Sessional Papers - 1906

PAPERS LAID BEFORE THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL OF HONGKONG 1906

Table of Contents

1. Assessment

Report on, for 1906-1907

2. Bacteriologist, Government

Report for 1905

3. Beri-Beri

Research into the Etiology of

4. Blue Book

Report on, for 1905

5. Botanical and forestry

Report for 1905

6. Education

Report for 1905

7. Estimates of Expenditure

Abstract Shewing Differences Between Estimates for 1906 and 1907

8. Finance Committee

Report of the Proceedings of the Finance Committee (1906)

9. Financial Returns

For 1905

10. Financial Statements

In Connection With Estimates for 1907

11. Fire Brigade

Report for 1905

12. Gaol

Report for 1905

13. Harbour Master

Report for 1905

14. Hygiene

Report on the Teaching of, in Hongkong Schools

15. Jurors

List of, for 1906

16. Legislative Council

Proceedings for 1906

17. Medical

Report for 1905

18. Observatory

Report for 1905

19. Plague

Report on Epidemic of, During 1905

20. Po Leung Kuk

Report for 1905

21. Police and Crime

Report for 1905

22. Police Magistrates' Court

Return of, for 1905

23. Post office

Report for 1905

24. Public Works

Report for 1905

25. Public Works Committee

Report of the Proceedings of the Public Works Committee (1906)

26. Queen's College

Report By Examiners of

27. Queen's College

Report for 1905

28. Refuse Destructors

Report on

29. Registrar General

Report for 1905

30. Sanitary

Report for 1905

31. Sanitary Surveyor

Report for 1905

32. Standing Law Committee

Report of the Proceedings of the Standing Law Committee (1906)

33. Supreme Court

Report and Returns for 1905

34. Tung Wah Hospital

Report on

35. Veterinary Surgeon, Colonial

Report for 1905

36. Volunteer Corps, Hongkong

Report for 1905-1906

37. Waterworks

Contents of Reservoirs, 1905-1906

38. Waterworks

Contents of Reservoirs, 1889-1905

39. Widows and Orphans' Pension Fund

Report for 1905

 

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE ASSESSMENT FOR THE YEAR 1906-1907.

No.

23 1906

:

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

1. His Excellency the Governor in Council under Section 8 of the Rating Ordinance No. 6 of 1901, ordered the existing valuation for 1905-06 to be adopted as the valuation for 1906-07. During the past year no general assessment has been made, the increase in Rate- able Value being the result of Interim-Assessments.

The City of Victoria.

2. The Rateable Value has increased from $8,831,815 to $9,207,595, an addition of $375,780 or 4.25 per cent.

The Hill District.

3. The Rateable Value has increased from $248,265 to $252,160, an addition of $3,895 or 1.56 per cent.

Kowloon Point.

4. The Rateable Value has increased from $415,035 to $452,060, an addition of $37,025 or 8.92 per cent.

Yaumati.

5. The Rateable Value has increased from $250,470 to $250,770, an addition of $300 or 0.11 per cent.

Hung Hom.

6. The Rateable Value has increased from $200,245 to $220,445, an addition of $20,200 or 10.08 per cent.

Mong Kok Tsui.

7. The Rateable Value has increased from $133,060 to $139,475, an addition of $6,415 or 4.82 per cent.

Shaukiwan

8. The Rateable Value has increased from $49,122 to $49,977, an addition of $855 or 1.74 per cent.

Tai Hang.

9. The Rateable Value has increased from $12,275 to $12,395, an addition of $120 or 0.97 per cent.

Hongkong Villages.

10. The Rateable Value has increased from $189,927 to $193,497, an addition of $3,570 or 1.87 per cent.

Kowloon Villages.

11. The Rateable Value has increased from $142,064 to $151,899, an addition of $9,835 or 6.92 per cent.

The whole Colony.

12. The Rateable Value has increased from $10,472,278 to $10,930,273, an addition of $457,995 or 4.37 per cent.

New Kowloon.

13. The Rateable Value has increased from $38,885 to $38,930, an addition of $45 or 0.11 per cent.

576

Interim Valuations.

14. During the period from 1st July, 1905, to 1st June, 1906, Interim Valuations have been made as follows:

In the City of Victoria.

147 New and/or rebuilt tenements, rateable value,

$401,905 *

38 Tenements structurally altered,

Replacing assessments amount to,.

$102,990 140,690

37,700

$439,605

105 Assessments cancelled, tenements pulled down, or being in other

respects not rateable,

63,825

Increase in the City of Victoria,.

.$375,780

In the Rest of the Colony.

105 New and/or rebuilt tenements, rateable value,

$59,810

15 Tenements structurally altered,

Replacing assessments amount to,

$258,720 294,905

36,185

$95,995

76 Assessments cancelled, tenements pulled down, or being in other

respects not rateable,

Increase in the Rest of the Colony,

13,780

$82,215

In New Kowloon.

1 New tenement, rateable value,

The total number of tenements affected by Interim Valuations being 487.

Vacant Tenements.

$45

15. The number of vacant tenements in the City of Victoria inspected under Section 35 of the Rating Ordinance averaged about 220 monthly, against 165 last year.

Tabular Statements.

16. The usual tabular statements giving comparisons of the Valuation for 1905-1906 and 1906-1907 are attached.

Staff.

17. Mr. CHAN KWOK ON and Mr. TAI TIN SHANG have discharged their duties to my satisfaction.

6th July, 1906.

DAVID WOOD,

Assessor.

.

!

:

.

577

Table A.

THE CITY OF VICTORIA.

District.

Valuation, Valuation, 1905-1906. 1906-1907.

Increase. Decrease.

No.

Name.

Per- centage.

$

$

$

$

%

1

Kennedy Town,

186,540

186,540

...

260 + 10 O

Shektongtsui,

364,300

419,220

54,920

3

Saivingpun,

2,066,430

2,115,1301

48,700

Taipingshan,

693,365

705,700

12,335

5

Sheungwan,

1,110,270 1,168,890

58,620

6

Chungwan,

3,400,250

3,595,145

194,895

7

Hawan,

340,250

343,715

3,465

Wantsai,

411,880

411,005

$75

9

Bowrington,

103,935

103,335

600

...

10

Sookonpoo,

154,595 158,915

4,320

$8,831,815 9,207,595

377,255

1,475

Deduct, decrease,..

1,475

Total increase,

375,780

4.25

Table B.

THE HILL DISTRICT, SHAUKIWAN, TAI HANG AND HONGKONG VILLAGES.

District.

Valuation, Valuation, 1905-1906. | 1906-1907.

Increase. Decrease.

Per- centage.

The Hill District,

$ 248,265

S

CA

$

%

252,160

3,895

1.56

Shaukiwan,

49,122

49,977

855

1.74

Tai Hang,

12,275

12,395

120

0.97

Hongkong Villages,

189,927

193,497

3,570

1.87

499,589 508,029

8,440

1.68

*

678

Table C.

KOWLOON POINT, YAUMATI, HUNGHOM, MONGKOKTSUI & KOWLOON VILLAGES.

District.

Valuation Valuation 1905-1906. 1906-1907.

Increase.

Decrease. Percentage.

$

$

$

$

%

Kowloon Point,

415,035

452,060

37,025

8.92

Yaumati,

250,470

250,770

300

0.11

Hunghom,

200,245

220,445

20,200

10.08

Mongkoktsui,

133,060

139,475

6,415

4.82

Kowloon Villages,

142,064 151,899

9,835

6.92

Total,...

S

1,140,874 1,214,649

73,775

6.46

Table D.

THE COLONY OF HONGKONG.

Valuation Valuation

District.

Increase.

1905-1906.1906-1907.

Decrease. Percentage.

$

$5

$

$

%%

The City of Victoria,

8,831,815 9,207,595

375,780

4.25

The Hill District and Hong-

kong Villages,

499,589 508,029

8,440

1.68

Kowloon Point & Kowloon

Villages,

1,140,874 1,214,6-49

73,775

6.46

Total,........... .$10,472,278 10,930,273

457,995

4.37

Table E.

NEW KOWLOON.

Valuation

Valuation

District.

Increase.

1905-1906.1906-1907.

Decrease. Percentage.

Kowloon City and Sham-

shuipo,.

en

$

$

38,885

38,930

45

%%

0.11

579

Table F.

District.

Valuation, 1905-06.

ANNUAL RATES.

Valuation,

Increase.

1906-07.

$ C.

Victoria,

.Hill District,

1,148,166.88

$ C.

1,196,962.76

$

48,795.88

26,659.52

32,717.00

6,057.48

Shaukiwan,

4,423.36

4,500.28

76.92

Tai Hang,

2,087.24

2,107.64

20.40

Hongkong Villages,

14,595.28

14,880.28

285.00

Kowloon Point,

50,842.12

55,554.68

4,712.56

Yaumati,

30,684.56

30,721.32

36.76

Hung Hom,

24,531.68

26,932.76

2,401.08

Mongkoktsui,

16,300.48

17,086.28

785.80

Kowloon Villages,....

10,885.08

11,743.56

858.48

Kowloon City and Shamshuipo, New

2,719.64

2,728.04

8.40

Territory,

$ 1,331,895.84

1,395,934.60

64,038.76

Annexe J.

P. 358.

REPORT OF THE GOVERNMENT BACTERIOLOGIST.

The new Public Mortuary has given great satisfaction. Post-mortem examinations can now be conducted under the most favourable circumstances, even during the hottest seasons of the year.

The construction of the buildings, according to modern principles, has reduced to a minimum the dangers attached to this particular work. The whole compound has been regularly cleansed daily throughout the year. The laboratory accommodation is also so constructed as to allow of the most varied naked eye and microscopic pathology being undertaken.

The Bacteriological Institute was completed towards the end of the year. The internal fittings being somewhat complicated, require considerable care and time. Systematic research, therefore, has not yet commenced. In my next year's Report, I hope to be able to give a full account of this Institution and its special qualifications for carrying out bacteriological research under the best of conditions. In my opinion, the building and its equipment will be difficult to beat East of Suez.

During the past year, the routine examination of rats has been carried out by my Laboratory Assistant, Dr. LEE YIN SZE. This officer has performed his duties to my satis- faction. On the termination of Dr. LEE's agreement with the Government, it was considered advisable to recommend the appointment of a qualified Assistant from Eugland. I am glad to say that such an appointment has now been sanctioned and Dr. C. M. HEANLEY, the newly appointed Assistant Bacteriologist, is on his way to Hongkong.

No case of sickness occurred amongst the members of my staff during the year. All those engaged with me at the Public Mortuary are vascinated annually, as they frequently come into close contact with cases of Small-pox, during the prevalence of this disease in the early part of each year.

The question of "dumping" is specially dealt with in the Report. It would not appear that this practice is more prevalent during plague seasons than at other times. The majority of plague cases is not dumped.

Since I assumed the duties of Medical Officer in charge of the Public Mortuary, I have often come across cases in which a post-mortem examination revealed but little evidence of the cause of death. Such a statement may, on first thought, appear somewhat extravagant to many people, yet its truths are only too apparent in Hongkong, where, in the majority of cases, no reliable previous history of the individual is obtainable. The conditions, under which autopsies have to be performed in the Hongkong Morgue, are very different from those obtained at home. In Europe, apart from a few isolated cases, the pathologist obtains some history of the illness, or other factors, which guide him in arriving at a diagnosis. In Hongkong, however, the diagnosis has to be made from a pure pathological standpoint.

In

This has an important medico-legal bearing Many cases of concealed murder cannot be detected by an autopsy alone, or at least, they are not likely to be discovered except, either by a happy chance or preternatural ingenuity on the part of the medical man. many diseases, it is absolutely impossible to determine the cause of death by a post-mortem examination. One has only to think of some acute zymotics, e.g., whooping cough or a disease like epilepsy, in order to be convinced of the hopelessness of the pathological task in the absence of clinical or other data. In a large number of cases, I return the cause of death in children, as marasmus. I arrive at this diagnosis from the condition of atrophy, wasting, and diarrhoea, yet my post-mortem examination shows nothing in any internal organ to which death could be ascribed. The autopsy does not show why the thread of life has been snapped. Again, in cases of prematurity, where is the post-mortem evidence of the exact cause of death? In olden times, such cases would have been described as death from the visitation of God. In the great majority of cases of all causes of death, the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, etc., each or all of them may be diseased. What is the condition in any one or all of them, which is incompatible witli life? It is in such cases that the absence of a definite clinical or previous history becomes of so great moment. From pure pathological appearances alone, one must, from a medico-legal standpoint, con- clude, that the presence of extensive discase of such and such an organ, would be sufficient to account for death, and may have caused it now. When we come to the forensic side of

359

the question, the final determination of the cause of death is a matter of the greatest im- portance. Apart from the presence of injuries, wounds, etc., which may be sufficiently clear in themselves as causes of death, the arrival at a diagnosis of the cause of death in other cases, in a coroner's court, on the evidence of the pathologist alone, is a farce. Expert pathological evidence is extremely valuable, but it would appear to be insufficient for the requirements of justice, and the safety of the public, in the absence at any particular inquest of some other person, and preferably a medical man, who has seen the deceased alive, even if it be only during the death agony.

Tuberculosis, in its many different manifestations, still accounts for the lives of a large number of Chinese of all ages. KocH's theory still holds sway, and in continuation of my researches into the subject, my observations lead to the conclusion, that two distinct types of tubercle exist, namely, the typus humanus and the typus borinus. Widespread tuberculosis in cattle is propagated almost entirely by the tubercle bacillus of the typus bovinus. Tuberculosis in man, although reproducible by the typus borinus, is readily induced by direct infection from man to man, and the role played by the consumptive individual is of much greater moment in spreading tubercle bacilli amongst us, than the presence of widespread bovine tuberculosis. In Hongkong bovine tuberculosis is practically unknown amongst Chinese cattle. Therefore our energies in abating this disease-a more insidious and deadly malady than our plague-inust be directed to the prevention of its spread from man to man.

The incidence of Small-pox was small during the year. Its aerial spread necessitates rigid isolation during epidemics, and floating hospitals far removed from the limits of large towns would appear to give the best results in dealing with an outbreak.

Bacillary as well as Amoebic Dysentery exists in Hongkong. The latter is the more chronic form of the disease, more likely to recur, and occasionally sets up, as a sequela, tropical abscess of the liver. I am of the opinion that true tropical liver abcess is always due to the presence of amœbæ.

Typhoid fever would not appear to be an uncommon disease amongst the Chinese.

The results of a research into the etiology of Beri-beri by Dr. KocH and myself, show that the disease is not of an acute specific infectious nature. Its etiology is probably non- micro-organismal.

The question of Rupture of the Spleen as a cause of death in Hongkong is dealt with more or less fully.

Several interesting pathological conditions are described in detail in the Report.

A considerable number of tumours has also been examined. Tumours (malignant and benign) are by no means uncommon amongst the Chinese.

136 cases of Plague were examined during the year. Pathologically the cases bore out the conclusions drawn by me in my Special Report on Plague for the year 1904.

The relation, existing between rat and human plague, show the same characteristics as found in previous years.

The amount of rat plague would appear to be increasing in the Colony. During the past year, nearly 5% of the total number of rats examined were found to be plague infected.. It is difficult to account for this gradual spread in the amount of epimuic plague. Stronger measures than ever against rats would appear to be indicated if success in dealing with plague epidemics is to be obtained.

Arguing from the dictum "no rat plague, no human plague" our chances of freeing the Colony from this exotic are but small for some years to come.

year.

Apart from rats, no other animal has been found suffering from plague during the past:

Birds would not appear to be very susceptible to the disease.

My researches in regard to the role played by the rat in spreading plague are gradually gaining general recognition, and, further, my assertion that ordinary bubonic plague is not highly infectious has received confirmation in several recent Reports.

DANYSZ's virus as an agent for the wholesale destruction of rats has been a complete

failure.

360

So far as my bacteriological investigations are concerned, there is no evidence at present of locally contracted Malta fever in Hongkong. Such cases as do occur are always imported. Relapsing fever, although prevalent in North China, is not met with in Hongkong. Diphtheria is rare in the Colony. On the other hand, croupous, non-specific tonsillitis and pharyngitis is far from uncommon.

My experiments on Formaldehyde as a gaseous disinfectant have led me to the con- clusion that this chemical preparation, although fashionable at present, has no special recommendations. It is a meagre bactericidal agent and possesses no penetrating powers.

During the year, a number of chemical disinfectants were tested as regards their carbolic acid co-efficiency. This test would appear to give extremely constant results, and is a valuable addition to our methods of estimating the efficiency of the numerous chemical preparations put upon the market to sell as perfect germicides, and guarantees against infections disease. Considering the results which are obtained after a liberal use of such fluids, it is, at present, a question of doubt, how far one is justified in recommending the general employment of chemical disinfectants. At any rate, their use, apart from expense,

can do no harm.

The vaccine used during the year has been extremely potent and given satisfactory results to all who have employed it for vaccination. With the opening of the Bacteriological Institute the lymph for sale in the Colony will be manufactured in the same way as that used in the Government Laboratories in London.

A brief resumé is given in the Report of the most important publications issued by the Bacteriologist during the past year.

WILLIAM HUNTER.

The Public Mortuary.

1,381 post-mortem examinations were held during the year 1905.

The total number of post-mortem examinations held has diminished by 170, compared with the return of 1904. This decrease is due, in a great measure, to the absence of severe epidemic disease during the year. The number of post-mortem examinations held upon male cadavers greatly exceeds that of females. This preponderance of males over females examined, is maintained year by year.

The number of male cadavers examined,

Do. female cadavers examined,

Total,..

858

523

1,381

Stated in percentages these figures mean :—

Males, Females,

62%

38%

Another point of interest in connection with these figures, is the statement, frequently made, that female children are more often "dumped" than male children.

Year by year,

I have gone into this question more or less thoroughly, and from the figures obtained, this belief would not appear to be true. The results which have been obtained for the year 1905, are in perfect accord with those given in my Annual Report for the year 1904. In my opinion, male and female children are found dumped" and examined at the Public Mor- tuary in equal frequency. The following percentages based upon the figures obtained for 1905, are illustrative of this fact :-

Males dumped" under 1 year,

Females "dumped" under 1 year,

47% 53%

Since I assumed the duties of Medical Officer in charge of the Public Mortuary in the year 1902, over 8,000 cadavers have passed through my hands. This represents an almost unequalled wealth of pathological material, from which one ought to be able to draw many important conclusions. In the present report, it is proposed to deal with the question of the incidence of disease amongst the Chinese, resident in Hongkong. It is of importance, from many points of view, to be able to form some idea of this subject, and help to contribute to that engrossing question, namely, the geographical distribution of disease.

361

The practice of "dumping" of bodies in the street, harbour, hillsides, etc., has always been a question of considerable importance in the Colony.

The efforts made, in order to restrict this pernicious custom, would not appear to be crowned with such signal success as desired. In the Annual Sanitary Report for 1904, the Medical Officer in charge of the Mortuary in Kowloon, gave us a valuable Table, indicating the prevalence of this practice in Kowloon. In my present Report, therefore, I propose to include a similar Table showing the extent of the custom in Hongkong. Such a Table ought to be of considerable interest, as the figures contained are drawn from a much wider

area:

Table I.-SOURCE OF BODIES.

1905.

No. of Bodies.

Found in House, Matshed or

Found on Hill-

Total

Found in Street.

side, vacant

Found in Harbour,

Boat.

ground, &c.

%% Dumped.

January,

101

56

9

1

14°

£40,0

February,

70

33

32

1

520.0

March,

96

46

31

13

3

52°

April,

118

48

60

7

May,

162

94

60

8

June,

202

118

72

9

59°

120

C

420

July,

158

84

62

12

:

August,

127

76

45

6

£70.0

10°

(

September,

90

13

37

10

520.0

October,

77

40

32

4

1

November,

93

13

44

6

480.0

51°0

December,

87

00

50

4

€29.

66

On comparing this Table with that already drawn up by the Medical Officer of the Kowloon Mortuary, it is seen that the results are practically identical. The practice of dumping" is as prevalent in Hongkong as in Kowloon. From such Tables, however, it would not appear that this practice is more prevalent during plague seasons. Further, it is of interest to note the incidence of "dumping" in regard to plague cases. During the past year, 136 cases of plague were examined at the Public Mortuary, and these cases, if arranged according to the foregoing. Table, give the following interesting result :--

Table II-SOURCE OF PLAGUE BODIES.

No. OF FOUND IN FOUND CASES. HOUSE, &c. DUMPED.

IN

о

HOUSE.

DUMP-

ED.

Bubonic Type,

94

78

16

28

Septic Type,

37

30

7

81°

19

Pneumonic Type,

Ι

20%

80 °

O

From this Table, even although the numbers are small, it is seen that by far the largest number of plague cases has been found in houses, matshels or boats. In regard to the pneumonic type of the disease, no conclusions can be drawn, owing to the small number of cases examined.

362

Table III-RETURN OF CAUSES OF DEATH DURING THE YEAR.

I. Total General Diseases,

II. Local Diseases :--

(a) of the Nervous System,

(b)

(c)

(d) (e)

"}

,, Circulatory System, Respiratory Systein, Digestive System, Urinary System,

"

(1)", Generative System,

III. Total Injuries,

IV. Total Decomposed Bodies,

Table IV.-GENERAL DISEASES.

756

5

33

334

39

21

10

442

91

92

Total, .........1,381

Small-pox,

Plague :-

Bubonic Type,

Septicemic Type,

Pneumonic Type,

Enteric Fever,

15

94

.37

3

136

27

Cholera, ..

Diarrhoea,

3

60

Z

Dysentery (amoebic),

+

Beri-beri,

150

Malaria,

56

Septicæmia,

Syphilis.

3

Acute General Tuberculosis,

46

Premature Birth,

17

Still-birth, ....

65

Marasmatic conditions,

154

Opium Poisoning,

2

Prussic Acid Poisoning,

1

Distomiasis,

Diffuse Cellulitis,

1

Epilepsy,

Leprosy,..

Purpura Hæmorrhagica,

2

1

Relapsing Fever,

Old Age,

Skeletons,

1

1

Total................... 754

2

756

Table V.-LOCAL DISEASES.

I-Of the Nervous System.

Acute Meningitis,

Tubercular Meningitis,

Cerebral Hæmorrhage,

1

2

Total,......

5.

363.

II.--Of the Circulatory System.

Acute Fibrinous Pericarditis,

Tubercular Pericarditis,

Aneurism of Heart,

+

Aneurism of Aorta,

Aneurism of Pulmonary Artery,

Fatty Degeneration of Heart,

Aortic Valvular Disease,

Mitral Valvular Disease,

Cardiac Syncope,

Acute Endocarditis,

1

1

2

6

7

Total,

33

III-Of the Respiratory System.

Acute Bronchitis...

Chronic Bronchitis,

Pneumatosis,

Gangrene of Lung,

Abscess of Lung,

Acute Catarrhal Pneumonia,

Acute Fibrinous Pneumonia,

Phthisis,

Acute Pleurisy,

Empyema.

Pyopneumothorax,

Oedema of the Glouis,

Bronchiectasis,

Cancer of Lung,

Acute Congestion,

32

6

30

2

1

136

56

52

7

2

2

3

2

2

Total,

334

IV-Of the Digestive System.

Intestinal Obstruction,

Intussusception,

Appendicitis,

Primary Intestinal Tuberculosis,

Acute Peritonitis,

Strangulated Femoral Hernia,

Tubercular Peritonitis. Acute Ulcerative Colitis, Cancer of the Pylorus, Colloid Cancer of Stomach, Primary Cancer of Liver, Abscess of Liver, Tabes Mesenterica, Obstructive Jaundice :- Extrahepatic, Intrahepatic,

Suppurative Cholecystitis, Gangrenous Stomatitis, Acute Yellow Atrophy,

Cirrhosis of Liver,

1212

1

9

1

1

2

1

3

3

2

3

1

1

1

1

3

Total,

39

V-Of the Urinary System.

Acute Parenchymatous Nephritis,..

4

Acute Glomerulo-Nephritis,

Chronic Nephritis (Large White),

Primary Interstitial Nephritis,

Genito-Urinary Phthisis,

Perinephritic Abscess,

Ulcerative Cystitis,

1100 UT

5

3

6

4

1

1

Total,

21

Abortion,

364

VI-Of the Generative System.

Post-partum Hæmorrhage,.

Extra-Uterine Pregnancy,

Puerperal Septicæmia,

Table VI.-INJURIES.

I.-General.

2

Total,...... 10

Burning,

10

Suffocation:-

Multiple Injuries,

(a.) From Submersion...

1

14

(b.) From Strangulation,

5

Privation,

22

1.-Local.

(a.) Of the Head :—

Fracture of Vault of Skull,

12

Fracture of Base of Skull,

8

(b.) Of the Neck: --

Stab Wound,

Fracture of Pelvis.

Dislocation of Neck,

Cut Throat...

(c.) Of the Abdomen :——

Rupture of Spleen,.

Rupture of Liver,

Rupture of Spleen and Liver, Rupture of Stomach,

Fracture of Lumbar Spine,

1

1

1

9

1

1

2

2

Total....... 91

Table VII-NATIONALITY OF BODIES BROUGHT TO THE PUBLIC MORTUARY

Chinese,

European,

American,

Japanese,

Indian,

Philipino.

Asiatic Portuguese,

Eurasian,

DURING THE YEAR,

1,367

1

1

1

1

1

1

Total,......1.381

Table VIII. RETURN OF CAUSES OF DEATH OF BODIES OF NATIONALITIES

OTHER THAN CHINESE.

Europeans:

Drowning,

Hanging,

Pneumonia,

Cardiac Failure,

Prussic Acid Poisoning,

3

1.

1

1

1

Total,.....

1 American,

1 Japanese,..

1 Indian,

1 Philipino,

1 Asiatic Portuguese,

1 Eurasian,

...Cut Throat.

Beri-beri.

.Malaria.

Stab wound in abdomen.

.Plague, Bubonic..

Typhoid Fever.

365

1

Pathological Investigations.

.1. Small-pox.-The incidence of Small-pox during the past year has been small as compared with former years. Most of the cases were found during the cool season. All types of the disease were examined, and, in the majority of instances, infants and children were the sufferers. So far the etiological factor at work in the production of this terrible scourge, has escaped detection. Small-pox has been known amongst the Chinese from time immemorial, and the practice of inoculating for small-pox is said to have been first practised in China at least 1.000 B.C. Ancient Chinese literature reveal to us that small-pox was placed under the special patronage of a goddess. Temples were dedicated to her, and further, "elaborate sacrifices were carried out.

Smail-pox is an ubiquitous disease. It has no regard for lines of longitude or latitude. There would appear, however, to exist no doubt that the disease is influenced by changes in temperature. This is well shown in Hongkong and indeed throughout China where the disease is endemic. Its period of greatest activity is during the cooler portion of the year. This seasonal variation of small-pox is not limited to any particular country, but is uniform throughout the whole extent of both hemispheres of the globe.

A con-

Small-pox would appear to be mainly spread by the movements of people. siderable amount of importance must be attached to air as a mode of conveyance of the infection. From the investigations of POWER, of the Local Government Board, there would appear to exist little doubt that the virus of the disease is frequently carried by the air. In fact, there is good reason to believe that the causal agent of the disease may be carried through the air over a distance of a mile, and still retains its virulence. This theory of the aerial convection of small-pox, although opposed by some observers, is receiving general acceptance. and has led to certain modifications of the methods hitherto adopted in order to efficiently isolate cases of the disease. Floating hospitals, right outside the limits of large towns, would appear to give one the best chance of preventing a spread of the disease. This, however, in order to be successful, must be supplemiented by general vaccination and re-vaccination.

2. Plague. The number of cases examined is small, owing to the prevalence of a mild epidemic. Considerable interest would appear to be evinced locally as to the prognos- tication of the incidence of plague for each year. Are we to have a mild or a severe epidemic during the coming year? Such a question is difficult to answer, notwithstanding the variability in climate, epizootic and epimuic disease. In my opinion, we have but little control over the incidence of a discase like plague, and any prognosis, as to the incidence of the exotic, if given correctly, can only be due to good luck, and scarcely founded upon an irrefutable scientific basis.

Ench

3. Cholera.-Only 3 cases of this exotic were examined during the past year. case was pathologically and bacteriologically typical. Notwithstanding the fact that the disease is endemic in Southern China, it rarely becomes of serious importance in Hongkong. Any outbreak of Cholera in the Colony must certainly be attributed to the introduction of the infection from Canton and the surrounding country.

4. Dysentery.—Four fatal cases of the disease were found during the past year. In each case the type was amabic. This is the most frequent variety of the disease met with in the Public Mortuary.

Although the disease is rife in China, it would appear to figure somewhat rarely as a cause of death, at least in Hongkong. Evidence of its presence in Chinese cadavers is abundant. This consists of irregular thickenings of the colon, cicatrices, and occasionally superficial ulcerations. Such changes are to be found in an extremely large number of the bodies examined the cause of death being, however, some entirely different disease. Bacillary, as well as amabic, Dysentery, is also prevalent in Hongkong. My experience of this form of the disease in the Mortuary is very limited.

The statement made by CLEMOW, in his recent book on the "Geography of Disease” that in the Government Civil Hospital in Hongkong, the disease is one of the commonest that comes under treatment" is much exaggerated. Dysentery is rife in China, and prevails in Hongkong, but its incidence in the Colony can hardly be said to be greater than many other disorders locally met with.

5. Diarrhoet.This figures largely as a cause of death amongst the Chinese, especially amongst infants and children. During the year 1905, this, as a cause of death, was returned in 60 cases.

}

I

:

į

366

The causal agent at work in the production of these diarrhoeas has not been determined. It is proposed, however, to investigate this question more thoroughly, especially from the point of view of the possible part played by a form of the B. dysenteria in giving rise to many cases of this malady.

6. Enteric Fever.-This was returned as the cause of death in 27 cases. The following tabular statement is interesting as regards the age incidence of these cases :—

1 year,

1-2 years,

2-3 years,

3-4 years,

4-5 years,

8 years,

9

8

6

1

2

1

27

These figures are in accordance with the results obtained during previous years.

The

In my Annual Report for the year 1904, the question of the incidence of typhoid fever amongst the Chinese was fully discussed. Evidence was brought forward in support of the contention that the Chinese-children and adults-frequently contract the disease. theory, that the Chinese race, like the natives of India, are immune to typhoid fever, owing to their suffering from unrecognised attacks of the disease in childhood would not appear to have any scientific support. Professor OSLER (personal communication), CLEMOW, and other eminent authorities on typhoid fever, have come to the same conclusion as myself, namely, that the Chinese suffer from enteric fever as frequently during adult as during infantile life, and were the conditions of the people, and the conditions of life regulated in a manner similar to that obtained in the Occident, the incidence of the disease would differ but little from that found in Western countries.

7. Beri-beri. The incideuce of this disease would not appear to be diminishing in Hongkong. During the past year 150 cases were examined at the Public Mortuary. Both varieties of the disease, namely, the dropsical and atrophic forms, were present in about. equal numbers. The majority of cases occurred in adult males. Examples of the disease were also found in females but the incidence was much rarer. Beri-beri would appear to be most prevalent during the working or wage-earning period of life.

'

This

The question of the etiology of Beri-beri is still involved in obscurity. Of theories as to its causation, there are no enl. Deficiency in certain elements of a normal standard diet, bad food, bacteria, protozoa, etc., have been brought forward by different observers at different times as the cause of the disease. The most recent theory of the causation of Beri-beri is that brought forward by Dr. HAMILTON WRIGHT, late Director of the Institute for Medical Research, in the Federated Malay Settlements. WRIGHT is of the opiniou that the disease is to be classel as an acute specific and infectious disorder, that it is due to a bacterium, the biological characteristics of which probably resemble the B. diphtheria; that there exists a primary lesion or focus of the disease, namely, a gastro- duodenitis, and lastly, that by multiplication of the bacteria in this primary focus, a toxin is secreted which is absorbed into the general circulation of the individual affected, and occasions the various changes which are found in the peripheral nervous system. theory, published a year or two ago, has been well brought forward by WRIGHT and received considerable attention from those interested in the disease. In Hongkong it was considered desirable, in the presence of a wealth of material, to start a research into this subject from as wide a standpoint as possible, and to put to the test, the various theories, including that of WRIGHT, by the use of all the pathological and bacteriological methods at one's disposal. With the co-operation of the Government the research was commenced towards the end of 1904, and has been prosecuted more or less continuously until the latter end of the past year, when a Special Report on the results of the investigation was submitted to the Government by Dr. Kocu and myself. It is expected that this Report will be published in a few days. During the course of our investigations, the clinical, pathological, bacteriologi- cal, and experimental sides of the question were studied as thoroughly as possible. Briefly, the conclusions which Dr. KocH and I have been able to draw are the following:-

(1.) There is no evidence that Beri-beri is an acute specific infectious disease. (2.) No micro-organism, of the hitherto described forms, has been found in any organ or tissue of a Beri-beri patient, or cadaver, which could be brought into causal relationship with the disease.

}

367

(3.) Experimentally, it has been found impossible, by any method, to call forth the

disease in any animal.

(4.) In our experience, true Beri-beri does not exist in monkeys infected either

naturally or experimentally.

(5.) Beri-beri, as the result of our investigations, would appear to be non-micro- organismal in nature. We are inclined to bring some chemical poison into causal relationship with the disease.

(6.) Our results are in direct opposition to those obtained by Dr. HAMILTON

WRIGHT.

8. Rupture of the Spleen.-Rupture of the spleen, as a cause of death, figures con- spicuously, in coroner's enquiries and in the Supreme Court of Hongkong. Such cases frequently excite a considerable amount of local interest, and much speculation would appear to exist as to the amount of violence required to occasion such an injury which usually results in the death of the individual. Ruptures of the abdominal organs, and in particular, of the spleen, liver, and kidneys, may be due to violence or disease. Upon the degree of such ruptures depends the length of time of survivorship of the individual affected, and such cases, varying in causation, length of survivorship, etc., may have an important bearing in a charge of murder.

1

Rupture of the spleen is an ever-recurring cause of death at the Public Mortuary, and the opportunities afforded for a study of the condition are many. About 12 cases occur annually, and the exact circumstances under which the individual cases occur have always been noted. In à malarial country, like our own Colony, the spleen is usually found en- larged and brittle, (malaria), and the violence required to effect a rupture of such a diseased organ may be very slight, compared with that requisite to call forth a similar condition in a healthy spleen. This fact is one of importance, and the question as to the existence of a healthy or unhealthy spleen must always be taken into account from a medico-legal stand- point, as this circumstance may in certain cases mitigate the act of an assailant. In the majority of the cases which have come under my notice, such an ague spleen has been present. However, notwithstanding the presence of disease, it has always been a matter of great difficulty to form an accurate estimation of the amount of violence necessary in each individual case, to occasion a fracture of the orgau.

From my own experience of cases of rupture of the spleen, I venture to put forward the following remarks in regard to the question of violence in such cases :-

1. Extreme violence may be used over the splenic area of the abdominal wall if the organ is healthy. Although the spleen, like the liver, is much exposed to rupture, yet it will not yield to a sudden shock so readily as the stomach and intestines. Cases of this nature have come under my notice. On two occasions I had an opportunity of examining the dead bodies of healthy individuals who had been run over by rapidly driven, and heavily laden dray carts. The wheels passed over the abdomen in the hypogastric and upper lumbar regions. In each case there was rupture of the stomach and fracture of the lower ribs. The spleen was unaffected.

Occasionally the question, as to the presence or absence of distension of the stomach, due to food, exercising a favourable influence on the possibility of rupture of the spleen, is raised.

Experiments, in regard to this factor, have been made upon cadavers and show that "full stomach" has practically no significance in favouring the fracture. My own experience would appear to support the experimental side of the question.

the experimental side of the question. I know of no case, during the past four years in Hongkong, which could be said to have a distended stomach as a predisposing factor of the rupture.

2. Slight violence may be used over the splenic area and cause a rupture of the organ, but only if the spleen is hard and brittle. Slight pokes with the fingers or fists may cause the injury. Two Chinamen were "larking"; one happened to poke the other below the left ribs. The "tap" could in no sense of the word be called a "blow", yet the individual died in one hour and the post-mortem examination showed a well-marked rupture of an enlarged and brittle spleen.

In a

3. The violence may be of the nature of compression of the waist by the arms. case which came under my notice, two Chinamen were wrestling, each gripping the other tightly round the waist. One of the two suddenly became faint and died soon after of rupture of an enlarged spleen. The spleen in this case was over 3 pounds in weight ¿.e., about 8 times its normal size.

3

368

4. The violence may, be a fall. I have examined cases of this nature, and similar instances have been reported by other observers in different tropical countries. A false step taken by a Chinese pedestrian who has an enlarged spleen, may lead to a severe fracture

of the organ.

5. The violence may be severe, yet no indication of such may be found in the splenic area of the abdominal wall. Cases of this nature have frequently been seen at the Public Mortuary.

6. Conversely, subcutaneous læmorrhages in the abdominal wall, and over the spleen, may be found in cases where the violence is extremely slight. This is found in individuals. suffering from Bright's disease, syphilis, typhoid fever, plague, purpura, hæmophilia, etc.

7. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen may take place. This may occur in individuals who have a large spleen, e.g., weighing 3 to 5 lbs. Spleens weighing 3 lbs. are not uncom- mon in Hongkong. Excitement, coupled with sudden contraction of the abdominal muscles, may be sufficient to rupture the organ. In support of my contention, a good example of this mode of fracture of the spleen was published in 1902 in the Indian Medical Gazette. A native barrister of middle age was pleading in one of the Indian Courts. when owing to some altercation with the Judge, he became greatly excited. A few minutes afterwards, feeling faint, he left the court room and died in half an hour from a severe laceration of the spleen. The organ was greatly enlarged and brittle. The deceased had suffered much from malaria during his life.

In this case the size of the rupture was large, so that it is obvious that no deductions may be drawn between the size of the rupture and the force of the blow which causes the injury. Severe laceration may be found in cases of spontaneous rupture; small tears may be present in cases due to severe violence.

S. Ruptures of the spleen due to stabs, heavy prods with bamboo poles, etc., are suffi- ciently clear in themselves and leave no doubt as to the degree of violence exercised.

In all cases of rupture of the spleen, it is a matter of great difficulty to estimate the period of survival after the infliction of the injury. In uncomplicated cases, we have no data to stand by regarding the quantity of blood effused before death. The rapidity with which the blood will flow from the spleen in each individual case cannot be estimated. A person may walk over some considerable distance after the receipt of the injury. This, undoubtedly will aggravate the hæmorrhage, but it must also be borne in mind that the bleeding will continue after death so long as the blood remains warm and fluid. Such questions of refined speculation, although often leading to different opinions by medical experts, would not appear to assist one in gathering together a concise and correct statement of each case.

9. Amabic Dysentery and its relation to Liver Abscess.-Amoebic Dysentery is a common disease in Hongkong not only amongst Europeans but also amongst the Chinese. Its incidence amongst the Chinese is very evident in the Public Mortuary where an examination of the large gut of every case brought to autopsy, shows the the great frequency of the disease. In at least 50-60 per cent. of the autopsies held by me annually, traces of dysentery can be demonstrated in the large intestine. In the majority of cases the inflamination is due to the presence of the amoeba. In contradistinction to bacillary dysentery, the amoebic form would appear to be extremely chronic in its course. Indeed concluding from the post-mortem appearances met with in such cases, it would be difficult clinically to prognosticate when a perfect cure has taken place.

The presence of amoeba in the large bowel must, in the light of recent research, be regarded as pathological. Diarrhoea or dysentery may not supervene as the result of their advent, yet other affections, e.g., abscess of the liver may be set up.

The question of the relation existing between the presence of amabæ in the bowel and the occurrence of so-called tropical abscess of the liver has been one of great interest to me for some considerable time. At the present moment, I am engaged upon a special enquiry into the subject. I propose to deal with my results, when completed, in a special monograph.

L

So far as one can gather from a consideration of the literature on this subject, a great deal of doubt would appear to exist as to the exact etiology of liver abscess as met with in the tropics. All sorts of causes e.g., worms, bacteria, amabæ, etc., have been advanced in order to explain the occurrence of tropical abscess in single individual cases. My own results, as yet incomplete, would lead me to conclude that tropical abscess of the liver is always due to amœba. In the vast majority of cases a history of dysentery is to be obtained

369

at least of diarrhoea-and in this connection it must be borne in mind that the presence of amœbæ in the fœces is not synonymous with dysentery. They may only occasion an irregular diarrhoea. In fact, they may exist abnormally in the faces for some considerable time without the advent of any untoward symptom. Again all cases of typical tropical hepatic abscess show the presence of amoeba in the pus. Indeed the further I prosecute my researches into this etiological question, the more I become convinced that, in the absence of amoebic dysentery or of these protozoa in the intestine, tropical abscess of the liver will not occur. However, as soon as my investigations are complete, I hope to be able to submit a special Report upon the question.

Interesting Pathological Conditions.

1. Anencephalia.-One monster of this variety was found during the past year. The child was still-born, and the sex female. The condition was present without retro-flexion, and the vertebral canal was open only in the upper cervical region. There were no other malformations.

2. A Case of Sloughing Invagination.-A specimen of this interesting condition was examined by me, during the past year, for Dr. LAYNG of Swatow. The history of the case is as follows:-A Chinese male adult, aged about 35, was suddenly attacked with acute paroxysms of pain about the region of the umbelicus. There was slight vomiting and diarrhoea. The stools were fluid, brown in colour, and mixed with blood and mucus. There was no appreciable rise in temperature. At first the examination of the abdomen was negative, beyond marked contraction of the recti muscles. Subsequently there was tympanites, pain on pressure over the abdominal wall, and the presence of a sausage-shaped tumour in the region of the ascending colon. This condition of affairs remained practically the same for several weeks. During the eighth week of the illness, the patient suddenly became collapsed, and passed, per rectum, the specimen sent to me for examination and diagnosis. Subsequently the individual never rallied. Death took place in about 30 hours after the passage of the specimen. As is usual in Chinese cities, no post-mortem examin- ation was permitted.

Result of Examination.-The specimen was a coil of intestine about 12 inches in length. It was a portion of the ileum, inclusive of the ileo-coecal valve, the internuneeption being of the ileo-coecal or colic variety. The walls of the gut were greatly thickened and in a gangrenous. condition.

The condition is extremely interesting, and owing to its rarity, the pathological speci- men has been preserved by me as a curiosity.

3. Aneurism of the Heart.-Two examples of this interesting and comparitively rare pathological condition were met with during the year. Both cases occurred in Chinese males over 40 years of age. In one instance marked evidences of syphilis were present throughout the body. Death in each case was sudden, the aneurisms bursting into the pericardial sac. Both dilatations were saccular in form, and had approximately been about the size of an orange. The aneurisms involved the entire walls of the heart, one being situated at the apex of the organ, the other involving the anterior wall of the left ventricle near the apex. The orifaces communicating with the cavity of the ventricle were large, notwithstanding the saccular nature of the lesions. The walls of both sacs were much thickened owing to the deposition of a large amount of fibrin which had been laid down over in the inner surface in the lamellar form. On the other hand, at the point of junction of the sac with ventricle, the wall of the aneurism was extremely thin and in a degenerated condition. At this point, the rupture of the sac took place in both cases.

Both the cases are of considerable value pathologically. Amongst Europeans the condition is of the rarest occurrence. The Chinese, however, frequently die as the result of aneurismal dilatations, and, as I have pointed out in my previous Annual Reports, arterio-sclerosis and the syphilisation of the coolie class of Chinese would appear to have some causal relationship with its occurrence. Large hypertrophied, but otherwise healthy, hearts are common amongst the Chinese, due obviously to violent muscular exertion. This must also be regarded as a predisposing factor in the production of aneurism.

4. Distomiasis.-This was returned as the cause of death in two cases. The patholo- gical changes found in such cadavers, are mainly confined to the liver. In fatal cases, this organ is usually diminished in size and shows the presence of intense cirrhosis. On section, the cut surface of the liver shows numeous dilated, thickened biliary channels of an opaque-white colour. By using gentle pressure on the surface of the liver, one can express the D. sinense from the dilated bile channels either singly or in tangled masses. The series of changes which would appear to take place after infection of the organ with Distoma is as follows:-A subacute catarrhah inflammation of the epithelium of the bile ducts is set up accompanied by an increased mucous secretion.

370

This is followed by an hypertrophy of the epithelium of these ducts, and, in addition, by a great increase in the amount of the peri-connective tissue. New capillaries are formed in the hypertrophic connective tissue leaving to a narrowing of the lumina of the biliary channels, and also to degeneration of the surrounding liver parenchyma. Disturbances in the normal functions of the liver, interference with the portal circulation, ascites, etc., are gradually set up, and by degrees become so aggravated as to lead to actual disease and disorganisation of function quite incompatible with life. The extent and the intensity of the pathological changes found depend upon the number of parasites present. They may be present in hundreds or in thousands. It is only in instances of the latter condition that the disease would appear to endanger life. To those who practise extensively amongst the Chinese, I repeat what I have advocated in previous Reports, that in all cases of obscure hepatic disease, the examination of the fœces for the characteristic eggs of the parasite, should never be neglected.

5. Aneurism of the Pulmonary Artery.-One case was found during the year. It is one of the rarest pathological conditions of the human body. In many books on the subject of aneurism, the condition is not even mentioned. This aneurism occurred in an adult Chinese male, aged about 50. There was marked evidence of syphilis and generalised atheromatous changes in the vessels. These were most marked in the aorta, the wall of which was greatly thickened and puckered. The intima was studded with masses of calcareous atheroma. The pulmonary artery was also markedly atheromatous. aneurism on the vessel was situated just inside the pericardial sac. It was saccular and communicated with the vessel by means of a small opening. Fibrin had been abundantly deposited in the sac. The rupture took place at the point of junction of the sac with the vessel wall, hæmorrhage into the pericardial sac resulting.

The

6. Extra-Uterine Pregnancy.-Four cases were examined during the year. All were in Chinese females under 30 years of age. In 3 of the cases ampullar pregnancy had occurred. The other was an instance of isthmial pregnancy. In each case rupture of the sac took place, resulting in hæmoperitoneum.

7. A Case of Suppurative Cholangitis, Cholecystitis and Intra-hepatic and Chole- lithiasis. This case is somewhat similar in many respects to that published by Dr. HARSTON and the Government Bacteriologist in the British Medical Journal, of November, 1905. The case was that of a Chinese adult female, aged about 35. No previous history was obtainable, the condition being discovered post-mortem. The liver was greatly enlarged. Its weight was about 4 lbs. The surface was rough and showed the presnce of cirrhosis. The capsule was greatly thickened. On section, suppurative cholangitis was found present. The biliary channels were enormously dilated and their walls in some places were at least to inch in thickness. On gentle pressure, thick, tenacious pus, deeply bile stained, welled out from the bile ducts. In many places saccular dilatations of the biliary canals were found, and many of these contained one or more cholesterin bile pigment calculi. Many of these stones were as big as a walnut. Over a hundred calculi were found in the biliary canals throughout the liver substance. The pus contained B. coli commune. Cholecystitis was also present and over a hundred gall stones of varying size and shape were extracted. These were mostly of the nature of bile pigment and calcium salts.

The presence of numerous calculi scattered throughout the substance of the liver is an exceedingly rare pathological condition.

Tumours.

During the past year, a number of new growths have been examined. Most of these have been sent to me for diagnosis by medical men in Hongkong, and along the coast of China. The following is a list of the tumours which have been examined :-

I.-Malignant New Growths.

1. Primary Cancer of the Liver, (3 cases.)

2. Diffuse Colloid Cancer of Stomach.

3. Scirrhus Cancer of the Pylorus, (2 cases.) 4. Cancer of the Lungs, (2 cases.)

5. Cancer of Prepuce, (3 cases.)

6. Glandular Cancer of Coecum.

7. Epithelioma of Penis, (2 cases.)

8. Cancerous Metastasis in Cervical Glands.

9. Spindle-celled Sarcoma of arm.

10. Chorion-epithelioma of Uterus.

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371

II.Non-Malignant New Growths.

1. Chronic inflammatory fibrous nodule of Breast.

2. Ditto of Labium Majus.

3. Papilloma of Lip, (2 cases.)

4. Fibro-adenoma of Breast.

5. Warty growth on prepuce, (non-malignant.) 6. Myoma, (uterus.)

!

Information regarding the prevalence of new growths in China is scanty, it is difficult to obtain, from the Chinese, accurate statistics in regard to the question. So far as one can gather, however, there is no reason to doubt the frequent incidence of malignant disease amongst the natives of China. Indeed my own experience would lead ine to conclude, that cancer is as frequently met with amongst the Chinese as the European. The prevalence of malignant disease in China does not fall far sliort of that found in other countries. At the same time, it must constantly be borne in mind, that Chinese suffering from new growths rarely enter hospital.

Plague.

The number of cases of plague examined post-mortem during the past year was 136. Compared with previous years, this number is exceedingly small, being even considerably less than during the previous year. The past year is conspicuous in the plague history of the Colony in that an extremely mild epidemic of the disease occurred. The condition of affairs was very similar to that obtained during 1904. In both years, therefore, a mild epidemic of plague has broken out in the Colony. What this demonstrates would be indeed difficult to show. Whether it means a temporary lull in the incidence of the disease, or a gradual and natural death of the pest, or as we might expect, the result of a successful combat with the disease from a sanitary point of view, is quite impossible to state. This, however, may be stated, that the history of ancient and modern epidemics of the disease show the futility of the preventive measures adopted from time to time to cope with the outbreak.

The following types of the disease were met with during 1905 :--

1.-Pestis Bubonica-

Left Femoral Bubo,

Right

17

Right Axillary Bubo,

Left

>>

Right Cervical Bubo, Left

Leit Inguinal Bubo, Right

""

""

II.-Pestis Septicamica, III.-Pestis Pneumonica,

34

28

9

7

5

4

4

3

94

37

5

Total....... 136

The frequency of the different types of the disease, during the epidemic, may be expresed as follows:

Pestis Bubonica,

"

Septicæmica, Pneumonica,

99

69%

27%

4%

So far as the prevalence of the different types of the disease are concerned, the experience gained from the epidemic of 1905 is practically identical with that found during previous years. The bubonic type of the disease is prevalent throughout the epidemic.

The start and finish of the outbreak are marked by the continuance of uncomplicated septicemic cases of the disease. My continued experience of plague, more and more, con- vinces me, that the exotic is, ab initio, a disease of a septicæmic nature.

372

Epizootic Plague.

With special reference to Epimuic Plague.

Throughout the past year, the examination of rats, found dead, or caught alive, has been systematically carried out.

(a.) Total No. of Victoria rats examined,

12

21

22,449

Kowloon

8,439

Total No. of Hongkong rats examined,

.30,888

942

Kowloon

508

"

""

(b.) Total No. of Victoria rats found infected,

Total No. of Hongkong rates found infected,................................1,450

Comparing these results with those of the year 1904, one finds that there is an increase in the number of rats caught by 8,981. This figure, notwithstanding the presence of a mild outbreak of plague, is very satisfactory. It shows that "rat catching" is receiving more and more support from the general public. Although a mild epidemic of plague occurred during the past year, the amount of the epizootic was considerable, the epimuic being represented by 1.450 cases, compared with 993 cases during the year 1904.

From the results obtained during the past four years, it would appear that the amount of Rat Plague, instead of diminishing, is gradually increasing. The following figures are interesting:-

1902,

1903,

1904,

1905,

Year.

No. of Rats Examined.

No. of Rats found infected.

Percentage found infected.

117,839

2,015

1.7%

101,056

3,744

3.7%

21,907

993

4.5%

30,8$8

1.450

4.7%

In addition to rats a number of other animals, sick or found dead, have been examined for the presence or absence of plague.

11 Fowls,

.All Negative.

12

3 Cats,..

2 Ducks,

2 Geese,

1. Monkey,

99

""

""

The role played by the rat in the dissemination of plague infection would appear to be gaining gradually more recognition. The continuous observations of the epimuic during the past four years, and its relation to the epidemic, has led me to believe, that, in the rat we have the fons et origo of plague infection. In 1905, although the amount of available material is small, the epizootic preceded the first cases of plague which occurred in man. Judging from my experience of former years, such a preliminary epimuic must be looked for in every endemic plague centre previous to the appearance of widespread human plague.

Again, the experience gained in Hongkong is, that the area of the epimuic is practically co-extensive with that of the epidemic, and a diminution of the former is co-incident with a fall of the latter.

The publication of my Report on Epidemic and Epizootic Plague in 1904, setting forth the important role played by rats in disseminating plague, has evoked considerable discussion both locally and elsewhere. The criticism offered has, in my opinion, been fair, and I have anxiously awaited the results of investigators in other parts of the world, who have had ample opportunities of verifying or refuting the Rat Theory of Plague Epidemics.

?

No. of

cases.

!

190

52

51

PLAGUE.

#1

43

42

41

40

39

38

13

1

Rat Plague,

Human Plague,

"

T

C

N

O

N

18

1

C

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

00 1-

เร

:

4

3

ปี

་-ས་

Weeks. 4 11 18 25 1 8 15 22 1 8 15 22 29 5 12 19 26 3 10 17 24 31 7 14 21 28 5 12 19 26 2 9 16 23 30 6 13 20 27 4 11 18 25 1 8 15 22 29 6 13 20 27

373

The recent report, on the 4th outbreak of Plague in Sydney, by Dr. ASHBURTON THOMP- SON, is of great interest in this respect. Since this observer commenced his studies of plague epidemiology, he has been deeply impressed by the rat theory of the disease, the last report on Plague in Sydney [1904] is of importance in that, the views put forward are in perfect accord with my own. The conclusions adduced by THOMPSON are, that plague is dependent on plague rats, that there is a close relationship between the epimuic and the epidemic, and that an extermination of the rat means a staying of plague. In a city like Sydney, with a population composed mainly of whites, these results are of great value, confirming the observations made in Hongkong, under adverse circumstances, owing to the dense Chinese population and general insanitary condition of the City.

Further, my results have received confirmation in the hands of Dr. PAKES, who, in a recent exhaustive report on Plague in Witwatersrand in 1904 has demonstrated clearly the close connection between the outbreak of rat plague, and the occurrence of the epidemic. Human plague in Peru has also been traced to the occurrence of widespread epimuic plague. In a report in the Bull, de l'Inst. Pasteur. No. 21, on the prevalence of plague in Callao, special attention is directed to the role played by the rat in plague dissemination, and it is insisted that plague is not to be regarded as a very contagious or infectious disease. I have already dwelt upon this question in my special report on Plague, and drawn attention to the fact that. apart from cases of primary pneumonic plague, cases of plague may be treated successfully in the wards of a general hospital. Indeed plague patients have ben treated successfully in well ventilated rooms of their own residences, without any extension of the disease to the other inmates of the house. The reports of the various Commissions, and in particular the Indian Plague Commnission, express themselves strongly upon this point. It has even been said, that the wards of a plague hospital are the safest places during a severe epidemic.

During the past year Professor MARTIN, Director of the Lister Ir tute, London, a Member of the recent Commission, sent to India to investigate Plague, c

nunicated with

me re the Rat Theory of Plague Epidemics. I furnished him with all the details at my disposal, and from what I have heard, that Commission is devoting a considerable part of its time to the question of the rat in spreading plague, and the importance of this rodent in plague epidemiology. Their results will be awaited with considerable interest.

So far as one can gather, this theory of plague epidemics would appear to be steadily gaining ground, and it is to be hoped that with the establishment of such a theory on a firm basis, and the knowledge of the methods of communication of the infection from rats to man, our sanitary and prophylactic measures against the disease will be simplified and reduced to sound scientific principles, in a manner similar to the present-day methods of dealing with a disease like Malaria.

The results of the investigations in Witwatersrand show clearly that rats are susceptible to plague through the ingestion of infected food. That such obtains in Hongkong has been shown by me in my Report on Plague for 1904. In this Report, I noted the discovery of the B. pestis in rice, and the communication of the disease to rats by such infected food,

It is difficult to get away from the possibility that food has something to do with the spread of the disease. Ingestion is a common mode of conveyance of the infection in rats, and other animals. It remains to be proved, if such a method of infection obtains in man. Plague infected rats, through their secretions and excretions, may disseminate the B. pestis broadcast amongst articles of food used by the native. Indeed, paragraph 29 of ASHBURTON THOMPSON'S recent Report is significant in that there existed a possibility of the infection. of workmen's food by plague infected rats in plague infected places. These points, and other recently added facts in regard to the mode of infection in plague, show us, how hypothetical yet is the view that plague prevalence in epidemic form is built up of cases of direct cutaneous inoculation. In the light of many recent researches, the skin inoculation theory of plague would appear to lose much of its significance.

Domestic pets, e.g., cats, may also occasionally be of importance from the point of view of spreading plague. These animals are known to suffer from the disease, and it is most probable that they contract plague, through the ingestion of plague rats. Minor epizootics of cat plague have occurred from time to time in several endemic plague centres, including Hongkong. Recently its occurrence has also been noted in South Africa. My contention that ectozoa have little significance in the spread of plague is gradually receiving general confirmation. We possess no data at present to support the view, that micro-organisms of the bacillary form, e.g., the B. pestis, pass through a definite cycle of development in the body of an insect and that such an intermediate host is essential for the transference of the

374

disease to man. Indeed all the evidence at present is against the spread of plague by insects by inoculation, and that the mode of conveyance of protozoal diseases, e.g., malaria, is quite different from those due to micro-organisms of the well recognised types.

In regard to the question of the communication of the disease, direct from person to person. I have already pointed out in my Report on Plague, that instances of such cases- apart from pneomonic plague-must be rare indeed. In his recent Report on Plague, ASHBURTON THOMPSON deals with this point, more or less thoroughly, and the conclusions which he has formulated are practically the same as those of my own. Therefore, it would appear that plague is not "so catching" as previously insisted upon, and that during the course of different epidemics, the diffusion of the disease was not direct-from person to person-but "incidental to conditions which obtained independeutly of man." (THOMPSON).

The use of the Virus of DANYSZ to exterminate rats is to be regarded as signal failure in Hongkong. Our local results are in agreement with these obtained in Sydney, South Africa, and elsewhere. The majority of reliable reports pronounce this virus to be of no use.

Bacteriological Investigations.

During the past year a considerable amount of pure bacteriological work has been done. So far, no attempt has been made to prepare the more complicated vaccines and sera, e.g., the plague prophylactic, and various plague sera. It was felt that until the completion of the Bacteriological Institute, the preparation of such would be attended by considerable risk.

The amount of clinical bacteriology done during the year is greatly in excess of previous years. This applies, not only to the number of examinations carried out for various Government Medical and Sanitary Institutions of the Colony, but, also, I am glad to say, to those which have been forwarded to me by medical men in Hongkong, and neighbouring ports. It is to be hoped that, with the establishment of the Bacteriological Institute in Hongkong, as a thoroughly equipped and working institution, considerable progress will be made in regard to our knowledge of the diseases existent amongst the Chinese. Indeed, I feel convinced, that, given the co-operation of our medical and sanitary authorities in Hongkong much can be accomplished along many different lines of investigation.

1. Relapsing Fever.-One case of this disease was examined pathologically and bacte- riologically. It was not naturally acquired in the Colony but imported from a Northern port of China. This disease does not, at present, exist in the Colony. Nothing characteristic could be made out of the autopsy, but microscopically numerous examples of the specific spirochaete were found. Attempts were made by Dr. Koću and myself to cultivate these organisms outside the body. So far the results obtained have been unsatisfactory. This spirillum would appear to be allied to the genus Trypanosoma. Its exact phase has so far been undetermined. There is every reason to believe that this disease is spread by a special species of Culex Mosquito, examples of which are, in all probability, well represented in the Colony. Should further cases of the disease come before my notice, I propose to carry out investigations as to the exact position of the spirillum in protozoology and its probable insectivorous spread from man to man.

2. Malta Fever.-Throughout the past year, an outlook has been kept for cases of this disease. The malady has a wide geegraphical distribution and cases have been reported from Hongkong. The majority of the latter belong to the Naval Authorities who have imported cases from countries further West. Cases of continued and intermittent fever have been repeatedly tested for the specific serum reaction but with negative results. So far as my own personal experience is concerned, I have no knowledge of any case of Malta Fever originating in the Colony.

3. Typhoid Fever.-Over 50 cases of suspected Typhoid Fever have been examined by Widal's test during the past year. In the majority of instances, the test has been performed with blood serum obtained from in-patients of the Government Civil Hospital. In the majority of cases, a satisfactory result has been obtained. The test, like all others, is not infallible, yet remains as a valuable adjunct to the diagnosis of doubtful cases of the disease.

4. Diphtheria.-A few cases of the disease were found during the year. The usual tests were made, namely, cultivation of a swab smear on blood serum with subsequent microscopic examination of the growth after applying various tests, e.g., Gram's method, Neisser's stain, etc. This disease would not appear to be common in Hongkong. On the

*

375

M

other hand, cases of acute pharyngitis, follicular and non-specific tonsillitis, are among the common diseases of the Colony. I have repeatedly been asked to decide as to the presence or absence of the B. diphtheriæ in such cases-an important result from the point of view of treatment.

5. Experiments with Formalin as a Gaseous Disinfectant.-In the past gaseous disinfect- ion was in great favour and deemed to be the most radical method of dealing with outbreak of epidemic disease. Such an idea was firmly clung to, owing to the prevalence at that time, of the theories of contagion and miasma. Now-a-days with the change in our con- ception of the spread of infectious disease, it becomes obvious that gaseous disinfection is not so reliable as formerly believed. Indeed there is good reason to believe that it is not of much value.

During the past year, Dr. PEARSE, the Medical Officer of Health, carried out several experiments in regard to the efficiency of formalin gas as a reliable germicide. Within recent years this gas has come into general favour as a gaseous disinfectant. The micro- organisms used by Dr. PEARSE for his experiments were supplied by me and the different tests arranged for in the following way. Sterile Petri's plates were smeared with different micro-organisms. These were exposed for varying lengths of time to the action of the gas. Thereafter the plates were forwarded to me, and the necessary bacteriological test applied.. In the majority of instances the plates were found to be sterile, thus showing that Formalin' gas, when used in the laboratory, was efficient as a germicide.

In addition to these experiments several other tests were made by myself, in order to show whether we possess, in Formalin, a disinfectant of great value. The results of my enquiry into the question show that, although the general results of experimentation prove Formalin to be an excellent germicide when tested in the laboratory, much doubt exists as to the efficiency of the gas when used for general house disinfection. The condition of affairs. obtainable in the laboratory is by no means comparable to that found in actual practice. The factors which bring about such a failure in the efficiency of gaseous disinfection in general practice, would appear to be the following

(1.) In a room to be disinfected, about 60-80 per cent. of the disinfecting gas is

lost.

(2.) An important factor is the difference between the specific gravity of the gas

and the air in the room.

(3.) It is almost impossible to obtain an equal distribution of the gas.

(4.) Micro-organisms, in the dry condition can scarcely be killed by a gaseous disinfectant Moisture must be present. Formalin, although the fashion- able gaseous disinfectant of the present day, fails in a good many ways as a disinfectant.

It is one of the best inhibitors of the multiplication of germ life, even in albuminous. solutions. Unfortunately, however, it is but a meagre bactericidal agent. Again, it has an advantage over many gaseous disinfectants in that its specific gravity is approximately that of the air, thus ensuring an intimate admixture of gas and air. However, such valuable property as this is completely counterbalanced by the fact, that Formalin gas has practically no power of penetration; thus it can be used for surface disinfection only.

With these remarks it is evident that Formalin, although highly commended as the- result of laboratory experiments must yield us unsatisfactory results when used for general house disinfection owing to its limited bactericidal powers and its failure to penetrate beyond the surface of any article requiring thorough disinfection.

6. The Strength of Disinfectants.-During the past year, a considerable amount of attention has been given to the question of disinfectants (chemical). Quite a number of these fluids have been examined bacteriologically in order to estimate their carbolic acid co- efficiency, with the hope of arriving at some conclusion as to the most efficient disinfectant which may be used in conjunction with general cleansing.

Up to the present time, great confusion has constantly arisen as to the warranty of the efficacy of a chemical disinfectant. It may be said that there exists no proper official con- trol over the sale of such disinfectants, a condition of affairs likely, at some time, to lead to a false sense of security on the part of the general public, who only too readily fortify them- selves against plague and other infectious diseases, by the liberal use of some disinfectant in their immediate surroundings. Disinfectants, as sold by different manufacturers, have no proper guarantee of their potency. They all vary in their germicidal power, and different samples of the same disinfectant are known to give very varying bacteriological results. During the past three years, an entirely new test for the bacterial determination of the

376

efficiency of a disinfectant has become widely adopted. The principle of this method is that the strength of a particular disinfectant is expressed in multiples of pure phenol, performing the same work. In this way a ratio is obtained which is now well known as the " Carbolic Acid Co-efficiency of the Disinfectant."

The following disinfecting fluids were submitted to me by the Secretary of the Sanitary Board for examination as to their co-efficiency:

1. Carbolated Créasote.

2. Jeye's Fluid.

3. Cyllin [2 samples].

3. Blackhead's Disinfecting Fluid, [2 samples].

Rideal and Walker's method of estimating the co-efficiency was used. The micro- organisms used for the different tests were :-

1. B. Typhosus.

2. B. Coli Commune.

3. B. Pestis.

These organisms were grown in broth culture for at least 24 hours at a temperature of 37° C. and then mixed with varying proportions of the particular disinfectant, a standard solution of carbolic acid being used in addition. After the culture had been exposed to the action of the disinfectant for a definite time, sub-cultivation was made from the mixture in order to determine whether the particular strength of the disinfectant had been efficient as a germicide. It is quite unnecessary in the present Report to give in detail a number of tables indicating the method by which the carbolic acid co-efficient of each disinfectant towards each particular micro-organism was obtained. One example will suffice in order to demonstrate my method.

Carbolated Creasote.

Table I.

B. Typhosus, 24 Hours Broth Culture at 37° C.

Sample.

Dilution.

Time limit of Exposure.

A

2

Sub-cultures.

Minutes.

Period of Incubation.

Temperature

10

5

7

10

1 in 100.

X

1 in 200.

Carbolated Creasote,

1 in 300.

1 in 500.

X

X

X

Carbolic Acid,

I in 100.

X

X

X

:

X

48 hours.

37°C.

Carbolic Acid Co-efficient=3.

Table II.

B. Coli, 24 Hours Broth Culture, at 37°C.

Time limit of Exposure.

Sample.

Dilution.

99

"

""

A

""

Sub-cultures.

Minutes.

Period of Incubation.

Temperature.

2

57

10

1 in 100.

X

:

Carbolated Creasote,

I in 200.

X

1 in 400.

Carbolic Acid,

1 in 100.

X

X

X

X

:

..

Carbolic Acid Co-efficient=2.

48 hours.

37°C.

""

27

377

Table III.

B. Pestis, 24 Hours Broth Culture, at 37°C.

Time limit of Exposure.

Sample.

Dilution.

I in 100.

X

I in 200.

Carbolated Creasote,

1 in 400.

1 in 800.

1 in 1000.

Carbolic Acid,

Minutes.

X

X

:

:

х

:

Sub-cultures.

Period of Incubation.

¡Temperature.

10

:

:

:

48 hours.

37°C.

་་

""

59

1 in 100.

.. Carbolic Acid Co-efficient=8.

In regard to the other disinfectants, the same method was employed. It will be neces- sary therefore to give the tables in full. The following Carbolic Acid Co-efficients were .obtained :-

Micro-organism. B. Typhosus,

B. Coli,

Jeyes' Fluid.

C. A. Co-efficient.

2

2

B. Pestis,.

7 or 8 (?)

Cyllin, [2 samples].

Micro-organism.

C. A. Co-efficient.

No. 1.

No. 2.

B. Typhosus,

9

B. Coli.

8

8

B. Pestis,

..15

20

Blackhead's Fluid, [2 samples].

Micro-organism.

C. A. Co-efficient.

No. 1.

No. 2.

B. Typhosus,

2

B. Coli,

B. Pestis,

2

6

6

In conclusion, it is difficult, indeed well nigh impossible to obtain a means of disinfec- tion likely to be effectual in removing the germs of disease from our surroundings. The results, which have been obtained locally, and elsewhere, founded upon years of thorough application of the different means at our disposal for the eradication of plague and other infectious diseases, are not encouraging, and it is a matter of speculation at present, whether, apart from general cleansing, the employment of expensive chemical mixtures offers us a better chance of stamping out bacterial diseases. Of chemical disinfect- ants, their number is legion, and when tested in the laboratory against the gerins of disease, prove very effectual in their action. Some are more so than others, but no greater mistake can be made to expect such chemical preparations to exert the same efficiency in general house-to-house cleansing and disinfection. It is upon these and other grounds that one is rendered very sceptical as to encouraging wholesale expenditure upon expensive prepara-

tions.

7. Trachoma amongst the Chinese. This disease is well worthy of a special enquiry in Hongkong. Its ravages amongst the Chinese are well known. Trachoma, which in the past has wrought such havoc amongst large collections of human beings, e.g., in 1499. when Louis VIII entered Naples and in 1798 when Napoleon Bonaparte won the battle of

378

the Pyramids, and other notable instances. still baffles the expert pathologist and bacte- riologist. All that is known is that the disease is an infectious, chronic, granulomatous affection of the conjunctiva. Its bacteriology is still in a state of chaos. Several cases have been examined by me but so far nothing definite has been obtained. Cocci of various kinds, Koch-Weeks bacillus, Gonococci, etc., have been found present in trachomatous eyes, but none of these micro-organisms, can, in my opinion, be brought into causal relationship with the disease. The idea, that trachoma is a chronic inflammatory process to be traced to acute gonorrhoeal blenorrhoea has but little to support it. Indeed, in the light of our modern knowledge of the M. gonorrhoeae, such a pathological condition would appear to be out of the question. The causal significance of Raehlmanu's bacteria is still a matter of considerable dispute. It has often been my intention to avail myself of the excellent opportunities afforded for a thorough study of the disease which is so prevalent in Hong- kong, but up to the present, circumstances have prevented me from investigating the subject thoroughly. I trust, however, to have better chances of examining the disease after the starting of the Bacteriological Institute.

The Vaccine Institute.

During the year 1905, the preparation and distribution of small-pox vaccine was efficiently maintained. Apart from the regular supply of vaccine lymph to Government Medical Departments and Chinese Hospitals and Public Vaccinators, a very considerable number of tubes has been sold to the outside public. Indeed the number of such tubes sold to the general public during the past year, amounts to 4,393, a figure exceeding by thousands the number of tubes issued during any previous year since the establishment of the Institute. Such a result speaks well for the popularity of the lymph, and with the future as assuredness of a constant and potent supply of vaccine in Hongkong, a consider- able revenue ought to be forthcoming. During the past year, nearly $1,500 were paid into the Bank.

It is anticipated that in the near future, with the establishment of the Bacteriological Institute, this figure will duplicate on triplicate itself.

The following figures show the extent of the work done during the past year:-

1.-Number of Calves inoculated,

2.-Expenditure in Calves,.

3.-Number of Tubes prepared,

4.-Value of 1905 Lymph,..

5.-Number of Tubes issued,

6.-Value of Tubes issued,

7.-Tubes issued free of charge,

8.-Value of Tubes issued free of charge,

9.-Tubes paid for,

10.-Value of Tubes paid for,

21

$150.00

6,703 $3,351.50

7,638 $2,708.00

3,245

$1,223.00

4,393 $1,485.00

These figures show the following increase in the value of the work done during the

year 1905:

1.) An increase in the number of Tubes prepared by (2.) An increase in the value of the Lymph by (3.) An increase in the number of Tubes issued by (4.) An enormous increase in the number of Tubes paid for by (5.) An increase of Revenue paid into the Bank by

1,419 $709.00

750

2,209

$711.50

Out of 21 calves inoculated, two died, and three failed to react. The cause of death of the two calves was a form of septicemia, which developed within twenty-four hours after the admission of the animals to the Institute.

Up to the present time, it has always been the custom to manufacture the lymph during the colder seasons of the year. Such a practice was necessitated owing to the difficulties experienced in the production of the vaccine during the warm weather. It is hoped, however, that with the establishment of the Bacteriological Institute, that it will be possible to maintain an efficient supply of potent lymph throughout the whole year, a state- of preparedness which will enable us to deal at once with any unforeseen outbreak of small- pox. During the last quarter of the past year, considerable difficulty was experienced in. maintaining the supply of buffalo calves for inoculation purposes. On investigation, this was found to be due, not to a dearth of animals within the bounds of the Colony, but to the reluctance on the part of the Chinese owner to part with his animal until he was paid

A

;

*

379

"cash

This system of cash payment for calves has now been adopted and so far as one can gather will do away with the ever-recurring difficulties of the past, namely, the apparent scarcity of calves for inoculation. The animals are bought outright from the owner, an average sum of $25 being paid for each calf. They are inoculated, the vaccine collected, and the animals are re-sold after their recovery for an average of $10 each. It is estimated that about $120 clear profit is to be made out of each calf if purchased and re-sold according to the present method.

Issues of Vaccine during 1905.

Vaccine paid for,

The Victoria Gaol................

The Tung Wal Hospital,.

The Civil Hospital,

The Alice Hospital,

The New Territory,

The Public Vaccinators,

The Sanitary Board,

Total,..

.4,393

.1,075

950

550

424

..

100

90

56

.7,638

As is well known, the lymph, as obtained from the calf, contains numerous extraneous micro-organisms. As the latter are capable of occasioning untoward symptoms in the individual vaccinated, and at the same time vitiating an otherwise completely successful vaccination, many methods have been advocated, and even adopted, by different manufac- turers, in order to supply the general public with a reliable and germ-free vaccine virus. The method which has been most widely adopted, is the intimate mixture of glycerine with the freshly drawn lymph and pulp. This process has obtained general acceptance, and glycerinated calf lymph is known to give good and more or less uniform results. It would appear, however, that the use of glycerine as a germicide in the production of pure calf lymph, has several disadvantages, especially in tropical countries. This may be summarised

as follows:-

(1.) Considerable care has to be taken in order to keep up the efficiency of the vaccine. As is well known the specific action of the virus of the vaccine is weakened by the use of glycerine. Further, in tropical countries, this action of the glycerine would appear to be exerted more strongly. As has already been noted in my previous Reports, glycerinated vaccine lymph as prepared in Hongkong, only retains its virulence for a month or six weeks. (2.) Vaccine lymph which has been glycerinated cannot be used for the general purposes of human vaccination until it has been kept in reserve for at least a month or six weeks. It has been estimated that this period or even longer must elapse before the majority of the extraneous micro-organisms has been destroyed.

(3.) The use of glycerine as a purifier of the vaccine virus is applicable only to organisms of a non-sporing nature. Resisting spore-bearing germs would not appear to be materially restrained in the multiplication in glycerinated lymph, and might become a fruitful source of danger to those vaccinated. Tetanus, and other diseases, have been known to occur after vaccination, the causal agent having been simultaneously introduced subcutaneously with the vaccine lymph.

These, and indeed other objections are applicable to the general employment of glyceri- nated calf lymph. In the tropics, such disadvantages become even more real. Vaccine is often requisitioned for urgently. It will not keep during the hot weather. If mixed with glycerine it has to inature for at least six weeks. Glycerinated calf lymph-so far as past experience in Hongkong teaches us-does not guarantee a constant and reliable source of protection. It would appear to be of great importance to have at our disposal a rapid method of obtaining a germ free lymph.

Up to the present time, many methods of preparing vaccine lymph have been advocated.

The majority have as their object the manufacture of a good strain of vaccine in the shortest time possible.

380

The biological method of CALMETTE and GUERIN, namely, the rapid destruction of all extraneous germs in glycerinated calf lymph by the incubation of the latter at the body temperature for a varying period of time has now been shown to give too untrustworthy results for its adoption in general practice.

The potassium cyanide method of GAYLORD and WHEELER would appear to have been almost entirely disregarded, owing to the weakening action which this salt exerts upon the vaccine virus itself.

The chloroform method of GREEN has lately received a considerable amount of atten- tion. It is claimed that this process is capable of rendering a vaccine lymph germ free, so far as non-sporing micro-organisms are concerned within an exceedingly short time.

In the hands of competent authorities, calf lymph so prepared gives exceedingly const- ant results, and insures us of obtaining a potent supply of vaccine within a day or two. Indeed so favourable are the reports upon this modification of the preparation of the virus, that it is proposed during the following year, to conduct experiments, with a view to obtaining an efficient supply of lymph on the shortest notice.

It may be incidentally noted, that the behaviour of vaccine lymph towards the action of glycerine, heat, chloroform, potassium cyanide, etc., is a strong point in favour of the view that the causal agent of vaccinia is not of a bacterial nature.

Scientific Publications prepared during the Year.

1. A case of acute Endocarditis due to the Micro-coccus Gonorrhaal.-Published in the British Medical Journal- March, 1905.

In this paper particular attention was directed to the infectious nature of the Gono- coccus. Within recent years, many proofs have been forthcoming to establish the fact that this micro-organism, in addition to being the usual exciting agent of infective urethritis, may reach the general blood stream and set up metaslatic disease. The Gonococcus may be regarded as an occasional exciting agent of Septicænia.

2. Plague in Cats.-Published in the Lancet.-April, 1905.

In this publication, the followings facts were established :—

(a.) Cats may suffer from plague.

(b.) Cat plague may be acute or chronic.

(c.) The type of disease is septicæmic.

(d.) Cats may occasionally play a part in the dissemination of plague infection. (e.) In plague infected districts, possible plague infection in cats is of great

importance from a domestic point of view.

(f.) In plague infected areas, cats probably become infected through plague rats

and mice, which they devour as food.

3. The Incidence of Disease in Hongkong.-Published in the Journal of Tropical Medicine-May, 1905.

In this paper, my attention was directed to the prevalence of different forms of disease in the Colony. The incidence of exotics, like plague and cholera, was summarised as briefly as possible, and conclusions, based upon my experience of these diseases in Hong- kong, were drawn as to the best means of their eradication.

4. The Spread of Plague Infection by Insects.-Published in the Centralblatt für Bakteriologie.-November, 1905.

381

+

In this paper, the following conclusions were drawn :-

(a.) Insects

may

harbour the B. pestis.

(b.) Insects, containing plague bacilli, may be the means of disseminating these

germs over indefinite areas.

(c.) The part played by suctorial insects, e.g.,. fleas, bugs, etc., in the spread of

plague, is similar, in all respects, to that of non-suctorial insects, namely, the mechanical conveyance of the infection from place to place.

(d.) The dangers attributed to the bites of suctorial insects, in the spread of

infectious disease, e.g., plague, would appear to be exaggerated.

(e.) In all probability, the spread of all infectious diseases, e.g., plague, cholera,

typhoid fever, etc., by insects is accomplished only indirectly.

(f.) The deposition of the B. pestis by insects on foods, clothing, bousehold utensils, etc., is bound to occur in plague infected areas, and this factor is one of no mean epidemiological importance.

5. The Prophylaxis and Prevention of Plague.-Published in The Journal of Pre- ventive Medicine.--November, 1905.

In this paper, the following measures were considered necessary in order to deal effec- tively with the disease.

A.-General Prophylaxis.

(a.) The limitation of actual quarantine.

(6.) The avoidance of dogmatic rules and standing orders for health officers.

(c.) The individual treatment of each case according to its merits.

(d.) The employment of competent ship doctors.

(e.) The employment of skilled port health officers, well versed in quarantine matters. These officers, in order to overcome the many duties of their office, should devote the whole of their time to this work.

(f.) The medical examination of passengers and crews of ships in plague infected

ports.

(g.) The medical control over cargo and merchandise from plague infected ports. (h.) The destruction of rats on board ship.

B.-Special Prophylaxis.

(a.) The sanitary control of areas supposed to be infected.

(b.) An early recognition of the disease, which is attained through

(1.) Compulsory post-mortem examinations.

(2.) Immediate notification of all cases to the sanitary authorities.

(3.) Systematic search in infected districts and neighbourhood for other cases

of the disease and sources of infection.

(4.) The bacteriological examination of rats.

5.) The provision of opportunities for the study of the disease from all

points of view.

(c.) The isolation of infected persons.

(d.) The medical supervision of relations and contacts.

(e.) The provision of segregation camps.

(f.) Wholesale measures for the destruction of rats and other vermin.

(g.) The education of the people, especially in regard to cleanliness, cooking of

food, boiling of water, etc.

(h.) Skilled veterinarian supervision of all food supplies.

(i.) The thorough disinfection of all infected foci.

(.) The thorough cleansing of non-infected districts.

382

Much more research would appear to be required before one could sefely include, and recommend in the above list, protective inoculation and the employment of the various plague sera advocated.

6. A Case of Chorion Epithelioma.-(Jointly with Dr. BELL, Superintendent of the Government Civil Hospital, Hongkong) published in the Lancet.-October, 1905.

A piece of the growth was removed and examined microscopically. The following is my Report:-Microscopically the piece of tissue submitted for examination was not unlike placental tissue. It was soft and spongy and full of blood. Histologically the tissue was found to be made up of areas of free hæmorrhage, blood sinuses, and a peculiar parenchyma. No definite stroma was found. The greater portion of the mass was composed of extravasated blood, and as a result of this, copious masses of blood pigment were found in certain areas of the tissue, particularly in the areas of free hæmorrhage, but also in the parenchyma. The blood sinuses were abundant. They varied in size, possessed delicate endothelial tunics, and were packed full of the formed elements of the blood. The parenchyma pos- sessed a characterisic histogenesis and led me to the diagnosis. At first sight certain parts resembled a small round celled and rapidly growing sarcoma, but this, on more careful examination proved to be largely composed of leucocytic accumulations, in which were found phagocytes, polyhedral cells, large epithelioid cells, and diffuse plasmodium-like structures. The polyhedral cells arranged themselves into alveoli. The large epithelioid cells some resembling giant cells were scattered throughout the parenchyma, arranged sometimes singly, sometime in small groups. They contained nuclei, varying in number, and endow- ment with chromatin. The diffuse plasmodial masses were few in number, but contained many nuclei.

The most typical forms arranged themselves into a network containing the polyhedral cells and leucocytic accumulations already referred to. In certain sections of the tissue, evidence of a hyaline metamorphosis was noted. From the histological appearance, I am of opinion that the tissue is a rapidly growing chorion-epithelioma. The various contained tissue elements, especially the parenchyma, and their arrangement, are characteristic. The plasmodial masses are of the type of a well defined syncytium. These were few in number, but this is probably due to the sub-division of the syncytial masses into immense epithelioid cells with large nuclei. Such a metamorphosis is not infrequent in certain forms of chorion-epithelioma.

7. A Case of Suppurative Cholangitis.-(Jointly with Dr. HARSTON, Hongkong,) published in the British Medical Journal.-November, 1905.

The clinical course of this case was carefully described by Dr. HARSTON.

After death, a post-mortem examination was held and the liver forwarded to me for a special report. This was done as thoroughly as possible owing to the rarity of the disease, and the interest attached to the pathological changes found in the liver, and the features which distinguish these appearances from multiple abscesses of the liver. The following is my Report:-The post-mortem examination of this case was conducted by Dr. HARSTON. I have no know- ledge of the condition of the other organs and tissues of the body. On receipt of the liver, I found that the gall bladder had been opened and washed, the organ sectioned, and not com- pletely intact. It was, therefore, impossible to obtain accurately the weight of the organ.

The

The liver was generally enlarged. It was increased in specific gravity. Its consistence was tough and leathery. It was jaundiced. It did not appear to be much congested. The general contour of the organ was maintained. On section of the liver, a remarkable appear- ance was found. Studded throughout the entire right lobe, were rounded areas. of a yellow colour. These varied in size, from a millet seed to a pea. Many had a deeply pigmented centre. Surrounding these areas, there was a narrow zone of a deep brownish colour. remaining cut surface of the organ was that of a jaundiced liver with commencing inter- lobular cirrhosis. An examination of the yellow areas, more in detail, showed that they were not equally distributed throughout the right lobe. They were most abundant in the neighbourhood of the main portal, hepatic, and biliary channels. In the intervening hepatic parenchyma, they were few and seattered. These areas were further examined as to their relation to the parenchyma of the liver, to their consistency, and their microscopic appearance and bacterial composition.

They bore no direct relation to the actual hepatic parenchyma. They could be picked out en masse, leaving a hollow or space with roughened but hard and fibrous walls. The- consistence of that masses varied. Some were pultaceous; others were hard and gritty. To touch, the harder masses were like small peas, and could be thrown about without much-

383

damage to their form. Microscopically, the softer masses were composed of fibrin, hepatic dect epithelium, pus corpuscles and a variable amount of bilirubin pigment.

The harder masses were made up of a hyalin looking material, in which traces of fibrin, pus corpuscles, etc., could be scen. In the meshes of this material, appreciable quantities of bilirubin calcium were found. Bacteriologically nothing definite could be obtained, owing to the fact that an examination of the body could not be made until about twenty-four hours after death. B. coli commune was found in large numbers. With this organism, however, numerous other extraneous bacteria were present.

The zones of a deep brown colur, immediately surrounding the yellow areas, presented the following microscopic appearance. The areas of tissue nearest to the yellow masses were composed of young proliferating connective tissue and hepatic duct epithelium. The changes found were typical as regards a chronic inflammation of the walls of the hepatic duct and its ramifications.

Immediately outside this zone of newly-formed tissue, a narrow band of degenerated hepatic parenchyma was found. Large quantities of bile pigment were deposited in this narrow band of newly-forined tissue and in and around the degenerated liver cells. Apart from these changes, the microscopic examination of the liver substance showed marked interlobular increase of connective tissue, and the presence of pronounced paracholia. The case is clearly one of infective cholangitis. The causal agent, in this particular case, would be difficult to prove. Usually the B. coli commune is found to be the root of the evil, but, as FRAENKEL and KRAUSE have recently pointed out, Streptococci, Pneumococci, and even the Typhoid bacillus, may be agents at work in the production of different pathological conditions in the liver.

Cholangitis usually runs the course of a septic infection. Clinically, it behaves like a case of multiple abscess of the liver. Pathologically, however, the lesions would appear to be distint. The following are points of agreement and difference:

They agree in the following points--

1. There is general congestion of the liver in the early stages. 2. There is general enlargement of the liver. 3. There is the presence of pus.

They differ, however, as follows:-

Multiple Abscess of the Liver.

1. A hepatic parenchyma change.

2. There is initial necrosis.

3. Necrosis is followed by pus.

4. Areas of necrosis are ill defined.

5. Walls of abscesses are rugged and rotten

in appearance.

6. The pus is usually amoebic.

Infective Cholangitis.

1. A hepatic duct change.

2. There is inflammation.

3. Inflammation is followed by pus.

4. Areas of pus confined in hepatic ducts.

5. The walls are well defined and not

necrotic.

6. The pus in usually bacteriological.

384

Appendix.

REPORT OF THE MEDICAL OFFICER IN CHARGE OF THE

PUBLIC MORTUARY, KOWLOON.

During the year 802 post-mortems were made.

These were divided as follows:-

January,

50

May,

106

September,

47

February,

-50

June,

106

October,

62

March,

56

July,

119

November,

46

April,

57

August,

46

December,

47

It will be noticed that the totals are almost doubled during May, June and July, and as 73.17% of the total plague cases diagnosed in the mortuary, occurred, evenly distributed through these months, it seems probable that this disease is mainly responsible for the increase, and that many of the cases escape recognition, owing to decomposition being advanced. During these months 0 cases were returned as too decomposed for diagnosis It is, of course, practically impossible to find the Bacillus Pestis, once decomposition sets in.

A similar increase took place in May, 1904.

The following figures may be of interest :-

Autopsies on Males, Autopsies on Females, Sex unknown,

-489-61%.

-288-36%. =25-3%.

4.

It has been stated that female children are more frequently found dumped" than males.. The figures obtained during the past year do not show any marked preponderance of females, the difference being probably due to natural causes only.

Males under 1 year, 85-43.36%.

Females under 1 year,=111=56·64%.

The following Table shows the number and percentage of bodies found "dumped” during the past two years :-

Year.

Number of Bodies Examined.

1904,

675

1905,

802

Found on Street, In Harbour or on

Hill Side or Vacant Ground.

252

267

the Foreshore.

Total per cent.

Dumped.

155

60-29

182

55.71

Of the 82 cases of Plague returned, 27 or 33.75 per cent. were found dumped.

The following is the return of the causes of leath:—

1. Total General Diseases,

2. Total Local Diseases,

(a.) of the Nervous

304

.281

Systemi,.

1

(b.)

Circulatory

39

(c.)

Respiratory

205

**

(d.)

""

Digestive

11

:)

(e.)

,་

Urinary

16

??

·(g.)

(f.

Ductless Glands,

3. Total Injuries, .

4. Decomposed bodies,

Generative

8.

Total,........

1

....

30 .187

802

**

385

Table I.-GENERAL DISEASES.

Small-pox, Plague :-

28

Bubonic,

.....73

Septicæmic,.

9

Total Plague,

82

Enteric,

Diarrhoea (cause unknown),

Dysentery,

Beri-beri,

Malaria,

Septicæmia..

Peurperal fever,

Syphilis,

Acute General Tuberculosis,

Still-birth,

Marasmus,

Distomiasis,.

Table II.-LOCAL DISEASES,

(a.) Of the Nervous System:

Meningitis,

b.) Of the Circulatory System :—

Acute Fibrinous Pericarditis,

Aneurism of Aorta,.

Acute Endocarditis,

Valvular disease of the Heart,

Fatty Degeneration of the Heart,. Thrombosis of Portal vein,

(c.) Of the Respiratory System :- Acute Bronchitis,. Chronic Bronchitis, Congenital Atelectasis, Gangrene of Lung,

Abscess of Lung,..

Acute Lobar Pneumonia,

Broncho-pneumonia,

Phthisis,

Acute Pleurisy,

4

..11

2

.22

.74

1

4

1

.14

.16

64

1

1

2

1

20

6

I

2

2

1

...

1

2

62

63

64

5

1

1

Empyema,

Emphysema,.

Cancer of Lung,

(d.) Of the Digestive System:-

Intestinal Obstruction,..

Intussusception,

Appendicitis (Septic),

Strangulated Inguinal Hernia, Acute Peritonitis,

Acute Yellow Atrophy of Liver, Abscess of Liver,..

Cirrhosis of Liver,

e.) Of the Urinary System :-

Acute Parenchymatous Nephritis, Chronic Interstitial Nephritis,.... Tubercular Kidney,

Pyonephrosis,

Peri-nephritic Abscess,

....

1

1

1

2

2

Ι

2

1

00 10

8

5

1

1

·

1

(f) of the Generative System :-

Accidental Hæmorrhage,. Post-Partum Hæmorrhage,. Salpingo-Oophoritis,

(g.) Of the Ductless Glands :

Peri-Splenic Abscess,

1. General :-Multiple,

386

Table III-INJURIES.

143

1

3

Suffocation :—

(a.) From Submersion,

11

(b.) From Strangulation,

2

(c.) From Gaseous Poisons,

1

2. Local:-

Of the Head:-

Fracture of Skull,

Gunshot wound of Skull,

6

1

Of the Chest :--

Stab wounded of Heart,

1

Of the Abdomen:-

Rupture of Spleen,

Rupture of Intestine,

1

1

Of the Limbs :

Wound of Femoral Artery,

1

Table IV.-NATIONALITY OF BODIES BROUGHT TO THE PUBLIC MORTUARY,

KOWLOON, DURING THE YEAR.

Chinese,

Europeans,

Indians,.

Eurasian,

;

.793

5

3

1

802

WILLIAM B. A. MOORE.

:

387

Annexe K.

REPORT OF THE GOVERNMENT ANALYST.

CLASSIFICATION OF ANALYSES.

The number of analyses performed was 618.

The following classification shows the nature of the work done:—

I.-Chemico-legal.

Toxicological, (including 12 stomachs),.

Articles for stains,

No. of Articles

examined.

42

64

II.-Potable Waters.

Public Supplies,

Wells, etc.,

48

42

III.-Dangerous Goods Ordinance.

Petroleum Oil,

...168

Liquid fuel,

Rackarock,

15

1

....

Matches,

15

Chartreuse, Brandy, Flour, Lemonade,

Milk, Whisky, Rum,

Soda Water,

Beer,

Butter,

Cement,. Mortars, Paint,

IV-Food and Drugs Ordinance.

V.-Building Materials.

1

7

2

2

62

7

4

3

12

9

18

3

5

Opium covering,

VI.-Prepared Opium Ordinance.

Opium Pills,.

Metals,

Ores,

1

7

VII.-Mineralogical, etc.

3

35

VIII.-Miscellaneous.

Coal-tar disinfectants,

6

Oils,..

3

Medicines,

Soft Soap,

Candles,....

Wall Coverings,

Paper,

Liquid, Blanket, Turpentine, Blood, Guttapercha, Cable, Mud,-

one each,

One meter, two meter-waters, three powders,

3

5

2

2

8

7

6

618

!

388

In

2. Among the chemico-legal investigations conducted during the year were 18 cases of suspected human poisoning, in six of which opium was detected. another case the poison found was prussie acid.

WATERS.

3. The results of the analyses of samples taken each month from the Pokfulum and Tytam Reservoirs, from the Kowloon service, and Cheung Sha Wan supply, indicate that these supplies continue to maintain their excellent qualities. From

time to time waters from places in China have been sent for examination. When- ever such have been proved to be unwholesome, a recommendation has been made (when no good source has been available), that the polluted water should not be used for potable purposes until after boiling, and in time of epidemic should be rendered still more safe by conversion after boiling into lemon water. For doubt- ful water another purifier has recently been receiving attention. This agent is copper, a minute quantity of which has been shown by several observers to be efficacious in destroying cholera and typhoid bacilli in water. At the same time

the quantity of copper used is so small as to be quite tasteless and in no way dele- terious to the systein. KRAEMER, writing in the "Chemical News" of August 4th, 1905, states that to obtain sterilised water he places a strip of clean sheet copper, nine inches square in three to four quarts of water and allows it to remain from four to eight hours, and then pours off the water. He mentions that such coppered water has been consumed by himself and by several families for more than six months with no injurious effect whatever. KRAEMER's paper also mentions that when copper foil is allowed to remain in distilled water from one to five minutes, it has been shown that sufficient copper is dissolved to kill typhoid organisms within two hours. Some experiments have been made in this laboratory so as to see whether this simple process can be recommended to those who by stress of circumstance or situation are in doubt about their water supply.

The following results expressed in grains per gallon, were obtained with water of various qualities using sheet copper in the proportion of 80 square inches to one gallon :-

Distilled water after five minutes' treatment was found to contain th of a grain of copper. Four waters of undoubted purity after four hours' treatment each contained th of a grain, and after 20 hours th of a grain of copper. Two bad waters contained th and 12th of a grain, respectively, after eight hours and 4th and 4th of a grain after 24 hours. It will therefore be seen that if copper be used in the proportion above stated, and allowed to remain in any water from four to eight hours, there is no fear of the presence of a poisonous amount of copper. The copper sheet must be bought from a European house as pure copper. Chinese yellow metal should not be used..

Copper should be very useful in this Colony for vegetables. KRAEMER places the lettuce, celery, or other vegetables to be eaten raw, in a vessel of water con- taining a strip of copper, for two to four hours with occasional agitation,

A good deal has been written by many observers on the effect of copper on inan, and those interested should read the paper mentioned above, but it may be said that it has been shown conclusively, that no ill effects have been noticed or are likely to be noticed from the consumption of water or vegetables treated as directed by copper. A personal use of such water for about a fortnight was un- dertaken to see whether there were any effects that might be worthy of notice. But the treated and untreated water were indistinguishable in taste, appearance, and palatability, and in all other essential properties.

4. Enquiries have been made as to the suitability for boiler purposes of certain waters in the Colony. Such waters although extremely soft contain a small quan- tity of silica, and it was desirable to ascertain what effect, if any, was produced on iron. Generally speaking, it may be said that all fresh water here, other than some well-waters, are very suitable for boilers.

In one particular boiler, filtered Tytam water had been used for more than 10 years, and so little had the irou of the boiler been affected, that in some places it had retained its original bloom.

N

·

389

In Tables I and II will be found particulars of the monthly analyses of the public supplies, and of other waters.

DANGEROUS GOODS ORDINANCE.

5. Of Petroleum Oil, 168 samples were tested during the year. All the samples of liquid fuel flashed at temperatures exceeding 150° F.

FOOD AND DRUGS ORDINANCE.

6. The following Table gives the results of 76 analyses made at the instance of the Police and the Sanitary Board :-

Description.

Beer, Brandy,

Milk,

Rum, Whisky,

No. of Samples.

No. found Genuine.

No. found Adulterated.

12

12

1

1

A

53

46

7

4

6

46

4

6

Many other samples were examined for the public, at the low fee prescribed by the Ordinance.

EXAMINATIONS FOR THE PUBLIC.

7. The public continue to take advantage of the Laboratory being open to undertake non-official analyses, and have forwarded a great variety of samples for examination. The fees paid into the Treasury during the year amounted to $3,118.50.

SPECIAL REPORTS.

8. Special Reports have been supplied on :-

Disinfectants.

Soft soap. Rice.

Registration of Chemists.

Disinfection of blood.

Dangerous goods :-Naphtha, Rackarock, Detonators, Calcium

carbide, l'icric acid and others.

The Prepared Opium Ordinance.

Viavi remedies.

Smoke.

Sale of Poisons.

9. The value of the year's work as determined from the tariff of fees (Govern- ment Notification No. 664 of 1901) is $7,912.50. This amount does not include anything for the special reports mentioned above, and there is much beside for which nothing has been set down.

LIBRARY.

10. A few standard works of reference have been added.

FRANK BROWNE, PH. CH., F.C.S.

390

Table I. Result of the Monthly Analyses of Hongkong Public Water Supplies.

Results expressed in Grains per Imperial Gallon, (1 in 70,000).

Total Solid!

1905.

Matter

Supply.

Month.

dried at 100° C.

Saline Chlorine. Ammo-

nia.

Albume- noid Ammo-

nia.

Oxygen absorbed in 4 hours at 80° F.

Nitrites.

in Nitrates.

Nitrogen Sugar Test for

the detection of Sewage.

Poi-

sonous Metals.

Pokfulum

6.5

.6

Absent. Absent.

.010

Absent. .008

No trace of

Absent.

Sewage indicated.

January... Kowloon

Tytam

2.4

2.9

10 10

.5

.004

Absent.

"

19

.5

.002

.012

">

""

""

Cheung

23

Sha Wan.

4.0

.5

.002

.008

33

39

>>

"

Pokfulum

7.3

.6

Tytam

3.3

February.

Kowloon

3.0

.5

610 10

.0014

.014

Absent.

""

.5

Absent.

.010

.003

>>

>>

**

""

""

29

""

.012

"

Cheung

Sha Wan.

4.7

.4

.003

Absent.

""

""

Pokfulum

5.3

.6

Tytam

3.2

.6

691

.0014

.012

.008

وو

99

29

Absent.

.003

.008

""

""

March

Kowloon

4.2

.5

.003

.024

22

""

"?

Chenng

Sha Wan.

6.7

.4

.0028

.008

.016

""

"2

Pokfulum

4.7

.6

Tytam

3.3

.6

April......

Kowloon

3.3

baa

.5

***

Absent.

.023

.016

""

.013

.008

S

>"

.003

.024

AAA

""

"

""

29

Cheung

Sha Wan,

4.2

.4

.013

.016

33

""

""

Pokfulum

4.2

.6

Tytanı ....

2.8

.6

May

Kowloon

3.0

.6

966

.014

.016

""

29

.010

.008

""

""

.003

.016

""

>>

*

""

***

Cheung

Sha Wan.

4.0

.4.

.007

.016

""

""

*"

""

""

Pokfulum

4.7

.6

Tytam

3.3

.6

June

Kowloon

3.7

.6

999

.019

""

""

""

.007

.016 .008

""

22

**

""

.003

.016

">

"

19

* A *

Cheung

Sha Wan.

4.0

.4

.010

.008

""

55

""

""

Pokfulum

4.2

.7

Tytam

4.3

.6

July

Kowloon

3.8

798

.012

.012

""

99

.008

Absent.

כי

.003

.004

"

>"

95

*A*

**

Cheung

Sha Wan.

3.8

.5

.003

.004

>>

A

Pokfulum.

4.7

Tytam

3.0

.6

August

Kowloon

3.7

.6

AAA

1706

.0014

.012

.024

""

Absent.

.005

.016

""

.003

2016

""

"

99.

"J

Cheung

Sha Wan.

4.3

.5

.005

.016

""

>>

Pokfulum

4.8

.77

Tytam

3.8

.6

September

Kowloon

3.7

Cheung

Sha Wan

4.0

793 4

.007

.016

>>

"

.002

.008

""

""

.5

.002

.012

""

""

AAA

.005

.016

""

""

35

Pokfulum

4.8

.7

Tytam

3.8.

.6

164

.011

""

19

October

Kowloon

3.7

.5

***

""

.006

""

.003

.004 Absent. .012

""

99

39

""

""

Cheung

Sha Wan. 4.2

.4

.006

Absent.

دو

A

"

??

""

Pokfulum

3.5

Tytam

3.5

November

Kowloon

3.8

795

">

""

.0014

.006 .009

.012

>>

.008

""

.5

Absent.

.006.

.012

>>

"3

AAA

"

99

"

Cheung

Sha Wan

3.7

.5

.003

""

"}

*

.008

"

"

Pokfulum

3.3

Tytam

3.7

December

Kowloon

3.3

996

.6

.008

.008

E

>>

.6

""

.6

.0014 .0014

.018 .008

.008

.016

""

* * *

""

***

Cheung

Sha Wan.

4.3

.5

.0028

.011

.008

""

99

Table II.-Result of analyses of waters from various sources.

Results expressed in Grains per Imperial Gallon (1 in 70,000).

. Date.

Situation.

Total

Solid Depth. Matter Chlorine.

Oxygen Nitrogen

Saline

Ammonia.

ilried at

noid

Ammonia.

100° C.

Albume-absorbed in 4

hours at

80° F.

in

Nitrates Nitrites. and

Nitrites.

Sugar Test for the Detection of Sewage.

Poisonous

Metals.

General Remarks.

- 391 -

1905.

Jan. 10

Stream at Tai Ping Tong, (1)..

3.8

.6

Absent.

.0042

.008

.012

10

Do.

Absent. No Sewage indicated.

Absent.

""

(2)

3.7

.6

.0014

""

.006

.012

10

Do.

""

(3).

}}

">

>>

3.7

.7

.0014

.005

.016

19

99

Stream at Swatow,

"

(1).

""

""

119.0

69.3

.0070

.0042

.484

.016

31

19

Do.

>>

""

6.8

1.4

Absent.

.0014

.176 Absent.

19

Do.

""

(3)

""

5.5

.2

.0028

.144

"}

"

19

Do.

""

(4)

>>

"

11.0

2.8

.0028

.0014

.214

.004*

April 1

Well at Caroline Hill Road,

>>

14 feet.

""

18.5

4.2

.0028

.0056

.022

.444

June 21

Well at 62A, Queen's Road Central,., 13

"}

No Sewage indicated.

28.0

7.0

.0028

.0014

.013

1.036

July 13

Stream at Tai Hang,

"

4.0

.8

Absent.

.0056

.023

.032

22

""

Well situated at No. 4, Castle Road, 51 feet.

No Sewage indicated.

"}

6.5

1.5

.0028

.0056

.009

.329

31

""

Sept. 27

Water from a house at West Point,. Well at Taku Ling Police Station,

""

5.7

.6

Absent.

Absent. .012

Absent.

>>

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25 feet.

>>

Deposit of iron oxide.

16.0

6.3

.013

.350

Oct. 23

Well at Green Island, (1)

"}

""

3

10.0

.5

""

.009

Absent.

A

23

Do.

