,000.

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

Wholly. Partly.

1

Jan. 6

2

12

""

7.45 p.m.

9.30 p.m.

House No. 230, Queen's Road Central,.

1

$6,000

House No. 4, Wellington Street,

:

1

$4,000

Unknown,

3

18

وو

5.45 p.m.

House No. 189, Queen's Road Central,.

1

$2,000

4

18

25

6.45 p.m.

House No. 15, Mercer Street,..

1

5

"

1222222

9 p.m.

House No. 337, Queen's Road West,.

67

FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1895,-Continued.

No. of

68

BUILDINGS

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DESTROYED

EstimateD

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

Wholly. Partly.

6

Feb. 6

9.15 p.m.

House No. 73, Bonham Strand,

1

$6,000

Falling of a kerosine lamp,

7

10

1 a.m.

House No. 149, Queen's Road Central, .......

1

$30

Unknown,

8

9

20

March 2

1.20 p.m.

House No. 3, Wai Tak Lane,.

1

$200

">

6.40 p.m.

House No. 228, Queen's Road West,.

CX

3

10

3

1

7 p.m.

House No. 7, Li Shing Street,

11

12

24

8 p.m.

House No. 96, Bonham Strand,

1

3

Unknown.

"

26

""

8.30 p.m.

House No. 212, Queen's Road West,.

1

$3,000

13

30

2.50 a.m.

House No. 352, Queen's Road Central,

1

$5,000

Accidental,

""

14 April 6

3.25 a.m.

House No. 1, Queen's Street,

1

$5,000

Unknown,

15

11

12 Noon

House No. 144, Queen's Road West,.

1

...

:

$3,000

"

"

16

18

"}

7 p.m.

House No. 34, Bonham Strand,

1

...

$1,000

....

17

""

18 June 14

24

10.15 p.m.

3.05 a.m.

House No. 19, Jervois Street,

House No. 76, Jervois Street,

19 July 29

4.50 a.m.

House No. 84, Winglok Street,

20

29

12.30 a.m.

House No. 3, Station Street,

""

21 Aug.

5

1 a.m.

House No. 70, Jervois Street,

1

1

Not known.]

"

2

$5,000

1

$800

Unknown,

$22,000

"

23

22❘ Sept.

6

3.45 a.m.

House No. 4, Praya Central, premises of Messrs.

Wieler & Co., .

$100

23

30

'""

કં

8.30 a.m.

House No. 12, Nullah Terrace, Quarry Bay,

Oct.

5

12.50 a.m.

House No. 169, Hollywood Road, .................

...

1

""

1

$700

""

$3,000

Ignition of joss paper,

$12,000 Falling of a kerosine lamp,

$3,000 Unknown,

Exploding of a kerosine lamp,.

Falling of a kerosine lamp,

$12,000 Unknown, .....................

Bursting of a kerosine lamp,

Insured in the Office of Messrs. Schellhass & Co. for $10,000.

Insured in the North German Fire Insur- ance Company for $6,000.

Not insured.

Insured in the Office of Messrs. Schellhass & Co. for $4,000.

Insured in the Office of Messrs. Sander & Co. for $2,000.

Insured in the Office of Messrs. Schellhass & Co. for $4,000.

Insured in the Japan Insurance Company for $3,000 and also in the North Insu- rance Company for $3,000.

Insured in the Sun Fire Insurance Com- pany through Messrs. Siemssen & Co. for $5,000.

Insured in the Hamburg Fire Insurance Company for $6,000.

Insured in the Office of Messrs. Sander & Co. for $5,000.

Insured in the Hamburg Fire Insurance Company for $2,000 and in the Northern Assurance Company for $1,800.

Insured in the Sun Fire Insurance Com- pany for $14,000.

Insured with Hamburg Fire Insurance Com- pany of 1877, through Messrs. Reuter, Brocklemann & Co. for $14,000.

Insured in the North German Lloyd for $5,000.

No insurance effected.

Insured in Hamburg Brewin Fire Office for $12,000.

Insured in Sun Fire Insurance Office for Not insured.

[$3,500.

Covered by insurance.

24

2

No.

DATE.

TIME.

FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1895,- Continued.

No. of

BUILDINGS

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DESTROYED

ESTIMATED

DAMAGE.

Wholly. Partly.

1

$500

Unknown.

1

$100

"

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

$150,000

""

$6,000 Accident with a lamp,

$200

Ignition of dry grass,

$25

$8,000 Unknown,

"

$15,000 Exploding of a kerosine lamp,

$4,000 Overheating of a furnace,

Insured in the Chun On Insurance Office for $2,000.

Insured in Boston for $35,000.

Insured for $2,000 with the South British Insurance Company and for $2,200 with Straits Insurance Company.

16 pigs were burnt to death.

A few trees scorched near the hut.

Insured with Messrs. Siemssen & Co. for $11,600.

Insured with Messrs. Sander & Co. and Carlowitz & Co. for $14,000 and $1,500 respectively.

Insured at Messrs. Siemssen & Co. for $4,000.

Carelessness with a lighted candle,... Insured in the Hongkong Fire Insurance

3

$5,325

2

~

$5,000 Upsetting of a kerosine lamp,

Company, Messrs. Jardine, Matheson & Co., Agents, for $5,000.. Insured with Messrs. Siemssen & Co. for $3,000.

25

Oct.

6

8.20 p.m.

Matshed at Quarry Bay,

26

15

30

11.15 p.m.

House No. 149, Queen's Road Central,

27

28

288

30

12.45 a.m.

American ship Wandering Jew, Victoria Harbour,...

...

>>

66

Nov. 21

7.35 p.m.

House No. 111, Praya West,

1

29

Dec.

13

11.15 p.m.

A matshed at Kun Chung,

1

:

80

13

*

4.30 p.m.

A squatter's hut on the Hillside at the back of Shaukiwan Station,

1

31

"}

16

1 a.m.

House No. 110, Praya West,

1

*

32

17

1 a.m.

House No. 247, Queen's Road Central,

1

I

""

33

34

23

1.35 a.m.

House No. 285, Queen's Road Central,

F

24

وو

245

35

3888

""

309

6 p.m.

1.10 a.m.

Houses Nos. 347 & 349, Queen's Road West,

House No. 40, Queen's Road West,

:

WM. C. H. HASTINGS, Acting Supt., Fire Brigade.

69

HONGKONG.

REPORT

OF THE

COMMITTEE

APPOINTED BY

HIS EXCELLENCY SIR WILLIAM ROBINSON, K.C.M.G.,

Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Colony of Hongkong and its

Dependencies, and Vice-Admiral of the same,

TO ENQUIRE INTO THE QUESTION

OF

FLOGGING IN VICTORIA GAOL.

TOGETHER WITH THE

EVIDENCE TAKEN BEFORE THE COMMITTEE,

AND OTHER APPENDICES.

HONGKONG:

PRINTED BY NORONHA & Co., GOVERNMENT PRINTERS.

1896.

SIR,

HONGKONG, 8th July, 1896.

The undersigned, who were appointed a Committee to inquire into flogging at Victoria Gaol, have the honour to present the subjoined report.

2. The scope of the Committee was to inquire generally into the manner in which floggings are administered in the Gaol and especially as regards the cases of two prisoners No. 528 and No. 704, and further to offer any suggestions concerning the modification or improvement of the system of flogging at present in force in the Gaol.

3. The Committee met on ten occasions, and examined the following witnesses whose evidence is appended, viz. :-

LAU KAU,

Mr. CRAIG,

Dr. MARQUES,

Dr. BELL,

Mr. WILKINSON,

Mr. NOLAN,

Mr. THOMSON,

Mr. LETHBRIDGE,.......

Dr. AYRES,

.late prisoner No. 528;

...Chief Warden;

.....late Gaol Surgeon;

..Assistant Surgeon in charge of Gaol ; ..Gaol Hospital Warder;

.Head Turnkey;

.....late Acting Superintendent of Gaol ;

...Superintendent of Gaol ;

...Colonial Surgeon.

4. It will be convenient to divide the report into separate portions dealing with the following matters :--

I. The Rules under which floggings and other punishments may be imposed. II. The cases of prisoners No. 528 and No. 704.

III. The general question of flogging.

IV. Suggestions and observations.

RULES.

5. (i) The Rules dealing with Prison Offences and Punishments are Rules 266 to 279 inclusive published in the Government Gazette of 31st October, 1891. (ii) After a careful perusal of these rules and after a close examination of Messrs. THOMSON and LETHBRIDGE, the Committee are of opinion that these rules are not so expressed as to be easy of construction.

""

(iii) The inquiry reveals that both the Superintendents who have been examined have put a broad construction upon the words "any act of insubordi- "nation requiring to be suppressed by extraordinary means which occur in Rule 274; and the Committee are not prepared to say that such a construction is unwarranted.

(iv) It appears that it has been usual to construe the words just quoted as vesting the Superintendent with the powers of ordering a flogging for repeated refusal to labour. Whether this construction is right or wrong depends entirely on the construction to be placed upon the wording of Rule 272, which--so far as is necessary for the present purpose--reads thus:"The Superintendent may deprive any prisoner of his evening "meal for persistent and aggravated idleness, or refusal to labour."

The Honourable

J. H. STEWART Lockhart,

Colonial Secretary,

&C.,

&c.,

&c.

[ii]

If the words "persistent and aggravated" are to be taken as qualify- ing

"refusal to labour" as well as "idleness,

idleness," the Committee are of opinion that repeated refusal to labour could not be visited with flogging under Rule 274, but that, if "refusal to labour" is not qualified by the adjectives "persistent and aggravated," the Superintendents were within their powers in ordering floggings for repeated refusal to labour. (v) The Committee are further of opinion that, if the Government is advised that the phraseology of Rule 272 excludes repeated refusal to labour from the operation of Rule 274, it is desirable to include this offence amongst those punishable under Rule 274.

(vi) Though the Committee cannot agree with the proposition that the words any act of insubordination requiring to be suppressed by extra- ordinary means" which occur in Rule 274 embrace "persistent and aggravated idleness" under Rule 272, yet they think that these words may be wide enough to include any repetition of the offences classified in Rule 270, other than those for the repetition of which punishinent is already provided under Rules 272 and 274, notwithstanding that the special mention in Rule 274 of special classes of offences set forth in Rule 270 for the repetition of which special punishment is provided in Rule 274, seems to indicate that repetition of offences not so mentioned is excluded from the operation of Rule 274.

(vii) We consider that the words "any offence" near the beginning of Rule 275 are vague and should be replaced by more specific terms. They clearly do not cover the same ground as the words "any offence" in the second branch of the rule; if "any offence" in the second branch includes "any act of insubordination" in Rule 274 and the words "any act of insubordina- tion" are to bear the liberal interpretation which has hitherto been placed on them, the Committee fail to understand to what "any offence" in the first branch of Rule 275 relates.

viii) The Committee consider that Rule 277 should clearly state whether the corporal punishment, allowed by it, may be inflicted by the Superintendent alone or only by him in conjunction with a Visiting Justice.

Strictly construed this rule seems to be in conflict with Rule 274 defining the Superintendent's powers of flogging and with Rule 275 defining the combined powers of the Superintendent and a Visiting Justice.

Moreover, if confined to cases in which the Superintendent alone may inflict corporal punishment, it lends no assistance in the interpreta- tion of the words "any act of insubordination" occurring in Rule 274 because these words are repeated in Rule 277.

(ix) We think that the third section of Rule 277 should be divided into two parts, as in the Convict Prison Orders referred to in Mr. LETHBRIDGE'S evidence otherwise an ambiguity exists as to whether the acts of insub- ordination and gross misconduct referred to are confined to those committed "when under punishment" or not.

(x) Enough has been stated to show that the construction of these rules is not free from doubt; and though we think that the officers responsible for the management of the Gaol would have done well to ask for a declara- tion of the meaning to be placed on certain terms and rules, that the primâ facie uncertainty attending their construction should have led to such action, and that it would have been better under the circumstances to have narrowed than to have widened the scope of certain terms and rules, we do not intend to cast any reflection upon the discretion exercised by such officers in the interpretation of the rules.

-

ד

:

[iii]

(xi) In conclusion, regarding this portion of the Report, the Committee recom-

mend that the rules under criticism be re-drafted and expressed in such a manner as to leave no room for doubt as to the specific offences for which floggings may be administered either by the Superintendent alone or by the Superintendent in conjunction with a Visiting Justice; and as it is patent that the majority of floggings are inflicted for repeated refusal to labour, the Committee further recommend that the powers of punishment relating to this offence be particularly defined.

CASES OF PRISONERS NOS. 528 and 704.

6. (i) The original medical certificates given in the cases of prisoners Nos. 528 and 704 by the Gaol Surgeon and passing them as fit to receive the floggings to which they had been sentenced are appended (Appendix III.) and appear to be in order.

(ii) In Appendix IV. will be found certified copies put in by Mr. LETHBRIDGE of (a) the Medical Officer's report on passing these prisoners for labour; (b) their medical history; (c) the evidence taken before the second floggings were inflicted; and (d) extracts from the prison punishment book.

(iii) Prisoner No. 528 was flogged with six strokes on 21st April after repeated refusal to labour. After the flogging he was relieved from work for four days and then placed on reduced light labour for a fortnight. He was subsequently put back to No. 1 hard labour but refused to carry stones- an offence for which he was sentenced, after a joint inquiry by the Superintendent and a European Justice of the Peace, to receive twenty- four strokes.

(iv) There is no reason to think that the Medical Officer did not conscientiously believe that this prisoner was fit to receive the corporal punishment to which he was subjected; and we are satisfied that sufficient time had elapsed to allow the injurious effects of the first flogging to disappear before the second flogging was sanctioned; that every medical and surgical attention was paid that, under existing arrangements, could be paid after the prisoner had been flogged the second time; that his wounds were dressed upon his being discharged from Gaol notwith- standing the contrary statement of the prisoner himself, and that the aggravated state of his wounds when he was admitted into the Tung Wa Hospital on 13th May might to some extent be due to his own acts after leaving the Gaol.

(v) As regards prisoner No. 704 who died on the 2nd June in the Gaol Hospital of Septicemia due to wounds caused by flogging (vide Dr BELL'S report in Appendix V.), we find that this prisoner was flogged on 18th May--a week after admission into Gaol--with six strokes for repeated refusal to labour; that he was relieved from work for three days; that he was then put on No. 1 hard labour which he refused to do; that on the 25th May he received twelve strokes, after enquiry by the Superintendent and a Chinese Visiting Justice, for such refusal, and that he was admitted to hospital on the 27th May, suffering from a gluteal abscess.

(vi) We absolve the Medical Officers concerned in the treatment of this prisoner from blame for the fatal result of the case. We believe that the Medical Officer carefully satisfied himself to the best of his ability of the fitness of the prisoner to undergo a second flogging within a week of his first flogging, and that it was not within the prescience of the Medical

[iv]

Officer that either a gluteal abscess would form or that, upon its formation, blood poisoning would supervene. In our opinion the flogging was not the causa proxima, but merely the causa remota of the death of the prisoner.

(vii) Whilst upon these two cases the Committee beg to direct attention to (a) the small percentage of gluteal abscesses resulting from a flogging (see Table in Appendix VI.); (b) the case of prisoner No. 704 being the only known instance of death supervening within a month. of a flogging which seems to point to another cause than that of the flogging as the cause of death; (c) the overcrowded state of the Gaol hospital which increases the chances of contagion and infection and predisposes especially to septic infection; (d) the fact that the Chinese prisoners lie on the floor of the hospital thus exposing themselves to greater chances of infection; and the want of expert attendants which deprives the patients of skilled nursing.

THE GENERAL QUESTION OF FLOGGING.

7. (i) Floggings may be ordered by Courts of Justice or by the Superintendent of the Gaol, or by him in conjunction with a Visiting Justice.

(ii) In Appendix VII. will be found a collation of the law which confers on the Judges and Magistrates powers of ordering flogging. By Rule 274 of the Prison Rules and Regulations published in Government Gazette of 31st October, 1891, the power of the Superintendent alone to order flogging for certain offences is limited to twelve strokes, and by Rule 275 the conjoint power of the Superintendent and of a Visiting Justice to order flogging for the same offences, if occurring in a graver form, is limited to thirty-six strokes in the case of an adult and twelve strokes in the case of a juvenile.

(iii) All floggings must be administered on the breech with a rattan of an

approved pattern.

(iv) Two rattans are in vogue particulars of which are as follows:---

weight.

Rattan for adults,......... 4 oz. Rattan for juveniles,...... 2,

length.

46 ins.

circumference.

13 ins.

35

2

""

**

(v) Floggings are administered by two European officers of the Gaol staff selected for the purpose, and we have no reason to take exception to the manner in which these men perform their disagreeable duty.

(vi) We are deeply impressed with the necessity for vesting the Superintendent with independent powers of flogging for the reasons subjoined :-

(a) Because prompt punishment is, in our experience, the most

efficacious way of dealing with Chinese.

(b) Because there are but few, if any, persons of leisure in the Colony to whom resort could be had on every occasion on which it might be necessary to inflict a flogging.

(c) Because it would be an undue hardship upon busy commercial men to require their attendance at a fixed hour every day- as might be the case-to inquire into the conduct of, and to inflict punishment upon, prisoners.

[v]

(d) Because it would not be satisfactory, on obvious grounds, that

the services of an Official Visiting Justice should be sought to assist a brother officer in assessing the punishment for a prison offence.

(e) Because, owing to the large number of committed offences which incur flogging, it would be most inconvenient to adopt the English practice of holding over inquiries till the weekly visit of the Justices which is in the nature of a surprise visit. (ƒ) Because, if the practice of holding over the cases were adopted, the check on prison officers supposed to be exercised by the visit of the Justices for the week would vanish, and because the inquiry would consume the better part of a working day.

(g) Because it is dangerous, in dealing with Asiatics, to give them grounds for thinking that any officer has incurred the dis- pleasure of his superiors: better dismiss the officer and maintain a wholesome system than retain the officer and weaken his position by abandoning that system.

(h) Because, if the power of flogging vested in the Superintendent is not maintained, the Chinese will erroneously ascribe the cur- tailment or abolition of the power to their past persistent refusal to labour, and will persist in refusing to labour in the future in the hopes of again obtaining an amelioration or repeal of the punishments to which they would be subject.

(vii) Had abuses resulted from the power possessed by the Superintendent, we think it highly probable that such abuses would have attracted the atten- tion of the weekly Visiting Justices; but we are unaware that any protest or comment by them on the subject is extant.

(viii) Whilst strenuously urging the preservation of the present power of the Superintendent in respect to flogging, we see no objection to the substi- tution of a birch for the rattan, and recommend that an experiment in this direction should be made, as we are not sure that the effects of the rattan on a Chinaman may not in some cases be more far reaching than the purely punitive effect striven after.

(ix) It follows from our views as to the arming of the Superintendent with independent flogging powers that we are a fortiori in favour of the main- tenance of flogging to be inflicted by order of the Superintendent and a Visiting Justice; but in this connexion we think that, if the rattan is retained, the maximum number of strokes to be inflicted at one time should not exceed twenty in any case, and we are further strongly of opinion that a system of fewer strokes more frequently imposed would prove a greater deterrent than the present system. If this view be adopted it would be necessary to amend the law conferring on Judges and Magistrates the power of ordering corporal punishment.

(x) We see no reason why it should not be made a duty of the Superintendent to attend in person at all floggings, as it is the duty of the Governor of an English gaol to do.

(xi) The Committee recommend that provision should be made for retaining in hospital until his wounds are healed, any prisoner laid up in consequence of a flogging whose time for discharge from Gaol falls due before he is fit to be discharged from hospital; such retention should be optional with a prisoner and in the discretion of the Medical Officer.

[vi]

(xii) The Committee fear that the unique consequences of the juxtaposition of this Colony to the mainland of China and the Province of Kwang Tung are not always present to the minds of those responsible for regulating the criminal population in our midst.

One consequence alluded to is this, that Hongkong is the resort of Chinese fleeing from justice as administered in China-the authors of pira- cies and armed robberies who do not scruple to repeat their crimes within British jurisdiction and constitute a leaven full of active permeating evil qualities. If to this is added the presence of numerous clans speaking different dialects and ready to defend an injury to one of their numbers by armed force, it is palpable that there are elements of danger and dis- order rife in this Colony which are probably without parallel elsewhere. Suppose that England herself were on the very borders of a country unable to control its wilder spirits and inhabited by segregated clans of varying forms of speech, and that her population consisted for the most part of an overflow of the people from the adjoining country, the regulation and punishment of such alien incursionists would take some abnormal form. And if the imprisoned portion of this alien body had been convicted of offences attended with violence, or, when in gaol, refused obedi- ence to the regulations intended to make their incarceration a deterrent from crime, we venture to say that there would be no hesitation in resorting to the only form of punishment, viz., flogging, which would be efficacious, and that the power of ordering this punish- ment would be entrusted to a limited extent to the head officer when he is made responsible for the maintenance of strict discipline, when swift punishment is the most respected and when the invocation of other counsels is for certain reasons a hardship on the consulted.

We

press upon the Government our views in this regard, and trust that no action will be taken to introduce here a system prevalent else- where simply because this is a British Colony and without very careful regard to the local circumstances of the Colony.

SUGGESTIONS AND OBSERVATIONS.

8. To sum up, the Committee are of opinion-

(i) That the hospital accommodation is grossly inadequate (see Appendix VIII. as to dimensions of wards), that the hospital attendants are not suited by training for their duties and that their hours of duty are excessive ;

(ii) That flogging in the Gaol should under no pretence be dispensed with, and that, in particular, the withdrawal from the Superintendent of his present power of ordering corporal punishment is to be strongly deprecated;

(iii) That a birch might be substituted for the rattan in the case of floggings ordered by the Superintendent, but that the rattan should not be abolished in other cases, it being left to the discretion of the Judges, Magistrates and the Superintendent acting in concert with a Visiting Justice, to decide whether the rattan or the birch should, with the sanction of the Medical Officer, be used in any given case;

(iv) That the number of strokes with a rattan should not exceed twenty at one

time in any case;

(v) That a system which would admit of the ordering of more floggings and fewer strokes is preferable to the present system which admits-in most cases of only one flogging with a large number of strokes;-

[vii]

(vi) That in particular the Superintendent in conjunction with a Visiting Justice should have power in aggravated cases to order two floggings fifteen strokes each as a maximum with an interval of not

of, say,

less than a lunar month between each flogging;

(vii) That definite intervals should be fixed which must elapse before one flog-

follow upon another flogging, e.g.:-

ging may

First flogging.

Interval.

6 strokes.

10 days.

21 days.

&c.

12 strokes.

&c.

with liberty to the Medical Officer to extend the interval if necessary;

(viii) That prisoners sentenced by Judges and Magistrates to be flogged at the end of their term of imprisonment should receive their punishment not later than twenty-one days prior to the date of their discharge from Gaol;

(ix) That all floggings are administered only after proper medical examination and certification of fitness; are inflicted by authorised instruments and in

other way every

in accordance with the Gaol regulations;

(x) That prisoners receive due attention from the Medical Officer after a

flogging;

(xi) That the death of prisoner No. 704 within eight days after receiving the second flogging, though greatly to be deplored, was not directly due to the flogging he received, but was probably due to causes over. which, under existing arrangements, the Medical Officer had no control

(xii) That the blood poisoning which caused the death of prisoner No. 704 might have been the result of the absorption of germs whilst under treatment in the overcrowded and cramped hospital;

xiii) That this case, being the first fatal case within living memory, goes to establish the conclusion that flogging with the rattan is not a punishment peculiarly perilous in its infliction on Chinese;

(xiv) That in the case of prisoner No. 528, there is sufficient ground for con- cluding that the aggravated state of his wounds might have been caused to some extent by his own conduct after his discharge from Gaol, and no sufficient ground for concluding that it was solely due to the manner in which he was flogged; nor do we think that the flogging- even if it did produce such results-must of necessity have been a brutal flogging;

(xv) That the formation of gluteal abscesses is a rare exception and a mere

accident, not a necessary consequence, of a flogging;

(xvi) That the rules and regulations governing prison offences and punish-

ments require to be re-drafted;

(xvii) That any misinterpretation of these rules and regulations that may have occurred is due to the difficulty attendant on the construing of them ;

(xviii) That this misinterpretation, if any, has not been confined to the Super- intendent, but has been shared in by the majority of the Visiting Justices;

(xix) That for any such misinterpretation, no blame attaches to either the

Superintendent or the Visiting Justices;

[viii]

(xx) That a flogged prisoner whose wounds are unhealed at the date of his

discharge from Gaol should have the option of remaining in the Gaol - hospital or of being treated in the Government Civil Hospital;

(xxi) That the latter alternative is the preferable one, because it will relieve

the congested state of the Gaol hospital;

(xxii) That prisoners sentenced for felony and for the graver misdemeanours such as perjury, certain assaults, false pretences, etc., to a term of imprisonment exceeding six months, should be liable to have their queues cut off for repeated offences in Gaol, provided that no queue shall be cut off within the three months next preceding the date of discharge from Gaol ;

(xxiii) That it is advisable that the evidence in all cases of inquiry preceding the infliction of any punishment or at least in cases in which the Superin- tendent, either by himself or in conjunction with a Justice of the Peace, orders flogging, should be taken on oath and in writing, and kept on record;

(xxiv) That the absence, so far as is known, of any protest by the Visiting Justices against either the power of the Superintendent or of the Super- intendent and a Justice of the Peace to order floggings, or the mode in which that power is exercised, indicates that the system in vogue, if not directly approbated, has not been reprobated by the Visiting Justices;

(xxv) That this acquiescence on the part of the Unofficial Visiting Justices indicates that the leading business men in the Colony are not opposed to the continuance of the present methods ;

(xxvi) That there is nothing in the physique of an ordinary Chinaman to unfit

him to bear a flogging;

(xxvii) That this conclusion is strengthened by the fact that castigation in severer forms, viz., by the use of a bamboo and of a wooden stick, is com- monly practised on the mainland of China;

(xxviii) That the number of floggings is no indication of an unusual exercise by the Superintendent of his power to flog, but rather points to the frequent unruly behaviour of the prisoners and is a reason for preserving to the Superintendent his present power;

(xxix) That the proportion of floggings to prisoners in Gaol, which for the past ten years has varied from 1 in 25 to 1 in 10 shows that the number of floggings is relatively small and that the number of prisoners flogged is relatively still smaller if it be recollected that it often occurs that the same prisoner is flogged more than once;

*

(xxx) That the abnormal ratio of 1 in 10 attained in 1895 is shewn by Mr.

THOMSON'S evidence to have been due to an abnormal state of things; (xxxi) That the occurrence of such a state of things and the possibility of its recurrence strengthen the plea that it would be unwise to divest the Superintendent of his present summary powers of ordering a flog- ging;

(xxxii) That the worse behaviour of Chinese prisoners here compared with the behaviour of prisoners in English gaols as testified to by Mr. CRAIG, Chief Warden, who has had experience of both classes of prisoners, accounts for any difference in the ratio that may exist in the case of Home prisons and in the case of the local prison;

:

[ix]

(xxxiii) That the treadinill as already provided for in the Rules should be resorted

to as a form of hard labour;

(xxxiv) That a fresh rattan should be used at every flogging;

(xxxv) That the Magistrates should have extended powers of ordering floggings up to twelve strokes, in lieu of other forms of punishment, in cases of larceny, assaults, riotous and disorderly conduct, etc., etc.

9. Annexed to this Report will be found the Evidence taken by the Committee and a number of other Appendices.

We have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servants,

T. SERCOMBE SMITH.

W. C. H. HASTINGS.

J. M. ATKINSON.

With reservations set out on next page.

[x]

RESERVATIONS BY DR. ATKINSON.

1. Referring to paragraph 7, sub-section ix, and paragraph 8, sub-sections iv. and vi., I am of opinion that no flogging should exceed six strokes at any one time. My reason for this is that a greater number is liable to seriously injure the prisoner and incapacitate him from working for a lengthened period, whilst if only six strokes are administered at one time no serious injury can accrue under ordinary circumstances and the culprit will be able to resume the ordinary Prison labour within a day or so of their administration.

2. I am of opinion that paragraph 8, sub-section vii., should be omitted altogether, as it is within the province of the Surgeon to the Gaol to determine when a prisoner is in a fit state to receive a second flogging.

3. I am also of opinion that paragraph 8, sub-section xiv., should be amended as

follows:-

"That in the case of prisoner No. 528, there is sufficient ground for

(4

concluding that the aggravated state of his wounds might have "been caused to some extent by his own actions after his discharge

"from Gaol, and no sufficient ground for concluding that it was

64

solely due to the manner in which he was flogged.”

J. M. ATKINSON,

Appendix I.

FLOGGING INQUIRY COMMITTEE.

Meeting held at Tung Wa Hospital, 8th June, 1896.

Present: His Honour Mr. T. SERCOMBE SMITH, (Acting Puisne Judge), Chairman.

Dr. J. M. ATKINSON, Acting Colonial Surgeon.

Absent:-Commander W. C. II. HASTINGS, R.N., Acting Police Magistrate.

LAU KAU-I went to Gaol on 2nd day of 3rd moon, i.e., 14th April, 1896, and went out on 30th day of 3rd moon, i.e., 12th May, 1896.

I was flogged twice.

First flogging was on 21st April, 6 strokes.

Second flogging was on 6th May, 24 strokes.

I was an opium smoker and could not carry stones so I refused to work.

On second occasion I refused again to carry stone and was flogged.

I was examined by doctor on both occasions previously to being flogged.

I was in hospital 3 hours after first flogging and my wounds were dressed.

After second flogging I was in hospital one week.

I came out of Gaol on 12th May.

On 13th May I came into Tung Wa Hospital of my own accord because I could not walk.

I am aged 31.

I began to smoke opium at 15. I smoked over a mace a day.

I was a fish hawker.

I have had good health the last few years. Not been ill since I was a few years over ten years old.

After first flogging I was put on rice and water, but not after second flogging.

My diet after second flogging was better than immediately before it.

I am native of Nam been in prison in China. suppurating wound with

T'au District. Have been in Hongkong 10 years. Never This was my first imprisonment anywhere. (Witness shows slough of size of half a crown on right buttock.)

I counted all the strokes at first flogging.

At second flogging I did not count beyond 7 when I felt faint. I could not shout.

I could not walk to hospital. An Indian carried me.

A doctor was present during second flogging. He did not examine me during the flogging.

I was sent out of Gaol without any dressing on my wounds.

I slept in the street the night of the day I came out of Gaol. I had a plaster put on when admitted to Tung Wa Hospital.

(Spare looking, healthy, good physique.)

(2)

I was on low diet from 22nd to 30th April.

I did not speak to any Chinamen in Gaol who had been flogged.

The first four days after first flogging I picked oakum. On fifth day I got three days rice and water for not completing my oakum task.

After this I picked oakum in morning and carried stones in afternoon. For two days I carried stones in afternoon. I refused to carry stones any longer. I could not do it as I was an opium smoker, my opium craving came on.

I would sooner now do hard labour than get a flogging.

(The witness, on being weighed on Fairbank's scale, scaled 1074 ibs. with clothes.)

Further Meeting held on Monday, 8th June, 1896.

Present:-His Honour Mr. T. SERCOMBE SMITH, (Acting Puisne Judge), Chairman.

Hon. Commander W. C. H. HASTINGS, R.N., Acting Police Magistrate. Dr. ATKINSON, Acting Colonial Surgeon.

ROBERT HENRY CRAIG examined.

THE CHAIRMAN-You are chief warden at Victoria Gaol ?

WITNESS-Yes.

Q-You have duties connected with floggings?

A-I have.

-What are those duties?

Q-

A-To see that the punishment ordered is carried out.

Q- -You have to be present at the floggings?

A--I have to be present at the infliction of all corporal punishments.

Q-Is the certificate of the doctor given to you?

A-It is given to me personally.

Q-Have you ever conducted any floggings here without that certificate?

A-Never.

Q-When did you come here ?

A-I landed in the Colony on the 9th February, 1895.

Q-Will you describe the way in which floggings are administered, the instruments used, and the way in which prisoners are kept quiet?

A--The prisoners are triced up on the regulation triangle and then fastened at the wrists and round the ankles and with a belt round the body just above the breech.

Q--

--What are the fastenings round the wrists and ankles?

A--The ankles are strapped and the wrists are fastened by a rope run through a pulley. Then the prisoner would be prepared to receive the whipping.

--How is the whipping administered?

A--One of the officers or two--

}

(3)

--Officers selected for the purpose? Always confined to two officers ?

A--They are officers selected and paid by the Government to administer punishment.

Q-Are they Europeans?

A-European officers.

Q--And the surgeon is by the whole time?

•A-The surgeon stands-

Q-Within a few feet?

A-I should say within sixteen feet, but of course it is within his province to go

nearer.

Q-Do you remember any case where the surgeon has interposed in the middle of a flogging?

here.

A-The surgeon has certainly stopped the flogging of one man since I have been

Q-You only remember one man?

A-Only one man since I have been here.

Q-How do the Chinese take a flogging? How do they bear it?

A-They stand it tolerably well, I consider.

Q-Can you remember how many strokes are administered on an average before

a person becomes numbed, so to speak?

A-No, I cannot say a man usually shouts until the last stroke.

Q--He shouts at the beginning and right to the end?

here?

A-Some do and some do not.

Q-You have had experience in England?

A-Yes, fifteen years.

Q-Where did you get that experience?

A-I was at Chatham twelve years and at Portland three years.

Q-How are floggings administered there ?

A-With the "cat" and also with the birch.

Q-Both the "cat" and the birch are used for adults?

A-Yes; there were no juveniles in the prisons where I did duty.

Q-In what capacity were you there?

A-As warder.

Q-In both prisons ?

A-Yes: discipline warder in both.

Q-And they trice the prisoners up there in the same way as they are triced up

A-Exactly, but there they use a steel triangle, and here it is of wood: that is the only difference.

Q-Here they are flogged with a rattan ?

A-Yes, there is no birch used here.

(4)

Q-For what offences do they inflict the "cat" at home?

A-For assaults and general misconduct.

Q-That term is rather vague.

What is its meaning?

A-Creating a disturbance in the prison generally, general misconduct, and refusing

to labour.

Q-Breaches of prison discipline?

A-Yes, they apply the "cat" or birch for that. It is in the discretion of the officer ordering the punishment which he will award.

Q-What punishment is the birch reserved for at home?

A-For minor offences.

Q--How would you describe them?

A-A man tearing up his clothes and breaking cell utensils.

Q-First offences?

A-Those are not necessarily taken into consideration.

Q--How high do the strokes run in England?

A-Thirty-six.

Q-Thirty-six is the maximum for both "cat" and birch?

A-Yes.

Q-And the maximum here is-?

A-Thirty-six also.

-What power has the governor of an English gaol got to order a flogging?

A-No power.

Q-How is it inflicted?

A-By a visiting director.

Q-How often does he go?

A-Once a month.

Q-And the cases are held over?

A-Until the prison is visited by a director.

-One director?

A-Only one.

The directors of home prisons are ex-governors, as a rule.

Q-You have had experience of the effect of the "cat" and the effect of the rattan. Have you ever known a European prisoner thrashed?

A-Yes.

Q-With a rattan ?

A-Yes.

Q-Was he a good healthy man ?

A--I take it he was.

Q-An average man?

A-Yes.

(5)

-How many strokes did he have?

A-Six in both cases; there were two men flogged.

Q-Are you in a position to compare the effect of the rattan and the "cat" upon Europeans?

A-I should think personally, in my own opinion, that the rattan was more severe than the "cat."

Q-Can you give me your reasons for saying that?

A-In a home prison I have not seen a bad result of the “cat.”

Q-I am at present speaking of the Europeans.

A-I cannot speak of the two Europeans because they went out within a few days of receiving the whipping.

Q-Could you judge of the appearance then?

A-No.

Q-You cannot compare the effect of the rattan with the cat-o'-nine-tails upon a European?

A-No, I cannot do that.

Q-Now come to the Chinamen. You have never seen a Chinaman punished with the "cat"?

A-No.

Q-You say that, looking at the effects, you think the effects of the "cat,” even if used upon a Chinaman, would not be so severe as the effects of the rattan ?

A-The flogging of a Chinaman is never administered with a "cat," and taking the Chinaman and the European I should say the rattan is more severe.

Q-You think the rattan is more severe upon a Chinaman then?

A-Yes.

Q-Were you present at the floggings in England ?

A-Not at all of them; some.

-How many-a hundred do you think?

A-I cannot say; I cannot give any number.

-Have you any idea of the proportion of prisoners who are flogged in England?

A-Very few. Perhaps when the visiting director came round there would be two or three cases for corporal punishment, and perhaps there would be none when he

came.

Q-You think the behaviour of the prisoners in an English gaol in better than the behaviour of the Chinese ?

A-Oh, much.

Q—A great deal better ?

A-Oh, much better.

Q-Therefore there is not so much need of inflicting corporal punishment in Eng- land as there is in this Colony?

A-There is not.

}

1

(6)

Q-How do the English prisoners bear the flogging? Suppose you gave a sturdy Englishman thirty-six strokes with the "cat," what effect would it leave in a case of that kind?

A-I have known men receive thirty-six strokes and not speak, and I have known other men shout before receiving a stroke.

Q-I am speaking of the effects upon the body?

A—I have seen the effects; the flogging leaves marks on the body.

Q-What is the effect of the rattan?

A-In some cases it bruises and in others it cuts through.

Q-Have you ever seen a "cat" cut through the flesh?

A-Yes.

Q-And leave bruises?

A-After the flesh has healed it leaves scars.

Q-What is the difference between the effects of the "cat" and the effects of the

rattan?

A-In what way?

Q-As to the wounds or marks that are left.

A-One is broader, the rattan is much broader.

-And the flesh cut in both cases?

A-In some cases the rattan does not cut.

Q.-According to the severity of the punishment?

A-Yes.

Q-What is done in English prisons after prisoners have been flogged ?

A-They are admitted to the hospital, sometimes.

Q-In the same way as is done here?

A-No; they are not taken to the hospital here.

Q-Not always?

A-No.

Q--Is the practice at home to always admit them to the hospital even if they receive only six strokes ?

A--They never receive so little. They are sent to separate cells and kept there under treatment. It is equivalent to the hospital.

Q--If they have been severely mauled ?

A-Then they are admitted to the hospital.

Q-As the surgeon directs ?

A-Yes.

2-Is-a certificate necessary before the punishment is inflicted?

A-He is certified as fit to be whipped before sentence is passed and again immediately before receiving the whipping.

Q-Then in your opinion the Chinaman stands the rattan a great deal worse than the Britisher stands the cat-o'-nine-tails? That is your opinion?

A-That is my opinion.

(7)

Q-I want to draw your special attention to two cases that have occurred in the Gaol quite recently. The first case is that of a man who gives his name as LAU Kau. He went to Gaol, so I am informed, on the 14th April last. Have you got his record?

A-I have his warrant here. He was admitted to the Gaol on the 15th April.

Q-He might have been remanded. When was he discharged ?

A-He was discharged on the 12th May.

Q-Now that man, I believe, was flogged while he was in Gaol ?

A-He was.

--How many times?

A-Twice.

Q-Can you give me the dates?

A--He was flogged on the 21st April and received six strokes. He was flogged again on the 6th May and received twelve strokes.

Q-You are certain that is correct, twelve strokes? Was it not twenty-four?

A-Pardon me, I have made a mistake. Twenty-four strokes he received. Q-Were you present at the flogging on the 21st April?

A-I was present and saw him flogged.

Q-Was the surgeon present?

A-Yes.

Q-Dr. MARQUES, I suppose ?

A-Yes.

Q-Was the man properly certified as fit to receive the punishment? A-He was examined twice before the flogging was administered. Q-Did you observe how his body looked after the first flogging? A-I cannot call to mind the particular case.

Q-Can you remember whether he was sent to the hospital?

A-He was not.

Q--Was he treated in the cells?

A--He was treated as an out-patient.

Q--Treated in the cells?

A-Yes.

Q-Do you remember whether his buttocks were bruised?

A-That I cannot tell.

Q-You remember his being flogged on the 21st April?

A-He was flogged on the 21st April and treated as an out-patient, and put on no labour for four days. That was extended on the 24th April, and he was put on No. 3 labour with three quarter task for four days.

Q-What was his diet?

A--Ordinary diet.

Q--Do you know what his diet was before the 21st April? A--Ordinary prison diet.

(8)

Q---He had not been put on penal diet?

A-He had received three days' penal diet on the 16th.

Q-Do you remember what that was for?

A--Refusing to labour.

Q--At what?

A--Carrying shot and stone.

Q--What led up to his being thrashed on the 6th May?

