HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL ABSTRACT OF THE COLONY OF HONGKONG || 1932

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 HOO 

ER 

LIBRARY 

HISTORICAL 

AND 

STATISTICAL ABSTRACT 

OF THE 

COLONY 

OF 

HONG KONG 

11 

1841-1930 

THIRD EDITION 

PRINTED BY NORONHA & COMPANY 

GOVERNMENT PRINTERS, HONG KONG 

1932


DS 796 

H7A52 

100176 

First Edition 1911 Second Edition 1922 Third Edition 1932

iii 

First Preface. 

The Principal Erents and notes on Trade and Industry for the period prior to the close of Sir John POPE HENNESSY's administration in March, 1882 , have been taken largely from Dr. E. J. EITEL's History of Hong Kong. The information under these headings subse quent to that date has been mainly extracted from official publications. The notes on Public Works have been furnished by the Director of that department. In the brief summary of Legislation the Ordinances in force at the end of 1901 have been given the numbers they bear in Sir John CARRINGTON's edition . 

Under the heading Trade the figures dealing with ships cleared and entered exclude steam - launches and junks whether engaged in foreign or local trade. The excess in numbers of emigrants returned over emigrants left is accounted for by many that leave from various Treaty Ports of China returning viâ Hong Kong . 

Under Finance the percentage of expenditure devoted to Non -effective Charges is based on the inclusion under that head of Pensions and Interest . General Administration covers the Governor's Office , the Colonial Secretary's, Registrar General's and Audit Departments , the Treasury, the Post Office , the Harbour Department, 

the Observatory, Charitable Allowances, Transport and Miscellaneous Services. Law and Order include the Supreme Court, Magistracy, Law Officers, Land Registry, Police, Fire Brigade and Gaol. The Botanical and Afforestation as well as the Medical and Sanitary Depart ments included under Public Health . Public 

are

Instruction comprises the Education Department, Queen's College and Ecclesiastical Allowances; Public Works covers the Public Works establishment as well as annually recurrent and extraordinary works. Defence includes the Military Contribution and Volunteers. 


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The statistics given under Climate were obtained from various sources prior to 1884 when the Observatory at Kowloon was established . 

The Population statistics prior to 1869 are exclusive and for that and subsequent years inclusive of the Army and Navy in the Colony. Except for the years 1904 and 1905, when the population of New Kowloon, i.e. , of the New Territories South of the Kowloon Hills, is included, these statistics do not take those Territories into consideration. The population of the New Terri tories according to the Census taken in 1901 was 102,254 of which 17,243 were in New Kowloon. 

Under Public Instruction the figures given from the year 1875 onward show the number of Grant-in - Aid Schools in place of the number of Mission Schools, and the average daily attendance in place of the total num ber of scholars , as the progress of education is considered to be thereby more correctly indicated . In the earlier years the total number of schools under European super vision and of scholars enrolled in them are alone avail able. 

The statistics under the heading Public Order require no comment. Those under Defence referring to regular troops are taken from returns by the Principal Medical Officer. 

M. NATHAN. 

GOVERNMENT HOUSE , 

December, 1906.

Second Preface. 

In 1910 it was decided that the Historical and Statistical Abstract , being a most useful record for reference , should be printed as a separate publication once in every 10 years, the unexpired decade only appearing in the Civil Service List, the first issue of this separate record to be compiled and published in 1911-up to and including 1910 . 

Under Finance a new sub -head has been added for 1910 , Undertakings of Government. This column includes the Post Office and Kowloon - Canton Railway . Previously the Post Office had been included in General Administration . 

To the Departments under Public Order has been added District Office . A District Officer was appointed for the New Territories on 23rd September, 1907 . 

Queen's College is no longer a separate Department. On 20th May, 1909, the Secretary of State approved of its being brought under the Education Department. 

The Army and Navy and the New Territories have been included in the figures shown under Population since the year 1907. The figures given are approximate only - except for the years in which a census has been taken . 

F. D. LUGARD . 

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, 

1st April, 1911 .


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( 1.) HISTORY. 

PRINCIPAL EVENTS, TRADE AND INDUSTRIES, PUBLIC WORKS, LEGISLATION . 

1841. 

Captain Charles Elliot , R.N. , 26.1.1841 to 10.8.1841 . 

administered from 

Principal Events . - H.K . is taken over (26/1) and Govt. administered by Capt. Elliot as Chief Superintendent of the Trade of Br. subjects in China in accordance with proclamation issued by him ( 29/1), which also declared that Chinese should be governed according to laws of China and others according to laws of Gr. Britain. 2nd proclamation ( 1/2 ) promised free exercise of religious rites, social customs and private rights. Br. and foreign merchants came from Macao to prospect (Feb.). Building commenced (March ). Messrs. Jardine, Matheson & Co. erected first substantial house and godowns at East Point. Military and naval establishments first located near West Point and mer cantile centre at Wong Nei Cheong Valley but this proved too unhealthy. Chinese settled to W. of this valley in " the Canton Bazaar ' and near site of later Central Market in the Bazaar ” ). About 2,000 Tan -ka or boat people came to Colony. In 1st issue of H.K. Govt. Gazette ( 1/5) Ch. Magistrate appointed and in 2nd issue (15/5) original census published . Proclamation of 7/6 declared H.K. a free port. At lst sale of lands, subse quently disallowed , 33 marine lots aggregating about 9 acres sold for total annual rent of £ 3,032. Outbreak of malignant malarial fever in June, violent typhoons on 21-22 & 25-26 / 7 and destructive fire on 12/8 retarded progress of new Colony. Ilarbour Master, Clerk of Works, Colonial Surgeon and Land Officer appointed.


1842. 

Sir Henry Pottinger, Bart., G.C.B., in charge of Govern meni from 11.8.1841 to 25.6.1843 ; Governor 26.6.1843 to 7.5.18 44 . 

( Mr. A. R. Johnston administered during the latter half of 18 11 and 1842) . 

Principal Events. - Establishment of Superin tendent of Trade moved from Macao to H.K. ( 27/2) . Treaty of Nanking ( 29/8) confirmed cession of H.K. On conclusion of war fleet and troops, except garrison of 700 , left and arrangements made to bring local affairs under Col. Oflice, Superintendency of Trade, held by Gov. , still remaining under Foreign Office. Post Office organized. Committee appointed ( 29/3) to investigate claims to land and lay out town ; main street called Queen's Road . Baptist Chapel opened there ( 7/7) . “ Friend of China ” newspaper established (17/3 ). 

Trade & Industries. - Mexican and other Repub lican dollars declared to be standard in all matters of trade ( 27/4) . 

Public Works. --Barracks erected on Canton ment IIill , at Stanley and at Aberdeen . Central Market, subsequently removed to site on other side of Queen's Road , opened ( 10/6 ). Road constructed from Wong Nei Cheong to Shau Ki Wan . 1843. 

Principal Events. Following on Royal Warrant appointing the Chief Superintendent of Trade, Sir HENRY POTTINGER, to be Gov. & C. in C. of the Colony of H.K. and its Dependencies, Col. Govt. was organized with a Lieut. Gov., Col. Sec ., Treasurer, Chinese Sec . , Legal Adviser, Col. Surgeon, Col. Chaplain , Ch . Magist., Harbour Mr., Col. Surveyor and Land Officer , and Post master . Also 18 officials and 26 unofficials appointed J.s of P., City named “ Victoria ” ( 29/6 ). Col. Chaplain

first officiated in matshed church ( 21/12); he started St Paul's College for training Chinese to be C. of E. ministers. R. C. church in Wellington Street con secrated ( 18/6 ). Mosque built. Morrison Education Society, transferred from Macao, opened school on Mor rison Hill ( 11/1 ) . Hosps. established by Med. Missionary Society and by naval and milit. authorities. Health very bad ; between May and Oct. 21 % of troops and 10 % of European civilians died of fever. Committee of Public Health and Cleanliness appointed Attempts made to check land jobbing. 

Trade & Industries. - At end of year 12 large English firms, 10 English merchants on smaller scale and about 6 Indian firms. As a result of peace junk trade declined and opening of 5 treaty ports including Shanghai 

( 11/1 ) adversely affected trade of II.K. First II.K. built vessel " The Celestial” of so tons launched from patent slip at E. Point ( 7/2) . 

Legislation . - Royal Instructions of 6/4 con stituted Ex . and Leg. Councils, each of 3 members exclusive of Gov. 

1844. 

Governor Sir John Francis Daris, Bart., ( 8.5.1844 to 18.3.1848 ) . (Major-General G. C. D’Iguilar administered on various occasions). Principal Events. - Attempt to regulate popula tion by Registration Ord. opposed at first public meeting in H.K. (28/10) and by general strike ( 30/10 ). Supreme Court opened ( 1/10 ). Police force organized (11.5). At land sale on 22/1 101 lots aggregating 25ac. sold for £2,562 annual rental. Anglo -Ch. College for training Ch. ministers opened by London Miss. Soc ., Seamen's IIosp. built by public subscription ;(38/9). Taxi Ping Shan Market started . Amateur Dramatic Club formed ( 18/12) .


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Trade & Industries. - Trade, except in opium , declined, partly owing to restrictions imposed by Ch . authorities under Sir H. POTTINGER's Supplementary Treaty of 8 ; 10/43. Piracy around H.K. also affected junk trade. First opium ord . passed (26/11) and farm let for $ 720 p.m. Salt tax instituted . 

Legislation . First sitting of Leg. Council ( 11/1 ) . Land Registration Ord . ( No. 1 ) established office for registration of conveyance of realty and made provision for security of titles. 

1845 

Principal Events. --Police rates introduced and house property rated after some opposition . Consul for U. S. A. appointed ( 12/11). P. & 0 . S. N. Co, started monthly mail steamers (1/8 ). School for English chil dren and Union Church opened . “ China Mail” news paper started ( 20/2 ). 

Trade & Industries.-- Attempt made to put currency on gold basis soon failed . Branch of Oriental Bank Corporation established (April ). Opium farm let for $ 1,710 p.m. Public Works. — Wong Nei Cheong Valley drained, road made round it , and colonial cemetery with chapel opened . Road constructed from Shau Ki Wan to Tytam ( 5.3 m . ) . 3 landing Piers on City front and 3 Police Stations in City built. Temporary Govt. Ho. completed ( 11/1 ) . 

Legislation . - Summary Offences Ord. ( No. 1 ) passed . 

1846 . 

Principal Events.-- Much friction between judicial and executive branches of Govt. Vice - Admiralty Court established (4/3). Consuls for Denmark and Portugal appointed ( 11 & 12/3 ). H.K. Club opened ( 26/5) .


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Trade & Industries. - Junk trade revived . Attempt of merchants to obtain protection for tea shipped at H.K. failed Opium farm let for $ 1,560 p.m. 

1847. 

Principal Events. Sir J. Davis made ineffec tual milit. expedition to Canton ( 2/4 to 8/4 ) to secure fulfilment of terms of Nanking Treaty of 1842 . Also failed in attempt to establish commercial relations with Annam (Oct.). Difficulties between judicial and execu tive branches of Govt. culminated in trial of Ch . Justice by Ex. Council ( 22/11). Parliamentary Comm appointed (March) to enquire into commercial relations in China reported adversely on monopolies, petty regulations and expensive establishment in H.K. Milit. authorities decided to erect defensible barracks at Stanley ( 8/3) . Foundation stone of St. John's Cathedral lain ( 11/3) . China Branch of Royal Asiatic Soc . organized ( 15/1). Court ho. purchased from Dent & Co. 

Trade & Industries . - Licences substituted for 

opium farm . 

Public Works. — Magistracy, Victoria Gaol (re constructed in 1865) and Police Stations at Queen's Road East ( now abolished) and at Aberdeen ( since superseded) constructed . 2,140 yards of City drains laid . 

1848 . 

Governor Sir Samuel George Bonham , G.C.B. , (20.3.1848 to 12.4.1854 .) 

( Major- General Staveley, C.B. , administered on various 

occasions up to 25.2.1851) . 

Principal Events. - Large excess of expenditure over revenue required reduction in establishments and stoppage of Public Works . Colonial Hosp . organized ( 1/10) . 13 vessels lost in tvphoon ( 31 / 8-1 / 9) . Amateur Dramatic Club ,revived ( 2/12) .


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Trade & Industries . - Opening up of goldfields in Sacramento Valley initiated commerce and coolie emigration to San Francisco which grew rapidly in following years. H.K. & Canton Steam Packet " Co. established ( 19/10 ). 

Public Works. - Govt. Offices near Cathedral and Court house in Queen's Road completed and road from Aberdeen to Stanley ( 64 m .) constructed . 

1849. 

Principal Events . - Hien Fung became Emperor of China (25/2) . Sir G. Bonham's interview with Viceroy Sex ( 17/2) failed to gain permission for mer chants to enter Canton City . .83 pirate junks destroyed (Oct.). 15 Justices of Peace selected by Gov. to advise him . Commission of enquiry into land tenure appointed ( Oct. ) . St. John's Cathedral opened ( 11/3) and placed under Bishop of Victoria created by Letters Patent of 11/5 . Various missionary schools including the one for English children had to be closed for want of support. Victoria Regatta Club formed ( 25/10 ). 

Trade & Industries.- P . & 0. S. N. Co. com menced running regular steamer between H.K. and Shanghai. 

Legislation . - Various Ords. connected with administration of justice passed this year were superseded later . 

1850. 

Principal Events. — Revolt originating in Kwang Si afterwards developed into Tai Ping rebellion. 13 pirate junks destroyed in Mirs Bay (4/3). 136 men of 69th Regt . died out of strength of 568 , mostly from fever . Plague broke out in Canton in May but did not

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spread to H.K. London Mission Hosp . closed for want of funds . First Bishop-G. Smith-arrived ( 29/3 ): became chairman of Educational Committee which administered Govt. grants to schools and took charge of St. Paul's College . 

Trade& Industries. - Attempt of Canton Hoppo to prevent H.K. river steamers carrying cargo from H.K. to Canton checked . 

Legislation . — Two unofficial members nominated by J.s of P. to Leg . Council which previously consisted of 3 officials exclusive of Governor. 

1851. 

Major -General Jervois, K.H., administered on various occasions between February, 1851 and April. 1854 . Principal Events.- Discussion between Govt. & 

J.s of P. re Municipal Govt. which had been going on since 1849 led to no result. London Missionary Society opened chapel for treatment of out-patients (May). 472 houses North of Queen's Road destroyed by fire . Cricket Club established (June). Public Works.—5 wells sunk for City Water Supply. Road from Albany Godowns to Wong Nei Cheong (now called Wan Chai Road ) constructed and first Praya reclamation scheme partly carried out 

1852. 

Principal Events.- Disturbances in S. China incident on Tai Ping rebellion sent many Chinese to H.K. 19 cases of piracy in H.K. waters. 

Trade & Industries. - Great increase in emigra tion to Straits Settlements and California. Emigration to Peru also benefited H.K. for a time till abuses con nected with its trade necessitated abandonment. Coin age of Br. dollar first mooted on account of Mex. dollars, Ind . rupees and Br . coins being at a discount. P. & 0.


S N. Co. established regular monthly steamer between H.K. and Calcutta, thereby giving Colony fortnightly communication with England . Exchange at 6 months' sight stood at 4/102 to 5 / - on December 30th . 

1853. 

Principal Events. Shortlived Tai Ping dynasty established at Nanking visited by Sir G. BONHAM who decided no liberal policy to be expected from it . Piratical fleet destroyed (10/5 ) ; nevertheless 70 cases of piracy during year including that of S.S. Aratoon Apcar (5/8 ). Attempt to revive school for English children failed. 

Trade & Industries. - Emigration to Br. Guiana put on regular footing and that to Australia commenced . Chinese Govt. legalised importation of opium . Exchange at 6 months' sight stood at 5 / - on December 29th . 

Public Works.-Wong Nei Cheong Police Stn ., Police Stn . No. 9 in Caine Road and 2 slaughter houses constructed ; all subsequently abolished. 

Legislation . - Ord . No. 1 made it lawful for aliens to hold and transfer real property . 

1854. 

Governor Sir John Bouring, Kt . , LL.D. , ( 13.4.1854 to 5.5.1859) . 

( Colonel W. Caine administered on various occasions up to 8.9.1859 ) . 

Principal Events . - Kowloon City and other towns to N.E. of H.K. taken and re - taken by Tai Pings and Imperialists. Rebels blockaded Canton River and threatened city , many Chinese taking refuge in H.K. ( Dec.). On outbreak of Crimean war batteries erected for defence of Colony. 73 soldiers stricken with fever and dysentery in one month . 6 cases of beri-beri, previously unknown in H.K., occurred among Ind. troops .


Trade & Industries . - Emigration to Jamaica started ( Nov. ) . Opening of Japan by convention of 14/10 had little immediate though important ultimate effect on H.K. trade . H.K. and Canton Steam Packet Co. broke up ( 13/12). 

Public Works. - Wong Nei Cheong School ( 26 scholars) completed ; afterwards given up. 

1855. 

Principal Events. — Tai Ping and Imperialist fleets of war junks ordered out of H.K. harbour ( Jan.). Rebels retired from Canton river before Br. force sent from H.K. Sir J. Bowling failed to get recognition of this service from Viceroy Yeu . Commission enquired into administration of Police force ( Aug.). 800 deaths among Chinese from fever between 6/2 & 28/4 . Serious conflagration in centre of town ( 16/2). St. Andrew's school for Br. children established but failed after a few years. 

Trade & Industries. — Sir J. Bowring's treaty with Siam started trade between H.K. and that country. 3 new ports in Philippine Is . opened . 

Public Works. - Praya scheme which 

re 

established crown rights over reclaimed foreshore in front of town opposed by European lot -holders ( 5/12) . Legislation . - Leg. Council increased to 3 un official and 6 official members. 

1856. 

Principal Events . - Anti- foreign placards and hostility of officials in Canton culminated in arrest there of Chinese crew of H.K. Lorcha “ Arrow ” . Surrender and apology refused by Viceroy and forts and official residences in Canton bombarded without result except destruction of European Canton and Whampoa factories by Chinese mob . S. of S. refused to consider proposal ( 17/4) to license gambling houses. Serious fires at Tai


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Ping Shan ( 27/1 ) and Western Market ( 23/2) . Volunteer Fire Brigade ( 23/1 ) and Chinese Fire Brigade (7/3) organized. Govt. Ho. completed. Villas and farms established at Pok Fu Lam . Anglo - Chinese College closed at end of year . Legislation . — Ord. No. 1 authorized recognition of Chinese wills in local courts . 

1857. 

Principal Events.-S.S.s Feima and Thistle cap tured by Chinese soldiers (Jan.). 400 Europeans poisoned with arsenic believed to have been introduced into bakery at instance of Chinese officials ( 15/1 ) : great excitement caused thereby in H.K. and in England led to Lord Elgin superseding Sir J. Bowring as pleni potentiary in China and to “ Arrow ' war with that country, which was not however prosecuted during year owing to Ind. mutiny. France joined Gr . Br. and ultimatum issued to Viceroy ( 24/12) . 32 cases of piracy between 1/11/56 and 15/2/57 15,2 /57 ;; afterwards decreased. Local educational movement at low ebb . 

Trade & Industries. — Junk trade fell off owing to blockade of Canton River. New docks established at Aberdeen ( June). 

Public Works.--Three Police Stations erected. Praya scheme partly carried out. Town now lighted by 350 oil lamps ( 1/10 ). Central Police Station finished. 

Legislation . — Three official and one unofficial members added to Leg . Council. 

1858 . 

Principal Events. -Canton captured by allied forces (5/1) and administered till 21/10/61 by allied commissioners. War transferred to N. where Taku Forts captured (20/5) and Treaty of Tientsin signed ( 26/6 ) but not ratified. Public meeting ( 29/7) to discuss exodus of Chinese from and stoppage of supplies to H.K.


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enforced by Chinese officials led to capture of Nam Tau in San On district. H.K. passage boat Wing Sun cap tured by pirates. Much disease; Asiatic cholera and hydrophobia said to have been first introduced. Violent discords in Civil Service and prosecutions of newpapers. Trade & Industries. — Opium farm re-established and let for $ 33,000 p.a. Salt tax abolished . 

Public Works. – Central, Western , Eastern, Tai Ping Shan , So Kun Poo (46 stalls) and Wan Chai (40 stalls) Markets constructed; all except last two abolished or superseded later. Police Station No. 7 erected ; superseded in 1902. 

Legislation . — The Markets Ord. passed this year lasted till 1887. An Ord. for practitioners in law em powered barristers to act as their own solicitors. Meet ings of Leg. Council made public ( 25/3 ). 

1859 . 

Governor Sir Hercules Robinson, kt . , ( 9.9.1859 to 15.3 . 1865 ) . 

(Mr. W. T. Mercer administered from 17.7.1861 to 8,9 . 1861 and from 12.7.1862 to 1864). 

Principal Events . — Defeat of Br. fleet at the Pei Ho ( 25/6) and ultimatum to China (Dec.). Sir J. BOWRING recommended annexation of Kowloon for commercial and sanitary value ( 29/3) and C. 0. urged this on W. 0. in connection with renewal of 

War' . 

Operation of Imp. Ch . Mar. Customs commenced at Canton , opposed by H.K. merchants. S.S. Cumſa plundered by pirates . Agitation in England on account of disclosures with reference to Civil Service discord prejudicial to H.K. Ophthalmia epidemic . Diocesan native training school started . H.K. Branch of R. Asiatic Soc . wound up and library embodied in that of Morrison Education Soc .


12 

Trade & Industries. - Contract Emigration con fined to Br. Colonies. Native boat-building greatly increased . 

Public Works. — Civil hosp. ( 9 wards with 71 beds) completed ; superseded in 1874. Schools built at Shek Ho (26 scholars), Little H.K. ( 13 scholars) and Aberdeen ; all subsequently given up or superseded. Police station erected at Stanley. Bill to complete Praya scheme thrown out by influence of commercial houses. 

1860. 

Principal Events. - Renewal of war with China . Chusan Is . occupied (21/4 ), Taku Forts taken ( 26/8 ). Peking occupied ( 13/10) and Peking Convention ( 24/16) secured ratification of Treaty of Tientsin and further converted into cession a lease of the Kowloon Penin . which had been obtained from Canton Viceroy on (21/3). Pawnbrokers closed their shops in ineffectual protest against new Ord. P.O. transferred to local Govt. (1/5). Great rise in value of land and consequent increase in revenue . Board of Education formed for management of Govt. schools ( 21/1 ) . 

Trade & Industries. --Shipping interests de veloped by commissariat and transport services during war . 

Public Works. Tanks constructed at Bonham Road for City Waterworks. Station St. , Tai Ping Shan , Centre St. , Second St. , West St. , East St. , Sai Ying Pun and Peak Roads laid out. Shau Ki Wan School ( 57 scholars) built. 