""

(2)

"

5

9.5

.5

""

.0042

.0084

.041

.024

30

Well at Ma Tau Wai, (A)

10

9.7

1.7

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.0028

.0056

.017

.144

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"}

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30

· Do.

(B)

>>

10

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[animalcula.

80

1.4.

""

.0042

.0042

.015

.230

Dec.

7

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""

>>

99,

5.0

.4

.0028

.0042

.013

.008

Do.

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(B)

>>

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5.5

"

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.0042

.0042

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.008

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>>

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.8

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>>

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392

Annexe L.

REPORT OF THE COLONIAL VETERINARY SURGEON.

GENERAL STATISTICS.

Cattle and sheep were scarcer than in 1904. This is attributed by importers to a scarcity of animals in the interior and to restrictions and duties imposed by the Chinese Government or local authorities. The stall-feeding of cattle appears to be gradually in- creasing in the neighbourhood of Canton but it is to be regretted that Manila by the induce- ment of higher prices still gets the best of the animals.

The total number of the cattle dealt with at Kennedy Town was 49,412, a decrease on 1904 of 8,993. Hunghom admitted 5,046, a decrease on 1904 of 565. This gives a total decrease over all of 9,558 cattle, as compared with 1904. The rejections as unfit for slaughter amounted at Kennedy Town to 672, against 499 in 1904. At Hung Hom 219 were rejected, against 34 in 1904, and 406 in 1903. The chief cause of rejection is simply einaciation.

DISEASES.

The following are the most noteworthy diseases met with during the year in the Depôt and Slaughter Houses.

Anthrax.-Four cases occurred, one each in January, April, May and July. In all cases but one the animals (cattle) were imported suffering from the disease, and died within twenty-four hours after landing. In the remaining case the animal, a bullock, had been in the Depôt for ten days. Infection is supposed to have been conveyed in the fodder though direct proof is wanting.

Hæmorrhagic Septicemia.-There was only one outbreak when thirteen cattle in all were attacked. Of these, five died and eight recovered. The disease was of a milder type than that met with in former years and did not extend beyond the lot first attacked.

Foot-and-Mouth Disease. This disease is practically always present in the Depôts and is freshly imported with almost every lot of cattle. It is always of a mild type and causes, except in very young calves, little or no constitutional disturbance.

Tuberculosis.-There were no cases seen in Chinese cattle. Only one case was met with in a European cow at the Slaughter House and the chief interest in this case lies in the fact that apart from the commoner lesions seen in the viscera, the meninges of the brain round the base, under part of the cerebellum, and medulla, were sprinkled over with small tubercular nodules about the size of a mustard seed. The animal had shown brain symptoms before slaughter but was otherwise in good condition.

PARASITES.

Parasites are daily met with and often in considerable numbers. In addition to those mentioned in former reports the following have been noted :--

Distomum Pancreaticum.—This distome is found in the pancreatic ducts of Chinese cattle and water buffaloes. It appears to cause little alteration in the substance of the gland. The ducts became dilated and are at times so packed full of the parasite as to appear like dilated and tortuous veins running through the substance of the gland. The presence of the parasite even in large numbers appears to have very little effect on the general health of the animal infested. This parasite closely resembles in size and appearance the Distomum Lanceolatum of the liver of the ox and sheep.

Distomum Crassum.-This distome was found in the intestine and stomach of the pig but seldom in large numbers. Three to ten or twelve were usually seen.

Echinorynchus Gigas.-This is a round worm found in the intestine of the pig. Its anterior end is furnished with powerful spines by means of which it fixes itself to the wall of the intestine producing a deep ulcer which often extends into the muscular coat of the bowel. It seems to attain an especially large size in Hongkong frequently measuring nine- teen inches in length and as thick as a common lead-pencil.

HONGKONG.

No.

11

• 1906

A RESEARCH

INTO THE

ETIOLOGY OF

BERI-BERI

TOGETHER WITH A REPORT ON AN OUTBREAK IN THE PO-LEUNG-KUK,

BY

WILLIAM HUNTER,

Government Bacteriologist

AND

WILFRED V. M. KOCH,

Medical Officer in charge

Infectious Diseases Hospitals,

Hongkong.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of

His Excellency the Governor.

PRINTED BY NORONHA & Co.,

Government Printers.

1906.

܂

CONTENTS.

1. Introductory Letter.

2. Outbreak of Beri-beri in the Po Leung Kuk.

3. The Prevalence of Beri-beri in Hongkong.

4. Pathological Anatomy.

5. Bacteriology.

6. Experimental Researches.

125

1.-INTRODUCTORY LETTER.

HONGKONG, 29th December, 1905.

SIR. We have the honour to forward, for the information of His Excellency The Governor, the following Report on our Researches into the Etiology of Beri-beri.

Beri-beri is a disease which is widespread in the Colony of Hongkong, and like many other disorders of widespread distribution is responsible for enormous national loss from an economic standpoint. A disease, occurring as it does in human beings during the most strenuous and wage-earning period of life, becomes of serious importance in a community like our own, where our commercial pros- perity is largely dependent on the momentum for labour bestowed on it by the Chinese coolie who, unfortunately, is only too frequently its victim. Its import- ance from this point of view, as well as its power of rendering helpless many of the hard working natives of several of our prosperous Colonies, is at once apparent to any one sufficiently interested in the voluminous literature on Beri-beri and the numerous scientific memoirs published by eminent investigators belonging to the many unfortunate commissions which have been organised with the view of elucidating its etiology, and instituting measures likely to stay its march amongst the Oriental population.

3. In Hongkong where Beri-beri manifests its presence by the occurrence of the severest as well as the most chronic varieties of the disorder, opportunities for a careful study of the disease are obviously many. It was therefore considered that an investigation into the obscurities of Beri-beri as met with in Hongkong might well repay the labour of an earnest research. With a Bacteriologist in the Colony well equipped with scientific apparatus and a laboratory, and the assistance of another Medical Officer, the disease could be investigated fully from ali points of view. Accordingly on arrangements having been made with the Government to start such an investigation, we drew out a plan of research, which appeared to us to afford the greatest hope of success in elucidating the etiological factor of the disease.

4. Our plan consisted of a thorough revision of the already known facts regarding the clinical and pathological features of the disease, accompanied by a searching investigation into the bacteriological side of the question and the carry- ing on of animal experiments on a hitherto unequalled scale.

5. For the opportunities afforded us in making these experimental researches a success our sincere thanks are due to the munificence of the Government and the ever-helping hand of the several Medical Officers of the Medical Department. Without such assistance the following Report could not have been made so com- plete and convincing as regards certain points of great importance in its etiology.

6. Further, considerable delay has been occasioned in the completion of the Report, our aim being to gather as much information together as possible, and to reconsider and verify many of the conclusions which had been collected by us during the earlier stages of our investigations.

7. Our actual research work commenced in the month of September, 1904. This date was chosen as one particularly favourable for a general consideration of the disease from all points of view, owing to the prevalence of a sharp but short ontbreak of Beri-beri among the inmates of the Po Leung Kuk.

8. Previous to this date a considerable amount of work on Beri-beri was constantly being prosecuted at the Public Mortuary, where annually 400-500 cases of the disease are examined post-mortem and records of the most nots- worthy features kept for reference. In addition to this, the bacteriology of the Beri-beri cadavers was studied from time to time. The results of these annual observations are embodied as far as possible in this Report.

26

126

9. With the advent of the outbreak of Beri-beri in the Po Leung Kuk oŭr studies commenced, and the research was started from every point of view. The inmates of this Institution were removed and segregated, and their clinical con- dition noted daily. The treatment of these cases, as well as the prophylaxis against its further prevalence, is given in the preliminary part of our Report.

10. Subsequently the Institution was placed at our disposal, and with a little assistance the Po Leung Kuk was soon converted into an excellent experimental, compound with the virus of the disease presumably working in the immediate vicinity.

11. Furthermore, the inmates of the Tung Wah Hospital suffering from Beri-beri were also at our disposal, and had it not been for the generous supply of cases the material used for our bacteriological and experimental escarches would have suffered much depreciation.

12. We feel that we are deeply indebted to the Directors of the Tung Wah Hospital and the Po Leung Kuk respectively for the assistance they gave us in our work and the free access to, and utilisation of, the cases they afforded us.

13. The first part of this Report deals with the outbreak of Beri-beri in the Po Leung Kuk: the next part treats of certain points in the disease as regards its incidence with reference to (1); Age, (2) Sex, (3) Occupation-its diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, etc.

14. The pathological section of the Report deals fully with the gross anatomy of Beri-beri cadavers. The œdematous and atrophic forms are dealt with under separate headings, and are presumably clear enough to afford one a picture of the morbid anatomy. The microscopic anatomy has not been investigated to any great extent. The literature on this question alone is voluminous, and so far investigation along these lines have led to no advance regarding the causation of the disease. The descriptions given recently by HAMILTON WRIGHT, MOTT and others are sufficiently extensive and minute to gratify even the most curious of pathologists.

15. The most interesting feature of this part of the Report is the question as to the presence of a primary lesion in Beri-beri. Medical papers at the present time are full of Beri-beri, and one of the most widely discussed questions in this connection is whether there exists in Beri-beri a primary gastro-duodenitis, the premonitory syndrome of Hamilton Wright. According to our results such a lesion does not exist. Gastric and duodenal changes, and indeed occasionally changes of variable pathological degree of the entire small gut are often found in Beri-beri cadavers. These however do not appear to be primary and the sat of primary election of the so-called virus of Beri-beri. Congestions, hæetnorrhages, oedematous infiltrations and even patches of necrosis have often been found in the gastro-duo- denal mucosa, but that these are due to the actual Beri-beri virus we have reason to doubt. Microscopically the changes found are difficult to class with active inflammation as found in diphtheria. They resemble more closely the changes consequent upon passive hyperæmia and congestion set up by precedent nerve degeneration. Arguing, a posteriori, little weight is to be given to the changes found in the alimentary canal, and our observations in this respect are more or less in accord with the recent investigations of DURHAM who lately studied Beri- beri in Christmas Island and the Federated Malay States.

16. The bacteriological investigations which have been made during the re- search were many, and of a varied character. Almost every tissue and fluid of the bodies of cases of Beri-beri have been submitted to a searching examination by almost all the methods available for the isolation of specific micro-organisms. On referring to this part of the Report in detail, it will be seen that we found it im- nossible to find any micro-organism which could be brought into causal relation- shy with the disease. Again and again cocc', bacteria, etc., could be obtained from Beriberi patients or fresh cadavers. These were of the same nature as the micro- organisms isolated by other workers. Detailed bacteriological work and experi- ments proted, however, that such micro-organisms have nothing to do with the

127

production of the discase, and in the light of our present micro-biological know- ledge must be regarded as extraneous organisms isolated and fully described by investigators using somewhat defective technique.

17. The bacteriological examination of WRIGHT'S So-called primary lesion, i.e., damaged gastro duodenal mucosa resulted in the isolation of many rod-shaped bac- tería, the biology of which shewed them to be nothing more or less than ordinary intestinal micro-organisms. In summing up our bacteriological results, our inves- tigations strongly point to the conclusion that Beri-beri is not due to any micro- organism of the hitherto described types. Indeed we doubt if the disease is an acute specific infectious disorder. So far our results are against its being so.

18. Coming to the experimental part of the Report, the results of our attempts to induce the disease in any of the common domestic animals are decidedly a failure. In no single instance, out of over 50 miscellaneous experiments upon monkeys, pigs, calves, sheep, fowls, rabbits, etc., were we able to call forth even the shadow of a symptom or sign of Beri-beri.

19. Comparing the results of these experiments with the series carried out by DURHAM who also had negative results, it would appear that it is impossible to convey Beri-beri directly from man to animals. So far as published records are concerned, monkeys are the only animals which appear to have contracted the disease, and then only under natural conditions. These the experiments of HAMILTON WRIGHT and published in a recent number of " Brain"-however, are isolated observations, and judging from the recent remarks of DURHAM in the "Journal of Hygiene" some doubt would appear to exist as to the real condition of the monkeys described by WRIGHT as suffering from Beri-beri.

20. The question as to whether any animal can contract Beri-beri direct from man, or indirectly through some other channel must remain open. Our own opinion is decidedly against the conveyance from man to animals. With the exception of HAMILTON WRIGHT'S experiments which must be received with due caution, there are no reliable records of Beri-beri in animals. Indeed it would be difficult to experiment along these lines with hope of success in the absence of the etiological factor and its point of invasion of the body.

21. Our experimental researches bring us further along the line of our con- clusions as to the non-micro-organismal nature of Beri-beri. Up to the present time none of our researches have guided us to form a conclusion that it is a specific infectious disease. Indeed all the evidence contained in this Report is against such a conclusion.

22. The premises upon which we built up such a statement so antagonistic to the theories of HAMILTON WRIGHT are the following:-

(a.) There is no evidence of a primary lesion, i.e., a point of invasion of the virus into the body. This however carries with it little weight as many specific infectious disease have a somewhat cryptogenous point of entry

into the human tissues.

(b.) No specific micro-organisms can be found in any organ or tissue of any case of Beri-beri which can be brought into close causal relationship with the disease. The micro-organisms found in WRIGHT's so-called primary gastro duodenitis are to be regarded as ordinary bacteria be- longing to the intestinal flora."

(c) Experimental researches are negative. The blood contains no organisms and the transference of large quantities of Beri-beri blood to the tissues of healtly animals never induces disease.

Similar results are obtainable with the spleen, liver, brain, etc.

When we come to the gastro duodenal mucosa as found in acute and rapidly fatal cases of Beri-beri and use an emulsion of this for feeding monkeys-animals said by WRIGHT to contract Beri-beri naturally-and obtain uniformly negative results, our faith becomes somewhat shaken in the micro-organismal nature or the specific infectivity of Beri-beri.

2-

128

23. In conclusion, the results of our researches are directly opposed to those of HAMILTON WRIGHT, and in more or less harminoy with those of DURHAM.

24. Of late years a considerable diversity of opinion would appear to prevail as to the isolation of Beri-berics and the treatment of Beri-beri cadavers. From our researches we can see no valid reason to suppose that in Beri-beri we are deal- ing with a highly infectious disease. Indeed beyond the removal of such patients to surroundings light and airy, with the regulation of a liberal and wholesome diet nothing more would be required to add to the sum total of the necessary sanitation.

As regards the burial of Beri-berics, this, in our opinion, is of no vast import- ance apart from the question of the decomposition of the body. If provision during burial is made for rapid decomposition, as now laid down by all hygienists, no danger will accrue.

25. Having summed up the results of our investigations into this interesting disease it but remains to speculate, on a theory as to its etiology. In these days everyone strives to have a theory in regard to the etiology of a disease like Beri- beri. Whether such a course is advisable, in the absence of any definite data, we leave open for speculation.-We have, etc.,

The Hon. The Principal Civil Medical Officer.

W. HUNTER,

W. V. M. KOCH.

:

129

2.—AN OUTBREAK OF BERI-BERI IN

THE PO LEUNG KUK.

About the middle of the year 1901 a slight outbreak of Beri-beri occurred among the inmates of the Po Leung Kuk. This is an institution situated in the midst of the Chinese quarter of Victoria, Hongkong, and is intended for the re- ception of women and girls who are suspected to have been kidnapped or to have been brought into the Colony for immoral purposes, or who may for some other reason require protection. They are detained here until enquiries are completed regarding their case, and are then released. Owing sometimes to difficulty in these investigations it may happen that the detention of some of the inmates, and indeed it may be of most of them, is prolonged for months. Thus the number in residence may reach a high figure, on one or two occasions amounting to 92.

The Buildings.

The main building consists of a solidly built brick and stone building two stories high, opening on to a narrow courtyard about 10 feet wide, and guarded by a high wall. The upper two stories are used as dormitories, of which there are two on each floor; the ground floor is occupied by two rooms, one used as a dining-room, the other as a day-room, and a small kitchen and a lavatory. The dormitories are large, high rooms opening by doors on to a narrow verandah on the inner side over the courtyard, and on the outer side built solidly up to the roof. High up from the floor and beyond reach of the inmates, small windows are let in, well guarded. At right angles to this building and facing another street is an annexe containing two large dormitories, one above the other. Although these open on to the street they are dark and cheerless rooms.

During the months that this outbreak prevailed the population was dense. We find on examining the Register that the population varied during each month in the following manner :-

In January there were resident from: ......37-53

February,

March,

April,.

May,..

June,

July,

August,

September,

October,

November,

December,

37-52

.40-63

46-59

43-74

47-65

62-75

.51-92

3761

49-64

.51-65

.48-63

Measurement of Rooms.

The following measurements have been courteously supplied us by the Me- dical Officer of Health :-

Room I. Ground floor-

Floor area, 401 sq. ft.

Cubic contents, 5,654 cub, ft.

Window area (courtyard), 72 sq. ft.

Do. (street),

Room II. Ground Floor--

Floor area, 327 sq. ft.

281⁄2 sq. ft.

Cubic contents, 4,683 cub. ft.

Window area (courtyard), 48 sq. ft.

Do. (street), 19 sq. ft.

:

130

Room I. First Floor. Dormitory-

Floor area, 528 sq. ft.

Cubic contents, 6,441 cub. ft. Window area (front), 90

sq.

fi.

Do. (back), 45 sq. ft.

Room II. First Floor. Dormitory-

Floor area,

522 sq.

ft.

Cubic contents, 6,375 cub. ft. Window area (front), 90 sq. ft. Do. (back), 45 sq. ft.

Room I. Second Floor. Dormitory-

Floor area, 526 sq. ft.

Cubic contents. 6,683 cub. ft. Window area (front), 90 sq. ft.

Do. (back), 45 sq. ft.

Room II. Second Floor. Dormitory-

Floor area, 523 sq. fr.

Cubic contents, 6.649 cub. ft. Window area (front), 90 sq. ft. Do. (back), 45 sq. ft.

Room I. Annexe. Dormitory-

Floor area, 902 sq. ft.

Cubic contents, 8.305 cub. ft.

Window

area, 223 sq.

ft.

Room II. Annexe. Dormitory-

Floor area, 902 sq. ft.

Cubic contents, 8,020 cub. ft.

Window area, 223 sq. ft.

Ventilation.

All the rooms of the main building open out on to the verandahs which overhang the small narrow courtyard, the wall on the other side of which rises to a level with the floor of the second story. Small windows are let into the wall rising on the street The annexe has a verandah on each floor facing the street. These are closely barred and give on to a courtyard which serves as a waiting-room for the out-patients of the Tung Wah Hospital, which is also shut in by a high wall. The other side of these dormitories of the annexe consists of a solid wall, having a door at the southern end. As these buildings are placed among a crowd of others, many of which overshadow them in height, and narrow streets bound them on two sides only, scarcely ever does a good breeze blow through them, nor are the means of ventilation sufficient. To this may be added the fact that owing to the plan of construction and the surroundings the sun's rays never seem able to penetrate beyond the courtyard. They certainly do not flood the rooms, they scarcely ever reach them. When the sun shines highly in Hong- kong it may be able to warm and to purify the air that reaches the Po Leung Kuk, but when the weather is wet, and the days dark, moist and gloomy, these rooms present a dismal and cheerless appearance which indicates a vitiated atmosphere, and suggests a nidus of disease. And such days in Hongkong are not remarkable for their rarity during some parts of the year.

The Beginning of the Outbreak.

On May 14th, two of the inmates, aged respectively 19 and 18 years, complain- ed of numbness in the legs, weakness and difficulty in walking. They were exa- mined and were found to be suffering from Beri-beri, and were transferred for treatment to the Tung Wah Hospital. The first had been in residence from April 22nd,-23 days: the second from March 14th,-62 days. Then a lull of a little more than a fortnight occurred, and two more were attacked-they had been in residence since the previous November. Then four more were attacked in June- on the 4th, 6th, 16th and 23rd. They had been in residence from three to two months.

7

131

Preventive Measures adopted.

These cases having occurred, though they only numbered eight up to now, led to measures being taken for the thorough and complete disinfection of the buildings. This was carefully done by the staff of the Sanitary Board, and the walls were completely lime-washed thereafter, and the floors scrubbed with a solu- tion of strong carbolic acid.

Inefficacy of these Measures: Spread of the Disease.

These measures did not prove effective, for after 25 days cases began to break out again, and apparently followed each other with some rapidity. Four cases occurred in July on the 17th, 19th, 25th and 31st. In August fourteen cases occurred two on the 9th. seven on the 15th, and five on the 30th. In September three cases occurred on the 7th, two on the 19th, and one on the 27th. Then there was a lull.

Further Steps to stay the Outbreak.

Early in September this outbreak was represented to the Hon. The Principal Civil Medical Officer, and its gravity pointed out. Upon his recommendation His Excellency The Governor was pleased to appoint us a Commission to investigate this outbreak, and also to make such investigations into the disease as might tend towards elucidating certain points, notably its causation. On our re- commendation the Committee of the Po Leung Kuk conferred with the Committee of the Tung Wah Hospital, and were able to arrange to transfer all the inmates from the former to the latter institution, where they were accommodated in two large airy well ventilated and sunlit wards. Upon this transfer taking place the premises of the Po Leung Kuk were handed over to us for purposes of investiga- tion. On the completion of the greater part of the experimental portion of our work, the building was again disinfected on three several days, was lime and colour-washed, painted, and then handed over for occupation.

Symptoms of the Disease.

The disease as it affected these patients was of a very mild nature. The earliest symptom noticed was numbness of the legs, which generally extended from the dorsum of the foot upwards as high as the knee. The numbness was seldom evenly distributed, and did not always exactly follow the distribution of the cutaneous nerves of sensation. Soon after this, or almost coincident with its onset, there occurred pain and tenderness on pressure over the calf muscles, and then weakness of the legs set in. This was of varying degree, in some cases shewn only by slight difficulty in walking, in others reaching such an extreme degree as to render the patient completely bedridden. Between these extremes there occurred almost every degree of interference with locomotion. In the slighter degrees there was only slight paresis of the calf muscles-in the severer cases there was paralysis leading to ankledrop. Together with this there was loss of ankle clonus, and generally in all the cases loss of knee-jerk. The muscles of the thigh sometimes manifested tenderness on pressure. Generally there was some cedema perceptible over the tibia, but this seldom reached any great degree. In three cases there was some numbness over the hands and fingers. Apart from these cases the upper extrem- ities did not shew any sign of being affected, nor was any part of the trunk affect- ed. The weakness in the legs which the patients complained of was noticeable in the gait. Where the weakness was slight she would, shuffle along planting the feet somewhat widely apart and taking deliberate steps, watching the floor carefully to avoid a fall. In more severe cases she would try to obtain assistance by guid- ing herself along the wall, or by holding on to the bed. In still more severe cases she would use one or two crutches, and the steps would be taken with an equine, high-stepping gait, the legs being helpless and out of control-resembling a pair of flails and planted with care and deliberation though accompanied with some amount of inco-ordination. The action now was practically only confined to flexion of the thigh by the Psoas and Iliacus muscles. In the worst cases-and there were only four such-the patients were completely bedridden, and apparently to them only remained the power of flexion of the thigh on the abdomen. In such cases the accompanying anesthesia was profound and extended as high as the groin.

132

Sometimes tingling and formication were present, and muscular tenderness was invariably present. Rapid wasting of the leg and thigh muscles occurred, together with loss of subcutaneous fat leading to a loss of rotundity and symmetry of the limb, and to a flabby "hanging" condition of the muscles. Appreciation of heat and cold was always present. In two cases the nerve symptoms were ushered in by a slight elevation of temperature which lasted a few days, and which was never of high degree. These were the only cases in which any elevation of temperature was present: in all the other cases the temperature remained steadily at the normal or perhaps may have varied about half a degree (Fahren- heit) above and below the normal. The digestive system in this series of cases was seldom deranged-the tongue was generally clean, the action of the bowels normal, the function of digestion performed normally, and there was no vomiting. As regards the circulatory system there was nearly always some cardiac debility, and in a few instances this was associated with a slight amount of dilatation of the cavities of the heart. There were no murmurs, however, except occasionally a pulmonary systolic blowing murmur propagated up the neck. The action of the heart was not "wobbly ", and did not suggest that the vagus had given it a loose rein. There was sometimes slight palpitation-never to any un- comfortable or extreme extent. The pulse was regular, of normal tension, beating between 80 and 100 beats, per minute. There was no suggestion in it of undue weakness. The respiratory system shewed no marked change the lungs were not affected but in some instances the respiratory act was somewhat accelerated and shallow. There was no irregularity. The urinary system was not affected-urine was passed freely, of normal quantity, and free from albumin: there was no excess of urates and the chlorides were not increased in quantity. The menstrual func- tion was in about half the cases interfered with in the direction of suppression : in other cases it was normal and regular, and there was no dysmenorrhoea at any time. The nevous system, apart from what has been noted above, was not affected. The pupils shewed no irregularity. They were always equal and reacted normally to light and accommodation. As regards the cutaneous system, in some cases there was a condition of dryness of the skin to such a degree as to be alınost patho- logical. The sweat glands seemed arrested in their action. Apart from the nervous symptoms in the lower extremity, the most prominent sign to be noticed was a condition of anæmia. This generally became more performed in proportion to the severity of the Beri-beri symptoms. Together with the diminution in the percentage of hæmoglobin, in some cases to 40, 30 or less, there was diminution in the number of red blood corpuscles to less than three millions, and an increase in the number of leucocytes to twelve or fourteen thousand. Of these there was a steady increase in the number of mononuclears and polymorphonuclears the eosi- nophiles rose to about double the normal, and normoblasts were to be occasionally seen. This condition of anæmia was indicated plainly, not only by the pallor of the palpebral conjunctiva and the shallow, and in some instances, hurried respi- rations, but also by the pulmonary murmur which was undoubtedly hæmic in origin.

The Diagnosis.

The symptoms which have been detailed above are practically all that were present and from a consideration of them it will be seen that all the cases were of a mild nature. The question arises then of the diagnosis of the disease. Into that it is not proposed to enter at length in this section. But it may be stated that the diagnosis was guided by the rapid and sudden onset of sensory derangements confined principally to the lower extremities, accompanied by hyperesthesia of the musculature and followed by wasting: all this leading to difficulty in locomotion amounting in some extreme cases to complete paraplegia, necessitating guidance and assistance with the hands, or with sticks or crutches. Together with this, cedema of greater or less anount and extent principally confined to the area over the tibia was present. These symptoms occurring in a building ill-ventilated and remote from the sun's rays, generally damp, dark and sometimes overcrowded, and rapidly attack- ing one after another of a population stagnating in it for months without outdoor exercise and without an opportunity of breathing the fresh outer air-a population that is free of the vice of alcohol and of the taint of syphilis-such symptoms occurring in this Colony can only point to Beri-beri-very mild it is true, but still it is Beri-beri.

133

Probable Causation.

We do not here intend to discuss any of the theories regarding the causation of Beri-beri in general, but merely wish to call attention to a few points in con- nection with this particular outbreak. The predisposing causes we can point to fairly clearly. The disease broke out among an overcrowded, stagnant population resident in a building which we consider is ill-ventilated, and in addition is damp and ineffectually sunned. This much is easy of assertion and of proof. When however we come to consider what may be the exciting cause or causes we under- take a more difficult task. For we are unable to assign a cause to the outbreak. We can only point to the fact that when the conditions of residence were amelior- ated the discase ceased spreading. As soon as the inmates were removed to the large, airy wards of the Tung Wah Hospital the incidence of the disease was arrest- ed. Only two wards were occupied and the inmates crowded into them-but these were large, airy wards with wide doors on every side and the sun's rays pe- netrated into them all day. The food remaining the same in both establishments; it is perhaps a question whether it acts as a factor in causation, and if it does whether it requires certain conditions of crowding and surrounding to bring it into play. With this particular outbreak it was noticed that the patients improved on transfer, and that only one or two fresh cases occurred after transfer these pro- bably incubating at that particular period.

Prognosis.

With such mild, and mildly severe cases, the prognosis is invariably favour- able. Of the 32 patients attacked all recovered except one. This patient had a rather more severe attack than the others. She quickly lost the power of move- ment and became confiued to bed. The oedema of the legs became more pro- nounced and after a time the heart began to act badly-dilatation shewed itself, and after a time she contracted subacute pneumonia to which she sucumbed. Favourable points in prognosis are mildness of attack, as evidenced by power of locomotion if even slight, non involvement of the heart, and a moderate degree of anæmia. Then also the prognosis is most favourably influenced by prompt re- moval from the premises in which the disease developed or manifested itself-and removal if possible to well ventilated, sunny, airy premises.

Period of Incubation.

There is a diversity of opinion regarding the duration of the period of incu- bation of the disease, and in this series of cases also we meet with extremes. Assuming that the disease was contracted within the building, and that the infect- ion was present or developed therein, we can calculate the length of time the pa- tient was subjected to its influence before manifesting the earliest symptoms. And this period we might assume to be the period of incubation. From such an estimation we set a variation between a maximum period of 200 days in one case, and a minimum of 23 days in another. Between these periods we have varying periods-lengthy in some cases, such as 184, 147, 119, 117 and 131 days and com- paratively short in others, such as 31, 53, 63 and 68 days. Calculating an average from these periods we set a period of 84 days, which we might call the period of incubation. [This of course only applies to this particular series of very inild cases in very acute cases the incubation period has been known to be not much more than 40-50 hours].

During this period the symptoms are apparently very trifling and not such as to lead the patient to make any complaint nor such as to cause any inconvenience. Perhaps slight digestive disturbances or slight palpitation may be forerunners : certainly a condition of anæmia supervenes. Sometimes amenorrhoea may occur which in young females should lead to a suspicion of the cause, especially in a loca- lity where the disease is endemic. So that it may be said that the incubation period is prolonged, the symptoms vague and indefinite, leading to the conclusion that the poison is slow working, and its result cumulative.

134

Age Incidence.

In considering this we must have in mind the fact that the inmates of the Institution are for the most part adults. It would appear to especially affect those between the ages of 15 and 25. In point of fact most cases occurred between the ages of 15 and 20-three occurred earlier, namely, one at 3 years of age, and two at 14, and no cases were seen in those over 25 years of age. No conclusions may be definitely drawn from these figures except perhaps that when the disease occurs among the female sex those between the ages of 15 and 25 are principally affected.

Duration of the Disease under Treatment.

The disease is as a rule very slow in resolving itself. This points to a dege- neration of the nerve trunks and the muscles. Regeneration takes a prolonged time. The establishment of the path is first effected. and then after an appreciable period its conductivity becomes restored. This process takes a prolonged time to be accomplished, and considering the lengthy period during which treatment must be undergone it is doubtful whether any method of treatment is to be regarded as specific. In this series of cases the average length of time devoted to treatment before the patient was pronounced cured was 98 days :-17 of the cases remained under treatment from 117 to 156 days, 6 cases for the following periods, namely, 11, 20, 31, 21, 21, 16 days, and the remainder from 50-100 days. We might infer that except in the mildest cases treatment is not effective, that cases run their course, and arrive at a natural resolution-that is, that regeneration of the damaged nerves and muscles takes place in its own appointed time, and that gradually thereafter conductivity becomes established leading to a righting of the sensory and motor functions.

The one case that succumbed was of a rather more advanced nature than the others. She developed more ædema of the feet and legs; the nervous apparatus of the circulatory and respiratory systems became more profoundly affected, leading to vaso motor paralysis and to consequent infiltration of the tissues, among which the lung became affected, and a sub-acute condition of pneumonia supervened. She was under treatment for 50 days.

Incidence with reference to Occupation.

The occupation of all these patients was returned as "destitute ", a vague term which comprises many conditions in life. Some of them were occupied in house- hold duties-not the majority of them; some were looked after by parents or guardians and did no work; a few enjoyed a considerable latitude in their mode of life. In this particular series of cases it could not be said that occupation in any way modified the incidence of the disease. The conditions that existed were eminently favourable for the development of Beri-beri, and it was a coincidence that the building was inhabited by these women at the time.

The Treatment.

There being no specific for Beri-beri, treatment was mainly directed towards keeping up the strength of the patient, and towards alleviating any special symp- toms which arose.

As soon as the diagnosis was made the patient was put upon a mixture con- taining strychnine, arsenic and iron. If the pulse was weak, digitalis or stro- phanthus was added, and sometimes ether and ammonia given as well. Together with this routine treatinent, massage was carried out in every case-either with the bare hand, or with a stimulating embrocation. This was found to be especially effective in removing the oedema and in maintaining the nourishment of the nus- cles. When symptoms of dyspepsia were present the usual hospital mixtures were administered, namely, soda and rhubarb, bismuth and pepsin, hydrochloric acid and nux vomica, and so on. For any pain over the heart or palpitation, a mustard poultice or a belladonna plaster was applied. Any diarrhoea on the rare occasions it appeared was checked with chalk and bael.

135

The paresis and paralysis of the muscles were improved by steady and assi- -duous massage.

No bed sores occurred, or such atrophy of the muscles as to lead to con-

tracture.

The food remained the same throughout -rice, vegetables, salt-fish, salt-pork, condiments, etc.-the usual Chinese meals.

What undoubtedly proved the most effective means of treatment was the re- moval of the patient to the Tung Wah Hospital, and this measure was also effective in arresting the further spread of the disease, for, together with the patients all the other inmates were removed, and they mingled.freely with each other, sharing the same rooms, meals, etc. No isolation was attempted, yet the outbreak

was arrested.

W

:

136

3. THE PREVALENCE OF BERI-BERI IN HONGKONG.

The Tung Wah Hospital in this Colony has been founded by the Chinese community and is carried on by them exclusively for their fellow-countrymen, who are freely admitted to its privileges without payment. Owing to this, and also to the fact that they may have their choice of Western or of Chinese methods of treatment, the sick fully avail themselves of the benefits afforded. Thus, con- sidering the out-patient department, and the number of in-patients admitted annually, we are enabled to form some fairly accurate idea of the prevalence of various forms of disease among the Chinese community. For this reason we ven- ture to think that an analysis of the statistics of this hospital with special reference to Beri-beri will prove instructive, not only as affording an index of its prevalence in the Colony, but also as regards certain other points, namely, its incidence amongst the different classes, its age incidence, its mortality and its diagnosis.

We have prepared an analysis of the cases admitted during the ten years, 1895-1904, being the years when a register was kept under Government inspect- ion, and an accurate record inade of the diagnosis.

The Admissions.

During this period the number of admissions has been high, and a regular and steady increase has been maintained each year as follows:-

Admissions:-1895,

...

1896,

1897, 1898, 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904,

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Males.

117

136

...

166

...

...

...

...

162 265

335 390

409

265 667

·

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Total,

...

...

2,912

...

...

Females.

1

13

...

15

8

...

.. 16

25

...

27

...

12

...

17

72

206

[N.B. In the Table shewing the Aggregate Admissions month by month the total number of males admitted is set down as 2,890-the difference, represent- ing 22, being males admitted in the first half of 1895, no note being entered in the Register of the month of admission.]

It will be noticed that there was a steady increase in the number of males admitted during the first four years of the period. There was then a sudden leap representing an increase of 103 in 1899. Thereupon a steady and progressive increase occurred until 1902, then as suddenly there was a drop of 144 in 1903, and the highwater mark was reached in 1904 with 667 admissions. Of those cases admitted in 1904, viz., 739, there were admitted from Singapore 50, from South Africa (repatriated coolies from the Transvaal) 40, from l'eru 4, Siam 3, and from Manila and Canton 1 each-the remainder were residents of the Colony. Even deducting these 99, we have a total of 640 admitted who were resident in the Colony and presumably contracted the disease here.

The admission rate of the females was not high, and there was no noteworthy ncrease until the year 1904, when a total of 72 were admitted, being a third of ithe total admissions of females during the decennium. These were all, practically, residents.

;

's

137

Comparative Incidence on the Sexes.

Males are specially affected by the disease, 2,912 being admitted as against 206 females. This gives an incidence ratio of 14 to 1. We may consider this as re- presenting fairly accurately the liability of the sexes, and may infer that the causes operative in the production of the disease are more prevalent among males rather than that females are less susceptible to it. In evidence of this statement we may point to the fact that when the disease breaks out under what we may assume to be favourable conditions, females seem to contract it very easily, as witness for example the outbreak among the inmates of the Po Leung Kuk.

The ratio of incidence for the period under analysis is as follows :-

1896,

1897,

1898,

...

·

1899,

...

Males.

10

...

11

20

...

16

...

Females.

1

1

...

...

1

...

1

1

...

1

...

1 1

]

1900,

1901, 1902, 1903, 1904,

...

...

...

...

...

...

13

14.5

34 15.5...

9.5....

When we consider the prevalence of the disease among the total population with especial reference to sex, we find the ratio as follows :-

Year.

MALFS.

No. of Cases.

Ratio.

Estimated Population.

1895,

173,500

117

1-1,483

1896,

165,499

136

1-1,217

1897,

171,558

166

1-1,033

1898,

174,624

162

1-1,078

1899,

177,748

265

1-

670

"

1900,

180,967

335

1

540

1901,

204,811

390

1

525

1902,

217,839

409

1

532

1903,

224,147

265

1-

846

1904,

249,884

617

1-405

[In the year 1904 there were 667 admissions of males-50 however being im- ported cases are omitted from this calculation].

The incidence among males is thus seen to be in the ratio of 1 to 823 of the population.

'Among the female population we find the incidence as follows:-

FEMALES.

Year.

Estimated Population.

No. of Cases.

Ratio.

1896,

61,211

13

1-4,701

1897,

63,452

15

1—1,230

1898,

64,586

8

1-8,073

1899,

65,742

16

1-4,108

1900,

66,933

25

1-2,677

1901,

75,753

27

1-2,805

1902,

76,461

12

1-6;371

1903,

82.903

17

1-4,876

1904,

92,422

72

1-1,283

The

admission

for

1895 being only 1, is not calculated.

2

>

138

This gives an average ratio of incidence of 1 case in 4,348 of the population.

This disparity of incidence on the sexes we are inclined to attribute to the facts as before mentioned, namely, that the female portion of the community are not subject to those conditions surroundings, food, ventilation, fatigue, etc.— which night probably be considered as predisposing causes.

It is worth notice that the prevalence for all practical purposes increases year by year among both sexes, in spite of the steady increase of population. Among the males the increase is four times greater in ten years, and among the females the increase is about the same.

The figures we have obtained, through the courtesy of Dr. I. MITCHELL, of admissions to the Alice Memorial and the Nethersole Hospital are so small as not to affect the general result as stated above.

We have to express our thanks to the Medical Officer of Health, Dr. PEARSE, for kindly supplying us with the estimated population.

Age Incidence.

The accompanying Table (No. IV.) shews the age at which patients were admitted. We inay postulate that patients seek admission as soon as possible after the onset of the illness. as soon in point of fact as they are unable to earn a livelihood, and indeed the majority as soon as they feel the early symptoms of the disease.

Analysing the total number of cases in quinquennial age groups, it will be noticed that the disease did not occur in the very early years of life, viz., between 1-5 years of age.

In the next period 6-10 years 7 cases were admitted, and 35 cases between 11 and 15 years of age. Then the curve rises suddenly and quick- ly, from the quinquenniad 16-20 to its highest, 21-25, and maintain their height during the next period 26-30. After this the curve rapidly declines as far as the period 41-45, and then there is a gentle fall in the next and following periods.

Taking the male and female admissions separately, it will be seen that among the males the curve rises rapidly during the period 16-20, and reaches and main- tains its maximum during the next two quinquenniads 21-25 and 26-30. There is then a notable fall to the next period 31-35, which continues during the next three periods. Thereafter the fall is gentle, steady and regular to the period 71-75.

The number of females admitted though small may be taken as fairly re- presentative of the incidence among them. We notice that the earlier age periods are those especially affected, there being a steady rise up to the period 16-20, after which there is a slow fall of the curve during the next two periods 21-25, and 26-30, then a rapid fall and the curve remains steady except one rise during the period 36-40.

Thus we see that the disease has its greatest incidence during the two quin- quennial periods 21-25 and 26-30, namely those years when the person is most vigorous and most fit for wage-earning. The extremes of life are affected to a very slight degree, but after the age of 30 although the curve drops fairly quickly we get large numbers, especially among the men, affected at the succeeding periods.

Seasonal Prevalence,

We have drawn up a chart to shew the admissions month by month during the ten years. Premising that the incubation period is from 20-30 days, and that the patients seek admission on the onset of the more severe symptoms which render them unfit for work, the chart is instructive.

We notice that the disease maintains a fairly uniform level during the first four months of the year. There is then a rapid rise in May and the level is main- tained during June. Then a further rise occurs rapidly in July and the curve maintains a high level in August and September. After that a sharp drop takes place in October, followed by a temporary rise in November, and a further sharp drop in December.

1

ן

139

The height of the prevalence and incidence of the disease is thus seen to be during July, August and September. These months, together with the two preceding months when the curve cominences to rise are the wet, damp and humid months of the year in this Colony, and it is a question whether these atmospheric conditions are contributory factors in the production and development of the disease.

It will be noted that though the curve for females is uniformly flat there is a marked rise in May and in August.

The Varieties of the Disease.

As we meet it here the disease presents itself in two varieties, known as the dropsical, moist or wet form, and the atrophic or dry form. The disease how- ever is a single entity-in its inception certain common symptoms manifest them- selves, in its development it assumes the characters of the one or the other variety. In the rapid onset and development of the first variety modified slightly in some respects but with an accentuation of the cardiac symptoms we get the acute pernicious variety. This form is very rarely met with here and is usually very fatal. The two varieties-the dropsical and the atrophic-occur in about equal proportions in their developed form, but it must be remembered that one form may pass into and shew the characters of the other, that is, that celema, etc., may be implanted on the dry form and so convert it into the dropsical, or that the oedematous variety may pass through changes resulting in its assuming the atrophic forin. Beri-beric residual paralysis is a term which has been used in an analogous manner and with a similar meaning to diphtheritic paralysis. The pathology of the diseases being different, clear in one case, unknown in the other, the coin- parison does not hold, and any attempt to introduce new varieties, naines, etc., is to be deprecated.

A Picture of the Disease and its Diagnosis.

In a country where the disease is sometimes epidemic and always endemic the diagnosis on the one hand should present no difficulty, and on the other hand because so easily made not infrequently leads to errors. Indeed, so well are the symptoms known that patients frequently present themselves for treatment, having already diagnosed their condition.

What then are the symptoms upon which we rely for a diagnosis? In the first place, and we are here discussing the early stages, we find there is a feeling of malaise and lassitude, and then there is weakness of the legs and numbness, which is characteristic. Then comes on pains in the muscles of the calf of the leg, elicited by compressing the calf muscles, which amounts to exquisite pain some- times. The patient is unable to walk easily and freely, and he has a feeling as if he were treading on cotton wool or walking on a carpet. These signs by them- selves are sufficient for the patient and his friends. They indicate that he has Beri-beri. Further examination by an expert shews that there is loss of the knee reflexes, that there is anesthesia of the legs to a varying degree-that slight oedema exists over the shin bones, and that there may be shortness of breath and palpitation. The patient has progressive weakening of the muscles of the hand and forearm. His grip is weak, and there is wasting of the muscles of the thumb. The more advanced stages of the disease present no difficulty in re- cognition. There is wasting or there may be oedema of the leg-the calf muscles in the former case being flabby and the skin dry, and there is loss of sub- cutaneous fat; or the whole leg is swollen and tense with a subjective feeling of fulness. In either case the sensibility of the skin of the leg is altered, either in the direction of total loss over the whole area or over irregular patches not necessarily corresponding to any particular nerve distribution, or there may be paræsthesia, viz., sensations of heat and cold, of pins and needles, of laucing pains, etc. In the early stages there is a loss of knee reflexes, an exaggerated reflex being seen perhaps in the first few days after onset. Then in the later stages corresponding with the loss of power in the leg muscles we have ankledrop marked. At this stage the patient is generally bedridden.

.

140

In the dropsical variety the picture in the later stages is characteristic. The tissues are all water-logged, and there is general edema. The face is swollen and bloated, the eyes closed owing to edema of the lids, and the skin over the abdomen is puffy. There is a purplish cyanotic look. All the parts pit on pressure and there is anesthesia to a varying extent. The patient is unable to move with any freedom and in point of fact takes to bed. He suffers from dyspepsia, from palpitation. The heart acts irregularly, and there is a weak, soft and perhaps intermittent pulse. His faculties are unclouded. He may have a slight cough from oedema of the lungs. The tongue is clean, the digestive functions unimpaired though there may be present a watery diarrhoea. The tem- perature does not become elevated. The functions of the kidneys shew no signs of being interfered with, the urine being normal in amount and in constitution. lies a dropsical water-logged mass incapable of locomotion and very helpless.

He

On the other hand in the atrophic variety the picture is equally characteris- tic in the later stages. The pronounced emaciation, the steady, gradual and progressive wasting of the muscles especially of the lower extremities, the wasting of the connective tissue over the body, the loss of the reflexes. particularly the knee-jerks, the gradually increasing and spreading anethesia rendering him finally bedridden, present a picture which is diagnostic. The organic reflexes are not interfered with, and the body temperature keeps at the normal or perhaps may run a degree or more under the normal. The cardiac muscle apparently under- goes a progressive wasting and atrophy pari passu, leading to weakened action, and a feeble, soft and compressible pulse. When the disease reaches its worst point, death may occur either from the extreme general atrophy or from some intercurrent pulmonary affection to which such cases are specially liable, or re covery takes place very gradually. In the latter cases the muscles recover them- selves soonest but the anaesthesia continues and is prolonged. Gradually strength ⚫ comes back and the muscles slowly, very slowly, regain their functions, and as the leg muscles were the earliest to manifest weakness, so are they the earliest to recover themselves. The patient tries to use his legs with the aid of crutches at first, and he balances himself on them being unable to secure the as- sistance of his legs. Then gradually he is able to move the legs, to flex the thighs and to raise the feet off the floor instead of scraping his toes on the floor as he walks. Then he slowly acquires control of his feet, and from letting it fall purposelessly on the floor he is able to draw up his foot and to plant it flat--but he still drags it along after him and feels as if he were walking on cotton wool or paper. In the next stage he discards crutches and takes to the assistance of a stick, and so with returning power and returning feeling he gradually comes to use his feet in a normal manner. Con- valescence is slow but is steady, normal sensation returning last.of all. When recovery occurs in the dropsical variety its progress is slow-gradually the œdema of the extremities and of the body becomes resolved, the turbulent action of the heart is regulated, sensation becomes normal, and power of locomotion is regained. The last returns most slowly of all.

In the atrophic form the first sign that shews itself is a sensation of weakness in the legs accompanied by shooting pains in the front of the legs and calves, and there is tenderness in the calf muscles. This pain is striking, because on examina- tion of the skin over the affected muscles and the other part of the leg large areas of partial or total anaesthesia are met with. This weakness is accompanied with inco-ordination of the gait which may become so pronounced as to lead to the necessity of keeping in bed. Weakness of the muscles of the hand also sets in so that the grasp is lost: and there may be tremulousness. Later the finer move- ments of the hand are impaired and anesthesia to greater or less extent sets in. Then actual wasting of the muscles of the legs and arms occurs, and a typical picture is presented. An extremely emaciated man is seen lying helplessly -able to perform some of the coarser muscular movements, but unable to stand or walk: he has wrist drop and also ankle drop-the knee reflexes are lost, but the organic reflexes remain intact. The tongue is clean, the appetite good, the breathing is quiet and regular, and the pulse is normal. Sometimes a degree of anæmia may be co-existent when hæmic murmurs may be heard at the base of the heart. mental faculties are not impaired. Gradual recovery may now. take place with slow convalescence, or death may take place from progressive atrophy or from some intercurrent complication.

1

The

141

Mild laryngeal and tracheal catarrh are often said to usher in the disease, or to be present in an aggravated form in the later stages. Such, however, we have never found in our cases.

This

The Diagnosis.

presents no difficulty at all to any one who has the least acquaintance with the disease. The points upon which we rely are:-

(1.) Anæsthesia over legs.

(2.) (Edema over the shin.

(3.) Pain on pressure of calf muscles.

(4.) Loss of knee reflexes.

(5.) Heart touble-palpitation, &c.

Cases in the later stages present no difficulty whatever their appearance is diagnostic.

It may happen, however, that in some cases difficulties may present them- selves and, therefore, we should be careful to eliminate such diseases as may shew some likenes to Beri-beri.

A.-Alcoholic Neuritis.-In this there is a history of alcoholism to guide us- there is progressive weakening of the legs, and anesthesia, general tremulousness and perhaps albumin in the urine.

B.-Arsenical Neuritis.-Symptoms of arsenical poisoning are present, viz., diarrhoea, abdominal pains, numbness, tingling, bloody urine. There is no œdema. Sensation may be lost. No ankle clonus or knee-jerk.

C.-Lead Poisoning.—Characterised by pains in joints, blue line on gums, colic, wrist drop-no pain in affected muscles.

D.-Malarial Cachexia.-No loss of reflexes. History of repeated attacks of fever. Anæmia-perhaps enlarged spleen. Microscope may help-shewing para- sites; no anæsthesia. No rapid wasting of muscles.

E-Locomotor Ataxia.-Characterised by girdle pains, Argyll Robertson pupil, anæsthesia of soles of feet-loss of reflexes-chronic course-history of syphilis.

F.-Epidemic Dropsy-Sets in with sudden dropsy, fever, vomiting, diarrhoea -no pain in muscles, no loss of reflexes, no anesthesia.

G.-Heart Disease.-Signs of affection, such as murmurs, enlargements: œdema of lower extremities, albumin in urine-no paralysis, no anesthesia.

H.-Bright's Disease.-Indicated by swelling under eyes and in legs: albu- min in urine no loss of sensation, of reflexes, of power of movement.

I.—Ankylostomiasis.-This is very insidious-progressive anæmia and per- verted appetite characterise it. No paralysis or loss of reflexes, or anesthesia. Miscroscope shews ova in fœces.

J.-Pellagra.-History of eating maize-knee-jerks exaggerated--very chronic course--tremors and tetany-inco-ordination of gait. No tenderness of muscles.

K.-Ergotism.-History of eating rye. Gangree of extremities sets in. Ting- ling in skin. Knee reflex lost.

L.-Lathyrism.--History of eating pulse. Knee-jerks increased. No tender- ness of muscles, no inco-ordination, no paralysis, no anaesthesia.

M.-Myelitis.-Rapid onset and fatal result-loss of reflexes-paræsthesia- incontinence of urine. No pain or tenderness over paralysed muscles.

All these diseases and conditions enumerated above run their own course and shew their individual particular symptoms: a careful consideration of the case and a recollection of the fundamental symptoms and signs should lead to no difficulty in the diagnosis.

*

142

Duration of the Illness.

This varies much and is proportionate to the intensity and the development of the disease on admission. The slighter degrees of the illness get well within a short time, but the more severe the illness the more prolonged is the period that it bas to be subjected to treatment, and the more prolonged the convalescence. Some cases were in hospital under treatment for upwards of one hundred and two hun- dred days; one indeed for as long as 360 days. In an analysis of nearly 3,000 cases we find that the average duration of treatment was 40 days for males, and 42 days for females. Nothing definite, however, can be laid down. Variations occur as in all diseases that run an acute, sub-acute or chronic course.

Its Mortality.

In the majority of countries where the disease is endemic or epidemic the percentage rate of mortality is low. Thus in Japan SCHEUBE noted a percentage of 3.7%, but BALZ only 2.5%. In one hospital in Tokyo it was barely 1% for men, and 3%, for women. In the Dutch Indies the troops suffered to the extent of 2% to 6%. Among the Chinese in Sumatra and native Javanese and Filipinos it was stated at one time to be from 60% to 70%. Latterly, however, the mortality is low. The last figures are exceptional.

In Hongkong the death-rate has been persistently high. The Table No. XI shews this.

Of 3,118 cases analysed, 1,510 died--males contributing a percentage of 49%, and females 35.4%. Each year there was a slight variation, but a uniformly high level was maintained; among the males the variation was from 58.5% to 34.8% with an average mortality of 49.5%-among the females the variation was greater, from 62.5% to 15.4% with an average of 35·4%.

We are unable to offer any explanation of this very high mortality, save that we might take into consideration the fact that a fairly large number of cases was admitted moribund, dying within a few hours, or so ill that they died within one, two, or three days of admission.

Year.

Moribund.

Died within One Day.

Died within Two Days

Died within Three Days.

Males. Females. Males. Females. Males. Females. Males. Females.

17

2

3

729

2

1

1

8

0

()

9

1246

5

1

0

23

13

31

17

8

10

0

11

0

...

22

22

0

7

0

2

0

10.

25

3

21

1896,

1897,

42

1898,

24

1899,

39

1900,

83

1901,

54

1902,

90

1903,

61

1904,

115

APNN 09 10 0 KO

4

508

19

122

5

92

8

67

2

Duration of Treatment (in cases which succumbed).

The duration of treatment in hospital varied greatly. A few cases were under treatment for long periods-for instance, one died 210 days after admission, a few

143

others after long periods varying between 101 and 182 days: the majority how- ever succumbed after much shorter periods which varied each year.

Average Residence in Days.

Year.

Males.

Females.

1896,

20

16

1897,

32

42

1898,

18

28

1899,

32

4

1900,

23

38

1901,

23

12

1902,

25

36

1903,

45

35

1904,

14

15

We may conclude from this Table that the severity of the disease varies from year to year: that in some years it runs a rapid course and carries off the patient quickly, that in other years when the type is not so grave it runs a slower course. We may also infer, from the prolonged duration of treatment that the type and severity may undergo variation in the same year.

The Mortality with reference to Age.

On reference to Table No. VII, and a study of the curve it will be seen that the aggregate mortality during the ten years under review reaches its height in the quinquennial age-period 26-30. From the age of 6 to 15 years the curve is flat; thereafter there is a rapid rise in each of the next periods 16-20 and 21-25 : and the curve reaches its height during the years 26-30. After that there is a -consistent rapid fall till the age-period 41-45: and there a slow fall till it approa- ches the base line and runs fairly flat during the last three quinquenniads 61-65, 66-70, 71-75. Here we note a similarity to the admission curve (q.v.). The lar- gest number of admissions occurs between the ages of 21-30: the largest number of deaths between the same ages. It would seem that the fatality of the disease is great in early adult life, and bears a proportionate relation to the numbers attacked.

The mortality curve for females runs a fairly level course though there is a heightening of it during the quinquenniads 16-20, 21-25, 26-30.

Rate of Mortality according to Sex and Age Periods.

Period.

Total Percentage.

Percentage of

Males.

Females.

6-10

43

50

40

11-15

40.6

37.5

43

16-20

38.4

43

17.5

21-25

45

46.3

23

26-30

51

51.4

39

31-35

50

50

57

36-40

55

55

58

41-45

51

50.3

75

46-50

45

45

23

51-55

59

59

50

56-60

70

66.6

100

61-65

41.5

30

100

66-70

90

75

100

71-75

33

50

:

.

!

141

A study of the foregoing Table shews that the percentage mortality is high at all the age-periods but especially high in males between 51 and 60 years, and between 66 and 70 years. In females it is high from 6 to 15 years, then there is a drop in the next 5-year period, a gradual rise from 21-25 which continues into the next quinquenniad. After this the percentage is very high from 31-45 years of age, and then there is a noticeable drop during the period 46-50 followed by a rise from 51 to 55. In the next three quinquenniads the percentage reaches 100, after which it drops to 50 during the period 71-75.

It would thus be seen that the mortality percentage rules high in adult life, and that the disease especially among females is very fatal in the more advanced periods of life, the capacity of resistance among them decreasing with advancing years.

Incidence with reference to Occupation.

We append a Table No. VI in which we have analysed the occupation of the patients in the case of males 2,710, and females 197.

A very large majority of cases occurred among the coolie class, of whom $78 were relieved and 857 died. Under the heading "Workman" 178 were treated, 88 being relieved and 90 died. This term refers simply to those employed in manual unskilled labour. Masons come next in the list, numbering 165, of these 86 were relieved and 79 died. Seamen constitute a fair number-59, with 29 deaths and 30 recoveries. Hawkers constitute a large proportion-79, of whom 30 were relieved and 49 died. Carpenters, Boatmen, Barbers all contribute a fair share, and so do Tailors, Rattan-chair makers, Servants and Cooks. Other trades and occupations furnish a very small proportion of cases.

The list serves to shew that practically no trade is exempt from the disease. From a consideration. of the Table we may draw the following inferences :---

(1.)—That the disease is universally prevalent among the community.

(2.) That it, especially affects the working classes.

(3.) That the professional classes, leisured classes and merchants are practically exempt, though a case here and there testifies to inference (1) above.

The total number of coolies admitted amounted to 1,730 constituting a per- centage of nearly 60. It is well known that their surroundings, domestic and otherwise, and their food and habits, are not altogether unexceptionable. Gene- rally they are crowded together at work and in the house, natural sanitary laws are set at defiance, their personal habits are unclean, their food is of the poorest quality and the cheapest. In all Beri-beri countries these are the conditions which obtain among those that contract the disease. We are compelled, therefore, to regard them as having a causative relation to the disease in the direction of predis- position; a similar statement may be made with reference to other classes, especially of workmen.

The Question of Contagion and Infection.

From our observations we are of opinion that the disease is neither contagious nor infectious-(vide Part III). When a case is removed from any locality, say for instance some institution where the disease has appeared, and is freely allowed to go among other people, we have not seen any cases develop. Cases are con- stantly taken into the wards of a General Hospital but no fresh cases arise. From facts like these and from the result of our experimental work we are of opinion that the evidence against contagion and infection is very strong. Cases are some- times produced which are stated to refute this statement, but the underlying fallacy in these is one practical ignorance of the length of the period of incubation.

Length of Exposure before Manifestation of the Disease.

This varies within wide limits. We were able to calculate this very exactly in the outbreak which occurred in the Po Leung Kuk. The first two cases occurred. on May 14th. The inmates who were admitted into the Institution, (and who were all found to be healthy on examination), after this date-May 14th-were obviously

.

a

145

J

subjected to the influence of the noxa of the disease. These being under daily medi- cal inspection and supervision the first signs of Beri-beri were carefully sought for and noted if found. An exact record was made and shews a very wide varia- tion from 31 days' exposure to 103 days. As we do not know exactly the period of incubation, nor with any certainty what are the symptoms which mani- fest themselves during this incubation period, we must include the incubation period in this period of exposure.

We found the first signs shew itself as follows:-

2 cases in 31 days.

2

33

""

>>

1

37

""

>>

1

53

""

""

2

2

58

62

68

29

""

**

1 case

in:

72 days.

1

78

>>

1

84

21

י

1

90

3

>>

**

93

:9

>>

103

"1

3)

77

>>

We may justifiably conclude that a lengthened period of exposure is necessary in order to contract the disease.

Recurrence or Re-infection and Relapse.

Beri-beri is a disease which does not confer immunity upon those who have suffered from it. Indeed one a tack of it may be a predisposing cause for another attack and perhaps to repeated attacks. We were informed by a medical man that he knows a patient, a domnestic servant, who contracts it regularly every year for the past 18 or 20 years. The proportion of cases of re-infection is about 1 in 10 or 12 cases.

With reference to the question of a relapse, we are of opinion that relapses do not occur and that cases classed as such are really cases of re-infection.

The Cause of Death.

Death may occur from heart failure principally, or from some sub-acute or acute pulmonary complication. It may sometimes ensue with appalling sudden- ness. A patient who may apparently be progressing favourably and may shew signs of a favourable issue may without warning succumb to cardiac failure. On the other hand the disease may drag a slow length towards an unfavourable termi- nation. The dry form of Beri-beri becomes steadily worse, the general atrophy progressively becomes more intense, until death ensues.

Acute infectious diseases may sometimes supervene on Beri-beri and be fatal- small-pox, plague and enteric are known to occur. Malaria also co-exists and may prove fatal. In point of fact the majority of cases of Beri-beri which are of a chronic or sub-acute nature are liable to be infected with any other disease.

Prophylaxis.

In order to prevent the outbreak of Beri-beri amongst people who are liable to be confined in buildings for any period of time the following measures should be adopted :-

(1.) The buildings should be well ventilated.

(2.) There should be no overcrowding.

(3.) The food supply should be ample in quantity and of good quality.

(4.) The drainage should be perfect.

(5) The buildings should be so constructed as to get all the sunshine

possible.

(6.) Damp in the buildings should be avoided.

(7.) The inmates should have regular exercise in the open air..

(8.) The greatest personal cleanliness should be ensured.

<

146

On the outbreak of the disease in an institution the inmates should be promptly removed from it, and the following measures taken :—

(1.) Building should be disinfected and then all the doors and windows

should be kept open and fresh air and sunlight allowed to enter.

(2.) The clothing should be disinfected.

(3.) The furniture should be disinfected.

The Treatment.

*

As long as the cause remains undiscovered treatment must be empirical and symptomatic, and cannot be specific. For this reason it is unnecessary to go into any detailed account of the remedies administered. Benefit seems to be derived from the administration of a variety of drugs. In our hands iron, arsenic and strych- nine in a mixture have proved of great benefit. Strychnine injected into the subs- tance of the muscles has also given good results in some of our cases. Mercury varies in its effect. Massage daily for half an hour at a time does much good- indeed we have great belief in its use. Electricity also does good and should be applied along the course of the nerve and also to the affected muscles. The most effective therapeutic measure is removal of the patient from the locality where the disease manifested itself. Some observers assert that too much stress is laid on this and that the good results are not more apparent than if the patients are permitted to remain. Our observations, however, distinctly recognise the beneficial results of such removal. How this acts is unknown-it may be that the removal is generally to a more hygienic part or it may be that the noxa of the disease is escaped from. Whatever the explanation, the fact remains that removal is one of the most effective measures at our disposal.

The following Tables, etc., are attached :—

I.-Admissions, 1895-1904.

II.-Aggregate monthly admissions, 1895-1904.

III.-Comparative monthly admissions.

IV.-Admissions in quinquennial age-periods."

V.-Monthly admissions, 1895-1904.

VI.-Occupations.

VII.-Deaths, 1895-1904.

VIII.-Comparative monthly deaths.

IX.-Chart of death curve.

X.-Deaths in quinquennial age-periods.

XI.-Percentages of deaths.

TABLE I.

ADMISSIONS, 1895-1904.

Age.

January.

February.

March. April.

May.

June.

July.

August.

September. October. November. December: Total.

147

6-10.

I

:

11-15.

4

...

:

:

...

1

1

:

1

1

:

....

1

1

2

5

1

...

1

...

3

1

1

2

1

4

1

2

3

N

2.

1

15

20

16-20

19

7

1

6 2 10

2

23

6

26

6

34

6

39

15

47

7

27

3

20

4

283

60

21-25

26

3

28

29

4

34

2

49

58

3

90

2

78

4

79

4

65

5

62

58

2

656

43

26-30

333

~

24

1 38

3

37

0

73

5

46

3

62

1

69

2

79

2

70

76

3

56

663

26

31-35

17

1 21

1

22

26

41

1

52

1

53

1

44

0

42

41

0

51

39

2

449

7

36-40

8

3 15

2

21

24

24

1 32

3

38

37

41-45

0

10 0

11

7

0

11

0

10

23

:

:

0

27

3

34

0

35

28

1

323

15

31

2

35

1

13

0

17

1

10

187

4

46-50

0

4

0

5

0

13 1

16

1

18

1

18

1

21

0

19

1

13

1

148

6

51-55.

56-60.

Co

5

1

11

1 14

4.

14

:

6

1

1

10

1

1

87

6

N

1

2

0

N

0

1

N

1

4

N

61-65......

66-70

71-75

1

75-80

...

...

...

:

...

128

17

117

7

145

12

:

:

:

:

1

1 0

1

4

3

5

10

10

3

Co

4

10

1

48

6

1

:

:

1

1

1

1

::.

1

1

1

...

1

***

0

1

1

2

:

:

1

:

0

1

...

...

...

:

:

...

:

...

...

...

:

:

:

:

:

20

4

2

2

...

149

7 253 24 253 18 334

16

337

29

346 22 288 20 306 19 237 15 2,890

2,890 | 206

17

148

TABLE VI.

OCCUPATIONS.

Males,-2,710. Females,-197.

Occupation.

Relieved.

Died. Total.

Occupation.

Relieved.

Died.

Total.

Male. Female. Male. Female.

Male. Female. Male. Female.

Brought forward, | 1,092

34,117 39 2,282

Accountant,

3

3

Machinist,

1

...

Apprentice,

Mechanic,

3

Actor,

Miller,

Beggar,

2

5

Miner,

Boatman,

16

17

33

Merchant,

1

∞142

8

4

2

Barber,

13

15

28

Money-changer,

1

1

Bras--smith,

7

Not stated,

39

17

17

78

Blacksmith,

10

No occupation,

22

62

78

30

132

Butcher,.

Paper-maker,

Baker,

l'ainter,

9

Coolie,

877

853

4 1,735

Photographer,

Chair-maker,

3

Printer,

1

Carpenter,

20

30

50

Prostitute,

2

2

Copper-smith,

Preacher,

Cook,

18

Rattan Chair-maker,

20

26

Cracker-maker,

Rattan Shaver,

Chair Coolie,

Rope-maker,

2

Compositor,

Rice Pounder,

Cotton Spinner,

Druggist,

Sack-maker,

2 Scavenger,

Doctor,

School Boy,

1

1

Destitute,

Engineer,

Electrician,

Excise Officer, Fireman,

Fisherman, Fishmonger,

27

Seaman,

30

29

59

Servant,

15

Shoe-maker,

Shipwright,

1

Silver-smith,

3

A

Singer.

1

Stone Cutter,

3

Farmer,

2

5

Sugar Tester,

Flower Seller,

Tailor,

22

19

41

Foreman,

3

3

Tallyman,

1

1

Fortune Teller,

2

Telephone Boy,

Glass-blower,..

1

1

Tin-smith,

3

Godown Keeper,

1

Washerman..

3

Gardener,

3

6

9

Watchman,

2

Hawker,

30

49

79

Workman,

88

90

178

Mason,

86

79

165

Widow,

1

+

5

Married,

31

30

61

Wrapper,

1

2

Carried forward,... 1,092

341,117

392,282

Total,

1,367

115 1,343

82 2,907

4

400

350

300

250

:200

150

100

.50

Table II.

Chart shewing Aggregate Monthly Admissions during Ten Years 1895-1904.

Jan.

Feb. Mar. April May

May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

:

Highest linc-Aggregate.

Middle line- Males.

Lowest line-Females.

20

200

10

30

40

50

09

80

70

100

06

80

28

06

70

69

50

45

40

35

0%

25

20

15

10

ة

Y

January.

1 2 3

February.

Table III.

Comparative Monthly Admissions 1895-1904.

23 0

March.

April.

69

2 སོ ཥྭཱ སྤྲེ - ཨ ཨ ནྡྷ 2 བ - ཎ ཤ དྡྷི - སཿཔ2༠=ཊྛི-ནྡྷཏྠཱནྡྷདྡྷི-

M

July.

6

May.

1900

123IO COF-∞

1895

June.

1900

1 2 3 4

السلام بنده

wwwww.

Angust.

September.

October.

300 SLE 2010 -

X-SOFA CON

1895

November.

P

December.

= ༣ : *°

ཡ ཙ ༧ སྤྱི ཀ 1 རྟ ཀ འ བཿ 1 ༧ ཤ g ཡ

~1

700

50

600

50

500

50

400

50

300

50

200

50

100

50

Table IV.

Admissions in Quinquennial Age Periods for 10 Years. 1895-1904.

11-15 16-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 61-65 66-70 71-75 76-

* N.B.-7 cases were admitted between 6 to 10 years of age.

A.

Table V.

1895.

Chart shewing Admissions month by month for ten years 1895-1904. 1896.

1897

1898 Jan. Feb. Meb. Apl. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mch. Apl. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mch. Apl. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb, Mch. Apl. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. J

This photoend

95

90

70

65

GO

ེཐྲ་ཐ་ལྔ ལྕ

80

75

83

60

10

35

30

25

20

15

10

เร

Table V.

Chart shewing Admissions month by month for ten years 1895-1901.

19 0 1

܃

1 8 9 9 19 0 0 1902 Jan. Feb, Meh. Apl. May June July Aug, Sep, Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb, Meh. Apl. May June July Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dee. Jan. Feb, Mch, Ápl, May June July Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dee. Jan. Feb, Meh, Apl. May June July Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov. Dec,

}

ފ

95

90

85

80

75

2225

70

65

60

55

50

45

10

35

30

25

20

20

15

10

5

0

Table

V.

1899.

Chart shewing Admissions month by month for ten years 1895-1904. 19 0.0.

1901.

1902.

Jan. Feb. Mch. Apl. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Meh. Apl. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mch. Apl. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mch. Apl. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec

·100

Table V,-Continued.

Chart shewing Admissions month by month for ten years 1895-1904,—Continued. 1903.

1904.

Jan.

Feb.

Mch.

Apl. May

June

July Aug. Sep.

Oct.

Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb.

Mch.

Apl.

May

June

July

Aug. Sep.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

85

2 2 3

80

75

1

70

65

28 8 13

60

55

50

45

40

35

No co c

30

25

.20

15

10

5

0

TABLE VII.

AGGREGATE DEATHS PER MONTH, 1895-1904.

Age.

January. February. March. April.

May.

June.

July.

August. September.

October.

November. December.

Total.

6-10

149

:

:

:.

:

:

1

1

:

1

1 10

1

1 16

11

:

:

:

:

:

Q

2

1

1

I

6

9

24

1

2

12

122

11

'N

2

225

27

38

23

:.

.:.

:

:

:

:.

19

12

:

:

:

3

6

1

1

10

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 39

1 36

3

33

1

36

30

1 30

1

41

30

36

17

25

2

23

15

2 25

20

...

:

:

:

26

-15

:

e

10

:

:

:

16

7

4

1 19

27

16

1 10

10

:

Q

:

:

:

:

31

37

26

:

23

304

10

1

25

1

341 11

16

227

H

18

1 15

178

7

1

94

3

10

1

67

2

:.

3

3

1

:

4

6

7

1

6

1

2

52

3

4

1

:

...

:

:

:.

:

:..

:.

:

:

:

:.

:

:

:

:

:

:

N

1

:.

P:..

:.

:

:.

4:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

32

6

6

4

6

3

1

...

...

11-15.

00

3

16-20.

10

N.

N

1

1

:.

10

:

1 4

21-25.

10

:

19

18

26-30.

14

1

18

1

19

2 23

31-35

.9

11

11

:

N

17

36-40.

5

13

2

9

15

:.

41-45

:

1CD

46-50.

51-55.

1

:

:

:

N

56-60.

61-65.

Q

:

:

66-70.

1

71-75

75-

:..

63

1

1

1

1

1

:

:

:

1.

1

1

:

:

:

81

7 65

:

:

:

:

:.

:

5

125

4 111

157

.161

168

5 156

Co

150

112

7|1,437

76

150

TABLE XI.

PERCENTAGES OF DEATHS.

ADMISSIONS.

DEATHS.

PERCENTANE OF

TOTAL

YEAR.

PER-

CENTAGE.

Males. Females. Total. Males. Females. Total.

Males. Females.

1895,

117

Ι

118

63

1896,

136

13

149

46

1897,

166

15

181

90

1898,

162

8.

170

80

1899,

265

16

281

115

29X8O

0

63

53.4

53.8

0

48

31.5

34.8

15.4

98

53.0

53.6

53.3

85

50.0

49.4

62.5

7

122

43.4

43.4

43.7

1900,

335

25

360

19!

11

202

56.1

57.0

44.0

1901,

390

27

417

195

11

206

49.4

50.0

40.7

1902,

409

12

1903,

265

17

1904,

667

72

272

421

212

3

215

51.0

51.8

25.0

282

155

6

161

57.1

58.5

35.3

739

287

23

310

42.0

43.0

32.0

2,912

206

3,118

1,434

76

1,510

48.6

49.5

35.4

65

GO

55

50

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

1895

50

45

40

35

ΤΟ

25

20

15

10

5

0

10 3 1 0 0

July.

1900

55

1895

09

February.

Table VIII.

Table to shew Comparative Monthly Deaths.

1 2

1 2 3 4

January.

March.

123 TO ON∞9

g ཡཿ ཚ ཤ ཥ - ཋ ཏྠཱ ཡཿ ཨ ཨཏཱཾ ཨནྡྷ2༠ནྡྷུཊྛིཡ

April.

1895

May.

June.

༠ * -༠ནྡྷུ

August.

1900

1234

پسند

при

September.

123 +

October.

123

November.

December.

ཉྫཱ ཨི ཨི སྤྱི ་ ཊྛཱ 1 ཨ དྡྷཉྫཱ ཎg -དྡྷའཚgཆག

m

15

100 10 pl

65

60

55

50

45

40

35

330

25

20

15

10

5

0

Table IX.

·

1895.

Chart shewing Death rate for 1895-1904.

1896.

1897. Jan. Feb. Mch. Apl. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mch. Apl. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mch. Apl. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.

65

Table IX.

Chart shewing Death rate for 1895-1904.

1899

1900.

Jan. Feb. Mch. Apl. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mch. Apl. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mch. Apl. May June July Aug, Sep, Oct. Nov. Dec.

60

55

50

11335

45

40

35

30

2235

20

15

1898.

10

LO

O

65

60

55

50

45

Table IX.

Chart shewing Death rate for 1895-1904.

1902.

1901.

Jan. Feb. Mch.

Apl.

May

June July Aug.

Sep.

Oct.

Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb.

Mch.

Apl.

May

June

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

L

July

Sep.

Aug.

Oct. Nov.

Dec.

65

60

55

50

45

40

333535

3333

30

25

20

15

10

0

Table IX.

Chart shewing Death rate for 1895-1904.

1904.

1903.

Jan.

Feb. Mch.

Apl.

May

June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb.

Mch. Apl. May

June July

Aug.

Sep.

Oct.

Nov. Dec.

50

400

50

300

50

200

50

100

50

f

Table X.

Chart shewing Deaths in Quiquennial Age Periods.

1895-1904.

6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 61-65 66-70 71-75

151

4.—PATHOLOGICAL ANATOMY.

Excellent opportunities are afforded at the Government Public Mortuary for a careful study of the Pathology of Beri-beri. During the past three and a half years over 500 cases of Beri-beri have been examined post-mortem, and the chief lesions and changes noted. All varieties of the disease have been found, but for general purposes, it has been found preferable to divide the cases into Dropsical forms and Atrophic forms.

From our experience in Hongkong, the dropsical form of the disease has formed the larger number of the cadavers sent for pathological examination. This type of the disease would appear to be the most frequent in Hongkong, and this frequency of one particular form of Beri-beri in different parts of the world has been noted repeatedly by other observers. Variations in different places in the same country are also found, and the malignancy of the disease often varies in different years.

The post-mortem examinations which have been held in Hongkong have been upon cadavers of all ages and both sexes. A few cases have occurred in young adults and children but whether the occurrence of Beri-beri symptoms and patho- logical appearances in the latter, are to be regarded as true Beri-beri is still a matter for dispute. The discussion of this question will be dealt with under a separate heading.

By far the largest number of autopsies have been made upon male cadavers. The female sex would appear to enjoy a comparative immunity from the disease. During the period mentioned only 5% of the total number of post-mortem examin- ations on cases of Beri-beri have been made upon female cadavers. An explana- tion of this freedom is difficult to offer. In all probability it is dependent upon the differences in the manner of living, between the sexes.

It is to be regretted that in the majority of cases examined a history of ill- ness was not ascertainable. This was due to the fact that most of the bodies sent for section were found in the streets, in deserted houses, or on the hill-sides.

Beri-beri cadavers shew pathological changes which are of great interest. These structural alterations are generalised throughout the body and are usually so profound as to be easily recognised. Taken individually none of the pathological changes can be regarded as distinctive of the disease. It is only by careful collec- tion of the lesions present, and by a process of exclusion, that a diagnosis of true Beri-beri may be arrived at.

As no recent references regarding the pathology of the disease as met with in Hongkong have been made within recent years, an account of the results obtained during the past 3 years is of interest.

As already mentioned two types of the disease have been distinguished, namely, the Dropsical form and the Atrophic form. The following is a descrip- tion of the post-mortem appearances of each.

The Dropsical Form.

To an expert the external appearance of the dropsical Beri-beri cadaver is fairly typical. The cyanotic swollen face with starting eyes, the engorgement of the veins of the head and neck, appearing as blue cords below the skin, the bloody froth about the nose and mouth, and the general corpulent appearance of the body and extremities, coupled with occasional subcutaneous hemorrhagic extrava- sations, lead us to suspect the cause of death. In countries in which Beri-beri is endemnic, these external appearances presented by a cadaver are held by many tropical sanitary experts to be sufficient to establish a correct diagnosis and thus obviate the necessity of post-mortem examination. In our opinion such methods of corpse inspection are unscientific and much to be deprecated, and with the gra- dual disappearance of native prejudice, corpse inspection ought to be completely supplanted by routine post-mortem examination. If this be not done such statistics as may be compiled are of little value, and the relative incidence of the disease- throughout our Colonies determined by a method directly opposed to the princi- ples and practice of medicine.

152

In Dropsical Beri-beri the bodies externally appear to be well nourished. This appearance, however, is but a false impression, and is largly dependent upon the development of general anasarca before death. The rate of decomposition of the bodies is when compared with those of the acute infectious fevers, relatively slow. Further, the condition known as foaming organs is not so frequently found in Beri-beri corpses as amongst those of the acute specific fevers.

Post-mortem lividity is usually pronounced especially on the face, neck and back. This discolouration is not so pronounced as one finds in the case of a cons- titutional infectious disease, e.g., Pest. Rigor mortis may be present. In some cases it is practically absent.

The skin is usually normal in appearance. Old scars which have nothing to do with the disease are frequently found scattered over the body surface. Erup- tions may be present but it is questionable if they have anything to do with the disease. Subcutaneous haemorrhages may be found but are not frequent in the type of cases met with here.

No special pigmentation of the skin or mucous membranes has ever been noted.

On section of a Beri-beri corpse the first thing which strikes the eye is the amount of watery fluid in the subcutaneous tissues and body spaces. In well- marked cases of the dropsical variety, a mere cut in the skin occasions a regular outflow of clear serous fluid. The subcutaneous tissue has a jelly-like or mucoid appearance and from this the fluid pours continuously. Subcutaneously a consi- derable quantity of fatty tissue may be found, but its consistence and colour, etc., shew this layer to be in a state of degeneration. Indeed the appearance of the subcutaneous tissue, apart from the large amount of fluid present, in a well-marked cadaver resembles that found in newly-born children. This great infiltration of the subcutaneous tissue with serous and mucoid-like fluid is characteristic of drop- sical Beri-beri,

The pericardial sac in marked cedematous cases is usually distended with fluid. The parietal layer is usually slightly congested and may shew a few petechial hæmorrhages. On opening the sac a clear straw-coloured fluid, free from flaky material, wells out often in enormous quantity. Milky patches are frequently found present scattered over the surface of the epicardium. These, as well as the tissue along the course of the main coronary vessels are usually infil- trated with fluid and have a swollen, mucoid and translucent appearance. Occasionally the coronary vessels look as if they were embedded in a clear yellowish jelly-like substance. Usually there is no evidence of pericarditis.

In all cases of dropsical Beri-beri the heart as a whole is enlarged. The extent of this enlargement varies within wide limits. Occasionally hearts of enormous size are found like the so-called "bullock's heart." Coupled with this enlargement one usually finds a considerable increase in the weight of the organ. The amount of fatty infiltration on the heart also varies. In the majority of cases the fatty deposit is in excess. The coronary arteries are usually normal. The auricles, especially the right, are usually dilated. The right ventricle in the majority of cases is markedly dilated and contains a large solid and firm blood clot. Occasionally a certain amount of hypertrophy of the wall of the right ventricle is found, especially in cases of a more chronic nature. AS HAMILTON WRIGHT puts it-dilatation and more or less hypertrophy of the right ventricle is. the rule in cases of beri-beric residual paralysis. The left ventricle is usually only slightly dilated, and its walls are often found in a state of marked hypertrophy, especially when the cases have run a chronic course. In acute cases, on the other hand, dilatation may exist without hypertrophy. The walls of the ventricle_are usually pale in colour and greasy and friable to touch. The cardiac muscle is almost always in a state of fatty degeneration, although the degree of this degener- ation varies extremely in each individual case. On opening the heart enormous quantities of extremely dark-red blood escapes which is perfectly fluid. allowing it to stand for a few minutes freely exposed to the air, it becomes of a brighter red colour and begins to clot. As is generally now accepted, this peculi-

Un

153

arity on the part of Beri-beri blood is accounted for by the fact of the presence of an excess of CO2. The valves of the heart are usually competent. Tricuspid incompetence may however be met with. Scattered over the inner surface of the cavities of the heart numerous small petechiæ are frequently found.

The aorta, arteries and veins are frequently the seat of extensive atheromatous degeneration. This however has little to do with the disease, and is a common pathological change among the Chinese over 30 years of age.

The upper respiratory passages are in almost all cases normal. Hyperæmia and dema of the epiglottis is found rarely. Occasionally the mucous membrane of the entire larynx is in a similar condition. The trachea may also be found congested, and on its mucous membrane a thick yellowish secretion is frequently found. The bronchi usually contain an appreciable quantity of secretion which may be simply bubbly mucus, or of a purulent or semi-purulent

nature,

The lungs on opening the chest only partially collapse. They are usually crepitant throughout. As a rule these organs are full of oedematous fluid which wells out profusely from the cut surface. On squeezing the latter a bloody frothy fluid and watery mucus oozes in large quantity. In addition to the presence of cedema, emphysema to a varying degree is usually present and this is occasionally so pronounced as to cause the anterior edges of the lungs to meet over the percardial sac. Hypostatic congestion of varying degree is usually present in the posterior and lower portions of the lung tissue. A considerable proportion of . cases of Beri-beri end fatally owing to the supervention of pneumonia.

The pleural cavities are usually normal. Adhesions are frequently present but these are common amongst the Chinese who often suffer from sub-acute and localised pleurisies. Bilateral Hydrothorax is the rule in all well-marked cases of dropsical Beri-beri-both cavities being more or less full of clear yellow-coloured fluid. The bronchial glands are usually normal. In extreme cases of general anasarca they may be slightly enlarged owing to the presence of oedematous infil- tration and cortical congestion. Amongst the Chinese old tubercular deposits are frequently found in these glands.

The thymus gland in young adults may be slightly enlarged owing to oedema and congestion.

The peritoneum is almost always normal. It may be thickened owing to the presence of oedema. Hydroperitoneum is usually present and may be extreme. The fluid, as in the other cavities, is clear yellowish and viscid in character.

The condition of affairs found in the alimentary canal in Beri-beri, has within recent times been the subject of considerable dispute. Most authorities state definitely that the digestive tract in this disease present nothing of any great patho- logical importance. Other investigators as HAMILTON WRIGHT and his collea- gues in Malaya, however, attach considerable weight to the presence of certain alimentary lesions. They regard the changes present as more or less constant, as typical for Beri-beri, and the point of entrance of the materies morbi of the affect- ion. HAMILTON WRIGHT in his most recent publication on the pathology of Beri- beri describes what he calls the primary lesions, namely, a gastro-duodenitis, and in his conclusions follows up this statement by a considerable amount of weighty evidence in favour of his view. Whether this theory,

Whether this theory, which up to the present is an isolated one, will be confirmed by subsequent workers, will be awaited with considerable interest. If this conclusion be established that "the premonitory gastro-duodenal syndrome of Beri-beri has as its pathological basis a definite gastro duodenitis", and that this is the primary lesion of the disease, all that remains to be done is to establish the presence of a definite exciting cause of such a lesion. So far no micro-organism has been brought into definite causal relation- ship with the disease and all attempts by HAMILTON WRIGHT and others to isolate a biological cause of Beri-beri have failed up to the present time.

154

The following is a brief resumé of the results of our post-mortem observa-

tions:-

The mouth, including the teeth and tongue, is usually normal. The pharynx may be congested and its mucous membrane swollen owing to celem- atous infiltration. The oesophagus is in almost every case normal-congestion is uncommon. The condition of the stomach varies according to the severity and duration of the disease. In well-marked cases of moderate duration, this viscus will be found dilated and in a condition of muscular atony. The peritoneal coat is normal. The other coats and especially its mucous membrane are usually thickened, soft and oedematous. On opening and cleansing the

On opening and cleansing the organ the appear- ance of the mucous membrane is very variable. It

It may be normal, and all grades from this to the presence of passive congestion, necrosis, and hæmorrhagic extra- vasation, are to be found on examination of a large number of cases. In a few, as already stated, the mucosa is normal to the naked eye. In others the cardiac end is normal, whereas the pyloric end is congested, angry-looking, and presents a few blood extravasations. At other times small points of necrosis of varying size may be found in addition. In still another series of cases the whole mucous coating of the stomach is congested, reddish-black in colour, and contains numerous scattered extravasations of blood of variable size. The necrosed areas may or inay not be present. If they are. they are of varying size and shape, and the dead tissue may be removed easily, leaving a raw but dead-looking floor. These irregularities in the mucous membrane caused by sloughing are not marked by the presence of surrounding cellular infiltration, and their edges and floors shew but little attempt at re-organization. Lying between the folds of the mucosa one usually finds a considerable amount of thick, greyish-yellow, tenacious mucus.

The condition of the duodenum also varies within wide limits. The gut may be normal or it may shew the changes already described under the stomach. The hæmorrhages, punctiform or diffuse, into the mucous membrane of the duo- denum, are chiefly found on the coats of the valvulæ conniventes. Necrosis of the mucous membrane has not been observed.

The jejunum is frequently congested, but in many cases nothing abnormal is to be noted.

The ileum may be normal.

be normal. At other times congestion to a varying degree is present and may be accompanied by the presence of a few punctiform blood

extravasations.

The lymphatic tissues of the small intestine do not appear to be affected

The condition of the cæcum resembles that of the other portions of the small intestine.

The large intestine presents no characteristic change of a pathological nature. The mucosa may be thickened and soft owing to the presence of oedematous infiltration. Otherwise it is usually normal.

The rectum is usually normal.

In dealing with the large gut one has to be careful to exclude any lesions of a dysenteric nature which may be present. A thickened colon with old scars and increased pigmentation is frequently found amongst the Chinese, and is to be referred to recent or remote inflaminations of a dysenteric nature.

The mesenteric lymphatic glands may be normal. Frequently, however, they are found moderately enlarged owing to oedematous infiltration and congestion. The latter is only slight and cortical.

The mesentery is thickened and sodden, being drenched with œdematous fluid.

The foregoing description of the pathological changes found in the alimentary canal have been formulated from the results of a large number of typical cases of dropsical Beri-beri. It will be noted that such changes as are found are subject to considerable variation. Congestions, mostly of a passive character, are common, and, as a result of this and other factors, which will be discussed later, necrosis of limited extent, and hæmorrhagęs make their appearance. Tissue changes of a

*155

true inflammatory nature do not appear much in evidence. Indeed, on the other hand, the conditions met with in the stomach and other parts of the gut suggest an absence of trophic nerve influence, nerve degeneration, and consequent vascular engorgement, stasis, hæmorrhage, etc.

The descriptions and interpretations of the condition of the alimentary gut given by us, are totally different from that recently furnished by HAMILTON WRIGHT; who somewhat forcibly drives home his theory of gastro-duodenitis as the prim- ary lesion of Beri-beri, indicating thereby the existence in this part of the gut of a definite acute inflammation, excited by some particular germ, and resulting in the advent of the well-known symptoms and signs of Beri-beri.

The liver is usually increased in size, weight and specific gravity. Its con- sistence is firm and capsule is stretched and usually has a congested parenchyma shining through it. Hæmorrhages into the capsule are rare, In cases of Beri- beri of short duration, the capsule of the liver is normal, but in the more chronic cases thickenings are frequently found in it. These are localised and scattered over the surface of the organ. They are greyish-white in colour, and ramify and branch in a tree-like fashion. This peculiar form of capsular thickening is also found in connection with the spleen and some other organs.

It is not specially characteristic of Beri-beri and is found in other diseases, such as chronic malaria, but in the disease under consideration it is usually peculiarly well defined. On section the liver frequently drips with blood and watery fluid. The colour of the parenchyma is usually normal, or darker than normal. Fatty changes are often found well marked. Cirrhosis of the intra-lobular variety is frequently found in chronic dropsical cases. The gall bladder is usually distended with bile. The walls are thickened, soft and oedematous. Blood extravasations are rare. The

bile is thick, tenacious and dark-green in colour.

The spleen varies extremely in size and weight. It may be normal but in other cases spleens 3-4 lbs. in weight and of enormous dimensions have been found. This variation, however, would not appear to depend wholly upon Beri- beri and is due probably to other causes, e.g., malaria. Capsular thickenings of the spleen are very common, and may reach 3-6 m.m. in thickness. The organ is usually moderately congested and on section bleeding surfaces are left. A general fibrosis of the organ is frequently present.

The condition of the kidneys varies. They may be normal, at other times cloudy swelling and congestion is present. Usually the capsule peels readily from the surface. Slight cirrhosis is not infrequently present. Hæmorrhages are rare. Edematous thickenings

The other genito-urinary organs are normal.

are found in marked dropsical cases, being part of the generalised anasarca.

The supra-renals and pancreas are normal.

The membranes of the brain and spinal cord are thickened. This is either patchy or generalised. Their contained vessels are full of dark-red fluid blood. The cerebro-spinal fluid is usually in excess. The brain and spinal cord are usually normal to the naked eye, but are firmer owing to oedematous infiltration below the pia mater, and the existence of slight increase of fibrous tissue.

To recapitulate the naked eye pathological changes found in dropsical cases of Beri-beri may be summed up as follows:-

1. General anasarca and dropsical accumulations.

2. Venous hyperæmias and their results.

3. Fibrotic accumulations of varying degree.

The Atrophic Form.

The external appearances of atrophic Beri-beri cadavers are vastly different from that of the foregoing variety. There is a typical picture of anæmia and ad- vanced emaciation. In old standing examples of the disease the cadaver is prac- tically skin and bone, and as the body is viewed on the post-mortem table the pos- ture assumed is varied owing to the presence of inuscular contractures and other deformities.

A

*

156

The general nourishment is extremely poor, the eyes are sunken, rigor mortis is variable in its degree, and post-mortem lividity is usually present in traces about the most dependent parts. The skin may shew atrophic changes, and sores of various kinds are frequently present especially over the bony prominences of the posterior parts of the cadaver, and there is increased pigmentation. In general, the impression produced by the corpse inspection of a typical and advanced case is that some constitutional disease of an extremely chronic nature was the cause of death and that the latter supervened only after the individual had been reduced to a condition almost approaching mummification.

On opening the body one notes the extreme wasting of the muscles. They are soft and flabby and tinged of a yellow colour. The subcutaneous fat is at a minimum. The tissues often appear as if dried and shrivelled. In some cases a slight quantity of thin, serous fluid oozes out from the tissue spaces.

This is of a

The pericardial sac usually contains a slight excess of fluid. clear yellow colour and watery character. The pericardial layers are thickened, and often present an opaque white appearance due to an increase in the amount of dense white connective tissue. Frequently the mucoid and swollen appearance is found, similar to the condition met with in the dropsical forms of the disease. Pericarditis is scarcely ever found.

The condition of the heart varies. It may be enlarged and flabby. Usually however the organ is normal in size, in a condition of systole and its walls thickened. A certain degree of hypertrophy of the right ventricle is found asso- ciated with more or less dilatation. The left ventricular wall is also thickened. The walls of the heart are usually somewhat hard and friable. The amount of granular and fatty degeneration of the cardiac muscle varies in each individual case. Sometimes the already inentioned jelly-like substance is found in consider- able amount in the walls. It lies embedded between the layers of the cardiac muscle, under the epicardium, and also along the course of the coronary vessels. The valves are usually competent. The presence of petechiae is uncommon.

The blood is similar to that found in the dropsical variety. It is fluid, very dark in colour, and clots after its removal from the body. Firm clots are fre- quently found in the ventricular cavities. Frequently these are of ante-mortem origin.

The lungs, on opening the chest, do not collapse. They are usually hyper- crepitant throughout and emphysematous changes are predominant. Edema to a varying degree may be present, particularly about the posterior and basal regions of the organs. The visceral layers of the pleura are usually thickened owing to fibrosis and in this membrane and lying beneath it one frequently finds accumu- lations of varying amount of the clear jelly-like substance of a yellow colour.

The pleural cavities usually contain a small but varying amount of clear yellow fluid.

Pleurisy is rarely met with.

The peritoneum is usually normal. Thickenings of the membrane are occasionally found, and are due in most cases to localised modules of mucoid tissue. A varying increase in the amount of peritoneal fluid is usually present and its character is identical with that found in the other serous cavities of the body.

The alimentary canal presents nothing of any great significance. The variable changes found in the dropsical variety are rarely met with in this type. Generally speaking the whole of the gastro-intestinal tract is in a state of atony, its walls are thinner and pigmented, and jelly-like material is present in varying amounts, especially along its mesenteric attachment. There is nothing in the alimentary tract to stamp it as the primary focus of the disease.

!

157

The liver presents little alteration in size and shape. Its consistence is firm usually owing to the presence of an increased amount of connective tissue. The peculiar thickenings of the capsule described in the other variety are often present to a marked degree.

The spleen varies much in size, is usually fibrotic and shews the thickenings of its capsule as already described. It presents nothing further worthy of note.

The kidneys apart from slight interstitial changes present nothing

abnormal.

The brain and spinal cord are usually normal to the naked eye. Under the pia mater the mucoid substance may be found in varying quantity.

Conclusions :---

1.-Emaciation, variable in degree, due to chronic wasting and degene-

ration of tissues.

2.-Fibrosis of the organs and tissues.

3.—The infiltration of jelly-like material into the various organs and

tissues, consequent upon the degeneration of the latter.

158

5.—BACTERIOLOGY.

Like most diseases of wide geographical distribution and even recurring in- cidence amongst the natives of many of our most important colonies, the Etiology of Beri-beri has been the subject of much careful investigation. Prior to the days of the microbic theory of disease, Beri-beri was attributed to causes such as cold, heat, rains, fatigue, etc., upon which the investigator placed great significance, and which are now recognised as mere general predisposing causes of the majority of diseases affecting man..

It would be out of place in such a Report as the present to attempt to unravel the chaos of theories which has accumulated within the

past few years, and espe- cially since the advent of Bacteriology and Pathological Chemistry. It will be sufficient to note here that since this date, the theories regarding Beri-beri have, in the main, run along two lines, namely, the Diet Theory and the Gerin Theory.

Regarding the Diet Theory, Nitrogen Starvation, Deficiency of Fat, and In- fected Poisonous Foods all these liave been adduced, with many plausible arguments, as excitants of the disease. On the other hand, the Bacteriological Theory includes the discovery in Beri-beri of the most varied species in biology from worms down to amabæ and bacteria. In the presence of such a chaotic mass of theories and literature regarding the etiology of Beri-beri, it is obvious that the subject still requires much investigation along absolutely unbiassed lines of research. It has seemed to us that so far as the bacteriological theories are concerned and the re- sults of bacteriological investigation, too much attention has been paid to the fashionable cause of disease at the present day, namely, bacteria. In such investi- gations of the unknown causes of certain diseases, one must always bear in mind, that although the tendency at the present day is to cause everything to be bacte- riological, there must be many discases affecting man the etiology of which has nothing to do with biology. The significance of this is at once apparent regarding the disease at present under consideration, as many recent investigations shew. Although some experts on Beri-beri who have dealt voluminously with the subject declare that the factors regarding the diet theories can be reduced ad absurdum, and that the only theories which may hold sway are bacteriological, we believe that still much remains to be done from the point of view of pathological chemis- try. Indeed we doubt if the disease has ever been dealt with thoroughly by an expert pathological chemist.

During the present research our investigations have been necessarily limited to the bacteriological side of the question and the negative results which have been obtained as regards the etiology of the disease have much to recommend further research, not along bacteriological principles, but along the lines pursued by the expert pathological chemist.

If it be granted that the disease is bacteriological in its etiology there is little to recommend the theory of gas-intoxication of MANSON. We cannot conceive a disease such as Beri-beri with its many manifestations being stirred up in such a manner. Noxious or non-noxious gaseous effluvia could scarcely cause Beri- beri. The results of PEKELHARING and WINKLER may be verified by anyone posses-ing bacteriological knowledge. Cocci, pigment producing or otherwise, bacteria, etc., may be isolated from almost every case of Beri-beri and from almost every organ in such cadavers. Such micro-organisms, however, have no great pathogenic effect on animals and so far as one can judge they bear no causal relationship to the disease. The isolation of such micro-organisms as cocci, bacilli or bacteria, is not limited to Beri-beri cadavers, they may be isolated from almost any cadaver of a few hours old. With a knowledge of the rapid post- mortem wanderings of micro-organisms and the influence of the tropical climate on the degree of rapidity of decomposition, one cannot be surprised at the advent of such organisms in our culture tubes, particularly if the technique employed is in the slightest degree defective. Again, therefore, we wish to emphasize that, in our opinion, the micro-organisms isolated by PEKELUARING and WINKLER have no connection with Beri-beri, and their isolation by these workers was due to the circumstances mentioned in the foregoing.

159

Coming to the most recent of germ theories of Beri-beri, namely, that formulated lately by HAMILTON WRIGHT, it has been our chief aim to follow out this as carefully as possible during the present enquiry. Put before the medical pro- fession as it has been by WRIGHT, such a theory of Primary Gastro-duodenitis due to a micro-organism (probably not unlike the B. Diptheria in its action) lying latent in some unknown form and multiplying in the stomach and duodenum, re- quires earnest consideration before it can be accepted or refuted. At the outset HAMILTON WRIGHT accepts the dogma that Beri-beri is to be classed as an acute specific infectious disease.. The arguments for and against such a statement are many, and it is our intention to deal with this branch of the subject under a sepa- rate heading. Given the infectivity of the disease, WRIGHT shews us the primary lesion of the disease in the gastro-duodenal mucous membrane and notes the inci- dence of bacteria in such tissue, as are pathological in this locality. He likens the growth of such bacteria in the mucous membrane to that of diphtheria and is in- clined to attribute all the well-marked evidence of the presence of Beri-beri to secondary degenerations called forth by the action of an assimilable toxin elabor- ated by the bacilli locally in the gastro-duodenal mucosa and absorbed directly into the general blood stream. According to WRIGHT hoards of a particular form of bacillus are found between the epithelial cells of the pathological mucous mem- brane, and the number of these gradually diminish as the healthy mucosa is reached.

Further than these bland statements as to the incidence of bacteria in the mucosa of the alimentary tract in Beri-beri, we find little in WRIGHT's paper on the subject regarding the isolation of his special bacteria and the results which he obtained on testing his cultures experimentally. Without such data one feels bound to attribute little importance to that part of WRIGHT's researches which deal with the bacteriology of the disease. Indeed we may go further and point out that as the alimentary tract throughout its entire course is a regular hotbed of all sorts of biological life, the mere finding microscopically, in sections of the damaged gut, of hoards of bacteria can excite no surprise or suspicion that these micro- organisms are actually the causal agents of the disease. In the pathological section of our report we mention that in our opinion the pathological condition as found in the gastro-intestinal mucous membrane was not an active process, but one due in the main to passive congestion. Hæmorrhages and broken down areas of mu- cosa were described, and necrosis was mentioned as being present in a certain number of the cases. Given therefore such a mucosa lining a gut full of milliards of biological life, it is to be expected that should such a membrane become patho- logical, the morbid areas must afford an excellent nilus for the growth of such organisms, and their presence in section in enormous numbers would certainly be noted. In the experimental part of our research, it will be seen that the bacteria of the gut and its membranes of cases of Beri-beri are non-pathogenic when intro- duced into the alimentary tract of other animals.

Apart from our experimental studies our researches along bacteriological lines have been directed as follows:

I-BLOOD.

(a.) Blood films from several hundred cases of Beri-beri of all types have been examined according to the latest tinctorial methods including LEISHMAN'S modification of ROMANOWSKY'S method. In every case a negative result as regards organisms was obtained.

(b.) Large quantities 10-20 c.c. of blood have been taken ante-mortem from acute cases of Beri-beri, in nearly 50 cases, and transferred to a variety of nutrient media either in flasks or in test tubes. Subsequently some of these were incubated, and others were grown at the room temperature. The flasks and tubes were kept under observation for at least 14 days. In every case in which the technique was faultless, the flasks and tubes remained sterile.

(c.) · Blood was directly transferred from Beri-beri cases to a number of ani- inals. The result was constantly negative (vide Experimental section).

The

II. SPLEEN PUNCTURES during life were made in nearly a hundred cases. blood obtained was treated in exactly the same way as that described under

Blood" (a.), (b.) and (c.). In every case a negative result followed.

160

III. THE DROPSICAL ACCUMULATIONS.

Fluid from the pleural and abdominal cavities and subcutaneous tissues has been examined bacteriologically (culturally and experimentally). In a certain proportion of the tests the presence of the inhibiting alexins in such fluids was destroyed by heat. Subsequently all the flasks containing the fluid and nutrient media were incubated. All tests made in this way were negative.

IV. THE CEREBRO-SPINAL FLUID (lumbar puncture and post-mortem).—This fluid was also examined microscopically and bacteriologically, the examinations being made after thorough centrifugalisation in order to obtain a suitable deposit. Bacteriologically the tests were similar to those given under the foregoing headings. The results were negative as regards organisms in every instance.

Post-mortem Results.-Microscopic examinations of smears of almost every organ and tissue of fresh Beri-beri cadavers have been made in a large number of cases.

Indeed in every case of Beri-beri examined post-mortem smears of the blood spleen and liver are always prepared stained by LEISHMAN'S method and examined microscopically. All our microscopic examinations in these cases have given a negative result.

Bacteriologically.-The tests applied were those usually adopted in order to isolate micro-organisms, namely, plate cultivations, tube inoculations and the em- ployment of a variety of nutrient media. The experimental tests were also applied (vide Experimental part of the research).

In fresh cadavers inoculations were made into nutrient media from every organ. In many of the cases cocci and bacteria of various species were obtained in pure culture, thus agreeing with the results of PEKELHARING and WINKLER. On applying further tests, inclusive of experimentation, with these micro-organisms, the results obtained shewed that these cocci and bacteria, bore no causal relation- ship to Beri-beri.

·

Repeatedly cultures were made from the gastro-duodenal mucous membrane especially from the areas of necrosis and hæmorrhagic extravasations. Bacteria were isolated according to the aerobic and anaerobic methods, but these on further examination proved to be organisms having nothing in common with the disease and whose natural hatitat is the intestine.

From these examinations which have extended over several years, and from the general negative results as regards a specific biological excitant of the disease, we feel assured that the organisms hitherto isolated by many observers are of extraneous origin, and have no causal relationship to Beri-beri. Again, the bacteria noted by HAMILTON WRIGHT in his recent memoirs on this subject can be demonstrated again and again in the pathological areas of the gastro intestinal mucosa, but their presence must be regarded as the result of secondary bacterial invasion of the pathological mucosa.

Supplementary evidence of these all-round negative results is supplied in the experimental part of our research. There, it will be observed, experiments of the most varied character were undertaken, and notwithstanding the application of all the methods known to induce the incidence of the disease amongst animals, the results were uniformly negative throughout.

A

In conclusion, therefore, it may be said that the bacteriological methods so far applied to cases of Beri-beri have failed to isolate for us a specific pathogener of the disease, Naturally we cannot definitely say that the disease is of a non- bacteriological nature, yet we are strongly of opinion that in the absence of posi- tive results after many searching biological investigations by ourselves and others, a specific infectivity as regards Beri-beri must lose much of its significance, and the disease, in the future, relegated to the confines of the pathological chemist.

161

ON THE PRESENCE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS IN THE

BLOOD STREAM OF BERI-BERICS.