A--On the 27th the light labour was further extended for one week. That was altogether fifteen days. He was discharged from light labour on the 4th May and he immediately refused to do hard labour.

Q-He was ordered to do hard labour. Did he do it at all?

A--No, he refused.

Q-He objected to carry stone?

A--Yes, and he was brought under report on the 5th and sentenced to twenty-four

strokes?

Q-That was ordered by whose authority?

A-By a Visiting Justice.

Q-Do you remember who the Visiting Justice was?

A-Mr. D. E. BROWN.

Q-Only one Visiting Justice?

A-Yes.

Q-Do you remember being present at the enquiry?

A-I was present at the enquiry.

Q-Between the flogging of the 21st April and the flogging of the 6th May, was this man subjected to any penal diet?

A-Yes, he received two days rice and water for not doing his labour.

Q-Can you give me the dates?

A-On the 28th April.

Q-On the 28th April he was put to rice and water for two days?

A-Yes.

Q-Did he pick oakum after that?

A-He continued picking oakum.

Q-After the 30th ?

A-Yes.

Q-Did you

observe this man after the second thrashing?

A-I did.

Q-Did you observe what effect the thrashing had A-It cut his body in the usual way.

upon

his body?

Q-Was the effect of the thrashing out of the way?

A-Not that I noticed.

(9)

Q-You did not notice the effects of the flogging on that particular occasion?

A-No, I did not.

Q-I think you have already said he was admitted to the hospital on the second occasion?

A-He was admitted to the hospital.

Q-And I suppose he was discharged on the 12th May because his time was up

A-He was discharged on the 12th; his time expired.

Q-There was a second case, warden, in which a man died on the 2nd June. Do you remember that case?

A-I do, Sir.

-What was the name of that man?

A-WONG YAU.

-When was he admitted to the Gaol?

A-On the 11th May.

Q-He was subjected to two floggings, was he not?

A-He was.

-On the 18th and 23rd May?

A-On the 18th May he received the first six.

Q-And on the 23rd he received twelve strokes?

A-He was reported on the 23rd, but not whipped on that day.

-On what day was he whipped?

A-He was whipped on the 25th.

Q-Were you present at both floggings?

A-I was.

Q-What effect did the flogging of the 18th May have on him?

A--Nothing out of the way.

Q--Did it bring blood?

A-I cannot say.

Q-You were also present at the second flogging, I think you said, on the 25th May-within one week of the previous flogging?

A-I was.

Q-What led to the second flogging being inflicted?

A-Insubordination and refusing to do his task.

Q-What task was that?

A-Hard labour.

Q-Oakum picking, is that hard labour?

A-No, shot drill.

Q-Was a Justice present then?

A-Yes.

( 10 )

Q- -What Justice?

A-I cannot say. A Chinese Justice was present.

Dr. ATKINSON-Not at the flogging?

WITNESS-No, at the enquiry.

The Chairman-Did you observe the state of his body when he was triced up at the second flogging?

not?

WITNESS-No, I did not notice anything particular.

Q-This man had only been flogged the week before. You knew that, did you

A-Yes, I knew that.

Q-Did not that lead you to look at the man's condition at all?

A-No, it did not, as a medical officer was present.

Q-Yes, a medical officer was present, but as this man-

A-It has been done in former cases.

Q-You cannot tell me whether you in any way noticed anything about his body?

A-No.

Q-You cannot tell me whether there were any marks of the previous flogging? A-There were marks, but in a sense they would be healed.

Q-I do not want you to speak generally. Do you know whether they were healed?

A-I cannot say for certain.

Q-What was the effect of the second flogging of twelve strokes?

A--Nothing unusual that I noticed.

Q-Of course when they are finished with the flogging they go out of your supervision entirely?

A-Yes.

Q-They are then in charge of the doctor? Now, during the time you have been in this Gaol-a little over a year and getting on for eighteen months-how many cases of death have occurred after a flogging? I do not say as a result of a flogging, but immediately after the flogging was inflicted-a short time after the flogging.

A-This is the first.

Q-With regard to these two men, did their physique attract your attention at all? A-Well, 704 appeared to be-

Q-What did you notice about 704?

A-Perhaps he was not a strong man.

Q-I just want your impression. He did not appear so strong as some men you have seen?

A-No.

Hon. Commander HASTINGS-The doctor is present at all the floggings?

WITNESS-Yes, he is present at all the floggings.

Q-You have seen him stop one flogging?

A-One.

I

( 11 )

Q-Where the man had fainted?

A-The doctor did not consider him sufficiently strong to receive the punishment.

Q-After that did he go on labour again?

A-Yes.

Q-In England the "cat" is used both on the back and on the buttocks?

A-The "cat" on the back and the birch on the breech.

Q-Not used indiscriminately?

A-No.

Q-And the director only has the power to order floggings.

A-The director only.

Q-Chatham and Portland are both convict prisons?

A-Both convict prisons.

Q-And refusal of duty is not uncommon in England?

A-No, it is not uncommon.

Q-It is not so common as it is here?

A-It is not so common as it is here.

Q-Which cuts the worse, the light or the heavy rattan?

A--The light rattan is only used for juveniles and that would affect a tender skin more than the harder skin of a man.

Dr. ATKINSON-There are two rattans used for floggings at the Gaol?

WITNESS-There are three really.

Q- -But are they different in length or weight?

A—Yes, and the pattern was approved by the Government in May, 1892.

Q-Of the three rattans, are two used for adults and one for juveniles?

A-One for adults and two for juveniles.

Q-What is the difference in the weight?

A--An ounce at least, I should think; I have not weighed them. The heavy one

is about 4 ounces, a light one is about 2 ounces, and the other one less.

Q-Have you ever known prisoners at the Gaol being carried away after their floggings?

A-Never.

Q-Have they ever been assisted?

A-In what way?

Q-Could they walk back?

A-I have seen officers at their backs, but never assisting them.

Q-Have

A-No.

you ever heard of any ill effects following flogging at home?

Q-You have never heard of a death as the result of the "cat"?

A-No.

( 12 )

-Does a "cat" cut in the same way as a rattan?

A-I do not think the cuts are so severe.

Q-It does cut the flesh?

A-Yes, it does cut. The birch also is used at home for adults.

Q-For what offences is it used?

A-Minor offences.

Q-Refusing hard labour?

A-Yes, it is used for that, and the "cat" is used for greater offences such as assaults upon officers, &c.

Q-Is the governor present at all floggings in person ?

A-At all floggings.

Q-Is the visiting director a medical man?

A-An ex-governor.

Q-Is he present at the flogging?

A-No.

Q- With reference to the fatal case, the man was flogged first on the 18th May. How many strokes?

A-Six strokes.

Q-And on the 25th?

A-Twelve.

Q-Have you ever seen a prisoner flogged here on the raw surface on the back?

A-No.

Q-As a rule six strokes do not break the skin?

A-In some cases they do, and in others they do not.

Q-It is the exception?

A-No, only the other day Dr. Bell was present when the skin was broken in six strokes in one case, and in the other it was not.

Q-What is the hard labour in the Gaol? Is it more severe here than it is in the convict prisons at home?

A-I think it is worse.

Q-And you think that the Chinese are of worse physique than the convicts in England?

A-Yes, I do.

-What are the tasks?

A-In county prisons, mill and crank labour.

Q-How many revolutions would they do at home?

A-14,500.

Q-And here?

A-12,500.

Q-Less here then?

A-There is a 14 lbs. pressure at home and a 12 lbs. pressure here.

( 13 )

Q-That former of labour is really more severe in England?

A-That form, yes.

-The Visiting Justice is not present here when a flogging is administered?

A-No.

Q-And it is not the rule for the Superintendent to be present?

A-No, it is not.

Hon. Commander HASTINGS --Does a doctor often stop a flogging in England?

WITNESS-Yes, occasionally.

Dr. ATKINSON-You have never known a man faint whilst being flogged?

WITNESS-No.

The CHAIRMAN-It would be rather difficult to tell whether a man did faint, would it not?

WITNESS-There is usually an officer standing beside the man and one at the back.

THE CHAIRMAN-And the man's head would drop if he fainted?

WITNESS-Yes.

Dr. ATKINSON-With reference to the first case of LAU KAU, on the second occasion he received twenty-four strokes.

WITNESS-Twenty-four, yes.

Q-Do you know whether he walked back to the hospital or whether he was assisted back by an Indian ?

+

A-I cannot say. I have never known a man who was unable to walk back to the hospital.

Q-But still you have seen warders helping a man?

A-They have caught hold of their shoulders as they walked back.

Q-As to the six strokes on the 18th May in the fatal case, was the man admitted to the hospital?

A-He was not.

Q-He was put back to hard labour almost at once?

A-Oh no; he had no work for three days on receiving the six strokes.

Q-Is there any rule in reference to the period Chinamen remain in the hospital ?

A-It is at the discretion of the Medical Officer.

Q-The first man had no work for four days and this man had.

A-The first man had no work for four days and the time was further extended for a week.

Q-Is it the custom sometimes to flog a prisoner just before he is about to leave the Gaol ?

A-That is only under a sentence from the Court.

Q-Of course, you do not know whether any dressing is applied before they leave? A-Yes. When a juvenile is whipped and then discharged the part is dressed. Q-I mean an adult.

A-Yes, it is dressed.

( 14 )

Q-He would not go out of the Gaol with the wound not dressed ?

A-I think he would not.

Hon. Commander HASTINGS-They are flogged across both buttocks? WITNESS-Of course.

Q-Do you have a right-handed and a left-handed officer?

A-They are flogged in one way and not crossed. That would not be allowed; it would be an improper way of flogging.

Q-They are not flogged by a right-handed man and then by a left-handed man? A-Not in my experience. I have never known any one flogged in that way. I take it it would be a very severe way of flogging. For instance, eighteen lashes one way and eighteen lashes the reverse way would cut to pieces.

Dr. ATKINSON--What is the maximum number of floggings you have known in a prison at home in one year?

WITNESS-I cannot call to mind. I should say the maximum would be about

twenty.

-What would be the number of inmates?

A-1,800 men, and the power to inflict punishment is a great deal stronger.. You can award a greater punishment to a prisoner at home than you can here.

THE CHAIRMAN-More punishment at home than here? WITNESS-Yes, the governor's power is more extended. Hon. Commander HASTINGS-Except in flogging? WITNESS-With the exception of flogging.

THE CHAIRMAN--I see that besides flogging there are other punishments. An offender might be kept in a punishment cell for not more than three days on bread, or rice and water, or the Superintendent may deprive a prisoner of his pork for not more than four meals at one time. That is rule 271. Is that of any use?

WITNESS --Depriving him of his pork is of no use.

Q--The punishment cell, is that of any use?

A--Yes.

Q-Is it a deterrent ?

A-I am afraid not to a Chinaman.

Q--Another mode is that the Superintendent may deprive any prisoner of his evening meal for persistent and aggravated idleness or refusal to labour. Is that often employed?

A--Only when the prisoner is discharged on the following day.

Q--It would not be employed in the middle of a man's sentence?

A--No.

Q-Rule 273 says "The Superintendent may restrain in cross irons of 10 lbs. weight, or less, or in handcuffs, any disorderly or violent prisoner for not longer than twenty-four hours at one time."

A--That is not in force here.

Q-It is a dead letter? You do not remember during the year or so you have been here that it has been in force?

A-No.

I

( 15 )

Q-Do

you

think it would be better if it were in force?

A-I think it would be a very good power.

Q-You think it might prevent it being necessary to resort to corporal punish-

ment?

A-I think so.

Q-The deprivation of the evening meal is not resorted to except on the day before a prisoner leaves, and as far as your experience goes the restraining in handcuffs is not resorted to ?

A-Handcuffs yes,

but not the cross irons.

Q-Handcuffs are used?

A-They have been used on two or three occasions.

Q-Are those modes of punishment in vogue in England ?

A-Yes, with violent prisoners.

Q-Do you get a number of violent prisoners here?

A-Yes.

Q-I believe a prisoner forfeits a certain number of marks for a flogging?

A-I believe that has been repealed.

Q-Regulation 321 says: "72 marks for a flogging."

A-That has been repealed.

Q-Do you ever delegate your duties to any one else in case of flogging?

A-No.

Q-You have never asked or obtained leave for anybody else to do that portion of your work?

A-Not since I have been in the Gaol.

Q-Regulation 61 says" The head turnkeys shall especially attend to carrying into effect all orders as to punishments to be inflicted on prisoners."

A-That does not refer to corporal punishments.

Q-"The Superintendent shall deliver daily to the Surgeon a list of prisoners in solitary confinement and also a list of prisoners who have suffered or who are about to suffer corporal punishment." Do you know whether the Superintendent delivers daily to the Surgeon a list of the prisoners who have suffered or are about to suffer corporal punishment?

A--It is delivered by myself.

Q-Do you enter your attendance at all corporal punishments in the "Occurrence Book"?

A-It is entered in the Occurrence Book.

Q-Do you enter it?

A-No, the clerk?

Q-You have to enter the direction of the Surgeon thereon. What does that

mean?

A-It means in the case of the Surgeon remitting part of the punishment.

Q-If the Surgeon sends the prisoner to the Hospital?

A-That would be entered in the house book.

( 16 )

Dr. ATKINSON-Can you suggest any form of punishment in vogue at home that is not in vogue here?

WITNESS-The forms of punishment in vogue at home would not be of much good here because, for instance, a man gets three days No. 1 diet, and the governor has power to give him twenty days No. 2 diet in addition; that would be twenty-three days close confinement. No. 2 diet would be equivalent to the ordinary penal diet here. Then again, for serious breaches of prison discipline a convict is put back on second probation for a period of 9 months and a canvas dress is given to him if he tears his prison dress. That would be a great punishment for a European, but it would be of no use here. For assaults on officers a prisoner is put in irons and a parti-coloured dress, and would probably be flogged. He is put into a cell and he has to put his clothes out every night which is a great annoyance to a prisoner. That is another punishment that is of no use here. Again, an idle prisoner would be deprived of his sleeping coir mattress and hammock and would be obliged to sleep on the floor.

THE CHAIRMAN-The question was, are there any punishments prevalent at home which

you think might with advantage be introduced here?

WITNESS-The only thing I can see is to put prisoners in separate confinement. Dr. ATKINSON-You think that is an advantage?

WITNESS--Yes.

Q-I thought you said just now that it was not.

A-Separate confinement is a punishment.

The CHAIRMAN-In the case of some prisoners the Superintendent, I believe,-I do not know whether it is with the sanction of the Government-has power to cut off the queue of a Chinaman?

WITNESS-I think that is a good thing, Sir-with the express sanction of the

Governor.

Q-Do you remember any case where a Chinaman has had his queue taken off?

A-Not since I have been in the Gaol.

Dr. ATKINSON-Tread-mill?

WITNESS-I think myself that if the tread-mill was substituted for shot and stone drill there would not be so many reports in prison, and also if the prisoners were sent to do outside labour to make the prison self-supporting.

Q-That would necessitate an increased staff?

A-Not a bit. I would undertake to work the prison with the same staff.

Q-You mean a labour gang, do you?

A-Labour gang, yes; and if something else was substituted for shot and stone labour I think it would be better.

Q-You think that is hard work?

A-I do. I think it is terrible work. I do not think it is good work at all.

Q-It is physically hard work, I suppose ?

A-Yes.

THE CHAIRMAN-I think you have been here hardly long enough to offer an opinion on the advisability of cutting off the queue?

WITNESS-I suggested it to the Superintendent the other day myself.

(17)

-What made you suggest it?

A-I think it would be a terror to them.

Q-Why?

A-A Chinaman seems to prize his queue.

Dr. ATKINSON—At home it is customary to cut off the hair, is it not?

THE CHAIRMAN-Do you think there is any moral effect on a Chinaman resulting from the floggings?

WITNESS-I am afraid not.

Q--Do you think a Chinaman would prefer a flogging and retirement in the hos- pital for a few days afterwards to working all that time?

A--I do.

Q-Can you give me your reasons for arriving at that conclusion?

A-We have had men flogged time after time, and I cannot come to any other con- clusion.

Q--Is your reason, that they are well treated in the hospital and get off from hard

labour?

A-Yes.

Hon. Commander HASTINGS--The birch would not lay them up so long?

WITNESS-I have also spoken about the birch.

The CHAIRMAN-The question is, would the birch lay them up so long?

WITNESS-No.

Q-Have the flogging officers here ever lost their temper ?

A-Not to my knowledge.

Q-Do they vary the force of their strokes?

A-I don't think so.

Q-Do they flog with too much force?

A-No there is only one recognised way of flogging.

Q-Do they exert their utmost strength

?

A-Yes: I would report a flogger if I thought he was lenient.

Q-Have you noticed any difference between the floggers here and the English Convict Prison floggers?

A-Not in the administration of floggings.

Q-Is there anything more you want to tell us?

A-No.

This concluded the examination of the witness.

( 18 )

Meeting held on Friday, 12th June, 1896.

Present: His Honour Mr. T. SERCOMBE SMITH, (Acting Puisne Judge), Chairman.

Hon. Commander W. C. H. HASTINGS, R.N., Acting Police Magistrate.

Dr. ATKINSON, Acting Colonial Surgeon.

Dr. MARQUES examined.

THE CHAIRMAN-You were surgeon at Victoria Gaol?

WITNESS-I was.

Q-When were you appointed?

A-1st September, 1887.

Q-When did you retire?

A--On the 31st May-on the 1st of this month I should say.

Q-How are floggings at the Gaol administered?

A-With a rattan.

Q-Will you describe the method?

A-The system has changed since Major DEMPSTER's time. Formerly a man who was sentenced by the Superintendent to receive no more than 12 strokes was flogged simply on a verbal certificate of the medical officer. Since Major DEMPSTER'S time-- he established a system of paper-a small paper-for the medical officer to certify if the man is fit to be flogged, and the Superintendent states the number of strokes the prisoner is going to receive. Now, according to a system introduced by Captain LETHBRIDGE, the medical officer has to examine every man who is on morning report for breach of the Gaol discipline to see if he is fit for hard labour or some other kind of punishment, including flogging, and if he is sentenced to be flogged, the medical officer again certifies in a separate paper as to his fitness.

Q-You were present at the floggings, were you not?

A-Yes.

Q-And the floggings are administered with a rattan?

A-With a rattan approved by the Colonial Surgeon.

Q-What is the weight of these rattans?

A-I do not know.

Q--How many sorts of rattan are there?

A-Three.

Q-Do they differ in weight?

A-Yes.

Q-You have served under different Superintendents, I believe?

A--Yes.

Q-Who were they?

A-General GORDON, Major DEMPSTER, and Major CHAYTOR, Mr. MAY, Mr. THOMSON, and Captain LETHBRIDGE.

3

( 19 )

-Mr. MITCHELL-INNES?

A--Not in my

time.

Q--Mr. FALCOner?

A-No, but Mr. HORSPOOL. When I first joined the Gaol, the Superintendent was Major-General GORDON.

-Have you

noticed any

fluctuations in the number of floggings according to the

person who has been Superintendent?

A-I cannot say on account of the person, but on account of the tasks.

Q-Then you cannot say whether any fluctuation has been due to the character of the Superintendent?

A-No, I cannot do that.

-Can you tell us whether more flogging has been resorted to in one year than in another year?

A-Yes.

Q-Can you give us returns-since 1887-when you went to the Gaol?

A-I can.

(Returns produced vide Appendix vi)

-During your period of service, Dr. MARQUES, do you remember any floggings having been administered without the persons having been previously certified as being fit?

A-No.

Q-Have you always attended when a flogging has been administered?

A-In every case.

Q-After every flogging have you always attended a prisoner until his person was quite healed?

A-Yes. The man is visited every morning by a warder. After a flogging a man gets three or four days with no work to do. Afterwards he is put on light labour for three days or more.

Q-When a prisoner was reported to you as being about to be flogged, did always make a particular examination of him?

A-Yes.

you

Q-What examination did you make?

A-I examined the heart and lungs, and when the flogging was to be severe-- twenty or more strokes-I examined the urine to ascertain if there was any albumen.

Q-Did you examine the surface of the body?

A--Yes.

Q-Did you

A-Yes.

look at the breech to see whether he could stand the flogging?

Q-Did you judge by the physique of the man?

A-Yes.

Q-Have you ever stopped a flogging when it was being inflicted?

A-Yes.

Q-For what reason?

( 20 )

A-Because I thought the man was weak. I was afraid the man would faint as his pulse was getting weak. Then I stopped the flogging and ordered him water and the flogging was continued.

time?

Q-You have ordered the flogging to cease and then it has gone on after some

A-Yes.

Q-When I say have you ever stopped a flogging, I mean have you ever stopped flogging at the end, say, of seven strokes when the flogging ought to have been one of twelve strokes, and not allowed the man to be flogged any longer?

A-Yes.

Q-Many cases of that kind?

A-Not many cases; some cases.

Q-Have you ever seen prisoners faint during a flogging?

A-Almost fainting, they have turned very pale.

Q-Have you ever seen prisoners so injured by the flogging as to be unable to walk back to the hospital?

A-No; all were able to walk more or less.

Q-Do you know of any case where a man has had to be assisted back to the hospital?

A-Sometimes when a flogging has been severe a warder has helped a man to walk by holding his shoulders.

Q-Putting his hands under the man's arm-pits, do you mean that?

A-Yes.

Q-If a prisoner's day of discharge from Gaol fell due when he was still in the hospital, was such a prisoner detained in the hospital?

A--No.

Q--Is such a prisoner offered the chance of staying in the hospital?

A--No; he is recommended to go to an outside hospital.

Q-What hospital?

A-Tung Wa Hospital.

Q-Do you remember any case of a prisoner being discharged without having his wounds dressed?

A-No, the wounds are dressed before a man is discharged.

Q-Now I want you to describe to this Committee the usual effect on a Chinaman of a flogging of, say, six strokes, or twelve, and so on, starting with the six strokes. What is the usual effect-the average effect?

A-Sometimes abrasion of the skin or a cut, and, in some cases, abscesses from six strokes. The effect of flogging varies much according to the person flogged.

Q-How about twelve strokes?

A-An abrasion might be caused.

Q-Eighteen?

A-As a rule bruises are produced.

( 21 )

Q-Twenty-four.

A-The gluteal region gets very much swollen.

Q-Have you ever been present at a flogging of thirty-six strokes?

A-Several times.

-What is the effect in that case?

A-The inflammation is great in the gluteal region and sometimes deep wounds are produced.

-Have you seen any Europeans flogged in Victoria Gaol?

A-Yes.

Q-How are they affected as compared with Chinamen and according to strokes?

A-Just the same.

Q-Same bodily effects?

Q-

!

A-Yes. I know some Chinese are able to bear more pain than the Europeans. -We will come to that by and by. According to your experience how long time elapses before a Chinaman who receives a flogging of six strokes is fit to receive a severer flogging?

A-One week; it depends. If his skin is not broken and there is no wound, I consider a man is fit after three or four days.

Q-Have you ever sanctioned a second flogging before a wound resulting from the first flogging had entirely healed up?

A-No.

Q-Do you know whether a flogging has taken place under such circumstances?

A-No.

Q-I want you to be careful in answering this question. Has pressure from any source of any kind been brought to bear upon you to sanction a flogging of a prisoner doubtfully fit to bear it, but where misconduct made flogging desirable?

A-No.

-You always acted as a free agent?

A-Yes.

Q-Have your directions respecting the flogging of a prisoner ever been disregarded?

A-No.

Q-Is the Gaol hospital sufficiently supplied with liniments and medicines for curing the wounds?

A-Yes.

-Can you suggest anything that ought to be done in that respect?

A-In regard to the hospital?

Q-No, in regard to the medicine and things in the hospital-things likely to cure.

A-No.

Q-Nothing can be done?

A-No, we have everything we want for our use.

7

( 22 )

Have any prisoners died within a month of the date of a flogging?

A-No, unless it is, this last case.

Q--I am not speaking of that now.

a month?

A--No.

In your experience a man has not died within

Q-Do you think a flogging by a rattan of the pattern in vogue is too severe for a Chinaman?

A-It is severe-for some it is severe.

Q-What are your reasons for that? Why do you say it is a severe form of punishment?

A-Because of the result produced.

Q

-Can you suggest any mode of regulating the severity?

A-I am not experienced in flogging instruments, but Mr. CRAIG is. A lighter

rattan-

Q-Have you anything to suggest about the make of the rattan?

A---No; perhaps a soft kind-

Q-Would you advise the adoption of the birch?

A-I have had no experience of the birch.

Q-Have you had any experience of the "cat-o'-nine-tails ”?

A-No.

Q-From your observation of the effect of flogging in the Gaol, is it a deterrent or otherwise? Do you consider it would be possible to maintain strict discipline in Gaol if flogging was abolished?

A-To a certain degree; it would be rather difficult if floggings were abolished.

Q-You know the offences for which corporal punishment is inflicted?

A--Yes.

Q-Would you restrict these offences?

A-Yes.

Q-Would you make the offences fewer-you quite understand?

A-Yes.

Q-If you would restrict them, in what direction would you restrict them?

A-Punish them in some other way besides flogging.

Q-I am speaking about the offences. There are certain offences for which corporal punishment may be inflicted. I want to know if you think it would be better to make the offences for which corporal punishment may be inflicted fewer than they are now, i.e., if you think they can be made fewer consistent with strict discipline being maintained.

A-Fewer strokes and they would feel just as much pain.

-Do you think a more frequent resort to the punishment of confinement in a cell with a penal diet; deprivation of the evening meal; or restraint in cross-irons or handcuffs would in any way tend to lessen the cases in which flogging would be necessary?

A-Separate confinement in a dark cell-

( 23 )

Q-What I ask is this. One form of punishment is punishment cell with penal diet. Do you think that is sufficiently resorted to?

A-No, not often.

Q-Another form of punishment is deprivation of the evening meal. Is that sufficiently resorted to?

A-In certain cases yes, but not with all the prisoners.

Q-Is it resorted to often enough?

A-In the case of deprivation of the evening meal it has no effect upon them. In some it does, but not on all.

Q-Now we come to restraint in cross-irons of 10 lbs. or handcuffs.

A-It has been adopted lately.

Q-Is that often used?

A-Lately I believe, but not before.

Q-Do you recommend that that should be used more often?

A-I have no experience. I cannot say.

Q-Do you know on account of what offences floggings are most usually admi- nistered?

A-Yes.

Q-What?

A-Refusal to work on crank.

-Do you know why these people refuse to work?

A-Because the work is monotonous; it is painful work, arduous work.

Q-Suppose you have an opium smoker and the opium craving comes upon him, would he be justified in refusing to do hard labour?

A-That depends. If he looked like an opium smoker I would give him light labour if it was a very bad case.

Q-Suppose he is an opium smoker and suppose you have not found it out, and suppose a man alleges, as his reason for refusing to do hard labour, that he is an opium smoker?

A-He is reported to the Medical Officer of the Gaol and he states why he did not work.

Q-Suppose a man who refused to work gave as his reason for not working that he was an opium smoker, would you consider that a valid reason for not doing his work?

A-No, prisoners have such an excuse every morning.

Q-Do abscesses usually form as the result of flogging?

A-No.

Q-How often have you encountered cases of blood poisoning after flogging?

A-I cannot say about blood poisoning, but often the abscess has taken a long time to heal up; it bursts out again.

Q-Do you remember any case of blood poisoning you have had to deal with as the result of flogging?

you-

A--The term blood poisoning-I do not like to say. Here is a case I might show

Q-Can you answer that question?

( 24 )

A-I cannot say it was blood poisoning. A man after being flogged got a gluteal abscess and then an abcess on the neck. He was a strong man.

Q-My question is this. Have you often come across cases of blood poisoning?

A-No.

Q-How many cases have you come across, generally speaking?

A-All the cases of gluteal abscesses have recovered.

Q-In your opinion are stone carrying and shot drill too hard forms of hard labour for the Chinese?

A-Yes, and for anyone.

Q-Do you know on whose recommendation the present pattern of rattan was approved by the Governor?

A-I believe it was the Colonial Surgeon, but I am not sure.

Q-Has the pattern or the weight of the rattan been altered since you have been in the Government Service?

A--No.

Q--I suppose you see these men at hard labour very often?

A--I do.

Q-Is the kind of hard labour done by Chinamen more or less than a coolie would do in the street?

A--More.

Hon. Commander HASTINGS-More continuous, I suppose?

THE CHAIRMAN-How does the Gaol diet for a Chinaman compare on an average with the daily fare of an average Chinaman outside the Gaol?

A--I have been asking a good many Chinese and they say it is poor.

Q--What is your opinion?

A--It is poor.

Q-I am asking you whether it is poorer than the fare of Chinamen outside.

A-Poorer.

Q-Suppose you take the case of a chair coolie. Would his diet outside the Gaol be better than the diet of the same man if he got into Gaol?

A--Yes.

Q--Does penal diet lower the working power of a Chinaman much?

A-In a certain degree it does.

Q-Much?

A-I cannot say, but it does lower it.

Q-Is a Chinaman ever put on hard labour when under penal diet?

A-No.

Q-You can judge by examination whether a prisoner has been an opium smoker or not?

A-If he is an inveterate smoker, yes.

25)

Q-Do you ever take a prisoner's word that he has been an opium smoker?

A-No, unless I have reason to suspect that he is an opium smoker.

Q-Can you state whether the majority of the prisoners who have been flogged for refusing to do hard labour consists of opium smokers?

A-No.

-Can you tell me whether that is so or not?

A-They do not appear to

me to be hard smokers.

Q-My question was this.

Are the majority of prisoners who refuse to do hard

labour opium smokers ?

A-I cannot say.

Q-Do you consider that the opium smoker is a fit subject for low diet? A-Yes, for the first few days. A man is depressed and cannot eat for the first few days.

Q-Is he a fit subject for hard labour?

A-If he is a heavy smoker, certainly not.

Q-Is he a fit subject for corporal punishment?

A-Yes; I should say six strokes.

Q-Do you remember ever having sanctioned the whipping of a man with six strokes who was an opium smoker ?

A-Yes.

-But that, I suppose, has been after careful inquiry?

A--Yes.

Q-But you say as a rule you would not order a whipping beyond six strokes for an opium smoker?

A-If I have reason to believe he is an opium smoker. The majority of men will give you that excuse for not being flogged.

Q-If you have formed an opinion that a man has been an inveterate smoker-

A-I would not put him on hard labour.

Q--And you would not allow him to suffer corporal punishment beyond six strokes ?

A--No.

Q--Can you suggest any efficient substitute for flogging?

A-No. You cannot abolish flogging.

Q--Have you ever formed an opinion as to why Chinese in Gaol refuse to work? A-Yes, because they find the work very hard and the diet very poor.

Q-What is your opinion of the relative physical sensitiveness of a Chinaman compared with a European?

A--I believe a European is more sensitive than a Chinaman. Q-Physically?

A-Yes.

Q-Nervously?

A-Yes.

( 26 )

Q-There have been two cases in the Gaol lately of flogging.

One was the case

of a man called LAU A KAU, and the other was the case of WoNG YAU. Have you got particulars of those cases with ?

A-Yes.

you

-We will take LAU KAU first, please.

A-The prisoner's number was 528. He gave his name as Lau Kau.

-When was he admitted to the Gaol?

Q-

A-On the 15th April.

--When was he first flogged?

A-On the 21st April.

Q--How many strokes?

A--Six.

Q--Did you examine that man before he was flogged?

A--Yes.

Q--Did you observe anything about him?

A-No.

Q—What sort of a man was he in physique?

A-An ordinary Chinese.

Q-An average Chinaman?

A-Yes.

Q Did you examine his spleen?

A--I made a general examination of the viscera.

Q Did you make a minute examination of him?

A--I did as I usually examine a man for six strokes: I did not examine his urine. Q-Did you examine his urine in this case?

A-Not before the first flogging, but afterwards, when I passed him for the second flogging.

Q--From a general view of his body you pronounced him fit for a flogging?

A-Yes.

Q-He was next flogged when?

A-On the 6th May.

Q--That was how long after the first flogging?

A-On the 21st April he had six strokes.

Q-Do you know what diet he was on after the first flogging?

A-Ordinary daily diet.

Q-Can you tell me his diet between the 21st April and the 6th May?

A-Ordinary diet of prisoners ;---Number 2.

Q-What is the general description of the diet?

A--Rice with a little fish, some vegetable and chutney, besides tea; it is called diet for Class No. 2.

( 27 )

Q--What is it-penal diet?

A-Ordinary diet.

Q-Was he on that diet the whole time between the 21st April and the 6th May?

A-Yes.

Q-Was he not ordered penal diet during that time?

A-Yes, he was punished for three days; he had rice and water.

--Was that on the 28th April?

A-The 28th April, yes.

Q--Did you examine him before he was flogged a second time?

A-Yes.

Q-Were there any marks of the result of the first flogging?

A-Only a little discolouration of the skin, as usual.

Q--Were all the wounds of the first flogging healed up?

A--Healed up.

Q-Were any bruises left?

A--No. When a person has been flogged there is a mark left for ever.

--What sort of examination of him did you make before the second flogging?

A-I examined the buttocks and the heart and lungs.

Q--Did you know at the time you made the examination that he was to undergo a flogging of twenty-four strokes?

A-Yes.

Q--And in your opinion he was fit to take those twenty-four strokes?

A-Yes.

Q--Were you present at the flogging?

A--I was.

-What were the physical results of the second flogging?

A-He had an abscess.

-How many?

A-One.

Q-Where was that?

A-It was an abscess on the right side.

Q-Right buttock?

A-Yes. I opened it on Sunday, the 9th.

Q-On the 6th May he got the flogging?

A-Yes, and on the 9th he had an abscess.

Q-Was he sent to the hospital after that flogging?

A-Yes.

Q-How did he stand the flogging?

A-Well.

( 28 )

Q-He did not faint?

A-No.

Q-Had he to be carried away to the hospital?

A-No.

Q-He was taken there on the 6th and on the 9th he had an abscess. When was he discharged?

A-On the 12th.

Q Did you visit him in the hospital after the second flogging?

A-Several times in the day.

Q-How do the results of his case compare with the results of other cases?

A-We cannot foresee when a man will get an abscess.

Q--I am not asking you that. After the flogging was over how did the results of the flogging compare with the ordinary results of flogging?

A-You cannot say whether a man will get an abscess.

Q-No, but in this case an abscess did occur?

A-It did occur.

Q-It is not common?

A-No.

Q-Can you give me any reason why that abscess occurred?

A-It is difficult to say, but I believe it was due to stagnation and obstruction of blood in the vessels. When a man's wounds bleed freely there is the least probability of an abscess being formed.

Q-Was the bleeding profuse in this case?

A-No.

-He was discharged on the 12th ?

A-Yes.

Q-Did you dress his wounds before he went out of the Gaol ?

A-The wounds were dressed by the hospital attendant.

Q-You did not dress them yourself?

A-I knew he was dressed in the morning because he was discharged before I got to the Gaol.

Q-As a fact you do not know of your own personal knowledge that it was dressed? A-Not that morning, but the day before, yes.

Q-Had

A-Yes.

you seen it the day before?

Q-Is it ordinary to send prisoners out of the Gaol after a thrashing without their wounds being dressed?

A-No, we always dress them.

Q-Now we come to the second case of the man who died on the 2nd June. When was he admitted to the Gaol ?

A--On the 11th May.

( 29 )

Q--When did he receive his first flogging?

A--On the 18th May.

Q--How many strokes ?

A-Six.

Q-What were the results of that flogging?

A-Nothing.

Q-Any bleeding?

A-No, very little.

Q-When was he again flogged?

A-On the 25th May.

Q Did you examine him on both occasions before he was flogged and

as fit?

A-Yes.

Q-How many strokes did he have on the 25th ?

pass

him

A-Twelve. Shall I call your attention to that day-

Q-Presently. Prior to the 25th, before he received the twelve strokes, you examined him?

A-Yes.

Q-Carefully?

A-Carefully.

Q---What sort of physique was he?

A-Ordinary Chinese physique.

Q-Was he stout?

A-Yes, fairly stout.

-Were there any marks of the first thrashing left?

A-No; it was quite healed up.

Q-No results?

A-No.

Q-What was the result of the second flogging on his person?

A-He did not show any abnormal signs until the abscess formed.

-When did that abscess form?

A-On the 27th.

Q-Two days afterwards?

A-Yes.

Q--Did you treat it?

A-Yes.

Q-Was it a bad abscess?

A-No, but it went deep.

Q Did you see him every day after that?

A---Several times every day.

( 30 )

Q-And you left the Gaol on the 31st May ?

A-Yes.

Q-What state was he in on the 31st May ?

A-He was weak.

Q-Weak from what?

A-Weak from the abscess, but his pulse was getting stronger.

Q-How about the abscess itself?

A-It was discharging freely.

Q-Was it in a better or a worse condition?

A-He got very weak after I opened the abscess.

Q--Did you put him on fresh diet ?

A-I gave him nourishing food. I will describe my treatment. Beef conjee- Q-After the second flogging?

A-Yes. Two pints of milk, one lb. of bread, and whiskey. He asked me not to give him whiskey and said whiskey made him very bad, and I offered him port wine which he declined. There was the ordinary cleaning, and drainage tubes were used. I also ordered quinine to check the development of bacteria and diaphoretics to increase the function of the skin. The wound was washed several times in the course of the day with Jeyes' fluid and permanganate of potash. He told me he was an opium smoker and that was the reason he did not care for whiskey.

Q--Was that the daily diet?

A--Yes. On the same day, at 9 p.m., I ordered a lemonade. He had beef tea also. On the 28th he told me he could not take the Half-Diet of the Hospital, so I put him on low diet. Instead of a linseed poultice I ordered a charcoal poultice, and he had three pints of milk. The poultice was changed several times daily. On the 29th he had also hot tea.

Q--Was that diet continued up to the 31st?

A--Yes.

Q-When did you last see him?

A-On the 31st May. I went to the Gaol at 11.5 a.m. and I left at 3.55 p.m., and I left word with the warder that if the man got worse in the night time, he was to send for me.

Q-When did you last see him?

A-At 3.55 p.m. on Sunday, 31st May.

How was he going on then?

A-I asked him and he said he felt better. The abscess was discharging freely.

Q-Were there any signs of danger?

A-Whenever there is an abscess there is danger.

Q-Any signs of special danger?

A-No.

Q-I want to ask you one question about the former case. Was that man an opium smoker?

A-I do not see anything here [looking at the records] about an opium smoker.

( 31 )

Q-You cannot say?

A-No.

Q-He did not appear to you to be one?

A--No.

Q-Do you remember whether he gave as an excuse for refusing to work that he was an opium smoker and he could not work when the craving came on?

A-No.

Q-That was not reported to you?

A-No.

Hon. Commander HASTINGS-If you are satisfied that a man is an opium smoker do you give him opium pills?

WITNESS--No; we give tonics. Formerly they used to give him quinine, but I thought it was cheaper to give some other tonics and in some cases we give an astringent if the man has a tendency to diarrhoea.

Q-If a man is a syphilitic subject would he stand a flogging worse than a man in

good health?

A-There is more probability of an abscess being formed if a man is syphilitic.

Q-

-Was the last man syphilitic?

A-No.

Q-Nor scrofulous?

A-No.

Dr. ATKINSON-You cannot describe the instrument that is used for flogging?

WITNESS-It is rattan.

Q-You do not know its weight or length?

A-The length is four feet and a half. I do not know the weight.

Q-But the weight varies for boys and men.

A-Yes.

Q-You do not know what the weights are?

A-No, I do not.

Q-After a man has been flogged what is the custom in the Gaol? Is the man always received in the hospital or not?

A-No, unless the flogging is severe.

Q-But the man is always treated in the Gaol hospital to be dressed?

A-Yes.

Q-Even after six strokes?

A-Yes.

Q-So they are really all admitted to the hospital. In your opinion are the hospital wards large enough?

A-No.

Q-You think they are overcrowded?

A-Yes.

( 32 )

Q-Have you represented that to the Government?

A-Yes. I did mention it.

Q-In your reports you have stated that you think the hospital wards are over- crowded?

A-Yes.

Q-In your opinion, if a Chinaman is under treatment in the hospital wards for an open wound, do you think that overcrowding might have something to do with the wound suppurating?

A-Certainly. Some years ago it was quite a common thing for a man to come in the morning to the hospital with a swollen face and erysipelas would set in.

Q-What is the method of treatment for the wounds?

A--Separate treatment. This man was attended by the hospital attendants.

Q-What local applications are used?

A-Lead lotion.

Q-Is lead lotion an antiseptic?

A-Lead lotion and Jeyes' fluid.

Q--Not lead lotion alone?

A-No.