Legislation.—The Pawnbrokers Ord . ( No. 1 ) regulated this business. Ords. constituting a marine court of enquiry and a board to grant navigation certi ficates were subsequently superseded.


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1861. 

Principal Events. — Emperor of China Hien Fung died (Jan.), and Prince Kung head of regency. Occupation of Canton by allies terminated 21/10 . Kow loon Peninsula formally handed over to Great Britain ( 19/1 ) and discussion with regard to military lands there at once commenced. Piracy of “ North Star ” 4 miles out of H.K. Three district schools merged into new Govt . Central School. 

Trade & Industries . - H.K . Chamber of Com merce formed and establishment of Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs opposed by it . 

Public Works. - Accommodation for 610 Scholars provided for Central School in Gough Street. Robinson Road with bridge across Glenealy laid out . Police Stations built at Pok Fu Lam and Shau Ki Wan ; latter superseded in 1872. Quarters for signalmen provided on Peak. Lock Hosp. constructed this year afterwards became part of Govt. Civil Hosp. 

1862. 

Principal Events.-- Chinese issue of H.K. Gazette started ( 1/3 ). Registrar Gen. made intermediary between Govt. and Chinese. Cadet system introduced by appointment of 3 student interpreters ( 3/4) . Strike of cargo boatmen against registration under Ord . of previous year. Trial made of recruiting Indian police in Bombay and Madras and floating station for water police established. Military opened sanitarium at Peak which proved failure. Volunteer Corps consisting of battery of artillery armed with 3 prs . and 43 " howitzers first formed (1/3). Miss BAXTER started Eurasian Schools. Piracies of “ Henrietta Louise " , " Imogen ” , “ Eagle " and " Iron Prince” all close to H.K. Typhoon ( 27/7) resulted in considerable loss of life .

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Public Works. -Road from Victoria Gap to Pok Fu Lam ( 11 m .) laid out. Timber landing piers provided at Pottinger and Ice House Streets and Observation Place. Town Clock Tower ( 124 ft . high) erected by public subscription . 

Legislation.— Military Stores Ord . (No. 1 ) passed to stop supply of stores to Tai Ping rebels. Volunteer, P. 0. and Police Ords. passed this year subsequently superseded . Ord . empowering barristers to act as their own solicitors repealed in 1871. 

1863. 

Principal Events . — Commission appointed to enquire into unsatisfactory working of Victoria Gaol. Chair coolies struck for nearly 3 months when brought under a licensing Ord. of this year. Piracy of “ Bertha" near Stonecutters' Island ( 22/7) . Sailors' Home at West Point opened ( 31/1 ) . Drinking fountain erected opposite City Hall site . 

Trade & Industries . - Fluctuations in value of Mexican dollar led to proposal to establish mint at H.K. and to make standard dollar and sub . coins based on it only legal tender. Messageries Maritimes mail steamers started ( 1/1 ) and regular steamer communication with Br. N. Borneo established ( Dec.). Public Works. - Reservoir ( 2,000,000 galls . ) at Pok Fu Lam , connected by aqueduct with 2 tanks above City, completed ; superseded in 1871. No. 4 Police Station constructed this year afterwards abolished and quarters built for Supt. Bot . and Afforest. Dep . superseded in 1892. 

1864. 

Principal Events . - Sir R. Hart head of Ch . Imp. Maritime Customs ( 19/7) . Tai Ping rebellion crush ed by capture of Nanking ( 19/7). Wholesale deportation to Canton of professional beggars . Many “ drain -gang”'




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and other burglaries and murderous attacks. Riot of Malay seamen, police , and 99th reg . ( 12-14 / 9) . Piracy رو 

of “ Chico” ( 28/1) . Marine and inland lots at Kowloon sold on short leases. Military contribution of £ 20,000 p.a. , estimated to be 1 /5th of imp . military expenditure, imposed on Colony. Band ( 11/4) , Rifle Co. (24/5 ) and Canton Det. ( 17/9) added to Volunteer Corps which numbered 200 active and 200 hony . members at end of year . Public Garden ( 9 acres) between Garden and Albany Roads opened (6/8 ). First gas lighting in Victoria ( 12/11 ) . Heavy rainfall (6/6 ) caused collapse of houses . 

Trade & Industries. - Prospectus issued in July of H.K. & Shanghai Banking Co.; 6 banks already established at H.K. 

Public Works. - Proposal for new Praya wall and reclamation fell through owing to opposition of lot-holders. Carriage road laid out to Shau Ki Wan . Bowrington Canal ( 600' long and 90' wide) formed . Sai Ying Pun Market ( 6 shops and 81 stalls) built . 

Legislation . - Mercantile Law Amendment Ord . (No. 1 ) amended laws of trade and commerce .Com pilation of edition of ord . in force completed ( Oct.) . 

1865. 

Mr. W. T. Mercer administered from 16.3.1865 to 10.3 . 1866. 

Principal Events . - Project of railway to con nect Calcutta with Canton and H.K. mooted. Decided that criminals not to be extradited to China without guarantee that they will not be tortured . Committee appointed to enquire into mortality of troops . Board of Education abolished and Education Dep . placed under Inspector who was also head of Central School. St. Saviour's ( R.C.) commercial school established . Piracy of “Georg Andrews” outside Lyemun Pass and of “ Nuevo Lepanto" near Lan Tao.


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Trade & Industries. - Union Dock Co, registered (31/7) with capital of $ 500,000. H.K. Canton & Macao Steamboat Co. started ( 19/10) with capital of $ 750,000. Public Works. - Central Police Station ( for officers and 176 constables), Victoria Gaol ( 120 single and 8 associated cells and accommodation for debtors ), Post Office (sorting and 11 other rooms), Volunteer H.Q. ( demolished 1905) , Su Kun Pu School (for 150 scholars) and Sai Ying Pun School ( for 75 scholars) completed. City lighted with 400 gas lamps in March . Battery Road laid out at West Point and first sections of Robinson and MacDonnell Roads in Kowloon . 

Legislation . — Companies, associations and part nerships of more than 20 regulated by Companies Ord. ( No. 1 ). Ords. Nos. 2 to 7 consolidated criminal law of H.K. on lines of U.K. Acts of 1861, 

1866 . 

Governor Sir Richard Graves MacDonnell, Kt . , C.B. ( 11.3.1866 to 11.4.1872) . 

(Major-General H. W. Whitfield administered from 29.10.1868 to 12.12.1868 and from 13.6.1870 to 8.10.1871 ) . 

Principal Events.- H.K . Royal Mint opened ( 7/4) ; it had cost $ 400,000 to establish and involved annual expenditure of $ 70,000 ; commission appointed in Oct. to enquire into its working. System of branding and deporting criminals and flogging them if they return ed to H.K. introduced . Volunteer Corps disbanded owing to non - attendance of members. 

Trade & Industries.—Period of commercial depression which lasted till 1869 set in ; 2 banks suspended payment. H.K. & Shanghai Bank converted into Corporation by Ord . ( No. 2) ; capital $ 5,000,000. H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co. formed ( 11/10) ; capital $ 750,000 .


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Public Works. - Mint Buildings and Harbour Office completed ; latter re- constructed in 1874 . 

Legislation . — The Companies Registration Ord. ( No. 1 ) extended provisions of Companies Ord . of previous year . 

1867. 

Principal Events.-- Commencement ( 15/10) of what henceforth was known as Blockade of H.K .: Chinese cruisers patrolled neighbouring waters levying tax on junks trading with non - treaty ports; this was at first supported by British representative at Peking as means of checking smuggling from H.K. Commission reported in favour of closing Mint . Expenditure decreased to secure balance in estimates. 11 licensed gaming houses opened ( 15 /9 / ; afterwards increased to 16. St. Paul's College ( C. of E.) closed for lack of funds. Praya wall destroyed by typhoon ( 8/8) in which several large vessels and many junks lost. Nearly 500 houses destroyed by fire ( 28/11 ). 

Trade & Industries . - New dock of H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co. opened at Aberdeen ( 15/6 ). First of regular Pacific Mail S. S. Co.'s steamers from San Francisco arrived ( 31/1 ) . H.K. Hotel Co. started operations in July. Two important and some smaller firms failed . Exchange at 6 months' sight stood at 4/44 on December 31st . Public Works. Slaughter House at Belcher's Bay (superseded 1894 ), Governor's Peak Residence (re constructed 1902) and Gaol on Stonecutters' Island ( since abandoned) completed. Land reclaimed at Kowloon Point by 500 ft . of sea -wall. 

Legislation. A Stamp Ord. passed for revenue purposes , after much opposition from commercial com munity . An Ord . for the maintenance of order and cleanliness authorized licensing of gaming houses. An Emigration Ord . directed against abuses such as had


20 

Legislation . - Public Places Regulation Ord . ( No. 2) passed to maintain order, etc. , in public buildings, gardens and other places. 

1871. 

Principal Events.- Monopoly of gaming house licences sold (21/1) for $ 15,000 p.m .; protests from Colony and agitation in U.K. resulted in abandonment of licensing system ( 8/12) . System of branding and deporting Chinese criminals and flogging them if they returned to Colony abolished (25/5 ). Agitation against inefficiency of police force. Typhoon of 2/9 damaged houses and shipping. H.K.-Cape St. Jacques-Singapore ( Eastern Extension Co. ) cable opened for traffic on 9/6 . 

Trade & Industries. - H.K . Wharf and Godown Co. formed. Exchange at 6 months' sight stood at 4/43 on December 30th . 

Public Works.-- Public Gardens extended by 8.2 acres between Albany Road and Glenealy Ravine. Whitfield Police Station built at Causeway Bay . Pok Fu Lam Reservoir (66,000,000 galls.) completed for City Waterworks. 

Legislation . — Legal Practitioners Ord . (No. 1 ) dealt with the enrolment, etc. , of barristers and attorneys. 1872. 

Governor Sir Arthur E. Kennedy, K.C.M.G., C.B. , ( 16.6.1872 10 1.3.1877 ). 

(Mr. J. Gardiner Austin administered from 15.10.187-4 to 5.11.1875 and from 11.3.1875 to 2.12.1875) . Principal Events.--Board of Examiners in 

Chinese for Govt . Officers established . Gardens and Afforestation Dept. placed under representative advisory committee. Provision made for registering all births and deaths . System of branding and deporting :Chinese


· 21 

criminals re- introduced. Coolies struck ( Aug.) against tax on coolie lodging-houses. Bad year for malaria ; dengue cases occurred for first time ( Sept. ). St. Peter's ( C. of E. ) church for seamen ( 14/1 ) , Tung Wa Hosp. for Chinese, and St. Joseph's (R. C. ) Church ( 30/11) opened . Victoria Recreation Club amalgamated boat club, gymnasium and swimming bath (30/11). 

Trade & Industries.-- New period of depression commenced. Much discussion on Blockade of H.K., 

and on 

adulteration of grey shirting in England, 

Attempts to form brokers' association failed. Com mercial capabilities of West River explored. 1st issue of one dollar notes by H.K. & Shanghai Bank ( Oct. ) . Revenue from opium farm $ 122,400 and Commission appointed (8/6) to enquire into working of monopoly recommended letting for 3 years instead of for 1 year as had been done since 1858. Exchange at 6 months' sight stood at 4/4 on December 31st. 

Public Works. — Wan Chai School ( for 119 Scholars ), Shau Ki Wan Market (30 stalls) and Shau Ki Wan and Hung Hom Police Stations built, last superseded in 1885 . 

1873. 

Principal Events.-- Gardens and Afforestation Dept. constituted sub -dept. under Surveyor Gen. ( 15/12) . Horticultural Society started for annual flower and vegetable shows ( 13/2) . System introduced ( 24/4) of Govt . grants-in -aid for secular education based on result of examinations; R.C. schools declined to take advantage of it . Victoria English School established but eventually became Portuguese ( R.C.). First newspaper under solely Chinese management published in H.K. 

Trade & Industries. - Several important com mercial undertakings failed . Commission appointed to consider question of Blockade of H.K. Exchange stood at 4/11 on December 31st.


22 

Public Works. - Yau Ma Ti Police Station built and East Praya partly constructed . 

Legislation . — Standing Rules of Leg. Council revised (2/7 ) . Law with respect to carriage and deposit of explosives, etc. amended by Dangerous Goods Ord. ( No. 1 ) . Puisne Judge added to Supreme Court for summary jurisdiction by Supreme Court Ord . (No. 3 ) and Summary Court, established in 1871 , abolished by Supreme Court (Summary Jurisdiction ) Ord. (No. 4 ). 

1874. 

Principal Events.-Attempts to enforce pro visions for registration of servants contained in an Ord. of 1866 failed . Scholarship established in connection with Govt. Central School ( Jan.). In typhoon of 22-23 / 9, 35 foreign ships, over 2,000 lives and about $ 5,000,000 worth of property lost in 6 hours. On other occasions 2 ships lost on rocks and 1 by collision in or near harbour. 

Trade & Industries. Chinese petition sent to Queen and memorial to S. of S. with regard to Blockade. Increased export of tea from China accompanied by complaints of adulteration . China Merchants S. N Co. started with design of taking coasting trade from foreign ships. II.K. & Shanghai Bank lent $ 600,000 to Chinese Government at 8 % on security of maritime customs. Exchange stood at 4/1] on December 31st. 

Public Works.- Temporary Hosp. ( 54 beds) provided in Hollywood Road; it was destroyed by fire on 26/12/78. Harbour Oflice in Victoria re - constructed and new Harbour Office built at Aberdeen . Mint Dam and Blue Pool Dam re - constructed for City Waterworks. Roads and wells provided at Peak .

23 

Legislation .--Emigration Ord. passed to super sede legislation of previous year in connection with coolie trade from Macao . 

1875. 

Principal Events.-- Tsai Ties became, under the style of KwONG SAI , Emperor of China with the two Empresses as regents (23/2). St. Saviour's ( R.C. ) School re-organized as St. Joseph's College ( 15/11 ) . 

Trade & Industries. - Depression in trade in dicated by further failures. New proposals put forward for dealing with Blockade . Hanoi and Haiphong under French protection opened for trade ( 15/9). Supply to H.K. of subsidiary coins from London Mint started (19/7 ). Mr. (afterwards Sir THOMAS) Jackson Manager of H.K. & Shanghai Bank . Cosmopolitan Docks 

completed (Oct.). Exchange stood at 3/113 

on 

December 31st. 

Public Works. - Lighthouses at Cape D’Aguilar ( 1st order) and on Green Island ( 4th order) completed and lights exhibited on 16/4 and 1/7 respectively . 30 market stalls provided at Shek Tong Tsui. 

Legislation . - Letters • Patent (8/6 ) vested Govt. in Lieut. -Gov. Or Col. Sec . in event of Governor's death, incapacity or absence. Ord. No. 7 provided for systematic record of marriages in one general register. 

1876. 

Principal Events . - Census taken. Extensive housebuilding operations on Peak . Fir trees planted on Mount Davis and above Kennedy Road . 

Trade & Industries. Opium Farm let for 1 year from 1/3 at $ 110,000. Exchange stood at 4/14 on December 30th .

24 

Public Works. - Cape Collinson Lighthouse com pleted and 6th order light exhibited from 1/3 . Kennedy Road , ( 1.82 m . long) opened. Powder Magazine con structed at Stonecutters' Island ; superseded in 1905. 

Legislation . Chinese Passenger Ships, Public Gambling, and P.O. Ords., passed this year, subsequently superseded. 

1877. 

Gorernor Sir John Pope Hennessy, K.C.M.G., ( 22.4.1877 to 7.3.1882) . 

(Mr. W. II . Marsh administered from 31.5.1877 6.9.1877 ). 

Principal Events. Public branding and flogging of criminals stopped and their deportation restricted and lenient treatment of first offenders advocated by new Governor. First Chinese Civil marriage solemnized at Reg. Gen.'s oflice ( 7/6 ). First Chinese ( NG Choy) ad mitted to local bar ( 18/5 ). St. Joseph's ( R.C. ) Cathedral re -opened for service ( 3/6 ). H.K. entered postal union and postage rates reduced. 

Trade & Industries.- Opium Farm let for 2 years at $ 132,000 p.i. Exchange stood at 3 / 10 on December 31st. 

Public Works. - Cattle Depôt ( for 120 head ) first provided at Kennedy Town. Conduit, ( 3.38 m . long), constructed to convey water from Pokfulam Reservoir to City. 

Legislation . Letters Patent of 9/4 revoked supplementary Charter of 8/6/75 and made minor altera tions in constitution of Colony. Companies Ord . passed this year afterwards incorporated in No. 1 of 1865 .

25 

1878. 

Principal Events.-Po Leung Kuk established by Chinese to prevent kidnapping of girls and ill treat ment of domestic servant girls. Many burglaries includ ing armed'attack on Chinese Bank in Wing Lok Street (25/9). Public meeting to discuss insecurity of life and property in Colony (7/10 ). Serious fire in Victoria : 368 houses and $ 1,000,000 worth of property destroyed ( 25-26 / 12 ). Volunteer corps formed under Ord. of 1862 at time of strained relations with Russia . 

Trade & Industries . - China Sugar Refinery Co., Ltd. established . Exchange stood at 3/63 on December 31st . 

1879. 

Principal Events. System of deporting criminals resumed . Two thirds of police force ordered ( 17/3) to be always on night duty. Local Committee reported on defence questions for Royal Commission at home. Revision of education code confined secular system to Government schools and gave freedom to grant-in -aid schools as to religious instruction . Botanical separated from Survey Department. St. Patrick's Hall in Garden Road opened on 17/3 and R. C. Church at West Point on 22/3 . Lutheran Church erected . Visit of General ULYSSES GRANT ( 30/4 to 12/5) . 

Trade & Industries . - Trade depressed : much discussion on detriment to it resulting from action of Chinese revenue cruisers . H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co. purchased ship -building slips of late Capt. Sands (1/9). Opium Farm let for 3 years at $ 205,000 p.a. Exchange stood at 3/9 ] on December 30th . 

Legislation.--Merchant Shipping Consolidation Ord . passed this year superseded in 1891.


26 

1880. 

Principal Events.- Military authorities reported on insanitary condition of Colony. Telegraphic com munication established with Philippine Islands ( 1/5) . Rickshaws first used in II.K. (22/4). Polo Club started ( 27/4 ) . 

Trade & Industries.- Cosmopolitan Dock Co. established at Sham Shui Po ( 3/2) but their dock subse quently ( 31/12) purchased by H.K. & Whampoa Dock Co. H.K. Ice Co. registered (31/2). Exchange stood 3/93 on December 30th . 

Public Works. - Additional block erected at Govt. Civil . Hosp. originally used for Lock Hosp. Legislation . - Naturalisation Ord. giving, Euro pean resident (E. J. EITEL) privileges of British Subject within Colony but not elsewhere, passed this year, formed precedent frequently followed afterwards. 

1881. 

Mr. M. S. Tonnochy administered from 11.9.1881 to 24.10.1881. 

Principal Events. - Census taken . Speculation in land and house property resulted in considerable increase in Colonial revenue . Severe gale ( 14/10 ) damaged small craft in harbour. 30 houses destroved by fire in Tai Ping Shan ( 19/1). Telephones taken into use in Colony. First issue of “ Hongkong Telegraph ” newspaper ( 15/6 ). Visit of Prince ALBERT Victor and Prince GEORGE of Wales ( 20/12 to 31/12 ). Exchange stood at 3/4 on December 31st . 

Public Works. —A smaller proportion of the public revenue devoted to Public Works than in any year since 1851 and no works of importance in hand . 

Legislation . · Macao Extradition Ord . ( No. 1 ) provided for apprenhension of fugitives from justice from Macao

27 

1882. 

Mr. William Marsh, C.M.G., administered from 8.3.1882 to 29.3.1883. 

Principal Events.---Previous year's speculation in land and house property followed by numerous bank ruptcies. Mr. 0. CHADWICK, C.M.G. C.M.,, reported as Sanitary Commissioner on sanitary condition of Colony. 

Enrolment of Volunteers in new. Artillery Corps com menced (20/12 ). Trade & Industries. - Luzon Sugar Refinery Co. established ( 25/3 ). Opium Farm let for 1 year at * 210,000 p.d. Exchange stood at 3/73 on December 30th . 

Legislation .-- Banishment and Conditional Pardons Ord . (No. 1 ) enabled Gov.- in - Council to banish aliens New Volunteer Ord . superseded Ord . of 1862. 

for 5 years . 

1883. 

Governor Sir George Ferguson Bowen, G.C.M.G., ( 30.3.1883 to 19.12.1885) . 

Principal Events. - Sanitary Board first estab lished. Disturbance among hawkers owing to enforce ment of new regulations ( 22/5) . Belilios Scholarships instituted ( 29/11). New St. Joseph's ( R. C. ) College for boys inaugurated (6/1). The Peak Church ( C. of E. ) 

opened ( 17/6 ). H.K. connected by cable with Shanghai ( 29/5 ) and Foochow ( 18/6 ). Canton -Kowloon Telegraph Line opened for traffic (9/7 ). 

Trade & Industries. - Opium boiled at Govt . Factory and Dross Farm let . Exchange stood at 3/83 on December 31st . Public Works. — Breakwater, 1,400 ft . long, constructed at Causeway Bay to provide safe anchorage of 100 acres for small craft. Observatory at Kowloon completed.


28 

Legislation . — Distress for Rent Ord. (No. 1 ) . 

1884. 

Principal Events . — War broke out between France and China (5/8) and gave rise to some unrest in Colony. Piratical attack on S.S. “ Greyhound” a few hours out of H.K. Strikes of butchers ( 10/6) and of cargo -boat people and coolies (3/10 ). Severe typhoon ( 10/9). Serious fires at Hung Hom in Br. Kowloon ( 11 and 16/12 ) . Jockey Club formed ( 1/10) . Hongkong Macao cable opened for traffic ( 4/7) . 

Trade & Industries.-- Opium boiled at Govt. Factory and Dross Farm let . Exchange stood at 3/6 on December 31st . 

Public Works. - European Lunatic Asylum ($ cells, etc.) constructed near Govt. Civil Hosp. 23 acres reclaimed at Causeway Bay. Water Police Station and Time- ball Tower erected at Tsim Sha Tsui. Yau Ma Ti Market extended ( 30 stalls). 

Legislation . - Medical Registration Ord . 1885 . 


Sir 

William Marsh , K.C.M.G., 20.12.1885 to 25.4.1887. 

administered from 


Principal Events. - Peace declared between France and China (6/4) allayed unrest. Agitation with regard to overcrowding of City of Victoria led to appointment of Land Commission. 