Previous workers on this subject have described micro-organisms which were formed in cultures made direct from the blood. The organisms described by these investigators were usually of the nature of cocci and rod-shaped bacteria. The cocci were often of the chromogenic variety, and so far as one can gather from the descriptions given of such organisms, they would appear to differ but slightly, indeed if at all, from the micro-organisms found ubiquitous in nature, and in the deeper folds and sebaceous ducts of the normal human skin.

The bacteria described up to the present would also appear to come under the same category, and so far as one can gather have but little to do with the disease under consideration, and much less with its etiology.

During this research experiments were undertaken on an extensive scale, and under very favourable conditions for the final determination of the presence or absence of any forms of micro-organisms in the blood stream of Beri-beri patients. In our examinations acute cases of Beri-beri were chosen to begin with, and later on the experiments were supplemented by the examination of the blood streams of the dropsical and atrophic varieties of the disease.

The technique employed was the following:-Peptone bouillon was prepared according to EYRE's method, and transferred to tubes. Each tube contained approximately 20 c.c. of bouillon. These bouillon tubes were kept under incuba- tion for at least a week previous to being used for purpose of cultivation. Great care was always exercised in maintaining absolute sterility of the medium used. The tubes of bouillon were prepared in the Bacteriological Laboratory and transferred to the Tung Wah Hospital for inoculation. The patient was prepared for a venesection of the arm. The arm having been rendered aseptic by the use of thorough washing, alcohol, sublimate, etc., one of the superficial veins was com- pletely severed at the bend of the elbow. The blood was allowed to flow into a porcelain dish and escape slowly for at least 30 seconds. Thereupon the bouillon tubes were brought to the bedside, the cotton wool plugs carefully removed and from 10-20 c.c. of blood were allowed to pass into each tube. Several tubes were inoculated with the blood of each patient. After the operation, pressure was applied over the wound and in no instance did adverse conditions shew them- selves subsequently. The tubes were removed to the Laboratory as soon as possible and incubated for definite periods. In other cases tubes of agar- agar and other media were used and filled with blood extracted from the patient in the same way.

All these were subsequently incubated for long but indefinite periods. Further flasks of a capacity of 1,000 c.c. were filled with bouillon to the extent of 250 c.c. These were tested before use as to their sterility by incubation at 37° C. for over a week. They were inoculated with blood from typical cases of the disease-one flask being used for each patient, and each receiving at least 50 c. c. of blood.

By these methods it is obvious that if micro-organisms were present in the blood in cases of Beri-beri these means would undoubtedly settle the question. A large number of experiments were made because of the difficulty of rendering the skin absolutely aseptic and the prevention of extraneous organisms entering the flask when exposed in the airy wards of a tropical and Chinese Hospital.

The following is a description of the results obtained :---

Experiment No. I.

Nature of case.

Media.

No. of Tube.

Quantity of Blood.

Period of Incubation.

Result.

Acute Beri-beri, Bouillon.

7 days ill.

122 TH LO

10 c.c.

7 days.

2

15 c.c.

Mould. Sterile.

3

10 c.c.

""

14 days.

4

10 c.c.

19

"7

5

10 c.c.

""

162

Experiment No. II.

Nature of Case.

Media.

No. of Tube. Quantity of Period of

Result.

Blood.

Incubation.

Acute oedematous

Beri-beri,

Bouillon.

1

10 c.c.

14 days.

Sterile.

2

10

14

""

""

""

10 days ill,

3

10

""

4

10

5

10

14 21 days. 21

""

""

""

Experiment No. III.

Quantity of Period of

Nature of Case

Media.

No. of Tube.

Result.

Blood.

Incubation.

Acute Beri-Beri, 1 week ill,

Bouillon.

OTP WN-

1

5 c.c.

21 days.

Sterile.

2

5

21

??

27

19

10 c.c.

21 "?

""

5

10 10

21

11

""

21

27

""

Experiment No. IV.

Quantity of Period of

Nature of Case.

Media.

No. of Tube.

Result.

Blood.

Incubation.

Atrophic Beri-beri, Bouillon. 4 months ill,

1

5 c.c.

21 days.

Sterile.

2

10 c.c.

14

19

""

5 c.c.

21

""

4

10 c.c.

30

Mould. Sterile.

""

5

10 c.c.

30

""

""

Experiment No. V.

Nature of Case. Media. No. of Tube. Quantity of Period of

Acute Beri-beri, | Agar-agar.

10 days ill.

10 10 10 10 10

1234 0

5

Blood.

Incubation.

14 days.

Result.

5

c.c.

Sterile.

14

""

""

14

""

""

14 14

19

Experiment No. VI.

Nature of Case.

Media. No. of Tube. Quantity of Period of

Result.

Blood.

Incubation.

Acute, Pernicious, Agar-agar.

Beri-beri, 1 month

1

2

10 cc.. 10

1 month.

Sterile.

1

Mould.

""

ill.

3

5 c.c.

1

Sterile.

""

4

Mould.

""

5

5

1

Sterile.

""

>>

163

Experiment No. VII.

Quantity of Period of

Nature of Case.

Media.

No. of Tube.

Result.

Blood.

Incubation.

Acute, Pernicious

Blood-Se-

Beri-beri, 1 week rum Agar.

ill.

123 O

2

5 c.c. 10 c.c.

14 days.

Sterile.

14

وو

"J

5 c.c.

4

5 c.c.

14 19 21 days.

""

""

5

5 c.c.

21

""

Experiment No. VIII.

Nature of case.-A Chinese male adult, aged 50, suffering from acute oedematous Beri-beri. The duration of the illness was approximately 14 days.

Method of Experimentation.-One litre flask containing sterile peptone bouillon was inoculated with 50-60 c.c. of this patient's blood. The technique as regards pre- vention of extraneous contamination was found to be rather more difficult than in the case of the test tube experiments. The flask was subsequently incubated at 37° C.

In 24 hrs.--a diffuse turbidity of the broth was found with the formation of a delicate membrane on its surface.

In 72 hrs.-the turbidity was more pronounced with the accumulation of a considerable amount of greyish-white granular deposit. The surface membrane was now found to be thick and wrinkled of a greyish-white colour, and covering the entire surface of the bouillon. It was tough and with difficulty could be broken up on severe agitation of the bouillon.

Microscopically--the growth was found to consist of rod-shaped organisms. These were found to be single or in pairs, and occasionally in threads, they were mobile, and could be easily stained with any ordinary dye. Spore formation was present. Subsequent plate and sub-cultivation on different media shewed this micro-organism to be the only micro-organism present, and it was later identified as the Bac. mesentericus vulgatus or potato bacillus, which is so commonly found in nature, and has no relationship to the disease under consideration.

Experiment No. IX.

Nature of case.-A Chinese male adult suffering from acute Beri-beri of 10 days' duration, was bled in the usual way, and according to the technique already described. A flask of peptone bouillon was inoculated with about 30-40 c.c. of blood (venous) which was introduced into the flask and well mixed with the broth.

Subsequently the flask was incubated at 37-C.

After 24 hrs.-the bouillon was turbid and the flask shewed the presence of a granular deposit.

Microscopically-a drop of the bouillon shewed the presence of cocci and rod-stained preparations of this medium shewed the cocci lying singly, in pairs, and in small groups. They stained well by GRAM's method and generally resembled staphylococci. The rod-shaped organisms were found to be identical with those found in Experiment No. VIII.

The cocci were isolated in pure culture and proved to be a mixture of staphylococcus pyogenes albus and aureus, organisms which are found ubiquitous in nature and on the body surfaces of all human beings.

The micro-organisms present in this flask were utilised for the purpose of experiment.

164

Experiment No. IX A.

One rabbit was inoculated subcutaneously on November 3rd, 1904, with the bouillon containing both varieties of organisms.

On the following day a small localised swelling was found over the seat of inoculation. The temperature was normal.

The animal continued in a good state of health until November 8th, 1904, when it received 2 c.c. of a 24-hr. old bouillon culture of the staphylococci present in this flask.

During the next few days the rabbit remained well.

November 12th, 1904.-Another 2 c.c. of the bouillon culture of the micro-cocci were inoculated subcutaneously.

November 18th, 1904.-2 c.c. injected as on November 12th.

November 20th, 1904.-The animal is well, feeds, and has no diarrhoea. A small abscess has developed over the site of the injection of November 12th. The knee-jerks are present, there is no apparent terderness on pressure over the abdomen, and the rabbit moves and functionates as other animals do.

November 25th, 1904.-2 c.c. of the flask used for Experiment No. XI were injected subcutaneously.

From this time onwards until the middle of January, 1905, the rabbit remained in a fair state of health. There was never any sign of Beri-beri. About the latter end of January subcutaneous abscess formation took place and the animal died from general septic poisoning.

Although the animal was frequently examined during the experiment, which lasted about three months, no sign of Beri-beri was elicited. There was never any distension of the abdomen or epigastric tenderness on gentle pressure.

The knee-jerks could always be elicited and pressure on the leg muscles did not appear to evoke any discomfort.

Experiment No. IX B.

The experiment is similar in almost all respects to the previous one.

November 3rd, 1904.-One rabbit was inoculated subcutaneously with 3 c.c. of the bouillon.

November 8th, 190.-5 c.c. of the contents of the flask used for Experiment No. XI, inoculated subcutaneously.

The result of these injections was negative. Apart from localised swellings over the site of inoculation, the animal shewed no discomfort. The temperature remained normal. It will be obvious from these inoculations that the micro- organisms present in the flask possess practically no pathogenicity.

November 19th, 1904.-The animal contracted pneumonia and died the follow- ing day.

There never was any sign of paralyses, epigastric tenderness, oedema, or tenderness of the muscles. The knee-jerks could always be elicited.

Post-mortom Examination.-Double fibrinous pneumoina; no evidence of lesions indicative of Beri-beri found.

Experiment No. IX C.

For details of this Experiment reference should be made to Observations on Sheep-Experiment No. 2.

165

Experiment No. X.

The nature of this experiment and the technique employed were identical with that found in Experiments Nos. VIII and IX.

After incubation of the flask at 37° C. for 48 hours, a mixed growth of cocci were found. These proved to be staphylococci, chromogenic and non-chromoge- nic varieties being both present. There was nothing distinctive about these mi- cro-organisms. They answered to all the characteristics and cultural tests of the ordinary ubiquitous staphylococci.

The contents of this flask were utilised for the carrying out of the following experiments :-

One Monkey.

Experiment No. X A.

The animal was previously tested as to its good health and during the experiment the temperature was tested twice daily.

November 7th, 1904.--The animal received subcutaneously 10 c.c. of the cul- ture in the flask.

November 8th, 1904.-The inoculation made yesterday appeared to have no effect upon the animal. There was a slight local swelling over the site of the ino- culation. There was however no fever.

Thereupon, 10 c.c. of the flask used for Experiment No. XI was injected subcutaneously.

November 11th, 1904.-Diarrhoea set in to-day. The animal appears weak and very apathetic. It can only with difficulty be made to stir from the crouching position.

November 12th, 1904.-The diarrhoea has become more pronounced. The animal appears to be in a condition of septic poisoning. The knee-jerks are pre- sent and the monkey shrieks when touched. It is evidently in great pain. There are no evidences present of acute Beri-beri.

November 14th, 1904.-The animal died to-day.

Post-mortem Examination.-The body was greatly emaciated. Rigor mortis was present (4 hours after death). The subcutaneous tissues shewed no cedema or mucoid appearance. The lungs were normal. There was no excess of fluid in the pleural cavities. The heart was dilated and contained dark fluid blood. Several small ante-mortem clots were found present. The cardiac muscle was found to be soft and flabby and degenerated. There was no endocarditis. The mucous membrane of the stomach was injected and eroded, with numerous patches. of hæmorrhagic extravasation. The intestine throughout was in a condition of acute follicular enteritis. The mesenteric glands were enlarged and soft and shewed points of hæmorrhagic extravasations. The spleen, apart from congestion, was norinal. The kidneys were congested. Smear preparations were made from the spleen and the heart blood, and shewed the presence of staphylococci. This was confirmed bacteriologically. The cause of death was put down as staphylo- coccic ptomaine poisoning.

One Monkey.

Experiment No. X B.

The conditions were the same as those of Experiment No. I. The usual preliminary precautions were taken.

November 7th, 1904.--The monkey was inoculated subcutaneously with 6 c.c. of the culture in the fluid.

November 8th, 1904.-A small localised swelling was found over the site of the inoculation. There was no rise in temperature.

166

November 9th, 1904.-5 c.c. from the same flask was again incorporated subcutaneously.

November 10th, 1904. -No reaction found except a small localised swelling. The temperature became subnormal.

November 11th, 1904.-10 c.c. of the contents of the flask used for Experiment No. X was injected subcutaneously.

November 12th, 1904.-Local reaction found but no elevation of temperature November 13th, 1904.-Diarrhoea set in.

November 14th, 1904.-The animal died to-day.

Throughout the experiments, no signs of symptoms of Beri-beri shewed themselves. The doses of the culture given were large but it must be remembered that previous experiments had shewn the culture to be possessed of but small virulence.

Post-mortem Examination.-The condition of the internal organs was similar to that found in Experiment No. I, and need not be detailed.

The cause of death was chronic poisoning due to the incorporation of large amounts of staphylococci and their ptomaines.

One Rabbit.

Experiment No. X C.

After determining that the animal was in perfect health, the following ex- periment was made.

November 7th, 1904.-2 c.c. of the bouillon growth was injected sub- cutaneously.

November 8th, 1904.-The temperature is 104° F. The animal is dull and apathetic, and refuses food.

November 9th, 1904.-The temperature was normal. The animal was livelier to-day. The swelling at the site of inoculation is fully developed but shews no signs of softening. The animal was tested for the presence of signs of Beri-beri. The knee-jerks were present. There was no epigastric tenderness and no tender- ness on pressure over the muscles.

November 10th, 1904.-2 c.c. of the same bouillon again injected beneath the skin of the abdomen

November 13th, 1904.--Still no signs of Beri-beri.

November 15th, 1904.-2 c.c. again injected.

November 18th, 1904.-No evidence of Beri-beri.

November 21st, 1904.-2 c.c. again injected.

November 25th, 1904.-There is no evidence of a sign of Beri-beri. The animal moved and functionated like other normal rabbits.

November 29th, 1904.-Diarrhoea set in.

December 2nd, 1904.-The animal died to-day.

Post-mortem Examination.-Cause of death was diarrhoea.

sign of Beri-beri.

Experiment No. XI.

Absolutely no

The conditions and technique of the experiment were the same as in the pre- vious experiments. A well marked case of edematous Beri-beri was chosen for the venesection.

The flask was subsequently incubated at 37° C.

:

1

167

Micro-cocci in pure culture were found and agreed in all points with the ordi- nary staphylococcus epidermidis albus..

The following experiments with this culture were made. been noted under the following different headings:-

All of these have

Experiment No. 1. Experiment No. 2. Experiment No. 1. Experiment No. 3.

Experiment No. XI A.-Vide Observations on Sheep. Experiment No. XI B.--Vide Observations on Sheep. Experiment No. XI c.-Vide Observations on Fowls. Experiment No. XI D.-Vide Observations on Fowls. Experiment No. XI E.-Vide Experiment on Rabbit, under Experiment

No. IX A. (Blood in Beri-beri }.

Experiment No. XI F.-Vide Experiment on a Monkey. Experiment X a.

(Blood in Beri-beri).

Experiment No. XII.

Nature of experiment was the same as No. XI.

Mixed cocci were found-chromogenic and non-chromogenic-and agreeing with the characteristics of staphylococcus albus and aureus.

The contents of this flask were not used for experimental purposes.

Experiment No. XII.

The nature, technique employed, and the result of the bacteriological examin- ations were identical with Experiment No XI,

present, namely, staphylococcus albus.

No experiments were made.

One variety of micro-coccus was

Experiment No. XIV.

This experiment was carried out in the same way as the previous one. A well marked atrophic case of Beri-beri was used for venesection. The result of the bacteriological examination was the isolation of cocci and rod-shaped bacteria. The cocci were of the ordinary staphylococcie variety and the rods shewed themselves closely related to the colony group.

Owing to the mixed growth of micro-organisms no experiments were made with this bouillon.

Conclusions.

The results of these experiments shew more or less clearly, that micro- organisms of the common type are absent from the blood during an attack of Beri-beri. The repeated sterile result after inoculating bouillon and agar tubes with appreciable quantities of freshly flowing blood, demonstrates more or less clearly the non-bacteriæmic nature of the disease.

The findings of other workers who have pinned their faith in the micro-organ- ismal nature of the disease must, as a result of our investigations, be looked upon in a different light. The prevention of contamination is a difficult matter even in the hands of an expert, and the description of the presence of micro-cocci and bacteria of several kinds must be regarded as the result of defective technique in the methods applied for the determination of this important question.

168

6.-EXPERIMENTAL

RESEARCHES.

These researches occupied the greater part of our time and seemed to offer us the best opportunity of locating the exact etiological factor in Beri-beri. After the account given by HAMILTON WRIGHT of natural Beri-beri infection of monkeys, coupled with the negative results obtained by other methods of investigation, it appeared to us experimental methods would in all probability bring to light this much sought for factor in Beri-beri. Naturally these experiments were undertaken from as wide a standpoint as possible. Monkeys were used on a large scale and subjected to experimentation by almost every method known. In addition, pigs, sheep, calves and a horse, rabbits and fowls were made extensive' use of. The following is a resumé of the inethods adopted, with a detailed account of the experiments themselves:-

1.-Observations on Monkeys.

A.-Natural Infection.

B.-Feeding experiments-

(1) With Beri-beri blood. (2) With spleen substance.

(3) With gastro duodenal mucosa.

C.-Subcuntaneous Inoculation-

(1) With Beri-beri blood.

(2) With spleen blood.

(3) With cerebro-spinal fluid.

D.-Intraperitoneal inoculation with Beri-beri blood.

2.-Observations on Pigs.

A.-Feeding experiments-

(1) With Beri-beri blood. (2) With spleen substance.

(3) With brain substance.

(4) With cerebro-spinal fluid.

(5) With gastro duodenal mucosa and other abdominal organs.

3. Observations on Sheep.

A-Vaccination experiments with spleen pulp. B-Feeding experiments with Beri-beri blood.

4.-Observations on Calves.

· Subcutaneous inoculation with Beri-beri blood.

5.-Observations on Rabbits.

A.-Natural infection.

B. Subcutaneous inoculation with Beri-beri blood.

C.-Feeding experiments-

(1) With Beri-beri blood.

(2) With spleen substance.

6.-Observations on Fowls.

A.-Feeding experiments with spleen substance and blood.

7.-Observations on a Horse.

A.-Subcutaneous inoculation with Beri-beri blood.

=

169

Observations on Monkeys,

A.-NATURAL INFECTION.

This series of experiments was undertaken in order to confirm, if possible, the recent observations of HAMILTON WRIGHT on Beri-beri in Monkeys. [Vide "Brain," Winter 1903].

Description of Experiment. The rooms of the Po Leung Kuk in which the majority of the cases of Beri-beri had occurred (in the outbreak in that Institution) were reserved for this test. The rooms were left in exactly the same condition as when they were used by the inmates of the Po Leung Kuk.

Two monkeys were placed in each room, and in order to facilitate the onset of the disease, the windows of the roonis were kept shut, and the light excluded as far as possible.

Previous to the commencement of the experiments, the monkeys were kept under observation for several days, and their blood microscopically examined.

The following is a resumé of the experiments:-

Experiment No. 1.

Animals-Two monkeys.

Nature of Experiment

The monkeys were incarcerated in a presumably infected room in the Po Leung Kuk. The shutters were closed and the room darkened. The animals were allowed their full freedom in the room. Their diet consisted of bananas, sugar cane, peanuts and boiled rice bought in one of the local markets, and was strictly the same as that of the other monkeys under observation.

They were placed in the room on September 26th, 1904, and kept prisoners in the room without a break until the end of January. 1905, i.e., for over four months. The condition of the animals was noted daily. They lost weight slightly but were able to climb and seramble over the furniture and walls like normal. monkeys. They eagerly devoured their food; there was no diarrhoea, and their temperature never varied beyond normal limits.

At the end of their incarceration, the monkeys, except for a slight loss in weight, were healthy and their movements and reflexes were normal.

Subsequently the monkeys were kept in cages under continued observation. for a further period of four months, at the end of which the animals shewed no sign of disease, and could eat, walk and climb as well as many other monkeys. At the present time-the middle of October, 1905, i.e., over twelve months since they were first placed in the infected room-these two animals are in sound health.

During the period of their incarceration the blood of the animals was examined microscopically on several occasions. Its contents was without excep- tion normal.

Experiment No. II.

Animals-Two monkeys.

Nature of Experiment: -Identical with No. I.

The animals were incarcerated over five months.

They were subsequently

under close observation up to the date of writing. namely, the 19th October, 1905, that is, over one year. Both animals are alive and healthy at the present time.

Experiment No. III.

Animals. Two monkeys.

Nature of Experiment:-The same as that described under Experiment No. I. Period of incarceration-5 months.

170

Total period of observation-One year.

Result. Both animals are alive and well at the present time.

Conclusions:-

The conclusion to be drawn from these experiments is that the incarceration for months of monkeys in rooms presumably infected with the so-called Beri-beri virus, failed to induce the occurrence of the disease in them. We were unable to confirm the results of HAMILTON WRIGHT.

B.--FEEDING EXPERIMENTS.

After the publication by HAMILTON WRIGHT of his observations on the nature of Beri-beri and his theory of a definite primary lesion in the disease, feeding experiments were resorted to as a possible means of inducing infection. Again, as certain observers, as PEKELHARING and WINKLER, GERRARD and others, claim to have found micro-cocci, etc., in the blood stream of Beri-beri patients, feeding animals with the blood of such cases seemed to afford the best opportunity for a successful mode of conveyance of Beri-beri from man to animal. By this method the organisms said to be present in the blood would reach that part of the gut, namely, the gastro duodenal mucosa, alleged to be the site of primary Beri-beri infection, and in susceptible animals set up the disease. It seemed to us that by resorting to such experiments, the question as to the presence of a definite primary lesion in Beri-beri, and our hopes of obtaining positive evidence of the transmission of the disease to monkeys by this method were strengthened by the publication of WRIGHT dealing with natural infection in monkeys incarcerated in presumably infected prison cells.

As already noted under a separate paragraph our results as regards natural infection of monkeys are directly opposed to those of HAMILTON WRIGHT,

In every instance a negative observation was made. At the same time our experiments regarding natural infection might have been unsuccessful for other unknown adverse circumstances, so that the prosecution of other methods of experimentation in monkeys would decide definitely whether these animals (or indeed any animal) can suffer from Beri-beri naturally, or can be infected artificially by simple or drastic methods of incorporation of Beri-beri infected tissues.

The following feeding experiments on monkeys were undertaken :-

Experiment No. I.

Animal-One monkey.

Nature of experiment :-

Feeding with freshly drawn defibrinated venous blood of acute

Dropsical Beri-beri patients.

The blood was obtained under sterile conditions from one of the veins in front of the elbow joint, defibrinated, and imme- diately poured down the animal's throat.

Quantities of blood varying from 40-50 c.c. were administered for a dose. Several doses of the same quantity were given. The animal was fed with blood from different cases of Beri-beri.

Its

The experiment was commenced on the 11th October, 1904. For some days previous, the animal was kept under observation and during this period shewed no signs of disease. The temperature was normal. During the whole period of observation, the temperature of the animal was taken twice daily per rectum. food consisted of bananas, nuts and rice. The condition of the animal was also tested daily, particularly in regard to emaciation, motor and sensory disturbances, knee-jerks and the presence of epigastric tenderness and diarrhoea.

:

MONTH.

Feeding Experiment.

OCTOBER.

DAY.

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

1277

MONTH.

22

23 24 25 26 DAY.

F.°

ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

107.°

106.°

105.°

104.°

103.°

102.°

101.°

Fed with freshly drawn blood 40 e.c.

Fed with freshly drawn blood 30 c.c.

C.

!

-41.0

-40.°

-39.°

-38.°

100.°

99.0

-37.°

MONTH.

OCTOBER.

DAY.

27 28 29 30

31

Feeding Experiment.

NOVEMBER.

MONTH.

5

6

8

9 10 11

DAY

F.°

ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

107.0

106.°

105.0

C.

-41.

104.°

-40.

103.°

-39.°

102.°

101.°

-38.°

100.°

99.°

-37.9

2

MONTH.

Feeding Experiment.

NOVEMBER.

DAY. 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

F:

107.°

106,°

105.°

104.°

ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

103.o

102.°

Whet

101.

100.°

MONTH.

DAY.

C.°

-41.0

-40.9

-39.0

-38.0

99.0

-37.0

!

171

On the 11th October, at 3 p.m., the animal was fed with freshly drawn blood. 40 c.c. was swallowed. The temperature was 102° F., i.e., practically normal for this animal. From the attached temperature chart it will be seen that during the following 5 to 6 days a distinct elevation of temperature was noted. During this time, however, the monkey shewed no signs of discomfort, being bright and lively and displaying a good appetite; the bowels being normal. An examination of the blood was negative as regards micro-organisms. The other elements of the blood were normal as regards number and nature.

On the 16th October, the animal was examined thoroughly. It could run and jump and was lively, taking its food well with apparent relish. The knee- jerks were normal. Sensation appeared to be normal. No cedema was found and

the animal did not object to pressure over the epigastric region.

The

On the morning of the 19th October, the animal was again fed with blood from an acute case of Beri-beri. The amount swallowed was about 30 c.c. technique was the same as that already described.

This feeding was followed by a slight rise in temperature which continued until the 10th November, when the temperature became steadily 102° or under. The oscillations of temperature were slight during this period, the fever rarely exceeding 103° F.

During this period, i.e., from the 16th October to the 16th November, the animal remained in perfect health. It never shewed the slightest disinclination for food. There was no diarrhoea or loss in weight and the motor and sensory apparatus appeared normal after repeated examination.

After the 16th November the temperature and the condition of the animal were noted until the beginning of February, 1905. The temperature remained steady between 1015 and 102° F. The condition of the animal remained good. No evidence of disease was at any time found present. At the present time (October, 1905,) the animal is alive and well, i.e., one year after the commencement of the experiment.

Experiment No. II.

Animal-One monkey.

Nature of experiment :-

The animal was fed with an emulsion of the Medulla, and Pons.

Varolii obtained from a recently dead case of Beri-beri.

The usual preliminary precautions were observed as regards the

animal, and the temperature was noted daily.

For one month the animal remained in perfect health. There was no rise in temperature, no epigastric tenderness, no loss of knee-jerks, and no paralysis.

About five weeks after the commencement of the experiment the animal con- tracted dysentery from which it died after about 7 days' illness.

Post-mortem examination :--

Cause of death-Acute bacillary dysentery.

No evidence of Beri-beri.

Experiment No. III.

Animal-One monkey.

Nature of experiment:-

Feeding with freshly drawn defibrinated blood of an acute case

of Beri-beri.

The technique was the same as that described in Experiment No. 1 (above).

172

After a month's observation of the monkey it was fed with an emulsion of fresh spleen in normal sterile saline, obtained post-mortem from a Beri-beri cadaver of a few bours old. The temperature was taken twice daily as before, and the physical condition of the animal noted weekly. The temperature chart is not recorded for this experiment. It practically runs the same course as that recorded for Experiment No. 1.

The experiment was commenced on 11th October, 1904, the temperature and the physical conditions of the animal were recorded until the 27th January, 1905, i.e., for 3 months.

At the present time (October, 1905), i.e., one year since the commencement of the experiment the animal is alive and healthy.

C.SUBCUTANEOUS INOCULATION.

(1) With Beri-beri blood.

Experiment No. I.

Animal-One monkey.

Nature of experiment :-

The animal was inoculated subcutaneously with 5 c.c. blood obtained, under sterile conditions, from the median basilic vein of a patient suffering from acute Beri-beri. The monkey was kept under observation for a few days previous to the coininencement of the experiment, its temperature and physical condition being noted. When the experiment was made, the monkey was brought to the bedside of the patient and the blood transferred directly from the arm of the patient to the monkey by means of a sterilised syringe.

5 c.c. of blood was

The inoculation was made on the 27th September, 1904. injected into the subcutaneous tissue over the abdomen. The attached tempera- ture chart shews the course of the body heat during the period of observation. The blood of the animal was examined previous to the commencement of the ex- periment. It shewed nothing abnormal.

The injection of the blood caused a slight rise in temperature which continued for about 8 or 9 days. During this period the animal remained in perfect health, eating well, with no diarrhoea, and all sensory and motor phenomena were carried out and responded to in a normal fashion. The blood was negative as regards organisms.

After observing the animal for a fortnight a feeding experiment was performed. On the 11th October the animal was fed with 30 c.c. of freshly drawn blood from an acute case of Beri-beri. The technique employed was the same as that des- cribed under Feeding Experiments.

This caused a transient rise in temperature, but notwithstanding, the animal fed well, and moved and responded to all stimuli in a normal manner. The blood was again examined but with a negative result.

After another forthnight had passed, the monkey received another subcutane- ous injection of blood, nearly 5 c.c. taken as before from an acute cedematous case of Beri-beri.

This was followed by a rise in temperature lasting 3-4 days. During this period-a month after the first injection-the monkey remained in perfect health.

From this time onwards the temperature remained normal and for this reason the curve has not been continued on the chart.

During the middle of December, 1904, the animal contracted dysentery and died on the 26th December.

1

->

99.°

107.°

106.9

105.°

104.9

103.0

102.°

101.°

MONTH.

SEPTEMBER.

Subcutaneous Inoculation with B.B. Blood.

One Monkey.

DAT

27 28 29 30

N

OCTOBER.

MONTH.

4 5

9 10 11 12

DAY.

F.°

ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

c.c.

Sub. inj. blood

Blood negative microscopically.

Blood negative microscopically.

Blood negative microscopically,

Fed with freshly drawn blood 30 c.c.

-38.

100.°

-37.

-39.°

-40.°

-41.°

C.°

#

MONTH.

Subcutaneous Inoculation with B.B. Blood.

One Monkey.

OCTOBER.

MONTH.

DAY.

13

14 15 16 17

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28:

DAY

F.°

MEME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

107.°

106.°

105.0

104.°

103.°

102.°

101.0

Blood negative microscopically.

Blood negative microscopically.

Blood negative microscopically.

C.°

-41.°

-40.°

-39.°

-38.°

100.°

99.9

-37.°

:

Subcutaneous Inoculation with B.B. Blood.

One Monkey.

MONTH. OCTOBER.

NOVEMBER.

DAY.

29 30 31

10

F.°

ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

107.0

106,°

105.°

104.°

103.o

102.°

101.°

100.0

99.°

Sub. inj. blood 5

c.c.

Blood negative microscopically.

MONTH.

DAY.

C.

-41.°

-40.°

-39.°

-38.°

-37.°

[

173

Up to the date of death the animal never shewed the slightest symptom of Beri-beri. Its movements and sensations were normal at all times. There was never any epigastric tenderness or oedema of the extremities. The knee-jerks were normal.

Post-mortem Examination.--The large intestine shewed marked dysenteric ulceration and necrosis. The stomach and duodenum were normal. The organs of the thorax were normal. There were no dropsical accumulations and a miscroscopical examination of the blood and spleen were negative as regards organ- isms.

[A large number of experiments have been undertaken by this method. The subcutaneous inoculation of considerable quantities of Beri-beri blood, obtained from patients suffering from the disease in the acute form, seemed to us to offer good chances of transference of the disorder to animals, especially monkeys, and for the following reasons. Given that the experiments of HAMILTON WRIGHT on natural Beri-beri infection in monkeys are valid, and that there exist, according to certain observers, micro-cocci or other germs on the blood stream, such an experimental method of conveyance of the infection would be almost bound to result in a successful issue.]

Experiment No. II.

Animal-One monkey.

Nature of experiment :-

The technique employed was the same as that employed in Ex- periment No. I. The blood was obtained from a vein in the arm of an acute and oedematous case of Beri-beri.

After a few days' observation the monkey was inoculated with

5 c.c. of blood on the 4th of October, 1904.

As will be observed from the attached temperature chart the injection of the blood occasioned no fever. The blood was also negative bacteriologically.

Up to the 20th October, 1904, i.e., over a fortnight since the commencement of the experiment the animal remained in perfect health. Its motor and sensory apparatus were normal and there was no epigastric tenderness.

On the 20th October, 1904, 5 c.c. of venous blood from another similar case of Beri-beri was injected subcutaneously. This inoculation was followed by a rise in temperature.

On the following day, namely, the 21st October, 10 c.c. of blood was subcutane- ously inoculated from an acute case. On this date the temperature was maintained at 150° F. From this time onwards there was a gradual defervescence.

Still another injection of 5 c.c. of venous blood was given on the 27th October, 1904. This however occasioned no perceptible alteration in the temperature chart.

The temperature curve reached its normal about the beginning of November, that is, about 10 days after its initial rise.

During the febrile period the animal shewed but little signs of being ill. The appetite was poor, but there was no epigastric tenderness and all motor and sensory functions were carried out in a normal fashion. The blood was examined microscopically and bacteriologically on several occasions with a negative result.

From the beginning of November, 1904, the temperature remained normal, so that a continuation of the curve was unnecessary.

The monkey has remained in perfect health and is alive at the present time (October, 1905) functionating normally and to all appearance as well as other monkeys.

1

:

174

[REMARKS: There is always the possibility that monkeys, or even any animal, are not susceptible to Beri-beri. WRIGHT's experiments were positive, ours negative. Given WRIGHT's experiments as positive, then in all probability there are no micro-organisms in the blood of Beri-beri cases.]

Experiment No. III.

Animal-One monkey.

Nature of experiment:-

This was carried out in the same way as the previous two experiments. The usual preliminary observations were made and precautionary measures were taken.

October 8th, 1904.-The monkey received 10 c.c. blood from a moribund case of acute Beri-beri.

October 20th, 1904.-10 c.c. of blood injected from another case of oedematous Beri-beri, in the morning.

October 20th, 1904.-In the afternoon 8 c.c. blood injected.

October 25th, 1904.-4 c.c blood injected.

October 28th, 1904.-8 c.c. blood injected.

Total amount injected, 40 c.c. blood.

(Vide temperature chart).

:

Nothing found in the blood microscopically or bacteriologically.

No ill health of animal, no paralyses, sensory or motor, no epigastric tenderness.

From November, 1904, to October, 1905, the animal has remained in perfect health.

Experiment No. IV.

Animal-One monkey.

Nature of experiment:-

This was carried out in a similar fashion to the three

preceding experiments.

(Vide temperature charts).

Five different inoculations of blood from different cases of Beri-beri were made.

Total quantity of blood injected-30 c.c.

The blood of animal was negative microscopically and bacteriologically. The animal was never ill: there was no paralysis: no epigastric tenderness: no oedema. It was alive and well 9 months after the beginning of the experiment and presented no signs of Beri-beri.

Experiment No. V.

Animal-One monkey.

Nature of experiment:-

This was performed as in the preceding experiments. The usual precautionary measures were taken. The cases of Beri-beri from which the blood was taken were acute and oedematous and atrophic.

Four different inoculations at different periods were performed. In all the animal received subcutaneously 45 c.c. of human Beri-beri blood.

MONTH.

Experiment No. 2.-Inoculation.

OCTOBER.

MONTH.

DAY.

4

6

7

8 9 10 11 12

13 14 15 16 17 18 19

DAY.

F.°

ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

107.°

106.

105.°

104.°

103.o

102.°

5

c.c.

Sub. inj, blood

Blood negative microscopically.

Blood negative microscopically.

-40.°

-39.°

101.°

-38,°

100.°

99.°

-37.°

-41.°

C.

+

MONTH.

Experiment No. 2.-Inoculation.

DAY.

20

21 22

23 24

OCTOBER.

25

25

26 27 28 29 30 31

NOVEMBER. MONTH.

F.°

MEME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

107.°

106.°

105.o

104.°

103.°

102.°

101.°

100.°

99.°

Sub. in blood

Sub.

cut.

blood

c.c.

c.c.

10

Blood negative microscopically.

C

Sub. inj. blood

e.c.

Blood negative microscopically,

-40.°

www.

-39.°

-37.°

-38.°

-41.°

C.°

ᎠᎪᎱ.

MONTH.

Experiment No. 3.-Inoculation Monkey.

OCTOBER.

DAY.

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

19 20 21 22

2323

F.°

ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

107.°

106.°

105.°

104.0

103.o

102.°

101.°

c.c.

OT

Sub. inj. blood

Sub. inj. blood Sub. inj. blood

ΟΙ

c.c.

8

c.c.

Blood negative mierescopically.

MONTH.

DAY.

C.o

-41.°

-40.°

-39.°

-38,0

100.°

99.0

-37.°

MONTH.

Experiment No. 3.-Inoculation.-Monkey.

OCTOBER.

NOVEMBER.

DAY

24 25 26 27

28 29 30 31

1

2 3

4

5 6

F.°

ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

107.0

106.°

105.°

104.°

103.°

102.°

101.°

4

c.c.

Sub. inj, blood

Sub. inj.

blood 8

C.C.

Blood negative microscopically.

00

MONTH.

DAY.

C.o

-41.°

-40.°

-39.°

-38.0

100.°

99.°

-37.°

:

MONTH.

DAY.

F.°

107.°

106.°

105.°

104.°

c.c.

OJ

inj. blood

Sub.

*

Experiment No. 4.-Inoculation with Blood.

OCTOBER.

00

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

2223

MONTH.

23

DAY.

ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

Blood

negative.

103.°

102.°

wwwwwww

101.°

100.°

99.o

פיני

3

Sub. inj. blood

C.°

-41.°

-40.°

-39.0

-38.°

-37.°

;

MONTH.

Experiment No. 4.-Inoculation with Blood.

OCTOBER.

DAY.

24

25 26 27 28 29 30 31

F.°

ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

107.°

106.°

105.°

104.°

103.°

102.°

101.°

5

C.C.

Sub. inj. blood

Sub. inj. blood

8

C.C.

Sub. inj. blood

5

c.c.

negative.

Blood

-38.0

100.°

99.°

-37.°

-40.°

-39.°

-41.°

C.°

MONTH.

DAY.

:

MONTH. SEPTEMBER.

Spleen Blood.-Monkey.

OCTOBER.

MONTH.

DAF

27 28 29 30

1

2 3 4

6

10 11 12 DAY.

F.°

MEME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

107.0

106,°

105.°

104.°

103.°

102.0

101.°

100.°

Sub. inj.

spleen blood

8

c.c.

Blood negative.

Fed with blood 20

c.c.

C.°

-41.9

-40.°

-39.°

-38.

99.°

-37.°

MONTH,

Spleen Blood Experiment.

OCTOBER.

DAY.

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

F.°

MEME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

107.°

106.°

105,°

104.°

103.°

Blood negative.

MONTH.

DAY.

C.°

-41.°

-40.°

-39.°

102.°

101.°

-38.°

100.°

99.°

*

-37.°

!

175

A temperature chart is not appended as the course of the fever when pre- sent was really the same as in the other experiments. At no time while the ani- mal was under these observations did it shew any change from its normal condition. After being kept in its cage for 6 months it escaped and was lost.

Experiment No. VI,

Animal-One monkey.

Nature of experiment

The same as the previous ones and under the same conditions.

Forty c.c. of blood from four different recurrent cases of Peri-

beri were injected.

The animal lived for 3 months and was healthy. It contracted dysentery and died. Post-mortem, there was no evidence of Beri-beri, no cedema, no changes in stomach and duodenum.

Experiment No. VII.

Animal-One monkey.

Nature of experiment :

As before.

Three injections of blood 33 c.c. were given and the animal is alive and well after one year.

(2) With Beri-beri Spleen Blood.

Experiment No. 1.

Animal-One monkey.

Nature of experiment :-

The animal was kept under observation for several days prior to commencing the experiment. A case of acute Beri-beri with enlarged spleen was selected and blood films prepared for examination. No malarial parasites or other organisms were found. The case containing the monkey was brought along the bedside, and splenic puncture performed under aseptic conditions. The bloody fluid obtained was at once injected subcutaneously into the animal in all about 8 e c. was used. This inoculation was made on September, 27th, 1904. A drop of this fluid was spread on a micros- cope slide, stained and examined. Nothing was found microscopically. Bacteriologically this fluid gave a negative result.

The attached temperature chart shews that the injection was followed by a slight degree of fever with gradual defervescence, and lasting 5 to 6 days. This transitory temperature can be reasonably ascribed to the result of the injection. There was no evidence that it had anything to do with the onset of Beri-beri. A day or two after the inoculation the blood of the animal was examined but was negative as regards germs. No change in the physical appearance of the monkey was observed after the injection.

On the 11th October, namely, fourteen days after the inoculation of splenic blood, the animal was fed according to the methods already described, with 20 c.c. of freshly drawn blood of a dropsical case of Beri-beri. This again occasioned an evanescent rise in temperature lasting 3-4 days. Subsequent to this the temperature became normal, so that a prolongation of the curve on the attached chart was unnecessary.

#

176

From this time onwards the animal kept in perfect health. It functionated normally and all its motor and sensory apparatus responded normally to the usual stimuli. There was never any epigastric tenderness, and the knee-jerks could be daily elicited with ease.

At the present time-one year after the commencement of the experiment- the animal is alive and quite lively.

(3) With Cerebro-Spinal Fluid. Animal-One monkey.

After observing the monkey for several days 5 c.c. of freshly drawn cere- bro-spinal fluid from a marked case of oedematous Beri-beri was injected subcutaneously, on October 4th, 1904, and the animal was subsequently examined daily.

October 19th, 1904.-Still healthy and functionates normally. The injection of the fluid has practically caused the animal no inconvenience.

October 20th, 1904.-Was injected subcutaneously with 10 c.c. venous blood of a recent and acute case of Beri-beri. This injection caused no elevation of temperature, and the animal functionated like other monkeys.

October 26th, 1904.-There is a suspicion of weakness in the hind limbs, but a positive opinion on this matter is difficult to give as the animal appeared dull and apathetic. The knee-jerks were exaggerated however, and the animal resented pressure on its epigastrium. There was no evidence of disturbance of sensation. There was no cedema and no muscular tenderness.

October 7th, 1904.-The animal received another injection of 8 c.c. of blood from an acute case of Beri-beri.

November 1st, 1904.-The last injection caused no inconvenience to the animal. There was no temperature and the animal took its food and functionated normally. On careful examination the weakness of the hind legs is apparently lost. The animal could climb, grasp firmly, and behave on its legs like other monkeys. There was no change in the knee-jerks, and no epigastric discomfort on gentle pressure. The monkey in fact appears to be in perfect health.

November 8th, 1904.-Diarrhoea set in to-day. This is mucoid and bloody in character. No fever.

November 10th, 1904.-The animal died to-day, the result of persistent diarrhoea. It exhibited no signs of Beri-beri infection up to the date of its death.

Νο

Post-mortem Examination. -Mucous colitis. Other organs normal. signs of Beri-beri, and no evidence of a gastro duodenitis (localised) as described by HAMILTON WRIGHT. Microscopical examination of smears of the various organs gave a negative result, and the bacteriological examination of the blood and the spleen resulted in nothing of a definite nature being found.

D.--INTRA-PERITONEAL INJECTION OF FRESHLY DRAWN BLOOD.

Experiment No. I.

Animal-One monkey.

Preliminary precautions taken as before.

October 27th, 1904.—4 c.c. of blood from an acute œdematous case of Beri- beri injected intraperitoneally.

October 31st, 1904.-6 c.c. blood again injected into the peritoneum from another acute case of Beri-beri.

177

The animal was kept under close observation. The temperature was noted twice daily, but never deviated from normal.

;

The animal moved and functionated normally, took its food well, had no diarrhoea or epigastric tenderness and no oedema was ever present.

Five months after the date of the last injection the animal was well. There was not the slightest sign of Beri-beri. The knee-jerks were normal.

The animal then contracted dysentery and died a few days after.

Experiment No. II.

Animals-One monkey.

The animal was normal previous to the commencement of the experiment, and the usual precautions were taken.

October 27th, 1904.-10 c.c. of freshly drawn venous blood from an acute case of Beri-beri was inoculated.

October 31st, 1904.-8 c.c. of blood freshly drawn from an oedematous case was injected. No change was noted in the general behaviour of the animal. The temperature was always normal. The knee-jerks were frequently tested but were always present and not exaggerated.

The period of observation of this animal extended over one year. At the end of this time the condition of the animal was that of a normal monkey. Beri-beri- like symptoms or signs never manifested themselves.

E. FEEDING EXPERIMENTS WITH GASTRIC MUCOUS MEMBRANE TAKEN FROM

FRESH AND FATAL CASES OF ACUTE Beri-beri.

Experiment No. I.

Animal-One monkey.

Healthy, fed well and moved like other monkeys.

November 12th, 1904.-The animal was fed with a mixture of boiled rice and broken down gastric mucosa obtained an hour after death from an acute case of Beri-beri. The pieces of mucosa used for the experiment contained small erosions and hæmorrhages, presumably the pathological changes described by WRIGHT, and insisted on by him as the primary lesion in Beri-beri.

The bolus was coaxed down the animal's throat. No sickness followed and the animal was carefully observed until the following day, lest it might vomit the mixture. Nothing followed however, and on the next morning the monkey appeared to be in good health. The temperature was normal.

From November 13th, 1904, until March, 1905, the monkey was kept under close watch. It never shewed any sign of Beri-beri. It moved, climbed, ate, and behaved generally like any other monkey. The result therefore was negative, although the bolus administered contained presumably WRIGHT's primary lesion and his diphtheriod bacillus and toxin, and was brought into actual contact with the gastro duodenal mucosa of the monkey.

Experiment No. II.

Animal-One monkey.

3

This was fed in exactly the same way and with the same ma-

terial, including pieces of the duodenum.

Result-Negative as regards Beri-beri after four months' observation.

178

Experiment No. III.

Animal-One monkey.

This animal was fed in the same way with pieces of gastro duodenal mucosa from a very acutely fatal case of Beri- beri lasting four days.

1

Result-Negative after three month's observation.

Observations on Pigs.

FEEDING EXPERIMENTS.

Feeding experiments were made with pigs under conditions similar to those used in connection with other animals.

In dealing with these animals, no difficulty was found in getting con- siderable quantities of the presumably infected material swallowed. As will be seen from the following experiments in certain cases very considerable amounts of Beri-beri tissue were consumed.

Experiment No. I.

(Temperature Chart attached.)

This pig, an adult, in good health and fat. was kept under observation for a few days previous to the commencement of the experiment. It was found to be normal.

September 28th, 1904.-The animal was given as food the stomach, intestines, kidneys, liver, pancreas and spleen of a fresh Beri-beri cadaver. The post-mortem examination was made an hour or two after death, and these organs were sliced. into small pieces, inixed with boiled rice and warm water, and placed in a wooden trough before the pig. In order to ensure consumption, the animal had been kept without food of any description for the previous 24 hours. The pig attacked the bolus with considerable vigour, and in a short time had consumed practically the whole of the contents of the trough.

September 29th, 1904.-To-day the animal is bright and lively and anxious to obtain more food. It suffered no immediate bad effects from its gorge on the previous day. Its temperature is normal.

October 1st, 1904.-The animal is dull, and does not eat its food with much relish. It now lies in its pen throughout the day, and on urging it to move it bellows with great force. Fever is present.

Fever is present. An examination of the blood gave a negative bacteriological result.

The

October 3rd, 1904.-The animal has lost a considerable amount of flesh. Its temperature is now maintained over 105° F. It practically refuses all food, and if left alone, lies apparently sleeping in a corner of its pen, emitting short groans frequently. It has great thirst. There is no vomiting or diarrhoea. On urging the pig to move over the compound slight weakness of the hind legs is seen. gait is groggy, and the animal appears to have difficulty in placing its hind legs. firmly upon the ground. There is no cedema of the legs. Pressure on the muscles of the thighs is greatly resented by the animal. The knee-jerks could be elicited with difficulty. No definite disturbances of sensation could be made out. Pres- sure on the epigastrium was not resented.

October 5th, 1904. The pig refuses all food but drinks voraciously. Its temperature is the same. There is no diarrhoea.

There is no diarrhoea. Emaciation is proceeding rapidly. It is now difficult to get the animal to progress. After considerable stimulation, the gait is found to be very feeble, the animal swaying from side to side in a drunken manner on forward progression. The hind legs are with difficulty placed straight on the floor and infringe the one against the other on progression. Pressure on the muscles of these limbs call forth loud grunting from the animal. The anterior extremities were normal. In the affected legs the knee-jerks could not be obtained. There was no cedema. No epigastric tenderness could be found. The blood was examined but gave a negative result as regards organisms.

Feeding Experiment with Pig.-Experiment I.

MONTH. SEPTEMBER.

DAY.

28

29

30

co

OCTOBER.

113

5

6

ac

MONTH.

9 10 11

11 12 13

DAY

F.o

ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

107.°

106.°

105.°

104.°

103.°

102.°

101.°

100.0

99.9

Fed

as

in

text.

Blood negative.

C.

-41.°

-40.°

-39.°

-38.°

-37.°

17

179

October 10th, 1904.-The animal has been reduced to skin and bone. The gait irregular, muscular movements, etc., are still present, but not more pronounced. If anything the pig is somewhat brighter to-day. Its temperature has fallen and a certain amount of food (boiled rice) has been consumed. There is no diarrhoea.

October 13th, 1904.-The animal died to-day.

Post-mortem Examination.-There was great emaciation. All the organs and tissues were found to be markedly anæmic. Slight oedema of the subcutaneous tissues was present. The blood was watery and did not coagulate for some time after it had been withdrawn from the body. Both lungs distinctly crepitant throughout. There was no excess of fluid in either pleural cavity. The cardiac muscle was pale, yellowish, and anæmic, The right ventricle was dilated, the left ventricle dilated and slightly hypertrophied. There was a slight amount of mucoid-like tissue lying 'beneath the epicardium, especially along the course of the main coronary vessels and at the auriculo-ventricular junction.

were normal.

The valves

The ventricles contained several small ante-mortem blood clots. The pericardium was normal and contained about 50 c.c. of clear yellowish serous fluid.

The spleen was enlarged, soft and friable.

The liver was soft and yellowish. On section the bile channels were dilated and contained a thin yellowish fluid. Slight cirrhosis was also present.

The stomach was normal, there was no congestion or reddening of the mucosa.

The intestines were normal.

The mesentery was thickened owing to the presence of oedema and gelatinous infiltration. The mesenteric glands were slightly enlarged and showed cortical congestion.

The kidneys were normal.

The brain and spinal cord were congested.

Smear preparations were made from the heart, blood, spleen, liver and kidney, and cerebro-spinal fluid, and shewed the presence in the tissues of a small worm which resembled the embryos of Filaria. Several of these were found in each slide. So far we have been unable to identify them, and have found them in this pig alone. Nothing further, worthy of note, was found in these smear preparations.

Cultures were also made from the heart blood and the spleen but gave a negative result as regards specific organisms.

The sciatic nerves were excised and examined for degenerative changes but the result was negative.

Cause of Death.-Vide Conclusion of Experiment No. IV.

Experiment No. II.

Animal.-One pig.

Preliminary conditions as in Experiment No. I.

The pig was fed with an emulsion of the spleen, heart blood and cerebro- spinal fluid of a recently dead acute case of Beri-beri.

The pig ate the mixture with great relish.

On the following day it appeared to be normal. There was no temperature.

On the 3rd day of the experiment the animal died suddenly.

180

Post-mortem Examination. There was no pathological lesion to indicate the cause of death, and nothing was found microscopically or bacteriologically.

Experiment No. III.

Animal-One pig.

Preliminary observations, the same as before.

October 7th, 1904.-To-day the pig was fed with a spleen and blood obtained from a recently dead case of Beri-beri (acute). The post-mortem examination was performed within two hours after death, and the heart blood and spleen mashed and mixed with boiled rice.

October 8th, 1904.-Pig lively, no diarrhoea, slight loss of appetite, and apathy. It scarcely ever moves in its pen preferring to lie sleeping in a corner of the enclosure.

October 15th, 1904.-The animal has kept well, the appetite has returned, and it moves in a normal fashion. There has been no rise in temperature since the commencement of the experimental.- Vide Chart.

October 16th, 1904.-Fed again to-day with a large amount of mashed Beri- beri organs. The liver, spleen, stomach and duodenum, heart and kidneys with blood of an extremely acute and odeniatous case of Beri-beri were obtained one hour after death. These were sliced into small pieces, mixed with the blood and boiled rice, and placed before the animal. The pig made a hearty meal finishing every particle placed before him.

October 17th, 1904.-To-day the animal is dull and apathetic and refuses to move from a corner of its pen. During the day it has had severe vomiting and diarrhoea. The former consisted of undigested pieces of the tissues eaten. The latter was composed of loose bile-stained fœces which apart from their fluidity were normal. The animal is able to locomote normally and has no recognisable epi- gastric tenderness.

October 18th, 1904.--The pig was again fed with post-mortem tissues, namely, the internal organs of the pig used for Experiment No. IV. (q.v.). These the animal devoured heartily.

October 20th, 1904.-The temperature has commenced to rise (v. Chart) and from this day onwards the fever followed a course similar to that observed under Experiment No. I. The total duration of this fever was 7 days. During this time the pig became much reduced in weight and ate but little food. There was never any diarrhoea, and the animal locomoted and functioned exactly as other pigs. There was no cedema or recognisable epigastric tenderness.

October 27th, 1904.-From this date onwards the temperature becanie normal and never again went above 102° F. It is unnecessary therefore to continue the fever chart at greater length. The animal was much thinner but in the course of a few days commenced to recover its normal condition.

Continued observation of the animal was kept up for the following five months, during which time nothing abnormal was noted. The temperature con- tinued normal, the appetite was good. There was no diarrhoea, no epigastric tenderness, and no trace of general or local edema. The motor and sensory apparatus of the animal appeared at all times to be perfectly normal.

At the present time, a year after the commencement of the experiment, the pig is as healthy and fat as any pig could be.

Experiment No. IV.

Animal-One pig.

Preliminary observations, as before.

MONTH.

Feeding Experiment. Pig.-Experiment III.

OCTOBER.

DAY. 7 8 9 10 11

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

22

223

F:

ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

107.°

106.°

105.°

104.°

103.o

102.°

101.°

Fed

in

text.

$13

Fed again.

Fed with tissues of experimental pig.

MONTH.

DAY.

C.°

-41.°

-40.°

-39.°

-38.°

100.°

99.°

-37.°

MONTH.

Feeding Experiment.

Pig.-Experiment III.

OCTOBER.

DAY.

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

F.°

ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

107.°

106.°

105.°

MONTA.

DAY.

C.°

-41.°

104.°

-40.°

103.°

-39.°

102.°

101.°

-38.°

100.°

99.0

-37.°

;

MONTH.

Feeding Experiment. Fig.-Experiment IV.

OCTOBER.

DAT.

910 11 12 13 14 15

16 17

F.°

ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

107.°

106.°

105.°

104.°

103.°

102.°

101.°

100.°

99.°

Fed

as

described.

---

MONTH.

DAI.

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181

October 7th, 1904.-The pig was fed with an emulsion composed of the whole brain of a Beri-beri cadaver mixed with boiled rice. The brain was obtained from a freshly dead case and emulsified within one hour after death.

The animal ate voraciously, having been kept without food for 24 hours previously.

The attached temperature chart shews that during the experiment there was no fever.

October 17th, 1904.-The animal died to-day rather unexpectedly. Up to the date of its death, it never shewed any signs of Beri-beri infection. There was no epigastric tenderness, no cedema, and no disturbance of locomotion and sensation. During the greater part of the time the pig was dull and refused food. It became progressively weaker.

Post-mortem Examination-No sign of Beri-Beri. No gastro duodenitis. No cedema. Heart normal.

Cause of Death.-Chronic cachexia, the result of ptomaine poisoning.

[On October 15th, 1904, was again fed with internal organs of pig of Experiment No. I.]

Experiment No. V.

Animal-One pig.

Preliminary precautions, and the animal's condition carefully noted

previous to the commencement of the experiment.

October 25th, 1904.-To-day the animal was fed with the emulsified brain of an acutely fatal case of Beri-beri. The brain was obtained within two hours of the death of the patient. It was broken down and mixed with boiled rice and water and then given to the animal, which consumed it entirely.

November 1st, 1904. Another brain was obtained from a similar case, treated exactly as before and eaten by the pig.

On the following day an examination of the animal shewed nothing of note. It ate well, had no diarrhoea, moved about in a normal fashion, and had no tender- ness over any part of the body surface. There was never any rise in temperature.

November 5th, 1904.-The pig died to-day, and post-mortem examination shewed the cause of death to be a form of hæmorrhagic septicænia. There was no evidence of Beri-Beri.

Experiment No. VI.

Animal-One pig.

Preliminary precautions were taken as in previous experiments.

October 25th, 1904.-The animal was fed with an emulsion composed of boiled rice, water, and broken down liver substance, and one pint of the blood of a well marked Beri-beri cadaver. The organs were obtained almost immediately after death and the pig fed at once.

October 27th. 1904.-The animal appears to have lost its appetite, but has no vomiting or diarrhoea. There is no apparent surface tenderness over the body. The legs, especially the posterior pair, appear to be weak. They lock somewhat on forward progression, and the feet are not firmly planted on the ground. The legs are not tender however, and there is no sign of oedema. The knee-jerks were present.

A temperature chart is not attached. The temperature was noted daily and shewed no variation from the normal.

182

November 1st, 1904.-The animal has lost flesh. It eats little but has no diarrhoea. There is no epigastric tenderness. The knee-jerks are present, but the weakness and stiffness of the hind legs has become progressively worse.

On rapid forward progression the animal staggers considerably. There is no cœdéma.

November 7th 1904.-The condition of the animal remains the same. It has occasional rigors. Food is all but refused. There is no diarrhoea.

December 1st, 1904.-The animal cannot walk. The hind legs are in a condition of spasticity. The knee-jerks are present and exaggerated. There is no diarrhoea. The temperature has remained normal since the commencement of the experiment.

January 12th, 1905.-The animal died to-day. From the date of the last examination, the pig had become progressively weaker, was quite unable to walk, but ate its food and had no diarrhoea. There was never any edema, and the knee-jerks were always present.

Post-mortem Examination.-This was made within four hours after death. The body was very emaciated, and on cutting open the cadaver the subcutaneous tissues were found bathed with a yellowish watery fluid, and they themselves presented a mucoid appearance. There was about 20 c.c. of clear watery fluid in the pericardial sac. There was no pericarditis. The heart shewed a mucoid like infiltration near its surface under the epicardium. This was especially well marked at the auriculo-ventricular groove and along the course of the main coro- nary vessels. The cardiac muscle was soft, yellowish in colour, and very flabby. Both ventricles were dilated, with a small amount of compensating hypertrophy of the wall of the left ventricle.

The lungs were normal apart from a small amount of oedema. The pleural cavities cach contained about 30 e.c. of clear watery fluid There was no pleurisy.

The spleen was not enlarged. Its capsule shewed irregular thickenings due to localised growths of connective tissue. The spleen pulp was firm, dark in colour, and beset with firm bands of fibrous tissue. It was not congested.

The liver was in a condition of cirrhosis of the interlobular type, and its naked-eye appearance was not unlike a miniature of the hob-nailed liver met with in the human subject.

The kidneys were auæmic but otherwise normal.

The stomach shewed small areas of hæmorrhagic extravasation scattered over the mucosa. Towards the cardiac end a patch of hæmorrhagic mucous membrane was found. It was about the size of a dollar-piece, and raised above the general surface of the remaining mucosa. It had thickene! edges, and its surface was covered with yellowish necrosed material in the form of a membrane. difficult to remove from the underlying area. The latter was found to be red and congested. In general this patch appeared to be of the nature of a slowly spread- ing chronic ulceration.

The duodenum and remaining mucosa of the intestines were normal.

This was

The peritoneum was normal to the naked eye and the mesenteric glands were not enlarged. There was no visible change in the pancreas, and the pelvic viscera were normal. A small quantity of clear yellow fluid, namely, about 40 c.c. was present in the peritoneal cavity.

The heart blood and the spleen substance were examined microscopically after staining by LEISHMAN'S method, but nothing was found.

Bacteriologically the blood and the spleen were negative apart from the pre- sence of a few colon-like bacteria which were obviously of post-mortem origin.

A microscopical examination of the sciatic nerves of the animal by the osmic acid method shewed no evidence of Wallerian degeneration.

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MONTH.

1

Experiment on Sheep.-No. I.

OCTOBER.

{

MONTH.

DAY..

16 17 18 19 20

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

DAY.

F.°

ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

107.°

106.°

105.°

104.°

103.°

102.°

101.°

100.°

Scarification.

Scarification.

Blood negative.

C.°

-41.°

-40.°

-39.°

-38.°

99.°

-37.°

MONTH.

DAY.

2 3

Experiment on Sheep.-No. I.

10

5

6

NOVEMBER.

1

MONTH.

9 10 11 12 13

14 15 16

DAY.

F.°

ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

107.°

106.°

105.°

104.°

103.°

102,°

101.°

100.°

99.0

Blood negative.

Sub. inj. 60 c.c. flask V (Experiment No. XI blood in B.B.)

Blood negative,

www

C.°

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-40.°

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:

183

Observations on Sheep.

Experiment No. 1.

Animal-One sheep.

October 16th, 1904.-The animal had been kept under observation for several days. It was normal in every respect. To-day, on the death of an acute cedema- tous case of Beri-beri, the spleen was removed as soon as possible, and used for this experiment. The sheep was thoroughly scarified over the abdominal wall which had previously been shaved and rendered as aseptic as possible. After the scarification the cut surface of the spleen was well rubbed into the scars over the scarified area.

Cctober 17th, 1904.-To-day the animal is quite well and feeds and func-- tionates as other normal sheep.

October 18th, 1904.--Another scarification was done to-day, the cut surface of the spleen of a pig (Expt. No. IV) was well rubbed into the abdominal wall.

October 19th, 1901.-The temperature rose to-day (v. chart.)

October 20th 1904. Pustulation over the area of vaccination has occurred, which accounted for presence of the fever: this lasted, with a gradual deferves- cence, for nearly 14 days.

During this time the animal became much emaciated. It took but little food, but there was no diarrhoea. The urine was normal and an examination (bacterio- logical) of the blood gave a negative result as regards organisms. There was some apparent weakness of the hind limbs: the animal walked with seeming difficulty, and there was a tendency to lock on the part of the posterior limbs, during for- ward progression. There also seemed to be some wasting of the muscles of the hind limbs. There was no cedema or evidence of discomfort on pressure over the epigastric area.

This weakness and difficulty in walking we do not ascribe to actual nerve degeneration, and consequently Beri-beri in nature. The animal lost such a consider- able amount of weight, and the emaciation was so extreme that in our opinion this difficulty in walking was the result of weakness only. The inability to progress normally disappeared entirely after the animal regained its weight and strength and the temperature became normal.

November 7th, 1904.-The animal's temperature has now been normal for at least a week. The weakness of the hind limbs has now all disappeared, and the sheep moves as other normal sheep. It cats well and has no trace of diarrhoea.

To-day a subcutaneous inoculation was made. 60 c.c. of the contents of the flask used for Expt. XI (Blood in Beri-beri) was injected subcutaneously under the skin of the neck.

November 13th, 1904.-The result of the inoculation was a rise in tem- perature, lasting with gradual lysis, about 6 days. The animal again refused food, became somewhat thinner. There was no diarrhoea however, and no adema or epigastric tenderness. The inoculation was not followed by any return of the apparent partial paralysis of the posterior extremities. A bacteriological examina- tion of the bloo I gave a negative result as regards organisms. From this time onwards the temperature remained normal and the animal behaved in every way like any other normal sheep.

At the present time, November, 1995, the animal is alive and well, never hav- ing shewn any sign of Beri-beri.

Experiment No. II.

Animal-One sheep.

The conditions of this experiment were similar in every respect to those

of Experiment No. I.

October 16th, 1904.-Scarification.

184

October 17th, 1904.-No result from vaccination. No rise in temperature.

October 18th, 1904.-Scarified again with the substance of the fresh spleen of an experimental pig. (Vide Experimeŭt No. IV.-Pigs).

October 19th, 1904.-Scarification a failure so far. Animal apparently healthy. No rise in temperature. Blood examined microscopically with a negative result.. From this date onwards until November 1st, 1904, the animal remained in perfect health.

November 1st, 1904.-The animal was fed with 8 ounces of blood from a moribund case of acute Beri-beri.

November 3rd, 1904.-Fed again with 8 ounces of contents of flask used for Experiment No. IX. (Blood in Beri-beri).—Vide Bacteriological Experiments.

November 4th, 1904.--Again fed with 10 ounces of 96-hour growth of bouil- Ion from flask used for Experiment No. IX. (Blood in Beri-beri).

November 8th, 1904.-Injected subcutaneously with 60 c.c. of the flask used for Experiment No. XI. (Blood in Beri-beri).

During this time when the animal was being subjected to so much experi- mentation the temperature remained normal, and the sheep fed well. There was no diarrhoea, no epigastric tenderness, and no difficulty in walking. The feeding experiments certainly brought any Beri-beri micro-organisms present in the blood into close relationship with the gastro-duodenal mucosa. Similarly the micro- organisins growing in the bouillon of the different flasks were incorporated in large quantity per the alimentary canal and the subcutaneous tissues.

From the 8th November onwards the sheep was kept under close obser- vation, and frequent tests were made to detect Beri-beri symptoms or signs. Briefly it may be said that such signs were never found, and the animal maintained itself in good health for at least a year after the date of the last subcutaneous inoculation.

Observations on Calves.

Two calves were experimented with. Each was inoculated subcutaneously with the freshly drawn blood of an acute case of Beri-beri. Approximately 30 c.c. of blood was injected into each animal. Both animals lived for a week only, contracting hæmorrhagic septicemia.

Owing to the great risks attached to the introduction of hemorrhagic septicemia by cattle among our animals, it was considered advisable to stop further experiments with calves and confine our attention to other animals.

Observations on Rabbits.

A. NATURAL INFECTION.

One experiment of this nature was undertaken under similar conditions to those already detailed under "Natural Infection of Monkeys." Four rabbits were placed in one of the rooms of the Po Leung Kuk, in which the inmates resided who contracted Beri-beri. The windows were shut and the light excluded as rigidly as possible. Previous to the commencement of the experiment, the animals were kept under observation, and their blood tested microscopically.

The experiment lasted 6 months. The diet consisted of rice, vegetables, etc. At no time did they exhibit any sign of disease, and were as healthy whenr emoved as when they were first incarcerated.

:

MONTH

-Experiment on Sheep.-No. II.

DAY. 16.17 18 19 20 21

22

36

F.

107.°

106.°

105.°

104.°

103.°

Scarification..

OCTOBER.

MONTA.

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

DAY.

MÈME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

Blood negative.

C.

-41.°

-40.°

-39.°

102.°

101.°

илими

-38.°

100.°

99.°

-37.°

MONTH.

Experiment on Sheep.-Experiment. II.

DAY.

1 2 3

NOVEMBER.

10

6

7

00

F.°

ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

107.°

106.°

105.°

104.°

103.°

102.°

101.°

100.°

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MONTH.

DAY.

C.o

-41.°

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Experiment

with Beri-beri Blood.-Rabbit. Subcutaneous Inoculation. Experiment I.

MONTH. SEPTEMBER.

OCTOBER.

DAY.

27 28

.29 30

1 2

3

4

10

5 6

7

F.°

ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

107.°

106.°

105.°

104.°

103.°

102.°

inj. blood 5

Sub.

c.c.

Blood

negative.

Blood negative.

-41.°

-40.°

.-39.°

101.°

-38.°

100.°

99.°

-37.°

C.°

MONTH.

DAY.

MONTH.

Sub. Inoculation.-Rabbit.-Experiment. II.

OCTOBER.

DAY. 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

F.°

107.°

106.°

105.°

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ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME

c.c.

0

Sub. inj. blood

+

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185

B.-SUBCUTANEOUS INOCULATION WITH BERI-BERI BLOOD.

Experiment No. I.

Animal-One rabbit.

Similar to the experiments on monkeys.

The animal was kept under obsérvation for a few days, its general health and temperature being noted. An examination of the blood revealed nothing abnormal.

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On September 29th, 1904.—The rabbit was injected subcutaneously under aseptic conditions with 10 c.c. of venous blood of an acute cace of Beri-beri. As a result of this no change was observed in the condition of the animal. Its blood was examined and proved negative to organisms as before. The animal continued well until October 3, 1904, i.c., for six days after the inoculation, when it con- tracted severe diarrhoea and its temperature rose rapidly (v. Temperature Chart). It died on October 10th, 1904, ten days after the commencement of the experiment.

Post-mortem examination.-Acute follicular enteritis. No changes charact- eristic of Beri-beri. Stomach and duodenum normal. Spleen smears and cultures negative.

Experiment No. II.

Animal-One rabbit.

Previous to the commencement of the experiment the animal was kept under observation and was found to be normal in every respect.

October 11th, 1904.-To-day the animal was inoculated subcutaneously with 5 c.c. of freshly drawn venous blood taken from an acute case of oedematous Beri- beri.

October 12th, 1904.-There is slight fever to-day, the result of the inoculation of the blood. The animal is otherwise well, has no diarrhea, and moves about freely. (v. Chart).

tion.

October 14th, 1904.-The fever has disappeared.

October 19th, 1904.-The animal is well and shews no signs of any indisposi-

There is no evidence of the onset of Beri-beri.

October 20th, 1904.--To-day the animal developed pneumonia with all the accompanying symptoms.

October 23rd, 1904.--It died this evening.

October 24th, 1904.-Post-mortem.-Typical double pneumonia. No evid- ance of Beri-beri. Pneumo-cocci and strepto-cocci found in lungs. No organisms is spleen.

Feeding Experiment.

Aninal-One rabbit.

After the preliminary measures in regard to experimentation had been taken, the animal was fed (November 1st, 1904) with an emulsion of boiled rice and the broken down spleen pulp obtained from a fatal case of Beri-beri. The spleen was extracted from the cadaver within two hours after death and the animal was at once fed.

Subsequently the rabbit was kept isolated and observed daily.

The experiment was negative after three months. No sign of Beri-beri was

ever noted.

186

Observations on Fowls.

Experiment No. 1.

One fowl.

The animal was kept under observation for a week previous to the commen- cement of the experiment. Its temperature was normal varying from 105°-106° F. November 1st, 1904.-Fed with broken down spleen substance obtained from a cadaver with typical acute Beri-beri lesions.

November 8th, 1904.-Fed with 30-40 c.c. of the contents of the flask used for Experiment No. XI (vide "Organisms in Blood of Beri-berics ").

From this date onwards, the animal shewed no departure from its normal state of health. A temperature chart is not appended as no fever was ever present. The bird was kept under observation for at least six months from the last date of feed- ing and at no time shewed any symptom or sign of Beri-beri.

Experiment No. II.

Five fowls.

Kept in a hen coop isolated.

Normal previous to commencement of experiment.

October 25th, 1904.- Fed with broken down spleen of a recently dead acute case of Beri beri. The spleen was enlarged and weighed 11⁄2 lbs. The fowls devoured the whole organ.

November 1st, 1904.- Fed with a second spleen under similar conditions. This was also actively devoured.

The birds were kept under close observation and tested almost daily as regards their powers of locomotion. Their temperature never appeared to vary, and at no time during the following six months was there the slightest evidence of Beri-beri infection.

Experiment No. III.

One hen.

November 1st, 1904.-Fed with the broken down spleen pulp of a recently dead case of acute Beri-beri.

November 8th, 1904.-Fed with an emulsion of boiled rice and 100 c.c. of contents of flask used for Experiment No. XI (vide “Blood in Beri-beri.”)

The animal was kept under observation for at least three months. The temperature was noted daily. It continued to move and functionate like any other normal fowl. Up to the date of the last observation, it never shewed the slightest trace of Beri-beri.

Observations on a Horse.

A horse, China pony, was placed under observation and its temperature and general health noted for some days.

As

October 25th, 1904.-Inoculated subcutaneously (over left side of neck) with 60. c.c. of defibrinated fresh venous blood taken from a case of acute Beri-beri. the result of the injection a hard braway swelling occurred around the site of inoculation. This gradually subsided and was entirely gone in about 3 weeks. It occasioned no rise in the temperature of the animal and apparently gave him no discomfort. The animal fed well, had no diarrhoea, and moved and function- ated like a normal horse.

October 27th, 1904.-The animal was again inoculated subcutaneously with with 80 c.c. of freshly drawn venous blood from a patient suffering from acute œdematous Beri-beri. This occasioned another hard swelling about the size of a child's head which gradually subsided.

187

This injection caused no rise in temperature, and the general health of the horse was well maintained.

November 7th, 1904.-The swellings have entirely gone and the animal is well in every respect.

November 11th, 1904.-Rheumatism with swelling of the knees set in, render- ing the animal unable to walk. This condition set in suddenly, and, in our opinion, had nothing to do with the disease under consideration. The knee-jerks were present and not diminished or exaggerated, and there was no evidence otherwise of the presence of Beri-beri.

November 15th, 1904.-The horse is able to move slowly, although crippled. The swelling of the knee joints has practically disappeared. There is no pain or tenderness on pressure over the hip muscles, and the knee-jerks are present.

November 16th, 1904.-The temperature has remained normal since the com- mencement of the experiment. The animal is unable to stand to-day. The hind legs are stiff and spastic. The knee-jerks are greatly increased. The breathing is rapid and laboured, and there is some distension of the abdomen.

November 23rd, 1904.-The former symptoms have all but disappeared. The animal is now able to rise and walk on all-fours. The temperature is normal, and the horse enjoys its feed and has no diarrhoea.

From this time onwards the horse maintained good health. paralyses. The knee-jerks were normal and the animal fed well.

There were no

January 27th, 1905.-The animal died to-day from inanition. its death it shewed no evidence of Beri-beri.

Post-mortem examination.-Nothing of note found.

Previous to

Comments. The stiffness and lameness of the animal during part of the experiment is, in our opinion, to be attributed to rheumatism. This was probably contracted by exposure and cold, the animal having but meagre house accommo- dation. Again, it must be noted that the animal was old and decrepit when bought for experimental purposes. Taking everything into consideration the cause of death cannot be attributed to Beri-beri.

GENERAL CONCLUSIONS ON EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCHES.

1. It has been found impossible to convey Beri-beri to any of the animals used for the experiments.

2. Monkeys have been used extensively and experimented upon in a great variety of ways, including that recommended by HAMILTON WRIGHT. In no instance has any one of them exhibited the slightest trace of Beri-beri infection.

3. The Pigs used for the experiments shewed signs of lameness, etc., and a -condition simulating Beri-beri was once or twice reproduced. The animals, how- ever, were frequently subjected to somewhat rough handling by the attendants, and this, coupled with the continued observation of their progress, and the result of post-mortem examination, leads us to the conclusion that a condition of true Beri- beri never existed.

4. In regard to the other animals, viz., Sheep, Calves, Rabbits, Fowls, etc., not- withstanding vigorous experimental efforts, we have been unable to call from them the slightest evidence of Beri-beri infection.

5. As a result of our extensive experiments it would appear that the trans- ference of Beri-beri infection from man to animals is impossible. It may be pos- sible that animals contract the disease through other channels. This, however, we doubt.

6. These experimental researches, negative though they may be, possess in our opinion great value as they practically prove in opposition to H. WRIGHT and others, that in Beri-beri we are not dealing with an infectious disease, but with one of an entirely different etiology.

No. 99.

No. 1906

10

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE BLUE BOOK FOR 1905.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

HONGKONG.

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, HONGKONG, 27th April, 1906.

MY LORD,

I have the honour to submit for Your Lordship's information the following general Report on the annual Blue Book for the year 1905.

I.-FINANCES,

The Revenue for the year, exclusive of Land Sales, amounted to $6,526,144.09, or $203,194.74 more than the previous year. Land Sales amounted to $392,259.76, or $93,838.88 less than in 1904. The total revenue from all sources was therefore $6,918,403.85, or $109,355.86 greater than in any previous year, and $280,207.15 less than the estimate. All the main sources of revenue show an excess over 1904 with the exception of Rent of Government Property, Miscellaneous Receipts and Land Sales.

Post Office Receipts, Interest and Water Account brought in together $34,933.55 more than was estimated. The receipts under the remaining heads of revenue were altogether $315,140.70 less than were anticipated when the estimates were drawn up.

The Expenditure for the year was $5,277,834.45 exclusive of Public Works Extra- ordinary; inclusive of that item it was $6,951,275.26, or $575,039.96 more than the total expenditure of 1904 and $223,916.74 less than the estimates for 1905.

Deducting from the actual receipts for 1905 the total actual expenditure, there was a deficit of $32,871.41 on the actual working of the year.

(a.)—General REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.

The following is a brief abstract of Revenue and Expenditure for the years 1904 and

1905:--

Revenue.

1904.

1905.

Increase.

Decrease.

$.

Light Dues,

72,330.16

$ 74,233.45

c.

$ 1,903.29

C.

C.

Licences and Internal Revenue not other-

wise specified,

4,509,162.78

4,725,906.25

216,743.47

Fees of Court, &c.,

403,854.60

417.417.37

13,562.77

Post Office,

408,458.92

414,838.19

6,379.27

Interest,

Miscellaneous,

Land Sales,

Rent of Government Property,

Water Account,

688,321.41

672,161.82

16, 159.59

7,813.43

10,073.12

2,259.69

167,059.66

121,491.65

45,568.01

Total,.......

65,948.39 486,098.64

6,809,047.99

90,022.24

24,073.85

392,259.76

93,838.88

6,918,403.85

264,922.34

155,566.48

Deduct Decrease,......

155,566.48

Nett Increase,

109,355.86

The Right Honourable

THE EARL OF ELGIN, K.G.,

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies,

&c.,

&c.

Nou-effective Charges, General Administration, Law and Order,

Public Health,....

Public Instruction,

Public Works,

Defence,

106

Expenditure.

1904.

1905.

Increase.

Decrease.

C.

C.

C.

C.

372,154.46

900,784.82

365,108.59 1,226,584.57

7,045.87

325,799.75

855,506.25

846,275.69

9,230.56

647,926.69

653,420.65

5,493.96

155,189.34

162,277.58

7,088.24

2,129,900.58

2,276,646.79

146,746.21

1,314,773.16

1,420,961.39

106,188.23

Total,........

6,376,235.30

6,951,275.26

591,316.39

16,276.43

Deduct Decrease,

Nett Increase,..

16,276.43

$575,039.96

The following Table shows the total revenue and expenditure for the five

years 1901-1905:-

Revenue, Expenditure,

Surplus,

Deficit,

1901.

1902.

1903.

1904.

1905.

$3

6.

$ C.

$

C.

('.

$ (.

4,213,893.22 4,111,722.49

4,901,073.70

5,909,548.51

5,238,857.88 5,396,669.49

6.809,047.99 6,376,235.30

6,918,403.85 6,951,275.26

102.170.73

432,812.69

1,008,474.81

157,811,60

32,871.41

(b.)—ASSETS AND LIABILITIES.

At the end of the year 1905, the assets of the Colony amounted to $15,560,894.98, or including arrears of revenue $15,891,606.13. The total liabilities were $15,119,399.32, so that the surplus of assets over liabilities amounted to $772,206.81.

(c.)--PUBLIC Debt.

There is a public debt of £341,799 15s. Id. outstanding. The original debt was incurred in connection with the Praya Reclamation, the Central Market, and Water, Drainage and Sewerage Works. Interest at 3 per cent. is payable on the loan, which is being paid off by a Sinking Fund now amounting to £37,611 14s. 4d.

An advance by the Crown Agents of £1,100,000 for the purposes of a loan to the Viceroy of the Hu-Kuang Provinces is referred to under the heading of "General Observations" at the end of this report.

.

107

II. TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES,

AGRICULTURE AND LAND.

(a.) TRADE AND SHIPPING.

The following Table in which the figures respresent tonnage, shows the principal articles of import in the year 1905 ir vessels of European construction, compared with similar returns for 1904. :

Articles.

1904.

1905.

Increase.

Decrease.

Beans,.

750

2,113

1,363

Bones,

400

400

.....

Coal,

1,152,454

1,083,987

68,467

Cotton Yarn and Cotton,

19.350

32,949

13.599

Flour,

115,921

54,508

61,413

Hemp,.

19.382

26,784

.7,402

Kerosine (bulk),

56,965

43,411

13,554

"

(case),

100,692

74,506

26.186

>

Lead,

Opium,.

Liquid Fuel,

Rattan,

3,563

800

2,763

2,955

2.983

28

9,727

850

8,877

5,080

3.430

1.650

Rice,

Sandalwood,.

Sulphur,

823,339

566,171

257,168

3,300

3,386

86

187

187

......

Sugar, Tea.... Timber.

General,

205,696

311,787 900

106,091

900

66,200

66,324

124

1,564,678

1,594,862

30,184

Total,

4,150,639

3,869,751

159.777

140,665

Transit,

3,151,926

3,415,418

263,492

Grand Total,

7,302,565

7,285,169

423.269

440,665

Nett,.....

17.396

The total tonnage entering and clearing during the year 1905 amounted to 34,185,091 tons, being an inercase, compared with 1904, of 622,305 tons, and the highest tonnage yet recorded.

tons.

There were 227,909 Arrivals of 17,142,393 tons, and 224,849 Departures of 17,042,698

Of British Ocean-going tonnage, 3,839,080 tons entered and 3,833,274 tons cleared. Of British River Steamers 2,776,982 tons entered and 2,777,040 tons cleared.

Of Foreign Ocean-going tonnage, 2,917,550 tons entered and 2,903,235 tons cleared. Of Foreign River Steamers, 329,743 tons entered and 329,854 tons cleared.

Of Steamships under 60 tons trading to ports outside the Colony, 35,724 tons entered and 35,724 tons cleared.

Of Junks in Foreign trade, 1,428,966 tons entered and 1,446,474 tons cleared.

Of Steamships under 60 tons plying within the waters of the Colony 4,622,661 tons entered and 4,546,651 tons cleared.

Of Junks in Local Trade 1;191,717 tons entered and 1,170,446 tons cleared. Thus:-

British Ocean-going Vessels represented

Ter cent.

22.4

Foreign

17.0

"

"1

British River Steamers

""

""

??

16.2

Foreign

2.0

19

""

Steamships under 60 tons Foreign Trade represented

0.2

Junks in Foreign Trade

$.5

?"

Steamships under 60 tons Local Trade Junks in Local Trade

26.7

7.0

21

100.0

108

Comparative Shipping Return for the Yeurs 1904 and 1905.

1904.

1905.

Increase.

Decrease.

Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage.

British Ocean-

going. Foreign Ocean-

4,318

7,708,734| 3,995 | 7,672,824

323

36,410

3,696

5,350,847 | 3,845 | 5,820,785 149 469,938

going,

British River

5,872

5,697,360| 7,488| 5,554,022| 1,616

:

Steamers,

Foreign River

1,036

470,371 975

659,597

Steamers,..

S'ships under 60

tons (Foreign

2,031

105,784 | 1,800

71,448

Trade)...

Junks in Foreign

Trade,

|36,251|| 3,072,270 |33,475|| 2,875,440

143,338

189,226 61

254 34,336

2,776 196.830

Total,..

Steam launches

plying in the Colony,

}

207,502

[53,227 | 22,405,366 [51,578 | 22,653,616| 1,765 | 659,161 3,414| 410,914

8,808,744 | 337,913 9,169.312 30,411 360,568

Junks in Local,

*

Trade,

2,362,163 162,965; 2,348,676 (63,267

302

13.487

Grand Total,... 423,691|33,562,786 | 452,758 | 34,185,091 32,478 1,033,219 3,414 410,914

NET,

29,064 622,305

* Including 32,124 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 1.176.625 tons.

† Including 32.424 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 1,176,625 tons.

For Ocean Vessels under the British Flag, this Table shows a decrease of 320 ships of 36,410 tons. This decrease loses any significance it may at first sight appear to possess when viewed in conjunction with my report for 1904, where an increase appeared of 352 ships of 930,300 tons, which was shown to be practically due to special circumstances connected with the late war. These special circumstances being removed with the advent of the Baltic Fleet in Far Eastern waters in April, 1905, the shipping tended to return to its normal state, and we are left with a net increase over the figures for 1903 (neglecting those for 1904) of 32 ships and 893,890 tons.

In British River Steamers there is an increase shown of 1,616 ships, which is due to the additional small steamers put on to the West River run, and to two very small craft plying between here and Mirs Bay, which have been treated as River Steamers, though they do not strictly satisfy the definition. The decrease in tonnage, of 143,338 tons, is accounted for by the fact that three moderate sized vessels were taken off the run early in the year, and much smaller craft substituted.

For Foreign Ocean Vessels an increase of 149 ships of 469,938 tons is shown. Here, again, reference to my 1904 report is necessary in order properly to appreciate the signifi- cance of the figures. During that year, on account of the war, there was the enormous decrease of 1,149 ships of 1,910,589 tons, of which Japanese shipping accounted for 834 ships of 1,809,000 tons. The causes militating against the employment of Japanese ships were not removed until late in 1905, indeed, they are not completely removed even now, so- that the increase now shown is but the partial restoration to normal conditions, and should really be read as a net decrease, on the figures for 1903, of 1,000 ships of 1,440,951 tons.

In Foreign River Steamers the decrease of 61 ships is due to the fact that two small Chinese vessels have become British, and the increase in tonnage to the more frequent. running of two moderate sized French Steamers.

The remaining increases and decreases do not present any points of importance, with the exception of the large increase in Steam Launches plying within the waters of the Colony, which affords good evidence of the enhanced internal traffic in the Colony.

The actual number of ships of European construction (exclusive of River Steamers and Steam Launches) entering during the year was 889, being 506 British and 383 Foreign.

These 889 ships entered 3,926 times, and gave a total tonnage of 6,756,600 tons. Thus, compared with 1904, 4 more ships entered 61 less times, and gave a collective tonnage in- creased by 212,890 tons.

109

The following Tables show the nationality of the steamers and sailing vessels that visited the port :-

STEAMERS.

Ships.

No. of Times entered.

Total Tonnage.

Flag.

1904. | 1905. 1904. | 1905.

1904. 1905.

British,

498

490 2,151 1,983 3,843,3553,806,792

Austrian,

13

10

32

26

102,349)

88.326

Belgian,

1

1

1

1

2,047

1,794

Chinese,

15

14

180

165

241,085

214,720

Danish,

4

7

13

18

26,817

24,206

Dutch,.

9

10

44

35

84,379

77,205

French,

36

39

238

207

234,977 288,911

German,

147

163

861

887 1,268,835|1,394,255

Italian,...

6

20

56 38,212 51,492

Japanese,.

30

10

51

29

114,951 34,573

Norwegian,

60

85 253

346

276,211 381,479

Portuguese,.

4

53

69

12.167 11,800

Russian,

5

1

14,578 2,903

Spanish,

2

6,017

Swedish,

N

12

19

8.582

20,210

United States,

24

22

64

62

232,857 314,101

No Flag,

1

1

2,500

Total,

859

867 3,981 3,904 6,509,919|6,712,767

SAILING VESSELS.

Ships.

No. of Times entered.

Total Tonnage.

Flag.

1904. 1905. | 1904. | 1905.

1904. 1905.

British,

11

16

11

16

19,447

32,258

Dutch,

I

1

84

French,

2

2

3,444

German,

1

1

47

2,193

Italian,...

994

Norwegian,

1

1

3.651

1,199

Sarawak,

1,338

...

United States,

4

4

No Flag,

1

2,867 919

8.183

:.

Total,..

25

23

22

26

22 32,791

43,833

During the year 1905, 16,303 vessels of European construction, of 19,706,728 tons (nett register), reported having carried 10,277,939 tons of cargo, as follows:--

Tons.

Import cargo,

.3,869,751

Export

.2,343,701

Transit

.3,415,418

Bunker coal shipped,

649,069

10,277,939

110

In Imports there is a decrease reported of 280,888 tons.

In Exports there is a decrease reported of 262,160 tons.

In Transit Cargo there is an increase reported of 263,492 tons.

In Bunker Coal there is a decrease of 15,349 tons.

The total reported Import Trade of the Port for 1905 amounted to 25,764 vessels of 11,328,015 tons, carrying 7,830,424 tons of cargo, of which 4,415,006 tons were discharged at Hongkong. This does not include the number, tonnage, or cargo of vessels in Local Trade.

Similarly, the Export Trade from the Port was represented by 25,814 vessels of 11,325,601 tons, carrying 3,011,305 tons of cargo, and shipping 651,523 tons of bunker coal.

64,341 Emigrants left Hongkong for various places during the year; of these, 48,289 were carried by British Ships and 16,052 by Foreign Ships; 140,483 were reported as having been brought to Hongkong from places to which they had emigrated, and of these, 113,796 were brought in British Ships and 25,586 by Foreign Ships.

The total Revenue collected by the Harbour Department during the year showed a decrease of $366.19 on that of the previous year and was as follows :—

1. Light Dues,..

2. Licences and Internal Revenue,.

3. Fees of Court and Office,

Total,

(b.) INDUSTRIES.

$74,233.45

62,668.45

163,665.86

$300,567.76

During 1905 supplies of all Sugars were greater than during 1904, and in sympathy with other markets local prices continued to decline throughout the year. There was how- ever a good demand for Refined Sugar in China, resulting in a profitable business for the two local Refineries, but demand from other markets fell off owing to their being overstocked with European Sugars.

As was anticipated at the end of 1904 the Cotton Spinning industry worked under very satisfactory conditions during the whole of 1905, and the comparatively low price of Cotton, combined with an active demand for Yarn, allowed of good profits being realized all through the twelve months.

The increased demand for Cement from the "Green Island" Company's factory at Hok Un necessitated the raising of further capital and the provision of new plant to increase the output from 150 to 240 tons a day.

The Rope factory at Kennedy Town did good business but was not working to its full output of 20,000 lb. a day throughout the year.

There was some falling off in the repairing and docking of ships at Hongkong probably due to increased competition from other places.

43 steam-launches and other vessels with an aggregate tonnage of 3,695 were built during the year.

A new industry under European direction-that of silvering mirrors—was started at Causeway Bay.

(c.) FISHERIES.

A considerable proportion of the boat-population of Hongkong supports itself by deep- sea fishing, in which pursuit a large number of junks are engaged. The villages of Aberdeen, Stanley, Shaukiwan, and many others in the New Territory are largely dependent upon this industry for their prosperity. Fresh water fish is imported from Canton and the West River. There are oyster beds of considerable value in Deep Bay.

111

(d.) FORESTRY, BOTANICAL SCIENCE AND AGRICULTURE.

116,780 trees were planted in Hongkong during the year, and 50,052 in the New Territory. Further experiments were initiated with a view to utilising the more barren portions of the Colony, notably with the Tea Oil tree (Camellia oleifera) and the Wood Oil tree (Aleurites cordata). Cotton was tried in various representative situations but with very meagre results. Control of the plantations of Pine licensed to Chinese in 1904 was maintained; the few breaches of the rules that occurred were dealt with by withdrawal of the licence. On the whole the licensing scheme seems to have suited the Chinese.

(e.) LAND GRANTS AND GENERAL VALUE OF Land.

The amount received from sales of Crown Land was $392,259 76, being some $94,000 less than the receipts for the previous year. This falling off may be attributed to the general depression of business throughout the year and the consequent tightness of the money market.

In the early part of the year the intricate questions connected with Military lands and reserves in the Colony which since 1883 had formed the subject of continual discussion between the Military and Civil authorities were comprehensively dealt with by Major J. F. LEWIS, late R.E., deputed for that purpose by the War Department. An equitable settle- ment was proposed by that Officer, based on principles of which the adoption should minimize the chance of similar difficulties arising in the future. This settlement, accepted by the Governor and the General Officer Commanding, was approved by the Colonial Office, War Office and Treasury.

Building land in the urban portion of the Colony and in the Peak District is limited in extent with the natural consequence that house-rents, especially on the higher levels, have advanced to an extent probably unknown in other British Colonies.

III. LEGISLATION.

Twelve Ordinances were passed during 1905, the most important measure being the New Territories Land Ordinance, No. 3 of 1905, which together with an amending Ordinance, No. 9 of 1905, is designed to facilitate the transfer of land in the New Territories and to provide a simple and inexpensive procedure for settling land disputes therein.

An amendment of the Vagrancy Ordinance, No. 2 of 1905, increases the liability of shipowners and masters who bring undesirable persons into the Colony, and enables rules to be made for the more rigorous treatment of vagrants in the House of Detention.

Provision is made under the Merchant Shipping Amendment Ordinance, No. 5 of 1905, for the carrying of suitable lights by junks, and the same Ordinance extends greater facilities in respect of the navigation of steamships of small size plying between Hongkong and the neighbouring ports of the Canton Province by lightening the somewhat onerous conditions hitherto imposed.

IV. EDUCATION.

The number of Government and Grant Schools including Queen's College, is 83 of which 25 are Upper Grade Schools with a staff competent to give instruction in all the subjects of Standard VII, and 58 are Lower Grade Schools, under purely native management. Broadly speaking the Upper Grade Schools are taught in English, and the Lower Grade Schools are taught in the Vernacular.

The total number of pupils in average attendance at Government and Grant Schools was 5,353 against 4,970 in 1904. Of these, 1,797 were in Government and 3,556 in Grant Schools; 3,207 pupils received instruction in English, and 2,146 in the Vernacular. The proportion of boys to girls was 3,401 to 1,952.

The Victoria School for children of British parentage was opened at Caroline Hill, in The average attendance at this and the corresponding British School at Kowloon, taken together, was 93.

1904.

Lower Grade Anglo-Chinese Schools were opened at Tanglungchau and Aberdeen

.:

112

Hygiene has been made a compulsory subject, and has been taught with satisfactory results in all Government and Grant Schools. 1,524 children received instrction in it during the year.

The Revenue derived from School Fees was $41,170.50. The Expenditure was $158,677.58, being 2.28% of the total expenditure of the Colony.

V.-PUBLIC WORKS.

The principal public works in progress during the year were the Tytam Tuk Water- works (1st Section) and the Kowloon Waterworks, both of which have been described in previous reports. The former made good progress and the latter fair; a Contract for 2 miles of the catchwaters in connection with it was let and was well advanced at the end of

the year.

Of the larger buildings, the New Law Courts, Harbour Office and Western Market were all under construction, and the foundations of the New Government Offices were almost completed; the decision to erect a Clock Tower necessitating extra foundations prevented this Contract being entirely closed. The New Light and Tower at Green Island, the Disin- fecting Station in Kowloon, Mongkoktsui Market and Yaumati School were finished, and the Gunpowder Depôt, Extension to Staff Quarters Government Civil Hospital, Taipo Quarters, and Bacteriological Institute approached completion. The works of reconstruction of gullies and extension of nullah training were continued, $10,000 being spent on the former and over $20,000 on the latter: the Albany Nullah being one of the watercourses dealt with.

The Taikoktsui Reclamation was finished. $150,000 was spent on further resumption of insanitary property in the vicinity of Mee Lun Lane. The system of 100-foot roads in Kowloon was extended; the section of Robinson Road running North and South between the sea and the Yaumati Theatre was finished, and also the branch to the westward (Sixth Street), and some progress was made with a further extension of this system near the Disinfecting Station, without expense to the Colony as the spoil from this road excavation was used for private reclamation in front of the Pumping Station.

The excavation of the sites for the New Albany Filter Beds was completed and the New Watchmen's House built.

The work on the Rider Main System was continued and Districts Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4 were completed and brought under control.

The total amount expended on Public Works Extraordinary, exclusive of the Praya East Reclamation and Rider-Mains, was $1,775,138.58, and on works annually recurrent, $383,798.06.

VI.-GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS.

(a.) HOSPITALS.

Government Hospitals consist of the Civil Hospital to which is attached an isolated Maternity Hospital, the Victoria Hospital for Women and Children, the Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital, and the hulk "Hygeia" used mainly for the treatment of small-pox.

The Civil Hospital contains 150 beds in 19 wards. 2,704 in-patients and 14,976 out- patients were treated during the year 1905, 267 cases of malarial fever were admitted as against 223 in 1904 and 346 in 1903. The Maternity Hospital contains 6 beds for Europeans and 4 for Asiatics. 64 confinements occurred during the year with 2 deaths. The Victoria Hospital, opened in November, 1903, by Sir HENRY BLAKE, is situated at the Peak and contains 41 beds. During 1905, 212 patients were under treatment. Kennedy Town Hospital contains 26 beds. In 1905, 42 cases were treated, of which 33 were plague. On the "Hygeia" 50 cases were treated, of which 48 were small-pox.

113

(b) LUNATIC ASYLUM.

The Asylum is under the direction of the Superintendent of the Civil Hospital. European and Chinese patients are separate, the European portion containing 8 beds in separate wards and the Chinese portion 16 beds. 178 patients of all races were treated during 1905, and there were 8 deaths.

(c.) THE TUNG WAH HOSPITAL.

This Hospital, opened in 1872, is mainly supported by the voluntary subscriptions of Chinese, but receives an annual grant of $6,000 from the Government. Only Chinese are treated in this institution which takes the place of a poor-house and hospital for Chinese sick and destitute, and is administered by an annually-elected body of 15 Chinese directors. Chinese as well as European methods of treatment are employed in accordance with the wishes expressed by the patients or their friends. The Hospital is managed by a Committee of Chinese gentlemen annually elected, their appointment being submitted to the Governor for confirmation.

VII.

INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT.

Among institutions recognised and encouraged but not to any considerable extent sup- ported by Government may be mentioned the Pó Leung Kuk, the College of Medicine for Chinese, and the City Hall.

The Pó Leung Kuk is an institution, incorporated in 1893, presided over by the Regis- trar-General and an annually-elected Committee of 12 Chinese gentlemen, for the protection of women and children. The inmates of the Home receive daily instruction in elementary subjects and are allowed to earn pocket-money by needle-work. During 1905, a total of 528 persons were admitted. Of these, 143 were released after enquiry, 19 were released under bond, 99 were placed in charge of their husbands, parents or relations, 3 were placed in charge of the Japanese Consul, 84 were sent to charitable institutions in China, 52 were sent to School, Convent or Refuge, 15 were adopted, 60 were married and 3 died.

The Hongkong College of Medicine for Chinese was founded in 1897, for the purpose of teaching surgery, medicine, and obstetrics to Chinese. The government of the College is vested in the Court, of which the Rector of the College, who has always been a Government official, is President. Ninety-five students have been enrolled up to the end of 1905, and of these 24 have become qualified licentiates and have obtained various posts under Government and elsewhere. The institution is of great value in spreading a knowledge of Western me- dical science among the Chinese; and in addition to the employment of certain of the licen- tiates in the public service, the senior students have frequently been made use of for various purposes during epidemics. A Government grant-in-aid of $2,500 is made to the College, to be used as honoraria to the lecturers.

The City Hall receives an annual Grant of $1,200 from Government. Reference Library and Museum.

VIIL-CRIMINAL AND POLICE.

It contains a

The total of all cases reported to the Police was 11,517 being a decrease of 295 or 2.49 per cent. over those reported in 1904. In the division of these cases into serious and minor offences there is a decrease in the former as compared with the previous year from 3,532 to 2,984, that is of 15.51 per cent., occurring in every nature of crime with the exception of assault with intent to rob.

The number of serious offences reported was 772 below the average of the quinquennial period commencing with the year 1901.

The number of minor offences reported shows an increase of 253 over the number for 1904, mainly in offences against the Spirits and Prepared Opium Ordinances.

The number of minor offences reported was 1,454 over the average of the quinquennial period.

The total number of persons committed to Victoria Gaol was 6,323, as compared with 7,464 in 1904, but of these only 2,816 were committed for criminal offences, against 4,027 in 1904. Of committals for non-criminal offences there were 121 more under the Prepared Opium Ordinance and 132 less for infringement of Sanitary Bye-laws.

114

The daily average of prisoners confined in the Gaol was 697, the highest previous average being 726 in 1904. The percentage of prisoners to population, according to the daily average of the former and the estimated number of the latter, was .184 as compared with 214, the average percentage for the last ten years. The Prison discipline was satis- factory, the average of punishments per prisoner being 1.47, as compared with 1.1 in 1904 and 2.34 in 1903. The continued overcrowding of the Gaol emphasises the necessity for the proposed new Convict Prison, and the question of a fresh site has for some time past been under consideration.

The remunerative labour carried on in the Gaol consists of printing, book-binding, washing, carpentry, boot-making, net-making, painting and white-washing, mat-making, tailoring, oakum-picking, etc., the value of the work done being $45,762.40.

The total strength of the Police Force for 1905 was Europeans 133, Indians 382, Chinese 503, making a total of 1,018, as compared with 993 in 1904 exclusive in each case of the four Superior Officers and a staff of clerks and coolies. Of this Force an Assistant Superintendent, who also acted as Magistrate, and 19 Europeans, 85 Indians and 44 Chinese were stationed in the New Territory during the greater part of the year.

The force of District Watchmen to which the Government contributes $2,000 per annum was well supported by the Chinese during the year.

IX.-VITAL STATISTICS.

(a.) POPULATION.

The population of the Colony according to the Census taken in 1837 was 248,880 and according to the Census of 1901 it was 283,975 exclusive of New Kowloon and the Army and Navy Establishments. The estimated population at the middle of the year under review was 377,850, as follows:--

Non-Chinese Civil Community,

10,452

Chinese Population,

Hongkong, Old Kowloon,

211,246

73,473

New Kowloon (approximate), Floating Population,

...

21,000

54,154

359,873

Army, (average strength, Navy, (average strength),

4,274 3,251

7,525

Total,

377,850

New Kowloon was brought under the jurisdiction of the Sanitary Board in 1904, and its estimated population has accordingly been included. The population of the remainder of the New Territories according to the census of 1901 was 85,011 making when added to the present estimate a grand total of 462,861.

At the Census taken in 1901 the actual number of members of the Navy present in the Colony was 5,597 and the estimated average number resident in Hongkong during 1905 is put at 3,251.

(b.)-PUBLIC HEALTH AND SANITATION.

During the year under review considerable progress has been made in providing existing domestic buildings with increased window area as required under the Public Health and Buildings Ordinance of 1903, 2,512 houses having been thus dealt with.

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New buildings (domestic) to the number of 260 were erected during the year and in these the effect of the present Ordinance is seen in the increased amount of open space, about the houses, which the law requires. Scavenging lanes which have to be provided in the rear of new houses also increase the open space about them and tend to reduce surface crowd- ing.

Under the Insanitary Properties Resumption scheme an area of 18,092 square feet has been resumed during the year in one of the most densely populated areas of the City.

During the year there were 287 deaths from plague, being 208 less than in 1904, and, except for the years 1895 and 1897, the lowest number of deaths from this disease since its appearance in 1894.

There were 1,585 deaths from Respiratory Diseases amongst the Chinese or 251 per cent. of all Chinese deaths.

1904.

Beri-beri caused 678 deaths-a high figure but slightly lower (57 less) than that for

The deaths from Malaria were 287 as against 301 in 1904. The figure for the annual deaths from this disease has fallen from 574 in 1901 to 287 in the year under review.

(r.) CLIMATE.

The average monthly temperature throughout the year was 71 6° F. as compared with 71-6° F. in 1904 and 72.0° F. during the ten preceding years. The maximum monthly temperature was attained in July, when it reached 87.8° F., and the minimum monthly tem- perature was recorded in February, when it was 516° F. The highest recorded temperature during the year was 91.3° F. on the 18th July, and the lowest 42.8° F. on the 10th February.

The

The total rainfall for the year was 70.95 inches as compared with an average of 74.94 inches during the past ten years. The wettest month was June, with 19.70 inches, the dryest, November, with only 0.28 inch. The greatest amount of rain which fell on any one day was 7.955 inches on the 1st June, while no rain fell on 220 days of the year. relative humidity of the atmosphere throughout the year was 80 per cent., as compared with an average of 77 per cent. during the past 10 years. The average daily amount of sunshine was 5.1 hours being 45 per cent, of the possible duration.