Q-Do you not think it would be better to dress the wounds with some antiseptic if you think the wards are overcrowded?

A-The best thing to use is Jeyes' fluid and Condy's. I employ carbolic lotion also and some other antiseptics.

Q-Have you noticed whether abscesses form more frequently after the second flogging than after the first?

A-I have seen an abscess after six strokes.

Q-My question is, have you noticed whether abscesses form more quickly after the second than after the first flogging?

A-Yes.

Q-Because in both these cases the men had been flogged about a week or ten days previous to the second flogging, and it was only after the second flogging that the abscesses formed. You think it is more frequent after the second flogging than after the first ?

A-Yes.

Q-What is the form of certificate you give? Have you got it?

A-No. It was introduced by Major DEMPSTER; it is a small form and certifies

the number of strokes to be given.

Q-You say that occasionally you get profuse bleeding after flogging?

A-Yes.

Q-Is that the case after six strokes?

A-No, but sometimes it leaves a cut.

Q-It is with more than six strokes that you have noticed the bleeding?

A-Yes.

( 33 )

Q-It is not the rule but the exception, I suppose, for the part to bleed?

A-Yes.

Q-In reference to these two cases. One was WONG A KAU.

You certified

on the 23rd May that he was in a fit state to receive twelve strokes, and he was flogged on the 25th. Is not that the case?

A-On the 18th he received six strokes.

Q-He was flogged on the 18th May for the first time and received six strokes?

A--Yes.

Q-On the 23rd he was passed by you as fit to receive twelve strokes?

A-Yes, and there were no marks of wounds on the gluteal region. Q-That was five days after?

A-Yes.

--Do all the marks disappear in five days?

A-Yes, generally speaking.

Q-No sign of any abrasion ?

A-No.

Q-After five days' interval you passed him as fit to receive twelve strokes and on the 25th he was flogged a second time-two days after you examined him?

A-Yes.

Q Did you examine him the day he was flogged?

A-This man was flogged two days after I examined him, because the paper was sent to the Governor for approval.

THE CHAIRMAN-The question is, did you examine him the day he was flogged ? WITNESS-Oh yes, again on the 25th.

Dr. ATKINSON-That is what I want to know.

want to know.

Has it been the custom after you

have given a medical certificate and before he is flogged to examine him again?

WITNESS-Yes, a special medical certificate is given.

Q-You give two medical certificates?

A-Yes.

In the morning I have to certify, when the man was put on report, if

he is fit for hard labour and to receive corporal punishment.

Q-Are the wounds always dressed before a man leaves the Gaol ?

A-Yes.

Q-In what way?

A-It is first washed with Jeyes' fluid, and a piece of lint dipped in lead lotion is applied.

Q-Is not that lint fixed in any way?

A-Fixed on with a string.

Q-It is bandaged?

A-Yes.

Q-If a man walked out of the Gaol without the lint being fastened it would fall off. Has it been the custom to bandage it?

A-With string, not a bandage.

( 34 )

Q-It has been the custom to fix it with string?

A-And with a bandage.

Q-In your opinion, would a man with an open wound like that sleeping in a place like Taipingshan be liable to absorb infection?

A-Yes.

Q-And make the wound worse?

A-Yes.

Q-Sending him out of the Gaol with an open wound is somewhat risky?

A--We have no power to detain him; we advise him to go to the hospital.

Q-You have not complained of that at all? You have not pointed out that it was a wrong system ?

A-Yes.

Q-To whom?

A-To different officers in the Gaol,

Q-You have not made any official complaint on the subject?

A-No.

Q-In reference to the other case, you say the man was passed as fit on the 5th May, I think, and he received twenty-four strokes, and you say the abscesses developed two days after he had been flogged?

A-Yes.

Q-Do you think that abscess was the result of the second flogging or of the first?

A-Second.

Do you not think that is rather early for an abscess to form?

A-No-two or three days. When I opened it it was not quite ripe. My experience is that the sooner it is opened the better.

Q-What do you think is the cause of that abscess forming?

A-The blow.

Q-The blow of the second flogging?

A-Yes.

Q-You do not think he could have absorbed any gerins from the crowded con- dition of the ward ?

A-It might be.

Q-It might have been caused by the first flogging?

A-There was only a slight abrasion of the skin. If poison had been absorbed there would have been inflammation.

Q-I simply want to know whether you think it could have been caused by the absorption of germs through the abrasion caused by the first flogging?

A-I do not think so. When he was flogged a second time the surface was not raw-when he was passed for the second flogging.

Q-Have you known any man faint?

A--I would not call it a faint; turned pale, gone off in a swoon.

( 35 )

Q-Have they become insensible?

A-No; I stop them before-on the point.

Q-What do you mean?

A-Directly a man turns pale I stop the flogging; they never become insensible.

Q-A man has never become insensible during a flogging?

A--No.

-Not even after receiving thirty-six strokes?

A--No, I stop him.

Q--Do you think that the attendance is all that is required at the Gaol ?

A-Yes.

Q--In regard to nurses, do you think the patients would be better looked after if they had trained wardmasters there?

A-Oh yes.

Q-In a severe case do you ever visit the Gaol at night?

A-This one I visited incidentally, because I was called once or twice to another prisoner.

Q--The fatal case ?

A-Yes. On the 29th when I ordered lemonade I was called to see a man who

was very ill. I saw a good many cases.

Q-Do you think the Chinese muscular development is sufficient about the gluteal regions to admit of their being flogged, say with thirty-six strokes?

A-No, not so heavy.

-What would be the maximum number a Chinaman would be able to bear?

A-I think that the number of strokes should be according to the constitution of the man.

I believe that, generally speaking, it ought not to exceed 16 strokes.

THE CHAIRMAN--What would you limit the number of strokes to in a severe case ?

WITNESS-Sixteen. It does not depend so much on the number of strokes as on the way the rattan is laid on. Sometimes more harm is done with six strokes than

in another case with twenty.

Dr. ATKINSON-Have

Have you ever stopped a man for that reason-because you thought he had been flogged too severely?

WITNESS-Yes.

THE CHAIRMAN-Are these medical certificates given by yourself filed in the Gaol Office?

WITNESS--Yes.

Q-Are regular floggers employed?

A-Yes.

Q-How many?

A-Two---Europeans.

Q-What class of wardmasters do you have in the Gaol hospital?

A-They are taken from turnkeys---assistant warders.

( 36 )

Q--Are they placed there specially because of their good conduct or because they have some idea of medicine or of the way to attend people?

A-Because they are steady.

Q-Is a fresh rattan used on every prisoner?

A-No, one rattan.

Q-Is a fresh rattan used in the case of every prisoner?

A--One rattan would last for months, but there are several rattans kept in a bag. Q-They get dirty then?

A-Split up.

Q-They get dirty---clotted with blood sometimes?

A--They are washed in water.

Q-Do not rattans get clotted with blood?

A-Yes.

Q-Are these rattans used without being cleaned?

A-No, they are dipped in water before they are used for flogging.

Q-Do you not think it would be advisable to have a fresh rattan for every flogging?

A-No doubt, but you would require a good many rattans for all the cases.

Q-They are not very dear and some could be bought.

A-Yes. You might keep a rattan in a separate fluid.

Q-What I am driving at is this. These rattans get clotted with blood and if they have been used on an unhealthy person they might retain some noxious matter, and such a rattan applied to the subsequent prisoner might do injury to that prisoner?

A-Yes.

Dr. ATKINSON-Have you any note of the weight of the first man, Lau A Kau. A-The hospital warder would be able to say, he keeps the book.

Hon. Commander HASTINGS-He is an Indian, is he not?

WITNESS-No, there is one Indian; the other is an Englishman-WILKINSON.

Dr. ATKINSON-I would just like to ask you whether you think that the nursing is all that it ought to be in the Gaol ?

WITNESS-Well, if you get trained nurses it would be better; but you cannot get them for such a small pay.

Q--You think it would be better if there were trained European wardmasters in the Gaol?

A-Yes.

Q-And you think that the hospital itself is not properly constructed as a hospital? A-There should be a different building for some diseases and for prisoners under observation suspected to be suffering from infectious diseases or insanity.

THE CHAIRMAN-Is there anything you wish to add ?

WITNESS-I wish to call your attention-to ask you to examine the books at the gate to see what time I have spent in the hospital.

THE CHAIRMAN-Your personal conduct is not being questioned. A-Some say I have neglected my duty and that I have been careless. THE CHAIRMAN-That is not what we have to go into.

(37)

Meeting held on Saturday, 13th June, 1896.

Present:--His Honour Mr. SERCOMBE SMITH, (Acting Puisne Judge), Chairman. Hon. Commander W. C. H. HASTINGS, R.N., Acting Police Magistrate.

Dr ATKINSON, Acting Colonial Surgeon.

Dr. J. BELL examined.

THE CHAIRMAN-What are you, Dr. BELL?

A-Assistant surgeon in the Hongkong Government Medical Department.

Q-When did you begin your duties?

A-On the 1st June.

Q-Part of your duties consists of that of Gaol Surgeon?

A-Yes.

Q-Since you have been in the Gaol have you certified to any persons as being fit to be flogged?

A-Yes.

Q-How many times?

A-I think six times.

Q-What is the minimum and what is the maximum number of strokes you have

certified?

A-Six minimum and eighteen maximum.

Q-You have attended at all these floggings?

A-All of them. No floggings take place in the Gaol without the Medical Officer of the Gaol being present.

Q-Can you tell us the effect of any of these floggings on the prisoners' bodies?

A-None of them have so far done any apparent damage, or serious damage. Whether these six prisoners have been better able to stand the flogging or not I do not know, but they stood it well. The eighteen stroke man is still in the hospital, but that is more of a safeguard so that he can be watched for a few days more. All the others were discharged in a day and are at work.

Q-Were any of the prisoners Europeans?

A-No, all Chinese.

Q-Do you know anything of the effects of the "cat-o'-nine-tail"?

A-No, I have never seen any floggings except here.

Q-During the time you have been medical officer at the Gaol have you formed any opinion as to the maximum number of strokes that should be inflicted in any case?

A-My experience is, of course, very limited; but I am not in favour of any excessive amount; I do not think more than eighteen, or twenty at most, at one time. I think that with more you not only run the risk of laying them up, which some of them want, but you diminish the amount of suffering. The sensation gets deadened and they simply do not feel the flogging.

*

( 38 )

Q-Have you formed any opinion as to the advisability of retaining the rattan or substituting any other instrument for it?

A-No, I have never seen any other instrument.

Q-If the number of strokes were diminished, would you advise the retention of the rattan?

A--Yes. I think the present size of the rattan seems to be a very good instru- ment to use, if you limit the number of strokes, as I say, and never give more than twenty.

Q--Do you think the birch would inflict the necessary pain without inflicting wounds?

A-I really do not know. My recollections of the birch are rather remote.

Q--Now, to come to the Gaol hospital itself. Does the Gaol hospital contain all the medicines, etc., required for the treatment of wounds as the result of floggings?

A-Yes; in fact you can get any medicines you want by simply sending to the Government Civil Hospital. They supply all the requirements.

Q-Is the Gaol hospital accommodation adequate in all respects ?

A-No.

Q-Will you tell us about that?

A-It is far too small. I measured the hospital this morning, and there is a little over 11,000 cubic feet for the whole hospital, which is divided into seven wards. That gives about 600 cubic feet to each patient. That is very small indeed when you consi- der that in some of them there are cases of consumption. We have two very bad cases there now.

The minimum, I believe, in any ordinary hospital is 1,500 to 2,000 cubic feet. The rooms are so small that you cannot have beds; the men have to lie down. If you had beds you would cramp the place up so that you would not be able to get the number of men in you get in now.

Q-After having seen the instrument with which flogging is administered, do you consider that abrasions must follow on six strokes and upwards?

A-Very slight abrasions must follow in most cases, I think. All the six cases I have seen have been very slight indeed.

Q-Is the formation of abscesses the usual result of the floggings you have seen?

A-No.

Q-I take it you have not had any abscesses at all in the floggings you have seen?

A-Not at all.

Q--Now, to what is the formation of abscesses due ?

A-Well, it is due either to the poisoning of the wound through the introduction of germs from outside, or from the bruizing of the underlying parts without any abrasion of the skin. What I mean is if a man's tissues are very flabby indeed the skin might be fairly thick and he might not show signs of abrasion, but all the underlying parts would be completely deadened and would die.

-That would lead to the formation of abscesses?

Q-

A-Yes.

Q-Do you consider that, whatever the man's skin is, abrasions and abscesses would be likely to follow a severe flogging?

A-It depends upon what you mean by a severe flogging.

( 39 )

Q-Anything past twelve strokes.

A-No, I do not think so. If a man's buttocks are examined and his physical condition and so on, and he is passed for twelve strokes, I do not think it is a likely result. It would be very exceptional. I would say that not more than ten per cent. of them would develop abscesses, if so much as that.

Q--Would the result of a flogging of eighteen strokes almost necessarily be abrasions and abscesses ?

A-Abrasions, yes, but not necessarily abscesses.

Q-I take it you look upon

A-As an accident.

abscesses as an accident?

-Do you think that blood poisoning might be caused by the use of a dirty rattan ? A-Yes, it might.

Q-Or by the use of the rattan employed upon another prisoner not properly

clean?

A-Yes, it might.

Q--Would you advise as an extra precaution the using of an unused rattan at every flogging?

I

A-Yes, it is a mild expense. They are very cheap and certainly very useful. was examining the rattans this morning and I think sometimes they get frayed. Instead of being smooth they get long irregularities and perhaps it might be the rough surface coming down on the skin that produced a large amount of abrasions. I certainly think a stock of rattans ought to be kept and as soon as one is used it should be destroyed.

Q-Dr. MARQUES said that the rattans were dipped or soaked before they were applied to a prisoner.

Dr. ATKINSON-He said they might be.

A--He must have meant they mght be; they are not soaked.

THE CHAIRMAN-Do you think that blood poisoning might be caused by the absorption by one prisoner of the germs of a scrofulous or syphilitic prisoner, whether in the hospital or not?

A-It might possibly.

Q-Do you think it likely in that Gaol?

A-Not very likely.

Q-Would an opium smoker be fit to undergo hard labour? I mean a confirmed opium smoker-a man who has been smoking fifteen years.

A-No, I think not. From what I have seen of them they come into the hospital for three or four days.

Q-Are they fit to be put on penal diet for any period ?

A-Yes, I think so.

Q-Would they ever be fit to receive a flogging?

A-In some cases I should think they would.

Q-Generally speaking, do you think that, in the case of a man who is an inveterate opium smoker, it would be right to administer a flogging at any time?

A-It is rather difficult to say. They seem to suffer from the effect of their opium being cut off. They nearly all of them come into the hospital for three or four days, and most of them are in a good condition and go on hard labour. A few of them would run on to hard labour and on to flogging.

(40)

Q--An inveterate opium smoker?

A--Yes.

Q-Would an opium smoker severely flogged-I mean a flogging of twelve strokes ---be more likely to develop abscesses than an abstainer from opium?

A-I do not think so.

Q-Is daily hard labour in Gaol more severe than the ordinary street coolies daily labour?

A-It is rather difficult to judge.

Q-You will not venture an opinion at present

A--No, I would rather not.

Q-Can you tell me how a prisoner's daily diet compares with the diet of the average Chinaman?

A-I think they get quite enough of it--sixteen ounces of rice and pork and vegetables.

Q-How does that compare, so far as you know, with the average diet of the ordinary Chinaman?

A-I should say they are very well fed.

Q-Do you say they are better fed?

A-I should say they are very well fed-better fed.

Q-I want to take you to the case of the man who died in Gaol the other day. When did you first see him?

A-I saw him on the 1st June?

Q-At what time?

A-About 10.30 in the morning.

-What state was he in then?

A-He was suffering from fever, had a very weak pulse, and was generally in a very low condition. He had two sloughs on his buttocks, and it was very difficult to get him to take any nourishment, and he was generally, I might say, in a sinking condition.

Q-What did you give him on visiting him at 10.30 ?

A-I gave him some brandy. He was then on milk and beef tea ordered by Dr. MARQUES. I gave him tea and brandy and told the warder to give him another dose. at four o'clock, and also told him to continue the milk and beef tea.

Q-How many times did you see him?

A-I saw him again at 4

p.m.

Q-What state was he in then?

A--He made no complaint and his pulse was better. He was sensible.

Q-Did you dress the wounds yourself?

A-I dressed them in the morning and evening with an antiseptic.

Q-What state were they in then?

A-The two big sloughs on the buttocks were pretty extensive-

( 41 )

Q-What size were they--the size of half-a-crown?

A--One was the size of the palm of a hand; each was about the size of a whole hand. One was a little smaller than the other.

Q-That man had been flogged with twelve strokes, I believe?

A-He had eighteen altogether.

Q--Was there anything about the physique of the man that made you think that these abscesses were specially due to the flogging?

A-I think not. I think it was just an accident. He had six before and he seems to have stood them very well. He was not a fully developed muscular man, but he was fairly healthy.

Q-Would you say he was an average Chinaman in physique?

A-It is rather difficult to say what an average Chinaman is; you see a large number there. It is difficult to say what is an average Chinaman, but I think this man would be below the average.

Q--Can you answer this question? Suppose you passed him as fit for a flogging of six strokes, would you in five days have passed him as fit to receive twelve strokes more?

A-It is rather difficult to say; I have not had enough experience. I have not been called upon to see any of the others for a second flogging that I have already seen flogged once.

Q-At four o'clock, when you left this patient, was there anything in his appearance that made you think he was in serious danger?

A-I thought he was ill, but not seriously ill.

Q-You fully expected to see him alive the next morning when you visited the Gaol ?

A-Yes.

Q-Had you thought at any time that this man might die from his wounds?

A-When I first saw him in the morning I thought he was in rather a bad

way.

Q-At four o'clock ?

A—At four o'clock he was better, although I still thought he was rather ill.

I

had better hopes of him in the afternoon than I had in the morning.

Q-What was, in your opinion, the cause of death in the case?

A-I think blood poisoning..

Q-Did you hold the post mortern examination?

A-I did next morning.

Q-What did you find?

A-The usual signs of blood poisoning, one of these being the sloughs; the liver and spleen were covered with small hemorrhagic spots; there was also congestion of the lungs, and the kidneys were congested.

Q-Could you tell at the post mortern examination what the state of the man's blood was whether he was a full-blooded man or a thin-blooded man?

A-No.

Q-Anæmic or not?

A--He was not anæmic.

.

( 42 )

Q-He was not?

A-He was rather thin but was otherwise healthy. His heart was healthy.

Q-Looking at the man at the time you saw him, and allowing for all the symptoms that set in, in your opinion was that man a fit person to receive corporal punishment?

A-I think I would have passed him.

Hon. Commander HASTINGS-Did Dr. MARQUES go round with you and hand over the patients on the 1st June?

A-No.

Q-You had to go on the medical history of the cases ?

A-Yes. He showed me some of the work, but I was busy; he showed me the

books.

Q-What minimum interval should elapse between two floggings?

A-I should think a fortnight at least.

Q--That is presuming the first flogging is of six strokes?

A--And presuming, of course, that nothing very serious happened.

Q-Are you of opinion that the hospital warders are qualified for their duties as warders?

A-No, they are not.

Q-Or nursing generally?

A-No.

Q-Why did you personally dress the wounds of the man that died?

A-They were rather bad and I was using a special preparation brought from the Government Civil Hospital, and I dressed the wounds with it in the morning.

Q-The dressing he had before was apparently all right?

A-Oh, yes.

Q--Is the absence of a bed any hardship for an ordinary Chinese prisoner?

A-I really do not know; one always like to lie upon a hard surface.

associates beds with a hospital. The Chinese Even in the Alice Memorial Hospital they have iron bedsteads with wooden planks. Of course, when a bed is raised above the floor there is more free ventilation.

Q--And it is more convenient for a doctor to treat a patient?

A--Yes. These men would like better if they were on a mattress-on a proper bedstead, but they have never complained about it.

Q--Would an opium smoker stand a flogging worse than a man who was not an opium smoker?

A--I do not think so, it depends. If he is an excessive opium smoker and a very thin man I suppose he would in that case; that is a man who smokes to excess.

Q-Do you know if the man who died on the 2nd was an opium smoker ?

A-I do not know.

Q-You did not know about the rattan being soaked?

A-I am almost sure it is not soaked.

( 43 )

floor?

Dr. ATKINSON-You visited the Gaol with Dr. MARQUES on the 29th, I think?

A-Yes.

Q-And went round the cases and got a general idea of the routine of the work ?

A-Yes.

Q--What do you think was the cause of blood poisoning in this case?

A-I think he had absorbed the germs through these sloughs.

Q-Through the open wound?

A-Yes.

Q-Do you think it advisable for patients with wounds of that sort to lie on the

A-No, I think they would be better on a mattress.

Q-Do the wards strike you as being overcrowded in the hospital of the Gaol?

A-They are.

Q-The cubical space is insufficient?

A-Yes, I measured them this morning, and they measured 11,000 cubic feet.

Q-For each patient?

A-600 cubic feet for each patient.

Q-600 cubic feet is too small for a hospital. And you think it is advisable to have trained European wardmasters on duty?

at all.

A-Yes. The men are very willing and obliging, but they have had no training

Q-How many wardmasters are there at present?

A-Two; an Englishman and an Indian.

Q-Do you know their hours of duty?

A-I do not know.

Q-The Englishman is on duty at day time and the Indian at night?

A-Yes; they are both there during the day. One week the Indian takes night duty and if he is called he is there. As far as I gather he does not go round.

Q--Is the wardmaster on duty during the night or does he sleep?

A--No; he sleeps.

Q--You think it would be preferable to have two European trained wardmasters on duty-one on duty there at night?

A-I think so.

Q-Judging by the effects of a flogging on Chinamen what is the maximum number of strokes you think it advisable to administer on Chinamen?

A--I think twenty. There are very few men on whom twenty would not act as a punishment, and I do not think it is safe to inflict more. You can inflict a flogging of twenty strokes five hundred times if you like provided you allow a sufficient interval. I am not in favour of more at one time.

Q--Do you think opium smoking lowers the physique of Chinamen, if they smoke

to excess

?

A--Undoubtedly.

( 44 )

Q--And that would render them less capable of standing a flogging of twenty or thirty strokes?

A-Yes. When they are asked if they are opium smokers they invariably say "yes." That is done with a view to getting opium.

Q-How long is a Chinaman laid up after a flogging, judging by the records?

A-I have not seen the records for flogging. I have seen five men receive six strokes and one man receive eighteen strokes. All the five men are out of the hospital, and they were only in the hospital one afternoon.

Q-And the one who received eighteen strokes?

A-I think he received eighteen strokes about four days ago. He is still in the hospital, simply more as a safeguard. I do not think now that the skin is perfectly healed.

Q-He has been flogged frequently?

A-Three or four times. He is flogged every time he comes to Gaol.

Q-Taking an ordinary abrasion how long is a man laid up ?

A-Three or four days; it would depend altogether on the depth of the wound. The average for six strokes would be three or four days.

Q-Has it struck you that a Chinaman prefers lying in the hospital to doing hard

labour?

A-I think they do.

Q-Is there any other punishment you would suggest instead of the flogging in lieu of the hard labour?

A-No, I have not had much experience of gaols. I have thought over the matter, but it is an extremely difficult question. The hard labour at shot and stone is very useless, but it is very difficult to say what else you could give them. They are a very troublesome lot, and if you did not give them hard labour you would simply have the whole of the Colony inside the Gaol and nobody outside.

Q--Do you think confinement in a separate cell any punishment?

A-I do not think they mind it a bit. The cells are very cool and clean and every time you go round the prisoners are sleeping.

Q-You do not think it is a punishment ?

A-Not in the least. They would do it for twenty years. The only thing they do not like is being put on rice and water. They have pork as a rule and when they have been in Gaol six months they do not like rice and water. The man who received eighteen strokes got his punishment because he assaulted a warder as he could not get more food. He thought that by attacking the warder he would get more food.

Q-With the present condition of the hospital and Gaol, and the overcrowded state of the wards, and the incompetent wardmasters, you would not like to undertake any surgical operation there?

A-Oh, no.

THE CHAIRMAN-You say you have witnessed six floggings there; were the same men always the floggers?

A-Two men, yes.

Q-And did they on each occasion put the same force in their strokes?

A-I think so, yes.

( 45 )

Q- -Have you seen the three kinds of rattan used?

A-No, I have only seen two--No. 1 and a small one, No. 3, for boys. I have seen boys receive four strokes.

Hon. Commander HASTINGS--Did the eighteen-stroke man walk away?

WITNESS-Yes.

Q-He was not helped away?

A-No, he had been flogged many times

Dr ATKINSON-How many strokes did he receive before?

WITNESS-Six, I think; but during his previous term he was flogged three or four times. I think he has had five floggings during the last two years.

THE CHAIRMAN-When you say you would limit the number of strokes to twenty do you apply that to all cases in which flogging is administered?

WITNESS-Yes.

Q-Or only flogging ordered by the Supperintendent with the assistance of a Justice of the Peace?

A-In all cases.

I think the maximum is thirty-six that anybody can give. I think that is too much.

Q-I mean a man in Gaol might be sentenced to eighteen strokes because of repeated acts of insubordination, and perhaps that might be quite enough; but supposing a man has been guilty of highway robbery, would you limit the number to twenty in such a case as that on the ground that he would not feel more ?

pass a Chinaman

A-Yes; he could have his twenty once a week, or once a fortnight if necessary. That would be a matter for the law of the land. I do not think I would for more than twenty; I would not give him more than twenty at one sitting.

Q-You think the punishment would be a greater deterrent if there were fewer strokes and more floggings?

A-I am quite sure.

Dr. ATKINSON-And each time examined?

WITNESS--Of course; each time he would have to come to me to be passed as being fit. I think if he was told he was going to get another eighteen his fortnight. would not be so pleasing as it would under the present circumstances when he gets into the hospital perhaps for six weeks.

Q-You have seen five Chinamen flogged with six strokes each?

A-Yes.

Q-And not injured?

A-Not in the least.

-Do you not think it would be better to limit the number to six?

A-I think some of them would have stood more than six, but the Superintendent has not the power to inflict more than twelve. I am giving twenty as an outside limit. I do not mean that every one who is flogged should have twenty-anywhere from six to twenty.

1

( 46 )

WILLIAM JOSIAH WILKINSON examined.

THE CHAIRMAN-How long have you been in the Gaol?

A-Two years and three months.

Q-What did you go as first?

A-Warder.

Q-What is your position now?

A--Hospital warder.

Q-How long have you been warder at the hospital?

A-Four months.

Q-Do you know what is the average number of patients in the hospital? A-The average is fifteen to twenty.

--Do you know what the size of the hospital is?

Q--

A-I cannot say.

Q-You have not measured it?

A-I have not.

Q-Are there any beds in the hospital?

A--Yes.

Q-Do you mean simply mattresses ?

A-Beds.

Q-Is the hospital crowded at any time?

A-Yes there are four or five prisoners in one cell.

Q-Do you remember the man who died on the 2nd June ?

A-Yes.

Q-Did you attend to him at all?

A-Yes.

Q-Did you dress his wounds?

A-Yes.

Q-How many times a day did you dress his wounds?

A-Three times a day.

Q-Do you often get people in the hospital suffering from wounds as the result of a flogging?

A-Yes.

Q-How many people have you known die within a month of the flogging?

A-This is the first one.

Q-The one the other day was the only one?

A-Yes.

Q-Did you see that man when he came into the hospital?

A-Yes.

-What was the state of his buttocks?

A--The wounds from the first flogging were properly healed; there were slight

marks.

( 47 )

Q-After the second flogging what was the state of his buttocks?

A-He came to me to be treated every morning. The men who receive six strokes or twelve strokes are treated outside and are not taken into the hospital unless the wounds are very serious. This man came to me on the next morning after he was flogged; on the 25th he came to me and on the 26th, and I dressed him. He went away and came on the 27th. I found his buttock was very soft and I thought he had an abscess, and I took him before the doctor. The doctor said he had an abscess and opened it. He was admitted to the hospital that day.

Q-He was thrashed on the 25th and did not go into the hospital until the 27th ?

A--Yes.

Q-He was dressed in the hospital on the 25th, but did not remain in the hospital ?

A-No.

Q-What was the state of his wounds when he first came to the hospital to be

dressed?

A-The same as any other wounds.

Q-I do not know what other wounds are like.

A-He was slightly cut, but not deep. The skin had gone away; the cuts were not deep.

Q-Have you seen a man go into the hospital with worse wounds the result of a flogging?

A-Yes, I have seen a man go into the hospital with worse wounds the result of a flogging.

Q--There was another man who was flogged on the 23rd April; he got six strokes. Do you remember that man? He was called LAU A KAU, I think?

A-His number was 528.

Q--Yes, that is the man.

A-Yes, I know him.

Q-On the 21st April he received six strokes, do you remember that ?

A--Yes.

Q-Did he

A-Yes.

go into the hospital to be dressed?

Q-He did not remain in the hospital?

A--No.

Q-Then on the 6th May he received twenty-four strokes?

A-Yes.

Q--Did he go into the hospital after that?

A--Yes.

Q-What state were his buttocks in when he came to the hospital?

A--Slightly cut.

Q-Can you compare the state of his buttocks with the state of the buttocks of the other man we have been talking about?

A--Yes.

Q-Which was the worse?

( 48 )

A--528, when he was admitted into the hospital, was worse than the man 704, who died.

Q- Was he kept in the hospital until he was discharged?

A--Yes.

Q--Were his wounds dressed every day?

A-Three times a day.

Q Did you dress them?

A--Three times a day myself.

Q-He was discharged on the 12th May?

A--Yes.

Q--Did you dress his wounds on the day he was discharged?

A--Yes, I gave him a piece of lint dipped in carbolic and placed a plaster on his buttocks so that it would not fall off.

Q-Do you ever see prisoners flogged?

A-Yes, I flog them myself.

Q-Are you one of the floggers?

A-Yes.

Q-Who is the other?

A-Mr. GIDLEY.

Q-How long have

you been a flogger?

A-Seven or eight months.

Q. ---Do you ever change the rattan ?

A-Yes, if a rattan has blood on it we always change it. We never use a cane that has blood on it because it is liable to injure another man's blood.

Q-Do you always use a clean rattan-a new rattan for every prisoner?

A-Not for every prisoner, but if a rattan has been used and blood remains on the cane, the cane is not used until it is properly washed ?

Q-How is it washed?

A-Washed in water.

Q-Not in any carbolic solution?

A-No.

--What are your hours of duty in the Gaol hospital?

A-A quarter to six in the morning to a quarter to six at night, returning at nine o'clock at night.

Q-Without any interval?

A-An hour and a half interval for tiffin and an hour for breakfast. I return again to the hospital at nine at night, and remain in the hospital all night and carry on my duties next day as usual.

Q-You remain in the hospital all night?

A-Every other night.

( 49 )

Q-I thought the Indian-

A-He remains in one night and I remain in the next.

Q-Does the Indian do day duty?

A-He is with me.

Q-Do you mean to tell me that your hours are from 5.45 in the morning to 5.45 at night every day?

A-Every other day.

Q-With night duty every other day?

A--Every other day I go off at four o'clock in the evening, and every other day I have to do a night in the hospital.

Q-I do not quite understand. Supposing you are on duty on Monday at 5.45 in the morning to 5.45 at night. You go off duty at 5.45 in the evening; when do you go on duty again?

A-Nine o'clock at night.

-And you take duty till when?

A-Four o'clock the next evening.

Q-Then you are on duty from 5.45 one morning to four o'clock the next evening?

A-I go on duty at 5.45 in the morning and finish duty at 5.45 the same evening, and go on duty at nine o'clock.

Q-The same night?

A-Yes. I remain on duty until four o'clock the following evening. I have one hour for breakfast and one hour and a half for tiffin; so I am on duty from nine o'clock to-night until four o'clock to-morrow.

Dr. ATKINSON-Twelve hours' active duty on the Monday and four hours off; then you are on duty from nine o'clock at night to four o'clock the next day?

A-Yes. I return again the next morning at 5.45 and carry on my duties as usual, finish at 5.45 in the evening, and come back at nine o'clock.

Q-Then you go on till four o'clock the next day?

A-Yes.

Q-And you get till 5.45 the next morning?

A-Yes.

-What are the hours of the Indian ?

A-The Indian is likewise; we are both in the hospital.

Hon. Commander HASTINGS-Are you supposed to be at work at night?

WITNESS-If any one complains about anything at all the officer in charge of night duty wakes me up.

Q-You are called if wanted?

A-Yes, and when there is any one very ill in the hospital I have to tell the officer to call me at certain hours.

Q-To give him medicine?

A-Yes, and to treat him.

( 50 )

Q-The man who died was flogged on the 23rd and his wounds were dressed on the 26th, and he was received in the hospital on the 27th. Any hard labour on the 26th?

A-No; he had no labour for three days.

Q-On No. 1 diet?

A-Yes.

Dr. ATKINSON-Had you any previous Gaol experience before coming here?

A-No.

Q-Not in England ?

A-No.

Q-Any previous hospital training?

A-Once in the Army I went through a bit of bandaging.

Hon. Commander HASTINGS--St. John's Ambulance, I suppose?

WITNESS-In the Marines I did a bit of bandaging.

Dr. ATKINSON-What do you dress the wounds with ?•

WITNESS-According to the amount of the wounds. We use lead lotion and carbolic oil. If it is a big case he is treated otherwise with poultices.

Q--You have never seen flogging administered in England at all?

A-No.

Q-With reference to your hours of duty. You say you are on duty for twelve hours in one day, then three and a half hours off, so you are on duty for nineteen hours?

A-Yes. I have an hour for breakfast and an hour and a half for tiffin.

Q-In which wards in the hospital are the beds ?

A--Nos. 2, 3, and 4.

Q-Those are for Europeans?

A--Yes.

Q-There are no beds in the wards for Chinese ?

A-No. If a Chinaman is very ill we take a European bed and give it to him.

Q-How many patients are there in the Chinese wards?

A-Seventeen.

Q-In one cell?

A-Four.

Q-Four is the maximum ?

A-Yes.

Q-How many beds can you get in a cell?

A-Two, and then you would have to put one bed longways and the other across. Q-You say it is the custom to dress a man before he leaves the hospital with an open wound?

A-Yes.

Q-The number of the previous case was 528 ?

A-Yes.

( 51 )

Q-He was dressed before he left the hospital? A-Yes; carbolic lint was strapped on.

Q-Do you ever fix a bandage on with string?

A-Not when the man is going out. There is a certain number of bandages allowed for the hospital and we keep them for the use of patients in the Gaol. We strap with plaster a man when he is going out of the place.

Meeting held at the Government Civil Hospital, 16th June, 1896.

Present:-His Honour Mr. T. SERCOMBE SMITH, (Acting Puisne Judge), Chairman.

Dr. ATKINSON, Acting Colonial Surgeon.

Absent:-Hon. Commander W. C. H. HASTINGS, R.N., Acting Police Magistratë.

Mr. NOLAN was examined.

THE CHAIRMAN-Mr. NOLAN, you have been in the Gaol a long time?

WITNESS-Yes, nearly thirteen years.

Q-What has been your position there?

A-For the greater part of the time I have been head turnkey.

Q-Is that your position now?

A--Yes; principal warder I am called now.

Q-Whom have you served under-what Superintendents ?

A--I have served under several who were acting.

Q-Give the names of all.

A-Mr. FALCONER was the first, he was acting at the time; Mr. THOMSON, Major DEMPSTER; a Captain from the Army was acting; General GORDON, Mr. HORSPOOL, Mr. LETBBRIDGE, Mr. MITCHELL-INNES.

Q-Mr. TONNOCHY?

A-No.

Q-Have you had any experience about flogging in the Gaol?

A—Well, I have seen flogging occasionally.

Q-Was it any part of your duty to take part in the floggings?

A-No.

Q-Were you ever a flogger

A-Never.

Q-How many floggings, do you think, you have been present at ?

A-Well, I cannot say that; I have seen several.

Q-A hundred, do you think?

A-I dare say. I might have seen a hundred at a distance.

( 52 )

Q-Have you ever seen a man flogged with twenty-four strokes?

A-Twenty-four, yes.

Q-You yourself have seen it? I do not mean know of it.

A-I heard they were sentenced, but whether they got it or not I do not know. Q-The men you have seen whipped-how many strokes did they get do you think? A-I have seen them getting six, twelve, and three dozen. They were sentenced by the Visiting Justices.

Q-You have seen a man get three dozen?

A-Yes.

Q-Have

you noticed the effect on the breech of men?

A-Some, yes.

Q-Take a man who has had six strokes; generally speaking, what has been the effect upon him?

A-He might have been just merely marked, not much. He might have been cut a little, not much.

Q-Twelve strokes ?

A-I do not know.

Q-Do they draw blood always?

A-Not with six; I believe twelve will draw blood.

Q-I want to know whether you have seen twelve draw blood ?

A-Well, I cannot say.

-You know the rattans that are now used?

A-I do.

Q-There are three of them ?

A-If there are two floggers they have a rattan each.

Q--I mean there are three sorts of rattan?

A-Yes, for jeveniles and adults.

Q-Do you know whether the weight and the shape and the size of the rattan have been the same during the thirteen years you have been in the Gaol ?

A—That I cannot say; I know nothing about that. There is a pattern rattan, and all I can say is that the new ones must correspond with the pattern, as far as I have heard.

Q-I want to know what you have seen.

A-It was not my duty to stand there; I have passed by.

Q-Have you had much experience of what goes on in the Gaol ? A-Yes, I have.

What offences are most common?

A-Refusal to labour, I think, is most common.

Q-You have seen Chinamen at hard labour there?

A-Oh, yes.

( 53 )

53)

Q-What do they refuse to do-what sort of labour ?

A-Crank principally, and stone carrying.

Q-Shot?

A-Yes, shot drill.

Q-Do you think from what you have seen that these refusals are justifiable generally?

A-They might be with the men who are ailing. I do not know at all when some of them are ailing, but they can see the doctor, and if the doctor sees there is anything ailing with the men they are not punished.

Q-Do you think any shamming is going on?

A-Yes, to the best of my opinion.

Q---Do you think that the shot drill, the stone carrying, and the crank are too hard for the Chinamen?

A-I do not know. I will tell you why I say so.

There are some men who can

do their tasks in a very short time and I have known them to be finished very early in the forenoon; so if they are willing to work I do not think their work is too severe.

Q-You have been in this Colony a long time and know pretty well the work that the Chinese coolies will do in the street. Is the hard labour that a Chinaman is called upon to do in the Gaol harder than a coolie would do in the street?

A-The coolies outside use their own time; we have to keep them to time there, but the weights that an outside coolie carries are very often far heavier than the weights in Gaol.

Q--You know the food in Gaol and you know the food that an ordinary China- man gets outside the Gaol; which is the better?

A-The food they get in the Gaol, in my opinion, is good substantial food; at some labour they get fish and other allowances.

Q-Do you know anything about the opium smokers in Gaol?

A-I do.

Q-Do you know whether those who refuse to labour are generally opium smokers

or not?

A-Generally not, because the majority of the prisoners are put to the crank when they are a long while in Gaol; they are put to the crank for several offences and very few opium smokers are put to hard labour.

Q-If a Chinaman does not work he generally gets a flogging, does he not ?

A-Not at all times.

Q--Generally, I say.

A-Generally, of course, if he habitually refuses his labour.

1

1

Q-Now do you think he prefers the rest after the flogging to the hard labour?

A-Well, I have heard some of them say-

Q-You have heard Chinamen say?

A-Yes, I have known them myself. I have said-"You had better go on with your work or you will get a flogging," and the reply has been-"Maskce, Maskee ;" and they have lain down.

Q-Do you

the hard labour?

( 34 )

think they prefer to go to hospital and lie off after a flogging to doing

A-Yes, I believe they would rather go to the hospital.

Q-They would rather have the flogging and go to the hospital?

A-Oh well, I cannot say that.

Q-Do you think the punishment cell with low diet is of any use?

A-I think, to some of them, very little.

Q-Have you

often seen the cross-irons and handcuff's resorted to?

A-If the prisoners insist upon making a disturbance the handcuffs are put on,

but not the cross-irons.

it.

Q-Have you ever seen the cross-irons put on?

A-Oh yes, in Major-General GORDON'S time.

Q--Is that a good form of punishment?

A-Very little punishment to them when they are lying down. They do not feel

Q-Have you any knowledge of the use of the "cat-o'-nine-tails ?"

A--I have never seen it used in the Gaol.

Q-Have you seen it used anywhere?

A-I have seen it used it the Army.

Q-You have been in the Army?