Trade & Industries . - Ropeworks established at Kennedy Town. Opium Farm let for 1 year at $ 159,000. Exchange stood at 3/4 on December 31st.


29 

Public Works. - Police Boat Basin ( 0.43 acre) with launch slip and boat shed constructed at Tsim Sha Tsui and Police Station at Hung Hom. Legislation.-Weights and Measures Ord. ( No. 2) , Bills of Exchange Ord . , modelled on English Act , (No. 3), and Married Women (Disposition of Property) Ord . ( No. 5) passed. Municipal Rates Ord ., subsequent ly modified, fixed rates at 13 % for Victoria (police 88 , lighting 1į, fire-brigade 1 and water 2) , at 83 % for the Peak , at 6 % for Kowloon , etc. 

1886 . 

Principal Events. - Land Commission recom mended reclamation by Govt. Agreement ( 11/9) with China by which movement of opium to and from H.K. was to be registered and arrangements made for settling disputes between H.K. junks and Chinese Customs put a stop to so called H.K. Blockade which had been detrimental to trade . 

Trade & Industries. - Opium Farm let for 3 years at $ 182,400 p.a. Exchange stood at 3/3 ; on December 31st . 

Public Works. - 22 acres reclaimed at Kennedy Town by sea - wall 3,690 ft . long . Lazaretto ( for 4 Europeans and 16 Chinese) constructed on Stonecutters' Island . Loan of £ 200,000 at 41 % for carrying out public works raised by issue of debentures. 

Legislation . - Royal Instructions of 11/10 re voked previous and enacted new instructions : official members of Leg. Council fixed at 7 , unofficial at 5 . Printers and Publishers Ord . ( No. 4) regulated printing of newspapers and books. Usury Ord. ( No. 5) made 8 % legal rate of interest. Bills of Sale Ord. ( No. 7 ) passed to prevent fraud on creditors and Peace Preserva tion Ord . ( No. 10) for prevention and suppression of riots .


30 

1887. 

Major -General W. Gordon Cameron , C.B. , administered from 26.4.1887 to 5.10.1887 . Principal Events.- Chinese School of Medicine founded. Alice Memorial Hosp . (London Missionary Society) for Chinese opened ( 17/2). Exchange stood at 3/13 on December 31st . 

Public Works. - Police Stations erected at Kennedy Town (subsequently used as Infectious Diseases Hospital) and Gough Hill. Legislation . — Defamation and Libels Ord . ( No. 1 ) passed. Triad and other Unlawful Societies sup pressed ( No. 2) . Jury Ord. (No. 5) amended and consolidated law relating to Jurors, and Raw Opium Ord . ( No. 9) better regulated trade in opium . 

1888. 

Governor Sir William Des Vaux ( 6.10.1887 to 7.5.1891 ) ( Mr. Frederick Stewart administered from 7.3.1888 to 20.3.1888 , from 24.11.1888 to 18.12.1888 and from 30.8.1889 to 23.9.1889) . 

Principal Events. — Sanitary Board reconstituted under a Public Health Ord. of previous year and Colonial Surgeon made president. Bad year for small pox , 99 cases being admitted into hospital. Wire -rope tramway, commenced 20/9/85, from St. John's Cathedral ( 100 ft . ) to Victoria Gap (1,300 ft.) opened 

for traffic ( 30/5 ). Exchange stood at 3/0 

on

December 31st. 

Public Works. —Cattle Depôt at Kennedy Town extended for 240 additional head. 

Legislation . - Letters Patent of 19/1 revoked Charter of 5/4/13 and Letters Patent of 9/4/77 and re -enacted provisions for govt . of Colony . Royal Instructions of 19/1 revoked those of 11/1/86 and 

31 

re- enacted them with slight modifications. Regulation of Chinese Ord. ( No. 3) provided for registration of householders and tenants, for appointment of District Watchmen, for regulation of ceremonies, etc. , and for issue of night passes . Coroner's duties transferred to Magistrates by Coroners Abolition Ord. ( No. 5) . 

1889. 

Principal Events . - 33.11 inches of rain fell in great storm of 29/5 and 30/5 ( 16.16 in 7 hours) and did considerable damage . 

Trade & Industries.—Opium Farm let for 3 years at $ 447,600 p.a. Exchange stood at 3/11 on December 31st . Public Works.—Queen's College , commenced in 1884 , completed and provided accommodation for 924 scholars, subsequently increased . Original Tytam Scheme for City Waterworks completed and provided impounding reservoir (312,330,000 galls .) , tunnel ( 1.38 m . long), conduit ( 3 m . long), 6 filter beds ( 3.245 sq. yds . agg . area ), and service reservoir (5,700,000 


galls . ) ; total capacity of storage reservoirs 378,330,000 galls . 

now 


Legislation . Chinese Emigration regulated by Ord . No. 1 and law of evidence consolidated by Evidence Ord. ( No. 2). Praya Reclamation Ord . (No. 6) provided for extensive reclamation in front of West Prava at cost of Marine lot-holders. Chinese Extradition Ord . ( No. 7 ) gave effect to Art. XXI of ' Treaty of Peking . 

1890. 

Mr. Francis Fleming, C.M.G., administered from 19.2.1890 to 22.12.1890 . 

Principal Events.-Visit of Duke and Duchess of Connaught ( April) ; Duke laid memorial stone of Praya Reclamation. The Scheme initiated by Mr. ( afterward Sir) Paul CHATER was to reclaim 65 acres extending 2 miles from Naval Yard to beyond Gasworks at West


32 

Point ; new road along front to be called Connaught Road . Lighting of low levels in Victoria by 50 arc lamps begun 1/12. Piracy of Passenger S.S. Namoa 50 m . from Hong Kong (Dec.). Exchange averaged 3/2 for the year and stood at 3/5 on December 31st. 

Public Works. - Pokfulam filter beds ( 4) , with area of 1,360 sq . yds . , constructed for City Water works. 

Legislation . - Law relating to infant vaccination amended by Vaccination Ord. ( No. 2) and those relating to jurisdiction , etc. , of Magistrates by Magistrates Ord . ( No. 3) . Merchandise Marks Ord. (No. 4) framed on lines of English Act . 

1891. 

Major-General Digby Barker administered from 7.5.1891 to 9.12.1891 . 

Principal Events. - Census taken . 

Trade & Industries . - Fluctuation in exchange and speculation mostly in trading and mining ventures outside Colony resulted in financial depression . Ex change averaged 3/4 for the year and stood at 3/1 on December 31st. 

Public Works. — Foreshore at Kennedy Town ( 8.55 acres) reclaimed . Lunatic Asylum for Chinese ( 16 cells , etc. ) near Civil Hosp ., District School at Sai Ying Pun (for 186 scholars ), and new Police Station at Aberdeen erected . The Peak, previously dependent on well water, now supplied from City Waterworks by pumping Legislation . -Gambling Ord. (No. 2) passed to stop gambling among Chinese, and Companies ( Sale of Shares) Ord . (No. 5) to stop gambling in shares. Bank ruptcy Ord. ( No. 7) brought law of Colony into line with that of U.K. Opium Farm regulated by Prepared Opium Ord . (No. 8) .

33 

1892. 

Governor Sir William Robinson , K.C.M.G., ( 10.12.1891 to 1.2.1898) . 

(Mr. G. T. M. O'Brien administered during, absence of Governor in 1893) . Principal Events. State aid withdrawn from Church of England in Colony, and Cathedral handed over to trustees. Gas lighting introduced at Kowloon . 

Trade & Industries. - Opium Farm let for 3 years at $ 340,800 p.a. Exchange averaged 3/41 for the year and stood at 2/82 on December 31st . Public Works.--Gap Rock Lighthouse completed and connected with H.K. by cable ; lst order light exhibited 1/4 . City Waterworks distribution scheme completed. 10 Public Laundries opened at Wan Chai. Cattle depôt at Kennedy Town extended for 120 addi tional head. Albany Nullah trained. Govt. house ball -room , new quarters, etc. , for Supt. B. & A. Dept. & staff quarters (for 11 ) at Govt. Civil Hosp. completed. Hosp. Ship Hygeia ( since abolished) opened (Aug.). 

Legislation . - The Patents Ord . (No. 2) . 

1893. 

Principal Events . - Heavy fall in silver seriously affected public expenditure and new 31 % loan of £ 200,000 raised for carrying out certain public works. School for girls on site of former Central School with accommodation for 608 presented by Mr. E. R. Belilios , taken over by Govt. The Po Leung Kuk , a Chinese institution for the protection of women and children , formed in 1878 , incorporated. Volunteers organized as a field battery and machine gun company . Waglan Lighthouse completed by Chinese Govt .; light exhibited 9/5 . Severe typhoon typhoon (2/10 ). Exchange averaged 2/84 for the year and stood at 2/3 on December 30th .


- 34 

Legislation . - Volunteer Ord. (No. 4) superseded Ord . of 1882. Nethersole Hosp . (London Missionary Society) for Chinese women opened (5/9 ). 

1894. 

Principal Events. Some trouble caused by clan fight in March . First outbreak of bubonic plague , at its height between May and July, produced temporary exodus, estimated at 100,000, and great interference to trade . War between China and Japan, declared 1/8 , for a time partially paralyzed Chinese markets. Cater pillar plague injured pine tree plantations. Severe typhoons ( 25/9 and 5/10 ). £ 140,000 of the 1886 41 % loan of £ 200,000 converted to 31 % at cost of £ 1,800 and balance of £ 60,000 redeemed from sinking fund ; total loan now £ 341,800 of 31 % stock . Hong Kong Labuan (Borneo )-Singapore cable opened for traffic 415 . Exchange averaged 2/2 for the year and stood at 2 ) on December 31st. 

Public Works.--New Slaughter Houses provided at Kennedy Town. Roads laid out in E. of Kowloon . 

1895. 

Principal Events.--Strike protest against 

as 

new lodging house regulations lasted from 23/3 to 4/4 ; on 27/3 over 20,000 coolies out. 

Trade & Industries . - New British dollar intro duced . General improvement in local stocks and under takings. Opium Farm let for 3 years at $ 296,000 p.a. Exchange averaged 2/04 for the year and stood at 2/15 on December 31st . 

Public Works. - Resumption of insanitary pro perties at Tai Ping Shan completed. Central Market ( 138 shops and 150 stalls), commenced 1890 , and Gaol extension ( 155 cells, etc. ) , commenced 1893, completed . 

Additional 4,400,000 gallons impounded at Pokfulam for City Waterworks; total capacity of storage reservoirs


35 

now 382,730,000 gallons. At Kowloon original water works to supply 250,000 gallons a day from 3 wells N. of Yau Ma Ti opened , Macdonnell Road extended to N. , Cattle Depột (112 head) built at Hung Hom, and Signalling Station established at Blackhead's Hill. 

Legislation .-- The Private Vehicles Licensing Ord . ( No. 5) . 

1896. 

Principal Events. - In second plague epidemic 8 Europeans died but dislocation of business much less than in 1894. Commission appointed to report on insanitary dwellings. Military contribution of Colony fixed at 171 % of gross revenue exclusive of capital expenditure on works and buildings. Typhoon of 29/7 caused considerable damage to property. 

Trade & Industries. - Unprofitable year for trade, importations except of flour and kerosine oil being on limited scale and sales generally unsatisfactory. Exchange averaged 2/24 for the year and stood at 2/17 

on December 30th . 

Public Works. — Streets laid out at Tai Kok Tsui. Legislation - Additional Royal Instructions of 7/7 substituted 0. C. Troops for Ch. Justice on Ley. Council and increased numbers of Unofficial Members from 5 to 6 . British North Borneo Extradition Ord . (No. 1 ) passed. Factors Ord . ( No. 3) and Sale of Goods Ord . (No. 4 ) introduced mutatis mutandis pro visions of English Acts. 

1897. 

Principal Events .-- Area at Causeway Bay set apart as Queen's Recreation Ground . Trade & Industries. - Trade on the whole unsatisfactory and adversely affected by fluctuations in exchange and scarcity of money. Exchange averaged 2/04 for the year and stood at 1/114 on December 31st.

36 

Public Works. - For City Waterworks Tytam dain raised to impound additional 94,670,000 galls. ; total capacity of storage reservoirs now 477,400,000 galls. Maternity Hosp . provided at Govt. Civil Hosp. 

Legislation . — Partnership Ord. ( No. 1 ) on lines of U.K. Act , Probate Ord. (No. 2 ), Protection of Women and Girls Ord . (No. 4 ) and Vagrancy Ord . ( No. 9) . 

1898 . 

Major -General Wilsone Black, C.B. , administered from 2.2.1898 to 24.11.1898 . 

Principal Events. - Penny post established . By convention between U.K. and China, signed at Peking on 9/6 , area on the mainland S. of line joining Deep Bay with Mirs Bay (270 sq . m .) together with Lantao and other islands (90 sq . m .) leased to Great Britain for 99 years ; this area designated The New Territories. 

Trade & Industries. - West River opened for trade on 3/6 and regular communication established but interfered with by piracy. Import trade of Colony improved particularly in rice and coal. Opium Farm let for 3 years at $ 372,000 p.a. Exchange averaged 1/10 . ! for the year and stood at 1 /11 % on December 31st . 

Public Works. - 1893 loan fully expended. Tai Ping Shan improvement scheme completed. Barker Road ( 5,660 ft . long) and Chamberlain Road ( 2,340 ft . long) opened on Peak. Tai Kok Tsui Market ( 32 stalls) erected . 

Legislation.-- Registration of Trade Marks Ord ( No. 6) and Liquor Licences Ord . ( No. 8) .




37 

1899. 

Governor Sir Henry Arthur Blake , K.C.M.G., ( 25.11 . 1898 to 21.11.1903) . 

Principal Events . - New Territories taken over by hoisting British flag at Tai Po on 16/4 ; on account of opposition including attack on Br . Troops by some 2,600 Chinese on 19/4 , in which Chinese authorities were believed to have connived, Sham Chun City beyond new boundary occupied from 16/5 to 13/11. 2 machine gun, 1 infantry and l engineer companies added to Volunteers. 

Trade & Industries.- Hong Kong Cotton Spin ning, Weaving & Dyeing Co. started operations ( 1/6) . Green Island Cement Co. previously at Macao commenced manufacture, at Hok Un near Kowloon for local use and export. Sugar refineries did well . Exchange averaged 1/111 for the year and stood at 1/111 on December 27th . 

Public Works. —Laying out of streets at Mong Kok Tsui, N. of Yau Ma Ti, begun. Wong Nei Cheong Reservoir ( 33,994,000 galls.) completed for City Water 

works; total total capacity of storage reservoirs 511,394,000 galls. 

now 

Legislation . — N.T. Exemption of Laws and Regulation Ords . ( Nos . 6 and 8) for administering N.T. , Prisons Ord. ( No. 4 ), Criminal Procedure Ord . ( No. 9) , Merchant Shipping Ord. (No. 10) supplementary to English Acts , and an Ord ., afterwards superseded, for sanitary regulation of buildings. 

1900 . 

Principal Events . - H.K . served as Br . base during Boxer troubles in the North . In typhoon of 10/11 H.M.S. Sandpiper , 10 launches and over 110 junks sunk and over 200 lives lost in 3 hours. Soldiers' Club opened ( 14/4) .


38 

Trade & Industries.-- Chinese Customs placed difficulties in way of river steamers trading with West River Ports. Output of granite from Shau Ki Wan and Kowloon quarries estimated at $ 45,000 and $ 80.000 respectively. Cotton Spinning Co. experienced difficul ties on account of labour supply. Exchange averaged 2 / 0· 4099 for the year and stood at 2/116 on December 31st . 

Public Works. — Blake Pier ( 200' x 40 ') built . City Disinfecting Stn . completed. Signalling Station established on Green Island, and Waglan connected by cable with H.K. Wong Nei Cheong Recreation Ground extended . Police Stations erected at Tai Po, Sha Tau Tok , Au Tau and Ping Shan in N.T. and connected by 

telephone. 

Legislation . - N.T. Extension of Laws and Land Court Ords . (Nos. 4 and 8) for administering N.T. , P.O. Ord . ( No. 6 ), and Police Force Ord. (No. 11 ). New Edition of the Statute Laws of the Colony put in hand by Sir J. CARRINGTON . 

1901. 

Principal Events.-- Census taken . Plague mor tality higher than in any year since 1994 and S. of S. petitioned to send out Sanitary experts to investigate. 

Trade & Industries. - Import trade depressed. Cotton Spinning Co. wrote down shares and brought in fresh capital. Opium Farm let for 3 years at $ 750,000 p.a. Exchange averaged 1/11 :4005 for the year and stood at 1/10 6 on December 31st. 

Public Works. -Associated block converted into single cells and new block ( 78 cells) constructed at Gaol Pulice Station erected at Sai Kung in N. T. 

Legislation .-- Defence Contribution Ord . (No. 1 ) raised annual military contribution of Colony from 17 % to 20 % of gross revenue. Code of Civil Procedure


39 

(No. 3) regulated procedure in Supreme Court . Another Ord ., afterwards superseded, was passed for sanitary regulation of buildings . Trustees Ord . ( No. 5) and Fine Arts Copyrighht Ord . (No. 18) were on lines of U.K. Acts . Rating Ord. ( No. 6) left rates at Victoria at 13 % and raised them to 102 % at the Peak , 121 % at Kowloon and 7 to 101 % at other places . 

1902. 

Major-General Sir W. J. Gascoigne, K.C.M.G. , adminis tered from 4.1.1902 to 8.9.1902 . 

Principal Events.—Mr . O. CHADWICK & Prof. SIMPSON reported on Sanitation of Colony . Committee on Education made various recommendations including more instruction in Chinese . Penny letter postage ex tended to Br . Agencies in China. Volunteer Corps re -organized into 2 Artillery and 1 Engineer Co. Serious shortage of water in spring ; water brought in lighters from Tsun Wan . Severe typhoon (2/8). 

Trade & Industries. — Manufacture of rattan furniture for export started on large scale by American firm . Cotton spinning did better than in previous years , sugar refining worse . Exchange averaged 1 / 8-6724 for the year and stood at 1,716 on December 31st . 

Public Works. - Governor's new Peak Residence completed. New quarters provided for gaol staff ( 6 married and 40 single Europeans and 56 Indians). Police Stations erected in Victoria ( No. 7 ) , at Sheung Shui in N. T. , and at Tai 0 in Lantao. New Kowloon Water Works commenced ( Apl . ) . 

Legislation . - Four Ords. dealt with land in N. T. Water -works Consolidation Ord . hard for its object economizing of water .


40 

1903. 

Principal Events. -New Education Code made grants dependent on results of inspection and not of annual examinations. New wing of Tung Wa Hospital opened . Letters to Europe first sent by Siberian Rail way ( 13/10) . 

Trade & Industries.-- Brussels Sugar convention coming into effect 1/9 improved condition of sugar refining industry. High price of raw judicially affected cotton spinning. Exchange averaged 1 / 8-5243 for the year and stood at 1/815 on December 31st .cotton pre 

Public Works. - Victoria Hosp. for women and children ( 44 beds) on Peak and 16 ft. road from Kennedy Town to Aberdeen ( 5 m .) handed over by Jubilee Com mittee . Ladder Street Resumption Scheme completed. 1st public bath - house (40 baths) opened at Wanchai. Conduit Road ( 2,900 ft . long) opened . N. T. Survey completed. New Government Offices commenced ( June ). Foundation Stone of the New Law Courts laid ( 12/11) . 

Legislation . — The Public Health and Buildings Ord . ( No. 1 ) superseded all former Ords . dealing with this matter and made extensive and minute provision for improving health of Colony. Waterworks Ord. ( No. 16) repealed Ord . of previous year and made other provisions for economizing water supply. Four Ords. dealt with land in N. T. 

1904. 

Mr. F. H. May, C.M.G., administered from 22.11.1903 to 28.7.1904 . 

Principal Events. - Outbreak of war between Russia and Japan ( 8/2) brought influx of colliers, etc. and decrease of foreign ships. Speculation resulted in heavy losses among Chinese. Attempt to start emigration


- 41 

of indentured labourers to S. Africa failed owing to local opposing interests and was abandoned after ship ment of 1,746 . Land Court determined 354,277 claims to land in N. T. , where there was evidence of increasing prosperity. Mounted troop added to Volunteers and Vol. Reserve Association established . 

Trade & Industries. - Cotton spinning did badly at commencement but better at end of year . Sugar industry brought large profits to refineries. Opium Farm let for 3 years at $ 2.200,000 p.a. reduced to $ 2,040,000 p.a. from 1/11. 3'6" El. Tramway from Kennedy Town to Shau Ki Wan (94 m. ) opened for traffic. Exchange averaged 1 / 10.07176 for the year and stood at 1/11 on December 31st . 

Public Works. —Praya Reclamation completed . Tytam Byewash Reservoir added 26,301,000 galls. to storage for City Waterworks ; total capacity of storage reservoirs 537,695,000 galls. Kennedy Town Cattle Depôt extended to hold 1,241 head . 2nd public 

now 

bath -house (38 baths) opened at Tai Ping Shan . Gascoigne Road at Kowloon and 14 ft . road to Tai Po ( 16 m. ) in N. T. completed. New Rifle Ranges provided behind Kowloon City . 

Legislation . - Sugar Convention Ord . ( No. 14) forbade importation of bounty fed sugar. Pilots Ord . ( No. 3) provided for exam . and licensing of Pilots . Hill Dist. Reservation Ord. ( No. 4) reserved residential area · at the Peak . 

1905 . 

Governor Sir Matthew Nathan , K.C.M.G. , 29.7.1904 to 20.4.1907 . 

Principal Events . - Russo -Japanese and especially proximity of Russian fleet ( April-May) and subsequent sinking of Br . S.S. “ Oldhamia ” ( 1875) and “ St. Kilda” ( 4/6) gave rise at H.K. to various questions


42 

as to duties and rights of neutrals. Before signature of armistice on 1/9 shipping_tended to return to normal conditions. Govt. of H.K. on 2/10 lent the Hu Kwang Viceroy £ 1,000,000 repayable in 10 annual instalments for redemption of Canton -Hankow Raily . concession . Unsuccessful negotiations carried on through year in connection with Ch . section of Canton Kowloon Railway. Parcel post arrangement with Germany came into force (1/6) and postage to Australia reduced ( 15/7) . Revised rent roll introduced in N. T. Anglo - Chinese Gort. School opened at Aberdeen . Trade & Industries. Trade adversely affected by over- speculation in 1904, by fluctuations in exchange, by boycott of American goods as protest against U.S.A. exclusion law and by reduction of Br. fleet in China. Imports to and exports from China fell off . Sugar refineries, Cotton Spinning Co. and cement and rope factories did good business. There was falling off in repairing and docking ships. Exchange averaged 1/11 2335 for the year and stood at 2/05 on December 30th . 