X-POSTAL SERVICE.

The total Receipts paid into the Treasury in 1905 by the Postal Department amounted to $574,840.87 from which sum $160,002.68 was transferred to other heads of General Revenue under which fees and duties are paid in stamps, which are now sold exclusively by the Post Office, leaving the sum of $414,838.19 as Revenue of the Postal Service. The total expenditure amounted to $585,449.25, which after deducting $414,838.19 as Revenue, leaves a deficit of $170,611.06, due to adjustment of the amount payable by this Colony towards the cost of the P. & O. Mail Service for the period from 1st February, 1898, to 31st January, 1905.

This Colony's share of the contribution towards the P. & O. Mail Subsidy under the new contract, has been fixed at £12,529 per annum, as from the 1st February, 1905.

The arrangement concluded with Germany as regards the exchange of Postal Parce's between this Colony and the German South Sea Islands came into force on 1st June. Direct Money Orders were exchanged with Transvaal and the Federated Malay States during the

year.

Postage on letters to Australia was reduced from 10 cents to 4 cents per oz. from 15th July.

The Postal Arrangement with China came into force during the

year.

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XI-MILITARY FORCES AND EXPENDITURE.

(a.) REGULAR FORCES.

The following return shows the number and composition of the Forces employed in the Colony during 1905:-

CORPS.

EUROPEANS.

INDIANS.

CHINESE.

W. O.

N.C.O.'s

& Men.

N. C. O.'s

& Men.

TOTALS.

General Staff,

4

1

Garrison Staff,.

2

2

Royal Garrison Artillery,

16

615

631

Hongkong-Singapore Bn. R. G. A.,

9

9

379

...

404

Royal Engineers,..

11

194

205

Chinese S. M. M. Co., R. E.,

69

69

...

119th Infantry,

11

646

664

129th (D.C.O.) Baluchis,

8

11

535

554

Army Service Corps,

27

...

31

...

Royal Army Medical Corps,.

43

52

A. O. Department and Corps,

31

38

A. P. Department and Corps,

11

...

110th Mahratta L. I.,.

282

291

93rd Burma Infantry,

276

285

114th Mahrattas,.

1

102

105

2nd Royal West Kent Regiment,

11

441

452

Totals,

98

1,370

41

2,220

69

3,798

(b.) COLONIAL CONTRIBUTION.

The Colony contributed $1,362,650.27 (being the statutory contribution of 20 per cent. of the Estimated revenue including arrears on account of 1904) towards the cost of the maintenance of the Regular Forces in the Colony and Barrack Service.

(e.) VOLUNTEER CORPS.

The total establishment of the Corps is 431 of all ranks. The strength on the 31st December, 1905, was 276, made up as follows:-Staff, 7; two Garrison Artillery Companies, 205; one Engineer Company, 35; Troop 29.

The members of the Corps are now all armed with the new M.L.E. Short rifle and the latest pattern equipment.

The period for the annual Camp of Instruction was extended from 10 days to 16, it was held in October, 1905, and was very well attended.

The Hongkong Volunteer Reserve Association numbered two hundred and thirteen members at the close of the year, an increase of 113 members, as compared with 1904.

Members of this Association, who must be over 35 years of age, are required to make themselves proficient in rifle shooting, and undertake to enrol themselves under the Volunteer Ordinance in the event of hostilities.

The expenditure on the Volunteers, which is entirely borne by the Colony, was $58,311.12.

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XII.-GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

The war between Russia and Japan continued during the first half of the year to affect disadvantageously the trade of the Colony and to be productive of incidents involving important questions of law. Early in January a breach of a Colonial Ordinance required the forfeiture of a cargo of ammunition destined for a belligerent but carried by a British steamer that had put into the port for coal. The position of one of the belligerent fleets from the middle of April to the middle of May within three days' steam of Hongkong necessitated stringent measures being taken to prevent any use of the port not in accordance with British neutrality laws and in several instances the severe penalties involved by the despatch of any ship with reasonable cause to believe that the same would be employed on the naval service of a foreign state at war with a friendly state had to be brought to the special notice of ship- ping agents. The departure northwards of that fleet relieved anxiety in this matter but was followed by the capture, on the grounds of carrying contraband of war, of two British ships- the Oldhamia in the Bashee Channel on May 18th and the St. Kilda a few hours out of Hongkong on June 4th. The latter capture was the last incident of the naval operations which directly affected Hongkong though it was not till nearly three months later that the armistice protocol was signed on September 1st. The opportunity was taken of the first visit to the port after the conclusion of peace of a Russian war vessel-the Almaz—to embark on her on November 30th for repatriation the 2 officers and 53 men of the former Russian torpedo boat destroyer Burni who had arrived in the Colony from Wei-Hai-Wei on the 22nd August, 1904. 2 officers and 8 men who had formed part of the same crew had previously been sent to Europe on grounds of ill-health.

One result of the disappearance of Russian naval power from Far Eastern waters was the immediate withdrawal of all the battleships from the British fleet on the China Station and a reduction in the number of cruisers. The lessening of imperial expenditure in the Colony resulting from these changes has necessarily been disadvantageous to its trade.

This was more seriously affected by the organized attempt of the Chinese in the last half of the year to boycott American goods as a protest against the administration of the United States law excluding Chinese labourers from that country. The attempt to extend the organization of the movement to this Colony was not supported by the principal Chinese merchants here, but its strength in Canton adversely affected the business in American goods which passes through Hongkong and further tended to the development of anti-foreign feeling and consequent unrest in that part of China with which Hongkong does most trade. Advantage was taken of the visit in September of Mr. WILLIAM H. TAFT, United States Secretary for War, to give that gentleman an opportunity of hearing the views of some of the leading Chinese of the Colony as to the Chinese objections to the provisions and administre tion of the exclusion law.

Uncertainty of exchange is always a factor adverse to trade and the year under rev was not exceptional in this respect, the range of variation being slightly greater than in 1904. The year started with the dollar at 1s. 11d. It fell to 1s. 103 at the end of March, rose irregularly to 2s. 1d. at the end of November and stood at 2s. 01d. in the last days of December. The maximum of the year was the highest value that had been attained since early in 1897.

Probably the most important factor in making the year a bad one for trade was the loss of confidence in Hongkong Chinese dealers owing to the speculation of 1904. which had the natural result of making it difficult for these dealers to get money with which to carry on their business in 1905. As regards imports, trade was particularly slack in fancy cotton and woollen goods and metals while but a limited business was done in Manchester piecegoods. Yarns did fairly well, especially for importers. Australian flour entered into serious com- petition with American of which the importation fell off largely; American kerosine alsc suffered from the boycott. As regards exports, trade in silk was adversely affected by various causes and in other articles, especially ginger and soy, compared unfavourably with that of preceding years.

In spite of indifferent trade several local stocks stood higher at the end than at the com mencement of the year. Hongkong and Shanghi Banking Corporation shares advance $150 against an advance of $50 in 1904. Local shipping companies retrograded. Marin insurance shares generally improved. Of the local land and building companies the share of one operating at Kowloon slightly appreciated; the others declined and the decision c holders of marine lots on the East Praya not to undertake for the present the reclamation c the sea bed in front of their properties was probably a wise one. The Dock companies di

118

not do well and the increase of dock accommodation in the Far East promises severer com- petition in the future. As regards other industrial undertakings, though there was no heavy fall, only in a few unimportant instances was there any advance on the value of shares at the end of the preceding year.

The maintenance of existing and the creation of new industrial undertakings are be- coming a matter of very great importance to the Colony, threatened as it is by serious com- petition from other places in some of its principal sources of wealth in the past. A satisfac- tory feature of the year was therefore the initiation of arrangements to start one such new enterprise in the New Territories; a flour mill on a large scale is in course of construction at a favourable site in Junk Bay and is to be combined with an extensive farm for the rearing of pigs on the refuse material. Serious attempts to prospect for metals in those Territories were also put in hand during the year. If these prove the existence of minerals in quantities that will pay for their extraction the future development of the Territories will be greatly

assisted.

Various projects that have been mooted for the construction of railways to ports on the mainland of South China have maintained and enhanced the desire of Hongkong to have as soon as possible a trunk line through that country with a terminus in the Colony.

An opportunity occurred during the year of getting rid of the foreign control of the projected railway from Canton to Hankow on which no progress was being made and which it was feared would under such control neither advance British or Chinese interests or the interests of Hongkong. On the 6th October with the approval of H.M.'s Government and under sanction of an Imperial decree the Government of Hongkong lent and the Viceroy of the Hu Kuang Provinces borrowed a sum of £1,100,000, repayable in 10 annual instal- ments. The security for the loan was the opium revenue of Hupei, Hunan and Kwangtung and the interest on it 4% payable half-yearly. The money was advanced to Hongkong by the Crown Agents at Bank rate-then 4%-and on being paid over to the Chinese Ambas- sador at Washington was at once utilized to redeem the Canton-Hankow railway concession from the various persons who had acquired interests in it from the original concessionaires. With the object of raising a loan to repay the Crown Agents' advance and at the same time to provide funds for the British section of the Canton-Kowloon railway and to meet other railway needs that might arise an Ordinance (No. 11 of 1905) was passed on the 16th October to empower the Governor to raise as occasion required loans not exceeding two mil- lion pounds in all. No loan was however raised before the end of the year.

Throughout the year attempts were being made in conjunction with H. M.'s Minister at Peking to get the Chinese authorities and particularly the Viceroy of the Liang Kuang Pro- ces to negotiate arrangements for the construction and subsequent working of the Chinese tion of the proposed Canton-Kowloon railway on the basis of Loan and Joint Working eements which had been drafted by the British and Chinese Corporation in consultation n the Colonial Office in London. These attempts had not succeeded at the close of the

year.

In the meantime, however, the Hongkong Government with the approval of the Legis- ative Council, expressed at a meeting on the 21st September, decided that the British section of the line should be put in hand without waiting for the conclusion of the negotiations with regard to the Chinese section. By that date a preliminary survey and estimate of alternative routes had been completed by Mr. J. C. BRUCE, an engineer who had been sent from Eng- 'and for the purpose and had arrived in the Colony on the 16th June, and a route 214 miles n length, which passed through the Kowloon hills by a low level tunnel 2,460 yards long, long the west shore of Tide Cove and South shore of Tolo Harbour and by the villages of Tai Po, Ha Wai, Fan Ling and Sheung Shui to the Sham Chün River near the Lo Fu ferry, ad been selected as the most economical both as regards construction and working expenses nd as best answering the requirements of a section of a trunk line through China.

Pending the completion of the final survey it was decided to commence throwing up he bank as soon as the centre line was located along the part of the line, 7 miles in length, hich traverses the low-lying ground north of Tai Po. The negotiations and clerical work volved in the resumption of the large number of small padi fields required before construc- on could be started was expeditiously carried out by Mr. C. CLEMENTI, the Assistant Land fficer, and the first sod was turned on December 9th. The decision to use labour supplied the elders of the surrounding villages for the earthwork was found, as had been antici- ted, to obviate local difficulties arising from removal of graves, "feng shui" prejudices,

!

119

The introduction of a new rent roll to take the place of the rough one on which rents had previously been collected in the New Territories and at the same time of a new scale of rents produced several petitions from the village elders and some hesitancy to pay rents due. Regulations for the collection of Crown rents in arrear in the New Territories made in September and re-enacted with slight modifications at the end of November enabled these difficulties to be got over and the payment of considerable sums for work on the railway bank doubtless assisted in getting in arrears shortly after the end of the year. Fears enter- tained at one time that the second crop of rice would suffer from want of rain were fortu- nately not realised and the New Territories remained prosperous and on the whole quiet throughout the year.

In conclusion I would refer to a few changes in personnel that occurred in the Colony in 1905. The Right Reverend Bishop DOMENICO POZZONI succeeded the late lamented Bishop PIAZZOLI as head of the Roman Catholic Church and was consecrated on the 1st October. Commodore H. P. WILLIAMS took over the charge of the naval dock-yard from Rear-Admiral C. G. DICKEN on 29th September, 1905. Sir PAUL CHATER, Kt., C.M.G., resigned his appointment on the Legislative Council after serving on it for Eighteen years and has been succeeded by Mr. H. E. POLLOCK, K.C., as representative of the ratepayers. In the Colonial Service Mr. (now) Sir FRANCIS PIGGOTT, formerly Procureur General in Mauritius, arrived on the 23rd May to succeed Sir WILLIAM MEIGH GOODMAN as Chief Jus- tice, and since the 2nd August Mr. T. SERCOMBE SMITH has ably acted in the appointment of Colonial Secretary temporarily vacated by Mr. F. H. MAY, C.M.G., who proceeded on leave on that date.

I have the honour to be,

My Lord,

Your Lordship's most obedient, humble Servant,

M. NATHAN.

No. 1908

HONGKONG..

REPORT ON THE BOTANICAL AND FORESTRY DEPARTMENT, FOR THE YEAR 1905.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of

His Excellency the Governor.

GARDENS AND GROUNDS.

Botanic Gardens.-The year was, comparatively speaking, free from serious damage done by typhoons. In August a few trees were blown down and a number of rose bushes destroyed which have now been replaced. During the typhoon season much time was taken up by the staff in making preparations to minimise damage as much as possible. Often the work, such as the moving of pot plants into sheltered positions, proved unnecessary, but it is more economical to move them ten times than to leave them once and have them blown to pieces. It is hoped, however, that when the office is connected with the telephone system a lot of this work will be unnecessary.

The rainfall is tabulated in Table I.

Minor repairs have been done to both sand and concrete walks. Many of the Bamboos forming the roofs of the plant-houses have had to be renewed. These were originally fixed from six to eight years ago. The plant-houses in the Pot Nursery underwent considerable repairs, the woodwork in many places having become rotten.

A great feature at the fountain last Summer was the splendid show of Eichhornia speciosa when in flower. This plant was only introduced 3 years ago by Lady BLAKE but it is now to be found in gardens all over the Colony. An interesting conifer in the New Garden has recently flowered for the first time. This is, bocedrus macrolepis, the seed of which was sown in December, 1900, having been presented to the Gardens by Messrs J. Veitch & Sons' collector, who found it in Yunnan. The tree is now about 8 feet high. Other young trees raised from the same seed and planted in Mountain Lodge Grounds have long since been blown to pieces. One of the most interesting flowering trees in the Gardens is an unnamed Bauhinia growing near the deer pen in the New Garden. The original tree from which it sprang is still growing on the hillside at Pokfulam close to the remains of an old house, by the tenants of which it had presumably been introduced from abroad. So far as we have been able to ascertain it is unmatched in the Kew Herbarium. It comes into flower in September and remains in good condition for nearly five months.

In September bulbs of Allium neapolitanum were received from Mr. W. H. Wallace, Amoy, some of which were planted in pots in the Gardens and the remainder in the rockery at Mountain Lodge. A few of those at the Peak flowered splendidly but those down below absolutely refused to grow. At Amoy these and many other bulbs do remarkably well, but, from some cause or other which it is difficult to fathom, it is impossible to grow them in Hongkong.

The chief recipients of plants and seeds were :-

Arnold Arboretum (Boston); Assistant Superintendent, Victoria Gaol; Messrs. BARR & SONS (London); Botanic Gardens of Calcutta, Kew, Natal and Singapore; Messrs. BUTTERFIED & SWIRE; Captain Superintendent of Police; Civil Service Club; Dr. CLARKE; Colonel BIRDWOOD (Tonbridge); Mr. R. H. C. CRAWFORD (Nassau); Forestry Bureau (Manila); Miss F. GROTEFEND (Berlin Foundling House); Mr. T. HANMER; Major-General VILLIERS HATTON; Imperial Scientific College (Tokio); Miss JoHNSTONE; His Honour J. H. STEWART LOCKHART (Wei-hai-wei); Miss J. MULLERY; Museum of Natural History (Paris); Police Recreation Club; Police Stations at Bay View, Ping Shan, Sheung Shui and Tai 0; Parks and Open Spaces (Shanghai); Miss JOHANNE REINECKE; Southern California Acclimatizing Association; Mrs. SWAN; Messrs. TANG LING TONG and Mr. W. H. WALLACE (Amoy).

440

The chief donors of plants and seeds were:-

Arnold Arboretum; Mr. A. BABINGTON; Messrs. BLACKHEAD & Co.

;

Lady BLAKE (Ceylon); Botanic Gardens of Calcutta, Ceylon, Durban (Natal), French Congo, Jamaica, Singapore and Trinidad; Mr. CHOA LUP CHEE; Deputy Commissioner of Forests, Chittagong; Forestry Bureau, Manila; Rev. B. GREISER; Captain HODGINS; Parks and Open Spaces, Shanghai; Captain MARCHANT; Imperial Botanical Museum, Berlin; Sir FRANCIS PIGGOTT; Reporter on Economic Products to the Government of India; Mr. A. ROBERT- SON-PROSCHOWSKY; South California Acclimatizing Association; State Gar- dens, Baroda; Mrs. BASIL TAYLOR; United States Department of Agricul- ture;

Mr. W. H. WALLACE; Mr. J. WESTLAND, (Ceylon).

Government House Grounds.-These grounds, including the walks, have been kept up to their usual condition. Towards the end of the year the tennis lawn was attacked by caterpillars which were kept in check by an application of Jeye's Fluid and water in the proportion of one of the former to ninety of the latter. In the small compound behind the stables which was formerly used for growing decorative plants, new coolie quarters have been erected, thus necessitating the removal of the plants elsewhere.

Mountain Lodge Grounds.-The shrubberies were overhauled and planted up as required. These always want a lot of attention in the Spring of the year owing to the great damage done by wind even in the most favourable Summers. In the August typhoon the creeper covering the large retaining wall was completely blown down, thus exposing the whole of the unsightly masonry. Wires fixed to iron stays have been put up so that it is hoped that when the Ficus has grown, in two or three years, the wind will not be able to do so much damage in this direction. The steepest parts of the walk round the hill on the south side of the grounds were concreted, and cement channels made to carry off the rainfall.

Protestant Cemetery.-The usual routine work was maintained throughout the year. During the winter months, at the beginning and end of the year, a great deal of damage was done to annuals by deer. The herbage obtainable on the hillsides at this season is less suc- culent than at other times and it is on this account that these animals come into the Ceme- tery to feed on the tender plants growing there. Ihe roofs and stages of the plant-houses which had become decayed have been renewed by the Public Works Department. The matsheds also which are used for storing dry soil and for raising plants from seed have been re-built.

Blake Garden.-A few more trees, shrubs and creepers were planted in the Spring. Most of the plants and trees put in 1904 have grown well. A summer-house subscribed for by a few of the Chinese residents in the neighbourhood has been erected on the mound at the north-west corner of the Garden. The Garden appears to be more and more appreciated by the Chinese.

Peak Garden.-The vote of $700 allowed for the formation of this small Garden was expended during the year but the ground has not been turfed yet, as the work was not sufficiently advanced at the end of the rainy season to permit of this being done.

A pump has been fixed to the well in the Garden by the Public Works Department. This will permit of the well being covered over so that there will be no danger of children falling in, and at the same time the water will be available for the garden.

·

Sokunpo Nursery.-As the Nursery is unfenced, wild deer, as in the Protestant Ceme- tery, did a lot of damage to the seedlings; pigs were also a source of trouble. A portion was enclosed with a wire-netting fence, 3 feet high, but this was only partly effectual in keeping the deer out as they occasionally jumped over it. Small lamps, however, fixed so that they would sway about in the wild during the night had very satisfactory results.

Albany Nursery.-The whole of the Albany Nursery is gradually being brought into use as funds permit. A part of it is occupied by decorative plants, the stock of which has had to be largely increased owing to the frequency with which they are now required for various decorative purposes. Carrying the plants to and from the places where they are being used, insufficient water whilst they are in the rooms and the frequent breakage of pots causing damage to the roots and necessitating re-potting, render it necessary to keep many more plants than are actually required at any one time. A number of trees and economic plants have been put in another part of this nursery.

.:

F

441

West End Park.-A number of men have been employed at various times throughout the year in cutting grass, pulling up weeds and keeping the place generally in a fair

condition.

Government Offices' Grounds.-These have been kept in good order throughout the year. In continuation of the previous year's work bare patches under trees have been covered with "blue grass.

Roadside Rockeries.-The numerous rockeries in various parts of the town have received attention from time to time. In the Glenealy rockeries a lot of re-planting was done in the Spring.

A list is appended (Table II) of the various Gardens, Parks, Rockeries, etc., for which the department is wholly or partly responsible.

HERBARIUM.

The routine work of the Herbarium consists in keeping the collections dry and free from insects, and the mounting, poisoning and sorting of new specimens. These duties were satisfactorily done by the two Chinese Assistants during the year. Little time could be

given by the European staff to botany, and the collection of about 3,000 specimens brought by the Superintendent from Fokien still remains in the boxes in which it arrived. During the

year another and larger collection (from Central and Western China) was acquired. The utilization of these collections as well as the identification of a collection of economic products for the Imperial Institute remained on hand at the end of the year. It is, however, hoped that time will be found to clear off these arrears of work in 1906.

The chief recipients of Herbarium specimens were :—

The Arnold Arboretum ; Botanic Gardens at Calcutta, Kew, Manila and Singapore; British Museum; Professor MARTELLI (Italy); Parks and Open Spaces, Shanghai.

The chief donor or Herbarium specimens was :-

The Imperial Botanical Museum, Berlin.

BOTANICAL INVESTIGATIONS.

Expedition to Central Fokien.

At the end of April a well-equipped expedition was sent by the Government in charge of the Superintendent to investigate the botanical resources of the Province of Fokien. Four trained Chinese collectors were taken. Foochow was reached on the 25th of April and a houseboat taken at once for the exploration of the more easily navigable parts of the Yuen Fu and Min Rivers. As the Hongkong Herbarium was almost devoid of specimens from Fokien and as our knowledge of the flora of that Province is very meagre it was necessary to collect specimens of every species, even down to the weeds of the cultivated fields. This collecting was at once begun on the plains and foothills of the ranges surrounding Foochow, and in 3 days about 300 species were collected. The houseboat formed a convenient base for drying and sorting the specimens. On the 29th of April the first rapids were reached, about 35 miles up the Yuen Fu. There is a good deal of virgin forest above 700 feet on the mountains which at this point begin to close in on the river. The finest forest that was seen was that surrounding the Monastery of Fong Kong Tse. The enormous trees of Liquidam- bar, Maple, Oak and Pine which grew there sheltered a rich flora, and a large number of additional species were collected on the damp rocks and along the mossy rivulets. On the 30th a return was commenced downstream and Foochow was reached again on May 2nd. The chief cultivations on the banks of the Yuen Fu are Lichee, Water Plum (Myrica rubra), Opium, Wheat, Oats, Paddi and Rape. In the steep gorges bamboo is extensively grown. Full notes were made on the cultivation and manipulation of these crops, especially on the extraordinarily ingenious methods of transporting the bamboos from the mountains.

442

A start was made on May 2nd up the Min River, and by the 7th Shui Kau, the highest point navigable for houseboats, was reached. The flora of the banks and neighbouring hills though very beautiful presented little that was new. Tea-oil cultivation was seen for the first time covering the dry hills at Shui Kau. As an experiment is being made with a view to introducing this industry into the New Territory, the conditions were carefully noted.

A transfer had now to be made to a rapid-boat and interesting though slow progress was made up the almost continuous series of rapids to Yenping. About 200 species from the banks of the Min were added to the 500 collected on the Yuen Fu, and the opportunity was taken of sorting and writing a key to the species as a guide to further collecting.

Yenping lies at the junction of the Kienning River with the Min nearly in the centre of the Province and is cut off from the north by a high range of mountains. These mountains are intersected by numerous forest-clad valleys, and it was determined to make a thorough exploration of one of these and of the summits with one collector, sending two further up the Min and leaving one at Yenping to dry the collections. The important work of drying the plants already collected and of those now constantly sent down from the mountains was greatly facilitated by the kindness of some Missionaries in Yenping who lent a room for the purpose. The Superintendent with one collector stayed at the small Chinese village of Buong Kang, about 12 miles from the town, and made an exhaustive collection of the flora of the romantic gorge in which it was situated as well as of the grassy downs at the summit. Both wood-oil and paper are made at this village and the excellent opportunity of obtaining full details of their manufacture was not neglected. Several points which had been obscure or misunderstood in these industries were fortunately able to be cleared up. A full des- cription of these and other interesting results of the expedition are given below. Buong Kang was left and a return made to Yenping after a stay of three weeks. The number of additional species collected there was about 600.

A few days were spent in collecting at Yenping while waiting for the return of the two collectors from the Upper Min. Upon their return a rapid-boat was secured and the collec- tions taken back with all possible speed to Foochow and Hongkong which was reached on the 24th of June.

Wood-oil.-Wood-oil is abundantly produced in the Province of Fokien and is one of the chief products brought down the Min from the western part of the Province. At Buong Kang, near Yenping, there is a large plantation of wood-oil trees, and as three weeks were spent there during the recent investigation of the flora of Fokien, the opportunity was taken to ascertain as much as possible as to the industry. The trees were of two kinds locally known as Hwa Tung and Guong Tung. The names refer to the distin- guishing character of the fruit which is sculptured in the first, smooth in the second. The trees were in flower and were easily recognised as Aleurites cordata and another species of the same genus which has been in cultivation in the Hongkong Botanic Gardens for many years but has not yet received a name. I understand from Mr. HEMSLEY, Keeper of the Kew Herbarium, that it is undescribed and that he has it in hand at Kew. The Hwa Tung (Aleurites cordata) is the most valued because all the flowers of the majority of trees produce fruits, from which the oil is made, while in the second kind a few flowers only in each cluster are perfect, quite 80 per cent. being male flowers. Why this kind is planted at all I was unable to discover. The trees are raised from seed and planted out when about three years old. They arrive at bearing in 5 or 6 years. The nuts are gathered when ripe, pounded up and placed in the usual Chinese oil presses. The pressure is applied by wedges, and the oil is collected and taken to market in a crude state.

It does not appear to have been suspected before that wood-oil was a mixture of the products of two species. A sample of seeds of the new Guong Tung have been secured for trial at the Imperial Institute, and if they yield oil superior in quality to the wood-oil of commerce the tree will be tried in the New Territory.

Bamboo Paper.-This is the usual paper used by the Chinese for wrapping up parcels and is produced and sold in very large quantities in many parts of Southern China. The ma- nufacture was investigated at Buong Kang where a flourishing paper mill exists. The bam- boo called Ma Deuk () is the variety used. This is a bamboo (Phyllostachys, sp.) 20-50 ft. high, having a downy stem when young. is cut into convenient lengths and laid in concrete tanks of water for about 4 months. After that period the material is care- fully removed by hand as it becomes ready and is pulped in a water mill. These mills,

It

443

which are used for all kinds of pounding, consist of an overshot wheel about 10 feet in diameter. The axle carries a wooden cam which alternately raises and releases the pounder. The pulp is subsequently taken into the factory as a fibrous mass, the fragments being about 1 inch long. They are there mixed with water, forming a thin muddy liquid. The water contains a binding ingredient or size made from the leaves of various plants, among which were an Actinidia, a Holly, a species of Lauraceae, and a Schizandra. From this liquid the fibre is removed in thin films on a delicate tray of bamboo threads supported on a bam boo frame. Each film is a sheet of paper and only needs to be dried, first on a hot tsurface, and then in a strong lever press to be ready for market.

China Fir.-The China Fir (Cunninghamia sinensis) may be called par excellence thə imber tree of China, for in a great part of the Empire boats, houses, furniture and agricultural machines are made of it. The large quantities grown in Fokien in former times have doubtless contributed to the prosperity of Foochow. The conditions of cultivation were investigated at *Buong Kang near Yenping in that Province. It is called locally Sau Tsoi (). Trees are grown from cuttings taken from branches of 2 years old or less. These are planted in rows, 12 feet apart, from the beginning of February to the equinox. The plantations are cleaned 2 or 3 times a year while the trees are young and are protected by fire barriers. The felled timber is extracted down made ways to the foot of the mountains and then carried to the river and made into large rafts. The timber is in demand for construction even in Hongkong although we are plentifully supplied with Pinus massoniana, because it is not subject to the attacks of white ants as is the latter species.

Bamboos of Fokien -From the amount of ground, in those parts of Fokien visited during the year, which is taken up with Bamboo cultivation it seems probable that this is one of the chief industries of the Province. The steep sides of mountain valleys are the favourite situations. Sixteen kinds are recognized in the Yenping mountains :-

(1.). Ma Deuk().-The commonest species, 20-50 ft. high. It is used for small buildings, and for making mats and paper. The shoots are eaten. It is planted from cut- tings in the spring and remains for about three years before the shoots develop. Flowering is said to occur every five years. It appears to be a species of Phyllostachys. Fokien col-

lection No. 932.

2.) Ku Deuk (†) (Bitter Bamboo).—The bitter shoots are eaten. Phyllostachys nigra, Munro. Fokien collection No. 960.

(3.) Gong Nong Deuk.--Used for boat and chair poles. Phyllostachys nigra, Munro. Fokien collection No. 1,001.

(4.) Cieh Deuk (†) (Folding Bamboo).--Shoots dried for export. Phyllostachys nigra, Munro. Fokien collection No. 962.

(5.) Uong Deuk () (Yellow Bamboo).-A small variety planted for hedges. Bambusa, sp. Fokien collection No. 970.

(6.) Lek Deuk (†) (Clustered Bamboo).-A decorative species with remarkably long internodes. Bambusa pallida, Munro. Fokien collection No. 882.

(7.) Sioh Deuk (†) (Stone Bamboo).—Used for basket making. Basket making is an important industry and bamboo baskets are widely used and extremely cheap throughout the Province. Phyllostachys nigra, Munro., Fokien collection No. 1,000.

(8.) U Deuk (†)(Black Bamboo).-Used for umbrella handles. Phyllostachys nigra, Munro. Fokien collection No. 883.

(9.) Heung Deuk (Square Bamboo).-Used for walking sticks.

Bamboo).—Used for walking sticks. Bambusa quadrangu- laris, Fenzi.

(10.) Ming Deuk.- A small bamboo with a blotched purple and yellow stem. Little used. Phyllostachys nigra, Munro. Fokien collection No. 961.

(11.) Lu Deuk, so called, is only a large herbaceous grass.

444

(12.) Cieng Deuk.-Used for making sieves. The leaves, which are remarkably large and broad, are in common use for wrapping up food. Arundinaria sinica, Hance. Fokien collection No. 885.

(13.) Long Deuk (†).-Edible shoots. Phyllostachys nigra, Munro. Fokien collec-

tion No. 886.

(14.) Dang Deuk.-Phyllostachys nigra, Munro. Fokien collection No. 887.

(15.) Man or Tsung Deuk.-Phyllostachys nigra, Munro. Fokien collection No. 971. (16) Mieng Deuk. -Used for making bamboo ropes. No leaf specimen was obtainable. Its use for the manufacture of the wonderfully strong and fray-resisting ropes so in- dispensible in navigating the Min rapids renders it locally an important plant.

The bamboos collected in flower were Phyllostachys bambusoides, Sieb; Bambusa* tuloides, Munro; Bambusa pallida, Munro; and Arundinaria densiflora, Munro. With the exception of the last four, they were without flowers and their identification depended upon comparison of their leaves with named flowering specimens.

There are two methods employed in transporting the bamboos from the mountains to market. The stems are first tied into bundles of a few cwt. each and dragged by hand along smooth grooves on the mountain sides or, when very steep ground has to be crossed, along bamboo brackets fixed at short intervals in the rock. When a small stream is reached they are floated down it, sufficient water being confined into a narrow canal by means of shingle guides and barriers. On reaching a river larger rafts are made up and floated or rowed to the market town.

Additions to the Flora of Hongkong and the New Territory.

Illicium dunnianum, Tutcher.-A new species found growing at Sam-tam-lo in the New Territory on the banks of a stream.

Talinum crassifolium, Linn.-This is an African species and was first discovered in a Chinese Garden in Hongkong as a weed some three or four years ago. Last year it was found cultivated at Sokunpo.

Camellia crapnelliana, Tutcher.-Discovered on the south side of Mount Parker. A new species and only one tree found.

Chisocheton hongkongensis, Tutcher.-A new species discovered in the ravine on the southern slope of Mt. Parker. The genus is new to China.

Microtropis, new species.-This is an interesting addition to the order Celastrace as the genus hitherto had not been recorded from China. It was found in a ravine below Mountain Lodge on the north-eastern slope of Mt. Victoria.

Desmodium latifolium, DC.-Several plants of this species were discovered at Sokunpo and the next day specimens were also brought in from the New Territory. Curious to relate its habitat in China had not been previously known, although plants were raised in England from seeds collected by STAUNTON who accompanied Lord MACARTNEY'S Embassy to China more than 100 years ago. The species is also a native of Africa, India and the Philippines.

Mucuna birdwoodiana, Tutcher.-This plant has been known for several years but it has been confused with Mucuna macrobotrys, Hance. The flowers are ivory-coloured and are produced in panicles. Found on Mt. Parker, Mt. Gough and Taimoshan.

Derris Fordii, Oliv.-Discovered in the neighbourhood of Shek O Gap. Only pre- viously known from the interior of Kwangtung and Central China.

Sycopsis sp.-This genus has hitherto been represented in China by a single species, but another was found some time ago at the Peak on the southern slope below Mountain Lodge.

Eugenia Jambolana, Lour.-Found growing at Repulse Bay and is not at all an un- common tree in the Island. Not previously recorded from China.

445

Ammannia senegalensis, Lamk.-Found in the Colony for the first time at Sokunpo in a swamp. Previously recorded from the interior of Kwangtung Province.

Uncaria homomalla, Miq.?-Found in the upper part of the Glenealy ravine. Hitherto it has not been recorded from China.

Blumea myriocephala, DC.--This species was discovered at Little Hongkong. Only previously known in China from Formosa and the Loochoos.

Soliva anthemifolia, R. Br.-This is probably a weed of introduction as it has been dis- covered on cultivated ground at Sokunpo and Kowloon. It is a native of South America and Australia, but not previously recorded from China.

Artemisia lactiflora, Wall.-A plant of this was found in a flower-pot in the Gardens. It is a common plant in the neighbourhood of Canton and has lately been advertised at home by a well-known nurseryman as a very desirable flowering plant, which it certainly is.

Lindera megaphylla, Hemsl.-An interesting addition to the laurels of Hongkong. Found growing in a wood between Little Hongkong Village and Middle Gap, Black's Link. Only previously recorded from Kiangsi and Hupeh.

Bridelia Balansa, Tutcher.-A new species first found in Tonkin and subsequently in Hongkong; one tree in the Happy Valley woods above the Bowen Road and another on the south side of Mt. Parker.

Quercus amygdalifolia, Skan ?-A single tree on the north side of Mt. Cameron. Only previously known from Formosa.

- Quercus Editha, Skan.-Two trees of this species were discovered on Mt. Gough in a ravine below the new Peak Garden. It was named after Lady BLAKE from specimens found in the New Territory during the time Sir HENRY BLAKE was Governor of the Colony.

Quercus sp.-A fine tree, between 30 and 40 feet high, was found growing with Castanopsis Fabri, Hance, in a ravine on the north-east slope of Mt. Victoria. It was in fruit and belongs to the section Chlamydo-balanos and will probably prove to be new.

Quercus sp.-A second species of this genus was found with the foregoing but in leaf only. It was a tree about 20 feet high and somewhat resembles in foliage Quercus naiadarum, Hance.

Quercus sp.-A tree 40 feet high found in the same wood as Lindera megaphylla. It was in leaf only but appears different from any other known Hongkong species.

Quercus sp.-Found at Mt. Davis in fruit. It is something like Quercus thalassica,

Hance.

Castanopsis Fabri, Hance.-Several specimens of this tree were found in the same place as Quercus Edithe and later on a very fine tree, 40 feet high, was discovered in a ravine on the north-east slope of Mt. Victoria below Mountain Lodge. Only previously known from Lofaushan, Fokien, and the New Territory.

Ophiopogon japonicus. Ker-Gawl.-Plants of this were found on the Black Mountain in 1903 and have been cultivated in the Gardens since. They flowered last year and were determined as above. Another species of Ophiopogon discovered on Mt. Parker has not yet been determined.

Ruppia maritima, Linn.-Discovered growing in Sheko lagoon. An interesting addition to the water-plants of the Island.

Bambusa Cantori, Munro ?-In the Happy Valley woods; previously known from

Lantao.

It may be interesting to note that Paphiopedilum (Cypripedium) purpuratum. Pfitz., which was considered an endemic species has been discovered on Ma On Shan in the New Territory during the past year.

446

In the "Flora Hongkongensis," BENTHAM enumerates 1,053 species. The additions (including HANCE's 75) since the publication of the Flora now amount to between 400 and 500, and the publication of a new Flora (which should include all plants known from the New Territory) is becoming a growing necessity.

FORESTRY.

It will be remembered that the questions asked by the Hon. Mr. SHEWAN in Legislative Council on September 14th, 1904, led to a useful discussion (Legislative Council Paper No. 36 of 1905) upon the best method of managing the Pine plantations on the Island. Even- tually the help of the Indian Forestry Department was sought and the Inspector General of Forests advised that the trees should be allowed to grow for 30 years (or in exceptional cases 35) before being felled. This rotation was adopted by the Hongkong Government with the slight change that 35 was to be the normal, 30 or less the exceptional term. further decided not to cut down blocks of trees except in the part of the Island remote from Victoria, viz., the Tytam and Stanley divisions; the "shelterwood strip system" was to be adopted in the Shaukiwan, Aberdeen and Pokfulam divisions, while the two divisions reaching from Belchers Bay to the Happy Valley are, His Excellency the Governor has since decided, to be preserved for artistic effect only.

It was

The principal localities planted with pine during the year were Aberdeen (96,000 trees), this was the block cut down in 1904; Yaumati (50,000); Pokfulam (10,000); and Tytamtuk (10,000). Vide Tables III and IV.

Very little felling took place during the year in consequence of the uncertainty which existed concerning the best means of conducting it. Unfortunately, however, the number of trees removed was swelled by an unusually large quantity of dead timber. As this depart- ment pointed out in 1904, the greater part of the plantations in the Island consist of tree which fall off in growth after 20 years and, no doubt, a considerable percentage die at that age or during the subsequent decade.

One of the great advantages of afforestation is the improvement of the soil. Pines will grow on very poor soil, but after one or two generations make the ground rich enough to support more valuable and more beautiful trees. This result will never be realized however in Hongkong, nor will the pines themselves flourish until the Chinese have been taught not to scrape up the rich pine needle humus from the plantations for fuel. In some old plant- ations the ground is kept as bare and sandy as when the trees were planted. In consider- ation of these facts it is satisfactory that the hands of the forest guards have been greatly strengthened during the year for dealing with this difficulty and a large number of marau- ders have been arrested and punished.

The only serious cases of organized stealing of timber occurred at Aberdeen Brick Works and at Mong Kok (Table V). In the former case one man was caught after great difficulty and heavily punished. In the latter case three partners of the Government timber contractor were arrested and convicted, receiving various terms of imprisonment and banishment.

The Chinese licensed pine plantations in the New Territory have been regularly visited during the year. No cases of overcutting have been detected. A few licences have been cancelled because of the unauthorized cutting of wild trees by their holders. In order to facilitate the re-sowing of felled areas in the Chinese Forest Lots a notice was issued in Nov- ember reminding Licence holders of their obligation to re-sow and offering seed from the Government plantations at cost price for the purpose. Owing to the scarcity of mature seed-bearing trees in the Chinese plantations the necessary quantity for re-sowing had pre- viously been bought by plantation owners from Canton at about $6 per lb. as far as could be ascertained. A good many applicants have, as a result, been provided with Government seed at 70 cents per lb. This reduces the cost of seed sufficient for one acre to 3 cents, when sown in the Chinese way.

The Chinese plantations in the Shatin Valley, from the Government Forest Nursery at Kanghau south-westwards to the gap, have been purchased by the Government. This block is more or less under the eye of the Government workmen at Kanghau and will require little extra protection. It is fairly well stocked with trees and these will be useful as shelter for the regular plantations when formed.

447

AGRICULTURE.

Nitroculture.-A small experiment was made with nitroculture in the Government Nur- sery at Sokunpo. The result was so encouraging that a further consignment has been ordered with a view to introducing the culture to the New Territory farmers in 1906. It has long been supposed that leguminous crops have the power of absorbing nitrogen from the air, thereby improving themselves and the soil without the use of fertilizers, provided only that certain bacteria exist in the ground. An American agriculturist has succeeded in cultivating these bacteria, and preparations can now be bought and the seeds artificially inoculated. Some of this nitroculture preparation was obtained and applied to a crop of peanuts. Two varieties of peanut were used. Plots without nitroculture were grown alongside for comparison. The results were as follows:-

Probable Average market Average Weight value of Weight

Nuts per of Plants.

acre.

Nature of Crop.

Treat- ment.

Weight of Crop.

Area.

of Nuts.

Nuts. Plants.

Sq. ft.

Per acre

in lbs.

Per acre in lbs.

Large Ground Nut.

Nitro- culture.

55 lbs.

35 lbs.

734

3,264 $146.88

2,077

Do.

Usual.

20 lbs.

12 lbs.

874

997 44.87

598

Small Ground Nut.

Nitro- culture.

19 lbs. 45 lbs.

528

1,567 70.51

3,705

Do.

Usual. 21 lbs.

52 lbs.

853

1,072

48.24

2,655

The cost of enough nitro-preparation for one acre is $4 (Mexican), the expense of applying it to the seeds is negligible so that the increase in profit to the farmer per acre judging from this one experiment should be about $100 for large, $20 for small ground The success of bacteria cultures is notoriously uncertain and, while some trials may be more successful than this, others will possibly fail. The results of the New Territory crops will be reported.

nuts.

LIBRARY.

The following periodicals and other works have been purchased :--

Acta Horti Petropolitani, XV. fasc. 3, XXL. fasc. 2.

Botanica Applicada na China, DA SILVA.

Botanical Magazine, 1905.

Botanisches Centralblatt, 1905.

Bulletin de l'Academie Imperial des Sciences de St. Petersburg. XV.-XXII.,

1870-77.

Bulletin de l'Academie Internationale de Geographie Botanique, 1898-1904.

Bulletin de la Societe Botanique de France, 1882-1885.

Butterflies of Hongkong and Southern China, J. C. KERSHAW.

Dictionary of Gardening, NICHOLSON.

Flowering Plants and Ferns, WILLIS.

Gardeners' Chronicle, 1905.

2

Gardening for India, FIRMINGER.

Journal of Botany, 1905.

Journal de Botanique, 1887-1904.

448

Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, 1905.

Naturalists' Universal Directory.

Timbers of Commerce, STONE.

Periodicals were presented by the following establishments:-

Agricultural Departments of Cape of Good Hope, Jamaica, South Australia, United

States, Victoria, West Indies, Western Australia, and from the University of• California.

Botanic Gardens of Barbados, British Guiana, Calcutta, Ceylon, Dominica, Jamaica, Kew, Manila, Natal, Saharanpur, St. Vincent, Straits Settlements, Sydney, Tobago and Trinidad.

Forestry Reports were received from India relating to Ajmer-meswara, Andamans, Assam, Baluchistan, Bengal, Bombay Presidency, Burma, Central Provinces, Coorg, Dehra Dun, Madras Presidency, and Punjab.

The following works were also presented:--

Atlas de Filippinas; by the United States Government.

A Critical Revision of the Genus Eucalyptus, J. H. MAIDEN, Parts 6 & 7; by

the Author.

A Review of the Identifications of the species described in Blanco's Flora de

Filipinas, E. D. MERRILL; by the Author.

Botanical Magazine, Tokyo, Vol. IX, No. 105; by Professor MAtsumura.

Crataegus in Eastern Pennsylvania, C. S. SARGENT; by the Author.

Flora of Ceylon, TRIMEN, parts IV and V with plates LXXVI-C; by the Director,

Royal Gardens, Kew.

Flora of the Presidency of Bombay, T. COOKE; by the Author.

Hooker's Icones Plantarum, Vol. VIII, Part 4; by the Director, Royal Gardens, Kew. Journal of the Board of Agriculture, London; by the Board.

Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University, Tokyo, Vol. XVIII,

Article 8, and Vol. XX, Article 3; by the University.

Kew Bulletin, parts published in 1905; by the Director, Royal Gardens, Kew. Les Noces des Palmiers, J. BARBOSA-RODRIGUEZ; by the Author.

!

Luizaery ou Curare, J. BARBOSA-RODRIGUEZ; by the Author.

Manual of the Trees of North America, C. S. SARGENT; by the Author.

*

Myrtacées du Paraguay, J. BARBOSA-RDORIGUEZ; by the Author.

Natal Plants, J. MEDLEY WOOD, Vol. IV, Part 3, and Vol. V, Parts 1 and 2;

by the Author.

Report on Rubber (Gold Coast); by the Director, Botanical and Agricultural

Department, Aburi.

The Merchantable Timbers of Queensland, PHILIP MACMAHON; by the Secretary

for Agriculture, Queensland.

Trees and Shrubs, C. S. SARGENT, Part IV; by the Author.

449

REVENUE.

The details of revenue for the year are given in Table VI.

STAFF.

The department was administered by the Superintendent from January 1st to April 20th, and from June 24th to December 31st. The Assistant Superintendent resumed his duties on March 30th after a year's absence in England. He acted for the Superintendent from April 21st to June 23rd, during the absence of the latter in the interior.

S. T. DUNN,

Superintendent, Botanical and Forestry Department.

6th April, 1906.

1,

2,

Date.

Table I.

1905 RAINFALL.-BOTANIC GARDENS.

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug.

Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.

Inches. Inches. Inches. Inches. Inches. Inches. Inches. Inches. Inches, Inches. Inches. Inches.

.01

.73

.01 .01 .01

3,

4,

...

12,

5,

6,

7,

?

8,

9,

10,

11,

.01

...

.02

.07

ಇರಲಿ :

9.70

.04. .45 .13 .24

.74

3.08

.01 .06

.06

.02 .07

.37

.03

.02

.09 .03

.10

.19

.15

.02

.01

.10

...

.87

...

.11

.15

.01

.11

5.58

1.35

.07

.02

.17!

1.11

.01

.44 .87

.02

1.03

...

.26

.12

.05

.43*

...

.04

.14

.14

...

.59

.93

.05

13.

14,

.05

.26

...

.11

.01

.02

2.63

.02

.07

...

.98

.09 1.98

....

1.20 .27

:::::3 :: ਕ: ਨੇ :

.13 .03

.02

.01

15.

16,

17.

18,

19,

20,

21,

22,

...

.05 .26 .08

.26 .83 .15 .02

...

.13

...

23,

.02 .11 .04 .36

2.70

24,

.04 1.11

.04

.17 .07 2.10 .61 .02

25,

.07

1.10

.03 .70 .01

26,

.01

.24

.62

.01

1.37

27,

.51

.55

.02

.63

...

28,

.02

.02 .53

.69

1.35

29,

1.03

.95

.03

1.47

...

30,

.13

.04

2.24

31,

.01

2.04

.10 .13 .03 .01 2.47

.52

.15

.10

...

Total,

...

1.70 .70 13.22 1.28

5.34 23.29 10.80 10.65

6.16

.34 .38

2.66

.12

...

.08

...

858

.28

.01

.35

.08

.01.

.09

.80

.06

.59

.Q3 .74

យុវវ

.35

.01

***

.04

...

2.28

...

.01

.02

.09

.25

...

.06

1.35

.09

...

Total Inches for the year, 76.52.

Observations made at 10 A.M. Elevation, 300 ft.

450

Table II.

LAND UNDER COMPLETE OR PARTIAL MANAGEMENT OF BOTANICAL AND FORESTRY DEPARTMENT.

1. Botanic Gardens.

2. Blake Garden.

3. Peak Garden.

4. King's Park, Kowloon.

5. West End Park.

6. Government House Grounds.

7. Mountain Lodge Grounds.

8. Government Offices Grounds. 9. Colonial Cemetery.

10. Sookunpo Government Nursery. 11. Kang Hau Forest Nursery. 12. Sookunpo Bamboo Nursery. 13. North Point Tree Nursery.

14. Loan Plant Compound, Garden Road. 15. Albany Nursery.

16. Rockery in Garden Road.

Do. (upper) in Albert Road.

17.

18.

Do.

(lower) do.

19.

Do.

(upper) in Peak Road.

20.

Do.

(lower) do.

21.

Do.

(upper) at St. Joseph's Church.

22.

Do. (lower)

do.

23.

Do.in Glenealy Road, below Robinson Road.

24.

Do.

do.

below first bend.

25.

Do.

do.

below second bend.

26.

Do.

do.

below third bend.

27. Do.

do.

below Cathedral.

28. Do.

do.

lower part, W.

29. Do.

do.

do., E.

30.

Do. at junction of Seymour and Robinson Road.

31. Plot over Garden tank at junction of Bowen and Garden Roads.

32. Do. above Garden Cottages.

33. Do. in front of St. Joseph's Church, Garden Road.

34. Bank in Bridges St.

35. Do. opposite main entrance to Government House Grounds.

36. Do. between Garden Road and Albert Road.

37. Do. between Upper and Lower Albert Roads.

38. Do. south of Lower Albert Road, opposite Government Offices. 39. Do. south of Volunteer Parade Ground.

40. Do. Lower Albert Road, opposite Volunteer Parade Ground.

41. Do. between Albany Road and Upper Albert Road.

42. Do. on north boundary of New Garden, Caine Road.

43. Do. between Wyndham Street and Lower Albert Road.

44. Do. on north side of Government House Grounds.

45. Do. between Lower Albert Road and Ice House Street.

46. Do. on south side of Battery Path.

47. Do. on north side of Battery Path.

48. Do. east of Garden Road Nuliah, between Kennedy Rd. & Macdonnell Rd. 49. Do. east of Garden Road Nullah, between Macdonnell Rd. and Bowen Rd.

50. Do. above Bowen Road at junction of Bowen and Garden Roads.

51. Do. west of Glenealy Nullah below Robinson Road Bridge.

52. Do. west of Garden Road Nullah between Garden Cottage and Bowen Road Bridge. 53. Do. between Tramway and Garden Road Nullah, below Kennedy Road.

54. Rockery in Robinson Road, S.W. of West End Park.

4

Date.

January,

February, March,

April,

May, June,

451

Table III.

TREES PLANTED IN 1905.

Place.

Tree.

Number.

Pokfulam Reservoir,

...

Pine,

10,115

Aberdeen,

Yaumati,

Barker Road,

>>

96,665

50,052

Tytam Reservoir,.

""

10,000

Camphor,

21

Kang Hau,.

10,515

Total,

177,368

Table IV.

BLOCKS PLANTED WITH PINE, 1904-1905.

No. FOREST DIVISION.

121 00 10 N

Victoria, Wongneichong,

Shaukiwan,

4

Tytam,

5

Stanley,

6

Aberdeen,

7

Pokfulam,

BLOCK.

A

В

C

D

E

F

G

طح

New Territory,

Total,

96,665 10,115

...

10,000

No. FOREST DIVISION.

Table V.

PINE TREES STOLEN.

TOTAL NUMBER.

...

10,000

96,665

10,115

50.052

166,832

BLOCK.

TOTAL NUMBER.

A

B

C

D

E

F

1

Victoria,

...

2

Wongneichong,

11

4

17

12

56

100

3

Shaukiwan,

9

22

17

12

90

4

Tytam,

10

1

11

5

Stanley,

12

9

21

6

Aberdeen,

58 106

6

163

333

7

Pokfulam,

40

Kowloon,

∞ :

8

3

53

299

Total,

907

:

:

:

Sale of Forestry Products,

452

Table VI.

REVENUE FOr 1905.

Sale of Plants,

Loan of Plants,

Forestry Licences in New Territory,

JA

C.

1,779.84

654.75

426.82

607.53

Total,

.$3,468.94

HONGKONG.

No. 20

1906

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

REPORT OF THE INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS, FOR THE YEAR 1905.

STAFF.

1. Appointments.—Mr. WILLIAMS to be Headmaster of the Victoria School, from 1st January, 1905.

1905.

Mrs. WILKINSON to be Headmistress of the Victoria School, from 20th January, 1905..

Mr. MORRIS to be Headmaster of the Saiyingpun School, from 16th June, 1905.

Mrs. DRUMMOND to be 2nd Mistress of the Kowloon School, from 12th December, 1905.

Mr. JEHANGIR KHAN to be Master of the Anglo-Indian School, from 16th December,

2. Resignations. -Mrs. MURRAY, 2nd Mistress of the Kowloon School, from 11th December, 1905.

Mrs. WHITEHEAD, Mistress of the Anglo-Indian School, from 15th December, 1905.

3. Leave. Mrs. TUTCHER, 1st Assistant Mistress of the Belilios Public School, returned from leave on 30th March, 1905.

There have also been several changes in the Chinese staff of the District Schools.

REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.

4. Excluding $200 paid by Mr. ARCULLI towards the cost of the Indian School as explained in section 28 below, the Revenue collected by the Department amounts to $9,783.50. Details are given in Table I. A comparative statement of the revenue collected during recent years is given in Table II. It has increased from $922 in 1900, or by more than ten-fold.

5. The expenditure on Education, including Queen's College, for the year was $158,677.58, being 2.28% of the total Expenditure of the Colony. A statement shewing this ratio for recent years is given in Table III. The estimated expenditure was $189,335, of which, $30,657.42 were not spent.

NUMBER AND CLASSIFICATION OF SCHOOLS AND SCHOLARS.

6. Table IV shews the number of schools (Government and Grant) to be 83, an increase of 2 over last year's return. The average attendance was 5,323, as against 4,970. The proportion of pupils in the Upper Grade Schools to those, in Lower Grade Schools is as 3,146 to 2,177. The Chinese Side of the Belilios Public School has for the purposes of this calculation been treated as an Upper Grade School, for reasons given in section 32. Upper Grade Schools are defined in the Grant Code as those with a Staff competent to give instruction in all the subjects of Standard VII, The great majority of them are English or Anglo-Chinese Schools.

7. Table V shews the fluctuations in the average attendance in recent years. The steady increase in the numbers of pupils studying English is maintained. The correspond- ing decrease in Vernacular education has been checked. This is highly satisfactory when the improvement in the standard of the Vernacular Schools is considered. (See section 43 below.) It seems to shew that the improvement in them has the approval of parents.

474

This view is confirmed by the fluctuation in the numbers of the individual schools, as illus- trated by the following figures. Nine Vernacular Schools obtained a Grant of $7 or more in both 1904 and 1905. The sum of the average attendances in these good schools increased from 405 to 451, and the average is now 50 for each school. Seven schools obtained a Grant of only $5 in both 1904 and 1905. The average attendance in them decreased from 161 to 151, and is now 21.6.

8. The figures for the Private Schools were taken in a more systematic way than has hitherto been done: still they are but an approximation. The English and Anglo-Chi- nese Private Schools do not include 36 Night Schools, with a maximum monthly enrol- ment of 635. Of the 3,047 children in Private Vernacular Schools, 500, or one in six, are being taught by the new method; and the rest receive the time-honoured classical education. Table VI shews the proportion of girls to boys in the schools to be as 1,922 is to 3,401, a slight increase as compared with last year. Of the 2,146 pupils in Vernacular Schools, 1,292 or 60 per cent. are girls.

9. The statistics given shew an increase of 7% in the total number of pupils in Governinent and Grant Schools; and the critical portion of this Report will shew that the standard of elucation has been maintained, possibly somewhat improved, in the English and Anglo-Chinese Schools, and has certainly been improved in the Vernacular Schools. The last feature is satisfactory for general reasons, and particularly because Chinese female education is almost entirely limited to education in the Vernacular tongue.

GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS.

10. Table I gives details of the nature of, and the attendance at the Government Schools, as compared with 1904. The Victoria British School adds another to the number, bringing it up to twelve. Detailed Reports are given in Appendix A.

11. The total number of pupils in the Government Schools is 782; and the net cost to Government per caput is $46.17. The corresponding figure for last year is $41.22. The increase is mainly due to the heavy initial and non-recurrent expenditure on the Victoria School.

New Schools, and Schools closed.

12. The Vernacular Schools at Tanglungchau and Pokfulam were closed at the begin- ning of the year under review. Their places were taken by the Lower Grade Anglo-Chinese Schools newly opened at Tanglungchau and Aberdeen. (See also section 16.)

Kowloon British School.

13. The School originally was open to boys and girls alike. But it was decided, upon the opening of the complementary Victoria School, to restrict the attendance of big boys. Boys over 12 are no longer allowed admittance. This has had a certain effect on the average attendance; which was nevertheless higher than it has ever yet been, namely, 57.2 for 1995, as compared with 54.8 for 1904, and 46.4 for 1903. The maximum enrolment was 68. Fees amounting to $1,979 were collected, which is also a record.

14. The shifting nature of the population and the consequent difficulty of following a fixed course of instruction are forcibly illustrated by the fact that, although 109 pupils attended the School in the course of the year, the maximum number present in any month was only 68. The average daily percentage of the total monthly enrolment reached the very high figure of 97 in December, and only fell below 90 during a scare about diphtheria.

15. Extracts from the Report of the Headmaster are given in Appendix D. For criti- cisms on the Scripture and Singing, given in the detailed Report on the school in Appendix A, I am indebted to the Rev. C. HICKLING and to Mr. W. G. B. D. FULLER, F.R.C.O., L.R.A.M., respectively.

Victoria British School.

16. The School was opened towards the end of March. Pleasantly situated on Caroline Hill and tastefully equipped, it enjoys the distinction of being perhaps the prettiest school in the Colony.

+

475

г.

17. Instruction is given to children under thirteen, of both sexes, and to boys over that age. As is the case at the Kowloon School, the small children greatly predominate. It is too early to say how far it will be possible to give a secondary education to the upper Classes: that depends of course on the average length of the boys' career in the school. Experience at Kowloon seems to shew that a syllabus based on the hope that any considerable proportion of the pupils will stay for more than 3 years, is one based upon sand. There can, however, be no doubt that the school is meeting a genuine need. The numbers on the roll reached 51. by the end of December. Everything is being done that can be done, in the way of classifying the pupils and co-ordinating the school work, to render the instruction in the two British Schools as similar as possible, in order that when pupils are superannuated under the age limit, they may pass into the sister school with the minimum of inconvenience.

i

18. Extracts from the Report of the Headmaster are given in Appendix E.

Belilios Public School, English Side.

19. The average attendance has at last shewn a slight improvement, being 93 as com- pared with 85 last year. But the School tends to become more and more exclusively Anglo-Chinese. There are signs of an increasing desire on the part of Chinese parents to give their daughters an English education, though the feeling is nothing like so strong as it is in the case of their sons. Should this tendency become accentuated, the English Side of the School is capable of rapid development to supply the want; in the meantime, the Chinese Side must be regarded as the main effort of the Government to assist Chinese female education.

20. I take this opportunity of expressing my great regret at the approaching retirement of Mrs. BATEMAN, the Headmistress, who has held her appointment almost from the found- ation of the School.

THE DISTRICT SCHOOLS, UPPER GRADE.

21. An important change has been made in the organization of the schools. They have been made feeders to Queen's College, so far as it lies in the power of any but the boys and their parents to make them. The courses of study have been modified to make them coin- cide as closely as possible with those followed in the Lower and Preparatory Schools of the College, and the nomenclature of the Classes has been altered to the same end: the free entrance scholarships into the College from the 3 District Schools have also been revived. Moreover, it has been arranged that boys applying for admission to the College and failing to pass

the entrance examination, shall be given cards which shall procure them a prior right of admission to the three schools; and that boys so admitted shall after a year or two, on again applying for admission to the College, be given priority over boys who have pre- pared themselves at outside schools. These measures must necessarily produce their effect but slowly. The object to be gained is a concentration in the Upper School at Queen's College of the boys who ask for an education of more than 5 years. Unfortunately, the boys who wish to prolong their education to this extent are a small minority.

22. The Saturday morning Normal Classes have been continued throughout the year. Some of the junior Chinese masters have greatly improved their methods by attending them.

Saiyingpun Anglo-Chinese School.

23. Mr. WILLIAMS having been transferred to the Victoria School at the beginning of the year, and Mr. MORRIS, his successor, not arriving in the Colony until the middle of the year, there was a long interregnum, which acted disastrously on the attendance and general condition of the school. Things have now righted themselves; and there is no reason why it should not prove successful. But it must be remarked that the Western end of the City is very liberally supplied with schools of the same class; so that any startling increase of numbers can hardly be hoped for. The average attendance was only 44, as against 69 in 1904.

24. With the permission of Government, the early hours of instruction followed in the summer were retained through the winter term, to allow of the continuation o series of excursions on which Mr. MORRIS has taken his boys. These include, bes regular

¿

476

bathing trips in summer, visits to most of the principal factories and sights of the Colony, such as the Ice Factory, the Museum, Taitam Reservoir, &c. I have no doubt that such expeditions will prove of a high educational value.

25. Much attention has been paid to Drawing during the past year. It is not in the least surprising to find that Chinese boys, their hands already trained to great dexterity by the use of the writing-brush, prove uncommonly apt pupils when taught in the proper way.

Yaumati School.

26. The school increased in numbers by over 15 per cent. and was practically full throughout the year. The new buildings were ready for occupation at the end of the past year, and are in all respects very satisfactory. The Estimates provided for a considerable increase in the Staff. Owing to the lack of accommodation in the old building it was not possible to fill these new appointments in the year under review: but the Assistant English Master was engaged from Home in time to begin work at the beginning of the new year, bringing the Establishment up to its full strength. It is a reasonably safe prediction to foretell that the school will develop considerably in the next year or two.

Wantsai School.

27. This is the only Government Anglo-Chinese School east of the Clock Tower, except the small school at Tanglungchau. Its advantageous situation combined with a high stand- ard of efficiency promises that its steady growth will be continued. The average attendance. is now 140, as compared with 115 in 1904, and the net cost of each pupil $11.90, a very low figure.

DISTRICT SCHOOLS, LOWER GRADE.

Anglo-Indian School.

28. Mr. ARCULLI continued his subscription of $50 a month towards the expenses of the Indian School for four months, when the increasing numbers justified a removal into leased premises, and a vote was taken for it as a separate establishment from the Belilios Public School. Mrs. WHITEHEAD, who resigned at the close of the year, worked up the school into a very satisfactory condition. The maximum enrolment rose to 44, and shewed a steady increase. An Indian and a Chinese master have since been engaged, and Urdu is now a compulsory subject.

Aberdeen School.

29. The average attendance has been 24, which is satisfactory considering the smallness of the place, and the poverty of the people. The school was opened in the Spring of the

year.

Tanglungchau School.

30. This school, which was started to take the place of a small Vernacular School, has been full throughout the year. It has proved a considerable success, and adds to the evi- dence to prove that a well-trained junior Chinese master can, if he takes pains, teach English to beginners almost as well as an English master. The connection of Tanglungchau with Wantsai has become very close, indeed it may almost be regarded as a preparatory school for the latter.

Ven Long School.

31. The small school fee of 50 cents a month was charged from the beginning of the year. This has not reduced the attendance, which was 18, as against 17 last year. The popularity of the school seems likely to increase. My Report shews that the work done is not in all subjects up to the standard required: but the difficulty of supervision, and the dull nature f the country boys must be considered to some extent as extenuating circum-

stances.

2

477

VERNACULAR SCHOOLS.

Belilios Public School, Vernacular Side.

""

32. Mr. Ho KAN-PO, the former master, retired at the beginning of the year; and in his place I recommended a man of a very much more advanced type in Mr. SUNG HOK-PANG. Had there been a considerable falling off in attendance when the school came under the new control it would not have been surprising; for everyone knows that the relation between pupils and teachers is much closer among the Chinese than with us: the former do not so inuch attend a school as "sit under a teacher. It was the more gratifying to find that no decrease followed, but that, on the contrary, the numbers tended to increase. I therefore felt justified in recommending that the Staff should be doubled-it has hitherto been quite inadequate numerically--and that a small school fee, 25 cents monthly, should be charged in 1906. The latter experiment is a severe test of the interest of parents in their daughters' education; the general opinion seems to have been that parents would not pay for the education of daughters, only to have them pass at an early age into another family. I may perhaps anticipate next year's Report by saying that this view, like many others which are based on the assumed selfishness and benightedness of the Chinese, has already been stulti- fied by the event. My detailed Report shews that the school is giving a much more advanced education than can be had elsewhere in the Vernacular Schools.

33. Sheko Vernacular School continues to be unimportant.

!

GRANT SCHOOLS.

34. A detailed Report on the work done in each Grant School is given in Appendix B. The Annual Grant List shewing the number of Standards, the Attendance and the Grant earned by each school is given in Table VII.

English Schools, Non-Chinese.

35. The average attendance shews a satisfactory increase, from 849 to 924. Two schools— the Italian Convent and the Diocesan School for Boys-obtained the maximum Grant, having been returned as thoroughly efficient two years running.

Anglo-Chinese Schools.

36. Of these, three are in the Upper Grade; but only one, the Ellis Kadoorie School, is of much educational importance. That school has increased its average attendance from 186 in 1904 to 268 in 1905. It has outgrown its present accommodation; which is indeed not very suitable for a school. The authorities are adding largely to the premises; and the Government is pledged to make a Building Grant of $7,000.

37. There are now four Lower Grade Schools of this type, a new one under the London Mission having been added in the course of the year. Even with this addition the increase in numbers has been very slight, from 250 to 258. The one school which was well reported on last year has the whole of the increase. It is with much pleasure that I notice how fast Chinese parents are learning what they are entitled to expect, when they pay for an English education for their sons; and still more is it satisfactory to see that their ideas correspond with my own; for a reduced attendance is a stronger argument than any I can use. Aluctuations in attendance, to which I have just drawn attention in this and the preceding section, shew that the requirements of the Government coincide with the wishes of the persons in whose interests they are made.

The

38. The Lower Grade Anglo-Chinese Schools were not favourably regarded by the Committee on Education, which contemplated their ultimate disappearance from the scheme of Aided Education. The success which has attended the endeavours to improve the teach- ing of the Chinese masters has of late years somewhat modified my own views on the subject; but at any rate, no master can learn how to teach without assistance. It is often asked why the Government does not open a Normal School. The answer is that it has Normal Classes every week at the District Schools, which the Chinese masters from the Grant Schools are invited and advised to attend. They never do; and the consequence is

478

an amazing difference between such schools, for instance, as Grant School No. 15 and the new Lower Grade District School at Tanglungchau. Unless the Lower Grade Anglo- Chinese Schools can serve as models to the numerous private Anglo-Chinese Schools of the Colony, it is hard to see the object of their support by the Government.

Vernacular Schools.

39. Owing to the absence from the Colony of the English Mistress of the Training Home for Girls, the best of the Upper Grade Vernacular Schools has necessarily been classed this year in the Lower Grade. With a high dollar, the loss from the money point of view is not important: indeed, the distinction between the two classes of schools is not so clear in any respect as might be wished. The fact that the three schools in the Upper Grade possess "a Staff competent to give instruction in all the subjects of the Seventh Stan- dard," as required by the Code, has not succeeded in raising their average performance to a very high level. The average attendance was 114, as compared with 148 last year.

40. The Lower Grade Schools shew an increase from 1,692 to 1,829. This increase has already been considered above (section 7) in dealing with the total figures of Vernacular education. Two schools have been closed, and two new ones opened-one at Kowloon City and one at Yaumati.

41. Seeing how much more dependent is the female population than the male upon the Vernacular Schools, it is a matter for sincere regret that the standard of education among the teachers in the schools for girls should be as it is, so very low.

42. Provision was made in the Estimates for 1906 for the appointment of two Sub- Inspectors-one of Needlework and one of the Vernacular Schools. The Officers to whom these appointments have since been given were temporarily appointed in 1905, and I am thus in a position to report on the success of this further measure of supervision. The schools are now visited more frequently than has hitherto been possible; terminal reports are sent to the Managers; and it is now in my power to check the beginnings of irregularities to a degree that was not formerly practicable. In Appendix F is given a short Report by the Sub-Inspector of Needlework.

43. The Grant Gode section 26 is rather vague as to the courses of study of the Vernacular Schools. It was felt at the time the Code was compiled that the change in the methods of instruction was so great, that it would be unwise to attempt to lay down the law too exactly. Meanwhile a number of experiments have been tried, and it is now possible to make more specific recommendations. The course of study and the time-table given in Appendix C are the results of experience; and are now adopted in some of the best Vernacular Schools. It may be advisable at a later date to amend the Code, by making this course, with such modifications as further consideration may suggest, com- pulsory in Vernacular Schools. Meanwhile it is some satisfaction to remember, that so full a course could not have been seriously considered two years ago.

44. There is a natural tendency on the part of such teachers in the Grant Schools as have a direct monetary interest in the amount of the Grant, to permit pupils to attend in excess of the numbers sanctioned by the Code for a given floor-space. As a preventive, it has been laid down that, when checking the rolls each month, all such excessive attendances should be ignored.

GENERAL.

Hygiene.

45. At the beginning of the year, the subject was made compulsory in all Government and Grant Schools. Much interest was taken in it.. I have so lately reported in detail on the year's work, that little is left to add now. Towards the end of the year, proposals were approved by the Government to publish a list of experiments illustrating the authorised text-book, to translate the text-book, or such parts of it as were suitable, into Chinese, and to make the subject compulsory in the higher Standards of the Vernacular Schools.

479

Higher and Technical Education.

46. These subjects were discussed at considerable length; but no definite conclusions had been arrived at by the end of the year. In Hongkong there is one great obstacle in the way of a wide-spread technical education, which is, that the large class of Chinese mechanics, who need it most, pick up their handicrafts on the apprentice system; and they seldom have any but a very elementary education in the Vernacular, on which to found the desired superstructure of advanced mathematics, chemistry or electricity. On the other hand, the classes who attend the Anglo-Chinese Schools do not usually adopt engineering or the allied professions.

Football.

47. A Football League, promoted by Mr. W. H. WILLIAMS, has done much to encourage public feeling in the schools, and a healthy spirit of rivalry between them.

31st March, 1906.

Tables.

EDWARD A. IRVING,

Inspector of Schools.

I. Government Schools: Statistics.

II. Revenue of the Department during recent years.

III. Expenditure of the Department during recent years.

IV. Numbers of Schools and Pupils in Upper and Lower Grades compared.

V. Chart shewing attendances and number of pupils in Hongkong Schools during

recent years.

VI. The proportion of boys to girls in the Schools.

VII. Annual Grant List.

Appendices.

A. Detailed Reports on Government Schools.

B. Detailed Reports on Grant Schools.

C. A Model Course of Instruction for Vernacular Schools, with Time Table.

D. Extract from the Report of the Headmaster, Kowloon School.

E. Extract from the Report of the Headmaster, Victoria School.

F. Report of the Sub-Inspector of Needlework.

DESCRIPTION.

Table I.-GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS.-[The figures in Red are those for last year.]

SCHOOL STATISTICS.

- 480

27

206

195

7

~~

210

7

195/

Number of

Number

Standards,

of

No.

Name and Nature.

Classes or

Forms.

School

Days.

201

1. Kowloon British School.-Children of Euro- pean British Parentage. Boys under thirteen and Girls....

2. Victoria British School.-Children of Euro- pean British Parentage. Girls under thirteen and Boys.

3. Belilios Public School.--English and Anglo- Chinese Side. Boys under twelve and Girls.

4. Saiyingpun Anglo-Chinese School (Boys).

6

196

888

Maximum

Monthly

Enrolment.

Average

Attend-

Rate of

Fees.

Gross

Cost.

Fees

Collected.

Net Cost

to Govern-

ment.

each unit in

average

attendance.

ance:

C.

$

66

55

6,855.21

68

57

$2 to $5

1,952.50 7,149.25 1,979.00 5,170.25

4,702.71

.85.50

90.70

and Infant

School.

5

and Infant

School.

158/1/20

48

36

$2 to $5

7,291.59 769.50 6,522.09

181.17

Ditto for

117

85

113

93

10,265.55 1,278.50 8,987.05 50 c. to $1.50 11,008.01 1,248.00 9,760.01

105.73*

104.94

* This figure was incorrectly

. given last year.

111

69

4,927.11

934.00 3,993.11

57.87

61

44

$1 to $2

3,499.37

745.00 2,754.37

62.59

5. Yaumati

Ditto.

6

to to

198

111

85

1921

125

98

$1 to $2

5.159.41 8,119.26 1,832.00

1,219.50 3,939.91 6,287.26

46.08

64.15

6. Wantsai

Ditto.

·

7. Anglo-Indian School (Boys).

10 co

2:50

198

149

115

3,785.67

228

162

140

$1 to $2

4,015.39

1,591.50 2,194.17 2,349.00 1,666.39

- 19.08

11.90

206

3

192

8. Aberdeen Anglo-Chinese School (Boys).

1

170

9. Tanglungchau

Ditto.

1

1751

10. Uen Long

Ditto.

11. Belilios Public School, Vernacular Side,

(Girls).

12. Sheko Vernacular School (Boys).

22

1445

194

It

259

233

7

212

267

34

233

219

ཝཱ ུ ཝཱ ཝཾསྶ ཏྠུ བྷའི

26.

16

300.00

201.50

98.50

6.15

After deducting the contribution

of $200 made by Mr. AucULLI,

44

33

50 c. to $1.50

758.71

485.00

273.71

8.29

32

24

50 cts.

613.32

123.00

490.32

20.43

40°

35

50 cts.

770.00

163.00

607.00

17.37

24.

17

Free

981.70

981.70

57.75

8 months only.

22

18

50 cts.

1,316.95

90.00

1,226.95

68.16

175

Free

1,212,00

1,212.00

6.92

189

Free

1,232.86

1,232.86

6.52

24

19

Free

108.00

108.00

5.63

19

15

Free

108.00

108.00

7.20-

...

861

636

33,394.65 7,177.50 26,217.15

41.22

1,001

782

45,882.71

9,783.50 36,099.21

46.17

1

481

Table II.

REVENUE OF THE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT,

(SCHOOL FEES) 1900-1905.

Name of School.

1900. 1901.

1902. 1903.

1904.

1905.

$

$ c. $ c. $ c. $ C.

$ c.

Kowloon British School,

Victoria

Belilios Public School, English,

Anglo-Indian

Saiyingpun

Yaumati

Wantsai

Uenlong

Aberdeen

Tanglungchau

""

""

""

$

924.00 1,849.50 1,952.50 1,979.00 769.50

...

9221,132.501,452.50 1,604.00 1,278.50 1,248.00

...

201.50 485.00

934.00 745.00 308.00 | 1,219.50 | 1,832.00 612.00 1,591.50 | 2,349.00

118.50 3.50

587.50

34.00

...

90:00

123.00

163.00

...

922.00 1,132.50 2,532.50 4,961,00 7,177.50 9,783.50

Table III.

PROPORTION OF THE TOTAL EXPENDITURE OF THE

COLONY DEVOTED TO EDUCATION.

(Includes Queen's College.)

Year.

Expenditure

Expenditure on

Per cent.

of the Colony.

Education.

1895

$ 2,972,373

$

60,140

2.05

1896

2,474,910

76.511

3.09

1897

2,641,40

72,984

2.76

1898

2,841,805

72.420

2.54

1899

3,162,792

75.152

2.37

1900

3.628 447

79.994

2.20

1961

4 111,722

86 946

2.11

1:02

5,909.549

92.356

1.56

1903

5.396,669

130,620

2.42

1904

6,531,349

151,589

2 32

1905

6,951,275

158,678

2.28

[

482

Table IV.

TOTAL OF GOVERNMENT AND GRANT SCHOOLS (UPPER AND LOWER GRADES.)

Upper Grade.

Lower Grade.

Total.

Managing Body.

Schools. Pupils. Schools. Pupils. Schools. Pupils.

Queen's College,

1

1,015

...

Education Department,

8

690

4

92

12

12

1,015

Roman Catholic Mission,

9

797

Secular: Ellis Kadoorie School,

1

268

رسم

389

17

782 1,186

1

36

2

304

Church of England,

241

2

241

:

Church Missionary Society,

98

16

550

19

648

...

Berlin Foundling Ilouse, London Missionary Society, Basel Mission, Wesleyan Mision,

American Board Mission, Rhenish Mission,

1

37

1

37

18

655

18

655

4

163

4

163

...

5

160

5

...

160

1

76

1

76

...

1

56

1

56

25

3,146

58

2,177

83

5,323

Number of Scholars (Average Attendance).,

E

Table V.

CHART.

1895. 1896. 1897. 1898. 1899. 1900. 1901. 1902. 1903. 1904. 1905.

PLAGUE

3,200

3,100

3,000

2,900

2,800

2,700

2,600

2,500

2,400

2,300

2,200

2,100

2,000

1,900

1,800

1,700

1,600

1,500

1,400

1,300

1,200

1,100

1,000

900

800

700

600

500

:

PLAGUE

3177

3047

2146

Red Line

Black Line

Government and Aided Schools, English (with Queen's College).

-Government and Aided Schools, Vernacular.

Dotted Red Line Private Schools, English.

Dotted Black Line Private Schools, Vernacular.

1005

:

Boys,

•Girls,

485

Table VI.

PROPORTION OF GIRLS TO BOYS.

A.

In Government Schools, including Queen's College.

In Grant Schools.

Total.

1,458

1,943

3,401

339

1,583

1,922

1,797

3,526

5,323

In Upper Grade Vernacular Schools.

B.

In Lower Grade Vernacular Schools.

Total.

Girls, Boys,

303

989 854

1,292

854

303

1,843

2,146

Origen and trajele

this is copy 2 p.487

DESCRIPTION.

487

Table VII.

ANNUAL GRANT LIST.

SCHOOL STATISTICS.

GRANT.

Principal Grant.

Grant in rid of Rent.

Total.

REMARKS,

No.

Name and Nature.

Mission.

Number of Stoodards, Claxon or Forias.

Number of Maximum

School Monthly

days.

Enrolment.

Average Attendance,

Rato.

£

3. 7.

ENGLISH

SCHOOLS

Upper Grad) (Code Sec. 34 il.)

Non-Chinese.

1

! St. Joseph's College, (

R. C. M.

209

2988

239.75 301- 359

6

3.836

2

Italian Convent, (G.)

204

266

224.67

35% 393

4.194

3.836 4,194

Lan vrah Grant at 306 ~ Threeshly

3

French Consent. (G.)

204

69

52.17

30.

78

835

635

Last year's Grant at 25 –

Victoria English School, (M.) *

219

43

30.82

46

493

168

661

Bridge Street, (G.)

2011

35

24,01

36

3

384

354

Sacred Heart, (G.) *

211

37

25.15

37

**

14 6

402

402

Diocesan Sehol, (6.)

C. of E.

210

38

46.37

69 11 }

742

320

1,02

Do. . (B.)

St. Mary's, (G.) *

232

222

195.03

35

341 6 (

3,561

3.561

Last year's Grant at Sh

R. C. M.

320

80

61.27

25/-

114 8

0

1.220

1.220

First Grant for 18 month

13

St. Francis (M.) *

10

207

36

21.32

30 8

321

324

1,134

923.56

| 15,991

488

16.479

Anglo-Chinese.

10

Cathedral School, (B.)

R. C. M.

209

150

11

12

Eili« Kadoorie School, (B.) * Faitlea, (G.)'

Secular.

230

BR4

C. M. S.

206

26

114.22 25/- 267.69 30

20.63

142.15 6 1.523 40110 8 4.283 30 18 10 328

1.523

4.283

323

560

402,34

6.129

6.129

14

15

==|-|·

Lower Grade (Code Sec. 34 i.)

Anglo-Chinese,

C. M. S.

5

2081

212

162.29

..

4

203

36

28.49

4

195

49

34.11

L. M. S.

3

123

48

33.18

345

238.07

No. 113 Hollywood Road, (B.)) West Point, No. 3. Western St., (B.) No«. 61 & 63 Mong Kok Tsui, (B.)** -

1,136

1,136

142

128

270

205

178

383

First year.

1,483

306

1,789

1

VERNACULAR SCHOOLS

Upper Grade (Code Sec. 35 ii.)

17

Berlin Foundling House, (G.)

Ber. M.

268

39

18

Fairlea, (Aì,)**

C. M. S.

226

49

36.81 20/- 41.21

3616

2

3x4

381

:

176

19

Victoria Home & Orflanago. ((7.) ⋅

»

2171

44

33.80

36 31

J 21 376

376

6. 6

#27

327

3

132

113.82

1,087

1037

Lower Grade (Code Sec. 35 1.)

Last year's Grant al 15 -

13

त¤¤¤£AR852208AKAJA¬V*+48449853859864ABBLEGUSELEBEN

Training Home for Girls (G.)

L. M. S.

Italian Convent, (GA *

R. C. M.

Bridges Street. (6.) *

+

225

20

19.73

17K

178

274

86

78,28

548

545

258

78

45.48

318

312

Sacred Heart, (G.)

Holy Infancy, (M.) * Hungbom,,G.)

Yaumati, (47.) *

Shankiwin, (ti.)

Aberdeen, M.) *

266

72

45.04

321

321

"

F

+3

267

64

33.11

372

372 1

Last year's Grant at 20/-

Remrged as thoroughly

efficient" l-i year. Last year'a fitant at $6.

+

267

68

55.73

334

334

4

266

64

43.58

261

261

3

1

274

49

25.92

181

157

Du.

>

266

58

42.25

254

No. 109 Second Street, (B.)

L. M. S.

208

76

6021

491

No. 22 Taipingshan, (6.) *

3

240

39

24.79

149

31

No. 5 Clarence Terrace, {B.).

136

4

ין

233

30

21.15

127

108

No. 380 Queen's Road West, (6.)

215

19

29

21.22

127

112

33

No. 199 Queen's Road East, (G.)

218

H

71

41.78

401

No. 121 Station St. (S.) Yamunati, (B.)*

3

"}]

227

33

23.77

143

33

No. 31 D'Agular Street, (G.) *

219

Wantsar Chapel, (15.)

"

27

19.61

98

136

*582888

44

294

80

501

285

235

239

93

494

Therajky obce: 1 Juri INCHES,

56

199

Last year's Great at 87.

234

East Gram ganda 7

216

79

11

58.11

291

291

37

Hospital Clispel, (B.) *

Last year's tirant at §6.

218

SS

Str

No. 84 Macdonell Road. Yuumuti, (&.)*)

Cloard

"

76

39.28

3.56

356

229

31

#1

15.81

95

90

185

No, 345 Queen's Road West, (B.)

224

Shaukiwan, (B.1

Tangiungein Chapel, (B.) * *

Closed,

No. 201 Aberdeen Street, (G.) Tanghingebủa Clupei, (G,) * * Wsutsai Chapel, (G.)

Bridges Street, ( B.)

··

Shemshitijs, (MA) Maankiwan. (B.) * •

Tokwawan, R.

21

>

"

71

53.97

7

378

176

554

235

70

21.78

311

64

37.

225호

55

41.51

291

291

3

213

J

59

40.20

7

281

160

441

Do.

19

4

2301

44

30,20

6

181

*[

3

210

49

36.40

6

218

218

A. B. M.

227

111

76.48

6

459

439

B. M.

3

2413

85

54.6-1

6

328

398

4

225

49

35.83

6

239

239

2350

47

27.13

7

190

190

Do.

High Street, ( &.) *

240

53

41.22

6

247

217

Tokwawan, iGi.

c. M. s.

2

250

16

9.14

3

46

46

No. 218 Hollywood Road, (B.)

4

236

*

73

49,04

294

244

538

Hanghum, 145.) * *

259

20

14.68

XX

72

16)

B.

D....

No. 36 Lyndlaærst Terrace, (Q.) No, ti Haity wood Road, (di.) **

No. 358 Des Vœux Road Wist. (G) Yaumet

Last year's Grant at $5.

4

247

58

40,22

241

200

411

261

27

19,82

99

176

275

Best Grant rermit Prazgul úrané

2495

42

30.81

185

12%

313

Last year's Grant at 85.

2273

33

24.92

174

174

256

11

19.77

119

119

t.

Stana, M

6:

66

No. 12. Poktorka, Rond, G.:

No. 263 Queen's Rond West, (B.) No. 170 Holly wood Rorid. (B.) Na, 13 Peel Street, 4443) * .

No. 82 Queen's Road East, (B.)

No. 17 Elgin Street, 1G.) • •

No. 35 Paringer Street, (G.) *

Kowloon City, ‹ B.) * * *

No. 11 Station Street, Mong Kok Tsui,

B. j • * *

231

38.23

221

~

249

24

14.75

6

GN

112

201

5 Gram eymena PrIAM630. Ú,ALL,

264

29

23 64

G

142

69

Ziu

233

24

17.38

3

87

"

** Inefficient.”

R. M.

238

92

35.78

390

216

6:6

W. M.

234

40

28.57

5

147

128

271

** Thoroughly efficient,” "The theleut."

"

2241

46

29.02

131

160

291

270

34

27.18

103

120

2:3

230

41.48

207

160

367

228

4.1

34.11

203

240

415

C. M. S.

227

36

22.69

Scenlar.

1313

46

86,21

30

2.497 1,828.53

11,130

3,279

14,409

50

Total Number of Schools.

4,768

3,526,52

35,2×0

4,073

39,853

Note.-R. C. M. -. Roman Catholic Mission.

C. of E.

C. M. S.

2

Church of England.

Ber. M.

=

L. M. S.

A. B M.

Church Missionary Sariety,

Berlin Mission.

London Missionary Society, American Board Mission.

R. M. N. == Rhenish Missionary Society.

B. M.

W. M.

==

Basel Mission. Wesleyan Mission.

B. - Boys.

G. == Girls,

M.

Mixel.

===

****

School year ends 30; 6/05. Grants (when in sterling) paid at the rate of 1 10).

"

1)

11

31/12 05.

J

"

事多

19

30 6.06.

of 111.

DESCRIPTION.

487

Table VII.

GRANT LIST.

ANNUAL

SCHOOL STATISTICS.

GRANT.

Principal Grant.

Grant in

aid of

Rent.

Total.

REMARKS.

Number of

Number of Maximum

No.

Name and Nature,

Mission.

Standards,

Classes

or Forms.

School Monthly

days. Enrolment.

Average Attendance.

Rate.

£

d.

ENGLISH

SCHOOLS

Upper Grade (Code Sec. 34 ii.)

$

$

69

Non-Chinese.

"

6

>>

866700 co ora ~~

209

288

239.75 30/- 359

2

3,836 |

204

266

224.67

35|- 393

4,194

4,194

204

69

52.17

30/- 78

835

835

3,836

Last year's Grant at 30- "Thoroughly efficient."

Last year's Grant at 25-

219

43

30.82

46

493

168

661

2044

35

24.01

36

384

384

211

37

25.13

37 14

.402

402

210

38

46.37

6911

742

320

1,062

232

222

195.03

35/-

341

6 (

3,561

3,561

Last year's Grant at 30-

Thoroughly efficient."

' 320

80

61.27 25/-

114

1,220

1,220

First Grant for 18 month 4.

207

36

24.32

30

324

324

""

1,134

923.56

15,991

488

16,479

13

B689 A to 10 —

*

*

#

St. Joseph's College, (B.) Italian Convent, (G.) * French Convent, (G.) Victoria English School, (M.) * Bridges Street, (G.) Sacred Heart, (G.) '

R. C. M.

34

"}

Diocesan School, (G.)-

*

C. of E.

Do.

St. Mary's, (G.) St. Francis (M.)

, (B.) **

""

*

R. C. M.

*

10

· 10

!

11

12

༢༢

3

*

Cathedral School, (B.) Ellis Kadoorie School, (B.) * Fairlea, (G.) **.

Anglo-Chinese.

R. C. M.

Secular.

C. M. S.

6

209

150

114.22

230

384

267.69

2061

26

20.63

142, 15

25/-

401

30%- 10 8

10

30

61,523

1,523

4,283

323

4,283

323

560

402.54

6,129

6,129

Lower Grade (Code Sec. 34 i.).

Anglo-Chinese.

1 12A

Į

واراره

Lower Grade (Code Sec. 34 i.),

Anglo-Chinese.

0,129

14

St. Stephen's Anglo-Chinese, No. 232 Hollywood Road, (B.) * *

C. M. S.

5

208

212

162.29 $7

1,136

1,136

15

16

71

No. 113 Hollywood Road, (B.) ** West Point, No. 3 Western St., (B.) * *1 Nos. 61 & 63 Mong Kok Tsui, (B.)***)

203

36

28.49

142

128

270

4

196

49

34.11

205

178

383

L. M. S.

3

123

48

33.18

First year.

4

345

258.07

1,483

306

1,789

17

18

19

30 00-1

3

Berlin Foundling House, (G.)

**

Fairlea, (G.)

**

Victoria Home & Orphanage, (G.) * *

VERNACULAR

SCHOOLS

Upper Grade (Code Sec. 35 ii.)

Ber. M.

C. M. S.

5

CO 1O 1O

"

384 Last year's Grant at 15;-

268

226

39

36.81 20/-

36 16

384

49

41.21 17,6

36 1 2

376

376

2175

44

35.80

31

6

327

327

132

113.82

1,087

1,087

Lower Grade (Code Sec. 35 1.)

21

20

20

Training Home for Girls (G.) * *

L. M. S.

Italian Convent, (G.)

*

R. C. M.

22

Bridges Street. (G.) *

*

23.

Sacred Heart, (G.)

24

Holy Infancy, (M.)

25

Hunghom, (G.)

བ བ བ བ མ མ

665454

225

274

258

23

20

19.73

$9

178

178

86

78.28

548

548

78

45.48

318

318

266

72

45.04

321

321

265

64

53.11

372

372

267

68

55.78

334

334

26.

Yanmati. (G.)

266

64

43.58

261

261

27

Shaukiwan, (G.)

274

49

25.92

181

187

Last year's Grant at 20/-

Returned as "thoroughly efficient" last year. Last year's Grant at $6.

Do.

28

Aberdeen, (M.)

*

5

266

58

42.25

234

44

298

29

No. 109 Second Street, (B.)

L. M. S.

4.

208

60 21

421

80

501

30

No. 22 Taipingshan, (G.)

*

3

240

39

24.79

. 149

136

285

31

No. 5 Clarence Terrace, (B.) *

233

80

21.15

127

108

235

"1

32

No. 380 Queen's Road West, (G.)

*

215

29

21.22

127

112

239

33

No. 199 Queen's Road East, (G.)

218

34

No. 121 Station St. (S.) Yaumati, (B.)*|

"

35

No. 31 D'Aguilar Street, (G.)

*

36

Wantsai Chapel, (B.) *

""

37

Hospital Chapel, (B.) *

38

39

No. 84 Macdonal! Rond, Yaumati, (G.)*] Closed.

Go to ex up. Co

227

33

219

216

218

229

40

41

No. 343 Queen's Road West, (B.) * · Shaukiwan, (B.).* *....

224

71

235

"

42

Tanglungebau Chapel, (B.) * *

2251

43

Closed.

44

No. 20A Aberdeen Street, (G.)

3

213

45

Tanglungebau Chapel, (G.)

4

230

AS ON UUNNI

71

41.58

401

93

494

Thoroughly efficient 2 years running.

23.77

27

19.61

79

58.11

76

59.28

15.81

33.97

70

51.78

55

41.51

(GO TO NO to co

737

143

56

199

Last year's Grant at $7.

98

136

234

Kent Grant exceeds Principal Grant.

291

291

Last year's Grant at $6.

356

356

95

90

185

378

176

554

311

64

375

291

291

59

40.20

7

281

160

441

Do.

44

30.20

6

181

181

46

Wantsai Chapel, (G.)

* *

3

210

49

36.40

6

218

218

47

Bridges Street, (B.) *

A. B. M.

4

227

111

76.48

6

459

459

48

Shamshuipo, (M.)

**

B. M.

3

241호

85

54.69

6

328

328

49

Shankiwan, (B.)

**

4

225

49

39.83

6

239

239

>

50

Tokwawan, (B.)

51 | High Street, (G.) * *

**

4

23.5

47

27.13

190

190

Do.

>?

240

53

41.22

6

247

247

42

43

44

Tanglungehau Chapel, (B.) * *

Closed.

No, 20A Aberdeen Street, (G.)

4

225

55

41.51

291

291

45

Tanglungehan Chapel, (G.)

4

46

Wantsai Chapel, (G.)

**

"

47

Bridges Street, (B.)

*

48

Shamshuipo, (M.)

A. B. M.

B. M.

4

IA DO IA Co

213-

59

40.20

230

44

30.20

6

210

49

36.40

227

111

76.48

3

241호

85

54.69

49

Shankiwan, (B.) *

225

49

39.83

50

Tokwawan, (B.)

**

235

47

27.13

""

51

High Street, (G.)

**

6

"1

2401

53

41.22

52

Tokwawan, (G.) `

**

C. M. S.

2

250

16

.9.14

53

No. 218 Hollywood Road, (B.)

4

236

75

49.04

59

54

Hunghom, (G.) **

3

2.59

26

14.68

"

65

No. 36 Lyndhurst Terrace, (G.)

4

247

38

40.22

6

56

No. 6 Hollywood Road, (G.)

261

27

19,82

39

57

No. 358 Des Vœux Road West. (G.)

249

42

30.81

58

Yaumati, (B:) **

227

33

24.92

59

Do..

(G.) * *

256

81

19.77

99

20, and Hollywood kuml,~ (ét.)

***201

35

38,23

57

61

No, 32 Pokfulam Road, (G.) * *

249

24

. 14.75

39

62

Shankiwan, (G.)

**

3

268

29

23 64

63

Stanley, (M.) **

233

24

17.38

39

64

No. 263 Queen's Road West, (B.) *

R. M.

238

92

55.78

65

No. 170 Hollywood Road, (B.)

**

W. M.

234

40

28.57

66

No. 13 Peel Street, (G.)

224

46

29.02

67

No, 82 Queen's Road East, (B.)

**

270

34

27.18

>"

68

No. 17 Elgin Street, (G.)

**

230-

41.48

}

69

No. 35 Pottinger Street, (G.) **

5

228

44-

34.11

10000ONOROÓONONcbook J-10 18 CO 10 CO

281

160

441

Do.

181

181

218

218

459

459

328

328

239

239

190

190

Do.

247

247

46

46

"Inefficient." Cloauro recommended.

294

244

538

88

72

160

Last year's Grant at $5.

241

200

441

99

176

275

Rent Grant exceeds Principal Grant,

185

128

31.3

Last year's Grant at $5.

174

174

119

119

229

243

89

112

201

Rent Grant exceeds Principai Graut.

142

68

210

87

87

390

216

606

66

143

128

271

"Inefficient."

Thoroughly efficient." "Inefficient,

99

55

131

160

291

163

120

283

207

160

367

205

240

445

"

70

Kowloon City, (B.) * **

C. M. S.

3

227

36

22.69

72

No. 11 Station Street, Mong Kok Tsui,

Secular.

3

131

46

36.24

(B.)

***

50

2.597

1,828.53

70

Total Number of Schools.

4,768 3,526,52

11,130

3,279

14,409

35,280

4,073 39,893

Note.-R. C. M.

Rom in Catholic Missiou.

C. of E.

C. M. S.

Ber. M.

L. M. S.

A. B. M.

R. M. S.

Church of England.

Church Missionary Society.

Berlin Mission.

London Missionary Society. American Board Mission. Rhenish Missionary Society.

B. M.

Basel Mission.

W. M.

Wesleyau Missiou.

B.

Boys.

G.

Girls.

M.

Mixed.

School year ends 30 6/05. Grants (when in sterling) paid at the rate of 1/10.

""

19

"

31/12/05.

30 6/06.

"

""

""

"

""

??

of 1/11.

.

489

Appendix A.

DETAILED REPORTS ON GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS.

No. 1.-Kowloon British School.

Staff.-B. JAMES, M.A., Mrs. Main, Mrs. Drummond and Miss Holmes.

Discipline and Organization.-Discipline, very satisfactory. There seems some danger that competitions such as those for the Belilios Medal and for the prize for Scottish History may disorganize the routine school work. As the stay at school of the girls is rarely more than 3 years, it is important that nothing should be allowed to interfere with the regular Course of Study. There is perhaps a tendency to try to teach too many subjects in the junior Classes, with a resultant loss of efficiency. The one hour a week given to French in the Lower School might well be dropped. The Crayon work taught there seems rather a babyish study for these Forms.

INFANT SCHOOL.

More than a third of the pupils are in this Division of the school. They have been under instruction for one year and less.

LOWER SCHOOL.

The Lower School comprises 2 Classes equivalent to Standards I and II of an Elementary School at Home, and numbers more than a quarter of the total enrol- ment. This proportion is constant, and there is all the more necessity to see that the pupils have a thorough grounding. The great majority of them leave the Colony before they have completed four years of education, and when they go to schools at Home, the three Rs. are what they will have to depend on in order that they may take good places.

UPPER SCHOOL.

The Upper School consists of 4 Forms. But the attainments of the girls in the top Form vary considerably, Some of the work done is equivalent to Standard VII 'work.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 230 pupils.

Apparatus. Very satisfactory.

English. Reading.-Good throughout the school. Writing.-The use of exercise books instead of slates has brought about an improvement in the neatness of the writing in the Lower School. I do not admire the model of handwriting adopted, as I said in my last Report. Transcription and dictation are very good.

In the Upper School composition is very good. The correspondence conducted through the agency of the Empire League, combined with judicious teaching, has enabled the girls to attain to a not very common ability to observe and record the results of their observations.

Geography. The subject is taught in an interesting manner. There is a high standard of general knowledge of everyday facts connected with political and cominercial geography..

History.-Forms I, II and III are given a grounding of Ancient History by means of biographies of famous men. The lessons are original and interesting. English History is taught intelligently in Form IV. Some very promising papers were shewn up at examin- ation. In an examination on Scottish History, held by the St. Andrew's Society, and open to the schools of the Colony, all 3 prizes were won by Kowloon School.

This can best be remedied. Mental arithmetic was dis- school-year has resulted

Arithmetic. The Lower School is well up to the mark as regards accuracy and neat- ness; but there is a tendency to make the work too mechanical. by giving more attention to mental work and to simple problems. tinctly poor. In fairness it should be added that a change in the in an attempt to crowd a year's instruction into 7 months.

490-

The Course of Study in the Upper School is not at all extensive, but it is remarkably thorough. Problems involving common sense are very well done.

French. This subject was introduced at the beginning of the year. It is taken in the Lower School for one hour a week only. This is quite useless. The study had better be reserved to the Upper School. There, it has not hitherto been taught in the modern way of teaching languages. This is a pity, as the Headmistress speaks the language fluently. Unless every lesson can be made a colloquial lesson, no real progress can be expected.

Hygiene. The results at examination were not.very satisfactory. Some questions were very well answered: others quite the contrary.

Musical Drill.-Simple exercises based on Ling's System of Swedish Drill have been taught twice weekly, the children taking much pleasure in these lessons. Since these exercises have been taught regularly a marked improvement has taken place in the way that the children hold themselves.

Singing.-Mr. FULLER, F.R.C.O., L.R.A.M., reports on 22nd December, 1905 :-"I have "examined the method of singing taught at Kowloon School, and consider it entirely "satisfactory; I was much pleased at the care evinced both in the teaching and rendering "of what I heard."

Needlework.-The Sub-Inspector of Needlework reports that "(apart from a break-down "in the matter of button holes) a steady improvement is noticeable on comparing the work "of the Lower Classes with that done by the Higher Forms."

Kindergarten. Has been taught to the Infants, and consisted of simple lessons in paper-folding, mat-weaving, card-pricking, embroidery and crayon work. The last subject was also taught to the Lower School.

6-

-

Scripture. The following Report is by the Rev. C. H. HICKLING :-"I examined the Scholars in three sections.

"In Form IV six girls were present. They had a two hours' Paper of questions on the "Fourth Gospel, The Acts of the Apostles (Chapters 1 to 15), and the portions committed "to memory. The results were only moderately good. Had I had this evidence only my report must have been unfavourable. But immediately after the written answers had been "collected, a further test was given viva voce. This was far more satisfactory in every respect. It became evident that questions not directly categorical or couched in unfamiliar "forms, together with the written instead of the spoken mode of answering, accounted for "most of what was disappointing. The reproduction from memory was very good. In "Forms I, II and III eleven girls were present, of whom, I understood, that two only had "had the lessons for the whole year. The examination was oral on the twelve selected portions of the First and Third Gospel, and on the six passages committed to memory. "Here the answers were prompt and clear in diction. Five did excellently well; two over

very good; two moderately good ; and two must be regarded as having failed.

66

"In the Lower School, thirty-four boys and girls presented themselves. During "seven months of actual teaching, they had been taught twenty-seven stories from the Old "and New Testaments; they had also committed to memory two Psalms and learnt to sing "well several Hymns. The questions were distributed over the whole number, but not in "rotation. The answers were prompt, accurate and exhaustive of the History. With very few exceptions, the children had clear views of the narratives, with glimpses of allusions in "other parts of Scripture. Their repetition was accurate. In behavior they had been well "trained."

No. 2.-Victoria British School.

Staff-W. H. WILLIAMS, F.R.G.S., and Mrs. MURRAY.

Discipline and Organization.-The discipline is very good, considering the short time the school has been in existence. The organization of the Infant and Lower Schools seems quite satisfactory. In the Upper School it is quite impossible to express a definite opinion, as the pupils have come into the school at intervals, during the few months that the School has been open; and it cannot be said with any certainty, how far their attainments and weak points are attributable to their former education. I have therefore not attempted to criticise the work done by them at examination in any detail. But without laying the

491

blame on the school, I can say that the pupils are backward in writing and arithmetic; and that these deficiencies will require much attention. The elaborate Course of Study outlined in the Report of the Headmaster, (see Appendix B) must be taken to some extent as an ideal to be pursued, not necessarily in the immediate future.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 182 scholars.

Apparatus. Very satisfactory.

2

INFANT AND LOWER SCHOOLS.

English. Reading.-Very good progress made. Writing.-Great pains are being taken with handwriting.

Geography.-Very well taught.

Arithmetic.-Very good.

Drawiny. Very well taught.

Kindergarten.Good..

Singing. Not very much has been accomplished hitherto.

No. 3.--Belilios Public School, English and Anglo-Chinese Side.

Staff-Mrs. BATEMAN, Mrs. TUTCHER, Miss BATEMAN, and two Junior Assistant Teachers. *

Discipline and Organization.-The Upper School is now divided into four Classes under the two senior mistresses, a very strong Staff for some 35 girls. In the Lower School Miss BATEMAN teaches about 75 girls, with the assistance of the two Junior Assistant Teachers. Discipline is very good in the Upper School, and moderately so in the Lower School where the children should be taught more as Classes and less individually. The Classes in the Lower School seem to be rather too much sub-divided. Class-teaching alone can be looked to, to rid the Chinese girls of some of their shyness and awkwardness.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 582 scholars.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

UPPER SCHOOL.

English.-Reading.-Very good. Writing.-Handwriting has improved considerably; and if the girls would only learn to connect their a's with the preceding letters, it would call for little adverse criticism. The work is neat, and the spelling good.

Geography.-Well taught. The sketch maps drawn to illustrate answers are above the average. It is however a common mistake in them that they shew more than is asked for. There is a tendency to quote verbatim from the Reader. Time is wasted by learning statistics which are of little educational value, e.g., the population of towns. It would be sufficient for all practical purposes, if the girls were taught to distinguish the important cities by means of appropriate marks in their sketch-map, classifying them as under and over 100,000 aud 1,000,000.

History. The history studied is well known. Written answers are full and in the main accurate. In this subject also the re is a tendency to give information that is not asked for.

Hygiene. The subject has been taught with great pains, and very satisfactory results. In the Teain examination the school took 5th place out of 10, although there were fewer students to choose from than in any other competing school, and the average age of the girls was lower than in any other school except one.