A-I have.

Q-How many strokes have you seen inflicted with the "cat-o'-nine-tails" in the Army?

A-I cannot say; it was a long time ago. I have seen one man strapped up and flogged with the "cat-o'-nine-tails."

Q-How many strokes?

A-I cannot tell you.

-From what you remember was it a severe or a light flogging?

A-Severe.

-How did he stand it?

A-The poor fellow could not help it. I have seen the flesh and the blood flying. There was a triangle and he was strapped to it. It was cruel; it was horrible, as far as I remember of it.

Q-Do you know anything of the birch?

A-No; that is generally used in the Navy.

Q-Do

—Do you think a rattan is too severe for a Chinaman?

Does it cut him too much?

A-I do not know; he must be punished without being too severe. They must be punished; it must not be too severe.

Q-Do you think you would have something lighter than a rattan for a Chinaman? A-No, if they are going to be punished.

Q-You think if they are going to be flogged they should be-

( 55 )

A-They should be flogged so that they can remember it. Dr. ATKINSON-Have you ever flogged a man yourself? WITNESS-Never flogged a mall.

Q-Have you ever been employed in the Gaol as flogger?

A-Never.

Q-Some of the turnkeys are floggers?

A-Yes.

Q-Have you ever seen blood flow as the result of a flogging at the Gaol?

A--I have.

Q-After how many strokes?

A-That I cannot say; it would be after twelve or more, unless a man who was getting six had been flogged previously; that might cause the blood to flow.

Q-Have there been more floggings at the Gaol recently than formerly?

A-I believe so."

Q-Under which Superintendent do you think there have been more floggings? A-Under the present.

Q-You think there have been more floggings this year than last year?

A-I think so.

THE CHAIRMAN (to Dr. Atkinson) Mr. LETHBRIDGE was on leave last year.

Dr. ATKINSON-Do you understand Chinese?

WITNESS-Only a little--just enough to get along with.

Q-You understand enough Chinese to get along with the prisoners in the Gaol and to do your duty?

A-I can get along with the Chinese so far as talking is concerned.

Q-With

With reference to the food supplied to the prisoners, do you think the quality

of the rice is better than the coolies get outside?

A--I have often heard it is better than the coolies get outside.

THE CHAIRMAN-From whom?

A-From several.

Q-What sort of people? People inside the Gaol?

A-From Europeans.

Dr. ATKINSON-Not from Chinamen-Chinamen have not told you that?

WITNESS-No.

Q-Have you seen the rice supplied to the Gaol recently?

A-Yes.

Q-You see it when it is handed round?

A-Yes.

Q-What is the appearance of it?

A-It is not white but brownish.

L

( 56 )

Dr. ATKINSON-What are the hours of duty ?

WITNESS-Well, we go on at 5.45, and the short division earlier: the short division

goes on-

-What are the hours of duty of the ordinary turnkey?

A-From 6 to 6, or the short division from 6.30 to 5. They have ma‹le a change ; they are not what they used to be. It used to be from 6 to 6.

I

go on night duty at 5.45

Q-Have the hours of duty been increased lately?

A-They have in a sense; night duty is the worst. and I am on all night. That is more than before I came here-on from evening to 5.30 the next morning, and there is not a chance to rest-5.45 to 5.30.

year?

Q-Twelve hours except a quarter of an hour?

A-Yes.

Q-When do you go on duty again ?

A-Same evening again.

Q-Twelve hours practically. Is that an increase as compared with the previous

A-Much more severe, because before the head turnkey had an assistant.

Q-The hours of duty have practically been increased latterly?

A-Yes, they get more time in the day duty; they get more time for their meals than formerly.

Q-The turnkeys who act as wardmasters at the Gaol have the same hours, I suppose?

A-Well, no, I think they are different.

Q-Do you know what the difference is?

A-No, we have nothing to do with them.

Q-Have cross-irons as a form of punishment been used within the last year or two?

A-No, they have not been used so much lately.

Q-More floggings and less cross-irons?

A-Yes.

Q-Have you ever heard of a death resulting from flogging at the Gaol?

A-Only this last one.

Q-You have never heard of any other?

A-No.

Q--Nor after a prisoner has left the hospital?

A-Not in my time.

THE CHAIRMAN Do you want to tell us anything more?

WITNESS-That is all I know.

Q-About flogging?

A--That is all I know about flogging.

Q-Have you visited the prisoners in the hospital that have been flogged?

A-Yes, I have visited the hospital.

!

( 57 )

Q-After the prisoners have been flogged have you visited them in the hospital?

A-Yes, I have.

Q-How long have you known a prisoner laid up in the hospital after a flogging? A--Well, I never took notice.

Dr. ATKINSON--Do you think the crank labour is severe at the Gaol?

WITNESS-12 lbs. pressure; if it is that when it is tested it will become easier.

Q-Do

-Do you

think it is severe as a form of punishment?

A-It is severe.

Q-Do you think it is the most severe in the Gaol ?

A-I think it is the most severe in the Gaol.

Q-What are the revolutions?

A-12,500.

Q-At a pressure of 12 lbs. ?

A-Yes.

Q-The handle is very smooth?

A-Yes.

Q-You cannot get a purchase on the handle?

A-There is a bamboo on the iron shaft.

Q-Yes, but it is quite smooth?

A-Smooth.

Q-The great majority of those who are flogged refuse to work at the crank? A-Yes, to the best of my opinion.

Q-Do you know of any other form of punishment that would answer the same purpose as the crank?

A--I do not.

THE CHAIRMAN-The treadmill?

WITNESS-I have never seen the treadmill.

Dr. ATKINSON-Did the prisoners object to working in gangs when that was in Vogue? Some

years ago prisoners used to work outside the Gaol.

WITNESS-Yes, I was in charge myself.

Q--Did they like that form of punishment more than any other?

A-I do not know; I know the majority of them used to be anxious to get out on the public works.

Q-They did not like it?

A--They used to like it.

Q-They preferred it?

A-They used to get extra congee-some cow's feet boiled up.

Q--Do you think punishment in a separate cell is a severe form of punishment for

a Chinaman?

A--I do not think so.

( 58 )

-You do not think it is a deterrent?

A-No.

Q-I suppose practically Chinamen sleep all the time?

A--All the time, and some of them will not behave themselves and shout out and give all the trouble they possibly can.

THE CHAIRMAN-If short sentence prisoners were told that if they refused to work they would have their queues cut off--do you think that would be any good? ·

A--That might be; that is another thing. There are a lot of hardened "jokers" amongst them, and they do not like to lose their queue by all accounts.

Dr. ATKINSON--They are a very difficult class of people to deal with? WITNESS--They are.

THE CHAIRMAN--You get a lot of men with different dialects in the Gaol ?

WITNESS-Yes.

Q-Do the men with different dialects herd together at all. Can they talk together?

A-They make out each other as well as they can, but there is no talking allowed. If they are heard talking, of course, they are reported.

Q-Do you have many assaults by one prisoner on another?

Q-Not so many now as formerly.

Q-Why?

A-I do not know why that is. I do not think there is so much tobacco and opium thrown over the wall as there used to be, and so much shouting and fighting with one another for it. That used to be the cause of a row.

Q-Do

you think the staff there is as good as it used to be?

A-I do not.

Q-Do you think the staff there is a staff qualified to deal with prisoners?

A-I do not think so; they are not qualified the same as Europeans are. That is my opinion.

Q-Has the number of Europeans on the staff been lessened?

A-Lessened? yes; and Indians taken on instead.

Dr. ATKINSON-How long has that been?

WITNESS-Before Captain LETHBRIDGE came out.

Q-It started before Captain LETHBRIDGE came out ?

A-Yes.

Q-You do not know under whose governorship the Indian turnkeys were introduced?

A-I do not know, but that is the time they started-before Captain LETHBRIDGE

came out.

THE CHAIRMAN-Do you think an Indian gives more irritation to a prisoner than a European?

A-I do not think he is so fit to perform his duties as a European.

Q-Why?

A-His abilities are not as great.

them and I do not understand them.

( 59 )

The Indians will not understand me if I talk to They come to me and say "Mr. NOLAN, there

is a man sick in the hospital," and they make such trivial reports.

Q-I am speaking in reference to dealing with prisoners. If a prisoner refused to work a European might go to him and say--"If you do not work you will be punished," but an Indian would probably not be able to tell him that, would he?

be?

A-No.

Q-Do you think an Indian is rougher with a prisoner than a European would

A-No, I do not think that.

Q-Do

you think a Chinaman would obey a European sooner than obey an Indian ?

A-I think so.

Q-Are the men there younger than the men that used to be there, or older?

A-Much about the same.

Q-Have you any Chinese warders?

A-No.

Q-Would they be of any use in the Gaol, do you think?

A-I do not think so.

Q-You do not think they would be preferable to Indians?

A-I do not think they would be any good.

Dr. ATKINSON-What is the European staff in the Gaol now--what numbers?

A-I do not think there are more than twenty.

:

Q-How many were there six years ago?

A--There were forty odd; I think forty-three; I will not be sure about it.

Dr. ATKINSON--Diminished about 50 per cent.

V.B.-The evidence of this witness was taken in the Government Civil Hospital when the witness was evidently in physical pain.

( 60 )

· Meeting held on Wednesday, 17th June, 1896.

Present: His Honour Mr. T. SERCOMBE SMITH, (Acting Puisne Judge), Chairman..

Hon. Commander W. C. H. HASTINGS, R.N., Acting Police Magistrate.

Dr. ATKINSON, Acting Colonial Surgeon.

The Honourable ALEXANDER MACDONALD THOMSON examined.

THE CHAIRMAN--You have been Acting Superintendent at the Gaol?

WITNESS-Yes.

Q-Can you tell us the dates?

A-From April, 1891, to March, 1892, and from March, 1895, to March, 1896.

Q-Taking these two years-1891 to 1892 and 1895 to 1896-have the flogg- ings increased or decreased in proportion to the prisoners in the Gaol?

A-They increased largely last year.

Q-I have a return here for 1891-I do not know whether it is accurate, but we will take if for what it is worth-and in that year the total number of floggings was 244. Will that be about correct, do you think?

A-Yes, perhaps about that.

Q--And then in 1895 the number was 535 ?

A-Of course that would include cases sentenced by the Court. Yes, that would be so, it might be.

Q-Those cases would not form a very big proportion of the floggings?

A-No.

Q-Can you assign any cause for the increase from 295 in 1891 to 535 in 1895 ?

A-Yes. About September last year, in the course of my usual inspections, I came to the conclusion that the head turnkey was not doing his duty and that the cranks were not up to the proper strength. I ordered the warder to make a surprisé test of all the cranks immediately on receipt of the head turnkey's certificate. One morning, in doing so, he found that most of the cranks were very much under weight-under test -and a large proportion of them had no weight at all.

Dr. ATKINSON-No

pressure

?

WITNESS-No pressure. Then the result of that was that all the cranks being up to the proper test, the prisoners, as I believed, entered into a conspiracy to refuse to do the labour, and the result was a large increase in the number of floggings.

Q-Comparing your terms of office, was there any marked increase or decrease in any special class of Gaol offences ?

A-The increase was almost entirely owing to refusal to labour.

Q-And that refusal to labour was due to the fact that the pressure was increased?

A-It was due to the fact that the cranks were kept up to the test.

Q-Now in your opinion what class of Gaol offences are most common?

A-What flogging offences?

( 61 )

Q-Yes, offences which lead up to floggings.

A-Refusal to labour is the most common.

Q-Do you consider that the conduct of the staff in any way aggravated the pri- soners and so incited them to commit breaches of discipline?

A--No, I do not think so.

Q-Have cases of that description ever come under your notice?

A-Where the conduct of the members of the staff-

Q-Yes, has aggravatel the prisoners.

A-No, no such case.

Q-Can you compare the staff during the two terms of your superintendency?

A-The staff in my last term was composed of a much better class of men than it was in the first.

Q--How do they compare in numbers?

A--I think the numbers are the same.

Q- Are the nationalities the same?

A--No; in my last year a new system was put into force. A number of Euro- peans were superseded by Sikhs under charge of Europeans.

Q-What led to that change?

A-The unsatisfactory conduct of the Europeans.

Q-In your opinion has the conduct of the Indians justified the change?

A--I have had only a short experience of them, but as far as I can make out they were more satisfactory at least from one point of view, because the Europeans were always getting drunk and going into the hospital for various diseases, and the Sikhs are more on the spot.

Q-In respect of dealing with the prisoners, who are the more competent-the European or Sikhs ?

A-As far as that goes I think they are about the same.

Q-Do you consider that the staff under you was properly fitted by discretion and tact to have control of the prisoners ?

A-I should say, in reply to that, that it is about as good as you can get for the

money.

Q--Do you know the weights and proportions of the three rattans used in flogging prisoners?

A-No, I cannot speak as to that.

Q-Was the same pattern of rattan used in 1895 and 1896 that was used in 1891 and 1892 ?

A-Yes.

Q-Do you know when that pattern was introduced ?

A-No.

Q--Do you know by what Governor it was approved ?

A-I have heard, but I cannot say of my own knowledge.

( 62 )

Q Did you ever witness the floggings yourself?

A-Yes.

Q--Have you witnessed them sufficiently often to be able to tell us the effects of a flogging of say, six, twelve, eighteen, twenty-four, and thirty-six strokes?

A-Yes, I have.

Q-Can you describe the effects to us?

A-On an ordinary healthy man six strokes have no evil effects.

-I am asking you what the effects are.

A-One or two weals which, I should say, heal up in the course of a day or two. A man who has twelve begins to have a certain amount of cutting of the flesh; a man who has eighteen has the same thing considerably aggravated, and I think the highest I have seen myself was twenty-five, when there were several bruises which exposed the flesh.

Q-Have

Have you seen a prisoner faint under any flogging?

A--No, never.

Q-Have you seen a prisoner bonâ fide unable to walk to the cell or hospital after a flogging?

A--No.

Q-Have you seen a prisoner carried away from a flogging?

A-No.

Q-Have you ever seen the Surgeon stop a flogging?

A-I have known the Surgeon state an intention of stopping one-I was present myself-simply on account, as I believed at the time, of the tremendous howling that was raised by the prisoner.

Q-How many strokes?

A-As far as I recollect, eighteen strokes.

Q--At what period did the Surgeon try to stop the flogging?

A-The surgeon tried to stop it at the tenth stroke.

Q-Was it stopped at ten?

A-No.

Q--Why not?

A-I told the Surgeon privately I believed the man was feigning.

Q-You have not seen the effect of the birch or "cat-o'-nine-tails" upon a Britisher?

A-No.

Q-Have you ever seen a European flogged at Victoria Gaol?

A-Nothing beyond six.

Q-How do they bear a flogging with a rattan as compared with the Chinamen ?

A-About the same.

Q-In England Governors of Gaols have no powers of imposing flogging. Can you give us any reason for vesting the Superintendent of Victoria Gaol with a power to order twelve strokes which would not be applicable to the Governors of English Gaols?

( 63 )

A-I should say that one reason is that in Hongkong it is such a nuisance to always summon a Justice of the Peace to assist in trying a case. From one point of view it would be inadvisable to call in an Official Justice of the Peace, and the Unofficials have always their day's work to do and naturally object to coming up. It would certainly be impracticable to call upon an Unofficial in all cases where flogging is the punishment as frequently as flogging is inflicted in the Gaol.

Q-Do you think it would be advisable to keep every case requiring to be dealt with by flogging for the Visiting Justices every week?

A-No, it would be very inadvisable.

Q-Would it take too long?

A-Yes; in my opinion punishment in the Gaol should be inflicted promptly.

Q-Have you ever ordered a flogging without the sanction of the Surgeon?

A-No.

Q-Has the Surgeon in your time always delivered a written certificate of the prisoner's fitness to be flogged?

A-Always.

Q-Was the written certificate in force when you were at the Gaol from 1890 to

1891?

form.

A--I would not say for certain, but I think it was. I have always recollected a

Q-You do not recollect any change?

A-No, so I think it must have been in force.

Q-Were the certificates, so far as you remember, always filled up in one form? A--The only certificate given was if the prisoner was fitted for so many strokes; if the Surgeon certified that the prisoner was fit it was all right.

Q--Have you ever objected to the way the Surgeon examined a prisoner?

A-No; I know nothing about that at all.

Q-Broadly speaking, would you undertake to govern Victoria Gaol and maintain strict discipline if you had not the power of ordering flogging?

A-No.

Q-What are your reasons?

A-I am afraid the results as regards discipline would be disastrous, I am under a general impression; I cannot go into details.

Q.-Would you be satisfied if the birch were substituted for the rattan and the present power of the Superintendent not interfered with?

A-I have no objection to trying the birch. I do not know anything about the birch; I have had no experience of it, and I cannot, of course, give any opinion on it.

Q--Do you think that the power of ordering floggings now vested in the Superintendent might safely be reduced to a maximum of six strokes if the rattan were retained.

A- No.

Q-Why not?

A-Six strokes is the ordinary number inflicted by the Superintendent.

( 64 )

Q-He has power-

A--He has power to give up to twelve.

Q-What was it in your case?

A-My rule was not to give more than six unless it was an occasion when I called a Visiting Justice.

Q-Supposing a man had one flogging at your orders and he got six strokes, did you ever raise it to twelve strokes without consulting a Justice?

A--Oh yes; I never consulted a Justice on those occasions.

Q-Supposing a man came up for a second flogging?

A-On an ordinary occasion of refusal to work my rule was in the first case, three days rice and water; the second, three days solitary confinement and rice and water; the third six strokes, and the fourth nine strokes, and if the man came up for the fifth time twelve strokes. That was what you might call my rule; of course I had exceptions.

Q-That was the principle?

A-That was the principle on which I went.

Q-Did you often call in Justices?

A--About two or three times.

Q-Do the Chinese obey Indians as readily as they obey Europeans? In your experience of the Gaol can you tell us that?

A-I think they do.

Q-Would you put Chinese on the Gaol staff?

A-No, certainly not.

Q-Why not?

A-They are not reliable enough.

Q-Do you think it is an objection that they would be looking after their own countrymen?

Gaol.

A-No, I do not think so.

Q-That they might be liable to smuggle anything into the Gaol?

A--Yes, that is one objection; they might be liable to smuggle anything into the

Q-And, being able to talk to them, convey to them outside news?

A-Yes, of course that would be one thing. The real objection is that Chinamen are more open to bribery than Indians.

Q-It is not the duty of the Superintendent to be present at all the floggings? A-No.

Q-I understand it is the duty of the Governor of an English Gaol to be present at the floggings. Do you not think it would be better to make it necessary for the Superintendent to be present at the floggings in Victoria Gaol ?

A-I do not see any advantage to be derived from it; the Medical Officer is present.

Q-Would not your presence be a check on the Medical Officer, and the Malical Officer's presence be a check on you, and the presence of both of you a check on the floggers?

( 65 )

A-I do not think such an elaborate check is necessary.

-Does it not follow there would be such a check?

A-A check on what?

Q-The Surgeon might say he considered a person was fit to go on with the flogging, and you might hold a different opinion, and then you might consult with him and after the consultation check the flogging, which would not be checked otherwise.

A-If the Surgeon said a man was fit to bear a number of strokes I would not interfere. Suppose a man had been sentenced to receive a certain number of strokes and the Surgeon certified that he was fit to receive them and the Surgeon was present at the flogging and did not stay the flogging I would not interfere.

Q--Did

you not give us an instance where the Surgeon wished to stop the flog- ging and you ordered it to go on?

A--That was only a conversation privately with the Surgeon. I would not have ordered the continuance of the flogging if the Surgeon had ordered it to stop. I was standing by more or less as a private individual, and the Surgeon was probably being deceived by the tremendous howling raised by the prisoner. As a matter of fact no result followed from that flogging.

Q--Do you not think that if the Superintendent were obliged to attend the flog- gings the number of floggings might drop?

first?

A--I do not see how that would affect it at all.

Q-In case of what floggings have you to obtain the sanction of the Governor

A--Floggings imposed by the Courts.

Q--Only the sentences by the Courts ?

A--Sentences by the Magistrate or the Supreme Court.

Q--At what hour do the floggings take place?

A--They take place in the forenoon.

Q-What hour?

A--When it is convenient for the warden to attend.

Q-Are they flogged in the presence of other prisoners?

A--No, in private.

Q--Suppose A, B, C, and D are being flogged in one day are B, C, and D present while A is flogged?

A--That is so.

Q---When you were Superintendent did the reports of misconduct reach you mostly through the Europeans or mostly through Indians?

A--Mostly through Europeans.

Q--I believe, under Rule 218, there is power to cut off the queue of a prisoner. "The queues of Chinese prisoners sentenced to imprisonment with hard labour for up- wards of 2 years may be cut off, and their hair cut close until within six months of their release, the queues may also be cut off short-sentenced prisoners if the Surgeon should consider it necessary for health or cleanliness; but such prisoner shall be allow- ed to appeal to the Governor about it, no queue shall be cut off under any circumstances without the special permission of the Governor." Have you formed any opinion as to whether it is advisable to take that form of punishment a little further--to extend it?

?

( 66 )

A--I have never thought about the matter.

Q-Now that it is mentioned, how does it strike you as a possible mode of punish-

ment?

A-Of course, I know that Chinese prefer to have their queue, but I think it would be rather a barbarous form of punishment to cut their queues off and send them out of Gaol without a tail.

Q--More barbarous than flogging?

A-I think so. A man can hide his flogging, but he cannot hide his cut queue.

Q-Do

you not think it would be a huge deterrent?

A-I cannot say.

-You will not venture an opinion?

A-I cannot say; I have not thought about it.

Q-Would you advise the cutting off the queues of short-sentence prisoners?

A-No, I should say not.

Q-The reason I believe you give is that they would be subjected to so much shame if they went out?

A-Yes, I think so.

Q-Do you not think if you cut off the queue it would have a very strong effect?

A-On short-sentenced prisoners?

-On both.

Q-

A-I do not think it would.

Q-Not if they were sent out of Gaol without queues ?

A-No, because the circumstances in this Colony are rather peculiar: a number of new men coming in every day; and you will find, I think, that most of the short- sentenced prisoners come to the Colony and are ignorant of the laws and therefore they would be ignorant of the custom.

Q-When you were Superintendent did the Europeans and Indians understand Chinese sufficiently to communicate with the prisoners?

A--As far as I recollect there were always one or two about the yard or corridor who could talk to a certain extent.

--Do you think they could talk sufficiently to understand a bonâ fide complaint? A--I think they knew enough to understand. if a prisoner wanted to see the Super- intendent.

Q-Or the doctor?

A-Or the doctor. One or two cases have occurred where a man has complained

to me that he was not allowed to see the doctor when he wanted to; but such a case is probably one in a thousand.

Q-In your experience has there been any difficulty in procuring the attendance of any one of the Justice?

A-No.

Q-How did you procure their attendance?

A-Send word round.

(67)

Q-Write a note?

A-Yes.

Q-Have you met with any unwillingness on the part of the Justices of the Peace?

A-No.

Q-Have you met with any grumbling at the attendance?

A--No.

Q-Have you administered any floggings upon the complaint or evidence of a single Indian unsupported by other evidence?

A-I cannot say, no, I do not think so; I should say not.

Q-Did you notice whether one officer made more reports than another officer?

A-No, I have not noticed that.

Q-Does the Superintendent exercise any control over the Gaol hospital?

A-No, only to this extent, that he inspects it every time that he inspects the Gaol, but of course not having any scientific training he cannot interfere with what goes on in the hospital, but the Superintendent goes through the hospital.

Q-You looked through the hospital every time that you inspected the Gaol?

A-Yes.

Q-It was always made clean?

A-It was always made clean; there is no mistake about that.

Q-Rule 321 says:

"Marks shall be forfeited by prisoners for misconduct; 72 for flogging." Is that in vogue?

A-That was in vogue the first time I served as Superintendent at the Gaol, but I think that Rule is changed. New Rules were sent out about two years ago based on Rules in force at home, and there is no mention of forfeiting marks, which was, ipso facto, punishing a man.

Q--Has any repeal of that regulation been gazetted?

A--I think so; I think you will find it in 1893 or 1894.

Q-I understand Europeans are not required to do stone carrying?

A-Certainly.

Q-What is the reason for that distinction?

A-I do not know.

Q-Is it a valid distinction?

A-I think so.

Q-A European is put on shot drill and oakum picking?

A-A European has half shot drill and half oakum picking.

Q-What are the hours?

A-About six.

Q-Rule 288 says: "The hours of labour will not be less than six or more than ten daily, exclusive of meals.'

A-I cannot say straight off because there are a number of intervals. If you had a copy of the bell scale you could see at once.

( 68 )

-Will you turn to Rule 266 under the head of "Prison offences and punish- ment?" I want to go into the question of these Rules. Rule 266 says: "No prisoner shall be punished under the provisions of The Prisons Ordinance, 1885, until he has had an opportunity of hearing the charges and evidence against him, and of making his defence." Was that always carried out in your time?

A-Always.

Q-Rules 270 says: "The following acts are declared to be offences against Prison discipline, and there are eight categories. Rule 271 says: "It shall be lawful for the Superintendent to examine any prisoner touching such offences, and to punish them by ordering any offender to be kept in a punishment cell for not more than three days, on bread, or rice and water, or he may deprive a prisoner of his pork for not more than four meals at one time." Do you take it that that in any way empowers the flogging of a man?

A-No.

Q-Do

-Do you take it that Rule 271 specifies the way in which the Superintendent should deal with offences under Rule 270?

A-I should say that the punishment specified in Rule 271 would apply to the offences stated in Rule 270.

Q-Supposing any of the offences stated in Rule 270 are repeated, how do you deal with the prisoners?

A-I should deal with them under Rule 274.

Q-Under what part of the Rule?

A-“Any act of insubordination requiring to be suppressed by extraordinary means. It would not necessarily follow that I would do it on the second offence.

""

Q-Look at sub-section 6 of Rule 270-" Idleness or negligence at work by any convicted criminal prisoner." Supposing a man was chronically idle or neglected to do his work, would you have power, under Rule 274, to flog him for it?

A-I think so.

"The Superintendent may deprive

Q-How do you interpret Rule 272 which says: any prisoner of his evening meal for persistent and aggravated idleness, or refusal to labour ?"

A-Rule 272 has always been worked in this way: it has never been applied except in the case of men being discharged next day.

Q-Do

you not think that Rule 272 supplies the punishment for cases of persistent and aggravated idleness or refusal to labour?

A-I should not say in the third offence; it might do for the second. As a matter of fact I might say, as regards Rule 272, that it was unworkable in cases of pri- soners staying in the Gaol, because the Medical Officer was never present in the after-

noon.

Q-Could not arrangements have been made for his presence in the afternoon ?

A-I suppose he had other duties to perform; he had to attend civil servants and other people.

Q-The point I am driving at is this, that apparently for refusal to do duty and for aggravated and persistent idleness it has been common to punish prisoners under Rule 274, whereas it seems to me that Rule 272 provides specific punishments for specific offences and therefore would exclude the operation of Rule 274 in such cases.

T

(69)

A-Not necessarily, because idleness or negligence at work might come in that part of Rule 274 referring to mutiny or conspiracy. I should say that conspiracy to refuse to labour is the same thing as mutiny.

Q-You say that conspiracy to refuse labour in the Gaol is equivalent to mutiny? A-Yes, it is equivalent to mutiny; at all events it requires to be dealt with under Rule 274.

Q-Now come to Rule 273. Have you ever put in "cross-irons of 10 lbs. weight, or less, or in handcuffs, any disorderly or violent prisoner ?"

A-No.

Q-For twenty-four hours at one time?

A-I do not recollect a case.

Q-If you do not recollect having done it yourself have you ever known a case of punishment of more than twenty-four hours with the aid of a Visiting Justice?

A-No such case, certainly.

Q-Now turn to Rule 274. I first ask you whether the report which the Super- intendent makes to the Governor is made before or after the flogging?

A--It is made after the flogging.

Q-Did you in any exceptional case make the report before the flogging?

A-Never.

Q--Now you see the offences that are specified there. "Mutiny or open incite- ment to mutiny in the prison, personal violence to any officer of the prison, repetition of threatening language to any officer or prisoner, and any act of insubordination requiring to be suppressed by extraordinary means." Can you state what interpretation you put upon these words: "Any act of insubordination requiring to be suppressed by extraordinary means?"

A--I think the only case that I have inflicted flogging under these terms was an aggravated refusal to labour.

Q--And you do not think that the persistent and aggravated refusal to labour is provided for by Rule 272 ?

A--No, not aggravated cases. Deprivation of the evening meal is not much of a punishment.

Q--It might not be, but the question is would you have been justified in acting under Rule 274 in flogging a man for persistent and aggravated idleness or refusal to labour, which seems to be provided for under Rule 272 ?

A--I think so.

Q--What interpretation, broadly speaking, do you put upon the words-“ Any act of insubordination requiring to be suppressed by extraordinary means ?" Can you specify a case?

A--As a general rule the act of insubordination that I have flogged for under these circumstances was one, generally, of the third refusal to perform the daily task. I do not recollect any other instance of the punishment of flogging except under these

terms.

Q---What in your opinion would constitute "mutiny or open incitement to mutiny in a prison ?"

(70)

A--Well, of course, conspiracy in the prison to assault and break out of the prison or anything of that kind, or to destroy property. Of course, it is a general term ; it never really occurred. The only mutiny that I have had any experience of is what I say I believed was the conspiracy on the part of a large number of prisoners to refuse to do the labour.

Q- Did you order many floggings on account of personal violence offered to any officer of the prison ?

A-Not very many.

Q--Was that a common kind of offence ?

A--Not very common.

Q--Did you order floggings for aggravated or repeated acts of violence by prisoners?

A--Now and again.

Q--Is that common?

A-Not very common.

Q--Did you order floggings for repetition of threatening language by a prisoner ?

A--Yes; it is not very common.

Q--Supposing a man indulges in profane cursing and swearing and obscene

language?

water.

A-If it was ordinary Chinese cursing I have sent them in for three days rice and

Q--Supposing he went on in the same way and was reported three or four times over for profane cursing and swearing and obscene language, how would you punish

him?

A--I expect it would have to come to flogging. I do not recollect any such case. The only case that I remember having inflicted flogging in was the case of a European- a ship's boy-who used the foulest language towards the officer in charge of the party. I had told him that if he used such language on a second occasion he would be flogged.

Q--Had you any power at all to flog him for such an offence?

A--I think so.

Q-Under what?

A-I should say if it does not come under repetition of threatening language- Q-That is quite a distinct thing. In sub-sections 3 and 5 you will find swearing and obscene language in one category, and insulting or threatening language in another category.

A-As I have said before I should say that the repetition of offences which come under Rule 270 can be dealt with under Rule 274.

Q--That was the way you interpreted the Rules? A-That was the way I interpreted the Rules.

-What do you think insubordination comprises?

A-1 should say any act whatever against the rules of the Gaol. It is in the discretion of the Superintendent to judge whether it is an act of insubordination which requires extraordinary powers to suppress.

Q-Supposing there was repeated indecent behaviour by any prisoner, how would you punish that prisoner?

(71)

A--Certainly by flogging.

Q-And bring him under "any act of insubordination that requires to be sup- pressed by extraordinary means?"

A-Yes.

Q-Coming to Rule 275.

"If any criminal prisoner is guilty of any offence;"

what do you take that to mean? Under what rule?

A-Under the Rule laying down the duty of the prisoners.

Q-Do you not think it refers specially to offences specified in Rule 277?

A-Yes, certainly, I should say so.

Q-And the "Prison Regulations" would cover the whole range of these regula-

tions?

A-Yes.

Q-Breaches of prison discipline would be offences under Rule 270 I suppose?

A-They are laid down in Rule 270. The eighth section of Rule 270 really covers everything that is not specified in the first seven.

Q-Rule 275. "If any criminal prisoner is guilty of any such offence, or of a breach of the Prison Regulations or of discipline, for the due punishment of which the Superintendent of the Prison may deem the powers vested in him insufficient." What interpretation do you put upon that?

A-That practically means if the Superintendent of the Prison thinks a man ought to have more than twelve strokes in case the offence is proved.

Q-Under Rule 275 an alternative punishment is given which might be inflicted by the Superintendent in conjunction with a Visiting Justice after enquiry, and the first alternative is by "close and solitary confinement on bread, or rice and water, for a period not exceeding fourteen days." Did you resort to that often?

A-No.

Q-Do you remember any case where you have called in a Visiting Justice to administer such a punishment?

A-Yes, in 1891.

Q-What is the effect upon a prisoner of close confinement on bread, or rice and water, for a period of fourteen days?

A-I should say it was unhealthy for a prisoner.

Q. -But punitively it is a good punishment?

A-I do not think it is such a good punishment as flogging.

Q-Then other cases come under Rule 275; has the Justice generally sentenced the prisoner to be whipped?

A-Certainly; nearly always.

Q-Now coming to Rule 277. That specifies the following offences for which male prisoners will be liable to corporal punishment. The first part is practically a recapitulation of 274. The second part refers to damage to property, and the third the making a disturbance in prison. Have you punished people with flogging under the second and third sections of Rule 277?

A-Yes.

(72)

-Do you consider that the Superintendent can punish under the second and third portions of that section by himself?

A-Yes, I think so.

Q-Up to what extent?

A-Up to twelve strokes.

Q-And do you read Rule 277 along with Rule 274?

A-Yes.

Q--As importing additional offences into Rule 274?

A-No; I read the second and third parts of Rule 277 as a further detail of

any act of insubordination requiring to be suppressed by extraordinary means in Rule 274. That is to say, if a man was liable to thirty-six strokes under Rule 277 it was in the discretion of the Superintendent to give him twelve under Rule 274.

Q. You do not think that these two parts of Rule 277 in any way relate to offences which may only be dealt with by the Superintendent in conjunction with a Visiting Justice?

A-No, certainly not.

Q-What kind of minutes of evidence did

A-In ordinary cases?

Q-Yes, did you take any minutes ?

you

take ?

A-No minutes except a note of the sentence.

Q-You simply had oral evidence and you did not take it down at all ?

A-No.

Q-Was that your interpretation of Rule 266? "No prisoner shall be punished under the provisions The Prison Ordinance, 1885, until he has had an opportunity of hearing the charges and evidence against him, and of making his defence.'

??

A-Yes; they always had the opportunity of hearing the charges and evidence against them and of making their defence.

Q-You did not take any notes of the evidence nor the defence made by a prisoner?

A-No.

Hon. Commander HASTINGS-The first time you punished with flogging, how many strokes did you give?

WITNESS-Six strokes.

Q-Did you flog a prisoner more than once before you sent for a Visiting Justice? Did you flog him twice on your own responsibility?

A-Oh yes, frequently.

Q-Of course, you have heard of these two special cases of which one resulted in death, can you suggest any other substitute for the rattan ?

A-I have had no experience.

Q--You were Superintendent during the whole of last year?

A-Yes; nearly the whole.

Q-There appeared to be something like two thousand prisoners more than in 1891, and the flogging was double?

1

( 73 )

A-Yes, I explained that before you came in.

Dr. ATKINSON-Have you had any experience of Gaol administration at home?

WITNESS-No.

Q-Do you think the Chinese prisoners would rather submit to a flogging and subsequent rest in Gaol to doing the hard labour?

A-If you do not flog them they will not do hard labour.

Q-What I mean is that to escape hard labour they prefer in some cases to be flogged.

while

none.

A--No, I do not think so.

Q--What is the greatest number of floggings you have administered in one day

you have been Superintendent of the Gaol?

A-I do not know the figures.

Q--Roughly?

A-I have certainly sent up twelve in one day.

Q--That is exceptional, I suppose?

A-That is exceptional; generally there are not more than three, and often

Q--There were over 500 floggings, I think, in 1895 ?

A-Over 400.

THE CHAIRMAN-The total I have here for 1895 is 535 ?

Dr. ATKINSON-You say the reason for that great increase is, in your opinion, a conspiracy by a large number of inmates to refuse to do hard labour ?

A-Yes.

Q-How do you think they can conspire together? They are not allowed to talk. A-They do it.

Q-If that was the case one would think it occurred in a limited period.

A-It does occur in a limited period. In two months, as far as I can recollect, there were as many as 140 floggings.

Q-Is it customary to report to the Governor in every case of flogging?

A-In every case.

Q-Were you asked by the Governor for the reason of the increase in the number of floggings?

A-I was asked to report on a despatch from the Secretary of State on the number of floggings in 1894.

Q-I

suppose you are aware that at home floggings are very rarely administered, and the Governor's power is very much inore limited there than it is here ?

A-Yes, I think so.

Q-Do you not think that other forms of punishment might be administered at the Gaol ?

A-What other forms?

Cross-irons is one allowed in the Regulations.

(74)

A-I do not think that is much of a punishment. In this climate one can lic down in cross-irons and be quite comfortable.

Q-Do you think the Chinese dread solitary confinement?

A-I do not think they like it, but I do not think it is much of a punishment.

Q-Not much of a deterrent ?

A--No. I should go so far as to say that in the case of a man who did not like hard labour it would be no punishment at all.

Q-I think you said that cutting the diet down and confining an inmate to rice and water is much more of a punishment to Chinamen than the ordinary punishment?

-No, I do not think so.

Q-There is a Rule that the Superintendent may deprive any prisoner of his evening meal for persistent and aggravated idleness, or refusal to labour.

A-That Rule is only used in the case of a man who is going out next morning.

Q-Is it limited to that?

A- In practice; it is not limited to that in theory. In practice it is limited to a man who is leaving the Gaol the next morning.

Q-Why is that?

A-It is convenient.

Q-Do you not think it would be better to deprive them of the evening meal?

A-When would you deprive them of the evening meal? I think depriving them of the evening meal for the second offence is not much of a punishment, and I would not deprive them of the evening meal for the first offence. It is a matter of practice; I used to give them three days' rice and water.

Q-They cannot get more than three days rice and water?

A-No.

Q-Are there any other forms of punishment you can suggest in lieu of the pre- sent forins of hard labour at the Gaol ?

A-No.

Q-Which form of hard labour has been the cause of most flogging?

A-The crank.

Q-What are the number of revolutions ?

A-12,500, I think. The number is less than it is at home.

Q-But the physique of a Chinaman is always less than that of a European?

A-Taking that into consideration it should be known that no prisoner is put on the crank except the old offenders.

Q-Is it chiefly old offenders who are flogged?

A-Chiefly old offenders, Yes.

Q-Is the same number of revolutions required in the summer as in the winter?

A-Yes; of course, the matter is left to the judgment of the Medical Officer in

each case.

Q-Were the Indian Turnkeys appointed during your terms of office?

A-Yes.

}

1:

( 75 )

Q-Can you tell us, roughly, the hours of duty of the European Turnkeys at the

Gaol?

A-About ten hours a day, I think.

Q-What are the hours of duty of the Police?

A-Six, I think.

Q-Does it not strike you that the hours of duty of the European staff are excessive?

A-I think they are rather long. At the same time their duties are not the same and they work under cover.

Q-More monotonous ?

A-Yes. I must say I have always been of opinion that the hours of duty are rather long.

Q-Do you not think that might have caused a good deal of the alcoholism to which you refer?

A-I do not think so. I think alcoholism was developed before.

Q-Do

you not think the Europeans are more intelligent as Turnkeys?

A-Not the local class of men; I should say the present men are intelligent.

--Was the object of the change to effect economy ?

A-No, to improve the staff. You engage men from hoine on a larger salary than you engage men locally.

-Do you think the Gaol is sufficiently manned with turnkeys?

A-I think so.

Q-You think the hours of duty are too long?

A-Yes. If you cut down the hours you will want to have one or two more men. THE CHAIRMAN-Have you any suggestions to make with regard to the question of flogging?

WITNESS--No, I think you have got all out of me that I have to say. I would like to add however that I would not undertake the charge of the Gaol without power of flogging administered by myself.

Hon. Commander HASTINGS--As a matter of fact the Visiting Justices are never backward about flogging?

WITNESS-I know one Visiting Justice who has declared he will not administer flogging under any consideration whatever. I will not mention his name because he told me privately. I have never found the Justices backward.

Dr. ATKINSON—And the main reason why you did not more often call in a Justice was the difficulty-

WITNESS-No, not in my time; I thought my own powers were sufficient to cope with the cases.

(76)

Meeting held on Saturday, 20th June, 1896.

Present: His Honour Mr. T. SERCOMBE SMITH, (Acting Puisne Judge), Chairman.

Hon. Commander W. C. H. HASTINGS, R.N., Acting Police Magistrate.

Dr. ATKINSON, Acting Colonial Surgeon.

Mr. HENRY BRIDGMAN HENDERSON LETHBRIDGE examined.