Public Works. —Preliminary Survey of Br . sec tion of Canton -Kowloon Railway carried out , route selected and land partly resumed. Construction was commenced under P.W.D. at the latter end of the year . 1st order light from Cape D'Aguilar transferred to new 

•tower at Green Is . Disinfecting Stn . at Kowloon, Mong Kok Tsui Market ( 10 stalls) and Yau Ma Ti District School ( for 200 scholars) completed. Resumption scheme finished at Kau U Fong ( 27 , 156 sq . ft . ) and commenced at Mee Lun Lane ( 900 sq . ft .). Robinson and Gascoigne South roads extended . 

Legislation .--12 ( including 4 financial and 6 amending) Ords. passed of which most important were N. T. Land Ords. (Nos. 3 & 9 for facilitating land transfers and settling land disputes.


43 

1906 . 

Mr. F. H. May , C.M.G., administered from 15.12.1906 to 23.1.1907 . 

Principal Events. - Commission appointed to enquire into administration of Sanitary Laws ( 28/4) . The construction of the Kowloon -Canton Railway (British Section) was taken over by the Construction Staff appointed by Consulting Engineers in May. The Beacon Hill tunnel was commenced, South face (15/9) North 

face ( 1/12) . Piracy of British Steamer “ Sainam ” on West River , British Missionary killed ( 13/8 ) . Severe typhoon ( 18/9 ), 15 Europeans including Protestant Bishop and some 10,000 Chinese drowned, 2,413 Chinese craft reported lost, 141 European vessels and launches foun dered or badly damaged . British Steamer “ Hankow ” burnt at wharf, 111 lives lost ( 14/10 ). Census taken ( 6/11 ) . Kowloon-Canton Railway Final Loan Agree ment signed ( 10/11 ) . 

Trade & Industries . - Hieneral depression in trade ; heavy losses through fall in price of Indian yarn ; shares in local undertakings much depreciated in value. Increased' importation of Australian flour . Iron mining started and a large Flour Mill opened in the New Territories. Exchange averaged 2 / 1.7064 for the year and stood at 2/316 on December 29th . 

Public Works.-- Harbour Office, Western Mar ket , Bacteriological Institute , Volunteers' Headquarters, Taipo Quarters, and Gunpowder Depôt completed . Considerable progress made with Kowloon roads and extension of Conduit Road in Victoria ; Mee Lun Lane resumption scheme well advanced ; Kowloon 

new

Reservoir brought into use and rider main system completed . 

Legislation . - 17 Ords. passed including Married Women's Property and Criminal Evidence Ords . ( Nos . 5 & 14) designed to bring local law into line with English statutes. 


· 44 

1907. 

Governor Sir Frederick John Dealtry Lugard, K.C.M.G. , C.B. , D.S.O. , 29.7.1907 . 

( Mr. F. H. May , C.M.G. , udministered from 21.4.1907 to 28.7.1907) . 

Principal Events . — Commission appointed to enquire into administration of Sanitary Laws reported ( 19/3) . Claim for compensation, on account of lives lost in Sainam piracy, settled . Survey of Chinese Sec tion of the Kowloon -Canton Railway commenced. H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught accompanied by H.R.H. the Duchess of Connaught and Princess Patricia of Connaught visited the Colony ( 6/2 ). Sir M. Nathan appointed Governor of Natal; succeeded by Sir F. J. D. Lugard, who was appointed 1/5 and arrived in Colony 29/7. 

Trade & Industries.Continued depression of trade accentuated towards the end of the year by world wide restriction of commerce following upon financial crisis in America. Shipping in particular suffered . The local sugar industry held its own but shares in the majority of local undertakings further depreciated in value . A project to start a Brewery made headway. Development of iron mining in N. T. arrested . Tin smelting increased . Assessment made in July for year 1907-8 showed that rateable value for whole Colony had decreased by 2.52 % . Opium Farm let for 3 years at $ 1,452,000 p.a. Loss and inconvenience caused by depreciation of subsidiary currency and over - issue of sub. coin by the Canton Mint. Exchange averaged 2 / 1.8499 for the year and stood at 1/913 on December 31st . 

Public Works. — The · Tytam Tuk Waterworks ( 1st Section) were practically completed affording a further permanent storage of 195,914,000 gallons and of 210,370,000 with movable weir added. A Mortuary


45 

at Kowloon and a Market of 68 stalls at Quarry Bay were completed, also the extensions to Conduit Road East and West , the first extension of the Kowloon City Road towards Customs Pass and a further extension of Robinson Road Northwards. The Mee Lun Lane resumption scheme was also finished . 

Legislation . — 16 Ords. ( 5 amendment) passed ; Hongkong College of Medicine incorporated ; H.K. & S. Bank authorized to increase its capital from ten to twenty million dollars and to continue incorporated for a further term of 21 years; Life Insurance Companies Ord . passed. 

1908. 

Principal Events. Mr. H. N. Mody offered to present Colony with buildings necessary for a University : Committee formed to promote the undertaking and collect endowment fund. Instructions received from H.M. Government that all opium divans in Colony must be closed. Disastrous Typhoon on the night of 27th to 28th July . Riot in town of Victoria on 1st and 2nd November in connection with boycott of Japanese goods by the Cantonese . 

Trade & Industries. - Money plentiful owing to lack of remunerative employment. No sign of revival in the real estate market. Import business on the whole showed some improvement on the preceding years in spite of the downward tendency of exchange and the growing tendency of trade to go direct to Canton. The sugar refining industry showed better results. The Cotton Mill had a poor year. The shipping industry shared in a world wide depression in the carrying trade, and this was reflected locally in a marked falling off in the business of the Dock Company. All export business and especially silk suffered as a result of the great financial crisis in America, Loss hy depreciation of sub


46 

sidiary currency continued ; the Government withdrew from circulation and demonetized $ 780,000 of sub sidiary silver coin and $ 30,000 of bronze coin. Ex change averaged 1/9 :6727 for the year and stood at 1/813 on December 31st. Public Works. The new Time Ball Tower was completed and brought into use . A section of the new Land Office at Tai Po was completed for the use of the Asssistant Land Officer. The new Slaughter Houses and Animal Depôt at Ma Tau Kok, Kowloon , were completed and brought into use . The extension of P.W.D. Offices was carried out. Wanchai School was extended and its accommodation practically doubled . Saivingpun School was also enlarged by the erection of an additional storey . The Quarters at the Victoria School had another storey added. The European Quarters in Mount Gough Police Station were considerably enlarged. The Transvaa! Coolie Emigration Depôt was purchased for a Quarantine Station and buildings, etc., put in order. Staff Quarters in Government Civil Hospital were extended . Obelisk at Kowloon in memory of the French sailors drowned in Typhoon 1906 was unveiled. 12 New Fire Alarms were installed in City . Nathan Road was extended from Market Street to Kowloon Farm Lot No. 2. In New 

Territories the Kowloon City Road was extended from its point of intersection with the Military Roads to its point of bifurcation to Customs Pass and Chin Lan Chin Village . Blake Pier Permanent Shelter was completed. New Service Reservoir at West Point was completed : 

capacity 388,000 gallons; also a new 8 " rising main . Legislation . - 22 Ordinances ( 9 amendment) pass ed . The principal matters dealt with were - public health and buildings, fire insurance companies, foreign corporations, breweries, chemists and druggists, and theatres. Public Health and Buildings bill passed after much debate and permanent lead of Sanitary Dept. created (result of Commission ). Chinese Emigration Ordinance 1889 amended and " assisted emigrants '' recognised, affording additional protection and safe


47 

guards. Small Debts Court instituted in N.T. , and Widows' and Orphans' Pension Fund transferred to Hong Kong Government. 

1909. 

Principal Events.-- International Opium Con ference at Shanghai (leb .). 26 opium divans in H.K. closed ( 1/3 ). The headings from each end of Beacon Hill tunnel met ( 17/5) . Opium Ordinances amended and consolidated in accordance with the resolutions of the Shanghai Conierence, additional restrictions and safe guards being imposed in respect of morphine, compounds of opiums and cocaine ( 1/9). Duties imposed on intoxicating liquor's ( 17/9) . Severe typhoon ( 19-20 / 10). Conference held in H.K. between Portuguese and Chinese Commissioners for delimitation of boundaries of Macao ( June - Nov . ). Total endowment fund of proposed H.K. University amounted at close of year to $ 533,496 exclusive of $ 718,614 promised. Trade & Industries. The local money market was easy throughout the year. Real estate showed faint signs of revival. In imports a large business was done. Exports were active ; silk in good demand. The sugar refining industry prospered. Shipping showed a 'slight improvement on the previous year, but this was not reflected in the local docking industries which suffered from insuilicient work . Loss by depreciation of sub sidiary currency continued : the Govt. withdrew from circulation and demonetized $ 779.712 of subsidiary silver coin and $ 40,616 of bronze coin. Exchange averaged 1/9 :0601 for the year and stood at 1 / 9 % on December 31st . Public Works.-- The old stables adjoining the Government Offices were extended and raised to render the upper storey available and so provide additional accommodation for the staff of the Public Works Department. A bungalow on the mainland at Tai Po


48 

for the Assistant District Officer was completed. A staircase from the ball-room to the grounds of Govern ment House was constructed . A road from Ma Tau Kok to Tai Shek Ku was completed ; the level of Des Væux Road, Kowloon , (re-named Chatham Road ,) was raised ; and arrangements were made for the construction of a new road traversing Marine Lot 29 from Queen's Road 

East to Praya East. The old fish pond at Tai Wo Shi ( N.T.) was filled in . The Albany Filter Beds were reconstructed and extended , and the filtering area increased from 3,246 to 4,945 square yards. Extensive resumptions of land at Kowloon Point were effected with a view to providing a site for the terminal station of the Kowloon-Canton Railway. Public latrines were structed at Tai Kok Tsui, in Chuk Hing Lane, at Wong neichong Village and adjoining Kennedy Road to the westward of the Peak Tramway. Ping Shan - Shataukok Road surveved and part constructed . 

con 

Legislation . - 46 Ordinances (32 amendment) passed. The principal matters dealt with were — opium , liquor, trade marks, railways, and the construction of a harbour of refuge at Mongkoktsui. 

1910. 

(Sir F. 11. May, K.C.M.G., administered from 30.4.10 to 31.10.10 ). Principal Events. - All opium divans in H.K. and the N.T. closed ( 1/3). Opium Farm let for 3 years at $ 1,183,200 p.a. (1/3). H.B.M.'s Government make the Colony a grant of £ 9,000 for the year 1910 on account of loss of opium revenue . Foundation stone of H.K. University laid by Sir F. D. Lugard (16/3). Endowment fund of University stood at $ 1,239,828 ( exclusive of $ 96,460 promised) on 31st Dec. Con siderable scarcity of water owing to dryness of the season , but heavy rains in June removed anxiety. Plague cases decreased to 25 , the lowest since 1897. Trouble at


49 

Macao with pirates on Colowan Island : Portuguese troops and gunboats engaged : many pirates escaped ; some afterwards arrested at Cheung Chau Island in the N.T. (July). British Section, Kowloon - Canton Railway, opened by Sir Henry May ( 1/10) . Portuguese Republic proclaimed in Macao ( 10/10 ). 

Trade & Industries. The local money market was easy during the first 6 months of the year, but afterwards inclined to be tight, owing probably to the fall in rubber stocks. Financial crisis in Shanghai caused by rubber boom ; many banks failed (Aug./Sept.). In imports of raw sugar there was a heavy falling off due mainly to producers in Java sending direct to Nor thern markets without trans-shipment in H.K. There was also a falling off in import and export of raw opium due partly to an additional tax on opium imposed, contrary to treaty, by the Canton Government. Com pounds of opium including morphine also declined due to restrictive legislation by Government. The year was fair generally for merchants and manufacturers : yarn , piece-goods, and tin did well. The number and tonnage of ships entering and clearing in the Colony was the largest yet recorded, being 545,177 vessels of 36,441,496 tons, an increase as compared with 1909 of 17,897 vessels and 1,610,651 tons. There was a considerable improvement in the industry of docking steamers in H.K. : during the latter part of the year the industry gained a considerable impetus, which has since been maintained . Subsidiary currency remained at a dis count : the Government withdrew from circulation and demonetized $ 5,272,012.25 ( face value) of silver sub coin and $ 255,446.79 ( face value) of copper coin . Exchange averaged 1/9 : 60216 for the year and stood at 1/10 on 31st December. Public Works. -A new block containing 78 cells was constructed in Victoria Gaol. An extension of the Land Office at Tai Po for the accommodation of the


50 

District Officer was completed. was completed. A small slaughter house for Shaukiwan District was built at Sai Wan Ho. Argyle Street, Kowloon , was extended eastwards as far as the Railway to afford access to Yaumati Station and the diversion and alteration of Chatham and Gascoigne Roads on account of the construction of the Railway were completed . In the N. T. the road from Castle Peak Bay was completed as far as Un Long and the extension from San Tin Village to Au Ha Gap was well advanced . The large nullah west of the University site was trained . Ferro - concrete piers at Kowloon City and at the Gunpowder Depôt, Green Island , were completed . Causeway Bay was deepened to 1 foot below low water. The Kowloon Water Works Gravitation Scheme, begun in 1902 , was completed. A 12" main for conveying Tytam Water to the Western district of the City was laid in Caine Road . The sites of several houses which had collapsed in Morrison Street were acquired in con nection with the re -construction of the Old Western Market and further extensive areas were resumed at Kowloon Point to provide a site for the terminus of the Railway. 

Legislation . — 34 Ordinances ( 21 amendment) passed : Ordinances relating to the N.T. consolidated : the principal other matters dealt with were - copyright,, crown suits, lepers, midwives, oaths, and volunteer 

reserve . 

1911. 

Principal Events.- Preparation of revised edi tion of Ordinances begun by Sir F. T. PIGGOTT (March ). By an Agreement dated 8/5 between Great Britain and China no Indian Opium permitted to be imported into China unless accompanied by certificate of Indian Government that such opium was exported from India for consumption in China. Coronation of H.M. King


· 51 

GEORGE V celebrated ( 22/6) . H.M. Government made the Colony a grant of £ 12,000 for the year 1911-12 on account of loss of opium revenue . Board of Chinese Vernacular Primary Education constituted ( 7/9) . Chinese Section Kowloon -Canton Railway opened for through traffic (4/10). Revolutionary movement in China reflected in Colony by some rioting ( 6/11 ) . Peace Preservation Ordinance proclaimed (29/11). Many cases of disorderliness, assaults and petty thefts . Armed military patrols paraded the streets daily. 

Trade & Industries . - During the early part of the year trade prospects were favourable, but the unrest in Kwang Tung province considerably curtailed credit , and business, especially in the import trade , suffered severely. Money was easy at the beginning of the year but became tight during the latter months. The imports of raw sugar showed a further falling off since 1910 . The opium trade was greatly affected by the Opium Agreement of May. Prices Auctuated greatly and certified opium reached the abnormal figure of $ 5,000 in September, only to decline later. The actual imports and exports showed a decrease of roughly 30 % as com pared with 1910. The total of the shipping entering and clearing at Ports in the Colony amounted to 543,570 vessels of 36,179.152 tons. This decrease as compared with 1910 was largely due to the unrest in China and strikes in the United Kingdom . The flour trade was particularly good, the receipts in Hong Kong being nearly doubled . The price of rice was high and fluctuated greatly, and the Hong Kong rice merchants lost heavily. Silk, piece goods, varn and coal all suffered from the political unrest during the latter half of the year . A few firms benefited by a boom in fancy goods, European clothes, hats and boots which was the direct result of the revolution. Exchange was fairly steady with a slight upward tendency towards the end of the year when it stood at 1/1076 .


52 

Public Works.--The new building erected be tween Connaught and Des Væux Roads for the accommodation of the Post Oflice, Treasury, &c . , was completed and occupied in the middle of the year . The following other buildings were also completed :-Kowloon Market : No. 2 Police Station (reconstructed and enlarged) : Tsun Wan Police Station : two Government Pavilions (reconstructed as permanent structures) : Hospital, & c ., at Quarantine Station, Lai Chi Kok : Staff Quarters at Kennedy Town Hospital : Workshops and Sheds for dustcarts, & c .. at the City Disinfecting Station and Quarters for Searchers, Imports and Exports Office. Two public latrines in Vee Lun Street and Rutter Street and a trough closet under the ramp leading to the Government Civil Hospital were constructed. A road was constructed to the west of the Peak Tramway connecting Bowen and Mav Roads and sundry improve ments were carried out in Wongneichong and Shaukiwan Roads. In the New Territories, the road from Castle Peak Bay was completed as far as Au Tau Police Station and the section of the same road extending from San Tin to Au Ha Gap was also completed. A portion of the last-mentioned section extending from Fan Ling Railway Station to Au Ha Gap was utilized for the construction of a light railway which was extended eastwards to Shataukok . Important nullah - training works 

were 

carried out in the valleys both north and south of Magazine Gap , in the neighbourhood of the Military Hospital on Bowen Road, at Shaukiwan and at Pokfulam . Two new Aushing tanks for the low level sewers of Victoria were constructed and extensive drainage works were carried out at Mongkoktsui, Shamshuipo and Shau biwan West . 

Legislation.--65 Ordinances ( 43 amendment) passad : Ordinances relating to liquors consolidated : the principal other matters dealt with were - Chinese partner ships , companies, Crown Solicitors, electricity supply, interpretation, Mercantile Bank note issue, money 

lenders, revision of Ordinances, societies, and University


53 

1912. 

Governor Sir Francis Henry May, K.C.M.G. , 4.7.1912. ( Mr. Claud Severn administered from 16.3.12 to 3.7.12 ). 

Principal Events. - Importation of Persian Opium into China prohibited from 1st January. Disturbed con dition of adjacent Chinese Territory owing to withdrawal of military posts along frontier resulted in some serious raids into British territory. Indian troops drafted to various points along frontier (26/6 ), withdrawn ( 30/11). Embargo placed by Canton Authorities on limestone from Kuangtung for Green Island Cement Co. ( July ). Sir HENRY May on landing was fired at by Chinese fanatic but escaped unhurt (3/7 ). Cheung Chau Police Station attacked by pirates and three Indian Constables killed ( 19/8). Joint expedition by Portuguese and Chinese to eradicate pirates from island of Wong Kam near Macao proved abortive ( 20/8 ). Boycott of Low Level Tramway on account of their refusal to accept Chinese subsidiary coins began ( November). Trade & Industries.-Exchange during the vear showed a distinct rise owing to the projected borrowings in China, good harvests in India, and the forced buying of silver by the Indian Government to replenish their In December it stood at 2/1 . The Indian Yarn trade was fair and keen interest was shewn by Chinese dealers in the product of the local mill. Piece 

reserve .

goods clearances were fair but business was generally unprofitable. The trade in woollens was also fair. Sundries business was excellent during the first half of the year. The market was still however suffering from excessive speculation induced by the demand for European articles of clothing. The Silk Market suffered indirectly through the Balkan trouble and the Presiden tial elections in America . Trade in matting was fairly satisfactory . An important business was done in Metal, especially Silver, Quicksilver, Nailrods, Lead, Copper, Tin and Yellow Metals at greatly advanced prices brought about partly through labour troubles and advanced 


54 

transport rates . The consumption of Kerosine Oil was about the same as in 1911, but prices were lower than in previous years owing to severe competition between the two importing Companies. The consumption was interfered with in the latter half of the year by difficulty of native junk transportation through piracy . The Flour trade made great strides, there being imported nearly 200,000 bags of American Flour more than in 1911, which was a record year , but Auctuations in prices resulted in heavy losses to importers and there was much speculation. The demand for Rice was at first small but increased substantially, notably from Japan. There were considerable Auctuations in the price of Opium mostly in a downward direction and during the revolu tion Patna declined to $ 2,965 . Violation of treaty rights, extensive smuggling of uncertificated opium and presidential mandates ordering the entire abolition of the trade within the year all contributed to a situation which was extremely anxious for those interested . The total shipping entered and cleared amounted to 488,649 vessels of 36,735,149 tons, the decrease as compared with 1911 being due entirely to a large falling off in the number of steam launches and junks formerly employed in local trade . 

Public Works. — The new building for the Courts of Justice was completed in the beginning of the year and was formally opened by His Excellency the Governor on 15th January. The following other buildings were also completed : - Additional Storey and new Wing to Yaumati English School : Market and Slaughter House , Aberdeen : Stables the Disinfecting Station , 

near 

Yaumati : Lighthouse and Quarters, Kap Sing Island : Additional Wing to the Maternity Hospital. The con struction of the road on the east side of the Peak Tram way connecting Chamberlain and Plantation Roads was completed and extended down the hillside towards Barker Road with which it will eventually be connected. Sundry improvements were carried out to the Bonham 

and Wongneichong Roads, and the forming of the streets


55 

in connection with the Tai Hang Village Improvement Scheme was completed. In Kowloon, the approaches to No. 2 Railway Bridge from Chatham and Gascoigne Roads were improved and in the New Territories the construction of the roads from San Tin to Au Tau and Kam Tin to Au Tau was commenced . Important nullah training works , amounting to over 4,000 feet in length were carried out in the neighbourhood of Shaukiwan , Wongneichong and Pokfulam as well as in the City , the Hill District and Kowloon . The sewer in Craigmin Road in the Hill District and the stormwater drains in Hill and Bonham Roads were extended and the large drainage works at Shamshuipo and Kowloon City were completed . The filling in of a large area to form a new site for Ap Liu Village, near Shamshuipo, was also completed. Extensive purchases of land to the south of Salisbury Road, Kowloon, required for the terminal station of the Kowloon-Canton Railway were effected . 

Legislation . — 43 Ordinances ( 22 amendment) passed. The principal matters dealt with advertisements regulation, airships, boycott prevention, 

were 

Chinese Congregational Church, Chinese marriage pre servation , criminal sessions , copyright repeal, crown solicitors, deportation , final revison of ordinances, foreign copper coin , full court, holidays , innkeepers , limited partnerships , revenue officers power of arrest and vehicles and traffic regulation . 

1913. 

( Mr. Claud Severn administered from 21.8.13 to 24.12.13) . Principal Events. - Re -constituted Appeal Court under the Presidency of Sir Havilland de Sausmarez opened ( 2/1 ) . Certain districts contemplated by the Government to be proclaimed as boycott areas announced ( 4/1 ) . The boycott of the Low Level Tramway which commenced in November of the preceding year came to an end early in February. A Cadet Company in con

56 

nection with the Hong Kong Volunteer Corps formed (March ). SS. Tai On pirated ( 2/4) . A Day of Prayer for China in Christian Churches appointed by the Govern ment of China (27/4 ). A bomb factory seized at Tai Kok Tsui ( 3/7) . Independence of the Kwangtung Province proclaimed by Governor -General Ch‘an Kwing ming (18/7) . Lung Chai-kwong advanced from Kwongsi to restore the authority of the Central Government and arrived at Canton ( 11/8) . Severe typhoon ( 17/8) . Diocesan Girls' School opened (September). Many piracies occurred in the waters of the Canton River delta throughout the year. 