:

492

Needlework. Very simple work is being taught. Hemming and running are well and neatly done.

Many girls work without using a thimble; this should not be allowed.

Arithmetic.-Good. The work is fully shewn and is on the whole very accurate.

LOWER SCHOOL.

English.-Colloquial. -The course of study might probably be brought more into line with that followed in the Anglo-Chinese boys' schools, with advantage. Pronunciation is very good, but the girls (except a few in the highest Class, and some of those in the low- est), are almost inaudible. Reading.--Good throughout. But I feel sure that better results will be had if regular Readers are used, and I have suggested that this should be done next year. Writing.-Composition is poor. It should be more practised in the lower Classes.

Geography.-Fair.

Needlework.-No sewing is taught, only knitting and crochet.

Arithmetic.-Both mental and written work are well done.

No. 4.-Saiyingpun District School.

Staff.-A. MORRIS and 4 Chinese Assistant Masters.

Discipline and Organization.-The School was left in the control of the Chinese Staff during the first half of the year; and it had fallen considerably from the standard of the District Schools by July, when Mr. MORRIS arrived from England and took charge. It is now again in a very good state, and I confidently expect to see a considerable increase in the numbers in 1906. At the same time it must be remembered that this school differs from those at Yaumati and Wantsai in having in its immediate neighbourhood a good many

others of the same class.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 187 boys.

Apparatus.-Very satisfactory. Mr. MORRIS has obtained from well-known manufac- turing firms in England cases of specimens, which improve the appearance of the School, and which must be of great assistance in teaching. A Museum has also been started..

J

English.-Colloquial.-The teaching of this all-important subject in the junior Classes had in the first half of the year sadly deteriorated. A great effort has since been made; but it will be some time before the lea-way can be made up. The senior boys speak very good English. Reading.-Good.. Writing.-Excellent in the Senior Classes. There are 3 boys in Class III, all whom at examination got full marks. They made no grammatical mistakes; their writing was good; and they gave evidence of having a very good vocabu- lary. Idiomatic mistakes were few.

Geography.--The local geography (as well as Colloquial English) has been taught systematically in the best possible way, by the Headınaster regularly taking the boys for walks to different parts of the Island. In this connection it should be mentioned that he has also paid frequent visits with them to the premises of the principal local manufacturers and firms; and in the summer he took them bathing. I can imagine nothing more likely to improve the general education of the boys than this.

Mathematics.-Arithmetic.-The senior boys who must have been very well grounded, obtained, all of them, full marks in a paper which was described by the Headmaster of one of the best schools in the Colony as "intricate and catchy." As in other subjects the lower Classes require much attention in Arithmetic.

Algebra. Very good.

Drawing.-Free-arm drawing and brushwork are taught throughout the School. As I have always hoped would be found the case, the Chinese boys, their hands trained their by familiarity with the writing brush, have shewn a great aptitude for the study; and some of them should before long be able to produce really good work.

493

Hygiene.-The School was unfortunately too small to be able to enter a team. boys competed for the Advanced Course; one of whom took a good place, 13th.

No. 5.-Yaumati District School.

Staff-W. CURWEN and 5 Chinese Assistant Masters.

Discipline and Organization.-Very satisfactory.

Three

Sanitation.This will leave nothing to be desired now that at the beginning of the new year the school moves into the new building.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 120 boys.

Apparatus.-A considerable improvement in the apparatus will be needed, to bring the School into harmony with its new habitation.

English.-Colloquial.-Very good. The system known as "action Grammar" has in Class VII been extended to include the past and future tenses of verbs. The masters of the 2 lowest Classes speak too fast and not distinctly enough. Reading.-Pronunciation in Class VI needs much attention. The reading matter is very well understood.

The boy's are very quick at giving synonyms. Writing.-Handwriting in the lower Classes is not very good. It is too small. Composition is excellent in Class V, and generally good,

Geography.—The local maps are fairly well known in Classes VIII and VII. The senior Chinese Master has taught "Asia" to Class VI in a most skilful manner.

Arithmetic. The work done by the highest Classes at examination was disappointing. One or two boys in the top Class did very badly. In the junior Classes the results are on the contrary very good.

History. The interesting experiment of teaching General History which has been carried on in this School for two years will now, owing to the abolition of the senior Classes, have to be dropped. This is a pity, since owing to the immaturity of the students, no very definite conclusions can hitherto be drawn from the experience. It can only be said that the boys know as much about Marcus Aurelius or Hannibal, as they might other- wise have learned about Boadicea.

.

Hygiene. The subject has been taught with pains, and I regret that the School came out last in the Team examination. I have looked through the examination papers, but I have not found much to lead me to advise a change in the method of teaching the subject. Marks were largely and principally lost through not giving all or nearly all the information required, although what information was given, was on the whole given well. Thus the worst boy in one of his worst answers writes of the uses of cooking:-"Because food has millions of germs in it, and they make us have many diseases, so that we cook our food to destroy all germs and we can escape from diseases.' This is not bad, so far as it goes; but the text-book gives several other reasons, which should have been mentioned also. Many boys having set out to coudenn ended by praising cotton padded clothing.

Chinese. Reading.-The subject matter was well understood.

Composition.-Fair throughout; but good in the highest Class.

No. 6.-Wantsai District School.

Staff YOUNG HEE and 5 Chinese Assistant Masters.

www

Discipline and Organization.-The school, the only one of its kind East of the Clock Tower increases in numbers, and had an average attendance of 140, as against 115 in 1904. The Lower Grade Anglo-Chinese School at Tanglungchau which was opened at the begin- ning of the year has, therefore, done Wantsai School no harm. The discipline continues to be very good. My suggestions made last year under the head of Organization have been attended to.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

13

1

494

"

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 241 boys.

Apparatus. New desks are needed. Some will be obtained in 1906.

English.-Colloquial.-Excellent in the 3 lowest Classes. The highest did well, but

suffer by the comparison.

Reading.-Very good.

Writing. Very good in the lower Classes. Class IV should express them- selves more fully. There is a tendency to drag into the subject set any other subject, however remotely connected, which happens to have been taught to the

writers.

Geography. The upper Classes did rather poorly. The juniors did well, and one of the masters, Mr. KUNG HON, is to be congratulated on the way he has profited by the lessons. on teaching this subject which were given at the Normal Class in 1904.

Arithmetic.-Here again the senior Classes did only fairly, the rest very well.

Hygiene. The subject is well taught. Having regard to the numbers in the School and the average age of the candidates, the School did in comparison with other competing schools slightly better than was to be expected. It took the 4th place.

Chinese. Reading.-Very good in Classes VIII to V: it has been neglected in Class IV. Composition.-Very good except in the two lowest Classes, which did fairly.

No. 7.-Anglo-Indian School.

Staff.-Mrs. C. W. WHITEHEAD.

Discipline and Organization.-Good. Considering that there have been nearly 50 boys on the books, divided into four Standards, great credit is due to the late mistress, who has been single-handed throughout the year.

*-

Sanitation.-The School is somewhat over-crowded, unless the back room is made use of, which is however far too dark to make a convenient school-room.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 40 pupils.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory: but a map of the Island is needed.

English.-Colloquial.-Very good. There is a tendency to allow the boys to answer

in monosyllables.

Reading.-Fair. The explanation of the subject matter was poor.

Writing.-The forination of sentences should be more practised.

Geography.-The map of Victoria was well understood.

Arithmetic.-Good.

No. 8.-Aberdeen Anglo-Chinese School.

Staff-LEE KANG-SHAM.

Discipline and Organization.-This School was opened at the beginning of the year, and has proved successful. The discipline is very good, and the course of study has proved well suited to the requirements of the scholars.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.--Sufficient for 41 pupils.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

495

English.-Colloquial.-Good. There seems to be rather too large a proportion of boys at the bottom of the Class, who are regarded as dunces, and intractable. Reading.--Very good. Writing.-Good.

Chinese.-Reading.-Fair. Composition.—Fair.

Geography. The map of the Island has been taught in too much detail, and sufficient consideration has not been paid to the needs of the boys. A brief description of the Gov- ernment of Hongkong should be studied next year.

Arithmetic.-Good. The boys know the first three rules very well.

No. 9.-Tanglungchau Anglo-Chinese School.

Staff-WAN HANG-UN.

Discipline and Organization.-Very good.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 51 pupils.

Apparatus. Very satisfactory.

English-Colloquial.-Very good. The master has entered thoroughly into the spirit of the new method. Reading. Very good. Writing.—Good.

Geography.-Fair.

Arithmetic.-Very good.

Chinese.-Reading.-Fair. Composition.-Fair.

No. 10.-Uenlong School.

Staff-PUN UE-SAM.

Discipline and Organization.-Good.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

English.-Colloquial.-Poor. More attention and time must be paid to this subject.

The master uses Chinese too often in speaking to his pupils.

Reading.-Good.

p

Writing. Very good. Too much time is wasted on grammar.

Geography.-Bad.

Arithmetic.-Good.

Chinese.-Bad. It has not received enough attention, and has practically been treated as an optional subject.

No. 11 Belilios Public School, Vernacular Side.

Staff.--SUNG HOK-PANG, two Assistant Teachers, one Needlework Teacher and two Pupil Teachers.

Discipline and Organization.-The late Headmaster having retired at the beginning of the year, the School was reorganized on a more modern basis. In spite of the weakness of his Staff, (to be reinedied in the present year,) Mr. SUNG, the present Headmaster, has succeeded in bringing about an extraordinary change in the conduct of the School. It

496

speaks volumes that the girls have been induced to sing and recite in public at the prize- giving. I say nothing of the intrinsic merits of these performances, which, however, were as a new development only less interesting than to see old Chinese gentlemen applauding

them.

Judged by itself, the school curriculum might be considered rather too ambitious for the Staff and students, and likely to lead to some diffusion of effort; but I think these risks are cheap to pay for the prospect of bringing Chinese female education in Hongkong upon a plane even distantly approaching that of the Anglo-Chinese Schools for boys. And to do this the first requisite is to stimulate a feeling of legitimate ambition among the girls.

dards.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 291 pupils.

Apparatus. Very satisfactory.

Chinese.-Reading.-Good. Composition.-Good. Very good in the highest Stan-

Geography.-Good, especially in the lower Standards.

Arithmetic.-Very good considering that only the four rules in their simplest form were taught in 1904.

Needlework.-Only embroidery has been taught hitherto. This is well done on the

whole.

History. An interesting beginning has been made of teaching the history of China's relations with other countries during the last 100 years.

Drawing. The subject has been begun with promising results. A Japanese book of instruction is used, which gives the girls the benefit of European as well as Eastern theory on the subject.

Singing.—One of the senior girls has in 6 months mastered the harmonium: and in two months the whole school has learned to sing a selection of English airs, which are almost immediately recognizable, in unison.

Hygiene. The subject has been taught in the highest Standards, and was thoroughly understood. The facts taught were of course of an elementary nature.

No. 12.-Sheko Vernacular School.

Staff.-TSE KA-HIN.

Discipline and Organization.-Discipline fair. More attention should be paid to the punctual calling of the roll.

Sanitation.-Fair.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 50 pupils.

Apparatus.-Maps are needed.

Chinese-Reading-Fair. Composition.-Fair.

Geography-Poor.

Arithmetic.-Good.

7

497

Appendix B.

DETAILED REPORTS ON GRANT SCHOOLS.

NOTE.-The reports of the schools marked with an asterisk are upon the work of the year ending 30th June.

*No. 1.-St. Joseph's College.

Discipline and Organization.-Good. Standard I has been divided into two Divisions in deference to His Excellency the Governor's advice, given at the last prize-giving, that particular attention should be paid to the beginners. I regret to say that nothing has been done to teach the Chinese boys their own language. Attention was drawn to this point in last year's Report. One boy I questioned, a boy of about fifteen, did not know a single character, not even T. When a Chinese cannot read the simplest letter, notice or name over a shop, he cannot be called properly educated. For this reason I am unable to report that the organization is "thoroughly efficient."

In examination, time is wasted by copying out the questions and ruling unnecessary lines. The boys frequently forget to put their names and school at the top of their papers.

Sanitation.The ventilation of the rooms seems now very satisfactory. Additional doors have been made, so that it is no longer necessary to pass through one room to go. to another.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 522 pupils.

Apparatus.-The maps in some of the rooms need renewing, especially those used by Standard II. Much new apparatus has however been bought recently. Slates should not be used above Standard III.

English. Colloquial. The great majority of the boys are boarders; and they seem to learn to speak English by a natural process. Nevertheless their fluency should not blind the masters to the fact that they constantly employ foreign idioms in their speech, and these continually appear in their compositions even in the highest Standards. Reading--Good. Writing.-A large proportion (17 boys out of 29) of Standard V obtained less than 40 per cent. of marks at examination. It would appear that promotion has been somewhat hurried. Standard VI did better. Their composition was goo on the whole, though the essays were lacking in matter. Half the Standard got half marks or over, and two-thirds over 40 per cent. There are only 3 boys in Standard VII. They did well in grammar, their compositions are not up to the mark.

but

Handwriting deserves more attention. It is not good in the higher Standards. In all English subjects it was noticeable that on the one hand the work was done very neatly and tidily; on the other hand the work of even the best boys in the highest Standards was marred by absurd mistakes in grammar and spelling.

Maja

Geography. In the lower Standards the local geography and the outlines of Asia were well known. Standard V have too long and wide a syllabus, and failed badly at examin- ation in consequence. Standard VI on the contrary did very well. The whole Standard obtained over 40 per cent. of marks and 75 per cent. of the boys got over half marks. Standard VII did well.

History.-Is very well taught. Very intelligent answers were obtained in Standards VI and VII. The papers taken as a whole shew the boys have a real grip of the subject Standard V again did not so well.

Mathematics. The one boy in Standard VII Senior obtained full marks in papers set in arithmetic, geometry and algebra-a remarkable performance. His work shews that the teaching must be excellent. Arithmetic.—Standard I have been doing mental arithmetic daily, with very good results. Standards II to VI were rather disappointing. Common sense does not seem used enough, and very simple problems were found too hard for solution. Standard V were especially weak in the conversion of dollars into sterling and vice versa, in decimals, and in their inability to employ the unitary method in the solution of problems. In Standard VI the work was neat and the methods were in most cases good. But there was a want of accuracy.

{

498

Algebra.-The subject is very well taught. More time might be given to the solution of problems.

Geometry.-Taken by Standard VII Senior and Junior. In the Junior Division the arguments were not written out as if the writers were altogether convinced of their truth.

Drawing.-A new subject. No great advance has been made with it, so far. Excellent materials have been procured; and it may be hoped that St. Joseph's may before many years produce draughtsmen of the quality it once used to do.

Hygiene. Not begun.

*No. 2-Italian Convent.

-

Discipline and Organization.-Discipline is very good. The organization is also very⚫ good in the lower Standards. But it must be borne in mind that a very thorough know- ledge of English is required in teaching the highest Standards.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 430 pupils.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory. Slates should not be used after Standard III.

English.-Colloquial.-Pains should be taken to make English spoken more freely in the Iwoer Standards. Reading. The scholars read audibly and distinctly, and take an in- telligent interest in the subject matter. Writing.-The two highest Standards did poorly in comparison with Standards IV and V, who both did very well.

Geography. A useful manual on the local geography has been published for the use of the lower Standards. But the results shewn at examination were not altogether satis- factory. A good geography reader is used in the higher Standards.

History.-Gill's History if used must be supplemented by a more interesting text book or reader. The one used in Standard III answers the purpose. In Standard VI, I found that the conception of the scholars of the physical and social condition of England at the time of the Conquest (their period) was of the vaguest. Standards V and VII however did very creditable written papers on their periods.

Arithmetic. The subject (both mental and written) is being very well taught in the lower Standards, and the work in the Upper chool is uniformly very good, over 80 % of marks having been gained at examination by the 3 highest Standards.

Hygiene. The manual has been begun with promising results. The upper Standards have been fortunate in getting the Rev. Father DE MARIA to illustrate the lectures by a few simple experiments.

General.--The school may again be classed as "thoroughly efficient."

thoroughly efficient." The weakest point in it is the composition of the 2 highest Standards, where the girls seem hardly up to the requirements of their position. The teaching in these Standards has left something to be desired. I understand that steps are being taken to strengthen them.

* No. 3.-French Convent.

Discipline and Organization.-Greatly improved. The school has now a very good course of instruction. The girls will not speak audibly.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory, except for the noisiness of the surroundings of the Infant Class-room.

girls.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 138 pupils.

Apparatus. Very satisfactory.

English.-Colloquial.-Pains should be taken to correct the speech of the non-English Reading. Very well taught. The 3 Readers used cover a great deal of ground.

499

Writing. Good throughout. Attention must be paid to pronunciation and spelling in Standards III and IV.

Geography.The teaching has been greatly improved, and is now good on the whole.

History. This subject was almost a complete failure at the examination, which may however be partly accounted for by the fact that a new course had been introduced in the last 3 months of the year. While it is not desirable to learn strings of dates, the principal ones must be known. The few answers sent in were carelessly written and expressed.

Arithmetic.-Mental arithmetic and the first four rules have been well taught in the lower school. But the higher Standards did very badly in examination.

Hygiene. A very good beginning has been made in teaching the science of hygiene from the Government Manual, as prescribed by the amended Code,

General. The school has certainly improved considerably during the year.

* No. 4.-Victoria English School.

Discipline and Organization.-The log book is not very well kept. The latest edition of the Code had not been supplied by the Manager. The pupils should not answer all together, but hold up their hands when they wish to do so. Otherwise there is little room for fault finding.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 58 pupils.

Apparatus. Satisfactory. More comfortable desks might gradually be introduced.

English.-Colloquial.-The pupils coming to school with no knowledge of English acquire it very rapidly. Reading.-Good. General readers have been introduced since last year, and they are well understood. In Standard I there is a tendency to read too fast. Writing.-Excellent. It is a pity however that such good work is not shewn up neatly written in ink instead of pencil.

Geography.— Very good in the lower Standards. In Standard IV more modern readers are required, and the subject should be taught in a more interesting way.

History. The new readers used in Standard IV are a great improvement. The subject has been well taught.

Hygiene. Not enough of the prescribed readers had been studied to enable me to form an opinion as to the progress made.

Arithmetic.-Excellent.

Slates should not be used above Standard III.

General. The school is doing very useful work, in spite of a few points in which the letter of the Code has not been observed. Though I am not able to report the School as

'thoroughly efficient ", with a little more pains it should reach that standard next year.

"

No. 5.-Bridges Street.

Discipline and Organization.-Discipline is good, and the children are well mannered. The drill might be improved. In addition to the three Standards there is an Infant School. The syllabus was disfigured by numerous mistakes in English. Since the increase of the Grant under the new Code no fees have been charged, and some of the very poor children. attending receive assistance in the way of clothes, with the result that they are now neatly dressed.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 189 pupils.

Apparatus. Unsatisfactory. The readers condemned last year are still in use. maps are needed. Wall sheets for teaching English should be purchased.

Better

500

English.-Colloquial.-Standard III, very good. Standard II would not reply. A better method of teaching the subject is needed. Reading.-Pronunciation much improved, and the matter well understood. Writing.-Very good.

Geography.-Good on the whole.

Arithmetic.-Very good. It was a pleasure to sec Standard III doing easy problems in decimals, and "proving" their answers.

History.-A few stories out of English history had been learned. I think this subject had better be omitted from the syllabus.

*No. 6.-Sacred Heart.

Discipline and Organization.-Very good. The records are kept most carefully. The scholars should be questioned collectively, and made to reply so that the whole Standard can hear.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 88 pupils.

Apparatus.-Picture sheets are needed, otherwise satisfactory.

English-Colloquial.--The children talked well about the pictures they had studied. The object lessons were less successful. Reading.-The new readers are a great improve- ment; but the reading is poor. The pronunciation is only fair, and the scholars are unwilling to make themselves heard. The subject matter is well understood. Writing.- Fair. The writing is too small, and more attention should be paid to the formation of the letters.

Arithmetic.-Mental.-The multiplication table might have been better known. Written.-Fair. Standard III broke down unaccountably over a sum which they were told to do both by long and by short division. Only one scholar shewed up the same answer to both sums.

History. This subject should be dropped.

*No. 7.-Diocesan School, Girls.

Discipline and Organization.-Good. The scholars answer clearly when spoken to,

and are well-mannered.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 64 pupils.

Apparatus.-History and geography readers are wanted. In the lower Standards not all the children had even general readers.

English.-Writing.-A great improvement has taken place in the neatness of the work shewn up. The result of an examination of Classes IV to VII was very good, except in Class V where, though good work was done, there were many bad mistakes in spelling. Another year it may be hoped that the senior girls will aim at something beyond a mere absence of grammatical mistakes, and endeavour to cultivate a rather more polished and less colloquial style, as well as to think out what they are going to write before beginning, and to arrange the matter in some sort of logical sequence. Reading was rather weak in the two lowest Standards, probably by reason of the shortage of reading-books. Pronun- ciation and enunciation were good.

Geography. The pupils have no books, but are given notes by the teacher. If this practice is followed, the teacher's note-book should be open for inspection. And it also follows that the subject matter of the notes will have to be very carefully selected and prepared. Standards VI and VII did upon the whole a good paper in this subject. Stan- dard V were weak, their sketch maps being very bad. Many of the answers were beside the point. Standard IV shewed an intelligent knowledge.

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501

History. Is the strongest subject. Some very good papers were sent up. Class V has been working with Classes VI and VII and the same paper was set to all three. But it proved too hard for Class V. The most important mistake made was common to all the papers corrected, i.e., that the Feudal System was an invention of William the Conqueror. Its essential features were not understood.

Hygiene.At the end of the school year a paper was set on the first few chapters of the Government Manual. It is perhaps too early to criticise, but the answers were not at all satisfactory.

Arithmetic.--This subject is so very weak that it seriously reduces the value of the work of the School. An easy exchange problem such as must be done by any one who buys goods in England brought 9 girls out of 11 in the 3 highest Standards hopelessly to grief. I drew attention last year to the weakness of the subject, the syllabus of which should be amended. Standard IV waste, over troy and apothecary's weight, time which might be better used to teach them simple decimal and vulgar fractions. The teaching in the lowest Standards was satisfactory. But I am strongly of opinion that in a country with a decimal coinage it is better to begin with that, rather than with £. s. d.

General. The school has distinctly improved during the year.

No. 8.-Diocesan School, Boys.

Staff.-Headmaster, G. PIERCY, 7 Assistant European masters and mistresses, and 2 Chinese masters.

Discipline and Organization.-Discipline very good. The lower Forms have been re-organized, and there is now a Chinese Side to the Lower School. This is, in my opinion, a great improvement.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 470 pupils.

Apparatus. Very satisfactory.

English, Colloquial.-Further observation has led me to doubt whether the many Chinese day-boys can be left to pick up their knowledge of spoken English, and therefore of Written English, from their English-speaking school-fellows. 1 he subject should next year be taught on the Chinese Side, as it is in the Anglo-Chinese Schools of the Colony. Reading.Good. Writing.-This most important subject needs some attention. The work done at examination was good in Form IV, and fair in the highest Forms. But there was a marked inferiority in the work shewn up by the boys with Chinese names, and some of it was by no means up to the mark. Much of the work was untidy. Attention should be specially paid to this subject in the coming year. Unless the Chinese boys in Form V im- prove greatly in this respect, I fear that in a year or two the highest Forms will of necessity deteriorate.

Geography.-The teaching of this subject continues to be very good. I received most intelligent replies in the lower Forms. Form V had, I should say, more work set before them than they conveniently could digest. Their Syllabus was Asia and Africa, and China in more detail. They did not do well; and a question on the railways of China beat them altogether. Forms VI and VII did well; but the political side of the subject seems to require more attention.

History. The wars of the Roses was the period selected for the two highest Forms. Instead of examining them on that, I set a very general paper on English History, one which seemed to me to call, not for any recent reading up of the subject, but for some un- derstanding of general principles. I received no answers worth speaking of to questions on the effect of the Fall of Constantinople in driving the tide of exploration Westward, and on the reason why the wars of the Roses led to the increased power of the Tudor sovereigns. But the facts and dates taught were well known. While the present method of teaching History prevails in Hongkong, masters will be under a present temptation to teach such facts and those alone, as have a bearing on the passing of Oxford Local examinations ; and the students will still fail to perceive the wood for the trees.

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502

last re-

Mathematics.Arithmetic.-Mental arithmetic, to which I drew attention in my port, has very greatly improved. The work of the lower Forms is very good. In written work the upper Forms also did well. Geometry. The proofs of propositions in Euclid I to III are very well known. But there is still a noticeable lack of practical work; the use of set squares, protractors and compasses would obviate many difficulties which students experi- ence in the fundamental problems in Euclid. Algebra.-The results are not so good; and Form VI are weak throughout. No boy really understood the meaning of the 'root' of an equation. In Form VI and VII Graphis were taken; but the teaching has hardly followed right lines. Students gain a more intelligent understanding of the subject when they have dealt first with easy examples like the graphing of observations on changes of temperature, etc. To begin with graphs by means of functions, is beyond the average boy. The squared paper work was poor, no axes of reference were drawn, and the units of measurement were so badly chosen that the curve was much too small, and useless for reference.

Book-keeping. Satisfactory on the whole. As usual in this subject, ordinary business terms are not properly understood.

Shorthand. The subject is well taught; but as the knowledge attained in 2 years is purely theoretic, I much doubt whether the time is well spent on it.

Latin.-This subject has been begun in the year under review. I have hopes that it may be studied to good purpose, if taught in a practical way. I have given the school authorities my ideas as to how this should be done, and shall watch the experiment with great interest.

Hygiene.-The teaching of the subject is entrusted to a master who is well qualified to undertake it. The lessons have been illustrated suitably by simple experiments. At the competitive examination, the second place fell to one of the students. In the Team com- petition on the Elementary Course, the School took a poor place, 7th out of ten. And I believe that this may have been partly due to the prevailing inability to compose in English. Thus when a boy wrote on the question as to the uses of cooking food "When the person who eat the food is raw", and continued in this strain he naturally got few marks. Never- theless he probably could have given a reasonable reply in his own language. The team received over 55 per cent. of marks, which is in itself not at all bad.

Chinese.-Reading.-Fair. Composition.-Fair.

General.-In spite of the foregoing criticisms the work and management of the School cannot be considered other than very efficient. This is the second year that it has been so reported.

*No. 9.-St. Mary's.

Discipline and Organization.-This School was put upon the Annual Grant List in 1904, and has not yet earned a Grant. The discipline is not very good, the girls not having been trained to answer audibly when questioned. It is better in the lower Standards and Infant Class. The conclusion I came to was that the school has not at present enough advanced scholars to justify the continuation of Standards VI and VII.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

English.-Composition and Grammar are bad, and the work shewn up at examination is very untidy.

Geography.-As judged by the oral part of the examination, the facts taught seem to have been well selected; but a large proportion of Standard IV were absolutely mute. An interesting reader should be used. Gill's Geography is not suited to the purpose. Standard II, which was generally strong, had a very good knowledge of local geography.

History. Here again there was evidence that the subject had been carefully taught. But the written work done by the higher Standards was bad. Standard IV examined orally also failed badly.

:

503

Arithmetic.—In this as in the other subjects, the work shewn up was very untidy; but except in Standard VI which failed badly, the actual results in the higher Standards were. fair. Standard II did exceedingly well. This is by far the strongest subject.

Kindergarten. Well managed.

Hygiene. A fair beginning has been made.

General.- -Very good work is being done in the Lower School, but Standards IV-VII require much attention.

* No. 10.-Cathedral School.

Discipline and Organization.-The School has somewhat improved during the year, and steps have been taken to remedy the shortcomings specifically mentioned in last year's Report. Much however still remains to be done. My impression is that the European teachers are not sufficiently in touch with what goes on in the lower Standards, which are staffed by Chinese of no great ability. At my last visit I found that the roll was being kept in a very irregular way in the Lower School. There are many faults of teaching in the lower Standards to which I have directed attention many times.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space-Sufficient for 446 pupils.

Apparatus.-Not satisfactory. More wall sheets are required for the lower Standards, as well as proper local maps.

English, Colloquial.-A praiseworthy effort has been made by the Chinese master of Standard III to learn the new method of teaching English. Standard IB also has done fairly. Standard II was by no means good. The Chinese master of Standard 14 seemed unable to understand English when spoken to. The European masters are not English- men. Writing. It is a mistake to make boys do upright copies if they are at the same time taught to write a sloping hand. Composition must continue to be weak until boys speak English better. The compositions in Standard IV should be done in books and be regularly corrected by the master.

Geography.-In Standard III the definitions were taught very well: they were illus- trated by reference to an album of coloured pictures of scenery. Local geography was taught fairly in Standard II.

History.- -The upper Standards have not yet a sufficiently good knowledge of English to be able to derive much benefit from this study.

Arithmetic.—Well taught on the whole. I recommend that the conversion of dollars into taels precede the teaching of English money. The two highest Standards did well.

Arithmetic is the school's strong point, and it compares well with that of other schools of the same class; untidiness is the worst fault.

Algebra.-Algebra is taught in the three highest Standards. It is questionable whether Standards V & IV are ready to begin the study. One boy in Standard VI did very well.

Chinese.-Reading.-Fair. Composition.-Poor. A Chinese vernacular teacher should

be engaged.

Hygiene. Not begun.

*No. 11.-Ellis Kadoorie School.

Discipline and Organization.-The School has grown so much during the past year that some increase to the European Staff seems required. Many of the Chinese Masters are insufficiently acquainted with modern methods of instruction, but the Headmaster's time is so largely occupied with teaching that he has little left in which to advise and correct them. I do not think the organization is likely to be thoroughly satisfactory until the services of another trained English Master are obtained.

1.

504 -

Discipline on the whole is very good. Work sent up at examination should be done neatly on foolscap paper. The school has made good progress in the year.

Sanitation. Satisfactory. The buildings are not well adapted to accommodate the present large numbers. But there is no danger of insufficient ventilation.

Apparatus. Very satisfactory, except as regards local maps in the lower Classes.

J

English.-Colloquial. A considerable improvement has been made in the lower Classes as compared with last year. But the result is not yet all that can be desired. The boys in the two top Classes speak very well. Reading.-The readers used are suitable. Reading is well taught. Writing.-Class IA & B did compositions which, taking the Class as a whole, were very good. Two of them were excellent. The pupils might however do even better if they would give more attention to the matter: some of them erred on the side of brevity. The composition in Class II was "fair to poor." This is not surprising, remem- bering how badly these boys spoke English last year, (see last Annual Report). Their case is a good instance to shew how difficult it is to learn to write a language without ability to speak it. Composition is on the whole well taught in the lower Classes.

Geography. An easy paper on Asia set to the top Classes was well done on the whole, though in a somewhat slovenly and untidy fashion. The art of illustrating answers by sketch maps should be practised. Fuller answers are expected from Classes I & II. Local geography is now taught in the lower Classes. The Chinese masters require assistance in selecting the facts to be taught. For example, in Class VI boys who knew the names of every little promontory around the Island were yet ignorant of the position and uses of Taitam Reservoir.

History. The course laid down by the Committee on History and Geography is being followed. The subject is being taught thoroughly; but unfortunately the text books have been in the hands of the scholars for a month or two only, not sufficiently long to enable me to form a definite opinion as to the rate of progress.

Hygiene. The hygiene manual has been begin, and is being well studied as a reader. The Headmaster has not found it practicable to illustrate the lessons by practical experi- ments; which is a pity.

Chinese.-Is very good throughout the school. A difficult piece of translation from English into Chinese was well done in the top Class.

Arithmetic. In the top Class very good work was done at examination. The second Class on the other hand did not do well. Arithmetic may however be considered to be a strong subject throughout the school. The following two points should be borne in mind (a) answers to money problems should be given up in pounds, shillings and pence, or in dollars and cents, and not in fractions of a pound or dollar; (b) the unitary methods should be more frequently used in the solution of problems.

No. 12.-Fairlea.

Staff-Miss HAZELAND and 2 Chinese Assistants.

Discipline and Organization.-Good:

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 44 pupils.

board.

Apparatus.-Improved, but still requires supplementing. There is only one black-

English.-Colloquial.-Considerably improved; but still not all that could be desired in the lower Standards. Reading.-Very good. Writing.-Great pains are taken with this subject, and the girls write copiously and very correctly, considering the short time they have been studying. Dictation is very good.

Geography. Very well taught to the higher Standards. More attention should be paid to local geography in the lower Standards, as I said last year.

505

History. The progress made by the girls in general medieval history is very satis- factory, and continues to give evidence of careful and intelligent teaching.

Arithmetic. Still a weak subject. The top Standard works very slowly indeed. The syllabus does not seem very well chosen. Too much time is spent on problems involving English money. More use of contracted methods should be made.

Needlework.--Very good. The elder girls do feather-stitch particularly well.

Hygiene.-Very carefully taught.

*No. 13.-St. Francis”.

Discipline and Organization.-The staff was strengthened at the beginning of the year, and is now such as to bring the school under § 34 (ii) of the Code. Discipline is poor. The 'children as a rule reply in monosyllables and are seldom audible. The syllabus does not

appear to be closely followed. There are two Standards and an Infant School.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 147 pupils. Apparatus.-Unsatisfactory readers and

maps.

English.-Reading.-Fair. The Readers used (Christian Brothers') are not suitable.

Writing.-Fair. Grammar and Composition.-Poor. As the scholars do not speak, English at home, colloquial should be carefully taught by means of wall sheets and other wise. At present the object lessons are mainly relied on to teach this subject,-nor were they always very judiciously selected. For instance: Larks. It is not to be wondered that many children thought they were large birds of prey.

Geography.-Fair. Plans of the school-room were well drawn in Standard I.

Arithmetic, Mental.-Fair. Written.-Poor. In Standard I, none of the children could write 100 in figures. In Standard II the work though quick and neat is inaccurate."

No 14-St. Stephen's.

Staff-TANG CHI-KUN and and 5 Assistants.

Discipline and Organization.-Very good. The boys are well mannered. The Time Table and Syllabus give evidence of considerable thought and care. The suggestions made below under Algebra, Euclid and History should be carefully considered.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor Space.--Sufficient for 233 pupils.

Apparatus.-The requirements to which attention was drawn last year have now been made good. Very satisfactory.

English-Colloquial.-In the Standards I and II not so many of the Reading sheets have been learned as there should have been. Not enough stress is laid on making the boys reply in complete sentences. They cannot answer such simple question as "How far have you read?"

Standard III (where good lessons on wall pictures had been given) did much better, and on the whole there is an improve ment. But the masters still lack much of the knowledge of how to teach the subject. Reading.-The method has been improved and the boys did well on the whole. Writing. The composition of sentences is not taught, as it should be, in Standard I. The composition done by the higher Standards was on the whole very creditable, considering the class of the school.

Geography.-Standard IV did considerably better at examination than Standard V, which however did fairly well. In the lower Standards more use should be made of the local geography as a means of encouraging the boys to speak English. The method how- ever shewed great improvement.

506

Arithmetic. Very good in the lowest Standards. More attention should be paid to problems in all Standards.

Algebra and Euclid.-The first 4 rules and the first 10 propositions of Euclid were taught to Standard V. In my opinion it is simple waste of time to give this smattering.

History. From the Norman Period to the House of Tudor is taught. The boys swallow a few facts torn from their context, but are of course quite unable to digest them. To teach the subject in a useful way to boys of Standard Vin such a school would be a very difficult task, and is quite beyond the power of the Staff.

Hygiene. The text book has been conscientiously taught, and the senior boys knew a good deal about the subject. I regret that a team was not entered for the examination in time.

Chinese.-Too many reading books are used in the Standards. It would be better to make a thorough use of one series.

No. 15.—113, Hollywood Road.

Staff-Lo YUEN FONG.

Discipline and Organization.-Discipline, good. The requirements of the Code are now fulfilled. Drill, poor.

Floor Space. -Sufficient for 36 pupils.

Sanitation. The school has been moved into lighter premises, and is clean. The boys have a dirty habit of spitting on the floor, which passes unchecked by the master.

Apparatus.-The deficiencies in the apparatus to which attention was drawn last year, have now been remedied. A map of the Island is needed.

English.-Colloquial.—An honest attempt has been made to employ the "new method" in teaching yet the results are but meagre. The boys are allowed to reply in monosyl- lables. The fact is that the master does not thoroughly understand the system. Reading A praiseworthy attempt has been made to explain to the boys the meaning of what they But the pronunciation is poor, and many mistakes are made. Writing.-Copy books are written neatly. Composition should be practised in every Standard.

read.

Geography.—The map of Hongkong is fairly known; that of the western part of the Canton Province should next be studied.

Arithmetic-The strongest subject. Simple problems are taught with some success. In Standard II, the multiplication table is very well known.

Chinese. The subject was introduced during the current year. There are 2 Classes. Reading and composition are alike fair to p or in the higher, and poor in the lower Class.

No. 16-3, Western Street.

Stiff.-YAM HIN-TAK.

Discipline and Organization.-Discipline is good, but the boys do not always stand up when spoken to. They should use the word "Sir" in addressing the Inspector, or their

The school records are well kept.

master.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 66 pupils.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Apparatus.-The deficiencies to which attention was drawn last year have been supple- mented a map of the Island is needed.

English.-Colloquial.-The master has still much to learn as to the best methods of teaching a language colloquially. He evidently takes pains. Reading.Taught very badly in Standard I. Pronunciation is bad, and the boys have little idea of the meaning of what

4

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507

they read. This is true, though in a less degree, of the higher Standards. Writing.— Very fair.

Geography. The requirements of the Code in respect of local geography are still carried out in a very half-hearted fashion. The outlines of the World are better taught. It is not necessary to teach the distance in miles between distant places. The unit of measurement should be days or weeks.

Arithmetic. My recommendation, that more attention should be paid to easy problems, has not had much effect.

Chinese. A new subject this year. The results were but poor.

General. The school cannot hope to earn its present Grant again, unless it improves considerably.

No. 17-Berlin Foundling House.

Staff-Miss MATHILDE GROTEFEND and Mrs. LAI WONG SHI.

Discipline and Organization.-The Chinese Staff has been greatly strengthened during the year. Discipline is good: the girls however do not always stand up when addressed, and they seem needlessly nervous. The general conduct of the school has improved con- siderably.

Floor Space-Sufficient for 102 pupils.

Sanitation. Very satisfactory.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

Chinese-Reading.-Fair. Composition-Fair. The improvement in the teaching of Chinese is very great. ·

Geography. A great improvement is shewn. As the scholars hardly ever visit distant parts of the City, little is gained by teaching the plan of Victoria in detail. I have re- commended that the children should have their attention systematically directed to the prin- cipal lines of ships, (there is a fine view of the harbour from the school-room windows) and that the journeys of these ships should form the first introduction to the geography of the world. The elements of Physical Geography continue to be well taught.

History. The text book is a little work which purports to give a few of the salient events in the history of the more important nations. It is obvious that the value of the study lies entirely in the teaching. A little useful knowledge has perhaps been absorbed.

Arithmetic.—Mental arithmetic was bad. It should receive much more attention. Written work was much better and was generally good.

Needlework.-The work is very good and of a highly practical nature.

Singing. Singing in unison has been taught with very creditable results, everything considered. Action and kindergarten songs might be introduced with advantage.

No. 18.-Fairlea.

Staff-Miss FLETCHER and 3 Assistant Mistresses.

Discipline and Organization.-Good.

Sanitation.-The arrangement of the desks is not satisfactory. At my last visit the floor was not properly swept.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 136 pupils.

Apparatus.-At least one more blackboard and more maps are needed.

Chinese.-Reading.-Poor. Composition.-Fair.

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508

Geography.-Poor. Standard V, which is taught this subject by the European Teacher, did badly at examination.

Arithmetic.-Good. The work is of rather an elementary nature considering the class of the school.

Needlework. Very good. Standard V do feather-stitch very well.

Singing.-The action singing is very well done.

General. The school should have more European supervision and teaching, or the Grant will have to be reduced.

No. 19.-Victoria Home and Orphanage.

Staff-Miss HOLIS and 2 Assistant Mistresses.

Discipline and Organization.-The European instruction, which brings the school under the Upper Grade Class of Vernacular Schools, does not consist as it should of general supervision of the instruction given, but simply of lessons in drill and singing.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 145 pupils. Apparatus.-More black boards are needed.

Chinese.-Reading.-Fair. Standard V did very well. Composition.-Fair.

Geography. Very bad. In fact, the girls cannot be said to have any knowledge of the subject. With reference to the plan of the school it is desirable to teach the children the names of the places, a view of which the locality commands, i.e., Victoria Peak, Shauki- wan, Blindenheim, etc. This was pointed out at great length last year.

Arithmetic.-Good on the whole. More attention should be paid to problems, and to mental arithmetic. Standard V were particularly weak in the latter.

Needlework.-The average of the work done is very good.

Musical Drill and Singing.-Singing from notes has been taught with very creditable results; as has also musical drill. The difficulties in the way of teaching these subjects to Chinese girls are of course very great, and the results shew that great pains must have been taken.

No. 20.-Training Home for Girls.

Staff-KWAN TSUNG-WO, and 3 Assistant Mistresses.

Discipline and Organization.-Owing to the absence of Miss DAVIES from the Colony, the school cannot be classed this year as an Upper Grade School. Nevertheless the organi- zation is still very good; and the only fault I have to find with the discipline is, that the work seems done in whispers.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 45 pupils.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Apparatus. Very satisfactory.

Chinese.-Reading.-Distinctly weak in the 2 lowest Standards; elsewhere fair. Writing.Weak in the lowest Standards; good in the higher Standards.

Geography.-The local geography, the world in outline, and Eastern Asia, have been studied to very good purpose.

History. The subject has not been taught effectively.

Arithmetic.-The written work is very well done, and the mental arithmetic is fair.

509

Needlework. Very good. The older girls make their own clothes.

* No. 21.-Italian Convent.

Discipline and Organization.-Very good.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 127 pupils.

Apparatus. Very satisfactory.

Chinese.—Reading.-Very good. Composition.-Fair. Standard IV however should do letter writing.

Geography-Fair. A better syllabus is needed.

Arithmetic.-Fair.

History.—This subject must be taught in Standard VI, if not in Standard V. The necessity of this was pointed out in my circular of last year.

General. Until my standing instructions are carried out in full the school cannot again be classed as "thoroughly efficient."

* No. 22.-Bridges Street.

Discipline and Organization.-The teachers should not interfere in any way with the scholars during examination. The Chinese compositions done at examination showed a re- markable similarity. The drill is not good, and the scholars were almost inaudible. It is disappointing to find that very little attention has been paid to a Circular I issued last year in which I drew attention to a number of weak points in the Vernacular Schools.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space-Sufficient for 91 pupils.

Apparatus. Very satisfactory.

Chinese.-Reading.-Fair in upper Standards; poor in the lower Standards. position. Poor.

Com-

Geography.-Fair.

Arithmetic.-Mental.-Poor.

+

Written.-Good, except in Standard V.

General.―Though the School has been given the same Graut as last year, it cannot be again considered to be "thoroughly efficient."

No. 23.-Sacred Heart.

Discipline and Organization.—The discipline is good, more attention should be paid towards making the scholars auswer questions audibly, and in an orderly manner.

Sanitation. Quite satisfactory.

Floor Space-Sufficient for 78 pupils.

Apparatus.-A new map of the World is wanted. Otherwise satisfactory.

Chinese. Reading.-Poor. The teachers should take pains to see that every word is understood, as well as the general sense of the lessons. It is only fair to say that a much higher standard has been expected this year than last. But this is only natural, as the new method of teaching the subject has now been in force for two years. Composition.— Fair. In Standard IV several girls wrote without any reference to the subject set.

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510

Geography.-Fair. The local maps were well known in Standards I & II; but the higher course of work which was prescribed for Standards III & IV in the course of the year, viz., the Canton Province, the British Colonies in outline, and the names and functions of the principal Colonial Officials were not well known.

Arithmetic.-Written.-Good.

Standard IV did not understand how to convert taels into dollars, as they should under standing instructions. Mental.-Poor in Standard IV, bad in the lower Standards.

General.-Enough attention has not been paid to a Circular based on my last exami- nation and issued in English and Chinese to Managers and Teachers. A. Grant is paid at the same rate as last year, though the school falls somewhat short of the necessary standard. It must not be forgotten that a progressive improvement is required.

No. 24.-Holy Infancy.

Discipline and Organization.-Generally much improved. The girls are remarkable for the way in which they reply to questions, so as to be at once audible. On the other hand, there was a bad instance of copying during examinations. Teachers must under- stand that it is for them to see that this does not occur, by taking precautions on the day of examination, or better still by rigidly setting their faces against it during the year.

Sanitation.-Quite satisfactory.

Floor Space-Sufficient for 92 pupils.

Apparatus.Quite satisfactory.

Chinese. - Reading.-Good, especially in Standards IV & V. Composition.-Fair on the whole. Best in the lower Standards.

Geography.-Good.

Arithmetic. Last year I pointed out to the Manager that short division is not taught. It is necessary again to draw attention to this point. Otherwise there is little to criticise. Mental. Very good. Written.Good.

drill.

* No. 25.-Hunghom.

Discipline and Organization.-Fair. The scholars might still be improved in their

Standard I seems to have been somewhat neglected.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 72 pupils.

Apparatus.-More maps are needed.

Chinese-Reading.-Fair. Composition.-Poor.

Geography.—Fair. Standard V were very weak in their knowledge of the globe.

Arithmetic.-Mental.-Fair. Written.--Fair.

General. The school has somewhat improved.

*No. 26.-Yaumati.

Discipline and Organization.-Fair.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor Space.--Sufficient for 81 pupils.

Apparatus.-A new map of the World, and one of the Canton Province are needed.

Chinese. Reading.-Fair. Composition.-Fair.

511

Geography.-Poor.

Arithmetic.- Mental.-Fair. Written.-Fair.

* No. 27.-Shaukiwan.

Discipline and Organization.—Good.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 118 pupils.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

Chinese.-Reading.-Good. Composition.-Good..

The

Geography.In the map of the Island a number of places are omitted, about which the scholars should know, e.g., Stanley and Wong Ma Kok. result as a whole is good.

Arithmetic.-Mental.-Good. Written.-Very good.

Standard II did very well.

General. Unless a considerable proportion of the scholars reach the higher Standards, the maximum grant cannot be expected next year.

* No. 28.-Aberdeen.

Discipline and Organization.-Discipline fair. Books carefully kept.

Sanitation. The school is clean, but very dark.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 38 pupils.

Apparatus.-No map of the Canton Province.

of the Canton Province. A map of the neighbourhood is needed.

Chinese.-Reading.-Fair. Composition.-Good.

Geography.-Very good, so far as it went.

Arithmetic.-Mental.—Fair.

Written.-Poor.

* No. 29.-Second Street.

Discipline and Organization.-Fair.

Sanitation.—Satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 74 pupils.

Apparatus. Another blackboard required. Otherwise very satisfactory.

Chinese. Reading. Fair. Composition. Fair. Standard IV should do their com- positions in books, which should be submitted to the examiner for inspection.

Geography.-Fair.

Arithmetic.-Mental.-Fair. Written.-Good: except in Standards I & II.

General. A Grant is made at the same rate as last year, although the school does. not quite reach the required standard.

* No. 30.-Taipingshan.

Discipline and Organization.-Books well kept. Discipline is good, but the girls will not speak audibly.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

:

-512

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 39 pupils.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

Chinese.Reading and Composition.-Good. But the latter should be regularly practised in Standards I and II.

Geography.-Fair.

Arithmetic.—Mental.—Fair: but very weak in Standard II. Written.—Fair.

* No. 31.-Shektongtsui.

Discipline and Organization.-The roll is not kept strictly in accordance with stand- ing instructions. Drill is fair; but the children do not speak audibly.

Sanitation.-The school is not kept as clean as it might be.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 40 pupils.

Apparatus.A new map of the World is needed.

Chinese.-Reading.-Fair. Composition.--Fair. Standard IV was very weak.

Geography.-Fair.

Arithmetic.-Mental.-Fair. Written.-Poor. Standard IV had not learned how to convert dollars into taels. Standard III did not know the multiplication table.

General.-The Grant should be reduced next year unless some improvement is shewn..

* No. 32.-Shektongtsui.

Discipline and Organization. The books are correctly kept. The drill is bad, and the children will not speak audibly. Discipline has improved since last year.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory. At the time of my last visit the floor might have been

cleaner.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 44 pupils.

Apparatus.—Another blackboard and a map of the World are needed.

Chinese.-Reading.-Bad. Composition.—Bad. Apparently not taught in Standard IV. Geography.-Fair. No general geography is taught in Standard IV.

Arithmetic.—Mental.-Bad. Written.-Bad. Standard IV did not know the multipli-

cation table.

General.-Great improvement will have to be shewn next year, or the Grant should

be reduced.

* No. 33.-Queen's Road East.

Discipline and Organization.-The Headmaster of this school was towards the end of the school year invited to undertake the duties of Sub-Inspector for Vernacular Schools. I have made some allowance for the disorganization consequent on this change. I noticed one instance of copying during examination; and on one occasion the roll was called quarter of an hour late. Otherwise the discipline and drill are excellent.

3

Sanitation.-Satisfactory. The school has been moved to a less noisy situation. A movable glass shutter should be fixed to the sky-light.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 51 pupils.

Apparatus.-Very satisfactory.

513

Chinese.-Reading.-Good. Writing.-Fair.

Geography.-Very good.

Arithmetic.-Mental.Good.

Written.-Good. Figures might be improved.

* No. 34.-Yaumati.

Discipline and Organization.-The discipline is fair, and the new teacher energetic, though wanting in experience. The foreign drill practised is not very successful. There are only three Standards as compared with four last year.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 51 pupils.

Apparatus.-More maps are wanted.

Chinese.-Reading.-Fair. Composition.-Fair.

Geography.-Poor. There is no map of the Canton Province.

Arithmetic.--Mental.-Poor.

how to form figures.

Written.—Bad. Standard II have not properly learned

General. The school has by no means fulfilled the promise shewn last year.

* No. 35.-D'Aguilar Street.

Discipline and Organization.-Discipline considerably improved. There is not enough class teaching as opposed to individual teaching.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 43 pupils.

Apparatus. A new map of the World is needed, and one of the Canton Province.

Chinese. Reading.-Fair. Composition.--Poor.

Geography.-Bad.

Arithmetic.-Mental.-Bad.

Written.-Poor.

* No. 36.—Wanchai Chapel.

Discipline and Organization.-There are two teachers, but one of them seems to have a very vague idea of the work done in the Standards. The discipline is fair. The roll is not always totalled daily, according to standing instructions. The work of the school is impeded by a number of strangers who are constantly lolling about on couches in the school-room.

Sanitation.-Unsatisfactory. The floor is not kept properly clean.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 96 pupils.

Apparatus. Not enough maps.

Chinese.-Reading.-Good, except in Standard II. Composition.-Good.

Geography.-Poor.

Arithmetic.—Mental.-Fair, except in the higher Standards. Written.-Very bad. Standard IV could not do simple division, nor Standard II subtraction.

*No. 37.-Hospital Chapel.

514

Discipline and Organization.-Discipline poor. When orders are given, it should not be necessary for the pupils to repeat them audibly to each other. They do not always stand up when addressed individually. The existing arrangement under which one master controls boys in two rooms seems to work fairly, but cannot be considered satisfactory. Boys are admitted to Standard III who know no arithmetic. This is a weak point in the organization. The books are very well kept.

Sanitation. The school is very dark on cloudy days. Otherwise satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 71 pupils.

Apparatus.-The map of the Island should be made clearer by distinctive colouring. Chinese-Reading.-Fair. Composition. Poor. It is not taught as it should be in

Standards II and I.

Geography.--Fair. The map of Victoria had not been revised in Standard III as it should have been.

Arithmetic.-Mental.Good.

Written. Very bad. Five boys in Standard III and

the majority of Standard II cannot write the figures correctly.

No. 38.-Yaumati.

Discipline and Organization.-Good. The pupils in the lower Standards especially shewed signs of intelligent teaching, and spoke clearly and audibly.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 37 pupils.

Apparatus.-More maps needed.

Chinese.-Reading.-Fair. Composition.-Good.

Geography.-Bad in Standards II and III owing to the lack of maps, but very good in Standard I.

Arithmetic.-Mental.—Fair.

Written.-Good.

General. With a little more pains a higher Grant should be obtained next year.

No. 40.-No. 343, Queen's Road West.

Staff.-PUN CHU-tung.

Discipline and Organization.-Discipline, very good. The two lowest Standards need more attention.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 78 pupils.

Apparatus. Very satisfactory.

Chinese.-Reading.-Fair. The method might be improved. Composition.-Poor. Standard I requires more attention.

Arithmetic. Both mental and written work are very fair, except in Standard I, where notation is very weak.

No. 41.-Shaukiwan.

Staff-The former master died at the beginning of the current year and his place has been taken by KWONG CHU-NAN.

515

Discipline and Organization.-Good.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory. The boys are fortunate in finding a master who provides them with punkabs.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 54 pupils.

Apparatus.-The maps and blackboards need renewing.

Chinese.-Reading.-Fair. Composition. Poor, especially in the top Standard. Geography.--Poor.

Arithmetic.-Fair, as regards accuracy; but the boys are not practised enough in simple problems.

No. 42.-Tanglunchau Chapel.

Staff-WONG HING-WAN.

Discipline and Organization.-There is too much interference with the children during examination; otherwise good.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 65 pupils.

Apparatus.- Very satisfactory.

Chinese.-Reading.-Good. Composition.-Poor. The modernized method of teach- ing the subject must be more strictly followed.

Geography.-Good.

Arithmetic. The mental work is poor, and it should receive more attention. The written work is good throughout.

General.—A Grant is given at the same rate as last year, though the school fell some- what below the required standard.

No. 44.-No. 20-a Aberdeen Street.

Staff-WONG PIK-lin.

Discipline and Organization.-Very good. Only it seems a pity that the 4th Stand- ard should have been given up.

Sanitation. Satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 59 pupils.

Apparatus. Satisfactory. More suitable Readers should be selected another year. Chinese.-Reading.-Good. Composition.-Fair, except in Standard I.

Geography.-Very good.

Arithmetic.-Very good in Standard III, but poor in the lower Standards. The work is too slow.

Needlework.-Only 14 hours a week are given to the subject; but the results are not unsatisfactory. The Chinese stitches alone are taught.

General. With only 3 Standards the school cannot be classed as "thoroughly efficient."

No. 45.-Tanglungchau Chapel.

Staff-LI LO-SHI.

516

Discipline and Organization.-Very good.

Sanitation.--Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 45 pupils.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory. New Readers are required in Standards I and II.

Chinese-Reading.-Fair in the higher Standards, but bad in the lower. Composition. -Bad throughout, especially in Standard II.

Geography.-Fair.

Arithmetic.-Mental arithmetic is poor, and evidently no great amount of attention has been paid to it. The written work on the contrary is very good in every Standard.

Needlework.-Good.

No. 46.-Wanchai Chapel, Girls.

Staff-CHAN KWAN-SHI.

Discipline and Organization.-Discipline, poor. The girls do not always stand up when addressed. The Teacher helped some of them during examination.

Sanitation.The floor is not always kept very clean, and the girls are not properly trained to habits of cleanliness.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 81 pupils.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

Chinese.-Reading.-Poor in the lower Standards. Composition.-Very fair. Geography.-Good.

Arithmetic.-Good, both written and mental.

Needlework.-Good.

General. A Grant is given at the same rate as last year, though the school has hardly reached the requisite standard.

*No. 47.-Bridges Street.

Discipline and Organization.-The drill in this school is good; but it cannot be des- cribed as well organized. The only assistants which the teacher has are two boys of 14 years, who were last year in Standard IV. He moreover occasionally leaves the school in their sole charge-inore than one-third of the scholars are in a lower division of Standard I, and seem to have learned very little; and though they swell the Grant they spoil the school.

Sanitation. The building is satisfactory, but is seriously overcrowded at times.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 79 pupils.

Apparatus.-A map of the Canton Province is required.

Chinese.-Reading.-Fair. Composition.-Poor.

Geography.—Poor.

Arithmetic.-Mental.-Fair. Written.-Fair. Standard IV did not understand the use of the decimal point, nor how to work by short division.

General.―The Grant should be reduced in future unless the staff is strengthened, or Standard I reduced to proper proportions.

}

517

Arithmetic.-Not nearly as gool as it was last year.

Needlework.-Poor.

Mental work was poor.

No. 60.-232, Hollywood Road.

Staff-Lo CHAN-SHI and 1 Assistant Teacher.

Discipline and Organization.-Good. Replies in Class are almost inaudible.

Sanitation.-Very good.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 62 pupils.

Apparatus.-More local maps and a map of China are wanted, otherwise good.

Chinese. Reading.-Fair. Composition.-Fair.

Geography.-Poor. The highest Standard have done very badly. Arithmetic-Both mental and written work are bad throughout.

Needlework.-Good. Useful work is being done.

No. 61.-22 Pokfulam Road.

Staff-CHAN YUEN-SHI.

Discipline and Organization.-Good.

Sanitation.--Satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 39 pupils.

Apparatus. Another blackboard and a map of the Island are needed.

Chinese.-Reading.-Fair. Composition.-Good.

Geography.—Poor. Very little work seems to have been got through in the year.

Arithmetic. Still a very weak subject, and it is discouraging to note that the lowest Standards are relatively the weakest.

Needlework.-Fair. Some new stitches should be taught to the elder girls.

General. A Grant is made at the same rate as last year, although the school barelv reaches the required standard.

No. 62.-Shaukiwan.

Staff-TAM WONG-SHI.

Discipline and Organization.—Good.

Sanitarion.-Satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 41 pupils.

Apparatus.-Another blackboard and a map of the neighbourhood of School are

wanted.

Chinese.-Reading.-Poor. Composition.-Fair. Colloquial characters should not be used in composition.

Geography.-Fair.

Arithmetic.-Good.

.

518

---

No. 63.-Stanley.

Staff-TAM YUK-CHAN.

Discipline and Organization.-On a surprise visit both the teachers were absent from the Class-room and no work had been given the children.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 89 pupils.

Apparatus.-Unsatisfactory. Still no local maps.

Chinese. The teacher has again apparently taken pains: but the results are poor. Geography-Poor.

Arithmetic. Fair.

General. In view of the failure of the management to supply the necessary maps, and of the general weakness of the school I must report it as "inefficient."

No. 64.-263, Queen's Road West.

Staff-NG TAK-MUN.

Discipline and Organization. -Very good. But if the Chinese Classics must be learned parrot-fashion in the lower Standards to please the parents, that should be done out of Code

hours.

Sanitation.- Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 62 pupils.

Apparatus. Very satisfactory.

Chinese.― Reading.-Good. Composition.-Good. Geography.—Good.

Arithmetic. The written work is very well done. Mental arithmetic is fair; but weak in the highest Standard.

General. The school is "thoroughly efficient", within the meaning of section 36 of the Code.

No. 65.-170, Hollywood Road..

Staff.-WONG PAK-MO.

Discipline and Organization.-Unsatisfactory.

Sanitation.-Unsatisfactory. The room is not kept clean.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 50 pupils.

Apparatus. More local maps are needed.

Chinese.-Reading.-Poor in the higher Standards. Composition.-Fair.

Geography. Very bad.

Arithmetic. Very bad.

General. This school has made no progress during the year, and the teacher seems to take very little notice of my suggestions. I report it as being "inefficient" within the meaning of section 29 of the Code.

519

No. 66.-13, Peel Street.

Staff-CHEANG OI-KU.

"

Discipline and Organization.—This school was substituted for one that was closed last year on my advice. The discipline is bad. Children attend the school, and are put on the roll, to whom the school work is confessedly not taught. A proportionate reduction has for this reason been made in the average attendance. The syllabus is disregarded.

Sanitation.The room is very dark, and not kept very clean.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 30 pupils.

Apparatus.-Another blackboard and more local maps are wanted.

Chinese. Reading.-Fair. Composition.-Fair.

Geography.-Fair.

Arithmetic.-Good in written work; mental work fair.

Needlework.-Fair. Most of the girls confine themselves to crochet.

No. 67.-82, Queen's Road East.

Staff-LI HON-FAN.

Discipline and Organization.-Several irregularities in the conduct of the school came to light in the course of the year.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor Space.--Sufficient for 32 scholars.

Apparatus. Satisfactory.

Chinese.-Reading.-Fair.

characters are badly formed.

Geography.-Fair.

Composition. Poor. The writing is untidy, and the

Composition.-Poor.

Arithmetic. Good in the lower Standards, both in mental and written work. The top boys are suffering from a defective grounding

No. 68.-17, Elgin Street.

Staff. —LAU SHAM-KU and 1 Assistant Teacher.

Discipline and Organization.--Poor. The school is noisy, and the Teacher sometimes absents herself during school hours without giving notice. Children who are not pupils should not be allowed to attend the school.

Sanitation.-Unsatisfactory. There are a number of cubicles in the school-room, the occupants of which stroll in and out and greatly impede the work.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 42 scholars.

Apparatus.-The readers used are too easy.

Chinese.- Reading.-Poor. It would be fair, but for the extreme weakness of the lowest Standard. Composition.-Bad throughout.

Geography.-Fair, except in the lower Standards.

Arithmetic. Both mental and written work are fair.

Needlework.Good.

2

No. 69.-Pottinger Street.

520

Staff-CHAU WAN-SHI and 1 Assistant Teacher.

Discipline and Organization.-Fair.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 42 pupils.

Apparatus.-More maps and another blackboard are needed. The Teacher makes use of an extraordinary substitute for chalk.

Chinese.-Reading.-Poor. Composition.-Poor.

Geography.-Fair.

Arithmetic.-Bad in the higher Standards; elsewhere fair.

Needlework. Very good.

P

General. A Grant is given at the same rate as last better to earn this Grant next year.

year.

The school will have to do

1

521

No. 48.-Shamshuipo.

Staff-CHAN KING-YAN and 1 Assistant Teacher.

Discipline and Organization.-The staff has been strengthened by the addition of a woman teacher, as recommended in ny last Report. The discipline is much improved. Nearly all the scholars are in the two lowest Standards.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 139 pupils.

Apparatus. Satisfactory.

Chinese.-Reading.-Fair. Composition.—Fair.

Geography.Good.

Arithmetic.-Good, especially that done by the girls.

Needlework.-Not taken. It certainly should be taught to the girls next year.

General. Next year, with more scholars in the higher Standards, the school should earn a larger Grant.

No. 49.-Shaukiwan.

Staff.-CHEANG TAK-HANG.

Discipline and Organization.-Very good.

Sanitation.-Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 87 pupils.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

Chinese.-Reading.-Poor. Composition.- Poor.

Geography.-Good in the lower Standards. I have explained to the master how he should take advantage of the situation of the school to draw the attention of the boys to the movements of the mail steamers, and to use them as a means of making the geography of the world more intelligible.

Arithmetic.-Backward in the lower Standards.

General. This school should qualify for a higher Grant next year.

No. 50-Tokwawan.

Staff-CHAN WING-WO.

Discipline and Organization.-Very good.

Sanitation. Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 127 pupils.

Apparatus. Very satisfactory.

Chinese.-Reading.-Fair. Composition.-Fair. Standard II is weaker than the rest.

Geography.Taken in a very intelligent and interesting manner. I was pleased to see that the meaning of the typhoon signals is taught. The titles and functions of the chief officials in Hongkong were well known on the occasion of my last visit.

Arithmetic. The lowest Standard do rather badly: the rest well, in mental and written work. Another year rather more work should be expected of them.

t

522

General. I report that the school is "thoroughly efficient."

No. 51.-West Point.

Staff-CHAU SHING-CHING and CHAU FOOK-KUE.

Discipline and Organization.-Greatly improved. The requirements of the Code are now carried out. I regret to say I again noticed some unfairness at examination.

Sanitation. Much improved, and now very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 167 pupils.

Apparatus.-Considerably increased since last year. The following articles are still needed, a coloured map of the Island, a sheet of flags, a large map of China and another blackboard.

Chinese.-Reading.-Fair. Composition.-Poor, especially in the two lowest Standards.

Geography.Good. The subject was well taught especially in the upper Standards.

History. The history of the last hundred years has been taught as an experiment, and with considerable success.

Arithmetic. A very weak subject. No written work is done in Standard I. The rest of the girls are only acquainted with the 4 simple rules. Standard VI were beginning vulgar fractions at the close of the school year. Mental arithmetic is not taught.

Needlework.-Good. The work taught is well suited to the capacity of the girls.

General. At present rate of progress the school should soon do much better.

No. 52.-Tokwawan.

Staff-CHUNG KWOK-SHI.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 66 pupils.

"Inefficient" last year.

Discipline and Organization.-This school was reported as In compliance with Section 29, (2) of the Code it was visited, after notice had been given, in the last month of the school year. The average attendance is only 10. There is a com- paratively well equipped school of the same class within a few hundred yards. The eye- sight of the teacher seems very defective, and she is obviously unfit for her duties. The deficiencies in apparatus, to which attention was drawn last year, have only very partially been made good; and what has been done in this direction was only done late in the school

year.

Chinese.-Reading.-Bad. Composition.—Fair.

Geography.-Poor.

Arithmetic.-Poor.

Needlework. Very poor.

Grant.-As the inefficiency of the school is due to the infirmity of the teacher rather than to any want of will on her part, a Grant is allowed under Section 30 of the Code. At the same time the school is again reported to be "Inefficient" under Section 29, on the grounds that it is unnecessary and the teaching unsatisfactory, and it is struck off the Annual Grant List.

No. 53-218, Hollywood Road.

Staff.-SHUM KWAN-HING and I Assistant Teacher.

Discipline and Organization.-Good.

523

Sanitation.-Good.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 66 pupils.

Apparatus.-The map of the World is hardly legible, and there is no map of China. Otherwise good.

Chinese. Reading.-Fair. Composition.-Fair.

Geography.-The lower Standards did fairly; the upper Standards are very weak.

Arithmetic. Both mental and written work are good so far as they go, but the Sylla- bus is rather unambitious.

No. 54.-Hunghom.

Staff-MOK LEUNG-SHI.

Discipline and Organization.-Fair.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 40 pupils.

Apparatus. Another blackboard required.

Chinese.-Reading.-Fair. Composition.-Poor.

Geography.-Good.

Arithmetic. Considerably improved. Mental arithmetic is good except in Standard II.

Needlework.-Fair.

No. 55.-36, Lyndhurst Terrace.

Staff.-LEUNG CHAN-SHI and I Assistant Teacher.

Discipline and Organization.-The Teacher committed the mistake of prompting the children during examination; otherwise the discipline would have passed for good.

Sanitation.- Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 49 pupils.

Apparatus. Satisfactory.

Chinese.-Reading.-Poor. Composition.-Poor.

Geography.-Very good in Standard IV, but bad in the lower Standards.

Arithmetic. Both mental and written work are on the whole good in all Standard except the lowest. More attention should be paid to the working of simple problems.

Needlework. Very good.

No. 56.-6, Hollywood Road.

Staff-PUN LAIKUM.

Discipline and Organization.—Not altogether satisfactory.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 32 pupils.

Apparatus.-Satisfactory.

Chinese.-Reading.-Bad. Composition.-Entirely neglected.

3

·A·

}

524

Geography.—Fair.

Arithmetic. Written work is poor in the two lowest Standards, but better in Standard III. Mental arithmetic is poor throughout.

Fair.

Needlework.-Fair.

No. 57.-358, Praya West.

Staff-CHUI CHAN-SHI.

Discipline and Organization.—Good.

Sanitation.-Very good.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 49 pupils.

Apparatus.-Another blackboard and a map of the Island are needed.

Chinese.-Reading.-Poor, especially in the two lowest Standards. Composition.-

Geography.-Poor; better in the higher Standards.

Arithmetic.-Fair; except the written work in the two lowest Standards, which was bad.

Needlework.-Fair. Only two stitches are taught.

No. 58.—58, Mong Kok Street, Yaumati.

Staff.-WONG SHUN-KIN.

Discipline and Organization.-Drill is very good. The Teacher must learn not to interfere with his boys during examination. The roll is not totalled daily.

Sanitation. Very satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 59 pupils.

Apparatus.-More local maps are needed.

Chinese. Reading.-Not altogether satisfactory. Better results would probably have been obtained if the master had stuck to the authorised text books in Code hours. Composition.-Good, especially the letter-writing in Standard III.

Geography.-What was taught was taught very well: but the requirements of the Department have not been sufficiently studied.

Arithmetic. More attention should be paid to mental work. The written work was very good.

General. A Grant is given at the same rate as last year: the school barely reached the requisite standard, and it should do better next year with a little pains.

No. 59.-13, Station Street, Yaumati.

Staff-Ho LI-SII.

Discipline and Organization.-Good.

Sanitation.-Satisfactory.

Floor Space.-Sufficient for 64 pupils.

Apparatus.-More maps and another blackboard are needed.

Chinese.-Reading.-Fair. Composition.—Good.

Geography.-Fair.

525

Appendix C.

MODEL COURSE OF INSTRUCTION FOR VERNACULAR SCHOOLS.

I.

CHINESE.

The National Reader is the text book recommended, one volume for each of the first 6 Standards. A great deal of time is left to the discretion of the teacher. Composition should be practised in every Standard. Letter-writing should be begun in Standard IV. Mencius should be read in Standard VII.

II.

GEOGRAPHY.

STANDARD IA.

(Six months' work.)

To understand a plan of the immediate neighbourhood of the School.

A.-Recapitulate.

STANDARD IB.

(Six months' work.)

B. To understand a map of either the City of Victoria or Kowloon, as

may be required by the circumstances of the School.

[Note.-Attention need not be drawn to places, the names of which are unfamiliar to

the majority of the pupils.]

STANDARD II.

A. Recapitulate.

B. To recognize the flags of the following countries :-England, France, Germany, Russia, Austria, Italy, Holland, Portugal, United States, China, and Japan; and to know where these places are on the inap.

[Note.-Attention should be drawn as far as possible to the ships in the harbour flying

these flags.]

C. To understand a map of the Island of Hongkong.

STANDARD III.

A.-Recapitulate the work of Standard II.

B.-To know the correct titles in Chinese, and the chief functions of:-

(a) His Excellency the Governor.

(b) The Honourable the Colonial Secretary.

(c) His 'Honour the Chief Justice.

(d) The Honourable the Colonial Treasurer.

(e) The Honourable the Registrar General.

(f) The Honourable the Director of Public Works.

(g) The Postmaster General.

(h) The Police Magistrate. (2) The Inspector of Schools.

(i) The Sanitary Board.

---

the pupils.

526

C.-The Canton Province, with special regard to the ancestral homes of

STANDARD IV.

A.-Recapitulate the work of Standard III.

B.-The Chinese Empire, with special reference to (a) the imports and exports of Canton and their destinations; (b) the Treaty Ports; and (c) the railways and principal water-ways.

C.-The World. To be dealt with by tracing the P. & O., Canadian Pa- cific and Siberian routes to England, with instruction on the nationalities and leading cha- racteristics of the countries en route.

STANDARD V.

A.-Asia, with special reference to Japan, Corea, China, Annam, the Phi-

lippines, Straits Settlements, Burma, India, Ceylon and Tibet.

B.-Phenomena of Day and Night and the Seasons.

and Russia.

STANDARD VI.

A.-Europe, with special reference to England, France, Germany, Italy

B.-Phenomena of Land and Sea Breezes.

STANDARD VII.

A.-The British Colonies.

B. The United States.

C.-Phenomena of Tides and Monsoons.

III.

ARITHMETIC.

(Boys.)

Standard

IA.-Numeration to thousands.

II.

IB.-Addition and Subtraction.

Multiplication including multiplication tables.

III. -Division-long and short. Problems.

IV.

-Chinese money. Addition and Subtraction of Decimals. Problems.

Addition and Subtraction of Fractions.

Multiplication and Division of Decimals. Problems.

V.

VI.

Multiplication and Division of Fractions.

Simple Proportion.

VII.

Simple Interest and Compound Proportion.

L

527

(GIRLS.)

Standard

""

IA. Numeration to hundreds.

IB.-Numeration to thousands and Addition.

Subtraction and multiplication tables.

-Multiplication and Problems.

Division and Problems.

""

II.

gar Ma

III.

""

IV.

""

V.

-Chinese money. Decimals.

""

VI.

Simple Proportion.

11

VII.

Simple Interest.

[Note.-Every Arithmetic lesson should be preceded by 5 minutes mental Arithmetic.]

IV.

NEEDLEWORK.

Standard I.

- Hemming.

""

II.

"

III.

VI.

Seaming and Running.

Cross-stitch in wool on canvas.

Darning, Crochet and Knitting.

V. -Buttonholes, Patching and Mending.

11

VI. VII.

}

-Silk embroidery, and to cut out and make a child's costume.

"

V.

HYGIENE.

The Government text-book (which will be published shortly) should be gone through in Standard IV, and again in more detail in Standard V. In Standards VI and VII it will be sufficient to recapitulate and see that what has been learned is not forgotten.

VI.

HISTORY.

Until a better text-book is published, the National History Reader is recommended, but the opinions therein expressed on modern events in China require some modification. The latter half of the book (on the History of China during the last 100 years) should be taken in Standard VI, and the first half (on Ancient History) in Standard VII.

TIME TABLE.

HOURS A WEEK.

SUBJECT.

STANDARDS I, II & III.

STANDARDS IV & V.

STANDARDS VI & VII.

Boys. GIRLS.

Boys. GIRLS.

Boys.

GIRLS.

Chinese, Geography, Arithmetic, Needlework, Hygiene, History,

...

Total Hours weekly,

12

9

12

3

3

3

9

6

6

6

...

3

1

3

3

...

24

24

24

24

24

24

30 4 C co

9

11

3

3

HAHA

13

6

∞ CO + + –

8

3

528

Appendix D.

EXTRACT FROM THE REPORT OF THE HEADMASTER,

KOWLOON SCHOOL.

The Prize Day.-The School prizes were given away by H.E. the Governor on Empire Day. This day was, as has been the custom since the foundation of the school, loyally celebrated, but in 1905 it was endowed with added distinction and meaning for British children by the fact that the Empire Day Address was delivered for the first time by His Majesty's direct representative. A few days later His Excellency invited the pupils and staff of the school to a garden party at Mountain Lodge-a compliment that was equally appreciated by the staff, the pupils and the parents of the pupils.

Changes. The following changes were introduced in the course of 1905 :-Boys over. 12 years of age were ordered to discontinue attendance; French and Hygiene were introduced as school subjects: the services of the Drill Instructor were dispensed with. Mrs. DRUMMOND received, in December, the temporary appointment of Second Mistress during the absence of Mrs. MURRAY. The beginning of the school year was also changed from Easter to January, as experience has shewn us that more new pupils join in January than at any time.

Premises.-The school buildings and furniture are in excellent condition, and visitors are continually remarking on the brightness of the appearance of the various class-rooms. In the course of the Summer Holidays the entire school-inside and outside-was painted and colour-washed by the P. W. D. and all furniture, doors, windows, &c., were put into perfect repair.

Discipline. The discipline of the School continues to be excellent.

Games. We are still at a disadvantage, compared with other schools, in that we have no play-ground or covered play-shed. We have been granted the use of the wood behind the school, but what is played of cricket and football has to be played in the road outside.

Health. The health of the school during 1905 was, for white children in the Tropics, as good as one could reasonably expect. The drainage and sanitary arrangements of the school were, during the year, periodically inspected by Dr. MCFARLANE.

1

· 529

Appendix E.

EXTRACT FROM THE REPORT OF THE HEADMASTER,

VICTORIA SCHOOL.

By Government Notification No. 74 of the 3rd of February, 1905, the Victoria School was opened at Tanglunchau on Monday, the 20th March, 1905, to children of European parents, boys and girls being admitted with this restriction, that girls over 12 years of age are not to be admitted or allowed to remain at the School.

Classification. The school is divided into an Infant, a Lower and an Upper School. Pupils are transferred to the Upper School on attaining the standard of knowledge equiva- lent to the 5th Standard of a Public Elementary School in England.

Curriculum.-Upper School. The course of instruction provides for a thorough modern and general education and includes Mathematics, Physical and Commercial Geo- graphy, Constitutional History, English Grammar, Essays and Literature, Hygiene, the Local Industries, Freearm Drawing,* Elementary Applied Mechanics, Pitman's Shorthand,* Geometrical Drawing.* Lower School. Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Geography, English Grammar, Word-building, Composition, Freearm Drawing, Clay Modelling, Object Lessons, Singing, Sewing. Infant School.-Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Singing, Drawing, Kindergarten, Sewing.†

In all classes the first half-hour each morning is given to Biblical Instruction.

Attendance.—17 pupils were admitted in March; in July there were 33, and at the Inspection in December there were 51 on the Admission Register. During the year 2 pupils left the Colony. There are now 13 pupils in the Upper School-2 girls and 11 boys, the average age of the latter being 13 years.

While the average attendance has thus practically trebled, the pupils themselves have attended school regularly, having put in at least 95% of the total number of attendances possible.

As the school year for 1905 included seven working months only, I have not recom- mended any examination in Religious Instruction for 1905, for the reason that all the pupils were re-classified at Midsummer and 18 new pupils have been admitted since Sept- ember. An examination would thus serve no useful purpose, as the syllabus of instruction has to be modified and half the pupils have not received six months' instruction.

This being the first school year, continuity of instruction has been necessarily difficult; the progress made and the standard of attainment in any subject do not justify any special rewards for proficiency; accordingly I do not recommend the giving of Prizes by the Government in any subject for the year 1905.

League of the Empire.-On Empire Day, May 24th, 1905, the children assembled at school in the morning, an address was given by the Headmaster reviewing the chief events during the Life and Reign of Queen VICTORIA, the National Anthem was sung and a Holiday given for the rest of the day.

It is intended to celebrate Empire Day 1906 by carrying out Lord MEATH'S suggested programme for Empire Day celebrations, and the Victoria School will join the Kowloon School.

Nelson's Day.-The Upper School received special lessons upon the Growth of the Empire during the 18th and 19th centuries including biographies of Napoleon, Wellington,

and Nelson.

During the holidays the Upper School pupils contributed essays for the Lord MEATH Empire Day Essays Competition, 1906; five of these essays were authorized by the In- spector of Schools for despatch to the Federal Council. The results of this competition will be duly announced.

Athletics. In response to a letter which I sent to parents, subscriptions were sent to the School Sports' Fund to cover the expenses for the supply of material for Cricket, Foot- ball and other games..

The boys take a keen interest in their games, and compete in the Hongkong Schools' Football League Competition. At least one match a week is played, and several fixtures in both cricket and football have been arranged for 1906. All boys are compelled to take part in some sport, unless parents for a valid reason expressly desire otherwise.

* Boys only.

† Girls only.

530-

Appendix F.

REPORT OF THE SUB-INSPECTOR OF NEEDLEWORK.

In the Vernacular Schools my inspection disclosed various deficiencies which might be remedied without undue stress on the capabilities of the pupils. The work is not neatly executed, and is generally unpresentable as regards cleanliness. Thimbles are hardly ever used.

In the English Upper Grade Schools, needlework if judged by the exhibitions of the scholars is deserving of praise, with the exception of one or two schools which were unable to supply any substantial evidence of the work done by the pupils. Crochet and knitting seem to find much favour; but sewing and mending are not given the encouragement they deserve.

The teachers generally make the children work scraps of linen for examination. It would be advisable to have presented for inspection specimens of the year's sewing done by each individual pupil.

No correct knowledge of the ability of the pupils is possible, unless they can be asked to work for a specified time under the immediate supervision of the Inspector.

I have hereunder drawn up a specimen syllabus shewing roughly the extent of pro- ficiency expected by the Department, in English Schools.

Standard I.-Hemming and running.

Standard II.-Seaming and felling, herring-bone stitch on woollen material.

Standard III.-As in Standard II; marking on canvas; darning; cross-stitch in

coloured cotton on canvas; crochet and knitting.

Standard IV.—As in Standard III; marking on calico; darning a hole in stocking

materials; buttonholes; fancy stitch on canvas.

Standard V.—As in Standard IV; mending; back-stitching; placing of tucks;

embroidery; fancy work.

Standard VI.-As in Standard V; flannel patch; lace; silk embroidery; to cut out

and make a chemise or combination garment.

Standard VII.-To be able to do all the above work neatly, and to cut out any of the following garments: an under bodice, a chemise, a night-dress, a petticoat.

P

HONGKONG.

No. 1906

25

ABSTRACT SHEWING DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE ESTIMATES OF EXPENDITURE FOR 1906 AND 1907.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

INCREASE.

DECREASE.

}

1

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS :-

PERSONAL EMOLUMENTS :—

New Posts,......

45,331

Higher Exchange,............

$ 117,615

New Posts (temporary),

5,156

Exchange Compensation,

96,712

Stipulated Increments,

11,451

Abolition of Posts,

19,500

Posts placed in Grading Scheme (with

Reductions on New Appointments,

9,438'

stipulated increments due),

5,805

Allowances,

2,346

Increase of Salaries,

4,789

Other Charges,

93,748

Allowances, ....

9,057

Special Expenditure,...

15,400

Other Items,

2,331

Pensions,

21,694

Other Charges,

69,086

Military Contribution,

110,074

Specal Expenditure,

13,300

Charge on account of Public Debt,

7,680

Ecclesiastical and Charitable Services,

8,705

Miscellaneous Services,

1,421

Public Works, Recurrent,.

28,300

Total Increase,

$212,412

Total Decrease exclusive of P. W. Extra-

ordinary.....

$ 486,527

Public Works, Extraordinary, ..

351,100

$ 837,627

212,412

Deduct Increase,

TOTAL DECREASE inclusive of P.

Extraordinary,

W.

$ 625,215

Receipts.

HONGKONG.

No. 1906

5

FINANCIAL RETURNS FOR THE YEAR 1905.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor,

Statement showing the total Receipts and Expenditure in the year 1905.

Amount

Estimated.

Actual

Receipts.

*A

C.

C.

More than Less than Estimated.

Estimated.

C.

C.

Payments.

Amount

Estimated.

Actual

Payments.

$

C.

TREASURY.

More than

Estimated.

Less than

Estimated.

lance, 1st January, 1905,

HEADS OF REVENUE.

Dues,

326,413.17

Nett Balance (overpaid) 1st Jan., 1905,

12,155.48

$

C.

$

C.

C.

HEADS OF EXPENDITURE.

$

C.

C.

$

C.

75,000.00

74,233.45

766.55 Charge on account of Public Debt,

185,000.00

162,759.86

22,240.14

Pensious,

220,618.00

202,348.73

18,269.27

es and Internal Revenue, not rwise specified,

Governor,

89,574.00

78,078.60

11,495.40

4,820,260.00 4,725,906.25

94,353.75 Colonial Secretary's Department and

of Court or Office, Payments

Legislature,

81,573.00

62,009.28

19,563.72

pecific purposes and Reimbur- mts in aid,

Audit Department,

15,458.00

13,289.81

2,168.19

420,565.00

)ffice,

405,000.00

417,417.37

414,838.19

......

3,147.63 Treasury,..........

53,832.00

52,300.99

1,531.01

Post Office,

387,887.00

585,449.25

197,562.25

9,838.19

Registrar General's Department,

36,179.00

31,761.32

4,417.68

Harbour Master's Department,

120,691.00

110,669.68

10,021.42

f Government Property, Land Houses,

Light-houses,

42,895,00

36,727.14

6,167.86

715,300.00 672,161.82

43,138.18 Observatory,

23,614.00

21,220.40

2,423.60

Botanical and Afforestation Dept.,

48,356.00

46,670.14

1,685,86

taneous Receipts,

Account,

5,000.00 10,073.12 187,186.00 121,491.65 70,000.00 90,022.24

5,073.12

Judicial and Legal Departments,

151,238.00

154,834.10

3,596.10

Ecclesiastical-

3,900.00

65,994.35 Education,

189,335.00

158,677.58

30,657.42

Medical Departments,

244,007.00

211,125.92

32,881.08

20,022.24

Magistracy,

40,254.00

85,762.86

4,491.14

Police,

721,949.00

655,678.73

66,270.27

Sanitary Department,.

497,494.00

395,624.59

101,859.41

AL, exclusive of Land Sales,..... 6,698,611.00| 6,526,144.09

34,933.55

207,400.46 Charitable Allowances,

5,420.00

3,922.22

Transport,

10,000.00

9.493.43

1,497.78

503.57

SAN GIULIAC DI

Lana silles

6,698,611.00 6,026,144.09 31,933.55

Sales,

500,000.00 392,259.76

207,400.46 Charitable Allowances,

Transport,

107,740.24 Miscellaneous Services, Military Expenditure, Public Works Department, Public Works Recurrent,

5,420.00

10,000.00

3,922.22

1,497.78

9,198.43

505.57

59,455.55

37,428.39

264,458.00 219,407.92 380,500.00 383,798.06

45,050.08

3,298.06

162,207.00 221,662.55 1,383,533.00 1,420,961.39

Total Revenue,

7,198,611.00|| 6,918,403.85

34,933.55

315,140.70

Available,

300,000.00

Available, (Subsidiary Coin), ·

5,112,392.00

Not Available,

988,267.47

Agents' Account,

5,133,972.55

gents' Advance,

12,149,898.15

gents' Bills outstanding,

Account,

Remittances,

Cains,

rder Account,

House Service,

Interest,

Total,

5,359,892.00 5,277,834.45 301,340,35 383,397.90

Public Works Extraordinary,

1,815,300.00 1,673,440.81

141,859.19

Total Expenditure,

7,175,192.00| 6,951,275.26

$ 6,951,275.26

330,000.00

270,373.62

55,511.20

5,112,392.00|

186,952.73

27,521.10

2,419.71

Deposits Available,

300,000.00

Deposits Available, (Subsidiary Coins),

5,112,392.00

Deposits Not Available,

940,378.13

Crown Agents' Account,..

5,135,525,32

Crown Agents' Advance,

862,107.27

Crown Agents' Bills in transit,

260,000.00

374,162.33

Advance Account,

Family Remittances, Subsidiary Coins,... Money Order Account, Suspense House Service, Suspense Interest,

Viceroy of Wuchang Loan, Exchange,

55,605.14

8,089,272.59

208,732.36

23,224.97

71,196.29

11,268,480.00

11,243.74

Total Receipts,..

36,588,134.38

Total Payments, ...39,663,595.40

eipts, with opening Balance, nee (overpaid), 31st December, 1905,

36,914,547.55

2,796,665.48

Total Payments, with opening Balance, ......................

39,675,750.88

Nett Balance (Crown Agents) 31st Dec., 1905, 35,462.15

Total,

$

39,711,213.03

Total,

..$39,711,213.03

525,257.09

Receipts.

No. 1906

5

HONGKONG.

FINANCIAL RETURNS FOR THE YEAR 1905.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

Statement showing the total Receipts and Expenditure in the

Amount

Estimated.

Actual

Receipts.

More than Less than Estimated.

Estimated.

Payments.

year

1905.

TREASUR

Amount

Estimated.

Actual

Payments.

More than

Estimated.

Les

Esti

$

C.

$

C.

C.

Nett Balance, 1st January, 1905,

HEADS OF REVENUE.

1. Light Dues,

2. Licences and Internal Revenue, not otherwise specified,

326,413.17

Nett Balance (overpaid) 1st Jan., 1905,

12,155.48

$

C.

C.

$

C.

€Ð

C.

HEADS OF EXPENDITURE,

..

C.

$

75,000.00

74,233.45

766.55 Charge on account of Public Debt,..

185,000.00

162,759.86

22

Pensions,

220,618.00

202,348.73

18

Governor,

89,574.00

78,078.60

11

28=

4,820,260.00| 4,725,906.25

94,353.75 Colonial Secretary's Department and

3. Fees of Court or Office, Payments for specific purposes and Reimbur- sements in aid,

Legislature,

81,573.00

62,009.28

19

Audit Department,

15,458.00

13,289.81

2

420,565.00 417,417.37

3,147.63 Treasury,.

53,832.00

52,300.99

1

Post Office,

387,887.00

585,449.25

197,562.25

4. Post Office,

405,000.00 414,838.19

9,838.19

Registrar General's Department,

36,179.00

31,761.32

4

5. Rent of Government Property, Land and Houses,

Harbour Master's Department, Light-houses,

120,691.00

110,669.58

10

42,895.00

36,727.14

6.

6. Interest,

7. Miscellaneous Receipts,

715,300.00

5,000.00

187,486.00

8. Water Account,

672,161.82

10,073.12

121,491.65 70,000.00 90,022.24 20,022.24

43,138.18 Observatory,.

23,614.00

21,220.40

2

Botanical and Afforestation Dept.,

48,356.00

46,670.14

1.

5,078.12

65,994.35 Education,

Magistracy,

Judicial and Legal Departments, Ecclesiastical,

Medical Departments,

Police, ....

151,238.00

154,834.10

3,596.10

- 3,900.00

3,600.00

189,335.00

158,677.58

30,

244,007.00

211,125.92

32.

40,254.00

35,762.86

4.

721,949.00

655,678.73

66,

Sanitary Department,..

497,484.00

395,624.59

101,

9. Land Sales,

TOTAL, exclusive of Land Sales,... 6,698,611.00 6,526,144.09 500,000.00 392,259.76

31,933.55

207,400.46

Charitable Allowances,

5,420.00

3,922.22

1.

Transport,

10,000.00

9,493.43

107,740.24 Miscellaneous Services,

162,207.00

221,662.55

59,155,55

100

9. Land Sales,

500,000.00

392,259.76

107,740.24 Miscellaneous Services,

Military Expenditure,

Public Works Department, Public Works Recurrent,

162,207.00

༡༤ལ

59,455.55 221,662.55 1,388,533.00 1,420,961.39

37,428.39

264,458.00 219,407.92 380,500.00 383,798.06

45,0

3,298.06

Total Revenue,..

7,198,611.00 6,918,403.85

34,933.55

315,140.70

Total,

Public Works Extraordinary,

5,359,892.00 5,277,834.45 1,815,300.00 1,673,440.81

301,340.35

383,

141,

Deposits Available,

800,000.00

7,175,192.00 6,951,275.26

525,

Deposits Available, (Subsidiary Coin),

5,112,392.00

Deposits Not Available,

988,267.47

Total Expenditure,

$ 6,951,275.26

Crown Agents' Account,

5,133,972.55

Crown Agents' Advance,

12,149,898.15

Deposits Available,

300,000,00

Crown Agents' Bills outstanding,

330,000.00

Deposits Available, (Subsidiary Coins),

5,112,392.00

Deposits Not Available,

940,378.13

Advance Account,

270,373.62

Crown Agents' Account,.

5,135,525,32

Crown Agents' Advance,

862,107.27

Family Remittances,

55,541.20

Crown, Agents' Bills in transit,

260,000.00

Advance Account,

>

vullis,

5,112,392.00

Family Remittances,-

Money Order Account,

Suspense House Service,

Supense Interest,

186,952.73

27,521.10

2,419.71

Subsidiary Coins,... Money Order Account,

Suspense House Service, Suspense Interest,

Viceroy of Wuchang Loan, Exchange,

374,162.33

55,605.14

8,089,272.59

208,732.36

23,224.97

71,196.29

11,268,480.00 11,243.74

Total Receipts,.

36,588,134.38

Total Payments, ...39,663,595.40

Total Receipts, with opening Balance,

36,914,547.55

Total Payments, with opening Balance,

39,675,750.88

Nett Balance (overpaid), 31st December, 1905,

2,796,665.18

Nett Balance (Crown Agents) 31st Dec., 1905, 35,462.15

Total,

$39,711,213.03

Total,

$39,711,213.03)

ج

35

Statement of Assets and Liabilities, on the 31st December, 1905.

LIABILITIES.

C.

ASSETS.

3

C.

Crown Agents' Drafts in Transit,

$30,000.00 Balance, Crown Agents,..

35,462.15

Do.,

Advance,

11,272,021.76

Advances,

213,321.87

Deposits not available,

644,638.21

Subsidiary Coins,

3,968,354.28

Refund of Rates,

Officers' Remittances,.

Money Order Remittances,

Civil Pensions,

Police Pensions,

8,300 00

Profit, Money Order Office,......

6,500.00

295.43

Viceroy of Wu Chang,

11,268,480.00

12,941.78 Suspense Interest Account,

68,776.58

22,500.00

13,500.00

Public Works,

5,378.74

Miscellaneous,

10,028.27

Suspense House Service,

3,073.65

Balance overdrawn, Bank,

2,790,605.48

Total Liabilities,

15,119,399.32

Balance,

441,495.66

Total,...$ 15,560,894.98

Total Assets,*

$ 15,560,894.98

*Not including Arrears of Revenue and Over-payment amounting to $330,711.15.

Statement of Funded Public Debt or Loans borrowed for Fixed Periods outstanding on the 31st December, 1905, and of the Accumulated Sinking Funds at the same date.

Designation of Debt or Loan.

Legal

Amount Authority. Outstanding.

SINKING FUNDS.

Amount of Stock, &c.

Cost Price.

Market Value,

Hongkong 31 % In- Ordinances 1&2| £341,799.15.1

scribed Stock.

of 1893.

Sterling.

Brit. Guiana, Cape of G. Hope, 3 % Gold Coast,

Stock.

11

%

Lagos,

31%

*

Natal.

ότι

*

New Zealand,

3%

**

Do..

"

Queensland,

3 %

2,000. 0.0

17

Sierra Leone,

31010

>>

South Australia, 31%

Trinidad,

4 %

Do..

3 %

11

Victoria.

35%

Western A'tralia, 3

£ s. d.

2,000. 0. 0 2,000. 0. 0 5.000. 0. 0 3,791. 1. 9

200. 0.0

868. 5. 2.000. 0. 0

4,000. 0. 0

1,104.19. 0

4,000. 0. 0 5,000. 0. 0 5,000. 0. 0 2,100. 0. 0

£ s. d.

£ s. d.

1,932,17. 3(90) 1,800. 0. 0 1,941. 1. (871) 1,750, 0.0 4,480.11. 6 (86) 4,300. 0. 0 3,643, 1. 8(972) 3,696. 6. 2 189.19. 5 (88) 176. 0.0 904. 8. 4 (99) 859.11. 6 1,921. S. 8 (871) 1,750, 0. 0 1,948. 5.10 (863) 1,730, 0, 0 3,879.19. 2 (99) 3,960. 0. 0 1.196. 3. 2 (100) 1,104.19. 0 4,082.12. 0 |(103) 4,120. 0. 0 4,746.15. 0 ( 90 ) 4,500. 0. 0 4,734. 8. 6 (99) 4,950, 0. 0 2,010. 2.10 (87) 1,827. 0. 0

£39,064. 5.11

£37,611.14. £

36.523.16. 8

36

Summary of Advances and Repayments of Advances for the Year ended 31st December, 1905.

Names.

Balances

on

Advances during

Total.

1st January, 1905.

the

year.

Repayments of Advances during the year.

Balances

on

31st Dec.,

1905.

$

Money Order,

28,949.07

153,007.89

( 181,616.57

181,956.96

Singapore Government,

770.07

Post Office-Money Order,

1,618.21 25,000.00

2,388.28

ì (1) 88.66 2,025.14

251.73

25,000.00

363.14 25,000.00

4

Supreme Court,

100.00

100.00

Captain Superintendent of Police,...

25.00

790.00

815.00

790.00

Crown Solicitor,

916.25

200.00

1,116.25

54.40

100.00

25.00 1,061.85

Sanitary Department,

500.00

500.00

500.00

Treasury,

500.00

500.00

500.00

Colonial Secretary's Department,

25.00

25.00

25.00

Public Works Department,.

11,000.00

11,000.00

11,000.00

Private Street Improvement,

1,116.35

H. B. Lethbridge,

{ (a)

899.30 159.96 1.47

2,015.65

2,365.72

Cr. 350.07

161.43

161.43

163.79

Ada Robertson,

65.45

Government of Lagos,

256.32

70.50 (b) 0.17

321.77

54.60

(2) 103.38

70.67

70.67

Jane Wildey,

f 247.60

99.03

387.90

486.93

(3) 156.79

82.54

47.96

M. J. Hood,

18.41

71.01

89.42

(4) 18.94

22.52

Postmaster General,

522.55

522.55

522.55

249.00

A. Dixon,.......

99.56

390.00

489.56

83.00

{(5) 157.56

F. A. Gidley,

213.84

85.44

334.64

420.08

71.24

(6) 135.00

239.82

M. Moore,

98.09

378.34

476.43

(7) 116.68

119.93

Weihaiwei Government,

548.02

548.02

548.02

Li Hong Mi,.

321.14

321.14

321.14

E. C. Lewis,

215.58

215.58

215.58

F. W. Clark,

688,64

688.64

688.61

...

Mauritius Government,

1,220.11

246.92

1,460.46

1,707.38

) (8) 11.82

475.45

Inspector Gidley,

198.18

198.18

198.18

D. Wood, .....

150.87

150.87

150.87

G. E. Thomas,

111.14

111.14

Praya East Reclamation,

40,665.72

16,499.85

57,165.37

Transvaal Government,

6,554.42

6,957.90 13,512.32

i (9) 52.04

Rider Main Scheme,

24,111.02

Ceylon Government,

53.40

Resumption of Land N. T.,

J. R. Crook,......

101,769.83

322.16

44,000.00

12.96

125,880.85

375.56

111.14

35.00 57,130.57

(11,195.28 1

6,630.12

286.93

· 2,265.00

119,250.73

78.15

(10) 10.48

44,000.00

40,000.00

12.58

4,000.00

12.96

11) 0.38

W. Orchar,

206.06

206.06

220.18 Cr.Bal. 14.12

J. M. Seymour,

M. Earner,

D. McKenzie,

92.90

180.44

6.24

186.68

4.06

(12) 89.72

124.60

124.60

160.00 Cr.Bal. 35.40

€61.75

561.75

275.00

286.75

M. Waters,

86.05

86.05

86.05

Praya Reclamation,...

2,336.90

2,386.90

2,336.90

Passage of Miss Avis,

358.40

358.40

35.00

323.40

H. K. Phelips,

591.60

591.60

591.60

E. A. Carvalho,

537.81

537.81

537.81

...

Furniture for Government Pavilion,

600.00

600.00

400.00

200.00

J. W. Ironside,

650.82

650.82

650.82

F. T. Piggott,

1,805.78

1,805.78

1,080.00

725.78

C. II. Barrow,

97.90

97.90

97.90

Inspector Fisher,.

282.00

282.00

240.00

42.00

L. S. Clarke,

468.03

468.03

125.00

343.03

P. C. Finaman,

G. P. Martin,

Carried forward,.

468.03

46-.03

100.00

368.03

120.00

120.00

120.00

111,329.72

371,496.88

482,826.60 270,497.69 212,728.50

V

Balances

On

Names.

1st January, 1905.

37

Summary of Advances and Repayments of Advances for the Year ended 31st December, 1905.--Continued.

Repayments of Advances during the year.

Balances

on

31st Dec.,

1905.

Advances during the

Total.

year.

S

$

Brought forward,.......

111,329.72 | 371,496.88

482,826.60

270,497.69

212,728.50

Deposit of 1% on value of goods ex

Goldmouth,

Local Auditor,

P. P. J. Wodehouse,

Botanical & Afforestation Department,

R. G. McEwen,

Storage of Subsidiary Coin,

J. G. T. Buckle, (Widows and Orphans'

Pension Fund),

122.68

150.58

150.58

(c) 27.90

530.00

530.00

530.00

1$1.05

181.05

181.05

100.00

100.00

100.00

540.16

540.16

540.16

740.40

740.40

740.40

452.80

452.80

452.80

A

111,329.72

374,191.87

485.521.59

272,199.72 213,721.46

Less Credits,

399.59

(a) Profit in Exchange ...$ 1.47

300

(1)

(c)

+1

";

0.17

27.90

$29.54

SРРК Ð ✪ Q = Q

(1) Loss in Exchange $ 88.66

103.38

:

156.79

*

18.94

>>

157,56

135.00

116.68

11.82

52.04

10.48

"

(11) (12)

0.38

89.72

$941.45

213,321.87

Summary of Deposits and Refunds of Deposits for the Year ended 31st December, 1905.

Names.

Balances on

Deposits

1st January, received dur- 1905. ing the year.

Total.

Deposits

Balances on repaid during 31st Decem-

the year.

ber, 1905.

$

Tender Deposits....

Sikh Passage Fund,

6,270.00 566.00

15,605.00

Police Fine Fund,

407.10

1,080.37

21,875.00 566.00 1,187.47

16,950.00

Praya Reclamation Fund,

129,440.63

18,302.23

147,742.86

271.00 1,027.05 22,986.24

4,925.00 295.00

460.42.

124,756,62

Suitors' Fund, ..................

235,400.48

829,942.78 | 1,065,343.21

831,150.19

234,193.02

Widows and Orphans' Fund,

196,525.75

48,271.50

239,797.25

6,783.58

233,013.67

Chinese Recreation Ground,

5,276.61

1,857.87

6,634.48

684.52

5,949.96

-Custom Duties on Parcels,

1,080.08

3,389.29

4,469.37

2,979.67

1,489.70.

Sale of Land Deposits,

100.00

850.00

950.00

700.00

250.00

Post Office Fine Fund,

295.61 |

31.66

327.27

100.00

227.27

Medical Department Fine Fund,

249.01

63.71

312.72

312.72

Sanitary Department Fine Fund,

38.63

34.79

73.42

73.42

Hongkong Volunteer Corps Fund,

16,782.32

Intestate Estate,

Estate of Deceased Policemen,

House Service Deposits.....

1,639.18 197.42 603.00

24,098.81 121.64

40,881.13

24.451.92

16,429.21

Sugar Convention Ordinance,.

1,441.00 12,220.00

1,760.82 197.42 2,044.00

1.760.82

197.42

1,650,00

894.00

12,220.00

12,220,00

Market Caretakers' Securities,

Miscellaneous,

20.00 1,784.31

36,456.87

20.00 38,241.18 f

20.00

18,423.96

19,817.22

Board of Trade,

Gaol Library,

28.84 108 90

28.84 103.90

28.84 103.90

9th March, 1906.

596,808.87

988,267.47 1,585,076.34

940,378.13

614,698.21

A. M. THOMSON,

Treasurer.

;

No.

HONGKONG.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH ESTIMATES FOR 1907.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor,

STATEMENT OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES, ON THE 31ST DECEMBER, 1905.

26

1906

LIABILITIES.

C.

ASSETS.

$

C.

Crown Agents' Drafts in Transit,

330,000.00 Balance, Crown Agents,....

35,462.15

.Do.,

Advance,

11,272,021.76 Advances,

213,321.87

Deposits not available,

644,698.21

Subsidiary Coins, ....

3,968,354.28

Refund of Rates,

8,800.00

Profit, Money Order Office...

6,500.00

Officers' Remittances,..

295.43

Viceroy of Wu Chang,

11,268,480.00

Money Order Remittances,

12,942.78

Suspense Interest Account,

68,776.58

Civil Pensions,

22,500.00

Police Pensions,

13,500.00

Public Works,

5,373.71

Miscellaneous,

10,028.27

Suspense House Service,

3,073.65

Balance overdrawn, Bank,

2,796,605.48

Total Liabilities,

15,119,399.32

Balance,

441,495.66

Total,............$ 15,560,894.98

Total Assets,*

$ 15,560,894.98

* Not including Arrears of Revenue and Over-payment amounting to $380,711.15.

Treasury, Hongkong, 28th August, 1906.

A. M. THOMSON.

Treasurer.

[P. T. 0.]

586

ESTIMATED BALANCE OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES ON 31sг DECEMBER, 1996.