THE CHAIRMAN-You are Superintendent of Victoria Gaol?

WITNESS-I am.

Q-Mr. LETHBRIDGE, I propose to examine you in three sections as it were. In the first instance I propose to ask you questions regarding the rules; then I propose to ask you questions regarding the cases of prisoners 528 and 704; and then I propose to ask you general questions in regard to flogging. Will you turn to the Rules regulating Prison offences and punishments? Under Rule 266 what opportunity is afforded a prisoner of hearing the charges and evidence against him and of making his defence?

A-He is brought before me into the adjudication room at an appointed time. The officer who makes the report against him appears and states the nature of the report. The report is interpreted by the interpreter to the prisoner, and the prisoner is then asked what he has to say in his defence. He states his defence and it is interpreted to me. I consider it and deal with the prisoner.

Q-Is the evidence given on oath?

A-No.

Q-Are the evidence and the prisoner's defence taken down in writing and kept on record?

A-No.

Q-Why are not those formal steps taken?

A-It has not been the custom in the Prison, and I do not think it is the custom in any prison when hearing cases before the Governor or Superintendent.

Q-In cases requiring the assistance of a Justice of the Peace under Rule 275

is the evidence committed to writing and kept on record?

A-Yes; the evidence in such cases is taken on oath.

Q-There is no provision in the rule that that shall be done?

A-No.

Q-What reason is there for confining the practice to inquiries under Rule 275?

A-Because the offences are of a much more serious nature which are tried by a Visiting Justice in conjunction with the Superintendent, and there is a heavier punish- ment liable to be inflicted.

Q-Supposing the Government wanted to know the evidence upon which you yourself had punished a prisoner, you could hardly supply them with it?

A--No, I could not give word for word what was said; I could give the substance of it.

( 77 )

-Now under Rule 270 eight classes of acts are declared to be offences against Prison discipline. For the first offence under any one of these classes, what punishment may the Superintendent inflict and under what Rule?

A-He may inflict three days' confinement in a punishment cell on punishment diet under Rule 271.

Q-Or he may deprive a prisoner of his pork?

A-Or he may deprive a prisoner of his pork. He might also be put back to a period of No. 1 labour under Rule 287 or a period of No. 2 labour; it would depend upon what labour the prisoner was doing. A prisoner on light labour--No. 3 labour-might be put back to No. 2 or to No. 1 labour according to the nature of his offence.

Q-Do you read the words under Rule 271, "It shall be lawful for the Superintendent to examine any such.prisoner touching such offence" as binding upon you to examine?

A-Most certainly.

Q-What do you understand by "disobedience of the regulations of the Prison in Rule 270, sub-section 1?

>>

A-Talking, or effacing an order board, or leaving without permission his party or place where he is located.

Q-How do you punish such disobedience if repeated?

A-If repeated, and if it is a trivial offence, I should give him from one to three days' rice and water. If he is on No. 1 labour-on crank labour-I might give him three days' or seven days extra on No. 1 labour.

Q-Would you flog him at all?

A-I might put him on three days' solitary with rice and water and I might whip him, but only if the disobedience were such that it amounted to insubordination.

Q-What is that-three days' solitary rice and water?

A-It is punishment diet in a darkened punishment cell. Q-Have you ever resorted to flogging in such a case?

A-Yes; refusal to labour.

Q-I am speaking simply of disobedience of the regulations of the Prison?

A--I consider that repeated refusal to labour is disobedience of the Prison Regulations.

Q-But refusal to labour is provided for by another section entirely, is it not?

A--I do not take it as such.

Q-Have you ever flogged a man then for disobedience of the Regulations of the

Prison?

A-A man has been whipped. It was a case of a prisoner who feigned madness, and it could hardly be said that he was whipped for a minor offence. He was whipped because he would not work.

Q-What I mean is this: there is a distinct difference between refusal to labour, as I take it under these Regulations, and disobedience of the Regulations of the Prison?

A-Certainly.

Q-What I want to know is, have you for what you considered an act of disobe- dience of the Regulations of the Prison ever sentenced a man to be flogged?

(78)

A-No.

Q-How have you punished such disobedience if repeated? inflicted the punishment of flogging?

Have you ever

A-Three days' rice and water is the utmost I can give a prisoner for repeated disobedience of the Prison Regulations unless of a serious nature.

Q-How do you punish a man for repeated assaults on a fellow-prisoner?

A--I should whip him. I might give him six strokes, or I might give him twelve strokes, according to the nature of the assault.

Q-That is distinctly provided for by Rule 274?

A-Yes.

Q-How do you punish insulting language--not embracing threatening language- towards an officer or prisoner?

A-Three days' rice and water.

Q-Repeated insulting language?

A-Three days' rice and water and a prolonged period of No. 1 labour.

Q-Have you ever inflicted the punishment of flogging for repeated insulting language to any officer or prisoner?

crime.

A-It must have been a very gross case that whipping was resorted to for such a

Q-Do you remember ever having inflicted it for repeated insulting language?

A-No.

Q--Do you consider that under section 1 of Rule 277 you would have the power of doing it ?

A--There is the power.

Q-How do you punish a repetition of threatening language to any officer or prisoner ?

case.

A-I should give the prisoner three days' solitary rice and water.

Q-That is for repetition?

A-That is for repetition.

Q-Would you not deal with him under Rule 274?

A-If it was a very gross case I might inflict a whipping; it must be a very gross

Q-How do you punish persistent and aggravated idleness?

A-Three days' solitary rice and water is the extreme that I should give him, and a prolonged period on No. 1 labour.

Q-Have you ever flogged a man for persistent and aggravated idleness?

A-Yes.

Q-Under what rule?

A-When I consider it becomes an act of insubordination I should whip him under Rule 274.

Q-Will you refer to Rule 272? "The Superintendent may deprive a prisoner of his evening meal for persistent and aggravated idleness?"

(79)

A-For persistent and aggravated idleness I mean to say that I should whip a man if it was a case where a man had been reported at least three times for not completing his crank task, but not for any other offence. When a man shows that he positively will not complete the task allotted to him.

Q-The question is, does not Rule 272 provide a specific punishment for persistent and aggravated idleness, and by inference exclude punishment under Rule 274?

A-I consider that when a man will not perform his task-I will not say he absolutely refuses to work altogether-but when he persistently refuses to complete his task and minor punishments have failed to make him work then I do not see any other rule under which you can punish a man except Rule 274; such a case must be a case of insubordination.

Q-Then you include bad cases of persistent and aggravated idleness amongst acts of insubordination under Rule 274?

A--Yes.

Q-Referring again to Rule 270, you will observe that repetition of the offences of assaults on a fellow-prisoner and threatening language to any officer or prisoner may be visited by flogging under Rule 274. Does it not occur to you that as repetitions of certain offences mentioned in Rule 270 are specifically adverted to in Rule 274, Rule 274 does not specially apply to repetition of other offences mentioned in 270?

A--No, I do not take it to be confined to the offences specifically mentioned. It goes on to say "any act of insubordination," which I take it means to include any other of those offences which are enumerated in Rule 270 which may be repeated and which may become acts of insubordination.

Q-You say it means any other act of insubordination not already provided for?

A-Yes.

Q-Do you not think that the effect of assigning a special punishment in a rule for a certain offence is to exclude the operation of another rule relating to a different kind of punishment?

A-I think that when the punishment specified in a rule for certain offences has been tried and failed, it becomes compulsory to inflict a heavier punishment. It is obviously of no use to inflict the same punishment if a man persists in committing the same crime every time. It shows that the punishment is insufficient for the offence.

Q-Though we might be inclined to agree with you on that point, yet the ques- tion is, have you the power to do so?

A-I consider that when a prisoner repeatedly commits an offence against dis- cipline and against the Prison Rules it then becomes "an act of insubordination requiring to be suppressed by extraordinary means," and I have no hesitation in saying that I never felt I was acting contrary to the Regulations in whipping him under Rule 274.

Q-How do instance of it?

you define "disorderly conduct" under Rule 273? Will you give us

A-Shouting, singing, using abusive language.

Q-Obscene language is already provided for by sub-section 3 of Rule 270.

A-The language might not be obscene.

Q-Have you ever whipped a man for repeated acts of disorderly conduct or repeated acts of shouting?

A-No.

( 80 )

Q-What degree or kind of disorderly conduct would raise the offence to the level of an act of insubordination under Rule 274 ?

A-Disorderly conduct is really a crime for which I should not whip a prisoner. unless it was anything extreme.

Q-Supposing a man persisted in ten days' holloaing and shouting, what would you do with him?

any

A-If it was such a very gross case as that and I found I could not stop him in other way, I should then feel justified in whipping him.

-You consider that an "act of insubordination requiring to be suppressed by extraordinary means?"

A-Most certainly.

Q-Do you take it that the words "persistent and aggravated" in Rule 272 qualify "refusal to labour?"

A-No.

Q--You have not read the Rule in that way?

A-I have not read the Rule in that way.

Q-Rule 272 provides the punishment for refusal to labour, does it not?

A-It does.

Q-Do you make use of this punishment?

A-Yes, I make use of it in cases of prisoners sentenced to fourteen days and under. Q-Do you not make use of it in the case of long-sentence prisoners?

A-No.

Q-Why not?

A-Because their labour, as a rule, is a different class of labour, and they set a very bad example in the yard by refusing, and I consider that a heavier punishment is necessary. To stop the supper only in case of refusal to labour would be absolutely useless. Prisoners would refuse to labour more constantly-prisoners would cease to labour even in the forenoon, knowing that perhaps for the first time they would only have their supper stopped; and other prisoners would follow suit.

Q-But is not the punishment of deprivation of the evening meal the punishment specifically laid down for refusal to labour; and that being so ought you not to impose that punishment in the case of refusal to labour?

A--In such cases the punishment has been found absolutely insufficient for the gravity of the offence. I was told that when I took charge of the Prison.

Q-You see the question is: what is the punishment laid down for certain offences? it is not a question whether you consider that the punishment laid down for certain offences is sufficient or insufficient. I put it to you again. In the case of a long-sen- tence prisoner who the first time refused to labour, how is he punished?

A-If I see that the prisoner has been working up to a certain time and he complains of weakness I caution the prisoner if I consider that the prisoner was not really fit for the work; but in the case of an able-bodied man who refuses to labour I then give him three days' solitary rice and water. I consider that to be serious disobedience of the Prison Rules.

Q-For what cases would you impose the punishment of flogging for refusal to labour?

( 81 )

A-Repetition of refusal to labour.

Q-How many times?

A-Twice.

Q-On the second offence you would give him a flogging?

A-On the second offence I would whip him.

Q-Does it not occur to you that the words "persistent and aggravated" qualify the words" idleness and refusal to labour?"

would

A-" Persistent and aggravated," I take it, refer to idleness.

Q-And not to "refusal to labour?"

A-And not to "refusal to labour." There is a comma after the word "idleness." Q--Supposing the words "persistent and aggravated" refer to refusal to labour, you be justified in flogging a man for persistent and aggravated refusal to labour?

A-Yes.

--Do you ever put a disorderly prisoner in cross-irons or in handcuffs?

A-I have done so.

Q---Not for the first offence, I suppose?

A-It all depends. If the prisoner is so violent-

Q-I am not speaking about the violence; I am speaking only of disorderliness at present.

A-No, I should not put him in cross-irons.

Q--For a second or third offence would

you?

A-For a second or third offence I would put him in cross-irons.

Q--Does it not appear to you that for the first offence of disorderly conduct the first thing to do is to keep the man in a punishment ceil for not more than three days, or deprive him of his pork under Rule 271; and that Rule 273 points to the further restraint in the case of repeated disorderly conduct?

A-Yes; I should certainly not put a man in cross-irons for the first offence of disorderly conduct. I think that was the question you asked me ?

Q-Yes. Then it would take a great deal to bring an act of disorderly conduct up to the level of an "act of insubordination requiring to be suppressed by extraordinary means under Rule 274, would it not?

77

A-Yes.

Q-I suppose you distinguish between a violent prisoner and a prisoner who offered

violence to an officer?

A-Certainly.

Q-The punishment to a prisoner who offers violence to any officer is under Rule 274. He may be whipped?

A-Yes.

Q---Have you ever punished a violent prisoner by flogging him?

A--No.

Q--Do you think you have power to punish a violent prisoner by flogging him? A-It might come under an act of insubordination.

( 82 )

Q-Have you often imposed the punishment of restraint in cross-irons or handcuffs?

A-No.

Q-It is an incommon way of punishment?

A-Very.

Q-Cannot you resort to it a little more frequently with benefit and effect?

A-I do not think so.

Q- -When you have punished a man under Rule 273, have you done it on your own initiative or have you obtained the advice of a Visiting Justice first?

A--I have done it on my own initiative for a short period.

Q-Not more than twenty-four hours?

A-Certainly not.

Q-Have you ever called in a Justice of the Peace to help you?

A--As far as I remember I have on one occasion.

Q-Do you consider the punishments set out in Rules 272 and 273 are supplementary to, or cumulative on, punishments that can be inflicted under Rule 271? Are they in addition to, or substituted for, punishments that may be inflicted under Rule 271 ?

A-I do not quite follow.

Q-Are the punishments that may be inflicted under Rules 272 and 273 in addition to, or in substitution for, punishments that may be inflicted under Rule 271, in your opinion?

A--Do I understand you to say that I would be justified in giving a prisoner three days' rice and water in addition to putting him in cross-irons ?

Q-Yes, putting him in cross-irons in addition to giving him rice and water. A--No.

Q-You consider then that the punishments under Rule 273 are substituted for the punishments under Rule 271 ?

A--Yes.

Q-And the same as regards the punishments in Rule 272?

A-Yes, certainly.

Q-The Rule under which the Superintendent himself may order a flogging is Rule 274. What, in your opinion, constitutes "mutiny" under that Rule?

A-If a number of prison ers in the yard were to combine together for an improper

purpose.

Q--Anything more?

A-No, I do not think so. I think prisoners combining together for an improper purpose constitutes mutiny.

Q--Have you had occasion to order flogging for this offence?

A-Never.

Q-If you found an agreement between two or more prisoners to retuse work, would you consider that mutiny?

A-No.

-

( 83 )

Q-The word you think points to an insurrection or open resistance on the part of a number of people?

A--Yes.

Q-By a number of people or by a labour gang wilfully resisting the officers in charge?

A-Yes.

Q--If the first four classes of offences mentioned in Rule 274 come under no other Rule, do you not think that the fifth class of offences, acts of insubordination, &c., embraces only such acts of insubordination as are not provided for by any other Rule?

A--No, I do not.

Q-But assuming that the fifth class of offences embraces only such acts of insub- ordination as are not provided for by any other Rule, do you not think that this view is strengthened by observing that certain offences punishable under Rules 270 and 271 are only upon repetition made punishable under Rule 274 ? Aggravated or repeated assault on a fellow-prisoner" is practically a repetition of common assault under Rule

270?

A-Not so.

66

44

Q Repetition of threatening language" simply means repeated offences under sub-section 5 of Rule 270 ?

A-Yes.

Q-Do you not think that the mention in Rule 274 of repetition of two classes of offences under Rule 270 excludes from the operation of Rule 274 repetition of offences under Rule 270, which are not made punishable under Rule 274 ?

A-No. For instance, if a man persisted in wilfully mismanaging his work-that is mentioned in Rule 270, sub-section 7-if he persisted in wilfully mismanaging his work, I consider he would then be guilty of an act of insubordination and that he would be liable to be whipped under Rule 274. I mention that as an instance.

Q--But as there are specific instances of repetition mentioned in Rule 274, if Rule 274 had been intended to include repetitions of other offences, is not the inference that these other offences would have been mentioned in Rule 274 ?

A-I do not read the Rule in that way; it distinctly says "Any act."

Q-In the same way, you do not think the punishment assigned in Rule 272 for persistent and aggravated refusal to labour excludes flogging under Rule 274 for persistent refusal to labour?

A-No.

Q--How have you interpreted the words "acts of insubordination requiring to be suppressed by extraordinary means" occurring in Rule 274?

A-Repeated disobedience of the Regulations, notably refusal to labour, personal violence to an officer of the Prison, and repeated assaults on a fellow-prisoner.

Q--These are included above?

A-Yes, and wilfully destroying Gaol property.

-Under Rule 274 there are four classes of offences dealt with first of all, but I will not refer to these. I want to know what you have been in the habit of considering came within the phrase--" Any act of insubordination requiring to be suppressed by extraordinary means."

(84)

A-I might say any act of repeated disobedience of the Regulations or wilfully damaging Gaol property. I am very careful about the offence for which I whip. Repeated refusal to labour is the offence-the chief offence-for which whipping is inflicted by myself.

Q- -Now you have seen the general trend of my questions. It has been this: that the insertion in Rule 274 of punishment for repeated offences which, if committed for the first time, would have been punishable under other Rules, seems to point to the fact that it was not intended by Rule 274 to inflict punishment for repetition of other offences not mentioned specifically in Rule 274. Now in view of the questions that have been put to you, do you not think that your interpretation of the words "Any act of insubordination requiring to be dealt with by extraordinary means" has been too liberal?

A---No.

Q-Coming to Rule 275, to what offence do the words "any offence" at the begin- ning of Rule 275 refer? "If any criminal prisoner is guilty of any offence," &c.

&c. In what sense do you apply that?

A-Any offence that a prisoner may commit against the Prison Regulations.

Q-The next clause says:

"or a breach of the Prison Regulations." What offences

refer to a breach of the Prison Regulations ?

A-Perhaps minor offences.

-Can you detail them?

A-Offences such as talking.

Q--That is an offence you would call disorderly conduct?

A-Shouting I call disorderly conduct.

Q-Shouting and talking are disorderly conduct; and you say it refers to defaults of that kind ?

A- Not under this section which renders a man liable to be whipped.

Q-That is the question. If any criminal prisoner is guilty of any offence under the first part you can only punish him by close and solitary confinement; it is not a question of flogging. I want to know what defaults or what acts you would consider an offence under the first part of Rule 275 entitling a Visiting Justice in conjunction with the Superintendent, after enquiry, to punish such prisoner by close or solitary con- finement on bread, or rice and water, for a period not exceeding fourteen days?

A-For any offence that is not mentioned in the preceding paragraph-274, if repeated and of an aggravated nature.

Q-I want to draw your particular attention to the three sorts of acts for which a prisoner may be punished after inquiry by a Visiting Justice by close and solitary confinement, etc. It

It says "Any offence or breach of the Prison Regulations or of discipline." Now take the case of Prison discipline. Rule 270 says:

"The following acts are declared to be offences against Prisou discipline," and there are eight categories of offences. It says, in Rule 275, if, in your opinion, you deem that any breach of Prison discipline,-that is, any breach under Rule 270-for the due punishment of which you may deem the powers vested in you insufficient, it shall be lawful for you, as Superintendent, in conjunction with a Visiting Justice, after inquiry to punish such prisoner by close or solitary confinement, etc., etc. Do you not think, as Rule 275 requires the presence of a Justice to help you and that the only punishment that may be inflicted under the first part of Rule 275 is confined to close or solitary confinement on bread, or rice and water, that it implies that you have no power to whip a man for any offence under Rule 270 which is not, by reason of repetition, made an offence under Rule 274?

( 85 )

A-It all hinges upon what you call "any act of insubordination."

Hon. Commander HASTINGS-Some time ago a man threw a shot at you?

WITNESS-That is personal violence to an officer of the Prison and comes under Rule 274, and is mentioned in Rule 274 as an offence which renders a prisoner liable to corporal punishment. You are referring to offences which I deal with myself?

THE CHAIRMAN-I want to know what that word "offence" means in Rule 275, at the beginning. Now look at the latter part of Rule 275 "Or in the case of a male prisoner guilty of any offence in the preceding Rule"-that is Rule 274-"by personal correction not exceeding thirty-six strokes if an adult, nor twelve if a juvenile." That clearly draws a distinction between an offence in the first part of Rule 275 and between a breach of discipline and the offences in Rule 274, does it not?

A-Yes.

-Taking the two parts of this Rule 275 as constituting various sets of punish- ments for various sets of offences, do you not think that the Rule emphasises the fact that for offences of breaches of the Prison discipline under Rule 270 you may not 'punish by flogging even if they are repeated except the repetitions are also provided for under Rule 274?

A-I think that might be an interpretation of the Rule, certainly. I think the Rules are extremely difficult to interpret; but I think I might state that since I have been here I have never really whipped on my own responsibility except for repeated wilful misconduct and chiefly for refusal to labour.

Q-Do you not think that refusal to labour would be one of the offences coming under the word "offence" used in the first part of Rule 275?

A-It depends upon the nature of the refusal. A man will come off punished for refusal to labour. He goes into the yard; he is put to his labour, and he immediately refuses. Is that man to be made to do his work or is he not? That is the question which I put to myself. I say that when a man goes to prison he has to obey certain rules; he absolutely refuses to obey them and under those circumstances I consider that he has committed an act of insubordination, and under Rule 274, I repeat what I said before, that I have no hesitation whatever in whipping such a prisoner.

Q---That is the interpretation you put upon it?

A-That is the interpretation I put upon it. I quite see what you mean--that these Rules are framed in such a way that they might leave an opening for a misunder- standing.

Q-Then does not the distinction which I have drawn between the two parts of Rule 275 make it clear that the offences for which the punishment of solitary confine- ment, &c. may be imposed are not the same as the offences for which personal correction may be imposed? Is not that so?

A--The Rule seems to point to that.

Q-But as the offences for which personal correction may be imposed are the offences in Rule 274, it follows, does it not, first that "offences" at the beginning of Rule 275 does not refer to an offence under Rule 274, and next that it does refer to an offence other than those detailed in Rule 274?

A-Yes, that might be a construction.

1}

Q-Now this brings us back to the interpretation of "any act of insubordination requiring to be suppressed by extraordinary means.' Are you still of opinion that those words embrace constant refusal to labour?

A--Yes, most certainly.

( 86 )

Now turn to Rule 277. What, in your opinion, is the object of that rule which "The following offences committed by male prisoners will render them liable to corporal punishment"?

says:

A-It specifies the offences for which whipping may be administered.

-Do you take it that it specifies the offences for which whipping may be ad- ministered by the Superintendent alone or by the Superintendent in conjunction with a Justice of the Peace?

A-I think, generally taken, it means in conjunction with a Justice of the Peace.

Q-Now the first section of Rule 277 is a repetition of Rule 274 with the exception that the words "any act of insubordination, &c." are left out, and that the repetition of insulting language is put in. Rule 274 only refers to repetition of threatening language. The second section relates to the wilful breaking or destruction of Prison property, and the third section relates to disturbance under punishment, and any act of gross misconduct or insubordination requiring to be suppressed by extraor- dinary means?

A-Yes.

Q--This Rule really creates three classes of offences for which corporal punishment may be inflicted:-repeated insulting language, wilful breaking of Prison property, and disturbance under punishment?

A-Yes.

Q-And corporal punishment may be inflicted for an offence under section 2 of Rule 277 ?

A-By thirty-six strokes.

Q-That is in conjunction with a Justice of the Peace?

A-Yes.

Q-But here I am in a difficulty. If you put that interpretation upon it, does it not seem to you that that contradicts the latter part of Rule 275 which

says: "in the case of a male prisoner an offence under the preceding rule may be punished by personal correction, not exceeding thirty-six strokes if an adult, nor twelve if a juvenile ?" You have it laid down in Rule 275 that in cases of male prisoners guilty of offences under Rule 274 the Superintendent may in conjunction with a Justice of the Peace punish with strokes not exceeding thirty-six, &c. Now in the second part of Rule 277 you seem to have additional offences. Do you think that the Rule really relates to punishment by a Justice of the Peace.?

A-I think the Superintendent would be justified in inflicting a whipping for the offence.

Q-Do you think that you can call in a Justice of the Peace to assist you?

A-I do. For any offence that I could not deal with I think I should be quite justified in calling in a Justice of the Peace to assist me.

Q-The question is, would these Rules allow you to call in a Justice of the Peace for the purpose of inflicting thirty-six strokes upon a man who had wilfully and maliciously broken Prison windows, after reading the latter part of Rule 275 ?

A-I take it that was the intention-most distinctly the intention.

Q--And you do not think that the view that fresh offences created by Rule 277 may be punished by flogging in conjunction with a Justice of the Peace-you do not think that view would be precluded by the latter part of Rule 275?

A-It is not intended it should be precluded.

:

( 87 )

I mean on the literal construction of it. Now that it is put to you in this way, do you not think that punishment by a Visiting Justice of a fresh offence created by Rule 277 is precluded by the latter part of Rule 275 ?

A-As the Rule reads?

Q-That is all you are to be guided by, I am afraid.

A-Most certainly it does.

Q-Do you not think that the reasonable construction of Rule 277 is that the Super- intendent may order a flogging for any offence under that Rule ?

A-Yes.

Q--That the words "Any act of insubordination, &c." in Rule 274 are to be inter- preted by reference to Rule 277?

A-Yes.

Q-That the words "Any other act of gross misconduct or insubordination requiring &c." in the third part of Rule 277 are to be construed in relation to gross misconduct and insubordination when under punishment?

A-No.

Q Can you give me your reason?

A-I am referring to the Home Prison Regulations. On page 58 of the Home Prison Regulations, section 57, the cases detailed which render a prisoner liable to cor- poral punishment are set out in exactly the same way as the offences mentioned in Rule 277 of the Victoria Gaol Regulations. The offences for which a prisoner may be flogged under the Rules for the Government of Convict Prisons, section 107 on page 22, are enumerated in exactly the same way as those enumerated in section 57 in the Local Prison Code, and sub-section 3 of Rule 57 is divided up into two sections in the Rules for the Government of Convict Prisons. Rule 107 of the Convict Prison Rules, sub- section 3, contains the following words:-"when under punishment wilfully making a disturbance tending to interrupt the order and discipline of the Prison." Then there is a separate section-section 4-which follows it. It states-" Any other act of gross misconduct or insubordination requiring to be suppressed by extraordinary means." Therefore "when under punishment" does not apply to sub-section 4 of Rule 107, and so I fail to see how it can be interpreted as applying to any other act of gross miscon- duct or insubordination requiring to be suppressed by extraordinary means in sub-section 3 of Rule 57 in the Local Prison Code, which is word for word the same as Rule 277 f the Victoria Gaol Regulations.

Q

-Then it comes to this: that the third section of Rule 277 is taken from the Local Prison Code verbatim?

A-Verbatim.

Q-But that in the regulations for Convict Prisons this same sub-section 3 a divided into two parts?

A-That is so: sub-sections 3 and 4 of section 107.

Q-To sum up, the main difficulty in construing these regulations tarns on the words "

any act of insubordination &c." Do you not consider that these words cannot include any offence for the punishment of which provision has been made under another Rule?

A-If the act is repeated, then I consider it to be an act of insubordination the punishment for which is insufficient as provided in other Rules, and that I am justifiel in whipping a prisoner for that act of insubordination under Rule 274.

( 88 )

Hon. Commander HASTINGS-You have been six or seven years in Her Majesty's

Army.

WITNESS-I have.

Q- -The evidence in a military orderly room is always oral?

A--That is so.

Q-How many strokes do you give for the first flogging?

A-I have given an old offender twelve. In the case of a man who knows the Gaol Regulations well, I have given him twelve. I give a new offender six.

Q-Instead of giving a man three dozen do you consider that a dozen every three weeks would have a better effect?

ment.

A-I do.

Q-If it was divided off?

A-I do.

Q-Prisoners are not allowed to shout or talk ?

A-No.

Q--Talking and shouting are in the same category?

A-Shouting gives greater annoyance in the Prison and there is a severer punish-

Q-What do you call a mutiny? the act of one man or the combination of a number of prisoners ?

A-Combination of a number.

Q-Would you treat a secret combination as mutiny? Would it not have to amount to open resistance?

A-Yes, open resistance.

THE CHAIRMAN-Now we come to prisoners 528 and 704. Do you produce a true copy of the Medical Officer's reports on passing these prisoners for labour; true copies of the prisoners' medical histories, true copies of the evidence taken before their second flogging, and true extracts from the Prison punishment book?

WITNESS-Yes. (Put in Appendix IV.)

Q-Will you look at these certificates and tell me whether they are the original ones given by Dr. MARQUES in regard to the floggings administered on those prisoners?

A-Yes. (Put in Appendix III.)

Q-As regards prisoner 528, why did he receive a flogging of six strokes on the 21st April ?

A-For refusing to carry stone--refusing to labour, his labour being shot drill and carrying stone.

Q Did you examine the prisoner touching that offence?

A---Yes. You asked why he received six strokes. It was repeated refusal, he having refused to carry on the 16th, the day after his admission to the Prison.

Q-Did you take any evidence in the matter?

A--I took the usual evidence orally.

Q-No evidence on oath?

A-No.

(89)

Q-Who made the complaint? I want to know whether it was a European or an Indian.

A-A European.

Q-What Regulation did you proceed under in punishing this man with a flogging of six strokes on the 21st April?

A--I considered it an act of insubordination-repeated refusal to labour, and I whipped him under Rule 274.

Q-When you proceed under Rule 274 do you sometimes examine a prisoner and sometimes not examine him, or sometimes not take written evidence and sometimes take written evidence?

A-1 never take written evidence in any case which I dispose of, but I never award any punishment without duly examining the prisoner and the witnesses, and the rule under which the prisoner is whipped is always entered in the prisoner's record.

Q-After the flogging of the 21st April he was not put to work for four days?

A--He was excused labour for four days.

Q-On the 24th he was put to No. 3 labour?

A--That is industrial light labour.

Q-It is picking oakum?

A-Picking oakum was the labour.

Q-He was kept on light labour until 4th May?

A-Yes.

Q--After that he was put to-

A-No. 1 labour.

Q-But he refused to do that?

A-He did.

Q-When he refused did you consider your powers under Rule 274 were insuffici- ent to meet the case?

A-I did.

Q--Why?

A-He twice refused to labour.

Q-You thought it was a case requiring more than twelve strokes ?

A--I did.

Q--Who was the Justice of the Peace who assisted you at the second inquiry? A--Mr. D. E. BROWN.

Q-Did any evidence transpire at that inquiry which does not appear in the copy you produce?

A-No.

Q--Was prisoner 528 an old offender?

A-No. His previous convictions were not traced. He was recognised as an old offender, and you see "0.0." on his record. I should give a man the benefit of the doubt who is only recognised as being an old offender, and the previous convictions are not traced against him.

(90)

-You cannot state his previous convictions?

Q-

A--No.

Q--Can you tell me whether he was flogged when he was in Gaol on a former occasion ? :

A-I cannot remember.

Q--As regards 704, why did he receive six strokes on the 18th May?

A--For refusing to labour.

Q-What labour?

A-Shot and stone.

Q-I suppose you examined him touching the offence?

A-Yes, I examine every prisoner.

Q-- Did

you take any written evidence in the matter?

A-No, it was repeated refusal.

Q-Who made the complaint in the case, do you know? A European or Indian ? A-The European in charge of the party always makes the reports of refusing to

labour.

Q-In that case I suppose you also proceeded under Rule 274 and not under Rules 270, 271 or 272?

A-No; I proceeded under Rule 274.

Q-After this flogging the prisoner had no work for three days?

A--No.

Q-What work was he put to on the 21st May ?

A-No. 1 labour.

Q He refused to do that work?

A-He did.

· Q-And he was in consequence reported?

A-Yes.

Q-Who made that report?

A-A European.

Q--And again you thought your powers under Regulation 274 were insufficient to meet the case ?

A-I did.

Q-Who was the Justice of the Peace who assisted you at the second inquiry? A-A Chinese gentleman named Mr. CHAN KWAN-Ü.

Q-Did any evidence transpire at that inquiry which does not appear in the copy you produce?

A-No.

Q--Was 704 an old offender ?

A-No.

( 91 )

Q--Did he do any work after the second flogging?

A-No.

Q-Was he sent to the hospital after the second flogging?

A-He was.

Hon. Commander HASTINGS-In examining prisoners do the accuser and accused stand face to face? Are they in the presence of each other?

WITNESS-They are in the presence of one another.

Q-And the accused has the opportunity of cross-examining?

A-Yes.

Q-You say that in all cases a European officer makes the report-the warder in charge of the party ?

A-Yes.

Q-Does he merely corroborate the evidence of refusal or is he able to speak absolutely to the charge?

A-He is able to prove the charge.

Dr. ATKINSON-Have you had any experience of Gaol administration except in this Colony ?

WITNESS-No, except for a short time in Cyprus.

Q-Has it ever occurred to you that prisoners would rather submit to a flogging and subsequent rest in hospital than perform hard labour?

A-It has lately been brought to my notice that such is the case, but I could hardly credit it.

THE CHAIRMAN--When did you begin your duties here ?

WITNESS-In November, 1892.

Q-And with the exception of a run home for a year you have been in charge ever

since?

A-Yes.

Q-Have the floggings increased or decreased in numbers during your superintend- ency in proportion to the prisoners in the Gaol?

A-There is no decrease except in 1893, when there was a very considerable

decrease.

Q-There was a drop of 25 per cent?

A-I have not worked it out.

Q-In the table I have asked you to give me that will be included?

A-Yes, that will be included.

Q-I will not trouble you about that now. Has there been any marked increase or decrease in any class of offence ?

A-There has been a very marked increase in the number of refusals to labour.

Q-Can you account for it?

A-I think the physique of the prisoners is getting worse and worse. ers, of course, are passed fit for the labour to which they are put.

The prison-

1.

( 92 )

Q--And the reason you give is that there is a marked falling off in the physique of the men?

A-I think there is a marked falling off in the physique of the men. I think that the shot drill and stone carrying are perhaps made more irksome to the prisoners than they used to be. More attention is paid by the staff to get the men to perform their tasks in a proper manner, whereas the work used to be performed less strictly.

Q-This Committee heard the other day that on one occasion it was discovered in the Gaol that the cranks were much below pressure?

A-Yes.

Q-Have you found that out?

A-It was found out in Mr. THOMSON'S time.

Q-Has any discovery of that kind occurred whilst you have been there?

A-Yes.

-Then the cranks were put to their full

pressure

?

A-The cranks were put to their full pressure.

Q-Any results from that? Any increase in the refusals to labour?

A-Yes.

Q-When was that?

A-I cannot tell you definitely; it was before I went home; I think it was in 1894 that one morning I found that the cranks were not up to pressure.

Q-Was that the fault of the cranks or was it the fault of the officer ?

A-It was the fault of the officer who inspected them.

Q-With regard to your staff, do you consider that their conduct in any way aggravates prisoners and so incites them to commit breaches of Prison discipline ? A-I think that the majority of the staff treat the prisoners very fairly.

Q-Have cases of this description, that is, aggravating conduct on the part of the staff, ever come under your notice either directly or indirectly?

A-Yes.

Q-How have you dealt with them?

A--I have punished the officer concerned.

Q-Have you reported to the Government?

A-No.

Q-Have you had any changes in the staff during the period of your superin- tendency?

A-A very large number.

Q-What led to such changes?

A-Inefficiency of the officers.

Q-Do you consider the present staff fitted by good discretion, temper, and tact to have control of prisoners?

A-Fairly well.

Q--What are the weights and proportions of the three rattans used in flogging prisoners?

( 93 )

A-There are two sealed patterns. The weight of the heavier rattan which is used on an adult is 4 oz., and it is 46 inches long and 12 inch in circumference. The weight of a rattan used on a juvenile is 2 oz. It is 35 inches long and 2 inches in circumference.

Q-What is the medium one? Is there a medium one?

A-These two sealed patterns are the only patterns authorised to be used in the prison. There is a medium rattan.

Q-Have these rattans been used the whole time you have been there?

A-Yes.

Q-There has been no innovation since you have been there in respect to the pattern of the rattan ?

A--No.

Q-Or the weight?

A-No.

Q-Have you yourself witnessed floggings with the rattan now in

A-I have.

Vogue ?

Q-Can you give the Committee an idea of the effect of the different number of strokes on an average Chinaman, beginning at six and going up by sixes?

A-On an average Chinaman six has little or no effect in the way of cutting or violence. Twelve may cut him slightly, and so on proportionately. Of course men are affected differently; some men are very soft.

average. Have

Q-I am speaking of the average man; we can only go by the average. you seen prisoners faint at a flogging?

A-Never.

-When you have been present at a flogging, have you ever deemed it your duty to interfere ?

A-Never.

Q-Have you seen a prisoner bonâ fide unable to walk to the hospital or to the cell after a flogging?

A-Yes.

Q-Have you seen a prisoner carried away from a flogging?

A-No, led away.

Q-Have you seen the Surgeon stop a flogging?

A-No.

Q-Do you know anything of the effects of the birch or

cat-o'-nine-tails"

?

A-I have never seen them inflicted.

Q-Have you seen Europeans flogged in Victoria Gaol ?

A-I have not.

Q--Then you cannot tell us how a European endures a flogging compared with a Chinaman?

A-No European has been flogged during the time I have been in charge of the

Prison.

( 94 )

-Do you know that in an English prison there is no power to inflict a flogging vested in the Governor?

A-There is not.

Q-Can you give me your reason for vesting the Superintendent of Victoria Gaol with power to inflict twelve strokes?

A-I take it that it was never intended that Chinese prisoners should be treated in the same way as European prisoners, different treatment being necessary to ensure the maintenance of discipline, and so the power of whipping was given to the Superintend- ent. I may add that the Superintendent of. the prison at Singapore has the same

power.

Q-—Of course, you have never ordered a flogging without the sanction of the Surgeon?

A--Never.

Q-In your time has the Surgeon always delivered a written certificate of a pri- soner's fitness to be flogged?

A--Always.

Q--The system was in vogue when you came here?

A--It was.

Q--Are certificates always in this form?

A--Always.

Q--And always filled up according to the requirements of the form?

A--Always.

Q--Has the form of certificate been supplied by an act of Government?

A--I cannot say.

Q--Do you consider the particulars given in the certificate are adequate?

A--Absolutely.

Q--Have you had any occasion to object to the way in which the Surgeon has examined a prisoner before giving a certificate of fitness?

if

A---No.

Q--Would you undertake to govern Victoria Gaol and maintain strict discipline you had not power to order flogging?

A-I would not.

Q--What are your reasons?

A--I consider that the power once having been given, unless there was some very good reason for taking it away, the power should not be taken away now from the Superintendent.

Q--You think, I suppose, that if it got to be known by the prisoners-and they would very soon find it out-that you could not inflict corporal punishment ou your own initiative, they would consider that your power of inflicting punishment in other ways would be proportionately decreased? It might have that effect for a time?

A--They would very soon find out that my power had not been altered. I dare say they might think it altered in other respects.

Q-It would probably leave that impression and the result would be that you would have a much larger number of cases for punishment in other ways for a short time?

(95)

A--It might for a short time until it was found out.

Q-Would you be satisfied if the birch were substituted for the rattan and your power of inflicting twelve strokes not interfered with?

A--I would. _

Q--Do you consider that your power of ordering flogging could be safely reduced to six strokes if the rattan were retained?

A--No.

Q--And you put down twelve as a minimum?

A--I do.

Q--How many men have you in the Gaol-not prisoners, but staff?

A--Fifty discipline officers and one trade warder; but the trade warder performs the duties of discipline officer as well when he is required.

Q-How many of these are Europeans and how many Indians?

A-Twenty-five are European and twenty-five are Indians.

Dr. ATKINSON-The trade warder is a European, I suppose ?

WITNESS-Yes.

THE CHAIRMAN-How does the proportion of Europeans with Indians compare now with the proportion in 1892 and 1893 ?

WITNESS-I had no Indian discipline officers.

Q-The number of Indians has been increased?

A-There were no discipline Indian officers except one hospital warder.

Q-How many Europeans were there, do you think, in 1892 and 1893 till fe change was made? Was the staff kept at the same number?

A-The staff has slightly increased.

Q- A large proportion of the staff before was composed of Europeans?

A-Yes, and that has been reduced.

Q-Why has this change been wrought?

A-Because it was found that there were not enough Europeans to man the stations and also to provide a second officer to the party, and I considered the prisoners would be better supervised by increasing the number of the staff and placing a European officer in charge of the party and an Indian warder as an assistant to the party.

Q-Do you consider that Indians are as capable as Europeans in managing Chinese?

two.

A--No.

Q-What are your reasons?

A-The Indians have an inferior influence. I do not think you can compare the

Q-Do Chinese obey Indians as readily as they obey Europeans?

A-No.

Q-Would you put any Chinese on the Gaol staff?

A-No.

:

Q-Why not?

( 96 )

A-I think it would lead to trafficking and other abuses.

Q-They would be able to communicate with the prisoners much more easily? A-Yes, and probably communicate with their friends outside.