Trade & Industries. - Exchange rose during the summer months as the result of the issue of the Quintuple Loan and Indian purchases of silver but generally the tendency was downward in consequence of the suspen sion of the Indian Specie Bank . In December it stood at 1/113 . The Indian Yarn trade was the smallest since 1906. Piecegoods may be said to have had an average year. The Woollen trade was bad and there were heavy stocks for which an outlet could not be found . The Sundries market was suffering heavily from the effects of over-speculation during the first and second revolution and there were many failures among the smaller dealers . Japanese competition was strong. The Silk Market was exceptionally good. Exports of Cassia were at the lowest they had been during the past 20 years. The Matting industry was very much hampered owing to the uncertainty of duties due to the U. S. A. tariff revision , Prices were low and very unre munerative to manufacturers. The Metal business opened with boom prices but these were not maintained and declines in all lines set in . The consumption of kerosine Oil shewed a decrease as compared with 1912 due to the general unrest of the people in South China. The Flour import for the year amounted to 5,176,623 bags of a total approximate value of $ 11,000,000 . Imports from America 4,774,623 bags, Canada 320,000, Australia 82,000 , a total reduction on 1912 imports of




57 - 

518,000 bags. The demand for Canadian flour con tinued to increase. The new crops of Rice were quite up to expectations and the prospects for 1914 were good. The Indian Opium trade was at an absolute standstill. In accordance with the British Government's agreement with China no further importations of opium were per missible until existing stocks were exhausted . Prices were - Patna $ 5,650-5,875, Benares $ 5,475-5,700, Malwa $ 4,900-5,000 . Persian, ( the trade in which is restricted to Japan ), was $ 1,150 . The total Shipping entered and cleared at the Port amounted to 490,228 vessels of 37,742,982 tons which compared with the figures for 1912 shows an increase of 1,609 vessels of 1,007,933 tons. 

Public Works. — The following new buildings were completed during the year :-Sanitary Inspectors' Office and Quarters, Wantsai District, in Queen's Road East ; New 2 -storeyed south block of the Western Market at junction of Bonham Strand and Morrison Street; New Operating Theatre to the Government Civil Hospital ; Extension to the Government Slaughter House, Kennedy Town ; Extension of the Belilios Public School in Holly wood Road ; Western District Sanitary Office and Quarters, Pokfulam Road ; Stables for Sanitary Depart ment at Leighton Hill Road ; Vegetable and Fruit Market at Yaumati ; Extensions to Royal Observatory ; Police Station at Cheung Chau in the New Territories. Im provements and extensions were carried out to the following roads : - Wong -nei-chong Road, Belchers Street , Hau Fung Lane, Reclamation Street, Argyle Street , Canton Road, and Mody Road . In the New Territories, the San Tin- Au Tau and the Kam Tin - Au Tau Roads were completed and also some short lengths of roads in the neighbourhood of Fan Ling and Sheung Shui. Close on 6,000 lineal feet of nullahs were trained in the neighbourhood of Shaukiwan , Wongneichong, Pokfulam , as well as in the City, Hill District and Kowloon . Considerable extensions of the the existing drainage system in Hong Kong and Kowloon


58 

carried out and a large area in the neighbourhood of Shamshuipo was filled in to provide sites for those inhabitants of that village who had been dislodged by improvements carried out there. Extensive water works were in progress during the year :—the construction of a new impounding reservoir to contain 1,419 million gallons at Tytam Tuk and the erection of a new Pumping Station in Pokfulam Road to supply water to the Hill District. The construction of a service reservoir and filter beds at Shaukiwan was completed. 

Legislation .-- 30 Ordinances ( 14 Amendment) passed : one Ordinance to repeal the Sugar Convention Ordinance subsequently disallowed . The most important matters dealt with were : -General Loan and Inscribed Stock, Prohibition of the Circulation of Foreign Notes, Prohibition of the Circulation of Foreign Silver and Nickel Coins, Steam Launches and River Trade Steamers ( Protection against Piracy), and Education . 

1914. 

Principal Events.-- Presidential Mandate issued in China declaring Kweiwa Cheng, Kalgan, Dolon -Nor, Chinfeng, Taonanfu , Lieng -kow , Hulutao in North China open to international trade ( January). Mr. Ellis Kadoorie offered to Lady May $ 15,000 towards an Institute in Hong Kong to be called the “ Helena May tute for Women ”? (January). Supreme Court of Hong Kong sanctioned removal of Morrison Library from the City Hall to University of Hong Kong ( March ). During March two steamers Childar and Shingtai were pirated while in April the S.S. Tai On was attacked and burned off Kio . Many pirates afterwards brought to trial and executed in Canton . Floods in the West River, great loss of life and property_ (June). A sum of 50,000 was voted by the Hong Kong Legislative Council and a Committee was appointed to raise a public subscription for flood relief purposes ( July ). Death of Sir Kai Ho Kai, Kt . , c.m.g., ( 21/7) . Austria -Hungary declared war on Servia (28/7). Germany declared war


- 59 

on Russia ( 1/8) . War declared by Great Britain on Germany at 11 p.m. 4/8. France declared war 

on 

Austria -Hungary (10/8). War declared by Great Britain on Austria -Hungary at 12 m.n. 12/8 . Japan declared war against Germany ( 23/8 ). War declared between Great Britain and Turkey (5/11). Supreme Court of Hong Kong declared a Prize Court ( 21/8) . Prince of Wales ' National Relief Fund opened. $ 100.000 voted by the Hong Kong Legislative Council ( 22/10 ). Fall of Tsingtau (7/11). 

Trade & Industries. - Exchange presented no novel features until the outbreak of war which caused a serious slump, rates on 4th and 5th August being 1/83 , but on the 11th August recovered to 1/11 ). At the end of the year however they ruled between 1/8 } and 1/91 T.T. Indian Yarn trade had an unsatisfactory year, the losses suffered equalling those of 1906. During the early part of the year there were occasional upward fluctuations; the Turopean war caused a decline which in November reached 25 per cent. The total turnover was 155,000 bales against 125,000 for 1913 and 180,000 for 1912. Piece - goods had a very bad year owing to the floods in the West River, depreciation of Kwang Tung notes, and the European upheaval. Fancies and Novelties began fairly well but fell away. The Woollen trade was bad and large stocks remained on hand . Sundries business was not satisfactory. Stocks were heavy and demand poor. Trade in better class sundries tended to get more and more into the hands of the big department stores and the old fashioned shop keepers had to turn their attention more to cheap Japanese sundries. The Tailoring and Outfitting trade was poor, and many shops had to close before the end of the year. The Silk Market which opened very promisingly and continued good for the first half of the year became greatly restricted on account of the unprecedented West River floods causing destruction to the mulberry trees . The European War brought about the complete collapse of the trade . Exports ' to Europe 22,928 bales


- 60 

against 37,300 in 1913, and Exports to America 16,967 bales as against 18,800 . The export of Cassia Oil was spasmodic all through the year. Prices averaged about $ 155 per picul for 70/75 per cent ., $ 165 per picul for 75/80 per cent., $ 175 per picul for 80/85 per cent . Matting and mats exported to America fell off by about one - third in comparison with the preceding year . Kerosine consumption increased. The flour import for the year from America was 3,516,420 bags and from Canada 423,334 , making a total of 3,939,754, a decrease of 1,236,769 in the previous year. Australian shipments were small. The demand for Canadian flour continued to increase . The demand for rice from America , South Africa and Canada almost doubled itself . The importation of Indian Opium entirely stopped. Stocks of certified opium in Hong Kong and Shanghai amounted to 7,800 chests. The formation of an opium combine gave the importers an opportunity of clearing holdings before the trade was abolished. Prices ranged as follows :-- Patna New $ 5,975-9,325, Patna Old $ 5,750 9 , 200 , Benares New $ 3,800-9,050, Benares Old $ 5,575-9,150, Malwa $ 5,550-9,150. The total Shipping entered and cleared amounted to 517,439 vessels of 36,756,951 tons, an increase over 1913 of 27.211 vessels but a decrease of 986,031 net register tons. 

Public Works.--The following buildings were completed during the year :-New Magistracy (with the exception of certain internal fittings) , Subordinate Officers' Quarters at Breezy Point and Mount Parish in Victoria and adjoining King's Park , Kowloon , stables for Sanitary Department adjoining No. 1 Police Station, two underground trough closets , one in Pottinger Street and the other in D’Aguilar Street, a urinal at Happy Valley , additions to the Printing Office, Victoria Gaol, and additions and alterations to the Hung Hom Police Station . The following new roads were completed during the year : --the first portion of the road on North face of the Victoria Peak commencing from Victoria Gap and the road to give access to the lots situated on the ridge


61 

to the East of Happy Valley. Belchers Street extended through ML. 239 and the old road from Deep Water Bay to Shaukiwan through Stanley was improved 

Was 

by diverting and widening it at several points. In the New Territories the extension of the road at Castle Peak Bay and the construction of the pier there were practical ly completed during the vear as was also the road from Taipo to Fanling with the exception of two bridges. 

Upwards of 10,000 lineal feet of stream courses 

were 

trained in the neighbourhood of Shaukiwan and I'okfulam , in the City and Hill Districts and in Kowloon. In the New Territories, a small amount of training was carried out in the vicinity of the Railway Bungalows at Taipo . 

Considerable extensions of sewers in connection with new building lots were carried out in Hong Kong and Kowloon . The reclamation in front of K.M.L.s 29-31 was completed . The construction of the Depôt for coaling and repairing Government launches menced on a part of this reclamation and at the close of 

was com 

the year the slipway for Government launches was nearing completion . Good progress was made with the construction of the masonry dam of the new impounding reservoir at Tytam Tuk and with the laying of the necessary mains and foundations for additional pumping plant. The new pumping station on Pokfulam Road to supersede the one on Bonham Road was completed and brought into use during the year. The construction of extensive filter beds and of a large service reservoir for the supply of the Western District of the City was under taken towards the close of the year. The construction of the large breakwater and the other works in con-. 

nection with the Typhoon Refuge at Mongkoktsui were nearing completion at the end of the year. 

Legislation . - 33 Ordinances ( 19 amendment) passed. The principal matters dealt with were :-Opium , Cremation, Seditious Publications, Public Lighting, Obscene Publications, Dentistry, Wild Birds and Game Preservation , Piracy Prevention , Trading with the Enemy, Special Police Reserve and Alien Enemies ( Winding up ).


62 

1915. 

Principal Events. — Tiger killed in New Ter ritories . 1 European and 2 Indian Constables died from wounds ( 8/3 ). Hannametal restored to by Hong Kong Prize Court ( 1/4 ) . Bank of China authorised 

Owner 

to issue 3,000,000 dollars in subsidiary notes . ( 22/4 ) . Japan presented Ultimatum to China ( 7/5) . Chinese Government submitted to Japan's demands ( 9/5) . A sum of £ 4,500 remitted to the Overseas Club for two aeroplanes for the British Government. One presented by the partners of the Tai Yau Bank and the other by general subscriptions among the British and Chinese communities ( 20/5 ). British Chamber of Commerce inaugurated in Shanghai (25/5 ). Shanghai suffered from a severe typhoon ( 28/7) . Disaster in Kwongtung Province by the flooding of the West River. Thousands lost their lives and thousands more were made homeless . Fire in Canton ; estimated that 10,000 people perished . The Hong Kong Government voted $ 50,000 in addition to a relief fund raised by the Tung Wah Hospital ( 29/7) . American Chamber of Commerce at Shanghai organised (18/8) . Their Majesties the King and Queen presented their portraits to the Colony (23/9 ). New French Convent orphanage opened by Lady May (6/10). Open air fête in the Public Gardens in aid of the British Red Cross Society and the Order of St. John of Jerusalem (27/10 ). Important judgment delivered by Sir Samuel Evans, President of the Prize Court, on the status of Arnhold , Karberg & Co. ( 23/11 ). Death of the Hon . Mr. E. A. HEWETT, C.M , ., ( 24/11), Election of the Hon. Mr. D. LANDALE as Chairman of the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce ( 9/11). President Yuan Shih - kai invited to ascend dragon throne by the pro vincial delegates at Peking (13/12 ). Memorial stone of new Harbour Refuge at Mongkoktsui laid by His Excellency the Governor ( 16/12). 

Trade & Industries.-- Exchange showed a steady rising tendency beginning in January with ls. 9d. and ending in December with ls , llà. There were no

63 

violent fluctuations during the year. The market in Indian Yarn ruled steady for the most of the year ; the volume of business transacted during the year 

was 

108,000 bales, being 30,700 bales more than in 1914 . In the piecegoods trade there was a good business in fancy goods, but big stocks of grey and white shirtings accumulated owing to the shortage of dyes. Woollen goods reached a very high price owing to the fact that Home spinners and weavers were busy on war contracts; an opportunity was therefore presented of disposing of stocks harboured in the Colony since 1911. In October and November silk prices reached a very high figure . Exports to Europe amounted to 13,474 bales as against 22,928 in 1914 , and exports to America 26,800 bales as against 16,967. There was not much business in opium, stocks having been sold to the Chinese authorities. Imports of Kerosene increased by 10 per cent. Business in metals was almost at a standstill for want of material. Large profits were made in shipping, freights reaching very high rates. The total shipping entered and cleared during the year amounted to 531,602 vessels of 33,884,919.tons. Floods in the Canton province had a most disastrous effect on trade during the year . 

Public Works. --The following buildings were completed during the year : - Married Quarters for Police in Caine Road, a new block in the lower yard of Victoria Gaol (containing 78 cells) , a School in the Hill District, new P.W.D. Stores in Bullock Lane, a low - power Wireless Telegraph Station at Cape D’Aguilar, an addi tion to the Land Office at Tai Po to provide quarters for a Land Bailiff and a Police Station at Lok Ma Chau in the New Territories. A new road, 20 feet wide, con necting the old Aberdeen -Stanley Road with Deep Water Bay, was completed. Upwards of 5,000 lineal feet of stream -courses were trained in the neighbourhood of Aberdeen, in the City and Hill District, and in Kowloon . In the New Territories, the training of the streams in the vicinity of the Railway bungalows at Tai Po was extended. Considerable extensions of sewers in con

64 

nection with new building lots were carried out in Hong Kong and Kowloon . The construction of the large breakwater and other works in connection with the Typhoon Refuge at Mongkoktsui was completed in August and a commemoration stone was laid by H.E. the Governor in December. Good progress was made with the construction of the masonry dam of the new im pounding reservoir at Tytam Tuk whilst the laying of two new pumping mains and the extension of the pump ing station to accommodate the additional plant were completed. Good progress was also made with the construction of extensive filter beds and a large service reservoir for the supply of the Western District of the City. The whole of 1.L. 3 was resumed in connection with a scheme for the extension of the Central Police Station . 

Legislation.- 35 Ordinances ( 14 Amendment) 


passed. The principal matters dealt with 

were : 


Seditious Publications ( Possession ), Estate Duty, Post Office , Asiatic Emigration, Companies, Deportation, Military Stores (Exportation ), Declaration of Ultimate Destination, Alien Enemies (Winding up ), Trading with the Enemy, and Travellers Restriction. 

1916. 

(Mr. Claud Severn administered from 6.11.16 to 8.12,16) . 

Principal Events . - Yaumati Dispensary opened by His Excellency the Governor ( 25/1 ) . Inauguration of new Catholic Orphanage at West Point (2/3). Sailors of the Royal Navy on service in the China Sea enter tained by Hong Kong ladies ( 18/3) . Rousing War Speech by His Excellency the Governor at the annual dinner of Hong Kong Volunteer Corps Sergeants ' Mess ( 25/3 ). Establishment of a school for study of Chinese suggested at Annual Meeting of the Hong Kong Chamber of Commerce ( 28/3). Wreck of the S.S. Chiyo Maru near eastern extremity of Lema group of islands. All

65 

passengers rescued (31/3). Rival factions met at Hoi Chu, Canton, to discuss ways and means of preserving peace in Kwongtung Province. The Conference ended in bloodshed ( 12/1) . New Pavilion on Hong Kong Uni versity Athletic Ground declared open by His Excellency the Governor ( 3,5 ). China Coast Officers ' strike ended, the guild being recognised and extra pay and bonus granted ( 14/5) . Death of President Yuan Shih - kai (6/6 ). Memorial Services in the Union Church and St. John's Cathedral for Lord Kitchener and for those who were killed in the naval battle off Jutland ( 11th and 14th June). Canton -Kowloon train attacked by robbers in Chinese Territory. Casualties were numerous ( 15/6 ). Chinese Parliament re -opened by President Li Yuan -hung ( 1/8) . Political unrest for a considerable period in Kwongtung culminated in attacks on the City of Canton from the North and West which continued for some weeks . All business in Canton almost entirely suspended. Hundreds killed and the hospitals crowded with wounded (5/8 ). Hong Kong Police Reserve Club opened by His Excellency the Governor (9/8 ). Opening of the Helena May Institute ( 12/9). Opening of Ellis Kadoorie School for Indians (15/10 ). “ Our Day ” -on behalf of the Red Cross Funds ---total drawings of $ 41,000 effected ( 19/10 ). " Heather Day” in Hong Kong, proceeds of £ 1,582 effected ( 1/12) . Opening of National Mission ( 2/12) . Trade & Industries at . - Exchange opened 1/1116 and reached 2/4} in May; it then dropped to 2/13 ( 30th June), but again advanced until it reached 2/4 on the 31st December. Business transactions in Indian yarn amounted to 141,800 bales during the year, an increase of 33,000 bales over the previous year . The piece goods market was somewhat restricted owing to delay in supplies from Home. Towards the end of the year a large number of orders were booked as a result of the rising exchange. Business in white shirtings still remained dull owing to the scarcity of dyes. Supplies of woollen goods were short as the Home mills were occupied in making Army cloth ; prices

66 

were too high to permit of much business being done. Flour imports during the year amounted to 1,604,033 bags, a decrease of 471,086 as compared with 1915 . There was little business in opium . The consumption of petroleum and its products decreased about 40 % 

during the year on account of scarcity of tonnage, abnormally high freight rates, and the disturbed condi tion of South China . Metals were in strong demand throughout the year. The demand for Tin Plates was exceptionally strong. It was difficult to place orders for Structural Steel and Shipbuilding material as American mills were booked up. The total shipping entered and cleared during the year amounted to 642,794 vessels of 36,381,459 tons, an increase of 111,192 vessels and 2,496,538 tons over 1915 . 

Public Works. The only building worthy of mention , completed during the year, was a new block of Quarters for Subordinate Officers ( 6 houses) on the east side of Happy Valley. Matsheds were erected at Castle Peak Bay for occupation as a Police Station . The Creek at Au Tau was bridged by a ferro - concrete bridge, thus linking up Castle Peak Bay with Fanling, Taipo, etc. , and the widening of the road from near Sheung Shui to San Tin to 20 feet in width was completed . Upwards of 6,500 lineal feet of stream - courses were trained in the neighbourhood of the City, Aberdeen , and Pokfulam , and in Kowloon. Considerable extensions of sewers in connection with new buildings were carried out in Hong Kong and Kowloon . An additional filter -bed, being the fourth , in connection with the Kowloon Water Works, was constructed below the Taipo Road , near the 5th milestone. Somewhat extensive dredging operations off Kowloon Point in connection with the erection of a new pier , 655 feet in length , by the Hong Kong & Kow loon Wharf & Godown Company, were completed. An additional telephone cable, containing 20 cores, was laid across the Harbour but was unfortunately so seriously damaged by a vessel during a storm in September that it had to be taken up again. Good progress was made

67 

with the new impounding reservoir at Tytam Tuk and with the additional filter beds and service reservoir for the supply of the Western District of the City . The filling -in, levelling, and draining of Sookunpoo Valley to form an additional recreation ground also made good progress. 

Legislation . — 15 Ordinances ( 4 amendment) passed . The principal matters dealt with were :-False Passports and Suspected Persons , Punishment of Incest, Trading with the Enemy (Extension of Powers) , Marriage of British Subjects (Facilities) , Registration of Persons, Trading with the Enemy ( Amendment), Pharmacy and Poisons, Taxation of Tobacco, War Loan, and Bills of Exchange. 

1917. 

(Mr. Claud Severn administered from 10.11.17 to 17.12.17 . ) Principal Events. - Joint Conference of the National Medical Association and the Medical Missionary Association inaugurated at Canton ( 24/1). Foundation stone of the new Chinese Y.M.C.A , building in Bridges Street laid by the Bishop of Victoria ( 10/2). Launch of the Autolycus, the largest ship built in British Overseas Dominions, by the Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co., Ltd. ( 27/3). Hong Kong Constitutional Reform Association formally inaugurated at a public meeting in the Theatre Royal ( 3/5 ). A St. George's Society for Hong Kong formed at a meeting of Englishmen in the City Hall ( 31/5 ). Restoration of the Emperor of China by Chang Hsun and the monarchist party ( 1/7 ) . Premises of the Deutsche-Asiatische Bank, in Queen's Road Central, sold by auction for $ 335,000 . 

Trade & Industries. - Exchange fluctuated be tween 2/32 and 2,45 until the end of April when a steady advance was made until it stood at 3/2 ; at the

68 

end of September; a sharp decline then took place with subsequent recovery and the rate on 31st December stood at 3 /- The yarn market suffered from the violent fluctuations in prices during the year . A crisis was at one time imminent following on a sudden fall in prices coupled with a rise in exchange. Later in the year, however, the position improved and some profitable business resulted . Though Manchester prices continued to rise the enhanced value of the dollar allowed of a good volume of business being done in piece goods, the prices of which would otherwise have been beyond the reach of the Chinese . The trade in woollens was negligible owing to high prices. The trade in Sundries was mostly with Japan and America , the former supply ing most of the articles formerly imported from Germany. Imports of Flour amounted to 1,072,089 bags. Due to war conditions, Japan took first place with 922,377 bags as against 81,700 in 1916 , while only 11,850 bags were imported from the United States as against 975,771 in 1916 . Business in opium was practically at a standstill during the year. The consumption of kerosene increased by 5,000,000 gallons. The metal market generally was good for the first half year, but later owing to a lessened demand from Japan prices declined and the year closed with a weaker tendency. Shipbuilding materials were entirely under Government control and it was difficult to obtain supplies. The total shipping entered and cleared during the year amounted to 621,090 vessels of 34,105,067 tons, a decrease of 21,704 vessels and 2,276,390 on 1916 . 