Ordinary Revenue, 1906,

Land Sales,

Amount transferred from Praya Reclamation Fund,

Ordinary Expenditure, 1906,

Public Works Extraordinary,

Credit Balance,

Balance of Assets, 1905,

..$ 6,648,361.00 307,000.00

98,673.25

-$7,054,034.25

$ 5,341,259.00

1,409,697.00

-$6,750,956.00

303,078.25

441,495.66

Balance of Assets on 31st December, 1906,

*$ 744,573.91

* Not including Estimated Arrears of Revenue 1906 amounting to $129,000.

Treasury, Hongkong, 28th August, 1906.

Dr.

To Inscribed. Stock Loan at 33% interest,

LOAN ACCOUNT 1905.

A. M. THOMSON, Treasurer.

Cr.

to be paid off on the 15th April, 1943,.. £ 341,799.15.1 By Sinking Fund,

£

37,611.14.4

ESTIMATED LOAN ACCOUNT 1906.

To Inscribed Stock Loan at 33% interest,

to be paid off on the 15th April, 1943,...£ 341,799.15.1 By Sinking Fund,

Treasury, Hongkong, 28th August, 1996.

£

42,209. 6.6

A. M. THOMSON,

Treasurer.

431

REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF FIRE BRIGADE FOR

THE YEAR 1905.

There were 32 Fires and 77 Incipient Fires during the year, as against 57 and 64 in 1904. Details with regard to these Fires are given in Tables I and II.

The estimated damage caused by Fires was $327,425.00 and by Incipient Fires $1,708.00.

The Brigade turned out 48 times during the year.

2. There was an intermittent supply of water in the mains from 27th February to 28th March, during which period sea water was used as much as possible in order to save the fresh water.

3. Three Fires occurred in the harbour during the year.

4. There were two prosecutions for arson. The first was in connection with the Fire at No. 168 Hollywood Road where ten persons lost their lives. Two men were arrested and convicted at the Criminal Sessions and sentenced to imprisonment for life. The second was in connection with the Fire at No. 462 Des Voeux Road West. Two men were arrested and convicted at the Criminal Sessions and sentenced to seven and five years' imprisonment respectively.

5. I attach a list of places where Fire Despatch Boxes are kept and of private telephones to which the Police have access in the event of a Fire (Appendix A). I also enclose a copy of a report by the Acting Engineer on the state of Fire Engines, which are all in good order (Appendix B).

-

6. The conduct of the Brigade has been good.

7. The Deputy Superintendent (Captain LYONS) returned from leave on 15th February. During his absence Mr. HALLIFAX acted for him.

20th February, 1906.

F. J. BADELEY, Superintendent, Fire Brigade.

Appendix A.

List of Places where Fire Brigade Despatch Boxes are kept.

1 Box. No. 1 Police Station.

2 Boxes. No. 7 Police Station.

2 Boxes. Engine House at No. 2 Police Sta 1 Box.

Government House.

neers' Mess.

Central Police Station.

tion.

1 Box.

Naval Dock Yard.

1

""

1

Clock Tower.

1

"2

??

1

Government Offices.

1

1

"2

""

1

$1

No. 7, Queen's Garden, Royal Engi- | 1

1

"

1

1

""

1

"}

Terrace.

1 Box.

1

1

""

1

Staunton Street, at Sing Wong 1

Street.

""

1

""

1

Water Lane, at Queen's Road

Central.

وو

Bonham Strand West, at West

End.

Gas House, West Point.

Fat Hing Street, at Queen's Road

West.

Ko Shing Theatre.

Government Lunatic Asylum.

Nam Pak Hong Fire Station. Man Mo Temple.

Wellington Street at Lyndhurst 3 Boxes. No. 5 Police Station.

Government Civil Hospital.

Kennedy Town Hospital. Collinson Street West.

No. 463, Queen's Road West. Police Matshed, Connaught Road.

7

1

432

List of Telephones to which the Police can have access to communicate with

Central Station in the event of a Fire breaking out.

Hongkong and China Gas Company, East and

West Point, from 7 A.M. to 9 P.M. Tung Wá Hospital, Po Yan Street. Man On Insurance Office, Queen's Road West.

Clock Tower.

Hongkong Hotel, Des Voeux Road Central. Royal Naval Yard, Queen's Road East. Mr. J. KENNEDY's, Causeway Bay. Electric Light Company, Queen's Road East.

Fire Alarms.

Harbour Master's Office at Wing Lok Street. Hollywood Road at Queen's Road West. Wilmer Street at Des Voeux Road West.

Appendix B.

HONGKONG, 9th February, 1906.

SIR,-I have the honour to forward the Annual Report on the state of the Government Fire Engines for the year ending 31st December, 1905.

STEAMER NO. 1. Floating Fire Engine.

Engines and Pumps by Shand & Mason.

This Engine has been 8 years in service, and was docked and thoroughly overhauled in October, 1905, by the Hongkong and Whampoa Dock Co., Ltd., at Cosmopolitan Dock.

The Hull, Machinery and Boiler are all in good working order.

STEAMER No. 2.

Land Engine by Shand & Mason.

This Engine has been 27 years in service (Boiler 8 years old). It has been regularly used and tested at monthly drill for drivers and fires, overhauled at regular intervals during the year and is now in good working order.

STEAMER No. 3.

Land Engine by Shand & Mason.

This Engine has been 23 years in service (Boiler re-tubed in May, 1904). It was regularly used and tested at monthly drill for drivers. Pumps overhauled and new valves and valve seats fitted in August last. Boiler and Machinery now in good working order.

STEAMER No. 4.

Land Engine by Shand & Mason.

This Engine has been 24 years in service, (new fire-box fitted to Boiler in April, 1904). It has been regularly used and tested at drill for drivers and fires during the year, pumps overhauled and now in good working order.

STEAMER No. 5.

Land Engine by Shand & Mason.

This Engine has been 19 years in service, regularly tested at monthly drill for drivers and fires, overhauled at regular intervals and now in good working order. The fire-box of this Boiler is considerably worn. Last year it was recommended that a new fire-box be supplied. All the Manual Engines and Gear, Hose, Reels, Ladders and Supply Carts have been kept in repair and are now in good working order and condition.

I have, etc.,

ROBERT HUNTer, Acting Engineer, Fire Brigade.

Table I.

FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1905.

No. of BUILDINGS.

REMARKS.

Ten persons were burnt to death. Two men were arrested and convicted at the Criminal Sessions for arson and sentenced to imprisonment for life.

DESTROYED.

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

Wholly. Partly.

1 January 3

3,45 a.m.

House No. 48, Elgin Road, Kowloon,

4

1

$ 50,000.00

Unknown.

N

12

2.15 a.m.

House No. 168, Hollywood Road,

2

4,000.00

Arson,

>>

16

3.30 p.m.

18

}}

A matshed at Quarry Bay Ship Yard, 7.35 p.m. | House No. 20, New Market Street,

1 matshed

1,750.00

Unknown.

1

10,000.00

Do.

25

""

3,35 a.m.

6

30

6.00 p.m.]

House No. 10, New Market Street, A family house at Sai Kung,

1

1

22,000.00

Do.

1

100.00

Do.

February 2

6.55 p.m.

6

9.30 a.m.

""

Houses Nos. 97 & 99, Queen's Road Central, A grass stack in Hang Hai Village, New Territory,

2

15,000.00

Do.

2 stacks

150.00

Do.

9

10

"}

1.00 p.m.

House No. 145, Aberdeen Village,.

1

560.00

Do.

...

10.

13

"

10.35 p.m.

House No. 89, Queen's Road West,

1

13,000,00

Do.

11

20

7.05 p.m.

House No. 9, Tung Loi Laue,

1

20,100.00

Do.

12

22

5.20 a.m.

House No. 21, Suidter Street, Tai Kok Tsui,

1,800.00

Do.

13

March

10

3.20 a.m.

House No. 43, Bonham Strand East,

200.00

14

16

""

1.10 p.m. House No. 27, Chinese Street,

300.00

15

21

2.35 a.m.

House No. 109, Winglok Street,

1

8,000.00

""

16

April

4

12.40 a.m.

House No. 76, Des Vœux Road Central,

1

3,800.00

Unknown.

17

7

5:00 p.m.

House No. 127, Wellington Street,

1

1,000,00

Do.

18 May

10

11.10 a.m.

19

11

12 Midnight.

A matshed at Kowloon Godown, Tsim Sha Tsui, 1 matshed House No. 248, Des Voeux Road Central,

300.00

Accidental dropping of burning

Charcoal.

Upsetting of a Kerosine Lamp. Exploding of a Kerosine Lamp,

Spontaneous Combustion.

I

10,000.00

Unknown.

י

21

20 July 8

August

2.20 a.m.

House No. 90, Winglok Street,

1.

25,000.00

Do.

5

8.30 p.m.

On board S. S. «Yik Sang in Victoria Harbour,

11

300.00

Do.

23

2223

26

""

8.15 a.my

A matshed at Blackhead's Point,

12 matsheds

14,715.00

{

September 9

2.40 a.m.

24

10

Houses Nos. 29 & 31, Des Voeux Road Central,

11.05 p.m. House No. 133, Winglok Street,

2

55,000.00

1

10,000.00

Supposed dropping of a Lighted Match or Cigarette....) Unknown.

Do.

Carried forward,

..$

267,075.00

433 -

FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1905,-Continued.

No. of BUILDINGS DESTROYED.

* CAUSE,

REMARKS.

Sparks from grass fire.. Unknown.

Two men were arrested and convicted at the Criminal Sessions and sen- tenced to 7 and 5 years' imprison- ment respectively.

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DAMAGE.

Wholly. Partly.

Brought forwa d,

:

$267,075.00

25

October 24

1.30 p.m. A matshed in New Water Works at Cheung

Sha Wan,

8 matsheds

2,200.00

Unknown.

26

28

A

>>

27

126

November 3

4.00 a.m. grass stack at Ap Ma Lin, Sham Shui Po, 5.20 p.m. House No. 26 Ta Tit Hong, Kowloon City,

1 stack.

1 wooden

hat.

1

150.00

200.00

28

22

11.55 p.m. House No. 462, Des Voeux Road West,

12,000.00

Arson,

31

10 15 20 13

29

Dec.

· 10

11.00 a.m.

Pacific Mail S. S. 'Siberia in Victoria Harbour,

""

40,000.00

Accident.

30

27

9.20 p.m.

28

2.00 a.m.

Licensed Junk S. 598 H. in Victoria Harbour, A Wooden Structure in Boat Building Yard at Sai Kung,

2,900.00

Unknown..

I

400.00

Do:

32

31

33

6.10 p.m. House No. 293, Queen's Road West,

1

2,500.00

Do.

Total,

327,425.00

:

434

Table II.

INCIPIENT FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1905.

- 435-

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DAMAGE.

CAUSE.

REMARKS.

$ c.

January 2

14

10J2A 18

6.20 p.m.

1.30 p.m.

7.10 p.m.

House No. 196, Third Street,

House No. 43, Square Street,

House No. 44, Wellington Street,

18

12.15 p.m.

Honse No. 49, Gough Street,

10 12 19

""

6 p.m.

621 20 0124 23

House No. 257, Des Voeux Road Central,. House No. 98, Aplichau,...

100.00

Do.

Do.

25

>>

9

27

>>

10

28

3.00 p.m.

99

11

29

""

12

February

4

13

9

10.50 a.m.

4,50 a.m.

4.15 a.m.

>>

House No. 172, Des Vœux Road Central,. House No. 19, Wellington Street, 2nd floor, On board S. S. "Shabzada" at Hunghom Dock Wharf,

10.00

Trifling

Unknown,

14

10

9.40 a.m.

Accident,

""

15

13

99

8.54 p.m.

16

18

8 r.m.

House No. 1, Old Bailey Street, 2nd floor,

17

March

7.45 p.m.

House No. 46, Aberdeen,.

18

9

"

House No. 224, Queen's Road Central, 2nd floor,

19

17

19

20

26

,,

A

21

30

12 noon

""

22

April

10.30 a.m.

Peddar Street,

50.00

23

2.30 a.m.

House No. 313, Queen's Road Central, 1st floor,{

Slight

Do.

2 a.m.

6.30 p.m.

9.15 a.m.

Hillside between Little Hongkong and Aberdeen near Stauley Road,

House No. 7, Caine Road,

6.45 p.m. | House No. 6, Elgin Road, Kowloon,

9 p.m.

7.15 p.m.

11.45 p.m.

Supreme Comt Buildings,

House No. 258, Queen's Road West, 2nd floor, House No. 117, Wellington Street,

Steam Laundry premises, Wanchai,

House No. 315, Des Voeux Road West, 1st floor, Cook-house of No. 337, Queen's Road Central,

400.00 Upsetting a kerosine lamp,

Accident,

Grass on fire,.

50.00 Overheating of kitchen flue,

5.00

Chimney on fire,

Stove-pipe igniting a beam,

Chimney on fire,

Lamp setting fire to curtain,

30.00 | Unknown,

500.00 Overheating of drying pan,

Soot in chimney caught fire, 10.00 | Careless use of joss sticks,

Accident,

Unknown,

Put out by occupants.-

Put out by Police.

Put out by occupants, Police and Firemen. Put out by occupants.

Put out by Brigade.

Put out by occupants and Police.

Put out by Police.

Put out by Brigade. Put out by occupants.

Put out by Firemen,

Put out by Police and pcenpants. Put out by Police and occupants. Put out by Dock employees.

Put out by inmates and Police. Put out by Brigade.

Put out by inmates.

Put out by occupants and villagers. Put out by occupants.

Put out by employees. Put out by Police.

Put out by Police and occupants. Put out by Police and workmen. Put out by Police and occupants.

15.00 | Overheating of a lamp, Accident,

Chimney on fire,

Falling of joss sticks,

24

9.30 a.m.

House No. 29, West Street,

>>

25

""

7.30 p.m.

House No. 32, Tai Ping-shan Street,..

Chimney, on fire,

Do.

26

6.15 p.m.

House No. 221, Hollywood Road,

Trifling

Escape of gas,...

Do.

Do.

Do.

27

24

8 p.m.

On a piece of ground east of Stanley,

29

30

88888

28 May

6.40 a.m.

Po Hing Theatre, Yaumati,

Trifling

8 a.m.

House No. 14, Wellington Street,

לי

99

8 a.m.

Rattan Factory, Bay View Terrace, Shau-ki- wan Road,

31

333333

8.30 p.m.

A Godown near Bay View Station,

Unknown,

32

""

A

6.45 a.m.

St. Joseph's College, Robinson Road,

100.00

Do.

10.00 | Grass on fire,.... Chimney on fire,

Joss papers igniting bed curtain, Chimney on fire,

Put out by Police and villagers. Put out by Brigade.

Put out by occupants and Police. Do.

Put out by Brigade.

Put out by teachers and pupils.

Carried forward,

1,280.00

INCIPIENT FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1905,-Continued,

-436-

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

DAMAGE.

Br. ught forward,

1,280.00

15.00 Unknown,

Trifling.

""

1 p.m. House No 11, Albany Street,..

8.20 p.m. | House No. 239, Hollywood Road, 4 30 p.m. House No. 429, Queen's Road West, 8.20 p.m. | House No. 49, High Street,

33

May

8

34

9

6.10 a.m.

House No. 188, Hollywood Road,

35

18

36

24

37

25

38

31

11.07 p.m.

39

June

2

40

15

41

July

}

House No. 18, Counanght Road,

I p.m. House No 1, Mosque Juuction,..

3.30 a.m. House No. 539, Queen's Road West,

6.15 p.m. | A bundle of dry grass in the cook-house of a matshed on the reclamation at Tsim Sha Tsui caught fire,

8.30 p.m. | No. 5 Police Station,

9.10 p.m. HouseNo. 36, Lower Lascar Row,

CAUSE.

Upsetting of a kerosino lamp,

Chimney on fire,

Do.

Exploding of a kerosine lamp,. Chimney on fire, Accident,

5.00 Exploding of a lamp,

Chimney on fire,. Unknown,

Do.

Chimney on fire, Do.

1.00 | Exploding of a kerosine lamp, 10.00 Overheating of chimney flue, Do.

Unknown,

42

9

10.00

43

18

Trifling.

Accident,

Do.

91

44

31

1.15 a.m.

45

August

9

46

27

8.15 p.m.

Noon

""

47

30

8 a..

""

48

30

49

September 11

50

12

9 p.m.

6.40 p.m.

11.37 p.m.

51

14

8.25

Р 10.

""

52

27

8 35 a.m.

House No. 35E, Wellington Street, A new building in Chater Road, House No. 414, Des Voeux Road West, House No. 102, Aberdeen Village, House No. 112, Sham Shui Po,................. House No. 526, Des Voeux Road West,. House No. 164, Wellington Street, House No. 239, Queen's Road West,. House No. 2, Mountain View, Peak,

10,00

1.00

Dɔ.

Accident,

150.00

53

October

1

10.47 p.n.

1ouse No. 48, D'aguilar Street, ..........

54

??

1.39 p.m.

House No. 39, Circular Pathway,

55

6

"

6.30 p.m.

56

15

5.40 pm.

House No. 129, Connaught Road Central, House No. 100, Wellington Street,

27

31

"

5 p.m.

ilouse No. 46, Second Street,

58

November

10.30 p.m.

59

1 p.m.

House No, 350, Queen's Road Central, House No. 104, Queen's Road Central,

Trifling

Accident,

(0

12.45 pm.

61

""

12.45 p.m.

House No. 501, Queon's Road West, House No. 65, Connaught Road West,

10.00

Upsetting of a lamp,

20.00

Unknown,

62

6 a.m.

House No. 14, Aberdeen Street,

600

Burning of joss sticks

63

7.35 a m.

Austin Road, Kowloon,

Chimney on fire,

61

2.35 a.m.

House No. 170, Hollywood Road,

Exploding of a lamp,

65

10

Attempted arso!

Carried forward,.

.$

1,518.00

2 n.m. Honse No. 63, Connaught Road 'West,

Chimney on fire,

Do.

Do.

Boiling fat igniting firewood, Unknown,

REMARKS.

Put out by occupants. Put out by Police.

Put out by Police and occupants. Extinguished by occupants.

Do.

Put out by occupants and Police. Do.

Put out by Police.

Put out by occupants.

Put out by firemen.

Extinguished by occupants and Police. Put ont by occupants.

Put out by coolies and workmen. Put out by Police.

Put out by Police and occupants. Put out by villagers and Police. Put out by Brigade.

Put out by occupants and firemen. Put out by ecenpants.

Put out by occupants and Police.

Do.

Do.

Put out by Brigade.

Put out by occupants and Police. Do.

Put out by deenpants

Put out by ocenpants and Poliec. Do.

Put out by Brigade.

Extinguished by Police and occupants.

Put out by occupants.

Do.

Do.

1

INCIPIENT FIRES DURING THE YEAR 1905,--Continned.

No.

DATE.

TIME.

SITUATION OF FIRE.

Brought forward;.

forward,$

3 a.m. Duddell Street, Store of Messrs. Kelly and Walsh, 12.40 p.m. ↑ House No. 197, Wanchai Road, 7.20 a.m. House No. 15, Wong-nei-chung, 5.30 p.m. House No. 15, Bonham Strand East,

2 a.m. | House,No. 54, Bonham Strand Central, 10.30 a.m. H. M. Naval Yard,

67

69

72

78

3 568RAN PERRE

66

December

2

13

63

15

*}

17

""

18

"

18

""

19

>>

...

23

""

74

26

""

3.30 a.m.

75

26

"

5.15 p.m.

House No. 28, Tai Ping Shan Street, House No. 26, Wellington Street,

76

31

""

31

"

1.30 p.m.

10.30 a.m.

The American Match Factory, 26 Des Voeux Road, Hunghom,

House No. 10, Wong Ma Kok Village,

6 p.m. House No. 4, Lower Lasear Row, 10.45 p.m."Hungcheong Stonecutters, Matshed at

Yaumati,

19

DAMAGE.

1,518.09

Slight

Accident,

CAUSE.

30.00 Overheating of a stove pipe, 10.00 Overturning of a lamp,.. Bursting of a lamp, .....

Unknown,

Do.

50.00 Accident,

100.00 Falling of a lamp, Attempted arson, Chimney on fire, Do.

Attempted arson,..

REMARKS.

Put out by goodown keeper.

Put out by occupants.

Put out by Police and villagers. Put out by occupants.

Do.

No assistance required. Put out by the caretaker.

Put out by villagers. Put out by occupants. Do.

Put out by firemen. Put out by occupants.

TOTAL......

$

1,708.00

437

*

7

No. 1906

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF VICTORIA GAOL, FOR THE YEAR 1905.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

The numbers of prisoners received into prison during the year and the corresponding numbers for the year 1904 were as follows:-

1905.

1904.

Convicted by the Ordinary Courts,

5,258

6,471

Convicted by the Courts Martial,

64

95

Debtors,

49

64

On remand or in default of finding surety,.

856

834

Total,...

6,227

7,464

There was thus a decrease of 1,237 on the total number of admissions. as compared with the previous year.

2. The number of convictions from the New Territory was 169, against 80 for the pre-

vious year.

3. The following Table shows the number of convicts confined in Victoria Gaol on the 31st December, for the past ten years :-

Year.

No. of Convicts.

Percentage to Estimated Population.

Year.

No. of Convicts.

Percentage to Estimated Population.

1896,

40

.016

1901,

180

.059

1897,

51

.020

1902,

215

.068

1898,

55

-.021

1903,

245

.075

1899,

96

.037

1904,

243

.067

1900,

141

.053

1905,

216

.057

4. The number of prisoners admitted to the prison in 1905 for offences not of a criminal nature was 3,383, made up as follows:-

Convicted by Courts Martial,.

>>

under the Opium Ordinance,

64

1,397

22

Gambling Ordinance,

342

""

Market Ordinance,

288

""

Arms Ordinance,

19

Vehicle Ordinance,

85

""

17

""

Sanitary Bye-laws,

141

""

""

Harbour Regulations,

68

for Drunkenness,

74

27

Trespassing...

47

Disorderly Conduct,

270

>>

""

Vagrancy,

52

Contempt of Court,.

5

""

""

Assault,

20.6

""

""

Obstruction,

124

""

""

Cutting trees,

36

Fighting,.

250

57

12

Mendicancy,

5

Total,......

3,383

58

5. The following Table shows the number of prisoners committed to prison without the option of fine and in default of payment of fine :--

In default of payment of fine.

Without option of fine.

Served the imprisonment.

Paid full fine.

fine.

Total.

Paid part

1,988

837

719

5,322

1,778

6. There were 13 deaths from natural causes, 3 executions and 2 births in the prison.

7. 83 juveniles were admitted into prison, 35 of whom were sentenced to be whipped in addition to various terms of imprisonment varying from twenty-four hours' detention to one month's imprisonment with hard labour.

8. The percentage of convicted prisoners admitted to prison with previous convictions recorded against them was 8.50, as compared with 12.26 for the year 1904.

9. There were 1,029 punishments awarded for breaches of prison discipline being an average of 1.47 per prisoner, against 798 in the preceding year, and seven prisoners were sentenced to be whipped with the birch by the Assistant Superintendent and one with the cat-o'-nine-tails by order of the same Officer in conjunction with a Justice of the Peace.

10. The following Table shows the daily number of prisoners undergoing imprisonment during the past ten years and the percentage borne by this number to the estimated population of the Colony of Hongkong :—

Year.

Estimated Population.

Daily Average number of Prisoners.

Percentage.

1896,

239,419

514

•214

1897,.

248,710

462

•185

1898,.

254,400

511

•200

1899

259,312

432:

•166

1900,

262,678

486

•185

1901,

300,660

499

•165

1902,

311,824

576

•184

1903,

325,631

653

•200

··

1904, 1905,

361,206

726

•201

"...

377,850

697

•184

11. The Home system of registering prisoners on their admission to prison was intro- duced on the 1st January, 1905, and is working well.

12. The complete separation of first offenders from habitual criminals has been observed during the year.

13. The site for a new prison at Kowloon has been selected and the sum of $40,000 towards erecting the same has been included in the Estimates for the current year.

14. In accordance with directions issued by His Excellency the Governor on his visit to the Victoria Gaol on the 20th September, 1904, louver roofs have been added to A. and B. Halls by the Public Works Department.

3

59

15. All minor repairs to the prison have been carried out by prison labour. The fol- lowing new works have also been done by the prisoners :-(a.) Additional work-room built off the printer's shop on columns; (b.) Surface of the lower yard concreted; (c.) Five baths for prisoners erected and a new clothing store fitted up in connection with the reception room; (d.) The old clothing store converted into a room for solicitors; (e.) Sun-shades fixed to the Clerks' Office window; (f.) A water-closet built for shoemakers.

16. The industrial activity referred to in my previous annual reports continues and no efforts have been spared to keep prisoners employed in productive forms of labour.

17. The Sanitary condition of the prisons is good.

18. The appliances for use in cases of fire are sufficient and in good working order.

19. The conduct of the staff throughout the year has been good.

20. The usual Returns are appended.

6th December, 1905.

F. J. BADELEY,

Superintendent.

:

Table I.

RETURN OF OFFENCES PUNISHED BY FLOGGING, IN THE YEAR 1905.

Number of Floggings awarded.

Number of Strokes awarded in each case.

By Prison Authorities.

By Courts.

Date.

Daily.

Total.

average.

By the As-

By the As-

sistant

sistant

Superin-

By

Superintendent and

tendent. a Justice

of the Peace.

Judge.

By

Magistrate.

January,

February,

691

2

683

...

March,

700

1

...

April,

June,

736

...

May,...

711

780

July,

738

August,

726

September,

717

...

October,

671

1

November,

617

December,

598

...

Total,..

...

4

6

9

11

...

7

...

0123o

11

17

...

2

10

6

8

3

...

1

5

7

...

6

6

5

7

...

16

17

...

3

4

...

:

འ ལ ང

3

4

3

1

1

...

...

...

со

8

10

12

20

21

24

...

...

3

20 2

Total.

11

...

6

17

6

10

2

1

1

1

8

3

6

...

...

7

6

...

1

6

7

...

1

15

3

1

...

17

4

1

1

4

3

...

...

1

1

20

72

100

4

12

64

1

19

...

...

100

60

61

Table II.

Return of Offences reported of prisoners fighting with or assaulting each other or Officers, for the years 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, and 1905.

Daily average Daily average

1901.

1902.

Mouths.

number

number

1903. Daily average number

1904. Daily average

number

in Prison, 499.

in Prison, 576. | in Prison, 653. in Prison, 725.

1905. Daily average number in Prison, 697.

January,

!

5

1

February,

1

12

March,.......

7

:

10

3

4

April,

1

10

10

:

May,

2

دت

2

June,

1

2

July,

6

2

1

August,

8

مهر

4

I

September,

1

00

2

October,

7

00

6

4

6

November,

I

1

December,

CO

10

3

1

5

Total,.

28

64

56

24

22

Table III,

Return of Offences of prisoners having Tobacco, for the years 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904 and 1905.

Mouths.

1901.

Daily average number

1902. Daily average number

1903. Daily average number

1904. Daily average number

in Prison, 499. | in Prison, 576.

in Prison, 653. in Prison, 725.

1905. Daily average number

in Prison, 697.

January,.

February,

3

1

2

March...

April,

N

1

1

May,

1

1

June,

1

4

:

July,

2

2

August,

2

4

September,

3

N

October,

November,

1

10

December,

5

3

1

2

:

4

co

1

::

sought

4

2

1

Total,......

24

22

12

24

17

CO

3

N

A

62

Table IV.

Return of Reports for talking, idling, short oakum picking, &c., for the

years 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904 and 1905.

1901.

Month.

Daily average

1902. Daily average

number

number

1903. Daily average number

1904. Daily average

1905. Daily average.

in Prisou, 499.

in Prison, 576. in Prison, 653.

number in Prison, 725.

number in Prison, 697.

January,

164

117

February,

126

76

88888

89

49

80

80

38

60

March,

127

113

103

61

59

April,

214

134

87

33

88

May,

224

63

82

56

100

June,

124

88

77

42

102

July,

162

105

100

44

82

August,

166

92

88

40

84

September,

140

114

138

44

97

October,

162

133

163

18

November,

156

101

142

30

338

88

70

B

December,

54

98

161

55

80

Total,...

1,819

1,234

1,280

540

990

Table V.

Return showing the Expenditure and Income for the

year

1905.

Expenditure.

Amount.

Income.

Amount.

C.

C.

Pay and Allowance of Officers including

uniforms, &c.,...................

Earnings of prisoners,

37,272.15

75,902.47

Victualling of prisoners,

20,351.84

Paid by Military for subsistence of Mili-

tary prisoners,

919.80

Fuel, light, soap and dry earth,

9,784.51 Paid by Navy for subsistence of Naval

prisoners,

471.00.

Clothing of prisoners, bedding, furniture,

&c.,

4,649.01 Debtors' subsistence,

450.25

Weihaiwei prisoners' subsistence,.

195.00

Vagrants' subsistence,

108.80

Waste food sold,.......

27.50

Total,

..$ 110,687.83

Actual cost of prisoners' maintenance,...... 71,243.33

Total,

Average Annual cost per prisoner, $102.21.

.$110,687.83

Table VI.

RETURN SHOWING VALUE OF INDUSTRIAL LABOUR, FOR THE YEAR 1905.

63

1

2

3

4

Value of Stock) on hand on

Value

Nature of Industry.

January 1st,

1905.

of

Material

purchased.

Total Dr.

Value of

Articles

manufactured

or work

done

for payment.

5

Value of Arti- cles manufac-

6

7

Value of

Stock

tured or work

on

Total Cr.

done for Gaol

and other

hand on

Departments.

December 31st,

1905.

8

Value

of Earnings

(Difference

between

Columns

7 and 3.

Oakum,

$ C.

2,463.75

$ C.

1,287.42

$

C.

$ C.

S

$

3,751.17

2,114.16

Coir,

Net-making,

Tailoring,.....

Rattan-work,

Tin-smithing,

Carpentering,

Grass-matting,

Shoe-making, ...

Laundry,..

419.01

1,355.67

1,774.68

3,322.52

69.85

2,812.20

100.00

$ c.

4,926.36

$

C.

1,175.19

3,492.37

1,717.69

20.91

79.36

100.27

361.71

10.00

18.70

390.41

290.14

151.38

137.64

289.02

199.85

482.57

100.00

782.42

493.40

6.82

32.74

39.56

60.77

34.80

11.85

107.42

67.86

10.26

54.02

64.28

140.85

392.02

9.00

541.87

477.59

213 36

444.16

657.52

123.36

221.89

354.40

699.65

42.13

3.00

3.00

1.20

2.20

3.40

0.40

335.10

1,736.87

2,071.97

248.94

3,891.70

349.17

4,489.81

2,417.84

:

17.00

1,097.16

1,114.16

...

13,105.62

5.00

13,110.62

11,996.46

Printing and Bookbinding,.

Totals,

1,845.36

11,367.60

13,212.96

151.34

27,553.95

4,101.12

31,806.41

18,593.45

5,485.95

17,592.64 23,078.59

6,724.70

45,762.40

7,863.64

60,350.74

37,272.15

64

Table VII.

Return showing value of articles manufactured or work done for which payment has been received or for which accounts have been rendered, during the year 1905.

Department.

Description of Articles.

Amount.

Total.

$

C.

C.

Oakum,

By 21,059 lbs. Oakum at 10 cents per lb.,

Making sword matting,

2,105.98

8.18

2,114.16

Coir,

Mats sold 3,937 lbs. at 20 cents per lb.,

787.56

""

Matting sold 12,662 lbs. at 20 cents per lb.,

,, Matting repaired,

2,532.46

2.50

3,322.52

Net-making,

>>

24 Tennis nets at avr. $8.47 cents each,

203.41

59

13 Boundary nets 6,270 sq. ft. at 2 cents,

156.75

29

Repairs, etc.,

1.55

361.71

Tailoring,

Articles made and repairs for Gaol Officers,

199.85

199.85

Rattan-work,.............

27

18 Chairs ratianed,....

5.25

Various,

55.52

60.77

Carpentering,

""

Articles made,.

119.31

,,Articles repaired,

4.05

123.36

Tinsmithing,

Articles made,.

36.35

110 cwts. old iron sold,

104.50

140.85

Grass-matting,

8 lbs. mats and matting at 12 cents,..

1.05

,, Repairs,

0.15

1.20

Shoemaking,

>>

9 pairs canvas boots at $2.60,

23.40

leather

>>

""

at $4.50,

22.50

4

canvas shoes at $2.45,

9.80

1 pair leather at $3.50,

"

3.50

""

3 pairs children's shoes at $2.00,

6.00

>;

Repairs, etc.,

138.30

Leather,

45.44

Printing and Book-

binding,

248.94

"

Printing,

42.72

,, Book-binding,

108.62

151.34

Paid into Bank during 1905, which

sum includes

6,724.70

$254.87 for work executed in 1904,

6,439.17

Value of work executed during 1905 for which pay-

ment was deferred to 1906,

540.40

*

65

Table VIII.

Return showing the value of articles manufactured or work done on account of the Gaol and other Departments, during the year 1905.

Industry.

Department.

Value.

Remarks.

Coir,

Net-making,

Gaol, Police, Gaol,

Tailoring,

"

Rattan Work,

སན

Tinsmithing,

Police, Gaol,

9.00

Carpentering,

Grass Matting, Shoemaking,

Police,

Gaol, Police,

""

392.02 140.24 81.65

Nil.

512.80

212.50

Fire Brigade,

326.50

Sanitary Dept.,

2,839.90

Laundry,..

Gaol,

2,187.96

C.

39.85 Mats, matting and brushes at 20 cents per Ib. 30.00

10.00

482.57 Clothing and repairs and bedding for Gaol at fixed

scale.

25.80 | Various. Cost of material plus percentage.

Various.

Fixed scale.

Various. Partly fixed scale, partly cost of material'

plus percentage.

Boots and shoes made and repaired at fixed scale

of prices.

Officers' washing— 72,932 pieces at 3 cents.

7,002.24

Prisoners'

">

Govt. Civil Hospital,

3,792.30

G. C. H.

Police Department.

Printing & Bookbinding.. Sec Table IX, ....

27,553.95

123.12

Police

--233,408

""

-126,410

>>

4,104

""

$ 45,762:40

Table IX.

Return showing the value of work performed in the Printing Department on account of the

Guol and other Departments, during the year 1905.

Department.

No of forms No of books

printed.

bound.

Printing.

Bookbinding.

Total.

C.

C.

C.

Government House,

3,050

15

27.50

9.70

37.20

Colonial Secretary's Office,

53,807

232

737.26

134.15

871.40

Registrar General's Office,

115,957

921

1,111.80

217.75

1,329.55

Public Works Department,

271,889

1,257

1,753.70

413.40

2,167.10

Harbour Department,..

304,281

1,174

2,217.00

338.80

2,555.80

Treasury,

145,565

772

1,092.90

177.25

1,270.15

Sanitary Board,

791,612

3.506

4,301.40

666.55

4,967.95

General Post Office,

1,005,996

2,064

4,974.85

548.95

5,523.80

Police Department,..

478,296

1,690

2,892.85

589.45

3,482.30

Magistracy,....

72,205

65

525.40

56.35

581.75

Government Civil Hospital,

126,904

247

755.60

179.50

935.10

Supreme Court,

32,122

111

326.90

144.60

471.50

Land Court,

27,200

67

194.50

72.90

267.10

Land Office,...

41,828

308

315.10

196.10

511.20

Botanical & Afforestation Department,

20,990

218

134.70

62.90

197.60

Bacteriological Department,

200

2.00

2.00

Prison Department,

62,463

142

596.00

120.75

716.75

Queen's College,

2,279

84

28.50

11.70

40.20

Education Department,

2 ),503

61

173.20

38.25

211.45

Audit Department,.

1,100

5

17.50

5.50

23.00

Stamp Office,

57,100

22

328.00

9.80

337.80

Assessor's Office,

2,02.5

23

40.50

22.70

63.20

Magistracy, Tai Po,

6,450

5

91.50

8.20

99.70

Land Office, Tai Po,

47,950

281

375.50

225.60

601.10

Health Officer's Office,

3,100

24.50

24.50

Observatory,

634

4

17.00

3.80

20.80

Attorney General's Office,.

1,350

21

23.00

37.00

60.00

Crown Solicitor's Office,

5,650

5

45.00

3.60

48.60

Hongkong Volunteer Corps,...

12,745

32

123.50

11.55

135.05

Total,

3,718,551

13,282

23,247.15

4,306.80

27,553.95

**

66

Table X.

Return showing the Employment of Prisoners and the Value of their Labour,

during the year 1905.

Description of Employment.

SUNDAYS, CHRISTMAS DAY AND GOOD FRIDAY:-

Cooking,

Cleaning,

Non-productive,

Totals,.....

Daily Average number of Prisoners.

Value of Prisou Labour.

Males.

Females.

Total.

$

C.

13

13

84.21

29

30

162.00

654

654

696

1

697

OTHER DAYS :-

Debtors, Remand, Ou punishment, Sick, -

80

80

Crank, Shot, Shot and Stone,

160

160

In Manufactories :-

Bookbinding,

40

40

1,860.00

Printing,

39

39

1,813.50

Printing, labourers,

39

38

1,178.00

Kuitting,.

~

31.00

Oakum Picking,

109

6

115

713.00

Coir Matting,

42

42

1,302.00

Shoemaking,

20

20

744.00

Tailoring,

15

2

17

790.50

Netmaking, String Making, and Ship's

fender making,

12

12

186.00

In Building :-

Bricklaying,

Carpentering and Fitting, .

Painting,......

21

3

In Service of the Prison :—

Laundry,....

Cooking,

Cleaning,.....

White-washing,

:

:

4

186.00

21

1,041.60

93.00

48

9

57

2,650.00

13

13

485.16

29

1

30

930.00

124.00

Totals,...

677

20

697

14,874.00

67

Table XI.

Return showing the Basis upon which the Value of Earnings of Prisoners is calculated.

In Manufactorie :

Bookbinding,

Printing,..........

Printer's Labourers,

Knitting,

Oakum picking, ·

Coir Matting,....

Shoemaking,

Tailoring,

Net-making, string and fender making,

In Building:

Bricklaying,

Carpentering and Fitting,.....

Painting,

In Service of the Prison:

Laundry,

Cooking,

Cleaning,

Whitewashing,

ment.

Table XII.

Retw`n showing the Changes in the Gaol Staff*, during the year 1905.

Establish-

Resigned Voluntarily.

Pensioned.

Died.

Transferred.

pensed with.

Service dis-

Europeans,

Indians,

34

65

9

1

*This does not include the Superintendent, Assistant Superintendent or Clerical Staff.

#

Dismissed.

RATE.

15 cents per diem.

15

10

5

""

2

"

10

15

12

13

22

3

17

15

19

. 16

10

,

15

12

72

10

10

"

Total No of

Changes, &c.

+

8

3

16

">

No. 1906

12

HONGKONG.

REPORT OF THE HARBOUR MASTER FOR THE YEAR 1905.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

HARBOUR DEPARTMENT,

HONGKONG, 28th February, 1906.

1. Shipping.

2. Trade.

3. Revenue.

4. Steam-launches.

5. Emigration.

6. Registry of Shipping.

CONTENTS.

7. Marine Magistrate's Court.

8. Marine Court.

9. Examination of Masters, Mates and Engineers.

10. Examination of Pilots.

11. Sunday Working Cargo.

12. New Territory.

TABLES.

I. Number, Tonnage, Crews and Cargoes of Vessels entered. II. Number, Tonnage, Crews and Cargoes of Vessels cleared.

III. Number, Tonnage, Crews and Cargoes of Vessels entered at each Port. IV. Number, Tonnage, Crews and Cargoes of Vessels cleared at each Port.

V. Number, Tonnage, Crews and Cargoes of Vessels of each Nation entered VI. Number, Tonnage, Crews and Cargoes of Vessels of each Nation cleared. VII. Junks entered from China and Macao.

VIII. Junks cleared for China and Macao..

IX. Total number of Junks entered at each Port.

X. Total number of Junks cleared at each Port.

.XI. Junks (local trade) entered.

XII. Junks (local trade) cleared.

XIII. Summary of arrivals and departures of all vessels.

XIV. Statement of Revenue collected.

XV. Licensed Steam-launches entered.

XVI. Licensed Steam-launches cleared.

XVII. Chinese Passenger Ships cleared by the Emigration Officer (Summary). XVIII. Vessels bringing Chinese Passengers to Hongkong from places out of China

(Summary).

XIX. Vessels registered.

XX. Vessels struck off the Register.

XXI. Marine Magistrate's Court.

XXII. Diagram of Tonnage of Vessels entered,

APPENDICES.

A. Report on Mercantile Marine Office.

B. Report on Import and Export Office. C. Report on Marine Surveyor's Office. D. Report on Gunpowder Depôt.

E. Report on Lighthouses.

F

190

1.--SHIPPING.

The total Tonnage entering and clearing at Ports of the Colony during the year 1905 amounted to 34,185,091 tons, being an increase, compared with 1904, of 622,305 tons, and the highest tonnage yet recorded.

tons.

There were 227,909 arrivals of 17,142,393 tons, and 224,849 departures of 17,042,698

Of British Ocean-going vessels 3,839,050 tons entered, and 3,833,274 tons cleared. Of Foreign Ocean-going vessels 2,917,550 tons entere:1, and 2,903,235 tons cleared. Of British River steamers 2,776,982 tons entered, and 2,777,040 tons cleared.

Of Foreign River steamers 329,743 tons entered, and 329,854 tons cleared.

Of Steamships under 60 tons trading to Ports outside the waters of the Colony 35,724 tons entered, and 35,724 tons cleared.*

Of Junks in Foreign Trade 1,428,966 tons entered, and 1,446,474 tons cleared.

Of Steamships under 60 tons plying within the waters of the Colony 4,622,661 tons entered, and 4,546,651 tons cleared.*+

Of Junks in Local Trade 1,191,717 tons entered and 1,170,446 tons cleared.

Thus:-

British Ocean-going vessels represented

Foreign Ocean-going vessels represented British River steamers represented

Foreign River steamers represented

...

*

Steamships under 60 tons, Foreign Trade, represented..... Junks in Foreign Trade represented

Steamships under 60 tons, Local Trade, represented Junks in Local Trade represented

22.4%

17.0%

16.2%

2.0%

0.2 %

8.4%

26.8%

7.0 %

100.0

2. Eight thousand one hundred and thirty-three (8,133) steamers, 22 sailing ships, and 900 steamships under 60 tons in foreign trade, entered during the year, giving a daily aver- age entry of 24.81, as compared with 23.25 in 1904. If the figures for foreign trade Junks are added, the daily average would be 70.5, as against 70 in 1904.

3. A comparison between the years 1904 and 1905 is given in the following table:-

1904.

1905.

Increase.

Decrease.

Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage.

British Ocean-

going,

Foreign Ocean- i

4,818

3,696

7,708,734 | 3,995 | 7,672,824

323 36,410

going,

5.350.847 3,845 | 5,820,785 149 469,938

British River

5,872 | 5,697,360| 7,188

5,554,022 | 1,616

143,338

Steamers,

Foreign kiver

1,036

470,371 975

659,597

Steamers,

189,226 GI

S'ships under 60

tons (Foreign

2,051

105,781 | 1,800

71,448

254 34,336

Trade),

:

2,776 196,830

Junks in Foreign 36,251 3,072,270 |33,475 || 2,875,440

Trade,

Total,.

Steam launches

plying in the Colony,

Junks in Local

Trade,

53,227 | 22,405,366 (51,578 | 22,653,616 1,765 || 659,164| 3,414| 410,914,

*

307,502 8,808,744 337,913 9,169.312 30,411 | 360,568

|-

[62,9652,348,676 63,267 || 2,362,163 302 13.187

Grand Total,... 423 634 | 33,562,780 | 452,758 | 34,185,091 32,478 1,033,219 3,414 | 410,914

NET,

(29,064 622,305

*

Including 32,424 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 1.176.625 tons.

† Including 32.424 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 1,176,625 tons.

* These figues do not include private Steam-launches.

†These figures are incomplete, as the "Star" Ferry Company's craft are not included, the Company stating that no record is kept of the nunkber of trips made, or passengers carried, by their vessels.

i

191

4. For Ocean vessels under the British Flag, this Table shows a decrease of 320 ships of 36,410 tons. This decrease loses any significance it may at first sight appear to possess when viewed in conjunction with my report for 1904, where an increase appears of 352 ships of 930,300 tons, which is shown to be practically due to special circumstances connected with the late war. These special circumstances being removed with the advent of the Baltic Fleet in Far Eastern waters in April, 1905, the shipping tended to return to its normal state, and we are left with a net increase over the figures for 1903 (neglecting those for 1904) of 32 ships of 893,890 tons. This seems to show a continuance of the general increase in size of British ships trading to the Far East.

In British River Steamers there is an increase shown of 1,616 ships, which is due to the additional small steamers put on to the West River run, and to two small craft plying be- tween here and Mirs Bay, which have been treated as River steamers, though they do not strictly satisfy the definition. The decrease in tonnage, of 143,338 tons, is accounted for by the fact that three moderate sized vessels were taken off the run early in the year, and

much smaller craft substituted.

For Foreign Ocean Vessels an increase of 149 ships of 469,938 tons is shown. Here, again, reference to my 1904 report is necessary in order to properly appreciate the signifi- cance of the figures. During that year, on account of the war, there was the enormous decrease, of 1,149 ships of 1,910,589 tons, of which Japanese shipping accounted for 834 ships of 1,809,000 tons. The causes militating against the employment of Japanese ships were not removed until late in 1905, indeed, they are not completely removed even now, so that the increase now shown is but the partial restoration to normal conditions, and should really be read as a net decrease, on the figures for 1903, of 1,000 ships of 1,440,951 tons.

In Foreign River Steamers the decrease of 61 ships is due to the fact that two small Chinese vessels have become British, and the increase in tonnage to the more frequent run- ning of two moderate sized French Steamers.

The remaining increases and decreases do not present any points of importance, with the exception of the large increase in Steam-launches plying within the waters of the Colony, which affords good evidence of the enhanced internal traffic in the Colony.

5. The actual number of ships of European construction (exclusive of River Steamers and Steam-launches) entering during the year was 889, being 506 British and 383 Foreign.

These 889 ships entered 3,926 times and gave a total tonnage of 6,756,600 tons. Thus, compared with 1904, 4 more ships entered 81 less times, and gave a collective ton- nage increased by 212,890 tons.

Steamers.

No. of Times entered.

Total Tonnage.

Flag.

1904. | 1905. | 1904. 1905.

1904.

1905.

British,

498

490 2,151

Austrian,

13

10

32

1,983 3,843,3553,806,792 26 102,349 88,326

Belgian,

1

1

1

1

2,047

1,794

Chinese,

15

14

180

165

241,085

214,720

Danish,

4

7

13

18

26,817

24,206

Dutch,

9

10

44

35 $4,379

77,205

French,

36

39

238

207 234,977 288,911

German,

147

163

861

887 1,268,835 1,394,255

Italian,..

6

8

20

56 38,212 51,492

Japanese,.

30

10

51

29

114,951 34,573

Norwegian,

60

85

253

346

276,211

381,479

Portuguese,

Russian,

Spanish,

Swedish,

4524+

5

53

69

12,167

11,800

1

5

1

14,578

2,903

2

6,017

2

12

19

8,582

20,210

United States,

24

22

64

62

232,857

314,101

No Flag,.

1

1

2,500

Total,

859

867 3,981 3,904 6,509,919 6,712,767

192

.

Sailing Vessels.

No. of Times entered.

Total Tonnage.

Flag.

1904. 1905. 1904. 1905.

1904. 1905.

British,

11

16

11

16

19,447

32,258

Dutch,

1

1

84

...

French,

German.

Italian,.

Norwegian,

Sarawak,

United States,. No Flag,

2122141

3,444

1

1

47

2,193

994

...

1

1

3,651

1,338

: +

4

4

4

2,867

1,199

8,183

1

919

...

Total,

25

:

223

26

22

32,791 || 43,833

6. The 506 British Vessels carried 3,793 British Officers and 30 Foreign Officers, as follows:-

British,

Dutch,......

Norwegian,.

Swedish,

United States,

Total,

.3,793

2

1

1

26

3,823

Thus, the proportion of Foreign Officers serving in British Vessels was 0.99%, com- prising 4 nationalities. A decrease of 0.08%, with an increase in number of Officers borne, in a slightly decreased number of vessels.

The 383 Foreign vessels carried 2,895 Officers, of whom 119 were British, as follows:—

In Chinese vessels,

French

""

80

2

,, Japanese

91

22

""

United States vessels

29

Total,.......

119

Thus, 4.11% of the Officers serving in Foreign Vessels visiting the Port were of British nationality. A decrease of 2.51%, with a decrease in number of ships and of Officers borne

therein.

4

193

7. The 506 British Vessels carried, as crews, 30,983 British, 2,818 other Europeans, and 108,032 Asiatics; while the 383 Foreign vessels carried 1,219 British, 42,553 other Europeans, and 78,226 Asiatics.

Hence, in British Vessels:-

And in Foreign Vessels: -

21.8% of the crews were British.

1.0% of the crews were British.

1.9% 76.3%

""

Other Europeans. Asiatics.

34.9% 64.1%

,,

""

Other Europeans. Asiatics.

"}

""

This shows a growing tendency, when compared with previous years, for vessels to employ their own nationals to the exclusion of Asiatics and other Europeans.

2.-TRADE.

8. My opening remarks under this heading in my report for 1904 are as applicable now as then. The inaccuracy of these cargo returns is strikingly exemplified in the enormous increase shown in the import of sugar, which amounts to 106,091 tons, or an increase of 51.5%. From enquiries made, it appears that no such abnormal increase has taken place, and the explanation of the discrepancy is that the sugar returns, since the passing of the Sugar Convention Ordinance and the regulations made thereunder in June, 1905, (a period of only six months), have, perforce, been accurate, so that, apparently, double this amount of sugar has, in previous years, if reported at all, been reported as "General."

9. Under the heading Imports there appears a decrease of 280,888 tons, or 6.7 %. Though the general tendency is towards decrease in most of the items, there are substantial increases reported in Cotton, Hemp, and General Cargo, of 70.2%, 38.2%, and 1.9%, respec- tively, but it is difficult to say if these are genuine increases or no. Prominent among the

decreases are :-

Coal, 68,467 tons, or 5.9%. This is probably due to the cessation of maritime warlike operations.

Flour, 61,413 tons, or 52.9%. This appears to be due solely to the "boycott" of United States' goods.

Bulk Kerosene, 13,554 tons, or 23.8%. It seems that this is merely due to the fact that large cargoes which in previous years would have been landed here, have been carried on to other ports in the same bottoms, and hence come under the heading "Transit".

Case Kerosene, 26,186 tons, or 26%. This reduction, again, may be ascribed to the "boycott."

Liquid Fuel, 8,877 tons, or 91%. There would appear to be little demand here for this form of bunkering, hence this decrease.

Rice, 257,168 tons, or 31.2%. This, though a decrease on the figures for 1904, appears to represent merely a return to normal conditions after the enormous rice trade to the North during the earlier stages of the war.

10. An increase is reported of 263,492 tons in Transit Cargo.

11. The reports show a decrease of 262,160 tons in Export Cargo.

194

12. The total reported Import trade of the Port for 1905 amounted to 25,764 vessels of 11,328,015 tons, carrying 7,830,424 tons of cargo of which 4,415,006 tons were discharged at Hongkong. This does not include the number, tonnage, or cargo carried by vessels in Local Trade.

CARGO.

COUNTRY.

SHIPS.

TONS.

IMPORT.

TRANSIT.

CLASS I.

Canada,

27

78,014

8,242

Continent of Europe,

113

348,726

85,539

307,993

Great Britain,

214

595,753

225,440

879,872

Mauritius,...

2

1,818

2,600

North America,.

2,247

South Africa,

21,029

South America,

11,164

260

United States of America, .

120

484,467

177,914

164,051

488

1.543,218

499,995

1.351,918

CLASS II.

Australia and New Zealand,.

49

96,135

53,524

46,368

India and Straits Settlements,

277

641,991

438,968

411,693

Japan,

429

1,074,794

863,891

310,211

Java and Indian Archipelago,

140

234,611 303,848

115.017

North Pacific,

2

4,671

5,740

Russia-in-Asia,.

1

1,311

200

898 | 2,053,513

1,660,481

889.029

CLASS III.

North Borneo,

28 39,033

41,058

2.743

Coast of China,

1,453 | 2,017,179

464,596

1,030,768

Cochin-China,

181

219,989

236,212

77,546

Formosa,

58

54,321

10,847

5.000

Philippine Islands,

230

307,506

100,235

17,822

Hainan and Gulf of Tonkin,

237

219,269

162,184

1,600

Siam,......

255

274,561

391,423

38,316

Kwong-chow-wan,

57

14,100

4,615

266

Tsingtán,

822

800

Weihaiwei,

3

4,562

280

280

Macao,

37

8,527

3,150

130

2,540 3,159,869

1,414,900 1,174,471

CLASS IV.

River Steamers,

4,229 3,106.725

· 294,425

CLASS V.

900

35,724

1,733

Steam-ships under 60 tons,

CLASS VI.

TOTAL,

16,709 1,428,965 543,522

25,764 11,328,015|4,415,006 | 3,415,418

}

Junks,

195

www.

13. Similarly, the Export trade of the Port was represented by 25,814 vessels of 11,325,601 tons, carrying 3,011,305 tons of cargo, and shipping 651,523 tons of Bunker Coal.

CARGO.

COUNTRY.

SHIPS. TONS.

Export.

Bunker Coal.

CLASS I.

Canada,

Continent of Europe,

Great Britain,

9383

49 232,681

92,167

23

83,003

11,173

5,180

66

225,677

73,957

2,665

Mauritius,

North America,

1

966

800

730

:

South Africa,

5

15,960

3,600

1,787

South America,

2

4,494

35

4,000

United States of America,

46

147,813

69,402

1,050

192

710,594

251,134

15,412

CLASS II.

Australia and New Zealand,.

33

74,636

7,606

7,930

India and Straits Settlements,

327

826,986

264,370

61,529

Japan,

438

986,584

305,428

52,961

Java and Indian Archipelago,

97

202,716

39,367

15,799

North Pacific,

Russia-in-Asia,.

5

6,202

1,330

South Pacific,

18

30,842

3,283

3,193

918

2,127,966

620,051

142,742

CLASS III.

Kwong-chow-wan,

127

42,683

14,546

9,419

North Borneo,

13

17,991

2,814

4,410

Coast of China,.

1,752 | 2,781,197

913,921

258,205

Cochin-China,

278

348,193

64,539

58,638

Formosa,

35

38,348

16,023

2,780

Hainan and Gulf of Tonkin,...

135

96,612

50,420

17.621

Kiaochow,......

7

12,442

4,100

820

Macao,

89

67,325

2,631

651

Philippine Islands,

218

328,094

157,171

41,730

Siam,

149

173,937

32,199

38,941

Weihaiwei,

1

1,127

1,500

165

2,804 3,897,949

1,259,864

433,380

CLASS IV.

River Steamers,

4,234 3,106,894 212,649

57,535

CLASS V.

Steamships under 60 tons,

CLASS VI.

900 35,724

2,500

2,454

Junks,

16,766 1,446,474 665,104

...

TOTAL...

25,814 11,325,601 3,011,305

651,523

I

14. During the year 1905, 16,303 vessels of European construction of 19,706,728 tons (net register), reported having carried 10,277,939 tons of cargo, as follows:-

Import Cargo

Export",

Transit

""

Bunker Coal shipped

3,869,751 tons.

2,343,701

>>

3,415,418

:)

649,069

10,277,939 tons.

:

196

The total number of tons carried was, therefore, 52.15% of the total net register tonnage, (or 71.24% exclusive of River Steamers), and was apportioned as follows:-

Imports.

British Ocean-going Ships,

Foreign

72

""

>>

British River Steamers,

Foreign

""

>>

1,952,778

1,622,348

249,449

44,976

3,869,751

Exports.

British Ocean-going Ships,

1,221,530

Fogeign

""

>>

">

909,522

British River Steamers,

179,051

Foreign

33,598

2,343,701

Transit.

British Ocean-going Ships,

2,335,795

Foreign

1,079,623

"}

3,415,418

Bunker Coal.

British Ocean-going Ships,

255,801

Foreign

335,733

""

""

"}

British River Steamers,

48,057

Foreign

9,478

>>

649,069

Grand Total,

10,277,939

15. The number and tonnage of European constructed vessels importing cargo as tabulated and in transit compared with the previous year was as follows :—

1901.

1905.

Increase.

Decrease.

No.

Tonnage. No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage.

Steamers,

3,981 | 6,509,9193,904 | 6,712,767

202,848 77

River Steamers,...... 3,454 3,085,040 4,229 3,106,725

| || 775

Sailing Vessels, ...... 26 32,791 22 43,833

21,685

11,042

4

Total,..... 7,461

7,4619,627,750 |8,155 | 9,863,325

775

235,575

81

Nett,

694

235,575

Imported tons,

4,150,639

3,869,751

197

As follows:

Articles.

1904.

1905.

Increase.

Decrease.

Beans,..

750

2.113

1,363

...

Bones...

400

Coal,

1,152,454

1,083,987

400 68,467

Cotton Yarn and Cotton,

19,350

32,949

13,599

• Flour,

115,921

54,508

61,413

Hemp,..

19,382

26,784

7,402

Kerosine (bulk),

56,965

43,411

13,554

(case),

100,692

74,506

26.186

Lead,

3,563

800

2,763

Opium,

2,955

2.983

28

Liquid Fuel

9,727

850

8.877

Rattan,

5,080

3,430

1,650

Rice,.

823,339

566 71

257,168

Sandalwood,

Sulphur,

3,300 187

3,386

86

187

Sugar,

205,696

311,787

106,091

Tea.....

Timber,.

General,

900

900

66,200

66,324

124

1,564,678

1,594,862

30,184

Total,

4,150,639

3,869,751

159,777

440,665

Transit,

3,151,926

3,415,418

263,492

Grand Total,

7,302,565

7,285,169

423,269

440,665

Nett,.........

17,396

16. The number and tonnage of European constructed vessels exporting cargo as totalled and bunker coal compared with the previous year was as follows:-

1904.

1905.

Increase.

Decrease.

No.

Tonnage. No.

Tonnage. No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage.

Steamers,

River Steamers,

Sailing Vessels,.

3,983 | 6,483,835 | 3,893 3,454 | 3,082,691 | 4,234 24 33,036 21

6,694.479 3,106,894 42,030

210,644 90

780

24,203

8,994

3

Total,

7,461 9,599,562 8,148 | 9,843,403

780

243,841

93

Nett,...... 687

243,841

Exported tons,

2,605,861

2,343,701

Strs.

Bunker Coal.

Strs.

Bunker

Coal.

Bunker

Strs.

Strs.

Coal.

Bunker Coal.

Steamers,

3,983

River Steamers,. 3,454

615,208 3,893 591,534

49,210 | 4,234

90

23,674

57,535 780

8,325

Total,... 7,437

664,418 8,127 649,069 780

8,325

90

23,674

Nett,..

690

15,349

སྙ

198

17. The river trade in Imports, Exports and Passengers compared with the previous year was as follows:-

1904,.

1905,

Year.

Imports.

Exports.

Passengers.

294,216

209,534

2,231,586

294,425

212,649

2,673,202

18. The following shows the junk trade of the Colony for the

IMPORTS.

year.

.16,709 junks measuring, ......1,428,966 tons. ......31,694

99

Foreign Trade, Local Trade,

Total,

.48,403

""

"

دو

...... 1,191,717

..2,620,683

19

Imported, 862,459 tous as under :—

Tea,

Fire Crackers,.................

Oil, Vegetable,

Rice,.....

Cattle, (7,278),

Swine, (20,299),

Earth and Stones, General,

Foreign Trade,

Total,

EXPORTS.

1,609 tons.

3,143 ""

548

52

25

743

""

1,201

""

336,956

""

318,202

862,459

""

16,766 junks measuring, ......1,446,474 tons.

Local Trade,

...

31,573

""

""

......1,170,446

""

Total,

... 48,339

..2,616,920

دو

""

Exported, 721,591 tons as under:

Kerosine, (530,425 cases),

Rice and Paddy,

Earth and Stones,

General,

Total,....

18,914 tons.

205,885

178,713

""

318,049

721,591

99

19. The Passenger and Emigrant returns show the figures as below which are compared with those of the previous year.

1904.

1905. Increase.

Decrease.

British Vessels, arrivals

Do.,

departures,.

Do.,

197,844 189,381

112,741

emigrants, . 51,390

103,281

:

48,289

8,463

9,460

3,101

Total,...... 361,975

340,951

Nett,

:

21,024

21,024

199

Continued.

PASSENGERS,-

1904.

1905.

Increase. Decrease.

Foreign Vessels, arrivals,...

91,352

Do.,

Do.,

100,874 9,522

departures,. 64,239 84,996 20,757

emigrants,. 24,914 16,052

7,862

Total,......

180,505 201,922

30,279

7,862

Nett,

22,417

River Steamers, arrivals,... 1,138,591 1,349,665

211,074

Do., departures,. 1,092,995 1,323,537

230,542

:

Total,..... 2,231,586 2,673,202

441,616

Nett,

441,616

Junks, Foreign Trade,

arrivals,...

43,192 41,867

1,325

Do.,

departures,. 42,155

45,934

3,779

1

Total,...... 85,347 87,801

3,779

1,325

Nett,

2,454

Total Arrivals,

1,470,979 1,689,015

218,066

""

Departures,...

1,312,130 | 1,565,909

253,779

2,783,109 | 3,254,954

76,304

471,845

..

64,341

11,963

39

Emigrants,

Total,.....

2,859,413 3,319,295 471,845 11,963

Nett... 459,882

Diff. of Arrivals and Dep., 158,849 124,136

Emigrants,

76,304

64,341

Remainder+or-

+ 82,545 + 59,795

Nett.......

Junks, Local Trade,

Do.,

79,066 65,274 arrivals,... S departures,... 79,508 71,986

13,792

7,522

Total,...

158,574 137,260

21,314

Nett,...

21,314

TOTAL.

20. The Number, Tonnage, Cargo, and Tassengers Carried, and Bunker Coal Shipped, by Ships of different Nationalities, during the year 1905 was as follows.

OCEAN VESSELS.

RIVER STEAMERS.

NATIONALITY.

Passengers.

Passengers.

Passengers.

No. of Register Ships.

Bunker

Tonnage.

Imports. Exports. Transit.

oal.

No, of Register Ships. Tonnage.

Imports. Exports. Transit.

Bunker

Coal,

o, of Register Ships. Tonnage.

Bunker

Imports. Exports. Transit.

Coal.

Arrived,

* Depart-

ed.

Arrived.

* Depart-

ed.

Arrived,

* Depart-

en.

British,

3,995 | 7,672,324 | 1,952,778 | 1,221,530

2,335,795

255,801 189,381 103,281

7,488 | 5,551,022 249,449 179,051

:

48,057 1,284,023 1,249,849

11,483 13 226,346 || 2,202,227 | 1,100,581 | 2,335,745

303,858 1,473,40 | 1,353,130

Austrian,

51

172.797

41,116

15,600

64.415

11,100

4,528

24

51

Belgian,

2

3.588

3 400

400

2

172,797

3,5-8

41,116

15,600

64 415

3,100

11,100

400

4,528

21

Chinese,

331

430,617

40 693

52800

$8.593

8,3:0

4,996

Danish,

36

48,412

12,450

1,900

16,075

31

4.484

24

233

47,789. 14,654

13,:98

2,300

5 1

478 356

55,347

66,098

68 593

10,649

4,996

4,181

36

48,412

40,693

1,90)

16 075

31

24

Dutch,

70

151,410

43,711

16.500

(8,291

1.800

115

90

70

151.4 0

12,450

16,70)

68,291

1,800

115

90

French,

415

562,530

01,747

47,520

93.968

51,060

10,664

9,468

586

583,783

18,622 19,750

6,859

€5,612 73,688

1,001

1,168,116

110,369

67,270

93,968

60,919

76,305

83,158

German,

1,772 ; 2,787,17

F73 754

493,596

564,511

212,2 6

61,423

59,826

1,772

2,786,513

878,754 493,596

564,511

212,208

61,423

59,326

Italian,

112

102 975

46,891

15,780

7,884

15,782

6.3 10

246

1:2

102,975

46,891

15,780

7,880

15,282

6,300

216

Japanese,

58

€9,146

19.698

184000

590

700

601

::

::

58

G9,146

19,698

18,000

590

700

604

Norwegian,

€87

756,766

864.137

168,180

127,393

28,800

7,688

6,793

657

757,965

364,137

168,480

127,393

28, 00

7,616

6,793

Portuguese,

136

23.250

2,500

2,334

30

1,800

300

216

156

25 272

11,700

550

310

292

48.431

27,792

2,884

30

2,110

300

216

Russian,.

2

5.8:16

5.000

2

5.806

5,000

Swedish,

37

$0,422

6.120

1,000

10.489

37

810

United States,

130

No Flag,

6

630,1:8

792

79,481

76,012 58,185

805

4,131

3,721

130

200

6

39,422

642,553

792

6,120

1,0 0

10,489

840

79,431

76,012

$8,995

805

4,131

3,721

800

200

Total Foreign,.

3,845 6,820,785 1,422,518

909,522 1,070,623 335,733 100,874

81,996

975 659,597

44,976 33,598

9,478

05,042 73,088

4,820

6,180,382 | 1,067,524 943,120 1,079,623

345,211

166,516

1:8,684

Total,

7,840 18,493,109 | 3,575,326

2,131,052 | 3,415,418

591,524 290,255

188,277

8,463 | 6,213,619

204,425 212,649

57,735 | 1,349,665 | 1,323,537 16,303 19,706,728 3,869,751 2,343,701 3,415,418

649,009 | 1,639,920 | 1,511,814

* Not including emigrants,

.

201

21. The following table summarises the foregoing information with regard to the trade of the Ports of Hongkong for the Year 1905.

TONS.

Passengers.

Emi-

No. of Ships.

Dis- charged.

Shipped.

In Transit.

Bunker Coal shipped.

Total.

Registered Tonnage.

grants.

Arrived.

Departed.

British Ocean-going, Foreign Ocean-going, British River Steamers, Foreign River Steamers,.

Total,.

Steam-ships under 60

tons Foreign Trade, ...

Junks Foreign Trade.

33,475 543,522 665,104

3,995 1,952,778 1,221.530

3,845 1,622,548

7,488 249.449

975 44,976

2,335.795 909.522 1,079,623 179.051 33,598

255,801 5,765,904

7,672,324 189,381

103,281

48,289

335.788 3,947,426

5,820,785

100,874

84,996

16,052

48,057

476,557

5,554,022

1,284,023

1,249,849

16,303 3,869,751 | 2.313,701 | 3,415,418

9,478 88,052

649,069 10,277,989 | 19,706,728

659,597

65,642

73,688 |

1,639,920

1,511,814

64,341

1,800

1,733

2,500

2,454

6,687

71,448

7,258

8,161

1.208.626 2,875,140

41.867

45,934

Total Foreign Trade,

51.578 | 4,415,000 | 3,011,305 | 3,415,418

651,523 11,493,252 | 22,653,616

1,689,045

1,565,909

64,341

Steam-Launches Local

Trade.

* 337,913

*

*

Junks, Local Trade,.

Total Local Trade,

63,267 318,937

401,180 318.937

56,487

56,487

375,424 2,362,163

25,895 401,319 11,531,475

25,895 25,895 |* 9,169,312 * 4,058,522 | * 3,873,470

65,274 71,986

4,123,796 3,945,456

Grand Total,.

452,758 | 4,733,943 | 3,067,792 | 3.415,418

677,418 11,894,571 | 34,185,091

5,812,841 5,511,365 64,341

*Not including "Star" Ferry Company's craft.

3. REVENUE.

22. The total Revenue collected by the Harbour Department during the year was $300,567.76, being a decrease of $366.19 on the previous year :-

1. Light Dues,

$74,233.45

2. Licences and Internal Revenue,

62,668.45

3. Fees of Court and Office,

163,665.86

Total,

$300,567.76

4.--STEAM-LAUNCHES.

23. On the 31st December, there were 276 Steam-launches employed in the Harbour, of these, 109 were licensed for the conveyance of passengers, 147 were privately owned, 15 were the property of the Government, and 5 belonged to the Imperial Government in charge of Military Authorities.

Twenty-three Master's Certificates were suspended, 4 for three months, 9 for two months, 8 for one month, 1 for six weeks and 1 for four weeks; two Masters were cautioned and discharged respectively.

Four hundred and forty-two (442) engagements, and four hundred and thirty-three (433) discharges of Masters and Engineers were made from 1st January to 31st December.

Eleven (11) Steam-launches were permitted to carry arms, etc., for their protection against pirates, of these, nine were previously permitted, and two during this

year.

5. EMIGRATION.

24. Sixty-four thousand three hundred and forty-one (64,341) emigrants left Hongkong for various places during the year, of these, 48,289 were carried by British Ships and 16,052 by Foreign Ships; 140,483 were reported as having been brought to Hongkong from places to which they had emigrated, and of these, 113,796 were brought in British Ships and 25,586 by Foreign Ships.

Returns No. XVIII and XIX will give the details of this branch of the Department.

=

202

6.-REGISTRY, &c., OF SHIPPING.

25. During the year, 17 ships were registered under the provisions of the Imperial Merchant Shipping Act, and 8 Certificates of Registry were cancelled.

The documents, &c., dealt with in connection with the Imperial Merchant Shipping Act were as follows:-

Number of Certificates of Registry granted,

17

Number of Certificates of Registry cancelled,

8

Number of Declarations of Ownership,

26

Number of endorsements on Certificates of Registry of

change of Masters,

53

Number of endorsements on Certificates of Registry of

change of Owners,

8

Number of Certificates of Sale recorded..........

2

Number of Mortgages recorded,

5

Number of Transfer of Mortgages recorded,

1

2

Number of Discharge of Mortgages recorded,

Number of endorsements on Register of change in Rig

Tonnage,

Number of Sales of ships recorded,.

Number of Desertions certified,

Number of examination of provisions,

Number of inspections of Registry,

6

11

220

1

16

Total Number of Documents, &c.,.

.376

The fees collected on these Documents, &c., amounted to $1,266.

7.-MARINE MAGISTRATE'S COURT.

26. Seventy-five (75) cases were heard in the Marine Magistrate's Court, refusal of duty on board ship and breach of Harbour Regulations were the principal offences.

8.-MARINE COURT.

(Under Section 19 of Ordinance No. 10 of 1899.)

27. The following Courts have been held during the year:-

1.). On the 27th April, inquiry into the circumstances connected with the stranding of the British Steamship "Kong Nam," Official No. 107,028 of Hongkong, on Cap Sing Island on the night of the 5th April. The Master's (HEATHFIELD CHARLES DALTON FRAMPTON) Certificate of Competency was returned to him.

(2.) On the 5th, 7th, 10th and 11th July, inquiry into the circumstances connected with the stranding of the British Ship "Travancore," Official No. 99,769 of Greenock, on Fo Kai Point on the 1st June, and charges of incompetency brought by the crew against the Master and Mate. The Master's (WILLIAM C. CHAMBERLIN) Certificate of Competency was sus- pended for nine months and a First Mate's Certificate issued to him during the period of suspension, the Chief Mate's (J. ROBERTS) Certificate as Master was suspended for three months.

ہے

203

9.--EXAMINATION OF MASTERS, MATES AND ENGINEERS.

28. The following Tables show the number of Candidates examined for Certificates of Competency, distinguishing those who were successful and those who failed

(Under Section 4 of Ordinance No 10 of 1899.)

Grade.

Passed.

Failed.

Master,

17

5

Master, River Steamer,

1

First Mate,

18

5

Only Mate,.......

Second Mate,.....

7

5

Total,.....

42

16

First Class Engineer,

Second Class Engineer,

3888

26

3

39

9

Total,..

65

12

(Under Section 37 s.s. (7) of Ordinance No. 10 of 1899.)

Candidates.

Passed.

Failed.

For Master,..

For Engineer,..

54

39

89

23

Total,..

143

62

10.-EXAMINATION OF PILOTS.

(Under Ordinance No. 3 of 1904.)

29. Twenty-two (22) examinations for Pilots' Certificates were held during the year, with the following results :-

European,

Chinese,

Candidates.

Total,.............

Passed.

Failed.

11

3

8

11

Twelve (12) Pilots' licences were issued to holders of Certificates, and two licences pre- viously issued were cancelled at the request of the licensees.

1

204

11.-SUNDAY CARGO WORKING.

(Ordinance No. 1 of 1899.)

30. During the year, 359 permits were issued, under the provisions of the Ordinance. Of these, 93 were not availed of owing to its being found unnecessary for the ship to work cargo on Sunday, and the fee paid for the permit was refunded in each case.

The revenue collected under this heading was $43,475; this was $5,850 more than in 1904.

The revenue collected each year since the Ordinance came into force is as follows:-

1892,

1893.

1894,

1895,

1896,

1897,

1898,

1899,

1900,

1901,

1902,

1903,

1904,

1905,

12.-NEW TERRITORY.

.$ 4,800

7,900

13,375

11,600

7,575

11,850

25,925

21,825

43,550

44,800

44,175

34,800

37,625

43,475

(Seventh Year of British Administration.)

31. The Station at the Island of Cheung Chau was opened in September, the one at Tai O in the Island of Lantau, in October of 1899, that at Tai Po in Mirs Bay, on board the Police steam-launch, in January, 1900, that in Deep Bay, on board the Police steam-launch, in November, 1901, that at Sai Kung in April, 1902, and that at Long Ket, on board the Police steam-launch, in April, 1905.

From 1st January to 31st December, 1905, 9,138 Licences, Clearances, Permits, &c., were issued at Cheung Chau, 3,937 at Tai 0, 6,284 at Tai Po, 4,177 at Deep Bay, 2,564 at Sai Kung and 3,297 at Long Ket.

The Revenue collected by the Harbour Department from the New Territory during 1905, was $18,421.95.

1

L. BARNES-LAWRENCE, Captain R.N.,

Harbour Master, &c.

*

NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, and CARGOES

WITH CARGOES.

BRITISH.

IN BALLAST.

A

COUNTRIES WHENCE ARRIVED.

Cargoes.

Vessels.

Tons. rews. Dis-

Vessels.

Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Cres.

charged Transit.

Australia and New Zealand,

36

69.582 2,471

42,715 33,890

1.822

69

37

71.404 9540

British North Borneo,...

Canada,

Coast of China,...

Cochin-China,

Continent of Europe,

Formosa,

Great Britain,

India and Straits Settlements,

6

9,343 400

14,250

6

9,343 34

27

78,014 6,005

8,242

27

78.014 6.005

631

94,539 3,792 145,733.

13

34,751

3,600 3,147,687 165,268 431,865 042,405 21.470 48,690

219 256,808 10.632 3,8193,404,495 175,00

927

31

64

95,466 33

845, 16.315'

13

34,754 345

10

9,267 611

2,730

10

188 556,933 10,480 207,866

Mauritius,.

North America,

North Pacific,

Japan,.....

Java and other Islands in the Indian Archipelago,.

Kwang-chan-wan,

Масао,

244

826,789 232 525,980 22.247 365,314 353,673 Jo12.258 207,700 79 146,444 4,823 194,919 50,362

729 546,221 35,999 56.295.

3 586

100

191

550

68

11

26,004

486

1

100

729

19 2671811 559.919 10,586.

233 526,530 22815 255 638,261 13,825 79 146,444 4823

546,221 35 99

2,247

€4

2,217 64

...

Philippine Islands,

Ports in Hainan and Gulf of Tonquin,

Russia in Asia,..................

2.384 184 246,678 13.159

32

5,740

1 $2.381

32

2,024 32

Siam,

South Africa,

South America,

sintau,

United States of America,

Wei-hai-wei,..

TOTAL.......

14,419

373

2,361

43

91.973 5,000

9,710 13,262

260

18,152

16,180,

650

195 262,803 13,309

358

48

3

2,882

80

:

21 029 8,803

421 268

14,419 21,025

11,164

#11

58 177.216 4,067

2

2,270 135

96,502 118,082

280

280

58 177.216| 1067 2 270

185

5,481 6,277,768; 284,121 2 202,227|2.335,795

260 338.264 12,843| 5,741,6,6-6,032|| 296064:

NUMBER, TONNAGE, ÛREWS, and CARGOi

WITH CARGOES.

BRITISH.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

COUNTRIES TO WHICH DEPARTED.

Shipped.

Shipped.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Cargoes.

Bunker Vessels.

Coal.

Tons.

Bunker Crews. Cual.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Cargoes. Cuall

Bunker

Australia & New Zealand,

છે.

9,334 389 3,000

150

16

68,107 656

4,500,

British North Borneo,

12,631

Canada.

27

86,825

534 1,271 2,510 5.095 29,055

2.

8

47,441 1,045

12,631 534

3,000 1.2711

4,650

€2,850

Coast of China,

3,894 3,662 120 186,332

703.782 143.314

39

Cochin-China,

41 42,771 1,660

19,443

8,792

52,854 2.167, 57,919 1,635)

6,761 7,426

Continent of Europe,

Formosa,......

2,659 140

49

700

2,275 53

21

360

4 934

1

140

Great Britain,

64 221.001 5,528

India and Straits Settlements,

Japan,

73.957 2,665 174 426,209 20.089 218,568| 223) 554,663 12,545 118,888

Java and other Islands in the

Indian Archipelago,

15!

Kwang-chau-wall,.

3.

Kiauchow,

30,761 30,122

37,617 1,015 7,328, 1970

1.206 75 279

130 3 6,507 86

900

65 43

4.676 75 183,2.7 2.834

94,891 1.980|

45 102,414 1,840

27

86.825| 6,095 3.9383,714,474 18,499 75 100,690 3,295 102 21

19 443 16,12;

66 225,677 5 603 73.957

29 055

708.732 Tõu,076) |

7001

1003

$2,600

818

1,854

5,761

266 649,554 14,525

239 559,426 22,523 218,568|| $1,69 118,888 31,476

60 140,061 2,861

7,328

3 1,206

279

3'

6,507)

86

9001

Macao.

783 637,031 36,317| 26,165 8,385

783

637,081 30,817

20,16.|

8,337

Mauritius,

Philippine Islands,

188

266,730 13,079|| 148,128 37,535

Ports in Hainau & G. of Tonquin,

15,834 218

500

195

282 564 13.329 148,128)

8,085

175

218

25

175

Russia in Asia,..

1,513 57

460

1 513

57

430

Siam,

10

19 303 481

7,092

1,190

6,904 122

$50

13

26.207

70:9:

South Africa,..

15,960; 400

3,600

1,787

:

15,960

400

3,600

1.187

South America,

2.247 62

35

2,000

2,247

2.000;

4.454

62

: 35

4.00

South Pacific,.

2351

37

30

19.036

309

1,490

21.387 346:

30

140

United States of America, Wei-hai-wei,

63,569 1,175| 86,610

850

6.878,

8:3

70.247 1,263 36,610

1,127 72 1,500 163

1,127

1,506

TOTAL,

5,4746,078.814 285,100 1,400,581' 272 696'

268 586,500 12,043

31.162 5,7426,610,314 297,143|1,400,581 3033 12.

1

205

Table I.

NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, and CARGOES Vessels ENTERED at Ports in the Colony of Hongkong from each Country for

BRITISH.

IN BALLAST.

FOREIGN.

WITH CARGOES.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

Cargoes.

Cargors.

Cargoes.

Tons. Crews.

Dis-

Vessels. Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tons. Ces

charged Transit.

*

1.822 69

927 31

3 586 550 26,004!

100 68 486)

69,582 2,471 42,715) 35,890

9,343 400 14,250 78,014 6,005 8,242 147,687| 165,268 431,865 642,405] 94,539 3,792 145,733 21.470

31,751 845 -16.315' 48,690

9,267 611 2,730 556,333 10,480 207,866 826,789 525,980) 22.247 365,314 353,673 20: 512.258 207,704] -146,444 4,823 194.919 50,562

219 256,808 10,632 3,8193,404,495 17900 431 S65 612,405 12.5741,952,003 173,123

37

27

Dis- charged Transit.

71:404 $540| 42.715 33,890 12

9,343 44 14,250 78.0148005 8,242

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews. Vossels.

Tous.

Dis- charged Transit

64

95,466 323 145,733

13

34,75445

10

546,221| 35,999 56,295,

100

729 546,221 35|99|

315 9 267 611 2.730 191 559.919 10586 207,866 826,789 233 526,530 22815 365,314 353.678 255 638,261 13825 512 258 207.700' 79 146,444 4823 194,919 50,562

55.295 100:

21,470 48,690

82,794 12,615

107) 112163| 5,255 99 810,151 9,055 44 40,103 1.635 35,531 619 89 107,827 3,462 169 428 782 10,190

CO 49 11,875 1,256 4,615 741

24,78 1,083 10,809 12,478 22 29,690 1,114 26,808 2,743

782.545 388.363 5,120

90,479 56.076 69 224 259,305)

12 24.73 22 29,69

579,465 66.912 17.694 2,582 06

10

1

12.360 341 117 124,62 3.821. 59: 100 318.97:

7,617 5.000 17,574

4

4,951 1590

45,05

58,083

23

35,83

73.604; 58.020

7,634

268

115,40

351,633

102,511

12,751

236

486,58

87,767 2,617 108.929!

64,455

266

400; 19 61 88,16

2,225 285 57 14,10

36.7211

30.

315

31,588 4,142 1,086; 114,35

1,818 59

2,600

1,81

2.384 32

5,740

246,673] 13.159:

$1.978 13,152 2,024 32 5,000

2

2,247

16,130 650 358 48

64

2,217 64

2.381 32

195

262,803, 13,309

3

2,382 80

91,973 5,000

5,740 13,152)

2,287

2,287

14,419 878 9,710 13,262

7

14.419 $78! 5,710

13,262

1 il 22.193! 582 229 210,198 9,172 1 1911 58 248 200,142 11,410

8,262 157,184

4.670

22.510

44,70

1,600

6,689

234

216,887

200.

I

1,31

381,713

25,054

248 260,14

6

21 029

421

21,025 21

2,361 43

260

8,803

268

5

14,164 $11

177,216 4,067 96,502 118,082

2,270 135

58 177,216 4,167

280

280

2

2 270 185

260)

$8,502 118,082 260 280

822

800

277,768| 284,121 2 202,227|2.335,795

62 307,251|| 8,903 81,412 45,969

260 338.264 12,843 5,7416,66,032 20664 2,22,227 2 335,795′ 14,493|4,023,010) 252,179 2,212,7791,079,623 5,530 688,978 73,491|20,023|4,711,98;

82:

C2 307.5

2,292

28

1 2,291

BRITISH.

Table II.

NUMBER, TONNAGE, CREWS, and CARGOES of Vessels CLEARED in the Colony of Hongkong for each Country for the Y

FOREIGN.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Shipped:

Shipped.

Bunker

l'unker

iker Vessels. wal,

Tons. Crews. Coal. Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Huuker Cargoes.

Coal

Tons. Crews,

Cargoes.

Bunker Coal.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews.

Coal. Vessels. Tons. Crews.

150 2,510'

3.314* 39 3,702 31

16

$8,107 656:

4,500, 2.

52,854 2.167, 6,761 57,919 1,635Į 7,420

2,275 53

75

2

1

47,441 1,045 8 12,631 534 27 86.825 5,095 3.98333,714,474 18,49

100,690 3,295

4 934 1020

21

3,000 4,650 1.271 2,30 29 055

18,022) 661 4,006 1,330 4. 4.376 255 1.43 1,650 22 145.856 6,3.0 63.112

1

4 9,178 125. 981 68

703.732 151,075 11454 2,431,398 179,426 1.025.043 121,268 6,785 584,499 69.792

19 443

700

140

100%

2,665

4.676 75 J,761, 65 183,2.7 2.834) 0,122|| 43 94,891 1.980

66| 225,077 5 603)

73,957

1,554

239 559,426 22,923 218,568| -.

31,69 266||| 649,554 14,525 118,888-31,476

471 182,421 9,004, 45.096 33,113! (21) 78,069 2,922| 10.478 6,180 182 36,108 1,297 15,723 2,830

70 234.037' 11,316) 45,802 25.960

267,658 6.322 186,540 17,725 40

56

18

65,082 1,735

2,100 58

33,52% 659

3,960 69,872 1,435 3,760

9,403

211

1,950 12 27,195 790j

250

5,360 323 22 145,856 6,510j 34.94117,989 2,965,897 249,218) 1,

203 247,503 10,789'

76,069 2.922

450

34

38,208 1,855

88 267.50011,975 172 387,030 7,757)

!

i 970' 45 102,414 1,840

5,764

60 140,061 2,861|

130

3 1,206 75

7.328

7.704

49,177 1,60 32,039 5,065

279)

100

1,385

6,507 861 783 637,031 30,317|

900

26,160

8,382

7,535

15,831

500

195 282 564 13,329

148,128|

$8,035

218

28

175

218

460

2

1,190'

3

6,90-1

122

350

13

1,787

9,0001

2,247

850

6378

19.036 309 88

2.000 1,490:

25 1 513 57 20.207 Gool J5,960 4001 3,600 187 35 4.00

TAD

175

450

73:9:

1,0

165

2698

62 4.494 21.887 3461 70.247 1,263] 36,610

1,127 721 1,506]

268 586,500 12,043 31.162 5,742 6,610,314 297,1431,400,581 303 15 129423,884,617 249,497 1,610.724 272.840 7.130; 830.670 79,344

41,477 4,558 ,0KM 121

110,212, 16,1|2||

966 52!

45 530 1,820

134 963.594 4,878,

136 147,730 6,380,

9 9.455 445 19 77,506 1,656

74,825 20,072 4,715 287 328,811, 1.

39. 424,394|

5,935 121

14.2671 3.2001

9,119)

13.478 268 3.000:

2,335 164

37

62,655 1.869

170

124

820

4

88.557 14,255)

41,865

1,036

189.

21,655 1,857

140 1,056

5.

966 $9,331,173 9.045 2,695 81,315 3,878 50,420 18,625

800

730

1.

5

15

6,195 147 15,079 1,000

1,000; 3,921

23

4.6891 111

8708

3 4.689

93,328 4,339

28,107 25,621|

49 54,402 1,991 11,880

9.455 445 74,778 1,615

3 253 $2.792

1.703

200

2.793

41

:

wh Country for the Year ending 31st Decmber, 1905.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

TOTAL.

IN BALLAST,

TOTAL.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Cargoes,

rews. Vessels. Tons.

Dis- char_ed Tausit

Tons. Crews.

Dis- charged Transit.

Vessels.

Tons.

rews. Vessels.

Tuns. Crews.

Dis- charged

Transit.

12 24.781 1.038 10,909 12.478 48 22 29,690 1,114 26,803 2.743 28

1271 6,912 17,694 2,582 068 240,035 341 117 124,523 5.596 691 100 313,972 9,114 159! 48 45,054 1,794 23 35,884 6.9

94.313 3,504 53,524 46.868 39,033) 1,514 41.058. 2,748 78,014 6,005, 8,242

1

782.545

90.479

69 224

56,076 259,305

370 206,702 9.047 286 212||

77.546

112 844 905 9,900

85.589)

307 995)

268

44 115,461, 6,73

286

174 436,533 10,426 351,633

7.617 5,000 17574 53,083 78,664 58,020 102,5!||

454 49,370 2:46 211 592.16711.099; 225.440 #71 638.807 25,709 #13 1,086,089 23,529

10.8471

5.000 879.872

438.968 411,693;

863.891 310.211

19

61

285 57

88,167 2,636) 108.929) 14,100 1,541 4.142 1086 114,337, 16.755)

64,455

89 284,211 7,440 803,848 115.017

4.615

نانات

1491 11.875 1.256

4,615

266

36,721

30

1370 628.970 48,612||

93,016

130

345

1,818 59

2,600

2

1,818 59

2,600

49: 96,185 8,578 53,524 46,868 28 39.033; 1,514 41.058 2,743 271 78,014 6.005) 8,242

388.363 16174 5,100,290|328.891|1.214,410 1,080.768 5,539 886,273 77,544 21,5135,986,563 415,935 1,214.410 1.030.768

219,989 9,419 276 212 77 546 348,726 9.959 85.539 607.995 58 54.321 2,405, 10.347 5.000 214 595.75% 11.205 225,440) 879 872 277 641,991, 26,045, 438,968 411,693 4291,074,794 24.251 863,891 310,211 140 234.611, 7,459 303.848; 115,017

57 14,100 1,541) 31,588 4,142 1,815 600,358 52,754

1.818: 2,247 64

1,822 69

38,755

13,287 372

3.821 4.951 159 3.586 106 8.184 336 722 400 19 2,225 285

18

591

113

4,615

266

93,016

130

59

2,600'

2,247 64)

**2

2,287 22

2,384 82

5.740

2.287 22

4,671 5+

5,740

773 85 44,703 1.855

249

8.262 4,670 234 216,887 9,421 157,184 1,600

1,311 53

200

248 260,142 11,410 381,7.8

195

268,866| 13,741) 100,235|

17,822

38,640 1,423|

280

307.506 15,164

100,235

17.822

30

25,054

212,222 9,204 162,184

1311 53 274,561| 11,783| 391,423|

200

1,600

38,316

7,047

2971

237

219,269 9,501

1,311

162.184

1,600

581

255 274,561.1.78

200 391,423,

38316

...

822

28

62 307.51 8,908]

800 81.412

45,969

26

1 2,292 261

2 361 822

43 2

136

2601 8001

21,025 421

8.803 268

6

21.029 421 11,164 311

822:

28

260. 800

(20|| 484,467|12,970 177,914 164.051

2 270

280

484,467 12,970|| 177,914) 164,051

4,562 161

280 280

3,491|20,028|4,711,963 3:5,670|2.212,779′1,079,623 15074 10,300,778 536,300|4,415,006|3,415,418|| 5.790|1,027,237|86,834| 25,764 11,328,015 622,6344,415,006 3.415 418

120

280

2,292 2

3

untry for the Year ending 31st December, 1905.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

TOTAL.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Shipped

Shipped.

Shipped.

5.

Tons. Crews.

Cargoes.

1 unber Vessels. Tous Creus.

Cargoes.

toa!.

Bunker Vessels.

toal

Tons. Crews.

Bunker Coal.

Vessels. Tons. Crews.

Car, oes.

Bunker Coal.

2 27,195 790 4.006 3,280 13 27 $56 1,050 7.606

5,360 323 1548 J.900

22 145,256 6,810) 63.112

12. 17607 789 2.814 49 232,681 11,405 92,167

1 480 4,.60

20

47.280 785 984 68

6,450 53

250

13

39 2,965,897 249,218 1,025.043 159,209 15,148 6.093,318 365,758 1,728.775|| 267,582 6,774

03 247,503 10,739 45.096

586,853 71,959

4.

76,069 2.922 10.478 38,208 1,855

38 267.560 11,975 45.802 29,920 2 337,080 7,757 186,54v 21,485)

15,728 2780 33 36.548 1,318, 16.0.3

64 221,001 5.5.8' 78,957 2,068 244 660,246 31,405 264,370| 56,721 355). 822,42118,867, 306.428 47,847

42.616) 188 225,92 1,664 64,539| 41,815 90

-5180

80.1282971 11.178

5.180

123,001 3,870|

16,823.

74.630 1,835) 7.006) 7,980 17.991) 857 2.814 4.410 49 232,681 11 405)

41,702 21,922 6,680,37|| 437,7171,728,775 369.284 2781 348,198, 14,084' 64,539 58.688

92,167

1

2 275

53

23

2,330

2,100

58

450

35

88,008 3,024 11,173; 5,180 38,348 1.376,

16.023 2,780

4.676

88 166 740 3,498) 83 161,263 3,415

4,808 5,114

66 225,677 5,603 327 826,986 34 898 438 986,584 29,282

78.957

2,665

264 379|

61,529

805,428

52,961

* 20 430 GALA

62,655 1.869; 41,477, 4,558

4

5,935; 121

-6 110,212, 16.12

J

966 521 45 530 1.320

62 039 14.267 8.200 41,865 800

780

9,043

4 968,594 4,878, 50,420,

3

4.689;

6 147,780 6,850) 23.197 37,401

870

14,546 8.0

4,100 1.176) 1,680 725,88 50,572 68,030 [966] 52 800! 3 695 206|| 306,065| 14 252|||| 157,171) 17,446 119; 81,813,878 50,420

G2021 168

8065

4+ 869 2.616 39.867 ७:४; 12/ 40,348 4,419

1242 207

97 112,481 4.822 32,199

15.960 400

7.035 9 249 820 9,421 730 40.280 12: 13.025

16 1.830 26,711

53 115,922 21:4

8.764

97 202 716 2780

59,36 71

15,799

་་

2,335 164

170

127

71

42.68% 4,633 12.442 207

14,546

9,419

1891

21,655 1,857

140

819

52

22.029 397 15,297 1028

61.306 2,113

1,500;

218)

747.243 52,429 966' 52 328,094 14649 157,171)

4.!00 68,030

820

9,561

800

730

41,730

4.096

135

96.612; 4,96 50,420

6.202 168

17.621

1,330

12,230

3,600

1,787

149 175.987; 0,935 5. 15,960 400

32.199

38 941

3,600

1787

2.47

62

9.455 445 3.258

1,703

11.806) 482

85 3.288

2,000)

1,703

9 77,566 1,656 32,792

2001

1,050

165

40 138,642 2,790 69,402

1/27 72 1,500

1,500

165

24,715 287 328,841 1,610,724, 847,655 18,4169,958,33|| 534,697|3,011,805|| 545,586| 7,398 1,367,170 91,387|| 105,987 25,81411,325,601 625,984 3,011,305 651,523

2 247 19.036)

2.000

21 4.194

62

35

4.000

9.171

809 1.490. 129

18 46

30,842 791 147 813 3.919 1,127 72

3,283 69 402

3.193

1 050

TOTAL NUMBER, IONNAGE, CREWS, AND CAL

WITH CARGOES.

BRITISH.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH

NAMES

OF PORTS.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Vis. Tons. Crews.

Vls.

Tons. Crews. Vls. Tons, Cre

Vls.

Tons. Cr

Dis- charged.

Dis-

Transit.

Transit.

charged.

Aberdeen,

Cheung Chaú,

Deep Bay,

211

7,025 1

240

4,575 1

Hunghom,

Long Ket,

820

15,717 4

Sai Kung,.

21

480

Sham Shui-po, Shaukiwán,

Stanley,

Tai 0, Tai Po,

2,320 241,264 1!

519

15,334 4

232

69

2,336

13

Victoria,

235

5,481 6,277,768 284,121 2,202,227|2,335.795| 260 338,264 12.843 5,741 6,616,032,296364′2,202,227|2,335,795 10,2573,735,75622

Total,.............. 5,481|6,277.768'284.121'2,202,2272,335,795| 260 338,264 12.843 5,741|6,616,032|296/64/2,202,227|2,335,795|14,4934,023.010|25:

NAMES

OF PORTS.

Aberdeen, Cheung Chaú,..

Deep Bay,

Hunghom,

Long Ket,

Sai Kung,.

Sham Shui-po, Shaukiwán,..

Stanley,.

Tai (),

Tai Po, Victoria,

Total,

TOTAL NUMBER TONNAGE, CREWS, AND CA

WITH CARGOES.

BRITISH.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL,

Shipped.

Shipped.

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

Vis,

Tons. Crews.

Bunker

Bunker Coal.

Vls.

Grews.

VIs. T

Bunker

Cargoes. Coal.

Cargoes. Coal.

59 38

581

1,295 1:

335

11.

12

5

5,474 0.073,814 285.100 1,400,581| 272,696

5,4746,073.814 285,106′1,400,581| 272,696

268 586,500 12,043 31,162 5,7426,610314297,143|1,400,581| 303,858 10,004,3,7:

268! 530,500 12,043! 31,162 5,7426,610314 297,1431.400 581 303,858)12,942 3.8

203

BRITISH.

Table III.

TOTAL NUMBER, JONNAGE, CREWS, AND CARGOES OF VESSELS ENTERED AT EACH PORT IN THE COI

FOREIGN.

N BALLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Cargoes.

Cargoes.

Cargos.

Tons. Crews. Vls. Tons, Cres

Vls.

Tons. Crews,

Vls.

Tons. Crews. Vis. Tons. Crews.

Dis- charged.

Transit,

211

240

Dis- charged.

7,025 1,444 3,9201 4,575 1,120|| 2,907

Transit.

50

820

15,717 4,020 13,361

107

2.288 416 201 42 1,149 724

3,777

282

677 927

Dis- charged.

9,313 1,860| 3,920 5,724 1,894 ,907

19,494 4,697

'Transi

8,361

21

486 120

269

5

22

492 125

269

2,320 241,264|19,951| 151,790

1,166

98,199 8,645 3,495 339,463 28,596 151,790

519

15,384 4,045

8,614

78,

2,784 561

597

18,165 4,606|| ,614

14)

232

69

13

2,336 235

81 528 69

128

10

67

39

24

809 137

13

31

364 20

112

82

15

16

299 120 2,700 640

255

128

809

84

137

338,264 12.843 5,741 6,616,032,296,64 2,202,227 2,235,795 10,257 3,735,756 220,801 2,030,844 1,079,623 4,060 580,319 62,747 14,3174,316,075 283,548 2,030,8441,079,6

338,204 12.843 5,741|6,616,032|296364|2,202,227|2,335,795) 14,493 4,023,010 252.179 2.212.779′1,079,623| 5,53u| 688,973 73,49120,023‍4.711.983 325.670 2.2117991,079.6:

Table IV.

TOTAL NUMBER TONNAGE, CREWS, AND CARGOES OF VESSELS CLEARED AT EACH PORT IN THE CO

BRITISH.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

WITH CARGOES.

FOREIGN,

IN BALLAST.

TOTA

Shipped:

Shipped.

Tons. Crews.

Bunker Coal.

Vls.

Crews.

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

Cargoes. Coal.

Bunker

Bunker

Bunker Coal.

Vls.

Tchs.

Drew's

Cargoes. Coal.

59

2,054 419 38 1,055 244

919 674

151

1,051 1,007]

210

9,105 1,42

247

4,668 1,415

285

1,723|| 1,65

+4

581

18,924 3,594|

14,781

443

8,732 2,263

1,024

21,656 5,85

86 1,295 120,354|11,009|

14

335

12,957 3,077

19 68,717 5,308

15

367; 87 2,2013|| 231,260°19,060)

17

3,498

453|| -10 35,61430,06:

314

11

261

77

76

12

5

337 67

83

22

123 12

6,552 1,810, 35 501 1,862 470

940

649

1),509]] 4,88

22

3111 13:

70

199 55:

71

14

7,007

9:

536,500 12,043) 31,162 5,7426,610314 297,143 1,400,581 303,858 10,604 3,728,522 230,958 1,520,095 272,820 3,679 572,185 53,126

536,500 12,043 31,162 5,742'6,610314'297,1431.400 581 303,858 12,942′3,884.617|249,497|1.610.724| 272,820 7,130 830,676'79,344|

74,825 12,2834,300,710284,08

74,825 18,0724,75,287 $28,84

THE COLONY OF HONGKONG, IN THE YEAR 1905.

WITH CARGOES.

TOTAL.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Cargos.

Cargoes.

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

Vis.

Tons.

Crews.

is-

Transit.

rged.

Dis- charged.

Dis-

Transit.

Cargoes.

Transit.

charged.

,920

211

7,025 1,444

3,920

50

2,288

416

261

9,313,

1,860

3,920)

2,907

240

4,575

1,120

2,907

10

1,149

274

282

5,724)

1,394

2,907

3,361

820

15,717

4,020

13,361

107

3,777

077

19,494)

4,697

13,361

269

21

480

120

269

51

22

492

125

51,790]

2,329

241,264

19,951

151,790

1,166

98,199

8,645!

3,495

339,463

28,596

269 151,790

8614

519

15,384

4,045

8,614!

78

2,784

561

597

18,168

128

14

232

81

128

10

67

39

24

290

4,606 120

8,614

128

809]

69

2,336

اودان

809

13

364

112

82

2,700

640

809

137

13

68441,079,623

15,738 10,013,524 504,922

137 4,233,071 3,415,418

727991 þ79.623] 19,974 10,300,778; 536,300] 4.415,000 3,415,418

235

69

4,320

918,583

15 75,590

5,790 1,027,237| 80,334

20

16

255

84

137

20,058 10,932,107 580,512 4,233,071 3,415,418

25,764 11,328.015 622,634

4.415,0063.41541

THE COLONY OF HONGKONG, IN THE YEAR 1905.

TOTAL.

WITII CARGOES.

TOTAL.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Shipped.

Shipped.

Shipped.

Vis.

Tons. Crews.

Vls.

Tons. Crews.

Cargoes.

Bunker Coal.

Cargoes.

Bunker Coal.

Bunker Coal.

Vis. Tons. Crews.

Cargoes.

Bunker Coal.

1,420 919

72311,659

674

,650 5,857

14,781

59 2,054 419 38 1,955 241

581

919 074

151

4,051 1,007

247

4,668 1,415

210 285)

1496 1,659

919

674

463}} 101|

19

35,614 30,009

68,717

18,924 3,594 14,781

86 1,295) 120,354 11,009

443

8,732 2,263

1,024 27,656 5,857

14,781

14

1,500 4,887

5,308

335

12,957 3,077

19 68,717 5,308

15!

311 142

76

11

261

77

76

109

653

123

12

337 $31

123

314 11 58

367 2,203||231,260†19,960||

6,552|| 1,810

87

17

19 3,498 351,614 30,069 68,717

453 101

93

12

5

67

22

12

1,007) 300,710284,084 1,520,095||347,665|16,078,9,802,336|516,058 2,920,676|| 545,536

75,287|328,8411,610,724|_547,665|18,416′9,958 431|534,5973,011,305) 545 536)

3,9471,108,688 65,169 105,987 20,02510,911,024 581,227 2,920,676 651,523

7,398|1.367,170|91,387| 105,987|25,814|11.325,601,625,984 3,011,305| 651,523

501 35 1,862 470 940 71

649

19,509 4,887; 5,308)

(-)

311 112 2,199 553

76

14 1,007 93

123 12

:

207

Table V.

NUMBER, TONNAGE and CREWS of Vessels of each Nation ENTERED at Ports in the Colony of Hongkong, in the Year 1905.

ENTERED.

NATIONALITY

OF

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

VESSELS.

Vessels. Tous. Crews. Vessels.

Tous.

Crews. Vessels.

Tons.

Crews.

British,

5,481

6,277,768 284,121

|

260

American,

59

315,690

9,995

7

338,264 6,594

12,843

5,741

6,616,032 296,964

209

66

322,284

10,204

Austrian,

26

88,326

1,841

26

...

88,326

1,841

Belgian,

1

1,794

23

1

1,794

23

Chinese,

271

225,546

15,368

10

12,988

774

281

238,534

16,142

Chinese Junks, 11,842

967,527

133,924

4,867

461,439

62,320

16,709

1,428,966

196,244

Danish,

15

18,713

484

3

5,493

88

18

24,206

572

Dutch,

32

73,980

1,836

3

3,225

94

35

77,205

1.930

French,

483

560,072

23,519

17

22,132

803

500

582,204

24,322

German,

810 1,310.221

.43,130

78

86,227

2,736

888

1,396,448

45,866

Italian,

42

46,133

2,054

14

5,359

508

56

51,492

2,562

Japanese,

27

33,913

1,833

660

42

29

34,573

1,875

Norwegian,

295

319,642

9,202

52

63,036

1,846

347

382,678

11,048

Portuguese,

141

23,288

2,305

6

1,148

193

147

24,436

2,498

Rússian,

1

2,903

56

1

2,903

56

Swedish,

13

12,804

358

+6

7,406

190

19

20,210

548

Steam-ships

under 60 tons

trading to

435

22,458

6,251

465

13,266

3,688

900

35,724

9,939

Ports outside

the Colony,

TOTAL, 19,974 10,300,778 536,300

|

5,790 1,027,237

86,334 25,764 11,328,015 622,634

Table VI.