Q Have you to obtain the sanction of the Governor before any floggings are administered?

A-The sanction of the Governor has to be obtained before any floggings of a greater number than twelve strokes are administered.

Q-And in the case of floggings imposed by the Courts of Justice?

A-Yes, and in the case of floggings imposed by the Courts of Justice.

-At what time of the day do you impose them?

A-Immediately after hearing the reports; about 11.15 a.m.

Q-Do reports of misconduct reach you mostly through Europeans or mostly through Indians?

A-Mostly through Europeans.

Q-What are your opinions as to cutting off the queue as a mode of punishment? A-I think it might be tried. A Chinaman prides himself on the length of his and I think it would be a distinct punishment to him if his queue were cut. I was just going to recommend that, in the case of a man attempting to commit suicide

queue should be cut.

queue

his

Q-Would you apply the cutting of the queue to all classes of prisoners-to short-sentence prisoners, for instance, as well as long-sentence prisoners, to prisoners sentenced for misdemeanour as well as to prisoners sentenced for felony?

A-No, I think I would make a distinction. I do not think that any treatment in Prison should be such that when a man quits Prison his caste would be lowered thereby. If it is a distinct loss of caste for a Chinaman to lose his queue, then I do not see that you gain any advantage by lowering him in the eyes of his friends when he comes out. A man is sent to Prison with the hope that he will go out a better man, and to brand him as a criminal would be a mistake.

Q-Would it have a good effect to cut off their queues when they are in Gaol and let them grow while they are in Gaol?

A-So long as there is reasonable time. The Regulations provide that a man's hair shall be allowed to grow before he leaves Prison.

Q-Supposing a man was sentenced to twelve months and he had his queue cut off immediately he went into Prison, or suppose he was told that if he misbehaved himself during the first nine months he would be liable to have his queue cut off, would that be a deterrent?

A-It might be.

Q-It would have the effect of bringing upon him the ridicule of his fellow- prisoners?

A-It might.

Q-Would you advocate cutting off the queue of a prisoner providing adequate time was given for it to grow before he went out?

A-I would.

(97)

Q-Would you make any difference between prisoners committed for felony and those committed for misdemeanour ?

A-I should not interfere in the case of misdemeanour.

Q-Of course, there are some misdemeanours-perjury, for instance--which rauk as high as some felonies. The graver misdemeanours and felony, I suppose, you would put together?

A-Yes.

Q-Do the Indians and Europeans on the Gaol staff understand Chinese sufficiently to talk to prisoners and understand their wants?

A-The Indians understand more than the Europeans; a number of Europeans certainly understand a little. A prisoner tries to make it understood to the officer what he wants. If the officer does not understand him he calls up somebody who does so that the prisoner will not go without being attended to.

Q-I observe that in 1895 the total number of cases of floggings reached over 500

A-The total number of floggings in 1895 reached 467; those were by the Super- intendent. The remainder were by the Court.

Q-What is the total, do you know!

A-I have not got it here.

Q-You were not in charge during that time?

A-I was in charge until the 13th April.

Q-Prior to that had the number of whippings been unusually high?

A-In 1894 I ordered 140 whippings myself and twelve whippings were ordered by the Superintendent in conjunciion with a Visiting Justice. In 1893 I inflicted 68 whippings; four in that year were ordered by the Superintendent in conjunction with a Visiting Justice. In 1894 the crime of refusal to labour increased tremendously and that accounts for the fact that so many more prisoners were whipped in 1894 than in 1893.

I thought at the time it was due to the inefficient staff to a great extent, but my opinion is somewhat altered now. I think it is the prisoners' fault.

Q--Do you ever find a difficulty in procuring the attendance of one of the Visiting Justices for the week?

A-I do. I invariably call in an Unofficial Justice for the week. I consider it advisable to do so for several reasons.

Q-Have you any difficulty in procuring his attendance?

A-This week I have not been able to procure his attendance at all. I applied to him twice. On each occasion he informed me that he was engaged.

Q-What is his name?

A-Mr. DAVID. I believe he has been exceptionally busy this week on account of being on a jury one day.

Q-How do you procure the attendance of Justices?

A-By writing to them.

Q-When they come up, have you ever heard them grumble at having been called?

A-I have heard them on one or two occasions.

Q-When Justices have tried cases with you, have they often asked to have a look at the Rules?

A-I invariably show them the Rule under which the inquiry should be held,

--

1 1

(98)

Q-Do you know any case of a Justice who has held a different view from you in regard to the inclusion of refusal to labour as one of the acts of insubordination under Rule 274?

A--Yes.

Q-Perhaps you would not care to give their names?

A-Only one case.

--Have you ever administered floggings upon the word or evidence of a single Indian unsupported by other evidence?

A-No. I do not like to say absolutely no, but if I did it would be a case in which a prisoner was at a prescribed task, in the crank cell for instance, where there is no possible dispute as to whether he performed this task or not, the dial of the crauk being evidence of this.

Hon. Commander HASTINGS--You receive corroboration from the dial?

WITNESS--Yes.

THE CHAIRMAN--Have you noticed whether one officer has made more reports than

any other officer? Has it been characteristic of any particular officer to make reports?

WITNESS-I know exactly what you mean, but I cannot say.

Q-What control do you exercise over the Gaol hospital ?

A-I visit it and see that the Rules are observed. I visit it daily.

Q-What check is kept on the warders of the hospital to keep then at their

work?

A-They are visited by the principal warder.

Q--Is there anybody who visits the hospital at stated times in the day, say, when the dressing time for the wounds comes, to see that the warders actually do dress the wounds?

A--No. It is not part of the duty of the principal warder to look to that. The doctor gives his instructions to the warder, I take it, before he leaves the hospital, and the warder carries these instructions out and is directly responsible that they are carried

out.

Q--Do you know whether 72 marks are still deducted for a flogging?

A--No. Marks are not deducted for a flogging.

Q--I see Rule 321 says: "marks shall be deducted at the rate of 72 for a flog- ging."

A--These rules are all abolished. Rules 310 to 322 are cancelled by Government Notification No. 452 of 1892.

Q--No marks are deducted for a flogging?

A--Not of necessity.

Q--How many hours a day do these men labour?

A-Nine; four and a half hours in the forenoon and four and a half hours in the

afternoon.

Hon. Commander HASTINGS-There is a medium-sized rattan for the Gaol?

WITNESS-Yes.

Q-Over and above the sealed pattern?

( 99 )

A-Over and above the sealed pattern.

Q-When is that used?

A-If the Doctor thinks it necessary.

Q-On medical grounds only?

A-Yes.

Q-Do you send a report to the Governor of every flogging?

A-Every flogging.

-When inflicted by yourself?

A--Every one that I inflict myself.

QAfter he has been flogged?

A--After he has been flogged.

Q--Have you ever had any comment or remonstrance from your superiors con- cerning the frequency of the floggings?

A-Locally?

Q--I mean locally-the Governor or the Colonial Secretary?

A-Not until the 5th May last. I will forward a copy of the letter. (See Appendix X.)

Dr. ATKINSON-Have you any control over the hospital in the way of appointing attendants or wardmasters? I mean do you appoint the warders?

A-Yes, but I should not appoint anyone if the Medical Officer thought him unsuitable.

Q-These men who are appointed as ward masters have had no previous medical training?

A-No.

Q-Do you think it advisable to have trained European warders there on duty?

A-In a Home Prison, where everything is very carefully looked into, such a class of officer is not appointed. The hospital warders are discipline officers, but they are engaged for duty in the hospital, and they do duty in the hospital only, but they receive no special training. I think the Medical Officers of the Colony are the best judges of whether the warders detailed for duty in the hospital here should have previous training or not.

Q-You state as a fact that the warders at home who look after the sick are not trained?

A-They are not trained. The doctor is responsible for everything.

Q-Is there an attendant constantly on duty in the Gaol Hospital at night under present arrangements?

A---Under the present arrangements the hospital warder is on duty at all hours with the exception of from 6 to 9 in the evening; then the hospital is patrolled by one of the night patrols.

Q-So that there is no one on duty at night?

A-Yes, the Hospital Warder.

Q-Both these men can sleep at night.

A-Both these men can sleep at night; it would be impossible to arrange otherwise.

( 100 )

-A limited staff? You say that the hours of duty of a warder at the hospital are from 6 to 6, off from duty for three hours, and he might be called on duty the following day. It is practically twelve hours' duty during the day?

A--One of them is on for nine hours and a quarter.

Q-When is the day man on duty?

He

A-One goes into the hospital at 6.15 a.m., he leaves at 8 o'clock for breakfast, and returns at 9. He leaves again at 11.30 for dinner and returns at 1 p.m. remains until 6 o'clock.

Q-He is practically on duty twelve hours with the exception of his meals?

A--With the exception of his meals. He then comes in at 9 o'clock and sleeps there for the night and remains until 7 o'clock the next morning when he goes out.

Q-And he might be called all that time?

A-He might be called during the hours after 9 o'clock, and of course if roused he is supposed to turn out at once.

Q-Does it not occur to you that these hours are too long?

A-He has a comparatively light day the next day.

Q-The next day is lighter?

A-The next day is lighter. The officer who left the Gaol at 7 o'clock would come in again at 8. He would remain in till 1 o'clock when he would leave for his dinner. He goes in again at 2.30 in the afternoon and he remains till 4. He then goes off duty until 6.15 the next morning.

Q-And then he begins the same way as before?

A-Yes.

Q--So practically he is on duty from 8 to 4-eight hours-minus the time for meals? A-The actual hours are 9 hours one day and 6 hours the next, and every alternate night he sleeps in the Prison.

Q-These hours are much longer than the hours of duty of the Police?

A-Yes, they are on duty only for six hours; the hours of the warders are always much longer than the Police.

Q-And more monotonous ?

A-Infinitely.

Hon. Commander HASTINGS-But under cover?

WITNESS--Yes, but the work they have to perform is much more irksome. The hours of duty are 9 for the other officers and 8 on alternate days.

Dr. ATKINSON--That is eighteen hours?

WITNESS--In two days 17 hours.

Q-What is the longest period you have known a prisoner remain in the hospital as the result of a flogging?

A-I cannot tell.

Q-Have you known him to remain in the hospital six weeks?

A-I believe they have remained there for so long.

Q-That means that during the whole of that time he does not do any work at all?

A-Yes.

( 101 )

Q-From what you stated just now I gathered you considered that prisoners passed by the Medical Officer for hard labour were unfit to do it. You mean their physique is not sufficient, in your opinion, to admit of their doing the hard labour pre- scribed in the Gaol ?

A-Oh, certainly not.

Q--I think you said the physique of the prisoners had deteriorated lately?

A-Yes.

Q-And the hard labour is too severe for them considering their physique ?

A-No, I would not go so far as to say that.

THE CHAIRMAN--You merely gave that as the cause why there were more floggings for refusal to work?

WITNESS-Yes, that is all; they find the work much more irksome, but I do not say that any man has been passed as being fit for hard labour when he has been physi- cally unfit for it.

Dr. ATKINSON--Does it not strike you that the hard labour is too severe for a China- man-12,500 revolutions of the crank for an ordinary Chinaman? Do you not think that it is rather hard work-an extraordinary task?

WITNESS-I do not think it is an extreme task. The task at home is 14,500 revolutions at 14 lbs. pressure. The task here is 12,500 revolutions with a 12 lbs. pressure. I have known a man finish his task by one o'clock in the day. Stone carry- ing certainly cannot be considered hard work. They carry 90 lbs. between two men. The weight of the shot-the No. 1 shot-is 24 lbs.

Q-Is the crank lessened during the summer months?

A-No; no labour is changed during the summer months.

THE CHAIRMAN-From what you say of the number of revolutions and the pressure at the cranks the labour of a man here would be represented by 150 as against 203 by a man in England-by about three to four?

A--I have not worked it out; I suppose it comes that.

Q--It comes to about three to four.

Dr. ATKINSON-Have you ever informed the Governor that the punishment of deprivation of the evening meal was insufficient?

WITNESS-No. I have never had the slightest occasion to think that the punish- ments which I inflicted for refusing to labour were not in accordance with the Regula- tions.

THE CHAIRMAN-Is there anything more you would like to tell us on any subject at all in connection with flogging? We shall be very glad to hear any comments you would like to make.

one.

A--I think that the Medical Officer's position at the flogging is a very responsible The Medical Officer is there to see that the prisoner suffers no bodily harm from the punishment which is being inflicted. He has passed the prisoner as fit to receive punishment, and I suppose if he considers it necessary he would take the prisoner down.

Hon. Commander HASTINGS-Do you suggest that one doctor should pass him and that another one should see him flogged?

( 102 )

A-No, I think that such a thing is unnecessary. What I mean to say is, with reference to the severity of the flogging, that so long as the Medical Officer considers that the punishment is being inflicted in such a way that no bodily harm would be done to the man, nobody can say that brutality occurs in the Gaol.

Dr. ATKINSON--Still you would not expect abscesses to result from flogging, much less death, would you?

Hon. Commander HASTINGS-About three per cent. of abscesses.

WITNESS--I might say that on the 16th of last month I wrote to Japan. I first of all wrote to Mr. FORD to ask him if he could supply me with any material to make a birch, my attention having been called to the increased number of gluteal abscesses. Mr. FORD told me he could not supply me with the necessary material and told me I could get it from Japan. I wrote to Japan and the answer I received was that they had none in store, but they would get some and send it down to me. My idea was that I should get a birch made up in much the same way as the birch at home and submit it for the approval of the Government to be used in cases where the doctor may consider the rattan is too heavy an instrument to punish a prisoner with.

THE CHAIRMAN-Under the change of doctors that has occurred quite lately have you noted any difference in the backwardness or otherwise of the respective doctors to sanction flogging?

WITNESS-No.

Dr. ATKINSON-Are you of opinion that a more frequent application and fewer number of strokes would be a greater deterrent ?

WITNESS-Yes, I do not think it would do a prisoner so much harm.

THE CHAIRMAN-More floggings and fewer strokes ?

WITNESS-Yes.

Meeting held on Friday, 26th June, 1896.

Present: His Honour Mr. T. SERCOMBE SMITH, (Acting Puisne Judge), Chairman.

Commander W. C. H. HASTINGS, R.N., Acting Police Magistrate.

Dr. J. M. ATKINSON, Acting Colonial Surgeon.

Dr. AYRES examined.

THE CHAIRMAN -Dr. AYRES, we want to ask you some questions about your experience of flogging in the Gaol. How long were you at the Gaol?

WITNESS-About twenty-three years. I introduced flogging at the Goal; it is the

Indian fashion.

Q-You introduced flogging with the rattan?

A-Yes.

Q-When was that?

A-That was somewhere about 1877 or 1878.

(1037)

-Were the rattans introduced then ?

A-Before it was the "cat," which was more formidable than an Army or Navy one.

Q-Were the rattans used the same sort as are used now?

A--The same.

Q-The same weight?

A-Yes.

Q--And size?

A-Yes; it is an Indian rattan.

Q--You advised it as a copy of the Indian system?

A-Yes, a copy of the Indian system. I was five years in India and saw it at work there.

Q-Is it used in the prisons in India?

A-It is used in the prisons and as an ordinary form of punishment; six or twelve strokes with the rattan and a man gets no more punishment for trivial offences.

Q-What is the heaviest number of strokes you saw inflicted in India?

A-Thirty at one time.

Q-Can you compare the effect of the rattan on a Chinaman here and the effect on an Indian there?

A-It is less severe on the Indians; they are better feeders; they are cleaner feeders; the wounds heal more readily.

Dr. ATKINSON-The effects are less?

A--Yes. I have never seen any bad cases here, only a delay in healing. I have never seen anything like what was done with the "cat." A man was absolutely damaged for life with the "cat," and many men have died from the effects.

THE CHAIRMAN-You say you have seen the "cat" administered here on Chinese ? A-On Chinese and English prisoners.

Q-And comparing the effects of the "cat" on the Chinaman and the effects of the rattan your opinion is that the effects of the rattan are much more lenient?

A--Certainly, much more lenient. Floggings used to take place down at the market-place near the Harbour Master's Office. We have marched men down there, flogged them at the post, and marched them back again.

Q--What led you to suggest the introduction of the rattan ?

A-The "cat" is used in the Gaols at home, but was too heavy and very hard on the small amount of muscle the back of a Chinaman usually contains, and the only place where Chinamen are developed at all is the buttock. They are well developed on the buttocks and lower limbs.

Q-Do you think it would be better to whip a Chinaman across the buttocks or just across the outside part of the thigh?

A-Across the buttocks.

Q--The thrashings administered by Chinamen in their own country are, I under- stand, sometimes on the outside part of the thigh, that is the reason I ask you the ques- tion. You think it is better on the buttocks?

( 104 )

A—İ think it is better on the buttocks. At any rate if there should be a break- down as has happened occasionally, but very rarely though, it would produce less injury upon the buttocks than upon the back of the thighs.

Q--You have constantly seen floggings here?

A-Constantly seen floggings.

Q-It was your duty to attend?

A-I had medical charge of the Gaol up to 1887.

Q--Will you describe to the Committee the average effect of a whipping, say, of six, twelve, eighteen strokes, and so on upon a Chinaman with a rattan? I am speaking of an average Chinaman.

A--It depends on the Chinaman; you pass him according to what you think he will be able to bear. Sometimes I would not pass a man at all. For instance, I refused to pass a man for a flogging who had been flogged with six strokes a fortnight ago and he was up for a flogging of twelve. I put him down for a flogging of six. I am always present at the flogging; the Surgeon is always present. I regulate the strokes; I tell the flogger how to administer the strokes and do not let him go banging the rattan about and whirling it round his head.

Q-Take the case of an average Chinaman--a normal Chinaman; what is the effect on the body of six, twelve, and eighteen strokes?

A-Most of them would pass out and show very little and after they have had some lotion for a few days I pass them for No. 3 labour as they will not be particularly fit for stooping for some days.

Q--Is a thrashing of six strokes usually attended with much bleeding?

A-More or less if it breaks the skin.

Q-Is there very much bleeding?

A-Not much.

Q-Is the skin abraded?

A-Yes.

Q-Have you known abscesses to form after a whipping of six strokes ?

A-No, never.

Q-With regard to a whipping of twelve strokes is the skin abraded ?

A-The skin is always abraded with the first stroke.

Q--And afterwards do abscesses necessarily form? Have you known abscesses form in cases of twelve strokes?

A-Abscesses do not form if the flogging is properly looked after; abscesses do not form in one case in fifty. At least from 1877 to 1887 I saw only three cases where abscesses had formed.

Q-Would a flogging of eighteen strokes leave abrasions and deep cuts?

A-Not deep cuts; it would leave permanent marks.

Q-Would it cut the skin badly?

A--It is a sort of contused abrased wound. They do not bleed freely. Not one case in fifty shows very much blood, and that is easily stopped with a cloth.

Q-Up to 1887 did you give a written medical certificate?

( 105 )

A-With every one of them; I always did. It is always the custom in every gaol and it must be on the records.

Q―Did you give a certificate when you were asked whether a man in your opinion was fit for a flogging and also just before he was brought out for a flogging that at the time for the flogging he was fit for it?

A-I said he was fit for a flogging and I was present. I was always present at every flogging so that I was personally responsible.

Q-Do you think a rattan is a proper instrument to use upon a Chinaman? Is it an instrument that a Chinaman can bear?

A-As far as my experience goes there is nothing you cannot use improperly, but if flogging takes place under proper supervision there is no reason at all why it should not be proper, and if you only allow a man to use the rattan in a proper way. If he uses it in a mild way he does nothing; he must bring it down hard to make any impression at all. If he works it round his head, as I have seen, it is absurd, as he makes a deepseated contusion even if he does not do any injury outside to the skin. In all flogging cases the thing is to be regulated by experience.

Q-Do I take you to say that abrasions usually accompany a severe flogging, say, of more than twelve strokes ?

A-Yes.

Q-But that abscesses are of very rare occurrence?

A-Oh, very rare, or should be.

Q-Well, in your experience they were rare?

A-In my experience they have been very rare.

Q-Would you fix any interval between the first and the second flogging, or between the second and the third flogging of the same man?

A-I would not flog a Chinaman until the wound is thoroughly well healed and the contusions have disappeared.

Q-You would not flog a Chinaman for the second time until the marks of the contused wounds had disappeared?

A-No. You always see the mark of the rattan, but the man is perfectly well as far as he ever will be. Scars are left but no scabs.

Q-Do you think it would be better to limit the time between the imposing of two floggings?

A-Well, you cannot very well put a limit. In one case it is a severe flogging and in another case it is not. At the same time I do not think I would use flogging, even six strokes, for every little thing that turns up--talking and trifling offences in the Gaol. It appears to me that complaints are made very often to show zealous supervision on the part of the overlooking officers.

Q-It is rather a serious thing to say that if a warder does not bring forward reports he is looked upon as incompetent. Have

Have you any

foundation for that statement?

A-I do not say that. He appears to get the credit of being a smart man. I mean to say this, that flogging should be for serious offences of Gaol discipline. In India it is the sole punishment for petty thefts, &c. A man gets six or ten strokes and he goes away and he gets no further punishment; but in the Gaols you would not think of giving floggings for every trivial offence. They only gave flogging for what were considered serious offences. If there is a mutiny, or an attack upon a warder, there is no doubt you would have to adopt severe measures or the prisoners would not be made to understand.

( 106 )

Q-Of course; the Rules here specifically provide for the offences which shall be punished by flogging, and it is not the most trivial offences that may be punished by flogging. One of the questions before us is, what offences under these Rules are really punishable by flogging.

A-Really they are getting of terribly frequent occurrence. I saw three fellows up this morning; two fellows were up yesterday.

Q-What were they being flogged for ?

A-I do not know anything about it.

Q-During the time that you were in charge of the Gaol did you notice any large variations in the number of floggings according to which Superintendent was there?

A-We very rarely had floggings in the Gaol in my time. If we had twenty or thirty a year it was as much as we had.

Q-Can you give us any idea of the yearly floggings in your time-roughly speaking?

A-I cannot.

Q-Do

you think they exceeded one hundred a year-occurring about two a week?

A-It is too far back. There ought to be some record. My recollection is that flogging was comparatively rare.

Dr. ATKINSON-It would be in your medical reports?

WITNESS They would not give the number of floggings.

THE CHAIRMAN-What is your opinion about the hospital accommodation at the Gaol?

WITNESS-The hospital has been, to my knowledge, considered by every Commis- sion appointed over the Gaol. Plans and measurements are in the books in 1890. There is no doubt it is overcrowded and it is not a place fit for a Gaol. There are as many as seven prisoners in one cell sometimes.

Q-Suppose a man came into the Gaol hospital after suffering a flogging of twenty-four strokes and an abscess developed and blood poisoning followed from the abscess, do you think there is anything in the conditions of the Gaol hospital to produce the blood poisoning?

A-Overcrowding; but if antiseptics are properly used I do not see there is any necessity for that even with the overcrowding. That is the principal object-protecting the wound from the bad atmosphere.

Q-In your opinion do abscesses naturally form as the result of a severe flogging? A-They will occasionally. You cannot say why; it may be something in the blood or afterwards introduced into the wound.

Q-Have you ever stopped a flogging?

A-Yes.

Q-For what reasons?

A-The appearance of the man. A man has fainted under a flogging. If he showed any signs of fainting I stopped the flogging immediately.

Q-Would you stop a flogging, give him a rest, and let him be flogged again ?

A-Not unless I thought he was shamming.

Q-Have the flogging officers ever lost their temper?

( 107 )

A-Oh no. I have always stopped a man for a second if he showed the slightest excitement and then said "go on steadily."

Q-Do the floggers vary the force of their strokes as far as you can see?

A-You see one man prepares his stroke in a different way from another man. He swings it round and I tell him-"Now just give him what you can-a fair, sharp stroke and don't whirl the rattan round your head."

Q- -Do they vary the force of their strokes?

A-Oh yes, it varies with a man's strength and experience and so on.

Q-But would one man thrash a prisoner with one force one day and a different force another ?

A-Hardly. Usually in the Indian gaols the flogger is an inferior officer. Q-Do they flog, do you think, with too much force?

A--Sometimes. A heavy stroke makes too much contusion, less by

stroke.

Dr. ATKINSON-Keeps on one spot all along?

WITNESS-Keeps on one spot.

THE CHAIRMAN-Do they exert their utmost strength ?

WITNESS-No, never in my experience.

sharp

Q-Have you ever noticed any difference between the floggers here and the floggers in India in regard to the way the flogging is administered?

A-You cannot get them to flog with the same sharp cut. The Indians bring it down with a sharp cut, and it does not appear to make so much contusion as it does here, but it cuts.

Q-Is there any regulation mode of thrashing or way of wielding the rattan?

A-No. Only the measurement of the rattan is given--4 feet long and about as thick as the base of your fore-finger, so that it is not too cutting and at the same time the blow is severe.

Q--Is there any recognised way of inflicting the flogging itself? Is there any recognised way for a warder to wield the rattan and the height to which he shall raise it ?

A--No; it can only be regulated by the Medical Officer's directions to the warder flogging.

Q-And the way they shall bring it down?

A-No. In the old days, when the "cat" was put on by different warders, it was a relief to a man to have a change. It was a relief for this reason. Say twenty strokes have been given and the second man who comes on may be lighter than the other.

Q-Then I suppose the way a man wields a rattan varies as much as the way a man wields a cricket bat?

A-Quite as much.

Q-Do you not think it would be a good thing never to use the same rattan a second time?

A-They are usually kept clean.

<

( 108 )

Q-Is there not some chance that some blood from one man may have remained on the rattan and that that blood may be imparted to the next person flogged with the same rattan?

A-There is a chance.

Q-What is your opinion about gang labour?

labour? Do you

think if that were intro- duced it would tend to lessen the number of refusals to labour in the Gaol and conse- quently the number of floggings inflicted?

A-The trouble of gang labour is that it is so expensive. Whoever had gang labour outside, the Surveyor General or whoever he was, got very little labour and a large amount of expense for the work done. Everybody tried to shift out of that. In fact you cannot get them to work like free men.

Q -What is your opinion of the standard of discipline in the Gaol now or in the last few years and the standard of discipline during most of your time? Which is higher?

A-I think it has improved and so on. They might be a little too strict. All I can say is they are not the sturdy fellows that are up for punishment as a rule, but those of poorer physique.

Q-Some of them?

A-The majority of them. They come from a very poor class, but those that come in for six or seven years very seldom get into trouble.

Q-Can you account for that?

A--I do not know; they are wiser than the others.

Q-Have you formed any ideas as to the maximum number of strokes that could be inflicted on an average Chinaman without for ever damaging him?

A-Thirty strokes are quite sufficient.

Hon. Commander HASTINGS-You talk about regulating the strokes, Doc. do you mean to say that in the case of a man you think is weakly you would make the flogger give him lighter blows than those given to another man?

tor;

WITNESS-Yes certainly, but a Surgeon may be in attendance who has had no

experience.

Q-Suppose there were two men to be flogged, would they both get the same weight of blow? Or if one was a weakly man would you give him a lighter blow?

A-That would all depend how the man put in the strokes. The officer is told lighter, lighter." The surgeon calls attention to it and gradually gets him to give a cutting stroke without too much "bang."

Q-Suppose one of your regular floggers had to flog two men with six strokes each and you thought that one man was more weakly than the other, would you direct that one man be flogged more lightly?

A-Yes.

Q-They do not get a uniform blow?

A-As uniform-as great as you can get different men to make it. You do not get a uniform stroke. Say one man has twenty strokes to give to two men, the second man would get off better as he would be tired with the swinging.

Q-If you would not pass a man for six strokes with the rattan would you pass him for six strokes with the birch?

[

( 109 )

A-Yes and more, the birch is not severe punishment. Q-Is the "cat" much more severe than the rattan? A-Oh yes, much more severe than a rattan. The "cat buttocks.

Q-I mean on the buttocks ?

A-The "cat" on the buttocks?

was never given on the

Never heard of it. It would wind all round and give a lot of trouble I expect. A "cat" would cause much more severe wounds on the buttocks than a rattan.

(4

Q-They flog boys in the Navy on the buttocks with a "cat"?

A-That may be. I do not know what kind of "cat" they use nowadays. The "" cat we had in the Gaol was made by an old naval man-and whether it was done out of a joke I do not know, but when the Commission came to examine it, there were Naval and Army Officers there and they said-" This would lick any Army or Navy 'cat' into fits." It was a wonderfully made "cat," and it was made by a former naval prisoner who had evidently put his soul into it.

THE CHAIRMAN-It was a highly scientific "cat?"

WITNESS-It was so.

Dr. ATKINSON-You say you have had experience of the use of the "cat" on Chinese ? WITNESS-Yes.

Q-On the back ?

A-Yes.

Q--Were any abscesses produced?.

A--We had them suffering from sores.

Q--No abscesses?

A--No abscesses.

Q--Do you know of any fatal result following the use of the "cat" on Chinese

A--Inflammation of the lungs came afterwards-pneumonia, and I have seen at least half a dozen fellows dying from pneumonic phthisis, and their backs were scarred all over; they showed no signs of disease before they were flogged.

Q--Have you known any fatal result follow the use of the rattan?

A-I have known none before the recent case.

Q-Do you think abscesses ought to follow the infliction of twelve strokes with a rattan?

A-I have never seen abscesses except from twenty to thirty strokes. Q-Have you ever seen Europeans flogged in the Gaol ?

A-I have never seen a European flogged with a rattan but I have with a "cat." Q-It is the custom for the Chinese inmates to lie on the floor of the Gaol Hospital ?

A-Yes.

Q---Do you not think that septicemia might be introduced by a Chinaman with a sore-an open wound-lying on the floor in a crowded room?

A-If he is mixed up with other cases of injury. like lying in beds, and there is no room for any beds. in one of these rooms, and then the windows and doors open.

It is quite possible. It is not We have to put two Europeans and everything else are kept

Q- You have known a prisoner faint under a flogging with a rattan?

( 110 )

A--I have only seen one case which showed any signs of faintness.

Q--Have you seen much erysipelas in the Gaol hospital?

A-I never saw a case of erysipelas after these floggings.

THE CHAIRMAN-As the result of flogging?

WITNESS-No.

Q-Supposing a prisoner who left the Gaol hospital after a flogging tore off the bandage that was on his wounds and slept a night in a street in Taipingshan, what do you think would be the likely result?

A-There are hundreds of men in the Calcutta Courts-possibly there would be two hundred men flogged in a day--and they go away, and they have just the sort of native quarters there as here barring they are mat huts and so on; but the atmos- phere is so bad in the Central Hospital there-just in the middle of the native quarters before the introduction of antiseptics-that they were not able to operate all the summer time. Still if septicemia had been common it must have attracted public attention and exposure. I never heard of any fatal cases from such causes.

Q-Supposing a man had an abscess which formed after a flogging and he was sent out of Gaol with the bandages upon him-the abscess being properly dressed--and on the very same day he tore off these bandages and slept a night in a street in Tai- pingshan, do you not think that would-

A-That would probably result in septicemia. Under the circumstances I would recommend him to be sent to the hospital.

Dr. ATKINSON--Of course, it is possible to absorb the germs from any open wounds?

A-Of course.

THE CHAIRMAN-Is there anything else you would like to tell us, Dr. AYRES, about flogging-about the supervision necessary during flogging, or the nature of the certificates which are given, or the nature of the attendance in the hospital, or any subject you would like to mention ?

A-The hospital has been drawn attention to dozens of times, but there is no other place to use. If there are to be hospital quarters, of course, they have got to be built; there is no other place in the Gaol that you can now use for hospital quarters. We had these two large wards at the time the Yesso blew up; they are now all full up with sixty cells or more.

Dr. ATKINSON---Do you think it advisable to have trained European warders in the hospital?

A-Yes. But we have always had to put up with makeshifts. We have educated them ourselves.

Q-Of course the work is monotonous?

A--Not only monotonous, but the hours are very long, and the atmosphere from the buckets at night is terribly offensive. Go there at 4.30 in the morning and you will understand what I mean.

Q-You think trained warders would be an improvement?

A-Certainly, it is the only way I see out of it. The Medical Officer should not be responsible for accidents occurring if there is nobody in attendance to see that an order is properly carried out and knows nothing of what is being given, or anything else, and hardly knows sufficient to tell whether the medicine is a lotion or to be given as a dose. That is what it means as regards attendance at the Gaol,

1

( 111 )

Appendix II.

Extract from the Prison Rules and Regulations.

266. No prisoner shall be punished under the provisions of The Prison Ordinance, 1885, until he has had an opportunity of hearing the charges and evidence against him, and of making his defence.

267. Prisoners shall obey the orders of the Superintendent, Warden, and of the subordinate officers who shall be placed over them from time to time.

268. Prisoners are strictly forbidden to have in possession, or to attempt to receive money, tobacco, opium, flint, steel, iron, implements, string, immoral books, or any articles not allowed to them by the Rules of the Prison, or permitted by the Superintendent, and they are not to conceal any articles of food about their persons, or in any ward or cell.

269. No punishment or privation of any kind shall be awarded except by the Superintendent, or by the Superintendent in conjunction with a Visiting Justice subject nevertheless to Rule 272.

270. The following acts are declared to be offences against Prison discipline :-

1. Disobedience of the Regulations of the Prison by any prisoner.

2. Common assault by one prisoner on another.

3. Profane eursing and swearing, and obscene language by any prisoner. 4. Indecent behaviour by any prisoner.

5. Insulting or threatening language by any prisoner, to any officer or prisoner.

6. Idleness or negligence at work by any convicted criminal prisoner.

7. Wilful mismanagement of work by any convicted criminal prisoner.

8. Disorderly conduct by any prisoner.

271. It shall be lawful for the Superintendent to examine any prisoner touching such offences, and to punish them by ordering any offender to be kept in a punishment- cell for not more than three days, on bread, or rice and water, or he may deprive a prisoner of his pork for not more than four meals at one time.

272. The Superintendent may deprive any prisoner of his evening meal for persistent and aggravated idleness, or refusal to labour. In the unavoidable absence of the Superintendent, the Warden may in like cases deprive any prisoner of half his evening meal.

273. The Superintendent may restrain in cross-irons of ten tbs. weight, or less, or in handcuffs, any disorderly or violent prisoner for not longer than twenty-four hours at one time; if a longer period than twenty-four hours is required a written order must be obtained from one of the Visiting Justices for the week, who shall at once attend and investigate the case. In case of

In case of emergency however the Superintendent may on his own responsiblity impose the restraints provided by this Rule for such period as may seem necessary, obtaining the presence of one of the Visiting Justices for the week as soon as possible. The order of such Justice, made on investigation of the case, shall indemnify the Superintendent.

274. If any male prisoner is guilty of any of the following offences, viz. :—

Mutiny or open incitement to mutiny in the prison, personal violence to any

officer of the prison, aggravated or repeated assault on a fellow-prisoner,

( 112 )

repetition of threatening language to any officer or prisoner, and any act of insubordination requiring to be suppressed by extraordinary means, the Superintendent shall have the power to sentence the said prisoner to corporal punishment not to exceed twelve strokes of the rattan.

It shall be the duty of the Superintendent to report at once to the Governor every case of his exercising the power conferred on him by this section.

275. If any criminal prisoner is guilty of any offence or cf a breach of the Prison Regulations or of Discipline, for the due punishment of which the Superintendent of the Prison may deem the powers vested in him insufficient, it shall be lawful for such Superintendent, in conjunction with a Visiting Justice after enquiry, to punish such prisoner by close or solitary confinement on bread, or rice and water, for a period not exceeding fourteen days, or, in the case of a male prisoner guilty of any offence in the preceding rule mentioned by personal correction not exceeding thirty-six strokes if an adult, nor twelve if a juvenile.

276. No dietary punishment shall be inflicted on any prisoner, nor shall he be placed in a punishment-cell, nor shall corporal punishment be inflicted on him, unless the Surgeon shall certify that such prisoner is in a fit condition of health to undergo such punishment.

277. The following offences committed by male prisoners will render them liable to corporal punishment :--

1st. Mutiny, or open incitement to mutiny in the Prison; personal violence to any officer of the Prisoner; aggravated or repeated assault on a fellow-prisoner; repetition of insulting, or threatening language to any officer or prisoner.

2nd. Wilfully and maliciously breaking the Prison windows, or otherwise

destroying the Prison property.

3rd. When under punishment, wilfully making a disturbance tending to interrupt the order and discipline of the Prison, and any other act of gross misconduct, or insubordination, requiring to be suppressed by extraordi- nary means.

278. Corporal punishment shall be inflicted on the breech, with a rattan of a pattern to be approved by the Governor on the recommendation of the Surgeon.

279. No prisoner who shall be sentenced to solitary confinement by any Court shall be kept in such confinement more than seven days without an interval of one day

out.

Appendix III,

VICTORIA GAOL, HONGKONG, 21st April, 1896.

I certify that Prisoner No. 528 is fit to receive 6 strokes of a Rattan on the Breech.

L. P. MARQUES,

Medical Officer.

GAOL HOSPITAL,

VICTORIA, 5th May, 1896.

I certify that I have examined the Prisoner No. 528 WONG KAU to receive a private flogging of (24) Twenty-four strokes of a Rattan on the Breech, by order of the Superintendent in conjunction with a Justice of the Peace for Insubordination in continually refusing to perform his task, and I find him fit to receive this punishment.

L. P. MARQUES,

Medical Officer.

( 113 )

VICTORIA GAOL, HONGKONG, 18th May, 1896.

I certify that Prisoner No. 704 is fit to receive 6 strokes of a Rattan on the Breech.

L. P. MARQUES,

Medical Officer.

GAOL HOSPITAL,

VICTORIA, 23rd May, 1896.

I certify that I have examined the Prisoner No. 704 WONG KAN Po to receive a private flogging of (12) Twelve strokes of a Rattan on the Breech, by order of the Superintendent and a Justice of the Peace for Insubordination in repeatedly refusing to perform his task, and I find him fit to receive this punishment.

L. P. MARQUES,

Medical Officer.

Appendix IV.

Prisoner No. 528 WONG KAU, (old offender).

Wong (old offender). Age 29 years. Sentenced to 28 days hard labour on 15th April, 1896, for stealing.

Medical Officer's report on passing prisoner for labour.

Register No.

Shot & Stone.

Crank 12,500 or 10, 500 Revolutions.

Shot Drill & 2 tb Oakum.

Crank 6,000 Rev. & 2 tb Oakum.

Light Shot & Oakum.

No. 3 Labour.

Class of Labour Sent to.

528

Fit.

Fit.

Fit.

Fit.

Fit.

Fit.

6 Party No. 1

Labour.

Medical History.

April 17, Quinine 2 doses.

Castor Oil 1 oz.

Pain in belly.

";

21, Received 6 strokes.

No work 4 days.

""

24, Catechu Mixt: 4 doses.

No. 3 Labour task 4 days.

""

27, No. 3 Labour continued 1 week; C.W. from flogging.

29, Catechu Mixt: 4 doses. Bowels loose.

""

May

4, No. 3 Labour discharged,

5, Passed fit to receive 24 strokes.

"}

6, Received 24 strokes. Admitted to hospital.

Evidence taken before whipping.

5th May, 1896.

Warder PIERPOINT being sworn states:-The prisoner No. 528 refused to do shot drill yesterday and again this morning. He said he had pains in his chest. He had seen the Medical Officer previously on the morning of the 4th instant and the Medical Officer had passed him fit for the labour.

Medical Officer's report produced that prisoner is fit for his task.

( 114 )

work.

No. 528 states:-I am sick; pains in my chest and loose bowels and so unable to

Sentence 24 strokes subject to approval.

True copy.

H. B. LETHBRIDGE,

Superintendent.

H. B. LETHBRIDGE, Superintendent.

D. E. BROWN,

Justice of the Peace.

Extract from Prison Punishment Book.

Register No. 528 Wong Kau, 28 days hard labour. 15th April, 1896.

Stealing. (Old offender.)

DATE.

OFFENCE.

PUNISHMENT.

16th April, 1896, Refusing to carry stone,

20th April, 1896,

28th April, 1896, Oakum all unfit,

">

3 days solitary confinement,

rice and water.

6 strokes. Rule 274. 2 days rice and water.

4th May, 1896, Insubordination in repeatedly refusing 24 strokes. Rule 274. (Supdt.

to work,

Prisoner No. 704 WONG KAU Po. Age 28 years. labour. 11th May, 1896. Stealing.

and a J. P.)

H. B. LETHBRIDGE, Superintendent.

Sentenced to 28 days hard

Medical Officer's report on passing prisoner for labour.

Register No.

Shot & Stone.

Crank 12,500 or 10,500 Revolutions.