Public Works.-- The Taitam Tuk Scheme, Second Section , commenced in 1912 completed October 22nd . This Scheme comprises ( i ) A Storage Reservoir at sea level, capacity 1,419 million galls. ( ii) Extension of existing Pumping Station to accommodate additional machinery. ( ii ) Two additional additional sets of Pumping Machinery, each capable of raising 3 million gallons per day to Taitam Tunnel. ( iv ) Two suction mains, 18 " diameter and 0:52 mile in length . ( v) Two rising mains


69 

18 " diameter and 1.93 miles in length. The Dam has an extreme length of 1,255 feet with an extreme height from foundations to the roadway of 170 feet , to the crest of the overflow 161 feet, is of cement concrete faced with granite. Pumping Machinery, supplied and erected by J. Simpson & Co. of London, vertical inverted direct-acting type. Engines triple expansion, piston rods of three cylinders directly connected to single - acting plunger pumps. Designed to run at 30 revolutions per minute. Three boilers Lancashire type each 26'0" in length by 7' 0 " diameter; two capable of running the whole plant. Satisfactory progress made with the additional Filter Beds and Service Reservoir for the Western District of the City Central Police Station Extension progress substantial. Considerable road construction and improvements carried out. Coastal Road from Shamshuipo to Castle Peak commenced. Existing road from Deep Water Bay to Repulse Bay widened , regraded, and diverted where necessary for ootor traffic. Road from Fanling to Castle Peak : sec tion from San Tin to Au Tau widened to 20 feet. Taipo Road , between th and 9th milestones, widened and improved , shortening the section by 3,100 feet. 10,383 lineal feet of stream - courses trained in the City , Peak, Shaukiwan , Pokfulam , and Kowloon Districts. Ex tensions of the sewerage systems made in Hong Kong, Kowloon , and Shamshuipo. New Recreation Ground, Sookunpoo Valley, completed . 

Legislation.-32 Ordinances ( 12 amendment) passed . The principal matters dealt with were : Crown Land Resumption, Alien Enemies ( Winding up) Amendment , Trading with the Enemy and Export of Prohibited Goods, Rating (Special War Rate ), Military Service, Legal Proceedings against Enemies, Liquors, Deportation, Opium , Ferries, Importation and Exporta tion, Contracts (War Restrictions ), and Fire and Marine Insurance Companies Deposit.


70 

1918. 

(Mr. Claud Severn administered from 12.9.18 to 13.12.18) . 

Principal Events. - Sensational affair at Gresson Street between the Police and a gang of armed desperadoes : Detective Inspector O'Sullivan, Detective Sergeant Clerk , an Indian constable, and a Chinese detective shot dead ; Sergeant Wills and one of the principal Chinese detectives wounded ; two robbers killed, one shot himself, tvo escaped, subsequently arrested ( 22/1 ) . Opening of the Taitam Tuk reservoir by H.E. the Governor ( 2/2) . Serious fire at the shipyards at Cheung-sha -wan : 500 people homeless (3/2 ). Earth quake shock felt in Hong Kong: serious damage at Swatow, over 800 people injured ( 13/2). Disaster at the Race Course : collapse of Chinese matsheds caused a fire ; over 600 bodies recovered ; racing abandoned ( 26/2) ; exhaustive enquiry commenced (4/3) concluded ( 12/4) . The Bishop of Victoria dedicated , at St. John's Cathedral, tablet in memory of the late Dr. J. M. Atkinson , former Principal Civil Medical Officer of Ilony Kong ( 21 ) , 3 ). The new pavilion of the Tailo Bow ling Club declared open ( 1/6) . H.E. the Governor un veiled tablet in remembrance of the late Rev. N. C. Pope , St. Andrew's Church , Kowloon ( 7/7) . Indian constable ran amok at Tai 0 : Sergeant Glendinning killed ( 17/7). Landslide at Morrison Hill Road : fifty ton rock crashed into houses, six killed ( 4/8) . Lady May launched the War Drummer, the first standard ship built in Hong Kong - Hong Kong & Whampoa Dock Co. ( 10/8) . H.E. the Officer Administering the Government ( Hon . Mr. CLAUD SEVERN , C.M.G. ) opened the new Chinese Y.M.C.A. ( 10/10) . Armistice celebrations in Hong Kong - public holiday; special meeting of the Legislative Council; thanksgiving services at the local churches: meeting at the Hong Kong Club : mass meeting at the Theatre Roval ( 13/11). Memorial services for men who died on active service ( 29/12) .

71 

Trade & Industries.-- Exchange opened at 3/ and steadily advanced to 3/8 at end of September, when it fell sharply to 3/2 , recovering subsequently ; the rate stood at 3/44 on 31st December. Violent fluctuations were again experienced in the yarn market, but importers as well as Chinese dealers did a fairly profitable trade . The piece goods trade was adversely affected by the disturbed conditions in China, up-country dealers fear ing to keep large stocks. " Manchester prices increased considerably during the year and little new business was placed, European importers continuing to draw on their old stocks bought at lower prices. There was a steady advance in the prices of woollens , new stocks of which were for the most part unobtainable. In the Sundries trade Japan continued to be the chief source of the supply, war restrictions rendering most of the regular lines unobtainable in Great Britain and the U.S.A., Australia supplied many wants , food - stuffs in particular , in a restricted manner . The year was a very poor one for the four trade, owing to high prices and lack of tonnage. In February the Japanese Government put an embargo on the export of flour, except under special licence, and difficulty was experienced in getting flour from Australia as freight space was very limited . Imports of flour amounted to only 706,509 bags , of which 42,500 bags came from Japan , 342,009 from Australia, and 322,000 from Shanghai. The slump in the opium market continued during the year. The unsettled state of the neighbouring province seriously hampered the sale of kerosene in the interior, especially in Hainan , the Luichow Peninsula, and Yeungkong. The metal trade was very profitable during the first half of the year, but the news of the Armistice knocked the bottom out of the market and resulted in the cancellation of a large number of orders . Little business was done in the soy trade as stocks were very low owing to shipping difficulties which prevented the arrival of molasses . Shipments of bristles were much above normal , due almost entirely to war requirements. Buyers in both


72 

the U.S.A. and Great Britain complained of the poor quality of the South China bristles. A good business was done in Ginger and Human Hair . Little business was done in Aniseed Oil and Cassia Oil . The total of shipping entered and cleared amounted to 579,541 vessels of 29,518,189 tons, a decrease of 53,537 vessels and 4,974,484 tons. 

Public Works. — Market at Shamshuipo com pleted . Central Police Station Extension practically at a standstill owing to difficulty in obtaining steelwork . A new road from the north end of Taitam Tuk Dam to Taitam Gap, 20 feet in width, completed, also a new road , 40 feet wide, west of Aberdeen Village Consider able portions of the old road, eastward and westward of Aberdeen Village, widened to 30 or 40 feet and other wise improved for motor traffic . Extensive improve ments to Pokfulam Road in progress. New Territories road , 20 feet in width , from 3rd milestone. Taipo Road to the village of Tsün Wan, nearly 6 miles, completed. Extensive road construction or improvements in progress, both Hong Kong and mainland . Upwards of 3,200 lineal feet of stream -courses trained in the neighbourhood of the City, Tsat Tsz Mui, and Kowloon . Extensions of sewers in connection with new buildings in Hong Kong, Kowloon , and Shamshuipo. Filter Beds and Service Reservoir for the Western District of the City nearly completed. Piers hitherto used by ferry launches between the City and western side of Kowloon Peninsula resumed by Government. Areas known as Kowloon Marine Lot 83 and Kowloon Inland Lot 1178 , in Hung hom Bay , resumed by Government at cost of 

a

$ 383.807.90 for future railway and wharfage develop ments . 

Legislation.-- 15 Ordinances ( 6 amendment) passed. The principal matters dealt with were : -- The Malay States Extradition Ordinance Repeal. Indecent Exhibitions, Bills of Exchange ( Time of Noting) , Claims against Enemies, Dangerous Smoking Prevention, Peak District (Residence ), General Military Service, Copyright, Anglo -Portuguese Commercial Treaty, and Opium . 

73 

1919. 

Governor Sir Francis Henry May, K.C.M.G., LL.D., ( +.7.1912 , retired 28.2.1919). 

( Allr . Claud Severn , C.M.G., administered from 1.1.19 . to 29.9.19) . 

(Governor Sir Reginald Edward Stubbs , K.C.M.G., assumed' administration 30.9.19) . 

Principal Events . — Mr. Wei Yuk created Knight Bachelor in New Year Honours ( 1/1 ) . Meeting in City Hall in celebration of the termination of the war ( 5/1 ) . Meeting in City Hall under auspices of Constitutional Reform Association ( 9/1 ) . Retirement of Sir Francis HENRY MAY, K.C.M.G., LL.D., from governorship of the Colony announced as from end of February, 1919 ( 22/1) . Joint session of Executive and Legislative Councils ; resolution passed acknowledging the services rendered to the Colony by Sir FRANCIS HENRY MAY ( 25/1 ) . Arrival of Vice - Admiral Sir F. C. TUDOR , Commander 

in - Chief, China Station ( 13/2) . Meeting of Hong Kong War Charities Committee ; organisation wound up ( 3/3 ). His Excellency the Officer Administering the Govern ment ( Mr. CLAUD SEVERN , C.M.G.) opened the new University Medical Schools (23/5 ). Peace Celebrations ( 18/7 and 19/7) . Disturbances owing to shortage and high price of rice ( 26/7 ); Government relieves situation by buying rice and selling at cost price. Last parade of the Hong Kong Police Reserve ( 20/9 ). Afrival of His Excellency the Governor, Sir REGINALD EDWARD STUBBS, K.C.M.G. ( 30/9) . Meeting of Kowloon residents to form a Kowloon Residents' Association ( 1/12) . Escape of four prisoners from Victoria Goal; Warder Speed and an Indian Warder murdered ( 15/12) . Last parade of Hong Kong Defence Corps ( 17/12) 

Trade & Industries. - Exchange opened at 3/4 and dropped to 3/03 in March , when it rose until on 15th December it reached 6/2 . It fell to 4/102 by the


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31st December . In the Yarn market the general tendency was towards higher prices. A strong demand for cloth existed and both manufacturers and traders of cotton goods experienced a very prosperous year. The year was on the whole a good one in the piece goods business. Manchester prices dropped about March, but a rapid rise soon followed due to heavy buying by Shanghai and other Chinese centres. The increased prices were, however, fortunately off -set by the continued rise in Exchange. Little business was done in woollens owing to the high prices ruling in the United Kingdom . British Sundries began during the year to find their way to China in increasing quantities. With the Japanese boycott there arose a certain demand for Chinese manu factured goods. There was no market for opium . The price of kerosene fell 70 cents on packed and 45 cents on bulk , due to the advance in sterling Exchange and the lower cost of tin plates. The metal market was dull and prices fluctuated considerably . Owing to shipping difficulties and the high Exchange very little business was done in Soy, Aniseed Oil and Cassia Oil. A large business was done in Feathers and Human Hair. There was practically no export trade in Bristles ; owing to excessive adulteration foreign buyers would not touch the South China article without certain guarantees, which merchants were unable to give. The total of shipping entered and cleared amounted to 649,168 vessels of 35,615,169 tons, an increase of 69,627 vessels and 6,096,980 tons. 

Public Works. Central Police Station Extension practically completed ; also an extension of the Harbour Office building, to accommodate Imports and Exports Office and an extension of the Lunatic Asylum . A third storey added to the Public Works Department Annexe . 

In Kowloon a second block of quarters for Subordinate Officers ( 6 houses) completed and , on Lantao Island , a market at Tai O completed . Improvements to Pokfulam Road continued and the remaining two sections of motor

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road round the Island , extending fronı Repulse Bay to Taitam Tuk and from Taitam Gap to Shaukiwan , com pleted . Widening of Queen's Road East undertaken . In Kowloon , a new road to Taikoktsui completed. 20- ft . road from Tsün Wan to Castle Peak completed, thus 

forming a circular route , 57 miles in length , on the main land . Tai Po Road Improvements continued. 3,400 lineal feet of stream -courses trained in Hong Kong and Kowloon . Main sewer laid along east side of Mount Kellett to connect with outfall sewer from Matilda Hospital . Filter Beds and Service Reservoir for Western District of the City completed. Beaconsfield Arcade resumed at a cost of $ 275,000 and R.B.L. 111 at a cost of $ 31,002 . K.F.L. 11 resumed at cost of 

$ 41,076.73 for extension of Coronation Road north 

wards . 

Legislation. —23 Ordinances ( 7 amendment) passed . The principal matters dealt with were :-Non Ferrous Metal Industry, Banking Business ( Prohibited Control), Termination of the Present War ( Definition ), Marine Stores Protection , Enemy Aliens Restriction , Rice and Military Service Repeal. 

1920. 

Principal Events.-- Appointment by H.E. the Governor of Committees to consider the development of the Colony's economic resources and the question of the protection of life and property during typhoons ( 10/1). Honorary degree of LLJ), conferred on Sir HENRY MAY, G.C.M.G., and Hon . Mr. CLAUD SEVERN, C.M.G., Colonial Secretary, by the University of Hong Kong ( 16/1). Kowloon Residents' Association formed at a meeting in the City Hall ( 20/1). Formation of Aero Club of Hong Kong ( 3/2 ). Destructive fire at West Point ; 53 deaths; damage estimated at $ 1,500,000 ( 3/2) . New Hong Kong Volunteer Force Bill passed ( 5/2) . Honorary degree of LL.D. conferred on Sir John JORDAN, P.C. , G.C.I E. , K.C.B. , K.C.M.G., by

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the University of Hong Kong ( 7/3 ). Peace Celebrations Executive Committee decided on erection of Cenotaph on site in front of Hong Kong Club ( 16/3 ); decision confirmed at meeting of General Peace Celebrations Committee ( 21/3) . Strike of Chinese engineers and fitters employed in Hong Kong dockyards (3/4 ); strike of fitters of Hong Kong Tramway Company ( 10/4 ) ; settlement reached ( 20/4 ). First meeting of newly appointed Board of Education ( 14/4) . Arrival in Hong Kong of H.R.H. the Crown Prince of Roumania ( 10/6) . Government announced its decision contribute 

to 

$ 1,000,000 to the Endowment Fund of the University of Hong Kong, and to meet the existing indebtedness of the University, amounting to $ .570,000 , in accordance with the recommendations of the Hong Kong University Commission ( 13/9). Arrival of new Bishop of Victoria, Dr. DuPPUY, in succession to Dr. LANDER, retired ( 3/11). Sir MAURICE FITZMAURICE arrived to inspect and report on the development of Hong Kong Harbour ( 13/11). Public Meeting in City Hall approved of the erection , as a War Memorial, of a Club for the joint use of the Services and civilians, to be run under Y.M.C.A. management ( 2/12) . Arrival of Major General Sir GEORGE M. KIRKPATRICK, new G.O.C China, ( 29/12 ). 

Trade & Industries . ---Exchange opened at 4/11 and rose to 5/8 on 2nd March , when it began to fall rapidly until it touched 3/6 on 10th June, rising to 4/4 on 15th September, and declining to 3/0 ] on 20th December. The rate on 31st December was 3/2 . The Yarn market was dull; demand was very slack owing, to a great extent, to the civil war in South China. Prices 

fell rapidly in April following on a heavy slump in Japan where there were large accumulations brought about by the holding back of Yarn by speculators. This collapse demoralized the markets in China and India . In piece goods Manchester prices steadily advanced , but later in the year, owing to an absence of demand, prices declined




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by about 50 % . During the latter half of the year busi ness was slack and the year closed with fairly large stocks in the Colony. As a result of the rise in Exchange large orders for woollens were placed in Bradford early in the year, though prices were abnormally high, and even when the dollar began to decline orders were placed in the hope of a recovery in exchange. The expected recovery did not materialize and the year closed leaving importers with stocks of high priced goods on which heavy losses had to be faced . The Sundries trade was not a good one chiefly as a result of the high prices prevailing early in the year. Strikes in the United Kingdom interfered considerable extent with 

to a 

deliveries . Motor car sales were good during the latter half of the year. There was no business in opium ; there were now only a few chests in the Colony which were left on the hands of former opium merchants. The kerosene trade generally was normal, though some large dealers suffered losses through looting and incendiarism during the fighting in the interior. Business was quiet in the metal market. Japanese buyers, having greatly over bought, disposed of their surplus stocks at very low . 

prices , and firms that could finance it bought up much of this stock and stored it . There was, therefore, practically no purchasing in foreign markets. Little business was done in Yunnan Tin, Bristles, Ginger, Feathers , and Cassia Oil . A good business was done in Aniseed Oil . Exports of Human Hair approximated 7.051 piculs, valued at £ 163,429 . Exports of Mats and Matting amounted to about £ 507,360 . The total of shipping entered and cleared amounted to 683,497 vessels of 40,122,527 tons, an increase of 34,329 vessels and 4,507,358 tons over 1919 . 

Public Works. Central Police Station and Har bour Office extensions completed . In Kowloon a Fire Brigade Station was completed. The erection of sereral houses for Government Officers was commenced . А road commencing at Morrison Gap Road and terminat


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ing at Wanchai Gap was completed as was also the Find lay Road extension . Extensive widening and improve ments were carried out to the Shaukiwan Road . In Kowloon a road commencing in the Kowloon City Road and terminating near the New Station of the China Light & Power Co. was completed. A considerable extent of the low lying areas east of Shanghai Street and north of Fife Street was brought up to the district formation level with filling obtained from the cutting being carried out in connection with the extension of Coronation Road northwards. Extensive improvements to the Taipo Road between the 9th and 18th milestones were nearly com pleted. Progress was made with the widening of Wanchai and Queen's Roads. Upwards of 4.000 lineal feet of stream courses were trained . A section of the 18" main which will eventually connect the Eastern Filter Beds was laid from Wong- nei- chong Village to Morrison Gap Road . A new 18 " supply main was laid from the Kowloon Filter Beds to Yaumati. The Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Co., Ltd. made considerable extensions to their dockvards at Hunghom by laving down additional slipways , extending workshops and providing houses for their staff . 

Legislation. -17 Ordinances ( 6 amendment) passed . The principal matters dealt with were : Foreign Corporations (Execution of Instruments under Seal), Volunteer, Treaty of Peace Orders, Societies, Plants , and Criminal Intimidation. 

1921. 

( Nr. Claud Severn , C.M.G., administered the Govern ment from 8.4.21 to 11.5.21 ) , 

Principal Events.- Hong Kong War Memorial Cross unveiled by H.E. the Governor ( 29/1 ) Wreck of the Hong Moh off the Lammocks ; about 250 saved by the N.C. steamer Shansi H.M.S. Carlisle and H.M.S. Forglove ( 3/3) . Marine Court Finding as to Hong Moh


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disaster : faulty navigation : rescue work praised, “ specially Capt. E.R. G. R. Evans, R.N.” (11/5 ). Private Visit of H.I.H. the Crown Prince of Japan en route for Europe ( 10/3). Commission of Inquiry into Child Labour appointed by II.E. the Governor ( 24/3 ). Recommendations of commission published (27/10 ). Suggestion that rates on tenements be increased from 13 to 20 per cent. not approved ( 7/4 ) . Proposals for new and increased stamp duties introduced in the Legislative Council ( 14/4 ) . Chamber of Commerce protests against new stamp duties and suggests Government loans instead ( 21/4). Stamp Ordinance passed into law ( 30/4 ). Inauguration of Sir William Brunyate, K.C.M.G., as Vice- Chancellor of Hong Kong University. Honorary degree of LL.D. conferred upon Dr. G. P. Jordan ( 7/4 ) . Scheme outlined for transferring the Diocesan Boys ' School to Kowloon (19/5 ). Suspension of Banque Indus trielle de Chine ; many small investors affected ( 2/7 ) . The removal of military establishments from central districts discussed by Legislative Council ( 1/9 ). Major General Sir John Fowler, K.C.M.G., C.B., D.S.O., appointed to the China Command ( 12/10 ). Foundations of the new Statue Pier begun (1/11). First annual meeting of the S.P.C.A. ( 29/11). Death of Sir Boshan Wei Yuk, Kt . , C.M.G. ( 16/12). 

Trade & Industry . - Exchange in the opening days of the year stood at 3/13 . A rapid fall to 2/5 occurred and, in March, it stood at 2/21 . April to September saw a steady recovery and, in October, it reached 2/11 ]. Thenceforward, there was a decline until the end of the year, the lowest figure touched being 2/62. Cotton varied in price from about 7d . to 1/2 ; in yarn there were fairly heavy fluctuations and the results of the rear were satisfactory. Japanese competition was not severe. The piece goods market opened with considerable supplies of high priced stocks which could not be cleared owing to the shipment of cheaper stocks from Shanghai, while political disturb ances in the interior stilled the demand. The de

80 

pression in the trade in woollens continued, and high priced stocks carried from 1920 remained unsold . At the beginning of the year there were heavy stocks of raw silk and America bought at advancing prices, with few offers from Lyons, and later on Japan entered the market, the prices became too high for American purchasers, and stocks began to accumulate at Canton . Both the import and export of rice suffered from the mcertainty produced by instable exchange, supply exceeding demand and lowering prices. The raw sugar market also experienced falling prices; in some cases even the cost of production was not covered . Coal prices at the beginning of the year were low but with the closing down of many mines in Japan prices rose and Cardiff coal entered the market as a serious competitor. Prices for soy and ginger and matting declined , and for woodoil and groundnuts rose slightly. Some business was done in Galangal and human hair , but little was reported with Yunnan Tin, bristles, feathers, aniseed oil , cassia oil and sundries. Business in the metal market was fair, with dealers buying sparingly during the first six months; but a con siderable drop in prices followed the entry of Germany into the market and freight rates also fell. A consider able number of motor cars, more especially the cheaper American makes, were sold during the first half of the year. 

Public Works.-- 1 . COMPLETED :-(u) Quarters for senior and subordinate European Officers at Leighton Hill, Severn Road, and Happy Valley. ( 6 ) Road contour ing south side of Mount Davis linking Pokfulam Road with Victoria Road; first section of road from Tytam Gap to Shek 0. ( c) Additional rising main to the Peak ; Water Supply installations to Repulse Bay and Fan Ling : replacement of 12" main by 18 " main from Kowloon filter beds to Yaumati. ( d) Aplichau Reclamation Scheme. ( e) Queen Victoria Street ferry pier. ( f) “ Aga” light towers at Lam Tong and Tong Ku Íslands and the Channel Rocks.