NUMBER, TONNAGE and CREWS of Vessels of each of Nation CLEARED at Ports in the

Colony of Hongkong, in the Year 1905.

CLEARED.

NATIONALITY

OF VESSELS.

WITH CARGOES.

IN BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Vessels.

Tons. Crews. Vessels.

Tous. Crews. Vessels.

Tons.

Crews.

British, American,

5,474

6,073,814 285,100

56

311,724

10,222

268 536,500 8,545

12,043 231

5,742

6,610,314

297,143

64

320,269

10,453

Austrian,

25

84,471

2,143

25

84,471

2,143

Belgiau,.

1

1,794

Chinese,

Chinese Junks,

281 10,457

Danish,

11

Dutch,

French,

German,

239.074 1,020,541 138,266

17,464 34 76,135 2,133 488 575,706 23,345 659 1,148,794 35,719

34 16,218

1

1,794

34

,

235

6,309 7

748 425,933

88 62,235

283

239,822

16,306

16,766

1,446,474 200,501

6,742

175

18

24,206

410

1,070

31

35

77,205

2.164

13

11,206

533

501

586,912

23,878

241,271

9,308

884

1,390,065

45,027

Italian,

51

50,871 2,426

1,112

179

56

51,483

2,605

Japanese,

23/ 25,593 1,712

8,980

294

29

34,573

2,006

Norwegian,

266

270,266 7,749

105,021

2,216

340

375,287

9,965

Portuguese,

142

23,633 2,519

462

94

145

24,095

2,613

Russian,

I

2,903

53

1

2,903

53

Swedish,

12

13,690

472

5,522

176

18

19,212

648

No Flag,

792

96

6

792

96

Steam-ships

under 60 tons

trading to

485

22,458 6,251

466

13,266

3,688

900

35,724

9,939

Ports outside

the Colony,

TOTAL, 18,416 9,958,481 534,597 7,398 1,367,170 91,387

25,814 11,325,601 625,984

}

208

Table VII.

Total Number, Tonnage, Crews, Passengers and Cargo of Junks ENTERED at Ports in the Colony of Hongkong, from Ports on the Coast of China, and Macao, during the Year ending 31st December, 1995.

CARGO.

BALLAST

TOTAL.

Ves- sels.

East Coast,.

2,900 174,087 19,705

San On Dis-

trict, West

Cargo Ves- Tons. sels.

106 112,985 367

8,112 709,963103.792 18,847

Tons. Crews. Passen- Discharged.

Tons. Crews.!

geis.

Passen- Ves- gers. sels.

Tous Crews.

Passen- Cargo

Discharged. gers.

Tons.

18,285 2,789

3

3,267||||192,372 22,444

109 112,985

387,594 3,877 390,852 53,397 22,856 11,989 1,100,815157, 89

4,703 387,594

River. &c., West Coast,

Macao,

389 28,310 3,424

441

55,167 7,003

Total,... 11,842 967,527133,924 19,008

10

45

18,282 283

24,661

340

22,222 || 2,227

672

50,532 5,651

10 18,282

30,080 3,957

781

85,247 10,960

45

24,661

543,522 | 4,867 | 461,439 62,320 22,859 16,709 1,428,966 196,244 41,867 543,522

Table VIII.

Total Number, Tonnage, Crews, Passengers and Cargo of Junks CLEARED at Ports in the Colony of Hongkong,

for Poris an the Coast of China, and Macao, during the Year ending 31st December, 1905.

:

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Ves- sels.

Tons. Crews

Passen- Cargo Ves-

Shipped. gers. Tons. sels

Tons. Crews.

East Coast,...

1,290

65,050 9,105

92 40,977 2,313 158,478 17,299

Passen- Ves- gers. sels.

10 8,603 223,528 26,404

Tous. Crews.

: Passen-

gers.

Cargo

Shipped. Tons.

102

40,977

San On Dis-

trict, West

River, &c., West Coast,

Macao,

7 16,376 305 21,809 2,633

46 39,953 184 20,052 1,671

347 872,047 117,712 26,100 | 567,798 3,507|| 225,594 40,632|| 19,669 |11,854 1,097,641 158,344

272

45,769 567,798

21,958 2,597

548 61,486 8,852

Total,... 10,457 1,020,541 138,266|| 26,245| 665,104|6,309 | 425,933 62,235 19,689 16,766|1,446,474 200,501 45,934 665,104

10

577

732

43,767 5,230

81,538 10 523

17 16,376

46 39,953

Table IX.

Total Number, Tonnage, Crews, Passengers and Cargo of Junks ENTERED at each Port in the Colony of Hongkong,

(exclusive of Local Trade), during the Year ending 31st December, 1905.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Aberdeen,..........

Cheung Cháu,

Ves- sels.

211 7,025 1,444 240 4,575 1,120

Tons. Crews.

l'asseu- Cargo Ves-

Discharged. gers.

Tons. sels.

ons. Crews.

Passen- Ves-

gers. sels.

Tons. Crews.

l'assen- Cargo

gers.

Discharged. Tons.

3,920 50 2,907

2,288 416 42 1,149 274

261

9,313 1,860

3,920

252

5,724 1,394

2,907

Deep Bay,

...

Hunghom,

820

15,717 4,020 144

Long Ket,

Sai Kung,

211

486 120

Sham Shui-po, 2,329

241,264| 19,951|

-

13,361

269

151,790 1,166 98,199

107

1

3,777

6

677

48

927

8,645

22 3,495

125

Shaukiwán,

519

15,384 4,045|

45

8,614 78 (2,784 561

19,494 4,697 192 13,361

492 339,463 28,596 597 18,168 4,606

269

151,790

Stanley,....

14

232

81

45

128

10

67

39

24

299

120

45 45

8,614

128

Tai 0,

1

69

Tai l'o,

13

2,336 52

235

809

13

364

112

82

2,700

640

809

69

1

137

3

20

15

16

255

84

137

Victoria,

7,606 680,273 102,546|| 18,773

361,587| 3,397 352,785 51,576 22,81111,003 1,033,058 154,122 41,584

361,587

Total,.. 11,842 967,527 133,924 19,008

967,527|133,924|

|

543,522 4,867 461,439 62,320 22,859 16,709 1,428,966 196,244 41,867 543,522

209

Table X.

Total Number, Tonnage, Crews, Passengers and Cargo of Junks CLEARED at each Port in the Colony of Hongkong, (exclusive of Local Trade), during the Year ending 31st December, 1905.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Ves- sels.

Tous. Crews.

Passen- Cargo Ves-

Shipped. gers. Tons. sels.

Passen-

Tons. Crews.

gers.

Ves- sels.

Tons. Crews.

gers.

Passen- Cargo

Shipped. Tons.

Aberdeen,

59

2,054 419

Cheung Cháu,

38

1,055 244

919

151 674 247

4,051 1,007 4,668 1,415

210

6,105 1,426

919

285

5,723 1,659

674

Deep Bay,

Hungbow,....

581

18,924 3,594 18,924

133

14,781

443

Long Ket,

Sai Kung

86

14

19

15

Shani Shui-po,

1,295

120,354, 11,009||

68,7172,203

367 231,260 19,060

8,732 2,263

87

434

1,024

27,656 5,857; 567

14,781

17

3,498

453 351,614 30,069

101

19

Shaukiwán,

335

12,957 3,077

45

5,308 314

6,552 1,810

649

19,509 4,887

Stanley,.

11

261

77

45

761 11

50

35

22

311

112

45 45

68,717 5,308

76

Tai 0,

12

337

83

123

58

1,862

470

70

2,199

553

123

Tai Po, Victoria,

5

67

22

3

8,119

864,446 119,727 26,019

18 574,469 2,858

9

71

14

940 167,451 36,017| 19,255 |10,977 1,031,897155,744 45,274 | 574,469

1,007 93

3

18.

Total,... 10,457 1,020,541 138,266|| 26,245

665,104 6,309 425,933 62,235 19,689 16,766 1,446,474200,501 45,934 | 665,104

Table XI.

Return of Junks (Local Trade) ENTERED at each Port in the Colony of Hongkong, during the Year ending 31st December, 1905.

CARGO.

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Ves- sels.

Tons. Crews.

Cargo Passen-

Ves- Discharged. gers.

Tons. sels.

Tons. Crews Passen- Ves- gers. sels.

Tons. Crews.

Passen- gers.

Cargo Discharged. T ns.

Aberdeen,...... 125

5,750 1,209

3,835

Cheung Cháu,

29

747

156

465

888

56 1,839 433

181

7,589 1,642

20

426

91

49

1,173 247

3,835 465

Deep Bay,......

Hunghom,....

11

298

72

118

163

9,856

1,669]

174

10,154 1,741

118

Long Ket,

Sai Kung,

9

181

46

54

6

123

32

15

Sham Shui-po,

169

17,683

2,772

12,545

130

11,408

1,508

299

307 29,091 4,280

78

54

12,545

Shaukiwán,

120

5,214, 1,021

2,382 67

1,602

4351

187

Stanley,.

43

19

19

8

215

'69

12

6,816 1,456

258!

2,382

88

19

Tai 0,

10

177

56

28

210

117

102 164

3

40

19

13

217 75

102

37 1,165 167

15

65 1,375 284

23

164

Tai Po, Victoria,

10,692 396,966 117,506 12,163 299,253 20,007 737,771 169,120 53,088 30,699 1,134,737 286,726 65,251| 299,253

Total,... 11,197 427,272 123,074 12,171 318,937 20497 764,445 173,543 53,103 31,694 1,191,717296,617 €5,274 318,937

Table XII.

Return of Junks (Local Trade) CLEARED at each Port in the Colony of Hongkong, during the Year ending 31st December, 1905.

CARGO).

BALLAST.

TOTAL.

Ves- sels.

Tous. Crews. Passen-

gers.

Cargo Shipped. Tons.

Ves- sels.

Aberdeen,

Cheung Cháu,

Deep Bay,...... Hunghom,..

79 2,271 582

1,105

153 8,527 1,494

12

353

68

215

34

821

175

Tons. Crews Passen- Ves-

gers. sels.

232 10,798 2,076

46

Tous. Crews. Passen -

gers.

Cargo

Shipped.

Tons.

1,105

1,174

243

215

36

1,129

200

Long Ket,

Sai Kung,

15

276

83

Sham Shui-po,

87 6,675

743

Shaukiwán, ....

59

1,977

460

Stanley,.

11

184

71

2

N

653

41

866

291

77

1,995) 581

19

653

117

5

69

19

20

5,445

209

10,267

2,064|

345 296 16,942 2,807

102

117

5,445

1,158

76

3,500

657

135

5,477 1,117

GL

1,158

63

3

50

25

14

240

96

63

Tai (),

10

256

67

114

14

242

93

24

498 160,

114

'l'ai Po,

49

451

201

17

284

18

190

73

67

Victoria,

6,249|232,042 | 56,925|| 69,298

47,333 24,413 900,294 227,360

6 2,661 30,662 1,132,336 284,225||| 71,959

641

274

23

284

47,333

Total,... 6,607 245,614 | 59,490 69,319

56,487 24,966 924,832 232,191 2,667 31,573 1,170,446 291,681 71,986

56,487

FOREIGN TRADE.

210

Table XIII,

SUMMARY.

NO. OF VESSELS.

TONS.

CREWS.

British Ships entered with Cargoes,

5,481

6,277,768

284,121

Do.

do.

in Ballast,

260

338,264

12,843

Total,.........

5,741

6,616,032

296,964

do.

British Ships cleared with Cargoes,

Do.

5,474

6,073,814

285,100

in Ballast,

268

536,500

12,043

Total,........

5,742

6,610,314

297,143

Foreign Ships entered with Cargoes,

Do.

2,216

3,033,025

112,004

do. in Ballast,

198

214,268

7,483

Total,

2,414

3,247,293

119,487

Do.

Foreign Ship cleared with Cargoes,

do. in Ballast,

2,050

2,841,618

104,980

356

391,471

13,421

Total,........

2,406

3,233,089

118,401

do.

Steamships under 60 tons entered with Cargoes,.

Do.

435

32,458

6,251

do. in Ballast,

465

13,266

3.688

Total.......

900

35,724

9,939

Steamships under 60 tons cleared with Cargoes,.....

435

22,458

6,251

Do.

do.

do. in Ballast,

465

13,266

3,688

Total,.

900

35,724

9,939

Junks entered with Cargoes,

Do. do. in Ballast,

11,842

967,527

133,924

4,867

461,439

62,320

Total,.......

16,709

1,428,966

196,244

Junks cleared with Cargoes,

Do. do. in Ballast,

10,457

1,020,541

138,266

6,309

425,933

62,320

Total,............

16,766

1,446,474

200,501

Total of all Vessels entered,

25,764

11,323,015

622,634

Total of all Vessels cleared,

25,814

11,325,601

625,984

Total of all Vessels in Foreign Trade, entered and cleared,

51,578

22,653,616

1,218,618

LOCAL TRADE.

Total Junks entered,

31,694

1,191,717

296,617

Do.

cleared,

31,573

1,170,446

291,681

Total Local Trade, entered and cleared,

63,267

2,362,163

588,298

Total Foregin Trade, entered and cleared,

51,578

22,653,616 1,248,618

Total Local Trade, entered and cleared,

63,267

2,362,163

588,298

Grand Total,

114,845

25,015,779 1,836,916

Table XV.

RETURN of LICENSED STEAM-LAUNCHES Entered in the COLONY of HONGKONG during the Year ending 31st December, 1905.

TOWING.

NOT TOWING.

TOTAL.

PLACES.

Cargo

Vessels. Tonnage. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Discharged Vessels. Tonnage. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Cargo

in tons.

Discharged Vessels. Tonnage. Crews. in tons.

Within the Waters of the Colony, *

83,777 2,113,030 617,973

86,674 2,509,631649,673 4,051,264

1

Total,...

83,777 2,113,030 617,973

...

86,674 2,509,631| 649,673 4,051,264]

170,451 4,622,661 1,267,646 4,051,261

170,451 4,622,661 1,267,646 4,051,264

Cargo

Discharged

in tons.

Passen-

gers.

Outside the Waters of the Colony

Samshui,

Kongman,

Kamchuk,

Wuchow,

Macao.... Other Places,

11

300

77

454

12,966 3,611

465 13,266j 3,688

:

***

:

212 -

9

492

162

555

20

792

239

555

217

13,552

4,328

2,145

972

217

13,552 4,328

2,145

.972

209

...

8,414 1,761

5,113

206

663

21,380

5,372

5,113

206

435

22,458, 6,251

7,258

1,733

900

35,724 9,939 7,258

1,733

87,109 2,532,089 655,924 4,038,522||

1,733 171,351 4,658,385 1,277,585 1,058,522

1,733

*The figures under the heading "Steam-launches plying within the Waters of the Colony are incomplete: the "Star" Ferry Company stating that since 1901, "owing to the amount of work entailed" they have had to discontinue keeping a record of the passengers carried by their launches, and also number of trips.

Total,.

Grand Total,

84,242 2,126,296 621,661

...

211

Table XIV.

STATEMENT of the REVENUE collected in the Harbour Department, during the Year 1905.

Head of Receipt.

1. Light Dues, (Ordinance 10 of 1899),

Amount.

$

74,233.45

cts.

2. Licences and Internal Revenue not otherwise specified :─

Chinese Passenger Ships Licences, (Ordinance 1 of 1889),

Emigration Brokers Licences, (Ordinance 1 of 1889),

Fines,

1,065.00

1,200.00

617.50

Fishing Stake and Station Licences, (Ordinance 10 of 1899),

205.00

Fishing Stake and Station Licences, from the New Territory, (Ordinance 10 of

1899),

2,282.00

Junk Licences, &c., (Ordinance 10 of 1899),

37,517.50

Junk Licences, &c., from the New Territory, (Ordinance 10 of 1899),

15,881.70

Pilots Licences, (Ordinance 3 of 1904),

360.00

Steam-launch Licences, &c., (Ordinance 10 of 1899),

3.539.57

3. Fees of Court and Office, Payments for specific purposes and Reimbursements-in-

Aid:- ཡ

Cargo-boat Certificates, (Ordinance 10 of 1899),

2,432.00

Engagement and Discharge of Seamen,. (Ordinance 10 of 1899),

26,302.60

Engagement of Masters and Engineers of Steam-launches, (Ordinance 10 of

1899),

222.00

Examination of Masters, &c., (Ordinance 10 of 1899),

2,617.50

Gunpowder, Storage of, (Ordinance 10 of 1889),

28,154.04

Medical Examination of Emigrants, (Ordinance 1 of 1889),

20,770.75

Printed Forms, Sale of,........

426.75

Private Moorings and Buoys, Rent of, (Ordinance 10 of 1899),

3,450.00

Registry Fees (Merchant Shipping Act), (Ordinance 10 of 1899),

1,266.00

Steam-launches, Surveyor's Certificates, (Ordinance 10 of 1899),

2,910.00

Survey of Steam-ships, &c, (Ordinance 10 of 1899),

Sunday Cargo Working Permits, (Ordinance 1 of 1891),

31,639.22

43,475.00

Total,....

300,567.76

JÁN HIGHLI BINILSALA

PLACES.

Table XVI.

RETURN of LICENSED STEAM-LAUNCHES Cleared in the COLONY of HONGKONG during the year ending 31st December, 1905.

TOWING.

NOT TOWING.

TOTAL.

Cargo

Vessels. Tonnage. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Shipped Vessels. Tonnage. Crews.

in tons.

Bunker Cargo Passen- Shipped Coal gers. in tons.in tons.

Vessels. Tonnage. Crews.

Passen-

gers.

Cargo Bunker Shipped Coal in tons, in tons.

Within the Waters of the Colony,

*

80,403 1,964,901| 591,613|

87,059 2,581,750 675,2923,865,309

25,895 167,4624,546,651,1,266,905 3,865,309

25,895

Total,....

80,403 1,964,901 591,613

87,059 2,581,750 675,2923,565,309

25,895 167,462 4,546,651 1,266,905 3,865,309|

25,895

Outside the Waters of the Colony :-

213 --

Samshui,

Kongmun,

...

...

:

:

:

..

Kamchuk,

Wuchow,

Macao,...

11

300

77

9

217

492

13,552

162

820

315

201

792

Other Places,

454

12,966 3,611

...

209

4,328

8,414 1,7611

3,065 1,370

5,096

522

217

13,552

239

4,328

820

315

3,065

1,370

522

310 1,617

663

21,380

5,372

5,096

310 1,617

Total,...

465 13,266

3,638

:.

435 22,458 6,251!

8,161 2,500| 2,454|

900 35,724

9,939 8,161 2,500 2,454

Grand Total,.

80,868 1,978,167|| 595,301|

595,301|

...

276,8443,873,470 87,494 2,604,208 681,5133,873,470 2,500 28,349 168,362 4,582,375 1,276,844 3,873,470 2,500 28,349

* The figures under the heading "Steam-launches plying within the waters of the Colony " are incomplete: the "Star" Ferry Company stating that since 1901, "owing to the amount of work entailed" they have had to discontinue keeping a record of the passengers carried by their launches, and also number of trips.

2,601,2

1

214

Table XVII.

SUMMARY OF CHINESE EMIGRATION from HONGKONG to Ports other than in China,

during the Year ending 31st December, 1905.

BRITISH VESSELS.

FOREIGN VESSELS.

GRAND TOTAL.

WHITHER BOUND..

Adults.

Children.

Adults.

Children.

Adults.

Children.

Total.

Total.

Total.

M.

F.

M. F.

M. F. M. F.

M. F. M. F

To Callao, Pern,

1,004

37

1,042

:

1,004

37

1

1,042

""

Honolulu, Sandwich Islands,

25

26

120

3

130

145

3

5

3

156

22

Japan Ports,

104

108

336

342 440)

6

450

"1

Mauritius,

641 20 32

702

641

20

32

702

Mexico,

1,640

19

1,659

1,640

,659

Reunion Island...........

17

32

""

San Francisco, U.S.A.,

2

Straits Settlements,

2,060 639

36 2

Tacoma, U.S.A.,

Vancouver, British Columbia, Victoria, British Columbia,

344 |33,046 6,323 1,402 694 42,365 (10,292 1,794 308 | 215 |12,60944,238| 8,117 1,710

352 2,157 | 10 30

19 12,198 2,501

17

19

16

32

2,550

909

54,974

49

49

49

49

2,096 641

2,060

36

2,096

3

642

2

644-

TOTAL PASSENGERS,

39,762 6,334 1,498 695 48,289 13,615 1,837 381 219 16,052 53,377|| 8,171 1,879

914

64,341

Total Passengers by British Vessels,

39.762 6,334 1,498

095

48,289

Total Passengers by Foreign Vessels,

Excess of Passengers by British Vessels, .

13,615 1,837 381

26,147 4,497 1,117

219

16,052

476 32,237

Table XVIII.

SUMMARY of CHINESE IMMIGRATION to HONGKONG from Ports other than China, during the Year ending 31st December, 1905.

BRITISH VESSELS.

FOREIGN VESSELS.

GRAND TOTAL.

WHERE FROM.

Adults.

Children.

Adults. Children.

Adults.

Children.

Total.

Total.

Total.

M.

F.

M. F.

M. F. M. F

M.

F.

M.

F

From Bangkok, Siam,

2,990

2,991

2,990

2,994

Callao, Peru,

311

12 4

27

**

Durban, British South Africa,

2,053

336 2,053

311

12

336

2,053

2,053

Honolulu, Sandwich Islands,

87

N

3

93 368 J0

393

455

12

=

486

Java & Sumatra,.

226

226 1,434

1,438

1.660

1,664

Japan Ports,

85

88 48

48

133

136

Mauritius,.

347

317

347

3+7

32

""

""

2:

Melbourne,

Panama....

682

682

682

682

New South Wales,

703

7031

23

23

726

726

New Zealand Ports.

98

98

98

98

115 15

140

115

15

140

"

Queensland Ports...

22

San Francisco, U.S.A.,

Seattle, U.S.A.,

South Australian Ports,

455

713 21

18

105

11

455

455

455

2:

19

771 4,996 123 96

5.286

5,709

141

90

6,057

302

302

302

116

Straits Settlements,

97,668 5,126 1,527 686 105,007|15,322 | 342 | 136

"

Tacoma, U.S.A.,..

27

""

Tasmania,

11

"

Vancouver, British Columbia,

2,635

17

""

Victoria, British Columbia,..

307

16 2

27 11 2,677 313

::3;:::

302

105

11

116

56 15,856 112,9905,468 | 1,663 742 120,863

27 11

27

2,635 307

17

16

11 2,677

313

TOTAL PASSENGERS,

106,281 5,195 1,593 727 113,796,25,830 482 240 135 26,687 132,111 5,677 1,833 862 140,483

Total Passengers by British Vessels,

i

Total Passengers by Foreign Vessels,

Excess of Passengers by British Vessels,

106,281 5,195 | 1,593 727 113,796

25,830 482 240 135 26,687

80,451 4,713 1,353 592 87,109

1

215

Table XIX.

RETURN of VESSELS REGISTERED at the Port of Hongkong, during the year, 1905.

Name of Vessel.

Official Number.

Registered

Tonnage.

Horse

Power.

Rig.

Built of.

Where built and when.

Remarks.

Hoi Ning. Sobralense,

(str.), 120,972

90

24

91,1561,232

188

Schooner Wood | Hunghom, Hongkong, 1900.

Brig Iron Barrow in Furness, ...1884. Since lost off the entrance to

21

Albatross,

120,973 83

24

Schooner

Wood | Mongkok, Hongkong, 1904.

[Port Arthur.

"

Canada,

120,974

51

21

Do.

Do. Hongkong,

1902.

"7

City of Birmingham,

109,531

92

64

Do.

Steel Govan, Glasgow,

1898.

:"

Shameen,

120,975

א

None

Wood

Hongkong,

1905.

""

Pak Hin Hok,

120.976

16

17

Du.

Do.

Canton, China,

1903.

Sin Tai Koo,

120,977 11

11

Do.

{

Do.

Hongkong,

.1900.

Tai Koo,

120,978 10

13

Do.

Do.

Hongkong,

.1903.

Tai Koo Choy,

120,979

20

Do.

Do.

Hongkong,

.1904.

Tai Koo Fook,

120.980

Lo.

Do.

Hongkong,

1903.

Tai Koo Ping,

120,981

Do.

Do.

Hongkong,

.1905.

1

Aeolus,

Gretchen,

Wo Ping.. Taiwan,

Tien Kong,

120,982

13

Do.

Do

Hongkong,

1897.

120,983

20

16

Do.

Do.

Hunghom, Hongkong. 1905.

120,98+

134

31

Do.

Do.

Hunghom, Hongkong, 1885

Lengthened 1905.

87,005 1,042

150

(motor), 120,985

50

Schooner Steel

None Wood

Cartsdyke, Greenock, 1882. Hokun, Hongkong, ...1905.

Table XX.

RETURN of REGISTRIES of VESSELS cancelled at the Port of Hongkong, during the year, 1905.

Name of Vessel.

Official Number.

Registered

Tonnage.

Date of

Registry.

Horse

Power.

Rig.

Built of

Where and when built.

Reason of Cancellation.

Hailoong....(str.), 88.847

783

An Pho,

95,859

966

West York....

706

Perla.

Hoi Ho, Shahzada.

Ping On......

Sobralense,

1891 74.496

1896 77,1201,287 1900 240 109,866 364 1901

40

1388 180 Schooner Steel

148 Do.

Do.. Barque Iron Schooner Do

None Wood Cheung-sha-wan. H'kong, 1901.

Leith,

Fort Glasgow,

Sunderland, Durbam,

1888. | Sold to Foreigners. 1891.

Do. [of Palawan. 1876. Lost off Flat Island, S. W.

Sunderland, Durham. .....1878. | Sold to Foreigners. ·

78,848 1,046

1904

206

Schooner

Iron Belfast, ....

1879.

116,053

97

1904

28

وه

91,1561,232 1905

188

Do. Brig

Wood Hongkong,

.1902.

Do.

Do.

Do.

[Port Arthur.

Iron

Barrow in Furness,

.1884. Lost off the entrance to

216

Table XXI.

RETURN of MARINE CASES tried at the MARINE MAGISTRATE'S COURT, during the Year 1905.

Defendants how disposed of

NATURE OF CHARGE.

No. of Cases.

No. of Defendants.

Imprisonment with

Ĥard Labour.

Imprisonment with Hard Labour and forfeiture of pay,

Imprisonment with- out Hard Labour.

Imprisonment in default of fine.

Fined.

Forfeiture of

Pay.

Reprimanded.

Sent back to

duty.

Dismissed.

1

1

2

N

::

25

55

9

22

1

:

:

:

:

:

:

:.

:

12

185

22-2

Absent from ship without leave, Arrival without reporting, (Junk), Breach of condition of. Licence,

(Launch),

Disobeying the lawful orders of Har-

bour Master,

Harbour Regulations, (Breach of, by

Junks, &c.),

Impeding the progress of the voyage

of the ship by refusing to proceed

to sea,

Leaving without Clearance, (Junk), Neglect of duty,....

Plying without a Licence. (Boats),

Rules of the Road, Failed to observe,

(Steam-launches),

Refusal of duty,.

Wilfully using the steam whistles

other than for the purpose of navigation, (steam-launch),

Total,

228

:

12 33

:~

22

12

12

wo

3

45

22

18 235

55

3

:

:.

75

338

12 36 111

∞ : ~ :

8

:

Amount of

Fines.

:

:

:

:

:

:.

:

12:42

3

103

C.

30.00

40.00

213.50

112.00

10 64

1

15.00

...

29.00

:

:

:

:

10 66

133.00

...

45.00

$617.50

TABLE XXII. ·

niered at Hongkong, from 1867 to 1905 inclusive.

British Shipping Tonnage only,

: Foreign Shipping Tonnage only.

s Brilish and Foreign Shipping Tonnage.

nts Junk Tonnage only, excluding Local Trade.

Is Steam-launch Tonnage only, excluding Local Trade.

"epresents entire Trade in British and Foreign Ships, Junks and Steam-launches.

1878.

1879.

1880.

1881.

1882.

1883.

1834.

1885.

1886.

1887.

18$8.

1889.

1890.

1891.

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

1896

1897.

1898.

1899.

1900.

1901.

1902.

1903.

1904.

1905.

11,300,000

II,200,000

11,000,000

10,000,000

9,900,000

9,800,000

9,700,000

9,600,000

9,500,000

9,400,000

9,300,000

9,200,000

9,100,000

9,000,000

8,900,000.

8,800,000.

TONS.

11,000,000

10,000,000

9,900,000

9,800,000

9,700,000

9,600,000

9,500,000

9,400,000

9,300,000

9,200,000

9,100,000

9,000,000

8,900,000

8,800,000

8,700,000.

8,600,000.

8,500,000

8,400,000

8,300,000-

8,200,000

8,100,000...

8,000,000.

7,900,000

7,800,000

7,700,000

7,600,000.

7,500,000

7,400,000.

7,300,000.

7,200,000

7,100,000

7,000,000

6,900,000.

6,800,000

6,700,000.

6,600,000

6,500,000

6,400,000

6,300,000

6,200,000...

6,100,000

6,000,000

5,900,000.

5,800,000

5,700,000

5,600,000-

5:500,000-7

5,400,000.-

5,300,000

5,200,000

5,100,000

5,000,000...

4,900,000

4,800,000..

4,700,000

4,600,000

4,500,000...

4,400,000...

4,300,000

4,200,000

4,100,000

4,000,000

3,900,000

3,800,000

3,700,000

3,600,000

3,500,000

3,400,000

3,300,000

3,200,000

3,100,000

3,000,000

2,900,000

2,800,000

2,000,000

2,700,000

2,600,000

2,500,000

2,400,000

2,300,000

2,200,000

2,100,000

2,000,000

1,900,000

1,800,000

1,700,000

1,600,000

1,500,000

1,400,000

1,300,000

1,200,000

1,100,000

1,000,000

900,000

800,000

700,000

600,000

500,000

400,000

300,000

200,000

100,000

90,000

80,000

50,000

40,000

30,000

m.

Toxs.

11,300,000

II,200,000

I 1,000 000

10,000,000

9.900,000

9,800,000

9,700,000

9,600.000

9,500,000

9,400,000

9,300,000

9,200,000

9,100,000

9,000,000

8,900,000

8,800,000

8,700,000

8,600,000

8,500,000

8,400,000

1207.

1868.

1869.

1870.

1871.

1872.

1873.

1874.

1875.

1876.

1877.

TABLE XXII.

DIAGRAM of Tonnage entered at Hongkong, from 1867 to 1905 inclusive

RED LINE represents British Shipping Tonnage only.

BLUE LINE represents Foreign Shipping Tonnage only.

GREEN LINE represents British and Foreign Shipping Tonnage.

YELLOW LINE represents Junk Tonnage only, excluding Local Trade.

VIOLET LINE represents Steam-launch Tonnage only, excluding Local Trade.

THICK BLACK LINE represents entire Trade in British and Foreign Ships, Jun/

1878.

1879.

1880.

1881. 1882.

1883. 1834. 1885. 1886. 1887.

*8381

1889.

1890.

1891.

1892.

1893.

1894.

8,400,000

8,300,000

8,200,000

8,100,000

8,000,000

7,900,000

7,800,000

7,700,000

7,600,000

7,500,000

.7,400,000

7,300,000

7,200,000

7,100,000

7,000,000

6,900,000

6,800,000

6,700,000

6,600,000

6,500,000

6,425,000

6,300,000

6,200,000

6,100,000

6,000,000

5,900,000

5,800,000

5,700,000

5,600,000

5,500,000

5,400,000

5,300,000

5,200,000

5,100,000

5,000,000

4,900,000

4,800,000

4,900,000

4,800,000

4,700,000

4,600,000

4,500,000

4,400,000

4,300,000

4,200,000

4,100,000

4,000,000

3,900,000

3,800,000

3,700,000

3,600,000

3,500,000

3,400,000

3,300,000

3,200,000

3,100,000

3,000,000

2,900,000

2,800,000

2,700,000

BLACK

2,600,000

2,500,000

2,400,000

2,300,000

2,200,000

2,100,000

2,000,000

1,900,000

1,800,000

1,700,000

1,600,000

1,500,000

1,400,000

YELLOW

1,300,000

GREEN

ᎠᏗ

-དཔཔཔདཔ〉༦

2,500,000

2,400,000

2,300,000

2,200,000

2,100,000

2,000,000

1,900,000

1,800,000

1,700,000

1,600,000

1,500,000

1,400,000

YELLOW

1,300,000

GREEN

1,200,000

1,100,000

1,000,000

900,000

RED

800,000

700,000

600,000

BLUE

500,000

400,000

300,000

200,000

100,000

90,000

VIOLET

80,coo

50,000

40,000

30,000,

C

+

་་

219

APPENDIX A.

MERCANTILE MARINE OFFICE.

1. 21,350 Seamen were shipped and 24,280 discharged at Mercantile Marine Office and on board Ships during the year.

728 Distressed Seamen were received during the year, of these, 228 were sent home, 10 to Calcutta, 4 to Bombay, 5 to Colombo, 4 to Vancouver, 10 to Singapore, 2 to Aden, 25 to Sydney, 1 to Manila, 2 to Port Said, 1 taken charge of by U. S. Consul, 1 by Danish Consul, 7 by German Consul, 2 by Spanish Consul, 18 by French Consul, 1 by Netherlands Consul, 119 Passengers to Canton, 1 to Haiphong, 1 to Saigon, 2 to Shanghai, 1 to United King- dom, 1 to Colombo, 9 to Manila, 2 to Singapore, 1 to Port Darwin, 1 to San Francisco, 1 disappeared, 4 employed on shore, 1 joined Lappa Customs, 4 died at Government Civil Hospital, 1 died at Kennedy Town Hospital, 1 remained at Government Hospital, 2 at Sailors' Home, and 255 obtained employment.

$21,788.90 were expended by the Harbour Master on behalf of the Board of Trade in the relief of these distressed Seamen.

APPENDIX B.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS (OPIUM) OFFICE.

2. The return shows that during the year the amount of Opium reported was as follows:-

1904.

1905.

Increase.

Decrease.

Chests.

Chests.

Chests.

Chests.

Imported,..

45,936

43,928

....

2,008

Exported,

43,858

42,067/

1,791

Through Cargo reported but

14,587

not landed,

9,746

4,84012

Eighteen thousand and fourteen (18,014) permits were issued from this office during the year; being a decrease of 88 as compared with 1904.

A daily memo. of exports to Chinese ports was, during the year, supplied to the Com- missioner of Imperial Maritime Customs and a daily memo. of exports to Macau was supplied to the Superintendent of Raw Opium Department of Macau.

Surprise visits were paid to 110 godowns during the

year.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF OPIUM.

:

IMPORTS.

MALWA.

chests.

PATNA.

BENARES. PERSIAN.

TURKISH.

CHINESE.

TOTAL.

chests.

chests.

chests.

chests.

chests.

chests.

1904, 1905,

- 8,051

22,761

9,894

5,070

34

1.26

45,936

6,763

23,779

10,218.

2,922

35

211

43,928

Increase,... Decrease, 1,287

1,018

324

1

85

1,428

...

2,148

3,436

EXPORTS.

MALWA.

chests.

PATNA.

BENARES.

chests.

chests.

PERSIAN.

chests.

TURKISH.

CHINESE

TOT

chests.

chests.

ch

1904,

8,280

20,903

9,482

5,151

8

34

4'

1905,

5,888

22,906

9,917

3,140

47

169

4

Increase....

2,003

435

39

135

Decrease, . 2,3921/

2,01031

Through Cargo reported in Manifests but not landed

1904,. 1905,

14,587 c 9,746

Decrease,

4,8403

L

220

NUMBER OF PERMITS, &c., ISSUED.

1904

1905.

Increase. Decrease.

Landing Permits,

Removal Permits,

362

341

21

8,665

8,692

27

Export Permits,

9,075

8,981

94

Memo. of Exports to the Commissioner of Chinese Customs,

Memo. of Exports to the Superintendent of Raw Opium Depart-

ment, Macao,.

550

536

14

297

293

SUMMARY OF EXPORTS, 1905.

Malwa, Patna. Benares. Persian. Turkish. Chinese. chests. chests. chests. chests. chests. chests.

Total. chests.

Total in Piculs.

By Steamers to Amoy,

Bushire,. Canton, Changsha,. Chefoo,

Foochow,.

ཚེ :;

39

1,757

642

5

2,443 4

6,470 51

1,356

ลง

2

8,552

56

5

5

2,810.45.0 4.10.0

10,117.87.5

66.40.0

6.00.0

1,035

716

366

82531/0

2,942

3,179.53.8.

Hankow,..

Haiphong,

Herbertshoke,..

Hohow,

10 00

33

39

46.20.0

5

2

10.

11.02.5

1

1

1.20.0

00

225

19

252

300.80.0

Hoilow,

Kwong Chow Wan,

London,.

Масао,...

770

107

877

1,052.40.0

482

21.

503

599.92.5

:

35

29

64

64.87.5

4,356

16

:

4,372

5,246.40.0

Namtao,

39

39

46.80.0

New York,

11

11

11.27.5

Pakhoi,...

95

53

148

177.60.0

Panama,

13

13

15.60.0

Philippine Islands,.

602

615

206

Port Said,

Sandakan,

2

5

3

48

24

1,425 2

62

1,673.55.0

2.00.0 64.80.0

Shanghai,....

2,144

7,247

3,980

15

13,386

15,632.27.5

Straits Settlements,

22

234

25×

268.25.0

Swatow,

1,595

1,275

716

3,617

4,016.47.5

Tansui,

6

880

1,060

169

2,115

2,317.50.0

Tientsin,

3

4

4.80.0

Victoria, B. C.,

93

93

111.60.0

Weihaiwei,..

3

3.60.0⚫

Wuchow,

11

8

21.60.0

rious adjacent Ports in China, 329

420

7513

835.70.0

Total,

5,888

22,906

9,917

3,140

47

169 42,067

48,710.61.3

formation in Column 8 above is on the following assumption :-

Patna and Benares, per chest,.....

Malwa, Turkish and Chinese, per chest,

Persian, per chest,

1.20.0 pieuls.

1.00.0

1.02.5

"

!

{

221

APPENDIX C.

MARINE SURVEYOR'S OFFICE.

3. During the year, 188 vessels of 421,521 gross register tons were surveyed for Passen- ger Certificate and Bottom Inspection.

Of these, 115 of 297,811 tons were British and 73 of 123 710 tons were Foreign vessels viz.:-51 German of 86,139 tons, 9 French of 13,178 tons, 6 Chinese of 12,821 tons, 5 Norwegian of 6,439 tons, and 2 Italian of 5,133 tons. A comparison with the work for 1885, so far as Passenger Certificate and Bottom Inspection are concerned, may be of interest.

In that year the total tonnage surveyed was 242,801, of which 177,388 was British and 65,413 foreign.

The increase in British and Foreign shipping combined is, therefore, 178,720 tons or 73.6 per cent., as compared with that of twenty years ago.

In British shipping the proportion is 120,423 tons or 67.9 per cent. and in Foreign shipping 58,297 tons or 89.1 per cent.

During the year, 92 emigration surveys were held, of which 49 were on British and 44 on Foreign vessels; 17 vessels were measured for registration purposes, and 1 Foreign vessel for certificate of British tonnage; 1 inspection of crew space and 7 minor inspections took place.

193 passenger launches were surveyed, 23 boilers were inspected during construction, and 172 inspections of Government launches were made while under repair.

RETURN of WORK performed by the GOVERNMENT MARINE

DEPARTMENT DURING THE LAST TEN

YEARS.

SURVEYOR'S

Years.

Passenger

Certificate and

Inspection of

Bottom.

Emigration.

Tonnage for Registration.

British Tonnage

Foreign Vessels.

Certificate for

Inspection of Crew Space, Lights and

Markings.

Minor Inspec- tion.

Survey of Licen- sed Passenger Steam-launches.

Survey of Boilers under Construction.

Inspection of Government

1896,

142

1897,

158

1898, 164

1899,

144

8235

68

79

24

83

10

61

10

1900,

151

83

1901,

157

92

1902; 175

93

1903,

190

111

1904, 196

125

35

1905,

188

93

5333037251

*50{{Qink}"[

Examination of Engineers.

Examination of

neers for Steam- launches.

Chinese Engi-

Estimated Total Number of Visits in

connection with fore-

going Inspection,

INNA CONUIH O

3

0

.97

Ι

1

109

121

235

20

37

66

1,409

41

35

96

51

1,631

61

26

48

1,729

134

62

27

57

78

1,602

187

73

47

99

124

1,834

217

36

102

88

118

2,031

210

25

126

109

76

1,768

184

30

126

85

72

2,107

203

45

126

82

104

2,140

193

23

172

77

81

1,989

APPENDIX D.

GUNPOWDER DEPOT.

4. During the year 1905 there has been stored in the Government Gunpowder Depôt Stonecutters' Island:

Approxi-

No. of cases.

mate

weight.

lbs.

Gunpowder, privately owned,

Do. Government owued,.

Cartridges, privately owned,.

Do. Government owned,

Explosive Compounds, privately owned,.

Do.,

Non-explosives, privately owned,

5,743

123,315

1,229

103,726

2,180

433,575

· 1,445

336,845

860

48,328

Government owned,

1,967

133,616

29

3,500

Do.,

Government owned,

1,287

123,542

Total,

14,740 1,306,447

222

During the same period there has been delivered out of the Depôt :-

Approxi-

No. of cases.

mate

weight.

Ibs.

For Sale in the Colony

Gunpowder, privately owned,

953

20,330

Cartridges, privately owned,

87 29,200

Explosive Compounds, privately owned,

360

19,750

Nou-explosives, privately owned,

For Export:-

Gunpowder, privately owned,

1,781

36,525

Cartridges, privately owned,.

563

89,900

Explosive Compounds, privately owned, Non-explosives, privately owned,

277

15,050

26 2,875

Total,

4,047

213,630

On the 31st December, 1905, there remained as follows:

Approxi-

No. of cases.

mate

weight.

Ibs.

Gunpowder, privately owned,

Do. Government owned,

Cartridges, privately owned,

Do. Government owned,

3,009

66,460

330

20,662

1,530

314,475

47

4,550

Explosive Compounds, privately owned,..

223

13,528

Do.

Government owned,

970

47,356

Non-explosives, privately owned,

3

625

Do.

Government owned,

706

70,300

Total,

6,818

538,096

APPENDIX E.

LIGHTHOUSES.

5. The amount of Light Dues collected was as follows:-

Class of Vessels.

Rate. No. of per ton. Ships.

Tonnage.

Total Fees collected.

$

C.

Ocean Vessels,

1 cent 4,006

6,741,155

67,411.55

1

156 1,638

456

288 2,591 2,004,987 8,727 1,101,738 16,223

10,774

107.74 6,685.06

29.10

Steam Launches,

3 ""

3 ""

River Steamers, (Night Boats), River Launches, (Night Boats), River Steamers, (Day Boats),. Free. River Launches, (Day Boats), Free.

Total,

9,135 9,583,604 74,233.45

Gap Rock.

Owing to exceptional weather conditions at this station the telegraph cable was broken close to the Rock on the 26th of July. Temporary repairs were effected by the 8th August, and the line was in good working order. A Telegraph Cable Ship then became available, and her services were engaged to make permament repairs, which were completed on the 24th August. Unfortunately, the shore end of the cable was not properly secured on the Rock, with the result that the cable again parted during the typhoon of the 30th August. The N.E. Monsoon setting in shortly after this rendered the work of repairing extremely difficult, and communication was not restored until the 14th December, since which date the line has worked without a hitch, though the cementing in of the shore end has not been completed on account of the heavy sea.

-

:

223

Notwithstanding these interruptions of communications, 618 vessels were reported from Gap Rock, in addition to 200 messages received and 2,401 sent, including weather reports to the Observatory.

One hundred and ninety hours and ten minutes of fog were reported from this station during the year, and the fog signal gun was fired 1,178 times.

On two occasions the relief was delayed by the rough sea.

Waglan.

1,484 vessels were reported from this station by telephone during the year. Owing to temporary interruptions of communication, 419 vessels were not reported. In addition, 85 messages were received and 125 sent.

Four hundred and thirty seven hours and twelve minutes of fog were reported during the year, and the fog signal gun was fired four thousand four hundred and seventy four

times.

On September 20th a typhoon was reported, and, in consequence, the relief was delayed from that date until the 25th. This is the only occasion which has yet occurred of the relief being delayed by the rough sea.

Cape D'Aguilar.

The reports from this station were discontinued during the year, being superfluous, and on the 11th August, on the removal of the Cape D'Aguilar light, the station was vacated by this Department.

Green Island.

The new tower, to take the former Cape D'Aguilar Light, is now completed, and the light placed in position, with occulting gear complete. It will be displayed from the 1st day of the new year.

Capshuimun.

The character of this light was altered on the 1st April. The new light is RED, 6th Order, Dioptric, visible 6 miles.

No. 1906

2

HONGKONG.

REPORT ON THE TEACHING OF HYGIENE IN THE SCHOOLS OF HONGKONG.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

Towards the end of the year 1903, a Circular was received from the Secretary of State for the Colonies, forwarding a copy of a Despatch from the Governor of Lagos on the subject of teaching Hygiene in schools. It was suggested in the Circular that "skilfully arranged lessons on the natural history of the causes of the most important tropical diseases might be made very attractive to childreu, and that such teaching would be of practical utility in the future."

The Secretary of State desired to be informed whether any teaching of this nature was at that time being given in the schools of Hongkong, or whether it could profitably be given.

2. Hygiene had not at that time been taught in the schools of the Colony, except here and there in a sporadic and disconnected way, under the names of Domestic Science and Physiology. To advise how the subject might be conveniently introduced, Mr. MAY, the Officer Administering the Government, appointed a Committee, consisting of the Principal Civil Medical Officer, the Headmaster of Queen's College and the Inspector of Schools, to draw up a scheme for the Colony. Their Report, sent in in February, 1904, recommended that-

(a) the subject should be made compulsory in the Anglo-Chinese

Schools of the Colony ;

(b.) it should be taught orally in the lower Standards, and by means of

simple text books in the higher;

(c.) the Medical Officer of Health should be requested to draw up a

Syllabus.

The Syllabus suggested in (c.) as first drawn up required considerable modi- fication, and finally His Excellency the Governor outlined a completer Course of Instruction, which was embodied in the Course of Hygiene now used in the Schools, compiled at the close of 1904 by Dr. W. W. PEARSE, Medical Officer of Health.

3. His Excellency decided that the subject, with this Course as a basis, should be made compulsory in all Government and Grant Schools and the Grant Code was amended conformably early in March, 1905. At the suggestion of Dr. WRIGHT and myself, it was further decided that the Advanced Course should be taught to Standards VII and VI, and the Elementary Course to Standards V, IV and III that the time given to the subject should be 2 weekly periods of hour each and that one of these should be occupied with reading the Course, and the other with the subject treated as an object lesson.

4. It having been decided by His Excellency that progress should be tested by an examination, one was accordingly held at the beginning of December last, as described below. The results were the fruit of less than 8 months' work, broken by the Summer holidays. Delay was also caused by the necessity of procuring the books of reference for the Advanced Course from Home. One or two Grant Schools elected to defer beginning the subject till after the close of their school-year in June. But on the whole, work was started without needless delay; nor did the teachers find much difficulty in grasping the proper way of imparting instruction. A few suggestions are made at the end of this Report. The number of pupils under instruction is returned as 1,524, of whom 307 or 20 per cent.. took the Advanced Course. Details are given in Appendix A.

II.

5. Ilis Excellency the Governor having offered prizes of $100, $50 and $25 for the 3 best papers done by pupils studying the Advanced Course, and a Shield with 2 prizes of $15 and $10 for the school which should send in the best Team of 10 competitors from the Standards taking the Elementary Course, these rewards

4

were given on the results of the before-mentioned examination, which was under- taken by the Principal Civil Medical Officer and the Medical Officer of Health. The papers set are given in Appendix B. Appendix C shews the arrangements made for the conduct of the examination: these were left to Some suggestions as to how the conditions of the examination might be modified by the present experience, are given at the end of this Report.

me.

6. The examination for the Advanced Course was held for the boys at Queen's College, and for the girls at the Belilios Public School. The questions were, with one exception, the same for boys and girls. Seven boys' schools and five girls' schools competed, the total number of candidates being 79. The first prize fell to N. J. EZRA of St. Joseph's; the second to W. DRUDE of the Diocesan School and Orphanage; the third to ENRIQUETA FELICES of the Italian Convent and to HUNG IU-CHI of Queen's College, bracketed equal.

7. Without wishing to detract in any way from the credit due to the success- ful schools, it will be worth while to regard the results rather closely, in order to see as clearly as possible how far each of the competing schools has succeeded in reaching the standard that might reasonably be expected of it. For this purpose I have analysed the marks, as given in Apendix D), and have endeavoured to shew that allowances should be made for immaturity of years in the competitors, and for scanty numbers in the Classes from which the competitors were chosen. I have disregarded in my analysis the work done by all but the 3 best candidates from each school, partly because some schools sent in only 3 candidates, but also be- cause others sent in many for the educational advantage which those candidates would derive from the examination, and without any regard to the question whe- ther they were not thereby pulling down the school's average of marks. Thus marked, and paying heed for the moment to nothing but the actual result, it will be seen that five schools-Italian Convent, Queen's College, Diocesan Boys', St. Joseph's, and Ellis Kadoorie School-obtained 70 or more marks per cent., a result which, (taking into consideration the short time during which the subject has been studied) cannot be regarded as otherwise than very satisfactory. Next comes a group of 5 schools-Belilios, French Convent and Kowloon School bracketed, Diocesan Girls' and Saiyingpun-with rather more than half marks, and very little to choose between them. Making the same allowances as for the first five, these on their marks must be considered to have done well. Last come the Victoria. School and Cathedral School, whose papers earned exceedingly low marks of these the latter is not a strong school, (see my last two Annual Reports); the failure of the former is considered in Appendix F.

8. If the figures in Appendix D are now further considered, it will be seen that there are two other factors which, while they cannot detract from the cre lit won by results, seem to reveal cases where the mere figures can scarcely be considered to have plumbed the efforts of teachers and pupils. Eliminating Saisingpun, which was unavoidably late in beginning the Advanced Course, the schools in the second category, while they scored about 18 per cent. fewer marks than the first five schools, sent in competitors who were younger by 1 years, and were selected from 19 pupils instead of from 254. It may be argued that the Chinese comperi- tors, if their age favours them, are hampered by their difficulty in expressing their ideas in English; and that the masters of big Classes, if they have more material to choose from, have also to give their attention to greater numbers at the same time. To say that victory must go with the big battalions because it has done so on this occasion, would be unreasonable. I have, however, thought it worth while to draw attention to these points, in order that when, another year, the terms of the competition are considered, the facts may be accessible. There is nothing to shew that the girls are at a disadvantage as compared with the boys.

9. Reference to Appendix B shews that the questions set on the Advanced Course were easy; but this was only fair, as the time for preparation was so short. Appendix D also gives a Table shewing the sum of the marks gained by the three best competitors from each school on each question. Attention is also drawn to the best and worst answers. It is hoped that this Table will be of use to teachers, shewing them where their weak points lie. The noticeable unevenness in the figures given for different questions in the same school can best be accounted for

5

on the hypothesis, that the course was too long for the time of preparation, and while what was studied was studied to good effect, much has been treated in an introductory fashion only. I have divided the marks under the headings, Good, Fair and Bad, according as they exceeded 60, or fell below 40, or lay between 60 and 40 per cent. Taking the gross result, one question was well answered on this calculation, and the rest were fair.

10. The examination for the Elementary Course took the form of a competi- tion between Teams of 10 members drawn from the lower Standards, the Shield (which is to be held for one year) going to the Team earning the greatest aggregate number of marks. And the 2 prizes were in the same way assigned to the 2 best com- petitors of the winning Team, and not necessarily to the 2 best of all; the object being to encourage a high average standard of work in the schools. Ten Teams competed, other schools were unable to send in large enough Teams to make a fair compa- rison possible. The papers were worked, under proper supervision, at the compet- ing schools. The Shield went to Queen's College, and the prizes to R. EASTLAKE and to IP U-PAK.

11. In Appendix E is given an analysis of the marks. Every school obtained half marks and over, except Yaumati with 47 per cent. The marking does not strike me as lenient, and the result is very satisfactory. In this examination the performances of the schools seem to bear a less mechanical relation to the circums- tances of age and numerical strength. The low age of the field from which the Team of St. Joseph's was drawn, singles it out for commendation, in spite of the size of the field. But perhaps of those that failed to command success the Belilios Public School deserve it best. That Team, youngest and chosen from the smallest field, took the fifth place. The Italian Convent, Wantsai and the Diocesan Girls' School also did well. The Diocesan School for Boys and Yaumati took lower places than was to have been expected; and still more so the Ellis Kadoorie School.

12. Appendix E also shews the average number of marks obtained by each Team for each question in the examination. Of the 7 questions, 2 may be consi- dered to have been well done considering all things; the rest were fairly done.

III.

13. There is no doubt in my mind that a really practical knowledge of the rudiments of Hygiene has been acquired. That was my impression before the examination, the results of which only serve to confirm it. The best papers were full and accurate: the worst contained singularly little of the meaningless verbi- age, which examiners learn to look for at the bottom of any considerable number of papers. On the contrary, the worst papers, with few exceptions, gave me the idea, that the writers were either struggling to express a correct idea, though language failed them; or else they were in the position of one, who has fully comprehended an argument, but finds that he is unable to recollect all the stages thereof, when he wishes to repro.luce it. Many faults also were faults of omission rather than of commission. As an example, I will quote one of the worst replies of the worst boy in the worst Team to the question on the uses of cooking. He says:-"Because food has millions of germs in it, and they make us have inany diseases, so that we cook our food to destroy ail gerins and we can escape from diseases."

14. The papers were very fair, if I may be allowed to say so. I cannot help regretting the absence of a question on the sources of malaria. Thanks to the action of the Government, that disease is disappearing from Hongkong: but its prophylaxis will not cease to be of vital importance to Chinese bys, as long as they continue to return for their holidays to fever-ridden homes.

15. Turning to the methods employed in teaching the subject, I do not think all the teachers taught as much by experiments as they might have done. A few seem to be unable to dissociate the word from the ideas of stoppered bottles and small explosions. A little ingenuity is indeed required. I have been asked with rhetorical effect, whether I proposed to shew Classes by experiment the

effects of an excess of Carbon Dioxide. And yet by breathing through a straw into lime water (a preparation which no family is without) the ravages of this gas may be illustrated in the most startling manner. I wonder how many of the pupils who discoursed on damp courses, had been taken to the nearest house under construction, to see one.

16. The Elementary Course is not long, and few children leave English and Anglo-Chinese Schools before reaching the Fourth Standard. If they do, I do not think they will have been able to assimilate much of the teaching in so short a time. I am therefore of opinion that instruction in Hygiene might be deferred till Standard IV. The Handbook is really too hard for Standard III to use as a Reader.

17. Another year, something should be done, at any rate in the examination on the Advanced Course, to put the small schools on a less disadvantageous foot- ing. It would be only fair if Queen's College treated the Divisions of her Classes as separate units; they number more pupils than the Standards of the other schools. In the team examination the College had at its disposal no less than 12 Divisions, and could make up a Team out of the top boys, and still have 2 in

reserve.

IV.

18. In appendix G is given an extract from the Annual Report of the Head- master of Queen's College, in which he deals with the teaching of this subject and the results attained at the College during the year.

EDWARD A. IRVING,

January 31st, 1906:

Inspector of Schools.

Appendix A.

NUMBERS INSTRUCTED IN HYGIENE. IN 1905.

School.

Queen's College, St. Joseph's, Diocesan Boys',

Standards III to V.

Standards

Total.

VI & VII.

550

150

700

123

35

158

92

31

123

Italian Convent,

69

19

88

Ellis Kadoorie,

63

23

86

Wantsui,

56

56

Cathedral School,

42

47

Yaumati,

42

42

Diocesan Girls',

32

3

35

Belilios School,

21

3

24

Victoria School,

8

13

21

Kowloon School,

4

ī

11

French Convent,

13

19

Saiyingpun,......

10

18

St. Mary's,

17

21

St. Stephen's,

61

61

Victoria Grant School,.

6

6

Fairlea,

S

307

1,524

Total,............... 1,217

Note. These are the numbers who have received instruction during

the year. They were not necessarily all under instruction at the time of the examination. The last 4 schools did not compete.

-

!

7

Appendix B.

EXAMINATION PAPERS.

December, 1905.

I-ADVANCED COURSE FOR BOYS.

(Time allowed-Two hours and a half.)

1. What is meant by saying that 6 per 1,000 volumes of CO2 in the air is the limit of impurity permissible in the air of dwelling rooms; and how is this limit arrived at ?

2. Mention the different kinds of domestic filters you know, and explain why some of them are really useless or even dangerous to health.

3. How are food substances classified? Give examples of each class. What quantities approximately of each class of food substances are necessary daily for a man doing moderately hard work?

4. How does the value of clothing vary with its material, thickness and colour?

5. What is a damp course? What means can be adopted to keep basement rooms dry?

6. What is the best method of dealing with nightsoil and urine-

(1) In the country?

(2) In a city?

7. What is meant by the incubation period of an infectious disease; and of what value is the knowledge of the incubation periods of different diseases in pre- venting their spread?

II.-ADVANCED COURSE FOR GIRLS.

The Girls' paper was the same as the Boys', except that for question 6 the following was substituted :-

Explain the importance of training Nullahs and natural watercourses

near inhabited houses in a tropical country.

III-ELEMENTARY COURSE FOR BOYS AND GIRLS.

(Time allowed :--Two hours.)

1. What amount of fresh air is necessary for a man to breathe every hour; and what will happen to the air of a room in which people are sleeping all night, if the windows and doors are kept shut ?

2. What would you do to prevent a village will from being made foul by dirty water getting into it?

3. Why do we cook our food before we eat it?

4. Why is the clothing pad led with cotton wool, which is largely used by the Chinese in winter, not a healthy kind of clothing?

5. What would you recommend to be done to a kitchen in a Chinese tenement house, so as to make it as sanitary as possible?

6. What is the proper thing for each householder in Hongkong to do with the different waste matters from his house every day?

7. What is the danger in the habit of spitting anywhere over the floors of houses?

1

S

Appendix C.

DIRECTIONS ISSUED IN CONNECTION WITH THE XAMINATIONS.

CIRCULAR.

To Managers of English Grant Schools.

His Excellency the Governor is very anxious to encourage a knowledge of Hygiene in the English Schools of the Colony. He has therefore had printed the accompanying work, which he wishes to make a compulsory subject in Grant Schools. Section 26 Note (1) of the Code will shortly be amended accordingly.

The book is divided into two Courses-Advanced and Elementary. The Elementary Course should be taken by Standard III, IV and V, and the Advanced Course by Standards VI and VII. The lessons can conveniently be taken as reading leasons or as object lessons. and it is desired that each lesson should be taken first as the oue and then as the other. When taken as object lessons, they should be illustrated by simple apparatus. Two lessons a week of three-quarters of an hour each should be ample.

The books will shortly be on sale at cost price (about 25 cents), and I shall be much obliged if you will let me know as soon as possible how many copies are likely to be used this year in your schools. Each scholar in Standards III and above should have a copy.

With a view to stimulating interest in the subject, His Excellency has kindly offered 3 prizes of $100, $50 and $30, to be competed for among the scholars (boys and girls) of the Colony, at an annual examination to be held in December .on the Advanced Course. Managers should forward the names of candidates to

me not later than 1st November, 1905.

EDWARD A. IRVING, Inspector of Schools.

1

CIRCULAR.

To Managers of Government and Grant English and Anglo-Chinese Schools. With reference to my former Circular on the examinations in Hygiene (attached), I have now much pleasure in announcing that His Excellency the Governor has supplemented his former generous offer by undertaking to give. further encouragement to the pupils in the lower Standards an 1 Classes, in the following manner :-

I. A Shield is offered to the School which sends in the best papers done

by a team of scholars.

IV, and 5 from When the Stand-

II. Each team must consist of 5 scholars from Standar

Standard V (or from the corresponding Classes). ards or Classes are very small, it is in the discretion of the Inspector, on the application of the Headmaster or Manager, to allow a sinaller team to compete.

III. The Shield will be given to the School whose team obtains the greatest aggregate number of marks, allowance being made for teams of less than 10 under II above.

IV. One prize of $15 will be given to the best paper done by a Standard V competitor, and one of $10 for the best paper done by a Standard IV competitor, in the winning team.

V. The prizes will be the absolute property of the winners; but the Shield

will be held by the successful School for one year only. The name of the School will be engraven upon it.

VI. The examination will be based upon the Preliminary Course in the Government Handbook upon Hygiene, and no questions will be set which do not arise naturally out of the text.

:

9

VII. The examinations will be held early in December at the competing

Schools on the same day.

VIII. The following rules should be carefully observed: a breach thereof will

disqualify the School concerned :-

(a.) Competitors may not write their names nor the name of their

School on their papers.

(b.) On completion of the time prescribed, the Headmaster will collect the papers and write "A" and "B" at the head of the papers done by Standard IV and Standard V respectively, and also head each paper with a distinguishing motto.

(c.) The papers shall then be sent to the Inspector in a sealed envelope

without a covering letter or comments of any kind,

d.) After having examined the papers and selected the winning team, the Inspector will ask the competing Schools to inform him as to their mottoes. Thus he will not himself know the name of the successful School until the correction of the papers has been completed.

(e.) Finally the Headmaster of the winning team will be required to give a written assurance that the work was done within the prescribed time, and that all precautions were taken to prevent unfairness. IX. All schools under the Inspectorate will be expected to take the papers, but those only will be eligible to compete for the Shield and prizes, as well as for the prizes offered in the former Circular, who shall have notified their intention of doing so to the Inspector on or before November 1st.

Hongkong, 7th October, 1905.

EDWARD A. IRVING,

Inspector of Schools.

CIRCULAR.

To Managers of Government and Grant English and Anglo-Chinese Schools.

Referring to my former Circular, it has been pointed out that under the present rules boys in Standard III have no chance of competing. With the consent of His Excellency the Governor, Rule II of my Circular of 7th October is amended to read as follows:-

"II.-Each team must consist of 10 scholars, of whom not more than 5 shall be from Standard V, and the rest from Standards IV or III, or from both. Where &c."

Rule IV will in consequence also be amended, and will now read :-

"IV. One prize of $15 will be given for the best paper in the winning team, and one prize of $10 for the best paper done by a boy in Standards III or IV in the winning team.

Hongkong, 3rd November, 1905.

EDWARD A. Irving,

Inspector of Schools.

Directions to the Head Masters for the Conduct of the Examinations.

ADVANCED COURSE.

The above examination will be held on the morning of Tuesday, 5th Decem- ber, at 10 A.M.

Boy Candidates will be examined at Queen's College; Girl Candidates will be examined at the Belilios Public School.

Candidates should be in their places by 9.45.

Stationery will be provided.

10

ELEMENTARY Course.

I.-Open this envelope and distribute the enclosed papers on Tuesday, the 5th December, 1905, at 10 a.m. precisely.

II.-Warn competitors that they should not write their names nor their Standards nor the name of their school at the head of their papers.

III. Be present throughout the whole examination, and take every precau- tion to prevent unfairness.

IV. At 11.45 a.m, warn competitors that there are only five more minutes. At noon precisely, collect the papers.

V.-Number the papers from 1 to 10. Keep a list of the names of the competitors on a separate list, numbered correspondingly.

[N.B.-This second list is only to facilitate future reference, and is NOT

to be sent to the Inspector of Schools.]

VI. At the head of each competitor's papers write the distinguishing motto of the school.

[N.B.--There should be the same motto for all the 10 competitors; and

NOT a separate motto for each one.]

VII.-Mark the papers done by Standard IV (or III) with an "A", and those done by Standard V with a "B".

VIII-Finally send the papers to the Inspector of Schools, in a sealed envelope, without a covering letter or comments of any kind.

Appendix D.

RESULTS OF EXAMINATION, DECEMBER 1905.

ADVANCED COURSE.

SUM OF MARKS OF 3 BEST CANDIDATES.

SCHOOL.

Max. 15.

QUESTION I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII.

Italian Convent,.

Total. Average Field

of age of Max.

Candi- Selec- 105. dates. tion.

REMARKS.

Queen's College,..

10 10 10 11

Diocesan Boys',

10

15 12 7 14 10

12 14 11 10

14

15 13 82 16 13 12 11

St. Joseph's,

10

13

61 101 їз 73 14

Ellis Kadoorie,

10

15 7 11

13 12 73 17

XXZR*

19 82 18 150 81 15

Won 3rd prize.

Won 3rd prize.

31

Won 2nd prize.

35

Wou 1st prize.

19

13

Belilios,

13

5

5

61 15

3

4

Kowloon,

6

15

12

French Convent,

12 10

Diocesan Girls',

Saiyingpun,.

Victoria,

Cathedral,

AVERAGE MARK

6720

4

18∞ ∞

A

10

59 14

7

ဆရာ

11 59 15

12

9

58 14

3

9

55 17

8

21

12

13

11/1

0

17

5

(OUT OF 15), |

6.8

7.2

11.4

9

7.3 9.2

9.1

8.6

Not-The figures in red are over 60 per cent. of full marks; those in black type under 40 per cent.

www.am

11

Appendix E.

RESULTS OF EXAMINATION, DECEMBER 1905.

ELEMENTARY COURSE.

SUM OF MARKS OF CANDIDATES.

Total. Average Field

SCHOOL.

Max. 50.

of age of Max.

Candi- Selec- 350. dates. tion.

REMARKS.

QUESTION I.

II.

III. IV. V.

Queen's College,... 28

37

48

30 41

St. Joseph's,

.29

36

48

37

28

16

VI. VII. 29 30 33

243

17.

550

Won Shield.

227 12 125

Italian Convent,

29 28

35

37 32

30

33 224

14

69

Wantsai,

36

30

32

30

32

23

218

16

56

Belilios,

30

31

45

23

28

23

34

214

12

21

Diocesan Girls',

33

26

30

30

24

31

33

207 13

32

Diocesan Boys',

28

29

25

25

27

27

33

194

13

92

Ellis Kadoorie,

32

32

34

25

19

12

34

188

17

63

Cathedral,

23

36

17

20

11 18 146

42

Only 8 in Team.

Yaumati,

27

29

29

22

20

17 24 168

15

42

AVERAGE MARK

(PER CENT.),

59

61

74

57

55

47

60

59

:

:

Note The figures in red are over 60 per cent. of full marks; those in black type under 40 per cent.

Appendix F.

Remarks on Examination of Children from Victoria School.

The failure of the Victoria School in the examination on the Advanced Course seems to call for explanation. The Headmaster points out--

(a.) that the subject was only begun in the middle of the Autumn Term, as there were not sufficient pupils capable of receiving instruction before then;

(b.) that the average age of the pupils is only 12, and that they are not men- tally fit for the study of the Advanced Course;

(c.) that they were only entered under pressure from myself.

With regard to the last point, it is true that when I learned that there were not enough pupils to form a Team, I requested Mr. WILLIAMS to send them in for the Advanced Course, rather than that a Government School should be altogether unrepresented at the examinations.

Appendix G.

Extract from the Annual Report on Queen's College by the Headmaster.

*

*

*

10. Hygiene.-By Circular in 1904 the Secretary of State urged on the Crown Colonies the importance of teaching this subject. The Governor of Hong- kong at once made Hygiene a compulsory part of the school curriculum, and to stimulate the necessary interest until the novelty of the subject should have worn off, His Excellency provided several prizes, which for value compare rather with scholarships. I am pleased to report that HUNG IU-CHI, a genuine Queen's College product, was bracketed third in the Schools' competition in the Advanced Course, while by the success of our Team of ten boys in the Elementary Course, the name of Queen's College will head the list inscribed on the Shield. ROBERT EASTLAKE of III A. and IP U-PAK of IV B. were selected by the Examiners for prizes as

12.

having obtained the highest marks in their respective classes. In the Spring of the year there were in Queen's College, over 700 boys receiving instruction on Hygiene, but this number dwindled through boys leaving school, until there re- mained for the Annual Examination 606, of whom 386 or 64 per cent. passed. The result is better exhibited in tabular form :-

Class

I. 45 boys examined, 37 or 82% passed, I. A. 94%

II. 75

59

""

>"

""

79 "

II. A.

92%

""

III. 127

93

73,,

III. A.

91%

33

""

IV. 170

""

>"

100 58,,

IV. A.

79%

99

¿

V. 189

97 -54,,

V. A. 70%

""

23

It is thus evident that all the English Masters, who alone teach this subject, have entered with spirit into the teaching of Hygiene, and I may add that in the College examination the boys themselves exhibited in their answers an amount of interest that quite surprised me. Since a first year's work can produce such satisfactory results, we are justified in supposing that in another three years after a progressive course of education in this subject in the Third and Second Classes, the boys in the First Class may really acquire Advanced knowledge in Hygiene.

3

No. 1906

HONGKONG.

JURORS LIST FOR 1906.

Laid before the Legislative Council by Command of His Excellency the Governor.

!

HONGKONG

TO WIT.

NAME IN FULL.

I.--SPECIAL JURORS.

Anton, Charles Edward Arima, Tadaichi......... Babington, Anthony Barton, John Beattie, Andrew.. Becker, Arthur Wilhelm

Arthur.......

Bérindoague, Louis Bird, Herbert William Boiles, John Walker Brown, David Ellsworth

Bryer, Alfred

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

Merchant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., | Red Hill, Peak. Manager, Osaka Shosen Kaisha...... Merchant, Shewan, Tomes & Co., Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Manager, W. R. Loxley & Co.,

Merchant, Sander, Wieler & Co., Manager, Banque de l'Indo-Chine, Architect, Palmer & Turner, Attorney, Standard Oil Company, General Agent, Canadian Pacific

Railway Co.,

Architect, Leigh & Orange.....

Butterworth, Harold Thornton Merchant, Butterfield & Swire,

Chan A Fook.....

Chau Siu Ki

Clark, Duncan

Cochrane, Thomas Park

Craddock, Douglas William ... Cruickshank, William Arthur

Carruthers Dann, George Harry

David, Abralfẩm Jacob Davis, William Herbert Tren-

chard

Denison, Albert ...

Douglas, James Tory Dowley, Walter Arthur.. Forbes, Andrew Freyvogel, Ernest

Fuchs, Friedrich

Arnold.....

Herniann

Fuhrmann, Ernst Richard. Fung Wa Chin ...............

Gibbs, Lawrence, Goddard, Frederick Day Göetz, Erust

Gordon, Alexander Grant...... Gourdin, Allston O'Driscoll ... Grace, Charles Heary Graham, Walter Donglas Gubbay, Charles Sassoon

Haskell, David

Haupt, Armin.....

Hewett, Edbert Ansger. Hinds, Edward Harvey. Ho Fook

lo Tung..

Hooper, Augustus Shelton......

Hongh, Thomas Frederick......

Howard, Albert Hughes, Edward Jones...

Humphreys, Heury

Director, Watkins, Ltd.,

Secty., Chun On Fire Insur. Co., Ld., Storekeeper, Lane, Crawford & Co., Manager, Chartered Bank of I., A.

& China,

Asst., Canadian Pacific Railway Co.,

Merchant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Merchant, H. Wicking & Co........

Merchant, S. J. Davil & Co., .........

Manager, Commercial Union Insur-

ance Co., L.,

Civil Engineer, Denison, Ram &

Gibbs,

Marine Surveyor, Goddard & Douglas, General Manager, Vacuum Oil Co..... Merchant, Bradley & Co., Manager, Russo-Chinese Bank,

Merchant, Siemssen & Co., Merchant, Reuter, Bröckelmann & Co., Compradore, Shewan, Tomes & Co., Architect, Denison, Ram & Gibbs,... Marine Surveyor, Goddard & Donglus, Merchant, Arnhold, Karberg & Co.....| Engineer, A. G. Gordon & Co., Assistant Secretary, H'kong Club, Secretary, Hongkong Club,.. Commission Agent, Merchant, D. Sassoon & Co.,.. Merchant,

Merchant, Melchers & Co., Superintendent. P. & O. S. N. Co.,... Manager, McGregor Bros. & Gow,... Compradore, Jardine, Matheson &Co., Merchant,

Secretary, HK. Land Investment &

Agency Co., Ld., Broker, & Govt. Auctioneer, Hughes

& Hough,

Merchant, David Sassoon Sons & Co., Broker, & Govt. Auctioneer, Hughes

& Hough,

Merchant, J. D. IIumphreys & Sen.

|

St. George's Buildings. The Peak.

Hotel Mansions.

The Peak.

Queen's Bg., Des Voeux Road. The Peak.

Elliott Crescent,Robinson Rd.

Barker Road.

1 Des Voeux Road.

1 Connaught Road.

Queen's Road.

2 Queen's Road West. Lane, Crawford & Co.

Charter House. Peak Hotel.

The Peak.

St. George's Buildings, Des

Vœux Road, Prince's Building.

Wolceton, The Peak.

Ebordale, Peak. Prince's Building, Hongkong Hotel. Queen's Buildings. Bank.

The Peak. 31 Robinson Road,

The Bluff, Peak. Queen's Gardens, Peak Road. Luyinsland, Peak Road. Tor Crest, The Peak. Tarawera, Upper Richd. Rd. Morrison HII.

Alexandra Buildings, 7 Queen's Road, Central. Des Voeux Road, Central. Queen's Buildings. The Peak.

Glenshiel, Peak Road. Caine Road.

1 Macdonnell Road.

8 Des Vœux Road. Robinson Road.

Des Voeux Road. Alexandra Buildings.

NAME IN FULL.

14

SPECIAL JURORS,-Continued.

OCCUPATION.

A BODE.

Jessen, Johann Heinrick .... Kiene, Ferdinand Francis Fre-

derick

Lammert, George Philip Lan Chü Pak

Lauts, Johann Theodor

Law, Donaldson Riddell, Layton, Bendyshe,.... Leiria, João Joaquim... Lewis, Lawrence Scolfield.... Lowe, Arthur Rylands Mackenzie, Alexander Maitland, Francis

Marten, Richard......

May, Charles William

Medhurst, George Harold

Merchant, Jebsen & Co.,

Insurance Agent, Auctioneer,

Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Merchant, Lants, Wegener & Co., Manager. Butterfield & Swire,.. Layton & Co.,

Merchant, J. J. dos Remedios & Co., Chief Clerk. P. & O. S. N. Co.,

King's Buildings.

Kowloon.

Elliott Crescent. Queen's Road Central. 21 Conduit Road.

The Peak.

Arbuthnot Road. P. & O. S. N. Co.

Secretary, Chamber of Commerce, ... 6 Queen's Gardens.

Merchant, Arthur & Co.,

Merchant, Linstead & Davis,

Merchant, Rädecker & Co.,

Chief-Acct., H.K. & S'hai Bank,.. Manager, Dodwell & Co., Ld.,

Melchers, Friedrich Wilhelm... Merchant, Wendt & Co.,

Michael, Joseph Rahamin......

Broker,

Mihara, Andrew Shigekichi... Manager, Nippon Yusen Kaisha,

Minami, S.

Mitchell, Edward William.....

Mitchell, Robert..........

Moxon, Geoffrey Charles Northcote, Mowbray Stafford.

Orange, James Osborne, Edward Ough, Arthur Heury Parlane, William Pemberton, George William

Cyril

Peter, John Charles Pinckney, Herbert..

Potts, William Hutton Ram, Edward Albert.......... Raymond, Abraham Jacob Rennie, Alfred Herbert..... Robertson, Henry Wallace Rodger, Alexauder Rose, Thomas Isaac,

Ross, Charles Henderson Rumjahn, Ahmet Ruiter, Ernest William Salinger, F....

.Sassoon, Moses Silas....

Saunders, William Joshua Scott, John Gray Scott, William Murray Shellim, Edward Silverstone, Sholow Skelton, Alfred Holland Slade, Heury Warre Stewart, Murray. Stokes Arthur George

Suter, Hugo

Tam Tsz Kong,

Thompson, Charles Henry Tomlin, George Lomer

Turner, Arthur

Manager, Mitsui Bussan Kaisha Merchant, Caldbeck, MacGregor &

Co.,

Superintendent, Drawing Office, HK.

& W'poa Dock Co., Ld., Merchant, G. C. Moxon & Co., Accountant, Hongkong Land Invest.

& Agency Co., Ld., Civil Engineer, Leigh & Orange, Secretary, HK. & K. W. & G. Co., Ld., Architect, Leigh & Orange, Manager, Hongkong Ice Co., Ld.,

Actg. Seety., China Fire Insurance

Company, Limited,

Sub-Manager, HK. & S'hai Bank,... Manager, International Banking Cor-

poration....

Merchant, Linstead & Davis, Architect, Denison, Ram & Gibbs, Merchant, E. D. Sassoon & Co.,.... Merchant, A. H. Rennie & Co., Merchant, Butterfield & Swire, ...... Manager, China Sugar Refy. Co., Secretary, Dock Co.,...................... Merchant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Merchant, Rumjahn & Co., Gentleman,

Manager, Reiss & Co., Exchange Broker,

Dunedin, Barker Road. Alexandra Buildings.

5 Duddell Street.

Bank Premises. Hazeldene, Upper Richd. Rd. Hongkong Club.

4 Century Crescent, Kennedy Robinson Road. [Road. Prince's Building.

1 Seymour Terrace.

Peak Hotel.

41 Plantation Road, Peak.

5 Macdonnell Road. 1 Des Voeux Road.

7 Stewart Terrace, The Peak. Magazine Gap. East Point.

Hongkong Club. St. John's Place.

6 Stewart Terrace, The Peak. Alexandra Buildings. Lyeemun, The Peak. 7 Queen's Road Central. Magazine Gap Road.

I Connaught Road. East Point. Conduit Road. Pedder's Street.

64 Queen's Road Central. Hongkong Club. Chater Road,

3 Beaconsfield Arcade. Kellett Crest, Peak. ...Hongkong Hotel.

Quarry Bay.

Secretary, Union Insurance Co.,...... Manager, Electric Tramway Co., Manager, Taikoo Sugar Refy. Co., Ld., Merchant, David Sassoon & Co., Ld.; Agent, Pacific Mail S.S. Co., Storekeeper, Lane, Crawford & Co., . Merchant, Gilman & Co., Broker, Stewart, Brothers, Broker,

Manager, Deutsch Asiatische Bank, General Manager, Chin Marine

Ins. Co., Ld.,

Merchant, Ross & Co.......

| 7 Peak Road.

Queen's Buildings. Lane, Crawford & Co. Queen's Road Central. 11, Beaconsfield Arcade. Prince's Building. Hatherleigh, Conduit Road.

42 Bonham Strand West. Haystack, The Peak.

Secretary, China Fire Insurance Co., Robinson Road. Architect, Palmer & Turner,

Vanburen, Joseph Sheffield ... Merchant,

Walker, William Bradley Watson, William Malcolm.. White, Henry Percy Whittall, James Bowyer Kid-

man

Wickham, William Henry. Wilford, Francis Cumming

Williams, Arthur John

Wilson, William.

Manager, Standard Oil Co., Merchant, John D. Hutchison & Co., Merchant, Douglas Lapraik & Co.,...

Secretary, China Traders' Ins. Co., Manager, Electric Light Co.,.... Storekeeper, Lane, Crawford & Co., Engineer, Punchard, Lowther & Co., Manager, HK. & W. Dock Co., Ld.,

|

Alexandra Building.

St. Andrews' Barker Road,

The Peak.

Elliott Crescent, Robinson Rd. Peak Hotel. Praya.

Red Hill, The Peak. 23 Conduit Road. Lane, Crawford & Co. Hongkong Hotel.

| Kowloon Decks.

NAME IN FULL.

15

II. COMMON JURORS.

OCCUPATION.

Abode.

A

Abraham, Albert Abraham, Ezekiel Abraham, Ezra Abraham, Julian Abraham, Renben Adams, Francis Robert John. Ahrendt, Carl Max Heinrich... Aitken, Robert Alderton, Percy

Clerk, Hongkong & China Gas Co., Clerk, S. J. David & Co.,

Clerk, Chartered Bk. of I., A. & China, Ledger Keeper, Dairy Farm Co., Ld., Clerk, Chartered Bank of I. A. & C.,...] Asst. Engineer, Shipyard Quarry Bay, Assistant, Melchers & Co., Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refy. Co., Ld., Clerk, P. & O. S. N. Co.,.......... Sub-Acct. Chartered Bk. of I. A. & C., Manager, Sperry Flour Company, Merchant, L. M. Alvares & Co.,.............. Clerk, Chartered Bk. of I., A. & China, Merchant, L. M. Alvares & Co........ Accountant, Banque de l'Indo-Chine,] Anderson, James David Smith Inspector, China & Japan Telephone

Allen, Frank Stanley Allen, William Stanley Alvares, Luiz Maria Jacques Alves, Antonio Luiz Alves, José Maria

Andap, Roger.......

Anderson, John William Anderson, Lionel John Crossley Anderson, William. Andrew, John Ingram Andrews, David Alexander Antia, Naorojee Kersaspjee Apcar, Arratoon Vertannes Arab, Nasir Maliomed, Armstrong, John Henry

William

Arndt, Ernst Arnold, John Arnott, Thomas

Asger, Asadullab Ebrahim

Auld, James Durran Austin, Frank

..B

Backhouse. James Herbert

Bailey, William Seybourne

Baillie, John

Bain, Alexander..

Co.,

Harbour Engineer, Fenwick & Co,...] Assistant, H.K. & S. Bauk,. Assistant, Laue, Crawford & Co., Engineer, Fenwick & Co.,

Civil Engineer, Shipyard Quarry Bay, Merchant, Tata & Co.,...... Merchant, A. V. Apcar & Co., Clerk, A. Rumjahn & Co.,

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Assistant, Arnhold, Karberg & Co., . Assistant, HK. C. & M. S. B. Co.,... Engineer, G. I. Cement Co., Ld., Assistant, HK. Land Investment &

Agency Co., Ld.,

Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld., Mercantile Asst., Butterfield & Swire,

Asst., Lütgens Einstmann & Co., Bailey & Co.,

Sugar Boiler, China Sugar Refy., Engineer, China Sugar Refinery,.

Baker, Frederick Henry James Assistant, Kelly & Walsh, Ltd.,..

Baker, James.

Banker, George

Banks, Thomas Bargmann, Fritz Engen

Wilhelm Barrett, Edgar George Barrett, William Curwen Barretto, Alberto Demée Barretto, Frederico Demée Barretto, Frederico Francisco. Barretto, Octavio Demée. Barrow, George Henry Bassford, William Faulkner

Baur, Walter Baxter, Robert Hall Bearmanu, Alexander

Bell, Harold

Bell, Hubert Dowson Benjamin, Joseph Berblinger, Albrecht Carl

Heinrich Bernheim, Engene Beuzeville, James Bevan, Herbert Staton Bird, Bernard................. Bird, Lennox Godfrey Bishop, Leroy Cole Blackburn, Leslie James Blackledge, Harold Blair, Thomas...

Foreman, Punchard, Lowther & Co., Merchant, Dang Chee, Son & Co.,... Engineer, China Sugar Refy. Co., Ld.,

Assistant, Lauts, Wegener & Co.. Actg. Sub-Mgr., Dodwell & Co., Ld., Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Clerk, Jorge & Co...... Merchant, Barretto & Co., Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co., Assistant, Barretto, & Co., Gauger, Punchard, Lowther & Co.,... Machines & Packing Dept., Taikoo

Sugar Refinery, ...

Asst., Reuter, Brockelmann & Co., Assistant, Dock Co............................ Foreman, Quarry Bay, Shipyard, Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Clerk, E. D. Sassoon & Co.,

Assistant, F. Blackhead & Co., Manager, Ullmann, & Co., Bookkeeper, Dang Chee, Son & Co.,. Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co., Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co., Architect, Paliner & Turner, Clerk, Pacific Mail S. S. Co., Manager, Gas Works, Kowloon,.. Storekeeper's Asst., Dock Co., Sugar Boiler, China Sugar Refinery,

|

26 Staunton Street. 54 Caine Road. 3 Ripon Terrace. 12 Wyndham Street. 3 Ripon Terrace. Town Office. Queen's Building. Shaukiwan Road. Des Voeux Road. 3 Queen's Road. 6 Conduit Road.

Woodlandside, Castle Road. 14 High Street. 24 Robinson Road. Hongkong Club.

Ice House Street. No. 12 Praya East. Bank Premises. Lane, Crawford & Co. 157 Praya East. Shipyard Quarry Bay. 49 Hollywood Road. 45 Wyndham Street. Pedder Street.

1 Connaught Road. 9 Kennedy Road 4 Albany.

Hok-ün, Kowloon.

4 Hollywood Road.

2 Knutsford Terrace, K'loon. 1 Connaught Road.

Carlton House.

Bowrington. Bowrington.

11 Sow-wa-fong, St.FraucisSt. 10 Gage Street.

25 Des Voeux Road. East Point.

7 Cameron Road, Kowloon. Queen's Building. 1 Connaught Road. Larkspur, Robinson Road

1 Castle Road. 18 Wyndham Street. 44 Caine Road.

6 Sa Wa Fong,

Quarry Bay. Prince's Buildings. Kowloon Dock. Quarry Bay.

Connaught Road.

7 Queen's Road Central.

St.George's B., Des Voeux Rd. 34 Queen's Road Central. 25 Des Voeux Road Central. Lane, Crawford & Co. Lane, Crawford & Co. Alexandra Building. Queen's Building. Gas Work Kowloon. Kowloon Docks. Bowrington.

NAME IN FULL.

16

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

B-Continued.

Blake, Anthony Robert Blake, John

Bliefernicht, Heinrich Blood, Guy... Blythe, Albert

Boands, William Henry

Thomas

Boisserée, Ludwig Magnus

Herbert

Bounar, John Whyte Cooper. Boolsen, Georg Boulton, Sydney

Bovet, Frederick Francis Boyce, William Bousley Boyd, Angus Braun, Theodore Brimble, Alfred George. Brodersen, Harold Carl

Heinrich Brooks, Robert

Brown, Charles Arthur

Angustus..

Brown, Frederick Archibald... Brown, Neilage Sharp Brown, William Samuel Browne, Percy Edward.. Brückner, Cesar Gerhard Bryson, Alexander. Buchan, John......

'Buckle, Percy....

Bune, Andreas

Bunje, Emil Theodor..

Burjor, Dhunjeebhoy Sorabjee

Dady..

Burke, Harry Austin. Burn, Andrew

Burnie, Charles Manger Getting

Butcher, Frederick Charles Buyers, Charles Badenock......

C

Caldwell, Daniel Augustus Caldwell, George Arthur Campbell, Ferdinand Campbell, Francis Campbell, Hugh Frank. Carlowitz, Vietor von Carmichael, Hugh Fletcher Carrè, Arthur.

Carter, Herbert Brooks.. Carter, William Leonard

Cassidy, Michael

Castro, Joaquim Telles

d'Almada e

Catchick, Gregorius George Chan Pat

Chapman, Edward John Chapple, Frederick Thomas Chard, Henry Frank

Chater, Chater Paul

Cheng Tin Yin....

Chow Dart Tong

Christiani, George Albrecht

Max Theodor...

Chunutt, Frederick George... Chunnutt, Oscar Rowan Clark, Douglas Edward Clark, Ernest Sidney.....

Clark, Jasper....

Clark, Milton Ona

Clarke, Alfred

Engineer, Taikco Sugar Refinery, Chief Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refy., Foreman Shipwright, Dock Co.,...... Architect, Palmer & Turner, Gauger, Punchard, Lowther & Co.,...

Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld.,

Quarry Bay. Quarry Bay. Kowloon Docks. Alexandra Building. 147 Wild Dell Buildings.

Alexandra Building.

14 Des Voeux Road. St. George's Building. York Buildings. Quarry Bay.

Manager, Lütgens, Einstmann & Co., Assistant, Gibb, Livingston & Co.,... Asst., Hongkong, Amerika Linie, Boiler Dept., Taikoo Sngar Refy.,... Assistant, Arnhold, Karberg & Co., . Tai-kok-tsui, Kowloon. Acct., Punchard, Lowther & Co., Assistant, HK. & S. Bank, Foreman, China Sugar Refinery, Sorter, HK. & K. W. & G. Co.,

Assistant, Meyer & Co., Foreman Boiler-maker, Dock Co.,

Civil Engineer, Butterfield & Swire,. Wharfinger, HK. & K. W. & G. Co., Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Clerk, HK. & K. W. & G. Co., Ld., Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co., Assistant, Grossmann & Co., Assistant, Bradley & Co.,

Foreman, B. & S.'s Shipyard,.

9, Ice House Road. Cloudlands, Peak. Refinery, East Point. 14 Elgin Road, Kowloon.

15 Seymour Road. Kowloon Docks.

Quarry Bay.

5 Victoria View, Kowloon. 1 Connaught Road.

| 3 Stewart Terrace, Peak.

Lane, Crawford & Co.

4 East Road, Kowloon. Braeside.

Quarry Bay.

Asst., Peninsular & Oriental S.N. Co., Pelham House. Broker,

2 Connaught Road.

Manager, Royal Dutch Petroleum Co., North Point.

Merchant and Commission Agent, Acct., Pacific Mail S. S. Co.,

60 Des Voeux Road. 6 Seymour Terrace.

Clerk, Taikoo Sugar Refy. Co., Ld., | Shankiwan Road, Clerk, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld.,

Assistant, Bradley & Co., Supt. Engineer, Tramway Co.,

Estate and Mortgage Broker, Chief Clerk, HK. & W. D. Co., Ld.,... Manager, Globe Hotel,...... Foreman, Butterfield & Swire, Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co., Assistant, Carlowitz & Co.,.. Consulting Engineer,

Accountant, Russo-Chinese Bank, Clerk, Canadian Pacific Ry. Co., Manager, China & Japan Telephone

Co.,

Foreman, Butterfield & Swire,

Clerk, International Banking Corp., Clerk, E. D. Sassoon & Co., Clerk, China Fire Insurance Co., Clerk, Linstead and Davis. Assistant, William Powell Ld., Sub-Acct., Chartered Bank of I., A.

& China,

Veruon & Smyth,..

Hotel Mansions.

4 Fairview, Kowbon. The Peak.

Queen's Road Central.

7 Des Vœux Villas, The Peak. 184 Queen's Road Central. Quarry Bay.

2 Lycemoon Villas. K'loon. Summer House, 67, The Peak. 10 Mountain View. Bank.

2 Victoria View, Kowloon.

Hongkong Hotel. Quarry Bay.

East Terrace, Kowloon. 7 Queen's Road Central.

I Lower Mosque Terrace.

Alexandra Buildings. 28 Queen's Road.

3 Queen's Road Central.

Assistant, Chun On Insurance Co.,... 8 Queen's Road West.

Merchant, Dartly & Co.,

Exchange Broker,.... Clerk, Loxley & Co., Clerk, Loxley & Co.,

Asst., John D. Humphreys & Son,....... Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co., Assistant, Standard Oil Company, Stenographer, Standard Oil Co.,..... Foreman, Pauchard, Lowther & Co.,.

"...

29 Caine Road.

Hongkong Club. 38 Caine Road. 38 Caine Road. Peak Tramway Station House. Lane, Crawford & Co. Oligoneil, Plantation Road. Hotel Mansions. Naval Yard, Extension.

NAME IN FULL.

17

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

C-Continued.

Clarke, Thomas William

Clasen, Henry.. Clelland, Joseph..... Clemanu, Ernest,

Cobden, Alfred Sydney.... Coggin, William Luscombe Collins, James

Cooke, Charles John

Cooper, Rustomjee Burjorjee... Coppin, Alan Griffiths Costigan, Charles Telford... Cotter, John Lawrence Rut-

ledge

Course, Arthur

Courtney, Gerald Newman, Cousland, Alexander Stark

Dalglish

Craddock, Henry Edwin

Craig, William Eric Craik, James

Craik, John Robertson Crapnell, Albert Edward, Crawford, William Joseph Cree, John,................. Crispin. Charles.. Crosbie, James Cross, William John

Crouch, Joseph William Cruikshank, John Curry, George Percy

Daniel, Walter

D

Danielsen, Julius Emil Darton, Thomas Harwood. David, D. E. David, Ramesh Davidson, Harry Bertram Davidson, Henry

Davidson, Nabob Kitchen................ Davies, Arthur Frederick Davison, William

Day, Frank Oswald

Dearling, William

Deas, William Matthew. Dermer, Harold Whitelock Desjardins, L................... Dickie, James..

Dickie, Jol

Dickson, Robert

Diercks, Alfred Chihli Dinning, Hugh

Dison, Arthur Wesley Diss, Arthur Charles.. Diss, George Ambrose Ditch, George Benjamin Donaldson, William Frederick Doolittle, Francis Henry Douglas, John Phillips Dow, Peter

Downing, Thomas Charles Drakeford, Thomas Goode Drew, Walter Clement

Duncan, George..... Duncan, George Leopold Dunrich, Arthur Edward

William

Engineer, Standard Oil Co., Asst., Grossmann & Co................ Foreman Shipwright, Dock Co.,. Assistant, Ullmann & Co., Asst. Butterfield & Swire, Assistant, Deck Co., Fitter, Punchard, Lowther & Co., Draughtsman, HK. & W'poa Dock

Co., Ltd.,...... Assistant, N. Mody & Co., Assistant, Bradley & Co., Accountant, Mercantile Bank.......... Secty., Humphreys Estate & Finance

Co., L.,

Supt., Hongkong Tramway Co., Ld., Asst., Butterfield & Swire,

Assistant, Ross & Co.,........... Sanitary Inspector, H. K. & K'toon Wharf & Godown Co., Ld., Clerk, Reiss & Co.,

Assistant Steward, Hongkong Club, Chief Clerk, Dock Co., Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co., Assistant, Dock Co.,

Foreman, B. & S.'s Shipyard, Foreman Shipwright, Dock Co.,. Panman, Taikoo Sugar Refinery,. Tally Clerk, Taikoo Sugar Refy. Co.,

İzd.,

Asst., Butterfield & Swire, Jeweller, Falconer & Co.,.......... Local Secretary, Gas Co.,....

Civil Engineer, Punchard, Lowther

& Co,

Clerk, F. Blackhead & Co.,........ Asst., Butterfield & Swire,. Assistant, S. J. David & Co, Book-keeper, Kowloon Hotel,. Clerk, Robinson Paino Co., L............. Timekeeper, Taikoo Sugar Refinery

Co., Ld.,

Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld., Assistant Manager, HK. Hotel, Foreman Shipwright, Dock Co., Clerk, B. & S.'s Shipyard, Quarry Bay, Timek'per, B.& S.'s Shipyard Qy. Bay Storekeeper, Dock Co., ..... Assistant, Dodwell & Co., La., Assistant, Messageries Maritimes, Panman, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Supt., China Sugar Refy. Co., Ld.,... Char Dept., Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Clerk, Howard & Co.,

Pansman, Taikoo Sugar Refy. Co.,

Ld.,

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Master Tailor, Diss Bros.,

Master Tailor, Diss Bros.,

Hongkong Hotel. Queen's Road Central. Kowloon Docks. Queen's Road, Central.

Cosmopolitan Dock, Naval Yard Extension.

Barker Road, The Peak. 54 & 56 Queen's Rd. Central. Queen's Buildings.

II Queen's Road Central.

Hotel Mansions.

| 35 Wong-nei-chong Road.

1 Connaught Road.

5 Victoria View, Kowloon.

33 Praya East. Macdonnel Roal. Hongkong Club. Cosmopolitan Dock. Lane, Crawford & Co. Kowloon Docks. Quarry Bay. Kowloon Dock. Quarry Bay.

Shaukiwan Road. 1 Connaught Road. Carlton House. Westbourne Villa, N.

Hongkong Club,

St. George's Building. 1 Connaught Road.

Kowloon Hotel. Des Voeux Road.

Shankiwan Road. [A. S. Watson & Co., Lil.

Queen's Road Central. Kowloon Docks.

B. & S.'s Engineer's Office, Quarry Bay. [Hongkong. Kowloon Docks. Hazeldene, Richmond, Queen's Building. Quarry Bay. Bowrington. Quarry Bay.

Quecu's Road Central.

Shaukiwan Road.

Carlton House, Ice House

36 Caine Road,

[Street.

Foreman, Punchard, Lowther & Co., | Naval Yard, Extension.

| Asst., Butterfield & Swire,

Merchant, Savoy Limited,

Asst. Engr., G. I. Cement Co., Ltd., Asst., Jardine, Matheson & Co........ Acct., Chartered Bank of I., A. & C., Assistant, Bradley & Co.,...... Merchant, H. Wicking & Co.,

Foreman Plumber, Dock Co.,

|

1 Connaught Road.

Hongkong Hotel. Hok-ün, Kowloon. East Point.

Hongkong Hotel.

4, Queen's Buildings.

St. George's Building, Des

Vœux Road. Kowloon Docks.

Manager, MacEwen, Frickel & Co.,. Pedder's Hill.

Accountant, Gas Co.,

:

Top floor of Lock Hing.

NAME IN FULL.

D--Continued.

18

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

Dutton, Sydney Hardy ....

Manager, Piece Goods Department

S. J. David & Co.,...................

Prince's Building.

E

Eadie, James

Eberius, Gottfried. Fritz Edwards, George Richard..... Edwards, Gilbert Hamilton Ehmer, Hermann Ellis, Albert

Ellis, David Ezekiel Ellis, Ezekiel Isate Ellis, Jack Ezekiel Ellis, Obadiah Elly, Albert

Engel, Gustav Christoph Esrom, Frank.......... Eustace, Bert

Evans, Llewellyn Evans, Robert Lloyd.. Evans, William Eyre, Harry

Ezekiel, Reuben Marcus Ezra, Edward

Ezra, Reuben

Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refy. Co.,

Ld..

Shankiwan Rond. 3 Queen's Garden, Victoria View, Kowloon, 1 Connaught Road. Fair View, Robinson Road. Conduit Road.

SA Des Voeux Road. 7 Queen's Road Central. .. 8A Des Vœux Road,

1 Pedder's Hill.

Assistant, Meyer & Co., Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld., Asst., Butterfield & Swire, Merchant, Grossmann & Co., Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Li, Assistant, Wm. Shewan & Co., Clerk, E. D. Sassoon & Co., Assistant, Wm. Shewan & Co., Assistant, S. J. David & Co., Godown and Tally Dept., Taikoo

Sugar Refinery, Clerk, Meyerink & Co., Asst., East Asiatic Trading Co.,..... Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co.,.. Asst., HK. & S'hai Banks. Corpn.,... Clerk, British-A’can. Tobacco Co.,....... Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co., Manager, W. Powell, Ld., Broker, Erich Georg & Co., Assistant, D. Sassoon & Co., Lilog

Do.,

Quarry Bay.

Bellevue, Peak Road. Connaught Road Central Lane, Crawford & Co. Cloudlands, Peak. Queen's Road Central. Lane, Crawford & Co. Alexandra Building. Connaught House. 14 Robinson Road. College Chambers.

F

Falconer, Percy James Fenton, Sydney George... Ferguson, Ernest George Fergusou, Robert Alexander..... Fischer, Rudolf Fisher, John Fisher, John

Fittock, Charles Rowland Fletcher, Harold Lewthwaite Forbes, Donald

Forbes, Joku Rodger.. Ford, Edward Stephen Ford, William Falconer..

Forrest, Thomas Shaw Forsyth, George Grasille

Sutherland

Fox, Frederic Reginald.. Franklin, George Gould Fraser, Alan Stuart Fraser, Henry William Freund, Kari

Friedrich, Hans Albert Friesland, Gustav

Frotcher, Lurding Hermann Fulcher, Frank Sidney

Fullerton, Alfred Rough

G

Galloway, Alfred Douglas Galloway, Robert

Gardner, William Frederick ...

Gaskell, William Henry..

Gaster, Ernest

Gee, Archibald

Gegg, George William Georg, Carl Wilhelm.. Georg, Friederich Erich Carl...] Gibson, Joe

Gittius, Arthur

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Asst., HK. & S'hai Banking.Corpn., Panman, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Assistant, MacEwen, Frickel & Co., Foreman, Punchard, Lowther & Co., Foreman Engineer, Dock Co., Foreman Shipwright, Dock Co., Engineer, H. F. Carmichael & Co... Assistant. HIK. & S. Bank, Sugar-boiler, China Sugar Refy., Clerk, Wharf & Godown Co................. Foreman Engineer, HK. & Whampoa

Dock Co., Ld.,

Assistant, Jardine, Matheson Co.,

Asst., HK. & S'hai Banks. Corpn.,... Asst., HK. Steam Water Boat Co.,Ld. Clerk, Union Ins. Society of C'ton Ld., Asst., HK. & S'hai Banks. Corpn.,... Assistant, HK. & S'hai Bank, Asst., Arnhold, Karberg & Co., Asst., Deutsch Asiatische Bank,. Assistant, Melchers & Co., Assistant, F. Bornemann,

1 Connaught Road.

Queen's Road, Quarry Bay. Daddell Street. 10 San Wa Fone. Cosmopoliton Dock. Kowloon Docks. Queen's Buildings. Bank Premises. East Point. 43 Caine Road.

Kowloon Docks. East Point.

Queen's Road. Hotel Mansions. Bank Buildings. Queen's Road.

King Edward Hotel. Club Germania.

Club Germania.

Queen's Building. Queen's Road Central.

Asst., China Traders Ins. Co., Id.,........ St. George's House.

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire,

..... 1 Connaught Road,

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Panman, Taikoo Sugar Refy. Co., Ld., Engineer, Hongkong Rope Mann-

facturing Co., Ld.,

Accountant,

1 Comaught Road. Quarry Bay.

Villa Maria, (Geucaly). 4, Des Vœux Road Central.

Asst., China Fire Insurance Co., Ld.. Queen's Road Central.

Asst. W. Powell & Co., Manager, Horse Repository, Broker, Erich Georg & Co., Broker, Erich Georg & Co.. Timekeeper, B. & S.'s Shipyard,. Clerk, E. D. Sassoon & Co.,

Alexandra Buildings. Causeway Bay.

Braeside.

3 Goolistan, Conduit Read, Quarry Bay.

7 Queen's Road Central.

:

}

NAME IN FULL.

19

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

G-Contiqued.

Gittins, Gerard

Gittins, Henry

Glendinning, Percy Glendinning, Walter Glissman, Ludwig Paul Glover, Campbell Gloyn, John

Goetz, Walter.....

Goggin, William George. Gomes, Francis Goodfellow, William Goodwin, Arthur Pearson Goos, Rudolf

Gorham, Charles Leary.

Gow, David

Gow, John Cowper Gower, Heury Graham, Frank

Graham, James William

Grant, Peter Durham Hall

Gray, Herbert Castell Gray, Samuel Herbert Gray, Thomas Charles Gregory, Tigran Matthew. Gresson, John Edward Grey, Crosby French... Griffin, Albert Edwin Grimble, Charles Frederick

George Grimshaw, Thomas Gubbay, Aaron Sassoon Gubbay, David Sassoon Gubbay, Joseph Sassoon Gubbay, Raphael Aaron Guy, James....

H

Haelterman, Brice

Haesloop, Courad Theodore

Bernhard

Haines, Hereward

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Accountant, Cotton Mills, Assistant, Horse Repository, Chief-Inspector, HK. T'way Co., Ld., Assistant, Carlowitz & Co...... Acct., Punchard, Lowther & Co., Sugar Boiler, China Sugar Refinery

Co., L.,

Assistant, Arnhold, Karberg & Co... Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Clerk, Nippon Yusen Kaisha, Foreman, HK. & China Gas Co., Outfitter, Cottam & Co.,` Clerk, Radecker & Co., General Manager, Fumigating &

Disinfecting Bureau, Assistant, Dock Co.,

Foreman Blacksmith, Dock Co.,... Yard Foreman, Dock Co., Electrical Engineer,

Supt., Iron Shipwright, Deck Co.,...