Shot Drill & 3 tb Oakum.

Crank 6,000 Rev. & b Oakum.

Light Shot & Oakum.

No. 3. Labour.

Class of Labour Sent to.

704

Fit.

Fit.

Fit.

Fit.

Fit.

Fit.

6 Farty No. 1

Medical History.

May 18, Received 6 strokes; no work for 3 days. C.W. from flogging.

20, No work; discharged.

""

22, Quinine 6 doses. Temperature 98.2.

"

23, Passed fit to receive 12 strokes (by Visiting Justice).

25, Received 12 strokes; no work for 4 days. C.W. from flogging.

,, 27, Admitted to hospital. Gluteal abscess.

Labour.

( 115 )

Evidence taken before whipping.

23rd May, 1896.

Warder VINCE being duly sworn states:-On the 21st instant prisoner No. 704 refused to carry shot and stone. He complained of a pain in his chest. Prisoners always complain of a pain when they refuse labour.

Medical Officer's report produced that the prisoner is fit for the labour.

No. 704 states:-I was coughing up blood. I had a to hospital yesterday morning and the doctor examined me.

Sentence: 12 strokes subject to approval.

pain in my chest. I went

I still have pain.

True copy.

H. B. LETHBRIDGE, Superintendent.

CHAN QUAN Ủ,

Justice of the Peace.

H. B. LETHBRIDGE,

Superintendent.

Extract from Prison Punishment Book.

Register No. 704 WONG KAN PO. Stealing. 28 days hard labour. 11th May, 1896.

DATE.

OFFENCE.

PUNISHMENT.

13th May, 1896, Refusing to work,

18th May, 1896,

21st May, 1896, Insubordination by repeatedly,

refusing to perform his task,.

3 days solitary confinement; Rice

and water.

6 strokes. Rule 274.

12 strokes. Rule 275. (Supt. and a J. P.)

H. B. LETHBRIDGE, Superintendent.

Appendix V.

No. S/198.

TUNG WA HOSPITAL.

I beg to report that LAU KAU was admitted to the Tung Wa Hospital on the 13th instant, suffering from large abscesses on either buttock, one with a large slough in it. As these appeared to me to be caused by flogging, I have had enquiries made, the result being that an officer of the Victoria Gaol identified the man as having been discharged from the Gaol on 12th instant.

He was flogged when in the Gaol and then passed under the name of WONG KAU, the flogging must have been nothing less than brutal to have produced such a result.

J. M. ATKINSON,

Acting Colonial Surges...

:

30th May, 1896.

No. S/201E.

SIR,

( 116 )

VICTORIA GAOL,

2nd June, 1896.

I have the honour to inform you that a Chinese prisoner No. 704, WONG KAU, died in the Gaol Hospital at 1.45 A M. to-day. He was sentenced to 28 days hard labour on the 11th May, 1896, and received 6 strokes on the 18th May, and 12 strokes on the 23rd May. He was admitted to Hospital on the 27th May and died this morning. Cause of death was Septicemia due to the wounds caused by the flogging.

The Acting Colonial Surgeon.

I have. &c..

J. BELL, Assistant Surgeon.

Appendix VI.

Table showing the yearly number of prisoners who have received corporal punishment in

Victoria Gaol from 1888 to 1895.

Not

Treated in Hospital. received in

Hospital.

Total Year. Number of

prisoners.

Total Number

Percent-

Percent-

Daily Average.

Death. Cases of contused wounds

Cases of

Gluteal

contused

abscess

wounds

from

of cases from flogging.

age of

age of

Gluteal

floggings. abscesses.

from flogging.

from

flogging. flogging.

4388

3,627

531

15

67

5

101

173

4.7

2.9

1889 3,705

581

4890 3,444

566

1891 5,231

507

88888

33

124

159

4.3

1.26

59

10

226

295

8.6

3. 4

59

3

182

214

4.7

1. 2

1892 5,046

515

26

6

181

213

4.2

2.8

1893

4,010

458

39

119

160

4.0

1.25

1894 3,913

455

5

100

29

1

178

208

5.3

.48

1895 5,014

472

15

12

508

535

10.6

2.24

Appendix VII.

Ordinance 4 of 1865.-Offences against the Person.

Sections 14, 19, 26, 27, 28, 59 and

64. Whenever whipping may be awarded for any indictable offence under this Ordinance, the Court may sentence the offender to be once privately whipped, and the number of strokes which shall in no case exceed 40 and the instrument with which they shall be inflicted shall be specified by the Court in the sentence.

( 117 )

Ordinance 7 of 1865.—Larceny, &c.

Sections 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 26, 28, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 38, 40, 43, 44, 48, 50, 51, 54, 55, 59, 75, 79, 84 and

96 same as section 64 of Ordinance 4 of 1865.

Ordinance 8 of 1865.---Malicious Injury to Property.

Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 24, 25, 26, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 40, 44 and

60 same as section 64 of Ordinance 4 of 1865.

Sec. 19 of 4 of 1865.

Sec. 32 of 7 of 1865.

Ordinance 12 of 1865.—Security from Personal Violence.

For attempting to choke, &c. in order to commit an indictable offence.

For robbery or assault by a person armed, or by two or more, or robbery and wounding

1, 2 or 3 whippings--

(1) male under 16 not exceeding 25 strokes at each whipping and with rattan. (2) other males not exceeding 50 strokes at each whipping.

(3) Court to specify number of strokes and instrument.

No whipping to take place after expiration of 6 months from passing of

sentence.

Ordinance 3 of 1881.-Penal Ordinances Amendment Ordinance, 1881.

Flogging on the back unlawful.

Flogging to be with a rattan on the breech.

Sentence to specify number of strokes or lashes.

Sentence to state that flogging shall be in a prison in case of a person of or over 14 years, and privately in case of a person under the age of 14 years.

Ordinance 15 of 1886.-Peace Preservation Ordinance.

Section 9. Rioters, etc. and persons found carrying arms, &c. during the existence of any proclamation may, in addition to any other penalty, be whipped with a rattan not exceeding half an inch in diameter and with not more than 30 strokes.

Ordinance 16 of 1887.— Whipping as a further Punishment for certain Crimes.

Upon conviction of--

(a) a crime committed with any offensive weapon or instrument.

(b) any felony not punishable with death committed after two previous convictions for felony for each of which the sentence has been at least 6 months hard labour.

9.0"

( 118 )

(c) any crime under sections 32 to 36 inclusive of Ordinance 7 of 1865

(larceny, &c.).

(d) piracy.

(e) indecent assault.

(f) stealing any chattel, money, or valuable security from the person of any

child or woman without violence,

the Supreme Court may, in addition to punishments laid down, direct that a male offender be once, twice or thrice privately whipped.

Number of strokes in case of a male whose age does not exceed 16 limited to 12 at each whipping, and in case of every other male offender to 36 strokes at each whipping.

Whipping on back prohibited.

Sentence to prescribe number of strokes and to provide that whipping shall be inflicted with rattan on breech privately in prison and within 6 months of the sentence. Present powers of Supreme Court to award whipping for certain crimes not to be limited by this Ordinance.

Ordinance 10 of 1890.-Magistrates.

Sections 85, 86 and 87 clothe Magistrates with power to order whipping of any male offender under section 28 of Ordinance 7 of 1865 (Larceny, &c.), of male offenders under 16 convicted of larceny, &c., and specify the amount of whipping and the mode of its infliction.

Appendix VIII.

GAOL HOSPITAL.

13'x8'.2" x 13'.4" 13'.0" x 8'.2" x 13'.4" 13.0" x 8.0" x 13.4" 12.7" x 8'.0" x 13.4" 13'.8" x 7'.9" x 13'.10"

1,415 c. ft.

1,415 c. ft.

1,386 c. ft.

1,342 c. ft.

V. Ward.

VI. Ward.

VII. Ward.

VIII. Ward.

Height of Corridor 13′.4′′.

13.0" x x 13′.6" | 12′.10′′ × 8′.0" x 13'.5′′

1,404 c. ft.

IV. Ward.

1,377 c. ft.

13' x 8' x 13'.5"

1,395 c. ft.

12'.5" x 8'.0" x 13′.5" ;

1,332 c. ft.

III. Ward.

II. Ward.

1. Ward.

Hongkong, 15th June, 1896.

1,465 c. ft.

FRANCIS A. COOPER. Director of Public Works.

( 119 )

Apendix IX.

Table showing the Superintendents in charge of the Victoria Gaol, Hongkong, from May 1885 to date.

Name.

Major-General A. II. Gordon.

N. G. Mitchell-Innes.

Major R. C. Chaytor.

Major-General A. H. Gordon,

Major T. C. Dempster.

Major-General A. II. Gordon.

A. M. Thomsou.

G. Horspool.

Major-General A. H, Gordon.

H. B. Lethbridge.

A. M. Thomsou.

H. B. Lethbridge.

Period in charge.

May 1885 to January 1887.

January 1887 to August 1887.

August 1887 to October 1887.

October 1887 to April 1889.

April 1889 to December 1890.

December 1890 to March 1891.

April 1891 to March 1892.

March 1892 to May 1892.

May 1892 to November 1892.

November 1892 to April 1895.

April 1895 to March 1896.

March, 1896 to

Remarks.

Acting,

་་

Acting.

Acting,

""

"

Acting.

Still in charge.

Hongkong, 17th June, 1896.

Apendix X.

II. B. LETHBRIDGE,

Superintendent.

SUPERINTENDENT'S OFFICE.

VICTORIA GAOL, 22nd June, 1896.

SIR,

I have the honour to forward herewith the communication received from the Colonial Secretary which I referred to in my evidence.

I have the honour to be.

Sir.

Your most obedient Servant,

H. B. LETHBRIDGE. Superintendent.

T. SERCOMBE SMITH, Esq.,

Chairman,

Flogging Inquiry Committee.

No. 688.

SIR,

( 120 )

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE,

5th May, 1896.

I am directed to forward the enclosed extract from the Acting Colonial Surgeon's annual report, and to inform you that His Excellency the Governor desires that in future, when prisoners are whipped by order of the Superintendent, a smaller number of strokes should, as a general rule, be inflicted than has hitherto been customary.

THE SUPERINTENDENT,

VICTORIA GAOL.

I have, &c.,

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART,

Colonial Secretary.

Extract from Acting Colonial Surgeon's Annual Report.

The number of prisoners admitted to the Hospital was less than in 1894, the 'figure being 231 as compared with 271.

"Of those treated in the Hospital 45 were suffering from malarial fever, 24 from ancemia, whilst there were 15 contused wounds from flogging and 12 gluteal abscesses "the result of flogging.

"I would submit for consideration the advisability of more frequent floggings of a "smaller number of strokes at a time; there was only one case of gluteal abscess the "result of flogging in 1894, therefore either the punishment must have been inflicted "more vigorously or the subjects were of poorer physique.

J. M. ATKINSON,

"Acting Colonial Surgeon.”

NUMBER OF PERSONS FLOGGED.

Number

of

Number

Total

Number

Total Number of

Number of

floggings of

Hoggings

I ordered floggings

by the

ordered

1ST JUNE

TO 31ST MAY.

of Prisoners. in Gaol.

Once.

Twice.

More than Twice.

ordered

Stro

floggings

for

by the

Superin

by the

an

Total.

Gaol

Superin-

tendent

Judges

und

tendent

and a

and

Offences.

Justice

Magis-

alone.

By By By By Court. Gaol.¦ Court. Gaol. Court. Gaol.

By By

of the Peace.

trates.

By Court.

1886 1887 250,946

132

41

85

6

1

91

71

20

41

13

1887

1888 205,120

161 60

73

00

15

:

93

70

23

68

1888

1889 204,059 188 62 84 18

17

1889

1890 208,826 163

54

69 15

20

:

:

7

108

99

9

80

24

94

93

1

69

11

་་

1890 1891 105,797 287 116

98 22

48

1

2

148

148

139

16

1891

1892 186,794 280

137

101 17

14

:

11

126

126

:

104

40

1892

1893 177,870 195 105 64

20

15

1

81

79

114

29

1893

1894 166,778 162

90 62

1

7

re

71

67

4

91

25

1894 1895 169,577 306

64 208

26

:

:

10

239

235

4

67

23

1895

1896 170,234 554

71 386 10

62

25

473

456

17

10

5

* Th

Number

Appendix XI

NUMBER OF FLOGGINGS OF

NUM

of Number

Number

han

of

ce.

Total Number

floggings by the

floggings

of floggings of

ordered floggings

6

ordered

by the ordered

Strokes

Superin- by the

and

for Gaol Offences.

Superin-

tendent Judges

|

under.

12 Strokes and under.

18 Strokes and under.

24 Strokes and

30 Strokes

50 Strokes

Mutiny

or

and

under.

under.

and under.

open incite-

tendent alone.

and a Justice

und

Magis-

ment

to

of the trates.

By Gaol.

Peace.

Mutiny By By By By By By By Br By By By By in Court. Gaol. Court. Gaol. Court. Gaol. Court. Gaol. Curt. Gaol. Court. Gaol. Prison.

:

10

91

71

20

41

13

10 12

66

1

9

93

70

23

68

03

32

29

45

16

17

83

94

93

1

69

14

03

38

30

7

108

99

148

148

139

16

60

75

Co

Co

10

11

126

126

104

40

95

91

31 11

123

C

10

:

13

:

:

:

:

81

79

114

29

56

56

23 23

*

2

71

67

91

25

11 35

57 25

10

5

239

235

617

116

23

119 16

2

14

11

-

20

1

14

:

CI

25

ས་

co

=

6

11

1

:

00

:

1

19

59

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

*The Numbers in this column include the Indian Guards who are not discipline officers.

25

473

456

17

81

318

46

142 12

4

13

++

:

NUMBER OF PRISONERS FLOGGED FOR VARIOUS PRISON OFFENCES.

Repeti- Acts of

Insubor- Wilful of dination and threat requiring Mali- repeated ening to be

cious

Gross Miscon-

duct and

Maling Insubordi-

nation

Ds- turbance requiring

50 Strokes and under.

Mutiny

or Personal open Violence incite-

ment

to

Aggrav- ated

tion

or

to

any

Officer

on a

Mutiny

of

fellow-

By By in Court. Gaol. Prison.

uage to anv

ed by

extra-

ion of Prison

under Punish-

to be suppressed

Prison.

prisoner. Officer or ordinary property.

Prisoner. means.

ment.

by extra- ordinary Means.

Assault

lang-suppress-destruct-

STAFF OF GAOL,

31ST MAY IN EACH YEAR.

Europeans.

Indians. *

Portuguese.

Others.

11

1

:

59

3

20

:

13

:

:

:

:

:

:

:..

6

:

:

:

licers.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:.

:.

:

3

1

3

:

:

1

:

:

:

2

10

5

1

19

34

12

4

:

85

32

14

5

1

99

32

14

6

90

34

14

146

3833

11

4

126

35

10

80

35

6

3

56

38

20

6

37

:

227

39

888

:

19

સ્ત્ર

425

24

45

2

H. B. LETHBRIDGE,

Superintendent.

HONGKONG.

REPORT

OF THE

COMMISSION

APPOINTED BY

HIS EXCELLENCY SIR WILLIAM ROBINSON, K.C.M.G.,

Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Colony of Hongkong and its Dependencies, and Vice-Admiral of the same,

TO ENQUIRE INTO THE WORKING AND ORGANIZATION

OF THE

TUNG WA HOSPITAL,.

TOGETHER WITH THE

EVIDENCE TAKEN BEFORE THE COMMISSION,

AND OTHER APPENDICES.

HONGKONG:

PRINTED BY NORONHA & Co., GOVERNMENT PRINTERS.

1896.

INDEX.

PAGE.

Report by the Chairman (Honourable J. H. STEWART LOCKHART), Honourable A. M. THOMSON {

and the Honourable Ho KAI,.......

Report by the Honourable C. P. CHATER,.

Report by the Honourable T. H. WHITEHEAD, Evidence,

XV

....xvii

3-74

WITNESSES.

Dr. ATKINSON, Acting Colonial Surgeon,

Mr. R. K. LEIGH, M.I.C.E.,

Mr. MCCALLUM, Secretary to Sanitary Board,

Mr. Ku FAI-SHAN, Chairman, Tung Wa Hospital Committee,

Mr. Aσ KI-NÁM, Clerk to the Tung Wa Hospital,......................

Mr. WEI A YUK, Compradore, Mercantile Bank,

Mr. Ho AMEI, Secretary, On Tai Insurance Company,

Dr. Lowson, Assistant Surgeon, Government Medical Department,

:

Mr. Lo CHI-TIN, Chairman, Tung Wa Hospital Committee, 1895,

Dr. CLARK, Medical Officer of Health, Sanitary Board,.

Dr. THOMSON, Superintendent, Alice Memorial and Nethersole Hospitals, Dr. AYRES, Colonial Surgeon,

Surgeon-Colonel EVATT, P.M.O., A.M.S.,

I. Commission,.

APPENDIX.

PAGE.

III.

IV.

8-18

19-21

...........22-21 ....25-30

..30-31

..32-35

.35-38

...38-48

...48-49

..50-54

..55-59

..60-65

65-74

II.-Form of Summons,

III.-Memorandum on the subject of the "I-Ts'z"; and correspondence regarding the

establishment of the Tung Wa Hospital,

Ordinance incorporating the Hospital,

IV.-Letters from Acting Colonial Surgeon, (Dr. ATKINSON),

List of Infectious Diseases,

V-XLVII.

XLVII-L.

..L-LVI.

....LV.

V.-Letters from Messrs. LEIGH and ORANGE,

.....

.LVU-LVIHI.

VI.-Report and Memo. of Secretary, Sanitary Board, (Mr. McCallum),

..LVIII-LXU.

VII. Report on Records and Buildings of the Hospital by Ion. Ho Kat and Acting

Colonial Treasurer, (Hon. A. M. THOMSON),

...LXII-LXIV.

VIII. Finances of Tung Wa Hospital,

...LXV.

IX.-Statement showing Admissions to the Tung Wa Hospital from 1891-95, . .........................EXV,

X-Papers regarding Pauper Hospital at Singapore,.

XI.-Receipts and Disbursements of Tung Wa Hospital in 1894. XII.--Report of Medical Officer of Health, Sanitary Board, (Dr. CLARK), XIII.--Correspondence with Colonial Surgeon (Dr. AYRES),.. XIV.-Extract from Hongkong Telegraph regarding Tung Wa Hospital,

XV.-Letter from Colonial Surgeon (Dr. AYRES),

Returns from Acting Colonial Surgeon (Dr. ATKINSON), ..

XVI. Staff of the Tung Wa Hospital,

»LXV-LXXI.

.LXXII.

LXXIII-LXXV.

...LXXV-LXXVI.

...LXXVI-LXXIX.

...LXXX.

.LXXXI-LXXXIII,

.....LXXXIV.

XVII.-Petition from the Directors of the Tung Wa Hospital regarding the Finances

of the Hospital,

XVIII.—Donations to the Tung Wa Hospital not yet paid by certain Guilds,

XIX.-Valuation of the House Property owned by the Tung Wa Hospital,

....LXXXV.

..LXXXV.

LXXXVI.

-

.

¡

REPORT·

BY

The Chairman (Honourable J. H. STEWART LOCKHART), Honourable A. M. THOMSON,

and the Honourable Ho KaI.

p. III.

We, the undersigned Members of the Commission, appointed by Your Excellency Appendix on the 5th day of February, 1896, to enquire into the working and organization of the Tung Wa Hospital, have the honour to forward herewith the evidence taken by us and our opinion thereon.

2. We examined 14 witnesses and held 9 meetings covering a period from the 14th February to the 2nd July.

3. In accordance with the terms of the Commission we instituted an enquiry into the first matter specially referred to us for investigation, viz.,

"Whether the Hospital is fulfilling the object and purpose of its Incorporation."

4. To be able to answer this question, it was considered desirable, in the first instance, to ascertain exactly for what object and purpose the Hospital was established, and this necessitated an enquiry into the steps which led up to the foundation of the Hospital.

5. From the Memorandum of Sir RICHARD MACDONNELL and the other papers printed in Appendix III. it appears that in 1869 the attention of the Government was called to the gross abuses and disgusting scenes in a Chinese institution or temple called the "I Ts'z." This institution seems to have been erected in the year 1851, its original object being stated as follows in a petition translated by Mr. (afterwards Sir THOMAS) WADE :-

:

p. XVII.

"Petition that a piece of ground be granted to certain Chinese to build a Appendix

common ancestral Chinese temple. People of other nations and persua- sions have had similar grants; but the Chinese who frequent the Colony being workmen, servants and the like, if they die here have no temple

in which their ancestral tablets may be placed. Many of them come from a distance and if, when they died here, there was a temple to receive their tablets, their fellow-villagers or connections visiting Hong- kong could carry them home. They have subscribed funds and have appointed T'ONG CHIU and TAM A-TIM to the direction of what may be requisite."

6. In addition, however, to being used as a receptacle or depôt for ancestral tablets, the "I Ts'z" developed into a kind of native hospital to which Chinese were taken in

a moribund condition. A description of this dying-house is given by Mr. LISTER and

+

P. VI.

Mr. STEWART, who visited it in 1869. The former states:-"I visited this native Appendix

hospital, and found a picture of neglect and misery which I shall not soon forget. At my first visit there were, dead and alive, about nine or ten

His Excellency

Sir WILLIAM ROBINSON, K.C.M.G.,

Sc.,

&c.,

Se.

Appendix

P. VII.

Appendix p. VIII.

P. XXII.

[vi]

patients in the so-called hospital. One, apparently dying from emaciation and diarrhea, was barricaded into a place just large enough to hold the board on which he lay, and not high enough to stand up in. Another room contained a boarding on which lay two poor creatures half-dead, and one corpse, while the floor, which was of earth, was covered with pools of urine. The next room contained what the attendants asserted to be two corpses, but on examination one of them was found to be alive, a fact which the coolie who discovered it greeted with an oath, and other rooms contained miserable and emaciated creatures, unable to speak or move, whose rags had apparently never been changed since their admission, and whom the necessities of nature had reduced to an inexpressibly sickening condition."

7. Mr. STEWART states :-"I quite agree with everything Mr. LISTER has said. It is impossible for me to convey in words the impression made on me by a picture of filth, misery, and neglect which I did not expect to find even in China.”

8. Another eye-witness describes it as follows :—

"The 'I Ts'z' consists of two small rooms, which are in the foulest condition. Sometimes as many as thirty patients are huddled together in it. There is not, as there could not possibly be, any classification of patients. Those who are afflicted with the most contagious disease lie side by side with those who are ill, may be, from old age.

9. The Governor took prompt steps to put an end to the disgraceful state of affairs at the "I Ts'z" and in a few days after his first visit Mr. LISTER was able to report that "the horrors of the 'I Ts'z' exist no longer." The better class of Chinese were, according to the Governor, much ashamed of the very public exposé in connection with the "I Ts'z," and the opportunity was thought to be a good one for reviving a plan, which had been mooted before, for the establishment of a Chinese hospital "to meet," as the Appendix Governor states in his despatch No. 726 of the 21st June, 1869, "certain Chinese special wants and prejudices which are not provided for by the existing Civil Hospital- as may be seen by last year's returns which shew admissions of Europeans and Indians to the Civil Hospital to have been 934, against 223 Chinese" out of a population of 100,000 Chinese. And in the same despatch to Lord GRANVILLE, Sir RICHARD Appendix MACDONNELL continues:-" Your Lordship may hence infer the large aggregate of misery, wretchedness and disease which must be either wholly or inadequately cared for in this city; and I believe there is no effective remedy for such an evil except inducing the Chinese, as I am doing, to build a suitable hospital and refuge, open to European surveillance but under Chinese management and direction, so that there may be no such reluctance to go there in the minds of the natives as that which generally prevents their voluntarily going to the Civil Hospital."

P. XXILL.

10. The idea of establishing a native hospital was taken up warmly by the leading Chinese residents and in August 1869 the Governor was able to report to the Secretary Appendix of State that the subscription list circulated amongst the Chinese amounted to $30,000. Appendix In the despatch forwarding this report a petition from the Chinese was enclosed which

P. XXXIII.

P. XXXIV,

shows clearly on what conditions they understood the new hospital was to be established. They state:"Now one of the regulations agreed upon on a former occasion in con- nection with the hospital says—

'The general conduct of affairs and the framing of regulations will devolve on the Chinese, in whose hands the management will be.' This regula- tion was submitted to and approved of by His Worship, and, at a personal interview, petitioners had the honour to receive his sanction to leaving the framing of regulations and the management of affairs in the hands of the Chinese, so long as they kept the place cleanly and in good order."

In the same petition it is stated:-

[vii]

"Once more, the customs of the Chinese are as different as possible from those of the English, and if it is according to English principles that the hospitals are to be conducted, why should petitioners defray expenses and take the trouble of building another? (when there is an English hospital already)."

P. XLI.

P. XLVII.

p. XLII.

11. The difficulties raised in this petition were overcome, and Earl GRANVILLE in Appendix November, 1869, expressed his entire satisfaction at the effective and judicious measures adopted by the Governor in relation to the Hospital. In 1870 an Ordinance incorpor- Appendix ating the Hospital was passed, and on the 14th February, 1872 the Governor assisted at the ceremony of declaring the Hospital open. In the final paragraph of his despatch to Appendix the Secretary of State, containing an account of that ceremony, he stated:-"On the whole I can conscientiously say that I look forward with cheerfulness and hope to the future of the Hospital, and feel thankful that I have been permitted to take so leading a part in extracting finally so much good from the original abuses, which disgraced the 'I Ts'z' Hospital and led to the present important undertaking which your Lordship and Earl GRANVILLE have done so much to countenance and promote.'

12. From a careful perusal of the correspondence from which extracts have been made above, it appears clear that the hospital was erected in place of, and to prevent a recur- rence of the abuses connected with the disgraceful "I Ts'z"; that it was established to receive moribund and sick Chinese, more especially those in indigent circumstances; that the conduct of the affairs of the hospital and the framing of regulations for its guidance were to devolve on the Chinese who were to be responsible for the management; that the treatment was to be conducted according to Chinese methods and not according to English principles,. (otherwise in view of the existence of the Civil Hospital there was no reason for the erection of a Chinese Hospital); and that the hospital was intended to induce Chinese to make use of the institution instead of allowing the Chinese sick and destitute to die in their own houses and to meet certain Chinese special wants and prejudices not provided for by the Civil Hospital.

""

p. XLVIL

13. The objects and purposes of the institution are embodied in Ordinance No. 3 of Appendix 1870, "An Ordinance enacted by the Governor of Hongkong, with the advice of the Legislative Council thereof, for establishing a Chinese Hospital to be supported by voluntary contributions, and for erecting the same into an eleemosynary Corporation. In section 3 of that Ordinance it is laid down "that the Corporation is erected for the purpose of establishing and maintaining a public free hospital for the treatment of the indigent sick among the Chinese population, to be supported by voluntary contributions. Provided nevertheless that it shall be lawful for the Board of Direction to admit any Chinese patients into the said Hospital upon payment of such charges and upon such conditions as may be specified in and by any regulations to be hereafter made."

14. Having carefully examined the history of the foundation of the hospital, having considered the correspondence in which the objects for establishing the institution are clearly laid down, and having heard the witnesses who are able to speak on the subject, we are of opinion that the hospital is fulfilling the object and purpose of its Incorporation. In this connection the evidence of the Colonial Surgeon (Dr. AYRES) is very important. He has been acquainted with the Hospital from the second year of its opening and has visited it constantly ever since, and he states:-" The Chinese Committee has obeyed the Evidence contract regarding the management of the Hospital." In answer to the following question by the Chairman:-"In your opinion the Committee has carried out the spirit of the Evidence Ordinance ?"--he replied "Yes; I have read the whole of the correspondence with Sir RICHARD MACDONNELL, and am well acquainted with the stipulations. The Chinese said if you are going to insist on treating the cases upon English principles you had better not call upon us to go on with the proposal to establish the Tung Wa and should content yourselves with extending the European hospital."

p. 61.

p. 62.

.

[viii]

15. To what extent the Hospital is carrying on its work of treating the indigent sick

may be seen on reference to Appendix IX. which contains a statement showing the number of patients admitted into the Tung Wa Hospital from 1891 to 1895 inclusive. From this statement it will be seen that during 5 years there were 10,806 male in- patients or a yearly average of 2,161; 1,952 female in-patients or a yearly average of 390; 530,781 male out-patients or a yearly average of 106,156; 272,278 female out- patients or a yearly average of 54,455. All these patients were non-paying patients, the number of private paying patients from 1891 to 1895 amounting to 106 males and 47 females.

16. But in addition to treating the indigent sick the Hospital also performs other charitable functions. It provides free burial for the poor and maintains a cemetery in which the poor are buried. It vaccinates free of charge not only in the City of Victoria but also in the out-lying villages of the Colony, to which vaccinators are despatched at fixed periods. Until recently it afforded accommodation for women and girls rescued by the Pó Léung Kuk or Society for the Protection of Women and Girls, and it still continues to provide food for those women and girls. It houses and feeds male desti- tutes and defrays the cost of sending them to their native homes.

17. A reference to Appendix VII. will show the careful and precise manner in which the records of the Hospital are kept.

18. As to the finances of the Hospital, we consider that they have been well managed, and that the investments of certain funds of the Hospital in house property have been made with great judgment.

19. From the report of the Acting Colonial Treasurer (Mr. THOMSON) it appears Appets that the Government grant to the Tung Wa Hospital amounted to $115,000. Out of that total amount a sum of $90,000 was placed in the Bank, the remainder having been expended on building. In 1875 a sum of $21,200 and subsequently other sums were withdrawn for investment in house property, leaving a balance on deposit of $34,000.

P. LXXXVI.

20. A valuation of the house properties purchased by the Hospital for a total of Appendix $86,000 has been kindly made for the Commission by Mr. SHELTON HOOPER, Secretary of the Land Investment Company. He values the properties now owned by the Tung Wa Hospital at $215,265.32 or nearly three times more than they originally cost the Hospital. We consider those responsible for these investments are to be congratulated on such a successful result. As regards the rents now obtained by the Hospital from their properties, we are of opinion that they are fair and reasonable. We think it would be an improvement if the accounts of the Hospital were kept in the currency of the Colony instead of as at present in taels, etc.

21. It is contended by Mr. CHATER and Mr. WHITEHEAD that the annual accounts of the Hospital should be audited by Government Officers in accordance with clause 15 of Ordinance 3 of 1870, and with the terms of Governor Sir RICHARD MACDONNELL'S despatch to Lord KIMBERLEY of the 19th February, 1872, in which he writes as follows:-

"I need only add that a vigilant supervision is intended to be maintained over the accounts and expenditure by Auditors appointed by Government. and who at present are the Registrar General for the time being and the Superintendent of the Central Schools."

The other members of the Commission do not consider such an audit necessary for the following reasons.

Monthly accounts are circulated among members of the Corporation, are posted in conspicuous places, and are sent to the Registrar General. The annual accounts are audited by an auditor chosen by lot from members of the Corporation who have served on the Committee, are always carefully examined by the Committee elected each year, who

[ix]

will not take them over unless they are in order, and are submitted to the Government and published in English and Chinese in the Government Gazette. The Government grant to the hospital has always been supervised by the Government and no investments have been made from it without the previous sanction of the Government.

22. In Appendix XVII. will be found a petition from the Directors of the Tung Wa Hospital praying that $20,000 may be granted from the $34,000 deposited in the Bank in order to meet certain extraordinary expenses incurred by the Hospital in connection with the plague and in improving the Hospital buildings. We consider their request a reasonable one and recommend it to the favourable consideration of the Government.

23. From the evidence of Mr. Lo CHI-TIN, a former Chairman of the Tung Wa Hospital Directors, it appears that there has been some difficulty in obtaining the usual subscrip- tions from some of the Guilds. A list of these Guilds is given in Appendix XVIII. and we recommend that steps should be taken to point out to these Guilds how necessary it is, if the Hospital is to be continued in a satisfactory manner, that subscriptions should be paid regularly.

p. 19.

24. As regards the sanitary maintenance of the hospital the evidence before the Commission somewhat varies. Looking, however, to the evidence of Mr. MCCALLUM, Mr. LEIGH, Dr. CLARK, Surgeon-Colonel EVATT, and Dr. AYRES, and speaking from our own experience of the Hospital, extending in the case of some of the members of the Commission over many years, we are of opinion that the Hospital has been and is maintained in a fairly sanitary condition. A reference to the evidence of Mr. LEIGH will show what improvements have already been effected as regards lavatory, cloth- Evidence ing, and store accommodation. In answer to the question: "Is the Hospital kept in a good condition?" Mr. LEIGH states:-"The Hospital has always been kept clean. Evidence I speak from sixteen years' experience of it." Surgeon-Colonel EVATT is inclined to think Evidence the Hospital compares not unfavourably with the Indian hospitals, and in reply to the question: "With regard to your visits to the Hospital, did you find it clean?" he replies:-"I think so." And further on being asked-"Apart from clothing. did you Evidence think the Hospital clean?" He states :-"Considering my Indian experience, I should say it was." Even Dr. Lowson, who is in favour of the abolition of the Tung Wa Hospital, admits that it is better than it used to be.

""

25. The drainage of the Hospital has been thoroughly overhauled and is now in a satisfactory condition.

p. 21.

p. 69.

p. 67.

P. 21.

p. LXXX.

26. As to the existing wards of the Hospital Mr. LEIGH states that "These two Evidence wards are as good as you can wish for in any hospital. They are well built, well lighted, well ventilated;" and Dr. AYRES in his letter of the 22nd June states: “In Appendix accordance with your request I inspected the Tung Wa Hospital on Friday, the 19th instant, and was pleased to note the improvement made in the wards by the removal of the cubical screens, as I recommended in my Annual Report for 1894. This is an improvement to all the large wards for medical cases. These wards are now well ventilated and can be kept clean, but constant supervision will be necessary to see that this is done."

27. Having given our reasons for our opinion that the Hospital is fulfilling the objects and purposes of its Incorporation and is in a sanitary condition, we now proceed to consider the second point of reference to the Commission, viz., "whether the Commission can suggest or recommend any matter or thing by which the present organization and administration of the Hospital can be improved or carried on more effectively." Various recommendations in the direction of improvement have been made by different witnesses. Dr. ATKINSON is in favour of abolishing the Tung Wa Hospital, but with his view we do not agree. What would be the effect of such abolition is clearly indicated by the Colonial Surgeon, Dr.. AYRES, when asked to state his opinion as to what would be the result upon the general health of the Colony if the Tung Wa were

P. 64.

[ x ]

Evidence abolished. "It would," he states, "mean a more rapid mortality among the Chinese; and we would have much more trouble in verifying cases of infectious disease. Plague cases, fever and other cases of infectious disease would not be brought to the Tung Wa Hospital as at present; the people would die in their own houses, and although we would find plague corpses, we would find very few cases." And again he states:- Evidence the Hospital is a benefit so long as we can supervise the people who come in; many cases of plague, typhoid fever and small-pox have been verified there, and removed and segregated for proper treatment."

P. 64.

Evidence P. 23.

Evidence

p. 23.

Mr. MCCALLUM, when asked what he thought would be the result of the abolition of the Tung Wa Hospital, stated that "probably you would have dead-houses re-established," such as the "I Ts'z", to which reference has been made at the beginning of this report, "and that, in a great many instances patients would prefer to die in their houses rather "than

go to the Civil Hospital."

28. But though we are in favour of the retention of Tung Wa Hospital we think that certain improvements might be effected as regards its staff, structural arrangements, and sanitary maintenance.

29. With respect to its staff, we are of opinion that a Chinese trained in Western medical science should be appointed by the Government to reside at the Hospital chiefly for the purpose of furnishing correct returns of deaths occurring there. It is absolutely necessary in the interests of the health of the public that the Government should be fur- nished with mortality statistics which can be accepted as accurate. We are of opinion ✓ that such statistics cannot be supplied by the Chinese doctors of the Hospital, and we therefore consider that a properly qualified Chinese should be appointed and paid by the Government in order that it may be supplied with reliable mortality returns. In addi- tion to being responsible for these returns this officer should also assist the Colonial Surgeon, as Mr. U I-KAI now does, when he inspects the patients in the receiving ward, which ward should, in our opinion, be retained, and should aid the Justices of the Peace when they pay their visits of inspection. Complaints have been made of the absence of any one on the staff of the Hospital acquainted with English who is able to interpret. The appointment of such an officer as we propose will supply the want of proper interpreta- tion. In recommending this appointment we desire it to be clearly understood that the officer appointed is not to interfere in any way with the treatment of the patients unless requested by the patients or native doctors to give the benefit of his advice and assistance. If this is clearly understood and if the appointment be made by the Government, we are Evidence of opinion, judging from the evidence of Mr. KU FAI-SHAN, Mr. WEI YUK, Mr. Ho AMEI 53 and Mr. LO CHI-TIN, that there will be no objection to the appointment on the part of

the subscribers to the Hospital.

pp. 27, 18, 33, 34, 37, and 49.

30. In addition to the appointment of a Chinese trained in Western medical science, whose salary should in our opinion, as we have stated, be defrayed by Government, see- ing that it is entirely in the interests of the health of the public that we regard the creation of such an office as necessary, we recommend that a Chinese of good standing be appointed Steward of the Hospital who, acting under the orders of the Hospital Committee and in co-operation with the Sanitary Board, should be held responsible for the sanitary mainten- ance of the Hospital buildings and drainage, for the cleanliness of the patients, their bedding and clothing, for the proper carrying out of the conservancy system, for the proper ventilation of the wards and for the other details which a Stewand of a hospital has usually to supervise. This officer should be placed at the head of the working staff of the Hospital (not, of course, including the native doctors), and it should be part of his functions to see that the other members of the staff, whose duties should be clearly defined, and whose pay should be such as to attract reliable men, perform the work assigned to them regularly and efficiently. We consider that a salary high enough to secure the services of a suitable person should be paid, and that it would be preferable, if possible,

[xi]

to engage some one who has already had experience of hospitals either in this Colony or elsewhere. The Steward should live in the Hospital and be provided with suitable quarters.

31. We also agree with Surgeon-Colonel EVATT that it would be a good thing to obtain Chinese trained in nursing to look after the patients. We are aware of the difficul- ties in this direction, but we are of opinion that if no such Chinese can be obtained at once, immediate steps should be taken to have Chinese trained for the purpose, who should be sufficiently well remunerated to induce them to undertake the work. We observe that on the present staff of the Hospital there are two female attendants, who have not been specially trained as nurses. In view of the prejudice among the Chinese against the nursing of females by males, we recommend that an endeavour be made to obtain Chinese women who are willing to learn to nurse and who should be trained under the Matron of the Civil Hospital. We feel sure that if this can be arranged-and though there may be difficulties at the start, we see no reason why they should not be overcome as has been done at the Alice Memorial Hospital-the comfort and welfare of the female patients in the Hospital will be greatly increased and ameliorated.

32. With regard to the structural arrangements of the Hospital it appears from the evidence given to the Commission that many improvements have been effected recently and that there is no disinclination on the part of the management of the Hospital to still further improve the Hospital buildings. The only difficulty appears to be want of funds. In that direction we think that the Hospital should receive whatever help is possible from Government. There is a balance of $34,000 belonging to the Hospital on deposit in the Bank. The Committee has already applied for $20,000 to defray the cost of expenditure in connection with the plague and of improvements already effected in the buildings. This would leave a balance of $14,000 which, we think, might very properly be devoted to the completion of the lavatories, etc., for the North block, to the construction of a new ward to take the place of the present surgical ward, which all the medical witnesses examined by us declare to be unsuitable, and to erecting suitable quarters for the staff of the Hospital.

33. With respect to the Ko Fong wards originally erected for the purpose of housing small-pox patients, we understand that the Committee has already decided to reconstruct them for the purpose of housing destitutes, for whom there has hitherto been no suitable accommodation in the Hospital. We are of opinion that the Hospital Committee should be encouraged to take charge of destitutes as they have hitherto done, for they are able to make arrangements for returning them to their native homes more speedily and more effectively than could be done by any other organization. If the further structural improvements recommended by us are carried out, and if the Ko Fong wards are reconstructed, we are of opinion that so far as structural arrangements are concerned the Hospital will be in a satisfactory condition.

34. As to the sanitary arrangements of the Hospital, we think the Hospital should be inspected daily and more than once, if necessary, by an officer of the Sanitary Board. 35. We recommend that water-carriage should be introduced generally, as suggested by Mr. MCCALLUM, to take the place of the present system of hand-carriage, that bedpans should be used when necessary, and that commodes should be abolished.