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2. UNDER CONSTRUCTION.— (a) New Fire Brigade Station Building opposite the Central Market; site pre paration for the Kowloon Hospital. ( 6) Second section of the road from Tytam Gap to Shek 0. A 20' road from Wanchai Gap to Magazine Gap and thence to Chamberlain Road, and another of similar width from Bowen Road contouring the hill towards Sookumpoo Valley ; Queen's Road East widening; Coronation Road; Kowloon City Mongkoktsui Road ; ( c) Filter Beds Scheme at the east end of Bowen Road ; two new filter beds for Kowloon Water Works ( l) Shamshuipo Reclamation ; Cheung Sha Wan Reclamation ; plans for the Praya East Reclamation ; ( e) Mongkoktsui Nullah (l) Wireless Station at Gap Rock. 

Legislation . - 32 Ordinances ( 15 amendment) were passed including the following :-Stamp, Criminal Procedure, Companies, Stocks, Judgments (Facilities for Enforcement). On the instruction of His Majesty the King , one additional unofficial member was appointed to the Executive Council. 

1922. 

(Mr. Claud Severn , C.M.G., administered from 15.6,22 to 18.11.22) . 

Principal Events. Seamen's strike ( 11/1) . Ex press train to Canon held up by armed men in Chinese territory (10/2). Death of Sir Ellis Kadoorie ( 24/2) .. Seamen's strike ended ( 5/3) . Scheme for the abolition of Mui Tsai announced in the House of Commons (22/3). Peak Residents' Association founded ( 28/3 ) . Arrival in Hong Kong of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales on board H.M.S. " Renown ” . Presentation of addresses in Special Pavilion . Reception of Ex -Service men . Prince played polo. Official Banquet. Fish Procession and Illuminations (6/4 ). H.R.H. inspected Troops; Stone laying of St. Stephen's Girls' College; University degree conferred upon H.R.H .; Masonic Ceremony; Royal Gymkhana ; Chinese Banquet; Community Ball Rocke feller Foundation's Endowment of $ 500,000 for chairs

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in Medicine and Surgery at Hong Kong University ( 7/4) . The Prince visited Kowloon . Departure for Japan ( 8/4 ) . Retirement from public life of Mr. Ho Kam -tong ( 1/5 ). Death of the Hon. Mr. LauChu Pak (3/5 ). Launchmen strike ( 19/5 ). Ewo War Memorial unveiled by Mr. 1 ) . G. M. Bernard ( 14/6). Peak Hospital leased to Government ( 8/99 ) . Dr. Jordan Memorial Library opened (15/9 ). Macao Steamer s.s. Sui An pirated ( 19/11). British Postal Agencies in China closed (30/11) Mui Tsai Bill introduced into the Legislative Council ( 28/12). 

Trade & Industry. - Exchange opened at 2/7 | and closed at the end of the year at 2/24 . A noteworthy feature of the yarn trade was the increasing demand in the South for yarn from Shanghai and Japan. and absence of demand for Indian yarn. In piece goods the Manchester market fluctuated during the year, but the prevailing tendency was toward weakness. Merchants exercised extreme caution in the woollen trade and sales were made only to reliable dealers who had stood by their contracts during the 1920-21 crisis . The Sundries trade was on the whole disappointing. German competition made itself felt . Native competition becomes stronger yearly. Siam and Singapore shippers took advantage of shipping facilities to wrest the rice trade with U.S.A. and West Indies from Hong Kong. In sugar, soy , anci bristles the market was steady and business moderate. Very small shipments of wood oil were made due to disturbed conditions. The price of groundnuts dropped from the beginning to the middle of the year but increased later. Prices of feathers had an upward tendency in consequence of bigger demand from Europe. Business in metals was difficult. The demand for Yunnan Tin which started low increased during the later part of the year. 

Public Works. -1 . COMPLETED :-(a) Outpatients Department, Government Civil Hospital; Extension to Fire Brigade Station, Kowloon ; new Class rooms, Kow loon British School: Land Bailiffs's Quarters, Pingshan.

8

( b ) 2nd and 3rd miles of the Tytam Gap to Shek 0 and D’Aguilar Road ; Wanchai Gap and Magazine Gap Road ; extension to the road contouring the hillside in Wong neichung and Tai Hang Valleys, and to Broadwood Road to connect with this road ; ist section of the Kowloon City-Mongkoktsui Road ; junction with Taipo Road by extension of Coronation Road. ( c) Extension to the Engine House, erection of a new boiler house, and the installation of pumping plant at Pokfualm Road Station ; two new filter beds and a gauge basin added to the Kowloon Waterworks; extension of water supply system at Fanling. (d ) Extension of the Mongkoktsui Nullah east and the draining of the large stream course to the east of Laichikok. (e ) Reinforced concrete pier opposite Queen's Statue ; the Yaumati Ferry pier opposite Public Square Street ; the reinforced concrete roof to the Ferry pier opposite Queen Victoria Street. ( 1) Wire less Station at Gap Rock ; the Diaphone Fog Signalling plant at Waglan. 

2. UNDER CONSTRUCTION :-(a) Maternity Block at Victoria Hospital; foundations of the New Fire Brigade Station ; Site formation for the new Queen's College Building : new Police Stations at Yaumati and Mong koktsui; Site for the Kowloon Hospital; Quarters for Senior Government Officers on Homestead and Leighton Ilill Sites; new offices for a portion of the Public Works Department Staff. ( 6 ) Improving and widening the road through Quarry Bay Village ; the low level road from Island Bay to Big Wave Bay; road from Tytam ( ap to Shek () and Cape D’Aguilar; motor road from Magazine ( iap to Peak Tramway Station on Stubbs Road ; Taipo to Shun Wan Road and Patrol Path from Sheung shui to the frontier. ( c) Eastern filter beds; Water dis tribution System for Lower Wanchai Gap district ; enlarging of water main for improving the distribution system in Kowloon ; preparation work on the Shek Lai Pui Reservoir and investigation work on the Shing Mun Scheme. ( d ) Reclamation at Praya East, Shamshuipo and Cheungshawan,


84 

Legislation.-- 25 Ordinances ( 12 amendment) were passed. The Principal matters dealt with were : Treaty of Peace Emergency Regulation , Rents, and the Industrial Employment of Children. On the instruction of His Majesty the King, the term for Unofficial Members on the Executive Council was fixed at 5 years , and that on the Legislative Council altered from six years to four years. 1923. 

Principal Events.-- Industrial Employment of Children Ordinance came into force. C.B.E. for the Hon. Mr. E. R. Hallifax, Secretary for Chinese Affairs ( 1/1 ) . Sui An Piracy Commission, Officers found negligent ( 8/2) . Mui Tsai Abolition Bill passed by the Legislative Council. Kowloon -Canton train held up near Canton . Chinese passengers held to ransom ( 23/2). Public meeting at the City Hall on education of British children (8/3). Steamer Wing Ping pirated ( 13/3 ). Piracy of a Shaukiwan junk (25/3 ). Seamen's dispute with " Blue Funnel" line over rates of pay (4/4). Chinese steamer Kwok Man pirated near Macao (5/4). The Chinese s.s. Sai Chow pirated near Whampoa ( 25/4 ). China Merchants steamer Tai Shun pirated near Swatow ( 12/5 ). Colony's War Memorial Cenotaph_unveiled ( 24/5) . Piracy of the Chinese steamer Woo Fu on the West River (25/5 ). Junk pirated in Chinese waters near Hong Kong ( 10/6 ). Kowloon - Canton train held up 


near

Canton (6/7). Typhoon struck the Colony. 


Heavy damage ashore and afloat. The Loong Sang and the Submarine L19 sunk in the Harbour. Three other vessels sunk, and many ashore ( 18/8 ). Sir John Oakley arrived in the Colony to report on the Military lands question (24/9). Passenger junk pirated near San Mei (4/10 ). The China Merchants Steam Navigation Com pany's 'steamer Hsin ( hang pirated near Canton — the second time during 1923 ( 8/10 ). Hong Kong steam launch Tung On pirated in Chinese waters ( 12/19) . 

Direct exchange of parcel mails with Germany resumed ( 1/11). Cheung Chau ferry launch pirated ( 8/11 ) . 


85 

Chamber of Commerce report on Sir Maurice Fitz maurice's Report respecting Harbour Improvements ( 21/11). Piracy of the s.s. Kango near Hong Kong ( 5/12) . Dr. Sun Yat Sen and the Customs Revenues International Naval demonstration at Canton. U.S.A. , 

Great Britain, France , Japan , Portugal, and Italy represented (6/12 ). 

Trade & Industry .-- Exchange opened at 2/3 and touched 2/4 at end of March ; then dropped during July and August to 2/24 and for remainder of year varied between 2/31 and 2/3 ). In raw cotton and yarn prices showed a steady advance. Prices rose consider ably in the latter part of the year as the industry in Japan was disorganized by the earthquake. Business in piece goods was fairly prosperous for Importers and Dealers. In woollens business was brighter than in 1922, The Canton silk trade began badly owing to political complications, but prices rose as foreign demand grew stronger. Trade with France was adversely affected by the Franc exchange . Fair business was done in Sundries but on low profit. Demand from the United States, South America, &c . for rice was extremely poor , it being cheaper for them to place their orders direct with Saigon shippers. There was wide fluctuation in raw sugar prices owing to heary speculation. Business in soy and ground nuts , bristles, and feathers was dul but the demand for wood oil was brisk . Fair business was done in metals but the market for Yunnan tin was quiet, though an improvement set in towards the end of the year . 

Public Works.-- 1. COMPLETED :-(a) Quarters for senior and subordinate staff at Homestead Site and Leighton Hill : Maternity Block at Victoria Hospital; new offices for Public Works Department; Police Stations at Yaumati, Mongkoktsui, Shatin and Castle Peak (block house ). ( b) Tytam Gap to Shek o Road : Stubbs Road up to Jardines Corner ; Wanchai Gap to Middle. Gap Road . ( c) 18 " main from Albany

86 

to Peak Road ; Hydraulic ram and distribution system for Lower Wanchai Gap ; Kowloon Catchwater exten 

sion-2,00 lineal feet completed to overflow level and a further 6,000 lineal feet in hand ; Taipo Water Scheme. ( d ) Over 6,000 lineal feet of nullahs were inverted, walled and trained. ( e) Queen's Pier finished except entrance . 

2. UNDER CONSTRUCTION :-(a) Additional Quarters at Mount Gough and La Calvaire ; Fire Brigade Station ; new Saiyingpoon School ( later known as King's College ); Kowloon Hospital; Quarry Bay, Mongkok and Bowring Street open markets ; new architectural office . ( 6) Widen ing Quarry Bay Village Road ; Wongneichung Gap to Repulse Bay; Broadwood Road to Wongneichung Gap Road ; Chatham Road extension northwards; Prince Edward Road ; Waterloo Road northward ; Argyle Street extension eastwards; Fanling -Shataukok motor road . ( c) Eastern filter beds; Stanley Mound East and Jardine Lookout catchwaters; enlarging mains of Kowloon dis tribution system ; Shing Mun Valley Scheme ( North and South tunnels and south conduit ); Shek Lai Pui reservoir. 

Legislation . — 35 Ordinances ( 17 amendment) were passed. The principal matters dealt with were : Female Domestic Service ( Mui Tsai Abolition ). Police Supervision, Chinese Recreation Ground, Ordinances of Hong Kong 1844-1923, Dangerous Drugs, Fraudulent Transfers of Businesses, Opium . 

1924. 

Principal Events . - H.E . the Governor unveiled Canadian Pacific Memorial tablet (8/1). Piracy on s.s. Tai Lee, Capt . Willox murdered ( 20-21 / 1) H.E. the Governor laid Foundation Stone of the Y.M.C.A. Build ing , Kowloon ( 21/1 ) . Lady Stubbs opened new building for St. Stephen's Girls' College ( 25/1 ) . Attempt at piracy s.s. Tai Lee ( 20/2 ). Hong Kong Legislative Council accepted under protest the award respecting Military Lands ( 13/3 ). Strike of Peak ricksha and chair

87 

coolies (30/4). Knighthood for Hon. Mr. H.E. Pollock, K.C. ( 3/6) . H.E. the Governor unveiled memorial tablet at the Tung Wah Hospital of Sir R. G. MacDonnell , C.B. ( 10/6) . Attempt to assassinate M. Merlin , Governor General of Indo - China ( 19/6) . Shameen strike begins ( 16/7). $ 50,000 granted in aid of Sufferers by the Kwongtung floods ( 31/7) . Shameen strike settled ( 13/8) . Shameen strike resumed ( 16/8 ). General resumption of work on Shameen ( 21/8) . Death of Mr. A. G. Stephen , Hong Kong & Shanghai Bank ( 27/8 ). S.s. Ningshin pirated near Wenchow ( 2/10 ). Trouble between Sun Yat Sen's Troops and Merchant Volunteers ( 10-16 / 10) . 

Trade & Industry .--Exchange varied at first between 2/4 and 2/3] , gradually rising until it reached its highest point , 2/53 in October . It then declined to 2/4 at the end of the year The demand for Indian Yarn shewed further falling off, due to increasing output of cheap Chinese Yarn and Japanese competition. Trading conditions in piece goods were good during the first half of the year , but later political disturbances in the adjoin ing provinces upset the market . Increasing competition was experienced from Japanese goods at the expense of Lancashire products. Business in woollens brisk . Light woollens are replacing the silk garments 

was 

hitherto worn by Chinese. The former are cheaper, last longer and , with the aid of artificial silk , can be made quite attractive . European consumption of silk doubled during the year but there was a heavy falling off in demand from the Americian market due to the poor quality of Canton Silk exported there. The sun dries business was dull and profits low . In rice trade with outports was slack . Dealers in Siam rice suffered heavy losses due to fluctuation of prices and keen com petition . Rice from French Indo- China did not sell as well as in recent years. The outstanding feature in raw sugar was the steady fall in prices , decreasing 40 % by December, due to increased beet sugar production. Soy,


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ground, nuts and feathers shewed fair trade. Exports of ginger were considerably in excess of 1923. figures . Business in bristles was dull. Demand for gunny bags was exceedingly heavy and prices ruled as high as during the War. Business in metals was very dull owing to unsettled conditions in China. Consumption of kerosene was åverage but that of motor spirit increased in the Colony owing to increase in number of motor cars. Liquid fuel sales were up due to growing number of vessels now using the fuel. 

Public Works. -1 . COMPLETED :-(a) South Block, La Calvaire Quarters : open Market Quarry Bay : 2 new lattice Wireless masts at Cape D'Aguilar : Refuse pier , Mongkok; Police Station at Shatin and Block House at Castle Peak . ( 6 ) Tytam Gap to Shek O Road ; Wongneichung Gap to Repulse Bay Road. ( e) in connection with the Eastern filter beds laying of 18 " raw water main from the tunnel mouth to the new gauge basin , the new gauge basin and pipes to upper tier of beds : laying of 18" C.I. main at Wongneichong Village : Stanley Mound Catchwater : Jardine Lookout Catch water : Laying of 3 " W.I. pipe in Mount Cameron Development : Kowloon Filter Beds extension -- four new beds: ( dl) Nullah training in Hong Kong involving O stream courses; Nullah training in the To Kwa Wan, Kowloon Tong and adjacent development areas ; exten sion of Nam Cheong Street nullah to Taipo Road . 

2. UNDER CONSTRUCTION : - Additional Quarters at La Calvaire ; Senior officers, quarters at Mount Gough : Fire Brigade Station superstructure : Victoria Hospital Extension : King's College; Queen's College Site at Caroline Hill ; new Government Architectural office ; Queen's Pier Entrance : Kowloon Hospital : new Mongkoktsui Market: Police Stations at Shamshuipo and Kowloon City : foundation for new gaol at Ngau Shi Wan . ( 6 ) Magazine ( iap to Victoria Gap, Stubbs Road : Wongneicheong Road contouring hillside in Tai Hang


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Village : widening of Wanchai Road. Causeway Bay to North Point Road , Shaukiwan Road, Victoria Road and Bonham Road ; Chatham Road extension to Kowloon City , Mongkok -Kowloon City Road ; Waterloo Road ex tension to To Kwa Wan Road ; Argyle Street extension ; Tsun Wan to Shiny Mun Valley Waterworks Access Road and Fanling - Shataukok Road . ( C) Laying of 15 " C.I. main from Jardine Bazaar to Tin Lok Lane and of 6 " Main in Wongneicheong Road : laying of various distributing mains in Kowloon : extension of Kowloon Catchwater : Shing Mun Valley Scheme, 1st section ( for which approval of the Secretary of State was obtained in May) : Shek Lai Pui Reservoir . ( d ) Reclamation at North Point ( private scheme), Praya East , Kai Tack , Kowloon Bay West Laichikok. ( e) Queen's Pier Entrance ; 

cutting and filling on the Kowloon Tong Development area . 

Legislation. -13 Ordinances ( 10 amendment) were passed. The most important matters dealt with were : ---Forgery ( Amendment), Fraudulent Transfers of Businesses (Amendment), Law Revision, Stowaways, Summary Offences (Amendment). 

1925. 

Governor, Sir Cecil Clementi, K.C.M.G., 1.11.1925 . 

Principal Events . — Piracy of s.s. Hong Hwa ( 15/1 ) . Joint Conference of China Medical Missionary Association and the Hong Kong and China Branch of the British Medical Association ( 20/1). Hong Kong's offer of £ 250,000 to Home Government as a contribution towards Singapore Base announced ( 5/3) . Death of Dr. Sun Yat Sen in Peking ( 12/3). Pirate attack on Tai 0_ (25/3). H.R.H. Prince George arrived in Hong Kong ( 28/5 ) . Anti-foreign riots at Shanghai ( 30/5 ). H.E. the Governor laid foundation stone St. Stephen's Girls' School (6/6 ). Anti-foreign riots at Chinkiang ( 7/6 ). Anti-foreign riots at Hankow ( 11/6) .


90 

General Strike declared ( 20/6) . Hong Kong Volunteers mobilised ( 21/6) . Attack on Shameen ( 23/6 ). Arrival of Vice-Admiral Sir E. Alexander- Sinclair , K.C.B. , M.V.O. (25/6 ). New National Government inaugurated in Canton ( 3/7) . Po Hing Fong collapse , in which Mr. Chau Sui Ki was killed ( 18/7) . Postponement of June Settlement by the Legislative Council ( 20/7). Piracy of s.s. Kwok. Ning (5/10). Opening of new wing, St. Joseph's College ( 23/10) . Sir R. E. Stubbs left for Home ( 31/10 ). Arrival of the new Governor, Mr. C. Clementi ( 1/11 ) . Sir M. Nathan, a former Governor, visited Hong Kong ( 10/11). Opening of new Y.M.C.A. at Kowloon ( 26/11). H.E. the Governor met Elders of New Territories ( 5/12) . 

Trade & Industry . - Exchange opened at 2/3 ; and dropped to 2/2; in May. At the beginning of September it had risen to 2/5 and at the end of December it stood at 2/4 } În raw cotton and yarn imports showed little change, prices fluctuating within only narrow limits. Business in piece goods was only 40 % of a normal year, the strike and boycott causing heavy losses. In woollens a fair trade was done until the boycott commenced when business came to a stand still . The year opened with some activity for the new crop of rice but business ceased after outbreak of the boycott. The end of the year shewed no prospects of improvement. Prices of raw sugar continued to fall owing to increase in the world's sugar crop . The year commenced with heavy stocks of flour which were re duced on account of sudden rise in the world's wheat prices . Shipments to Canton and coast ports were re gular until the boycott. Soy prices remained as in 1924 : -about $ 24 per cask of 1.10 piculs. The Coast prices of groundnuts as compared with North China were high, and therefore exports to Europe practically ceased . Wood oil prices remained as in 1924 . Prices of gunny bags ruled much higher than in 1924 though the boycott affected local trade. There was a fair demand for cement at low prices for the first 6 months but business suffered


91 - 

severely at the outbreak of the boycott . Very little was done in metals but business in China Tin was fair both at the beginning and end of the year. 

Public Works. —1 COMPLETED :-(a ) Western Street Bath House ; Concrete tank at Kennedy Town ; Cross Lane Bath House ; Senior Officers , quarters, Mount Gough , Architectural Office ; New Queen's Pier ; Kowloon Hospital; Quarters & Garage at Tsim Sha Tsui Police Station ; Open Mariet, Shanghai Street; exten sion to Monkoktsui Market. ( b) Road contouring hillside in Wongneichung and Tai Hang Valleys; road and path from Wanchai Gap to Middle Gap ; road contouring hill side above Conduit Road ; widening of Shaukiwan Road near Taikoo and of Conduit Road ; service path from Magazine Gap Road to serve new sites south of Thorpe Manor; road from Taipo Market to Kam Shan. ( c) Tytam pumping station extension ; laying of 15 " and 12" " C.I. mains in Queen's Road and Easter District; Pipers Hill Service Reservoir . ( d) over 5,000' of nullahs inverted , walled and trained . ( e ) Reclamation at Laichikok under taken by the Standard Oil Company of New York and the Kailan Vlining Administration. 

2. UNDER CONSTRUCTION :-(a ) New Fire Station ; Cadet Quarters in Canton ; New King's College ; Sisters' Quarters, Government Civil Hospital; married quarters at four Police Stations in the New Territories ; re 

construction of Main Block , Victoria Hospital; Hung Hom Market extension . ( h) Tai Hang Development, road construction ; access Road to War Memorial Nursing Home, Stubbs Road ; improving and widening road through Quarry Bay Village, Wanchai Road , Queen's Road East and Bonham Road : new road through King's Park and Cemeteries Area , Homuntin ; Chatham Road extension : Waterloo Road extension from Kowloon Boundary to Foothills : Argyle Street extension to Water loo Road ; To Kwa Wan Road ; Fanling- Shatavkok Road. ( c) Eastern District filter beds; Beacon Hill Catchwater

92 

extension ; Shek Lai Pui reservoir ; Shing Mun Valley Scheme - Access Road , Intake Dam , Temporary Conduit North and South Conduits, North and South Tunnels, Reception Reservoir. ( d ) Reclamations at Praya East, Quarry Bay, North Point, Shumshupo, Taikokisui, Kai Tack , and Kowloon Bay West. 

Legislation .-- 16 Ordinances ( 8 amendment) were passed . The principal matters dealt with were : Dangerous Goods ( Amendment), Legal Practitioners ( Amendment), Telephone, Emergency Regulations ( Amendment), June Settlement, Registration of United Kingdom Patents, Larceny (Amendment). 

1926. 