... Sub-Acct.. International Banking

Hales, George Lister Hall, Frederick Charles.. Hall, Thomas Phillip... Hamet, Abdool Hoosen.. Hance, Cyril Eugene Agathon Hance, Julian Henry Reginald Hand, John.............

Corporation,

1 Connaught Road. East Point. Causeway Bay. Kennedy's Stables. Windsor Lodge, Kowloon. Magazine Gap.

East Point.

St. Georgés House, Kennedy 19 Belilios Terrace. Road. Stonchargé, Robinson Road. Gas Works, Kowloon. Pedder's Street. Duddell Street.

Alexandra Building. Kowloon Docks.

Kowloon Docks.

Kowloon Docks.

Electric Light Co., Ld. Kowloon Docks.

60 The Peak.

Assistant, China Traders' Ins., Co., . 10, Stewart Terrace. Assistant, P. M. S. S. Company, Assistant. Reiss & Co.,

Asst. A. V. Apeur & Co.,

Clerk, Jardine Matheson & Co................ Storekeeper's Assistant, Dock Co.,... Civil Engineer, Quarry Bay Shipyard,

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Foreman, B. & S's Shipyard,............... Broker, E. D. Sassoon & Co., Clerk, E. D. Sassoon & Co.. Assistant, David Sassoon & Co., Ld., Stock Broker, Gubbay & Michael,....... Foreman Engineer, HK. & W'poa

Dock Co., Ld.,

Clerk, A. R. Marty & Co.,

Assistant, Lutgens, Einstmann & Co., Brakeman, Peak Tramway, Engineer, China Light & Power Co., Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Marine Surveyor.. Assistant, H. Price & Co., Clerk, Macdonald & Co., Asst., Butterfield & Swire, Superintendent, Dock Co.,

Hankey, Eric Norman Alers..... Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld.,

Hanuings, Carl

Hansen, James Ernest Hardwick, William

Harms, Nicolaus Friedrich

Seigfried

Ilarrison, Alfred.

Harron, Henry

Harrop, Charles Edward

Vincent

Harrop, Harry Metcalf Haslett, Horace John Hassan, Hoosen Harvey, David Harvey, Robert Donald. Harvie, John Napier... Haskell, Ernest David Haughwont, Warrin Beech, Haxton, George Kay........

Stocktaker, HK. & Kowloon Wharf

& Godown Co., Ltd., Foreman Engineer, Dock Co.,....... Storekeeper, Taikoo Sugar Refinery

Co., L..

Assistant, Carlowitz & Co.,....... Assistant Depôt Manager, British- American Tobacco Co.,.............. Pansman, Taikoo Sugar Refy.Co.,Ld.,

Asst., Butterfield & Swire, Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Stenographer, Pacific Mail S. S. Co., Clerk, Rumjahn & Co.,

Tang Yuen, Macdonnell Rd. Hongkong Hotel.

45 Wynham Street. East Point. Kowloon Docks.

B. & S.'s Engineers' Office, HK. ·

1 Connaught Road. Quarry Bay.

7 Queen's Road Central. 7 Queen's Road Central. 9 Macdonnell Road. Ravenshill.

Kowloon Docks.

2 Garden Road, Kowloon.

14 Des Vœux Road.

10 St. Francis' Yard, Wantsai. St. George's Building. East Point.

2, Connaught Road. Queen's Road Central. 7 Seymour Terrace. 1 Connaught Road. Aberdeen Dock.

Deacon's Bungalow Pakfulum.

1 Ashley Road, Kowloon. Cosmopolitan Dock.

Quarry Bay.

7 Cameron Road, Kowloon.

Queen's Road Central. Shankiwan Rowl.

A. S. Watson & Co. Queen's Buildings. 64 Queen's Road Central. 7 Salisbury Avenue. 41 Robinson Road. Quarry Bay.

Marine Engineer, Dodwell & Co., Asst., British American Tobacco Co., Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refy. Co.,... Asst., Benjamin, Kelly and Potts, ... 2 Seymour Terrace. Manager, N. Y. Import & Export Co., | 16 Queen's Road Central. Foreman Engineer, K. & W'pca.

Dock Co., Ll.,

Kowloon Docks,

NAME IN FULL.

20

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

H-Continued.

Haynes, Harry Hayward, Charles Hayward, Charles Burdon, Hayward, Ernest Malcolm Hazeland, Ernest Manning Hechtel, Otto Peter Heermann, Paul Emil Heggie, James Carmichad... Heinsen, Rudoph Heldt, Franz

Hell, Paul Edward Heinrich

William

Helmers, Johann Christian Helms, Wilhelm .......... Hemmings, Robert Edward ... Henchman, Arthur Stuart...... Henderson, John Mendiplay...

Henser, Carl

Herbst, Carl Emil Peter Herrmann, Ludwig........... Herton, Edward Rudolph Hesse, Franz Heubel, Hermann Hewitt, Alfred Herbert. Hickie, Stephen Douglas Hickman, Harry Frank. Hill, Walter John Ho Kam Tong.

Hobbs, William James

Hoggard, Fred

Hollings, Alfred Edmund Holt, Bertram Greggs Holyoak, Percy Hobsou Hooper, Josephi Hoskins, John Thomas Houghton, Robert William Howard, Edward

Howard, Walter Herbert Howarth, Henry...... Hughes, John Owen Humphreys, Ernest Humphreys, William Meyrick Hunter, George Hunter, James

Hunter, Robert Hunter, Tobias

Hurley, Frederick Charles...

Hurley, Robert Crisp Hutchison, William

Hynd, Robert Robertson Hyndman, Henry (Jr.) Hynes, Arthur Cecil

I

Ingles, William

Innes, Robt....

Inokay, John

Ironside, William Irving, John Mark.....

J

Jack, William Charles

Jahraud, Richard Alfred Paul. Jameson, Philip Sutherland... Jebsen, Jacob, Friedrich

Christian.... Jebsen, Michael.....

Manager, Hongkong Hotel Co., Ld., Brakeman, Peak Tramway,....... Assistant, Shewan Tomes & Co.,...... Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co., Architect,

Clerk, Wendt & Co.,...... Jeweller, Gaupp & Co., Stonkeeper, Quarry Bay Shipyard,... Sub-Mger., Hamburg Amerika Linie, Asst., East Asiatic Trading Co.,

Assistant, Kruse & Co., Clerk, Siemssen & Co.,

Hongkong Hotəl. Engine House, The Peak. St. George's Building. Lane, Crawford & Co. 12 Kuntsford Terrace, Kiloon. Ice House Street. Smith Villas, Magazine Gap. Quarry Bay. Queen's Building. Connaught Road Central.

Connaught House.

3 Granville Avenue, K'loon..

1 Des Vœux Road Central. Cloudsland, Peak.

Kowloon Docks.

Assistant, Arnhold, Kesberg & Co., . 31 Robinson Road. Asst., Leigh & Orange, Assistant, HK. & S. Bank, Foreman Boilermaker, HK. & W’poa

Dock Co., L., Clerk, Meyeriuk & Co., Asst., Lutgens Einstmanu & Co., ... Watchmaker, Ch. J. Gaupp & Co.,... Assistant, Dock Co., Assistant, Gibb, Livingston & Co..... Clerk, Rädecker & Co.,

Chief Engineer, G. I. Cement Co., Ld., Assistant, MacEwen, Frickel & Co., Assistant, China Fire Insurance Co., Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, ... Assistant Compradore, Jardine,

Matheson & Co.,................ Assistant B. & S.'s Shipyard,

Foreman, B. & S.'s Shipyard, Clerk, Hongkong Ice Company, Ld., Chief-Clerk, Pacific Mail S. S. Co..... Assistant, Reiss & Co.,...

Clerk, HIK. & K. W. & G. Co., Ld., Chief Foreman, Quarry Bay Shipyard, Tailor, R. Houghton & Co., Stockbroker, E. Kadoorie,

Asst., Butterfield & Swire, Storekeeper, C. P. Railway Co.,...... Merchant, Harry Wicking & Co., Asst., Butterfield & Swire. Assistant, W. G. Humphreys & Co., Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Clerk, S. J. David & Co., Engineer, Macdonald & Co., Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Timekeeper, Panchard, Lowther &

Co.,

Accountant,

Foreman Turner, HK. & Whampoa

Dock Co., L.,

Asst., HK., & S'hai Bankg. Corpu., Asst, HK. C. & M. S'boat Co., Ld., Assistant, HK. & S. Bank,..

Assistant, HK. & S. Bank,. Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Asst., Lütgens Einstmann & Co., Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Engineer, Hongkong Ice Co., Ld.,

Engineer, E. C. Wilks & Co., Assistant, Lauts, Wegener & Co.,

|

1 Des Voeux Road Central. Pedder Street. Alexandra Buildings. Kowloon Docks.

C ̧o. Gibb Livingston & Co. 5 Duddell Street. Hok-ün, Kowloon. Belilios Terrace.

St. George's House. Quarry Bay.

Caine Road.

B. & S.'s Engineers' Office,

Hongkong. Quarry Bay.

Ice House Street. Queen's Buildings. Leynton, 7 Macdonnell Road. St. George's House, Kennedy Quarry Bay.

[Road 16 Queen's Road Central. Connaught House, Queen's

Road Central.

..

5 Arsenal Street. St. George's Buildings.

4 Queen's Gardens. Humphreys Avenue. 11 Shelley Street. Beaconsfield Arcade. Humphreys Avenue.

Ma Tan Kok.

5 Beaconsfield Arcade.

Kowloon Dock. Hongkong Bank. Hotel Massion. Bank Premises.

Cloudsland, The Peak.

Pedder Street.

East Point.

Beaconsfield Areade.

3 Granville Road, Kowloon..

Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., | Craigieburn, Peak.

Merchant, Jebsen & Co.,

Clerk, Jebsen & Co.,

|

King's Building.

Observatory Villa Kowloon.

21

NAME IN FULL.

J-Continued.

Jenkins, Anthony Jenkins, John Venties

Jillings, Harry

Johannsen, Edmund Johnston, John

Jones, James Mowbray. Jordan, Ernest Granville Jorge, Francisco José Vicente Joseph, Ezra Solomon Joseph, Joseph Edgar Joseph, Raymond Menashih Joseph, Saul Abdulla

Judah, Raphael Solomon ..... Jupp, John Ambrose..........

K

Kadoorie, Eleazer Silas. Kadoorie, Ellis

Kapteyn, Barend Dirk Kastmann, Karl Adolf August Katsch, Albert Edgar

Kendall, Frederick Carr Kendall, Herbert Moorhouse... Keunett, Henry William Bulmer Kennett, Herbert Sydney Kent, Herbert Wade Kew, Charles Herbert Whiteley

Kew, Joseph Whiteley

Kien, Willem Kilian, Felix Adolph Gottlieb King, Robert Henry

King, Walter... Kinnaird, John Daniel Kinross, Andrew Robert Kistowsky, Fritz von. Kitzinantl, John Charles Klein, Arthur..... Klinck, Charles

Knight, Charles Crosby Knox, Lefferts Knyvett, Paul Karl Koch, Carl Ludwig Georg..... Koenig, Gustav

Köhler, Weihelm Oscar.... Konig, Carl Heinrich Ratje Kong Kim Fung Kraft, William Dana. Kruse, Bernhard Anton.. Kyles, John

OCCUPATION.

Bookkeeper, K. Hotel Co., Ld., Timek'per, Punchased, Lowther &Co., Assistant, W. Powell Limited, Consulting Engineer,

Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Assistant, Gregor & Co.,.... Assistant, H. Price & Co., Merchant, Jorge & Co., Broker,

Assistant, Benjamin, Kelly & Potts, Assistant, D. Sassoon & Co., Ltd.,... Bill and Bullion Broker,

ABODE.

Hongkong Hotel.

1 Beaconfield Arcade. Alexandra Buildings. Hongkong Hotel. Quarry Bay.

14 MacDonnell Road. 38 Caine Roa:1.

Villa D'Alva, Kennedy Road. 3 Beaconsfield Arcade. Connanght Hotel. Connaught House.

4 Beaconsfield Arcade.

Assistant, D. Sassoon & Co., Ltd.,... Observatory Road, Kowloon. Merchant, J. D. Humphreys & Son,.] Alexandra Buildings.

Broker, Benjamin, Kelly & Potts, Stock Broker,

Merchant, Holland Trading Co.,...... Assistant, Siemssen & Co., Passenger Agent, Pacific Mail S. S.

Co.,.....

Asst., H'kong & S'bai Banking Corpn., Asst., Peninsular & Oriental N. S. Co., Assistant, China Borneo Co., Ld., Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, ...... Asst., Peninsular & Oriental N. S. Co., Clerk, H'kong & Kowloon Wharf &

Godown Co., Ld., .......... Manager, Hongkong Steam Water

Boat Co., Ld.,.

Manager, Holland China Haudels Co., Accountant, Dentsch Asiatische Bank, Civil Engineer, Punchard, Lowther

& Co.,.....

Bookseller, Kelly & Walsh, Ld.,. Sugar Boiler, China Sugar Refinery, Foreman Iron Shipwright, Dock Co., Assistant, Norddentcher Lloyds,. Partner, Grossmann & Co.,... Assistant, Lauts, Wegener & Co., Supt., Hongkong Rope Manufac-

turing Co., L.,

Assistant Buildfield & Swire.

Modreenagh Road. 6 Des Voeux Rond. Alexandra Building. Queen's Buildings.

Hongkong Hotel.

11 Mountain Viler, Peak. Des Vœux Coad. Saw Will, Mongkoktsui. Connaught Road. Des Voeux Road.

43 Caine Road.

43 Caine Road.

Alxandra Buildings. 14 Seymour Terrace.

Durisdeer, Magazine Gap- 3 Knutsford Terrace K'loon. East Point.

Kowloon Docks. Queen's Buildings. Robinson Road. 15 Seymour Road.

3 Arbuthnot Road.

Agent, China Mutual Insurance, Co., Harperville, Robinson Road.

Manager, Vacuum Oil Co., Assistant, Lamke & Rogge, Manager, Ullmann & Co., Assistant, Melchers & Co., Assistant, Melchers & Co., Assistant, A Chee & Co., Assistant, Standard Oil Co., As-t., Deutsch Asiatische Bank,.... Foreman Turner, HK. & Whampoa

Dock Co, Ld.,

King's Buildings.

Bellevue Peak Road.

Queen's Road Central.

Queen's Building.

Queen's Building.

17a Queen's Road Central. 41 Robinson Road. Club Germania,

Kowloon Docks.

L

Lambert, John James Bain Lammert, Alexander Herbert Lammert Frank Lammert, Lionel Eugene Lamperski, Albert Wilhelm Laug, Archibald Orr Langley, Albert Percy Lapsley, Robert

Lauder, Paul

Laurenz, Rudolph Lawrence, Frederick Lawson, Andrew Barrie Leask, William Loughton.. Leckie, William Ewart

Assistant, W. Danby, Architect,..............] Assistant, G. P. Lammert, Auctioneer, Asst., Caldbeck, MacGregor & Co., Assistant, G. P. Lammert, Assistant, Melchers & Co.,

Queen's Road Central. Duddell Street. 9 Robinson Road. Duddell Street. Queen's Building.

Assistant, Gibb, Livingston & Co.,... St. George's Building.

Clerk, Dock Co., Assistant, Dock Co.,

Asst., China Traders' Insurance Co., Assistant, Carlowitz & Co............. Carpenter, Punchard, Lowther & Co., Asst. I'kong S'hai Bank & Corpn., Civil Engineer, Leigh & Orange, Assistant, Butterfield & Swire,

Aberdeen Dock. Kowloon Docks. Peak Hotel.

2 Connaught Road. Naval Yard Extension. Hongkong Bank.

1 Des Vœux Road. 1 Connaught Road.

22

NAME IN FULL.

L-Continued.

Lee, Cornith Henry Lee, James....

Lehrs, Paul....

Lemm, Jobu

Lennox Bradley, Frederick

Broughton. Lenzmann, Carl Robert.. Lester, Hugh William

Leuz, Rudolph

Levy, Isaac Simeou

Levy, Silas Simon

Libeaud, Carl Ernest.. Lieb, Fritz

Lightfoot, Sydney Linders, Eduard.. Linton, Algernon Robert Little, James Lochead, James

Logan, William Clements Long, Edward Arthur Loureiro, Pedro

Lowe, John... Lysaught, John

M

MacAskill, Kenneth Roderick MacDonald, Donald Margowan, Robert John

MacGregor, John Alexander Macgregor, Frank William McHugh, Francis Edwards Mackie, Charles Gordon

Stewart

Mackintosh, Frederick

Alexander MacLennan, Donald George... Macpherson, Robert Madar, Hussian Pillay Makeham, Charles..

Malden, George Fletcher

Manners, Joha

Manuk, Malcolm

Marcenaro, Ettore Tomaso

Michell

OCCUPATION.

Clerk, W. S. Bailey & Co.,

Sugar Boiler, China Sugar Refinery

Co., L,

Clerk, Sander, Wieler & Co., Architect,

Merchant, The Savoy Limited, Manager, Carlowitz & Co.. Asst. Dodwell & Co., Limited, Clerk, Sander. Wieler & Co., Clerk, S. J. David & Co., Clerk, E. D. Sassoon & Co., Asst. Dodwell & Co., Limited, Asst., Arnhold, Karberg & Co., Foreman Electrician, Dock Co., Asst. Arnhold, Kerberg & Co., Manager, Mercantile Bauk,..... Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co... Chief Refiner, Sugar Refy. Co., Ld., Assistant, D. Sassoon & Co., Ld., Stenographer, Standard Oil Co.,..... Acting-Chief Acet. National Bank

of China, Ld...................... Foreman. B. & S.'s Shipyard, Engineer, W. Lysaught & Son,

Timekceper, B. & S.'s Shipyard, Engineer in Chief, B. & S.'s Shipyard, Chief Clerk, HK. & Kowloon Wharf

& Godown Co., Ld., Mason, Punchard, Lowther & Co.,.. Mason, Punchard Lowther & Co., ... Assistant, Standard Oil Co.,

Assistant, Gibb, Livingston & Co.,...

Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co., Sub-Acct., International Bkg. Corpn., Sub-Acet., Chartered Bk. of I.,A. & C., Clerk, King Edward Hotel,...... Dairyman, The Dairy Farm Co., Ld., Asst. Engineer, HK. T'way Co., Ld., Clerk, Siemssen & Co., Clerk, Dairy Farm Co., L.,

Asst., Carlowitz & Co.,

Marney, Victor Emile Torean de Assistant, Dodwell & Co, Lt.,

Marston, Lionel

Martin, Oswald

Mast, Edward

Matthews, John Frederick May, Ernest Alfred George May, George Howard McArthur, John...... McBryde, William Gray McColl, Alexander Lander McCorquodale, Jobu Campbell McCubbin, John McGiashan, James.... McGillivray, James Paterson. McIntyre, John McIntyre, Wilson McKirdy, Archibald

McLaren, John Henry McNeill, Duncan McQuillan, John

McRobie, Frank........

Mead, James Henry

Meek, Thomas

Meier, John Max Heinrich

Supt., China Light & Power Co., Ld., Asst., Hamburg-Amerika Linie, Accountant, C. P. Railway Co., Foreman, B. & S.'s Shipyard, Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld., Assistant, Kelly & Walsh, Ld., Assistant, HK. & S. Bank, Draughtsman, Dock Co., Sugar Boiler, China Sugar Refinery, Sugar Boiler, China Sugar Refinery, Engineer, HK. & China Gas Co, Ld., Foreman Shipwright, Dock Co.,..... Asst., HK. & S. Banking Corpn., Sugar Boiler Tai Koo Sugar Refinery, Melting Dept., Tai Koo Sugar Refy., Machines & Packing Dept., Tai Koo

Sugar Refinery, Foreman, Quarry Bay Shipyard,...... Boiler Dept., Taikoo Sugar Refy.,... Machines & Packing Dept., Taikoo

Sugar Refinery,

Foreman, B. & S.'s Shipyard,.... Asst.. Kelly & Walsh,

Jeweller, G. Falconer & Co.,

Mehta, Byramjee Kaikhushroo | Clerk, E. D. Sassoon & Co,

Storekeeper, Kmar & Co.,

|

ABODE.

80 Staunton Street.

Bowrington. Prince's Building. 5 East Road,

Tsimshatsui,

Queen's Road Central, Stolzenfels, Peak.

6 Mountain View. Prince's Building.,

College Chambers, W'ham St. 7 Queen's Road.

2 Ormsby Villas, Kowloon. Strathallan, Robinson Road. Kowloon Docks.

67 Mt. Kellett. Queen's Road Central. Lane, Crawford & Co. Quarry Bay.

King Edward Hotel. Hotel Mansions.

2 The Albany. Quarry Bay.

131 Wanchai Road.

Quarry Bay.

Engineer's Office, B. & S., HK.

4 Victoria View, Kowloon. Ma Tan Kok.

Naval Yard Extension. 41 Robinson Road.

Queen's Building

Lane, Crawford & Co., 60 Peak.

3 Queen's Road Central. Des Voeux Road.

Pokfoolum.

158 Praya East. Queen's Building. 66 Caine Road.

2 Queen's Gardens.

3 Park View. Hung Hom. York Buildings.

4 Macdonnell Road, Quarry Bay.

6 Mountain View.

7 Ormsly Terrace, Kowloon. Bank Premises.

14 Knutsford Terrace, K'loon. East Point. East Point.

Gas Works, West Point. Cosmopolitan Dock. Cloudlands, Peak. Quarry Bay. Quarry Bay.

Quarry Bay. Quarry Bay. Quarry Bay.

Quarry Bay.

Quarry Bay.

Chater Road.

6 Beaconsfield Arcade.

7 Queen's Road Central. 21 Hotel Mansions.

A

NAME IN FULL.

23

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

M-Continued.

Melvin, James Dewar Meuocal, Daniel Ammen,

Merrill, Harold William.. Meyer, Constantin Adolf

Edward

Meyer, Johannes Emil Meyer, Gustav Meyer, Harry Albert.. Meyer, Oscar

Michael, Sassoon Hi.... Michael, Solomon Jacob Millar, Andrew William Millar, Edmund Reid... Millar, John

Miller, John Finlay Miller, Joseph Oswald Milroy, Anthony Alex. Heron Mistry, Kharsbedji Dhanjibhoy

Mitchell, John

Mittell, Carl Josef Franz Montjamont, R. de...... Moffatt, George

Morfey, Alan

Muller, Robert

Murray. Malcolm Alexander Mody, Kaikhusroo

Nusserwanjee Moir, Alexander... Morphew, George Morrison, John Dougal

Moses, Elias Joseph Moses, Sassoon Ezra Moss, Dennis Kebir Moulder, Augustus... Muat, William Francis Muble, Heinrich Ludwig Muir, John Greig Mullan, Thomas John Murphy, Edward Owen. Murphy, Lewis Newton... Murray, Douglas Bennett

Murray, Patrick Henry Musso, Salvadore.. Myers, Arthur

N

Melting Dept., Tai Koo Sugar Refy., Sub-Acct., International Banking

Corporation,

Assistant, Butterfield & Swire,

Assistant, Meyer & Co., Assistant, Meyer & Co., Clerk, Sander, Wieler & Co., Clerk, E. D. Sassoon & Co., Assistant, China Export Import &

Bank Co.,

Broker, J. R. Michael & Co., Stock Broker, Gubbay & Michael,... Timekeeper, Dock Co.,

Asst.. A. S. Watson & Co., Ld., Assistant A. S. Watson & Co., Marine Supt., Bradley & Co., Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co., Superintendent, Sailors' Home, .... Assistant, Tata & Co.,.....

Machines & Packing Department,

Taikoo Sugar Refinery,. Clerk, Meyeriuk & Co.. Chief Asst., Messageries Maritimes, Asst., Shewan Tomes & Co., Clerk, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Accountant, Mercantile Bank,. Asst., HK. & S. Banking Corpn.,

Clerk, King Edward Hotel,.. Manager, Peak Hotel, Foreman, B. & S.'s Shipyard,. Foreman Engineer, HK. and W'poa

Dock Co., Ld.,

Broker, J. R. Michael & Co., Assistant, D. Sassoon & Co., Ld., Assistant, Ross & Co.,... "Manager, M. J. Connell,

Engineer, Electric Light Company, Clerk, Siemssen & Co.,................. Pansman, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Civil Engineer, B. & S.'s Shipyard, Engineer, W. S. Bailey & Co., Assistant, HK. & S. Bank,..... Clerk, Union Insurance Society of

Canton, Ld., Engineer, Meyer & Co., Engineer, Bradley & Co....... Foreman, B. & S.'s Shipyard,.

Naismith, Andrew MacNair..... Sub-Acct., International ́ Banking

Neave, Thomas

Nevillo, Samuel Arthur

Newall, Stuart George Newman, Kenneth Charles

Horton.....

Nicholls, William Nicholson, Reginald Nicholson, Robert Alfred Nicholson, William Nicolai, Friedrich Nietert, Harry

Nilsson, Arthur Gustav

Wilhelm

Norrie. Thomas Brydic

Corporation,

Foreman Engineer, HK. & W'poa

Dock Co., Ld.,

Godownkeeper, Taikoo Sugar Refy., Manager, South British Fire and

Marine Insurance Company, ...... Electrical Engineer, HK. Electric

Co., Ld.,..

Assistant, Dock Co.,.... Assistant, HK. & S. Bank.................. Superintendent Engineer, Dock Co., Asst., Butterfield & Swire, Assistant, Hamburg-America Linie, Stenographer, Pacific Mail S. S. Co.,

Chemist, Taikoo Sugar Refy. Co., Ld., Acct., International Banking Corpn.,

|

Quarry Bay.

153 Magazine Gap. 1 Connaught Road.

15 Supmour Road.

8 Humphreys Avenue, K'loon. Prince's Building.

7 Queen's Road Central.

27 Conduit Road.

4 Century Crescent, Kennedy 2 Chancery Lane. [Road. Cosmopolian Docks. Alexandra Buildings. A. S. Watson & Co. [Peak. Stokes Bungalow W., The Lane, Crawford & Co. Sailors' Home. 33 Hollywood Road.

Quarry Bay. Bellevue, Peak Road. Queen's Buildings. St. George's Buildings. East Point.

11 Queen's Road Central. Cloudlands, Peak.

King Edward Hotel. Peak Hotel. Quarry Bay.

Kowloon Dock.

Belilios Terrace. 4 Peak Road,

2 Knutsford Terrace, Kowloon. Hotel Massion.

Electric Works, Wanchai. Austin Avenue, Kowloon. Quarry Bay. Quarry Bay. Hok-ün.

Bank Premises.

4 Cameron Villas, The Peak. Belvoir, 165 Wanchai Road. 46 Morrison Hill Road. Quarry Bay.

60, Peak.

Kowloon Docks. Quarry Bay.

Hongkong Hotel.

Wanchai. Kowloon Docks. Cloudsland, Peak. Cosmopolitan Dock.

1 Connaught Road. Queen's Building. Queen's Building.

Quarry Bay. 60, Peak.

Oates, Thomas

O

Foreman Shipwright, HK. & W'poa

Dock Co., Ld.,

Kowloon Dock.

.

24

4

ĭ

NAME IN FULL.

●—Continued.

Ohrembski, Marian von.. Oertel, William

Ogilvie, Alexander Ohme, Alford

Oldörp, Karl ...... Olliffe, Orris Charles....

Olson, John

O'Neill, Charles Augustine O'Neil, John Luiz Hugh Oram, Frederick Edward Ortlepp, Heinrich Friedrich Osborne, John...... Osmund, Arthur Frederic Osmund, Caezar Henry O'Sullivan, Adolphus Ernest

Erasmus

Otto, Walter Adolph Henry Owen, Edward

Owen, Mackertich Cyril Owen, Owen Elias..... Oxberry, James Henry

P

Packham, Ralph

Page, Harry William..

Palmer, Henry Thomas.

Parfitt, William

Parker, Albert Ernest

Parker, Walter

Parker, William Edward

Parker, William Theodore Parr, Edward Victor David Paterson, John

Peacock, Jolin

Pearce, Thomas Ernest... Pearson, James

Pearson, John Henry..... Pearson, Richard William...... Peche, Ivanhoe McDongall... Pentycross, Frederick Hazel... Pepper, Samuel George...... Perry, Isaac Samuel Pescio, Robert Pestonji, Rustom Petersen, Charles

Pettigurah, Dinshah Jamsetjee Philpot, Lionel Daniel Pickering, George.... Piens, Charles..... Pigott, Chetwynd Botry Pigrum, William Tertius Vale Plage, Philip Plummer, John Archibald Potts, Patrick Cumming Priedsmann, Georg

Prien, Peter George Friedrich Pugh, Alfred John Purcell, William Harris..

Purves, David Atkinson

Pye, Edmund Burns

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

Quarry Bay.

Chemist, Taikoo Sugar Refy. Co., Ld., Shankiwan Road. Foreman, Quarry Bay Shipyard,...... Tnner, Robinson Piano Co., Ld., Clerk, Sander Wieller & Co., Manager, Ilamburg America Linie, Assistant, Commercial Union Assur-

ance Co., Ld.

Contractor, C. E. Warren & Co.,................ Timekeeper, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Hotel Keeper, Praya East Hotel, Asst, Reuter Brockelmann & Co.,... Engine Driver, Tramway Co.,................... Assistant, Lauts, Wegener & Co., Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co.,

Des Voeux Road, Prince's Buildings, Queen's Building.

Des Voeux Road.

30 Des Voeux Road Central. Quarry Bay.

1 Counaught Road. 40 & 41 Praya East. Prince's Buildings. Engine House, The Peak. Prince's Buildings. 16 Belilios Terrace.

Assistant A. S. Watson & Co., Ld.,... Alexandra Buildings. Assistant, Kruse & Co.,

Broker,

Asst., A. II. Rennie & Co., Merchants, Manager, Occidental Hotel,..

Runner, Hongkong Hotel,

Hotel Mansion. Hongkong Club.

45 Wyndham Street. Elgin Road, Kowloon, Hongkong Hotel.

Wharf Overseer, HK. & Kowloon 4 Victoria View, Kowloon.

Wharf & Godown Co., Ld.,

General Asst., Dairy Farm Co., Ld., Timekeeper, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Assistant, Douglas, Lapraik & Co.,... Salesman, Singer Machine Co., ..... Foreman, Quarry Bay Shipyard,..... Timekeeper, HK. & W. Dock Co., Ld., Assistant, J. D. Hutchison & Co., Clerk, P. & O. S. N. Co., Broker, Layton & Co.,.... Pansman, Taikoo Sugar Refy. Co.,Ld., Assistant, J. D. Hutchison & Co.,... Foreman Moulder, HK. & Whompoa

Dock Co., Ld.,

Manager, Robinson Piano Co., Ld., . Storekeeper, Punchard Lowther & Co.. Timekeeper, B. & S.'s. Shipyard, Asst., HK. & S. Banking Corpn., Foreman, B. & S.'s Shipyard, Asst., David Sassoon & Co., L·l., Merchant, Gregor & Co....... Clerk, International Bankg. Corpn., Brakeman, Peak Tramway,. Manager, R. S. Woonwalla & Co., Architect, W. Danby,

Foreman, China Sugar Refinery,..... Clerk, HK. & K. W. & G. Co., Ld., Representative, Vacuum Oil Co., Assistant, Standard Oil Company, Foreman, China Sugar Refinery,.... Assistant, Bradley Co., Broker, Benjamin, Keily & Potts, Asst., Hamburg-America Linie,

| Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld.,

Assistant, Denison, Ram & Gibbs,... Accountant, Kelly & Walsh, Ld., Foreman Engineer, Dock Co., Assistaut, B. & Swire,.........

|

|

Waverley, Hotel. Quarry Bay. Hongkong Ilotel. Wyndham Street. Quarry Bay. Kowloon Dock. King Edward Hotel. The Peak.

1, Prince's Building. Shaukiwan Road. 2 Bonham Road.

Kowloon Dock. 7 Caine Road. 1 Old Bailey. Quarry Bay. Cloudlan is, Peak. Quarry Bay. Des Voeux Road. Bahar Lodge.

| 56 Hollywood Road

St. Francis' Yard, Wantsai. 2 Hollywood Road. Bishops' Lodge, Peak. East Point.

8 East Terrace, Kowloon. Hongkong Hotel.

4 Chater Street.

Bowrington.

2 Ormsby Villas, Kowloon. Clovelly, Peak Road. York Buildings.

A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Kowloon Gas Works. Cragside, Barker Road, Kowloon Docks.

1 Connaught Road.

Q

Quinn, John

R

Steward, Hongkong Club,

Hongkong Club.

Radbruch, Walter

Ramsay, James

Ramsay, Joseph Marshail. Ramsay, William

Rapp, Fritz.....

Clerk, East Asiatic Trading Co., Foreman Turner, Dock Co.,................ Foreman Iron Shipwright, Dock Co.,. Supt. Engineer, B. & Swire, Asst., A. S. Watson & Co., Ld.,......

9 Robinson Road.

Cosmopolitan Dock. Kowloon Docks. Des Voeux Road. Alexandra Buildings.

25

NAME IN FULL.

R-Continued.

Rapp, Gustav..

Rapp, Herman

Raptis, John Hadrian

Rattey, William James Raven, Arthur Robert Fenton. Ray, Edward Henry Raymond, Albert Raymond, Edward Benjamin Raymond, Ellis Benjamin Razavet, George Reeves, Henry

Remedios, José Domingos Hidalgo Salvador dos Reynolds, Frank Oswald Richards, Charles Walter Richardson, George Richardson, Hedley Thomas...

Ritchie, Archibald....... Ritchie, Archibald Ritchie, James Redford........ Ritchie, John Cameron Roberts, Arthur Griffith

Robertson, Thomas Watson Robertson, Wrifrid Ralli Robinson, Albert Edward Robinson, Walter Vaughan

Robson, John James Rodger, John

Rogers, Charles

Rogge, Carl Heinrich Rogge (Jr.) Carl

Röhrs, Frederick

Rose, Louis Augustus Ross, John

Ross, William Walker Gibson: Rouse, Athol Bernard

Royer, Heuri

Ruchwaldy, John Samuel Russell, William John Rutherford, Norman Hubert... Rutter, Robert Vart Rutonjce, Hormusjee Ruttonjee, Jehangir Hormusjee,

$

Sadon, Robert..............

Saint-Pierre, René

Samy, Arthur Poonoo Saunders, George Haward

Sayer, George John Budds.... Sayle, Robert Theophilus

Dalton

Schierenberg, Hermann Schlüter, Hakon Axel Schmidt, Wilhelm Selimidtborn, Albert Schneider, Otto Hugo Schoenemann, Andreas

Heinrich Atai .......... Schoenherr, Hans Schönfelder, Heinrich Schröder, Alfred.............. Schröder, Ernest Adolph

Schröter, Carl Christian

Hermann

Schultenbach, Charles

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

Clerk, J. D. Humphreys & Son,...... Kowloon. Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld., | A. S. Watson & Co. Tally Clerk, Taikoo Sugar Refinery

Co., Ld.,

Assistant, Dock Co., Architect, Weaven & Raven, Ship Broker, ................

Assistant, S. J. David & Co., Clerk, E. D. Sassoon & Co., Clerk, E. D. Sassoon & Co., Asst., Peninsular & Oriental S. N. Co., Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co.,

Clerk, Fenwick & Co....... Civil Engineer, B. & S.'s Shipyard,. Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Bookseller, Brewer & Co., Supt. Engineer, Canadian Pacific

Railway Co., Manager, Ritchie & Co.,

Marine Engineer, Dodwell & Co., Ld., Foreman. B. & S.'s Shipyard, Mason, Panchard, Lowther & Co., ... Civil Engineer, Punchard, Lowther

& Co.,

Supt. Engine.r, W. & Godown Co,... Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co., Manager, H. Price & Co., General Manager, W. Robinson &

Co., Ltd.,

Foreman Engineer, Dock Co., Sugar Boiler, China Sugar Refinery

Co., Lil.,

Asst., Butterfield & Swire, Shipbroker, Lamke & Co., Lil., Clerk, Siemssen & Cɔ., Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Asst., E. M. Hazeland, Architect, Foreman Engineer, Dock Co.,.. Asst., Jardine, Matheson& Co., Assistant, Union Insurance Society

of Canton, L., Clerk, A. R. Marty,.. Asst., Quarry Bay Shipyard, Foreman, Dock Co.,

Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co., Foreman Blacksmith, Dock Co., Merchant, H. Ruttonjee & Co., Assistant, H. Ruttonjec,

Spinning Master, Hongkong Colton Spinning & Dying Co., Lt., ................ Cashier, Banque de l'Indo-Chine, ... Assistant, John Lemm,

Clerk of Works, Taikoo Sugar Re-

finery Co., Ld.,

Civil Engineer,

Clerk, HK. & K. W. & G. Co., Clerk, Sander, Wieler & Co., Asst., Reuter, Bröckelmann & Co.,... Clerk, Jebsen & Co.,

Asst., Deutsch-Asiatische Bank,. Clerk, Jebsen & Co., -

Clerk, F. Blackhead & Co.,..... Assistant, Carlowitz & Co.,.... Chemist, Taikoo Sugar Refy. Co., Ld., Clerk, Jebsen & Co.,

Assistant, China Export Import &

Bank Co.,

Merchant, Meyer & Co.,

|

Shaukiwan Road. Cosmopolitan Doek. Pedders Hill.

8 Macdonnell Road. 54 Caine Road,

7 Queen's Road,

7 Queen's Road Central. Des Vœux Road. Lane, Crawford & Co.

10 Morrison Hill Road. Quarry Bay. The Peak. Queen's Road.

3 Canton Villas, Kowloon,

37 Des Voeux Road. Holyrood, Kowloon. Quarry Bay.

29 Wong-nei-chong Road.

Peak.

2 Kimberley Road, Kowloon. Hongkong Hotel.

2 Centuny Crescent K'nedy Rd.

7 Caine Road. Kowloon Docks.

East Point.

2 Connault Road: 25 Belilios Terrace. Quarry Bay.

11 Morrison Hill Gap Road. Kowloon Docks. East Point.

4 Cameron Villas, The Peak.

Des Voeux Road Central. Town Office. Kowloon Docks. Hongkong Hotel. Kowloon Docks.

39 Elgin Road, Kowloon. 39 Elgin Road, Kowloon.

East Point. Hongkong Club. 25 Bonham Road.

Shankiwan Road.

19, Queen's Road Central.

Hongkong Hotel. Prince's Building. Carlton House, Ice House St. 4 Granville Avenue, K'loon. Hansa Villa, The Peak. King's Building.

St. George Building. Summer House, Peak. Shankiwau Road.

8 Humphrey's Alley, K'loon.

27 Conduit Road.

King's Buildings.

Melting Dept., Taikoo Sugar Refy, . Quarry Bay.

NAME IN FULL.

26.

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

S-Continued. Schumacher, Carl Schwarzkopt, Friderich

Johann Rudolph....................... Scott, Colin Cunningham Scott, John Byron Scriven, Henry Ernest Sequeria, Pedro Nolasco Seth, Enos....

Seth, Harold Arathoon Seth, John Hennesey. Seth, Seth Arathoon Sewell, William Heury Shaud, Thomas Shaw, Alfred

Shea, James Jerry Sheffield, Alfred Sheffield, Ernest Alfred. Shepherd, Edgar Bruce

Shewan, William Thomson Shroff, Framroze Pestonji.. Sibbit, John James Siebler, Hugo Oscar Siebs, Berno

Siebs, Haus August Silas, Charles David Silas, David Hai.......... Silbermann, Isydor........ Silva, Porphyrio Maria

Nolasco da Simcock, Philip

Simmonds, John Frederick Simms, Henry George Simpson, Thomas Kentley

Sinclair, Angus

Skinner, Thomas

Skött, Christian

Skött, Hans

Slade, Thomas

Slaney, Abert Edward Smith, Alfred Brooke Smith, Arthur William Smith, Charles Gearhart Smith, Edmund Burt Smith, Eric Grant Smith, George

Smith, George Morton Smith, Horace Percy, Smith, Samuel Smyth Frank

Suowman, Albert Washington Somerville, Andrew George

Somay

Soonderam, Rammisamy Sorby, Vincent

Merchaut, Fred. Bornemann,

Merchant, F. Blackhead & Co., Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Asst., A. S. Watson & Co., Ld.,. Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co., Assistant, Standard Oil Co.,............. Mercantile Assistant,

Asst., A. H. Rennie & Co., Acct., &c., Percy Smith & Seth,. Secretary, Dairy Farm Co., Ld.,........ Gauger, Punchard, Lowther & Co.,... Engineer, Taikoo Sugar Refinery, Manager, Cotton Mills, Assistant, Standard Oil Co.,................ Asst. Supt., Fitting Dept., Gas Co.,. Assistant, Gibb, Livingston & Co.,... Assistant, Hongkong Land Invest-

ment & Agency Co., Ld., Merchant,

Clerk, S. J. David & Co., Time-keeper, Dock Co., Chemist, Soap Works,.. Clerk, Siemssen & Co., Clerk, Siemssen & Co....... Assistant, Dock Co., Ld., Assistant, D. Sassoon Sous & Co.,... Hotel Keeper, "Globe Hotel,”

Manager, Guedes & Co., Assistant Engineer, Green Island

Cement Co., I^l., Storekeeper's Assistant, Dock Co,.. Ins. Agent, North China Ins. Co., ... Clerk of Works, Hongkong & K'loon

Wharf & Godown Co., Ld., Marine Superintendent, Superintendent, Matheson & Co.,

Jardine

Marine Engineer, Dodwell & Co., Ld.. Assistant, Skött & Co.,

Merchant, Skött & Co., H'kong Hotel, Foreman, B. & S.'s Shipyard,.........

6 Queen's Road Central.

St. George Building. Praya Central.

A. S. Watson & Co., Ld. Lane, Crawford & Co. Hotel Mansions.

Norman Cottage, Peak Road. Norman Cottage, Peak Road. Norman Cottage, Peak Road. Norman Cottage, Peak Road. Naval Yard, Extension. Quarry Bay. East Point. Hongkong Hotel.

Priory Lodge, Bonham Road. St. George Building.

5 Queen's Road Central. 8A Des Voeux Road.

4 Ashley Road, Kowloon. Kowloon Docks.

Shankiwan Road,

Victoria Lodge, Peak Road. Victoria Lodge, Peak Road. College Chambers.

The Den, Castle Road. Queen's Road Ceutral.

4 Seymour Terrace.

1 Ormsby Terrace, Kowloon. Kowloon Docks.

2 Lyeemoou Villas, Kowloon.

Kowloou.

Peak Hotel.

2 Canton Villas, Kowloon. Hongkong Hotel..

10 Des Vœux Road. Quarry Bay.

| East Point.

Foreman, Puuchard, Lowther & Co. | Naval Yard Extension. Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Assistant, Alex. Ross & Co., Clerk, Pacific Mail S. S. Co., Foreman, B. & S.'s Shipyard,... Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Ld., Foreman Shipwright, Dock Co.,.............. Assistant, Dodwell & Co., Lathe, Chartered Acct., Percy Smith & Seth, Boatswain, Dock Co., Broker, Vernon & Smyth Asst., East Asiatic Trading Co.,......

Assistant, Shewan, Tomes & Co., Clerk, Hongkong Hotel Co., Ld., ... Electrical Engineer, HK. Electric

Co., L.,

Souza, Miguel Angelo Antonio] Manager, Campbell, Moore & Co..

Spafford, Thomas

Spittles, Benjamin James Squair, Alexander Cook Stabb, Newton John Staeger, Oscur.......... Stapelfeldt, Max. Theodor Stebbing, William Thomas Steen, James Conolly

Stein, Alexis Low Stephens, Herbert

Stevenson, Allan

Stevenson, Robert

Stewart, John Wemyss..

Stewart, Walter Merton

......

Storekeeper, Punchard, Lowther &

Co.,

Assistant, A. S. Watson & Co., Ld., Assistant, Dock Co.,

Clerk, HK. & S. Bank,

Cashier, Russo-Chinese Bank,. Assistant, Melchers & Co., Printer, Kelly & Walsh,

Civil Engineer, Punchard, Lowther

& Co.,

Insurance Agent,

Foreign Representative, Howard&Co., Asst. Manager, Dairy Farm, Co., L., Civil Engineer, Punchard, Lowther

& Co.,

Foreman, China Sugar Refinery, Manager, W. H. Boyd & Co......

Des Voeux Road. Queon's Building. Quarry Bay. Craigieburn, The Peak. Kowloon Docks. Deacons's Bungalow Pakfulum. 5 Queen's Road. Kowloon Docks, Victoria B'ding, 5, Queen's Rd. Connaught Road Central.

Hongkong Hotel. Hongkong Hotel.

Wanchai.

44 Upper Mosque Terrace.

12 Sau Wa Fong. ·

|

A. S. Watson & Co.

22 Robinson Road.

Bank Premises. Bank.

Queen's Building. Connaught House.

Peak Hotel.

6 & 8 Alexandra Building. Hongkong Hotel. Pokfulam.

Matankok. East Point. Hongkong Hotel.

NAME IN FULL.

S-Continued.

Stewart, William

27

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

Stewart, William

Stockhausen, Curt Gottlob

Gustav...

Stone, Frederick Edward Stopani, John Andrew

Stoppa, William Christain

Paul

Stubbings, John James......

Stupersky, Antonio

Sullivan, Charles Daniel

Summers, Edwin Henry Spark

Swaby, Thomas Charles Swart, Schelto

Tams, Otto

Tang Chee

T

Taraporewala, Bejanjee

Ardeshir

Tarrant, Ernest Norsworthy... Tarrant, John Arthur

Tatam, John

Taylor, William Taylor, William

Tegner, Ludvig Ferdinand

Templeton, David..........

Terrill, William James Terry, Edgar William

Terry, Wallace

Tester, Percy

Textor, Hermann

Thiessen, Adolf Johannes

Martin

Foreman, B. & S.'s Shipyard, Foreman Sawyer, Dock Co.,

Assistant, Blackhead & Co., Assistant, Standard Oil Co., Assistant Superintendent, Manufacturing Co.,

Broker,

Rope

Electical Engineer, IIK. Electic

Co., Lt.,

Dranghtesman, HK. & W'pon Dock

Co., Lủ,

Godown and Tally Dept., Taikoo

Sugar Refinery,

Storekeeper, HK. & Kowloon Wharf

& Godown Co., Ld., Assistant, Vacuum Oil Co.,..... Manager, East Asiatic Trading Co.,.]

Asst., Siemssen & Co.,..............

Quarry Bay. Kowloon Docks.

Fairview, Robinson Road. The Bund, Kowloon,

3 Victoria View, Kowloon.

7 & 8 Hotel Mansions.

Wanchai.

King Edward Hotel.

Quarry Bay.

6 Ashley Road, Kowloon. King's Building. Exmoor, Conduit Road.

26 Belilios Terrace.

Merchant, Dang Chec, Son, & Co.,... 3 Carnarvon Road, Kowloon.

Clerk, Tata & Co.,

Asst., A. S. Watson & Co.,

Acting Secretary, A. S. Watson &

Co., Lủ,

Butcher, Dairy Farm Co., Ld., Chemist, China Sugar Refinery, Foreman Pattern-maker, Dock Co., Sub-Accountant, International Bank-

ing Corporation, Assistant Manager, Taikoo Sugar

Refinery.....

Clerk, Punchard, Lowther & Co., Supt. Fitting Dept., Hongkong &

China Gas Co.,.....

Asst., W. Powell & Co.. Assistant, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Acting Marine Supt., Norddeutscher

Lloyd

Assistant, Blackhead & Co.,

Thomas, Christopher Boswood Architect, W. Danby,

Thomas, Edward

Thomas, Harry Philip Thomas, Johu Alexander

Griffith

Thorne, Stanley Moritz.

Thun, Johannes Carl Heinrich Tibbey, Henry Macpherson ...

Tiefenbacher, Hans Max Tollan, Duncan

Toppin, James

Foreman, B. & S.'s Shipyard, Clerk, C. P. Railway Co.,

Clerk, W. R. Loxley & Co, Sub-Accountant, Chartered Bank of

I. A. & C.,..... Assistant, Blackhead & Co., Shipping Agent, MacGregor Bros

& Gow,

Clerk, Wm. Meyerink & Co. Electrician, China & Japan Tele-

phone Co.,

Asst., Shewan Tomes & Co,

Torrence, Robert McAllister... Tuner, Robinson Piano Co., Ld.,

Tregillus, Paul

Tulip, Wilfred

Turnbull, Thomas Guthrie Turner, Isaac Turner, William

Turner, William Cecil Dutton Tuxford, Alfred Stanley Tyack, Arthur Henry

U

Uldall, Sofus Vilhelm August

Underwood, John Harry

Unsworth, Richard

Urban, Federico

43 Hollywood Road. Alexandra Buildings.

1 Canton Villas, Kowloon. 28 Morrison Hill Road. East Point. Kowloon Docks.

Hop Un Cement work.

Quarry Bay.

14 Morrison Hill Gap Road.

Gas Works. Alexandr aBuilding.

| East Point.

3 Queen's Building.

3 Queen's Gardens.

Hongkong Hotel. Quarry Bay. Hongkong Hotel.

73 Praya East.

3 Queen's Rado Central. Ravenshill.

King Edward Hotel. Tower House, Calder Road.

Ice House Street. St. Georges Building. 157 Wanchai Road. 26 Wyndham Street.

Foreign Representative,Howard &Co., Draughtsman, HK. & W. D. Co., Ld., | 2 Knutford Terrace. Clerk, Canadian Pacific R'way Co., Hotel Mansions. Head Watchman, Dock Co.,

Kowloon Docks. Mercantile Assit., B'field & Swire,... 1 Connaught Road. Asst., HK. & S'hai Banking Corp., Hongkong Bank.

Manager, Lazarus & Co......................... Civil Engineer, Punchard, Lowther

& Co.,

Works Manager, Green Island Ce-

ment Co., Ld.,

3 & 5, Pedder Street.

Hongkong Club.

Kowloou.

Chemist, China Sugar Refy. Co.. Ld., | East Point. Wharfinger, Wharf & Godown Co..... Kowloon. Clerk, Siemssen & Co...........................

No. 2 Kuntsfore Terrace.

*

NAME IN FULL.

28

OCCUPATION.

ABODE.

V

Vardigan, Arthar William.

Asst., Kowloon Hotel,..

Vincenot, Louis

Vivian, James.....

Co-Manager, Howard & Co., Fitter Punchard, Lowther & Co.,

Vollbrecht, Ernst Oscar Rudolf Clerk, Blackhead & Co.,

W

Wagner, Otto....

Wahlen, Julius Ferdinand......

Walker, James Ward, Arthur Jacob Warnes, Charles Aspinell...... Warnsloh, Hugo Peter Gerold Warrack, Alexander Fehrsen Warre, Felix Walter Warren, Charles Edward Watson, Albert

Watson, Ernest George....

Watson, John Johnston..... Watson, William Harold Watt, Albert William Jack Weall, Thomas Graham...... Weaser, William Lionel........ Webb, George Stanley Webb, Harry Montague Wedekind, Woldemar..... Wegmanu, Franz Weill, Albert

Wells, Johú

West, William Edward Westerburger, Charles Adolphs

Henri

Wheeley, Alfred Edward. Wheeley, John Thomas Martin Whiley, William John Granger Whitainore, Rupert Alexander White, Edmund William White, Francis William... White, George Whitlow, Alfred William Whyte, James Fleming

Marshall

Whyte, Robert

Wilkie, John

Wilks, Edward Charles.....

Wilks, Owen Beynon........

Williams,Cecil Stanley Norbury Williams, Charles Marion ........... Williams, Ernest Alfred

Mountford Wilson, George Tweedie Wilson, Robert

Winter, Joseph Blake Winterburn, William George... Wolff, Philip Robert Wong, Joseph Mowlam Wood, Robert Bryden Woodgates, James Allan Wotherspoon, William Wrench, James Wright, James Francis

Wynue, Hugh Samuel

Young, James

Y

Young, Jesse Ashton

Z

|

...

Watchmaker, Gaupp & Co.,....... Manager, China Export & Import

Pank Compagnie,

Manager, Dairy Farm, Co., Ld.,....... Electrician, Dock Co, Sorter, HK. & K., W. & G. Co., Ld., Assistant, Melchers & Co., Asst., HK. & S'hai Banking Corpn., Assistant, Gilman & Co.,............ Contractor, C. E. Warren & Co.,.. Brakeman, Peak Trainway,.. Engine-driver, H'kong High Level

Tramway Co., L.,

Sugar Boiler, China Sugar Refinery, Clerk, HK. & K. W. & G. Co., Ld.,... Asst., HK. & S'hai Banking Corpn., Asst.. Dodwell & Co., Ld., Architect, Weaser & Raven, Storekeeper's Assistant, Dock Co.,... Assistant, Butterfield & Swire, Assistant, Melchser& Co., Asst., Armhold Kerberg & Co., Assistant, Sennet Freres,... Foreman, B. & S.'s Shipyard, Acct., Vacuum Oil Co.,

Assistant, Arnhold, Karberg & Co., . Asst., China Traders' Insurance Co., Manager, China Borneo Co., Secretary Sun Life Assurance, Asst., Shewan Tomes & Co., Assistant, Wm. Powell Ld.,. Clerk, Caldbeck MacGregor & Co.,... Foreman Mason, Dock Co., - Broker,

Assistant, Lane, Crawford & Co., Foreman Coppersmith, Dock Co., Chief Clerk, Dock Co.,..

Consulting Engineer, E. C. Wilks &

Co.,

-

Supt. Harbour Works, E. C. Wilks

& Co., Assistant, Gibb, Livingston & Co..... Foreman, B. & S.'s Shipyard,

Assistant, Wm. Powell, Ld., Foreman Boilermaker, Dock Co., Foreman Boilermaker, Dock Co., Foreman, Gas Co.,

Manager, Geo. Fenwick & Co., Clerk, HK. & K. W. & G. Co., Clerk, J. D. Humphreys & Son, Manager, Steam Laundry Co.,... Clerk, P. & O. S. N. Company, Chief Timekeeper. B. & S.'s S'yard, Yardman, Hose Repository, Share Broker, Benjamin Kelly and

Potts,

Foreman Joiner, Dock Co.,

Foreman, B. & S.'s Shipyard............................... Assistant, Shewan Tomes & Co.,

Zavier, Antonio Francisco de Clerk, Goddardl & Douglas.. Zehranu, Franz Curt

Clerk, Jebsen. & Co.,

Elgin Road, Kowloon. Queen's Road Central. Naval Yard Extension. 3 Queen's Gardens.

13 Knutsford Terrace, K'loon..

27 Conduit Road. Pokfulam.

. Kowloon Docks.

Kowloon.

:

Queen's Building. Hongkong Bank. Queen's Road Central.

30 Des Vœux Road Central. Engine House, The Peak.

Engine House, The Peak. East Point.

7 Rose Terrace, Kowloon. Hongkong Bank.

6 Mountain View Peak. 8 Des Voeux Road Central. Kowloon Docks. Connaught Road. Queen's Building.

St. George House, K'nedy Rd.. 11 Seymour Road. Quarry Bay.

6 Park View.

33 Conduit Road.

Stewart Terrace, The Peak. Eden Hall, Lyttleton Road. 6 & 8 Alexandra Building. St. Georges Building. Alexandra Building. 33 Seymour Road. Kowloon Docks.

3 Beaconsfield Arcade.

Queen's Road Central. Kowloon Docks. Kowloon Docks,

3 Kimberley Villas, Kowloon.

12 Beaconsfield Arcade. St. Georgés Building. Quarry Bay.

Alexandra Building. Kowloon Docks, Cosmopolitan Dock. Westward Ho. 6 Morrison Hill. Hongkong Hotel. New Territory, Kowloon. Yanmati.

The Peak. Quarry Bay. Causeway Bay.

St. George Building. Kowloon Docks.

Quarry Bay.

St. George Building.

Prince's Building.

Braeside, Macdonnell Road.

ARATHOON SETH,

Registrar.

Registry, Supreme Court, Hongkong,

1st February, 1906.

GENERAL REPORT OF THE PRINCIPAL CIVIL MEDICAL OFFICER

AND THE MEDICAL OFFICER OF HEALTH.

.

.

ÁREA.

The Sanitary Board's jurisdiction extends to the Island of Hongkong, which has an area of 29 square miles, and to that portion of territory on the mainland between the shore and the first range of the Kowloon Hills extending from the village of Tseung Kwan O in Junk Bay, on the East, to the village of Kau Pa Hang on the West-with a sea frontage of about thirteen miles and an area of about sixteen square miles. Old Kow- loon, with an area of about 24 square miles, has been in British occupation since 1861, but New Kowloon was leased to this Government in 1898 only, as part of what is known as the New Territory. The remainder of this New Territory is not under the jurisdiction of the Sanitary Board..

The City of Victoria, built on the Northern shore of the Island of Hongkong, has a frontage to the sea of nearly five miles and is separated from the opposite mainland of Kowloon by the Harbour, which is rather less than a mile and a third wide opposite the centre of the City and widens out to somewhat over three miles at its widest part, con- tracting again at Lyemun Pass on the East to little more than a quarter of a mile in width.

The domestic buildings of the City of Victoria number 9,537 exclusive of Barracks and Police Stations, of which some 966 are non-Chinese dwellings, while there are also some 154 European dwellings in the Hill District. The number of new houses completed during the year was as follows:-City of Victoria 182, Kowloon 44, Outlying districts 33, and Peak 1, making a total of 260.

In addition to the above there were erected miscellaneous buildings such as offices, godowns, etc., to the number of 30.

In the Kau U Fong area of Victoria there were cleared away 37 old buildings, and 3 other houses in different parts of the City were vacated with a view to being cleared away shortly.

GENERAL SANITARY CONDITION.

The effect of the present law in providing increased window area for houses is very marked as far as the appearence of houses from the streets is concerned.

Unfortunately in existing buildings there is the old difficulty of not being able to sub-divide the floors into separately lighted apartments.

Under the former law (anterior to 1894) there were built many houses with very small window area. During 1905 2,512 houses have had there windows enlarged to comply with the present Ordinance.

Open spaces in the rear have been provided to 147 houses.

Cement rendering of walls in kitchens has been carried out in 2,108 cases.

In connection with anti-plague measures to render houses rat-proof if possible, 1,088 ground surfaces in houses have been reconcrete i while 967 such have had existing concrete repaired. In addition 4 basements illegally inhabited have been altered so as to be legally habitable and 59 houses have been set back from their original frontage so as to obtain in- creased air spaces in front.

In addition to the above improvements carried out under the supervision of the Sanitary Department various other permanent improvements have been effected by the Public Works Department.

..

260

These include the training of nullahs to the extent of 5,145 feet and the building of public latrines and urinals as follows:-one latrine in Third Street, one urinal on the Praya opposite Douglas Street, and one urinal at the upper terminus of the Peak Tramway.

The resumption of property by the Government to the extent of 18,092 square feet during the year under review, has greatly improved the Kau U Fong area.

A considerable improvement is always taking place in the matter of scavenging lanes but the full effect of the Ordinance in this respect will not be noticeable for a considerable number of years.

Nevertheless the total length of lanes obtained for scavenging purposes during the year has been 18,977 feet.

As the re-building of a house necessitates the sacrifice of ground to be devoted to open space, owners will of course always prefer to patch the existing houses rather than re-build. However 48 old hcuses have been pulled down and re-built during the year.

During the year three wells the water of which was unsatisfactory were closed by order of the Sanitary Board.

METEOROLOGICAL RETURN.

The following Table records the meteorological conditions which prevailed during the

year-

MONTH.

BARO-

METER

AT

TEMPERATURE.

HUMIDITY.

WIND.

CLOUDI SUN-

SHINE. NESS.

RAIN.

M.S.L. Max. Mean. Min. Rel. Abs.

Dir.

Vel.

January,

February,

March,..... 29.94 61.8 58.9 56.3

ins. 29.93 69.0 64.3

O

о

60.7

p. c. 79

ins. 0.19

p. c. hours.

ins. Points. 69 142.9 1.800 Ε

miles p.

11.5

h.

30.01 58.9 55.3

51.6 84

0.37

92

26.3 1.100 E by S

11.3

*

April,

May,

June,

29.62 85.0 81.1

July,

29.61 87.8 82.3

August,

29.65 86.7

81.2

September, 29.77 84.7 80.1

October, 29.89 80.4 75.9

November, 30.05 73.6 | 69.2

29.85 72.0 67.8 63.7 85 0.59 86

29.80 83.0 78.1 74.3 82 078 66

77.4 83 0.87

78.1 80

88888

0.44 96

31.1 11.485 E by N

17.9

100.7 1.235

E

15.1

0.88 63

888

212.0 6.825¦

ESE

10.1

80

144.3 19.695

ESE

11.4

243.5 9.015 SSE

7.8

77.3 84

0.89

68

223.4 12.115 | SE by E

9.3

76.5 81

0.83

65

199.5 3.195

E

14.8

72.0 71

0.64

49

201.7 1.830 E by N

12.4

65.0

66

0.46 48

209.00.280 E by N

12.4

December, 30.00 69.6 65.3

62.1 80

0.50 73 117.0 2.370 ENE

12.9

POPULATION.

The following is the estimated population to the middle of 1905 :—

Non-Chinese Civil Cominunity,

Chinese :-

City of Victoria including the Peak and Stonecutters

10,452

Island,

194,950

Villages of Hongkong,

16.296

Old Kowloon,

73,473

New Kowloon (approximate),

...

21,000

Floating population,

54,154

Total Chinese Civil population,

Army, (average strength),

...359,873 4,274

Navy, (average strength),

3,251

Total population of the Colony,

.377,850

:

261

The average strength of troops in Garrison during 1905 was 127 British Officers and 1,629 British N. C.Os and men with 38 Indian Officers and 1,995 Indian N. C.O.s and men, and 69 men of the Chinese Royal Engineers. There were also 342 British women and children, and 74 Indian women and children, making a total of 416.

The average strength of the British fleet was as follows:-Europeans permanently in the Colony 285, Europeans temporarily in the Colony 2,730, Chinese permanently in the Colony 153, Chinese temporarily in the Colony 83—making a total of 3,251.

The Chinese boat population (exclusive of the New Territory) is estimated for 1905 as 54,154 and the number of registered boats belonging to the l'ort for the year is as follows:—

Fishing and Trading Junks,

Cargo Boats, Lighters and Sampans,

.6,771 .5,171

The registered fishing boats belonging to the New Territory were distributed as follows:--

Registered at Cheung Chau,..

::

"2

Tai 0,

Tai Po,

:)

Deep Bay,

""

>>

Sai Kung, Long Kit,

Total,.

1,867

900

1,949

.1,435

669

952

.7.772

The population of the Colony is primarily divided into Chinese and non-Chinese. The non-Chinese comprise a white population of 10,835 of whom 5,722 are civilians while 5,113 belong to the Navy and Army. The coloured races (non-Chinese) number 6,837 and include East Indians, Asiatic Portuguese, Japanese, Philippinos, Malays, Africans, Persians and a few others.

The Civil population is essentially a male adult one. At the last census (1901) the population of males was 72.6 per cent. of the total civil population.

Of the Chinese population 72.9 per cent. were males, and over half the civil population (50.2 per cent. of the Chinese and 564 per cent. of the non-Chinese) were between the ages of 20 and 45 years.

The City of Victoria is divided into ten health districts with a Sanitary Inspector in charge of each district. These ten districts are grouped into five larger districts of two each and a Senior Inspector has general supervision and control of the Sanitary work in each of such groups.

Kowloon has one Senior Inspector with two district Inspectors under his su vision. With the abatement of plague during the last two years the former five plague Inspect- ors in Victoria have been reduced to four, two Inspectors dividing the district of the fifth Inspector between them in addition to their former districts.

The supervision of the sanitary work in the villages of Hongkong and in Kowloon City and Sham Shui Po is done by the Police Inspectors in their respective districts.

The following Table shows the number of Chinese house and floors and their inmates per house and per floor in the City of Victoria :-

City of Victoria

One Two Three Four Five Total storey storey storey storey storey Dwell- Total Dwell- Dwell- Dwell- Dwell-Dwellings.

Average

Number of

Number of

No. of

persons per

Health

Floors.

District.

ings. ings. ings. ings. ings.

Floors per Dwelling.

House.

persons per Floor,

1

161 428 206

3

341 580

32 Nil. 827 82 Nil. 1,006

.1,763

2.1

14.7

2,753

2.7

24.1

6.9

8.7

Most of the Chinese of

3

Nil.

6

19

2

Nil.

27

77

2.8

this district lived in quarters

attached to offices.

4

6

57

562

408

6 1,039

3,408

3.2

25.7

7.8

5

2 132 502

333

46 1.015

3,334

3.2

24.6

7:5

6

46

52 433

369

25

925 3,050

3.3

23.3

7:0

7

17

36 447

377

8

6

9

23

10

33

24 901 83 616 294 8 | 1,002 440 498 103 Nil. 1,064 334 363 35 Nil.

3,058 3-3 3,211 2,809 2.6 765 1,930

18.4

5.4

3.2

22.7

7.0

23.6

8.9

2.5

16.9

6.6

Totals and Averages.

297 1,909 4,226 | 2,035 1048,571

25,393 2.89

22.4

7.5

262

The following Table shows the acreage of the City Health Districts with the houses and population in each such district :—-

Built-over

Health Districts.

Total

Areas in

Acreage.

Chinese Houses.

Acres.

Non- Chinese Houses.

Chinese Non-Chinese Population. Population.

Persons per Acre (built-over).

1.........

531

134

827

158

12,230

2........

234

140

1,006

66

24,220977 troops.

1,205

510

100

}

183

3..........

232

137

27

422

5,420

3,150

61

:

4.........

56

53

1,039

165

26,760

1,422

531

5..........

29

27

1,015

62

25,060

423

943

6..........

30

27

925

15

21,610

104

804

36

31

901

5

16,610

66

537

S.........

49

47

1,002

3

22,755

31

481

9.........

44

44

1,064.

19

25,135

174

575

10.

252

106

765

51

12,850

515

126

1,502

746

8,571

966

192,650

8,577

270

The following Table shows the distribution of the population of Kowloon according to Houses and Floors in the different sub-districts into which Kowloon is divided :—

Kowloon

Sub-districts.

1

10

5

231

3

17 70 79

3.

9 324

383 91

4.

524

63 326

I-

7

5..

20 173

22

6........

3

234 292 22

7

592

8.........

446 Ї

940 219

F:.

9.........

699

46

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

:.

:

:

Area in Acres.

221

438 1.98 9.98 5-04

108

166 560 3.37 27.92 8.27

796 2,137 2.68 20.86

126

198

920 1,656 1.80 6-78 3.77

163

245 542

4.37 27.47 12:51

319

551 1,435

2.60 16.73 6.42

323

1,0421,496

1.43

5.13 3.58

2,758

1,159 1,598 1.36 5.56 4.03

2,068

745 791 1.06

6.28

5.92

732

BIRTHS.

The births registered during the year were as follows:-

Chinese, Non-Chinese,

Males.

Females.

Total.

...676

312

988

..153

148

301

829

460

1,289

This gives a general birth-rate of 3.41 per 1,000 as compared with 33 per 1,000 in 1904 and 3.2 per 1,000 in 1903.

The birth-rate amongst the Non-Chinese community was 1703 per 1,000 as compared with 13.9 per 1,000 in 1904 and 15.2 per 1,000 in 1903.

*

263

The nationalities of the Non-Chinese parents are as follows:-British 120, Indian 46, German 13, French 3, American 4, Portuguese 77, Philippino 10, Malay 8, Japanese 5, Jewish 5, Dutch 2, Arabian 2, Spanish, Roumanian, Italian, African, Brazilian and Eurasian 1 cach.

The number of Chinese births registered does not give an accurate record of the num- ber of births which have occurred. Owing to the custom of the Chinese in not registering births unless the child has survived for a month and often in the case of female children not at all, it is probable that the majority it not all of the infants which are sickly at birth or die before they have lived 1 month have not had their births registered. It is customary, therefore, to assume that 'all children of 1 month old and under who die in the various convents (being brought there sick by poor people) and all children found dead in the streets, harbour, hillsides, etc., by the police, have been born in the Colony but not registered. By adding the number of such children to the number of the registered births a corrected number of births is obtained and from this is calculated a corrected birth-rate.

The number of such children in 1905 was 282 males and 458 females, total 740, which being added to the registered births equals 1,728. The corrected birth-rate is therefore 47 while amongst the Chinese community alone the rate becomes 4:79 instead of 27.

The preponderance of male over female registered births is very marked amongst the Chinese there being 216 males to 100 females. Even with 740 above mentioned unregister- ed births the proportion is 124 males to 100 females. This suggests that even the corrected birth-rate may not be altogether trustworthy.

In the Non-Chinese community the proportion of male births to female births for 1905 is 103 to 100 as compared with 83 males to 100 females in 1904 and 111 males to 100 females in 1903 and 1902.

DEATHS.

The deaths registered during the year numbered 6,594. The death-rate was therefore 17.45 as compared with 16·94 in 1904. These deaths include 287 from Plague.

The following Table gives the death-rates during the past twenty years inclusive and exclusive of deaths from Plague and exclusive in every case of the Naval and Military populations and deaths, as until the last eleven years these latter figures were not recorded :—

1886

31.79

1896

24.25

1887

28.59

1897

19.13

1888

31.72

Average

1398

22.71

Average

27.78

22.80

1889

23.64

1899

24.33

1890

23.19

1900-

24.12

1891

23.80

1901

24.03

1892

20.70

1902

22.18

1893

22.70

Average

1903

19.30

Average

23.89

20-28

1894

30.37

1904

18.29

1895

21.89

1905

17.66

Excluding Plague :-

1896

19.79

1901

19.03

1897

19.05

1902.

20.32

1898

17.98

Average

1903

15.10

Average

19.31

17.62

1899

18-65

1904

16.79

1900

21.10

1905

16.89

The total number of deaths amongst the Chinese community was 6,292 which gives a death-rate of 17:46 per 1,000 as compared with 17∙18 in 1904.

The deaths registered amongst the Non-Chinese community numbered 302 of which 251 were from the Civil population, 36 from the Army and 15 from the Navy.

This gives a death-rate for the Non-Chinese community of 17.08.

The nationalities of the deceased were as follows:-British 89, Indian 77, Portuguese 56, German 16, Japanese 13, American 11, Malay 6, French 6, Philippino 4, Italian 3, Swedish 3, Swiss, Jewish and Austrian 2 each; Irish, Dutch, Austrian, New-Zealander, Norwegian, Persian, Arabian, Danish, Turkish, Eurasian 1 each, and of unknown nationality 2.

1

264

The following Table gives the causes of the 36 deaths among the Troops :

British.

Indian.

Facture of Skull,

1

Sprue,

Heart Disease,

1

Pneumonia,.

Dysentery,

1

Bronchitis,

Contusion of Skull,

1

Poisoning,

Abscess of Liver,

1

Measles,

Syphilis,

1

Dysentery, Tuberculosis

l'hthisis,

2

9

2

1

1

1

1

}

2

Scurvy,

4

Malaria,

1

Anæmia,

3

Debility,

1

Diarrhoea,

2

6

30

Average EUROPEANS.

Average

CHINESE

INDIAN TROOPs.

Strength..

Strength.

TROOPS,

These deaths are classified in the Military returns as follows:-

CORPS.

:

:

:

:

:

:

1

:.

:

:

:

:.

:

:

:

:

:

:

69

:

:.

:

::.

:.

:

69

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

::.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:ཚེ

:

7379

5276

5282

:

:

:

:

2

102

11616

535

:

:

:

:

:

CO

3

3 41 2,220

...

:

:.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

#i

:

16615

11

194

:

4

441

25

333333

9 43

7 31

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

E

1

:

:

:

26

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

a

:

:

:

:

:

27

*

H

1

8.

98 1,370

1,370

1

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

General Staff (Officersouly),

Garrison Staff (W. O., N. C. Officers only),......

Royal Garrison Artillery, ...

Royal Engineers,

Chinese Submarine Miners,.

2nd Royal West Kent Regt.,

Army Service Corps,.......

Royal Army Medical Corps, Army Ordnance Dept. and

Corps,

Army Pay Dept. and Corps,

H. K. & S. Bn. R. G. A.,...

93rd Burma Infantry,

110th Mahratta Light In-

fantry,

114th Mahrattas,

119th Infantry,

129th (D.C.O.) Baluchis,

Indian Subordinate Medi-

cal Dept.,

TOTAL,..

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

265

The 15 deaths occurring in the Chinese Squadron which were registered in the Colony were as follows:

Pneumonia, Syphilis,

....

Abscess of liver,

Drowning,

Heart Disease,

Compound fracture of leg, .Measles,

Typhoid Fever,

Meningitis,

Intestinal Obstruction,

Aneurism,

Cirrhosis of liver,

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

3

1

1

1

1

The deaths of persons employed in the Mercantile Marine or in Foreign Navies which were registered in the Colony were 36 and their causes as follows:-

Bullet wound,

Dysentery,

Small-pox,

·

Heart disease,

Asphyxia,

Cancer.

Bright's disease,

Hæmorrhage,

Fracture of skull,

Phthisis,

Apoplexy,

1 Typhoid Fever,

3

Tuberculosis,

22

5

Beri-beri,

1

2

Peritonitis,.

1

1

Cholera,.

1

1

Abscess of lung,

1

Cut throat...

1

Burns,

1

1

Epilepsy,

1

6

Unknown,

1

2

The total number of deaths therefore which occurred amongst the Non-Chinese resident civil population was 215, and allowing 1,100 for the Non-Chinese floating population this gives a death-rate of 22.99 per 1,000 for the resident Non-Chinese civil population.

Three deaths from Plague occurred amongst the Non-Chinese community comprising -one Portuguese, one Indian and one Malay.

Table I shows the number and causes of deaths registered during the year.

The following Table of population, births and deaths is given for the purpose of ready comparison with similar tables given in the reports from other Colonies:

Europeans and Whites.

Africans.

East Indians.

Chinese Mixed

and

and Malays.

Coloured.

TOTALS.

Number of Iuhabitants in 1903,

10,835

20

3,907

360,228

2,860

377,850

of Births

in

145

1

46

996

101

1,289

>>

>>

1

of Deaths

in

137

80

6,298

79

6,594

"J

19

of Immigrants in

2

of Emigrants in

140,483

64,341

دو

of Inhabitants in 1904,

11,532

20

4,354

342,356

2,944

361,206

Increase,

17,872

16,644

or

Decrease,..

697

447

84

Uncertified Deaths.

Ďuring the year the bodies of 464 persons who had died without having been attended by a medical man were inspected by the Sanitary staff, and enquiries made fro:n the rela- tives as to the probable cause of death, the bodies being sent to the mortuary whenever there was any reason to suspect that the deaths were due to infectious disease.

!

266

Beri-beri,

The presumed causes of death in these cases were as follows:-

Phthisis, Old age. Bronchitis,

..106

131

Asthma, Premature birth,

65

Apoplexy,

24

Dysentery,

Heart Disease,

5

Diarrhoea,

Convulsions,

11

Epilepsy,

Bright's Disease,

3

Hæmorrhage,

Dropsy,

5

Pneumonia,

Paralysis,

1

Malaria,

Debility,

30

Marasmus,

Child-birth,

5

Laryngitis,

1

13

3

1

1

8

1

!

14

23

11

1

Rheumatism,

Age Distribution of Deaths.

The number of deaths of infants under one year of age was 1,541 or 23.3 per cent. of the total deaths.

The Infant Mortality amongst the Non-Chinese community during the year was 119 per 1,000 as compared with 76 per 1,000 in 1904.

Among the Chinese population the deaths of infants numbered 1,507, while only 988 Chinese births were registered. Taking the corrected birth figure to be 1,728 this gives an infant mortality of 872 per thousand.

DISEASES.

Respiratory Diseases.

The total number of deaths from these diseases for the year was 1,655 of which 70- were from the Non-Chinese community leaving 1,585 among the Chinese population.

Phthisis alone accounts for 725 deaths of which, 691 were Chinese. Pneumonia caused 501 deaths of which 478 were Chiuese, and Bronchitis caused 346 deaths, 336 of which were Chinese.

The death-rate among the Chinese from Respiratory diseases was 44 per 1,000 and that for Phthisis alone was 1.9 per 1,000.

The deaths from Phthisis amongst the Chinese were 10.9 per cent. of the total deaths amongst the community.

Nervous Diseases.

The number of deaths under this heading for the year 1905 is 716, of which 612 were of Chinese children under 5 years of age. Among these 612 deaths of children, 221 were from meningitis, 44 from convulsions and no less than 343 were ascribed to tetanus, Again, of these deaths of Chinese children 460 were of infants under twelve months of age. 355 of which died from tetanus and infantile convulsions.

Malarial Fever.

The total number of deaths from malarial fever during the year was 287, of which 4 were Non-Chinese, 3 being from the civil population and I from the Troops.

In the City the districts in which there has been most 'malaria are Health Districts 1 and 9 with 23 and 14 deaths respectively. The number for the whole City being 98.

In the whole of Kowloon there were 94 deaths.

In Shaukiwan and Aberdeen there were respectively 49 and 29 deaths from malaria.

The following Table shews the number of deaths from malaria for the last six years:-

1900,. 1901.

1902

1903.

7

1904, 1905.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

526

29.

541

33

393

32

283

18

289

12

283

4

267

-

Beri-Beri.

There were 678 deaths from this disease during the year, of which 2 only were among the Non-Chinese community.

Infectious Diseases.

The total number of cases of infectious disease notified during the year was 308, of which 304 were of Plague. The following Table shows the nature and distribution of these diseases :---

CITY OF VICTORIA HEALTH Districts,

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Peak.

Kowloon.

Harbour.

New

Territory.

Villages

of

Hongkong.

No

address.

Imported.

Plague,

Typhoid,

4 25

2

18 17 11 20

27

38 18

4 12 9 5

3

1

3

2

2

10

3

:

:

:

:

Cholera,.

Small-pox,

Diphtheria,

10

5

00

8

:

3 2

3

1

:

:

:

1 75 13 23

5

1

10

12

:

4

2

19

12

1

1

1

:

:

10

2

1

6

21

1

24

:

Scarlet Fever,... 1

Puerperal Fever,

Relapsing Fever,

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

2

:

:

:

:

:

:

1

:

N

:

:

:

6

2

1

:

:

:

:

:

Table II shews the number of cases of notifiable diseases recorded in each mouth of the year.

Typhoid Fever.

The number of cases of this disease during the year was 90 as compared with 129 in 1904.

The European cases numbered 42, of which 16 were imported. The Chinese cases numbered 37 while 11 cases occurred amongst the other races in the Colony.

Typhoid fever being so insidious in its onset and being undoubtedly due to the ingestion. of infective common articles of diet it is extremely difficult when cases occur in different locali- ties and at different times to fix upon any one factor as the exciting cause of the disease.

It cannot however be too strongly impressed upon the public in this Colony that to indulge in uncooked vegetables, e g., salads, is to run a risk of typhoid infection.

By far the greater amount of vegetable food is imported into Hongkong from China. The Chinese as is well known use human excreta as manure.

The danger of this practice is not found in this mere fact itself for provided that all such matter is thoroughly ripenel" in a manure pit before being applied to the soil the probability of contamination of the plants is remote. But there is danger in the practice of watering vegetables with diluted fresh excretal matters.

It is not generally known to the public that the urine of a typhoid patient may contain the typhoid bacillus for weeks and even months after convalescence.

Over such food grown out of the Colony there is no control at all.

Within this Colony the bye-laws require all excretal matters to be removed to the conservancy boats and hence the using of it in gardens is illegal.

Practically the only manure obtainable by gardeners in Hongkong is of human origin and the very existence of market gardens in this Colony must certainly be taken as pre- sumptive evidence that human manure is used.

In spite of the fact that people if caught removing excreta to any place but the con- servancy boats are liable to punishment, no one should assume that vegetables grown in this Colony by market gardeners are, or can be grown with profit, without the use of human

manure.

268

The moral is obvious :-To eat no uncooked vegetables unless grown in a garden where to one's own knowledge such manure is not used.

Cholera.

Two of these cases were of

Five cases of cholera were recorded during the year. European race, one being imported from Canton, while three cases were Chinese, all coal carrying coolies employed in coaling ships in the harbour.

Small-Pox.

During the year 75 cases of small-pox were certified, of which, 22 were Europeans with 13 imported cases, 46 were Chinese with 9 imported, and 7 were of other races with 1 imported case.

The number of vaccinations for the year was 5,722.

Diphtheria.

Twelve cases of diphtheria were notified throughout the year. Nine of these were European cases, seven of which were in children.

Two cases were Chinese and one

Portuguese.

One of the Chinese cases died.

Puerperal Fever.

Seventeen cases of this disease were certified throughout the year. European case, one a Eurasian and the remainder Chinese.

.

One was a

During the year the Government inaugurated a scheme for supplying trained Chinese midwives to attend the poor in their own houses, and two of such women were engaged in August and were placed under the control of Dr. ALICE SIBREE who has charge of the Alice Memorial Maternity Hospital. Up to the end of the year they had attended 22 confine- ments; three of these cases were abnormal and Dr. SIBREE was called in, one being a breech presentation while the other two were forceps cases. It has been arranged for the midwives to exercise a general supervision over the infants during the first twelve months of life with a view to obtaining further information as to the causes of the high infaut death-rate in this Colony.

Relapsing Fever.

Four cases of Relapsing Fever were certified, all among Chinese.

Three cases were imported from Tientsin while the fourth case occurred in the person of a Chinese employed at the Infectious Diseases Hospital at Kennedy Towu.

Scarlet Fever.

One case occurred a European child.

Plague.

Fortunately this year the epidemic is the smallest recorded since 1894 with the exception of the years 1895 and 1897 when the small number of cases-44 and 21 respectively-almost preclude the use of the term epidemic for these two years.

The number of cases and deaths during the year according to nationality and locality is shown in Table III.

INTERMENTS.

The following number of interments in the various cemeteries of the Colony have been recorded during the year:-

Non-Chinese Cemeteries.-Colonial Cemetery

Roman Catholic Cemetery, Mahommedan Cemetery, Jewish Cemetery,

145

1,243

2

5

1,395

269

Chinese Cemeteries.-Mount Caroline Cemetery,

Monnt Davis

Tung Wa Hospital

}

308

332

2.222

"9"

Infectious Diseases

342

""

Protestant

42

Shaukiwan

362

""

Aberdeen

153

17

Stanley

36

"

Shek O

8

""

Ma Tau Wai

817

;"

Shai Yu Shek

147

??

Sham Shui Po Christian

161

,,

"

(Kowloon City)

4

4,934

There were three cremations of bodies during the year.

DISINFECTING STATIONS.

During the year the two Disinfecting Stations dealt with 36,616 articles of clothing bedding, etc.

These articles were received for disinfection according to the following Table: -

Victoria Station.

1

Articles from Private Houses,

11.

,,

""

""

""

"

Kennedy Town Hospital,

Tung Wah Hospital,

Government Civil hospital, Police Stations and Gaol,

Government Clothing lent to Contacts,

Clothing and Bedding of Staff,

23,637

1,630

1,744

1,026

218

841

.....

3,000

32,096

Kowloon Station.

Articles from Private Houses,

3,910

Police Stations,

"

Government Clothing lent to Contacts,

27

583

4,520

PROSECUTIONS.

A list of prosecutions undertaken during the year for breaches of the Sanitary Laws and Regulations of the Colony is given in Table IV.

The special report of the Medical Officer of Health on the Plague Epidemic of 1905 and the reports of the Medical Officers in charge of Hospitals and Sub-Departments are printed as Annexes A to K of this report.

FRANCIS CLARK, M.D., D.P.H., Acting Principal Civil Medical Officer. WILFRID W. PEARSE, M.D., D.P.H., Acting Medical Officer of Health.

March, 31st 1906.

270

**

TABLE I-RETURN SHEWING THE NUMBER AND CAUSES OF DEATHS REGISTERED

CHINESE COMMUNITY.

CAUSES.

I.-General Diseases.

A.-Specific Febrile Diseases.

a Zymotic.

BRITISH

AND

FOREIGN COMMUNITY.

VICTORIA.

HEALTH DISTRICT.

Civil.

Army.

Navy.

No. 1.

No. 2.

No. 3.

No. 4.

No. 5.

No. 6.

No. 7.

No. 8.

No. 9.

No. 10.

Unknown.

Peak.

Harbour.

Small-pox,

6

2

4

Measles, .

Whooping Cough,

Diphtheria,

Fever Typhoid,

15

3

1

6

~ : ~ :+

2

2

1

1

1 1

3

...

4

4

1

3

2

5

19

Simple Continued,

1

:

Cholera,

2

2

1

Choleraic Diarrhoea,

I

1

1

1

Diarrhoea,

3

16

25

31

13

8

18

11

15

28

4

16

14

Dysentery,

9

6

11 1

4

5

1

1

6

1

5

Plague,...

3

7

25

1

15

17 12 13 21

Fever, Relapsing,

...

22:3

35

35

7

1

Total,...... 39 5 4 32

74 41

38 32

31

30

39 ΤΟ

47

47

30

31

ẞ Malarial.

Malarial Fever,

AD

3

1

23

12 2

8

Co

Co

Total,...... 3 1.

33333

23

12

2

8

00

6

y Septic.

Erysipelas,

Septicæmia,

Puerperal Fever,

1

2

1

1

4

1

8 Venereal.

Syphilis (Acquired),

29

(Congenital),

Total,......

2

1

1

Total,......

1. 1

Total Group A.,

45 7

B.-Diseases dependent on Specific

External Agents.

a Parasites.

Worms,

Total,....

B Poisons.

Opium Poisoning,

:

:

:

2

3 2 3

3:

Ni

1

77

58 166 47

10

:

:

1

:

:

10

GL

3

4

14

cc

ลง

2

3

4 14

8

:

1

3

5

1

10

10

5

1

10

...

3

2

A

4

10

:

2

4

1

1

:

2 1

15

51 44

33

2

1 1

...

:

34 48 89 56 38 1 45

:

:

:

::

:

:

:

:

:

:

1

:

:

1

1

1 I

:.

Poisoning by Alkaloid,

Total.......

1 1

10:

: 8:

5 58 166

18:

Carried forward, Group A.,...... 45 7

29

Group B........

1

169

1

སྐ་

47

1

:

1

1

1

51 44 33 34 48 89

2

*=

1 1

...

56 38

1

45

271

DURING THE YEAR ENDED THE 31ST DAY OF DEĆEMBER, 1905,

CHINESE COMMUNITY.

TOTAL AT THE DIFFERENT AGE PERIODS.

Non-Chinese.

Under 1

Chinese.

mouth.

Non-Chinese.

1 month and

Kow- SHÁUKI- ABER-

LOON Dis-

WÁN

DEEN

STANLEY DIS-

DIS-

TRICT.

TRICT.

DIS-

TRICT.

TRICT.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

| Population.

Beat

Population.

10

:IH

α:

4

N

140

13 50 30

4

45 years and

GRAND

TOTAL.

| Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

under 60

years.

60 years

and over.

Non-Chinese.

Age

Cuknown.

Chinese.

under 15

Chinese.

years.

Non-Chinese.

15 years and under 25

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

years.

25 years and under 45

years.

00

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

under 12

iontlis.

1 year and

gropun

years.

Non-Chinese. 5 years and

:

: 00

5

11

94 8 30 19 15 14

94 8 30 19 15 14

6

2

8

تن

3

:

pl

5

13

3

245

21 81

49

نت

I

-

Non-Chinese.

10 -

CO

13.

21..

34

26

1

61

74

32

58... 68 1110

...

[...

. . .

I

121

CO

i

48

315

1

6

86

10

287

2

...

:

O

37

786

2 55 5122) 1110 12 105 24 213 284

24

25 1

30 62 2 112 ...

16...

1

13...

24

ON

:

10

62 2112...

30

16

:

:

:

:

:

...

20

14 10

245

21

...

I

:.

:

J

:

:

6 1 14

2

31

6

9

21...

3 1 61...

287

1

287

::

:

...

:

78...

3 1 78

14

*

31

...

1

...

4 147 147 1 139 15 179 28 352|||| 2 117. 254

-

6:

T

:

...

:

...

་ ་ ་

2 1

:

:

2

...

1 1 2 1

-

་་་

***

1 139 15 179 28 352 2 117

1 1 2 1

...

1

14

4 147 5 147

...

...

...

:

22

00

:

...

...

2 54

...

...

:

...

01

pand

272

M

RETURN SHEWING THE NUMBER AND CAUSES OF DEATHS REGISTERED

CHINESE COMMUNITY.

CAUSES.

BRITISH

AND

FOREIGN COMMUNITY.

Civil.

Army.

وو

Brought forward, Group A........ 45 Group B..... 1

I. General Diseases,—Continued.

y Effects of Injuries.

Asphyxia,...

Shock, (Buru),............ Rupture of Liver,

19

of Spleen,

of Intestines, of Lung,

Fracture of Leg,

of Pelvis,

""

of Skull,

of Ribs,...

""

Contusion of Skull,

of Brain,

""

Concussion of Brain,

Burns,

Hæmorrhage,

Heat Apoplexy,

Suicide by Poison, (Datura Alba),

Shot Wound,

Stab Wound,

Hæmorrhage, (Leccration of Lung),

Multiple Injuries,

Drowning,

Suffocation, (in a burning honse),

Starvation,

Hanging, (Execution),

""

(Suicide),

Throat Cutting,

Wound of Liver,

Scalds,

Dislocation of Neck,

Shock,

Suffocation,

co:

1

3

:༠::/

VICTORIA.

HEALTH DISTRICT.

Navy.

No. 1.

No. 2.

No. 3.

No. 4.

No. 5.

Nc. 6.

No. 7.

No. 8.

No. 9.

No.

10.

Unknown.

Peak.

Harbour.

33

34

48

89.56

2

1

Ι

5 58 166 47 51 44

Ι

:

38 1 45

:

1

1

1

1

1

1

3

3

6

1

3

3

2

Total,........

22

2

& Errors of Diet.

Alcoholism (Chronie),.

(Acute),

Scurvy,.....

:

2

...

1 2

3

2

2

1

1

3 10 19 9 12

4

Total,....

4

Total Group B.,....

25 7 3

شات

C.-Developmental Diseases.

Immaturity at Birth,

Debility,

Old Age,

Marasmus and Atrophy,

Tabes Mesenterica,

Spina Bifida,

Inanition,

Total Group C, 28 1

Carried forward, Groups A. to C.,

98 15

:

10

:

::

6 13 12

4

H

:

]

:

1

1

2

15

10

19 10 12

6 6 15 13 4 7 2

1

10 09

12

17

6 230 187

1

8 1

NIN KO IO —

mco co

2

:::

:

:

15

25.

10 10

9

2

6

:

18 250 202 9 17 10 1-4 20 18

12

2

36

.00

8

86 435 259 72 67 49 63

81 111 75

ev

42

1 96

153

421

ໄດ້

N

20

6

18

14

4

: :::;

།་ེ

H

:

42

22

13

41

56

ཚ་

23

:

2

1

1

21 41

نت

J

...

3

H

133.

...

...

co.

:

2

4 X

N

• HA

...

:

:

-

:

I

88

2368

1

...

1 ...

10

...

3

...

My

2

...

:

...

:

1

|

KOW SHAUKI- ABER-

STANLEY

LOON DIS-

WAN

DEEN

DIS-

Dis-

DIS-

TRICT.

TRICT.

TRICT.

TRICT.

273

wwwww

DURING THE YEAR ENDED THE 31ST DAY OF DECEMBER, 1905,—Continued.

CHINESE COMMUNITY.

TOTAL AT THE DIFFERENT AGE PERIODS.

245

: 23

36

666

:

14

-

Land

Population.

Bout

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Non-Chinese.

Boat

Population.

2

10

-

...

...

:

1

:

:

CC

8

1

...

2

19

سمم

4

.

:

:

::

20 2 2

::

·

Under 1

month.

1 month and under 12

months.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

1 year and

under 5

years.

Non-Chinese. | 5 years and

under 15

years.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

15 years and under 25

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

years.

25 years and

Non-Chinese. 45 years and

under 45

years.

under 60

Chinese.

years.

Non-Chinese.

60 years

Chinese.

and over.

Non-Chinese. Į

Chinese.

Age

Unknown.

14

4147 5147

1139 15179 28352

.1 1

2

2117

N

::

7 23 13 70} 5 18 1

...

1...

1

9 25 19 72

5 18

2 25

9336

:

~]

~

:

1

3 13123 8373

:

...

72

...

2

2

8...

IN

co t

13 11363

I

3

دن

987

6 18144 7521 5228 1 159 26 206 47432 7148

7148 14424 1 13 2,396

...

مین

31

55

345

536

5

1

14

201

-I

8

Co

124

:

السبط

3 19

187

:

N

15

31

10

10

3

7

2

1

1

2

10

1

par g

4

11

2 54

3

:

1,208 7

41

1

12

GRAND

TOTAL.

274

RETURN SHEWING THE NUMBER AND CAUSES OF DEATHS REGISTERED

CHINESE COMMUNITY.

CAUSES..

BRITISH

AND

FOREIGN COMMUNITY.

Civil.

Brought forward, (Groups A to C),.... 98

General Diseases,-Continued.

D.—Miscellaneous Diseases.

Articular Rhenmatism,

Cellulitis of Neck,

Malignant New Growths:-

Cancer,.

Sarcoma,

00

:

Army.

Navy.

No. 1.

No. 2.

No. 3.

No. 4.

VICTORIA.

HEALTH DISTRICT.

No. 5.

No. 6.

No. 7.

No. 8.

No. 9.

No. 10.

Unknown.

Peak.

Harbour.

15 8 86 435 259 72 67 49 63 81 111 75 42 1 96

::

::

::

::

N

General Tuberculosis,

Rickets,

Anæmia,

Leprosy,

Beri-beri,

12

Ι

4 130 47

5

6

1

8

3

2

45

80

9

25

35 36

29

Gangrene of Scrotum,.

Caries of Spine,

Total Group D........ 31

4

49 210 59

31

43

II.-Local Diseases.

E-The Nervous System.

1

1

:

50

3

6

1

60

60

24 50

1

3

43 33 56 71 25 51 1

Meningitis,

Melancholia,

5

1

191 34

1

re

Encephalomalacia,

Apoplexy,

1 4

Paralysis (Undefined)

1

Hemiplegia,

"

Paraplegia,

Peripheral Neuritis,.

I

Dementia,

Encephalitis,

Infantile Convulsions,...

5

Tetanns,

1

10 3 288

21

Trismus,

Hydrocephalus,

Epilepsy,

Mania,

1

1

1

Multiple Neuritis,

Total Group E................. 25

I

2 494

91 13 13 2

F-The Circulatory System.

Heart Disease,

12

1

16

10 15

Aneurysm,

:

Pericarditis,

1

1

3

Endocarditis,

Atheroma,

1

2

: :

87

*

5

1

10

10

::

10

2

1

2 1 17

3

1

Total Group F.,...

15

1 2. 6 17 10 11 15

10

5

6

5763

1

21

Carried forward, (Groups A to F),

169

20 11 143 1,156 419 127 138

1143

99 110 147 199 108 98

3 208

::

31

20

412

: : 10

:

38

2

...

708 103 180 120

11

I

J

·

+

♡ --

::

*

103

8

1

229 44 42

1320

co

3338 2122 5152

...

...

N

N

...

...

16

...

2

*

ad

6

N

:

TRICT.

TRICT.

TRICT.

Kow-

SHAUKI- ABER-

STANLEY

NOOT

WÁN

DIS-

DIS-

DIS-

DEEN DIS-

TRICT.

273 -

DURING THE YEAR ENDED THE 31ST DAY OF DECEMBER, 1995,--Continued.

CHINESE COMMUNITY.

TOTAL AT THE DIFFERENT AGE PERIODS.

421'

52 129 109

42

121

56

23

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

:

:

6

Population.

Non-Chinese.

Under 1

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

month.

1 month and

under 12

months.

under 5

years.

1 year and

5 years and under 15

years.

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

15 years and under 25

Jears.

Non-Chinese.

25 years and

Chinese.

under 45

years.

Non-Chinese.

45 years and

Chinese.

under 60

years.

Non-Chinesc.

Chinese.

and over. 60 years

Non-Chinese.

Age

13.144 7521 5228 1159 26206 47432 7148 14:424 113 2,396

:

13

35

4 20 5 79

...

6

2

CI

N

19

1153

1385 108

!

3

31... 411 1135

1 42 11176] 14'479)

3153

5 54

1 93 2126

15

c

:

:

119111

9 19

2 143 14...

...

9 521 2 34

38...

1

نت

دن

712 63 2 39 1. 40 1 1

178

6 17 486 9687 11 518

3223 39 400

82993 14354

14354 28 532

216

4,409

H

N

716

Co

...

1

51

340

T

244

2

3

136

10

1.119

N

:

25

3

384

1.

16

678

- 30

1

--

Chinese.

Unknown.

GRAND

TOTAL.

276

RETURN SHEWING THE NUMBER AND CAUSES OF DEATHS REGISTERED

CHINESE COMMUNITY.

CAUSES.

BRITISH

AND

FOREIGN

COMMUNITY.

Civil.

Army.

Navy.

No. 3.

No. 4.

No. 5.

VICTORIA.

HEALTH DISTRICT.

No. 6.

No. 7.

No. 8.

No. 9.

No. 10.

Unknown.

Peak.

Harbour.

Brought forward, (Groups A to F), ........ 169

20 11 143 1,166 419 127 138

99 110 147 199 108

98 3 208

Local Diseases.-Continued.

G.—The Respiratory System.

Bronchitis,

Pneumonia,

13

: ་་

Phthisis,

32

Pleurisy,

Emphysema,

Empyema,

Atelectasis,

Gallapse of Lung,

Abscess of Lung,.

1

1

20

2

1

Gangrene of Lung,

Laryngitis,

Asthma,

Hydrothorax,

1:ཀྱམ::སྤྲེལ :::-:

10

54 25 14 12

8

13

14

31 10 6

16

1

24

34 62 24 17

24

31

27 43 18 12

24

35

46

46 36

23

35

38 63 13 23

2

88

1

28

1

:::

N

1

1

...

Total Group G‚..............

56 13

71 137 118

89

68

333

59

81

83 146

43 42

131

II.--The Digestive System.

Intussusception, (Operation),........

Distomiasis,

Gangrenous Stomatitis,

Enteritis,

Appendicitis,

Rupture of Stomach,

Hepatic Abscess,..

Acute Yellow Atrophy of Liver,

Cirrhosis of Liver,

Intestinal Obstruction,

Peritonitis,

Gangrene of Mouth,

Atresia ani, (Operation),

Ulcerative Stomatitis,

Thrombosis of Portal Vein,

Sprue,

Jaundice, Tonsillitis,

Hernia,

Total Group H.,...... 12

3

::ས::ཨ::ཨ::::::ས

2

2

1 1

- - -:

:

3.

2

1

1

:

4

1

1

2 1

1

2

1

1

: co

:

1

1

1

2

1

1

3

2

3

1

2

2

1

2

1

1 2

...

1

::

Co

3

1

10 9 7 6 1

-1

10 2

:

:

a

J.--The Urinary System.

6

2

Nephritis,.

Nephritis, (Tubercular),.

Peri-Nephritic Abscess,

Bright's Disease,

Calenlus,

Vesical Calculus,..

Extravasation of Urine,

Pyonephrosis,

Total Group J., ................

7

L.-The Generative System.

Gangrene of Penis,

1

:

3 1 3

2

2 4 2 3

:

::

1

3 2

: co

3 3

: co

:::

CO

3

3

2

1

3

3 4

1

1

...

2 1

...

3 1

4

Ovarian Tumour,,

Total Group L........ }

::

...

...

1

1

:

::

...

::

::

::

Carried forward, (Groups A to Z), 245 36 15 217 1,307 549 226 215 162 195 240 359 |156 141- 3 352

14

...

::

لم

نا

4

2

11

1

17

21

:

...

:

983 174 284 171 76 101

39 8

OC

N

ט

J

18 8

:

:

8

00

-

11

1

4

I

244 65

84

43

:

:

:

:

:

...

:

J

1

:

:

:

...

...

་་

...

...

30

:

N

9

:

:

C

:

...

...

2

Kow- SHAUKI ABER-

STANLEY!

LOON DIS-

TRICT.

WÁN DIS-

DEEN

DIS-

DIS-

TRICT.

TRICT.

TRICT.

277

DURING THE YEAR ENDED THE 31ST DAY OF DECEMBER, 1905,—Continued.

CHINESE COMMUNITY.

TOTAL AT THE DIFFERENT AGE PEriods.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

Population.

Land

Population.

Boat

708 103 180 120

53

58

26

X3

I

عمر

:

13

تا

5

9

4 10

:

2

6

***

:

...

...

...

เง

2

6

month.

Non-Chinese. Population.

Under 1

Non-Chinesc.

1 month and

under 12

Chinese.

months.

Chinese.

17486

12

1 66 4122

السر

ون

LO

ရာ

Non-Chinese. 1 year and

Chinese.

Non-Chinese:

Chinese.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

under 5

years.

under 15

years.

5 years and

15 yearsand

under 25

years.

Non-Chinese, 25 years and

under 45

Chinese.

years.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

45 years and under 60

years.

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

and over. 60 years

Non-Chinese.

Chinese.

Age

Unknown.

9687 11518]

3223 39400 $2993 14354 23532 216 4,409

2

15.... 135

1

7 160 55

4 32

OC CO

8 9 83 15369

...

2

...

...

...

...

ON

2

2 50 5192 5216 2 61 13 128 25 495 8260 9176

..

...

...

1 18

...

...

:

10

...

741

41 21

1 26

7 2 10...

20544 14889 16739

6294 555481151.556 30642 37723 3 23

10

::

:

CITY

اسم يتم

N

2

17

Co

3

5

:

N

:

126

Sand

· 33

12

...

4

1

...

·

·

22

1

T

te

255 301

3105

1

I

5170 3 57

I

N

¿

5

-

2

16

1

1,655

16

3

3

10

1

15

ཨེ॰

I

346

501 725

GRAND

TOTAL.

278

RETURN SHEWING THE NUMBER AND CAUSES OF DEATHS REGISTERED

CHINESE COMMUNITY.

CAUSES.

BRITISH

AND

FOREIGN COMMUNITY.

Civil.

Army.

5 | Navy.

No. 1.

No. 2.

VICTORIA.

HEALTH DISTRICT.

No. 9.

No. 10.

Unknown.

Peak.

Harbour.

36 15 217 1,307 549 226 215 162 195 240 359 156 141 3 352

Brought forward, (Groups A to Z), ...245

Local Diseases,-Continued.

M.--Affections connected with Pregnancy,

Ruptured Tubal Pregnancy,

:

Abortion, ....

Hysterio-emesis,

Internal Haemorrhage,......

Placenta Prævia,

Total Group M.,...... 1

1

N-Affections connected with

Post Partum Hæmorrhage,

Parturition.

Child Birth,

1

1

Total Group N...... 2

0.—Diseases of Organs of Locomotion.

Gangrene of Arm,

Suppurative Synovitis,

Spondylitis,

Gangrene of Leg,

Total Group 0..................

III.-Undefined.

Dropsy,

Abscess,

Undiagnosed,

Tumour,

3

Total Group III.,...

CO

3

TOTAL, ALL CAUSES, 251

36

SUMMARY.

I. Genera