We beg to call special attention to the following paragraph in Mr. MCCALLUM'S report of the 18th January last :---

P. LXII.

"With regard to the conservancy, I am quite satisfied that the only satisfactory Appendix

method in any hospital is the water carriage system. Excretal matters in hospitals are nearly always infective and consequently the speedy and complete removal of them is a matter of the first importance. This can only be effectually carried out by adopting the water carriage system. I mentioned this to the Directors and they expressed themselves as being

Appendia P. LXXX.

[ xii]

in favour of it, but it is probable the initial cost of erecting the necessary apparatus may cause them to alter their opinion, although I do not think it will. Be that as it may, it should be insisted on. The storage for twenty-four hours of infectel excretal matters and their subsequent removal through the streets cannot be done without danger to the community."

36. We also think it would be an improvement if the wards were warmed, as sug- gested by the same witness, by placing a stove in the middle of the ward instead of having, as at present, a small fire-place at the end of each ward.

37. Provision should be made on the upper floors for slop sinks, to the absence of which the Medical Officer of Health (Dr. CLARK) has called attention.

38. In order to prevent overcrowding we recommend that a board be suspended in each ward and room stating the number of persons each ward and room is allowed to contain without infringing the law.

39. As to bedding we think coverlets or quilted bedding should be abandoned for blankets as recommended by Dr. AYRES and Surgeon-Colonel EVATT. The latter witness informed the Commission that coverlets were formerly used in India, but that blankets have now taken their place. It is almost impossible to keep coverlets clean whereas blankets can be washed from time to time. Care should also be taken to have the mats on which patients sleep renewed when necessary. With respect to the clothing of patients definite rules should be laid down that it, as well as the bedding, should be changed once or twice a week. We are also of opinion that it should be made a rule of the Hospital that every patient on admission should, when possible, have a bath before being supplied with a clean suit of hospital clothing.

40. With regard to the removal of patients to the Civil Hospital who are not willing to go of their own accord, we strongly deprecate resort to anything in the shape of com- pulsion. At the same time the following suggestion of Dr. AYRES, if acted upon with tact, may lead to good results:---

"I would also suggest that the Visiting Surgeon should daily report on the surgical cases admitted which he considers stand a fair chance of recovery "or relief, if removed to a European hospital, that if possible they may "be removed for treatment to the Government Civil Hospital or Alice "Memorial Hospital if arrangements could be made with that institution. "As the attendance there is almost wholly Chinese, they might have less

objection to removal."

CC

41. At present there is in existence a list of infectious diseases drawn up by the Sani- tary Board and embodied in Bye-laws approved by the Legislative Council on the 25th November, 1895. Persons suffering from these diseases are taken to the hospital for infectious diseases to prevent the danger of the spread of infection. Dr. ATKINSON and Dr. AYRES have recommended that certain diseases which do not now appear on that list should be included. We consider this is a matter deserving careful consideration and recommend that the list should be revised.

42. Dr. ATKINSON has called our attention to the fact that patients are discharged from the Tung Wa Hospital before being thoroughly cured. In the case of infectious diseases discharge before cure would evidently be a danger to the health of the public. But if the list of infectious diseases is so revised as to include the diseases which Dr. ATKINSON has especially enumerated, there is not much likelihood of the danger referred to occurring. If a person is not suffering from an infectious disease and desires to leave hospital, we do not see under what authority he can be detaine:l.

43. Misunderstandings have arisen occasionally regarding cases which the Tung Wa Committee has refused to admit into hospital. On enquiry the Committee almost

[ xiii]

invariably reports that the case was an incurable one, the admission of which is not, very properly we think, allowed by the Hospital regulations. If incurables were granted admission the Tung Wa Hospital would soon be filled with the incurables of the Kwang Tung Province. To prevent misunderstanding we recommend that in future the Tung Wa Committee be requested to send all such cases, if the patients are willing to go, to the Civil Hospital for such action as the Colonial Surgeon may deem advisable. If the patient be unwilling to go, the Committee should notify the Colonial Surgeon.

44. We recommend that the monthly meetings of the Committee of the Hospital with the Registrar General and Colonial Surgeon and the daily inspections of the latter officer be continued.

45. We are of opinion that the Committee of the Hospital elected annually by the subscribers to carry on the work of the Hospital has, as a rule, discharged zealously and efficiently the duties entrusted to it and deserves commendation for the charitable work which it performs and to which it devotes much time and attention, though the members are invariably business men much occupied with their own commercial concerns. At the same time we think that it would be of advantage to the Hospital, would facilitate its relations with the Government and the public, and would secure continuity and uniformity in its arrangements, if there were associated with the annually elected Committee some Chinese residents of long standing who have ✔ had experience of the Hospital and whose advice would be respected by, and whose views would carry weight with, the Chinese community.

46. In conclusion, we think it only right to state that, in our opinion, the Tung Wa Hospital has done excellent work in the past and that, if the improvements we have recommended are adopted, it will be able in the future to continue its good work with still greater efficiency and with increased benefits to the indigent suffering Chinese for whose welfare the Hospital was established.

We have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servants,

ī

:

i

HONGKONG, 24th September, 1896.

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART,

Chairman.

A. M. THOMSON.

ΗΟ ΚΑΙ.

[ xv ]

REPORT BY THE HONOURABLE C. P. CHATER.

With one sole exception I fully concur with the opinions set forth in the report drawn up by Messrs. STEWART LOCKHART, THOMSON and Ho KAI, but this I consider to be of such importance that I feel it incumbent on me to make some remarks upon the subject.

In my opinion, when we consider the question as to whether the Tung Wa Hospitai fulfils the object and purpose of its incorporation, it should be remembered that this institution performs two functions; as a benevolent and charitable organization, and as a hospital for the treatment and cure of the sick, and it should be studied in both aspects.

As a charitable organization, I admit at once that its work has been an admirable one: it has provided an asylum for the destitute, a refuge for the dying, and a burial for the dead, thereby averting the horrors that would have ensued, as we may gather from what has been said by Dr. AYRES and Mr. MCCALLUM, had paupers been permitted to die in the dens where they had lived. It has done much to promote vaccination, and used to house, and still continues to feed, the women and girls under the protection of the Pó Léung Kuk.

Unstinted praise is its due for such works as these, but when we turn to the actual hospital, the healing work, we find a condition of affairs which is far less satisfactory.

ence, pp. 25,

We find doctors who have never been to any medical college, for apparently there See evid- are none in China to go to, whose only test of knowledge is to be able to write a thesis 25. on some subject to be approved of by their colleagues in the Hospital, who permit men to die because they will not or cannot perform a simple operation, and in Dr. ATKINSON'S words-"admit that they have no surgical knowledge, and cannot be responsible for "the surgical enormities which have been and still will be carried on there, if they are "allowed to treat such cases." We find too the horrible custom of herding the most foully diseased with their less afflicted fellow-patients, with the natural results; and in fact almost every law of hygiene slighted.

Such a state of things, I venture to say, should not exist in a British Colony, and in an institution partly supported by the Government of that Colony.

I am well aware that if any attempt were made to introduce Western methods under Government supervision, such a step would mean withdrawal of all subscriptions at present contributed by the Chinese guilds, and it would only be with great reluctance that their representatives would consent to serve on the Committee.

I do not therefore advocate such a course, but I am convinced that there should be among the "doctors" of the Hospital at least one Chinaman who has received a training in Western schools, not merely to serve as a registrar and interpreter, but who would make it his business to quietly and gradually introduce their systems, and thus, very slowly perhaps, but surely, would pave the way for the appreciation and adoption of our methods of healing.

The question is one for the Government to settle, and I have no desire to seem to dictate, but personally I am convinced that this is the only way of making the Tung Wa a practical hospital. I need only point to the example of India, where now, in spite of the added difficulties of religious scruples and race hatreds, natives of every creed and nation come willingly to be treated in the Western fashion.

HONGKONG, 5th October, 1896.

C. P. CHATER.

1

}

I

99

No. -

4

96

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE ACTING SUPERINTENDENT OF VICTORIA GAOL FOR 1895.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of

His Excellency the Governor.

No. 36.

VICTORIA GAOL, HONGKONG, 28th January, 1896.

SIR,I have the honour to transmit, for His Excellency the Governor's information, the Annual Report on the Gaol Department for 1895.

2. The total number of admissions was 5,014, of which 673 had been previously convicted. 3. The daily average number of prisoners in the Gaol was a fraction over 472 as compared with 455 in 1894, but as the admissions in 1895 exceeded those in the former year by 1,101, the inference is that the number of prisoners with long sentences is still steadily decreasing.

4. There were 5,365 prison offences as compared with 5,120 in 1894.

The profit in industrial labour during the year amounts to $1,936.54.

5. The addition to the Gaol consisting of 155 separate cells was completed in December last, so that it is now possible to confine a large number of prisoners separately during the night.

6. Steps are being taken to improve the prison for the accommodation of females, and also for the erection of suitable quarters for the European officers. Both these improvements have been long required.

7. The staff of the Gaol has been reorganized during the year, chiefly by the engagement of a number of Indian Turnkeys, and a corresponding reduction in the European staff. Mr. CRAIG joined as Warden in February, and a few other officers have since come out from England.

8. I am glad to be able to report that the staff by these changes is now in a very efficient con- dition.

The usual returns accompany this report.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

The Honourable

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY.

A. M. THOMSON, Acting Superintendent.

(A.)...

VICTORIA GAOL.

Return of Reports for talking, idling, short oakum picking, &c., in the years 1892, 1893, 1894 and 1895.

1892.

1893.

MONTH.

Daily average number | Daily average number

in Prison, 515.

in Prison, 458.

1891. Daily average number in Prison, 455.

1895. Daily average number

in Prison, 472.

January,..

237

264

122

301

February,

316

150

166

314,

March,

351

330

209

223

April,

253

240

130

236

May,

142

198

223

295

June,

129

138

179

311

July,

96

242

211

447

August,

224

211

187

374

September,

142

204

410

346

October,.

108

79

441

309

November,.

129

94

363

273

December,

259

132

205

225

Total,.....

2,386

2,282

2,896

3,654

100

(B.)

Return of Offences reported of Prisoners fighting with or assaulting each other, or Officers,

for the years 1892, 1893, 1894 and 1895.

MONTH.

1892.

1893.

in Prison, 458.

1894.

Daily average number | Daily average number | Daily average number

in Prison, 515.

in Prison, 455.

1895.

Daily average number in Prison, 472.

January,..

13

13

6

Nil.

February,

9

5

19

گی

March,

16

5

12

3

April,

8

12

3

12

May,

9

9

12

12

June,

6

3

16

4

July,

5

13

4

6

August,

20

11

3

9

September,.

9

11

1

2

October,

9

11

7

10

November,

December,

10 10

5

5

5

3

3

Total,

114

105

95

69

(C.)

Return of Offences of Prisoners having Tobacco, for the years 1892, 1893, 1894 and 1895.

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

in Prison, 472.

Daily average number Daily average number Daily average number | Daily average number

in Prison, 515.

in Prison, 458.

in Prison, 455.

MONTH.

January,. February, March, April,

16

23

19

15

18

46

11

13

18

5

10

May,

8

June,

15.

15

11

July,

23.

17

10

August,

10

10

10

September,.....

33

6

October,.

58

3

12

November,

36

13

TRBOIIO0020

7

18

15

11

17

7

3

11

3

6

8

20

15

6

December,

25

23

5

48

Total,......

307

141

117

126

(D.)

Comparative Return of Prisoners confined in Victoria Gaol on 31st December, 1892, 31st December, 1893, 31st December, 1894, and 31st December, 1895.

CONVICTION.

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

1st,

297

324

366

340

2nd,.

56

65

63

54

3rd,

27

4th,

19

22

27

21

21

22

12

20

5th,

11

7

9

24

6th,

12

7

4

7th,

6

8th,

9th,

12 +2

53

5

4

10 422

2

4

1

1

10th,

11th,

12th,

13th,

1

:

2

...

...

1

Total,....

441

467

488

472

Dr.

1895.

(E.)

Abstract of Industrial Labour, Victoria Gaol, for the year 1895.

OAKUM.

101

Cr.

To Stock on hand, 1st January, 1895,. $ 221.58 1895.

By Oakum sold during the year,

$ 3,279.41

""

Cost of Paper Stuff purchased

during the year,...

Profit,...

27

Oakum used for Gaol,...

2.50

2,653.10

660.13

""

Stock on hand, 31st December,

1895,

252.90

Total,...$ 3,534.81

COIR.

1895.

29

To Stock on hand, 1st January, 1895,. Cost of Material purchased during

294.24

1895.

the year,......

586.59

Profit,...

297.18

Total,............$

1,178.01

NET-MAKING.

1895.

To Stock on hand, 1st January, 1895,. $

.82

1895.

""

Cost of Material purchased during

the year,.....

26.82

Profit,...

24.81

Total,...$

52.45

TAILORING.

1895.

To Stock on hand, 1st January, 1895,. $ 34.90

1895.

""

Cost of Material purchased during

the year,..

Profit,...........

Total,............$

1,108.12

969.89

103.33

PRINTING.

1895.

""

To Stock on hand, 1st January, 1895,. $ 4.16

Cost of Material purchased during

1895.

the year,...

19.84

Profit,......

159.80

Total...........$

183.80

Total,............$

3,584.81

By Matting, &c., sold during the year, $

Articles made for Gaol use,

""

Stock on hand, 31st December,

1895,

991.89

12.67

173.45

Total,............$

1,178.01

By Nets and Nettings sold and re-

Stock on hand, 31st December,

paired,

1895,

$ 52.45

Total,........

52.45

By Articles sold and repaired,

"

Work done for Gaol,........

Stock on hand, 31st December,

1895,

$

160.42 936.76

10.94

Total,.....$

1,108.12

By Printing done for outside,.

""

""

Printing done for Gaol,.

Stock on hand, 31st December,

1895,

$

25.49 157.41

.90

Total,............$

183.80

102

1895.

To Stock on hand, 1st January, 1895,. Cost of Material purchased during

the year,.......

BOOK-BINDING.

7.71

88.28

Profit,.............

1895.

By Book-binding and repairing done

for outside,...................

168.20

""

Book-binding and repairing done.

for Gaol,........

41.25

123.38

""

Stock on hand, 31st December,

1895,

9.92

Total,..........$

219.37

SHOE-MAKING.

1895.

""

To Stock on hand, 1st January, 1895,.| $ 11.80

Cost of Material purchased during

1895.

the year,......

122.40

Total,............$

134.20

WASHING.

Total,......

219.37

By Articles sold and repaired during

the year,.

""

Work done for Gaol,.

99

Stock on hand, 31st December,

1895,

Total,.......

$

52.26 81.05

.89

134.20

1895.

To Stock on hand, 1st January, 1895,. $ 27.21

1895.

""

Cost of Material purchased during

By Washing done for which cash

was received,

€9

3.00

the year,........

Profit,..

686.79

""

Washing done for Prison Officers

at 1 cent per piece,

411.06

567.91

""

Washing Prisoners' Clothing at

1 cent per piece,

$40.33

Stock on hand, 31st December,

1895,

27.52

Total........

1,281.91

GRASS MATTING.

Total,......

1,281.91

1895.

"

To Stock on hand, 1st January, 1895,. $ 6.19 1895.

Cost of Material purchased during

دو

By Matting sold during the year,

Matting made for Gaol use,

$

43.81

17.72

the year,.....

63.72

,, Stock on hand, 31st December,

1895,

8.38

Total,.......

69.91

RATTAN.

Total,............$

69.91

1895.

"9

To Stock on hand, 1st January, 1895,. $ Cost of Material purchased during

7.80 7.77

1895.

"

the year,.....

""

By Articles sold during the year,

Articles made for Gaol use, Stock on hand, 31st December,

12.35

3.22

1895,

Total,.......

15.57

Total,...........$

15.57

}

*

TIN-SMITHING.

103

1895.

To Stock on hand, 1st January, 1895,. $

.80

1895.

By Work done for outside,

2.91

""

Cost of Material purchased during

the year,.....

Work done for Gaol,..

39.03

43.55

Stock on hand, 31st December,

1895, ...

2.41

Total,............$

44.35

CARPENTERING.

Total,...

44.35

1895.

"

To Stock on hand, 1st January, 1895,. $ 1.83

Cost of Material purchased during

1895.

the year,...

144.75

""

""

Work done for Gaol,....... Stock on hand, 31st December,

1895,

By Articles sold and repaired during $

the year,...

27.33

110.75

8.50

Total,............$

146.58

RECAPITULATION.

Total,............$

146.58

1895.

Oakum,.

660.13 1895.

By Surplus,

$ 1,936.54

Coir,

297.18

Net-making,

24.81

Tailoring,

103.33

Printing,

159.80

Book-binding,

123.38

Shoe-making,

Washing,

Grass Matting, Rattan Work,

Tin-smithing, Carpentering,

567.91

Total,.......

1,936.54

Total,...........$ 1,936.54

HONGKONG.

REPORT

OF THE

COMMITTEE

APPOINTED BY

HIS EXCELLENCY SIR WILLIAM ROBINSON, K.C.M.G.,

Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Colony of Hongkong and its Dependencies, and Vice-Admiral of the same,

TO REPORT ON THE CONDITION

OF THE

GOVERNMENT OFFICES

AND THE

DESIRABILITY OF LOCATING THE VARIOUS GOVERNMENT

DEPARTMENTS UNDER ONE ROOF.

23RD NOVEMBER, 1896.

DRO

HONGKONG:

PRINTED BY NORONILA & Co., GOVERNMENT PRINTERS.

1896.

615

617

MEMBERS OF COMMITTEE.

Committee appointed by His Excellency Sir WILLIAM ROBINSON, K.C.M.G., Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Colony of Hongkong and its dependencies and Vice-Admiral of the same, to report on the condition of the Government Offices and the desirability of locating the various Government departments under one roof.

The Committee as originally appointed on the 8th September, 1894, was as follows:-

Honourable N. G. MITCHELL-INNES, Colonial Treasurer, Chairman.

Honourable C. P. CHATER.

Honourable A. MCCONACHIE.

T. JACKSON, Esq.

W. CHATHAM, Esq., Acting Director of Public Works.

J. G. T. BUCKLE, Esq., Secretary.

On the 10th October the Honourable F. A. COOPER, Director of Public Works, was appointed in place of W. CHATHAM, Esq.

On the 17th August, 1895, the Honourable A. M. THOMSON, Acting Colonial Treasurer, was appointed in place of the Honourable N. G. MITCHELL-INNES, and the Honourable F. A. COOPER was appointed Chairman.

On the 27th February, 1896, Mr. F. J. BADELEY, succeeded Mr. BUCKLE as Secretary.

To His Excellency

REPORT.

Sir WILLIAM ROBINSON, K.C.M.G.,

Governor.

619

YOUR EXCELLENCY,

We, the Members of the Committee appointed by Your Excellency for the purpose of reporting on the condition of the present Government Offices and the advisability of locating the various Government departments under one roof, have the honour to report as follows.

PROCEEDINGS.

2. The Committee has held seven meetings, at which the general condition of the present Government Offices, their arrangement, and the accommodation both as regards extent and the facility it affords for the transaction of public business, were considered.

3. At an early stage of the proceedings the Committee formed the opinion. that a change in the present arrangement of the Government Offices is desirable, but that it is not expedient that it should extend to the present Government Offices at St. John's Place, the Central Police Station, the Magistracy, the Gaol, Queen's College, the Botanical and Afforestation Department, or the Fire Brigade Station.

4. The heads of the various Government departments concerned have been addressed with a view to ascertaining the nature and extent of the accommodation in respect of the following departments, viz., the Supreme Court and Law Offices, the Treasury, the Registrar General's Department, the Public Works Department, the Land Office, the Local Auditor's Department, the Sanitary Department, and the Inspector of Schools.

5. Projects have been considered with a view respectively to meeting the requirements of these departments in the existing buildings and for the erection of entirely new offices on the Praya Reclamation in the vicinity of the City Hall.

6. The question of the desirability of inviting competitive designs for new offices was also considered at Your Excellency's request (see appendix A), and on the motion of Mr. CHATER, seconded by Mr. MCCONACHIE, it was decided by a majority of three (the Chairman and Mr. THOMSON not voting) that "the Com- mittee is in favour of inviting public competition and awarding a premium for the most suitable design and plans sent in."

The Chairman moved as an amendment that the plans and designs be pre- pared by the Public Works Department and submitted to a consulting architect in England for report and revision if desirable, but the amendment was not seconded.

Particulars and conditions of competition, which will be found in appendix B, were submitted by the Director of Public Works, adopted with some amend- ments, and forwarded for Your Excellency's consideration on the 15th May last.

620

(6)

CONDITION OF THE PRESENT GOVERNMENT OFFICES.

7. The Committee has obtained from the Director of Public Works the follow- ing information respecting the present Government Offices and the suitability of their accommodation for the departments located in them.

8. Government Offices, St. John's Place.-The present building was erected in 1848 at an approximate cost of £14,393 and is situated about 100 feet above sea level, approached by Battery Pathway leading off Queen's Road at Ice House St.

The building consists of two floors, each containing thirteen rooms, and has a massive verandah on the western side.

The ground floor is occupied by the Public Works Department and the upper floor by the Council Chamber, Colonial Secretary's Department, and the Local Auditor.

The building is in a substantial state of repair and it is not anticipated that any exceptionally heavy expenditure will be necessary in the near future in order to maintain it in such a condition.

The accommodation provided for the Council Chamber, Colonial Secretary and Local Auditor appears adequate, but that provided on the ground floor for the Public Works Department is inadequate and badly arranged for the requirements of that department. The rooms are too small and insufficiently lighted.

9. The Supreme Court buildings consist of a two-storied building, the upper floor being devoted to the Courts, Registry and subsidiary offices, and the ground floor to the Land Office and Registrar General's Department.

The site on which they stand was obtained in 1847 from Messrs. DENT & CO. for the sum of £5,000, being then occupied by what were known as the "Exchange Buildings."

In 1848 certain alterations were made to the Exchange Buildings at a cost of £1,000 to render them fit for the purposes of a Court House.

In 1864 accommodation for the Registrar General's Department was provided in the north-east corner of the ground floor, but being found insufficient for the requirements of the department additions were carried out at a cost of $4,300.

In 1883 the Land Office, which had previously been attached to the Public Works Department, was transferred to this building.

From the foregoing account it will be seen that the buildings originally pur- chased in 1847 for the purpose of a Court House have undergone several extensive alterations and additions. The offices are now badly arranged, crowded on the site and ill ventilated, while those on the ground floor are also badly lighted.

Their general condition is such that a heavy expenditure on repairs will be necessary in the course of a few years if their occupation is to be continued.

The present accommodation is quite inadequate to meet the requirements of the Court and Registry, particularly the latter. By

the latter. By a recent arrangement the portion of the building previously occupied by the Attorney General and the Crown Solicitor has been placed at the disposal of the Postal Department, and offices have been rented elsewhere for those officers.

Post Office and Treasury.-The buildings, which had been erected in 1846, for a house for the Registrar General, on the site of the present Post Office and Treasury, and subsequently altered for the purpose of serving as a Post Office, were in 1864 found to be quite inadequate to meet the requirements of the Postal Department, it was therefore decided to pull them down and erect a new Post Office.

621

(7)

The present main buildings, which were completed in 1867 with certain additions and alterations carried out in 1884 and 1885, consist of a ground floor and basement occupied by the Post Office and an upper floor occupied by the Treasury Department.

The Post Office is badly lighted and ill ventilated and the Treasury Offices are inconveniently arranged.

The present buildings are about thirty years old and though the walls are still sound the renewal of the iternal fittings and woodwork throughout will shortly necessitate a considerable expenditure if the occupation of the building is continued.

The accommodation in the Post Office, in spite of the recent arrangement by which the offices of Attorney General and Crown Solicitor have been placed at the disposal of the department, is so cramped that there is not sufficient room to sort two heavy mails at the same time, while the space devoted to the business of the Parcels Post is insufficient to secure the safe custody of parcels. In fact, the requirements of the Colony have entirely out-grown the accommodation at present available.

For the Treasury a Strong Room and a Stamp Room are required, also a large room, easily accessible to the public, for accountants and cashiers, and better accommodation for the clerks are greatly needed.

11. Harbour Office.-The present building consisting of two stories, erected in 1874, is in a fair state of repair, but the accommodation afforded is not equal to the present requirements.

On the completion of the New Reclamation Works now in progress the site will no longer have a sea frontage and the buildings do not admit of further ex- tension within the limits of the present site.

Having carefully considered the structural condition and the accommodation provided by the present Government Offices, and in view of the great difficulty of finding suitable accommodation for the several departments during the execution. of such extensive repairs as most of these offices will shortly require, we consider it very desirable that the construction of new offices should be proceeded with at the earliest possible date.

THE DESIRABILITY OF LOCATING THE VARIOUS GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS

UNDER ONE ROOF.

12. It is desirable for many reasons that the several Government Offices should be situated close together, if possible under one roof, as much loss of time and inconvenience to the public would be thereby obviated, and business greatly facilitated.

Were it not for the fact that the present offices at St. John's Place are in a good structural condition, are suitably and conveniently situated for the meeting of Council, and the accommodation afforded for the Colonial Secretary's Depart- ment appears adequate, we should recommend that in any project for the erection of new buildings accoinmodation should be provided for that department.

13. The following statement shews the approximate accommodation at pre- sent provided, and what appears to be required for the Court House, Treasury, Registrar General, Post Office, and Public Works:-

Court House, Registrar General,

Treasury,

Post Office,

Public Works,

Present.

Required.

Sq.ft.

Sq.ft.

12,300

21,000

2,460

5,000

3,100

6,000

5,000

11,000

7,000

14,000

622

(8)

14. The Public Works Stores are so intimately connected with the Public Works Offices that we have considered the condition of and accommodation afforded by the present buildings and yards.

At present the stores are located in three separate buildings, viz., Crosby Store, No. 3A, Blue Buildings, and Wanchai Store.

Crosby Store was originally purchased by the Military in 1857 and sold by them to the Colonial Government for $35,000. The portion facing Queen's Road was, until recently, occupied by the Education Department, but owing to its dilapid- ated condition had to be vacated in 1894 and offices are now rented elsewhere for this department.

The remaining portions of the building are still used as Public Works Stores, but their dilapidated condition admits of their being used only to a very limited

extent.

The Store at Blue Buildings consists of the upper floor of House No. 3A. Praya East and is rented from the Land Investment Company.

The Store at Wanchai is very limited in area and its construction is only of a temporary nature. It occupies a reclamation in front of Marine Lots 117 and

118 Praya East.

We are of opinion that the present stores should be vacated and the whole of the stores located as far as practicable on the same premises. The area required is about 40,000 sq.

ft.

15. In view of the foregoing facts we recommend :—

(a) That the present Government Offices at St. John's Place be retained, the upper floor being devoted as at present for the purposes of the Council Chamber, the Colonial Secretary's Department and the Local Auditor, and the ground floor placed at the disposal of the Sanitary Board and the Education Department.

(b) That new buildings be erected on the Government Reclamation in front of the City Hall for the various departments enumerated in the proposed particulars and conditions of competition. pendix B.)

(Ap-

(e) That the Harbour Department be accommodated in a suitable build- ing to be erected on the new Reclamation in front of the present Harbour Office.

(d) That suitable premises be obtained for the purposes of a Public

Works Store.

FINANCIAL.

16. The estimated cost of providing suitable accommodation for the Court House, Registrar General, Treasury, Post Office, and Public Works Department on the Reclamation in front of the City Hall is

The estimated cost of providing a suitable building for the Harbour Department on the Reclamation in front of the present Harbour Office is

$700,000

110,000

The estimated cost of obtaining suitable premises for a Public

Works Store is

90,000

Total,......

.$900,000

17. If the foregoing recommendations are carried out, the site occupied by the Court House and Crosby Store will be available for sale and should realize, say, $250,000.

(9)

623

In respect of Offices rented for the use of various departments, which would in that case be no longer required, the following rents are paid per annum:-

Attorney General and Crown Solicitor,..

Education Department,"

Sanitary Board,

$1,800

540 1,080

Post Office Clerk,

Public Works Store,

360

840

Total,......

$4,620

Capitalizing this sum at 5 per cent. and adding the amount to the $250,000 the estimated nett expenditure is

.$900,000

Less,

Total,.

342,400

$557,600

or, say, $560,000.

18. In view of the Colonial Secretary's letter No. 1127 of the 16th July, 1896, enclosing an extract from a despatch from the Secretary of State, (Appendix C.), we have further considered the question of the financial ability of the Colony to meet the proposed expenditure. Owing to the various demands continually made on the ordinary revenue to meet expenditure on Extraordinary Public Works rendered necessary by the increasing trade and population of the Colony, we are of opinion that a special fund should be formed to meet the expenditure on the New Government Offices, and offer the following observations with regard to the formation of such a fund.

It is to be observed that consequent on the progress of the Reclamation Works very valuable building sites, other than those previously referred to, accrue to the Government, and the proceeds derived from the sale of such sites may fairly be considered extraordinary revenue as distinct from ordinary revenue, and be devoted to meet expenditure of an extraordinary nature. We are informed by the Colonial Treasurer that, generally speaking, the financial position of the Colony may be considered satisfactory and that it may reasonably be anticipated that the ordinary revenue will be sufficient to meet ordinary expenditure from year to year.

We would therefore suggest that the premia derived from the sale of land on the Reclamation should be devoted to the purpose of forming a special fund to meet the expenditure on new Government Offices, leaving the annual Crown Rent and assessed taxes to be carried to the ordinary revenue.

The sites on the Reclamation to which we refer are Marine Lot 278, the site north of Marine Lot 276, the site opposite Marine Lot 63, and that opposite the Sailors' Home, and it is estimated that they will realise at public auction during the next few years from $570,000 to $600,000.

We have the honour to be,

Your Excellency's

Most obedient Servants,

I agree with the report with the exception of the last two paragraphs. I see no necessity for a special fund.

Hongkong, 23rd November, 1896.

F. A. COOPER, Chairman.

A. M. THOMSON.

C. P. CHATER.

A. MCCONACHIE.

T. JACKSON.

624

( 10 )

Appendix A.

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S Office,

No. 1914.

SIR,

HONGKONG, 20th September, 1895.

I am directed by the Governor to enquire when the report of the Committee appointed by His Excellency the Governor in September of last year to consider the question of new Government Offices may be expected.

2. His Excellency's attention has been directed to certain references to the proceedings of the Committee which have appeared at intervals in the Local Press, but is not aware how far the views therein attributed to the Committee are correctly stated.

3. As the matter is a pressing one and an early decison in regard to the pre- liminaries is desirable, I am to request that the Committee will be good enough to report at its early convenience, and, in view of the recent statements in the Press, with special reference to the following points :-

(1) Whether the Committee is in favour of the plans, &c. being prepared by the Director of Public Works, and, if so, whether it will be sufficient for such plans to be approved in the first instance by the Committee and subsequently by the Public Works Committee of the Legislative Council, or whether they should be submitted to a competent authority at home, or

(2) Whether the Committee is in favour of inviting public competition, and awarding a premium for the most suitable plans and designs for the proposed new buildings.

4. Should the Committee be in favour of the latter course it will be necessary to consider-

(a) The amount of the premium to be offered.

(b) The terms of competition.

(c) The appointment of an Umpire at home, or of a local Committee to adjudge upon the competitive designs, and I am to request that

the Committee will bear these points in mind in drawing up their

report.

5. I am further to invite the attention of the Committee to the financial side of the question. It will not be possible at present to defray any large expenditure on the proposed new buildings from current revenue, and if the work is not to be delayed it will apparently be necessary to raise funds from some independent

source.

His Excellency the Governor would therefore be obliged if the Committee would further consider and report on the desirability and practicability of disposing of the sites, buildings, &c. of the present Government Offices in Queen's Road at as early a date as possible, the Government to remain in occupation as tenants until the completion of the new buildings.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART,

Colonial Secretary.

The Secretary,

GOVERNMENT OFFICES COMMITTEE.

(11)

625

SIR,

HONGKONG, 28th September, 1895.

I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter No. 1914 of the 20th instant, and to inform you, for the information of His Excellency the Governor, that it was the subject of discussion at a meeting of the Public Office Committee held on the 24th instant.

2. The Committee were unanimous in the opinion that it could not accept any responsibility whatever in connection with the references to its proceedings that have appeared in the public press, and that they would not for a moment think of adopting the local press as a medium of communicating its proceedings to His Excellency the Governor.

I am further to add that the Committee expressed itself very strongly on the necessity of members abstaining from disclosing any of its proceedings in future.

3. In reply to the questions asked in paragraphs 3 and 4 I enclose an extract from the proceedings.

4. As regards the financial side of the question, the Committee are of opinion that it is premature to advise on any definite course pending the receipt of plans and estimates and further information as to the probable annual expenditure to be met and the balances available for such a purpose from current revenue.

5. The Committee were, however, unanimously of opinion that it was undesir- able to dispose of the existing Government buildings and sites at present, and that such a course should be avoided pending the completion of the new buildings, if possible.

6. It will be observed from the enclosed extract of the proceedings that the majority of the Committee are in favour of a competition and that the rules and regulations affecting such competition should be prepared by the Director of Public Works for the consideration of the Committee.

7. On receipt of such draft rules and regulations the Committee hope to be able to report on its proceedings as a whole at an early date.

I have the honour to be,"

Honourable COLONIAL SECRETARY,

&c.,

&C.,

&c.

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

J. G. T. BUCKLE,

Secretary.

Note. Mr. MCCONACHIE Suggested that the words "in future" in the second half of the second paragraph of the Secretary's letter of the 28th September should be omitted, as they might imply that the Com- mittee had disclosed its proceedings in the past. The majority of the Committee approved the draft with the words included.

626

1895.

( 12 )

(Enclosure.)

Extract from the proceedings of a meeting of the Public Office Committee held on the 24th September, 1895.

Read a letter from the Colonial Secretary No. 1,914 of the 20th September,

Considered seriatim the several points referred to in the above letter.

Mr. CHATER moved the following resolution :-"That this Committee is in favour of inviting public competition, and awarding a premium for the most suitable plans and designs for the proposed New Government Buildings."

Mr. MCCONACHIE seconded.

The Chairman moved as an amendment:-" That this Committee is in favour of the plans, etc., being prepared by the Director of Public Works and of such plans being submitted to a competent authority at home for approval and amendment, if necessary."

The above amendment not being seconded,

Mr. CHATER'S motion was put and agreed to by a majority of three, the Chairman and the Acting Treasurer not voting.

Mr. CHATER moved that premia be offered as follows:- -

$2,000 for the best design sent in.

$1,000 for the second best design.

$500 for the third best design.

And that in the event of the best competitive design being accepted and the work being carried out by the successful competitor, the premium be merged in the commission money.

Mr. JACKSON seconded.

Question put and agreed to. The Chairman and the Acting Treasurer did

not vote.

Mr. CHATER moved that the Government be asked to request the Director of Public Works to draft the terms of competition.

Mr. JACKSON seconded.

Question put and agreed to. The Chairman and the Acting Treasurer not voting.

The question of adjudication upon the competitive designs was then discussed, and the Committee were of opinion that the merits of the several designs submitted should be decided by His Excellency the Governor in consultation with the Members of the Committee and of the Public Works Committee of the Legislative Council, it being assumed that in the first instance the Director of Public Works will report upon the several plans, for the information of His Excellency and the Committee.

( 13 )

Appendix B.

627

No. 490.

SIR,

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE,

HONGKONG, 27th March, 1896.

I am directed to forward the enclosed notice prepared by the Director of Public Works, inviting competitive designs for the proposed New Government Offices, and to request that the Committee will be so good as to consider the conditions of competition and report whether they approve of them, and also to state in what manner they deem it desirable to provide for the estimated cost of the construction of the New Offices.

With regard to the question of premia, His Excellency the Governor approves of the three premia suggested by Mr. CHATER at the meeting of the Committee on the 24th September, viz.:-

$2,000 for the best design.

$1,000 for the second best design.

$500 for the third best design.

His Excellency will be glad to know whether the Committee recommend that the competition should be confined to this Colony or made open to any person who may wish to compete.

The Chairman,

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

GOVERNMENT OFFICES COMMITTEE,

J. H. STEWART LOCKHART, Colonial Secretary.

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

HONGKONG, 15th April, 1896.

SIR,

In reply to your letter No. 940 of the 27th ultimo I am directed to inform you that the particulars and conditions subject to which it is proposed to invite competitive designs for the New Government Offices were duly considered at a meeting of the New Government Offices Committee held on the 10th instant. All Members present except the Honourable the Colonial Treasurer.

The Committee unanimously agreed to recommend the adoption of the parti- culars and conditions as amended in copy enclosed, amendments shown in red.

The Committee further considered if any exceptional steps should be taken to meet the cost of the proposed project, and in view of the letter addressed to the Chairman by the Colonial Treasurer, copy attached, the Members were unani- mously of opinion that no exceptional steps appear necessary at present.

In reply to the concluding paragraph of your letter under acknowledgment the Committee are of opinion that the date fixed for closing the competition will admit of residents in Singapore and Shanghai submitting designs, and the Members do not consider it desirable to extend the competition beyond these limits.

I am to add that the Committee recommend that the notice inviting designs should be inserted in the Singapore and Shanghai papers.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

The Honourable

THE COLONIAL SECRETARY.

F. J. BADELEY,

Secretary.

628

( 14 )

(Enclosure.)

NEW GOVERNMENT OFFICES. PARTICULARS AND CONDITIONS

OF COMPETITION FOR DESIGNS.

Recommended by the Committee appointed to consider the question of providing New Government Offices.

NEW GOVERNMENT OFFICES, HONGKONG.

PARTICULARS AND CONDITIONS OF COMPETITION.

His Excellency Sir WILLIAM ROBINSON, K.C.M.G., the Governor of Hongkong, invites designs accompanied by reports and estimates of the cost of erecting New Government Offices in the City of Victoria, Hongkong.

GENERAL CONDITIONS.

PREMIA.

A premium of $2,000 is offered for the design considered first in order of merit, a further premium of $1,000 for the second in order of merit and a further premium of $500 for the third in order of merit.

Should the Author of the first premiated design be engaged to carry out the work the premium will merge in the commission or such other mode of payment as may be mutually agreed.

OWNERSHIP OF PLANS, &C.

All plans, reports and estimates will become the property of the Colonial Government, and the said Government shall be at liberty to dispose of them in such manner and give publicity to them as it may deem desirable.

DESIGNS.

(a) The designs must be illustrated by plan of the foundations, each floor, and the roof.

(b) One cross section and one longitudinal section of the buildings on each site showing the levels of foundations, floors, roofs and such other details as may be conveniently shown thereon.

(c) Elevations of the proposed buildings to the streets on the north, south, east, and west sides respectively.

The above to be drawn to a uniform scale of 20 feet to one inch.

(d) Competitors may, if they desire it, submit two sheets (double elephant size) of drawings showing details to an enlarged scale not exceeding two feet to one inch.

No drawings in addition to the above are permitted.

REPORT.

Each design must be accompanied by a concise report detailing the suggested construction of the foundations, the accommodation proposed and the materials to be used in the construction of the buildings.

( 15 )

ESTIMATES.

629

Separate estimates for each of the proposed blocks must be given in the following form:

Estimate cost of foundations including drains and water pipes....$

>3

""

superstructure including all permanent fittings...$

The total cost, exclusive of architect's commission, not to exceed seven hundred thousand dollars ($700,000).

DESIGNS, &C. TO BE SENT TO COLONIAL SECRETARY.

All designs, drawings, reports and estimates to be sent under cover endorsed "New Government Offices Competition" to the Colonial Secretary on or before the

1896.

ADJUDICATION OF ORDER OF MERIT.

The order of merit of the designs received will be decided by a Committee approved by His Excellency the Governor with or without professional assistance as His Excellency may deem desirable.

ADOPTION OF design.

The Government does not bind itself to erect the buildings from any of the designs sent in, but in the event of deciding to commence the erection of the buildings within five years from date in accordance with the first premiated design, will employ the Author of such design to carry out the work under the general control of His Excellency the Governor, and subject to the following stipulations, viz., that the Author of the accepted design, subject to the payment of a commission of five per cent. upon the gross expenditure on the buildings including all permanent fittings but exclusive of shipping, freight and agent's charges on material obtained, from Great Britain and also exclusive of all monies paid in respect of supervision, undertakes to supply all drawings, tracings, quantities, contracts, supervise the work during construction and perform all such other work in connection with the construction of the buildings as in the opinion of the Government reasonably comes within the province of an architect to perform, and further upon the completion of the buildings to furnish the Government with a complete set of drawings showing the buildings and all premanent fittings as