Principal Events. The Hong Kong Hotel Fire ( 1/1 ) . Investiture held at Government House by Prince George (13/3). Piracy of s.s. Ting On ( 15/3 ). Piracy of s.s. Hsin Kong ( 25/3). Sir Arthur Yapp's visit to Hong Kong in connection with the European Y.M.C.A., Kowloon ( 1/5) . Death of the Honourable Mr. P. H. Holyoak ( 25/5 ). Report of the Committee appointed to consider suggestions for the Improvement of the Fire Fighting Organisation of the Colony ( 27/5) . Death of Sir Paul Chater ( 27/5) . Ordination and Consecration of the Right Reverend Monsignor H. Valtorta ( 13/6) . Reception given to the Right Reverend Monsignor H. Valtorta , Bishop of Leros and Vicar Apostolic of Hong Kong at the Theatre Roval ( 14/6) . Departure of the Hong Kong Delegates to Canton ( 11/7) . Boycott Negotiations at Canton ( 15/7 ). Chinese Dele gates, Proposals and the British Communique ( 21/7 & 23/7 ) . Opening of the Pratas Wireless Station ( 26/7 ) . Death of Mr. Ho Fook ( 29/8) . Arrival and Entertain ment of Six Chinese Bishops -elect ( 13/9) . Passing through of Mr. Tang Shao Yi ( 25/9 & 26/9 ). Piracy of s.s. Hsinfung ( 1/10) . Canton Government officially de clared boycott at an end (10/10 ). Arrival of the King's Own Scottish Borderers ( 22/10 ). Departure of the East Surreys ( 29/10) . Piracy of s.s. Hanoi ( 11/11 ).


93 

Piracy of s.s. Sunning (15/11 ) . Piracy of s.s. Wei Hoi ( 19/11 ) . Visit of Swedish Crown Prince and Princess ( 21/11 ) . Arrival of the S.S. Ryndam , the Floating Universit ( 22/11 ) . H.E. the Governor's Inspection of the New Diocesan School ( 30/11 ). Reception of Macao's Governor at Government House (7/12). Visit of Bishop of London ( arrived 23/12 ). 

Trade & Industry. There was a gradual decline in the exchange value of the dollar from 2 / 4-9/ 16 in January to around 1/11 in the latter part of the year. This factor along with the anti-British boycott, which continued in lesser degree during the year, led to a con siderable restriction of the normal business activity . In piece goods, as a result of the partial lifting of the boycott, the greater part of stocks accumulated during the previous year moved into consumption. Competition from Japan increased in intensity and scope. The in creasing demand for China - produced yarn which has adversely, affected the sale of the Bombay product, was even more pronounced during the year and very little business was done in Indian yarns. The Canton silk trade which normally passed through Hong Kong, was diverted to Shanghai during the greater part of the year, but local business houses were gradually regaining former connections. Trade, which fluctuated consider ably, was particularly good in September owing to sharp decline in local exchange rates . Throughout October demand continued good particularly from Lyons. Prices of Raw Sugar advanced in consequence of restriction of output of the Cuban product, but owing to the political disturbances in South China the volume of business in Hong Kong refined sugar was considerably below normal. 

Public Works.-1 . COMPLETED :-(a) New Fire Station : King's College : New Sisters' Quarter, Govern ment Civil Hospital; New Hospital, Kowloon ; Married quarters for Chinese Police at Cheung Chau, Sai Kung Taipo and Shataukok . ( b) Mongkok -Kowloon City Road . ( c) Eastern half of Service reservoir ; Eastern filter beds; Stanley Mound Catchwater ; Four filter beds at Laichikok

96 

plies from Hankow. The price was H.K. $ 30.00 per picul in the beginning of the year and reached the unprecedented tigure of H.K. $ 56.00 in April. At the end of the year it was H.K. 32.00 per picul. The demand for cement was steady but small, the market being hampered by the unsettled state of affairs. In metals, although a better tone prevailed in the market through the year, trade generally was on a moderate scale . The total exports of China Tin were less than in 1926, the main decrease being on the exports to America and Europe. Public Works. 1. L'OMPLETED : - ( a) Ventris Road Quarters ; Large camp of wooden huts at Sham shuipo for Wilitary Authorities; Quarters for Cadets at Canton . ( 6 ) To Kwa Wan Road ; Road to Dairy Farm lots at Diamond Hill; Embankment and approaches to the new bridge at Tai Po . ( c) Western half of Service Reservoir at Eastern Filter Beds; Peterson Rapid Gravity filters at Bowen Road filter beds; two (d ) Branch nullah in Village Road, Wongneichung reinforced concrete bridges over Shek Lai Pui Stream . 


Valley; over 2,000 feet of smaller stream trained . 

Courses


2. UNDER CONSTRUCTION :—(a) New Hospital for Victoria Gaol: ( 1 ) Road in Wongneichung Develop ment area ; Argyle Street extension and Waterloo Road Extension . ( c) Laying of C.I. pipe in Kowloon, Kowloon Tong Estate ; Strengthening of North tunnel and laying of steel mains, Shing Mun Scheme. ( d) Reclamations at Praya East, Shamshuipo, Kowloon Bay West, Laichikok and Kai Tak ( resumed for an Air Port). ( e ) Large nullah in Wongneichung Valley; nullal training in the Cemeteries Valley, Homuntin. ( 1 ) Development in the Kowloon Tong Estate and filling in of area in Kowloon City . 

Legislation .-- 28 Ordinances ( 15 amendment) were passed. The principal matters dealt with were : Factory ( Accidents), Hegal Strikes and Lock -Outs, Chinese Extradition ( Amendment), Dogs. 


Mr. 

97 

1928. 

W. T. Southorn, C.M.G., adeninistered from 9.5.1928 to 9.1.1929. Principal Events.-Mr. Kwok Siu Lau's gift of 


$ 50,000 to the Hong Kong University ( 11/2) . Official visit of Sir Miles Lampson, His Britannic Majesty's Minister at Peking (20/2 ). Official visit of Philippines' Governor-Wieneral ( 27/2). Official visit of Marshal Li Tsai Sum to the Colony ( 2/5) . Official opening of King's College by H.E. the Governor (5/3). Piracy of Junk Hon Cheung (9/3 ). Oficial visit of H.E. the Governor to Canton (10/3 ). Piracy of s.s. Hsin Wah ( 14/4 ) . Presentation of C.M.G. to Hon . Mr. E.D.C. Wolfe by H.E. the Governor ( 17/4). Agricultural Show, New Territories ( 1/5) . Piracy of A.P.C. Motor Boat ( 1/5) . Laying Foundation Stone of Eastern Extension of Tung Wah Hospital by H.E. the Governor ( 4/5) . Unveiling of the Chinese War Memorial by H.E. the Governor ( 6 /- ). Piracy of s.s. Tean ( 6/5 ). Presen tation of Colours to H.K. V.D.C. by H.E. the Governor ( 6/5 ). Departure of H.E. the Governor on Home leave (9/5 ). The Hon . Mr. W. T. Southorn sworn in as 0.A.G. (9/5 ). Indian War Memorial unveiled by H.E. the 0.A.G. (25/1 ). Mr. Tang Chi Ngong's gift of $ 60.000 for Hong Kong University School of Chinese ( 26/7 ). Mr. Woo Hay Tong's Scholarships to Hong Kong Schools $ 100,000 (19/9). Piracy of s.s. Anking ( 26/9 ). The Grand Tattoo ( 4 / 10-6 / 10 ). Opening of Peninsula Hotel ( 11/12) . 

Trade & Industry . - Exchange varied verv slightly . In January it stood at 2/3 . In September it fell to 1 / 11-15 / 16 and from October to December it remained steady at about 27-5/16 . The volume of trade during the vear was disappointing. In piece goods there was a good demand for Spring Fancies from Swatow , Canton and adjoining districts . Owing to the rise in Cotton prices at Home repeats were placed


-98 

only in respect of lower quality striped poplins. Clearances in respect of mercerized Cotton brocades were poor owing to the high extra duties levied at Swatow and the lack of confidence on the part of mer chants and dealers in Canton following the Red uprising in December 1926. There was a weak and restricted market for rice as a result of the depressed state in consuming centres . Exports fell considerably owing to to the heavy import duty in South and Central America. The Sugar markets of the world continued to suffer from over -production and prices during the year were the lowest since the pre - war period. The Tarafa Com mission formed in Cuba with the object of inducing other countries to restrict outputs failed in its efforts and restriction was abandoned in Cuba. The increase in the Java crop was attributable to the introduction of a new variety of cane. Soy dealers report better business during the year . I'rices remained very steady . The demand for cement for the first eight months was extremely small but later the resuscitation of building in the Colony and road making in the Leung Kwong provinces led to an increased demand. The trade in wood oil was less active than in 1927. Fluctuation in prices was not very wide. With the exception of Mild Steel Bars the local market for metals was quiet, the volume of business being about equal to that of 1927. Trade in Mild Steel Bars shewed a very great increase ; and prices rose steadily from June onwards. The total exports of China Tin from Hong Kong were the same as in 1927 . 

Public Works.-- 1. COMPLETED : (a) New School, latrine and type house at Wongneichung Development area ; new hospital block and reception block at Victoria Gaol; Additional storey, Colonial Secretariat ; raising of Time Ball Tower; Block house at Lin Ma Hang; Cheung Chau Anglo -Chinese School. ( b) Road construction in Wongneichung Development Area ; approach road to New Tung Wah Hospital site , Sookun




99 

poo ; Waterloo Road extension , Patrol path, Ta Ku Ling to Lin Ma Hang. ( c) Filtration plant, Shing Mun Scheme; additional 2 " pipe across Aberdeen Harbour lo Aplichau. (d ) Nullah in Wongneichung Valley, Section No. 5 ; Nullahs at new Tung Wah Hospital Site , in Kowloon Tong Development area and in Cemeteries Valley, Homuntin ; over 21,000 feet of Sewers and stormwater drains. ( e ) Kowloon Tong Estate area, excavation and filling . 

2. UNDER CONSTRUCTION :-(a) Wireless Telegraph Station, Victoria Peak ; Shamshuipo Market extension ; New Store, Yaumati Slipway. ( b) Argyle Street extension ; Kowloon Tong Estate, extension of roads. ( c) C.I. mains laid from Bowen Road Filters to the City , from Arsenal Street to Garden Road and in Praya East Reclamation ; distribution mains and trunk mains in Shing Mun Valley Scheme; Service reservoir in Sheklaipui; preparation drawings for the Aberdeen Valley Scheme. ( d ) Kai Tak reclamation . ( e) Nullah in Wongneichung Valley Section No. 4 ; connection of streams north of Hill Area to main nullah , Kowloon Tong Area . 

Legislation . — 20 ordinances ( 12 amendment) were passed . The principal matters dealt with were : Natur alization (Amendment), Secretary for Chinese Affairs (Incorporation ), Watchmen, Chinese Temples, Carriage of Goods by Sea . 

1929. 


Mr. 

W. T. Southorn C.M.G. , administered from 9.5.1928 to 9.1.1929 and from 1.10.1929 to 28.10.1929 . 


Principal Events . - Formal opening of the Colony's First Chinese Library ( 1/1 ) . Opening by the Hong Kong & Shanghai Banking Corporation of a Kow

- 100 

loon Sub -Agency with offices in the Peninsula Hotel ( 2/1 ) . Wreck of the s.s. Hsin Wah off Waglan Light house ( 16/1 ) . Opening of the New Wesleyan Sailors ' and Soldiers' Home (30/1 ). Arrival of H.E. Major General J. W. Sandilands C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., the new General Officer Commanding, China Command (20/2). Unveiling of the portrait of Sir F. H. May, G.C.M.G. , LL.D., D.C.L., by H.E. the Governor Sir C. Clementi, K.C.M.G. , at the European Y.M.C.A., ( 21/2) . King Edward Hotel Fire Fire ( 11/3). Water Emergency Committee ( 1 / 7-27 / 8) . Wreck of the Chinese Emigrant s.s. Lok Sun off Samun Island ( 15/7) . Piracy of a fishing junk off Cheung Chau Island ( 18/8) . Colony swept by severe Typhoon ( 22/8) . Visit to Manila by H.E. the Governor , Sir ( Clementi, K.C.M.G., ( 1 / 10-27 / 10). Opening of the Wireless Broadcasting Studio at Post Office by HE, the Officer Administering the Government, Mr. W. T. Southorn , C.M.G. ( 8/10) . Opening of the first Radio Exhibition in the Colony by the Hon . Mr. W.T. Southorn , C.M.G. ( 5/12) . Piracy of the s.s. Haiching ( 8/12) . Formation of the Hong Kong Flying Club (20/12 ). 

Trade & Industry . - Exchange opened at 2/04 and fell gradually to 1/10 in September. By the end of October, following the return of local currency to to a silver basis, it had dropped to 1/8 In December it stood at 1/8 . Trade suffered from severe depression due to the continuance of civil war in China. In piece goods and fancy cotton piece goods heavy ship ments were made prior to the new tariff, on 1st February but after Chinese New Year the internal strife in China and the depreciation of Central Bank notes proved a serious deterrent to trade. The exchange adjustment in October brought a small improvement. In grev and white shirtings the lifting of the Japanese boy cott and subsequent inroads of Japanese competition resulted in rapid decrease in British goods. The adverse factors outlined in regard to cottons apply equally to

101 

woollens . Business in hosiery manufactured at local knitting factories compared unfavourably with that of 1928 but the position at the end of the year shewed signs of improvement. Civil strife in China and the fall in the exchange in October rendered the position in the Aour trade difficult though a freight-war reduced transport costs . The rice export business was dis appointing. Soy dealers reported an increased demand . Over production in sugar combined with the general lack of confidence was responsible for new low mark in the price. Exports of wood - oil were better than in 1928. The highest price Hong Kong $ 387 per picul was reached in November when stocks were low and arrivals irregular. There was a steady demand for cement but prices were low due to severe Japanese competition . In mild steel bars the volume of trade was larger than in 1928 but that in Wire - products smaller. Exports of China Tin from Hong Kong were up owing to the more active demand from U.S.A. 

Public Works. -1 . COMPLETED :-(i ) Recon struction of the ball - room at Govei'nment House ; Wireless Telegraph Station , the Peak ; Shamshuipo Market exten sion . ( b ) Two bridle tracks riz Lady Clementi's Ride from Aberdeen New Road to Theep Water Bay Road and Sir Cecil's Ride from Wongreichung Gap to Mount Parker Road ; Argyle Street extension ; the portion of Nathan Road between Salisbury Road and Gascoigne Road strengthened with reinforced cement concrete tarpainted . ( c) Stanley District Water Supply ; mains laid to Tung Wah Eastern Hospitat, in Lyttleton Road and Breezy Path , in Shaukiwan Road, on the Praya East Reclamation ; in Kowloon , Kowloon Tong Estate and Shamshnipo ; Diamond Hill Dairy Supplv ; various works of the Shing Mun Scheme. (d ) Praya East Reclamation at Tsun Wan . ( e ) Wongneichung Nullah, section No. 4 ; new sewers and storm drains on the Prava East reclamation and in New Kowloon . ( 1) Pier at Tsun Wan and at Sham Tseng .

102 - 

2. UNDER CONSTĘPCTION :-(a) Site for Maternity Block , Kowloon Hospital; Children's playground, Kow loon ; Kostoon City Market extension. (1) Foundations and sijifacing of roads, Praya East; widening of Garden ::Road to May Road to admit of motor- traffic ; extension •of roads in Kowloon Tong estate ; ( c) Installation of turbines and pumps at Bowen Road filter beds ; Service Reservoir, Sheklaipui ; pipe line to Kowloon Point ; pipe connecting Cross Harbour pipe to city mains, also Harbour pipeline; work commenced on New Upper Dam, Aberdeen Valley Scheme. ( d ) Reclamations at Kai Tack , Shamshuipo and Laichikok . ( e) Training of stream courses ; new sewers and storm drains. ( 1) Govern ment pier at Mongkoktsui for ferry services; similar one at Shamshuipo. ( 9) Broadcasting Studio at the General Post Office. 

Legislation . - 34 Ordinances ( 24 amendment) were passed. The principal matters dealt with were : Bankruptcy ( Amendment), Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank , Offences against the Person (Amendment), Main tenance Orders , Female Domestic Service ( Amendment ), 

Arms and Ammunition ( Amendment), Deportation ( Amendment). 

1930. 

Mr. W. T. Southorn , C.M.G., administered the Govern ment from 1.2.30 to 9.5.30 . Governor : Sir William Peel, K.B.E., C.M.G., assumed Administration on 10.5.30 . 

Principal Events. — New Territories Agriculture Show ( 4 / 1-5 / 1). League of Nations Opium Commission (11/ 1-21/ 1, 27/ 1-1/ 2). The inaugural meeting of the Hong Kong Society for the Protection of Children ( 21 , ' 1 ) . Farewell reception given by the European and Chinese Communities to H. E. the Governor Sir Cecil Clementi, K.C.M.G., on the Hong Kong Cricket Club ground ( 22/1 ) . Visit of General Chen Ming Shu, Civil Governor

103 

of Canton ( 23/1) . Farewell reception given by H.E. the Governor, Sir Cecil Clementi, K.C.M.G., at Govern ment House ( 28/1). Departure of Sir Cecil Clementi , K.C.M.G., ( 1/2) . Appointment of a Currency Com mittee ( 28 3). Official opening of the Harbour Pipe Line by H.E , the Officer Administering the Government ( 31/3 ) . Conference of the Far Eastern Meteorologists ( 28 / 4-2 / 5) . Arrival of the new governor , H.E. Sir William Peel, K.B.E., C.M.G., (975 ) . Opening of the Hong Kong Flying Club by Sir William Peel , K.B.E., C.M.G. (31/5 ). Piracy of's.s. Helikon ( 21/7 ) . Unveil ing of the portrait of Sir Cecil Clementi, K.C.M.G., in the Great Hall of the Hong Kong University by H.E. Sir William Peel , K.B.E. , C.M.G. (22/9). Official Visit of H.E. the Governor of Macao Sr. Tamagnini de Souza Barbosa ( 19/11). Visit of the Canadian Trade Mission to the Far East ( 21 / 11-27 / 11 ) . Formation of a League of Nations Society in Hong Kong at the Cathedral Hall ( 26/11 ) . First Air Trip from Hong Kong to Canton ( 2/12 ). Opening of the Tung Wah Eastern Hospital Extensions (16/12 ). Arrival of the League of Nations? Commission of Enquiry into the Traffic in Women and Children ( 27/12). 

Trade & Industry. - Exchange, which stood at 1/7 in January, fell progressively until it stood at 1/13 at the end of December. The opening of the year found a strong market for most light cotton fancy style and dealers made good profits. Volume of business booked in the better grades of woollens was much smaller than in previous years . In the Shoddy and Mixture (wool & cotton) sections bookings showed a marked falling off . The turnover in locally manufac tured knitted goods was similar to that of 1929 which was considered satisfactory . Trade in higher grade singlets was distinctly good. From January until May four dealers lost money owing to the continued fall in exchange and the poor demand from the interior. From June 10 September the market shewed a better tone and the demand from outports improved. From October on

104 

business was nil . For the greater part of the year stocks of sugar in Hong Kong were very low due to the uncertainty of the trend of the market. Exports of Soy were 75 % of those for 1929. With the continued fail in exchange, causing an increase in cost of Molasses, prices advanced , and demand from abroad subsided . The volume of business in wood oil was less than half that of 1929. The main cause for the inactivity was the civil war in Kwangsi Province . There was a keen demand fer cement, but owing to the dumping of Japanese cement in large quantities, profitable business was difficult to obtain . From January to April merchants and dealers had a profitable period of trading in metals but from May to November , conditions were unfavourable . The quantity of tin exported was 6,400 tons as compared with 2,700 in 1929. Prices ruled the same as in 1929 . 

Public Works. -1 . COMPLETED :-(a ) Additional Transmitting Block at Cape D’Aguilar Wireless Station ; Children's playground at Kowloon; market at Kowloon Tong; Site for Maternity Block, Kowloon Hospital; Kowloon City Market extension. ( 6) Road connecting Garden Road - Bowen Road with May Road widened to admit of motor traffic ; lower portion of Garden Road adjoining Murray Barracks widened ; kerbing and channelling Prince Edward Road ; widening Nathan Road ; path from Shek ( ) to Cape D'Aguilar Wireless Station, 1st section ; widening of Gough Hill Road to " Lvsholt' ) ; Kowloon Tong, extension of roads. ( c) North Point Service Reservoir ; mains laid between Happy Valley Monument and Hennessy Road , in Yee Wo Street, in Shaukiwan Road, in Kowloon and New Kowloon ; Shing Mun pipe line from Sheklaipui reservoir to railway sea wall; cross-harbour pipe line; connecting pipe from Queen's Pier to Queen's Road ; Sheklaipui reservoir. ( d ) Area at Tsat Tsz Mui and Shaukiwan reclaimed . ( e ) New Sewers and storm drains in Prava East . Deep Water Bay, Kowloon and New Kowloon . ( f) Underground Kowloon ; intercommunication between Government and telephone cables in various sections of Hong Kong and Hong Kong Telephone Company's systems.


105 

2. UNDER CONSTRUCTION :-(a) New No. 2 Police Station ; market at Sai Ying Pun ; site preparation for new female prison , Laichikok ; new School at Un Long; Site for Kowloon British School; piling for foundations for 1st Hangar, Kai Tack Air Port. ( b) Chatham Road extension ; Patrol Path, Lin Ma Hang to Sha Tau Kok ; surfacing roads on Praya East; reconditioning and strengthening of Nathan Road with reinforced cement concrete. (c) Trial pits and cuttings in the Shing Mun Gorge Dam site ; Aberdeen Upper Dam and East Catch water. ( e) Reclamation at Kai Tack. ( 1) Government piers at Mong Kok Tsui and Shamshuipo. 

Legislation . - 32 Ordinances ( 20 amendment) were passed . The principal matters dealt with were : Pilots , Gambling ( Amendment) Pawnbrokers, Summary Offences ( Amendment), District Watch Force, Enter tainments Tax , The Tung Wah Hospital, Revenue Officers Power of arrest .


PUBLIC HEALTH .PUBLIC 

INSTRUCTION. PUBLIC ORDER. 

POLICE DEATH - RATE STRENGTH . 


PER 1,000 

IL CROPEAN AND AMERICAN 

No. OF 

SCHOOLS. 

TOTAL 

ATTEND ANCE. 

No. OF 

PRI 

SONERS IN GAOL ON 

a

e

n a

i

d

n

e s

e

n

i


RESIDENTS. 

r


31st DEC .pu

E

. I

h

. C


.1841 

.

.

1842 

1843 

.

.

78 34 48 

13 5 117 92 1844 160 

74 62 9 

07 .545 4 100 108 1845 165 

67 67 24 

*5 .757 4 102: 128 1846 158 

50 81 24 

2 .358 4 118 181 1847 155 

44 144 24 

8 1.298 6 146 135 1848 212 

29 80 24 

7 .618 9 223 155 1849 133 

33 80 24 

2 1.011 12 227 158 1850 134